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Sample records for platonic solids figure

  1. Faces of platonic solids in all dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Szajewska, Marzena

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers Platonic solids/polytopes in the real Euclidean space R^n of dimension 3 <= n < infinity. The Platonic solids/polytopes are described together with their faces of dimensions 0 <= d <= n-1. Dual pairs of Platonic polytopes are considered in parallel. The underlying fi?nite Coxeter groups are those of simple Lie algebras of types An, Bn, Cn, F4 and of non-crystallographic Coxeter groups H3, H4. Our method consists in recursively decorating the appropriate Coxeter-Dynkin diagram. Each recursion step provides the essential information about faces of a speci?c dimension. If, at each recursion step, all of the faces are in the same Coxeter group orbit, i.e. are identical, the solid is called Platonic.

  2. Platonic solids in $\\mathbb Z^3$

    CERN Document Server

    Ionascu, Eugen J

    2009-01-01

    Extending previous results on a characterization of all equilateral triangle in space having vertices with integer coordinates ("in $\\mathbb Z^3$"), we look at the problem of characterizing all regular polyhedra (Platonic Solids) with the same property. To summarize, we show first that there is no regular icosahedron/ dodecahedron in $\\mathbb Z^3$. On the other hand, there is a finite (6 or 12) class of regular tetrahedra in $\\mathbb Z^3$, associated naturally to each nontrivial solution $(a,b,c,d)$ of the Diophantine equation $a^2+b^2+c^2=3d^2$ and for every nontrivial integer solution $(m,n,k)$ of the equation $m^2-mn+n^2=k^2$. Every regular tetrahedron in $\\mathbb Z^3$ belongs, up to an integer translation and/or rotation, to one of these classes. We then show that each such tetrahedron can be completed to a cube with integer coordinates. The study of regular octahedra is reduced to the cube case via the duality between the two. This work allows one to basically give a description the orthogonal group $O(3...

  3. Platonic solids generate their four-dimensional analogues

    CERN Document Server

    Dechant, Pierre-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we show how regular convex 4-polytopes - the analogues of the Platonic solids in four dimensions - can be constructed from three-dimensional considerations concerning the Platonic solids alone. Via the Cartan-Dieudonne theorem, the reflective symmetries of the Platonic solids generate rotations. In a Clifford algebra framework, the space of spinors generating such three-dimensional rotations has a natural four-dimensional Euclidean structure. The spinors arising from the Platonic Solids can thus in turn be interpreted as vertices in four-dimensional space, giving a simple construction of the 4D polytopes 16-cell, 24-cell, the F_4 root system and the 600-cell. In particular, these polytopes have `mysterious' symmetries, that are almost trivial when seen from the three-dimensional spinorial point of view. In fact, all these induced polytopes are also known to be root systems and thus generate rank-4 Coxeter groups, which can be shown to be a general property of the spinor construction. These cons...

  4. Flat Zipper-Unfolding Pairs for Platonic Solids

    CERN Document Server

    O'Rourke, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    We show that four of the five Platonic solids' surfaces may be cut open with a Hamiltonian path along edges and unfolded to a polygonal net each of which can "zipper-refold" to a flat doubly covered parallelogram, forming a rather compact representation of the surface. Thus these regular polyhedra have particular flat "zipper pairs." No such zipper pair exists for a dodecahedron, whose Hamiltonian unfoldings are "zip-rigid." This report is primarily an inventory of the possibilities, and raises more questions than it answers.

  5. Kepler's Theory of Highly Symmetric Plane Figures and Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsch, Gerhard

    The main idea of Kepler's Mysterium Cosmographicum of 1596 involves the five regular "Platonic" polyhedra. Hence it seems appropriate to discuss Kepler's considerations on, or his "theory" of regular plane figures and solids. This is a key aspect of his "geometrical cosmology". In modern mathematics the regularity of figures and solids is normally expressed in terms of symmetries and symmetry groups. Although Kepler himself does not speak of symmetries, the author is applying at some points the modern, admittedly anachronistic terminology. This seems to be justified, because here is presented a mathematician's view rather than a historical discourse. The tradition of plane regular figures and regular solids, from antiquity to Kepler's time, and the sourses of Kepler's mathematics have been thoroughly investigated by Hofmann and Fields.

  6. A platonic solid templating Archimedean solid: an unprecedented nanometre-sized Ag37 cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Yu; Su, Hai-Feng; Yu, Kai; Tan, Yuan-Zhi; Wang, Xing-Po; Zhao, Ya-Qin; Sun, Di; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2015-04-01

    The spontaneous formation of discrete spherical nanosized molecules is prevalent in nature, but the authentic structural mimicry of such highly symmetric polyhedra from edge sharing of regular polygons has remained elusive. Here we present a novel ball-shaped {(HNEt3)[Ag37S4(SC6H4tBu)24(CF3COO)6(H2O)12]} cluster (1) that is assembled via a one-pot process from polymeric {(HNEt3)2[Ag10(SC6H4tBu)12]}n and CF3COOAg. Single crystal X-ray analysis confirmed that 1 is a Td symmetric spherical molecule with a [Ag36(SC6H4tBu)24] anion shell enwrapping a AgS4 tetrahedron. The shell topology of 1 belongs to one of 13 Archimedean solids, a truncated tetrahedron with four edge-shared hexagons and trigons, which are supported by a AgS4 Platonic solid in the core. Interestingly, the cluster emits green luminescence centered at 515 nm at room temperature. Our investigations have provided a promising synthetic protocol for a high-nuclearity silver cluster based on underlying geometrical principles.The spontaneous formation of discrete spherical nanosized molecules is prevalent in nature, but the authentic structural mimicry of such highly symmetric polyhedra from edge sharing of regular polygons has remained elusive. Here we present a novel ball-shaped {(HNEt3)[Ag37S4(SC6H4tBu)24(CF3COO)6(H2O)12]} cluster (1) that is assembled via a one-pot process from polymeric {(HNEt3)2[Ag10(SC6H4tBu)12]}n and CF3COOAg. Single crystal X-ray analysis confirmed that 1 is a Td symmetric spherical molecule with a [Ag36(SC6H4tBu)24] anion shell enwrapping a AgS4 tetrahedron. The shell topology of 1 belongs to one of 13 Archimedean solids, a truncated tetrahedron with four edge-shared hexagons and trigons, which are supported by a AgS4 Platonic solid in the core. Interestingly, the cluster emits green luminescence centered at 515 nm at room temperature. Our investigations have provided a promising synthetic protocol for a high-nuclearity silver cluster based on underlying geometrical principles

  7. Platonic solids back in the sky: Icosahedral inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Jonghee

    2015-01-01

    We generalize the model of solid inflation to an anisotropic cosmic solid. Barring fine tunings, the observed isotropy of the cosmological background and of the scalar two-point function isolate the icosahedral group as the only possible symmetry group of such a solid. In such a case, higher-point correlation functions---starting with the three-point one---are naturally maximally anisotropic, which makes the standard detection strategies highly inefficient and calls for a dedicated analysis of CMB data. The tensor two-point function can also be highly anisotropic, but only in the presence of sizable higher-derivative couplings.

  8. Diophantine equations, Platonic solids, McKay correspondence, equivelar maps and Vogel's universality

    CERN Document Server

    Khudaverdian, H M

    2016-01-01

    We notice that one of the Diophantine equations, $knm=2kn+2km+2nm$, arising in the universality originated Diophantine classification of simple Lie algebras, has interesting interpretations for two different sets of signs of variables. In both cases it describes "regular polyhedrons" with $k$ edges in each vertex, $n$ edges of each face, with total number of edges $|m|$, and Euler characteristics $\\chi=\\pm 2$. In the case of negative $m$ this equation corresponds to $\\chi=2$ and describes true regular polyhedrons, Platonic solids. The case with positive $m$ corresponds to Euler characteristic $\\chi=-2$ and describes the so called equivelar maps (charts) on the surface of genus $2$. In the former case there are two routes from Platonic solids to simple Lie algebras - abovementioned Diophantine classification and McKay correspondence. We compare them for all solutions of this type, and find coincidence in the case of icosahedron (dodecahedron), corresponding to $E_8$ algebra. In the case of positive $k$, $n$ an...

  9. SPATIAL MODELING OF SOLID-STATE REGULAR POLYHEDRA (SOLIDS OF PLATON IN AUTOCAD SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bezditko

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the technology of modeling regular polyhedra by graphic methods. The authors came to the conclusion that in order to create solid models of regular polyhedra the method of extrusion is best to use.

  10. Platonism in Preface to Lyrical Ballads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严文烨

    2016-01-01

    Platonism has exerted great influence on Romanticism. Wordsworth, as the leading figure of English Romanticism, was inevitably influenced by Plato. Preface to Lyrical Ballads is Wordsworth's declaration of Romanticism. In this essay, the inheritance and innovation of Platonism in Preface to Lyrical Ballads is analyzed from three aspects: mimetic theories, pragmatism and expressive theories.

  11. Elastic platonic shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Ee Hou; Nelson, David R; Mahadevan, L

    2013-10-25

    On microscopic scales, the crystallinity of flexible tethered or cross-linked membranes determines their mechanical response. We show that by controlling the type, number, and distribution of defects on a spherical elastic shell, it is possible to direct the morphology of these structures. Our numerical simulations show that by deflating a crystalline shell with defects, we can create elastic shell analogs of the classical platonic solids. These morphologies arise via a sharp buckling transition from the sphere which is strongly hysteretic in loading or unloading. We construct a minimal Landau theory for the transition using quadratic and cubic invariants of the spherical harmonic modes. Our approach suggests methods to engineer shape into soft spherical shells using a frozen defect topology.

  12. Socrates: Platonic Political Ideal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Long

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay articulates the differences and suggests the similarities between the practices of Socratic political speaking and those of Platonic political writing. The essay delineates Socratic speaking and Platonic writing as both erotically oriented toward ideals capable of transforming the lives of individuals and their relationships with one another. Besides it shows that in the Protagoras the practices of Socratic political speaking are concerned less with Protagoras than with the individual young man, Hippocrates. In the Phaedo, this ideal of a Socrates is amplified in such a way that Platonic writing itself emerges as capable of doing with readers what Socratic speaking did with those he encountered. Socrates is the Platonic political ideal. The result is a picture of the transformative political power of Socratic speaking and Platonic writing both.

  13. Hvad sagde Platon?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostenfeld, Erik Nis

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen falder i to dele, en metodisk del og en gennemgang af hovedpunkter i Platons filosofi. Det er almindelig viden blandt oplyste, uddannede mennesker, at Platon er en af de vigtigste filosoffer overhovedet i den vesterlandske kultur. Dette illustreres af den indflydelse på filosofi......, litteratur og kultur, han har haft i de 2500 år, der er gået, siden han levede. Man mener også at vide, at Platons filosofi bl.a. indeholder forestillinger om en ideverden og en udødelig sjæl, der midlertidigt er havnet i en distraherende uvirkelig skyggeverden. Ved filosofiens hjælp kan den vende tilbage...... til skuet af ideerne. Hertil hører også billedet af den tredelte sjæl som en kusk med vognspand af to mere eller mindre uregerlige heste. Endelig er Platon forbundet med ideen om en idealstat regeret af filosoffer. Skønt alle disse forestillinger findes i Platons værk, er det ikke korrekt at antage...

  14. Hvad sagde Platon?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostenfeld, Erik Nis

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen falder i to dele, en metodisk del og en gennemgang af hovedpunkter i Platons filosofi. Det er almindelig viden blandt oplyste, uddannede mennesker, at Platon er en af de vigtigste filosoffer overhovedet i den vesterlandske kultur. Dette illustreres af den indflydelse på filosofi......, litteratur og kultur, han har haft i de 2500 år, der er gået, siden han levede. Man mener også at vide, at Platons filosofi bl.a. indeholder forestillinger om en ideverden og en udødelig sjæl, der midlertidigt er havnet i en distraherende uvirkelig skyggeverden. Ved filosofiens hjælp kan den vende tilbage...... til skuet af ideerne. Hertil hører også billedet af den tredelte sjæl som en kusk med vognspand af to mere eller mindre uregerlige heste. Endelig er Platon forbundet med ideen om en idealstat regeret af filosoffer. Skønt alle disse forestillinger findes i Platons værk, er det ikke korrekt at antage...

  15. Figures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — data for figures 1-8 in journal article "Assessment of port-related air quality impacts: geographic analysis of population", International Journal of Environment and...

  16. Il Carmide di Platone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available L’ipertesto dedicata al Carmide di Platone, composto per l’uso degli studenti dell’ateneo pisano, è a disposizione di tutti qui. Il Carmide è – canonicamente – un dialogo aporetico. Ma almeno dei suoi paradossi – quello di una superscienza che pretende...

  17. Il Simposio di Platone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pensate che i testi antichi siano semplicemente vecchi? Che l’amore platonico non vada mai  al sodo? Leggere il Simposio di Platone confrontandosi direttamente col testo, com’è possibile fare grazie al Perseus Project, vi farà cambiare idea.

  18. Il Cratilo di Platone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La guida ipertestuale alla lettura del Cratilo di Platone composta per gli studenti della facoltà di Scienze politiche dell’università di Pisa è ora visibile a tutti qui. L’ipertesto ha tratto vantaggio dall’Introduzione alla linguistica generale del professor Manuel Barbera dell’università...

  19. Platons ‘respekt’ for Protagoras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David

    2011-01-01

    Platons forhold til sofisten Protagoras behandles. Hvor forskningen oftest har hævdet, at Platon har stor respekt for denne, argumenteres der her for, at Platons dialog "Protagoras" viser alt andet end respekt.......Platons forhold til sofisten Protagoras behandles. Hvor forskningen oftest har hævdet, at Platon har stor respekt for denne, argumenteres der her for, at Platons dialog "Protagoras" viser alt andet end respekt....

  20. Cutting solid figures by plane - analytical solution and spreadsheet implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacka, Jan

    2012-07-01

    In some secondary mathematics curricula, there is a topic called Stereometry that deals with investigating the position and finding the intersection, angle, and distance of lines and planes defined within a prism or pyramid. Coordinate system is not used. The metric tasks are solved using Pythagoras' theorem, trigonometric functions, and sine and cosine rules. The basic problem is to find the section of the figure by a plane that is defined by three points related to the figure. In this article, a formula is derived that gives the positions of the intersection points of such a plane and the figure edges, that is, the vertices of the section polygon. Spreadsheet implementations of the formula for cuboid and right rectangular pyramids are presented. The user can check his/her graphical solution, or proceed if he/she is not able to complete the section.

  1. Platonism, Naturalism, and Mathematical Knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, James Robert

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses a central theme in current philosophy: Platonism vs Naturalism and provides accounts of both approaches to mathematics, crucially discussing Quine, Maddy, Kitcher, Lakoff, Colyvan, and many others. Beginning with accounts of both approaches, Brown defends Platonism by arguing that only a Platonistic approach can account for concept acquisition in a number of special cases in the sciences. He also argues for a particular view of applied mathematics, a view that supports Platonism against Naturalist alternatives. Not only does this engaging book present the Platonist-Natural

  2. Platonic hyperbolic monopoles

    CERN Document Server

    Manton, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    We construct a number of explicit examples of hyperbolic monopoles, with various charges and often with some platonic symmetry. The fields are obtained from instanton data in four-dimensional Euclidean space that are invariant under a circle action, and the monopole charge is equal to the instanton charge. A key ingredient is the identification of a new set of constraints on ADHM instanton data that are sufficient to ensure the circle invariance. Algebraic formulae for the Higgs field magnitude are given and from these we compute and illustrate the energy density of the monopoles. For particular monopoles, the explicit formulae provide a proof that the number of zeros of the Higgs field is greater than the monopole charge. We also present some one-parameter families of monopoles analogous to known scattering events for Euclidean monopoles within the geodesic approximation.

  3. Bioenergy in Germany. Facts and figures. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-11

    The brochure under consideration gives statistical information about the bioenergy in Germany: Renewable energies (bioenergy) and solid fuels. For example, the structure of the primary energy consumption in the year 2010, the energy supply from renewables, gross electricity generation, the total sales of renewables, growth in number of installed pellet boilers, wood fuel equivalent prices by energy value or biofuels in comparison with heating oil are presented.

  4. Origen and the Platonic Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria L.E. Ramelli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study situates Origen of Alexandria within the Platonic tradition, presenting Origenas a Christian philosopher who taught and studied philosophy, of which theology was part and parcel. More specifically, Origen can be described as a Christian Platonist. He criticized “false philosophies” as well as “heresies,” but not the philosophy of Plato. Against the background of recent scholarly debates, the thorny issue of the possible identity between Origen the Christian Platonist and Origen the Neoplatonist is partially addressed (although it requires a much more extensive discussion; it is also discussed in the light of Origen’s formation at Ammonius’s school and the reception of his works and ideas in “pagan” Platonism. As a consequence, and against scholarly perspectives that tend to see Christianity as anti-Platonism, the final section of this paper asks the question of what is imperial and late antique Platonism and, on the basis of rich evidence ,suggests that this was not only “pagan” institutional Platonism.

  5. Architecture of Platonic and Archimedean polyhedral links

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new methodology for understanding the construction of polyhedral links has been developed on the basis of the Platonic and Archimedean solids by using our method of the 'three-cross-curve and doubletwist-line covering'. There are five classes of polyhedral links that can be explored: the tetrahedral and truncated tetrahedral links; the hexahedral and truncated hexahedral links; the dodecahedral and truncated dodecahedral links; the truncated octahedral and icosahedral links. Our results show that the tetrahedral and truncated tetrahedral links have T symmetry; the hexahedral and truncated hexahedral links, as well as the truncated octahedral links, O symmetry; the dodecahedral and truncated dodecahedral links, as well as the truncated icosahedral links, I symmetry, respectively. This study provides further insight into the molecular design, as well as theoretical characterization, of the DNA and protein catenanes.

  6. Architecture of Platonic and Archimedean polyhedral links

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new methodology for understanding the construction of polyhedral links has been developed on the basis of the Platonic and Archimedean solids by using our method of the ‘three-cross-curve and dou- ble-twist-line covering’. There are five classes of polyhedral links that can be explored: the tetrahedral and truncated tetrahedral links; the hexahedral and truncated hexahedral links; the dodecahedral and truncated dodecahedral links; the truncated octahedral and icosahedral links. Our results show that the tetrahedral and truncated tetrahedral links have T symmetry; the hexahedral and truncated hexahedral links, as well as the truncated octahedral links, O symmetry; the dodecahedral and truncated dodeca- hedral links, as well as the truncated icosahedral links, I symmetry, respectively. This study provides further insight into the molecular design, as well as theoretical characterization, of the DNA and protein catenanes.

  7. Godel's Incompleteness Theorems and Platonic Metaphysics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikovic, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    We argue by using Godel's incompletness theorems in logic that platonism is the best metaphysics for science. This is based on the fact that a natural law in a platonic metaphysics represents a timeless order in the motion of matter, while a natural law in a materialistic metaphysics can be only defined as a temporary order which appears at random in the chaotic motion of matter. Although a logical possibility, one can argue that this type of metaphysics is highly implausible. Given that mathematics fits naturally within platonism, we conclude that a platonic metaphysics is more preferable than a materialistic metaphysics.

  8. Platonic wholes and quantum ontology

    CERN Document Server

    Woszczek, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The subject of the book is a reconsideration of the internalistic model of composition of the Platonic type, more radical than traditional, post-Aristotelian externalistic compositionism, and its application in the field of the ontology of quantum theory. At the centre of quantum ontology is nonseparability. Quantum wholes are atemporal wholes governed by internalistic logic and they are primitive, global physical entities, requiring an extreme relativization of the fundamental notions of mechanics. That ensures quantum theory to be fully consistent with the relativistic causal structure, with

  9. Lattice Platonic Solids and their Ehrhart polynomial

    CERN Document Server

    Ionascu, Eugen J

    2011-01-01

    First, we calculate the Ehrhart polynomial associated to an arbitrary cube with integer coordinates for its vertices. Then, we use this result to derive relationships between the Ehrhart polynomials for regular lattice tetrahedrons and those for regular lattice octahedrons. These relations allow one to reduce the calculation of these polynomials to only one coefficient.

  10. Rousseau læser Platon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anne-Marie Eggert

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen præsenterer i første del (A) det pædagogiske stof fra Platons Staten og Lovene, som Rousseau har læst og fundet inspiration i. Der plæderes for, at Rousseau optager og transponerer såvel principper som konkrete overvejelser uanset den forskelige historiske kontekst og de dermed sammenhæn......Artiklen præsenterer i første del (A) det pædagogiske stof fra Platons Staten og Lovene, som Rousseau har læst og fundet inspiration i. Der plæderes for, at Rousseau optager og transponerer såvel principper som konkrete overvejelser uanset den forskelige historiske kontekst og de dermed...... sammenhængende forskellige udformninger og mål for opdragelsen. I anden del (B) diskuteres Rousseaus ’platonisme’ i mere overordnet filosofisk sammenhæng, og der argumenteres for, at Rousseaus utraditionelle, pædagogisk-filosofiske Platon-læsning dels kan ses at fremdrage underbelyste centrale tematikker i...... Platons filosofi, dels understreger deres stadige aktualitet....

  11. Plato's problem an introduction to mathematical platonism

    CERN Document Server

    Panza, M

    2013-01-01

    What is mathematics about? And how can we have access to the reality it is supposed to describe? The book tells the story of this problem, first raised by Plato, through the views of Aristotle, Proclus, Kant, Frege, Gödel, Benacerraf, up to the most recent debate on mathematical platonism.

  12. Flexural Mie Resonances: Localized Surface Platonic Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Farhat, M; Chen, P Y; Salama, K N; Bagci, H

    2016-01-01

    Surface plasmons polaritons were thought to exist only in metals near their plasma frequencies. The concept of spoof plasmons extended the realms of plasmonics to domains such as radio frequencies, magnetism, or even acoustic waves. Here, we introduce the concept of localized surface platonic modes (SPMs). We demonstrate that they can be generated on a two-dimensional clamped (or stress-free) cylindrical surface, in a thin elastic plate, with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident flexural plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is elastically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with negatively uniform and dispersive flexural rigidity. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like platonic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including earthquake sensing, or elastic imaging and cloaking.

  13. The origin of the division between Middle Platonism and Neoplatonism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    2013-01-01

    The division of Ancient Platonism into Middle Platonism and Neoplatonism is a fairly new one. The conceptual foundation of this division was cemented in Jacob Brucker’s pioneering Historia critica philosophiae (1742-44). In the 1770s and 1780s, the term ‘Neoplatonism’ was coined on the basis...... of Brucker’s analysis. Three historiographical concepts were decisive to Brucker: ‘system of philosophy’, ‘eclecticism’ and ‘syncretism’. By means of these concepts, he characterized Middle Platonism and Neoplatonism as opposing philosophical movements, the former being a genuine form of Platonism...

  14. Application of Phase Shifting Projection Moire on Solid Regular Figures and Plant Organs Three Dimensional Digital Model Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, A. C. L.; Dal Fabbro, I. M.

    2008-04-01

    The conception of a tridimensional digital model of solid figures and plant organs started from topographic survey of virtual surfaces [1], followed by topographic survey of solid figures [2], fruit surface survey [3] and finally the generation of a 3D digital model [4] as presented by [1]. In this research work, i.e. step number [4] tested objects included cylinders, cubes, spheres and fruits. A Ronchi grid named G1 was generated in a PC, from which other grids referred as G2, G3, and G4 were set out of phase by 1/4, 1/2 and 3/4 of period from G1. Grid G1 was then projected onto the samples surface. Projected grid was named Gd. The difference between Gd and G1 followed by filtration generated de moiré fringes M1 and so on, obtaining the fringes M2, M3 and M4 from Gd. Fringes are out of phase one from each other by 1/4 of period, which were processed by the Rising Sun Moiré software to produce packed phase and further on, the unpacked fringes. Tested object was placed on a goniometer and rotate to generate four surfaces topography. These four surveyed surfaces were assembled by means of a SCILAB software, obtaining a three column matrix, corresponding to the object coordinates xi, also having elevation values and coordinates corrected as well. The work includes conclusions on the reliability of the proposed method as well as the setup simplicity and of low cost.

  15. Die Aufgabe des Gesetzes bei Solon und Platon

    OpenAIRE

    Marti, Urs

    2011-01-01

    Solon und Platon werden in der Literatur häufig in einem Zug genannt. Bereits Solon habe das Gesetz verstanden als Instrument zur Überwindung einer politischen Unordnung, die aus der mangelnden moralischen Qualifikation der Bürger resultiere. Die verbreitete Ansicht, Solon habe die politische Philosophie Platons vorweggenommen, bedarf der kritischen Prüfung. Tatsächlich versteht Platon unter Politik primär die moralische Erziehung der Bürger, während soziale Konflikte als Ursachen der Unordnu...

  16. Searching for integrable Hamiltonian systems with Platonic symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Rastelli, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we try to find examples of integrable natural Hamiltonian systems on the sphere $S^2$ with the symmetries of each Platonic polyhedra. Although some of these systems are known, their expression is extremely complicated; we try here to find the simplest possible expressions for this kind of dynamical systems. Even in the simplest cases it is not easy to prove their integrability by direct computation of the first integrals, therefore, we make use of numerical methods to provide evidences of integrability; namely, by analyzing their Poincar\\'e sections (surface sections). In this way we find three systems with platonic symmetries, one for each class of equivalent Platonic polyhedra: tetrahedral, exahedral-octahedral, dodecahedral-icosahedral, showing evidences of integrability. The proof of integrability and the construction of the first integrals are left for further works. As an outline of the possible developments if the integrability of these systems will be proved, we show how to build from th...

  17. Impact of Platon ETC system on intercity trucking cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogotovkina Natalya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2015 Platon ETC System, a system of charging trucks with gross vehicle weight exceeding 12 tons, was implemented in Russia. The payment is collected as a compensation fo0 the damage caused to the federal public roads. Platon system is an additional source of financing for the road sector. However, its implementation made the carriers face the increasing costs. This paper presents the first results of the system functioning and the problems, associated with it. We consider the foreign systems of truck charging. The results of calculations, which show the effect of the toll collection on the prime cost of road freight transportation, are also presented.

  18. Hermeneutics and the philosophy of medicine: Hans-Georg Gadamer's platonic metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingiardi, V; Grieco, A

    1999-09-01

    Taking as our starting point Plato's metaphor of the doctor as philosopher we reflect on some aspects of the epistemological status of medicine. The framework to this paper is the hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer which shows the paradoxical nature of Western medicine in choosing the body-object as its investigative starting point, while in actual fact dealing with subjects. Gadamer proposes a model of medicine as the art of understanding and dialogue, which is capable of bringing together its various constituent parts, i.e. knowledge, knowing how to do and knowing how to be, in medical practice and in the physician's training. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the dyadic figure of the physician as Platonic "master of the living totality" and wounded healer, capable of activating the patient's self-healing capacity.

  19. Sb@Ni12@Sb20(-/+) and Sb@Pd12@Sb20(n) Cluster Anions, Where n = +1, -1, -3, -4: Multi-Oxidation-State Clusters of Interpenetrating Platonic Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Moses-DeBusk, Melanie; Stevens, Lauren; Hu, Junkai; Zavalij, Peter; Bowen, Kit; Dunlap, Brett I; Glaser, Evan R; Eichhorn, Bryan

    2017-01-18

    K5Sb4 and K3Sb7 Zintl ion precursors react with Pd(PPh3)4 in ethylenediamine/toluene/PBu4(+) solutions to give crystals of Sb@Pd12@Sb20(n-)/PBu4(+) salts, where n = 3, 4. The clusters are structurally identical in the two charge states, with nearly perfect Ih point symmetry, and can be viewed as an Sb@Pd12 icosahedron centered inside of an Sb20 dodecahedron. The metric parameters suggest very weak Sb-Sb and Pd-Pd interactions with strong radial Sb-Pd bonds between the Sb20 and Pd12 shells. All-electron DFT analysis shows the 3- ion to be diamagnetic with Ih symmetry and a 1.33 eV HOMO-LUMO gap, whereas the 4- ion undergoes a Jahn-Teller distortion to an S = 1/2 D3d structure with a small 0.1 eV gap. The distortion is predicted to be small and is not discernible by crystallography. Laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-TOF MS) studies of the crystalline samples show intense parent Sb@Pd12@Sb20(-) ions (negative ion mode) and Sb@Pd12@Sb20(+) (positive ion mode) along with series of Sb@Pd12-y@Sb20-x(-/+) ions. Ni(cyclooctadiene)2 reacts with K3Sb7 in en/tol/Bu4PBr solvent mixtures to give black precipitates of Sb@Ni12@Sb20(n-) salts that give similar Sb@Ni12@Sb20(-/+) parent ions and Sb@Ni12-y@Sb20-x(-/+) degradation series in the respective LDI-TOF MS studies. The solid-state and gas-phase studies of the icosahedral Sb@M12@Sb20(n-/n+) ions show that the clusters can exist in the -4, -3, -1, +1 (M = Pd) and +1, -1 (M = Ni) oxidation states. These multiple-charge-state clusters are reminiscent of redox-active fullerenes (e.g., C60(n), where n = +1, 0, -1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6).

  20. Piiskop Platoni protest saksa okupatsiooni vastu a. 1918 / Piiskop Platon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Platon, Eesti Apostlik-Õigeusu kiriku peapiiskop, 1869-1919

    1987-01-01

    Piiskop Platon (kodanikunimega Paul Kulbusch) kirjeldab saksa okupatsiooni Eestis ja Lätis, Riia õigeusu kirikute ümberehitamist luteri kirikuteks, preestrite tagakiusamist ja väljasaatmist. A. Piibule Londonisse lääneriikide esindajatele levitamiseks saadetud pöördumise tekstile eelneb Esmo Ridala sissejuhatus ülevaatega piiskop Platoni eluloost

  1. I grandi della fisica da Platone a Heisenberg

    CERN Document Server

    Von Weizsäcker, Carl Friedrich

    2002-01-01

    Parmenide ; Platone ; Aristotele ; Copernico, Keplero, Galilei ; Galileo Galilei ; Cartesio ; Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz ; Cartesio, Newton, Leibniz, Kant ; Immanuel Kant ; Johann Wolfgang Goethe ; Robert Meyer ; Albert Einstein ; Niels Bohr ; Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac ; Niels Bohr e Werner Heisenberg, un ricordo del 1932 ; Werner Heisenberg ; Heisenberg, fisico e filosofo ; l'interpretazione filosofica della fisica moderna.

  2. Piiskop Platoni protest saksa okupatsiooni vastu a. 1918 / Piiskop Platon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Platon, Eesti Apostlik-Õigeusu kiriku peapiiskop, 1869-1919

    1987-01-01

    Piiskop Platon (kodanikunimega Paul Kulbusch) kirjeldab saksa okupatsiooni Eestis ja Lätis, Riia õigeusu kirikute ümberehitamist luteri kirikuteks, preestrite tagakiusamist ja väljasaatmist. A. Piibule Londonisse lääneriikide esindajatele levitamiseks saadetud pöördumise tekstile eelneb Esmo Ridala sissejuhatus ülevaatega piiskop Platoni eluloost

  3. Figure5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is an R statistics package script that allows the reproduction of Figure 5. The script includes the links to large NetCDF files that the figures access for O3,...

  4. Figure 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Two files provided. The ENS.tar file contains text data files (*.csv) used to create Figure 7 and Figure 8. The Figure7.txt is an R script that reads these files and...

  5. Topology of Platonic Spherical Manifolds: From Homotopy to Harmonic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We carry out the harmonic analysis on four Platonic spherical three-manifolds with different topologies. Starting out from the homotopies (Everitt 2004), we convert them into deck operations, acting on the simply connected three-sphere as the cover, and obtain the corresponding variety of deck groups. For each topology, the three-sphere is tiled into copies of a fundamental domain under the corresponding deck group. We employ the point symmetry of each Platonic manifold to construct its fundamental domain as a spherical orbifold. While the three-sphere supports an~orthonormal complete basis for harmonic analysis formed by Wigner polynomials, a given spherical orbifold leads to a selection of a specific subbasis. The resulting selection rules find applications in cosmic topology, probed by the cosmic microwave background.

  6. Regular figures

    CERN Document Server

    Tóth, L Fejes; Ulam, S; Stark, M

    1964-01-01

    Regular Figures concerns the systematology and genetics of regular figures. The first part of the book deals with the classical theory of the regular figures. This topic includes description of plane ornaments, spherical arrangements, hyperbolic tessellations, polyhedral, and regular polytopes. The problem of geometry of the sphere and the two-dimensional hyperbolic space are considered. Classical theory is explained as describing all possible symmetrical groupings in different spaces of constant curvature. The second part deals with the genetics of the regular figures and the inequalities fo

  7. Figure6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — R script for the reproduction of Figure6. This script accesses archived CMAQ and WRF model output on US EPA's HPC sol computer system and plots forward trajectories...

  8. Graffiti (Figural)

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Uribe, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Some of the earliest evidence for written communication in Egypt derives from figural graffiti—a variation of rock art. These texts are evidenced from many sites in Egypt, especially the Western Desert.

  9. Figure 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Figure.tar.gz contains a directory for each WRF ensemble run. In these directories are *.csv files for each meteorology variable examined. These are comma...

  10. Jade Figures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Jade carved figures,the tallest 4 cm high,the lowest2.5cm,were unearthed from the tomb of a nobleman fromthe Zhongshan Kingdom in the Warring States Period.Allthe figures,of solemn expression,have clear and simplefacial features,The one with hair worn in a small bun is aboy and the two with hair shaped into ox horns are female

  11. Erotic Wisdom and the Socratic Vocation in Plutarch’s Platonic Question 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Shiffman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Plutarch's skeptical Platonism is embodied in his understanding of Socrates and Socrates' use of eros, and serves to harmonize his use of the skeptical heritage with his understanding of central Platonic teachings: questioning is the crucial tool in the search for wisdom.

  12. 基于Solid Works/COSMOS Motion的凸轮轮廓线设计%The design of cam's figure based on Solid Works/COSMOS Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈忠维

    2008-01-01

    凸轮轮廓曲线是凸轮机构设计的关键,常用的设计方法有解析法和图解珐.该方珐利用Solid Works绘制凸轮机构实体零件、构建机构装配体模型,并用Solid Works自带的COSMOS Motion插件设置凸轮机构运动模型约束和运动参数,通过对凸轮机构进行运动学仿真,最终得到凸轮轮廓线.较之其它设计方法, 该方法能自动绘制凸轮轮廓线,直观、简便,可视性好,具有一定的实际应用价值.

  13. Research Update: Prediction of high figure of merit plateau in SnS and solid solution of (Pb,Sn)S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shiqiang; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Wolverton, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    Direct conversion between thermal and electrical energy can be achieved by thermoelectric materials, which provide a viable route for power generation and solid state refrigeration. Here, we use a combination of energetic, electronic, and vibrational first-principles based results to predict the figure of merit performance in hole doped single crystals of SnS and (Pb,Sn)S. We find high ZT values for both materials, specifically for (Pb,Sn)S along the b-axis. Both SnS and (Pb,Sn)S have excellent power factors when doped, due to a combination of increased electrical conductivity (due to doping) and a significantly enhanced Seebeck coefficient obtained by a doping-induced multiband effect. Anharmonic phonon calculations combined with a Debye-Calloway model show that the lattice thermal conductivity of both compounds is low, due to intrinsic anharmonicity, and is lowered further by the random, solid solution nature of the cation sublattice of (Pb,Sn)S. (Pb,Sn)S exhibits a high ZT plateau ranging from 1.3 at 300 K to 1.9 at 800 K. The overall ZT of the hole doped (Pb,Sn)S crystals is predicted to outperform most of the current state-of-the-art thermoelectric sulfide materials.

  14. Figure 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Figure.tar.gz contains a directory for each WRF ensemble run. In these directories are *.csv files for each meteorology variable examined. These are comma delimited text files that contain statistics for each observation site. Also provided is an R script that reads these files (user would need to change directory pointers) and computes the variability of error and bias of the ensemble at each site and plots these for reproduction of figure 3.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Gilliam , R., C. Hogrefe , J. Godowitch, S. Napelenok , R. Mathur , and S.T. Rao. Impact of inherent meteorology uncertainty on air quality model predictions. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, USA, 120(23): 12,259–12,280, (2015).

  15. Controlling flexural waves in semi-infinite platonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Haslinger, Stewart G; Movchan, Alexander B; Jones, Ian S; Craster, Richard V

    2016-01-01

    We address the problem of scattering and transmission of a plane flexural wave through a semi-infinite array of point scatterers/resonators, which take a variety of physically interesting forms. The mathematical model accounts for several classes of point defects, including mass-spring resonators attached to the top surface of the flexural plate and their limiting case of concentrated point masses. We also analyse the special case of resonators attached to opposite faces of the plate. The problem is reduced to a functional equation of the Wiener-Hopf type, whose kernel varies with the type of scatterer considered. A novel approach, which stems from the direct connection between the kernel function of the semi-infinite system and the quasi-periodic Green's functions for corresponding infinite systems, is used to identify special frequency regimes. We thereby demonstrate dynamically anisotropic wave effects in semi-infinite platonic crystals, with particular attention paid to designing systems to exhibit dynami...

  16. Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: Facts and Figures Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year EPA releases the Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: Facts and Figures report, formerly called Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: Facts and Figures. It includes information on Municipal Solid Waste generation, recycling, an

  17. Readings of Platonic Virtue Theories from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly known that ancient schools of ethics were revived during the Renaissance: The texts pertaining to Platonic, Aristotelian, Stoic and Epicurean ethics were edited, translated and discussed in this period. It is less known that the Renaissance also witnessed a revival of Plotinian...... ethics, by then perceived as a legitimate form of Platonic ethics. Plotinus’ ethics had been transmitted through the Middle Ages through Macrobius’ Latin treatise In somnium Scipionis I.8, which relied heavily on Plotinus’ student, Porphyry, and his report of Plotinus’ ethics. In this article...... it is argued that the Florentine humanist and philosopher Marsilio Ficino carried on this tradition of Platonic, or rather Plotinian, ethics. He was familiar with Plotinus’ Enneads, since he had had access to it through Greek manuscripts from around 1462; his Latin translation of the Enneads was published...

  18. Efficient methods for solving discrete topology design problems in the PLATO-N project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canh, Nam Nguyen; Stolpe, Mathias

    This paper considers the general multiple load structural topology design problems in the framework of the PLATO-N project. The problems involve a large number of discrete design variables and were modeled as a non-convex mixed 0–1 program. For the class of problems considered, a global optimizat......This paper considers the general multiple load structural topology design problems in the framework of the PLATO-N project. The problems involve a large number of discrete design variables and were modeled as a non-convex mixed 0–1 program. For the class of problems considered, a global...

  19. Efficient XML Interchange (EXI) Compression and Performance Benefits: Development, Implementation and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Assembly ..................................238 Figure 49. Example X3D 3D Scene of the 5 Platonic Solids..........................................239...computer graphics displayable in Web and other browsers. Figure 49 is a simple example X3D scene showing all five platonic solids. 239 Figure 49...Example X3D 3D Scene of the 5 Platonic Solids Humanoid: The open source Delta3D gamming and simulation engine uses XML for its character maps to

  20. Numerical Platon: A unified linear equation solver interface by CEA for solving open foe scientific applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secher, Bernard [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Nuclear Energy Division (DEN) (France); CEA Saclay DM2S/SFME/LGLS, Bat. 454, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)], E-mail: bsecher@cea.fr; Belliard, Michel [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Nuclear Energy Division (DEN) (France); CEA Cadarache DER/SSTH/LMDL, Bat. 238, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Calvin, Christophe [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Nuclear Energy Division (DEN) (France); CEA Saclay DM2S/SERMA/LLPR, Bat. 470, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2009-01-15

    This paper describes a tool called 'Numerical Platon' developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). It provides a freely available (GNU LGPL license) interface for coupling scientific computing applications to various freeware linear solver libraries (essentially PETSc, SuperLU and HyPre), together with some proprietary CEA solvers, for high-performance computers that may be used in industrial software written in various programming languages. This tool was developed as part of considerable efforts by the CEA Nuclear Energy Division in the past years to promote massively parallel software and on-shelf parallel tools to help develop new generation simulation codes. After the presentation of the package architecture and the available algorithms, we show examples of how Numerical Platon is used in sequential and parallel CEA codes. Comparing with in-house solvers, the gain in terms of increases in computation capacities or in terms of parallel performances is notable, without considerable extra development cost.

  1. Platonic topology and CMB fluctuations: Homotopy, anisotropy, and multipole selection rules

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background CMB originates from an early stage in the history of the universe. Observed low multipole contributions of CMB fluctuations have motivated the search for selection rules from the underlying topology of 3-space. Everitt (2004) has generated all homotopies for Platonic spherical 3-manifolds by face gluings. We transform the glue generators into isomorphic deck transformations. The deck transformations act on a spherical Platonic 3-manifold as prototile and tile the 3-sphere by its images. A complete set of orthonormal functions on the 3-sphere is spanned by the Wigner harmonic polynomials. For a tetrahedral, two cubic and three octahedral manifolds we construct algebraically linear combinations of Wigner polynomials, invariant under deck transformations and with domain the manifold. We prove boundary conditions on polyhedral faces from homotopy. By algebraic means we pass to a multipole expansion. Assuming random models of the CMB radiation, we derive multipole selection rules, d...

  2. Heuristics of the Platonic Polyhedra for the high Restrictions Reality Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Díaz Caballero

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, are exposed concepts, principles and procedures that make up a theory for theheuristical geometrical interpretation of high restrictions reality, based on a thesis where the PlatonicPolyhedra are carriers of a content with a high heuristic potential for the theoretical interpretation ofreality, particularly the high restriction systems , for example the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements,the System of Notes and Tempered Musical Scales and the Universal Genetic Code.

  3. Elementary abelian regular coverings of Platonic maps, Case I: ordinary representations

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Gareth A

    2012-01-01

    We classify the orientably regular maps which are elementary abelian regular branched coverings of Platonic maps M, in the case where the covering group and the rotation group G of M have coprime orders. The method involves studying the representations of G on certain homology groups of the sphere, punctured at the branch-points. We give a complete classification for branching over faces (or, dually, vertices) of M, and outline how the method extends to other branching patterns.

  4. The estimate on lunar figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, B. X.

    2008-10-01

    In 1799 Laplace had discovered that the lunar three principal momentum are not in equilibrium with the Moon's current orbital and rotational state.Some authors suggested that the Moon may carry a fossil figure. Before more 3 billion years the liquid Moon was closer to the Earth and revolved faster.Then the Moon migrated outwards and revolved slow down. During the early part of this migration, the Moon was continually subjected to tidal and rotational stretching and formed into an ellipsoid. Then the Moon cooled and solidified quickly. Eventually, the solid Moon's lithosphere was stable, so that we may see the very early lunar figure. In this paper, by using the lunar libration parameters and the spherical-harmonic gravity coefficient, the length of three radii a, b, c of the ellipsoid and the Moon's figure as an equilibrium tidal have been calculated. Then three conclusions can be obtained; (1) In the beginning the Moon may be very close to the Earth, before about 3 billion years the moon may cooled and solidified, and the present Moon are in the fossil figure. (2) In the third section of this paper, we demonstrate that the tidal deformation of liquid Moon was 1.934 times then the equilibrium tide. So that if to calculating the true lunar figure by using the lunar spherical-harmonic gravity coefficients, the effects of Liquid Love number hf = 1.934must be considered. (3) According to the difference between a, b, and c, the lunar distance (1.7455×108m) and spin period 3.652day can be calculated. So that the lunar orbits period was 8.34day. Hence the Moon was locked closely into a resonance orbit in the ratio 2:1 when the Moon froze.

  5. Quae dicitur vita, mors est: The Platonic Doctrines of the Embodied Soul at the Outset of Neo-Platonism in Comparison to Their Gnostic Parallels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Weiss

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the leading Platonic doctrines of the embodied soul, examining the relation between their Orphic and Pythagorean roots and Plotinus’ correction of the Neo-Pythagorean pessimism on the one hand, and Gnostic solutions of the problem on the other. The analysis of certain Gnostic passages clearly shows that, in spite of Plotinus’ anti-Gnostic polemic, some of the ideas proposed by the philosopher as an alternative to his opponents’ pessimism are also present in the Gnostic descriptions of the emanation from the first Principle and the multiplication of the Eons. The article focuses on the passages which, avoiding an ethical valuation of the generation and multiplication process, limit the concept of sin to the human domain, where it belongs in Plotinus’ view as well. Moreover, the article endeavours to throw light on some of the most controversial themes, which were to remain irreconcilable despite a number of tenets shared by both sides.

  6. El Triangulo de Platon y El Factor Gnomonico: Una aplicacion a los oraculos de Herodoto

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Enriquez, Raul

    2013-01-01

    A modification to the gnomonic factor using the concept of triangle of Plato is presented. With the aid of the platonic gnomonic factor (fgp) as we called it, we find that the oracles mentioned by Herodotus in his History, Dodona in Greece and Ammon in Oasis Siwa, Libya, were placed there because the noon shadow of Sun of a gnomon formed, back in 2500BC, the triangle of Plato the former, and the Egyptian sacred triangle the latter. This means that both concepts were known by Egyptians form Th...

