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Sample records for plato iv system

  1. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  2. Evaluation of a Three Year Health Sciences PLATO IV Computer-Based Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlie, William E.; Essex, Diane L.

    Significant findings of the comprehensive evaluation of a computer-based curriculum in the basic medical sciences using the PLATO IV computer system are presented. The study was conducted by the Office of Curriculum and Evaluation (OCE) of the School of Basic Medical Sciences (SBMS) at the University of Illinois, Urbana/Champaign (UC). It was…

  3. A Data Bank Experience on the PLATO System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Wallace; St-Denis, Richard

    1980-01-01

    Current theories on terminology and lexicography which underlie the logical components of the terminology bank set up on the PLATO system and established standards are briefly presented. The units that were essential to developing the bank are discussed. References are listed. (Author)

  4. A Plan for the Evaluation of a Project to Develop Basic Medical Sciences Lessons on PLATO IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Les A.; And Others

    A project to introduce PLATO IV computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in medical sciences education for health professionals was implemented at the School of Basic Medical Sciences at the University of Illinois. This paper describes the plan for evaluation of the project. Using a student questionnaire and additional general questions, the…

  5. The GUIDO System and the PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenson, Michael A.; Hofstetter, Fred T.

    1983-01-01

    The GUIDO system offers programing in ear training and theory for kindergarten through college levels, using high-resolution graphics, touch input, and a sound synthesizer. Ear training includes intervals, melodies, chord qualities, harmonies, and rhythm. Theory covers octave designation, beat units, scales, intervals, diatonic chords,…

  6. Platerm: la banque de terminologie du systeme Platon (PLATERM: The Terminology Bank of the PLATO System).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Wallace; St-Denis, Richard

    1980-01-01

    Describes the elements and functioning of the terminology bank of the PLATO (Programmed Loqic for Automated Teaching Operation) system. Discusses contemporary terminology and lexicography notions on which the bank is based and outlines the tasks performed through PLATERM. (MES)

  7. Platerm: la banque de terminologie du systeme Platon (PLATERM: The Terminology Bank of the PLATO System).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Wallace; St-Denis, Richard

    1980-01-01

    Describes the elements and functioning of the terminology bank of the PLATO (Programmed Loqic for Automated Teaching Operation) system. Discusses contemporary terminology and lexicography notions on which the bank is based and outlines the tasks performed through PLATERM. (MES)

  8. The PCP SYS IV Management System: Educational Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Martin A.; Davis, Dennis M.

    This paper describes the structure and function of the SYS IV PLATO Curriculum Project's (PCP) computer-based management system and justifies the system design. A consideration of features most critical in the design of management systems provides the context for a discussion of specific SYS IV features, which include its ability to deliver any…

  9. The PCP SYS IV Management System: Technical Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, John T.; Felty, J. Michael

    This paper is the second in a three-part series on SYS IV, an instructional management system developed by the PLATO Curriculum Project (PCP) that incorporates some of the features of the previous SYS systems. Focus is primarily on the new features that make the system unique. Following a brief background section explaining the purpose of SYS IV,…

  10. The PCP SYS IV Management System: Implementation and Training Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Dorothy Z.; Clapp, Elizabeth J.

    This is the final paper in a series of three on SYS IV, a computer-based management system developed by the PLATO Curriculum Project (PCP) which tests students, routes students to lessons, stores detailed records of online student activity, and keeps summary records of student activities. An introduction describes how the system simultaneously…

  11. The PLATO Dome A site-testing observatory: Power generation and control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J. S.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Hengst, S.; Luong-van, D. M.; Storey, J. W. V.; Yang, H.; Zhou, X.; Zhu, Z.

    2009-06-01

    The atmospheric conditions above Dome A, a currently unmanned location at the highest point on the Antarctic plateau, are uniquely suited to astronomy. For certain types of astronomy Dome A is likely to be the best location on the planet, and this has motivated the development of the Plateau Observatory (PLATO). PLATO was deployed to Dome A in early 2008. It houses a suite of purpose-built site-testing instruments designed to quantify the benefits of Dome A site for astronomy, and science instruments designed to take advantage of the observing conditions. The PLATO power generation and control system is designed to provide continuous power and heat, and a high-reliability command and communications platform for these instruments. PLATO has run and collected data throughout the winter 2008 season completely unattended. Here we present a detailed description of the power generation, power control, thermal management, instrument interface, and communications systems for PLATO, and an overview of the system performance for 2008.

  12. Plato's Embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilberding, James

    2015-01-01

    Embryology was a subject that inspired great cross-disciplinary discussion in antiquity, and Plato's Timaeus made an important contribution to this discussion, though Plato's precise views have remained a matter of controversy, especially regarding three key questions pertaining to the generation and nature of the seed: whether there is a female seed; what the nature of seed is; and whether the seed contains a preformed human being. In this paper I argue that Plato's positions on these three issues can be adequately determined, even if some other aspects of his theory cannot. In particular, it is argued that (i) Plato subscribes to the encephalo-myelogenic theory of seed, though he places particular emphasis on the soul being the true seed; (ii) Plato is a two-seed theorist, yet the female seed appears to make no contribution to reproduction; and (iii) Plato cannot be an advocate of preformationism.

  13. Alternative communication network designs for an operational Plato 4 CAI system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, R. E., Jr.; Eastwood, L. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The cost of alternative communications networks for the dissemination of PLATO IV computer-aided instruction (CAI) was studied. Four communication techniques are compared: leased telephone lines, satellite communication, UHF TV, and low-power microwave radio. For each network design, costs per student contact hour are computed. These costs are derived as functions of student population density, a parameter which can be calculated from census data for one potential market for CAI, the public primary and secondary schools. Calculating costs in this way allows one to determine which of the four communications alternatives can serve this market least expensively for any given area in the U.S. The analysis indicates that radio distribution techniques are cost optimum over a wide range of conditions.

  14. The CGE-PLATO Electronic Laboratory Station Structure and Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, J. P.

    An electronic laboratory station was designed for student use in learning electronic instrumentation and measurement by means of the computer-guided experimentation (CGE) system. The station features rack-mounted electronic laboratory equipment on a laboratory table adjacent to a PLATO IV terminal. An integrated logic system behind the laboratory…

  15. Dosimetric evaluation of PLATO and Oncentra treatment planning systems for High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy gynecological treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hardev; Herman, Tania De La Fuente; Showalter, Barry; Thompson, Spencer J.; Syzek, Elizabeth J.; Herman, Terence; Ahmad, Salahuddin

    2012-10-01

    This study compares the dosimetric differences in HDR brachytherapy treatment plans calculated with Nucletron's PLATO and Oncentra MasterPlan treatment planning systems (TPS). Ten patients (1 T1b, 1 T2a, 6 T2b, 2 T4) having cervical carcinoma, median age of 43.5 years (range, 34-79 years) treated with tandem & ring applicator in our institution were selected retrospectively for this study. For both Plato and Oncentra TPS, the same orthogonal films anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral were used to manually draw the prescription and anatomical points using definitions from the Manchester system and recommendations from the ICRU report 38. Data input for PLATO was done using a digitizer and Epson Expression 10000XL scanner was used for Oncentra where the points were selected on the images in the screen. The prescription doses for these patients were 30 Gy to points right A (RA) and left A (LA) delivered in 5 fractions with Ir-192 HDR source. Two arrangements: one dwell position and two dwell positions on the tandem were used for dose calculation. The doses to the patient points right B (RB) and left B (LB), and to the organs at risk (OAR), bladder and rectum for each patient were calculated. The mean dose and the mean percentage difference in dose calculated by the two treatment planning systems were compared. Paired t-tests were used for statistical analysis. No significant differences in mean RB, LB, bladder and rectum doses were found with p-values > 0.14. The mean percent difference of doses in RB, LB, bladder and rectum are found to be less than 2.2%, 1.8%, 1.3% and 2.2%, respectively. Dose calculations based on the two different treatment planning systems were found to be consistent and the treatment plans can be made with either system in our department without any concern.

  16. Dosimetric evaluation of PLATO and Oncentra treatment planning systems for High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy gynecological treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Hardev; De La Fuente Herman, Tania; Showalter, Barry; Thompson, Spencer J.; Syzek, Elizabeth J.; Herman, Terence; Ahmad, Salahuddin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peggy and Charles Stephenson Oklahoma Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States)

    2012-10-23

    This study compares the dosimetric differences in HDR brachytherapy treatment plans calculated with Nucletron's PLATO and Oncentra MasterPlan treatment planning systems (TPS). Ten patients (1 T1b, 1 T2a, 6 T2b, 2 T4) having cervical carcinoma, median age of 43.5 years (range, 34-79 years) treated with tandem and ring applicator in our institution were selected retrospectively for this study. For both Plato and Oncentra TPS, the same orthogonal films anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral were used to manually draw the prescription and anatomical points using definitions from the Manchester system and recommendations from the ICRU report 38. Data input for PLATO was done using a digitizer and Epson Expression 10000XL scanner was used for Oncentra where the points were selected on the images in the screen. The prescription doses for these patients were 30 Gy to points right A (RA) and left A (LA) delivered in 5 fractions with Ir-192 HDR source. Two arrangements: one dwell position and two dwell positions on the tandem were used for dose calculation. The doses to the patient points right B (RB) and left B (LB), and to the organs at risk (OAR), bladder and rectum for each patient were calculated. The mean dose and the mean percentage difference in dose calculated by the two treatment planning systems were compared. Paired t-tests were used for statistical analysis. No significant differences in mean RB, LB, bladder and rectum doses were found with p-values > 0.14. The mean percent difference of doses in RB, LB, bladder and rectum are found to be less than 2.2%, 1.8%, 1.3% and 2.2%, respectively. Dose calculations based on the two different treatment planning systems were found to be consistent and the treatment plans can be made with either system in our department without any concern.

  17. Filsafat Ketuhanan Menurut Plato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Th.J Weismann

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Plato adalah filsuf pertama yang menulis secara filosofis dan secara sistematik teologis mengenai konsep Ketuhanan sehingga dapatlah dikatakan bahwa ia adalah peletqk dasar bagi ilmu teologia dan memberikan pengaruh besar bagi perkembanganfilsafat Barat khususnya tentangkonsep Ketuhanan. Pemikiran Plato tentang Ketuhanan adalah upayanya untuk mereformasi konsep Ketuhanan yang terdapat pada masyarakat Yunani kuno. Tulisan ini berupaya menganalisis dan memahami Ketuhanan menurut Plato agar pembaca masa kini dapat mengerti lebih dalam lagi tentong konsep Ketuhanan yang dipahami masyarakat Yunani kuno dan khususnya menurut Plato, dan juga dapat dijadikan sebagai bahan perbandingan bagifilsafat Ketuhanan pada masa kini. Filsafat Ketuhanan menurut Plato ini penulis jelaskan dengan memperhatikandimensi metafisika, epistemologi, dan etika.

  18. [Plato psychiatrist, Foucault platonic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathov, Nicolás

    2016-05-01

    This work explores the links between the concepts of "soul", "law" and "word" in Plato's work, in order to highlight the importance and the centrality of the philosophical-therapeutic dimension in the Greek philosopher's thought. In that way, this work pretends to show that "contemporary" problems usually discussed within "Human Sciences" in general, and Psychiatry in particular, should confront their knowledge with Plato's work, mainly due to the profound influence his ideas have had in our Greco-Christian culture. In that sense, and with that objective, this work also explores Michel Foucault's lucid and controversial interpretation of Plato.

  19. A Summary of Plato Curriculum and Research Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Elisabeth R.

    PLATO (programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations) is a computer-based teaching system which was developed in the Coordinated Science Laboratory at the University of Illinois to explore the possibilities of automation in individual instruction. The history of the PLATO program is summarized here, along with a list of courses which used…

  20. Third Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    Descriptions of new developments in the areas of facilities, applications, user services, support staff, research, evaluation, and courseware production since the Second Summative Report (1977) are provided, as well as a summative overview of PLATO applications at the University of Delaware. Through the purchase of its own PLATO system, this…

  1. The PLATO 2.0 mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauer, H.; et al., [Unknown; Hekker, S.

    2014-01-01

    PLATO 2.0 has recently been selected for ESA’s M3 launch opportunity (2022/24). Providing accurate key planet parameters (radius, mass, density and age) in statistical numbers, it addresses fundamental questions such as: How do planetary systems form and evolve? Are there other systems with planets

  2. Results of the 1975 Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    During the Spring semester of 1975, the University of Delaware initiated a PLATO project with the dual purpose of demonstrating how a computer system might function in a university and of evaluating what part such a system might play in the future of the university and its supporting community. The demonstration phase of the project, which…

  3. PLATO: data-oriented approach to collaborative large-scale brain system modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannon, Takayuki; Inagaki, Keiichiro; Kamiji, Nilton L; Makimura, Kouji; Usui, Shiro

    2011-11-01

    The brain is a complex information processing system, which can be divided into sub-systems, such as the sensory organs, functional areas in the cortex, and motor control systems. In this sense, most of the mathematical models developed in the field of neuroscience have mainly targeted a specific sub-system. In order to understand the details of the brain as a whole, such sub-system models need to be integrated toward the development of a neurophysiologically plausible large-scale system model. In the present work, we propose a model integration library where models can be connected by means of a common data format. Here, the common data format should be portable so that models written in any programming language, computer architecture, and operating system can be connected. Moreover, the library should be simple so that models can be adapted to use the common data format without requiring any detailed knowledge on its use. Using this library, we have successfully connected existing models reproducing certain features of the visual system, toward the development of a large-scale visual system model. This library will enable users to reuse and integrate existing and newly developed models toward the development and simulation of a large-scale brain system model. The resulting model can also be executed on high performance computers using Message Passing Interface (MPI).

  4. Control Data's Education Offering: "Plato Would Have Enjoyed PLATO"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datamation, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Programmed Learning and Teaching Operation (PLATO) distributes instructional materials in the form of text, numbers, animated drawings and other graphics for individualized, self-paced learning. (Author)

  5. From Pericles to Plato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2012-01-01

    Plato is normally taken as one of the founders of Western political philosophy, not at least with his Republic. Here, he constructs a hierarchy of forms of governments, beginning with aristocracy at the top as a critical standard for the other forms of governments, and proceeding through timocrac......’ funeral oration is used to show that Pericles presented a democratic political philosophy that can serve as a counterpoint to Plato’s political philosophy in the Republic....

  6. Peers on Socrates and Plato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Jim

    2014-01-01

    There is more to be said about two of the topics Chris Peers addresses in his article "Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A morpho-logic of teaching and learning" (2012, Educational Philosophy and Theory, 44, 760-774), namely the Socratic method of teaching and Plato's stance with regard to women and feminism. My purpose in this article is…

  7. PLATO Sitcom Dialogs for Russian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Clayton; Provenzano, Nolen

    1981-01-01

    Situation comedy (sitcom) dialogs that are included in PLATO lessons for first year Russian students are described. These comprehension exercises make use of both the touch panel and the audio capabilities of PLATO. The sitcom dialogs were written by a native speaker of Russian and are based on the vocabulary in the textbook plus a small number of…

  8. Peers on Socrates and Plato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Jim

    2014-01-01

    There is more to be said about two of the topics Chris Peers addresses in his article "Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A morpho-logic of teaching and learning" (2012, Educational Philosophy and Theory, 44, 760-774), namely the Socratic method of teaching and Plato's stance with regard to women and feminism. My purpose in this article is…

  9. Robotics: Science and Systems IV

    OpenAIRE

    Brock, Oliver; Trinkle, Jeff; Ramos, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    The conference Robotics: Science and Systems was held at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich Switzerland, from June 25 to June 28, 2008. More than 280 international researchers attended this single track conference to learn about the most exciting robotics research and most advanced robotic systems. The program committee, led by sixteen area chairs, selected 40 papers out of 163 submissions. The program also included seven invited talks and two early career spotlight pre...

  10. Seafloor earthquake measurement system, SEMS IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzbecker, M.R.; Ehasz, J.P.; Franco, R.J.

    1997-07-01

    Staff of the Telemetry Technology Development Department (2664) have, in support of the U.S. Interior Department Mineral Management Services (MMS), developed and deployed the Seafloor Earthquake Measurement System IV (SEMS IV). The result of this development project is a series of three fully operational seafloor seismic monitor systems located at offshore platforms: Eureka, Grace, and Irene. The instrument probes are embedded from three to seven feet into the seafloor and hardwired to seismic data recorders installed top side at the offshore platforms. The probes and underwater cables were designed to survive the seafloor environment with an operation life of five years. The units have been operational for two years and have produced recordings of several minor earthquakes in that time. Sandia Labs will transfer operation of SEMS IV to MMS contractors in the coming months. 29 figs., 25 tabs.

  11. Generation-IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Harold

    2008-05-01

    Nuclear power technology has evolved through roughly three generations of system designs: a first generation of prototypes and first-of-a-kind units implemented during the period 1950 to 1970; a second generation of industrial power plants built from 1970 to the turn of the century, most of which are still in operation today; and a third generation of evolutionary advanced reactors which began being built by the turn of the 20^th century, usually called Generation III or III+, which incorporate technical lessons learned through more than 12,000 reactor-years of operation. The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is a cooperative international endeavor to develop advanced nuclear energy systems in response to the social, environmental and economic requirements of the 21^st century. Six Generation IV systems under development by GIF promise to enhance the future contribution and benefits of nuclear energy. All Generation IV systems aim at performance improvement, new applications of nuclear energy, and/or more sustainable approaches to the management of nuclear materials. High-temperature systems offer the possibility of efficient process heat applications and eventually hydrogen production. Enhanced sustainability is achieved primarily through adoption of a closed fuel cycle with reprocessing and recycling of plutonium, uranium and minor actinides using fast reactors. This approach provides significant reduction in waste generation and uranium resource requirements.

  12. Phusis and Nomos in Plato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nouri Sanghdehi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems in Plato that appears in different forms in his works is the relation of nomos and phusis. This thesis has been in fifth century B.C as the contradiction of phusis and nomos among big thinkers. In this essay, we tried to investigate the relation of phusis and nomos in Plato’s thoughts according to current theories of the contradiction of these in dialogues Gorgias, Republic and Protagoras. Plato tries to minimize consequences of belief to contradiction of phusis and nomos in social and political life by assertion large scale relation between phusis and nomos. Plato depicts the ultimate solution of this problem in Law. There he accounts nomos as raised from phusis that is sub sovereignty of divine. Indeed union of phusis and gods in Plato’s thought is sanction for the identity of phusis and nomos.