  7. Platonic Solids and Solutions to X2 + Y3 = dZr

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edwards, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    This manuscript investigates the properties of the diophantine equation X2 + Yr Here d is a given integer, r is one of 3,4, or 5 and the unknowns X,Y ,Z are required to be integers with no common factor other than ±1. The equation is a special case of the so called generalized Fermat equations

  8. Etched glass self-assembles into micron-size hollow platonic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Boukhalfa, Sofiane

    2012-10-03

    The interaction between the spreading of a hydrofluoric acid-based drop on a glass surface and its etching rate gives rise to hollow crystals of various shapes, including cubes, triangles, and icosahedra. These geometries are dependent on their position with respect to the contact line, where a rim forms by agglutination, similar to the formation of a coffee stain. Atomic force microscopy indentation and transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that these crystals are hollow ammonium-fluosilicate-based cryptohalite shells. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  9. Figure_2_data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data for Figure 2. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Sarwar, G., D. Kang, K. Foley, D. Schwede, B. Gantt, and R. Mathur. Technical note:...

  10. data for figures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Figures 1-10 and Table 1. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Chang, S.Y., S. Arunachalam, A. Valencia, B. Naess, V. Isakov , M. Breen , T....

  11. El Triangulo de Platon y El Factor Gnomonico: Una aplicacion a los oraculos de Herodoto

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Enriquez, Raul

    2013-01-01

    A modification to the gnomonic factor using the concept of triangle of Plato is presented. With the aid of the platonic gnomonic factor (fgp) as we called it, we find that the oracles mentioned by Herodotus in his History, Dodona in Greece and Ammon in Oasis Siwa, Libya, were placed there because the noon shadow of Sun of a gnomon formed, back in 2500BC, the triangle of Plato the former, and the Egyptian sacred triangle the latter. This means that both concepts were known by Egyptians form Thebes long before they were formalized by the Greeks. The right angled triangle concept is an idealization, as said by D. Magdolen, of an astronomical observation; i. e. it is the shadow cast by a gnomon. ----- Se presenta una modificacion al factor gnomonico usando el concepto de triangulo de Platon. Con la ayuda de lo que llamamos factor gnomonico platonico (fgp) nosotros encontramos que los oraculos mencionados por Herodoto en su Historia, Dodona en Grecia, y Ammon en el Oasis Siwa, Libia, fueron ubicados ahi porque, ha...

  12. Prediction algorithm for amino acid types with their secondary structure in proteins (PLATON) using chemical shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labudde, D; Leitner, D; Krüger, M; Oschkinat, H

    2003-01-01

    The algorithm PLATON is able to assign sets of chemical shifts derived from a single residue to amino acid types with its secondary structure (amino acid species). A subsequent ranking procedure using optionally two different penalty functions yields predictions for possible amino acid species for the given set of chemical shifts. This was demonstrated in the case of the alpha-spectrin SH3 domain and applied to 9 further protein data sets taken from the BioMagRes database. A database consisting of reference chemical shift patterns (reference CSPs) was generated from assigned chemical shifts of proteins with known 3D-structure. This reference CSP database is used in our approach for extracting distributions of amino acid types with their most likely secondary structure elements (namely alpha-helix, beta-sheet, and coil) for single amino acids by comparison with query CSPs. Results obtained for the 10 investigated proteins indicates that the percentage of correct amino acid species in the first three positions in the ranking list, ranges from 71.4% to 93.2% for the more favorable penalty function. Where only the top result of the ranking list for these 10 proteins is considered, 36.5% to 83.1% of the amino acid species are correctly predicted. The main advantage of our approach, over other methods that rely on average chemical shift values is the ability to increase database content by incorporating newly derived CSPs, and therefore to improve PLATON's performance over time.

  13. 基于Solid Works/COSMOS Motion的离散点凸轮轮廓曲线设计及后处理%The design of cam's figure based on SolidWorks/COSMOS Motion with discrete link's displacements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈忠维

    2008-01-01

    在凸轮机构工程应用中经常要求顶杆件在若干个位置要有精确值,针对这种情况本文利用Solid Works绘制凸轮机构实体零件、构建机构装配体模型,用COSMOS Motion自带样条函数自动实现离散点值拟合,模拟运行凸轮机构,生成凸轮轮廓曲线,并对凸轮轮廓曲线进行后处理,最终得到实体凸轮模型.

  14. Le démiurge du Timée de Platon ou la représentation mythique de la causalité paradigmatique de la forme du dieu

    OpenAIRE

    Larose, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Contrairement à la majorité des interprètes du Timée de Platon, nous ne croyons pas que la figure du démiurge représente réellement une cause productrice. Ce type de causalité, explicitement attribué au νοῦς dans le Phédon, ne peut, selon nous, être associé qu’à l’activité de l’âme du monde et des dieux de la tradition. Le démiurge joue un autre rôle. Représentant le meilleur des êtres intelligibles éternels (37a), un dieu éternel (34a), le démiurge ne peut, à ce titre, être un principe de mo...

  15. Student figures in friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gritt B.

      This thesis analyses how ‘the student', as a contested figure, is negotiated and enacted in a period of extensive university reform in Denmark. Through a combination of historical and anthropological research, it focuses on students' changing participation in the shaping of Danish society......, students' room for participation in their own learning, influenced by demands for efficiency, flexibility and student-centred education. The thesis recasts the anthropological endeavour as one of ‘figuration work'. That is, ‘frictional events' are explored as moments when conflicting figures......, the university and their own education. Detailed studies explore, first, politically active students' various attempts to influence national educational policies; second, student participation in the development of the university, especially regarding debates over consumer conduct versus co-ownership; and third...

  16. OECD in Figures, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "OECD in Figures" is a primary statistical source for key data on OECD countries, ranging from economic growth and employment to inflation, trade and environment. Information is presented in tabular form for: (1) Demography and Health; (2) Economy; (3) Energy; (4) Labour; (5) Science and Technology; (6) Environment; (7) Education; (8)…

  17. Figures of transversality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine

    2008-01-01

    affective and embodied aspects. Seeing the anomalous fetus as a "figure of transversality," as a critical focus for powerful imaginings and desires, I show how state–society relations in Vietnam are suffused by visceral affectivity and moral engagement. In the realm of reproduction, intense sentiments...

  18. Rainer Knab, Platons Siebter Brief. Einleitung, Text, Übersetzung, Kommentar

    OpenAIRE

    Brisson, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Cette traduction commentée de la septième Lettre attribuée à Platon est un objet étrange. On y trouve imprimé le texte édité par Burnet en 1905, mais on ne trouve rien sur l’édition de Souilhé aux Belles Lettres en 1926 ni celle de J. Moore-Blunt chez Teubner en 1985. De surcroît, la bibliographie qui clôt le volume fait montre d’incroyables faiblesses en ce qui concerne les traductions et les commentaires utilisés. Dans l’introduction, R. Knab admet, mais sans apporter d’arguments nouveaux,...

  19. Efficient methods for solving discrete topology design problems in the PLATO-N project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canh, Nam Nguyen; Stolpe, Mathias

    This paper considers the general multiple load structural topology design problems in the framework of the PLATO-N project. The problems involve a large number of discrete design variables and were modeled as a non-convex mixed 0–1 program. For the class of problems considered, a global...... optimization method based on the branch-and-cut concept was developed and implemented. In the method a large number of continuous relaxations were solved. We also present an algorithm for generating cuts to strengthen the quality of the relaxations. Several heuristics were also investigated to obtain efficient...... algorithms. The branch and cut method is used to solve benchmark examples which can be used to validate other methods and heuristics....

  20. Queen Christina’s esoteric interests as a background to her Platonic Academies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Åkerman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1681 the blind quietist, Francois Malaval, stated that Queen Christina of Sweden late in life had ‘given up’ [Hermes] Trismegistos and the Platonists, in favour of the Church fathers. The statement does not explain what role the Church fathers were to play in her last years, but it does show that Christina really had been interested in the rather elitist and esoteric doctrine of Hermetic Platonic Christianity. In this article the author looks at her library to show the depth of this Hermetic involvement. Her interest serves as a background to her life as ex-queen in Italy after her famous abdication from the Swedish throne in 1654, when she was 27 years old.

  1. Structure and binding in crystals of cage-like molecules: hexamine and platonic hydrocarbons

    CERN Document Server

    Berland, Kristian; 10.1063/1.3366652

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we show that first-principle calculations using a van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF), [Phys. Rev. Lett. $\\mathbf{92}$, 246401 (2004)] permits determination of molecular crystal structure. We study the crystal structures of hexamine and the platonic hydrocarbons (cubane and dodecahedrane). The calculated lattice parameters and cohesion energy agree well with experiments. Further, we examine the asymptotic accounts of the van der Waals forces by comparing full vdW-DF with asymptotic atom-based pair potentials extracted from vdW-DF. The character of the binding differ in the two cases, with vdW-DF giving a significant enhancement at intermediate and relevant binding separations. We analyze consequences of this result for methods such as DFT-D, and question DFT-D's transferability over the full range of separations.

  2. Breath Figures Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J.; González-Viñas, W

    2013-01-01

    We present experimental observations of Breath Figures (BF) which are formed by the dew of water when it condenses on a cold surface. The experiments were done in specific conditions and configurations of temperature, surfaces and mixes in controlled concentration of miscibles and immiscibles substances like the salt saturated solution, alcohol and silicon oil (C_6H_18O_2Si). The hydrophobic surfaces used on those observations are thin glasses coated with ITO (Indium Tin Oxide), 3M ECG-1700 w...

  3. Structural Configuration of Myelin Figures Using Fluorescence Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobat Tayebi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using epifluorescence microscopy, the configuration of myelin figures that are formed upon hydration of lipid stack was studied qualitatively. Little knowledge is currently available for conditions that determine the diameter of myelin figures and their degree of multilamellarity. Examining more than 300 samples, we realized that there are distinct populations of myelin figures protruding from discrete regions of lipid stack. Each population contains myelin figures with similar diameters. This indicates a direct relationship between local characteristics of parent lipid stack and the diameter of myelin figures. Evidenced by fluorescent images, we classified all the observed myelin figures into three major groups of (1 solid tubes, (2 thin tethers, and (3 hollow tubes. Solid tubes are the most common structure of myelin figures which appeared as dense shiny cylinders. Thin tethers, with long hair-shaped structure, were observed protruding from part of lipid plaque which is likely to be under tension. Hollow tubes were protruded from the parts that are unpinned from the substrate and possibly under low or no tension. The abrupt change in the configuration of myelin figures from solid tubes to hollow ones was described in a reproducible experiment where the pinned region of the parent stack became unpinned. Our observations can indicate a relation between the membrane tension of the source material and the diameter of the myelin figures.

  4. Andrea Capra, Platone e la storia. La fine di Protagora e lo statuto letterario dei dialoghi socratici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Secondo alcune fonti antiche il sofista Protagora, ormai anziano, fu accusato, come Socrate, di empietà e trovò la morte lasciando Atene, forse per sfuggire al processo o forse perché bandito dalla città. Contro questa tradizione sembra militare la testimonianza di Platone, secondo la quale, almeno in apparenza, Protagora, a differenza di altri intellettuali, non si [...

  5. Figure out the Rhythm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    Thinking in numbers, figures and systems plays a central part in our - at least scientific – understanding of musical matters. The kind of pre-order that the numbers - and also the systemic thinking - bring along seem to facilitate the access to and dealings with what we understand as fundamental...... to reflect. By means of a critical resume of an earlier analysis of rhythmical implications in Michael Jackson's "Give In To Me" this paper discusses these matters further and reflects upon arithmetic's influences and relevance for our understanding of music.......Thinking in numbers, figures and systems plays a central part in our - at least scientific – understanding of musical matters. The kind of pre-order that the numbers - and also the systemic thinking - bring along seem to facilitate the access to and dealings with what we understand as fundamental...... musical conditions. The number stands out as constituent of understanding in our views upon and dealings with frequency and relations between frequencies. The number as such becomes the lifeless agent of movement that without further notice is allowed to include - and systematise - the 'slow' frequencies...

  6. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Alzheimer's >> Home Text size: A A A 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the Full Report: ... More Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures report contains data on ...

  7. The Theory of Figural Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbein, Efraim

    1993-01-01

    The main thesis of the paper is that geometry deals with mental entities (the so-called geometrical figures) which possess simultaneously conceptual and figural characters. The paper analyzes the internal tensions which may arise in figural concepts because of their double nature, developmental aspects, and didactical implications. (Author/MDH)

  8. On structuralism, and the poststructuralistic condition in Deleuze, inverter of Platonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Altamirano

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on Gilles Deleuze´s second stage of thought, specially his work of inversion of Platonism, we´ll show why the concept of structure is so important, as well as its conditions and functioning, and how this characterization has an impact on central concepts such as identity or difference. That way we´ll understand the idealistic character of Deleuze´s philosophy, thus a different kind of Plato´s idealism. We´ll take into consideration, also, the realm of the “problematic”, and the “ideal game”. We´ll evaluate the six necessary criteria of what Deleuze calls an “Idea”. Given the conditions we´ll establish trough this revision, we´ll be able to conclude that Deleuze overtakes structuralism and embraces poststructuralism. This last affirmation will be argued trough a comparison between Delezue´s poststructuralism and the basics of more classical, Lévi-Straus´s structuralism

  9. The philosophical interpretation of objects of mathematics in the formalism, intuitionism and Platonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhailova N. V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of the work proposes a philosophical and methodological interpretation of the mathematical objects, using the system triad of the main directions of substantiation of mathematics: the formalism of Hilbert, Brouwer’s intuitionism and Godel’s Platonism. The need for these directions in the concept of substantiation of mathematics from the point of view of the current state of the philosophy of mathematics is shown on the mathematical examples. The philosophical and methodological analysis of objects of mathematics has never been unambiguous, therefore in this paper the results of studies of philosophers, logicians and mathematicians, in which the problem of substantiation is explicated in the context of trends in the development of mathematics, are used. Their professional view on philosophical characteristics of the objects of mathematics contributes to the identification of the unity of all mathematical knowledge maintaining the initial mathematical base of knowledge and revealing new ways of integrating the directions of substantiation in the philosophy of mathematics. The practical problem of substantiation of mathematics is realized through the elaboration of metatheoretical knowledge under the paradigm shift in the philosophy of mathematics to the productive direction from analysis to synthesis.

  10. Platonism, cartesianism and Hegel’s thought in the Matrix Trilogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milidrag Predrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will try to interpret changes in Neo, the main character in The Matrix Trilogy, against the background of the ideas of Plato and Descartes, as well as Hegel’s from his Philosophy of History and The Phenomenology of Spirit. Although “philosophical” The Matrix Trilogy is not long-winded and boring film: instead of talking endlessly, the characters are working ceaselessly, and that work is changing them. Contrary to wide­spread opinion, this interpretation does not find the presence of Descartes’ hyperbolic doubt in the first part of trilogy, but first film sees as a pure Platonism. Nevertheless, there are the Cartesian motifs (e.g. dualism, freeing mind from preconceived opinions, acquiring different habits of belief. The result of the first film is the position of Hegelian unhappy consciousness. This is just a preparation for the key moment of whole Trilogy that is the dialogue between Neo and Architect. Neo’s decision to chose to save Trinity is interpreted in Hegel’s terms of the infinite right of the subject to satisfy himself in his activity and work; because of that, this, sixth Neo is new. After showing the differences in the objectives of Neo and Agent Smith, and transformations of the objectives of humans, the third part of the article analyzes the very end of the Matrix Revolutions, using Marx’s ideas, with some references to Plato and Nietzsche.

  11. Expel poetry from life and society, exile poets. Modern interpretations of the Platonic postulate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Bartol

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a critical review of the most important modern interpretations of the Platonic postulate of expelling poets from the polis, formulated in two works of the thinker, the Republic and the Laws. The reflections presented in the article focus on two fundamental questions, namely the reasons behind Plato’s refusal to allow poets into his ideal state and, secondly, the aim he was going to attain by expelling artists from the community of citizens. To try to explain the reasons behind these statements, so embarrassing to present-day readers of Plato, involves considerations of Plato’s concept of the nature of poetry (art as flawed, defective and secondary reflection of the sensual world, as well as of ethical questions (art as a perfidious tool to facilitate malevolent designs towards human characters. Any investigation as to the intentions of the philosophers that preceded the formulation of the postulate concentrates thus inevitably on his vision of utopian realism. It further aims to provide sufficient arguments that Plato, oscillating in his presentation between authoritarian diagnosis and protreptic provocation, makes recipients redefine the mutual relationship between literature and philosophy.

  12. Une histoire de la lumière de Platon au photon

    CERN Document Server

    Maitte, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    De la sensation commune à la compréhension scientifique, nos idées sur la nature et les propriétés de la lumière ont connu un long cheminement depuis les théories de Platon jusqu'à la maîtrise du photon. L'Antiquité, la civilisation arabo-islamique, la Renaissance européenne et sa révolution scientifique, puis la science classique du me siècle, les avancées modernes enfin, autant de moments dans la riche histoire de nos connaissances sur la lumière. Ce livre décrit l'élaboration tourmentée des idées, tant philosophiques que scientifiques, qui ont scandé cette histoire, tirant profit des succès comme des échecs, des efforts comme des renoncements. "En regardant d'un oeil critique l'histoire de la lumière, nous pourrons accéder à notre tour à cette logique savoureuse et amère que l'on appelle Science." La première édition de ce livre, ici considérablement augmentée, a obtenu le prix Jean-Rostand du meilleur ouvrage de vulgarisation scientifique.

  13. Ultra-large supramolecular coordination cages composed of endohedral Archimedean and Platonic bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Kevin; Zubair, Muhammad; Zhu, Nianyong; Zhou, Xiao-Ping; Fox, Daniel S.; Zhang, Hongzhou; Twamley, Brendan; Lennox, Matthew J.; Düren, Tina; Schmitt, Wolfgang

    2017-05-01

    Pioneered by Lehn, Cram, Peterson and Breslow, supramolecular chemistry concepts have evolved providing fundamental knowledge of the relationships between the structures and reactivities of organized molecules. A particular fascinating class of metallo-supramolecular molecules are hollow coordination cages that provide cavities of molecular dimensions promoting applications in diverse areas including catalysis, enzyme mimetics and material science. Here we report the synthesis of coordination cages with exceptional cross-sectional diameters that are composed of multiple sub-cages providing numerous distinctive binding sites through labile coordination solvent molecules. The building principles, involving Archimedean and Platonic bodies, renders these supramolecular keplerates as a class of cages whose composition and topological aspects compare to characteristics of edge-transitive {Cu2} MOFs with A3X4 stoichiometry. The nature of the cavities in these double-shell metal-organic polyhedra and their inner/outer binding sites provide perspectives for post-synthetic functionalizations, separations and catalysis. Transmission electron microscopy studies demonstrate that single molecules are experimentally accessible.

  14. 论英国文艺复兴时期的新柏拉图主义图景%Neo-Platonic Variations in Renaissance England

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘先利

    2012-01-01

    Neo-Platonic variations in Renaissance England is a promising arena for further scholarly exploration. A platonic landscape is outlined with explicit British features: John Colet's idea in Christian image, Thomas Moore's Platonic Utopian train of thought and John Dee's Christian-Platonic numerology and magic--all construct a blueprint of Platonic cosmos.%英国文艺复兴时期的新柏拉图主义在当时是一股不可忽略的知性力量,但其形成性研究还是一个学术冷门。主要考证该思潮的本土化变体,尤其聚焦约翰·克里特的基督教理式模型、托马斯·莫尔结合了柏拉图古典社会完美观念和古罗马修辞策略的鸟托邦思想、约翰·迪的基督教一柏拉图式数字命理哲学和神秘主义魔法理论等具有英国风貌的新柏拉图主义宇宙图景。

  15. Figuring Out Art History

    CERN Document Server

    Schich, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    World population and the number of cultural artifacts are growing exponentially or faster, while cultural interaction approaches the fidelity of a global nervous system. Every day hundreds of millions of images are loaded into social networks by users all over the world. As this myriad of new artifacts veils the view into the past, like city lights covering the night sky, it is easy to forget that there is more than one Starry Night, the painting by Van Gogh. Like in ecology, where saving rare species may help us in treating disease, art and architectural history can reveal insights into the past, which may hold keys to our own future. With humanism under threat, facing the challenge of understanding the structure and dynamics of art and culture, both qualitatively and quantitatively, is more crucial now than it ever was. The purpose of this article is to provide perspective in the aim of figuring out the process of art history - not art history as a discipline, but the actual history of all made things, in t...

  16. Microgenetic analysis of hidden figures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the phenomenological and processual aspects of the perception of hidden figures were compared. The question was whether the more probable percepts of hidden figures, compared to the less probable percepts, were generated in earlier stages of the perceptual process. In the pilot study the subjects were asked to say what they see in a complex linear pattern. The three most frequent and the three least frequent perceptual descriptions were selected. In the experiment the microgenesis of the perception of hidden figures was investigated. The primed matching paradigm and the same-different task were used. In each experiment two types of test figures were contrasted: the more frequent and the less frequent ones. There were two prime types: identical (equal to test figures and complex (the pattern with hidden test figures. The prime duration was varied, 50 ms and 400 ms. The main result indicates that in the case of complex priming the more frequent test figures were processed significantly faster than the less frequent ones in both prime duration conditions. These results suggest that the faster the processing of a figure, the more probable the perceptual generation of this figure.

  17. On Platonic Love in Captain Corelli’s Mandolin-The Essence of Love:the Truth,Kindness and Beauty of love

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳; 高敏娜

    2014-01-01

    The background of Captain Corelli’s Mandolin is based on World War II. When the war provoked on the Greek Is-land, the Greeks fight against the Italian Fascist and live a tough life with their love. This article mainly talks about the essence of the Platonic love revealed in the book. By analyzing the description about homosexuality and heterosexuality in the book, this ar-ticle acclaims the essence of the Platonic love-the noble abstention of lust-based love and the truth, kindness and beauty of love.

  18. An Estimate on the Lunar Figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bu-Xi

    In 1799 Laplace discovered that the three principal moments of the Moon are not in equilibrium with the Moon's current orbital and rotational state. Some authors suggested that the Moon may carry a fossil figure. More than 3 billion years ago, the liquid Moon was closer to the Earth and revolved faster. Then the Moon migrated outwards and its rotation slowed down. During the early stage of this migration, the Moon was continually subjected to tidal and rotational stretching and formed into an ellipsoid. Subsequently the Moon cooled down and solidified quickly. Eventually, the solid Moon's lithosphere was stable and as a result we may see the very early lunar figure. In this paper, by using the lunar libration parameters and the sphericalharmonic gravity coefficients, the lengths of three radii a, b and c of the ellipsoid and the Moon's figure in tidal equilibrium are calculated. We have obtained three main conclusions as follows. (1) In the very early stage the Moon may be very close to the Earth, then it cooled down and solidified about 3 billion years ago. The present Moon is a fossil figure. (2) We demonstrate in this paper that the tidal deformation of liquid Moon was 1.934 times larger than that of the equilibrium tide. So a liquid Love number of hf = 1 .934 must be taken into account when calculating the true lunar figure using the lunar spherical-harmonic gravity coefficients. (3) According to the differences between a, b and c, a Moon-Earth distance (1 .7455 × 10 8 m) and a lunar spin period (3.652 day) at the moment of its coagulation are determined. The lunar orbital period then is calculated (8.34 d). Finally we argue that the Moon was close to a 2:1 spin-orbit resonance when it froze.

  19. Parmenide e Platone (e Aristotele nel Contro Colote di Plutarco Parménide et Platon (et Aristote dans le Contre Colotès de Plutarque Parmenides and Plato (and Aristotle in Plutarch's Against Colotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Bonazzi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The chapters dedicated to Parmenides and Plato play a decisive role in the composition strategy of the Adversus Colotem, since this is where Plutarch most clearly defines the background dualist thesis that will help demonstrate that Platonism is superior to Epicurism. By showing Parmenides too as a dualist engaged in distinguishing between the sensible and the intelligible world, Plutarch structures a history of ancient philosophy entirely focused on Plato. These chapters also bear witness of another centre of interest, namely Aristoteles (§ 14, who, despite the criticism he aimed at the theory of ideas, is not completely refuted, but rather used as a possible ally against epicurean materialists, Plutarch’s true bête noire.Les chapitres consacrés à Parménide et Platon jouent un rôle décisif dans la stratégie de composition de l’Adversus Colotem : c’est là en effet que Plutarque définit de la manière la plus claire la thèse dualiste de fond qui va servir à démontrer la supériorité du platonisme sur l’épicurisme. En présentant Parménide lui aussi comme un dualiste occupé à distinguer entre monde sensible et monde intelligible, Plutarque articule une histoire de la philosophie antique entièrement centrée sur Platon. Les chapitres témoignent ensuite d’un autre centre d’intérêt, avec la mention d’Aristote (§ 14, lequel, malgré les critiques qu’il adresse à la théorie des idées, n’est pas complètement réfuté, mais plutôt utilisé comme un allié possible contre les matérialistes épicuriens, la véritable « bête noire » de Plutarque.I capitoli dedicati a Parmenide e Platone giocano un ruolo decisivo nella strategia compositiva dell’Adversus Colotem: è qui infatti che Plutarco delinea nel modo più chiaro la tesi dualistica di fondo che servirà a dimostrare la superiorità del platonismo sull’epicureismo. Presentando anche Parmenide come un dualista, impegnato a distinguere tra mondo

  20. L’ORALITÀ A SCUOLA, DA PLATONE AL PORTFOLIO EUROPEO DELLE LINGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Sobrero

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available L'oralità risulta primaria rispetto alla scrittura sia per quanto riguarda la razza umana (filogenesi sia per quanto riguarda lo sviluppo individuale (ontogenesi, tuttavia essa ha sempre goduto di minor prestigio della scrittura. Nella prima parte di questo articolo sono ricostruiti i diversi momenti in cui questa gerarchia è stata fondata e si è affermata stabilmente: dai contrasti epocali tra Socrate e  Platone da una parte e i Sofisti dall'altra all'affermazione della centralità della scrittura da parte di Aristotele e degli aristotelici; fino, poi, all'Illuminismo, in cui l'oralità veniva ormai identificata con l'inciviltà, la rozzezza e l'arretratezza, posizione che in qualche misura permane ancora oggi. Nella seconda parte dell'articolo si ricostruisce il graduale recupero del valore dell'oralità nell'insegnamento linguistico, attraverso un'analisi dei programmi scolastici italiani, dalla Legge Casati del 1859 ai Programmi della scuola media e di quella elementare rispettivamente del 1979 e del 1985, alle più recenti "Indicazioni Moratti e infine alle "Indicazioni Fioroni". In queste ultime si sottolinea la necessità di finalizzare l'insegnamento dell'oralità anche a scopi interculturali più ampi, prioritari nella società attuale, quali il rispetto e la promozione delle differenze linguistiche e culturali, lo sviluppo del plurilinguismo; la centralità e l'autonomia dell'apprendente.   Historically, the oral tradition has been more important than writing, both in human history (philogenesis and in individual, personal history (onthogenesis, but it has always had far less prestige. The first part of this paper surveys important moments in the formation and establishment of this hierarchy, starting from the fundamental contrast between the Sophists on the one hand, and Socrates and Plato from the other, to the centrality of Aristotle and Aristotelianism, up to the Age of Enlightenment and the identification between orality

  1. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alzheimer's >> Home Text size: A A A 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the Full Report: Download ... spending. Take action. Become an advocate SPECIAL REPORT — ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE: THE NEXT FRONTIER In the history of medicine, ...

  2. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Alzheimer's >> Home Text size: A A A 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the Full ... in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers In 2016, 15.9 million family and friends provided 18. ...

  3. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alzheimer's >> Home Text size: A A A 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the Full Report: ... twice as high. Invest in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers In 2016, 15.9 million family ...

  4. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Text size: A A A 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the Full Report: Download the ... Costs Special Report Alzheimer's in each state Quick Facts Share the facts: Prevalence The number of Americans ...

  5. R-X Modeling Figures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goda, Joetta Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miller, Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Grogan, Brandon [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-26

    This document contains figures that will be included in an ORNL final report that details computational efforts to model an irradiation experiment performed on the Godiva IV critical assembly. This experiment was a collaboration between LANL and ORNL.

  6. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alzheimer's >> Home Text size: A A A 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the Full Report: ... twice as high. Invest in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers In 2016, 15.9 million family ...

  7. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facts and Figures report contains data on the impact of this disease in every state across the ... c)(3) organization. Copyright © 2017 Alzheimer's Association ® . All rights reserved. Our vision is a world without Alzheimer's ...

  8. Microgenetic analysis of hidden figures

    OpenAIRE

    Marković Slobodan S.; Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2006-01-01

    In this study the phenomenological and processual aspects of the perception of hidden figures were compared. The question was whether the more probable percepts of hidden figures, compared to the less probable percepts, were generated in earlier stages of the perceptual process. In the pilot study the subjects were asked to say what they see in a complex linear pattern. The three most frequent and the three least frequent perceptual descriptions were selected. In the experiment the microgenes...

  9. Platon G. Kostyuk (August 20, 1924-May 10, 2010): A unique survey of a life spanning turbulent times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregestovski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    On May 10th 2010 Platon Grigorevitch Kostyuk sadly left us at the age of 85. He was a talented scientist, a brilliant experimenter, an outstanding organizer of science and an excellent teacher. Platon Kostyuk was born in 1924 in Kiev, Ukraine. He obtained a double education: a graduate of the Kiev University Department of Biology in 1946 and the Kiev Medical Institute in 1949, he became a pioneer in neuroscience, the first in the Soviet Union to use microelectrodes for intracellular recording of electrical signals in neurons. Despite the difficulties for international travel for those living behind the Iron Curtain, he was able to present his work at the International Congress of Physiology in Buenos Aires in 1959 and here met Prof. John Eccles who invited him to work at the University of Canberra in Australia in 1960–1961. This was the start of an outstanding international career, complementing his creative achievements in the Soviet Union. In 1966 P.G. Kostyuk became director of the Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology in Kiev, which he headed for nearly 45 years. Under his direction this Institute became a leading centre for neuroscience, renowned not only in the Soviet Union but also internationally. New directions of research were developed in cell physiology, molecular biophysics and neurophysiology. Several important discoveries were made including the development of a method for intracellular perfusion, evidence for a calcium-dependent conductance in nerve cells and the discovery of new types of ion channels. Elected to the Ukraine Academy of Science in 1969 and Grand Academician of the Soviet Academy of Science in 1974, Kostyuk has also been honoured by many international societies. He is the author of more than 650 articles, 17 monographs and 7 discoveries and was the creator and editor of two scientific journals: "Neurophysiology" and "Neuroscience". The outstanding career and multifaceted activities of Academician Platon Kostyuk form a pyramid of

  10. Figure analysis: An implementation dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Amy M

    2016-07-01

    Figure analysis is a novel active learning teaching technique that reinforces visual literacy. Small groups of students discuss diagrams in class in order to learn content. The instructor then gives a brief introduction and later summarizes the content of the figure. This teaching technique can be used in place of lecture as a mechanism to deliver information to students. Here, a "how to" guide is presented in the form of an in-class dialogue, displaying the difficulties in visual interpretation that some students may experience while figure analysis is being implemented in an upper-level, cell biology course. Additionally, the dialogue serves as a guide for instructors who may implement the active learning technique as they consider how to respond to students' concerns in class. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):345-348, 2016.

  11. An Analysis of the Agency and Providence in Platonic, Aristotelian and Avicennan Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahdi Emamijomeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The questions as to whether the cosmic order of this world is based on action/agent or not? And if an agent is involved and the world and what it contains have to be seen as action, could we declare the cosmic order a providential order? are among the problems which have always occupied the mind of philosophers.      Reading through Platonic corpse leads us to the conclusion that he has founded his metaphysics upon the very idea of world of ideas. According to his works and words, Plato is a proponent of the theory of ideas. As a matter of fact, Plato's metaphysics lies in the theory of ideas. Plato illustrates the general makeup of the world of ideas and the way sensible objects stand in relation with the beings dwelling in the latter world by the well-known cave allegory in the seventh book of Republic. In his view, whatever we find around ourselves not only are not authentic realities but rather they are merely shadows of the truth. Every phenomenon has an essence or reality which is known as its form. The idea of Good overshadows the other ideas insofar as these latter ideas or forms are seen as the effects of the former. It seems we can take God, the One, Absolute Good, Absolute Beauty and Good in itself as expressions of the same reality which Plato has used in different contexts through his works. Along these terms some other notions have also been brought up like intellect, divine intellect, Demiurge, ideas and the particulars of material world. By explaining Plato's taking of these notions and terms, we believe, one can discover Platonic ontological system.    In Republic, Plato argues that God is the creator of ideal bed and all other things, and he is the creator of intelligible entities (ideas. The One or reality as a whole not only contains ideas but the spirit too. The One is the final principle and the source of ideas and is beyond all human attributes. Having said these, it is not clear how reason gets itself related to the

  12. An Analysis of the Agency and Providence in Platonic, Aristotelian and Avicennan Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Hadad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The questions as to whether the cosmic order of this world is based on action/agent or not? And if an agent is involved and the world and what it contains have to be seen as action, could we declare the cosmic order a providential order? are among the problems which have always occupied the mind of philosophers.      Reading through Platonic corpse leads us to the conclusion that he has founded his metaphysics upon the very idea of world of ideas. According to his works and words, Plato is a proponent of the theory of ideas. As a matter of fact, Plato's metaphysics lies in the theory of ideas. Plato illustrates the general makeup of the world of ideas and the way sensible objects stand in relation with the beings dwelling in the latter world by the well-known cave allegory in the seventh book of Republic. In his view, whatever we find around ourselves not only are not authentic realities but rather they are merely shadows of the truth. Every phenomenon has an essence or reality which is known as its form. The idea of Good overshadows the other ideas insofar as these latter ideas or forms are seen as the effects of the former. It seems we can take God, the One, Absolute Good, Absolute Beauty and Good in itself as expressions of the same reality which Plato has used in different contexts through his works. Along these terms some other notions have also been brought up like intellect, divine intellect, Demiurge, ideas and the particulars of material world. By explaining Plato's taking of these notions and terms, we believe, one can discover Platonic ontological system.    In Republic, Plato argues that God is the creator of ideal bed and all other things, and he is the creator of intelligible entities (ideas. The One or reality as a whole not only contains ideas but the spirit too. The One is the final principle and the source of ideas and is beyond all human attributes. Having said these, it is not clear how reason gets itself related to the

  13. Concepts and Figures in Geometric Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbein, Efraim; Nachlieli, Talli

    1998-01-01

    Opens with the theoretical construct of figural concepts. Argues that geometrical figures are characterized by both conceptual and sensorial properties. Investigates the effects of interaction between conceptual and figural components. Contains 19 references. (DDR)

  14. The protein folds as platonic forms: new support for the pre-Darwinian conception of evolution by natural law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Michael J; Marshall, Craig J; Legge, Michael

    2002-12-07

    Before the Darwinian revolution many biologists considered organic forms to be determined by natural law like atoms or crystals and therefore necessary, intrinsic and immutable features of the world order, which will occur throughout the cosmos wherever there is life. The search for the natural determinants of organic form-the celebrated "Laws of Form"-was seen as one of the major tasks of biology. After Darwin, this Platonic conception of form was abandoned and natural selection, not natural law, was increasingly seen to be the main, if not the exclusive, determinant of organic form. However, in the case of one class of very important organic forms-the basic protein folds-advances in protein chemistry since the early 1970s have revealed that they represent a finite set of natural forms, determined by a number of generative constructional rules, like those which govern the formation of atoms or crystals, in which functional adaptations are clearly secondary modifications of primary "givens of physics." The folds are evidently determined by natural law, not natural selection, and are "lawful forms" in the Platonic and pre-Darwinian sense of the word, which are bound to occur everywhere in the universe where the same 20 amino acids are used for their construction. We argue that this is a major discovery which has many important implications regarding the origin of proteins, the origin of life and the fundamental nature of organic form. We speculate that it is unlikely that the folds will prove to be the only case in nature where a set of complex organic forms is determined by natural law, and suggest that natural law may have played a far greater role in the origin and evolution of life than is currently assumed.

  15. Choreography Styles in Figure Skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moormann, Peter Paul

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-eight figure skating trainers from fifteen different countries acted as volunteers in this study on choreography styles. The styles were based on reports of artistic-creative strategies in composing music, drawing, writing poems or novels, and in making dances. The prevalence of the Mozartian (at the onset the choreographer already has a…

  16. Figuring out a scientific understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Clive

    1993-12-01

    This article attempts to place analogy and metaphor within the wider context of all figurative language, and to trace the relationship between that kind of expression and the supposedly literal and direct accounts of nature that scientists have built up.I explore the functions of figures of speech in the development of new scientific ideas, and trace how they fade or die as each area of scientific knowledge matures. What we then take to be the literal words of scientific description are in effect the remnants of old figures of speech that have grown so familiar that their earlier metaphorical quality is easily overlooked. The conventional separation of figurative and literal cannot be sustained, and a new understanding of their relationship is needed.The practical implications of this analysis are to do with how we can reactivate the dormant metaphors in ordinary scientific language, so that learners may hear again the human voice of scientists who developed the ways of talking we now take for granted. To reactivate the system of thought behind any established way of talking, we must be able to get the learners to understand that language works as a medium of interpretation and persuasion, and not simply a system of descriptive labeling. These two views of language are compared and contrasted.

  17. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the National Institute on Aging – Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA) 2011 workgroup and the International Work Group ( ... More Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures report contains data ...

  18. Retorical figures in advertising language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenković-Šošić Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Promotional activities are very often based on advertising and diverse types of public relations. In order to attract consumers' attention and achieve communication goals set by the corporate strategy, advertisers frequently use rhetorical elements in advertising discourse. The advertisers try to convey a desired message and to communicate with the recipient of the message by using various rhetorical figures. It is argued that understanding the structure and function of rhetorical figures in advertising requires a "text- and reader-aware approach". The use of rhetorical figures in advertising has been overlooked in consumer research. This paper shows that the use of rhetorical elements in the advertising discourse is very frequent, but at the same time it is questioned if the function of the rhetorical figures is just a communication with the target market (which is a base of communication models and if the consequences of linguistic influences are much more serious. The complex nature of advertising language with various rhetorical figures (thropes and schemes do not just stimulate recipients to demonstrate a desirable behavior, but indirectly it constructs a concept of desirable lifestyle and it induces them to identify themselves with the explained model. Moreover, the analyzed corpus included advertising slogans of social responsible companies as well as advertising campaigns with elements of diverse ideologies. In the time of digitization and a rapid information flow, consumer's attention is less dedicated to the advertising messages. Therefore, it should be expected that in the future advertisers will have to adjust linguistic, audio and visual techniques to the unfocused message recipients.

  19. Hooke's figurations: a figural drawing attributed to Robert Hooke

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    The experimental philosopher Robert Hooke (1635–1703) is known to have apprenticed to the leading painter Peter Lely on his first arrival in London in the late 1640s. Yet the relevance of Hooke's artistic training to his mature draughtsmanship and identity has remained unclear. Shedding light on that larger interpretive problem, this article argues for the attribution to Hooke of a figural drawing now in Tate Britain (T10678). This attributed drawing is especially interesting because it depic...

  20. L’anagogie poétique. Un dialogue entre Virgile et Platon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Pilipović

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Établir des relations constructives entre la poésie de Virgile et certains aspects de la pensée platonicienne constitue le but de notre recherche, dont le texte présenté ici propose une esquisse. Cette recherche n’est fondée ni sur la notion d’influence ni sur celle d’analogie – la première exigeant une approche historique et biographique, la deuxième présupposant un parallélisme entre les deux œuvres antiques –, mais sur la notion de participation constructive. La notion pivot qui permet de défendre cette idée est le concept d’anagogie. L’anagogie ou l’ascension, décrite dans les textes originaux de Platon d’une manière plutôt poétique que théorétique (Phèdre, Symposion, sera incorporée dans le système philosophique de l’époque médioplatonicienne (Didaskalos d’Alkinoos : étant établi le télos suprême de l’existence humaine, elle représente la pénétration de l’âme dans le domaine éïdétique surpassant le monde sensible. Reflétée dans la structure autant que dans le corpus thématique de l’œuvre virgilienne, l’anagogie peut être proclamée comme l’un de ses principes créatifs. Sur le plan structural, la poétique de polysémie et l’idéal des significations cachées forment une hiérarchie sémantique, grâce à laquelle l’acte de lire devient une sorte d’ascension à travers le texte. La forme polysémique graduelle du texte virgilien est le fruit et l’objet central de cet article.The aim of this paper is to establish constructive relations between Virgilian poetry and some aspects of Plato’s thought. The research is based neither on the notion of influence, demanding a historical-biographical approach, nor on the notion of analogy, the two opera not being equal and their relation being causality instead of similarity, but on the notion of constructive participation. The key-point in defending this idea is, consequently, the concept of anagogy. Anagogy, or the

  1. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) - Materials and Waste Management in the United States Key Facts and Figures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Each year EPA produces a report called Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: Facts and Figures. It includes information on municipal solid waste (MSW)...

  2. تطبيقات المثالية الأفلاطونية في الرسم الأوربي الحديث المدرسة التجريدية أنموذجاً Platonic ideal applications in the Modern European painting abstract school as a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Kamel Nafeeh Al-Nassery م.د. ماهر كامل نافع الناصري

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Find addresses marked: (Platonic ideal applications in modern European painting -almadrsh abstract model provide the nature of the effect of thought on the Platonic ideal orientations school abstract aesthetic that made the beauty of a goal. The contained four chapters: the first chapter interested in the methodological framework for representing the search: Find which dealt with the problem of identifying the impact of Platonic philosophy in the school abstract. The search was confined to the limits of the study of philosophy and its impact on the school and abstract pictorial analysis models for the drawings of the year (1900-1950 m. The second chapter contained two sections, taking the first section: (Platonic philosophy by eating the views of philosophical idealism and attainable beauty ideal of absolute, while Me second section (b Schools of Modern Art through a review of artistic movements beginner Baromantekah and Impressionism through symbolism and Alouhoshih and Cubism and Expressionism and future Dadaism and Surrealism ending with stylized promised that references poignant. The third chapter Me Platonic ideal applications in drawing global online research procedures, which included: the research community and appointed, and research methodology, research and analysis of samples amounting to (5 of the plate. Contained in Chapter IV, on the search results, and conclusions, as well as recommendations and suggestions, the researchers have come to a number of findings and conclusions, including: I worked at 1- abstract (Mondrian to unforeseen forces through its focus on geometric shape as a form is open, and her cognitive effects of gaining character totally not partially. Figure 2 The abstract carries prescription beauty essence, what has the laws of repetition and symmetry, harmony, and Find College (sample No. 4 by stripping the shape neighborhood divisions based systems engineering, which serves as the essence and origin of the samples

  3. PLATON SQUEEZE: a tool for the calculation of the disordered solvent contribution to the calculated structure factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    The completion of a crystal structure determination is often hampered by the presence of embedded solvent molecules or ions that are seriously disordered. Their contribution to the calculated structure factors in the least-squares refinement of a crystal structure has to be included in some way. Traditionally, an atomistic solvent disorder model is attempted. Such an approach is generally to be preferred, but it does not always lead to a satisfactory result and may even be impossible in cases where channels in the structure are filled with continuous electron density. This paper documents the SQUEEZE method as an alternative means of addressing the solvent disorder issue. It conveniently interfaces with the 2014 version of the least-squares refinement program SHELXL [Sheldrick (2015). Acta Cryst. C71. In the press] and other refinement programs that accept externally provided fixed contributions to the calculated structure factors. The PLATON SQUEEZE tool calculates the solvent contribution to the structure factors by back-Fourier transformation of the electron density found in the solvent-accessible region of a phase-optimized difference electron-density map. The actual least-squares structure refinement is delegated to, for example, SHELXL. The current versions of PLATON SQUEEZE and SHELXL now address several of the unnecessary complications with the earlier implementation of the SQUEEZE procedure that were a necessity because least-squares refinement with the now superseded SHELXL97 program did not allow for the input of fixed externally provided contributions to the structure-factor calculation. It is no longer necessary to subtract the solvent contribution temporarily from the observed intensities to be able to use SHELXL for the least-squares refinement, since that program now accepts the solvent contribution from an external file (.fab file) if the ABIN instruction is used. In addition, many twinned structures containing disordered solvents are now also

  4. Hooke's figurations: a figural drawing attributed to Robert Hooke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Matthew C

    2010-09-20

    The experimental philosopher Robert Hooke (1635-1703) is known to have apprenticed to the leading painter Peter Lely on his first arrival in London in the late 1640s. Yet the relevance of Hooke's artistic training to his mature draughtsmanship and identity has remained unclear. Shedding light on that larger interpretive problem, this article argues for the attribution to Hooke of a figural drawing now in Tate Britain (T10678). This attributed drawing is especially interesting because it depicts human subjects and bears Hooke's name functioning as an artistic signature, both highly unusual features for his draughtsmanship. From evidence of how this drawing was collected and physically placed alongside images by leading artists in the early eighteenth century, I suggest how it can offer new insight into the reception of Hooke and his graphic work in the early Enlightenment.

  5. Proclus' Elaboration of Platonic Remarks on the Problem of Evils, and their Relation to Divine Providence and Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza korrang beheshti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there is not a fully developed theory of evil in Plato, some various remarks are interspersed throughout his dialogues which provided the main materials for subsequent Platonists to elaborate a systematic doctrine of evil. Proclus is the most distinguished philosopher of the later Neoplatonism whose view became authoritative within the School and thus is most representative of the Neoplatonic doctrine of evil. By a critical assessment of the antecedent theories of evil, Proclus attempts to give a monistic interpretation of Platonic remarks on the problem of evil. According to his explanation, the higher degrees and principles of Being are only and purely good and are not the causes of evils but the good things for all things alone. Evils, however, exist necessarily but only among particular beings in a relative, parasitic, accidental way and dependent upon the good. The parasitic accidental existence of evil does not have a real efficient cause. It arises due to an asymmetry between the activities of the several faculties or powers of a complex particular being. Moreover, the existence of evil is so mixed with and dependent upon the good that despite its opposition to the good, contributes, in its own manner, to the fulfillment of goodness of the whole Universe, being thus reconcilable with Divine Providence and Efficiency.

  6. Brainhood, anthropological figure of modernity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Fernando

    2009-02-01

    If personhood is the quality or condition of being an individual person, "brainhood" could name the quality or condition of being a brain. This ontological quality would define the "cerebral subject" that has, at least in industrialized and highly medicalized societies, gained numerous social inscriptions since the mid-20th century. This article explores the historical development of brainhood. It suggests that the brain is necessarily the location of the "modern self," and that, consequently, the cerebral subject is the anthropological figure inherent to modernity (at least insofar as modernity gives supreme value to the individual as autonomous agent of choice and initiative). It further argues that the ideology of brainhood impelled neuroscientific investigation much more than it resulted from it, and sketches how an expanding constellation of neurocultural discourses and practices embodies and sustains that ideology.

  7. Empire as a Geopolitical Figure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the ingredients of empire as a pattern of order with geopolitical effects. Noting the imperial form's proclivity for expansion from a critical reading of historical sociology, the article argues that the principal manifestation of earlier geopolitics lay not in the nation...... but in empire. That in turn has been driven by a view of the world as disorderly and open to the ordering will of empires (emanating, at the time of geopolitics' inception, from Europe). One implication is that empires are likely to figure in the geopolitical ordering of the globe at all times, in particular...... after all that has happened in the late twentieth century to undermine nationalism and the national state. Empire is indeed a probable, even for some an attractive form of regime for extending order over the disorder produced by globalisation. Geopolitics articulated in imperial expansion is likely...

  8. The Translation of Figures in Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莹

    2011-01-01

    Figure has always been a "bottleneck" of high-quality interpretation.This paper attempts a theoretical analysis of the main causes of the bottleneck and discusses the skill of interpreting figures.It also sums up intensively various forms related to interpreting figures for interpreters to achieve a high-quality interpretation.

  9. Chladni figures in Andreev billiards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libisch, F.; Rotter, S.; Burgdörfer, J.

    2007-06-01

    We study wave functions and their nodal patterns in Andreev billiards consisting of a normal-conducting (N) ballistic quantum dot in contact with a superconductor (S). The bound states in such systems feature an electron and a hole component which are coherently coupled by the scattering of electrons into holes at the S-N interface. The wave function “lives” therefore on two sheets of configuration space, each of which features, in general, distinct nodal patterns. By comparing the wave functions and their nodal patterns for holes and electrons detailed tests of semiclassical predictions become possible. One semiclassical theory based on ideal Andreev retroreflection predicts the electron- and hole eigenstates to perfectly mirror each other. We probe the limitations of validity of this model both in terms of the spectral density of the eigenstates and the shape of the wavefunctions in the electron and hole sheet. We identify cases where the Chladni figures for the electrons and holes drastically differ from each other and explain these discrepancies by limitations of the retroreflection picture.

  10. Figure text extraction in biomedical literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehyun Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Figures are ubiquitous in biomedical full-text articles, and they represent important biomedical knowledge. However, the sheer volume of biomedical publications has made it necessary to develop computational approaches for accessing figures. Therefore, we are developing the Biomedical Figure Search engine (http://figuresearch.askHERMES.org to allow bioscientists to access figures efficiently. Since text frequently appears in figures, automatically extracting such text may assist the task of mining information from figures. Little research, however, has been conducted exploring text extraction from biomedical figures. METHODOLOGY: We first evaluated an off-the-shelf Optical Character Recognition (OCR tool on its ability to extract text from figures appearing in biomedical full-text articles. We then developed a Figure Text Extraction Tool (FigTExT to improve the performance of the OCR tool for figure text extraction through the use of three innovative components: image preprocessing, character recognition, and text correction. We first developed image preprocessing to enhance image quality and to improve text localization. Then we adapted the off-the-shelf OCR tool on the improved text localization for character recognition. Finally, we developed and evaluated a novel text correction framework by taking advantage of figure-specific lexicons. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation on 382 figures (9,643 figure texts in total randomly selected from PubMed Central full-text articles shows that FigTExT performed with 84% precision, 98% recall, and 90% F1-score for text localization and with 62.5% precision, 51.0% recall and 56.2% F1-score for figure text extraction. When limiting figure texts to those judged by domain experts to be important content, FigTExT performed with 87.3% precision, 68.8% recall, and 77% F1-score. FigTExT significantly improved the performance of the off-the-shelf OCR tool we used, which on its own performed with 36

  11. Platone interprete di se stesso. «Menone» 98a alla luce di «Fedro» 249b-c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Maggi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La definizione di ἐπιστήμη come ὀρθὴ δόξα legata αἰτίας λογισμῷ, che compare in Menone 98a, presenta notevoli difficoltà interpretative non solo per quanto riguarda l’identificazione dell’αἰτία, ma anche per la possibilità o meno di scorgere sullo sfondo di tale enunciazione la teoria delle Idee (nella versione dei cosiddetti “dialoghi della maturità”. La questione può essere affrontata sia considerando il controverso passo all’interno del contesto più ampio del dialogo (dove compare per la prima volta la teoria dell’ἀνάμνησις, che alla teoria delle Idee è strettamente legata, ma anche in relazione a passi di altri dialoghi platonici, in particolare Fedro 249b-c: qui, dove l’epistemologia platonica si sviluppa secondo la teoria delle Idee, la volontà di Platone di alludere direttamente a Menone 98a sembra offrire una chiave interpretativa anche per quella precedente formulazione. La necessità di leggere ogni dialogo secondo le sue specificità (periodo di composizione, argomento principale, tipologia dei personaggi coinvolti non esclude infatti che, almeno in alcuni casi, Platone stabilisca dei collegamenti che consentano una continuità di lettura nel percorso di sviluppo del suo pensiero.

  12. Figure-associated text summarization and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polepalli Ramesh, Balaji; Sethi, Ricky J; Yu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical literature incorporates millions of figures, which are a rich and important knowledge resource for biomedical researchers. Scientists need access to the figures and the knowledge they represent in order to validate research findings and to generate new hypotheses. By themselves, these figures are nearly always incomprehensible to both humans and machines and their associated texts are therefore essential for full comprehension. The associated text of a figure, however, is scattered throughout its full-text article and contains redundant information content. In this paper, we report the continued development and evaluation of several figure summarization systems, the FigSum+ systems, that automatically identify associated texts, remove redundant information, and generate a text summary for every figure in an article. Using a set of 94 annotated figures selected from 19 different journals, we conducted an intrinsic evaluation of FigSum+. We evaluate the performance by precision, recall, F1, and ROUGE scores. The best FigSum+ system is based on an unsupervised method, achieving F1 score of 0.66 and ROUGE-1 score of 0.97. The annotated data is available at figshare.com (http://figshare.com/articles/Figure_Associated_Text_Summarization_and_Evaluation/858903).

  13. Automatic figure classification in bioscience literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehyun; Ramesh, Balaji Polepalli; Yu, Hong

    2011-10-01

    Millions of figures appear in biomedical articles, and it is important to develop an intelligent figure search engine to return relevant figures based on user entries. In this study we report a figure classifier that automatically classifies biomedical figures into five predefined figure types: Gel-image, Image-of-thing, Graph, Model, and Mix. The classifier explored rich image features and integrated them with text features. We performed feature selection and explored different classification models, including a rule-based figure classifier, a supervised machine-learning classifier, and a multi-model classifier, the latter of which integrated the first two classifiers. Our results show that feature selection improved figure classification and the novel image features we explored were the best among image features that we have examined. Our results also show that integrating text and image features achieved better performance than using either of them individually. The best system is a multi-model classifier which combines the rule-based hierarchical classifier and a support vector machine (SVM) based classifier, achieving a 76.7% F1-score for five-type classification. We demonstrated our system at http://figureclassification.askhermes.org/.

  14. The Vernier Caliper and Significant Figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhofer, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    Misconceptions occur because the caliper is often read with the same significant figures as a meter stick; however, the precision of the vernier caliper is greater than the precision of a meter stick. Clarification of scale reading, precision of both tools, and significant figures are discussed. (JN)

  15. "Blessed": Musical Talent, Smartness, & Figured Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Adria R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore smartness and talent as social constructs. Drawing on Holland et al.'s (1998) figured identities, this article explores the figuring of abilities by elucidating the voices of African American high school chorus students. Critical Race Theory (CRT) helps to unpack normalized language and practices that…

  16. "Blessed": Musical Talent, Smartness, & Figured Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Adria R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore smartness and talent as social constructs. Drawing on Holland et al.'s (1998) figured identities, this article explores the figuring of abilities by elucidating the voices of African American high school chorus students. Critical Race Theory (CRT) helps to unpack normalized language and practices that…

  17. Using Figure and Concept Knowledge in Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Karpuz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aim to investigate how students build interaction between concepts and figure in geometry. For this purpose we developed two type data collection tool. First one called shapely is formed eight open ended question which has concepts and figure. Second one called shapeless is formed eight open ended question which has only concepts. To prepare this data collection tools’ difficulty level we took two math teachers’ opinions. Developed data collection tools were applied 120 students at 9th grade and 11th grade in Trabzon Gazi Anatolian High School. First of all we applied shapeless questions. One month later we applied shapely questions. We investigated students’ answer and the data showed that students more succeed in shapely questions than shapeless questions. We concluded that the difficulty of solving shapeless question result from students didn’t manage to draw figure representing concept knowledge or draw wrong figure, figure drawn by students can’t fulfıl generalizability condition and students who have little knowledge of concept in geometry is under the influence of prototype figure.Key Words:    Figural concepts theory, geometrical reasoning, geometry teaching

  18. Annunciations - Figuring the Feminine in Renaissance Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Viewers of Renaissance representations of the Annunciation miss an important irony. Where Mary is figured as unimpressed by Gabriel's proposal, she is upholding a masculinist ideal of female virtue. Where she is figured as delighted by the news, she represents an alternative feminine ideal that continues to be attractive to women and feminists, today. Inspired by the writings of Luce Irigaray and Julia Kristeva, I figure Mary in Renaissance representations of the Annunciation as contesting an ideal of feminine virtue that would deny her sexual difference and deny her pleasure in fulfilling her role as the bride and mother of God.

  19. Past to Present: Undergrowth with Two Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes the historical, cultural, and artistic elements of Vincent van Gogh's oil on canvas "Undergrowth with Two Figures" of 1980. The article concludes with questions for students to consider in relation to these aspects of the painting.

  20. Spheres of Exemption, Figures of Exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , the history of ideas, social science, political science and literature studies, Spheres of Exemption, Figures of Exclusion offers thirteen investigations into the co-constitutive relationship between subjectivity and political and legal order, combining theoretical reflection with empirical and historical...

  1. Noise Figure Evaluation Using Low Cost BIST

    CERN Document Server

    Negreiros, Marcelo; Susin, Altamiro A

    2011-01-01

    A technique for evaluating noise figure suitable for BIST implementation is described. It is based on a low cost single-bit digitizer, which allows the simultaneous evaluation of noise figure in several test points of the analog circuit. The method is also able to benefit from SoC resources, like memory and processing power. Theoretical background and experimental results are presented in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach.

  2. [Plato psychiatrist, Foucault platonic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathov, Nicolás

    2016-05-01

    This work explores the links between the concepts of "soul", "law" and "word" in Plato's work, in order to highlight the importance and the centrality of the philosophical-therapeutic dimension in the Greek philosopher's thought. In that way, this work pretends to show that "contemporary" problems usually discussed within "Human Sciences" in general, and Psychiatry in particular, should confront their knowledge with Plato's work, mainly due to the profound influence his ideas have had in our Greco-Christian culture. In that sense, and with that objective, this work also explores Michel Foucault's lucid and controversial interpretation of Plato.

  3. The Edge of Platonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, David

    1985-01-01

    Some questions about the relevance of the philosophy of mathematics to mathematics teaching and to early mathematics learning are discussed. Books by Lakatos, Davis and Hersh, and Kitcher are referred to extensively, with comments on a variety of instructional practices. (MNS)

  4. Platons dialog Kleitofon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tortzen, Gorm

    2007-01-01

    Den korte dialog 'Kleitofon' hører til den gruppe i Corpus Platonicum, der ofte anses for at være uægte. Indledningen problematiserer dette, der gives en ny ovesættelse, og der føjes en række oplysende noter til teksten. Udgivelsesdato: April...

  5. Socrates: Platonic Political Ideal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Long

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El ensayo articula diferencias y sugiere similitudes entre las prácticas del diálogo político de Sócrates y aquellas de la escritura política de Platón. Propone, además, que tanto el diálogo socrático como la escritura platónica se orientan eróticamente hacia ideales capaces de transformar las vidas de los individuos y sus relaciones. Demuestra que en el Protágoras las prácticas del diálogo socrático se ocupan menos de Protágoras que del joven Hipócrates. En el Fedón, este ideal de Sócrates se amplía de tal manera que la misma escritura platónica aparece como capaz de hacer con los lectores lo que el diálogo de Sócrates hacía con sus interlocutores. Sócrates es el ideal político platónico. El resultado es una visión del poder de transformación política tanto del diálogo socrático como de la escritura platónica.

  6. Platonic Relationships among Resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Bradley; Liu, Tongtian

    2015-01-01

    Calculating the effective resistance of an electrical network is a common problem in introductory physics courses. Such calculations are typically restricted to two-dimensional networks, though even such networks can become increasingly complex, leading to several studies on their properties. Furthermore, several authors have used advanced…

  7. Il Fedone di Platone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nei colloqui precedenti si erano toccate molte opinioni filosofiche sbagliate, e allora Socrate dice: “Sarebbe ben comprensibile se uno, a motivo dell’irritazione per tante cose sbagliate, per il resto della sua vita prendesse in odio ogni discorso sull’essere e lo...

  8. Ion beam figuring of high-slope surfaces based on figure error compensation algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yifan; Liao, Wenlin; Zhou, Lin; Chen, Shanyong; Xie, Xuhui

    2010-12-01

    In a deterministic figuring process, it is critical to guarantee high stability of the removal function as well as the accuracy of the dwell time solution, which directly influence the convergence of the figuring process. Hence, when figuring steep optics, the ion beam is required to keep a perpendicular incidence, and a five-axis figuring machine is typically utilized. In this paper, however, a method for high-precision figuring of high-slope optics is proposed with a linear three-axis machine, allowing for inclined beam incidence. First, the changing rule of the removal function and the normal removal rate with the incidence angle is analyzed according to the removal characteristics of ion beam figuring (IBF). Then, we propose to reduce the influence of varying removal function and projection distortion on the dwell time solution by means of figure error compensation. Consequently, the incident ion beam is allowed to keep parallel to the optical axis. Simulations and experiments are given to verify the removal analysis. Finally, a figuring experiment is conducted on a linear three-axis IBF machine, which proves the validity of the method for high-slope surfaces. It takes two iterations and about 9 min to successfully figure a fused silica sample, whose aperture is 21.3 mm and radius of curvature is 16 mm. The root-mean-square figure error of the convex surface is reduced from 13.13 to 5.86 nm.

  9. Presenting Fake Figures: A Tool to Teach Effective Scientific Figure Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica A. Segarra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As trained scientists, we become adept not only at analyzing and understanding figures in the scientific literature, but also at designing figures to effectively represent our own data and findings. As educators, we strive to pass on these skills to our students, some of whom will ultimately become scientists themselves. Conveying the principles of effective figure design can be challenging, particularly when students have had little exposure to the process of reading scientific literature, much less writing a piece of scientific literature. Improvisational activities in the classroom reinforce teaching goals such as spontaneity, risk-taking, creativity, communication skills, team-building, and critical thinking (2. Indeed, improv training for scientists is becoming more common, helping scientists to communicate more spontaneously about their work and connect with their audience (1. In this article, we present an improvisational game that can aid in the teaching of effective scientific figure design. This “Present-a-Fake-Figure Exercise” is applicable to both the classroom and laboratory settings. In this learning activity, students improvise presenting fake scientific figures to an audience of their peers. These fake figures are prepared beforehand by the instructor and exemplify the do’s and don’ts of scientific figure design. Some of the learning outcomes of the activity include (1 identifying what makes a scientific figure cohesive, easy to analyze, and reader-friendly, and (2 identifying strategies that are useful in the design of a multi-panel figure to convey a scientific story.

  10. MAIN INFLUENCES ON PLATONIC ONTOLOGY OF THE MIDDLE DIALOGUES PRINCIPAIS INFLUÊNCIAS NA ONTOLOGIA PLATÔNICA DOS DIÁLOGOS INTERMEDIÁRIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lourenço Pereira da Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The platonic ontology as known through the Phaedo and Republic is centered on the hypothesis of the intelligible Forms, that is, the platonic Socrates' belief that there are ontologically independent entities such as "the beautiful itself", "the good itself", "the equal itself" etc., of which all empirical things participate thereby receiving the properties they exhibit. Clearly, the main philosophical influences on this doctrine are pre-Socratic philosophy, the sophistic and Socrates' thought. The aim of this paper is to present which ideas or philosophical questions led Plato to postulate the Forms.

    A ontologia platônica, como conhecida a partir do Fédon e da República, está centrada na hipótese das Formas inteligíveis, ou seja, a crença defendida pelo Sócrates platônico na existência de entidades ontologicamente independentes, “o belo em si”, “o bem em si”, “o igual em si”, etc., das quais as coisas empíricas participam recebendo por isso as propriedades que exibem. Notoriamente, as principais influências filosóficas dessa doutrina são a filosofia pré-socrática, a sofística e o pensamento de Sócrates. O objetivo deste artigo é mostrar que ideias ou questões filosóficas levaram Platão a postular as Formas.

  11. Wet-Etch Figuring Optical Figuring by Controlled Application of Liquid Etchant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britten, J

    2001-02-13

    WET-ETCH FIGURING (WEF) is an automated method of precisely figuring optical materials by the controlled application of aqueous etchant solution. This technology uses surface-tension-gradient-driven flow to confine and stabilize a wetted zone of an etchant solution or other aqueous processing fluid on the surface of an object. This wetted zone can be translated on the surface in a computer-controlled fashion for precise spatial control of the surface reactions occurring (e.g. chemical etching). WEF is particularly suitable for figuring very thin optical materials because it applies no thermal or mechanical stress to the material. Also, because the process is stress-free the workpiece can be monitored during figuring using interferometric metrology, and the measurements obtained can be used to control the figuring process in real-time--something that cannot be done with traditional figuring methods.

  12. Engineering macrocyclic figure-eight motif

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Haridas; Harinder Singh; Yogesh K Sharma; Kashmiri Lal

    2007-05-01

    The design and synthesis of figure-eight macrocycles are very scarce owing to the intricacies and lack of predictability from first principles. This review emphasizes on discrete macrocyclic systems both synthetic and natural with a defined figure eight knotted topology. In almost all the helical macrocycles, the helical arrangement is held by intramolecular hydrogen bonding or as a backbone requirement, but in all cases, a planar graph can be drawn and so these compounds are trivial from the topological stand point. Nature presents great deal of complexity in terms of structures in macromolecules like DNA and proteins and also displays intriguing topology in simple natural products. Patellamide, tawicyclamides, nosiheptide and thiostrepton are natural products with figure eight topology which shows interesting biological activity. Expanded porphyrins, Cu(II) complexes of thiomacrocycles, cyclic peptides and oligoesters are synthetic macrocycles showing intriguing topology. Analysis of structure and folding behaviour will enable chemists to design molecules with intriguing topology.

  13. Software systems for modeling articulated figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Cary B.

    1989-01-01

    Research in computer animation and simulation of human task performance requires sophisticated geometric modeling and user interface tools. The software for a research environment should present the programmer with a powerful but flexible substrate of facilities for displaying and manipulating geometric objects, yet insure that future tools have a consistent and friendly user interface. Jack is a system which provides a flexible and extensible programmer and user interface for displaying and manipulating complex geometric figures, particularly human figures in a 3D working environment. It is a basic software framework for high-performance Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations for modeling and manipulating geometric objects in a general but powerful way. It provides a consistent and user-friendly interface across various applications in computer animation and simulation of human task performance. Currently, Jack provides input and control for applications including lighting specification and image rendering, anthropometric modeling, figure positioning, inverse kinematics, dynamic simulation, and keyframe animation.

  14. Figures of Association and Sound in some Nigerian Proverbs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    literature, either in oral or written form but the poetic qualities of African .... 2. Figures of Contrast: examples of which are irony, sarcasm and antithesis. 3. Figures of ..... In the above proverb there is the figurative device called vowel alliteration.

  15. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 640 - Figure 1 to Part 640

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 640 1 Figure 1 to Part 640 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt....

  16. 柏拉图美学思想及对当代美育的启示%Platon's Aesthetic Thought and Its Implications for Con-temporary Aesthetic Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昇

    2013-01-01

    柏拉图的美学思想深受其所处时代及其自身哲学思想的影响。柏拉图对于美的本质、艺术的教育功能都有比较深刻的论述。其思想的精华之处至今对于我国的美育、艺术教育仍有重要的借鉴意义。%Platon's aesthetic thought is deeply influenced by the times and his own philosophy. Platon had deeply discussed the nature of beauty and the educational function of art. The essence of his thought is still of important reference meanings for the pre-cent aesthetic education and art education in our country.

  17. Participation in the Figured World of Graffiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Imuris; Weiss, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on ethnographic work with two "crews" of young graffiti artists in southern Mexico City. The crews share certain characteristics with gangs or urban tribes, but more with "communities of practice": they live in the "figured world" of graffiti, a community of practice at the local and global…

  18. The Offerings of Fringe Figures and Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels-Schwarzpaul, A.-Chr.

    2015-01-01

    "The Western tradition", as passe-partout, includes fringe figures, émigrés and migrants. Rather than looking to resources at the core of the Western tradition to overcome its own blindnesses, I am more interested in its gaps and peripheries, where other thoughts and renegade knowledges take hold. It is in the contact zones with…

  19. Learning figurative idioms via cognitive semantic pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In FTL contexts, traditional view treats idiomatic language as essentially arbitrary, which has typically led to the belief that they can only be learned through blind memoriztion. However, the cognitive semantic idea considers that idioms are typically motivated, which can help learners to identify their senses. This paper demonstrates how to learn figurative idioms through cognitive semantic pathway by taking anger as one example.

  20. Michelangelo, Leibniz and the Serpentine Figure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Tuinen (Sjoerd)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract In his lectures from 1987, Deleuze draws an analogy between Michelangelo‟s figures and Leibnizian substances by claiming that neither are essences but rather sources of modifications or manners of being. The best way to explore this analogy, I argue, is by focusing on Michelange

  1. Omnichannel Marketing. Facts & Figures. Denmark 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Futtrup Kjær, Jan; Kjær Jacobsen, Christine; Bjerre Herdel, Stine

    This NBI Omnichannel Facts and Figures report highlights the central findings from the NBI Omnichannel capability benchmarking tool, based on data collected in 2015 and 2016. The insights shared here provide an understanding of the way companies and marketing departments are working to deliver...

  2. Shaking Your Way to a Trimmer Figure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    SHAPING is a kind of indoorsport which gives definition to thebeauty of the human body byharmonizing one’s health,figure,carriage,deportment and dressaccoding to one’s character.shapingnot only effectively builds up goodbody shape,but also improves one’sability to dress and apply make-upwith bodily proportions in mind. Shaping is not quite as in vogue

  3. Michelangelo, Leibniz and the Serpentine Figure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Tuinen (Sjoerd)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract In his lectures from 1987, Deleuze draws an analogy between Michelangelo‟s figures and Leibnizian substances by claiming that neither are essences but rather sources of modifications or manners of being. The best way to explore this analogy, I argue, is by focusing on Michelange

  4. Computerized Testing: The Hidden Figures Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ronald L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study adapted the Hidden Figures Test for use on PLATO and determined the reliability of the computerized version compared to the paper and pencil version. Results indicate the test was successfully adapted with some modifications, and it was judged reliable although it may be measuring additional constructs. (MBR)

  5. The Offerings of Fringe Figures and Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels-Schwarzpaul, A.-Chr.

    2015-01-01

    "The Western tradition", as passe-partout, includes fringe figures, émigrés and migrants. Rather than looking to resources at the core of the Western tradition to overcome its own blindnesses, I am more interested in its gaps and peripheries, where other thoughts and renegade knowledges take hold. It is in the contact zones with…

  6. Figuring Control in the Algorithmic Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markham, Annette; Bossen, Claus

    in particular situations. These are intended as figurations that can help us think through various working patterns of control, including beliefs about control, affective elements of control, enactments of control through specific code operations such as algorithms, making sense of perceived or actual loss...

  7. INFORMATIONAL MODEL OF MENTAL ROTATION OF FIGURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lyakhovetskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Study.The subject of research is the information structure of objects internal representations and operations over them, used by man to solve the problem of mental rotation of figures. To analyze this informational structure we considered not only classical dependencies of the correct answers on the angle of rotation, but also the other dependencies obtained recently in cognitive psychology. Method.The language of technical computing Matlab R2010b was used for developing information model of the mental rotation of figures. Such model parameters as the number of bits in the internal representation, an error probability in a single bit, discrete rotation angle, comparison threshold, and the degree of difference during rotation can be changed. Main Results.The model reproduces qualitatively such psychological dependencies as the linear increase of time of correct answers and the number of errors on the angle of rotation for identical figures, "flat" dependence of the time of correct answers and the number of errors on the angle of rotation for mirror-like figures. The simulation results suggest that mental rotation is an iterative process of finding a match between the two figures, each step of which can lead to a significant distortion of the internal representation of the stored objects. Matching is carried out within the internal representations that have no high invariance to rotation angle. Practical Significance.The results may be useful for understanding the role of learning (including the learning with a teacher in the development of effective information representation and operations on them in artificial intelligence systems.

  8. String figures as mathematics? an anthropological approach to string figure-making in oral tradition societies

    CERN Document Server

    Vandendriessche, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the mathematical rationality contained in the making of string figures. It does so by using interdisciplinary methods borrowed from anthropology, mathematics, history and philosophy of mathematics. The practice of string figure-making has long been carried out in many societies, and particularly in those of oral tradition. It consists in applying a succession of operations to a string (knotted into a loop), mostly using the fingers and sometimes the feet, the wrists or the mouth. This succession of operations is intended to generate a final figure. The book explores differ

  9. Solid State Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    width at half-maximum measured at 4 K of GalnAsSb layers grown on GaSb substrates. Solid circles this work; open squares from [9]; open triangle from...Rowe N. R. Newbury A. Sanchez-Rubio C. A. Primmerman Bermuda Grass Smut Spores WhitET 0 12 3 4 5 6 Ratio (PMT1 / PMT2) Figure 1-4...measured at 4 K of GalnAsSb layers grown on GaSb sub- strates. Solid circles this work; open squares from [9]; open triangle from [10]. [9],[10

  10. STRESS FRACTURE PREVALENCE IN ELITE FIGURE SKATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Dubravcic-Simunjak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Figure skating is a physically demanding sport that requires a unique combination of artistic ability, speed, agility, flexibility and power. During the last decades not only the competitive schedule has become tougher, but after introduction of the new judging system in 2003, also more emphasis is put on difficult technical elements, jumps, steps and spins (ISU Rules, 2006. More studies about possible increasing prevalence of stress fractures in figure skaters and contributing factors are lacking (Dubravcic-Simunjak et al., 2003; Moran, 2000; Pecina et al., 1990. Therefore the aim of this study was to obtain data about the current stress fracture cumulative risk among elite junior and senior figure skaters, as well as possible factors that may contribute to stress fracture incidence. An anonymous questionnaire, divided into 5 sections, inquired about the prevalence of stress fracture were mailed and distributed to all 62 International Skating Union (ISU members by the ISU headquarters in Lausanne, Switzerland. The guidelines of the Helsinki declaration 2004 were followed. From the 644 skaters who received the questionnaire, 412 completed ones were returned from 110 female juniors (78 single skaters, 12 pair skaters and 20 ice dancers and 135 female seniors (97 single skaters, 16 pair skaters and 22 ice dancers and from 79 male juniors (47 single skaters, 12 pair skaters and 20 ice dancers and 88 male seniors (50 single skaters, 16 pair skaters and 22 ice dancers, coming from different ISU members. The response rate was 62% in females and 67% in males. The median age for female skaters was 16 years and for males 18 years (range 12-25 years. All participants started to skate between 3 and 6 years of age and started to compete in national and international competitions when they were between 5 and 7 years old. At the time of this analysis, they had been skating between 9 and 20 years.In females 41 (16.7%, and in males 25 (13.8% figure skaters

  11. [The endemic goitre in figurative arts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampalmo, A

    1996-01-01

    For the past fifteen years the author has been collecting photografic documentation of works of figurative arts (graffiti, mosiac, engravings, paintings and sculptures) made at different times and places, in which he found mostly unintentional display of diseases or deformities that would be clearly identified in nosography in the light of today's knowledge. In this study the author intends to illustrate briefly different cases on endemic goitre - whose representation is particularly frequent in figurative arts - in chronological order, beginning with the most ancient ones and focussing on Italian portraying of the Nativity and the Passion of Christ, where the most striking infirmities and disabilities were mirrored and commonly accepted. This study whose interest lies between a scientific and a humanistic one has also importance in the field of art, and especially in relevant philological research which is of particular importance to us pathologists. At last it contribute to establish the epidemiology of some diseases and the knowledge of historical and geographical pathology.

  12. Cassini State Transitions with a Fossil Figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Isamu; Tuttle Keane, James

    2016-10-01

    The Moon has experienced large obliquity variations during Cassini state transitions which greatly impact tidal heating, and the long-term stability of polar volatiles. It has been known for centuries that the lunar rotational and tidal bulges are much larger than expected. The South Pole-Aitken basin can explain a large fraction of the excess deformation. Accounting for the contribution of this basin (and other large basins), the remaining excess deformation arises due to a fossil figure established when the Moon orbited much closer to Earth than it does today. Previous studies assume that the present, excess deformation is entirely preserved throughout Cassini state transitions. This ignores basin contributions to the excess deformation, and requires an interior with infinite rigidity. We consider Cassini state transition models that take into account basin contributions to the excess deformation, and the effect of finite rigidity on the fossil figure.

  13. Figure correction of multilayer coated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman; Henry N. , Taylor; John S.

    2010-02-16

    A process is provided for producing near-perfect optical surfaces, for EUV and soft-x-ray optics. The method involves polishing or otherwise figuring the multilayer coating that has been deposited on an optical substrate, in order to correct for errors in the figure of the substrate and coating. A method such as ion-beam milling is used to remove material from the multilayer coating by an amount that varies in a specified way across the substrate. The phase of the EUV light that is reflected from the multilayer will be affected by the amount of multilayer material removed, but this effect will be reduced by a factor of 1-n as compared with height variations of the substrate, where n is the average refractive index of the multilayer.

  14. Figurative Expressions In Karonesesociety: Nure-Nure

    OpenAIRE

    Putri Nora Br Purba

    2009-01-01

    Skripsi yang berjudul “Figurative Expression In Karonese Society Nure-Nure” ini membahas ungkapan figuratif yang mencakup metapora, simile, personifikasi, hiperbola, metonm, dan sinekdoke.. Tujuan dari penulisan skripsi ini adalah menganalisis penggunaan ungkapan figuratif dalam Buadaya Nure-Nure pada Masyarakat Karo berdasarkan teori semantik dari beberapa ahli seperti Siregar (1992), F. R Palmer (1976), Kennedy (1983), John Lyons (1971). Studi kepustakaan diterapkan dalam penulisan skripsi ...

  15. Omnichannel Marketing. Facts & Figures. Denmark 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Futtrup Kjær, Jan; Kjær Jacobsen, Christine; Bjerre Herdel, Stine

    This NBI Omnichannel Facts and Figures report highlights the central findings from the NBI Omnichannel capability benchmarking tool, based on data collected in 2015 and 2016. The insights shared here provide an understanding of the way companies and marketing departments are working to deliver on...... on - and adapt to - the challenges and opportunities related to the customer-centric, omnichannel experience. View this report as a data-freeze and analysis on the status of omnichannel in Denmark as of 2017....

  16. The Philosophical Allegory of the Isis Figure in Beroaldo’s Commentary on Apuleius’ Golden Ass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Weiss

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to identify the philosophical digressions in Philippo Beroaldo’s encyclopaedic commentary, and to understand them in view of the author’s general approach to Apuleius’ Golden Ass. As Beroaldo deliberately abstains from writing a philosophical commentary, it is no surprise that he gives merely a historical (and yet personally coloured survey of the tale of Cupid and Psyche and its tradition of various moralistic, religious, and philosophical interpretations. For him, Apuleius’ text is principally a moral allegory. On the other hand, the subject of Book 11 (the so-called Book of Isis, centred around Lucius’ spiritual as well as physical transformation, leads him to topics which he necessarily approaches as an erudite of his era, heavily influenced by the Christian Neoplatonism. His commentary on some passages of truly mystical character evinces an ambiguity attested at the very beginning, where Beroaldo, apart from the generally accepted moralistic interpretation, briefly mentions another way of reading the text: reading it as veiled Pythagorean and Platonic doctrines of the regeneration and transmigration of the soul. Indeed, Beroaldo’s interest in Pythagorean philosophy and its classical proponents is also evident in some of his other works, and the Commentary lacks no hints of these secret doctrines, which spring up quite unexpectedly sometimes. Even more surprising is Beroaldo’s reserve, once he broaches this subject, protected by what he terms fides silentii. He cherishes this expression to the point which makes us wonder whether his commentary merely reflects the encyclopaedic rigour of a teacher, eager to present a text from all points of view, or displays the emulous thought of a kindred spirit (a point made in some modern studies, restrained from saying more. Indeed, Beroaldo’s interpretation of the goddess Isis figure as an ancient manifestation of the one God corroborates the latter assumption. Also

  17. Figure-Ground Segmentation Using Factor Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huiying; Coughlan, James; Ivanchenko, Volodymyr

    2009-06-04

    Foreground-background segmentation has recently been applied [26,12] to the detection and segmentation of specific objects or structures of interest from the background as an efficient alternative to techniques such as deformable templates [27]. We introduce a graphical model (i.e. Markov random field)-based formulation of structure-specific figure-ground segmentation based on simple geometric features extracted from an image, such as local configurations of linear features, that are characteristic of the desired figure structure. Our formulation is novel in that it is based on factor graphs, which are graphical models that encode interactions among arbitrary numbers of random variables. The ability of factor graphs to express interactions higher than pairwise order (the highest order encountered in most graphical models used in computer vision) is useful for modeling a variety of pattern recognition problems. In particular, we show how this property makes factor graphs a natural framework for performing grouping and segmentation, and demonstrate that the factor graph framework emerges naturally from a simple maximum entropy model of figure-ground segmentation.We cast our approach in a learning framework, in which the contributions of multiple grouping cues are learned from training data, and apply our framework to the problem of finding printed text in natural scenes. Experimental results are described, including a performance analysis that demonstrates the feasibility of the approach.

  18. Figures and First Years: An Analysis of Calculus Students' Use of Figures in Technical Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan J. Antonacci

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This three-year study focused on first-year Calculus I students and their abilities to incorporate figures in technical reports. In each year, these calculus students wrote a technical report as part of the Polar Bear Module, an educational unit developed for use in partner courses in biology, computer science, mathematics, and physics as part of the Multidisciplinary Sustainability Education (MSE project at Ithaca College. In the first year of the project, students received basic technical report guidelines. In year two, the report guidelines changed to include explicit language on how to incorporate figures. In year three, a grading rubric was added to the materials provided to one of the two classes. In all three years, the students performed below expectations in their use of graphs in their reports. Reviews of the figures in the 78 technical reports written by the 106 students showed repeated deficiencies in the figures and how the students used them in the discussion sections and in evidence-based arguments. In year three the student’s quantitative literacy (QL skills were assessed using an extract from a QL assessment instrument published in Numeracy. The results indicated that the students could both read and interpret figures, suggesting that issues with QL were not the main contributor to student difficulty with written discussion about graphs. The study underscores the need that explicit instructional attention be given to developing student knowhow in the use of figures in technical reports.

  19. Figurative Language on Maya Angelou selected Poetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risma Hayani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to find out the kinds of figurative language in the five selected poetries of Maya Angelou, the titles are: Alone, Caged Bird, Old Folks Laugh, Phenomenal Woman, Still I Rise. The focus of this study is figurative language which involves: Metaphor, Personification, Hyperbole, Simile, Metonymy, Synecdoche, Irony, Antithesis, Symbolism, and Paradox. Qualitative approach with design of content analysis was used in this study. The researcher acted as the main instrument since she was the one who analyzed the figurative language. Moreover checklist was also used to support her data collection. The data was analyzed through three stages; 1. Data reduction, 2. Data representation, 3. Conclusion. The result of her study showed there were 40 sentences that containing figurative language in five selected poetries of Maya Angelou. They were; Metaphor (13 sentences, Personification (9 sentences, Hyperbole (1 sentence, Simile (8 sentences, Synecdoche (1 sentence, Antithesis (1 sentence, Symbolism (5 sentences, and Paradox (2 sentences. The researcher conclude, if the figurative language used by Angelou to compare, or even symbolize the sentences to bring the meaning come up with beautiful language. Mostly of her poetries told about her experience in the past that rooted to history of the discrimination of American-African.

  20. Some Coincides between Platon and Chinese Philosopher%柏拉图与中国哲学家的几点重合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙蔚

    2012-01-01

    西方哲学作为西方智慧的千年沉淀,和中国传统文化精神一样都是人类智慧的结晶。柏拉图作为西方最伟大的哲学家之一,他的思想中充满着对世界的深邃解读,浏览柏拉图的思想却发现这些思想不时的和我国的传统思想发生着碰撞,迸发出共同的火花。%Western philosophy as the Western wisdom Millennium precipitation,and the spirit of Chinese traditional culture,is the crystallization of human wisdom.West Platon as one of the greatest philosophers,his mind full of the world deep interpretation of Platon's thought,browse and find that these ideas from time to time,and China's traditional thought collide,sparks burst out of the common.

  1. Figures in clinical trial reports: current practice & scope for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travison Thomas G

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most clinical trial publications include figures, but there is little guidance on what results should be displayed as figures and how. Purpose To evaluate the current use of figures in Trial reports, and to make constructive suggestions for future practice. Methods We surveyed all 77 reports of randomised controlled trials in five general medical journals during November 2006 to January 2007. The numbers and types of figures were determined, and then each Figure was assessed for its style, content, clarity and suitability. As a consequence, guidelines are developed for presenting figures, both in general and for each specific common type of Figure. Results Most trial reports contained one to three figures, mean 2.3 per article. The four main types were flow diagram, Kaplan Meier plot, Forest plot (for subgroup analyses and repeated measures over time: these accounted for 92% of all figures published. For each type of figure there is a considerable diversity of practice in both style and content which we illustrate with selected examples of both good and bad practice. Some pointers on what to do, and what to avoid, are derived from our critical evaluation of these articles' use of figures. Conclusion There is considerable scope for authors to improve their use of figures in clinical trial reports, as regards which figures to choose, their style of presentation and labelling, and their specific content. Particular improvements are needed for the four main types of figures commonly used.

  2. Quadric solids and computational geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, J.D.

    1980-07-25

    As part of the CAD-CAM development project, this report discusses the mathematics underlying the program QUADRIC, which does computations on objects modeled as Boolean combinations of quadric half-spaces. Topics considered include projective space, quadric surfaces, polars, affine transformations, the construction of solids, shaded image, the inertia tensor, moments, volume, surface integrals, Monte Carlo integration, and stratified sampling. 1 figure.

  3. Typical Women Figures in Hemingway's Fictional World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春会; 范璐

    2008-01-01

    Ernest Hemingway is widely regarded as a giant figure in American literature, but meantime he is often criticized for his prejudice against women. However, whether Ernest Hemingway is a misogynist writer or not, I believe is largely depended on readers' comprehension of his works. This paper launched an interesting study on typical women characters in Hemingway's fictional world. The study also reveals that fact that far from being a misogynist writer, Hemingway shows great concern to women as a group. Not only did he own strong insight on women but also expressed his sympathy towards women.

  4. Distinguished figures in mechanism and machine science

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book is composed of chapters that focus specifically on technological developments by distinguished figures in the history of MMS (Mechanism and Machine Science).  Biographies of well-known scientists are also included to describe their efforts and experiences, and surveys of their work and achievements, and a modern interpretation of their legacy are presented. After the first two volumes, the papers in this third volume again cover a wide range within the field of the History of Mechanical Engineering with specific focus on MMS and will be of interest and motivation to the work (historical or not) of many.

  5. Theories of figures of celestial bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Jardetzky, Wenceslas S

    2005-01-01

    Everything in the universe rotates: the meteors, the asteroids, the planets and their satellites, the sun, the stars, the clusters and nebulae, even the galaxies themselves. The problem of the shape of a rotating body is therefore universal in astronomy. Its treatment in this book, which deals with the figures of equilibrium and distortions of rotating bodies, is full and rigorous.Suitable for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this text was written by a renowned researcher and educator who taught at Columbia University and served for many years as a research associate at the La

  6. Figure-ground organization in real and subjective contours: a new ambiguous figure, some novel measures of ambiguity, and apparent distance across regions of figure and ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, M D; Walker, J T

    1989-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of organization, luminance contrast, sector angle, and orientation on a new, highly ambiguous Cs-keyhole figure. Organization and contrast were the most important factors, and sector angle also influenced figure-ground relationships. There was no significant effect of orientation, nor was there any significant interaction between any of the factors. Several new measures of figure-ground organization were developed, such as ambiguity ratios based on reaction times and on ratings of the strength of perceived organizations, providing new quantitative measures of figure-ground relationships. Distances measured across figural regions appeared smaller than equal distances across the ground in the new reversible figure, and also in Rubin's classic vase-face figure presented in real and subjective contours. Inducing a perceptual set to see a particular organization in a reversible figure influenced the apparent distance across that organization. Several possible explanations of the observed effects are considered: (1) an instance of Emmert's law, based on the difference in apparent depth of figure and ground; (2) an aspect of the Müller-Lyer illusion; (3) a feature-detector model of contour attraction; (4) a natural set or predisposition to see a figure as smaller; and (5) framing effects. The first two explanations appear the most promising.

  7. On pressure figures in single crystals, mechanical strength, and high stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloessin, H. H.; Secco, R. A.; Spal, R. D.

    1994-07-01

    A static or impulsive point force, applied to differently oriented faces of a single crystal, produces different characteristic pressure or percussion figures (p-figures). They characterize the various ways of compliance of different constitutions and structures of solid matter to surface and internal stresses beyond those within the elastic range of Hertz and Boussinesq stresses. The range of applied forces throughout which p-figures nucleate, grow and change, depends not only on substrate and structure but also on the crystal volume, shape, and boundary conditions at the load-free surfaces. P-figures may be seen as vignettes which sum up what we customarily describe as mechanical strength. Different states in the p-figure development with increasing load, reveal the tactics which a crystal of particular substance, structure, and orientation uses to redistribute the loading from the initial Hertzian surface contact area to internal, elastically, and plastically supported, load surfaces. They include mechanical twinning, plastic deformation and flow, fracture and, in many cases, localized electronic and polymorphic structure transformation. The theory of surface dislocations is most suitable to describe the features and interactions of the different forms of compliance and to determine their stress fields. In the past, p-figures have been most significant in crystallography and mineralogy based on optical microscopy. In ongoing experiments, we are using synchrotron x-ray diffraction microscopy of crystals set on a goniometer stage, fitted with an on-line controlled indentation device, to see the generation of p-figures in the form of time sequences of O- and H-beam diffraction images of their lattice strains.

  8. Karna Particle Size Dataset for Tables and Figures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains 1) table of bulk Pb-XAS LCF results, 2) table of bulk As-XAS LCF results, 3) figure data of particle size distribution, and 4) figure data for...