  13. What is Plato? Inference and Allusion in Plato's "Sophist."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandahl, Ellen

    1989-01-01

    Discusses inference and allusion in the dialogue in Plato's Sophist. Examines the sense in which a locution is used, distinguishing among senses of the verb to be, and sets the ball rolling for the development of logic and the whole metaphysics of categories of being. (RAE)

  14. The Cost of PLATO in a University Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    1983-01-01

    This analysis of the cost-effectiveness of the University of Delaware's own PLATO system discusses the initial expense of acquiring the system, decreases in unit cost as number of users increased, capital investment in hardware, expenditures and funding sources, comparisons of actual and projected costs, and benefits of individualized instruction.…

  15. The PLATO 2.0 Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Rauer, H; Aerts, C; Appourchaux, T; Benz, W; Brandeker, A; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Deleuil, M; Gizon, L; Güdel, M; Janot-Pacheco, E; Mas-Hesse, M; Pagano, I; Piotto, G; Pollacco, D; Santos, N C; Smith, A; -C., J; Suárez,; Szabó, R; Udry, S; Adibekyan, V; Alibert, Y; Almenara, J -M; Amaro-Seoane, P; Eiff, M Ammler-von; Antonello, E; Ball, W; Barnes, S; Baudin, F; Belkacem, K; Bergemann, M; Birch, A; Boisse, I; Bonomo, A S; Borsa, F; Brandão, I M; Brocato, E; Brun, S; Burleigh, M; Burston, R; Cabrera, J; Cassisi, S; Chaplin, W; Charpinet, S; Chiappini, C; Csizmadia, Sz; Cunha, M; Damasso, M; Davies, M B; Deeg, H J; Fialho, F de Oliveira; DÍaz, R F; Dreizler, S; Dreyer, C; Eggenberger, P; Ehrenreich, D; Eigmüller, P; Erikson, A; Farmer, R; Feltzing, S; Figueira, P; Forveille, T; Fridlund, M; García, R; Giuffrida, G; Godolt, M; da Silva, J Gomes; Goupil, M -J; Granzer, T; Grenfell, J L; Grotsch-Noels, A; Günther, E; Haswell, C A; Hatzes, A P; Hébrard, G; Hekker, S; Helled, R; Heng, K; Jenkins, J M; Khodachenko, M L; Kislyakova, K G; Kley, W; Kolb, U; Krivova, N; Kupka, F; Lammer, H; Lanza, A F; Lebreton, Y; Magrin, D; Marcos-Arenal, P; Marrese, P M; Marques, J P; Martins, J; Mathis, S; Mathur, S; Messina, S; Miglio, A; Montalban, J; Montalto, M; Monteiro, M J P F G; Moradi, H; Moravveji, E; Mordasini, C; Morel, T; Mortier, A; Nascimbeni, V; Nielsen, M B; Noack, L; Norton, A J; Ofir, A; Oshagh, M; Ouazzani, R -M; Pápics, P; Parro, V C; Petit, P; Plez, B; Poretti, E; Quirrenbach, A; Ragazzoni, R; Raimondo, G; Rainer, M; Reese, D R; Redmer, R; Reffert, S; Rojas-Ayala, B; Roxburgh, I W; Solanki, S K; Salmon, S; Santerne, A; Schneider, J; Schou, J; Schuh, S; Schunker, H; Silva-Valio, A; Silvotti, R; Skillen, I; Snellen, I; Sohl, F; Sousa, A S; Sozzetti, A; Stello, D; Strassmeier, K G; Švanda, M; Szabó, G M; Tkachenko, A; Valencia, D; van Grootel, V; Vauclair, S D; Ventura, P; Wagner, F W; Walton, N A; Weingrill, J; Werner, S C; Wheatley, P J; Zwintz, K

    2013-01-01

    PLATO 2.0 is a mission candidate for ESA's M3 launch opportunity (2022/24). It addresses fundamental questions such as: How do planetary systems form and evolve? Are there other systems with planets like ours, able to develop life? The PLATO 2.0 instrument consists of 34 small aperture telescopes providing a wide field-of-view and a large photometric magnitude range. It targets bright stars in wide fields to detect and characterize planets down to Earth-size by photometric transits, whose masses can then be determined by ground-based radial-velocity follow-up measurements. Asteroseismology will be performed for stars <=11mag to obtain highly accurate stellar parameters, including masses and ages. The combination of bright targets and asteroseismology results in high accuracy for the bulk planet parameters: 2%, 4-10% and 10% for planet radii, masses and ages, respectively. The foreseen baseline observing strategy includes two long pointings (2-3 years) to detect and bulk characterize planets reaching into t...

  16. Prospects for detecting decreasing exoplanet frequency with main sequence age using PLATO

    CERN Document Server

    Veras, Dimitri; Mustill, Alexander J; Pollacco, Don

    2015-01-01

    The space mission PLATO will usher in a new era of exoplanetary science by expanding our current inventory of transiting systems and constraining host star ages, which are currently highly uncertain. This capability might allow PLATO to detect changes in planetary system architecture with time, particularly because planetary scattering due to Lagrange instability may be triggered long after the system was formed. Here, we utilize previously published instability timescale prescriptions to determine PLATO's capability to detect a trend of decreasing planet frequency with age for systems with equal-mass planets. For two-planet systems, our results demonstrate that PLATO may detect a trend for planet masses which are at least as massive as super-Earths. For systems with three or more planets, we link their initial compactness to potentially detectable frequency trends in order to aid future investigations when these populations will be better characterized.

  17. Future development of the PLATO Observatory for Antarctic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Michael C. B.; Bonner, Colin S.; Everett, Jon R.; Lawrence, Jon S.; Luong-Van, Daniel; McDaid, Scott; McLaren, Campbell; Storey, John W. V.

    2010-07-01

    PLATO is a self-contained robotic observatory built into two 10-foot shipping containers. It has been successfully deployed at Dome A on the Antarctic plateau since January 2008, and has accumulated over 730 days of uptime at the time of writing. PLATO provides 0.5{1kW of continuous electrical power for a year from diesel engines running on Jet-A1, supplemented during the summertime with solar panels. One of the 10-foot shipping containers houses the power system and fuel, the other provides a warm environment for instruments. Two Iridium satellite modems allow 45 MB/day of data to be transferred across the internet. Future enhancements to PLATO, currently in development, include a more modular design, using lithium iron-phosphate batteries, higher power output, and a light-weight low-power version for eld deployment from a Twin Otter aircraft. Technologies used in PLATO include a CAN (Controller Area Network) bus, high-reliability PC/104 com- puters, ultracapacitors for starting the engines, and fault-tolerant redundant design.

  18. FORTRAN IV Digital Filter Design Programs. Digital Systems Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss, E.; And Others

    The goals of the Digital Systems Education Project (DISE) include the development and distribution of educational/instructional materials in the digital systems area. Toward that end, this document contains three reports: (1) A FORTRAN IV Design Program for Low-Pass Butterworth and Chebychev Digital Filters; (2) A FORTRAN IV Design Program for…

  19. Verification of the calculation program for brachytherapy planning system of high dose rate (PLATO); Programa de verificacion del calculo para un sistema de planificacion de braquiterapia de alta tasa de dosis (PLATO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almansa, J.; Alaman, C.; Perez-Alija, J.; Herrero, C.; Real, R. del; Ososrio, J. L.

    2011-07-01

    In our treatments are performed brachytherapy high dose rate since 2007. The procedures performed include gynecological intracavitary treatment and interstitial. The treatments are performed with a source of Ir-192 activity between 5 and 10 Ci such that small variations in treatment times can cause damage to the patient. In addition the Royal Decree 1566/1998 on Quality Criteria in radiotherapy establishes the need to verify the monitor units or treatment time in radiotherapy and brachytherapy. All this justifies the existence of a redundant system for brachytherapy dose calculation that can reveal any abnormality is present.

  20. Anti-Fibrotic Effects of Astragaloside IV in Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Qi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the anti-fibrotic effects of Astragaloside IV in systemic sclerosis. Methods: Treated or untreated systemic sclerosis (SSc and normal fibroblast isolated from corresponding pairs were utilized to detect expression of collagen and fibronectin by western blot, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR, immunofluorescence staining and histopathological examination. SSc mouse model induced by bleomycin was used to evaluate the effects of the drug in vivo. Results: Compared to normal fibroblast (NF, the expression of collagen and fibronectin in SSc (SScF dramatically increased, and this could be reduced by Astragaloside IV (AST in a dose- or time-dependent manner at both protein and mRNA levels. Administration of Astragaloside IV consistently decreased collagen formation and partially restored the structure, as well as suppressing collagen and fibronectin expression in the skin lesions of SSc-model mice. Mechanistically, Astragaloside IV-induced fibrosis reduction may be due to deregulation of Smad 3/Fli-1, the major mediators of the fibrotic response and key molecules for TGF-β signaling. Astragaloside IV also decreased the level of p-SMAD3 and completely blocked its relocation into the nuclei. Conclusion: Astragaloside IV attenuates fibrosis by inhibiting the TGF-β-Smads3 axis in systemic sclerosis.

  1. The Method of Hypothesis in Plato's Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Aboie Mehrizi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the examination of method of hypothesis in Plato's philosophy. This method, respectively, will be examined in three dialogues of Meno, Phaedon and Republic in which it is explicitly indicated. It will be shown the process of change of Plato’s attitude towards the position and usage of the method of hypothesis in his realm of philosophy. In Meno, considering the geometry, Plato attempts to introduce a method that can be used in the realm of philosophy. But, ultimately in Republic, Plato’s special attention to the method and its importance in the philosophical investigations, leads him to revise it. Here, finally Plato introduces the particular method of philosophy, i.e., the dialectic

  2. Plato's Anti-Kohlbergian Program for Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Following Lawrence Kohlberg it has been commonplace to regard Plato's moral theory as "intellectualist", where Plato supposedly believes that becoming virtuous requires nothing other than "philosophical knowledge or intuition of the ideal form of the good". This is a radical misunderstanding of Plato's educational programme,…

  3. THEORY OF LOVE IN PLATO'S PHILOSOPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZOHREH MOZAFARI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a philosophical analysis of the phenomenon of Plato’s love. It is noted that a large number of works are devoted to the philosophy of Plato’s love, but not all aspects of his philosophy are studied, for example the problems of erotosophy of Plato. Phenomenon of love interested philosophers since ancient times. The first attempts to explain the phenomenon of love appeared in ancient times. These attempts were made by ancient philosophers Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. Platonism is a multifaceted teaching; identification of all possibilities of Plato’s erotic philosophy which can supplement other fields of philosophy is important and topical. 

  4. Gaia and WEAVE/WxES: Supporting the PLATO Exoplanet Hunter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, N. A.

    2016-10-01

    This paper briefly describes the powerful linkages between the Gaia and PLATO missions and the potential for WEAVE in the study of exoplanet populations, for instance through the proposed WxES survey. Gaia successfully launched in December 2013, and over the course of its nominal five year mission will discover, via their astrometric signatures, upwards of 20 000 massive Jupiter sized long period planets at distances out to several hundred parsecs around all star types. In addition Gaia will discover up to a thousand short period hot Jupiters around M stars. PLATO, to launch in 2024, will through precision photometry, observe in detail some million host stars, and will detect, via the transit technique, planets down to Earth masses. PLATO will observe two fields of over 2 000 square degrees for 2-3 years each. At least one of these will be in the northern hemisphere. WEAVE has the potential to provide detailed chemical characterization of the host stars of the Gaia and PLATO exoplanet systems. This will enable insights into, for instance, metallicity of the host star correlations against both massive exoplanets (perhaps confirming current relationships), and lower mass exoplanets. We note how the rapid exploitation of such a potential WEAVE survey could be achieved, utilizing the WEAVE processing systems being developed at the IoA, Cambridge, coupled with efficient interfaces to both Gaia and PLATO data products, that are also being generated at the IoA.

  5. A classification system for O-B2 stars based on the Si IV and C IV resonance lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henize, K. G.; Wray, J. D.; Parsons, S. B.

    1981-01-01

    Low-dispersion ultraviolet spectra from Skylab Experiment S-019 are used to explore the variations of Si IV and C IV line strengths with temperature and luminosity. These considerations lead to a classification system in which the Si/C ratio is used to discriminate luminosity among the O stars and temperature among the O9-B2 stars of lower luminosity. Stars falling in these two regimes may be distinguished either by the presence of C IV emission or on the basis of C IV absorption strength. The log(Si IV/C IV) vs C IV diagram is proposed as a primary tool in such a classification system. The rapid variation in the Si IV/C IV ratio from less than 1/10 at O9 to greater than 10 at B1.5 for luminosity class III-V stars appears to be an especially useful criterion for the temperature classification of stars in this spectral range.

  6. Quoting Plato in Porphyrius' Cuestiones homericas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Rodríguez‑Noriega Guillén

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the quotations of Plato in Porphyry’s Homeric Questions,including their typology (literal quotation, allusion, paraphrase, etc., their beingor not direct citations, their function in the work, and their possible parallels inother authors.

  7. Plato's problem an introduction to mathematical platonism

    CERN Document Server

    Panza, M

    2013-01-01

    What is mathematics about? And how can we have access to the reality it is supposed to describe? The book tells the story of this problem, first raised by Plato, through the views of Aristotle, Proclus, Kant, Frege, Gödel, Benacerraf, up to the most recent debate on mathematical platonism.

  8. Socrates, Plato, "Eros" and Liberal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherran, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the educational method--the "elenchos"--of Plato's Socrates, arguing, against some prominent interpretations, that it is love, both "eros" and "philia", that is the key that links Socrates' philosophy with his education. This analysis, of course, raises some difficult questions regarding the relationship between teacher and…

  9. Plato's Protagoras: Professional Models, Ethical Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Marshall W.

    1983-01-01

    In Plato's model his clear criticism of Protagorean careerism and his negotiation with Socratic radicalism shows he is a centrist cultivating criticism and open discourse. In an age when academe seems to have lost a sense of its identify and function in society, its most enduring contributions are criticism and discourse. (MLW)

  10. Cost of Initial Development of PLATO Instruction in Veterinary Medicine. CERL Report X-43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, George M.

    An academic program instituting the PLATO system of computer-assisted instruction at the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine is discussed. Procedures involved setting up an organization, establishing an administrative system, studying capabilities of the system, studying factors making a lesson suitable for programming, and…

  11. CAAPM: Computer-Aided Admissible Probability Measurement on PLATO IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    late Renaissance paintings b. Byzantine mosaics c. gothic stained glass 2. Of the following, the watercolorist noted for seascapes is: a...Theodore Gericault *b. Winslow Homer c. Jacob Epstein 3. Which of the following Dutch artists is noted for his genre paint- ings? *a. Jan Steen b. Jan

  12. Interactive Error Diagnostics for an Instructional Programming System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alan; And Others

    The development of an interactive error analysis system for a highly interactive programing language compiler is explored. A project is underway at the University of Illinois to automate the teaching of elementary computer science programing language courses by utilizing the PLATO IV interactive computer system. One goal of the project is to…

  13. Manufacturing and alignment tolerance analysis through Montecarlo approach for PLATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrin, Demetrio; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Bergomi, Maria; Biondi, Federico; Chinellato, Simonetta; Dima, Marco; Farinato, Jacopo; Greggio, Davide; Gullieuszik, Marco; Marafatto, Luca; Viotto, Valentina; Munari, Matteo; Pagano, Isabella; Sicilia, Daniela; Basso, Stefano; Borsa, Francesco; Ghigo, Mauro; Spiga, Daniele; Bandy, Timothy; Brändli, Mathias; Benz, Willy; Bruno, Giordano; De Roche, Thierry; Piazza, Daniele; Rieder, Martin; Brandeker, Alexis; Klebor, Maximilian; Mogulsky, Valery; Schweitzer, Mario; Wieser, Matthias; Erikson, Anders; Rauer, Heike

    2016-07-01

    The project PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars (PLATO) is one of the selected medium class (M class) missions in the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The main scientific goal of PLATO is the discovery and study of extrasolar planetary systems by means of planetary transits detection. According to the current baseline, the scientific payload consists of 34 all refractive telescopes having small aperture (120mm) and wide field of view (diameter greater than 37 degrees) observing over 0.5-1 micron wavelength band. The telescopes are mounted on a common optical bench and are divided in four families of eight telescopes with an overlapping line-of-sight in order to maximize the science return. Remaining two telescopes will be dedicated to support on-board star-tracking system and will be specialized on two different photometric bands for science purposes. The performance requirement, adopted as merit function during the analysis, is specified as 90% enclosed energy contained in a square having size 2 pixels over the whole field of view with a depth of focus of +/-20 micron. Given the complexity of the system, we have followed a Montecarlo analysis approach for manufacturing and alignment tolerances. We will describe here the tolerance method and the preliminary results, speculating on the assumed risks and expected performances.

  14. ACSES, An Automated Computer Science Education System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nievergelt, Jurg; And Others

    A project to accommodate the large and increasing enrollment in introductory computer science courses by automating them with a subsystem for computer science instruction on the PLATO IV Computer-Based Education system at the University of Illinois was started. The subsystem was intended to be used for supplementary instruction at the University…

  15. What scientists can learn from Plato's Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, Tim

    2015-04-01

    Conferences and scientific meetings are as old as science itself. The ancient Greeks where (in)famous for organizing so-called symposiums. During a symposium (from Greek, drinking together), attendees followed a program that contained both social and scientific aspects, focused around a certain topic. Whilst drinking and eating, all participants were expected to share their vision on the topic of interest by giving an oral presentation. The goal of these meetings was to arrive at a new common understanding and to come closer to the truth. Plato et al. knew very well how to organize an effective scientific conference, which should make use overthink the way we are organizing present-day conferences. Scientific meetings aim to connect researchers, share research and unravel the truth. The question is now: how do we get this done effectively? Plato knew that discussing science with strangers is difficult and he believed that talking about heavy matter could be done best when combined with social events. What if we try to go back to the times of Plato and model our conferences after the ancient symposiums? We might drop laying on couches and covering ourselves in ivy and flowers. However, a mix of social and scientific events will contribute to achieving the ultimate goal of why scientists go to conferences: to connect, to share and to unravel the truth.

  16. Nuclear Data Needs for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rullhusen, Peter

    2006-04-01

    Nuclear data needs for generation IV systems. Future of nuclear energy and the role of nuclear data / P. Finck. Nuclear data needs for generation IV nuclear energy systems-summary of U.S. workshop / T. A. Taiwo, H. S. Khalil. Nuclear data needs for the assessment of gen. IV systems / G. Rimpault. Nuclear data needs for generation IV-lessons from benchmarks / S. C. van der Marck, A. Hogenbirk, M. C. Duijvestijn. Core design issues of the supercritical water fast reactor / M. Mori ... [et al.]. GFR core neutronics studies at CEA / J. C. Bosq ... [et al]. Comparative study on different phonon frequency spectra of graphite in GCR / Young-Sik Cho ... [et al.]. Innovative fuel types for minor actinides transmutation / D. Haas, A. Fernandez, J. Somers. The importance of nuclear data in modeling and designing generation IV fast reactors / K. D. Weaver. The GIF and Mexico-"everything is possible" / C. Arrenondo Sánchez -- Benmarks, sensitivity calculations, uncertainties. Sensitivity of advanced reactor and fuel cycle performance parameters to nuclear data uncertainties / G. Aliberti ... [et al.]. Sensitivity and uncertainty study for thermal molten salt reactors / A. Biduad ... [et al.]. Integral reactor physics benchmarks- The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPHEP) / J. B. Briggs, D. W. Nigg, E. Sartori. Computer model of an error propagation through micro-campaign of fast neutron gas cooled nuclear reactor / E. Ivanov. Combining differential and integral experiments on [symbol] for reducing uncertainties in nuclear data applications / T. Kawano ... [et al.]. Sensitivity of activation cross sections of the Hafnium, Tanatalum and Tungsten stable isotopes to nuclear reaction mechanisms / V. Avrigeanu ... [et al.]. Generating covariance data with nuclear models / A. J. Koning. Sensitivity of Candu-SCWR reactors physics calculations to nuclear data files / K. S

  17. Association of systemic collagen type IV formation with survival among patients undergoing hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeming, Diana Julie; Karsdal, Morten A; Rasmussen, Lars M;

    2013-01-01

    The 7S domain of collagen type IV (P4NP_7S) assessed in plasma represents systemic collagen type IV formation. The objective of the study was to investigate the association of systemic collagen type IV formation with survival among patients undergoing hemodialysis.......The 7S domain of collagen type IV (P4NP_7S) assessed in plasma represents systemic collagen type IV formation. The objective of the study was to investigate the association of systemic collagen type IV formation with survival among patients undergoing hemodialysis....