  9. La triade femminile: figure della donna ed espressioni del tempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Bertin

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Tre figure femminili ossessionano il nostro immaginario: l'amante, la sposa, la strega. Figure contemporaneamente opposte e complementari, esse ci parlano del 'continente oscuro', di quelle figure che ancora ci sollecitano costantemente a non lasciare che si aggroviglino alle nostre spalle i percorsi del desiderio, del nostro rapporto con il Tempo. Esplorando queste figure della donna, tali che la letteratura le ha socializzate dal Medioevo ai nostri giorni, noi vi ritroviamo la forza pregnante del mito.

  10. Figure summarizer browser extensions for PubMed Central

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Shashank; Yu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Figures in biomedical articles present visual evidence for research facts and help readers understand the article better. However, when figures are taken out of context, it is difficult to understand their content. We developed a summarization algorithm to summarize the content of figures and used it in our figure search engine (http://figuresearch.askhermes.org/). In this article, we report on the development of web browser extensions for Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome and Apple Saf...

  11. Figure-ground modulation in awake primate thalamus

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, H. E.; Andolina, I.M.; Shipp, S. D.; Adams, D. L.; J. Cudeiro; Salt, T. E.; Sillito, A M

    2015-01-01

    Figure-ground discrimination refers to the perception of an object, the figure, against a nondescript background. Neural mechanisms of figure-ground detection have been associated with feedback interactions between higher centers and primary visual cortex and have been held to index the effect of global analysis on local feature encoding. Here, in recordings from visual thalamus of alert primates, we demonstrate a robust enhancement of neuronal firing when the figure, as opposed to the ground...

  12. 柏拉图分析法在非计划性拔管管理对策中的作用%The Effect of Platon Analysis Method in Unplanned Extubation Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      目的:探讨柏拉图分析法在气管插管非计划性拔管风险管理中的作用。方法:2011年10月-2012年10月应用柏拉图分析对UEX 相关因素进行调查分析,找出主要因素,结合科室实际情况制定切实可行的改进措施。并进行实施前后效果对比。结果:实施后非计划性拔管的发生情况低于实施前(P0.05)。结论:采取柏拉图分析方法能针对性地找出存在的不足,减少气管插管患者非计划性拔管的发生率。%Objective:To investigate effect of the Platon analysis method in tracheal intubation of unplanned extubation risk management. Method:From October 2011 to October 2012,the main factors of UEX were investigated and analyzed by Platon analysis,and the actual formulation of feasible improvement measures were done.compared before and after the implementation effect.Result:After the implementation of UEX occurred less than before(P0.05).Conclusion:Platon analysis method can find out the main problems,reduce the incidence of tracheal intubation in patients with UEX.

  13. Figure Control of Lightweight Optical Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, John A.; Song, Haiping

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the use of fuzzy logic controllers in modifying the figure of a piezoceramic bimorph mirror. Non-contact electron actuation technology is used to actively control a bimorph mirror comprised two PZT-5H wafers by varying the electron flux and electron voltages. Due to electron blooming generated by the electron flux, it is difficult to develop an accurate control model for the bimorph mirror through theoretical analysis alone. The non-contact shape control system with electron flux blooming can be approximately described with a heuristic model based on experimental data. Two fuzzy logic feedback controllers are developed to control the shape of the bimorph mirror according to heuristic fuzzy inference rules generated from previous experimental results. Validation of the proposed fuzzy logic controllers is also discussed.

  14. FIGUR WANITA SEBAGAI PENARIK PANDANG DALAM IKLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrian D. Hagijanto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to gain brand awareness effectively%2C advertiser use unusual and sometimes inappropriate form of creatifity to make their ads more memorable such method includes the use of women s sexual attractions which%2C on the other hand%2C causes in fraction of ethical norms. Will this be called a deviations in ads or a compromise approach to the audience taste? Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Untuk mencapai brand awareness yang lebih tinggi%2C pengiklan harus membuat iklannya menarik%2C lewat kreativitas yang tinggi. Ketika kreativitas itu menggunakan pendekatan yang terjebak oleh pelanggaran norma-norma etis kemasyarakatan -lewat eksploatasi figur wanita dan daya tarik yang melingkupinya-. Akankah kreativitas itu disebut sebagai penyimpangan dalam iklan? Ataukah sah-sah saja sebagai suatu bentuk pendekatan yang menuruti selera pasar. advertisement%2C women s sexual attractions%2C body language

  15. Who's bigger? where historical figures really rank

    CERN Document Server

    Skiena, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Is Hitler bigger than Napoleon? Washington bigger than Lincoln? Picasso bigger than Einstein? Quantitative analysts are rapidly finding homes in social and cultural domains, from finance to politics. What about history? In this fascinating book, Steve Skiena and Charles Ward bring quantitative analysis to bear on ranking and comparing historical reputations. They evaluate each person by aggregating the traces of millions of opinions, just as Google ranks webpages. The book includes a technical discussion for readers interested in the details of the methods, but no mathematical or computational background is necessary to understand the rankings or conclusions. Along the way, the authors present the rankings of more than one thousand of history's most significant people in science, politics, entertainment, and all areas of human endeavor. Anyone interested in history or biography can see where their favorite figures place in the grand scheme of things.

  16. Equilibrium figures of inhomogeneous synchronous binary asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, P.

    2010-06-01

    The present paper deals with the application of the classical theory of equilibrium figures of two rotating liquid masses to the case where bodies exhibit a radially stratified internal density distribution so that they can be considered as inhomogeneous bodies. The derived ellipsoidal shape solutions are applied to five real systems of equal-sized synchronous asteroids. Furthermore, internal inhomogeneity puts strong constraints on the surface grain density. A satisfactory model fit is achieved with internal densities of asteroids steadily increasing outwards. In particular, from such an approach we derived grain densities of the considered systems in agreement with their mineralogical composition inferred from reflectance spectroscopy. According to this new approach, 4492 Debussy, presently of unknown spectral type, is predicted to appear as a C-type object with a grain density on the order of 2 g/cm 3.

  17. Figural Representation in the Arabic Calligraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliha Teparic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A deep analysis of calligraphic works show deep meaning behind each letter. The most important thing when analyzing such calligraphic works is deep symbolism that each letter carries within itself. A combination of calligraphic letters always show a symbolic message. Thus, vision enacted in calligraphic works invites the viewer towards reflection and contemplation. It is hard to determine what is more appealing an image or the text. In reality there is an equal emphasis on the text and form. Both complement each other as there is always harmonious balance between the two poles of diversity, male and female, matter and spirit and exoteric and esoteric. Yet, it is possible to read the image and to understand diverse messages and visual impressions. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to illustrate the scope of Arabic calligraphy by focusing on Arabic letters and their use in presenting various artistic figures.

  18. Digital finger: beyond phenomenological figures of touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Elo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mika Elo is a postdoctoral researcher and lecturer in visual culture at Aalto University School of Arts, Design and Architecture (Aalto-ARTS, Helsinki. His research interests include theory of photographic media, philosophical media theory, and artistic research. He is participating in discussions in these areas in the capacity of curator, visual artist and researcher. He has published articles in Finnish, German, and English among others on Benjamin, Nancy, artistic research and photography theory. His doctoral thesis Valokuvan medium [The Medium of Photography] was published in Finnish in 2005 (Tutkijaliitto, Helsinki. In 2009–2011 he worked in the Figures of Touch research project (figuresoftouch.com, and since 2011 he is the director of Media Aesthetics research group at Aalto-ARTS, Department of Media.Author Biography The article reflects on digitality and interface design in terms of the multiple senses of touch. Touching is presented as a “pathic” sense of being exposed, which implies that touching exceeds the tactile and even the phenomenal world. A particular focus is set on Aristotle's and Husserl's ways of thematizing the sense of touch. In this way, two extremes of the phenomenological thinking of touching are articulated: touching as an indistinct and heterogeneous constituent of sensitivity and touching as the guarantor of immediacy of the sense experience. Referring to Derrida's critical notes concerning haptocentrism, the article attempts to problematize the hand and the finger as phenomenological figures of touch and as holds of haptic realism. The article concludes that insofar as digital interface design aims at haptic realism it conceives of the sense of touch in terms of narcissistic feedback and thus tends to conceal the pathic moment of touching.

  19. A figurate papulosquamous variant of inflammatory vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D; Lazova, R; Bolognia, J L

    2000-01-01

    The classic description of inflammatory vitiligo is an erythematous rim at the periphery of a patch of hypopigmented or depigmented skin. The histological correlate is a superficial perivascular infiltrate of mononuclear cells. However, we observed a 61-year-old patient with inflammatory vitiligo who had thin solid pink scaly plaques as well as serpiginous lesions with fine scale. Histologically, a lichenoid infiltrate was seen as was a thickened stratum corneum with parakeratosis. In a review of the literature, scattered case reports of similar findings were identified, either in the Japanese and French literature or from over 25 years ago. The clinical and histological spectrum of inflammatory vitiligo should be expanded to include solid and annular papulosquamous plaques as well as lichenoid infiltrates with exocytosis.

  20. A case of figurate urticaria by etanercept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Sessa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Etanercept is a competitive inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α a polypeptide hormone, involved in the development of the immune system, in host defense and immune surveillance. Even if the etanercept mechanism of action is not completely understood, it is supposed that it negatively modulates biological responses mediated by molecules (cytokines, adhesion molecules, or proteinases induced or regulated by TNF. For this reason, it is widely used in the treatment of immunologicals diseases, such as rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic active, ankylosing spondylitis, and plaque psoriasis. Etanercept has a good tolerability profile. Adverse events related to skin are rare, arising usually in about 5% of patients treated with anti-TNF α. In this scenario, we describe a case of figurate urticaria arose after the re-administration of etanercept in a patient affected by psoriasis and hepatitis B. A 65-year-old man, affected by psoriasis, was hospitalized in September 2014 to the Regional Center for the treatment of psoriasis and Biological Drugs of Second University of Naples for progressive extension of psoriatic skin lesions. The laboratory analysis detected positivity for hepatitis B virus (HBV antigens. For this reason, it was administered to him lamivudine 100 mg/die about 30 days before to start etanercept treatment. The etanercept therapy has resulted in a progressive improving of skin manifestations, and the patient decided individually to stop the therapy. Afterwards, for worsening of the psoriatic lesions, he was again hospitalized and treated with the same therapeutic schedule (lamivudine followed by etanercept. Ten days after the start of therapy, the patient showed the onset of urticarial rash. Due to this, the treatment with lamivudine and etanercept was suspended and the patient′s clinical conditions improved. It is probably that immunological disorders due to etanercept therapy and HBV

  1. The midwife figure: a historiographical inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Cicatiello

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The history of midwifery, fairly disregarded by Italian historiography, results crucial in order to fully understand both the role of women and of the foundation of the family in post-unification Italy. It firmly highlights the complexity, the undertones and, sometimes, the contradictions of the female models. The historical research, mainly in the English area, has fully recognized the indisputable significance of the midwives’ role. As a matter of fact, they emerge as representatives of medical professions in the volume by Willem Tousijn, Il sistema delle occupazioni sanitarie (2000, which combines both historical reconstruction and sociological survey. If, on the one hand, the history of midwifery is quite acquainted for the 17th and 18th centuries, thanks to the works by Mireill Laget (1982, and by Jacques Gélis (1988, on the other hand, however, the 19th century still remains to be written for the great part. In Italy, Laura Guidi, Claudia Pancino and Alessandra Gissi have traced an outline of the midwives’ path for their professional achievement throughout the 19th and the 20th centuries. This article briefly reviews these themes, rereading the texts and focusing, in particular, on the question of the professionalization of the midwife and on its actual recognition as a professional figure.

  2. Resolving the formation of modern Chladni figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, P. H.; Tung, J. C.; Liang, H. C.; Chiang, P. Y.; Huang, K. F.; Chen, Y. F.

    2015-09-01

    The resonant spectrum of a thin plate driven with a mechanical oscillator is precisely measured to distinguish modern Chladni figures (CFs) observed at the resonant frequencies from classical CFs observed at the non-resonant frequencies. Experimental results reveal that modern CFs generally display an important characteristic of avoided crossings of nodal lines, whereas the nodal lines of classical CFs form a regular grid. The formation of modern CFs and the resonant frequency spectrum are resolved with a theoretical model that characterizes the interaction between the plate and the driving source into the inhomogeneous Kirchhoff-Love equation. The derived formula for determining resonant frequencies is shown to be exactly identical to the meromorphic function given in singular billiards that deals with the coupling strength on the transition between integrable and chaotic features. The good agreement between experimental results and theoretical predictions verifies the significant role of the strong-coupling effect in the formation of modern CFs. More importantly, it is confirmed that the apparatus for generating modern CFs can be developed to serve as an expedient system for exploring the nodal domains of chaotic wave functions as well as the physics of the strong coupling with a point scatterer.

  3. Evaluation of layback spin in figure skating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jastšenjski Ksenija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Layback spin is considered as one of the most beautiful and elegant spins performed in figure skating. It is also one of the required spins in competitive short program in female category. Different techniques of executing layback spin with variations in changing the positions of free parts of the body, as well as the evaluation of layback spin in accordance with ISU rules and regulations, which have been used in all International Skating Federation competitions since 2004 (World and European championships, Olympic Games are presented in this paper. Due to very difficult position of the body while performing a layback spin, it is essential that the skaters who want to master it should have excellent agility (especially of the spinal column and shoulder and knee joints and balance. Layback spin performance requires significant skating knowledge, so it cannot be performed by beginners. Depending on the fl exibility and creativity, a skater can execute various positions of the head, arms, body and free leg while performing a layback spin. In some cases, these variations can increase the level of difficulty, and in others only the mark given for executing this spin.

  4. On the figures of speech in Of Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛慧青

    2015-01-01

    Of Study is a masterpiece of Francis Bacon, which is worth reading from generation to generation.In a sense, figures of speech make the work worthwhile to read.Figures of speech pervade and embellish the world of language, making language more colorful, forceful, and explicit.Of Study exemplifies it.The thesis appreciates the great work in the perspective of figures of speech to cultivate a wider appreciation of the rhetoric art.

  5. Translation on Figurative Expressions From English Into Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹利华

    2006-01-01

    Both English and Chinese are colorful languagesfull of figurative expressions.Figurative usage isintended to achieve rhetorical effect and frequentlyoccurs in literary works and daily speech.On theother hand,the two languages have a lot ofdifferences in lexical and syntactic aspect and incultural sense.Whether a figurative expression isappropriately transferred or not greatly affects theforce and readability of a translation.Therefore it isvery essential for us to give an intensive study into thetranslation...

  6. Narrative and figurative self-construction in meaningful stories

    OpenAIRE

    Kupferberg,Irit

    2010-01-01

    The present study tests the validity of two claims foregrounded in current qualitative studies of troubled talk. First, single story-internal organizing figurative forms constitute succinct versions of troubled narrators' selves. Second, figurative clusters contribute to the construction of narrators' selves when some external or internal obstacle undermines communication. To explore this link between narrative and figurative self-construction, the study espouses a discourse-oriented approach...

  7. Figure-ground interaction in the human visual cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Appelbaum, Lawrence G.; Wade, Alex R.; Pettet, Mark W.; Vildavski, Vladimir Y.; Anthony M Norcia

    2008-01-01

    Discontinuities in feature maps serve as important cues for the location of object boundaries. Here we used multi-input nonlinear analysis methods and EEG source imaging to assess the role of several different boundary cues in visual scene segmentation. Synthetic figure/ground displays portraying a circular figure region were defined solely by differences in the temporal frequency of the figure and background regions in the limiting case and by the addition of orientation or relative alignmen...

  8. Rumsey and Walker_AMT_2016_Figure 2.xlsx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Figure summarizes uncertainty (error) in hourly gradient flux measurements by individual analyte. Flux uncertainty is derived from estimates of uncertainty in...

  9. Beyond captions: linking figures with abstract sentences in biomedical articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P Bockhorst

    Full Text Available Although figures in scientific articles have high information content and concisely communicate many key research findings, they are currently under utilized by literature search and retrieval systems. Many systems ignore figures, and those that do not typically only consider caption text. This study describes and evaluates a fully automated approach for associating figures in the body of a biomedical article with sentences in its abstract. We use supervised methods to learn probabilistic language models, hidden Markov models, and conditional random fields for predicting associations between abstract sentences and figures. Three kinds of evidence are used: text in abstract sentences and figures, relative positions of sentences and figures, and the patterns of sentence/figure associations across an article. Each information source is shown to have predictive value, and models that use all kinds of evidence are more accurate than models that do not. Our most accurate method has an F1-score of 69% on a cross-validation experiment, is competitive with the accuracy of human experts, has significantly better predictive accuracy than state-of-the-art methods and enables users to access figures associated with an abstract sentence with an average of 1.82 fewer mouse clicks. A user evaluation shows that human users find our system beneficial. The system is available at http://FigureItOut.askHERMES.org.

  10. Beyond captions: linking figures with abstract sentences in biomedical articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockhorst, Joseph P; Conroy, John M; Agarwal, Shashank; O'Leary, Dianne P; Yu, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Although figures in scientific articles have high information content and concisely communicate many key research findings, they are currently under utilized by literature search and retrieval systems. Many systems ignore figures, and those that do not typically only consider caption text. This study describes and evaluates a fully automated approach for associating figures in the body of a biomedical article with sentences in its abstract. We use supervised methods to learn probabilistic language models, hidden Markov models, and conditional random fields for predicting associations between abstract sentences and figures. Three kinds of evidence are used: text in abstract sentences and figures, relative positions of sentences and figures, and the patterns of sentence/figure associations across an article. Each information source is shown to have predictive value, and models that use all kinds of evidence are more accurate than models that do not. Our most accurate method has an F1-score of 69% on a cross-validation experiment, is competitive with the accuracy of human experts, has significantly better predictive accuracy than state-of-the-art methods and enables users to access figures associated with an abstract sentence with an average of 1.82 fewer mouse clicks. A user evaluation shows that human users find our system beneficial. The system is available at http://FigureItOut.askHERMES.org.

  11. BOOK REVIEW: Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, M.

    2009-08-01

    Compact fluid bodies in equilibrium under its own gravitational field are abundant in the Universe and a proper treatment of them can only be carried out using the full theory of General Relativity. The problem is of enormous complexity as it involves two very different regimes, namely the interior and the exterior of the fluid, coupled through the surface of the body. This problem is very challenging both from a purely theoretical point of view, as well as regarding the obtaining of realistic models and the description of their physical properties. It is therefore an excellent piece of news that the book 'Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium' by R Meinel, M Ansorg, A Kleinwächter, G Neugebauer and D Petroff has been recently published. This book approaches the topic in depth and its contents will be of interest to a wide range of scientists working on gravitation, including theoreticians in general relativity, mathematical physicists, astrophysicists and numerical relativists. This is an advanced book that intends to present some of the present-day results on this topic. The most basic results are presented rather succinctly, and without going into the details, of their derivations. Although primarily not intended to serve as a textbook, the presentation is nevertheless self-contained and can therefore be of interest both for experts on the field as well as for anybody wishing to learn more about rotating self-gravitating compact bodies in equilibrium. It should be remarked, however, that this book makes a rather strong selection of topics and concentrates fundamentally on presenting the main results obtained by the authors during their research in this field. The book starts with a chapter where the fundamental aspects of rotating fluids in equilibrium, including its thermodynamic properties, are summarized. Of particular interest are the so-called mass-shedding limit, which is the limit where the body is rotating so fast that it is on the verge of starting

  12. Distinguishing between Realistic and Fantastical Figures in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Telli; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Children in the United States come to distinguish historical from fictional story figures between the ages of 3 and 5 years, guided by the plausibility of the story events surrounding the figure (Corriveau, Kim, Schwalen, & Harris, 2009; Woolley & Cox, 2007). However, U.S. children vary in their reactions to stories that include…

  13. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  14. Peking Opera Figure Sculpture:An Emerging Design Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    As I entered Original Workshop located in Wuqing Development Zone in Tianjin, a coastal city adjacent to Beijing, I was immediately impressed by vivid Peking opera figure sculptures exhibited on the display stand. 60 extremely lifelike figure sculptures depicting classic roles in Peking opera unfolded before me the history of Peking opera in a graphic, realistic manner.

  15. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  16. Distinguishing between Realistic and Fantastical Figures in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Telli; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Children in the United States come to distinguish historical from fictional story figures between the ages of 3 and 5 years, guided by the plausibility of the story events surrounding the figure (Corriveau, Kim, Schwalen, & Harris, 2009; Woolley & Cox, 2007). However, U.S. children vary in their reactions to stories that include…

  17. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  1. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  2. Analysis of English Ambiguity and its Figurative Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周贺

    2011-01-01

    In the daily communication, the phenomenon of English ambiguity and its figurative use are popular. The paper analyzes the phenomenon of English ambiguity, including the classification and the eliminating method of ambiguity to show overall ambiguity; the paper also discusses that the application of figurative uses of ambiguity and expresses its application in pun, irony, euphemism and humor by many specific examples.

  3. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  4. Dynamic Reaction Figures: An Integrative Vehicle for Understanding Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Emeric

    2008-01-01

    A highly flexible learning tool, referred to as a dynamic reaction figure, is described. Application of these figures can (i) yield the correct chemical equation by simply following a set of menu driven directions; (ii) present the underlying "mechanism" in chemical reactions; and (iii) help to solve quantitative problems in a number of different…

  5. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  6. Transformation of the Incomplete Figure in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the developmental changes in young children's perception. A matching completion task consisting of three geometric figures and one bird-like figure were completed by children 3-5 years of age ("N" = 99). The rotation effect, in which the correct response decreased with orientation (45°, 90° 135°, and…

  7. Energy in Sweden. Facts and figures 1997; Energilaeget i siffror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Facts and figures 1997 contains the tabular data of most of the diagrams in the main publication (Energy in Sweden 1997). The figures are based on preliminary statistics, and there may be minor differences between similar data in different sections or tables etc. All table headings and notes are given in both Swedish and English

  8. Figures of merit of nonlinear optical chromophores in photorefractive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzoukas, Marguerite; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille H.; Wortmann, Ruediger W.

    1999-05-01

    A pre-requisite to obtain polymers with a large photorefractive response is to design non-linear optical chromophores with a large figure of merit. This figure depends on the glass transition temperature of the material. We present a theoretical investigation that shows which are the important molecular parameters that control the magnitude of the figure of merit either in a low-Tg or in a high-Tg polymer. Derivation of the figures of merit for various push-pull molecules show a molecular engineering strategy can be successfully implemented to yield very large figures of merit. This approach is supported by an experimental investigation based on electro-optical absorption measurements.

  9. Shape-Based Plagiarism Detection for Flowchart Figures in Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senosy Arrish

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism detection is well known phenomenon in the academic arena. Copying other people is considered as serious offence that needs to be checked. There are many plagiarism detection systems such as turn-it-in that has been developed to provide this checks. Most, if not all, discard the figures and charts before checking for plagiarism. Discarding the figures and charts results in look holes that people can take advantage. That means people can plagiarized figures and charts easily without the current plagiarism systems detecting it. There are very few papers which talks about flowcharts plagiarism detection. Therefore, there is a need to develop a system that will detect plagiarism in figures and charts. This paper presents a method for detecting flow chart figure plagiarism based on shape-based image processing and multimedia retrieval. The method managed to retrieve flowcharts with ranked similarity according to different matching sets.

  10. Solid propellants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Hutchison, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    The basic principles underlying propulsion by rocket motor are examined together with the configuration of a solid propellant motor. Solid propellants and their preparation are discussed, giving attention to homogeneous propellants, composite propellants, energetic considerations in choosing a solid propellant, the processing of composite propellants, and some examples of new developments. The performance of solid propellants is investigated, taking into account characteristics velocity, the specific impulse, and performance calculations. Aspects of propellant development considered include nonperformance requirements for solid propellants, the approach to development, propellant mechanical properties, and future trends.

  11. The Prediction of Success in Engineering Graphics Using the Group Embedded Figures Test and the Hidden Figures Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Russell C.; Davis, Paul D.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to continue the assessment of the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), to assess the value of the Hidden Figures Test (HFT), and to assess the usefulness of the two instruments used in combination as tools for predicting student success and early identification of students who may need special assistance in engineering…

  12. Les figures du musicien au Moyen Âge. Figures, discours et images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Clouzot

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available L’idée d’un atelier sur « Les figures du musicien au Moyen Âge » est née à la Casa de Velasquez à Madrid en juin 2005, lors du colloque organisé par Eliana Magnani sur « Le Moyen Âge vu d’ailleurs ». Je la remercie d’avoir favorisé ainsi des collaborations scientifiques fructueuses et prometteuses, qui se concrétisent grâce au Centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre et à l’UMR 5594 ARTeHis de l’Université de Bourgogne.Les discussions de cet atelier se sont articulées autour de la question à laqu...

  13. Trend figures assist with untrained emergency electroencephalogram interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Yunoki, Kosuke; Zensho, Kazumasa; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Oka, Makio; Yoshinaga, Harumi

    2015-05-01

    Acute electroencephalogram (EEG) findings are important for diagnosing emergency patients with suspected neurological disorders, but they can be difficult for untrained medical staff to interpret. In this research, we will develop an emergency EEG trend figure that we hypothesize will be more easily understood by untrained staff compared with the raw original traces. For each of several EEG patterns (wakefulness, sleep, seizure activity, and encephalopathy), trend figures incorporating information on both amplitude and frequency were built. The accuracy of untrained reviewers' interpretation was compared with that of the raw EEG trace interpretation. The rate of correct answers was significantly higher in response to the EEG trend figures than to the raw traces showing wakefulness, sleep, and encephalopathy, but there was no difference when seizure activity patterns were viewed. The rates of misjudging normal or abnormal findings were significantly lower with the trend figures in the wakefulness pattern; in the other patterns, misjudgments were equally low for the trend figures and the raw traces. EEG trend figures improved the accuracy with which untrained medical staff interpreted emergency EEGs. Emergency EEG figures that can be understood intuitively with minimal training might improve the accuracy of emergency EEG interpretation. However, additional studies are required to confirm these results because there may be many types of clinical EEGs that are difficult to interpret. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Figure-ground segregation: A fully nonlocal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimiccoli, Mariella

    2016-09-01

    We present a computational model that computes and integrates in a nonlocal fashion several configural cues for automatic figure-ground segregation. Our working hypothesis is that the figural status of each pixel is a nonlocal function of several geometric shape properties and it can be estimated without explicitly relying on object boundaries. The methodology is grounded on two elements: multi-directional linear voting and nonlinear diffusion. A first estimation of the figural status of each pixel is obtained as a result of a voting process, in which several differently oriented line-shaped neighborhoods vote to express their belief about the figural status of the pixel. A nonlinear diffusion process is then applied to enforce the coherence of figural status estimates among perceptually homogeneous regions. Computer simulations fit human perception and match the experimental evidence that several cues cooperate in defining figure-ground segregation. The results of this work suggest that figure-ground segregation involves feedback from cells with larger receptive fields in higher visual cortical areas.

  15. Fast figuring of large optics by reactive atom plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Marco; Jourdain, Renaud; Morantz, Paul; Shore, Paul

    2012-09-01

    The next generation of ground-based astronomical observatories will require fabrication and maintenance of extremely large segmented mirrors tens of meters in diameter. At present, the large production of segments required by projects like E-ELT and TMT poses time frames and costs feasibility questions. This is principally due to a bottleneck stage in the optical fabrication chain: the final figuring step. State-of-the-art figure correction techniques, so far, have failed to meet the needs of the astronomical community for mass production of large, ultra-precise optical surfaces. In this context, Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) is proposed as a candidate figuring process that combines nanometer level accuracy with high material removal rates. RAP is a form of plasma enhanced chemical etching at atmospheric pressure based on Inductively Coupled Plasma technology. The rapid figuring capability of the RAP process has already been proven on medium sized optical surfaces made of silicon based materials. In this paper, the figure correction of a 3 meters radius of curvature, 400 mm diameter spherical ULE mirror is presented. This work demonstrates the large scale figuring capability of the Reactive Atom Plasma process. The figuring is carried out by applying an in-house developed procedure that promotes rapid convergence. A 2.3 μm p-v initial figure error is removed within three iterations, for a total processing time of 2.5 hours. The same surface is then re-polished and the residual error corrected again down to λ/20 nm rms. These results highlight the possibility of figuring a metre-class mirror in about ten hours.

  16. Figuration of the real as an intersubjective process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Lewis A

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, I make use of the term figuration, which relates to the process of giving shape to unconscious contents in the form of meaningful presentations. My interest is in how traumatic experience succeeds or fails to become psychically figured and thereby susceptible to elaboration and absorption through intersubjective process. I argue that the process of figuration always occurs in an actual or implied intersubjective context and involves, thereby, a central feature of an exchange between subject and Other. These concepts are discussed and applied to a case report of an analytic psychotherapy involving a traumatic dream and its sequellae.

  17. Solid waste handling and decontamination facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampton, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The Title 1 design of the decontamination part of the SWH and D facility is underway. Design criteria are listed. A flowsheet is given of the solid waste reduction. The incinerator scrubber is described. Design features of the Gunite Tank Sludge Removal and a schematic of the sluicer, TV camera, and recirculating system are given. 9 figures. (DLC)

  18. Solid lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1993-01-01

    The state of knowledge of solid lubricants is reviewed. The results of research on solid lubricants from the 1940's to the present are presented from a historical perspective. Emphasis is placed largely, but not exclusively, on work performed at NASA Lewis Research Center with a natural focus on aerospace applications. However, because of the generic nature of the research, the information presented in this review is applicable to most areas where solid lubricant technology is useful.

  19. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  20. Lower Extremity Overuse Conditions Affecting Figure Skaters During Daily Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campanelli, Valentina; Piscitelli, Francesco; Verardi, Luciano; Maillard, Pauline; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Most ice figure skaters train and compete with ongoing issues in the lower extremities, which are often overlooked by the skaters and considered injuries only when they prevent the athletes from skating...

  1. R&D figures 'distorted' by defence spending

    CERN Multimedia

    Coghlan, A

    1990-01-01

    A report published by the House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology, claims that government figures for R&D spending are misleading. They apparently include military projects that are more concerned with product development than original research.

  2. Rumsey and Walker_AMT_2016_Figure 1.xlsx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Figure summarizes diurnal profiles of uncertainty in the chemical gradient and transfer velocity measurements from which fluxes are calculated. This dataset is...

  3. A new figure of merit for wideband vibration energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. Q.; Badel, A.; Formosa, F.; Wu, Y. P.

    2015-12-01

    The performance evaluation method is a very important part in the field of vibration energy harvesting. It provides the ability to compare and rate different vibration energy harvesters (VEHs). Considering the lack of a well-recognized tool, this article proposed a new systematic figure of merit for the appraisement of wideband VEHs. Extensive investigations are first performed for some classic figures for linear VEHs. With the common fundamental information obtained, the proposed figure integrates four essential factors: the revised energy harvester effectiveness, the mechanical quality factor, the normalized bandwidth and the effective mass density. Special considerations are devoted to the properties of wideband VEHs about the operation range and the average power in this domain which are related to the performance target of stable power output. Afterward, this new figure is applied to some literature VEHs and demonstrated to present good evaluations of wideband VEHs. Moreover, it exhibits the ability to point out the improvement information of the concerned VEHs further developments.

  4. Homoclinic Bifurcation Properties near Eight-figure Homoclinic Orbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹永魁; 佘彦

    2002-01-01

    In this paper paper we investigate the homoclinic bifurcation properties near an eight-figure homoclinic orbit of co-dimension two of a planar dynamical system.The corresponding local bifurcation diagram is also illustrated by numerical computation.

  5. Significant Figures in Measurements with Uncertainty: A Working Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchis, Abraham

    2017-03-01

    Generally speaking, students have difficulty reporting out measurements and estimates of quantities used in the laboratory, and with handling the significant figures associated with them. When required to make calculation involving quantities with different numbers of significant figures, they have difficulty in assigning the corresponding digits to the final result. When in addition, the quantities have uncertainty, the operations entailed pose an even greater challenge. The article advocates for some working rules for students (and teachers) in an effort to combat this problem.

  6. De l’argumentativité des figures de rhétorique The Argumentativity of Figures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Bonhomme

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Les figures apparaissent comme un terrain privilégié pour étudier les rapports entre rhétorique et argumentation, dans la mesure où leurs analystes les ont constamment situées à l’intersection de ces deux domaines. Dans un premier temps, examinant le traitement des figures dans l’histoire de la rhétorique, cet article constate une évolution en boucle sur leur statut argumentatif. En effet, suite à la rhétorique oratoire qui a pleinement reconnu l’argumentativité des figures, on a assisté au développement de rhétoriques figurales non argumentatives. Cependant, on observe depuis quelques décennies un nouvel intérêt pour le rôle argumentatif des figures. Dans un deuxième temps, cet article approfondit les relations entre rhétoricité et argumentation figurale. Si par leurs matrices fonctionnelles les figures sont intrinsèquement rhétoriques, elles ne sont argumentatives qu’à certaines conditions, d’ordre structural et contextuel. De plus, les figures présentent différentes caractéristiques qui en font le plus souvent des formes condensées d’arguments. Avec le cas typique de la métonymie publicitaire, cet article montre enfin très concrètement comment une figure de rhétorique peut être argumentative. A travers ses transferts par contiguïté, la métonymie publicitaire fournit des arguments fortement implicités qui valorisent les produits et leurs consommateurs. En cela, elle s’intègre dans une démarche de persuasion/séduction, symptomatique de l’argumentation figurale.Figures appear as a privileged territory for the study of the relations between rhetoric and argumentation, inasmuch as they have constantly been situated at the intersection of these two domains by their analysts. Beginning with an examination of the treatment of figures in the history of rhetoric, this article tracesa continuous evolution of their status in argumentation. After the classical period of oratorical rhetoric, which

  7. Figurativity: the complex link between words and things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Lima Ferreira de Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the concept of figurativity within the cognitive studies of language. It presents the polarization, inherited from the ancient Greeks, between what is conventionalized as figurative and as literal, which resulted in the understanding that thought and language are inherently literal. In this conception, figurativity would be an unnatural feature intentionally used as a stylistic strategy. Thus, the use of figurativity became associated with damages to the supposed transparency of language and the meanings inherent to it. Although this view has not been supplanted, contemporary cognitive perspectives that treat the linguistic phenomenon as intrinsic to cognition offer us another view on figurativity. In particular, the Neural Theory of Language has both theoretically and empirically reinforced the understanding of the cognitive mechanisms involved in the construction of meaning. Equally important, this theoretical framework has presented evidence that body experiences are at the basis of the construction of mental structures evidenced in the use of language, so that the peculiar nature of our body contributes to the peculiarities of our conceptual system. The integration between body and mind, so that emotions and abstractions must be conceptualized from more concrete body-based elements, offers new dimensions to the explanation for the linguistic phenomenon of figurativity.

  8. Cutting Solid Figures by Plane--Analytical Solution and Spreadsheet Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacka, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In some secondary mathematics curricula, there is a topic called Stereometry that deals with investigating the position and finding the intersection, angle, and distance of lines and planes defined within a prism or pyramid. Coordinate system is not used. The metric tasks are solved using Pythagoras' theorem, trigonometric functions, and sine and…

  9. Full text and figure display improves bioscience literature search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Divoli

    Full Text Available When reading bioscience journal articles, many researchers focus attention on the figures and their captions. This observation led to the development of the BioText literature search engine, a freely available Web-based application that allows biologists to search over the contents of Open Access Journals, and see figures from the articles displayed directly in the search results. This article presents a qualitative assessment of this system in the form of a usability study with 20 biologist participants using and commenting on the system. 19 out of 20 participants expressed a desire to use a bioscience literature search engine that displays articles' figures alongside the full text search results. 15 out of 20 participants said they would use a caption search and figure display interface either frequently or sometimes, while 4 said rarely and 1 said undecided. 10 out of 20 participants said they would use a tool for searching the text of tables and their captions either frequently or sometimes, while 7 said they would use it rarely if at all, 2 said they would never use it, and 1 was undecided. This study found evidence, supporting results of an earlier study, that bioscience literature search systems such as PubMed should show figures from articles alongside search results. It also found evidence that full text and captions should be searched along with the article title, metadata, and abstract. Finally, for a subset of users and information needs, allowing for explicit search within captions for figures and tables is a useful function, but it is not entirely clear how to cleanly integrate this within a more general literature search interface. Such a facility supports Open Access publishing efforts, as it requires access to full text of documents and the lifting of restrictions in order to show figures in the search interface.

  10. EEG signatures accompanying auditory figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Brigitta; Kocsis, Zsuzsanna; Háden, Gábor P; Szerafin, Ágnes; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Winkler, István

    2016-11-01

    In everyday acoustic scenes, figure-ground segregation typically requires one to group together sound elements over both time and frequency. Electroencephalogram was recorded while listeners detected repeating tonal complexes composed of a random set of pure tones within stimuli consisting of randomly varying tonal elements. The repeating pattern was perceived as a figure over the randomly changing background. It was found that detection performance improved both as the number of pure tones making up each repeated complex (figure coherence) increased, and as the number of repeated complexes (duration) increased - i.e., detection was easier when either the spectral or temporal structure of the figure was enhanced. Figure detection was accompanied by the elicitation of the object related negativity (ORN) and the P400 event-related potentials (ERPs), which have been previously shown to be evoked by the presence of two concurrent sounds. Both ERP components had generators within and outside of auditory cortex. The amplitudes of the ORN and the P400 increased with both figure coherence and figure duration. However, only the P400 amplitude correlated with detection performance. These results suggest that 1) the ORN and P400 reflect processes involved in detecting the emergence of a new auditory object in the presence of other concurrent auditory objects; 2) the ORN corresponds to the likelihood of the presence of two or more concurrent sound objects, whereas the P400 reflects the perceptual recognition of the presence of multiple auditory objects and/or preparation for reporting the detection of a target object.

  11. Solid consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, Lorenzo; Creminelli, Paolo; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Noreña, Jorge

    2017-03-01

    We argue that isotropic scalar fluctuations in solid inflation are adiabatic in the super-horizon limit. During the solid phase this adiabatic mode has peculiar features: constant energy-density slices and comoving slices do not coincide, and their curvatures, parameterized respectively by ζ and Script R, both evolve in time. The existence of this adiabatic mode implies that Maldacena's squeezed limit consistency relation holds after angular average over the long mode. The correlation functions of a long-wavelength spherical scalar mode with several short scalar or tensor modes is fixed by the scaling behavior of the correlators of short modes, independently of the solid inflation action or dynamics of reheating.

  12. Learning to rank figures within a biomedical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feifan; Yu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of figures are available in biomedical literature, representing important biomedical experimental evidence. This ever-increasing sheer volume has made it difficult for scientists to effectively and accurately access figures of their interest, the process of which is crucial for validating research facts and for formulating or testing novel research hypotheses. Current figure search applications can't fully meet this challenge as the "bag of figures" assumption doesn't take into account the relationship among figures. In our previous study, hundreds of biomedical researchers have annotated articles in which they serve as corresponding authors. They ranked each figure in their paper based on a figure's importance at their discretion, referred to as "figure ranking". Using this collection of annotated data, we investigated computational approaches to automatically rank figures. We exploited and extended the state-of-the-art listwise learning-to-rank algorithms and developed a new supervised-learning model BioFigRank. The cross-validation results show that BioFigRank yielded the best performance compared with other state-of-the-art computational models, and the greedy feature selection can further boost the ranking performance significantly. Furthermore, we carry out the evaluation by comparing BioFigRank with three-level competitive domain-specific human experts: (1) First Author, (2) Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article but who works in the same field of the corresponding author of the article, and (3) Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article and who may or may not work in the same field of the corresponding author of an article. Our results show that BioFigRank outperforms Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert and performs as well as Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert. Although BioFigRank underperforms First Author, since most biomedical researchers are either in- or out

  13. Stitching algorithm for ion beam figuring of optical mirrors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A novel stitching machining method for ion beam figuring of optical mirrors is presented in this paper. Problems that should be dealt with in the stitching process such as shaping principle,algorithm for dwell time calculation,parameter identification and compensation for positioning errors are discussed. Based on Computer Controlled Optical Surfacing(CCOS)principle,the finite field nonlinear model is deduced from the stitching shaping mechanism;with the superposition property in the model,a modified Richardson-Lucy iterative algorithm is presented to deconvolute the dwell time for the stitching process;the effect of the positioning errors and the removal rate on the machining accuracy and shape is modeled and then the identification and compensation algorithm for these parameters is proposed based on this model.With these studies,shaping theory and algorithm are constructed,and then the stitching process for ion beam figuring comes into being.Figuring experiments are made on planar samples;the process convergence ratio is 10,which is similar to that in full aperture figuring.Theo- retical and experimental studies indicate that the stitching theory and algorithm in the ion beam figuring process presented in this paper are a novel method for fabrication of precision mirrors with lower cost.

  14. Weight-related words associated with figure silhouettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Christy; Starks, Misty; Gomez, Laura; Chambliss, Heather; Martin, Scott

    2004-12-01

    Antifat attitudes and obesity bias are prevalent in Western society; however, little is known about the social meanings and connotations of weight-related words such as fat, overweight, and obese (e.g., Robison & Erdman, 1998). The purpose of this study was to explore college students' perceptions of weight-related terminology. Participants (n=131) completed a modified figure rating scale in which they identified male and female figure silhouettes most associated with a variety of weight-related words and personal characteristics. Additionally, participants completed a word association task and provided definitions of five weight terms. Results indicated that participants grouped weight terms into two groupings (i.e., "slender" and "heavy" weight terms) both in the figure rating task and in the word association and definition tasks. Both male and female participants selected smaller female figure silhouettes for the weight terms overweight, large, fat, and normal weight than for the male figure silhouettes. Moreover, associations between weight-related words and personal characteristics, including normal weight -physically fit and overweight -lazy, were found. The results suggest that weight-related words carry with them social meanings and values that reflect an "ideology of blame."

  15. Figure dell’assenza tra Salomon Maimon, Emmanuel Lévinas e Walter Benjamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Polari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Il presente testo intende proporre una riflessione lungo il cammino teoretico proposto da Salomon Maimon ed Emmanuel Lèvinas, prendendo spunto dall’aporia filosofica del dialogo Parmenide di Platone riguardante il tema dell’ exaìphnes. Certamente entro le riflessioni di Lèvinas che in Maimon agisce fortemente una vis giudaica, che ne ispira i temi: per Maimon la risoluzione completa dell’empirico può aver luogo solo nella terra promessa dell’intelletto infinito, per Lèvinas il chiasmo tra l’assolutamente Altro, che si manifesta sottraendosi al tempo stesso nel volto dell’altro, ci chiama continuamente a far esodo da noi stessi. Nel concreto, in ciò che non ha luogo, nella pausa, nell’assenza e nella discontinuità, nel sommamente contingente, si trova il vero trascendentale quale elemento di mediazione che lega la realtà, non nelle categorie dell’intelletto che ci forniscono solo una realtà valida per la Wahrnhemung (percezione e la objektive Vorstellung (rappresentazione oggettiva, ovvero una realtà postuma, fittizia. Come tertium non datur tra queste due posizioni - l’intelletto infinito di Maimon o l’esodo perenne da se stessi in Lèvinas – intenderemo porvi lo xynòn, ovvero un cum assente che coniuga in un paradossale intreccio il nominalismo assoluto di Hume con il mondo delle idee di Platone: il luogo assurdo di una patria assente.

  16. Figure drawing as an expression of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, S; Sakai, D; Beardslee, B; Coopersmith, A

    1976-08-01

    Figure drawings were obtained from 97 preadolescent males who differed in self and behavioral assessments of self-esteem. These subjects had been selected from a much larger sample and represented five different types of self-esteem. The figure drawings were scored for 15 variables, dealing with formal characteristics, content, and global-interpretations of the total drawings. Five significant differences were obtained, with the content and global-interpretative categories proving more differentiating between self-esteem groups than did the formal characteristics. Behavioral expressions of self-esteem were more associated with figure drawing characteristics than were subjective evaluations. Discussion focuses on the nature of self-concept and self-esteem in children as a sensorimotor rather than symbolic expression.

  17. Differential expansion and rectangular HOMFLY for the figure eight knot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Morozov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Differential expansion (DE for a Wilson loop average in representation R is built to respect degenerations of representations for small groups. At the same time it behaves nicely under some changes of the loop, e.g. of some knots in the case of 3d Chern–Simons theory. Especially simple is the relation between the DE for the trefoil 31 and for the figure eight knot 41. Since arbitrary colored HOMFLY for the trefoil are known from the Rosso–Jones formula, it is therefore enough to find their DE in order to make a conjecture for the figure eight. We fulfill this program for all rectangular representation R=[rs], i.e. make a plausible conjecture for the rectangularly colored HOMFLY of the figure eight knot, which generalizes the old result for totally symmetric and antisymmetric representations.

  18. Differential expansion and rectangular HOMFLY for the figure eight knot

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, A

    2016-01-01

    Differential expansion (DE) for a Wilson loop average in representation $R$ is built to respect degenerations of representations for small groups. At the same time it behaves nicely under some changes of the loop, e.g. of some knots in the case of $3d$ Chern-Simons theory. Especially simple is the relation between the DE for the trefoil $3_1$ and for the figure eight knot $4_1$. Since arbitrary colored HOMFLY for the trefoil are known from the Rosso-Jones formula, it is therefore enough to find their DE in order to make a conjecture for the figure eight. We fulfil this program for all rectangular representation $R=[r^s]$, i.e. make a plausible conjecture for the rectangularly colored HOMFLY of the figure eight knot, which generalizes the old result for totally symmetric and antisymmetric representations.

  19. Thermosonic Chladni figures for defect-selective imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodov, Igor; Derusova, Daria; Rahammer, Markus

    2015-07-01

    Thermosonic patterns produced by resonant vibrations of simulated and realistic defects are experimentally observed and compared with conventional vibration Chladni figures. The patterns are interpreted on the basis of hysteretic damping model that accounts for in-plane polarization component of vibrations. The analysis and simulation results show that thermosonic Chladni figures are the patterns of dissipation of vibration energy determined by a square of the in-plane strain developed in the resonant vibrations. The difference in nodal patterns between the two types of Chladni figures is due to additional extension-compression of the material mainly in near boundary area. The contribution of various order resonance modes in single-frequency imaging is illustrated and their superposition is shown to produce a full-scale thermosonic image of a resonant defect in a wideband excitation mode.

  20. Sound and sight: acoustic figures and visual phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2005-01-01

    The impact that the analysis of sound waves has made on theories of light is well known, and is touched upon here. However, the acoustic figures described initially by Robert Hooke in 1665 and in more detail by Ernst Chladni in 1787 (often referred to as Chladni figures) were instrumental in vision in two specific respects. First, their representation by Tyndall [1867 Sound. A Course of Eight Lectures Delivered at the Royal Institution of Great Britain (London: Longmans, Green)] in a book on sound resulted in the description of a visual illusion, the Hermann grid. Secondly, attempts to render the acoustic figures visible (on the basis of briefly persisting images) led to the discovery of instruments that could synthesise movement. These two developments are discussed in their historical contexts.

  1. Differential expansion and rectangular HOMFLY for the figure eight knot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A.

    2016-10-01

    Differential expansion (DE) for a Wilson loop average in representation R is built to respect degenerations of representations for small groups. At the same time it behaves nicely under some changes of the loop, e.g. of some knots in the case of 3d Chern-Simons theory. Especially simple is the relation between the DE for the trefoil 31 and for the figure eight knot 41. Since arbitrary colored HOMFLY for the trefoil are known from the Rosso-Jones formula, it is therefore enough to find their DE in order to make a conjecture for the figure eight. We fulfill this program for all rectangular representation R = [rs ], i.e. make a plausible conjecture for the rectangularly colored HOMFLY of the figure eight knot, which generalizes the old result for totally symmetric and antisymmetric representations.

  2. World Literature and the Figurative Push to Sublimate Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Giguere

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the influence of Aristotle’s theory of place (topos on the conceptualization of cultural universality. Its main focus is in reinvesting the thought of Baruch Spinoza and Henri Bergson surrounding the fossilized spatial boundaries that limit understanding in order to scrutinize both the virtual and figurative processes inherent to the sketching of a universal human plane outside of local custom in certain literary works. This investigation yields a concept of “figurative agency” that is then delineated in the Tao Te Ching and Stevenson’s The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde in order to demonstrate how the concept might serve as a bridge between the extended space of a national culture and the virtual plane invested by world literature.Keywords: world literature, Henri Bergson, Spinoza, figurative agency, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Tao Te-Ching, literary epistemology

  3. Brief report: human figure drawings by children with Asperger's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hui Keow; Slaughter, Virginia

    2008-05-01

    Twenty-nine children with Asperger's syndrome and 28 typically developing children, matched on gender, chronological age and nonverbal IQ, were asked to produce a free drawing, then requested to draw a person, a house and a tree. The drawings were scored using standardized procedures for assessing accuracy, detail and complexity. There were no differences between the diagnostic groups on the tree or house drawing scores. The human figure drawing scores of children with Asperger's syndrome were significantly lower than those of the typically developing children, and there was a positive correlation between human figure drawing scores and communication sub-scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales, for the Asperger's group. These results suggest that the selective deficit in generating human figure representations may derive from a relative lack of interest in the social world, and/or limited practice in drawing people.

  4. Social dimensions of judgments of integrity in public figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Paul; Farsides, Tom

    2011-03-01

    The notion of 'integrity' remains relatively unexplored in the social psychological literature, despite it being central to some important theoretical perspectives (notably, self-affirmation theory). It is an eminently positive - and well-used - epithet in descriptions of public figures. The two studies reported here addressed laypeople's conceptions of integrity. The findings indicate that in relation to eight public figures, the best general predictor of judgments of integrity was perceptions of 'sincerity' (characterized by attributes such as genuine and honest). For three of the public figures strongly linked to civil rights issues, judgments of integrity were also predicted by perceptions of 'standing for something'. The findings suggest that the social character of integrity merits further psychological research attention.

  5. Harmonizing Melody with Meta-Structure of Piano Accompaniment Figure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Feng; Kui Chen; Xiang-Bin Liu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,a meta-structure of piano accompaniment figure (meta-structure for short) is proposed to harmonize a melodic piece of music so as to construct a multi-voice music.Here we approach melody harmonization with piano accompaniment as a machine learning task in a probabilistic framework.A series of piano accompaniment figures are collected from the massive existing sample scores and converted into a set of meta-structure.After the procedure of samples training,a model is formulated to generate a proper piano accompaniment figure for a harmonizing unit in the context.This model is flexible in harmonizing a melody with piano accompaniment.The experimental results are evaluated and discussed.

  6. Field dependence and stimulus complexity in a figure copying task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coté, Carol A; O'Donnell, Angela M

    2007-12-01

    Field dependence is often associated with studies of cognitive style from Witkin's laboratory but Piaget also considered the concept a fundamental factor in the development of visuoperceptual analysis. Assessment has traditionally relied on two measures, the Rod-and-Frame Test and the Embedded Figures Test. A new task was developed, based on the Rod-and-Frame Test, in which a target stimulus is drawn within a misleading frame. Misleading frames significantly influenced the orientation of drawings created by 36 kindergartners in Exp. 1, and the drawing of more complex stimulus figures was influenced by the frames for a group of 65 adults in Exp. 2. Field-dependent behavior is related to the complexity of the task and to age. The correlation of scores on the Embedded Figures Test with performance on this task was low for both groups.

  7. A method of shadow puppet figure modeling and animation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-fang HUANG; Shou-qian SUN; Ke-jun ZHANG; Tian-ning XU; Jian-feng WU; Bin ZHU

    2015-01-01

    To promote the development of the intangible cultural heritage of the world, shadow play, many studies have focused on shadow puppet modeling and interaction. Most of the shadow puppet figures are still imaginary, spread by ancients, or carved and painted by shadow puppet artists, without consideration of real dimensions or the appearance of human bodies. This study proposes an algorithm to transform 3D human models to 2D puppet figures for shadow puppets, including automatic location of feature points, automatic segmentation of 3D models, automatic extraction of 2D contours, automatic clothes matching, and animation. Experiment proves that more realistic and attractive figures and animations of the shadow puppet can be generated in real time with this algorithm.

  8. Threshold Differences on Figure and Ground: Gelb and Granit (1923)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinateder, Max

    2017-01-01

    In 1923, Gelb and Granit, using a method of adjustment for a small red light, reported a lower threshold for the target when presented on a ground region than on an adjacent figural region. More recent work in perceptual organization has found precisely the opposite—a processing advantage seems to go to items presented on the figure, not the ground. Although Gelb and Granit continue to be cited for their finding, it has not previously been available as an English translation. Understanding their methodology and results is important for integrating early Gestalt theory with more recent investigations. PMID:28286640

  9. Express method of construction of accurate inverse pole figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovich, Yu; Isaenkova, M.; Fesenko, V.

    2016-04-01

    With regard to metallic materials with the FCC and BCC crystal lattice a new method for constructing the X-ray texture inverse pole figures (IPF) by using tilt curves of spinning sample, characterized by high accuracy and rapidity (express), was proposed. In contrast to the currently widespread method to construct IPF using orientation distribution function (ODF), synthesized in several partial direct pole figures, the proposed method is based on a simple geometrical interpretation of a measurement procedure, requires a minimal operating time of the X-ray diffractometer.

  10. The designer's guide to presenting numbers, figures, and charts

    CERN Document Server

    Bigwood, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Numbers can tell an exciting story. The trick is to know what story to tell and make it understandable. This compact, practical guide will show everyone who must design numeric data how to transform raw data into readable, relevant information.The Designer's Guide to Presenting Numbers, Figures, and Charts brings together the guidelines established over the last forty years for making effective presentations of figures, tables, and graphs. Included are the straightforward steps designers and other professionals can take to make their tables and charts the most meaningful. The authors define an

  11. On Figures of speech, Cooperative Principle and Politeness Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于永丽; 朱丽萍

    2008-01-01

    To accomplish the communication efficiently and successfully, the people usually follow some certain principle in conversation. Grice named this principle as the cooperative principle. The politeness principle that Leech has developed can explain some phenomenon from a different perspective that the cooperative principle cannot. Nowadays, the use of the figures of speech is becoming more and more often. What we should pay attention to is the fact that the use of the figures of speech violates the cooperative principle, while following the politeness principle to a certain extent. And this paper aims to discuss the relationship among them, to provide some information for the readers.

  12. La politique et la médecine : une figure platonicienne et sa relecture averroïste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Gerbier

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available L'art médical est fréquemment utilisé par Platon pour penser de façon analogique la construction de la science politique et ses difficultés. Une lecture comparée des usages de cette analogie dans le Gorgias et le Politique permet de montrer de quelle façon Platon utilise cette analogie, et à quel moment précis il s'en défait pour indiquer la différence entre un art des cas (la médecine et un art des codes (la politique. Au contraire, Averroès, dans son Exposition sur la République de Platon, reprend l'analogie entre médecine et politique d'un point de vue épistémologique, pour mettre en évidence l'identique articulation interne que connaissent ces deux disciplines, et qui permet d'y distinguer chaque fois un art et une science, ou une pratique et une théorie. Averroès se présente ainsi, dans la mesure même où il contourne le problème soulevé par Platon, comme l'initiateur d'une longue tradition d'usage de l'analogie médico-politique, qui va se poursuivre du XIIIe au XVIe siècles pour élucider la structure épistémologique de la science politique.

  13. Shape Factor Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    10 3. Shape Factor Distributions for Natural Fragments 12 3.1 Platonic Solids and Uniform Viewing from All Viewpoints 12 3.2 Natural Fragments from...12 Fig. 9 The 5 Platonic solids. ............................................................. 12 Fig. 10 Mean shape factor of...of the 5 Platonic solids............................................ 13 Table 3 Sequence of viewing angles in Icosahedron Gage

  14. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 654 - Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Part 654 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Pt. 654, App. A Appendix A to Part 654...

  15. The Figured Poem: Towards a Definition of Genre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Ulrich

    1986-01-01

    Presents a poetological analysis of the genre of pattern poetry that distinguishes among various forms of picture text composition and classifies the various sorts of carmina figurata typologically while dealing with the question of continuity of figured poems in ancient, medieval, and modern times. (FL)

  16. Ambiguous Benefits: The Effect of Bilingualism on Reversing Ambiguous Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Shapero, Dana

    2005-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children, approximately 6 years old, attempted to identify the alternative image in a reversible figure. In both studies, bilingual children were more successful than monolinguals in seeing the other meaning in the images. In the first study, there was no relation between the ability to…

  17. EU nurse figures in decline long before Brexit vote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckew, Matthew

    2017-03-08

    The falling number of European Union (EU) nurses applying to work in the UK has been widely blamed on Brexit. But figures obtained by Nursing Standard reveal interest from EU nurses was waning months before the June 2016 referendum, a trend experts say could be due to tougher language requirements introduced by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC).

  18. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT... to Subpart A of Part 1209—Specimen Tray EC03OC91.037 ...

  19. Graphics of polar figure; Graficado de figura polar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias B, L.R

    1991-11-15

    The objective of this work, is that starting from a data file coming from a spectra that has been softened, and of the one that have been generated its coordinates to project it in stereographic form, to create the corresponding polar figure making use of the Cyber computer of the ININ by means of the GRAPHOS package. This work only requires a Beta, Fi and Intensity (I) enter data file. It starts of the existence of a softened spectra of which have been generated already with these data, making use of some language that in this case was FORTRAN for the Cyber computer, a program is generated supported in the Graphos package that allows starting of a reading of the Beta, Fi, I file, to generate the points in a stereographic projection and that it culminates with the graph of the corresponding polar figure. The program will request the pertinent information that is wanted to capture in the polar figure just as: date, name of the enter file, indexes of the polar figure, number of levels, radio of the stereographic projection (cms.), crystalline system to which belongs the sample, name the neuter graph file by create and to add the own general data. (Author)

  20. Energy in Sweden. Facts and figures 1999; Energilaeget i siffror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    This supplement contains the tabular data of most of the diagrams in the main publication (Energy in Sweden 1999, STEM-ET-82-1999). The figures are based on preliminary statistics, and there may be minor differences between similar data in different sections or tables etc. All table headings and notes are given in both Swedish and English.

  1. Perceiving the Impossible: How Individuals with Autism Copy Paradoxical Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Elizabeth; Ropar, Danielle; Mitchell, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Mottron and colleagues found that individuals with autism were less affected by geometric impossibility than comparison participants on a copying task. The current experiment sought to determine whether a local perceptual style could account for this. Participants with and without autism copied possible and impossible geometric figures. Geometric…

  2. Figured worlds as a lens to explore literacies in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia

    For children, beginning school is also a specific transition time which involves transformations of the understanding of what literacy is and negotiations of how they perceive themselves as readers and writers. My presentation will address literacies in transition by studying how children......, in their investments, draw on figured worlds....

  3. Novel method for high accuracy figure measurement of optical flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Kewei; Li, Dahai; Yang, Lijie; Guo, Guangrao; Li, Mengyang; Wang, Xuemin; Zhang, Tao; Xiong, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Phase Measuring Deflectometry (PMD) is a non-contact, high dynamic-range and full-field metrology which becomes a serious competitor to interferometry. However, the accuracy of deflectometry metrology is strongly influenced by the level of the calibrations, including test geometry, imaging pin-hole camera and digital display. In this paper, we propose a novel method that can measure optical flat surface figure to a high accuracy. We first calibrate the camera using a checker pattern shown on a LCD display at six different orientations, and the last orientation is aligned at the same position as the test optical flat. By using this method, lens distortions and the mapping relationship between the CCD pixels and the subaperture coordinates on the test optical flat can be determined at the same time. To further reduce the influence of the calibration errors on measurements, a reference optical flat with a high quality surface is measured, and then the system errors in our PMD setup can be eliminated by subtracting the figure of the reference flat from the figure of the test flat. Although any expensive coordinates measuring machine, such as laser tracker and coordinates measuring machine are not applied in our measurement, our experimental results of optical flat figure from low to high order aberrations still show a good agreement with that from the Fizeau interferometer.

  4. The Kinetic Energy of a Rotating Figure Skater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei R.; Troelstra, Arne A.

    1998-01-01

    When a rotating figure skater's fully extended arms are pulled back toward the torso, the angular velocity is noticeably increased and the kinetic energy of the skater can also be shown to increase. Discusses the change of the kinetic energy during such a process, and the work necessary for such an increase is derived using a dynamic equilibrium…

  5. Energy in Sweden. Facts and figures 1998; Energilaeget i siffror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This supplement contains the tabular data of most of the diagrams in the main publication (Energy in Sweden 1998, STEM-ET--26-98). The figures are based on preliminary statistics, and there may be minor differences between similar data in different sections or tables etc. All table headings and notes are given in both Swedish and English

  6. Graphics of polar figure; Graficado de figura polar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias B, L.R

    1991-11-15

    The objective of this work, is that starting from a data file coming from a spectra that has been softened, and of the one that have been generated its coordinates to project it in stereographic form, to create the corresponding polar figure making use of the Cyber computer of the ININ by means of the GRAPHOS package. This work only requires a Beta, Fi and Intensity (I) enter data file. It starts of the existence of a softened spectra of which have been generated already with these data, making use of some language that in this case was FORTRAN for the Cyber computer, a program is generated supported in the Graphos package that allows starting of a reading of the Beta, Fi, I file, to generate the points in a stereographic projection and that it culminates with the graph of the corresponding polar figure. The program will request the pertinent information that is wanted to capture in the polar figure just as: date, name of the enter file, indexes of the polar figure, number of levels, radio of the stereographic projection (cms.), crystalline system to which belongs the sample, name the neuter graph file by create and to add the own general data. (Author)

  7. Figure-Ground Organization in Visual Cortex for Natural Scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williford, Jonathan R; von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Figure-ground organization and border-ownership assignment are essential for understanding natural scenes. It has been shown that many neurons in the macaque visual cortex signal border-ownership in displays of simple geometric shapes such as squares, but how well these neurons resolve border-owners

  8. Judging Anomalies at the 2010 Olympics in Men's Figure Skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the 2010 Olympic figure skating judges had trouble scoring Plushenko and the transitions program component, and if the International Skating Union's (ISU) "corridor" method flagged the same judging anomalies as the Rasch analyses. A 3-facet (skater by program component by judge) Rasch rating scale…

  9. Inhibitory Competition between Shape Properties in Figure-Ground Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mary A.; Skow, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Theories of figure-ground perception entail inhibitory competition between either low-level units (edge or feature units) or high-level shape properties. Extant computational models instantiate the 1st type of theory. The authors investigated a prediction of the 2nd type of theory: that shape properties suggested on the ground side of an edge are…

  10. Gérard Genette : a escrita de Figures IV

    OpenAIRE

    Eiras, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on Genette's most recent work and his theorisation on his own work (its unity and heterogeneity) and the recent multiplication of the areas of study (from music to painting, from Stendhal to Proust). Note is also made of Genette's idiosyncrasy in Figures IV.

  11. Fit assessment of slopers for women with disproportionate figures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zwane, PEL

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available and hip) conform to those on the sizing charts, have a 25cm smaller waist than bust/hip) and varied back waist lengths (Defty , 1998, and Simmons et al, 2004). The other three figure types are regarded as disproportionate, and they rely on custom...

  12. Preservice Mathematics Teachers' Personal Figural Concepts and Classifications about Quadrilaterals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Emel Ozdemir; Dur, Zeliha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine preservice mathematics teachers' personal figural concepts and hierarchical classifications about quadrilaterals and to investigate the relationships between them. The participants were 57 preservice primary mathematics teachers in their senior year at a state university in Turkey. The preservice mathematics…

  13. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS... Subpart A of Part 1201—Test Frame EC03OC91.005...

  14. Arborescent vascular dilatation mimicking Lichtenberg figures from lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempark, Therdpong; Iwasaki, Julie; Shwayder, Tor

    2014-01-01

    The clinical presentation of arborizing vascular dilatation can resemble Lichtenberg figures from lightning. Both have a feather-like or ferning pattern. We report an interesting case of pressure-induced vasodilatation (PIV) caused by temporary vascular occlusion from jeans buttons. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Energy in Sweden. Facts and Figures 1996; Energilaeget i siffror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This supplement contains the figures that the diagrams and charts in the main publication are based upon. The statistics for 1995 that are included here are preliminary, i.e. minor inconsistencies may occur. All table headings and notes are given in both Swedish and English. 33 tabs

  16. Gérard Genette : a escrita de Figures IV

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on Genette's most recent work and his theorisation on his own work (its unity and heterogeneity) and the recent multiplication of the areas of study (from music to painting, from Stendhal to Proust). Note is also made of Genette's idiosyncrasy in Figures IV.

  17. Figure-ground segregation in a recurrent network architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamme, V.A.F.; Roelfsema, P.R.; Spekreijse, H.; Bosch, H.

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a model of how the visual brain segregate textured scenes into figures and background. During texture segregation, locations where the properties of texture elements change abruptly are assigned to boundaries, whereas image regions that are relatively homogeneous are grouped together bounda

  18. Can Society's Happiness Be Measured by a Set of Figures?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Knowing if you're happy could soon be easier than you think in China. The government department respon-sible for statistics has planned to issue an official "happiness index," which reportedly will measure the level of people's well being by a set of figures. The National Bureau of Statistics announced in September that in the future

  19. Impact of microphysics on the growth of one-dimensional breath figures

    CERN Document Server

    Stricker, L

    2015-01-01

    Droplet patterns condensing on solid substrates (breath figures) tend to evolve into a self-similar regime, characterized by a bimodal droplet size distribution. The distributions comprise a bell-shaped peak of monodisperse large droplets, and a broad range of smaller droplets. The size distribution of the latter follows a scaling law characterized by a non-trivial polydispersity exponent. We present here a numerical model for three-dimensional droplets on a one-dimensional substrate (fiber) that accounts for droplet nucleation, growth and merging. The polydispersity exponent retrieved using this model is not universal. Rather it depends on the thickness of the fiber and on details of the droplet interaction leading to merging. In addition, its values consistently differ from the theoretical prediction by Blackman (Phys. Rev. Lett., 2000). Possible causes of this discrepancy are pointed out.

  20. Figurative language processing in atypical populations: The ASD perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila eVulchanova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to provide a critical overview of experimental and clinical research documenting problems in figurative language processing in atypical populations with a focus on the Autistic Spectrum. Research in the comprehension and processing of figurative language in autism invariably documents problems in this area. The greater paradox is that even at the higher end of the spectrum or in the cases of linguistically talented individuals with Asperger syndrome, where structural language competence is intact, problems with extended language persist. If we assume that figurative and extended uses of language essentially depend on the perception and processing of more concrete core concepts and phenomena, the commonly observed failure in atypical populations to understand figurative language remains a puzzle.Various accounts have been offered to explain this issue, ranging from linking potential failure directly to overall structural language competence (Brock et al., 2008; Norbury, 2005 to right-hemispheric involvement (Gold and Faust, 2010. We argue that the dissociation between structural language and figurative language competence in autism should be sought in more general cognitive mechanisms and traits in the autistic phenotype (e.g., in terms of weak central coherence, Vulchanova et al., 2012b, as well as failure at on-line semantic integration with increased complexity and diversity of the stimuli (Coulson and van Petten, 2002. This perspective is even more compelling in light of similar problems in a number of conditions, including both acquired (e.g., Aphasia and developmental disorders (Williams Syndrome. This dissociation argues against a simple continuity view of language interpretation.

  1. Biomimetic heterogeneous multiple ion channels: a honeycomb structure composite film generated by breath figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Keyu; Heng, Liping; Wen, Liping; Jiang, Lei

    2016-06-01

    We design a novel type of artificial multiple nanochannel system with remarkable ion rectification behavior via a facile breath figure (BF) method. Notably, even though the charge polarity in the channel wall reverses under different pH values, this nanofluidic device displays the same ionic rectification direction. Compared with traditional nanochannels, this composite multiple ion channel device can be more easily obtained and has directional ionic rectification advantages, which can be applied in many fields.We design a novel type of artificial multiple nanochannel system with remarkable ion rectification behavior via a facile breath figure (BF) method. Notably, even though the charge polarity in the channel wall reverses under different pH values, this nanofluidic device displays the same ionic rectification direction. Compared with traditional nanochannels, this composite multiple ion channel device can be more easily obtained and has directional ionic rectification advantages, which can be applied in many fields. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Pore size distribution histograms of the AAO substrates; SEM images of the side view of pure AAO membranes and top view of the flat PI/AAO composite film; the current-time curves of the flat composite film; the current-voltage characteristics curves of pure AAO nanochannels with different mean pore diameters; CA of the two surfaces of the composite PI/AAO film, the structural formula of the polymer polyimide resin (PI), and solid surface zeta potential. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02506d

  2. Distinguished figures in descriptive geometry and its applications for mechanism science from the middle ages to the 17th century

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book consists of chapters that focus specifically on single figures that worked on Descriptive Geometry and also in Mechanisms Sciences and contain biographical notes, a survey of their work and their achievements, together with a modern interpretation of their legacy. Since Vitruvius in ancient times, and with Brunelleschi in the Renaissance, the two disciplines began to share a common direction which, over the centuries, took shape through less well-known figures until the more recent times in which Gaspard Monge worked. Over the years, a gap has been created between Descriptive Geometry and Mechanism Science, which now appear to belong to different worlds. In reality, however, there is a very close relationship between the two disciplines, with a link based on extremely solid foundations. Without the theoretical foundations of Geometry it would not be possible to draw and design mechanical parts such as gears, while in Kinematics it would be less easy to design and predict the reciprocal movements of ...

  3. The Ambivalent Position and its Reason of Platonic Unity of Virtue%柏拉图在美德的统一性问题上的矛盾立场及其缘由

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎良华

    2014-01-01

    美德的统一性问题是希腊哲学所重点讨论的哲学问题。在柏拉图那里,个人的美德具有一种统一性关系,但公民的美德却体现出一种各阶层具有专属于自身的特定美德的倾向。在美德的统一性问题上,柏拉图在个人美德与公民美德之间体现出某种矛盾性立场,其中缘由在于柏拉图在哲学上的二元论立场所带来的实践上的二元关怀。%The unity of virtues is an important Greek philosophical issue. For Plato,individual virtues were unified,but civic virtues tended to represent a specific social class. The ambivalent position of unified individual virtues with non-unified civic virtues in Plato's philosophy was due to platonic dualism.

  4. Figures of Speech as Semantic Operators in the Innovation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dell’Era, Claudio; Buganza, Tommaso; Verganti, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    , the authors propose the “Rhetorical Innovation Process” as a methodology that foresees the application of figures of speech as semantic operators. First, the authors discuss several product innovations that can be interpreted according to the “Rhetorical Innovation Process”. Then, a brief workshop assignment...... group. Findings – The results obtained by design students demonstrated as figures of speech can stimulate associations with other contexts and modifications to existing architecture. The exploration of the “rhetorical innovation process” in collaboration with eight design student teams has shown...... that this method can support and enrich the concept generation phase. Moreover, four configurations proposed by the “rhetorical innovation process” allow one to generate different alternatives supporting the creative process and allowing the identification of strengths and weaknesses associated to each solution...

  5. The Masculine Image of Presidents As Sporting Figures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J. Moore

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role of the president identifying himself as a sporting figure, which can be successful as well as detrimental in the presidents’ overall public relations strategy, through an ideological criticism lens. To make this argument, the authors start by examining the role of sports in American popular culture and its relationship to a strong masculine image. Recognizing the value of publicity in the mediated political world, they then trace the evolution of the president from Eisenhower to Obama identifying himself as a sporting figure through the mass media. The article specifically focuses on the two most recent presidents’ use of sports and its effect on their masculine image. The authors conclude by addressing the implications of a future female president’s strategic use of sports.

  6. Chladni figures for completely free parallelogram plates: an analytical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardell, N. S.

    1994-07-01

    This paper communicates the first comprehensive analytical study of the title problem. The Ritz method with admissible functions in the form of Legendre polynomials is used, and is shown to provide rapid convergence and highly economic eigensolutions for a given problem. The robustness of the method is demonstrated, and proof is given of its validity at extreme skew angles. Chladni figures are presented for the first six modes of plates with three different aspect ratios and six different skew angles, making a total of 108 cases. (Additional results can be inferred for two more plate aspect ratios, thus raising the total number of Chladni figures to 180.) Outstanding agreement is obtained between all the analytically derived nodal patterns from this work and the experimental work of other investigators. The dependence of frequency on the skew angle, the aspect ratio and the Poisson ratio is also investigated, and extensive results are presented in diagrammatic and graphical format.

  7. Discriminating the structure of rotated three-dimensional figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, W; Salvendy, G

    1987-10-01

    Visualizing the structure of transformed (by rotation) three-dimensional (3-D) figures is an important aspect of information processing for computer-graphics tasks. However, little research exists to establish the speed and accuracy in which subjects perform discrimination tasks for transformed images and the effects of rotation variables on perceiving transformed images. This research tests the effects of figural complexity, angles and axes of rotation on the speed and accuracy in which subjects discriminate the structure of rotated 3-D wireframe images. Results show that response times are affected more by angles than axes of rotation, the specific form of the image affects error rates, and the number of 90 degrees bends which determine the structure of an image may be an inadequate measure of form complexity for the task described here.

  8. Figural vividness and persuasion: capturing the "elusive" vividness effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagno, Rosanna E; Rhoads, Kelton V L; Sagarin, Brad J

    2011-05-01

    Despite the widespread belief that the use of vividness in persuasive communications is effective, many laboratory studies have failed to find vividness effects. A possible explanation for this discrepancy is that many laboratory tests have not vivified solely the central thesis of the message but have vivified irrelevant portions of the message as well or instead. Two experiments examined the effect of vivifying the central ("figure") or noncentral ("ground") features of a message on persuasion. In both experiments, the formerly "elusive vividness effect" of superior persuasion was found, but only in vivid-figure communications. A mediation analysis revealed the salutary role of supportive cognitive elaborations, rather than memory for the communication, in mediating the vividness effect. The findings caution against attempts to persuade by increasing overall message vividness because off-thesis vividness has the unintended and undercutting consequence of distracting recipients from the point of the communication.

  9. Effect of authority figures for pedestrian evacuation at metro stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Zhang, Zenghui; Peng, Gongzhuang; Shi, Guoqiang

    2017-01-01

    Most pedestrian evacuation literatures are about routing algorithm, human intelligence and behavior etc. Few works studied how to fully explore the function of authority/security figures, who know more of the environment by simply being there every day. To evaluate the effect of authority figure (AF) in complex buildings, this paper fully investigates the AF related factors that may influence the evacuation effect of crowd, such as the number and locations of AFs, their spread of direction, calming effect and distribution strategies etc. Social force based modeling and simulation results show that these factors of AFs play important roles in evacuation efficiency, which means fewer AFs with right guiding strategy can have good evacuation performance. For our case study, Zhichun Avenue station, the conclusion is that deployment of four AFs is a good choice to achieve relatively high evacuation performance yet save cost.

  10. Figures of grief: metaphors from a bereavement writing group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Elizabeth

    In a community-based bereavement writing group, patterns of metaphor emerged and helped the group members identify and deal with particularly challenging aspects of death and grief, including taboo subjects such as abuse and suicide. The metaphors show how a bereavement writing group functioned to address the needs of people coping with different kinds of grief effectively and efficiently. Analysis of the specific metaphors suggests why figurative language enabled the group to bond quickly and strongly, delve into the complex emotions death elicits, and integrate experiences of loss and grief safely and productively. The patterns of metaphors the group produced in their writing about death and grief are discussed in terms of bereavement processes, and the topics the group used to elicit the figures of speech are presented for further refinement and use.

  11. Polarization preservation and control in a figure-8 ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derbenev, Yaroslav S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Morozov, Vasiliy [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Lin, Fanglei [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Yuhong [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Kondratenko, A. M. [GOO Zaryad, Russkaya st., 41, Novosibirsk, 630058; Kondratenko, M. A. [GOO Zaryad, Russkaya st., 41, Novosibirsk, 630058; Filatov, Yuri [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); GOO Zaryad, Russkaya st., 41, Novosibirsk, 630058

    2016-02-01

    We present a complete scheme for managing the polarization of ion beams in Jefferson Lab's proposed Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC). It provides preservation of the ion polarization during all stages of beam acceleration and polarization control in the collider's experimental straights. We discuss characteristic features of the spin motion in accelerators with Siberian snakes and in accelerators of figure-8 shape. We propose 3D spin rotators for polarization control in the MEIC ion collider ring. We provide polarization calculations in the collider with the 3D rotator for deuteron and proton beams. The main polarization control features of the figure-8 design are summarized.

  12. A study on sampling strategies in the figure cognitive process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹立人; 苏昊; 曹珍副

    2004-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the sampling strategies for 2 types of figures: 3-D cubes and human faces. The research was focused on: (a) from where the sampling process started; (b) in what order the figures' features were sampled. The study consisted of 2 experiments: (a) sampling strategies for 3-D cubes; (b) sampling strategies for human faces. The results showed that: (a), for 3-D cubes, the first sampling was mostly located at the outline parts, rarely at the center part; while for human faces, the first sampling was mostly located at the hair and outline parts, rarely at the mouth or cheek parts, in most cases, the first sampling-position had no significant effects on cognitive performance and that (b), the sampling order, both for 3-D cubes and for human faces, was determined by the degree of difference among the sampled-features.

  13. A study on sampling strategies in the figure cognitive process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹立人; 苏昊; 曹珍副

    2004-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the sampling strategies for 2 types of figures: 3-D cubes and human faces.The research was focused on: (a) from where the sampling process started; (b) in what order the figures' features were sampled. The study consisted of 2 experiments: (a) sampling strategies for 3-D cubes; (b) sampling strategies for human faces. The results showed that: (a), for 3-D cubes, the first sampling was mostly located at the outline parts, rarely at the center part; while for human faces, the first sampling was mostly located at the hair and outline parts, rarely at the mouth or cheek parts, in most cases, the first sampling-position had no significant effects on cognitive performance and that (b), the sampling order, both for 3-D cubes and for human faces, was determined by the degree of difference among the sampled-features.

  14. Relationships between visual figure discrimination, verbal abilities, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammik, Valdar; Toomela, Aaro

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between verbal thinking and performance on visual figure discrimination tasks from a Vygotskian perspective in a large varied adult sample (N = 428). A test designed to assess the structure of word meanings (ie tendency to think in 'everyday' or 'scientific' concepts as distinguished by Vygotsky) together with two contour picture tasks was presented. Visual tasks were a modified version of Poppelreuter's overlapping figures and a picture depicting a meaningful scene. On both tasks concrete objects and abstract meaningless shapes had to be identified. In addition to relationships between visual task performance and word meaning structure, the effects of the meaningful scene and relations with gender were examined. The results confirmed the expected relation between word meaning structure and visual performance. Furthermore, they suggested a specific effect of the meaningful whole and a male advantage, especially for the first task in which women seemed to benefit less from advanced word meaning structure.

  15. Ion beam figuring of thin glass plates: achievements and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitani, M.; Ghigo, M.; Hołyszko, J.; Vecchi, G.; Basso, S.

    2016-07-01

    Different hot slumping techniques have been developed in the last decade to shape thin glass plates in Wolter-I configuration for high angular resolution x-ray telescopes. The required high quality surface characteristic, both in terms of figure error and of micro-roughness, is challenging and the best results achieved so far are compatible with an HEW of few arcseconds. In order to push forward the technology enabling x-ray optics with final HEW below 1 arcsec, we investigate the ion beam figuring as a deterministic technology which can correct the low frequency components of the residual error directly on thin glasses. In this paper we present the tests performed so far, giving a first assessment on the deterministic process definition. In particular, we report on the results achieved on flat samples of D263 and Eagle glass, focusing on the removal function characterization, the micro-roughness evolution and the plate shape variation.

  16. Foveated Figure-Ground Segmentation and Its Role in Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Björkman, Mårten; Eklundh, Jan-Olof

    2005-01-01

    Figure-ground segmentation and recognition are two interrelated processes. In this paper we present a method for foveated segmentation and evaluate it in the context of a binocular real-time recognition system. Segmentation is solved as a binary labeling problem using priors derived from the results ofa simplistic disparity method. Doing so we are able to cope with situations when the disparity range is very wide, situations that has rarely been considered, but appear frequently for narrow-fi...

  17. A figure of merit for neural electrical stimulation circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbl, Florian; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Electrical stimulators are widely used in neuro-prostheses. Many different implementations exist. However, no quantitative ranking criterion is available to allow meaningful comparison of the various stimulation circuits and systems to aid the designer. This paper presents a novel Figure of Merit (FOM) dedicated to stimulation circuits and systems. The proposed optimization performance metric takes into account tissue safety conditions and energy efficiency which can be evaluated by measurement. The FOM is used to rank several stimulator circuits and systems.

  18. Symbolic Images of Figures in The Red Badge of Courage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓俊

    2014-01-01

    Crane’s most well-known work, The Red Badge of Courage, is commonly believed to be the first great novel of the American Civil War, largely because of its vivid and detailed description of the experience of warfare. This paper conveys figure images symbolize that human life is insignificant in an indifferent universe in the novel, which are perfect symbolic images distin-guish Crane as a forerunner of modernistic writers.

  19. Lateralized processing of novel metaphors: disentangling figurativeness and novelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgács, Bálint; Lukács, Agnes; Pléh, Csaba

    2014-04-01

    One of the intriguing and sometimes controversial findings in figurative language research is a right-hemisphere processing advantage for novel metaphors. The current divided visual field study introduced novel literal expressions as a control condition to assess processing novelty independent of figurativeness. Participants evaluated word pairs belonging to one of the five categories: (1) conventional metaphorical, (2) conventional literal, (3) novel metaphorical, (4) novel literal, and (5) unrelated expressions in a semantic decision task. We presented expressions without sentence context and controlled for additional factors including emotional valence, arousal, and imageability that could potentially influence hemispheric processing. We also utilized an eye-tracker to ensure lateralized presentation. We did not find the previously reported right-hemispherical processing advantage for novel metaphors. Processing was faster in the left hemisphere for all types of word pairs, and accuracy was also higher in the right visual field - left hemisphere. Novel metaphors were processed just as fast as novel literal expressions, suggesting that the primary challenge during the comprehension of novel expressions is not a serial processing of salience, but perhaps a more left hemisphere weighted semantic integration. Our results cast doubt on the right-hemisphere theory of metaphors, and raise the possibility that other uncontrolled variables were responsible for previous results. The lateralization of processing of two word expressions seems to be more contingent on the specific task at hand than their figurativeness or saliency.

  20. A COMPARISON OF PAIRS FIGURE SKATERS IN REPEATED JUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Sands

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Trends in pairs figure skating have shown that increasingly difficult jumps have become an essential aspect of high-level performance, especially in the latter part of a competitive program. We compared a repeated jump power index in a 60 s repeated jump test to determine the relationship of repeated jump test to competitive rank and to measure 2D hip, knee, and ankle angles and angular velocities at 0, 20, 40, and 60 s. Eighteen National Team Pairs Figure Skaters performed a 60 s repeated jump test on a large switch-mat with timing of flight and ground durations and digital video recording. Each 60-s period was divided into 6, 10-s intervals, with power indexes (W/kg calculated for each 10-s interval. Power index by 10-s interval repeated measures ANOVAs (RMANOVA showed that males exceeded females at all intervals, and the highest power index interval was during 10 to 20 s for both sexes. RMANOVAs of angles and angular velocities showed main effects for time only. Power index and jumping techniques among figure skaters showed rapid and steady declines over the test duration. Power index can predict approximately 50% of competitive rank variance, and sex differences in jumping technique were rare

  1. Figuring out’ in science and the humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Martella

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to enquire into the notion of change in figures of speech, concepts, topics, and technical instruments-models when they are “travelling” through different milieus, contexts, systems or disciplines. I conceive of this travelling as a basic exchange of energy/information, amounting to an event which can reshape a given field of experience. My argument is based on the premise that our experience happens at multiple levels and areas, and develops along different phases, which imperceptibly flow into each other and bear at times barely decipherable traces of the events that have constituted them. The processes happening at a different level from that of present perception can only be conceived of as infractions of the world tissue and of the related universe of discourse. Therefore in any field of enquiry the process of discovery can develop only through figures of discourse. My thesis is that, at the present stage of techno-science, Scriptural Figurality, which constitutes the basis of both Western epistemology and hermeneutics, is superseded and has to be replaced by a new hypermedial rhetoric, capable to cope with complexity, infraction and emergence, both in science and the humanities.

  2. Francis Bacon: The Real's Brutality. The Figure and the Other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Mannucci

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Getting in front of painting by Francis Bacon touches you deeply. I’m talking about aesthetics, sensations: resounding flow that strikes abruptly, making futile any search for meaning. Francis Bacon circumvents the figurative, the meaning, he aims to the figural: to feelings, not words. Beauty, in his paintings, shows itself in the peaceful union of the positive and of its contrary; if the negative wasn’t there, though, his paintings wouldn’t exude such a brutal sense of reality. This essay investigates the figure of Francis Bacon and the spectator – the Other – as he tries to confront the painting. Bacon will be analysed using a purely phenomenological approach, with references that range from Merleau-Ponty to Martin Heidegger; the meeting-collision between the spectator and the painting, instead, will be examined taking inspiration from the Winnicott’s thesis on the relationship between Bacon and mirrors in the painter’s childhood. In order to take distance from Winnicott’s psychoanalytical approach, this essay will focus on the relationship between spectator and painting from a more anthropological point of view. 

  3. FIGURATIVE EXPRESSION IN PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS OF RUSSIAN AND CHINESE LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the functional description of figurative expression in the phraseological units of Russian and Chinese languages. Metaphor is able to provide re-examination of the knowable through conscious and recorded as the value of a linguistic unit – metaphor for linguistic objective environmental object of conscious vision of reality. Phraseology as one of the «antropoemkih» sections of the linguistics with the language of phrasebook – as mirror, in which the community identifies Lingvokulturnaja their national identity. Proverbs and idioms literally difficult to precisely translate into others languages, because their value is based on the nationally-specific manner. A characteristic feature of phraseology is a «figurative situational motivation, which is directly linked to the worldview of the people – a native speaker, mediastinum cultural connotations, which is its figurative base. Every culture develops its own symbolic language and its image of the world in which his unit gets its value. Shaped spheres attention is drawn to the characters as cultural semantics is mostly symbolic. The symbol can be attributed to the stereotype phenomena characteristic for any culture. 

  4. Combas & Co. or the Figure and the Great Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Yaari

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The young painter, Robert Combas, leader of the 1980s "figuration libre" 'free figuration' movement, is seen here both as representative of stylistic and thematic trends in contemporary French art, and as illustrative, through the unfolding of his career, of the object "painting" and its sociology in contemporary France. Examined are: first, the "Postmodern convergence" of figurative, indeed narrative art, with the collapse of the "great divide" between elite and popular art forms; and second, traits such as hypertrophic verbal paratext, high erotic content, and political stand. Similar threads are followed in the work of a number of other artists, old and young, established or not, female and male—hence the "& Co." of the title. The essay raises, without claiming to solve, a set of sociologically and politically informed questions: What forces have shaped Combas' sensibility and style? What forces have made him a minor celebrity domestically, one that France's awesome cultural apparatus considers worthy of export? What, in the formation of contemporary mentalities and tastes, may account for the parallels found among artists as diverse as Combas, Quardon, Pierre and Gilles, Ben, and Klossowski?

  5. Superpixel Cut for Figure-Ground Image Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Michael Ying; Rosenhahn, Bodo

    2016-06-01

    Figure-ground image segmentation has been a challenging problem in computer vision. Apart from the difficulties in establishing an effective framework to divide the image pixels into meaningful groups, the notions of figure and ground often need to be properly defined by providing either user inputs or object models. In this paper, we propose a novel graph-based segmentation framework, called superpixel cut. The key idea is to formulate foreground segmentation as finding a subset of superpixels that partitions a graph over superpixels. The problem is formulated as Min-Cut. Therefore, we propose a novel cost function that simultaneously minimizes the inter-class similarity while maximizing the intra-class similarity. This cost function is optimized using parametric programming. After a small learning step, our approach is fully automatic and fully bottom-up, which requires no high-level knowledge such as shape priors and scene content. It recovers coherent components of images, providing a set of multiscale hypotheses for high-level reasoning. We evaluate our proposed framework by comparing it to other generic figure-ground segmentation approaches. Our method achieves improved performance on state-of-the-art benchmark databases.

  6. Numerical Analysis of Solids at Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-20

    specimen follows an elastoplastic model (finite strain J2 theory), with the shear band/crack being propagated based on the loss of ellipticity criterion of...cohesive law along the propagating crack. A power law with damage is considered. Figure 9.b shows the deformed configuration computed with a mesh of 6...integration in nonlinear dynamics of elastoplastic solids were prepared during this project, based on our previous work with AFOSR. Final Report, FA9550-08-1

  7. Three Metaphor in“Utopia”of Platon%刍议柏拉图《理想国》中的三大隐喻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金秋; 赵若瑜

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study, by analyzing four allegories in Republic and showing crucial points on concise diagrams, is to put forward a clue of understanding and explaining Plato's theories of justice. It is not only by figuring out the relationship between the idea and appearance of world, but also by catching the starting point of Plato's theory, that human beings become noble and beautiful object of the highest good.%柏拉图《理想国》一书涉及政治学、哲学、伦理学、教育学、文学等诸多领域的思想,对人类思想的影响极其深远。借以哲理思辨与图表分析的方式旨在对《理想国》中的太阳之喻、线段之喻、洞穴之喻与noble lie进行分析,以新的视角审视《理想国》一书中理念世界、表象世界、最高形式的善与其启蒙思想。

  8. Figure-ground representation and its decay in primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strother, Lars; Lavell, Cheryl; Vilis, Tutis

    2012-04-01

    We used fMRI to study figure-ground representation and its decay in primary visual cortex (V1). Human observers viewed a motion-defined figure that gradually became camouflaged by a cluttered background after it stopped moving. V1 showed positive fMRI responses corresponding to the moving figure and negative fMRI responses corresponding to the static background. This positive-negative delineation of V1 "figure" and "background" fMRI responses defined a retinotopically organized figure-ground representation that persisted after the figure stopped moving but eventually decayed. The temporal dynamics of V1 "figure" and "background" fMRI responses differed substantially. Positive "figure" responses continued to increase for several seconds after the figure stopped moving and remained elevated after the figure had disappeared. We propose that the sustained positive V1 "figure" fMRI responses reflected both persistent figure-ground representation and sustained attention to the location of the figure after its disappearance, as did subjects' reports of persistence. The decreasing "background" fMRI responses were relatively shorter-lived and less biased by spatial attention. Our results show that the transition from a vivid figure-ground percept to its disappearance corresponds to the concurrent decay of figure enhancement and background suppression in V1, both of which play a role in form-based perceptual memory.