  18. Radiation, Thermal Gradient and Weight: a threefold dilemma for PLATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrin, Demetrio; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Bruno, Giordano; Piazza, Daniele; Borsa, Francesco; Ghigo, Mauro; Mogulsky, Valery; Bergomi, Maria; Biondi, Federico; Chinellato, Simonetta; Dima, Marco; Farinato, Jacopo; Greggio, Davide; Gullieuszik, Marco; Marafatto, Luca; Viotto, Valentina; Munari, Matteo; Pagano, Isabella; Sicilia, Daniela; Basso, Stefano; Spiga, Daniele; Bandy, Timothy; Brändli, Mathias; Benz, Willy; De Roche, Thierry; Rieder, Martin; Brandeker, Alexis; Klebor, Maximilian; Schweitzer, Mario; Wieser, Matthias; Erikson, Anders; Rauer, Heike

    2016-07-01

    The project PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars (PLATO) is one of the selected medium class (M class) missions in the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The mean scientific goal of PLATO is the discovery and study of extrasolar planetary systems by means of planetary transits detection. The opto mechanical subsystem of the payload is made of 32 normal telescope optical units (N-TOUs) and 2 fast telescope optical units (FTOUs). The optical configuration of each TOU is an all refractive design based on six properly optimized lenses. In the current baseline, in front of each TOU a Suprasil window is foreseen. The main purposes of the entrance window are to shield the following lenses from possible damaging high energy radiation and to mitigate the thermal gradient that the first optical element will experience during the launch from ground to space environment. In contrast, the presence of the window increases the overall mass by a non-negligible quantity. We describe here the radiation and thermal analysis and their impact on the quality and risks assessment, summarizing the trade-off process with pro and cons on having or dropping the entrance window in the optical train.

  19. Named entity recognition for bacterial Type IV secretion systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Ananiadou

    Full Text Available Research on specialized biological systems is often hampered by a lack of consistent terminology, especially across species. In bacterial Type IV secretion systems genes within one set of orthologs may have over a dozen different names. Classifying research publications based on biological processes, cellular components, molecular functions, and microorganism species should improve the precision and recall of literature searches allowing researchers to keep up with the exponentially growing literature, through resources such as the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC, patricbrc.org. We developed named entity recognition (NER tools for four entities related to Type IV secretion systems: 1 bacteria names, 2 biological processes, 3 molecular functions, and 4 cellular components. These four entities are important to pathogenesis and virulence research but have received less attention than other entities, e.g., genes and proteins. Based on an annotated corpus, large domain terminological resources, and machine learning techniques, we developed recognizers for these entities. High accuracy rates (>80% are achieved for bacteria, biological processes, and molecular function. Contrastive experiments highlighted the effectiveness of alternate recognition strategies; results of term extraction on contrasting document sets demonstrated the utility of these classes for identifying T4SS-related documents.

  20. Named entity recognition for bacterial Type IV secretion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananiadou, Sophia; Sullivan, Dan; Black, William; Levow, Gina-Anne; Gillespie, Joseph J; Mao, Chunhong; Pyysalo, Sampo; Kolluru, Balakrishna; Tsujii, Junichi; Sobral, Bruno

    2011-03-29

    Research on specialized biological systems is often hampered by a lack of consistent terminology, especially across species. In bacterial Type IV secretion systems genes within one set of orthologs may have over a dozen different names. Classifying research publications based on biological processes, cellular components, molecular functions, and microorganism species should improve the precision and recall of literature searches allowing researchers to keep up with the exponentially growing literature, through resources such as the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC, patricbrc.org). We developed named entity recognition (NER) tools for four entities related to Type IV secretion systems: 1) bacteria names, 2) biological processes, 3) molecular functions, and 4) cellular components. These four entities are important to pathogenesis and virulence research but have received less attention than other entities, e.g., genes and proteins. Based on an annotated corpus, large domain terminological resources, and machine learning techniques, we developed recognizers for these entities. High accuracy rates (>80%) are achieved for bacteria, biological processes, and molecular function. Contrastive experiments highlighted the effectiveness of alternate recognition strategies; results of term extraction on contrasting document sets demonstrated the utility of these classes for identifying T4SS-related documents.

  1. DISCOURSE REPRESENTATION OF HOMOSEXUALITY IN THE SYSTEM DSM IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Téllez Vega

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to highlight the construction and discursive significance that the DSM IV system gives to the homosexuality, considering that the meaning alludes to the internal content of the speech and the significance concerns the external (visible content of the speech. Research methodology focuses on the analysis of contents: discussion, critiques and description of the construction method of the diagnosis manual of mental illnesses in its fourth review. The technique applied was the analysis of contents: identification of the dominant speech, style forms and evaluation of significants. The results showed that the dominant form of the speech is institutional, by the non-discursive neosexual forms. In addition, there is no evidence of changes in the psychiatric speech because its method of construction is circular feedback, that is to say, in any place of the process, homosexuality will be considered as a disorder or as a topic of psychiatric review. The research reveals that the DSM IV system fits to the discursive construction being able-knowing, widely documented by Foucault in which dominant speech exerts power on the neo-sexualities and defines them in an exercise of knowing, registering them in a diagnosis manual.

  2. Identification of Anaplasma marginale type IV secretion system effector proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Lockwood

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anaplasma marginale, an obligate intracellular alphaproteobacterium in the order Rickettsiales, is a tick-borne pathogen and the leading cause of anaplasmosis in cattle worldwide. Complete genome sequencing of A. marginale revealed that it has a type IV secretion system (T4SS. The T4SS is one of seven known types of secretion systems utilized by bacteria, with the type III and IV secretion systems particularly prevalent among pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The T4SS is predicted to play an important role in the invasion and pathogenesis of A. marginale by translocating effector proteins across its membrane into eukaryotic target cells. However, T4SS effector proteins have not been identified and tested in the laboratory until now. RESULTS: By combining computational methods with phylogenetic analysis and sequence identity searches, we identified a subset of potential T4SS effectors in A. marginale strain St. Maries and chose six for laboratory testing. Four (AM185, AM470, AM705 [AnkA], and AM1141 of these six proteins were translocated in a T4SS-dependent manner using Legionella pneumophila as a reporter system. CONCLUSIONS: The algorithm employed to find T4SS effector proteins in A. marginale identified four such proteins that were verified by laboratory testing. L. pneumophila was shown to work as a model system for A. marginale and thus can be used as a screening tool for A. marginale effector proteins. The first T4SS effector proteins for A. marginale have been identified in this work.

  3. 21 CFR 866.5360 - Cohn fraction IV immuno-logical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cohn fraction IV immuno-logical test system. 866.5360 Section 866.5360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5360 Cohn fraction IV immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A Cohn fraction IV...

  4. From Plato to Orwell: Utopian Rhetoric in a Dystopian World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deatherage, Scott

    Plato's "Republic" and George Orwell's "1984" both posit visionary worlds, one where humans are virtuous and understand what Plato refers to as "the Good," and the other where citizens are pawns of a government which uses language as a form of tyranny and control. Despite these overarching differences in philosophical…

  5. From Plato to Orwell: Utopian Rhetoric in a Dystopian World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deatherage, Scott

    Plato's "Republic" and George Orwell's "1984" both posit visionary worlds, one where humans are virtuous and understand what Plato refers to as "the Good," and the other where citizens are pawns of a government which uses language as a form of tyranny and control. Despite these overarching differences in philosophical…

  6. Plato the Pederast: Rhetoric and Cultural Procreation in the Dialogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Examines Plato's Dialogues by reading them through two cultural lenses: the role of eros in classical Greece and its analogous relationship to language and rhetoric; and the educational function of eros within the ancient institution of pederasty. Shows how the cultural values of ancient Greece manifested themselves in Plato's erotic educational…

  7. Plato's Philosophy of Education and the Common Core Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Madonna M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines Plato's Philosophy of Education asking what he would say about the current Common Core initiative which is to better help students to become college and career ready. Plato would be in favor of the common core in as much as the standards are tied to specific skills needed in various career jobs as he was a proponent of…

  8. Fourth Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    A brief history of the Delaware PLATO project and descriptions of new developments in facilities, applications, user services, research, evaluation, and courseware produced since the Third Summative Report (1978) are provided, as well as an overview of PLATO applications at the University of Delaware. Sample lessons, illustrations, and activity…

  9. Fifth Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    A brief history of the Delaware PLATO project and descriptions of the new developments in facilities, applications, user services, research, evaluation, and courseware produced since the Fourth Summative Report (1979) are provided, as well as an overview of PLATO applications at the University of Delaware. Sample lessons, illustrations, and…

  10. Plato's ghost the modernist transformation of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    Plato's Ghost is the first book to examine the development of mathematics from 1880 to 1920 as a modernist transformation similar to those in art, literature, and music. Jeremy Gray traces the growth of mathematical modernism from its roots in problem solving and theory to its interactions with physics, philosophy, theology, psychology, and ideas about real and artificial languages. He shows how mathematics was popularized, and explains how mathematical modernism not only gave expression to the work of mathematicians and the professional image they sought to create for themselves, but how modernism also introduced deeper and ultimately unanswerable questions

  11. Pemikiran Epistemologi Barat: dari Plato Sampai Gonseth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunu Burhanuddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper riviewing the Western epistemology thought. The theme focuses on Plato to Gonseth. The Epistemology that referred in this article, is to think about "how humans acquire knowledge?". From this then appear four types of sect modern western epistemology thought, namely: sect of empiricism, rationalism sect, kantinian sect, sect of positivism. Furthermore, the social positivism sciences developed by Comte leaves serious problems associated with the loss of the role of the subject. This problem being the background of epistemology philosophy appears that by Emund Husserl developed through the phenomenology, Habermas through hermeneutics, and Ferdinand Gonseth through critical theory.

  12. Conservation of the Type IV secretion system throughout Wolbachia evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichon, Samuel; Bouchon, Didier; Cordaux, Richard;

    2009-01-01

    The Type IV Secretion System (T4SS) is an efficient pathway with which bacteria can mediate the transfer of DNA and/or proteins to eukaryotic cells. In Wolbachia pipientis, a maternally inherited obligate endosymbiont of arthropods and nematodes, two operons of vir genes, virB3-B6 and virB8-D4......, encoding a T4SS were previously identified and characterized at two separate genomic loci. Using the largest data set of Wolbachia strains studied so far, we show that vir gene sequence and organization are strictly conserved among 37 Wolbachia strains inducing various phenotypes such as cytoplasmic...... incompatibility, feminization, or oogenesis in their arthropod hosts. In sharp contrast, extensive variation of genomic sequences flanking the virB8-D4 operon suggested its distinct location among Wolbachia genomes. Long term conservation of the T4SS may imply maintenance of a functional effector translocation...

  13. A Digitally Addressable Random-Access Image Selector and Random-Access Audio System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, Donald L.; And Others

    The requirements of PLATO IV, a computer based education system at the University of Illinois, have led to the development of an improved, digitally addressable, random access image selector and a digitally addressable, random access audio device. Both devices utilize pneumatically controlled mechanical binary adders to position the mecahnical…

  14. Plato on Metaphysical Explanation: Does 'Participating' Mean Nothing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine J. Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to Aristotle, Plato's efforts at metaphysical explanation not only fail, they are nonsensical. In particular, Plato's appeals to Forms as metaphysically explanatory of the sensibles that participate in them is "empty talk" since "'participating' means nothing" (Met. 992a28-9. I defend Plato against Aristotle's charge by identifying a particular, substantive model of metaphysical predication as the favored model of Plato's late ontology. The model posits two basic metaphysical predication relations: self-predication and participation. In order to understand the participation relation, it is important first to understand how Plato's Forms are self-predicative paradigms. According to the favored model, Forms are self-predicative paradigms insofar as they are ideal, abstract encoders of structural essences. Sensibles participate in Forms by exemplifying the structures encoded in the Forms. Given plausible conditions on metaphysical explanation, Plato's appeals to abstract Forms as metaphysically explanatory of sensibles is a reasonable competitor for Aristotle's appeals to natural, substantial forms. At the very least, Plato's appeals to a participation relation are not empty.

  15. Evolution of conjugation and type IV secretion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmini, Julien; de la Cruz, Fernando; Rocha, Eduardo P C

    2013-02-01

    Genetic exchange by conjugation is responsible for the spread of resistance, virulence, and social traits among prokaryotes. Recent works unraveled the functioning of the underlying type IV secretion systems (T4SS) and its distribution and recruitment for other biological processes (exaptation), notably pathogenesis. We analyzed the phylogeny of key conjugation proteins to infer the evolutionary history of conjugation and T4SS. We show that single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) conjugation, while both based on a key AAA(+) ATPase, diverged before the last common ancestor of bacteria. The two key ATPases of ssDNA conjugation are monophyletic, having diverged at an early stage from dsDNA translocases. Our data suggest that ssDNA conjugation arose first in diderm bacteria, possibly Proteobacteria, and then spread to other bacterial phyla, including bacterial monoderms and Archaea. Identifiable T4SS fall within the eight monophyletic groups, determined by both taxonomy and structure of the cell envelope. Transfer to monoderms might have occurred only once, but followed diverse adaptive paths. Remarkably, some Firmicutes developed a new conjugation system based on an atypical relaxase and an ATPase derived from a dsDNA translocase. The observed evolutionary rates and patterns of presence/absence of specific T4SS proteins show that conjugation systems are often and independently exapted for other functions. This work brings a natural basis for the classification of all kinds of conjugative systems, thus tackling a problem that is growing as fast as genomic databases. Our analysis provides the first global picture of the evolution of conjugation and shows how a self-transferrable complex multiprotein system has adapted to different taxa and often been recruited by the host. As conjugation systems became specific to certain clades and cell envelopes, they may have biased the rate and direction of gene transfer by conjugation within prokaryotes.

  16. Models of cuspy triaxial stellar systems. IV: Rotating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carpintero, D D

    2016-01-01

    We built two self-consistent models of triaxial, cuspy, rotating stellar systems adding rotation to non-rotating models presented in previous papers of this series. The final angular velocity of the material is not constant and varies with the distance to the center and with the height over the equator of the systems, but the figure rotation is very uniform in both cases. Even though the addition of rotation to the models modifies their original semiaxes ratios, the final rotating models are considerably flattened and triaxial. An analysis of the orbital content of the models shows that about two thirds of their orbits are chaotic yet the models are very stable over intervals of the order of one Hubble time. The bulk of regular orbits are short axis tubes, while long axis tubes are replaced by tubes whose axes lie on the short-long axes plane, but do not coincide with the major axis. Other types of regular orbits that do not appear in non-rotating systems, like horseshoes and orbits that cross themselves, are...

  17. The PLATO End-to-End CCD Simulator -- Modelling space-based ultra-high precision CCD photometry for the assessment study of the PLATO Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Zima, W; De Ridder, J; Salmon, S; Catala, C; Kjeldsen, H; Aerts, C

    2010-01-01

    The PLATO satellite mission project is a next generation ESA Cosmic Vision satellite project dedicated to the detection of exo-planets and to asteroseismology of their host-stars using ultra-high precision photometry. The main goal of the PLATO mission is to provide a full statistical analysis of exo-planetary systems around stars that are bright and close enough for detailed follow-up studies. Many aspects concerning the design trade-off of a space-based instrument and its performance can best be tackled through realistic simulations of the expected observations. The complex interplay of various noise sources in the course of the observations made such simulations an indispensable part of the assessment study of the PLATO Payload Consortium. We created an end-to-end CCD simulation software-tool, dubbed PLATOSim, which simulates photometric time-series of CCD images by including realistic models of the CCD and its electronics, the telescope optics, the stellar field, the pointing uncertainty of the satellite ...

  18. Technology validation of the PLATO CCD at ESA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prod'homme, Thibaut; Verhoeve, Peter; Beaufort, Thierry; Duvet, Ludovic; Lemmel, Frederic; Smit, Hans; Blommaert, Sander; Oosterbroek, Tim; van der Luijt, Cornelis; Visser, Ivo; Heijnen, Jerko; Butler, Bart

    2016-07-01

    PLATO { PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars { is the third medium-class mission to be selected in the European Space Agency (ESA) Science and Robotic Exploration Cosmic Vision programme. Due for launch in 2025, the payload makes use of a large format (8 cm x 8 cm) Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) the e2v CCD270 operated at 4 MHz. The manufacture of such large device in large quantity constitutes an unprecedented effort. To de-risk the PLATO CCD procurement and aid the mission definition process, ESA's Payload Technology Validation team is characterizing the electro-optical performance of a number of PLATO devices before and after proton irradiation.

  19. A scientific approach to Plato's Atlantis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Rapisarda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The myth of Atlantis is hard to die. This attempt to use scientific evidence to give it the final smash ends up with the doubt that it might not be totally unsubstantiated. The time of the supposed existence of Atlantis (around twelve thousand years ago was, in fact, characterized by technological revolutions, acknowledged by archaeology, and abrupt climate changes, documented by geology. In principle, it cannot therefore be ruled out that some of those dramatic events left a memory, later used by Plato as a basis for its tale. The climate changes involved the majority of the northern hemisphere, thus all the ancient civilizations (Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Indian and Chinese could have preserved reminiscence, but it is clear that the events occurring closer to Greece would have been more accessible to Plato. Among the Mediterranean sites that experienced the cataclysms of the beginning of the Holocene, a good candidate to host a primordial civilization might have been the archipelago then existing in the Strait of Sicily, a natural maritime link between Tunisia and Italy, prized by the presence of an obsidian source at Pantelleria. Eleven thousand five hundred years ago, a sudden sea level rise erased the archipelago, submerging the possible settlements, but Pantelleria obsidian ores are still there and could provide a significant clue. In fact, the potential discovery of artefacts, originating from a source now submerged by the sea level rise, would imply that the collection of the mineral took place when it was still emerged, namely at the time of Atlantis. Even if such discovery would not be sufficient to prove the existence of the mythical island, it would be enough to shake up the timeline of the human occupation in the region.

  20. Possible association of elevated serum collagen type IV level with skin sclerosis in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Sekiguchi, Akiko; Fujiwara, Chisako; Toki, Sayaka; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2016-08-29

    Collagen type IV is the primary collagen in the basement membranes around blood vessels and in the dermoepidermal junction in the skin. Perivascular collagen type IV is synthesized by endothelial cells and pericytes, and contributes to the homeostasis and remodeling of blood vessels. It has been well recognized that elevated serum collagen type IV levels are associated with the liver fibrosis. The objective was to examine serum collagen type IV levels and their clinical associations in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), and to examine the expression of collagen type IV in the fibrotic skin in SSc. Serum collagen type IV levels in SSc patients and diffuse cutaneous type SSc patients were significantly higher than those in healthy individuals. Serum collagen type IV levels were positively correlated with modified Rodnan total skin score. Serum collagen type IV levels in early stage (disease duration ≤3 years) diffuse cutaneous SSc patients were significantly elevated. Serum collagen type IV levels in SSc patients with digital ulcers (DU) were significantly elevated. In immunohistochemical staining, the expression of collagen type IV around dermal small vessels in the affected skin was reduced compared with those of normal individuals. These results suggest that elevated serum collagen type IV levels may be associated with the skin sclerosis in the early stage of SSc. The measurement of serum collagen type IV levels in SSc patients may be useful as a disease activity marker in skin sclerosis and DU.