  9. Sobre les utopies, els animals i les figures del ciutadà On utopias, animals and the figure of the citizen Sobre las utopías, los animales y las figuras del ciudadano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Salinas Fuentes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Intentaré desenvolupar una comparació entre el pensament clàssic grec i el pensament polític modern, això només dins de la cultura occidental. La idea és que hi ha uns paral·lelismes entre aquests dos processos, i no solament paral·lelismes sinó també continuïtats. De manera esquemàtica, faré el següent: primer abordaré el tema de les utopies; a continuació, em centraré en la idea que els pensadors polítics, en general, utilitzen els models del món animal per pensar la vida social; després assajaré els símils que romanen al llarg de la història del pensament que són, principalment, les figures de les ovelles i de les abelles, i per acabar, presentaré Rousseau i la ciutadania. Com a conclusió, exposaré la «validesa» d’aquestes representacions. Un últim aclariment, s’abasta un període de llarga duració que va des de Plató fins a la Revolució Francesa. _____________________________________________ Nous tenterons de développer une comparaison entre la pensée classique grecque et la pensée politique moderne, et cela seulement dans la culture occidentale. L’idée est qu’il y a des parallélismes entre ces deux processus, et pas seulement des parallélismes sinon aussi des continuités. De manière schématique, nous ferons ce qui suit : tout d’abord, nous aborderons le thème des utopies ; puis, nous nous centrerons sur l’idée selon laquelle les penseurs politiques, en général, utilisent les modèles du monde animal pour penser la vie sociale ; ensuite, nous présenterons les similitudes qui demeurent au fil de l’histoire de la pensée que sont, principalement, les figures des brebis et des abeilles ; pour terminer, nous présenterons Rousseau et la citoyenneté. En guise de conclusion, nous exposerons la « validité » de ces représentations. Un dernier éclaircissement : nous couvrirons une période de longue duurée qui va de Platon à la Révolution française.My aim is to draw a comparison

  10. Dissection of Drosophila Visual Circuits Implicative in Figure Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Ross G.

    The Drosophila visual system offers a model to study the foundations of how motion signals are computed from raw visual input and transformed into behavioral output. My studies focus on how specific cells in the Drosophila nervous system implement this input-output transformation. The individual cell types are known from classical studies using Golgi impregnations, but the assembly of motion processing circuits and the behavioral outputs remain poorly understood. Using an electronic flight simulator for flies and a white-noise analysis developed by Aptekar et al., I screen specific neurons in the optic lobes for behavioral ramifications. This approach produces wing responses to both the spatial and temporal dynamics of motion signals. The results of these experiments give Spatiotemporal Action Fields (STAFs) across the entire visual panorama. Genetically inactivating a distinct grouping of cells in the third optic ganglion, the Lobula Plate, the Horizontal System (HS) cell group, produced a robust phenotype through STAF analysis. Using the Gal4-UAS transgene expression system, we selectively inactivated the HS cells by expressing in their membrane inward rectifying potassium channels (Kir2.1) to hyperpolarize these cells, preventing their role in synaptic signaling. The results of the experiments show mutants lose steering responses to several distinct categories of figure motion and reduced behavioral responses to figure motion set against a contrasting moving background, highlighting their role in figure tracking behavior. Finally, a synapse inactivating protein, tetanus toxin (TNT), expressed in the HS cell group, produces a different behavioral phenotype than overexpressing inward rectifier. TNT, a bacterial neurotoxin, cleaves SNARE proteins resulting in loss of synaptic output of the cell, but the dendrites are intact and signal normally, preserving dendro-dendritic interactions known to sculpt the visual receptive fields of these cells. The two distinct

  11. MEASUREMENT OF NASAL FIGURE BY MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To get the basic data of nasal figure of the Han nationality individuals in Xi'an area and provide for junsprudence and the reconstruction of skull. Methods Nasal height, length, depth and breadth of 313cases in Xi'an area, which had different age and sex, were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results Image of MRI could clearly show the figure of nose and the position we selected were correct and accuracy. The specific data were: Nasal length (male:34. 47±4.29 ~52.20±3.47, female:33. 11±3.33~46. 94±3.83); Nasal height(male: 39.22±3.68~59.49±2.30, female: 33.89±3.95~51.75±3.68); Nasal depth(male: 11.89±1.76~16.68±2.48, female: 10.69±1. 81~16.46±2.04);Nasal breadth(male: 33. 09±3. 83~42. 49±2.72,female:32.00±1.94~38. 86±2.61). So the results were credible. Conclusion The nasal figure of individuals in Xi'an area is different as their different age and sex. It promotes that the influence factors of age and sex must be considered in the facial reconstruction and medico legally reconstructing skull.

  12. Application of Platonic Analysis for Improving Rational Drug Use in Our Hospital%柏拉图分析法在提高我院临床合理用药水平中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐萌; 郭凤霞; 司法启; 梁立峰; 倪惠珍; 王海玲

    2013-01-01

    目的:降低不合理用药率,提高临床合理用药水平.方法:选取我院588名医师2010年第1、2季度病历共2 940份,采用柏拉图分析法对其中的不合理用药情况进行解析,找出关键的影响因素,采取切实可行的应对措施,再与改进后的2011年第1、2季度的2 940份病历相关情况进行比较.结果:我院不合理用药的类型包括用药时机不当、用药疗程不当等,并主要体现在围手术期用药时,影响因素涉及未及时进行病原学检查和药敏试验、未区分预防和治疗用药等;通过采取提高认识、知识培训、完善资料等措施,不合理用药发生频数由改进前的4 003例次下降到1 814例次,不合理用药分类的15项中有13项指标显著下降(P<0.05).结论:柏拉图分析法可量化临床药师各项活动和考评临床药学服务效果,可提高医院临床合理用药水平.%OBJECTIVE: To reduce the incidence of irrational drug use and improve rational use of drugs in the clinic. METHODS: 2 940 medical records were collected from 588 physicians of our hospital in the first and second quarter of 2010. Irrational drug use was analyzed by Platonic analysis to find out important influential factors and carry out the feasible corresponding measures, and then compared with 2 940 medical records collected in the first and second quarter of 2011. RESULTS: Irrational drug use of our hospital included inappropriate medication time, improper treatment course, and so on, which was mainly reflected in aspect of perioperative medication; influential factors involved etiological examination and drug sensitive test behind time, confusion between prophylactic medication and therapeutic medication, etc. After enhancing understanding, training, perfecting information and other measures, the number of irrational drug use decreased from 4 003 to 1 814, and that of 13 items decreased sharply among 15 items of irrational drug use (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Platonic

  13. Chomsky’s Linguistic Ideas and Political Thought-Platonic Problem and Orwellian Problem%乔姆斯基语言学和政治学的联系--“柏拉图问题”和“奥威尔问题”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱璇璇; 黄凌燕

    2013-01-01

    诺姆·乔姆斯基是杰出的美国语言学家、政治活动家、哲学家和思想家,其一生的研究方向主要集中在两个方面:数理语言学和政治评论,即“柏拉图问题”(Platonic Problem)和“奥威尔问题”(Orwellian Problem)。通过解读乔姆斯基语言学和政治学二者之间确实存在某种微妙的关系--关于人的本质(human nature)的研究,并就乔姆斯基关于人的本质的主要观点为出发点,探讨和研究乔姆斯基对“柏拉图问题”和“奥威尔问题”的看法。%Noam Chomsky is the distinguished linguists, politician, philosopher and ideologist, whose research has focused on two aspects: mathematical linguistics and political criticism, that is, a research of the solution to Platonic Problem and Orwellian Problem. The essay will find out certain delicate relationship between Chomsky’s linguistic ideas and political thought, and both Platonic Problem and Orwellian Problem are subsumed under research on human nature, from which the author will explore both problems more deeply and thoroughly.

  14. Breath figures of two immiscible substances on a repellent surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J.; González-Viñas, W.

    2013-05-01

    The understanding of the competition between different substances while condensing on a cold surface is of high interest in situations in which it is desirable to control their condensation rates and the formed morphologies. We do the experiments for mixtures of water and hexamethyldisiloxane vapors at several concentrations. The dropwise condensation of the vapors forms breath figures on a substrate that is repellant to both substances. We report the average radius of the drops for each specie as a function of time. Also, we pay attention to the evolution of the corresponding morphologies and the appearance of hybrid clusters.

  15. Manuel Alvarez Bravo, photographe mexicain de l’abstraction figurative

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent Aubague

    2011-01-01

    Parmi les multiples facettes de la longue œuvre de Manuel Alvarez Bravo (1902-2002), celle qui correspond à la décennie des années 1925-1935 peut susciter un intérêt particulier dans la mesure où elle semble répondre à une orientation esthétique originale, apparemment contradictoire, pouvant être qualifiée d’abstraction figurative.When considering the multi-faceted work Manuel Alvarez Bravo produced throughout his lifetime (1902-2002), the decade 1925-35 offers particular interest insofar as ...

  16. Understanding one-way ANOVA using conceptual figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyun

    2017-02-01

    Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is one of the most frequently used statistical methods in medical research. The need for ANOVA arises from the error of alpha level inflation, which increases Type 1 error probability (false positive) and is caused by multiple comparisons. ANOVA uses the statistic F, which is the ratio of between and within group variances. The main interest of analysis is focused on the differences of group means; however, ANOVA focuses on the difference of variances. The illustrated figures would serve as a suitable guide to understand how ANOVA determines the mean difference problems by using between and within group variance differences.

  17. A comparison of pairs figure skaters in repeated jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, William A; Kimmel, Wendy L; McNeal, Jeni R; Murray, Steven Ross; Stone, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    Trends in pairs figure skating have shown that increasingly difficult jumps have become an essential aspect of high-level performance, especially in the latter part of a competitive program. We compared a repeated jump power index in a 60 s repeated jump test to determine the relationship of repeated jump test to competitive rank and to measure 2D hip, knee, and ankle angles and angular velocities at 0, 20, 40, and 60 s. Eighteen National Team Pairs Figure Skaters performed a 60 s repeated jump test on a large switch-mat with timing of flight and ground durations and digital video recording. Each 60-s period was divided into 6, 10-s intervals, with power indexes (W/kg) calculated for each 10-s interval. Power index by 10-s interval repeated measures ANOVAs (RMANOVA) showed that males exceeded females at all intervals, and the highest power index interval was during 10 to 20 s for both sexes. RMANOVAs of angles and angular velocities showed main effects for time only. Power index and jumping techniques among figure skaters showed rapid and steady declines over the test duration. Power index can predict approximately 50% of competitive rank variance, and sex differences in jumping technique were rare. Key pointsThe repeated jumps test can account for about 50% of the variance in pairs ranks.Changes in technique are largely due to fatigue, but the athletes were able to maintain a maximum flexion knee angle very close to the desired 90 degrees. Changes in angular velocity and jump heights occurred as expected, again probably due to fatigue.As expected from metabolic information, the athletes' power indexes peak around 20s and decline thereafter. Coaches should be aware of this time as a boundary beyond which fatigue becomes more manifest, and use careful choreographic choices to provide rest periods that are disguised as less demanding skating elements to afford recovery.The repeated jumps test may be a helpful off-ice test of power-endurance for figure skaters.

  18. From everyday communicative figurations to rigorous audience news repertoires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobbernagel, Christian; Schrøder, Kim Christian

    2016-01-01

    In the last couple of decades there has been an unprecedented explosion of news media platforms and formats, as a succession of digital and social media have joined the ranks of legacy media. We live in a ‘hybrid media system’ (Chadwick, 2013), in which people build their cross-media news reperto...... of six audience news repertoires in Denmark, also preserves the qualitative thickness of the participants’ verbal accounts of the communicative figurations of their day-in-the-life with the news media...

  19. Enhancing the thermoelectric figure of merit in engineered graphene nanoribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatef Sadeghi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that thermoelectric properties of graphene nanoribbons can be dramatically improved by introducing nanopores. In monolayer graphene, this increases the electronic thermoelectric figure of merit ZTe from 0.01 to 0.5. The largest values of ZTe are found when a nanopore is introduced into bilayer graphene, such that the current flows from one layer to the other via the inner surface of the pore, for which values as high as ZTe = 2.45 are obtained. All thermoelectric properties can be further enhanced by tuning the Fermi energy of the leads.

  20. Figure del desiderio: l'amore fra distruzione e sublime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Franzone

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Attraverso due racconti di Cortázar, l'analisi di due figure del desiderio ci permette esplorare due estremi seguendo una verticalità. La distruzione, doppio tenebroso della nostra anima, ci rivela un erotismo legato alla morte e al desiderio morboso di possedere l'Altro; il suo contraltare è un'ascesa vertiginosa accompagnata da un godimento estetico, dall'amore sublime prossimo all'esperienza mistica che si concluderà con una discesa progressiva e nel rispetto di questo Altro. La creazione letteraria si presenta come uno sfogo alle nostre angosce, che sono anche una sorta d'espressione dell'erotismo.

  1. Correspondence between some wave patterns and Lissajous figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska, K. J.; Makowski, A. J.; Dembinski, S. T.

    2006-10-01

    We study the connections between some specially entangled stationary states and the classical periodic trajectories of two non-interacting oscillators. The latter are well-known Lissajous figures, which are shown to run precisely over the apogees of their corresponding probability distributions in the above states. We propose in this work a very simple criterion enabling us to obtain the best agreement between the quantum and the classical images. Finally, our results are successfully applied to the interpretation of some experimentally observed wave patterns.

  2. Correspondence between some wave patterns and Lissajous figures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorska, K J; Makowski, A J; Dembinski, S T [Institute of Physics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, ul. Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2006-10-20

    We study the connections between some specially entangled stationary states and the classical periodic trajectories of two non-interacting oscillators. The latter are well-known Lissajous figures, which are shown to run precisely over the apogees of their corresponding probability distributions in the above states. We propose in this work a very simple criterion enabling us to obtain the best agreement between the quantum and the classical images. Finally, our results are successfully applied to the interpretation of some experimentally observed wave patterns.

  3. Comparative study of"imitation theory"--from Platon to Aristotle%“模仿说”比较研究——从柏拉图到亚里士多德

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡安奇

    2012-01-01

      “模仿”历来是西方文论和美学史的一条主线,它贯穿于文论和美学的始终。众多的模仿说当中,古希腊柏拉图建立在“理念论”之上的模仿说和亚里士多德“艺术模仿现实”的唯物主义模仿说尤其光彩夺目,他们共同奠定了西方美学、文论的理论基础。本文简要回顾了柏拉图和亚氏模仿说的基本内涵,并对这两种模仿说进行简略的比较,最后小结柏拉图和亚氏师徒二人在模仿说理论上产生分歧的原因。%  "Imitation"has always been the masterstroke of western literary theory and aesthetics history, it runs through in literary theory and aesthetics. In many imitation, ancient Greek Platon’s"imitation theory"built on the"theory of idea"and Aristotle’s materialism imitating of"art imitating reality"is especially bright, together they laid the theory foundation of western aesthetics and literary theory. This paper presents the basic connotation of Platon and Asia 's imitation theory, and a simple comparison between the two kind of imitation theory, finally summarizes the reasons of divergence.

  4. Surreal and Canny Selves: Photographic Figures in Claude Cahun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Zachmann

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In her 1975 essay, Le Rire de la méduse , Hélène Cixous enthusiastically announced that it was high time for women to enter into discourse. A full half-century earlier, Claude Cahun (1894-1954, a powerful writer and a haunting photographer and artist, was already inscribing herself, Woman, and a woman's voice in visual and verbal self-portraits, photomontages, prose texts, poetry, and aesthetic and political treatises. Cahun's uncanny interventions in both verbal and visual discourse cannily interrogate conventions of literary and pictorial representation and the constructions of self, gender and culture that they exhibit. Insistently asking readers and spectators, "What's wrong with this picture?," her carnivalesque play with the doxa and the politics of identity, destabilizes not only gender and genre norms, but the boundaries and distinctions between visual and verbal representation. Surreal and Canny Selves explores the aesthetic frameworks of writer/artist Claude Cahun. Elucidating how Cahun's questioning of her self and Surrealist representations of woman were part of a much more expansive adventure that questioned more than femininity—the manuscript moves on to trace how and what Cahun's foregrounding of figuration and, more specifically, photographic figuration, might signify for the uncanny aesthetic practices deployed in the hybrid text Aveux non avenus .

  5. Mimetic fandom and one-sixth-scale action figures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Godwin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Within material practices that emphasize reproduction, customizers often extrapolate, creating new material to fill in gaps. Bricolage transforms mass-produced items into individualized creative works by improving the perceived accuracy of licensed merchandise or by recycling and repurposing items to achieve realistic and imaginative results. Customization's material fan practices reproduce items in order to create transformative narratives. After duplicating a beloved fan object's definitive appearance, clothing, and/or accessories in one-sixth scale, customizers often pose and photograph action figures in recreations of iconic scenes. Other images and photostories use miniature reproductions of material objects to rework existing media texts and characters or to tell completely original narratives. Images also disrupt and deconstruct the valorization of accuracy. Living rooms, pets, and other aspects of everyday life intrude into photographs of accurately reproduced items and characters. Figures in photostories may be made to break character. Such transformative moments call attention to the toys' status as toys and to the constructed nature of poses, dioramas, and narratives.

  6. A physiological and nutritional profile of young female figure skaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delistraty, D A; Reisman, E J; Snipes, M

    1992-06-01

    This study was undertaken to develop a physiological and nutritional profile of 13 female figure skaters, aged 9-17 years. Compared with previous published data, skaters in this study were younger and smaller with a higher percent body fat. Skaters in this study were less experienced and trained less than skaters in other studies but attained similar levels of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), handgrip strength, and vertical jump power. Relative VO2max (ml/kg/min) was significantly negatively correlated (p less than 0.0033) with body weight and percent body fat, while body weight was significantly positively correlated (p less than 0.0003) with handgrip strength and vertical jump power. In terms of nutritional recommendations, skaters in this study consumed comparatively high amounts of fat and protein with low amounts of carbohydrate, calcium, and iron. Despite suboptimal nutrition and a relatively low training volume, skaters in this study exhibited physiological characteristics similar to those reported for female figure skaters in the literature.

  7. Evaluation of solar mirror figure by moire contouring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, J.W.; Lind, M.A.

    1980-06-01

    Moire topography is applied to the figure assessment of solar mirrors. The technique is demonstrated on component facets of a six-meter diameter, four-meter focal length, parabolic dish collector. The relative ease of experimental implementation and subsequent data analysis suggests distinct advantages over the more established laser ray trace or BCS/ICS technique for many applications. The theoretical and experimental considerations necessary to fully implement moire topography on mirror surfaces are detailed. A procedure to de-specularize the mirror is demonstrated which conserves the surface morphology without damaging the reflective surface. The moire fringe patterns observed for the actual mirror facets are compared with theoretical contours generated for representative dish facets using a computer simulation algorithm. A method for evaluating the figure error of the real facet is presented in which the error parameter takes the form of an average absolute deviation of the surface slope from theoretical. The experimental measurement system used for this study employs a 200 line/inch Ronchi transmission grating. The mirror surface is illuminated by a collimated beam at 60/sup 0/. The fringe observation is performed normal to the grating. These parameters yield contour intervals for the fringe patterns of 0.073 mm. The practical considerations for extending the techniques to higher resolution are discussed.

  8. The Emergence of Figural Effects in the Watercolor Illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Baingio; Penna, Maria Pietronilla

    The watercolor illusion is characterized by a large-scale assimilative color spreading (coloration effect) emanating from thin colored edges. The watercolor illusion enhances the figural properties of the colored areas and imparts to the surrounding area the perceptual status of background. This work explores interactions between cortical boundary and surface processes by presenting displays and psychophysical experiments that exhibit new properties of the watercolor illusion. The watercolor illusion is investigated as supporting a new principle of figure-ground organization when pitted against principles of surroundedness, relative orientation, and Prägnanz. The work demonstrated that the watercolor illusion probes a unique combination of visual processes that set it apart from earlier Gestalt principles, and can compete successfully against them. This illusion exemplifies how long-range perceptual effects may be triggered by spatially sparse information. All the main effects are explained by the FACADE model of biological vision, which clarifies how local properties control depthful filling-in of surface lightness and color.

  9. Coping strategies used by national champion figure skaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, D; Finch, L M; Jackson, S A

    1993-12-01

    This investigation had two purposes: (a) to identify and describe the coping strategies used by national champion figure skaters and (b) to examine the relationship between coping strategies and particular stress sources. Participants were 17 of 20 (85%) Senior U.S. National Champion figure skaters who won titles between 1985 and 1990. All skaters were interviewed, and the interview transcripts were content analyzed. General coping dimensions reported by at least 40% of the skaters included (a) rational thinking and self-talk, (b) positive focus and orientation, (c) social support (e.g., receiving support from coach, talking with friends and family), (d) time management and prioritization, (e) precompetitive mental preparation and anxiety management (e.g., relaxation, visualization), (f) training hard and smart, (g) isolation and deflection (e.g., not letting things get to me, avoiding/screening media), and (h) ignoring the stressor(s). It was also found that the skaters implemented different coping strategies depending on the specific stressors encountered.

  10. Constructions of the patient in healthcare communications: six patient figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how strategic, patient-centred communication plays a part in the discursive management of expectations posed to patients and healthcare organizations. The paper provides an analysis of four documents collected as part of an ethnographic case study regarding "The Perspective of the Patient" - a Danish Hospital's patient-centred communication programme. Mapping methods inspired by Grounded Theory are used to qualify the analysis. The paper shows that strategic patient-centred communication addresses both a care-oriented approach to the patient and deploys market perceptions of patients. Market and care is seen as co-existing organizing modes that entail expectations to the patient. In the communication programme the patient is constructed in six information-seeking patient figures: affective patient; target group patient; citizen with rights; patient as a competent resource; user as active partner; and consumer. As a result, the patient-centred communication programme renders the patient as a flexible figure able to fit organizational demands of both care orientation and market concerns. This study contributes to qualitative research in organizational health communication by combining two subfields - patient-centredness and health communication - in an empirical study of how market and care are intertwined in a patient-centred communication programme. The argument goes beyond the prevalent prescriptive approaches to patient-centredness and healthcare communication, instead providing a critical analytical perspective on strategic communication and patient-centredness and showing how expectations are posed to both patient and organization.

  11. The Development of a Deflectometer for Accurate Surface Figure Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Eberhardt, Andrew; Ramsey, Brian; Atkins, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center is developing the method of direct fabrication for high resolution full-shell x-ray optics. In this technique the x-ray optics axial profiles are figured and polished using a computer-controlled ZeekoIRP600X polishing machine. Based on the Chandra optics fabrication history about one third of the manufacturing time is spent on moving a mirror between fabrication and metrology sites, reinstallation and alignment with either the metrology or fabrication instruments. Also, the accuracy of the alignment significantly affects the ultimate accuracy of the resulting mirrors. In order to achieve higher convergence rate it is highly desirable to have a metrology technique capable of in situ surface figure measurements of the optics under fabrication, so the overall fabrication costs would be greatly reduced while removing the surface errors due to the re-alignment necessary after each metrology cycle during the fabrication. The goal of this feasibility study is to demonstrate if the Phase Measuring Deflectometry can be applied for in situ metrology of full shell x-ray optics. Examples of the full-shell mirror substrates suitable for the direct fabrication

  12. Visual field and task influence illusory figure responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Afiza; Liu, Lichan; Conci, Markus; Elliott, Mark A; Ioannides, Andreas A

    2008-11-01

    In normal viewing conditions, many objects are often hidden or occluded by others, therefore restricting the information that enters the eye. One ability that the human visual system has developed to compensate for this visual limitation is to relate the surrounding elements to globally interpret the whole scene. The appearance of illusory figures (IF) based on surrounding elements also relies on this similar function. In the present study, we hypothesized that different mechanisms may be used by the brain to process IF from the center and periphery of the visual field. We compared magnetoencephalographic responses to IFs presented at different parts of the visual field under three task loads. For central presentation, IF specific responses peaked first in V1/V2 (96-101 ms), and then in the lateral occipital complex (LOC; 132-141 ms), independent of task. For peripheral presentation, the relative modulation towards IF was markedly reduced in V1/V2 and LOC while prominent activation peaks now shifted to the Fusiform Gyrus (from 200 ms onwards). Additionally, the type of task influenced processing at early stages beginning in V1/V2 (87 ms). Our results show that retinal eccentricity plays a crucial role in IF processing: figural completion at the center of the visual field is achieved in an 'automatic' and seemingly effortless fashion whereas peripheral stimulus locations necessitate higher-order object completion stages which rely more heavily on attentional demands.

  13. Active thermal figure control for the TOPS II primary mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Roger; Kang, Tae; Cuerden, Brian; Guyon, Olivier; Stahl, Phil

    2007-09-01

    TOPS (Telescope to Observe Planetary Systems) is the first coronagraphic telescope concept designed specifically to take advantage of Guyon's method of Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization PIAA).1 The TOPS primary mirror may incorporates active figure control to help achieve the desired wavefront control to approximately 1 angstrom RMS accurate across the spectral bandwidth. Direct correction of the primary figure avoids the need for a separate small deformable mirror. Because of Fresnel propagation, correction at a separate surface can introduce serious chromatic errors unless it is precisely conjugated to the primary. Active primary control also reduces complexity and mass and increases system throughput, and will likely enable a full system test to the 10-10 level in the 1 g environment before launch. We plan to use thermal actuators with no mechanical disturbance, using radiative heating or cooling fingers distributed inside the cells of a honeycomb mirror. The glass would have very small but finite coefficient of expansion of ~ 5x10 -8/C. Low order modes would be controlled by front-to-back gradients and high order modes by local rib expansion and contraction. Finite element models indicate that for a mirror with n cells up to n Zernike modes can be corrected to better than 90% fidelity, with still higher accuracy for the lower modes. An initial demonstration has been made with a borosilicate honeycomb mirror. Interferometric measurements show a single cell influence function with 300 nm stroke and ~5 minute time constant.

  14. The enigmatic figure of Dr Henry Maudsley (1835-1918).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelidou, Maria; Demetriades, Andreas K

    2014-08-01

    In spite of his contribution to psychiatry in 19th century Britain, Henry Maudsley remains a mysterious figure, a man mostly known for his donation to the London County Council for the building of the Maudsley Hospital and for The Maudsley Annual Lecture created in honour of his benevolence. Besides Sir Aubrey Lewis' article in 1951 and Michael Collie's attempt in 1988 to construct a biographical study on Maudsley, there does not seem to be any current endeavour to tell the story of his life, whereas Trevor Turner's contribution to the 2004 Oxford Dictionary of National Biography gives a somewhat scathing but unattributed account of Maudsley's personality. This essay attempts to explore his contributions to the Medico-Psychological Association (MPA), the current Royal College of Psychiatrists, his editorship of the Journal of Mental Health (currently named the British Journal of Psychiatry), his literary contributions and his vision for a psychiatric hospital. This essay is an attempt to demystify his figure and to explore some of the rumours and criticisms surrounding his name and the reasons why so little has been written about him. It is also a venture to unravel his complex personality and his intricate philosophy.

  15. Introduction to solid mechanics an integrated approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    This expanded second edition presents in one text the concepts and processes covered in statics and mechanics of materials curricula following a systematic, topically integrated approach. Building on the novel pedagogy of fusing concepts covered in traditional undergraduate courses in rigid-body statics and deformable body mechanics, rather than simply grafting them together, this new edition develops further the authors’ very original treatment of solid mechanics with additional figures, an elaboration on selected solved problems, and additional text as well as a new subsection on viscoelasticity in response to students’ feedback. Introduction to Solid Mechanics: An Integrated Approach, Second Edition, offers a holistic treatment of the depth and breadth of solid mechanics and the inter-relationships of its underlying concepts. Proceeding from first principles to applications, the book stands as a whole greater than the sum of its parts.  .

  16. The figure of Timoteo O’Scanlan: a revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Christopher WHITE HAYES

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Logan (1964 and Parrilla Hermida (1980 are the authors of what have become to be the referential publications on the life and work of Timoteo O’Scanlan in English and Spanish respectively. However, recent scholarship both on the general contextual background of Irish emigration to Spain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and more specifically on or connected with O’Scanlan are showing these works to be in need of major revision. The present article undertakes such a revision and –on a basis of new archive information, close analysis of O’Scanlan’s writings and the scholarship in the field generally and specifically– it will correct errors, fill in gaps and provide new information. All of these give a much more comprehensive analysis of the figure of Timoteo O’Scanlan and his role in eighteenth-century Spanish medicine, science and culture.

  17. Factors associated with escalation and problematic approaches toward public figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid; James, David V; Mullen, Paul E; Pathé, Michele T; Farnham, Frank R; Preston, Lulu F; Darnley, Brian J

    2011-01-01

    Detailed comparison of factors associated with abnormal approach to the prominent and with escalation from communication to approach has not hitherto been undertaken. This partially reflects the failure of individual studies to adopt compatible terminologies. This study involves a careful dissection of six public figure studies, three involving U.S. politicians, two Hollywood celebrities, and one the British Royal Family. Common findings were unearthed across six headings. Approachers were significantly more likely to exhibit serious mental illness, engage in multiple means of communication, involve multiple contacts/targets, and to incorporate into their communication requests for help. They were significantly less likely to use threatening or antagonistic language in their communications, except in those cases involving security breaches. These results emphasize the importance of integrating mental health findings and preventive measures into risk management. Approach should not be regarded as a single behavioral category and has multiple motivations. Future studies should adopt standard terminology, preferably taken from the general stalking research.

  18. Surface Figure Metrology for CELT Primary Mirror Segments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommargren, G; Phillion, D; Seppala, L; Lerner, S

    2001-02-27

    The University of California and California Institute of Technology are currently studying the feasibility of building a 30-m segmented ground based optical telescope called the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT). The early ideas for this telescope were first described by Nelson and Mast and more recently refined by Nelson. In parallel, concepts for the fabrication of the primary segments were proposed by Mast, Nelson and Sommargren where high risk technologies were identified. One of these was the surface figure metrology needed for fabricating the aspheric mirror segments. This report addresses the advanced interferometry that will be needed to achieve 15nm rms accuracy for mirror segments with aspheric departures as large as 35mm peak-to-valley. For reasons of cost, size, measurement consistency and ease of operation we believe it is desirable to have a single interferometer that can be universally applied to each and every mirror segment. Such an instrument is described in this report.

  19. A Figure-of-Merit for Beta Cell Detector Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxe, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Brian W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suarez, Rey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-02

    In order to decrease the minimum detectable activities (MDAs) of beta-gamma radioxenon detectors, it is important to increase the ability to resolve the individual isotopes. One proposed method for doing this is to increase the energy resolution of the beta cell through the use of silicon detectors. While silicon detectors can improve the energy resolution, it is accompanied with a decrease in detection efficiency compared to plastic scintillator beta cells. Due to the uncertainty on the impact of the competing variables, we have developed a figure-of-merit (FOM) capable of determining the impact of detector parameters on the MDAs. By utilizing the FOM to analyze different detectors, we are able to directly compare current and future detectors and estimate their impact on the radioxenon MDAs.

  20. The bricoleur’s figure in artistic practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Resende Côrrea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Art as process and reflection of the lived moment deals many times with issues that refers to its context and with the available materials in the current scenario. In a society marked by consumption and ephemerality, this article promotes a reflection on the use of disposed and collected products in works of visual artists. The bricoleur appears in this context as a central figure for the understanding and the analysis of some of the many artistic practices realized recently. By bricolage, artists like Joseph Cornell, Farnese de Andrade, Amanda Mei and Courtney Smith performed works with hybrid content that reflect the lived moment and issues contained in the materials available in the current scenario.

  1. Representasi Figur Burung Garuda yang Digunakan sebagai Lambang Negara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurica Oentoro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are three coat of arms which have high level of similarities, such as Indonesia, Romania, and United Arab Emirates. These three nations the use bird figure as their coat of arms. These three nation’s perception for the meaning of the bird is same. However, the depiction of the bird’s form is different for each nation. It’s because each nation is using a different species of birds. The differences in perception also includes what is shown in the coat of arms. This research used Visual Methodologies from the site of image itself with compositional interpretation and Peirce’s semiotics to analyze these three coat of arms. The purpose of this research is to know the meaning behind the three coat of arms which have high level of similarities.

  2. A Brief Analysis of Figures of Speech in Vanity Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋红英

    2013-01-01

    In the West, the rhetoric is an old and young science, which has a history of 2,300 years. With the emergence of rheto⁃ric, the expression of our language became richer and more various. Meanwhile, the expressing capacity of language became more powerful and dynamic. Therefore, readers can understand what the author wants to express as if they were on the scenes. In the nineteenth-century, critical realism was quite prevalent in Britain. William Makepeace Thackeray was one of the most bril⁃liant stars in this school at that time. His masterpiece Vanity Fair presents us the characteristics of a variety of people in different conditions in detail . The most common figures of speech employed in this novel are irony, satire and humor through which the Vanity Fair can make us laugh, and at the same time, it is thought-provoking.

  3. The role of chunking in drawing Rey complex figure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaidellah, U H; Cheng, P C-H

    2015-04-01

    The study investigated the effects of chunking and perceptual patterns that guide the drawings of Rey complex figure. Ten adult participants (M age=22.2 yr., SD=4.1) reproduced a single stimulus in four drawing modes including delayed recall, tracing, copying, and immediate recall across 10 sessions producing a total of 400 trials. It was hypothesized that the effect of chunking is most obvious in the free recall tasks than in the tracing or copying tasks. Measures such as pauses, patterns of drawings, and transitions among patterns of drawings suggested that participants used chunking to aid rapid learning of the diagram. The analysis of the participants' sequence of chunk production further revealed that they used a spatial schema to organize the chunks. Findings from this study provide additional evidence to support prior studies that claim graphical information is hierarchically organized.

  4. Teaching Geometrical Figures in Waray: The LNU-ILS Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltaire Q. Oyzon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Waray children are “unconsciously shifting from their mother language to English and/or Tagalog in their vocabulary use”. English vocabularies are more familiar to Waray educands of today than are the indigenous Waray terms, for instance, for geometrical figures, colors, numbers, etc. Still, “it is an ongoing debate of what type of language should be used in the implementation of MTBMLE.” Should educators use a Waray that borrows heavily from English and other languages or a Waray that uses exclusively its own indigenous terms and concepts? The researchers formulate a single lesson plan using an inductive method incorporating the Montessori Approach. We have two types of pupils at LNU-ILS: Waray pupils whose language at home is Waray, and Waray pupils who are exposed to English at home.

  5. Energy predictions. [Briefs on 33 charts, figures, and graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freiwald, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Briefs describe 33 charts, graphs, and schematics offering some recent history and perspectives on the world and U.S. energy situation and the problems for survival facing the world. Of interest is Figure 28, showing the Club of Rome's model of the earth in terms of resource consumption, food, money, people, pollution, etc. A computer was asked to extend recent history into the future and results indicate a collapse of the industrialized system towards an agrarian culture around the year 2025. It is noted that the model did not consider technological initiative or man's willingness to change lifestyles. The final (33) schematic is a guesstimate of noticeable impact timescales, indicating when research projects on transition or ultimate energy sources at LASL might be expected to yield impact. (MCW)

  6. Teaching Geometrical Figures in Waray: The LNU-ILS Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltaire Q. Oyzon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Waray children are “unconsciously shifting from their mother language to English and/or Tagalog in their vocabulary use”. English vocabularies are more familiar to Waray educands of today than are the indigenous Waray terms, for instance, for geometrical figures, colors, numbers, etc. Still, “it is an ongoing debate of what type of language should be used in the implementation of MTBMLE.” Should educators use a Waray that borrows heavily from English and other languages or a Waray that uses exclusively its own indigenous terms and concepts? The researchers formulate a single lesson plan using an inductive method incorporating the Montessori Approach. We have two types of pupils at LNU-ILS: Waray pupils whose language at home is Waray, and Waray pupils who are exposed to English at home.

  7. The judicial domain in view Figures, trends and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Loth

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper sets out to describe the most relevant social tendencies that can influence the Dutch judicial system’s domain in the medium term and to evaluate the possible effects of these tendencies on the composition of legal fields. American legal theory concerning the role of the courts’ functions is a frame of reference for the analysis. In the light of a quantitative paradigm, first, the judicial domain is represented in figures and demarcated with respect to the domains of other relevant activities and participants. The social role of courts in the Dutch legal system is then considered in the light of a qualitative paradigm, focusing on the influence of the judge and the impact of his judgments. These lines of thought are brought together in the description of a few possible scenarios for the development of the judicial domain in the Netherlands in the years to come. A few conclusions round off this investigation.

  8. On Byzantine origins of figural miniatures of Belgrade Alexandride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The late antique literary biography of Alexander the Great known as Pseudo-Callisthenes’ Alexander Romance was remarkably popular reading both in Byzantium and in the West in the middle ages. This literary work was also translated into Serbian Slavonic. Two extensively illustrated manuscripts of the “Serbian Alexandride”, and one decorated with only a few drawings are known. The paper discusses the iconographic features of the oldest of the known manuscripts, the so-called Belgrade Alexandride, which is commonly dated to the second half or the end of the fourteenth century. The research is particularly focused on the costumes of the depicted figures. The findings of the research suggest that the iconographic solutions of the miniatures are of Byzantine origin and that earlier views suggesting West-European influences on their shaping are not founded. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177032: Tradicija, inovacija i identitet u vizantijskom svetu

  9. Figures of merit for the evaluation of regenerative power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Maestri, Sebastian; Le Godec, Gilles; Papastergiou, Konstantinos; Carrica, Daniel; Retegui, Rogeli Garcia

    2016-01-01

    In some applications, like those for particle accelerators and transfer lines, electromagnet loads operate in cycling mode i.e. absorbing or extracting energy from or to a power source. Built-in energy storage such as electrochemical capacitors can be used whose lifetime is heavily depended on the current ripple and depth of discharge. Moreover, the sizing of this storage element is a trade-off between power taken from the grid and energy stored. Additionally, the adopted power conversion structure and control strategy impact on such decision process. In this work, a number of topologies have been evaluated for these applications and the key metrics used to compare them. The proposed figures of merit are used through examples to highlight the trade-offs related with the choice of dc-bus regulation topology and control strategy.

  10. Edith Magalhaes Fraenkel: The greatest figure of Brazilian Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taka Oguisso

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to describe and analyze the career of Edith Magalhães Fraenkel and her important legacy to Brazilian nursing. The methodology chosen was a documentary analysis of her areas of participation based on documents of the Historical Cultural Center of Iberian-American School of Nursing of the University of São Paulo (Universidade de São Paulo, USP and in the Rectory of the same University. The following thematic topics were categorized: preparation for leadership, moving to São Paulo, creation of the School of Nursing of USP, event organization, and unique developments at the end of her career. We conclude that Mrs. Edith Fraenkel is the most important figure of Brazilian nursing, thanks to her immeasurable work as a leader of the profession, nationally and internationally.

  11. Picasso's prolonged adolescence, Blue Period, and blind figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Harold P

    2013-04-01

    This paper explores early issues of separation-individuation, unconscious conflict, and trauma, revived and reworked in Picasso's turbulent protracted adolescence. During this critical period Picasso traveled between Barcelona and Paris four times, from age 19 to 23. His melancholic mood, related both to separation conflict and the current realities of his uprooted life and emerging career, was expressed in his painting of emaciated, despondent figures, the predominance of monochromatic blue, and his choice of social outcasts as subjects. Of particular significance are his paintings of blind persons. Separation and loss, his depressive disposition, and his choice of blind subjects were psychologically interrelated. Picasso's developmental transformation from adolescence to adulthood, marked by his finally settling in Paris, encompassed change in his personal and artistic identity.

  12. Perceiving the impossible: how individuals with autism copy paradoxical figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Elizabeth; Ropar, Danielle; Mitchell, Peter

    2009-07-01

    Mottron and colleagues found that individuals with autism were less affected by geometric impossibility than comparison participants on a copying task. The current experiment sought to determine whether a local perceptual style could account for this. Participants with and without autism copied possible and impossible geometric figures. Geometric impossibility had a larger effect on drawing time for comparison participants than for those with autism. However, participants with autism did not use more localized drawing strategies. Strength of impossibility effect was associated with a global strategy amongst comparison participants but this relationship was not found amongst participants with autism. The findings suggest that differences in high-level conceptual processing may account for group differences in effects of impossibility.

  13. Unheimlich. From Wax Figures to the Uncanny Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Conte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In his pioneering History of Portraiture in Wax, Julius von Schlosser traced back the age-old history of a material which at that time seemed to be already antiquated, if not obsolete. Wax sculptures were rejected and ousted from art history because of their excessive similarity and adherence to models. One hundred years later, however, hyperrealism got its revenge with Maurizio Cattelan’s celebrated hanging children. Moving from that controversial artwork and focusing on the heated polemics over it, my paper will address the question of the well-known Unheimlichkeit of wax figures, investigated by Ernst Jentsch and Sigmund Freud in the early Twentieth Century and nowadays becoming increasingly topical thanks to the recent debate about the existence and nature of the so called Uncanny Valley.

  14. Volumetric Survey Speed: A Figure of Merit for Transient Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Bellm, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Time-domain surveys can exchange sky coverage for revisit frequency, complicating the comparison of their relative capabilities. By using different revisit intervals, a specific camera may execute surveys optimized for discovery of different classes of transient objects. We propose a new figure of merit, the instantaneous volumetric survey speed, for evaluating transient surveys. This metric defines the trade between cadence interval and snapshot survey volume and so provides a natural means of comparing survey capability. The related metric of areal survey speed imposes a constraint on the range of possible revisit times: we show that many modern time-domain surveys are limited by the amount of fresh sky available each night. We introduce the concept of "spectroscopic accessibility" and discuss its importance for transient science goals requiring followup observing. We present an extension of the control time algorithm for cases where multiple consecutive detections are required. Finally, we explore how surv...

  15. Beyond the dichotomy of figurative and abstract art in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Maria Louring; Mullins, Michael Finbarr

    2017-01-01

    Within the evidence-based design discourse, and deriving particularly from the theory of emotional congruence, abstract art has been indicated as unsuitable for hospitals. As patients may often experience unfamiliarity, vulnerability, stress, unpredictability and uneasiness in hospitals......, these negative factors in terms of patients’ well-being are predicted to be detrimentally reinforced by abstract art, but alleviated by particular forms of figurative art. The present paper focuses particularly on this question of the suitability of abstract art in Danish hospital settings and presents findings...... from two experimental case studies on 98 patients’ well-being in relation to their experience and use of visual art during hospitalization. The case studies employed a mixed-method approach, including interviews and observations informed by thermal video recording, surveys and psychophysiological...

  16. The Human Figure and Urban Ground: Cyborgs and the City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, Aaron

    2016-07-01

    Recent years have seen developments in cyborgian movements in which people play and experiment with the boundaries of human flesh and aesthetic realities. Some individuals develop novel intimate relationships with devices that, each in their own way, interfere with human subjectivity. Public dissemination of these movements often proposes notions of transcendence, therapy, post-humanism and trans-humanism, but often fails to outline the lived-experience of those who explore cyborgian identity as an alternative mode of being in the world. This paper briefly follows self-described cyborgs who delimit the body through sensory 'enhancement' in an effort to disrupt common relationships between the human figure and the urban ground. Borrowing from Lewis Mumford's concepts of biotechnics, I propose cyborgian engagement as a type of psychodynamic living. Rather than focus on post-human discourses, these cyborgs turn to the natural world for inspiration in shaping the terms of engagement between their bodies and the city.

  17. "We All We Got": Describing and Connecting Football and Classroom Figured Worlds and Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Lynn L.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents use literacies in order to build identities in a variety of figured worlds. Some identities become more powerful than others as adolescents attempt to understand and successfully utilize the valuations and literacies of the diverse figured worlds in which they participate. The goals of this study were to describe the figured worlds of…

  18. "We All We Got": Describing and Connecting Football and Classroom Figured Worlds and Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Lynn L.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents use literacies in order to build identities in a variety of figured worlds. Some identities become more powerful than others as adolescents attempt to understand and successfully utilize the valuations and literacies of the diverse figured worlds in which they participate. The goals of this study were to describe the figured worlds of…

  19. Students Learn about Chinese Culture through the Folktale "Yeh-Shen": Emphasizing Figurative Language Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Barbara C.; Sun, Lingzhi; Leclere, Judith T.

    2012-01-01

    This article will analyze the figurative language that reflects Chinese traditional society and culture in "Yeh-Shen." The authors will consider both the figures of speech and the figures of thought (to include symbolism) that provide insight into an understanding of the Chinese culture through a reading of "Yeh-Shen." This analysis can be used by…

  20. Figurative Language and Multicultural Education: Metaphors of Language Acquisition and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Linguistics has long recognised that figurative language in the form of metaphorical expressions structures and communicates attitudes towards the ideas and concepts being expressed and that multilingual students also employ linguistic figures frequently in their writing. In this study, multilingual students use figurative language to both…

  1. Immagini e Concetti in Geometria=The Figural and the Conceptual Components of Geometrical Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Maria Alessandra

    1992-01-01

    Discusses geometrical reasoning in the framework of the theory of Figural Concepts to highlight the interaction between the figural and conceptual components of geometrical concepts. Examples of students' difficulties and errors in geometrical reasoning are interpreted according to the internal tension that appears in figural concepts resulting…

  2. Immagini e Concetti in Geometria=The Figural and the Conceptual Components of Geometrical Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Maria Alessandra

    1992-01-01

    Discusses geometrical reasoning in the framework of the theory of Figural Concepts to highlight the interaction between the figural and conceptual components of geometrical concepts. Examples of students' difficulties and errors in geometrical reasoning are interpreted according to the internal tension that appears in figural concepts resulting…

  3. Figurative Language and Multicultural Education: Metaphors of Language Acquisition and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Linguistics has long recognised that figurative language in the form of metaphorical expressions structures and communicates attitudes towards the ideas and concepts being expressed and that multilingual students also employ linguistic figures frequently in their writing. In this study, multilingual students use figurative language to both…

  4. Two critical periods in early visual cortex during figure-ground segregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wokke, M.E.; Sligte, I.G.; Scholte, H.S.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2012-01-01

    .The ability to distinguish a figure from its background is crucial for visual perception. To date, it remains unresolved where and how in the visual system different stages of figure-ground segregation emerge. Neural correlates of figure border detection have consistently been found in early visual

  5. Figurative Idiomatic Language: Strategies and Difficulties of Understanding English Idioms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Al-Khawaldeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Learning idioms which is considered a very essential part of learning and using language (Sridhar and Karunakaran, 2013 has recently attracted a great attention of English learning researchers particularly the assessment of how well Asian language learners acquire and use idioms in communication (Tran, 2013. Understanding and using them fluently could be viewed as a sign towards language proficiency as they could be an effective way to give students better conditions to enhance their communication skills in the daily context (Beloussova, 2015. Investigating how idiomatic expressions are dealt with and processed in a second language or foreign language is an issue worth examining further since it may give language teachers a better idea of some of the strategies language learners use in order to interpret figurative language. Despite their importance, learning and using English idioms by Arab EFL learners have not been investigated extensively, and no research has been conducted on Jordanian students’ idiomatic competency. Thus, the researcher decided to work on these un-tackled issues in the Jordanian context. Most idioms-based investigations are the difficulties Jordanians learners of English face when translating them into Arabic (Hussein, Khanji, and Makhzoumi, 2000; Bataineh and Bataineh, 2002; Alrishan and Smadi, 2015. The analysis of the test showed students’ very poor idiomatic competence; particularly a very limited awareness of the most frequently used idioms despite their overwhelming desire to learn them. Data analysis of the questionnaire revealed the strategies students use and the problems they face in understanding and learning idioms. Keywords: Idioms, idiomatic competence, figurative meaning, language proficiency, idioms learning strategies

  6. Phase transition enhanced thermoelectric figure-of-merit in copper chalcogenides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Brown

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available While thermoelectric materials can be used for solid state cooling, waste heat recovery, and solar electricity generation, low values of the thermoelectric figure of merit, zT, have led to an efficiency too low for widespread use. Thermoelectric effects are characterized by the Seebeck coefficient or thermopower, which is related to the entropy associated with charge transport. For example, coupling spin entropy with the presence of charge carriers has enabled the enhancement of zT in cobalt oxides. We demonstrate that the coupling of a continuous phase transition to carrier transport in Cu2Se over a broad (360–410 K temperature range results in a dramatic peak in thermopower, an increase in phonon and electron scattering, and a corresponding doubling of zT (to 0.7 at 406 K, and a similar but larger increase over a wider temperature range in the zT of Cu1.97Ag.03Se (almost 1.0 at 400 K. The use of structural entropy for enhanced thermopower could lead to new engineering approaches for thermoelectric materials with high zT and new green applications for thermoelectrics.

  7. Transparent self-cleaning lubricant-infused surfaces made with large-area breath figure patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Chen, Huawei; Zhang, Liwen; Ran, Tong; Zhang, Deyuan

    2015-11-01

    Nepenthes pitcher inspired slippery lubricant-infused porous surfaces greatly impact the understanding of liquid-repellent surfaces construction and have attracted extensive attention in recent years due to their potential applications in self-cleaning, anti-fouling, anti-icing, etc. In this work, we have successfully fabricated transparent slippery lubricant-infused surfaces based on breath figure patterns (BFPs). Large-area BFPs with interconnected pores were initially formed on the glass substrate and then a suitable lubricant was added onto the surfaces. The interconnected pores in BFPs were able to hold the lubricant liquid in place and form a stable liquid/solid composite surface capable of repelling a variety of liquids. The liquid-repellent surfaces show extremely low critical sliding angles for various liquids, thus providing the surfaces with efficient self-cleaning property. It was also found that the liquid droplets' sliding behaviors on the surfaces were significantly influenced by the tilting angle of the substrate, liquid volume, liquid chemical properties, and pore sizes of the surfaces.

  8. Phase transition enhanced thermoelectric figure-of-merit in copper chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David R.; Day, Tristan; Borup, Kasper A.; Christensen, Sebastian; Iversen, Bo B.; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2013-11-01

    While thermoelectric materials can be used for solid state cooling, waste heat recovery, and solar electricity generation, low values of the thermoelectric figure of merit, zT, have led to an efficiency too low for widespread use. Thermoelectric effects are characterized by the Seebeck coefficient or thermopower, which is related to the entropy associated with charge transport. For example, coupling spin entropy with the presence of charge carriers has enabled the enhancement of zT in cobalt oxides. We demonstrate that the coupling of a continuous phase transition to carrier transport in Cu2Se over a broad (360-410 K) temperature range results in a dramatic peak in thermopower, an increase in phonon and electron scattering, and a corresponding doubling of zT (to 0.7 at 406 K), and a similar but larger increase over a wider temperature range in the zT of Cu1.97Ag.03Se (almost 1.0 at 400 K). The use of structural entropy for enhanced thermopower could lead to new engineering approaches for thermoelectric materials with high zT and new green applications for thermoelectrics.

  9. Statics of deformable solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH

    2014-01-01

    Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

  10. Time-course of perceptual processing of "hole" and "no-hole"figures: An ERP study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weina Zhu; Junjun Zhang; Changle Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Closure or the presence of a "hole" is an emergent perceptual feature that can be extracted by the visual system early on.This feature has been shown to have perceptual advantages over openness or "no-hole".In this study,we investigated when and how the human brain differentiates between "hole" and "no-hole" figures.Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a passive observation paradigm.Two pairs of simple figures (Experiment 1) and two sets of Greek letters (Experiment 2) were used as stimuli.The ERPs of "hole" and "no-hole"figures differed ~90 ms after stimulus onset:"hole"figures elicited smaller P1 and N1 amplitudes than "no-hole" figures.These suggest that both P1 and N1 components are sensitive to the difference between "hole" and "no-hole" figures; perception of "hole" and "no-hole" figures might be differentiated early during visual processing.

  11. How Many Significant Figures are Useful for Public Risk Estimates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Paul D.; Duffy, Jim

    2013-09-01

    day-of-launch collective risk analyses, such as those used to determine if a launch can be initiated safely. The paper recommends the use of only one significant figure as the default for reporting collective public risk results when making a safety determination, unless there are other specific analyses, data, or circumstances to justify the use of an additional significant figure.

  12. Hyperbolic functions with configuration theorems and equivalent and equidecomposable figures

    CERN Document Server

    Shervatov, V G; Skornyakov, L A; Boltyanskii, V G

    2007-01-01

    This single-volume compilation of three books centers on Hyperbolic Functions, an introduction to the relationship between the hyperbolic sine, cosine, and tangent, and the geometric properties of the hyperbola. The development of the hyperbolic functions, in addition to those of the trigonometric (circular) functions, appears in parallel columns for comparison. A concluding chapter introduces natural logarithms and presents analytic expressions for the hyperbolic functions.The second book, Configuration Theorems, requires only the most elementary background in plane and solid geometry. It dis

  13. Creating metaphors: the neural basis of figurative language production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Mathias; Beaty, Roger; Jauk, Emanuel; Koschutnig, Karl; Fink, Andreas; Silvia, Paul J; Dunst, Beate; Neubauer, Aljoscha C

    2014-04-15

    Neuroscience research has thoroughly studied how nonliteral language is processed during metaphor comprehension. However, it is not clear how the brain actually creates nonliteral language. Therefore, the present study for the first time investigates the neural correlates of metaphor production. Participants completed sentences by generating novel metaphors or literal synonyms during functional imaging. Responses were spoken aloud in the scanner, recorded, and subsequently rated for their creative quality. We found that metaphor production was associated with focal activity in predominantly left-hemispheric brain regions, specifically the left angular gyrus, the left middle and superior frontal gyri-corresponding to the left dorsomedial prefrontal (DMPFC) cortex-and the posterior cingulate cortex. Moreover, brain activation in the left anterior DMPFC and the right middle temporal gyrus was found to linearly increase with the creative quality of metaphor responses. These findings are related to neuroscientific evidence on metaphor comprehension, creative idea generation and episodic future thought, suggesting that creating metaphors involves the flexible adaptation of semantic memory to imagine and construct novel figures of speech. Furthermore, the left DMPFC may exert executive control to maintain strategic search and selection, thus facilitating creativity of thought.

  14. Figure-ground organization based on three-dimensional symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaux, Aaron; Jayadevan, Vijai; Delp, Edward; Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2016-11-01

    We present an approach to figure/ground organization using mirror symmetry as a general purpose and biologically motivated prior. Psychophysical evidence suggests that the human visual system makes use of symmetry in producing three-dimensional (3-D) percepts of objects. 3-D symmetry aids in scene organization because (i) almost all objects exhibit symmetry, and (ii) configurations of objects are not likely to be symmetric unless they share some additional relationship. No general purpose approach is known for solving 3-D symmetry correspondence in two-dimensional (2-D) camera images, because few invariants exist. Therefore, we present a general purpose method for finding 3-D symmetry correspondence by pairing the problem with the two-view geometry of the binocular correspondence problem. Mirror symmetry is a spatially global property that is not likely to be lost in the spatially local noise of binocular depth maps. We tested our approach on a corpus of 180 images collected indoors with a stereo camera system. K-means clustering was used as a baseline for comparison. The informative nature of the symmetry prior makes it possible to cluster data without a priori knowledge of which objects may appear in the scene, and without knowing how many objects there are in the scene.

  15. The structure function as a metric for roughness and figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Robert E.; Tuell, Michael T.

    2016-09-01

    As optical designs become more sophisticated and incorporate aspheric and free form surfaces, the need to specify limits on mid-spatial frequency manufacturing errors becomes more critical, particularly as we better understand the effects of these errors on image quality. While there already exist methods based on Fourier analysis to specify these errors in most commercial interferometry software, the method of calculation and the power spectral density (PSD) results remain obscure to many in the optical design and manufacturing field. We suggest that the structure functions (SF) contains the same information as in the Fourier based PSD but in a way that is much more transparent to analysis, interpretation and application as a specification. The units of measure are more familiar and the concept behind the analysis is simpler to understand. Further, the information contained in the structure function (or PSD) allows a complete specification of an optical surface from the finest measurable detail of roughness to the overall figure. We discuss the origin of the structure function in the field of astronomy to describe the effects of air turbulence on image quality, the simple mathematical definition of the structure function and its easy means of calculation and how its results should be scaled depending on the location of the optical surface in a system from pupil to image plane. Finally, we give an example of how to write a specification of an optical surface using the structure function.

  16. Optical diffraction of fractal figures: random Sierpinski carpets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Denise; Chamaly, Stéphane; Perreau, Michel; Mercier, Daniel; Monceau, Pascal; Levy, Jean-Claude Serge

    1991-10-01

    The optical diffraction patterns of random Sierpinski carpets of different fractal dimensions at different levels of iteration are shown and analyzed. The sensitivity of such an analysis to long range correlations, is demonstrated theoretically by means of the transfer matrix formalism of fractals, T.M.F. The relation between the subdimensions defined in T.M.F. and diffraction patterns is outlined. Finally an analysis of experimental diffraction patterns is proposed in order to measure these new theoretical subdimensions. On présente ici les clichés de diffraction optique de tapis de Sierpinski aléatoires de différentes dimensions fractales, pris à des niveaux d'itération différents. Au moyen du formalisme de la matrice de transfert dans les fractals, on montre la sensibilité de cette analyse expérimentale aux corrélations à moyenne et longue portée. Ainsi la relation entre les sous-dimensions fractales du F.M.T. et les rapports d'intensité entre les clichés de diffraction de figures fractales à des niveaux d'itération différents est soulignée. Enfin on esquisse le principe d'une analyse expérimentale de ces nouvelles dimensions théoriques.

  17. Representational pseudoneglect for detecting changes to Rey-Osterrieth figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniulis, Ellie; Churches, Owen; Thomas, Nicole A; Nicholls, Michael E R

    2016-11-01

    When dividing attention between the left and right sides of physical space, most individuals pay slightly more attention to the left side. This phenomenon, known as pseudoneglect, may also occur for the left and right sides of mental representations of stimuli. Representational pseudoneglect has been shown for the recall of real-world scenes and for simple, briefly presented stimuli. The current study sought to investigate the effect of exposure duration and complexity using adaptations of the Rey-Osterrieth figures. Undergraduates (n = 97) were shown a stimulus for 20 s and asked to remember it. Participants were then shown a probe and indicated whether it was the same or different. Results showed that, irrespective of whether an element was added or subtracted, changes on the left side of the remembered image were better detected. These results are consistent with representational pseudoneglect and demonstrate that this effect occurs for complex stimuli when presented for an extended period of time. Representation neglect is therefore unlikely to be the result of an initial saccade to the left-but could be related to the formation or recall of the representation.

  18. Stereographic processing of CT figures in the hip joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomihara, Mitsuo (Kinki Univ., Osakasayama, Osaka (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-12-01

    CT scan is widely used in orthopedic examinations. By three-dimentional display of the form of bone and joint, the change of form can be identified and the lesion can be located. CT figures were stereographically processed using a personal computer to display the images of the hip joints. The outlines of the bone seen on the CT film were directly traced with a digitizer, then the A/D converted coordinate data were obtained. The data for each slice were input to the personal computer. After conversion to normal coordinate and magnification, the data were filed on the floppy disc. These data were regained from the disk and made affin transformation to display the stereographic images of the hip joints. In a case of solitary bone cyst of the coxal bone, this method helped us to decide the appropriated surgical approach. For the congenital dysplasia of the hip, acetabular coverage was examined three-dimensionally and postoperative changes were assessed in the cases of shelf operation and intertrochanteric extension osteotomy. In the cases of aseptic necrosis of the femoral head, location and size of the necrotic area were clearly visualized and the appropriate surgical procedure could be decided. Moreover, it was useful to decide the degree of rotation of the femoral head in rotational osteotomy. (author) 61 refs.

  19. Figure correction of a metallic ellipsoidal neutron focusing mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiang; Yamagata, Yutaka; Morita, Shin-ya; Takeda, Shin; Kato, Jun-ichi; Hino, Masahiro; Furusaka, Michihiro

    2015-06-01

    An increasing number of neutron focusing mirrors is being adopted in neutron scattering experiments in order to provide high fluxes at sample positions, reduce measurement time, and/or increase statistical reliability. To realize a small focusing spot and high beam intensity, mirrors with both high form accuracy and low surface roughness are required. To achieve this, we propose a new figure correction technique to fabricate a two-dimensional neutron focusing mirror made with electroless nickel-phosphorus (NiP) by effectively combining ultraprecision shaper cutting and fine polishing. An arc envelope shaper cutting method is introduced to generate high form accuracy, while a fine polishing method, in which the material is removed effectively without losing profile accuracy, is developed to reduce the surface roughness of the mirror. High form accuracy in the minor-axis and the major-axis is obtained through tool profile error compensation and corrective polishing, respectively, and low surface roughness is acquired under a low polishing load. As a result, an ellipsoidal neutron focusing mirror is successfully fabricated with high form accuracy of 0.5 μm peak-to-valley and low surface roughness of 0.2 nm root-mean-square.

  20. Reactive ion beam figuring of optical aluminium surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jens; Frost, Frank; Arnold, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Ultra-smooth and arbitrarily shaped reflective optics are necessary for further progress in EUV/XUV lithography, x-ray and synchrotron technology. As one of the most important technological mirror optic materials, aluminium behaves in a rather difficult way in ultra-precision machining with such standard techniques as diamond-turning and subsequent ion beam figuring (IBF). In particular, in the latter, a strong surface roughening is obtained. Hence, up to now it has not been possible to attain the surface qualities required for UV or just visible spectral range applications. To overcome the limitations mainly caused by the aluminium alloy structural and compositional conditions, a reactive ion beam machining process using oxygen process gas is evaluated. To clarify the principle differences in the effect of oxygen gas contrary to oxygen ions on aluminium surface machining, we firstly focus on chemical-assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) and reactive ion beam etching (RIBE) experiments in a phenomenological manner. Then, the optimum process route will be explored within a more quantitative analysis applying the concept of power spectral density (PSD) for a sophisticated treatment of the surface topography. Eventually, the surface composition is examined by means of dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) suggesting a characteristic model scheme for the chemical modification of the aluminium surface during oxygen ion beam machining. Monte Carlo simulations were applied to achieve a more detailed process conception.

  1. 'It Takes Two to Tango' - dans som kulturteoretisk figuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Damsholt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ’It takes two to tango’ – siger man ofte, når man vil understrege, at hele ansvaret for en konflikt sjældent hviler på en enkelt person, men oftest er fordelt på flere. Og samtidig understreger man, at tango (eller konflikt ikke bare er en ’ting’ eller et stabiliseret faktum, men et mønster der må praktiseres. Spørgsmålet er, om det er en ren tilfældighed, at det netop er fra dansen, man henter en figur for distribueret og kollektivt ansvar og for praktisering af mønstre? Det kunne også være, at der i brugen af dans som metafor ligger et potentiale for at understrege særlige dimensioner, der oven i købet matcher nye udviklinger indenfor kulturteorien. I dette bidrag skal vi se nærmere på, hvilke dimensioner og betydninger det i så fald kunne være, at dansefiguren tilbyder kulturteorier og kulturanalyser.

  2. Figure correction of a metallic ellipsoidal neutron focusing mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jiang, E-mail: jiang.guo@riken.jp; Yamagata, Yutaka; Morita, Shin-ya; Kato, Jun-ichi [Ultrahigh Precision Optics Technology Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics (RAP), RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Takeda, Shin [Ultrahigh Precision Optics Technology Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics (RAP), RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0808 (Japan); Hino, Masahiro [Neutron Optics Group, Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Furusaka, Michihiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0808 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    An increasing number of neutron focusing mirrors is being adopted in neutron scattering experiments in order to provide high fluxes at sample positions, reduce measurement time, and/or increase statistical reliability. To realize a small focusing spot and high beam intensity, mirrors with both high form accuracy and low surface roughness are required. To achieve this, we propose a new figure correction technique to fabricate a two-dimensional neutron focusing mirror made with electroless nickel-phosphorus (NiP) by effectively combining ultraprecision shaper cutting and fine polishing. An arc envelope shaper cutting method is introduced to generate high form accuracy, while a fine polishing method, in which the material is removed effectively without losing profile accuracy, is developed to reduce the surface roughness of the mirror. High form accuracy in the minor-axis and the major-axis is obtained through tool profile error compensation and corrective polishing, respectively, and low surface roughness is acquired under a low polishing load. As a result, an ellipsoidal neutron focusing mirror is successfully fabricated with high form accuracy of 0.5 μm peak-to-valley and low surface roughness of 0.2 nm root-mean-square.

  3. Analyzing the Figure of Henry of A Farewell to Arms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤宁; 朱卫敏

    2008-01-01

    A Farewell to Arms is a representative work of Ernest Hemingway.Henry.The hero of the novel is a "shadow" of the author.He joins the army with good wills but finally he finds himself cheated by the capitalist class.When he gets a clear understanding of the true features of the war,he begins to fight against it.But he can' t resist the war and the society.He loses the aim of life and is at a loss.He is a representative figure of" the lost generation".Ernest Hemingway combines austere realism and poetic language to present a powerful argument against war and to tell a touching love story at the same time.Possessed of the most remarkable time sense of the period between wars,his disillusioned temperament and technical skill have influenced a whole generation of writers.In spite of its hard-boiled realism of detail and its tragic ending,A Farewell to Arms is nevertheless an idealistic book.The novel was dramatized by Laurence Stallings and was made into a motion picture.

  4. Diffusion-equation method for crystallographic figure of merits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markvardsen, Anders J; David, William I F

    2010-09-01

    Global optimization methods play a significant role in crystallography, particularly in structure solution from powder diffraction data. This paper presents the mathematical foundations for a diffusion-equation-based optimization method. The diffusion equation is best known for describing how heat propagates in matter. However, it has also attracted considerable attention as the basis for global optimization of a multimodal function [Piela et al. (1989). J. Phys. Chem. 93, 3339-3346]. The method relies heavily on available analytical solutions for the diffusion equation. Here it is shown that such solutions can be obtained for two important crystallographic figure-of-merit (FOM) functions that fully account for space-group symmetry and allow the diffusion-equation solution to vary depending on whether atomic coordinates are fixed or not. The resulting expression is computationally efficient, taking the same order of floating-point operations to evaluate as the starting FOM function measured in terms of the number of atoms in the asymmetric unit. This opens the possibility of implementing diffusion-equation methods for crystallographic global optimization algorithms such as structure determination from powder diffraction data.

  5. Figurational dynamics and parliamentary discourses of living standards in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Paddy

    2009-12-01

    While the concept of living standards remains central to political debate, it has become marginal in sociological research compared to the burgeoning attention given to the topic of consumer culture in recent decades. However, they both concern how one does and should consume, and, indeed, behave at particular times. I use the theories of Norbert Elias to explain the unplanned but structured (ordered) changes in expected standards of living over time. This figurational approach is compared to other alternative explanations, particularly those advanced by Bourdieu, Veblen and Baudrillard. Though these offer some parallels with Elias's theories, I argue that consumption standards are produced and transformed through the changing dependencies and power relations between social classes. They cannot be reduced to the intentions, interests or ambitions of particular elites, nor to the needs of social systems. Using qualitative data from parliamentary debates in Ireland to trace changing norms and ideals of consumption, as well as historical data to reconstruct shifts in social interdependencies, I further contend that discourses of living standards and luxury are vital aspects of the growing identification and empathy between classes, which in turn encourages greater global integration in the face of emigration and national decline.

  6. Documents and detachment in the figurational sociology of sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paddy Dolan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the methodological implications of using a figurational approach to the study of Gaelic games (the Irish sports of hurling and Gaelic football and their organisation and governance from the late nineteenth century onwards. Following Norbert Elias, we argue that data generation guided by theories, and potentially modifying such theories, are essential components of research endeavours. The problem of generalisation or representativeness of historical documents can be addressed by treating documents as part of a fi guration of evidence, thereby constituting a mutually supporting network of data that serves as a scaffold or structure for theoretical and empirical findings. Based on the experience of using documents such as newspaper and referee reports of matches, and also organisational documents such as the minutes of meetings at various levels of governance, we contribute to the discussion concerning borders and boundary maintenance between history, sociology and historical sociology. While we elaborate on the Eliasian perspective on emotional detachment, and secondary involvement, when conducting research, we also note the dificulties in avoiding ‘preferred’ readings of national history given that Gaelic games have been intertwined with the narrative and project of national self-determination in Ireland. Researchers are compelled to recognise the theoretical significance of sports as a motor and symbol of emotional identifications, but must also create distance from their own national habitus in order to prioritise participation in intergenerational knowledge generation over further national myth-making.

  7. Figures of merit for CMOS SPADs and arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronzi, D.; Villa, F.; Bellisai, S.; Tisa, S.; Ripamonti, G.; Tosi, A.

    2013-05-01

    SPADs (Single Photon Avalanche Diodes) are emerging as most suitable photodetectors for both single-photon counting (Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy, Lock-in 3D Ranging) and single-photon timing (Lidar, Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging, Diffuse Optical Imaging) applications. Different complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) implementations have been reported in literature. We present some figure of merit able to summarize the typical SPAD performances (i.e. Dark Counting Rate, Photo Detection Efficiency, afterpulsing probability, hold-off time, timing jitter) and to identify a proper metric for SPAD comparison, both as single detectors and also as imaging arrays. The goal is to define a practical framework within which it is possible to rank detectors based on their performances in specific experimental conditions, for either photon-counting or photon-timing applications. Furthermore we review the performances of some CMOS and custom-made SPADs. Results show that CMOS SPADs performances improve as the technology scales down; moreover, miniaturization of SPADs and new solutions adopted to counteract issues related with the SPAD design (electric field uniformity, premature edge breakdown, tunneling effects, defect-rich STI interface) along with advances in standard CMOS processes led to a general improvement in all fabricated photodetectors; therefore, CMOS SPADs can be suitable for very dense and cost-effective many-pixels imagers with high performances.

  8. Enhanced figure-ground classification with background prior propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yisong; Chan, Antoni B

    2015-03-01

    We present an adaptive figure-ground segmentation algorithm that is capable of extracting foreground objects in a generic environment. Starting from an interactively assigned background mask, an initial background prior is defined and multiple soft-label partitions are generated from different foreground priors by progressive patch merging. These partitions are fused to produce a foreground probability map. The probability map is then binarized via threshold sweeping to create multiple hard-label candidates. A set of segmentation hypotheses is formed using different evaluation scores. From this set, the hypothesis with maximal local stability is propagated as the new background prior, and the segmentation process is repeated until convergence. Similarity voting is used to select a winner set, and the corresponding hypotheses are fused to yield the final segmentation result. Experiments indicate that our method performs at or above the current state-of-the-art on several data sets, with particular success on challenging scenes that contain irregular or multiple-connected foregrounds.

  9. Why bioethics cannot figure out what to do with race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Olivette R

    2007-02-01

    Race and religion are integral parts of bioethics. Harm and oppression, with the aim of social and political control, have been wrought in the name of religion against Blacks and people of color as embodied in the Ten Commandments, the Inquisition, and in the history of the Holy Crusades. Missionaries came armed with Judeo/Christian beliefs went to nations of people of color who had their own belief systems and forced change and caused untold harms because the indigenous belief systems were incompatible with their own. The indigenous people were denounced as ungodly, pagan, uncivilized, and savage. Hence, laws were enacted because of their perceived need to structure a sense of morality and to create and build a culture for these indigenous people of color. To date bioethics continues to be informed by a Western worldview that is Judeo/Christian in belief and orientation. However, missing from bioethical discourse in America is the historical influence of the Black Church as a cultural repository, which continues to influence the culture of Africans and Blacks. Cultural aspects of peoples of color are still largely ignored today. In attempting to deal with issues of race while steering clear of the religious and cultural impact of the Black Church, bioethics finds itself in the middle of a distressing situation: it simply cannot figure out what to do with race.

  10. Feasibility Study on Advanced Solid-State Oxygen Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    CaO-ZrO2) structure.. 6..............6 3 A typical galvanic cell using a zirconia oxygen ion electrolyte . 8 4 The closed-loop concept of engine...0.645 90.4 6 Sm203 0.869 97.2 Zirconia Electrolyte Cell A typical galvanic cell using a zirconia solid electrolyte is shown in Figure 3 (18, 23, 25-28...oxygen determined by oxygen partial electrolyte oxygen partial pressure P p pressure Po0 0? 0---- Figure 3. A typical galvanic cell using a zirconia V

  11. Bone mineral density in elite adolescent female figure skaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prelack Kathy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence, in this sport that emphasizes leanness. Although, these athletes apparently have sufficient osteogenic stimuli to mitigate the effects of possible low energy availability on bone health, the extent or magnitude of bone accrual also varies with training effects, which differ among skater disciplines. Purpose We studied differences in total and regional bone mineral density in 36 nationally ranked skaters among 3 skater disciplines: single, pairs, and dancers. Methods Bone mineral density (BMD of the total body and its regions was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Values for total body, spine, pelvis and leg were entered into a statistical mixed regression model to identify the effect of skater discipline on bone mineralization while controlling for energy, vitamin D, and calcium intake. Results The skaters had a mean body mass index of 19.8 ± 2.1 and % fat mass of 19.2 ± 5.8. After controlling for dietary intakes of energy, calcium, and vitamin D, there was a significant relationship between skater discipline and BMD (p = 0.002, with single skaters having greater BMD in the total body, legs, and pelvis than ice dancers (p  Conclusions Single and pair skaters have greater BMD than ice dancers. The osteogenic effect of physical training is most apparent in single skaters, particularly in the bone loading sites of the leg and pelvis.

  12. Figures of desire and repression in the Conformist by Bertolucci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Ivaldi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Il Conformista di Moravia (1951, ambientato in epoca fascista, narra la vicenda di Marcello, membro dell’OVRA ossessionato dalla necessità di sentirsi uguale agli altri. Si tratta di un romanzo a tesi che lega l’omosessualità alla repressione e al fascismo. L’operazione di riscrittura di Bertolucci (1970 potenzia la chiave freudiana: sul grande schermo, la ferrea progressione temporale e causale del romanzo è scardinata attraverso un uso spregiudicato del flashback, mentre scompare ogni accenno al fato e Marcello diventa filtro dell'intera narrazione. La psicoanalisi rappresenta la chiave di volta che regge il film, sostituendo la meccanicità progressiva del fato con la bi-logica dell’inconscio.Per tacitare la propria omosessualità – non accettata a livello sociale ma, prima di tutto, dal protagonista stesso – Marcello tenta di conformarsi in tutto e per tutto alla società e al particolare momento storico-politico. Il matrimonio e l’adesione al fascismo sono i due strumenti di questa strategia di conformismo; le figure femminili, in particolare, attraverso un gioco di duplicazioni e rispecchiamenti, ricoprono un ruolo cardine, configurandosi ora come oggetto di un desiderio reale ora invece di un desiderio mediato dalla volontà di rimozione e negazione delle pulsioni non accettabili, dei ricordi indicibili e dei sensi di colpa.Giocando con l’immagine, il montaggio e le interferenze col sonoro, Bertolucci sembra suggerire infatti significati profondi, che contrastano con la superficie del testo, e proporre una particolare declinazione della “retorica freudiana” del testo: richiamandosi all’approccio critico psicanalitico offerto da Francesco Orlando, l’intervento indaga le manifestazioni semiotico-linguistiche della formazione di compromesso fra desiderio e negazione da parte del protagonista ed analizza alcuni momenti del film che riflettono simultaneamente le due forze psichiche in contrasto. 

  13. Key Figures of the Russian Vanguard: Historical Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena G. Lapshina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In article activity of sign figures of the Russian vanguard of Vladimir Evgrafovich Tatlin, the first Soviet designer, and Efim Vladimirovich Ravdel, the first rector of the Highest state art and technical workshops is considered. The special attention is paid to the Penza period of their life. In 1905 Tatlin began the vocational education in Penza in Art school of N.D. Seliverstov upon termination of whom gained the diploma of the artist with the right of teaching drawing, drawing and calligraphy. During training he was admitted to school in Tsege's salon, participated in an exhibition of the third salon of the Golden Fleece magazine in Moscow. Then Tatlin moves to Moscow where arranges own workshop. Revolutionary events found Tatlin in St. Petersburg where he became the informal leader of «futurists». In April, 1918 he was appointed the chairman of the Moscow art board of Department FROM Narkompros. He taught in picturesque workshops of the Moscow and Petrograd Svomas. Ravdel since 1918 was the head of department of arts of Board of National education of the Penza provincial council of country and working deputies; I organized drama studio, national conservatory, the museum; I participated in exhibitions, debates, etc. In detail the reform of the Penza art school (1918-1920 which was carried out by it, attraction of pedagogical shots (D.P. Buryshkin, D.M. Iofan, etc., a set of entrants, etc. is considered; creation of an architectural workshop of the Penza free state art workshops. In 1920 Ravdel went to Moscow where held the rector's position of Highest state art and technical workshops (1920-1923.

  14. Solid lubricants and surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Braithwaite, E R

    1964-01-01

    Solid Lubricants and Surfaces deals with the theory and use of solid lubricants, particularly in colloidal form. Portions of this book are devoted to graphite and molybdenum disulfides, which are widely used solid lubricants in colloidal form. An extensive literature on the laboratory examination of hundreds of solids as potential lubricants is also provided in this text. Other topics discussed include the metals and solid lubricants; techniques for examining surfaces; other solid lubricants; metal shaping; and industrial uses of solid-lubricant dispersions. This publication is beneficial to e

  15. Feed-forward segmentation of figure-ground and assignment of border-ownership.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Supèr

    Full Text Available Figure-ground is the segmentation of visual information into objects and their surrounding backgrounds. Two main processes herein are boundary assignment and surface segregation, which rely on the integration of global scene information. Recurrent processing either by intrinsic horizontal connections that connect surrounding neurons or by feedback projections from higher visual areas provide such information, and are considered to be the neural substrate for figure-ground segmentation. On the contrary, a role of feedforward projections in figure-ground segmentation is unknown. To have a better understanding of a role of feedforward connections in figure-ground organization, we constructed a feedforward spiking model using a biologically plausible neuron model. By means of surround inhibition our simple 3-layered model performs figure-ground segmentation and one-sided border-ownership coding. We propose that the visual system uses feed forward suppression for figure-ground segmentation and border-ownership assignment.

  16. Linking brain to behavior for the visual perception of figures and objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesi, Jeremy D; Mendola, Janine D

    2013-11-01

    The dissociation of a figure from its background is an essential feat of visual perception, as it allows us to detect, recognize, and interact with shapes and objects in our environment. In order to understand how the human brain gives rise to the perception of figures, we here review experiments that explore the links between activity in visual cortex and performance of perceptual tasks related to figure perception. We organize our review according to a proposed model that attempts to contextualize figure processing within the more general framework of object processing in the brain. Overall, the current literature provides us with individual linking hypotheses as to cortical regions that are necessary for particular tasks related to figure perception. Attempts to reach a more complete understanding of how the brain instantiates figure and object perception, however, will have to consider the temporal interaction between the many regions involved, the details of which may vary widely across different tasks.

  17. 近代中国哲学中的柏拉图主义——以孔子正名思想研究为中心%Platonism in Modern Chinese Philosophy: Focus on the Research of Confucian Zhengming Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟东锋

    2012-01-01

    In the exchange of Chinese and western thoughts in modem time, Confucian Zhengming thought is like a channel through which western thoughts represented by Platonism invaded into Chinese thoughts. Platonistic Zheng ming thought made a great achievement and produced a farreaching influence. However, Platonism also brought the weaknesses of western thoughts, i.e. failure to combining "knowing" and "practice". Therefore, exceeding Platonism is a crucial task for the research of Confucian Zhengming thought, and it is a definitely right choice to get rid of Platonis tic theory of "division between sense and reason" and go back to Confucian theory of "Ming and Shi depending on each other".%在近代中西思想汇通的过程中,孔子“正名说”像一个孔道,以柏拉图主义为核心的西方思想借助着这一孔道深入地浸入中国恩想中。在此情况下,柏拉图主义的孔子正名论取得了极大的成功,影响非常深远。但是,柏拉图主义的解释也遗传性地带来了西方思想的毛病,亦即不能完全解决知行合一的问题。所以,对孔子正名思想研究来说.超越柏拉图主义是一个迫切的任务。为此,彻底抛弃感性与理性二分的柏拉图主义的义理结构,回到儒家式的名实相依的义理结构去,才是一条康庄大道。

  18. Innovation Design Method for Electronic Consuming Products Figures Based on TRIZ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This Paper presents a valid innovation design method for electronic consuming products figures. Using the technology evaluation principle in TRIZ (theory of inventive problem solving) theory as a powerful tool, combined with consumer psychology and relevant knowledge on products modeling methodology, evolution patterns and evolution paths of electronic consuming products figures have been explored. Moreover a set of regulations working for figures innovation design is established.

  19. Nondestructive imaging of hidden figures on license plates by X-ray radiograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Oc-Yeub; Kim, Sang-Hyeon; Lee, Joong; Park, Jong-Taek; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Park, Hak-Soo; Huh, Il-Kwon; Kang, Hyung-Tae

    2009-07-01

    In this case, we investigated the modified license plates. The evidences had new embossing pressed serial numbers after erasing the original numbers on the license plates by hammering. The X-ray radiograph could visualize the hidden figures; those were virtually unseen by naked eyes or undetectable by ordinary photography. To reveal the erased figures, we performed image processing with computer software after X-ray radiographs. It proved to be an efficient nondestructive way to visualize the hidden original figures on metals.

  20. Frequency-resolved noise figure measurements of phase (in)sensitive fiber optical parametric amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, R; Kumpera, A; Lorences-Riesgo, A; Andrekson, P A; Karlsson, M

    2014-11-17

    We measure the frequency-resolved noise figure of fiber optical parametric amplifiers both in phase-insensitive and phase-sensitive modes in the frequency range from 0.03 to 3 GHz. We also measure the variation in noise figure due to the degradation in pump optical signal to noise ratio and also as a function of the input signal powers. Noise figure degradation due to stimulated Brillouin scattering is observed.

  1. Feedback enhances feedforward figure-ground segmentation by changing firing mode

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Supèr; August Romeo

    2011-01-01

    In the visual cortex, feedback projections are conjectured to be crucial in figure-ground segregation. However, the precise function of feedback herein is unclear. Here we tested a hypothetical model of reentrant feedback. We used a previous developed 2-layered feedforward spiking network that is able to segregate figure from ground and included feedback connections. Our computer model data show that without feedback, neurons respond with regular low-frequency (∼9 Hz) bursting to a figure-gro...

  2. Brain Bases for Auditory Stimulus-Driven Figure-Ground Segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Teki, S.; Chait, M.; Kumar, S.; von Kriegstein, K.; Griffiths, T.D.

    2011-01-01

    Auditory figure-ground segregation, listeners' ability to selectively hear out a sound of interest from a background of competing sounds, is a fundamental aspect of scene analysis. In contrast to the disordered acoustic environment we experience during everyday listening, most studies of auditory segregation have used relatively simple, temporally regular signals. We developed a new figure-ground stimulus that incorporates stochastic variation of the figure and background that captures the ri...

  3. An Analysis of Figurative Language in “Profits of Praise”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhongYan

    1999-01-01

    Figures of speech are often used to express the writer's ideas of thoughts more vividly and attractively.This paper chooses “Profits of Praise” as an example to analyze the effect of figures of speech on expressing the writer's ideas and comes to the conclusion that figures of speech play an important part in the expression of ideas,and they can help students understand the text better and help improve their writing.

  4. Embedding and publishing interactive, 3-dimensional, scientific figures in Portable Document Format (PDF) files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, David G; Vidiassov, Michail; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Fluke, Christopher J; Quayle, Michelle R; McHenry, Colin R

    2013-01-01

    With the latest release of the S2PLOT graphics library, embedding interactive, 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific figures in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files is simple, and can be accomplished without commercial software. In this paper, we motivate the need for embedding 3-d figures in scholarly articles. We explain how 3-d figures can be created using the S2PLOT graphics library, exported to Product Representation Compact (PRC) format, and included as fully interactive, 3-d figures in PDF files using the movie15 LaTeX package. We present new examples of 3-d PDF figures, explain how they have been made, validate them, and comment on their advantages over traditional, static 2-dimensional (2-d) figures. With the judicious use of 3-d rather than 2-d figures, scientists can now publish, share and archive more useful, flexible and faithful representations of their study outcomes. The article you are reading does not have embedded 3-d figures. The full paper, with embedded 3-d figures, is recommended and is available as a supplementary download from PLoS ONE (File S2).

  5. Translation of Rhetorical Figures in the Advertising Discourse: A Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ying Cui; Yanli Zhao

    2014-01-01

    .... The psychological studies on human needs are referred to in the analyses, especially aesthetic needs, for the use of rhetorical figures provides audiences with aesthetic pleasure and gratifying...

  6. Figure Facts: Encouraging Undergraduates to Take a Data-Centered Approach to Reading Primary Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, Jennifer E.; Campbell, A. Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    The ability to interpret experimental data is essential to understanding and participating in the process of scientific discovery. Reading primary research articles can be a frustrating experience for undergraduate biology students because they have very little experience interpreting data. To enhance their data interpretation skills, students used a template called “Figure Facts” to assist them with primary literature–based reading assignments in an advanced cellular neuroscience course. The Figure Facts template encourages students to adopt a data-centric approach, rather than a text-based approach, to understand research articles. Specifically, Figure Facts requires students to focus on the experimental data presented in each figure and identify specific conclusions that may be drawn from those results. Students who used Figure Facts for one semester increased the amount of time they spent examining figures in a primary research article, and regular exposure to primary literature was associated with improved student performance on a data interpretation skills test. Students reported decreased frustration associated with interpreting data figures, and their opinions of the Figure Facts template were overwhelmingly positive. In this paper, we present Figure Facts for others to adopt and adapt, with reflection on its implementation and effectiveness in improving undergraduate science education. PMID:23463227

  7. Littlemore, J. & Low, G. (2006. Figurative Thinking and Foreign Language Learning Littlemore, J. & Low, G. (2006. Figurative Thinking and Foreign Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luiz Teixeira de Almeida

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Figurative Thinking and Foreign Language Learning, written by professors Jeannette Littlemore and Graham Low, addresses the issues of figurative language and the challenges it poses for foreign language learners. The perspective taken in the book aims at combining the achievements of researches that investigate figurative language in use, exploring its linguistic aspects, with those coming from a more cognitive approach, associated with the theory of conceptual metaphor, introduced by Lakoff and Johnson (1980.

    Figurative Thinking and Foreign Language Learning, written by professors Jeannette Littlemore and Graham Low, addresses the issues of figurative language and the challenges it poses for foreign language learners. The perspective taken in the book aims at combining the achievements of researches that investigate figurative language in use, exploring its linguistic aspects, with those coming from a more cognitive approach, associated with the theory of conceptual metaphor, introduced by Lakoff and Johnson (1980.

  8. Differential item functioning in the figure classification test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. van Zyl

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The elimination of unfair discrimination and cultural bias of any kind, is a contentious workplace issue in contemporary South Africa. To ensure fairness in testing, psychometric instruments are subjected to empirical investigations for the detection of possible bias that could lead to selection decisions constituting unfair discrimination. This study was conducted to explore the possible existence of differential item functioning (DIF, or potential bias, in the Figure Classification Test (A121 by means of the Mantel-Haenszel chi-square technique. The sample consisted of 498 men at a production company in the Western Cape. Although statistical analysis revealed significant differences between the mean test scores of three racial groups on the test, very few items were identified as having statistically significant DIF. The possibility is discussed that, despite the presence of some DIF, the differences between the means may not be due to the measuring instrument itself being biased/ but rather to extraneous sources of variation, such as the unequal education and socio-economic backgrounds of the racial groups. It was concluded that there is very little evidence of item bias in the test. Opsomming Die uitskakeling van onregverdige diskriminasie en kultuursydigheid van enige aard, is tans 'n omstrede kwessie in die werkpiek in Suid-Afrika. Ten einde regverdigheid in toetsing te verseker, word psigomefrriese toetse onderwerp aan empiriese ondersoeke na die moontlikheid van sydigheid wat kan lei tot keuringsbesluite wat onregverdige diskriminasie meebring. Hierdie ondersoek is ondemeem om die moontlikheid van differensiele itemfunksionering (DIF, of potensiële sydigheid, in die Figuurindelingtoets (A121, met behulp van die Mantel-Haenszel chikwadraattegniek, te ondersoek. Die steekproef het bestaan uit 498 mans by 'n produksiemaatskappy in die Wes-Kaap. Alhoewel statistiese ontleding beduidende verskille in gemiddelde toetstellings van drie

  9. Bruxas: figuras de poder Witches: figures of power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Basso Menna Barreto Gomes Zordan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available As mulheres que tanto a história como a imaginação popular mitificaram como "bruxas" constituem figuras que expurgam as fobias da Contra Reforma. As bruxas foram torturadas e queimadas para sinalizar os perigos de práticas e saberes à margem da Igreja e de outras instituições dominantes na Idade Moderna. Parteiras, curandeiras e carpideiras, as bruxas misturam em seu caldeirão os mistérios da vida e da morte herdados das tradições pagãs. Este artigo percorre textos de historiadores, em especial o de Jules Michelet, que no século XIX construiu a imagem romântica e martirizada da bruxa, e o manual de inquisidores do século XIV, o Malleus Maleficarum, que descreve os poderes da bruxa, sua aliança com o demônio e sua ameaça para o cristianismo. Os discursos instaurados por tais textos constroem tanto a imagem que glorifica a bruxa quanto aquela que a execra, mostrando ambas o potencial transformador de suas práticas e de sua ligação com a sexualidade.The women whom history and popular imagination mythicized as "witches" constitute figures that purge the phobias of the Counter Reformation. Witches were tortured and burned to signal the dangers of practices and knowledge in the margins of the Church and other dominant institutions in the Modern Age. Midwives, healers and weepers, the witches blend in their large kettle the mysteries of life and death inherited from pagan traditions. This paper examines some historians' texts, especially that of Jules Michelet, who created the witch's romantic and martyred image, and the inquisitors' manual Malleus Maleficarum, that describes the witch's powers, her alliance with the demon and her threat to Christianity. These texts establish, through their different discourses, two opposing images: one that glorifies witches and another that execrates them, in order to show the transforming potential of their practices and their connection with sexuality.