  1. Intra-Socratic Polemics: The Symposia of Plato and Xenophon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Danzig

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Textual relationships between the two Symposia suggest that Xenophon wrote first, prompting Plato to write Socrates' critique of Phaedrus, to which Xenophon responded by appending his ch. 8.

  2. Three Aspects of PLATO Use at Chanute AFB: CBE Production Techniques, Computer-Aided Management, Formative Development of CBE Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klecka, Joseph A.

    This report describes various aspects of lesson production and use of the PLATO system at Chanute Air Force Base. The first chapter considers four major factors influencing lesson production: (1) implementation of the "lean approach," (2) the Instructional Systems Development (ISD) role in lesson production, (3) the transfer of…

  3. Rationality and Motivation: Moral Psychology in Plato's Socratic Dialogues

    OpenAIRE

    Ivars Neiders

    2011-01-01

    "Rationality and Motivation: Moral Psychology in Plato's Socratic Dialogues" Annotation The dissertation "Rationality and Motivation: Moral Psychology in Plato's Socratic Dialogues" is a philosophical study of Socratic views in moral psychology. Particular attention is paid to what the author calls (1) Doxastic competence and (2) Orectic competence. It is argued that according to Socrates these two different epistemic relations are important aspects of our self-understanding. The doxast...

  4. The instrument control unit of the ESA-PLATO 2.0 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focardi, M.; Pezzuto, S.; Cosentino, R.; Giusi, G.; Pancrazzi, M.; Noce, V.; Ottensamer, R.; Steller, M.; Di Giorgio, A. M.; Pace, E.; Plasson, P.; Peter, G.; Pagano, I.

    2016-07-01

    PLATO 2.0 has been selected by ESA as the third medium-class Mission (M3) of the Cosmic Vision Program. Its Payload is conceived for the discovery of new transiting exoplanets on the disk of their parent stars and for the study of planetary system formation and evolution as well as to answer fundamental questions concerning the existence of other planetary systems like our own, including the presence of potentially habitable new worlds. The PLATO Payload design is based on the adoption of four sets of short focal length telescopes having a large field of view in order to exploit a large sky coverage and to reach, at the same time, the needed photometry accuracy and signalto- noise ratio (S/N) within a few tens of seconds of exposure time. The large amount of data produced by the telescope is collected and processed by means of the Payload's Data Processing System (DPS) composed by many processing electronics units. This paper gives an overview of the PLATO 2.0 DPS, mainly focusing on the architecture and processing capabilities of its Instrument Control Unit (ICU), the electronic subsystem acting as the main interface between the Payload (P/L) and the Spacecraft (S/C).

  5. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 92 - Guidelines for Determining Equivalency Between Emission Measurement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Between Emission Measurement Systems IV Appendix IV to Part 92 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Emission Measurement Systems This appendix describes a series of correlation criteria that EPA considers to... guidelines. When requested to make a finding of equivalency, EPA could base its decision on criteria...

  6. A Study on Agreement Rate Between Psychiatric Residents in Diagnosing Axis IV. In DSM-IV Classficatic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shahrokhi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of environmental and psychosocial problems in psychiatric patients is essential because of their significant role in causing or exacerbating psychiatric disorders. This study was carried out to assess the consensus rate in diagnosing axis IV (environmental and psychosocial problems in DSM-IV system of classification among psychiatric residents.In this study one hundred and seventeen psychiatric patients were examined in daily morning in Razi Mental Hospital in Tabriz. The patients were evaluated individually by residents in regard to mental status and axis IV problems. The obtained datas were analysed by descriptive and inferential statistical methods.Results of the study revealed that consensus rate among residents in assessment of environmental and psychosocial problem(s was low (ICC : 0.22. Demographic characteristics of the patients did not explain difference between residents. Sex and familiarity of residents with Azari Language were significantly important regarding diagnostic difference, so that consensus rate in female residents was more than male ones and in Azari speaking residents was more than non-Azari speaking ones. No part of mental status examination was remarkable in explaining diagnostic differences. Diagnoses in axis I and III were recognized as important elements in explaining the differences.Based on result of this study diagnosis of environmental and psychosocial problems in psychiatric patients by residents generally is not reliable and the issue warrant further attention.

  7. What Plato and Murdoch Think About Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Shakouri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are many interpretations of love and lots of scholars write and talk on love; however, what exactly is the meaning of love? Iris Murdoch’s works are an accumulation of emotional relationships and feelings of love. Her great subject is love, both sexual and non-sexual, and her characters are the portrayal of a small group of people caught up in convoluted ties of love and hate, with Eros ruling over them (Cohen 22. Murdoch was one of the most respected British writers and philosophers of the second half of the twentieth century and, of course, the postwar period. In Murdoch’s novels, love is one of the central themes—marriage, as the institution of love, more often binds than frees. Her characters are mainly ego-centric people who struggle to love and are often overwhelmed by the factor of self-obsession, jealousy, ambition, fascination with suffering and charismatic power. They are absolutely ordinary people with a consuming demand for love, and mental and physical exile. Murdoch was inspired by Plato’s ideas in many ways. Like art, here again Plato’s idea of love is more skeptical than Murdoch’s, whereas Murdoch kept it only as a way to the Good, creation, and happiness. Murdoch and Plato saw love more as a Freudian concept, the Eros, the word that comes from the name of the first Greek god of love. Both the philosophers, Plato and Murdoch, believed that this erotic longing and desires revived by Eros can led to a new direction, a way toward virtue and truth. Her protagonist or marginalized characters are usually tackling it with either vulgarity or the heavenly, which results in creation, art or salvation. Murdoch, as a major moral philosopher, usually grasps the chances to encapsulate her moral visions in her works, and created novels that should be counted as meditations on human love and goodness. Keywords: Eros, erotic love and real artwork, moral philosopher, The Black Prince

  8. Study of the cerium(IV)-picrate system in acetonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvil, B; Tipler, M; McKay, B

    1966-07-01

    A potentiometric and spectrophotometric study has been made of the reaction between hexanitratocerate and picrate in dry acetonitrile. Several cerium(IV)-picrate complexes are formed; the formation constant for the first is estimated to be 4 from spectrophotometric measurements. The catalytic effect of picrate on hydroquinone oxidation by nitratocerate is postulated to be due to more rapid electron transfer by cerium picrate complexes.

  9. An Evaluation of the Teaching Effectiveness of PLATO in a First Level Biology Course. CERL Report X-32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenty, Richard P.; Kieffer, George H.

    This paper describes a study of the teaching effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction using the PLATO system at the University of Illinois in a first level biology course. College enrollment, class rank, final grade, and time study data of the control and experimental groups were obtained from master rosters. A questionnaire administered to…

  10. Monitoring and Fault Detection in Photovoltaic Systems Based On Inverter Measured String I-V Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso; Kerekes, Tamas;

    2015-01-01

    Most photovoltaic (PV) string inverters have the hardware capability to measure at least part of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curve of the PV strings connected at the input. However, this intrinsic capability of the inverters is not used, since I-V curve measurement and monitoring......-of-system components through increased series resistance losses, or shunting of the PV modules. To achieve this, we propose and experimentally demonstrate three complementary PV system monitoring methods that make use of the I-V curve measurement capability of a commercial string inverter. The first method is suitable...... for monitoring single or independent PV strings, and is based on evaluating the ratio of certain operation points on the string I-V curve. The second method is applicable to PV systems with identical strings, and is based on monitoring and inter-comparison of string I-V curve parameters. For PV systems with non...

  11. Reversing Plato’s Anti-Democratism: Castoriadis’ “Quirky” Plato

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy C. Hamblet

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the conflicting "loves" of Cornelius Castoriadis--his love for the ancients, and especially Plato, and for the common person of the demos. A detailed study of Castoriadis' analysis of Plato's Statesman exposes that Castoriadis attempts to resolve the paradox by rereading Plato as a radical democrat. I argue that this unorthodox reading is at best "quirky, " (a charge Castoriadis levels at Plato) at worst a groundless sophism. However, I conjecture that Castoriadis' readin...

  12. Eugenics concept: from Plato to present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güvercin, C H; Arda, B

    2008-01-01

    All prospective studies and purposes to improve cure and create a race that would be exempt of various diseases and disabilities are generally defined as eugenic procedures. They aim to create the "perfect" and "higher" human being by eliminating the "unhealthy" prospective persons. All of the supporting actions taken in order to enable the desired properties are called positive eugenic actions; the elimination of undesired properties are defined as negative eugenics. In addition, if such applications and approaches target the public as a whole, they are defined as macro-eugenics. On the other hand, if they only aim at individuals and/or families, they are called micro-eugenics. As generally acknowledged, Galton re-introduced eugenic proposals, but their roots stretch as far back as Plato. Eugenic thoughts and developments were widely accepted in many different countries beginning with the end of the 19th to the first half of the 20th centuries. Initially, the view of negative eugenics that included compulsory sterilizations of handicapped, diseased and "lower" classes, resulted in tens of thousands being exterminated especially in the period of Nazi Germany. In the 1930s, the type of micro positive eugenics movement found a place within the pro-natalist policies of a number of countries. However, it was unsuccessful since the policy was not able to become effective enough and totally disappeared in the 1960s. It was no longer a fashionable movement and left a deep impression on public opinion after the long years of war. However, developments in genetics and its related fields have now enabled eugenic thoughts to reappear under the spotlight and this is creating new moral dilemmas from an ethical perspective.

  13. Positure in Plato's Laws: An Introduction to Figuration on Civic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the research was to determine the benefits of applying the new Figuration philosophy of dance, based in part on Plato, to civic education. Design/methodology: A close phenomenological reading of Plato's "The Laws," with a strategic focus on its account of the concept of posture. Findings: Plato considers posture to be…

  14. Plato's Cosmic Theology: A Rationale for a Polytheistic Astrology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, André

    2015-05-01

    Plato's cosmology influenced classical astronomy and religion, but was in turn influenced by the polytheistic context of its time. Throughout his texts, including the cosmological treatise Timaeus, and the discussions on the soul in the Phaedrus, Plato (c.428-c.348 BC) established what can be generalised as Platonic cosmological thought. An understanding of the philosophical and mythical levels of Platonic thought can provide a rationale for polytheistic and astrological worldviews, pointing to some cosmological continuity, alongside major shifts, from ancient Greek religion to the astrological thought of ancient astronomers such as Claudius Ptolemy.

  15. ESA's CCD test bench for the PLATO mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufort, Thierry; Duvet, Ludovic; Bloemmaert, Sander; Lemmel, Frederic; Prod'homme, Thibaut; Verhoeve, Peter; Smit, Hans; Butler, Bart; van der Luijt, Cornelis; Heijnen, Jerko; Visser, Ivo

    2016-08-01

    PLATO { PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars { is the third medium-class mission to be selected in the European Space Agency (ESA) Science and Robotic Exploration Cosmic Vision programme. Due for launch in 2025, the payload makes use of a large format (8 cm x 8 cm) Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs), the e2v CCD270 operated at 4 MHz and at -70 C. To de-risk the PLATO CCD qualification programme initiated in 2014 and support the mission definition process, ESA's Payload Technology Validation section from the Future Missions Office has developed a dedicated test bench.

  16. Automation Of An I-V Characterization System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Noriega

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an accurate I-V virtual instrument (VI that has been developed to characterize electronic devices forresearch and teaching purposes is demonstrated. The virtual instrument can be used to highlight principles ofmeasurement, instrumentation, fundamental principles of electronics, VI programming, device testing andcharacterization in wafer or discrete device level. It consists of a Keithley electrometer, model 6514, a programmablepower supply BK Precision, model 1770, a Keithley source meter, model 2400-LV, an Agilent digital multimeter, model34401, a PC computer and LabVIEW software. The instruments are interconnected using an IEEE 488 protocol. Thecharacteristic VI devices graphs are generated from measured data previous computational processing. Theinstrument is used in basic courses of physical electronics as well as in advance curses of VLSI design and inresearch work for characterization of semiconductor materials and devices. This paper describes the VI instrumentdesign, implementation and characterization experiments.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF RISK-BASED AND TECHNOLOGY-INDEPENDENT SAFETY CRITERIA FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William E. Kastenberg; Edward Blandford; Lance Kim

    2009-03-31

    This project has developed quantitative safety goals for Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. These safety goals are risk based and technology independent. The foundations for a new approach to risk analysis has been developed, along with a new operational definition of risk. This project has furthered the current state-of-the-art by developing quantitative safety goals for both Gen IV reactors and for the overall Gen IV nuclear fuel cycle. The risk analysis approach developed will quantify performance measures, characterize uncertainty, and address a more comprehensive view of safety as it relates to the overall system. Appropriate safety criteria are necessary to manage risk in a prudent and cost-effective manner. This study is also important for government agencies responsible for managing, reviewing, and for approving advanced reactor systems because they are charged with assuring the health and safety of the public.

  18. Wind energy conversion. Volume IV. Drive system dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Labuszewski, T.

    1978-09-01

    The dynamics of the drive system and various approaches to power transmission are described. The effects on performance of using a constant rotor speed as opposed to a rotor speed varying with the wind speed are discussed for various rotor operating schedules and typical wind distributions. The dynamics of the combined rotor, alternator, and drive system are analyzed. Conditions which could lead to electro-dynamic instabilities and desynchronization are discussed as well as means for stabilizing the system. The dynamics of the drive system and important design conditions for various drive systems are discussed, such as location of the alternators, use of hydraulic drive systems and smoothing techniques.

  19. Plato and Play: Taking Education Seriously in Ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angour, Armand

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines Plato's notions of play in ancient Greek culture and shows how the philosopher's views on play can be best appreciated against the background of shifting meanings and evaluations of play in classical Greece. Play--in various forms such as word play, ritual, and music--proved central to the development of…

  20. Stonecutter Mills, Inc., Isothermal Community College. PLATO Evaluation Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Greg

    Stonecutter Mills, Inc., is a textile manufacturing company with a major production facility in Spindale, North Carolina. In the past few years, Stonecutter Mills employees have been given an opportunity to spend up to 2 hours a week on company time to participate in PLATO-supported learning at Isothermal Community College. Employees could choose…

  1. Pursuing the Good, Ethics and Metaphysics in Plato s Republic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Douglas; Cairns; Fritz-Gregor; Herrmann; Terry; Penner

    2008-01-01

    ‘Pursuing the good’ is an old subject in both social history of ancient Greece and Greek philosophy studies. There is hardly anything new when we talk about virtue or morality in the time of Plato and Aristotle. In the area of Greek history, many books and articles on or relevant to that

  2. Eschatological narrative in Plato: between logos and myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Casadesús Bordoy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In his dialogues, Plato frequently resorted to alternate and intertwine his dialectic expositions with images and allegories, aiming to illustrate his arguments. This paper analyses in detail his use of the opposition between logos and myth tointroduce his descriptions of Hades

  3. Go Tell Alcibiades: Tragedy, Comedy, and Rhetoric in Plato's "Symposium"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Nathan; Poulakos, John

    2008-01-01

    Plato's "Symposium" is a significant but neglected part of his elaborate and complex attitude toward rhetoric. Unlike the intellectual discussion of the "Gorgias" or the unscripted conversation of the "Phaedrus," the "Symposium" stages a feast celebrating and driven by the forces of "Eros." A luxuriously stylish performance rather than a rational…

  4. Second Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    Begun on an experimental basis in March 1975, the ongoing PLATO project at the University of Delaware has become an established part of the University's academic program. This descriptive report is divided into three sections: (1) project history and development, including organization, utilization, instructor and author training, and projections…

  5. Dodecahedrane—The chemical transliteration of Plato's universe (A Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Leo A.

    1982-07-01

    The development of chemical interest in three of Plato's five convex polyhedra is described from an historical perspective. The successful synthesis of 1,16-dimethyldodecahedrane and its structural characteristics are outlined. Finally, an account of recent work leading to the still more aesthetically appealing and ultrasymmetric parent dodecahedrane is given.

  6. Enhanced Flight Termination System Study Phase I - IV Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    manufactured by Zeta ( EPSCO ) Corp. The CTS equipment is remotely activated by the RSO in the mission control area. The CTS hardware is similar to the...Command Panel System Operations and Maintenance Manual, August 1998. 14. ZETA ( EPSCO ) Command Transmitter System Maintenance Manual for Model 1376...Command Panel System Operations and Maintenance Manual, August 1998. 14. ZETA ( EPSCO ) Command Transmitter System Maintenance Manual for Model 1376

  7. Arete and physics: The lesson of Plato's "Timaeus"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, John R.

    Plato's Timaeus is traditionally read as a work dedicated to the sole purpose of describing the origin and nature of the cosmos, as a straightforward attempt by Plato to produce a peri phuseos treatise. In accord with this reading, the body of Timaeus' monologue is then seen as nothing more than an attempt by Plato to convey his own cosmological doctrines. I propose an alternative to the view that the Timaeus is nothing more than a textbook of Platonic physics. The Timaeus is rather squarely focused on the human being, in her moral and political dimensions, and on her relation to the natural world as a whole. Ultimately, this account of the human being is intended to provide part of the answer to the question of how society can produce good citizens and leaders, and thus serves to provide a theoretical basis for the practices of paideia. When viewed in this light many of the curious features of the Timaeus appear less strange. The various parts of the dialogue: the dramatic introduction, Critias' tale of the Ancient Athenians, and Timaeus' monologue can be seen as each contributing to an investigation of a single topic. It further allows us to understand why Plato chooses to employ Timaeus the Locrian as the principle speaker of the dialogue rather than Socrates. Finally, when read in this way, the Timaeus no longer appears as an outlier in the Platonic corpus, as a work devoted to a radically different subject matter than the rest of his writings. It can be seen as dedicated to the same issues which preoccupied Plato throughout his entire life, as about the determination of the best life and providing the tools with which to realize it.

  8. Making System Dynamics Cool IV: Teaching & Testing with Cases & Quizzes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.

    2012-01-01

    This follow-up paper presents cases and multiple choice questions for teaching and testing System Dynamics modeling. These cases and multiple choice questions were developed and used between January 2012 and April 2012 a large System Dynamics course (250+ 2nd year BSc and 40+ MSc students per year)

  9. Making System Dynamics Cool IV: Teaching & Testing with Cases & Quizzes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.

    2012-01-01

    This follow-up paper presents cases and multiple choice questions for teaching and testing System Dynamics modeling. These cases and multiple choice questions were developed and used between January 2012 and April 2012 a large System Dynamics course (250+ 2nd year BSc and 40+ MSc students per year)

  10. Angiogenesis and collagen type IV expression in different endothelial cell culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahramsoltani, M; Slosarek, I; De Spiegelaere, W; Plendl, J

    2014-04-01

    In vitro angiogenesis assays constitute an important tool for studying the mechanisms of angiogenesis and for identification of pro- and anti-angiogenic substances. Therefore, endothelial cell and media systems used for in vitro angiogenesis assays are required to mimic the angiogenic process in vivo including endothelial capability to express collagen type IV as a component of the basement membrane. In this study, the expression of collagen type IV and its α chains (α1-6) was investigated in different endothelial cell culture systems in vitro qualitatively and quantitatively. These systems included four different batches of microvascular endothelial cells derived from the human skin, heart and lung, from which only two batches were found to be angiogenic and two batches were classified as non-angiogenic. Distribution of the transcripts of the α chains of collagen type IV was similar in all cell and media systems investigated. However, secretion and deposition of a stable extracellular network of collagen type IV could only be observed in the angiogenic cultures. In conclusion, the consecutive steps of the angiogenic cascade in vivo as well as in vitro depend on an increasing secretion and subsequent extracellular deposition of collagen type IV.

  11. Teaching Early Mathematics with PLATO[R] Software: An Overview of the New PLATO Elementary Mathematics Curricula and How To Use Them. Technical Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Bill; Foshay, Rob; Morris, Barbara

    The "PLATO[R] Math Expeditions" and "PLATO[R] Projects for the Real World" curricula are designed to implement effective, research-based instructional practices. "Math Expeditions" is designed to give elementary grade users the mathematics skills and practice needed to solve real-life problems. Across the eight…

  12. THE JOURNEY OF TRUTH: FROM PLATO TO ZOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribut Basuki

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Western theater theory and criticism is generally considered to be set forth by the Greeks. Plato was "the first theater critic" with his negative comments about theater owing to his idealistic views about "the truth." Then came Aristotle who used a different viewpoint from that of Plato, saying that there is "truth" in theater. However, hostile criticism on theater came back in the Middle Ages, championed by Tertulian before Aristotelian theory was revived by the neo-classicists such as Scaliger and Castelvetro. Theater theory and criticism discourse was then made more alive by the romanticists who disagreed with the neo-classicists' rigid rules on theater. As the influence of science became dominant in the theater world, naturalism and realism emerged and became the mainstream of theater theory and criticism until well into the twentieth century.

  13. The necessity of dialectics according to Plato and Adorno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anne-Marie Eggert

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the notion of philosophy as, on the one hand, an academic or scientific discipline and, on the other, something perhaps superior to the disciplines and in any case dealing with what is not a 'disciplinary' matter. Through an interpretation of Plato's concept of dialectics and...... and Adorno's understanding of philosophy as expression (Ausdruck) it is proposed that this two-fold nature of philosophy is what makes dialectics necessary....

  14. Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – Volume IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Duić

    2016-12-01

    In total 32 manuscripts were published in Volume IV, all of them reviewed by at least two reviewers. The Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems would like to thank reviewers for their contribution to the quality of the published manuscripts.

  15. Campylobacter fetus subspecies contain conserved type IV secretion systems on multiple genomic islands and plasmids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf-Van Bloois, Van Der Linda; Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2016-01-01

    The features contributing to differences in pathogenicity of the Campylobacter fetus subspecies are unknown. Putative factors involved in pathogenesis are located in genomic islands that encode a type IV secretion system (T4SS) and fic domain (filamentation induced by cyclic AMP) proteins, which

  16. MH-53J/M Pave Low III/IV Systems Engineering. Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    both of which were retrofitted beginning in the early 1990s, facilitated stowage and handling when transporting the PAVE LOW aboard a Lockheed C-5...addition of an Embedded Computer Systems Line Replaceable Unit (LRU) rack to host PL IV-unique LRUs. Software changes included the modification of 10

  17. Fieldpractice in Higher Education System. Resume of IV International Conference in the Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Arkadiev

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Brief information on the IV International Conference Field Practice in the Higher Education System held in the Crimea. Field practice is a part of educational program when students go to other regions in summer to apply on-site the competences and skills they obtained. Field practice is widely used in training of geologists, biologists, geophysicists, historians etc.

  18. Design of Radiation-Tolerant Structural Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, T.R.; Was, G.S.; Bruemmer, S.M.; Gan, J.; Ukai, S.

    2005-12-28

    The objective of this program is to improve the radiation tolerance of both austenitic and ferritic-martensitic (F-M) alloys projected for use in Generation IV systems. The expected materials limitations of Generation IV components include: creep strength, dimensional stability, and corrosion/stress corrosion compatibility. The material design strategies to be tested fall into three main categories: (1) engineering grain boundaries; (2) alloying, by adding oversized elements to the matrix; and (3) microstructural/nanostructural design, such as adding matrix precipitates. These three design strategies were tested across both austenitic and ferritic-martensitic alloy classes

  19. Studies of the ternary systems humic substances - kaolinite - Pu(III) and Pu(IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buda, R.A.; Kratz, J.V.; Trautmann, N. [Inst. fuer Kernchemie, Johannes-Gutenberg-Univ., Mainz (Germany); Banik, N.L. [Inst. fuer Kernchemie, Johannes-Gutenberg-Univ., Mainz (Germany); Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE), Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The behaviour of plutonium with respect to its migration in the aquifer has been studied under conditions close to nature. Most relevant under these conditions are Pu(III) and Pu(IV) in contact with humic substances (HS) and minerals. As a model for the host rock, kaolinite (KGa-1b) was chosen. The complexation of Pu(III) and Pu(IV) with Aldrich humic acid (AHA) in aqueous solution at ionic strength 0.1 M was investigated by the ultrafiltration method. The sorption of Pu(III) and Am(III) onto kaolinite (K) as a function of pH and metal-ion concentration was studied under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The pH edge was found at pH {proportional_to} 5.5 independent of the metal-ion concentration and working atmosphere. The influence of HS on the sorption of Pu(III) and Pu(IV) onto kaolinite was investigated in the ternary systems Pu(III)-K-HS and Pu(IV)-K-HS and for comparison, in the system Th(IV)-K-HS. The dependence on pH, contact time, concentration of HS (for Pu(IV)-K-HS) was studied as well as the sequence in which the components were added. Generally, it was found that HS tend to enhance the sorption onto kaolinite below pH 6 and to decrease sorption at higher pH depending in detail on the sequence in which the components were added. An identification of the species sorbed on the surface of the kaolinite by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, as well as chemically, was attempted and preliminary results are discussed. (orig.)

  20. A Study on the Planning of Technology Development and Research for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Moon Hee; Kim, H. R.; Kim, H. J. and others

    2005-08-15

    This study aimed at the planning the domestic technology development of the Gen IV and the formulating the international collaborative project contents and executive plan for 'A Validity Assessment and Policies of the R and D of Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems'. The results of the study include follows; - Survey of the technology state in the fields of the Gen IV system specific technologies and the common technologies, and the plans of the international collaborative research - Drawing up the executive research and development plan by the experts of the relevant technology field for the systems which Korean will participate in. - Formulating the effective conduction plan of the program reflecting the view of the experts from the industry, the university and the research institute. - Establishing the plan for estimation of the research fund and the manpower for the efficient utilization of the domestic available resources. This study can be useful material for evaluating the appropriateness of the Korea's participation in the international collaborative development of the Gen IV, and can be valuably utilized to establish the strategy for the effective conduction of the program. The executive plan of the research and development which was produced in this study will be used to the basic materials for the establishing the guiding direction and the strategic conduction of the program when the research and development is launched in the future.

  1. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Ten-Year Program Plan Fiscal Year 2005, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-03-01

    As reflected in the U.S. ''National Energy Policy'', nuclear energy has a strong role to play in satisfying our nation's future energy security and environmental quality needs. The desirable environmental, economic, and sustainability attributes of nuclear energy give it a cornerstone position, not only in the U.S. energy portfolio, but also in the world's future energy portfolio. Accordingly, on September 20, 2002, U.S. Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham announced that, ''The United States and nine other countries have agreed to develop six Generation IV nuclear energy concepts''. The Secretary also noted that the systems are expected to ''represent significant advances in economics, safety, reliability, proliferation resistance, and waste minimization''. The six systems and their broad, worldwide research and development (R&D) needs are described in ''A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems'' (hereafter referred to as the Generation IV Roadmap). The first 10 years of required U.S. R&D contributions to achieve the goals described in the Generation IV Roadmap are outlined in this Program Plan.

  2. Optical and dark characterization of the PLATO CCD at ESA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeve, Peter; Prod'homme, Thibaut; Oosterbroek, Tim; Duvet, Ludovic; Beaufort, Thierry; Blommaert, Sander; Butler, Bart; Heijnen, Jerko; Lemmel, Frederic; van der Luijt, Cornelis; Smit, Hans; Visser, Ivo

    2016-07-01

    PLATO - PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars - is the third medium-class mission (M3) to be selected in the European Space Agency (ESA) Science and Robotic Exploration Cosmic Vision programme. It is due for launch in 2025 with the main objective to find and study terrestrial planets in the habitable zone around solar-like stars. The payload consists of >20 cameras; with each camera comprising 4 Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs), a large number of flight model devices procured by ESA shall ultimately be integrated on the spacecraft. The CCD270 - specially designed and manufactured by e2v for the PLATO mission - is a large format (8 cm x 8 cm) back-illuminated device operating at 4 MHz pixel rate and coming in two variants: full frame and frame transfer. In order to de-risk the PLATO CCD procurement and aid the mission definition process, ESA's Payload Technology Validation section is currently validating the PLATO CCD270. This validation consists in demonstrating that the device achieves its specified electrooptical performance in the relevant environment: operated at 4 MHz, at cold and before and after proton irradiation. As part of this validation, CCD270 devices have been characterized in the dark as well as optically with respect to performance parameters directly relevant for the photometric application of the CCDs. Dark tests comprise the measurement of gain sensitivity to bias voltages, charge injection tests, and measurement of hot and variable pixels after irradiation. In addition, the results of measurements of Quantum Efficiency for a range of angles of incidence, intra- pixel response (non-)uniformity, and response to spot illumination, before and after proton irradiation. In particular, the effect of radiation induced degradation of the charge transfer efficiency on the measured charge in a star-like spot has been studied as a function of signal level and of position on the pixel grid, Also, the effect of various levels of background light on the

  3. The smart IV stand design through human tracking mobile robot system by CDS cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Seong-Hyeon; Choe, Jong-Hun; Seo, Suk-Hyun; Kim, Won-Hoe; Lee, Hong-Kyu; Park, Se-Ho

    2015-03-01

    Vision-based recognition of the object as a general interface gives us high cost and complicated problem. This research suggests human tracking system by Arduino, and Laser-CdS cell system track wire that pass laser line. In this paper, we review existing literature on application systems of recognition which involves many interdisciplinary studies. We conclude that our method can only reduce cost, but is easy way to trace people's location with the use of wire. Furthermore, we apply several recognition systems including CdS-based mobile robot that is applied IV stand used at the hospital effectively.

  4. European cross-cutting research on structural materials for Generation IV and transmutation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazio, C., E-mail: concetta.fazio@nuklear.fzk.d [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Program Nuklear, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Alamo, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Almazouzi, A. [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie - Centre D' Etude de L' Energie Nucleaire, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); De Grandis, S. [Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie l' Energia e l' Ambiente, CR Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano Bologna (Italy); Gomez-Briceno, D. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Henry, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Malerba, L. [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie - Centre D' Etude de L' Energie Nucleaire, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Rieth, M. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Program Nuklear, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    It has been internationally recognized that materials science and materials development are key issues for the implementation of innovative reactor systems such as those defined in the framework of the Generation IV and advanced fuel cycle initiatives. In Europe, materials studies are considered within the Strategic Research Agenda of the Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform. Moreover, the European Commission has recently launched a 7th Framework Programme Research Project, named 'Generation IV and Transmutation Materials', that has the objective of addressing materials issues which are cross-cutting for more than one type of innovative reactor systems. The present work has been prepared with the aim of describing the rationale, the objectives, the work plan and the expected results of this research project.

  5. The Philosopher's Arete or theStructure of Plato's Parmenides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Gutierrez

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The controversy conceming the unity of Plato's Parmenides and the meaning of its first part is stillongoing. The A. proposes a solution, pointing out its structural coincidence with the Republic's simile of the line. This leads him to confine young Socrates in the segment that corresponds to óuivoux and old Parmenides in the vór¡olc; segment. As the one who "possesses insight" of truth based on his apprehension of the One-Good. Parmenides is the actual representative of the philosopher's arete.

  6. Tibial plato leveling osteotomy / Osteotomia de nivelamento do plato da tíbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Maria Matera

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO is a relatively new and innovative surgical treatment for the cranial cruciate ligament rupture in the canine species. The real intent of the procedure is to provide functional stability to the stifle joint by eliminating or neutralizing the cranial tibial thrust during weight bearing instead to restore the cranial cruciate ligament function. The proposal of this study is to report a review of the TPLO procedure, emphasizing procedure, surgical technique, post operative care and complications. The TPLO procedure consists in a radial osteotomy in the tibial plato and rotation of the caudal plateau in order to obtain a desired angle. After the leveling of the tibial plateau, a bone plate and screws are used to stabilize the osteotomy until bone is healed up. The complications that have been associated with the procedure include tibial tuberosity fracture and patellar tendon tendinosis. This procedure has become increasingly more popular for surgical treatment of cranial cruciate ligament injuries in large breed dog. The long term clinical results have not been completely elucidated yet. It has been showed that this technique doesn’t halt the degenerative joint disease.A osteotomia do platô da tíbia (TPLO é um tratamento relativamente novo e inovador para a ruptura do ligamento cruzado cranial (RLCC na espécie canina. Ao invés de restaurar a função do ligamento, o procedimento promove estabilidade funcional para a articulação do joelho, por eliminar ou neutralizar a força tibial cranial durante a sustentação de peso. A proposta do presente estudo é revisar a técnica de TPLO, enfatizando o procedimento, técnica cirúrgica, cuidados pós-operatórios e complicações. A técnica da TPLO consiste na realização de uma osteotomia circular do platô da tíbia com rotação de sua porção caudal até a obtenção do ângulo desejado. Após o nivelamento do platô da tíbia, placa e parafusos

  7. Reversing Plato’s Anti-Democratism: Castoriadis’ “Quirky” Plato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamblet, Wendy C.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the conflicting "loves" of Cornelius Castoriadis--his love for the ancients, and especially Plato, and for the common person of the demos. A detailed study of Castoriadis' analysis of Plato's Statesman exposes that Castoriadis attempts to resolve the paradox by rereading Plato as a radical democrat. I argue that this unorthodox reading is at best "quirky, " (a charge Castoriadis levels at Plato at worst a groundless sophism. However, I conjecture that Castoriadis' reading may not constitute a serious attempt to describe a Platonic politics, so much as a prescriptive reading of what otherwise might have been, given certain strands of political generosity evident elsewhere in Plato's corpus.

  8. APACHE IV is superior to MELD scoring system in predicting prognosis in patients after orthotopic liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yueyun; Zhang, Xianling; Liu, Yuan; Yan, Jun; Li, Tiehua; Hu, Ailing

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to compare the efficiency of APACHE IV with that of MELD scoring system for prediction of the risk of mortality risk after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). A retrospective cohort study was performed based on a total of 195 patients admitted to the ICU after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) between February 2006 and July 2009 in Guangzhou, China. APACHE IV and MELD scoring systems were used to predict the postoperative mortality after OLT. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the Hosmer-Lemeshow C statistic were used to assess the discrimination and calibration of APACHE IV and MELD, respectively. Twenty-seven patients died during hospitalization with a mortality rate of 13.8%. The mean scores of APACHE IV and MELD were 42.32 ± 21.95 and 18.09 ± 10.55, respectively, and APACHE IV showed better discrimination than MELD; the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for APACHE IV and MELD were 0.937 and 0.694 (P APACHE IV was relatively high. Both models were well-calibrated (The Hosmer-Lemeshow C statistics were 1.568 and 6.818 for APACHE IV and MELD, resp.; P > 0.05 for both). The respective Youden indexes of APACHE IV, MELD, and combination of APACHE IV with MELD were 0.763, 0.430, and 0.545. The prognostic value of APACHE IV is high but still underestimates the overall hospital mortality, while the prognostic value of MELD is poor. The function of the APACHE IV is, thus, better than that of the MELD.

  9. Real-Time Series Resistance Monitoring in PV Systems Without the Need for IV Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deceglie, Michael G.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2015-06-14

    We apply the physical principles of a familiar method, suns-Voc, to a new application: the real-time detection of series resistance changes in modules and systems operating outside. The real-time series resistance (RTSR) method that we describe avoids the need for collecting IV curves or constructing full series-resistance-free IV curves. RTSR is most readily deployable at the module level on micro-inverters or module-integrated electronics, but it can also be extended to full strings. Automated detection of series resistance increases can provide early warnings of some of the most common reliability issues, which also pose fire risks, including broken ribbons, broken solder bonds, and contact problems in the junction or combiner box. We describe the method in detail and describe a sample application to data collected from modules operating in the field.

  10. A widespread bacteriophage abortive infection system functions through a Type IV toxin-antitoxin mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dy, Ron L; Przybilski, Rita; Semeijn, Koen; Salmond, George P C; Fineran, Peter C

    2014-04-01

    Bacterial abortive infection (Abi) systems are 'altruistic' cell death systems that are activated by phage infection and limit viral replication, thereby providing protection to the bacterial population. Here, we have used a novel approach of screening Abi systems as a tool to identify and characterize toxin-antitoxin (TA)-acting Abi systems. We show that AbiE systems are encoded by bicistronic operons and function via a non-interacting (Type IV) bacteriostatic TA mechanism. The abiE operon was negatively autoregulated by the antitoxin, AbiEi, a member of a widespread family of putative transcriptional regulators. AbiEi has an N-terminal winged-helix-turn-helix domain that is required for repression of abiE transcription, and an uncharacterized bi-functional C-terminal domain, which is necessary for transcriptional repression and sufficient for toxin neutralization. The cognate toxin, AbiEii, is a predicted nucleotidyltransferase (NTase) and member of the DNA polymerase β family. AbiEii specifically bound GTP, and mutations in conserved NTase motifs (I-III) and a newly identified motif (IV), abolished GTP binding and subsequent toxicity. The AbiE systems can provide phage resistance and enable stabilization of mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids. Our study reveals molecular insights into the regulation and function of the widespread bi-functional AbiE Abi-TA systems and the biochemical properties of both toxin and antitoxin proteins.

  11. Aristotle vs. Plato: The Balkans' Paradoxical Enlightenment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Michalopoulos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available As it occurred in West, Aristotle’s thought was in Byzantium the main organon of philosophical meditation within the frame of the Christian Faith. Nonetheless, from the ninth century on it was a revival of Platonism that took place – of Neo-Platonism at the beginning and of Platonism itself at the end. The Church, initially indifferent, became suspicious only when, at the turning of the fourteenth to the fifteenth century, the Platonism seemed to engender somewhat a latent paganism; but the Patriarchate was not then able to fight that tendency. So only after the 1453 capture of Constantinople by the Ottomans, Gennadius Scholarius managed to root out from the Greek lands Platonism and its crypto-pagan extension. Be that as it may; the main paradox of the Balkan history is that in the early seventeenth century some leading Greek scholars endorsed the materialist interpretation of Aristotle’s thought – as it was taught in the University of Padua by Cesare Cremonini; and as a corollary this materialistic philosophical system began being taught in both Constantinople and Athens. It was that very way that the Enlightenment took birth in the Balkans – and somehow became a State ideology - long before its prevalence in France. And of course all this had as a result a turn toward Physics and Chemistry with far-reaching consequences

  12. Irradiation Alters MMP-2/TIMP-2 System and Collagen Type IV Degradation in Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Hee [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States); Warrington, Junie P.; Sonntag, William E. [Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (United States); Lee, Yong Woo, E-mail: ywlee@vt.edu [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is one of the major consequences of radiation-induced normal tissue injury in the central nervous system. We examined the effects of whole-brain irradiation on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)/tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation in the brain. Methods and Materials: Animals received either whole-brain irradiation (a single dose of 10 Gy {gamma}-rays or a fractionated dose of 40 Gy {gamma}-rays, total) or sham-irradiation and were maintained for 4, 8, and 24 h following irradiation. mRNA expression levels of MMPs and TIMPs in the brain were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The functional activity of MMPs was measured by in situ zymography, and degradation of ECM was visualized by collagen type IV immunofluorescent staining. Results: A significant increase in mRNA expression levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 was observed in irradiated brains compared to that in sham-irradiated controls. In situ zymography revealed a strong gelatinolytic activity in the brain 24 h postirradiation, and the enhanced gelatinolytic activity mediated by irradiation was significantly attenuated in the presence of anti-MMP-2 antibody. A significant reduction in collagen type IV immunoreactivity was also detected in the brain at 24 h after irradiation. In contrast, the levels of collagen type IV were not significantly changed at 4 and 8 h after irradiation compared with the sham-irradiated controls. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates for the first time that radiation induces an imbalance between MMP-2 and TIMP-2 levels and suggests that degradation of collagen type IV, a major ECM component of BBB basement membrane, may have a role in the pathogenesis of brain injury.