  10. Development of Wet-Etching Tools for Precision Optical Figuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rushford, M C; Dixit, S N; Hyde, R; Britten, J A; Nissen, J; Aasen, M; Toeppen, J; Hoaglan, C; Nelson, C; Summers, L; Thomas, I

    2004-01-27

    This FY03 final report on Wet Etch Figuring involves a 2D thermal tool. Its purpose is to flatten (0.3 to 1 mm thickness) sheets of glass faster thus cheaper than conventional sub aperture tools. An array of resistors on a circuit board was used to heat acid over the glass Optical Path Difference (OPD) thick spots and at times this heating extended over the most of the glass aperture. Where the acid is heated on the glass it dissolves faster. A self-referencing interferometer measured the glass thickness, its design taking advantage of the parallel nature and thinness of these glass sheets. This measurement is used in close loop control of the heating patterns of the circuit board thus glass and acid. Only the glass and acid were to be moved to make the tool logistically simple to use in mass production. A set of 4-circuit board, covering 80 x 80-cm aperture was ordered, but only one 40 x 40-cm board was put together and tested for this report. The interferometer measurement of glass OPD was slower than needed on some glass profiles. Sometimes the interference fringes were too fine to resolve which would alias the sign of the glass thickness profile. This also caused the phase unwrapping code (FLYNN) to struggle thus run slowly at times taking hours, for a 10 inch square area. We did extensive work to improve the speed of this code. We tried many different phase unwrapping codes. Eventually running (FLYNN) on a farm of networked computers. Most of the work reported here is therefore limited to a 10-inch square aperture. Researched into fabricating a better interferometer lens from Plexiglas so to have less of the scattered light issues of Fresnel lens groves near field scattering patterns, this set the Nyquest limit. There was also a problem with the initial concept of wetting the 1737 glass on its bottom side with acid. The wetted 1737 glass developed an Achromatic AR coating, spoiling the reflection needed to see glass thickness interference fringes. In response

  11. Effective communication. A Platonic case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, Gerry C.; Wieling, Martijn; Kroon, Martin; Van Noord, Gertjan

    As a contribution to the valedictory volume for John Nerbonne I present a case study of two thematically similar passages in Plato where I will make use of an analysis based on discourse cohesion and above all on the rhetorical and manipulative use of particles to show how a single (leading)

  12. The Platonic Ideal of Stalactite Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Martin; Toomey, Rickard

    2005-03-01

    The chemical mechanisms underlying the growth of cave formations such as stalactites are well-known, yet no theory has yet been proposed which successfully accounts for the dynamic evolution of their shapes. Here we consider the interplay of thin-film fluid dynamics, calcium carbonate chemistry, and CO2 transport in the cave to show that stalactites evolve according to a novel local geometric growth law which exhibits extreme amplification at the tip as a consequence of the locally-varying fluid layer thickness. Studies of this model show that a broad class of initial conditions is attracted to an ideal shape which is strikingly close to a statistical average of natural stalactites. A linear stability analysis shows is used to explain the instability of this state to the formation of centimeter-scale ripples, as commonly seen on a wide range of speleothem surfaces.

  13. Kvinnens overflødighet hos Platon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Nilsen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Superfluity of Women in Plato. In her article «Plato’s problematic women» Kristin Sampson argues that Plato has two different views on women in the Republic and the Timaeus respectively. In the Republic Plato operates with some sort of equality of status between the two genders, at least in the leaders’ and the soldiers’ classes, whereas in the mythology of the Timaeus women are depicted as reincarnations of men who earlier had lived an unmoral and bad life. According to my interpretation, these two views must be seen as two aspects of one common Greek thought or, as Vigdis Songe-Møller puts it, one common Greek dream, «the dream of the women’s superfluity». In the Republic Plato tries to rule out differences between genders by making the women as similar to men as possible, while in the Timaeus he describes them as something completely different from the norm, the man, and actually as a punishment to men with bad moral behaviour, something that society ideally should do without.

  14. Music and Pedagogy in the Platonic City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgault, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    That Plato regarded music as an extremely powerful means to cultivate morality and good citizenship is well-known. And yet, it is highly improbable that music advocates would turn to Plato's oeuvre--largely because Plato's name is commonly associated with ascetic otherworldliness and with much loathing for artistic creativity and innovation. These…

  15. Music and Pedagogy in the Platonic City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgault, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    That Plato regarded music as an extremely powerful means to cultivate morality and good citizenship is well-known. And yet, it is highly improbable that music advocates would turn to Plato's oeuvre--largely because Plato's name is commonly associated with ascetic otherworldliness and with much loathing for artistic creativity and innovation. These…

  16. ITRF2014 GNSS vertical velocities and global Earth figure variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Métivier, Laurent; Rouby, Hélène; Rebischung, Paul; Altamimi, Zuheir

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the GNSS station vertical velocities provided by the new solution of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, the ITRF2014. Constructed from a global network of approximately 1500 stations of the different space geodetic techniques, this new solution provides two times more GNSS station velocities than the ITRF2008, and shows a global pattern of vertical velocities very homogeneous regionally. As in the ITRF2008 solution, large vertical velocities can be seen over North America, Northern Europe, or Antarctica, probably induced predominantly by the Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) still occurring today since the last deglaciation. But the ITRF2014 solution shows also large vertical velocities over regions such as Greenland and Alaska clearly larger than in the ITRF2008, probably related to last decadal ice melting and its possible acceleration. We investigate different methods to calculate low degree spherical harmonics coefficient from ITRF2014 GNSS vertical velocities. We particularly focus on the components related to the geocenter motion, the ellipticity of the solid Earth, and the J2 rate, and we present time tendencies with respect to different GIA and recent ice melting models.

  17. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  18. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  19. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1203 - ISO Headform-Basic, Reference, and Median Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false ISO Headform-Basic, Reference, and Median Planes 2 Figure 2 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  20. The Three Figures of Research on Distance Education: Movement, Relation, Substance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choplin, Hugues

    2012-01-01

    This article relies on twelve texts published in "Distances et Savoirs." It asserts three "figures of thought" crossing our scientific disciplines: the substance, the relation, and the movement. The confrontation of these figures and these texts suggests how much "Distances et Savoirs" invites to a pluralistic…

  1. DeTEXT: A Database for Evaluating Text Extraction from Biomedical Literature Figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xu-Cheng; Yang, Chun; Pei, Wei-Yi; Man, Haixia; Zhang, Jun; Learned-Miller, Erik; Yu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of figures are available in biomedical literature, representing important biomedical experimental evidence. Since text is a rich source of information in figures, automatically extracting such text may assist in the task of mining figure information. A high-quality ground truth standard can greatly facilitate the development of an automated system. This article describes DeTEXT: A database for evaluating text extraction from biomedical literature figures. It is the first publicly available, human-annotated, high quality, and large-scale figure-text dataset with 288 full-text articles, 500 biomedical figures, and 9308 text regions. This article describes how figures were selected from open-access full-text biomedical articles and how annotation guidelines and annotation tools were developed. We also discuss the inter-annotator agreement and the reliability of the annotations. We summarize the statistics of the DeTEXT data and make available evaluation protocols for DeTEXT. Finally we lay out challenges we observed in the automated detection and recognition of figure text and discuss research directions in this area. DeTEXT is publicly available for downloading at http://prir.ustb.edu.cn/DeTEXT/.

  2. Differences Between Human Figure Drawings of Child Molesters and Control Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Frances A.; Johnston, Shawn A.

    1986-01-01

    Attempted to identify differences between human figure drawings of adult and juvenile child molesters and adult and juvenile control groups, based on ratings obtained for psychodiagnostic signs. Results revealed, for the molesters, factors of overall quality with a component of gender identity confusion, figure-size only, fingers only, and hidden…

  3. 16 CFR Figure 10 to Subpart A of... - Insulation Radiant Panel Test Data Log Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insulation Radiant Panel Test Data Log Format 10 Figure 10 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION.... 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Insulation Radiant Panel Test Data...

  4. The Role of Inhibitory Control in the Development of Human Figure Drawing in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Kevin J.; Jolley, Richard P.; Simpson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of inhibitory control in young children's human figure drawing. We used the Bear-Dragon task as a measure of inhibitory control and used the classification system devised by Cox and Parkin to measure the development of human figure drawing. We tested 50 children aged between 40 and 64 months. Regression analysis showed…

  5. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart W to... - Figures W-14 through W-28

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures W-14 through W-28 A Appendix A to Subpart W to part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...; Overhead Protection Pt. 1926, Subpt. W, App. A Appendix A to Subpart W to part 1926—Figures W-14 through...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1512 - Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512—Bicycle...

  7. Drawing Dynamic Geometry Figures Online with Natural Language for Junior High School Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wing-Kwong; Yin, Sheng-Kai; Yang, Chang-Zhe

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a tool for drawing dynamic geometric figures by understanding the texts of geometry problems. With the tool, teachers and students can construct dynamic geometric figures on a web page by inputting a geometry problem in natural language. First we need to build the knowledge base for understanding geometry problems. With the…

  8. 50 CFR Figure 18 to Part 679 - Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve 18 Figure 18 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 18 Figure 18 to Part 679—Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve ER09NO00.011 b....

  9. 20 CFR 225.34 - How the amount of the DRC is figured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How the amount of the DRC is figured. 225.34... PRIMARY INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS Delayed Retirement Credits § 225.34 How the amount of the DRC is figured. (a) The amount of the DRC depends on— (1) The year the employee reaches full retirement age;...

  10. Development of slopers for women with disproportionate figures: a case study of Swaziland

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zwane, PEL

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the development of new slopers for women with bottom heavy figures, with the view to propose a new sizing category or nomenclature for the sizing charts; to develop basic blocks for disproportionately figured...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1610 - An Example of a Typical Indicator Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false An Example of a Typical Indicator Finger 4 Figure 4 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 4 Figure 4 to Part...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1610 - Sketch of Flammability Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sketch of Flammability Apparatus 1 Figure 1 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1610—Sketch...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1610 - An Example of a Typical Gas Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false An Example of a Typical Gas Shield 5 Figure 5 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part...

  14. Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Pattern Conversion Ability: Generating Figural Patterns Based on Number Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Çigdem

    2017-01-01

    In that current study, pattern conversion ability of 25 pre-service mathematics teachers (producing figural patterns following number patterns) was investigated. During the study participants were asked to generate figural patterns based on those number patterns. The results of the study indicate that many participants could generate different…

  15. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 665 - Sample Fabricated Arceneaux Line Clipper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sample Fabricated Arceneaux Line Clipper 3 Figure 3 to Part 665 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND.... 3 Figure 3 to Part 665—Sample Fabricated Arceneaux Line Clipper ER14JA10.128...

  16. Figure 4 from Integrative Genomics Viewer: Visualizing Big Data | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene-list view of genomic data. The gene-list view allows users to compare data across a set of loci. The data in this figure includes copy number, mutation, and clinical data from 202 glioblastoma samples from TCGA. Adapted from Figure 7; Thorvaldsdottir H et al. 2012

  17. Restoration analysis of the right figure in Decree Law 290 Of the Inventions and Industrial Designs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerbys Hernández Dorta

    2014-06-01

    Recently in Cuba, with the enactment of Decree Law 290, From Inventions and Industrial Designs, dated February 1, 2012, is introduced for the first time the figure of the restoration of the right in inventions matter. That is why this article tries to make an analysis of this figure considering its essential elements.

  18. The hidden face of Kanizsa's triangle: apparent movement of subjective figures in three-dimensional space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallortigara, G

    1987-01-01

    Several demonstrations on the apparent movement in depth of subjective figures are presented. They include: (a) apparent rotational movement as a result of shape invariance or rigidity; (b) apparent rotational movement with three-dimensional subjective figures not accompanied by a brightness gradient; and (c) apparent rotational movement by kinetic occlusion.

  19. The Effects of Two Parent Figures on Attachment, Exploratory and Sociability Behaviors of Black Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jacquelyne F.

    Customarily, several parent figures rear black infants. The effects of this practice on infant-parent attachments have not been studied even though they provide the chance to test the attachment theory contention that infants form a primary attachment when several attachment figures are available. To study this issue, 21 male and 16 female black…

  20. Search Method Based on Figurative Indexation of Folksonomic Features of Graphic Files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Bisikalo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the search method based on usage of figurative indexation of folksonomic characteristics of graphical files is described. The method takes into account extralinguistic information, is based on using a model of figurative thinking of humans. The paper displays the creation of a method of searching image files based on their formal, including folksonomical clues.

  1. Learning to Teach in the Figured World of Reform Mathematics: Negotiating New Models of Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jasmine Y.; Singer-Gabella, Marcy

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the assertion that traditional and reform mathematics pedagogy constitute two distinct figured worlds of teaching and learning, the authors explore the initiation of prospective teachers into the figured world of reform mathematics pedagogy. To become successful teachers in reform-oriented classrooms, prospective teachers must learn…

  2. The Role of Inhibitory Control in the Development of Human Figure Drawing in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Kevin J.; Jolley, Richard P.; Simpson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of inhibitory control in young children's human figure drawing. We used the Bear-Dragon task as a measure of inhibitory control and used the classification system devised by Cox and Parkin to measure the development of human figure drawing. We tested 50 children aged between 40 and 64 months. Regression analysis showed…

  3. Exploration of Action Figure Appeals Using Evaluation Grid Method and Quantification Theory Type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hua-Cheng; Chen, Hung-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary toy is characterized by accelerating social, cultural and technological change. An attractive action figure can grab consumers' attention, influence the latent consuming preference and evoke their pleasure. However, traditional design of action figure is always dependent on designer's opinion, subjective experience and preference. It…

  4. Contextual effects on perceived contrast : Figure-ground assignment and orientation contrast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Self, Matthew W; Mookhoek, Aart; Tjalma, Nienke; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2015-01-01

    Figure-ground segregation is an important step in the path leading to object recognition. The visual system segregates objects ('figures') in the visual scene from their backgrounds ('ground'). Electrophysiological studies in awake-behaving monkeys have demonstrated that neurons in early visual area

  5. The Vanished Child: An inquiry into figures and their modes of appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Gervais

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sophie Calle's texts are elaborate devices that facilitate the production of figures, of complex symbolic entities. In fact, her work enables us to better understand how figures emerge and unfold in the imaginary. Thus, we find in her Disparitions (Disappearances, a startling figure, which we can name the "Vanished Child". I will present this figure and explain how it stems from the description of a painting by Rembrandt, stolen at the Gardner Museum in Boston. I will start by identifying some of the essential processes implied in the identification of a figure, and, to do so, I will give two short examples, drawn from Witold Gombrowicz and Don DeLillo. Then, after having described in details the figure of the Vanished Child, I will argue, following the French art historian Georges Didi-Huberman in his reading of Walter Benjamin, that figures are auratic objects. Dans ses textes, Sophie Calle emploie des techniques détaillées qui facilitent la production de figures, d'entités symboliques complexes. Son œuvre nous permet effectivement de mieux comprendre comment les figures émergent et se déploient dans l'imaginaire. Ainsi, nous trouvons dans ses Disparitions (Disappearances une figure surprenante que nous pouvons désigner comme « l'enfant disparu ». Je présenterai cette figure en expliquant comment elle découle de la description d'un tableau de Rembrandt volé au musée Gardner à Boston. J'identifierai d'abord quelques-uns des procédés essentiels à l'identification d'une figure, et pour ce faire je donnerai deux exemples, tirés des œuvres de Witold Gombrowicz et Don DeLillo. Puis je décrirai de façon détaillée la figure de l'enfant disparu, avant de démontrer le caractère auratique des figures à partir de la lecture de Walter Benjamin qu'exécute l'historien de l'art français Georges Didi-Huberman.

  6. Optical Accelerator: Scaling Laws and Figures of Merit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schachter, L.; /Technion; Byer, R.L.; /Stanford U., Appl. Mech. Dept.; Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC

    2005-09-27

    Indications that solid-state lasers will reach wall-plug to light efficiencies of 30% or more make a laser-driven vacuum-accelerator increasingly appealing. Since at the wavelength of relevant lasers, dielectrics may sustain significantly higher electric field and transmit power with reduced loss comparing to metals, the basic assumption is that laser accelerator structures will be dielectrics. For structures that have typical dimensions of a few microns, present manufacturing constraints entail planar structures that in turn, require re-evaluation of many of the scaling laws that were developed for azimuthally symmetric structures. Moreover, structures that operate at a wavelength of a few centimeters are machined today with an accuracy of microns. In future it will not be possible to maintain 4-5 orders of magnitude difference between operating wavelength and achievable tolerance. An additional difference is, that contrary to present accelerators where the number of electrons in a micro-bunch is of the order of a 10{sup 10}, in an optical structure this number drops to a few thousands. Consequently, the relative impact of individual electrons may be significantly larger. Acceleration structures with higher degree of symmetry, similar to optical fibers, have also some inherent advantages however thermal gradients as well as heat dissipation may become critical impediments. The impact of all these factors on the performance of a laser accelerator structure needs to be determined. Efficiency, wakes and emittance scaling laws that have been developed recently will be presented. It will be shown that there are some inherent advantages in combining the accelerator structure and the laser cavity in one system.

  7. 'In fairy tales fairies can disappear': children's reasoning about the characteristics of humans and fantasy figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerger, Elizabeth A

    2011-09-01

    Two studies assessed whether children share with adults a concept of fantasy figures as entities that violate causal principles. Inferences about the characteristics of humans and fantasy figures were elicited with a forced-choice questionnaire. Items from the biological, psychological, and physical domains pitted possible against impossible abilities; social domain items pitted conventional against unconventional behaviours. Older children (6-9 years) and adults attributed few non-human characteristics from any domain to humans and attributed more impossible than unconventional characteristics to fantasy figures. Younger children (3-5 years) attributed fewer non-human characteristics to humans than to fantasy figures, but attributed similar patterns of impossible and unconventional characteristics to humans and fantasy figures. Results are discussed in terms of cognitive changes between 3-5 and 6-9 years, and between 6-9 years and adulthood, that promote awareness that impossible abilities are uniquely associated with fantasy.

  8. A simple and effective figure caption detection system for old-style documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zongyi; Zhou, Hanning

    2011-01-01

    Identifying figure captions has wide applications in producing high quality e-books such as kindle books or ipad books. In this paper, we present a rule-based system to detect horizontal figure captions in old-style documents. Our algorithm consists of three steps: (i) segment images into regions of different types such as text and figures, (ii) search the best caption region candidate based on heuristic rules such as region alignments and distances, and (iii) expand caption regions identified in step (ii) with its neighboring text-regions in order to correct oversegmentation errors. We test our algorithm using 81 images collected from old-style books, with each image containing at least one figure area. We show that the approach is able to correctly detect figure captions from images with different layouts, and we also measure its performances in terms of both precision rate and recall rate.

  9. Enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit in a quantum dot due to external ac field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qiao, E-mail: cqhy1127@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Maths and Physics, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan 411104 (China); Wang, Zhi-yong, E-mail: wzyong@cqut.edu.cn [School of Optoelectronic Information, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China); Xie, Zhong-Xiang [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Hunan Institute of Technology, Hengyang 421002 (China)

    2013-08-15

    We investigate the figure of merit of a quantum dot (QD) system irradiated with an external microwave filed by nonequilibrium Green's function (NGF) technique. Results show that the frequency of microwave field influence the figure of merit ZT significantly. At low temperature, a sharp peak can be observed in the figure of merit ZT as the frequency of ac field increases. As the frequency varies, several zero points and resonant peaks emerge in the figure of merit ZT. By adjusting the frequency of the microwave field, we can obtain high ZT. The figure of merit ZT increases with the decreasing of linewidth function Γ. In addition, Wiedemann–Franz law does not hold, particularly in the low frequency region due to multi-photon emission and absorption. Some novel thermoelectric properties are also found in two-level QD system.

  10. Formation and texture of palladium germanides studied by in situ X-ray diffraction and pole figure measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geenen, F.A., E-mail: Filip.Geenen@UGent.be [Ghent University, Department of Solid-State Sciences, Krijgslaan 281 (S1), 9000 Gent (Belgium); Knaepen, W.; De Keyser, K. [Ghent University, Department of Solid-State Sciences, Krijgslaan 281 (S1), 9000 Gent (Belgium); Opsomer, K. [Interuniversitair Micro-Electronica Centrum (IMEC), Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vanmeirhaeghe, R.L. [Ghent University, Department of Solid-State Sciences, Krijgslaan 281 (S1), 9000 Gent (Belgium); Jordan-Sweet, J.; Lavoie, C. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown (United States); Detavernier, C. [Ghent University, Department of Solid-State Sciences, Krijgslaan 281 (S1), 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2014-01-31

    The solid state reaction between 30 nm Pd films and various Ge substrates (Ge(100), Ge(111), polycrystalline Ge and amorphous Ge) was studied by means of in situ X-ray diffraction and in situ sheet resistance measurements. The reported phase sequence of Pd{sub 2}Ge followed by PdGe was verified on all substrates. The texture of the germanides was analysed by pole figure measurements on samples quenched in the Pd{sub 2}Ge and in the PdGe phase on both Ge(100) and (111) substrates. We report an epitaxial growth of Pd{sub 2}Ge on Ge(111) and on Ge(100). The formed PdGe has an axiotaxial alignment on Ge(111). On Ge(100), the axiotaxial texture is observed together with a fibre texture. The higher formation temperature of PdGe on Ge(111) could be related to the epitaxial alignment of the Pd{sub 2}Ge parent phase on Ge(111). - Highlights: • Solid-state reaction is studied on a Pd film with Ge substrates. • Pd2Ge grains have an epitaxial texture on both Ge 100 and Ge 111. • PdGe grains are found to grow with an axiotaxial texture. • Retarded PdGe formation on Ge111 is related with strong epitaxy of Pd2Ge.

  11. What Are Solid Fats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fatty acids. Most solid fats are high in saturated fats and/or trans fats and have less monounsaturated ... Animal products containing solid fats also contain cholesterol. Saturated fats and trans fats tend to raise "bad" (LDL) ...

  12. Molecular Structure of Humin and Melanoidin via Solid State NMR

    OpenAIRE

    Herzfeld, Judith; Rand, Danielle; Matsuki, Yoh; Daviso, Eugenio; Mak-Jurkauskas, Melody; Mamajanov, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Sugar-derived humins and melanoidins figure significantly in food chemistry, agricultural chemistry, biochemistry and prebiotic chemistry. Despite wide interest and significant experimental attention, the amorphous and insoluble nature of the polymers has made them resistant to conventional structural characterization. Here we make use of solid-state NMR methods, including selective 13C substitution, 1H-dephasing, and double quantum filtration. The spectra, and their interpretation, are simpl...

  13. Tetraphenylborate Solids Stability Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-06-25

    Tetraphenylborate solids are a potentially large source of benzene in the slurries produced in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process. The stability of the solids is an important consideration in the safety analysis of the process and we desire an understanding of the factors that influence the rate of conversion of the solids to benzene. This report discusses current testing of the stability of tetraphenylborate solids.

  14. Laser cooling of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  15. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  16. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-12

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  17. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-01

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  18. Solid expellant plasma generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nobie H. (Inventor); Poe, Garrett D. (Inventor); Rood, Robert (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An improved solid expellant plasma generator has been developed. The plasma generator includes a support housing, an electrode rod located in the central portion of the housing, and a mass of solid expellant material that surrounds the electrode rod within the support housing. The electrode rod and the solid expellant material are made of separate materials that are selected so that the electrode and the solid expellant material decompose at the same rate when the plasma generator is ignited. This maintains a point of discharge of the plasma at the interface between the electrode and the solid expellant material.

  19. Solid state phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrance, R

    1972-01-01

    Solid State Phenomena explores the fundamentals of the structure and their influence on the properties of solids. This book is composed of five chapters that focus on the electrical and thermal conductivities of crystalline solids. Chapter 1 describes the nature of solids, particularly metals and crystalline materials. This chapter also presents a model to evaluate crystal structure, the forces between atom pairs, and the mechanism of plastic and elastic deformation. Chapter 2 demonstrates random vibrations of atoms in a solid using a one-dimensional array, while Chapter 3 examines the resista

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID CONES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Jinghui

    2008-01-01

    The author gives a dual characterization of solid cones in locally convex spaces.From this the author obtains some criteria for judging convex cones to be solid in various inds of locally convex spaces. Using a general expression of the interior of a solid cone,the author obtains a number of necessary and sufficient conditions for convex cones to be solid in the framework of Banach spaces. In particular, the author gives a dual relationship between solid cones and generalized sharp cones. The related known results are improved and extended.

  1. Ranking fluctuating asymmetry in a dot figure and the significant impact of imagining a face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neby, Magne; Ivar, Folstad

    2013-01-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry and averageness is correlated with our perception of beauty in human faces. Yet, whether deviations of centrality in the positioning of the eyes, the nose, and the mouth have different effects on our perception of asymmetry in a holistic human face, is still uncertain. In this study we aimed to test the relative effect of decentralising the horizontal position of three sets of paired dots representing eyes, nostrils, or mouth from the vertical midline of ambiguous dot figures, vaguely resembling a face. The figures were ranked according to perceived asymmetry by human observers. When associating the figures with non-facial objects (eg a butterfly), none of the figures' rank distribution differed from each other. However, when observers imagined the figures to represent a human face, the figure with the decentralised pair of dots representing the nostrils was significantly ranked as more asymmetric than the other figures. This result provides indications that the brain may deal with information about facial asymmetry and averageness heavily depending on the centrality of the nasal region.

  2. Development of figurative language skills following central nervous system-directed chemotherapy delivered in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Emma K; Lewis, Fiona M; Murdoch, Bruce E

    2014-04-01

    Central nervous system (CNS)-directed chemotherapy is delivered for the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Figurative language deficits have been described in children following CNS-directed chemotherapy; however, comprehensive analysis of figurative interpretation errors, potentially providing clinical utility to assist with intervention planning, has never been performed. The present study aimed to compare the figurative language skills of seven children treated with CNS-directed chemotherapy for ALL before the age of 6 years (mean age at diagnosis 3 years 10 months) and a matched control group of children, using the Test of Language Competence-Expanded Edition (TLC-E) Figurative Language sub-test. It was hypothesised that the children treated with CNS-directed chemotherapy would demonstrate a decreased performance in and an alternative method of interpreting figurative language. The results suggest no negative effects of CNS-directed chemotherapy on figurative language. There were no statistically significant differences between groups for TLC-E Figurative Language sub-test composite scores and picture component errors, nor were there clinically significant differences observed from descriptive comparisons of individual case data and error analysis. As these skills continue to emerge beyond childhood, the need to monitor skill development in ALL survivors beyond childhood is highlighted.

  3. Mental representations of attachment figures facilitate recovery following upsetting autobiographical memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, Emre; Zayas, Vivian; Günaydin, Gül; Hazan, Cindy; Kross, Ethan

    2012-08-01

    A growing literature shows that even the symbolic presence of an attachment figure facilitates the regulation of negative affect triggered by external stressors. Yet, in daily life, pernicious stressors are often internally generated--recalling an upsetting experience reliably increases negative affect, rumination, and susceptibility to physical and psychological health problems. The present research provides the first systematic examination of whether activating the mental representation of an attachment figure enhances the regulation of affect triggered by thinking about upsetting memories. Using 2 different techniques for priming attachment figure representations and 2 types of negative affect measures (explicit and implicit), activating the mental representation of an attachment figure (vs. an acquaintance or stranger) after recalling an upsetting memory enhanced recovery--eliminating the negative effects of the memory recall (Studies 1-3). In contrast, activating the mental representation of an attachment figure before recalling an upsetting memory had no such effect (Studies 1 and 2). Furthermore, activating the mental representation of an attachment figure after thinking about upsetting memories reduced negative thinking in a stream of consciousness task, and the magnitude of the attachment-induced affective recovery effects as assessed with explicit affect measures predicted mental and physical health in daily life (Study 3). Finally, a meta-analysis of the 3 studies (Study 4) showed that the regulatory benefits conferred by the mental representation of an attachment figure were weaker for individuals high on attachment avoidance. The implications of these findings for attachment, emotion regulation, and mental and physical health are discussed.

  4. A novel figure panel classification and extraction method for document image understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaohui; Ang, Dongyu

    2014-01-01

    With the availability of full-text documents in many online databases, the paradigm of biomedical literature mining and document understanding has shifted to analysis of both text and figures to derive implicit messages that are unforeseen with text mining only. To enable automatic, massive processing, a key step is to extract and parse figures embedded in papers. In this paper, we present a novel model-driven, hierarchical method to classify and extract panels from figures in scientific papers. Our method consists of two integrated components: figure (or panel) classification and panel segmentation. Figure classification evaluates each panel and decides the existence of photographs and drawings. Mixtures of photographs and non-photographs are divided into subfigures. The splitting process repeats until no further panel collage can be identified. Detection of highlighted views is addressed with Hough space analysis. Using reconstruction from Hough peaks, enclosed panels are retrieved and saved into separate files. Experiments were conducted with a total of 360 figures extracted from two sets of papers that are retrieved with difference sets of keywords. Experimental results demonstrated that our method successfully segmented figures and extracted photographs and non-photographs with high accuracy and robustness. In addition, our method was able to identify zoom-in views that are superimposed on the original photographs. The efficiency of our method allows online implementation.

  5. Ion figuring of large prototype mirror segments for the E-ELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigo, M.; Vecchi, G.; Basso, S.; Citterio, O.; Civitani, M.; Mattaini, E.; Pareschi, G.; Sironi, G.

    2014-07-01

    At INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Brera a study is under way to explore the problems related to the ion beam figuring of full scale Zerodur hexagonal mirrors of M1 for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), having size of 1.4 m corner to corner. During this study it is initially foreseen the figuring of a scaled down version mirror of the same material having size of 1 m corner to corner to assess the relevant figuring problems and issues. This specific mirror has a radius of curvature of 3 m, which allows for easy interferometric measurement. A mechanical support was designed to minimize its deformations due to the gravity. The Ion Beam Figuring Facility used for this study has been recently completed in the Brera Observatory and has a figuring area of 140 cm x 170 cm. It employs a Kaufman ion source having 50 mm grids mounted on three axis. This system has been designed and developed to be autonomous and self-monitoring during the figuring process. The software and the mathematical tools used to compute the dwell time solution have been developed at INAF-OAB as well. Aim of this study is the estimation and optimization of the time requested to correct the surface adopting strategies to mitigate the well-known thermal problems related to the Zerodur material. In this paper, the results obtained figuring the 1 m corner-to-corner test segment are reported.

  6. Problems in Translating Figures of Speech: A Review of Persian Translations of Harry Potter Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Masroor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the important role of figures of speech in prose, the present research tried to investigate the figures of speech in the novel, Harry Potter Series, and their Persian translations. The main goal of this research was to investigate the translators’ problems in translating figures of speech from English into Persian. To achieve this goal, the collected data were analyzed and compared with their Persian equivalents. Then, the theories of Newmark (1988 & 2001, Larson (1998, and Nolan (2005 were used in order to find the applied strategies for rendering the figures of speech by the translators. After identifying the applied translation strategies, the descriptive and inferential analyses were applied to answer the research question and test its related hypothesis. The results confirmed that the most common pitfalls in translating figures of speech from English into Persian based on Nolan (2005 were, not identifying of figures of speech, their related meanings and translating them literally. Overall, the research findings rejected the null hypothesis. The findings of present research can be useful for translators, especially beginners. They can be aware of the existing problems in translating figures of speech, so they can avoid committing the same mistakes in their works.

  7. Characteristics of grouping colors for figure segregation on a multicolored background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Takehiro; Uchikawa, Keiji

    2008-11-01

    A figure is segregated from its background when the colored elements belonging to the figure are grouped together. We investigated the range of color distribution conditions in which a figure could be segregated from its background using the color distribution differences. The stimulus was a multicolored texture composed of randomly shaped pieces. It was divided into two regions: a test region and a background region. The pieces in these two regions had different color distributions in the OSA Uniform Color Space. In our experiments, the subject segregated the figure of the test region using two different procedures. Since the Euclidean distance in the OSA Uniform Color Space corresponds to perceived color difference, if segregation thresholds are determined by only color difference, the thresholds should be independent of position and direction in the color space. In the results, however, the thresholds did depend on position and direction in the OSA Uniform Color Space. This suggests that color difference is not the only factor in figure segregation by color. Moreover, the threshold dependence on position and direction is influenced by the distances in the cone-opponent space whose axes are normalized by discrimination thresholds, suggesting that figure segregation threshold is determined by similar factors in the cone-opponent space for color discrimination. The analysis of the results by categorical color naming suggests that categorical color perception may affect figure segregation only slightly.

  8. Estimating data from figures with a Web-based program: Considerations for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burda, Brittany U; O'Connor, Elizabeth A; Webber, Elizabeth M; Redmond, Nadia; Perdue, Leslie A

    2017-09-01

    Systematic reviewers often encounter incomplete or missing data, and the information desired may be difficult to obtain from a study author. Thus, systematic reviewers may have to resort to estimating data from figures with little or no raw data in a study's corresponding text or tables. We discuss a case study in which participants used a publically available Web-based program, called webplotdigitizer, to estimate data from 2 figures. We evaluated and used the intraclass coefficient and the accuracy of the estimates to the true data to inform considerations when using estimated data from figures in systematic reviews. The estimates for both figures were consistent, although the distribution of estimates in the figure of a continuous outcome was slightly higher. For the continuous outcome, the percent difference ranged from 0.23% to 30.35% while the percent difference of the event rate ranged from 0.22% to 8.92%. For both figures, the intraclass coefficient was excellent (>0.95). Systematic reviewers should consider and be transparent when estimating data from figures when the information cannot be obtained from study authors and perform sensitivity analyses of pooled results to reduce bias. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Solids fluidizer-injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulicz, T.R.

    1990-04-17

    An apparatus and process are described for fluidizing solid particles by causing rotary motion of the solid particles in a fluidizing chamber by a plurality of rotating projections extending from a rotatable cylinder end wall interacting with a plurality of fixed projections extending from an opposite fixed end wall and passing the solid particles through a radial feed orifice open to the solids fluidizing chamber on one side and a solid particle utilization device on the other side. The apparatus and process are particularly suited for obtaining intermittent feeding with continual solids supply to the fluidizing chamber. The apparatus and process are suitable for injecting solid particles, such as coal, to an internal combustion engine. 3 figs.

  10. Solid Base Catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    The importance of solid base catalysts has come to be recognized for their environmentally benign qualities, and much significant progress has been made over the past two decades in catalytic materials and solid base-catalyzed reactions. The book is focused on the solid base. Because of the advantages over liquid bases, the use of solid base catalysts in organic synthesis is expanding. Solid bases are easier to dispose than liquid bases, separation and recovery of products, catalysts and solvents are less difficult, and they are non-corrosive. Furthermore, base-catalyzed reactions can be performed without using solvents and even in the gas phase, opening up more possibilities for discovering novel reaction systems. Using numerous examples, the present volume describes the remarkable role solid base catalysis can play, given the ever increasing worldwide importance of "green" chemistry. The reader will obtain an overall view of solid base catalysis and gain insight into the versatility of the reactions to whic...

  11. Neural Dynamics of Feedforward and Feedback Processing in Figure-Ground Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver W. Layton

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining whether a region belongs to the interior or exterior of a shape (figure-ground segregation is a core competency of the primate brain, yet the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Many models assume that figure-ground segregation occurs by assembling progressively more complex representations through feedforward connections, with feedback playing only a modulatory role. We present a dynamical model of figure-ground segregation in the primate ventral stream wherein feedback plays a crucial role in disambiguating a figure’s interior and exterior. We introduce a processing strategy whereby jitter in RF center locations and variation in RF sizes is exploited to enhance and suppress neural activity inside and outside of figures, respectively. Feedforward projections emanate from units that model cells in V4 known to respond to the curvature of boundary contours (curved contour cells, and feedback projections from units predicted to exist in IT that strategically group neurons with different RF sizes and RF center locations (teardrop cells. Neurons (convex cells that preferentially respond when centered on a figure dynamically balance feedforward (bottom-up information and feedback from higher visual areas. The activation is enhanced when an interior portion of a figure is in the RF via feedback from units that detect closure in the boundary contours of a figure. Our model produces maximal activity along the medial axis of well-known figures with and without concavities, and inside algorithmically generated shapes. Our results suggest that the dynamic balancing of feedforward signals with the specific feedback mechanisms proposed by the model is crucial for figure-ground segregation.

  12. Mitotic figure counts are significantly overestimated in resection specimens of invasive breast carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Hans-Anton; Rochat, Candice; Schaper, Cornelia; Nobile, Antoine; Shanouda, Sherien; Vijgen, Sandrine; Gauthier, Arnaud; Obermann, Ellen; Leuba, Susana; Schmidt, Marcus; C, Curzio Ruegg; Delaloye, Jean-Francois; Simiantonaki, Nectaria; Schaefer, Stephan C

    2013-03-01

    Several authors have demonstrated an increased number of mitotic figures in breast cancer resection specimen when compared with biopsy material. This has been ascribed to a sampling artifact where biopsies are (i) either too small to allow formal mitotic figure counting or (ii) not necessarily taken form the proliferating tumor periphery. Herein, we propose a different explanation for this phenomenon. Biopsy and resection material of 52 invasive ductal carcinomas was studied. We counted mitotic figures in 10 representative high power fields and quantified MIB-1 immunohistochemistry by visual estimation, counting and image analysis. We found that mitotic figures were elevated by more than three-fold on average in resection specimen over biopsy material from the same tumors (20±6 vs 6±2 mitoses per 10 high power fields, P=0.008), and that this resulted in a relative diminution of post-metaphase figures (anaphase/telophase), which made up 7% of all mitotic figures in biopsies but only 3% in resection specimen (Pmitotic figures in resection specimen. We propose that the increase in mitotic figures in resection specimen and the significant shift towards metaphase figures is not due to a sampling artifact, but reflects ongoing cell cycle activity in the resected tumor tissue due to fixation delay. The dwindling energy supply will eventually arrest tumor cells in metaphase, where they are readily identified by the diagnostic pathologist. Taken together, we suggest that the rapidly fixed biopsy material better represents true tumor biology and should be privileged as predictive marker of putative response to cytotoxic chemotherapy.

  13. An Integrated Computational and Experimental Approach Toward the Design of Materials for Fuel Cell Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Archimedean solid whereas the second one belongs to the class of the five Platonic solids. Besides these historical classifications and their rather...Archimedean solid whereas the second one belongs to the class of the five Platonic solids. Besides these historical classifications and their rather

  14. Reconsidering Figurative, Graphic Art of the 1950s Danish Art Scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burmeister Kaaring, Liza

    2013-01-01

    entitled Mennesket (Man), and featured figurative, graphic art, concerned with depictions of the human figure and with the post-war psychological condition of the individual human being. Among the artists were Palle Nielsen, Svend Wiig Hansen, Dan Sterup-Hansen and Henry Heerup. The exhibitions took place......The article contributes to a revision of today’s understanding of the 1950s Danish art scene. By presenting three exhibitions and analysing the reception of them, I point out that figurative art enjoyed a much more central role than later accounts have recognised. All three exhibitions were...

  15. Application of the PM6 method to modeling the solid state

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, James J. P.

    2008-01-01

    The applicability of the recently developed PM6 method for modeling various properties of a wide range of organic and inorganic crystalline solids has been investigated. Although the geometries of most systems examined were reproduced with good accuracy, severe errors were found in the predicted structures of a small number of solids. The origin of these errors was investigated, and a strategy for improving the method proposed. Figure Detail of Structure of Dihydrogen Phosphate in KH2PO4 (upp...

  16. Determination of the Tribological Fundamentals of Solid Lubricated Ceramics. Volume 3. Appendices P through II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    be investigated from the approach of preparing solid surfaces of extreme purity and perfection. However such surfaces must be maintained in a very high...system is of interest when the solid lubricant TiN is considered as shown in Figure 4-6.13 The primary phase fields are rutile, cristobalite , mullite...analysis and surface [6]. The preparation of the pin was tribotesting, a specimen can be cleaned by carried out in the same way. the secondary ion

  17. Detection of mitotic figures in thin melanomas--immunohistochemistry does not replace the careful search for mitotic figures in hematoxylin-eosin stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottmann, Karl; Tronnier, Michael; Mitteldorf, Christina

    2015-10-01

    The mitotic rate is an important prognostic criterion in patients with thin melanoma ≤ 1 mm. The aim of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of the mitotic rate in thin melanoma in hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) stain and compare it with the detection of mitotic figures by immunohistochemistry. The number of mitoses stated in the routine diagnostic report in 190 pT1 melanomas was compared with the number gained from re-evaluation of H&E sections and the number detected after staining with the mitotic marker, phosphohistone H3 (PHH3). Two different approaches were used for choosing the "hot spot" for evaluation (dermal vs epidermal/dermal). Comparing routine H&E-stained slides with re-evaluation slides, the number of mitotic figures was slightly variable. However, findings did not result in a change of the tumor stage. In 34% of the tumors with dermal mitotic figures on H&E, mitoses could not be found in the corresponding PHH3 slide anymore. In 4% of the cases, stage relevant mitoses could only be found by PHH3 immunohistochemistry. This is a single center study. Immunohistochemical staining for mitotic figures does not replace a careful evaluation of H&E-stained slides. Immunohistochemical detection of mitosis is only an additional tool; the time-saving effect is therefore negligible. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Children's figure ratings: relationship to self-esteem and negative stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, M; Wilson-Barrett, E

    1998-01-01

    Numerous studies have used figure ratings to demonstrate substantially greater body dissatisfaction among women than men. The present study aimed to investigate gender differences in body dissatisfaction in younger children. A children's version of the Figure Rating Scale was administered to 140 children between the ages of 7 and 12 years. Children also completed measures of self-esteem and negative stereotyping of fat people. Irrespective of age, girls rated their ideal figure as smaller than the one they considered most attractive to boys, and as substantially smaller than their current figure. For boys, there was no difference in ratings. Level of body dissatisfaction correlated negatively with self-esteem and positively with negative stereotyping for boys, but not for girls. The results are consistent with body dissatisfaction being "a normative discontent" for young girls as well as for adult women.

  19. An Investigation on the Use of Dough Figures in Naxi Dongba Rituals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Hongrong

    2015-01-01

    Dongba rituals are one of the im-portant expressions of Naxi polytheistic worship, and they reflect the Naxi ancestor's view of ani-mism.Relying on a large number of manuscripts written using Dongba pictographs which contain the content and procedure of Dongba rituals, a com-plete religious ritual system has been formed.A-mong the large number of Dongba ancient manu-scripts, there are many descriptions of the dough figures depicting deities, ghosts and animals, the materials for making them, and the way to use them in the rituals.This shows clearly that the dough figures, a traditional style of art, are very popular in Dongba rituals.Because the materials for making the dough figures used in Dongba rituals are mostly fried wheat flour, buckwheat flour and highland barley flour, they are called as “haxi duoma” by the local people, meaning “dough fig-ures of deities and ghosts made of grain”.

  20. Analysis of English Complex Sentences based on Figure-Ground Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯皓

    2015-01-01

    English is a language featuring its complex sentences composed of main and sub-ordinate clauses. The subordinate clause conveys the unifnished messages in main clause and it becomes quite complicated. English complex sentence is a fair impor-tant sentence type and also of importance in English teaching. Analyzing complex sentence based on Figure-Ground Theory, especially the Adverbial Clause, is help-ful to learn English and translate it. The Figure-Ground Theory originated in psychol-ogy studies and it was introduced in cognitive linguistics to explain some language phenomena. From Figure-Ground perspective, the essay studies attributive clause, adverbial clause and nominal clause and some critical sentence types have been analyzed carefully and the major ifnding is Figure-Ground Theory is dynamic not static.