  13. EVALUATION METHODOLOGY FOR PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF GENERATION IV NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARI, R.; ET AL.

    2006-03-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology approach developed by the Generation IV International Forum Expert Group on Proliferation Resistance & Physical Protection for evaluation of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection robustness of Generation IV nuclear energy systems options. The methodology considers a set of alternative systems and evaluates their resistance or robustness to a collection of potential threats. For the challenges considered, the response of the system to these challenges is assessed and expressed in terms of outcomes. The challenges to the system are given by the threats posed by potential proliferant States and sub-national adversaries on the nuclear systems. The characteristics of the Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate their response to the threats and determine their resistance against the proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and theft threats. System response encompasses three main elements: (1) System Element Identification. The nuclear energy system is decomposed into smaller elements (subsystems) at a level amenable to further analysis. (2) Target Identification and Categorization. A systematic process is used to identify and select representative targets for different categories of pathways, within each system element, that actors (proliferant States or adversaries) might choose to use or attack. (3) Pathway Identification and Refinement. Pathways are defined as potential sequences of events and actions followed by the proliferant State or adversary to achieve its objectives (proliferation, theft or sabotage). For each target, individual pathway segments are developed through a systematic process, analyzed at a high level, and screened where possible. Segments are connected into full pathways and analyzed in detail. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of PR&PP measures. Measures are high-level characteristics of a pathway that include

  14. Evaluation Methodology For Proliferation Resistance And Physical Protection Of Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems: An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Bjornard; R. Bari; R. Nishimura; P. Peterson; J. Roglans; D. Bley; J. Cazalet; G.G.M. Cojazzi; P. Delaune; M. Golay; G. Rendad; G. Rochau; M. Senzaki; I. Therios; M. Zentner

    2006-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology approach developed by the Generation IV International Forum Expert Group on Proliferation Resistance & Physical Protection for evaluation of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection robustness of Generation IV nuclear energy systems options. The methodology considers a set of alternative systems and evaluates their resistance or robustness to a collection of potential threats. For the challenges considered, the response of the system to these challenges is assessed and expressed in terms of outcomes. The challenges to the system are given by the threats posed by potential proliferant States and sub-national adversaries on the nuclear systems. The characteristics of the Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate their response to the threats and determine their resistance against the proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and theft threats. System response encompasses three main elements: 1.System Element Identification. The nuclear energy system is decomposed into smaller elements (subsystems) at a level amenable to further analysis. 2.Target Identification and Categorization. A systematic process is used to identify and select representative targets for different categories of pathways, within each system element, that actors (proliferant States or adversaries) might choose to use or attack. 3.Pathway Identification and Refinement. Pathways are defined as potential sequences of events and actions followed by the proliferant State or adversary to achieve its objectives (proliferation, theft or sabotage). For each target, individual pathway segments are developed through a systematic process, analyzed at a high level, and screened where possible. Segments are connected into full pathways and analyzed in detail. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of PR&PP measures. Measures are high-level characteristics of a pathway that include

  15. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume IV. Country data, SG-YO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Included in this volume, Vol. IV, are Senegal, South Africa, Soviet Union, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, Upper Volta, Venezuela, and Yugoslavia. The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations of energy supplies; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  16. Heteroleptic titanium(IV) catecholato/piperazine systems and their anti-cancer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Stuart L; Gati, Rachel; Mahon, Mary F; Tshuva, Edit Y; Jones, Matthew D

    2014-01-21

    In this paper we report the synthesis and full characterisation of a range of Ti(IV)-catecholato systems complexed to piperazine or homopiperazine salan ligands. The steric/electronic environment of the catecholate moiety has been varied and the effect this has on cytotoxicity discussed. It was observed that the 7-membered homopiperazine complexes are more stable to hydrolysis than their piperazine cousins in biological media. In general the homopiperazine complexes show higher cytotoxicity than the piperazine complexes, with the most cytotoxic complex exhibiting IC50 (μM) values of 3 ± 0.5 μM (HT-29) and 4 ± 1 μM (OVCAR).

  17. AtlasT4SS: A curated database for type IV secretion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Rangel C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The type IV secretion system (T4SS can be classified as a large family of macromolecule transporter systems, divided into three recognized sub-families, according to the well-known functions. The major sub-family is the conjugation system, which allows transfer of genetic material, such as a nucleoprotein, via cell contact among bacteria. Also, the conjugation system can transfer genetic material from bacteria to eukaryotic cells; such is the case with the T-DNA transfer of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to host plant cells. The system of effector protein transport constitutes the second sub-family, and the third one corresponds to the DNA uptake/release system. Genome analyses have revealed numerous T4SS in Bacteria and Archaea. The purpose of this work was to organize, classify, and integrate the T4SS data into a single database, called AtlasT4SS - the first public database devoted exclusively to this prokaryotic secretion system. Description The AtlasT4SS is a manual curated database that describes a large number of proteins related to the type IV secretion system reported so far in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as in Archaea. The database was created using the RDBMS MySQL and the Catalyst Framework based in the Perl programming language and using the Model-View-Controller (MVC design pattern for Web. The current version holds a comprehensive collection of 1,617 T4SS proteins from 58 Bacteria (49 Gram-negative and 9 Gram-Positive, one Archaea and 11 plasmids. By applying the bi-directional best hit (BBH relationship in pairwise genome comparison, it was possible to obtain a core set of 134 clusters of orthologous genes encoding T4SS proteins. Conclusions In our database we present one way of classifying orthologous groups of T4SSs in a hierarchical classification scheme with three levels. The first level comprises four classes that are based on the organization of genetic determinants, shared homologies, and

  18. Overall system description and safety characteristics of Prototype Gen IV Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jae Woon; Chang, Jin Wook; Lim, Jae Yong; Cheon, Jin Sik; Lee, Tae Ho; Kim, Sung Kyun; Lee, Kwi Lim; Joo, Hyung Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The Prototype Gen IV sodium cooled fast reactor (PGSFR) has been developed for the last 4 years, fulfilling the technology demonstration of the burning capability of transuranic elements included in light water reactor spent nuclear fuel. The PGSFR design has been focused on the robustness of safety systems by enhancing inherent safety characteristics of metal fuel and strengthening passive safety features using natural circulation and thermal expansion. The preliminary safety information document as a major outcome of the first design phase of PGSFR development was issued at the end of 2015. The project entered the second design phase at the beginning of 2016. This paper summarizes the overall structures, systems, and components of nuclear steam supply system and safety characteristics of the PGSFR. The research and development activities to demonstrate the safety performance are also briefly introduced in the paper.

  19. Love as an Object of Initiation in Plato's Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euaggelia Maraggianou

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Initiation ( muvhsh was the first stage of the ancient mysteries celebrating Demeter, the earth-goddess, and her daughter Kore, soon identified with Persephone or Persephasa, a pre-Greek deity of the underworld. Next came the stage of contemplation ( ejpopteiva , at which worshippers were shown a vision of the goddess of Hades. This led them to identify themselves with her, thus reaching the highest form of happiness. The Eleusinian Mysteries were inseparably linked to the Orphic doctrine, which in its turn influenced the thought of Plato. Plato sees love as an object of initiation and as one of the greatest mysteries of human existence. Plato’s dialogues, Phaedrus and Symposium, contain expressions borrowed directly from the vocabulary of the Mysteries. Although neither Socrates in Phaedrus nor Diotima in Symposium make any explicit reference to the mystic ceremonies, it is certain that both allude to them in expounding the mysteries of spiritual life. The latter has to start at the stage of physical love in order to end up in the contemplation of Ideas. The mystery into which Socrates is initiated by Diotima is the following: there is a mystic stairway leading from the earth to the sky, from man to God. It is made visible by Love, and its steps are represented by different kinds of beauty. The ascent is a gradual one, with a long stop at each of the stages. In this way Love, disciplined by philosophy and spiritualised by increasing de-personalisation, ends up in the Intellectual, conceiving the latter with an intuitive insight. By this spiritual process, one is purified, led to the road of salvation and enabled to participate in the Divine.

  20. PLATO as it is : A legacy mission for Galactic archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglio, A.; Chiappini, C.; Mosser, B.; Davies, G. R.; Freeman, K.; Girardi, L.; Jofré, P.; Kawata, D.; Rendle, B. M.; Valentini, M.; Casagrande, L.; Chaplin, W. J.; Gilmore, G.; Hawkins, K.; Holl, B.; Appourchaux, T.; Belkacem, K.; Bossini, D.; Brogaard, K.; Goupil, M.-J.; Montalbán, J.; Noels, A.; Anders, F.; Rodrigues, T.; Piotto, G.; Pollacco, D.; Rauer, H.; Prieto, C. Allende; Avelino, P. P.; Babusiaux, C.; Barban, C.; Barbuy, B.; Basu, S.; Baudin, F.; Benomar, O.; Bienaymé, O.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bressan, A.; Cacciari, C.; Campante, T. L.; Cassisi, S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Combes, F.; Creevey, O.; Cunha, M. S.; Jong, R. S.; Laverny, P.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Deheuvels, S.; Depagne, É.; Ridder, J.; Matteo, P. Di; Mauro, M. P. Di; Dupret, M.-A.; Eggenberger, P.; Elsworth, Y.; Famaey, B.; Feltzing, S.; García, R. A.; Gerhard, O.; Gibson, B. K.; Gizon, L.; Haywood, M.; Handberg, R.; Heiter, U.; Hekker, S.; Huber, D.; Ibata, R.; Katz, D.; Kawaler, S. D.; Kjeldsen, H.; Kurtz, D. W.; Lagarde, N.; Lebreton, Y.; Lund, M. N.; Majewski, S. R.; Marigo, P.; Martig, M.; Mathur, S.; Minchev, I.; Morel, T.; Ortolani, S.; Pinsonneault, M. H.; Plez, B.; Moroni, P. G. Prada; Pricopi, D.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Reylé, C.; Robin, A.; Roxburgh, I. W.; Salaris, M.; Santiago, B. X.; Schiavon, R.; Serenelli, A.; Sharma, S.; Aguirre, V. Silva; Soubiran, C.; Steinmetz, M.; Stello, D.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Ventura, P.; Ventura, R.; Walton, N. A.; Worley, C. C.

    2017-07-01

    Deciphering the assembly history of the Milky Way is a formidable task, which becomes possible only if one can produce high-resolution chrono-chemo-kinematical maps of the Galaxy. Data from large-scale astrometric and spectroscopic surveys will soon provide us with a well-defined view of the current chemo-kinematical structure of the Milky Way, but will only enable a blurred view on the temporal sequence that led to the present-day Galaxy. As demonstrated by the (ongoing) exploitation of data from the pioneering photometric missions CoRoT, Kepler, and K2, asteroseismology provides the way forward: solar-like oscillating giants are excellent evolutionary clocks thanks to the availability of seismic constraints on their mass and to the tight age-initial-mass relation they adhere to. In this paper we identify five key outstanding questions relating to the formation and evolution of the Milky Way that will need precise and accurate ages for large samples of stars to be addressed, and we identify the requirements in terms of number of targets and the precision on the stellar properties that are needed to tackle such questions. By quantifying the asteroseismic yields expected from PLATO for red-giant stars, we demonstrate that these requirements are within the capabilities of the current instrument design, provided that observations are sufficiently long to identify the evolutionary state and allow robust and precise determination of acoustic-mode frequencies. This will allow us to harvest data of sufficient quality to reach a 10% precision in age. This is a fundamental pre-requisite to then reach the more ambitious goal of a similar level of accuracy, which will only be possible if we have to hand a careful appraisal of systematic uncertainties on age deriving from our limited understanding of stellar physics, a goal which conveniently falls within the main aims of PLATO's core science.

  1. A Project Management and Systems Engineering Structure for a Generation IV Very High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ed Gorski; Dennis Harrell; Finis Southworth

    2004-09-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) will be an advanced, very high temperature (approximately 1000o C. coolant outlet temperature), gas cooled nuclear reactor and is the nearest term of six Generation IV reactor technologies for nuclear assisted hydrogen production. In 2001, the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), a ten nation international forum working together with the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee (NERAC), agreed to proceed with the development of a technology roadmap and identified the next generation of nuclear reactor systems for producing new sources of power. Since a new reactor has not been licensed in the United States since the 1970s, the risks are too large for a single utility to assume in the development of an unprecedented Generation IV reactor. The government must sponsor and invest in the research to resolve major first of a kind (FOAK) issues through a full-scale demonstration prior to industry implementation. DOE’s primary mission for the VHTR is to demonstrate nuclear reactor assisted cogeneration of electricity and hydrogen while meeting the Generation IV goals for safety, sustainability, proliferation resistance and physical security and economics. The successful deployment of the VHTR as a demonstration project will aid in restarting the now atrophied U.S. nuclear power industry infrastructure. It is envisioned that VHTR project participants will include DOE Laboratories, industry partners such as designers, constructors, manufacturers, utilities, and Generation IV international countries. To effectively mange R&D, engineering, procurement, construction, and operation for this multi-organizational and technologically complex project, systems engineering will be used extensively to ensure delivery of the final product. Although the VHTR is an unprecedented FOAK system, the R&D, when assessed using the Office of Science and Technology Gate Model, falls primarily in the 3rd - Exploratory

  2. Angiographic outcomes in the PLATO Trial (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kunadian, Vijay; James, Stefan K; Wojdyla, Daniel M; Zorkun, Cafer; Wu, Jinhui; Storey, Robert F; Steg, Ph Gabriel; Katus, Hugo; Emanuelsson, Hakan; Horrow, Jay; Maya, Juan; Wallentin, Lars; Harrington, Robert A; Gibson, C Michael

    2013-01-01

    The PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) angiographic substudy sought to compare the efficacy of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel with respect to angiographic outcomes before and after PCI in the setting of acute coronary syndrome...

  3. The Legacies of Literacy: From Plato to Freire through Harvey Graff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    1989-01-01

    Reviews "The Legacies of Literacy: Continuities and Contradictions in Western Culture and Society" (Harvey G. Graff). Discusses the historical role of literacy education as a tool for liberation, emphasizing the viewpoints of Plato and Freire. (FMW)

  4. Genesis 2–3 and Alcibiades's speech in Plato's Symposium : A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genesis 2–3 and Alcibiades's speech in Plato's Symposium : A cultural critical reading. ... interpretation can arise from the analysis of Alcibiades's speech compared to M- and LXX-Genesis ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  5. Plato's Charmides as a Political Act: Apologetics and the Promotion of Ideology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danzig, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

      By showing that Critias and Socrates understood the same matters differently, Plato was able to treat seriously ideas that came to be associated with the Thirty and with Socrates while shielding himself from criticism...

  6. Inexpensive microcomputer-based system for solar cell I-V characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Acevedo, A.; Herrera, E.; Valencia, H.

    1989-03-01

    A simple solar cell measurement system is described. The instrument is based on an inexpensive microcomputer with a single bidirectional 8-bit I/O port, in addition to 4 output bits taken from the joystick port. Currents up to 1.5 A and voltages up to 0.7 V can be measured with this system. The temperature of the cell is also measured. Solar cell parameters like open circuit voltage (V/sub oc/), short circuit current (I/sub sc/), series resistance (R/sub s/), shunt resistance (R/sub sh/), and filling factor (F.F.) are determined by a high-level language program that also displays the I-V curve on the monitor screen and stores the data on disk files.

  7. Architecture of the Helicobacter pylori Cag-type IV secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terradot, Laurent; Waksman, Gabriel

    2011-04-01

    Type IV secretion systems (T4SS) are macromolecular assemblies used by bacteria to transport material across their membranes. T4SS are generally composed of a set of twelve proteins (VirB1-11 and VirD4). This represents a dynamic machine powered by three ATPases. T4SS are widespread in pathogenic bacteria where they are often used to deliver effectors into host cells. For example, the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori encodes a T4SS, the Cag-T4SS, which mediates the injection of the toxin CagA. We review the progress made in the past decade in our understanding of T4SS architecture. We translate this new knowledge to derive an understanding of the structure of the H. pylori Cag system, and use recent protein-protein interaction data to refine this model. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  8. Study on high temperature design methodology of heat-resistant materials for GEN-IV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, D. W.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, W. G.; Kim, J. H.; Park, D. G.; Yoon, J. H.; Lee, H. Y.; Hing, J. H

    2005-08-15

    Analysis of the existing high temperature design and assessment codes such as US(ASME-NH,Draft Code Case for Alloy 617), France(RCC-MR), UK(R5), Japan(BDS/DDS/FDS) for Gen IV reactor structure has been carried out. In addition the scope and fields for research and development is needed in the future have been defined. For assessing the high temperature creep cracks, time dependent fracture mechanics (TDFM) parameters of the C and Ct were analyzed. The creep propagation data were obtained from the creep crack growth tests for type 316LN stainless steels, and creep crack growth testing machine for Gen-IV system up to 950 .deg. C was set up. Damage mechanism and causes for creep-fatigue were investigated. The difference between prediction creep-fatigue life and experimental life were investigated. Material properties for analysis creep-fatigue damage were recommended. The assessment procedure (Draft) on creep-fatigue crack initiation has been developed based on the technical appendix A16 of French RCC-MR code. Ultrasonic wave signal against creep ruptured specimens of type 316LN stainless steel was obtained. It was identified that creep damage can be evaluated by ultrasonic method. The NDT techniques evaluated include Barkhausen noise, magnetic hysteresis parameters, positron annihilation, X-ray diffraction and small angle neutron scattering. Experimental procedure and evaluation method of material integrity were developed through the fracture toughness test of Cr-Mo steel.

  9. Composition, structure and function of the Helicobacter pylori cag pathogenicity island encoded type IV secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backert, Steffen; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Fischer, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Many Gram-negative pathogens harbor type IV secretion systems (T4SS) that translocate bacterial virulence factors into host cells to hijack cellular processes. The pathology of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori strongly depends on a T4SS encoded by the cag pathogenicity island. This T4SS forms a needle-like pilus, and its assembly is accomplished by multiple protein-protein interactions and various pilus-associated factors that bind to integrins followed by delivery of the CagA oncoprotein into gastric epithelial cells. Recent studies revealed the crystal structures of six T4SS proteins and pilus formation is modulated by iron and zinc availability. All these T4SS interactions are crucial for deregulating host signaling events and disease progression. New developments in T4SS functions and their importance for pathogenesis are discussed.

  10. Kinetics of Vinyl Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate Initiated by Ce(IV-Vanillin Redox System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Palanivelu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of polymerization of methyl methacrylate initiated by Ce(IV-Vanillin redox system was studied in aqueous solution of sulfuric acid at 40°C. The rate of polymerization (Rp and the reaction orders with respect to monomer, initiator and ligand have been determined and found to be 1.5, 0.5 and 0.5 respectively. The effect of concentration of sulfuric acid on the polymerization was also studied. The rate of polymerization was found to increase with increasing temperature 30–60°C and decreases at higher temperature (>60°C. The overall activation energy (Ea was found to be 36.7 kJ/mol. A suitable kinetic scheme has been proposed.

  11. Type IV secretion system in Helicobacter pylori: a new insight into pathogenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Qiao; SHAO Shi-he; CUI Lei-lei; MU Run-hong; JU Xiao-li; DONG Su-rong

    2007-01-01

    Objective To review the research progress on Type IV secretion system (T4SS) in Helicobacter pylori.Data sources The data used in this review were identified by searching of PUBMED (1995-2007) online resources Study selection Mainly original articles and critical reviews written by major pioneer investigators of this field were selected.Results The research progress on T4SS in Helicobacter pylori was summarized.The structure and function was discussed.Conclusions T4SS is not only involved in toxin secretion and injection of virulence factors into eukaryotic host target cells,but also involved in horizontal DNA transfer to other bacteria and eukaryotic cells,through DNA uptake from or release into the extracellular milieu.It provides a new insight into the pathogenicity of Helicobacter pylori and a novel target for antimicrobials development.However,many challenges remain for us in understanding the biological role of T4SS in Helicobacter pylori.

  12. Drosophila type IV collagen mutation associates with immune system activation and intestinal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Márton; Kiss, András A; Radics, Monika; Popovics, Nikoletta; Hermesz, Edit; Csiszár, Katalin; Mink, Mátyás

    2016-01-01

    The basal lamina (BM) contains numerous components with a predominance of type IV collagens. Clinical manifestations associated with mutations of the human COL4A1 gene include perinatal cerebral hemorrhage and porencephaly, hereditary angiopathy, nephropathy, aneurysms and muscle cramps (HANAC), ocular dysgenesis, myopathy, Walker–Warburg syndrome and systemic tissue degeneration. In Drosophila, the phenotype associated with dominant temperature sensitive mutations of col4a1 include severe myopathy resulting from massive degradation of striated muscle fibers, and in the gut, degeneration of circular visceral muscle cells and epithelial cells following detachment from the BM. In order to determine the consequences of altered BMfunctions due to aberrant COL4A1 protein, we have carried out a series of tests using Drosophila DTS-L3 mutants from our allelic series of col4a1 mutations with confirmed degeneration of various cell types and lowest survival rate among the col4a1 mutant lines at restrictive temperature. Results demonstrated epithelial cell degeneration in the gut, shortened gut, enlarged midgut with multiple diverticulae, intestinal dysfunction and shortened life span. Midgut immunohistochemistry analyses confirmed altered expression and distribution of BM components integrin PSI and PSII alpha subunits, laminin gamma 1, and COL4A1 both in larvae and adults. Global gene expression analysis revealed activation of the effector AMP genes of the primary innate immune system including Metchnikowin, Diptericin, Diptericin B, and edin that preceded morphological changes. Attacin::GFP midgut expression pattern further supported these changes. An increase in ROS production and changes in gut bacterial flora were also noted and may have further enhanced an immune response. The phenotypic features of Drosophila col4a1 mutants confirmed an essential role for type IV collagen in maintaining epithelial integrity, gut morphology and intestinal function and suggest that

  13. Reassessing the role of DotF in the Legionella pneumophila type IV secretion system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly C Sutherland

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of a severe pneumonia termed Legionnaires' Disease, survives and replicates within both protozoan hosts and human alveolar macrophages. Intracellular survival is dependent upon secretion of a plethora of protein effectors that function to form a replicative vacuole, evade the endocytic pathway and subvert host immune defenses. Export of these factors requires a type IV secretion system (T4SS called Dot/Icm that is composed of twenty-seven proteins. This report focuses on the DotF protein, which was previously postulated to have several different functions, one of which centered on binding Dot/Icm substrates. In this report, we examined if DotF functions as the T4SS inner membrane receptor for Dot/Icm substrates. Although we were able to recapitulate the previously published bacterial two-hybrid interaction between DotF and several substrates, the interaction was not dependent on the Dot/Icm substrates' signal sequences as predicted for a substrate:receptor interaction. In addition, binding did not require the cytoplasmic domain of DotF, which was anticipated to be involved in recognizing substrates in the cytoplasm. Finally, inactivation of dotF did not abolish intracellular growth of L. pneumophila or translocation of substrates, two phenotypes dependent on the T4SS receptor. These data strongly suggest that DotF does not act as the major receptor for Dot/Icm substrates and therefore likely performs an accessory function within the core-transmembrane subcomplex of the L. pneumophila Dot/Icm type IV secretion system.

  14. Crystal structure of the type IV secretion system component CagX from Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Fan, Fei; Zhao, Yanhe; Sun, Lifang; Liu, Yadan; Wu, Yunkun

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori, a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen prevalent in the human population, is the causative agent of severe gastric diseases. An H. pylori type IV secretion (T4S) system encoded by the cytotoxin-associated gene pathogenicity island (cagPAI) is responsible for communication with host cells. As a component of the cagPAI T4S system core complex, CagX plays an important role in virulence-protein translocation into the host cells. In this work, the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of CagX (CagXct), which is a homologue of the VirB9 protein from the VirB/D4 T4S system, is presented. CagXct is only the second three-dimensional structure to be elucidated of a VirB9-like protein. Another homologue, TraO, which is encoded on the Escherichia coli conjugative plasmid pKM101, shares only 19% sequence identity with CagXct; however, there is a remarkable similarity in tertiary structure between these two β-sandwich protein domains. Most of the residues that are conserved between CagXct and TraO are located within the protein core and appear to be responsible for the preservation of this domain fold. The studies presented here will contribute to our understanding of different bacterial T4S systems. PMID:28291753

  15. The micro-fascism of Plato's good citizen: producing (dis)order through the construction of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Patrick; Holmes, Dave

    2007-04-01

    The human body has come to be seen as forever susceptible to both external and internal hazards, which in many circumstances require immediate, heroic, and expensive intervention. In response to this, there has been a shift from a treatment-based healthcare model to one of prevention wherein nurses play an integral role by identifying and assessing risks for individuals, communities, and populations. This paper uses Deborah Lupton's outline of the spectrum of risk and applies the theoretical works of Foucault and Plato to demonstrate the means by which nurses maintain social order by identifying and counselling risk takers. It also utilizes the work of Deleuze and Guattari to illustrate how Plato's framework for creating social order through the creation of the good citizen can be viewed as a micro-fascist system, which has been adopted wholeheartedly by preventative health professionals. The goal of this paper is to present an alternate understanding of risk to provide nurses and other healthcare professionals with a non-traditional appreciation of certain aspects of their practice as researchers and clinicians.

  16. The HaeIV restriction modification system of Haemophilus aegyptius is encoded by a single polypeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarowicz, A; Golaszewska, M; Sunday, A O; Siwińska, M; Stein, D C

    1999-11-12

    The HaeIV restriction endonuclease (ENase) belongs to a distinct class of ENases, characterized by its ability to cleave double-stranded DNA on both sides of its recognition sequence, excising a short DNA fragment that includes the recognition sequence. The gene encoding the HaeIV ENase was cloned from Haemophilus aegyptius into pUC19 using a previously described system that does not need the knowledge that a particular ENase is produced by a bacterial strain. DNA sequence analysis of the insert contained on this plasmid identified a single open reading frame (ORF), with the predicted protein having an apparent molecular mass of approximately 110 kDa. The protein encoded by this ORF was purified to homogeneity from Escherichia coli strain ER1944 carrying the haeIVRM gene on a recombinant plasmid under the control of the inducible ara promoter. The protein possessed both ENase and methyltransferase (MTase) activities. Amino acid sequence analysis was able to identify several conserved motifs found in DNA MTases, located in the middle of the protein. The enzyme recognizes the interrupted palindromic sequence 5' GAPyNNNNNPuTC 3', cleaving double-stranded DNA on both strands upstream and downstream of the recognition sequence, releasing an approximately 33 bp fragment. The ENase possessed an absolute requirement only for Mg(+2). ATP had no influence on ENase or MTase activities. The ENase made the first strand cleavage randomly on either side of the recognition sequence, but the second cleavage occurred more slowly. The MTase activity modified symmetrically located adenine residues on both strands within the recognition sequence yielding N6-methyl adenine. Furthermore, the MTase was active as a dimer.

  17. System for the measurement and detection of electric energy losses (SIM-IV); Sistema de medicion y deteccion de perdidas de energia electrica (SIM-IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidrio L, Gilberto; Gomez L, Martin J; Castan L, Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The electric utility companies worldwide suffer, in greater or lesser degree, electrical energy losses. A great percentage of these losses is mostly due to illegal appropriations of energy. The consumers, by means of illicit practices such as clandestine connections and alteration of the operation of electricity meters, carry out the energy robbery. In order to try to alleviate the problematic of electric energy losses, in their majority by illicit, the electric utility companies have implemented one or more actions. Among the most important are: Visual inspection of the metering facilities. Its purpose is to verify the condition of the traditional protections of the metering installations, such as the seals and safety rings. Detection Equipment: These are recorders of energy consumption and of faults in conductors and are used to detect illicit connections and deviations in the consumption patterns and to the electrical energy connection or to the secondary distribution network. Statistical analysis of consumption: Many electric facility companies have adapted their processing consumption reading systems to detect deviations in the of consumption patterns of their clients. This could correspond to abnormal situations. Since this country is not extraneous to the problematic of energy losses, in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas it was developed a System of Measurement and Detection of Losses of Electrical Energy (SIM-IV) as a result of the knowledge of the problematic obtained from the projects in the metering area and of the interaction through work meetings with personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad and of Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LyFC), in which concepts of advanced technology were applied for the measurement of electrical variables. The SIM-IV is a system oriented to the metering of consumption and the detection of robberies of electrical energy caused by clandestine connections and non-allowed interventions to the energy meters. Since

  18. Type IV Secretion System Is Not Involved in Infection Process in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Tiago Rinaldi; de Laia, Marcelo Luiz; Moreira, Leandro Marcio; Gonçalves, Janaína Fernandes; Carvalho, Flavia Maria de Souza; Ferro, Maria Inês Tiraboschi; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido

    2014-01-01

    The type IV secretion system (T4SS) is used by Gram-negative bacteria to translocate protein and DNA substrates across the cell envelope and into target cells. Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri contains two copies of the T4SS, one in the chromosome and the other is plasmid-encoded. To understand the conditions that induce expression of the T4SS in Xcc, we analyzed, in vitro and in planta, the expression of 18 ORFs from the T4SS and 7 hypothetical flanking genes by RT-qPCR. As a positive control, we also evaluated the expression of 29 ORFs from the type III secretion system (T3SS), since these genes are known to be expressed during plant infection condition, but not necessarily in standard culture medium. From the 29 T3SS genes analyzed by qPCR, only hrpA was downregulated at 72 h after inoculation. All genes associated with the T4SS were downregulated on Citrus leaves 72 h after inoculation. Our results showed that unlike the T3SS, the T4SS is not induced during the infection process.

  19. A system for measuring an optical spectral response and/or IV data of a photoelectric device under test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elshinawy, M.; Heirman, S.G.M.; Melsken, J.; Fischer, M.

    2015-01-01

    A system for measuring an optical spectral response or property and/or IV data of a device or object under test (9), comprising in optically coupled sequence: a broadband light source (1) for emitting light of a prede- fined spectrum, a slit and/or light guide (2), a wavelength dispersive device (3)

  20. 45 CFR 310.5 - What options are available for Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and office automation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What options are available for Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and office automation? 310.5 Section 310.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  1. Permanence of a predator-prey discrete system with Holling-IV functional response and distributed delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Wu, Z; Zhou, T

    2016-01-01

    A predator-prey discrete-time model with Holling-IV functional response and distributed delays is investigated in this paper. By using the comparison theorem of the difference equation and some analysis technique, some sufficient conditions are obtained for the permanence of the discrete predator-prey system. Two examples are given to illustrate the feasibility of the obtained result.

  2. 45 CFR 310.35 - Under what circumstances would emergency FFP be available for Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Under what circumstances would emergency FFP be... Under what circumstances would emergency FFP be available for Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems? (a) Conditions that must be met for emergency FFP. OCSE will consider waiving the approval requirements...

  3. Crystal structure of Legionella pneumophila type IV secretion system effector LegAS4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jonghyeon; Jo, Chang Hwa; Murugan, Ravichandran N; Bang, Jeong Kyu; Hwang, Kwang Yeon; Lee, Woo Cheol

    2015-10-02

    The SET domain of LegAS4, a type IV secretion system effector of Legionella pneumophila, is a eukaryotic protein motif involved in histone methylation and epigenetic modulation. The SET domain of LegAS4 is involved in the modification of Lys4 of histone H3 (H3K4) in the nucleolus of the host cell, thereby enhancing heterochromatic rDNA transcription. Moreover, LegAS4 contains an ankyrin repeat domain of unknown function at its C-terminal region. Here, we report the crystal structure of LegAS4 in complex with S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). Our data indicate that the ankyrin repeats interact extensively with the SET domain, especially with the SAM-binding amino acids, through conserved residues. Conserved surface analysis marks Glu159, Glu203, and Glu206 on the SET domain serve as candidate residues involved in interaction with the positively charged histone tail. Conserved surface residues on the ankyrin repeat domain surround a small pocket, which is suspected to serve as a binding site for an unknown ligand.

  4. The role of the poet in Plato's ideal cities of Callipolis and Magnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Naddaf

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Plato's attitude toward the poets and poetry has always been a flashpoint of debate, controversy and notoriety, but most scholars have failed to see their central role in the ideal cities of the Republic and the Laws, that is, Callipolis and Magnesia. In this paper, I argue that in neither dialogue does Plato "exile" the poets, but, instead, believes they must, like all citizens, exercise the expertise proper to their profession, allowing them the right to become full-fledged participants in the productive class. Moreover, attention to certain details reveals that Plato harnesses both positive and negative factors in poetry to bring his ideal cities closer to a practical realization. The status of the poet and his craft in this context has rarely to my knowledge been addressed.

  5. PLATO - the next-generation AASTINO for robotic site-testing on the Antarctic plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengst, S.; Lawrence, J.; Luong-van, D.; Everett, J.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Storey, J. W. V.; Hall, S.

    2006-08-01

    A new site-testing facility, PLATO (Plateau Observatory), is under development at UNSW for deployment to remote sites on the Antarctic Plateau including Dome A. The new facility will adopt many of the features of the AASTINO (Automated Astrophysical Site Testing InterNational Observatory) facility at Dome C. PLATO will autonomously control a flexible site testing and observing instrument suite, monitored via the Iridium satellite network. A challenging aspect of PLATO is to maximise the reliability of the power source while minimising fuel consumption. We are building a low pressure, low temperature environmental chamber to simulate operation at the highest altitudes (4,100 m at Dome A). Two types of engines will be tested: a single-cylinder diesel engine and a Stirling engine.

  6. S-IV-B Aft Swing Arm Hydraulic With Drain System Orifice Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a crucial role in the development of the huge Saturn rockets that delivered humans to the moon in the 1960s. Many unique facilities existed at MSFC for the development and testing of the Saturn rockets. Affectionately nicknamed 'The Arm Farm', the Random Motion/ Lift-Off Simulator was one of those unique facilities. This facility was developed to test the swing arm mechanisms that were used to hold the rocket in position until liftoff. The Arm Farm provided the capability of testing the detachment and reconnection of various arms under brutally realistic conditions. The 18-acre facility consisted of more than a half dozen arm test positions and one position for testing access arms used by the Apollo astronauts. Each test position had two elements: a vehicle simulator for duplicating motions during countdown and launch; and a section duplicating the launch tower. The vehicle simulator duplicated the portion of the vehicle skin that contained the umbilical connections and personnel access hatches. Driven by a hydraulic servo system, the vehicle simulator produced relative motion between the vehicle and tower. On the Arm Farm, extreme environmental conditions (such as a launch scrub during an approaching Florida thunderstorm) could be simulated. The dramatic scenes that the Marshall engineers and technicians created at the Arm Farm permitted the gathering of crucial technical and engineering data to ensure a successful real time launch from the Kennedy Space Center. This photo depicts a close up view of the S-IV-B aft swing arm hydraulic with drain system orifice valve.

  7. Oceanic Area System Improvement Study (OASIS). Volume IV. Caribbean Region Air Traffic Services System Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Departamento de Transito Aereo) of the National Airways Division (Division de Aerovias Nacionales) as the authority responsible for the general...Directorate of Air Transport and Traffic (Direccion General Sectorial de Transporte y Transito Aereo - DGTTA), which in turn falls under the authority of...Northern Coastal Region of 4 the Directorate of Engineering and Systems (Direccion de Ingenieria y Sistemas), which is responsible for maintenance of the

  8. Studies of multiple stellar systems - IV. The triple-lined spectroscopic system Gliese 644

    CERN Document Server

    Mazeh, T; Goldberg, E; Torres, G L; Stefanik, R P; Henry, T J; Zucker, S W; Gnat, O; Ofek, E O; Mazeh, Tsevi; Latham, David W.; Goldberg, Elad; Torres, Guillermo; Stefanik, Robert P.; Henry, Todd J.; Zucker, Shay; Gnat, Orly; Ofek, Eran O.

    2001-01-01

    We present a radial-velocity study of the triple-lined system Gliese 644 and derive spectroscopic elements for the inner and outer orbits with periods of 2.9655 and 627 days. We also utilize old visual data, as well as modern speckle and adaptive optics observations, to derive a new astrometric solution for the outer orbit. These two orbits together allow us to derive masses for each of the three components in the system: M_A = 0.410 +/- 0.028 (6.9%), M_Ba = 0.336 +/- 0.016 (4.7%), and $M_Bb = 0.304 +/- 0.014 (4.7%) M_solar. We suggest that the relative inclination of the two orbits is very small. Our individual masses and spectroscopic light ratios for the three M stars in the Gliese 644 system provide three points for the mass-luminosity relation near the bottom of the Main Sequence, where the relation is poorly determined. These three points agree well with theoretical models for solar metallicity and an age of 5 Gyr. Our radial velocities for Gliese 643 and vB 8, two common-proper-motion companions of Gli...

  9. Studies of multiple stellar systems - IV. The triple-lined spectroscopic system Gliese 644

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazeh, Tsevi; Latham, David W.; Goldberg, Elad; Torres, Guillermo; Stefanik, Robert P.; Henry, Todd J.; Zucker, Shay; Gnat, Orly; Ofek, Eran O.

    2001-07-01

    We present a radial velocity study of the triple-lined system Gliese 644 and derive spectroscopic elements for the inner and outer orbits with periods of 2.9655 and 627d. We also utilize old visual data, as well as modern speckle and adaptive optics observations, to derive a new astrometric solution for the outer orbit. These two orbits together allow us to derive masses for each of the three components in the system: MA=0.410+/-0.028 (6.9 per cent), MBa=0.336+/-0.016 (4.7 per cent), and MBb=0.304+/-0.014 (4.7 per cent)Msolar. We suggest that the relative inclination of the two orbits is very small. Our individual masses and spectroscopic light ratios for the three M stars in the Gliese 644 system provide three points for the mass-luminosity relation near the bottom of the main sequence, where the relation is poorly determined. These three points agree well with theoretical models for solar metallicity and an age of 5Gyr. Our radial velocities for Gliese 643 and vB 8, two common proper motion companions of Gliese 644, support the interpretation that all five M stars are moving together in a physically bound group. We discuss possible scenarios for the formation and evolution of this configuration, such as the formation of all five stars in a sequence of fragmentation events leading directly to the hierarchical configuration now observed, versus formation in a small N cluster with subsequent dynamical evolution into the present hierarchical configuration.

  10. Efficient methods for solving discrete topology design problems in the PLATO-N project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canh, Nam Nguyen; Stolpe, Mathias

    This paper considers the general multiple load structural topology design problems in the framework of the PLATO-N project. The problems involve a large number of discrete design variables and were modeled as a non-convex mixed 0–1 program. For the class of problems considered, a global optimizat......This paper considers the general multiple load structural topology design problems in the framework of the PLATO-N project. The problems involve a large number of discrete design variables and were modeled as a non-convex mixed 0–1 program. For the class of problems considered, a global...

  11. The quest for a poetics of goodness in plato and aristotle

    OpenAIRE

    Dairo Orozco

    2012-01-01

    The paper, which compares Plato and Aristotle’s different approaches towards artistic activity, is divided into three parts. The first part discusses Plato’s Ion on mimesis and technē, as well as the role that poetry plays in the Republic. The second section offers an account of Aristotle’s idea of happiness as the end of action. Thelast section of this study deals with an attempt to reconcile Plato and Aristotle’s attitude towards mimetic art in a treatise by a Neoplatonic renaissance thinke...

  12. A Similar Comparison between the Thought of Plato and Confucius on Social Hierarchy and Elitism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨馥遥

    2014-01-01

    The spring-autumn period and warring state period of Chinese thoughts coincide strikingly with the thoughts of the Hel enic Age in the west. Plato and Confucius, the two outstanding seminal thinkers have shaped the philosophy of their respective cultures through some similar means and thoughts which definitely meet at a series of significant points. The highlight of the academic thesis lies in the comparison of the general similarities be-tween Plato and Confucius especial y in terms of social hierarchy and elitism.

  13. System for the measurement and detection of electric energy losses (SIM-IV); Sistema de medicion y deteccion de perdidas de energia electrica (SIM-IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidrio L, Gilberto; Gomez L, Martin J; Castan L, Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The electric utility companies worldwide suffer, in greater or lesser degree, electrical energy losses. A great percentage of these losses is mostly due to illegal appropriations of energy. The consumers, by means of illicit practices such as clandestine connections and alteration of the operation of electricity meters, carry out the energy robbery. In order to try to alleviate the problematic of electric energy losses, in their majority by illicit, the electric utility companies have implemented one or more actions. Among the most important are: Visual inspection of the metering facilities. Its purpose is to verify the condition of the traditional protections of the metering installations, such as the seals and safety rings. Detection Equipment: These are recorders of energy consumption and of faults in conductors and are used to detect illicit connections and deviations in the consumption patterns and to the electrical energy connection or to the secondary distribution network. Statistical analysis of consumption: Many electric facility companies have adapted their processing consumption reading systems to detect deviations in the of consumption patterns of their clients. This could correspond to abnormal situations. Since this country is not extraneous to the problematic of energy losses, in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas it was developed a System of Measurement and Detection of Losses of Electrical Energy (SIM-IV) as a result of the knowledge of the problematic obtained from the projects in the metering area and of the interaction through work meetings with personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad and of Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LyFC), in which concepts of advanced technology were applied for the measurement of electrical variables. The SIM-IV is a system oriented to the metering of consumption and the detection of robberies of electrical energy caused by clandestine connections and non-allowed interventions to the energy meters. Since

  14. Recent Advances in Platinum (IV) Complex-Based Delivery Systems to Improve Platinum (II) Anticancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaopeng; Sun, Jin; Wang, Yongjun; He, Zhonggui

    2015-11-01

    Cisplatin and its platinum (Pt) (II) derivatives play a key role in the fight against various human cancers such as testicular, ovarian, head and neck, lung tumors. However, their application in clinic is limited due to dose- dependent toxicities and acquired drug resistances, which have prompted extensive research effort toward the development of more effective Pt (II) delivery strategies. The synthesis of Pt (IV) complex is one such an area of intense research fields, which involves their in vivo conversion into active Pt (II) molecules under the reducing intracellular environment, and has demonstrated encouraging preclinical and clinical outcomes. Compared with Pt (II) complexes, Pt (IV) complexes not only exhibit an increased stability and reduced side effects, but also facilitate the intravenous-to-oral switch in cancer chemotherapy. The overview briefly analyzes statuses of Pt (II) complex that are in clinical use, and then focuses on the development of Pt (IV) complexes. Finally, recent advances in Pt (IV) complexes in combination with nanocarriers are highlighted, addressing the shortcomings of Pt (IV) complexes, such as their instability in blood and irreversibly binding to plasma proteins and nonspecific distribution, and taking advantage of passive and active targeting effect to improve Pt (II) anticancer therapy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Radiation chemical behavior of actinides in extraction systems. IV. Interaction of Pu(IV) with H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ in the system 30% TBP + n-dodecane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedoseev, D.A.; Boikova, I.A.; Milovanova, A.S.; Fedotov, S.N.; Naumov, M.A.; Vladimirova, M.V.

    1987-05-01

    Spectrophotometric, radiometric (..gamma..-spectrophotometric), and elemental analyses were used to determine the composition, solubility, and concentration stability constant K of complexes of Pu(IV) with H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ in the system 30% TBP + n-dodecane containing 0.45 M HNO/sub 3/. For a Pu(IV) concentration of approx. 1 x 10/sup -2/ M and a molar concentration ratio of H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ and Pu(IV) of less than or equal to 2.5 the sparingly soluble (1.8 x 10/sup -3/ M) complex Pu(HPO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ is formed. In the range of H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ concentrations (C/sub L//sup 0/) from 5 x 10/sup -3/ to 3.0 x 10/sup -2/ M the value of K does not depend on C/sub L//sup 0/ and is (1.8 +/- 0.6) x 10/sup 5/ liter/sup 2//mole/sup 2/. The results are discussed and compared with the interaction of Pu(IV) with DBPA and MBPA in aqueous and organic solutions.

  16. Peptidomimetic Small Molecules Disrupt Type IV Secretion System Activity in Diverse Bacterial Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie L. Shaffer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria utilize complex type IV secretion systems (T4SSs to translocate diverse effector proteins or DNA into target cells. Despite the importance of T4SSs in bacterial pathogenesis, the mechanism by which these translocation machineries deliver cargo across the bacterial envelope remains poorly understood, and very few studies have investigated the use of synthetic molecules to disrupt T4SS-mediated transport. Here, we describe two synthetic small molecules (C10 and KSK85 that disrupt T4SS-dependent processes in multiple bacterial pathogens. Helicobacter pylori exploits a pilus appendage associated with the cag T4SS to inject an oncogenic effector protein (CagA and peptidoglycan into gastric epithelial cells. In H. pylori, KSK85 impedes biogenesis of the pilus appendage associated with the cag T4SS, while C10 disrupts cag T4SS activity without perturbing pilus assembly. In addition to the effects in H. pylori, we demonstrate that these compounds disrupt interbacterial DNA transfer by conjugative T4SSs in Escherichia coli and impede vir T4SS-mediated DNA delivery by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in a plant model of infection. Of note, C10 effectively disarmed dissemination of a derepressed IncF plasmid into a recipient bacterial population, thus demonstrating the potential of these compounds in mitigating the spread of antibiotic resistance determinants driven by conjugation. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of synthetic small molecules that impair delivery of both effector protein and DNA cargos by diverse T4SSs.

  17. The Trw type IV secretion system of Bartonella mediates host-specific adhesion to erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Vayssier-Taussat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens typically infect only a limited range of hosts; however, the genetic mechanisms governing host-specificity are poorly understood. The alpha-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises 21 species that cause host-specific intraerythrocytic bacteremia as hallmark of infection in their respective mammalian reservoirs, including the human-specific pathogens Bartonella quintana and Bartonella bacilliformis that cause trench fever and Oroya fever, respectively. Here, we have identified bacterial factors that mediate host-specific erythrocyte colonization in the mammalian reservoirs. Using mouse-specific Bartonella birtlesii, human-specific Bartonella quintana, cat-specific Bartonella henselae and rat-specific Bartonella tribocorum, we established in vitro adhesion and invasion assays with isolated erythrocytes that fully reproduce the host-specificity of erythrocyte infection as observed in vivo. By signature-tagged mutagenesis of B. birtlesii and mutant selection in a mouse infection model we identified mutants impaired in establishing intraerythrocytic bacteremia. Among 45 abacteremic mutants, five failed to adhere to and invade mouse erythrocytes in vitro. The corresponding genes encode components of the type IV secretion system (T4SS Trw, demonstrating that this virulence factor laterally acquired by the Bartonella lineage is directly involved in adherence to erythrocytes. Strikingly, ectopic expression of Trw of rat-specific B. tribocorum in cat-specific B. henselae or human-specific B. quintana expanded their host range for erythrocyte infection to rat, demonstrating that Trw mediates host-specific erythrocyte infection. A molecular evolutionary analysis of the trw locus further indicated that the variable, surface-located TrwL and TrwJ might represent the T4SS components that determine host-specificity of erythrocyte parasitism. In conclusion, we show that the laterally acquired Trw T4SS diversified in the Bartonella lineage

  18. The Trw type IV secretion system of Bartonella mediates host-specific adhesion to erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Vayssier-Taussat

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens typically infect only a limited range of hosts; however, the genetic mechanisms governing host-specificity are poorly understood. The alpha-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises 21 species that cause host-specific intraerythrocytic bacteremia as hallmark of infection in their respective mammalian reservoirs, including the human-specific pathogens Bartonella quintana and Bartonella bacilliformis that cause trench fever and Oroya fever, respectively. Here, we have identified bacterial factors that mediate host-specific erythrocyte colonization in the mammalian reservoirs. Using mouse-specific Bartonella birtlesii, human-specific Bartonella quintana, cat-specific Bartonella henselae and rat-specific Bartonella tribocorum, we established in vitro adhesion and invasion assays with isolated erythrocytes that fully reproduce the host-specificity of erythrocyte infection as observed in vivo. By signature-tagged mutagenesis of B. birtlesii and mutant selection in a mouse infection model we identified mutants impaired in establishing intraerythrocytic bacteremia. Among 45 abacteremic mutants, five failed to adhere to and invade mouse erythrocytes in vitro. The corresponding genes encode components of the type IV secretion system (T4SS Trw, demonstrating that this virulence factor laterally acquired by the Bartonella lineage is directly involved in adherence to erythrocytes. Strikingly, ectopic expression of Trw of rat-specific B. tribocorum in cat-specific B. henselae or human-specific B. quintana expanded their host range for erythrocyte infection to rat, demonstrating that Trw mediates host-specific erythrocyte infection. A molecular evolutionary analysis of the trw locus further indicated that the variable, surface-located TrwL and TrwJ might represent the T4SS components that determine host-specificity of erythrocyte parasitism. In conclusion, we show that the laterally acquired Trw T4SS diversified in the Bartonella lineage

  19. The Feasibility of a Completely Automated Total IV Anesthesia Drug Delivery System for Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaouter, Cedrick; Hemmerling, Thomas M; Lanchon, Romain; Valoti, Emanuela; Remy, Alain; Leuillet, Sébastien; Ouattara, Alexandre

    2016-10-01

    In this pilot study, we tested a novel automatic anesthesia system for closed-loop administration of IV anesthesia drugs for cardiac surgical procedures with cardiopulmonary bypass. This anesthesia drug delivery robot integrates all 3 components of general anesthesia: hypnosis, analgesia, and muscle relaxation. Twenty patients scheduled for elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were enrolled. Propofol, remifentanil, and rocuronium were administered using closed-loop feedback control. The main objective was the feasibility of closed-loop anesthesia defined as successful automated cardiac anesthesia without manual override by the attending anesthesiologist. Secondary qualitative observations were clinical and controller performances. The clinical performance of hypnosis control was the efficacy to maintain a bispectral index (BIS) of 45. To evaluate the hypnosis performance, BIS values were stratified into 4 categories: "excellent," "good," "poor," and "inadequate" hypnosis control defined as BIS values within 10%, ranging from 11% to 20%, ranging from 21% to 30%, or >30% of the target value, respectively. The clinical performance of analgesia was the efficacy to maintain NociMap values close to 0. The analgesia performance was assessed classifying the NociMap values in 3 pain control groups: -33 to +33 representing excellent pain control, -34 to -66 and +34 to +66 representing good pain control, and -67 to -100 and +67 to +100 representing insufficient pain control. The controller performance was calculated using the Varvel parameters. Robotic anesthesia was successful in 16 patients, which is equivalent to 80% (97.5% confidence interval [CI], 53%-95%) of the patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Four patients were excluded from the final analysis because of technical problems with the automated anesthesia delivery system. The secondary qualitative observations revealed that the clinical performance of hypnosis allowed an excellent and good control

  20. A distinct and divergent lineage of genomic island-associated Type IV Secretion Systems in Legionella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Bryan A; Woolfit, Megan; Beatson, Scott A; Petty, Nicola K

    2013-01-01

    Legionella encodes multiple classes of Type IV Secretion Systems (T4SSs), including the Dot/Icm protein secretion system that is essential for intracellular multiplication in amoebal and human hosts. Other T4SSs not essential for virulence are thought to facilitate the acquisition of niche-specific adaptation genes including the numerous effector genes that are a hallmark of this genus. Previously, we identified two novel gene clusters in the draft genome of Legionella pneumophila strain 130b that encode homologues of a subtype of T4SS, the genomic island-associated T4SS (GI-T4SS), usually associated with integrative and conjugative elements (ICE). In this study, we performed genomic analyses of 14 homologous GI-T4SS clusters found in eight publicly available Legionella genomes and show that this cluster is unusually well conserved in a region of high plasticity. Phylogenetic analyses show that Legionella GI-T4SSs are substantially divergent from other members of this subtype of T4SS and represent a novel clade of GI-T4SSs only found in this genus. The GI-T4SS was found to be under purifying selection, suggesting it is functional and may play an important role in the evolution and adaptation of Legionella. Like other GI-T4SSs, the Legionella clusters are also associated with ICEs, but lack the typical integration and replication modules of related ICEs. The absence of complete replication and DNA pre-processing modules, together with the presence of Legionella-specific regulatory elements, suggest the Legionella GI-T4SS-associated ICE is unique and may employ novel mechanisms of regulation, maintenance and excision. The Legionella GI-T4SS cluster was found to be associated with several cargo genes, including numerous antibiotic resistance and virulence factors, which may confer a fitness benefit to the organism. The in-silico characterisation of this new T4SS furthers our understanding of the diversity of secretion systems involved in the frequent horizontal gene

  1. Dynamics of a delayed discrete semi-ratio-dependent predator-prey system with Holling type IV functional response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Hongying

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A discrete semi-ratio-dependent predator-prey system with Holling type IV functional response and time delay is investigated. It is proved the general nonautonomous system is permanent and globally attractive under some appropriate conditions. Furthermore, if the system is periodic one, some sufficient conditions are established, which guarantee the existence and global attractivity of positive periodic solutions. We show that the conditions for the permanence of the system and the global attractivity of positive periodic solutions depend on the delay, so, we call it profitless.

  2. The validity of the DSM-IV diagnostic classification system of non-affective psychoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Quee, Piotr J.; Boos, Heleen B.; Simons, Claudia J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The schizophrenia and other non-affective disorders categories listed in the DSM-IV, are currently under revision for the development of the fifth edition. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the validity of these categories by investigating possible differences between diagnos

  3. Genetic analysis of the regulation of type IV pilus function by the Chp chemosensory system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Jacob J; West, Joyce T; Engel, Joanne N

    2010-02-01

    The virulence of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa involves the coordinate expression of many virulence factors, including type IV pili, which are required for colonization of host tissues and for twitching motility. Type IV pilus function is controlled in part by the Chp chemosensory system, which includes a histidine kinase, ChpA, and two CheY-like response regulators, PilG and PilH. How the Chp components interface with the type IV pilus motor proteins PilB, PilT, and PilU is unknown. We present genetic evidence confirming the role of ChpA, PilG, and PilB in the regulation of pilus extension and the role of PilH and PilT in regulating pilus retraction. Using informative double and triple mutants, we show that (i) ChpA, PilG, and PilB function upstream of PilH, PilT, and PilU; (ii) that PilH enhances PilT function; and (iii) that PilT and PilB retain some activity in the absence of signaling input from components of the Chp system. By site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrate that the histidine kinase domain of ChpA and the phosphoacceptor sites of both PilG and PilH are required for type IV pilus function, suggesting that they form a phosphorelay system important in the regulation of pilus extension and retraction. Finally, we present evidence suggesting that pilA transcription is regulated by intracellular PilA levels. We show that PilA is a negative regulator of pilA transcription in P. aeruginosa and that the Chp system functionally regulates pilA transcription by controlling PilA import and export.

  4. ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes in the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armstrong, Paul W; Siha, Hany; Fu, Yuling;

    2012-01-01

    Ticagrelor, when compared with clopidogrel, reduced the 12-month risk of vascular death/myocardial infarction and stroke in patients with ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes intended to undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) tr...

  5. Democratic Freedom and the Concept of Freedom in Plato and Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogens Herman Hansen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the several meanings of eleutheria used by Greeks in the classical period, democratic freedom is rejected by both Plato and Aristotle, who do not articulate a theory of political freedom but rather confine eleutheria to a social context.

  6. Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A Morpho-Logic of Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses two well-known texts that respectively describe learning and teaching, drawn from the work of Freud and Plato. These texts are considered in psychoanalytic terms using a methodology drawn from the philosophy of Luce Irigaray. In particular the article addresses Irigaray's approach to the analysis of speech and utterance as a…

  7. Dialectic of Eros and Myth of the Soul in Plato's Phaedrus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jens Kristian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I question a widespread reading of a passage in the last part of the Phaedrus dealing with the science of dialectic. According to this reading, the passage announces a new method peculiar to the later Plato aiming at defining natural kinds. I show that the Phaedrus itself does not ...

  8. From Dialogos to Dialogue: The Use of the Term from Plato to the Second Century CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Jazdzewska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In Plato the verb διαλέγεσθαι is far more common than the noun, and both denote question-and-answer discussions; it was only in the Hellenistic period that διάλογος became a genre term, though its other meanings survived.

  9. Two examples of the relation between the contemporary science and Plato

    CERN Document Server

    Antonello, Elio

    2016-01-01

    The philosopher Plato is remembered even today by scientists, and his writings are still inspiring the scientific research. In the present short note (intended essentially for public outreach) two examples are briefly illustrated: 1) the European space project that bears his name, dedicated to the discovery of exoplanets; 2) the discussion about platonism in contemporary physics.

  10. Grades 1-8, Apache Junction Unified School District 43, Apache Junction, Arizona. PLATO Evaluation Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, David W.; Quinn, Nancy W.

    Apache Junction Unified School District, Arizona, has embarked on a 5-year program of instructional improvement using technology. PLATO Elementary reading and mathematics products were installed in the district's elementary and middle schools at the beginning of the 1999-2000 school year. This evaluation studied the use and preliminary student…

  11. Can Prior Knowledge Hurt Text Comprehension? An Answer Borrowed from Plato, Aristotle, and Descartes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lawrence B.

    Taking a philosophical approach based on what Plato, Aristotle, and Descartes said about knowledge, this paper addresses some of the murkiness in the conceptual space surrounding the issue of whether prior knowledge does or does not facilitate text comprehension. Specifically, the paper first develops a non-exhaustive typology of cases in which…

  12. A Philosophical Investigation of the Role of Teachers: A Synthesis of Plato, Confucius, Buber, and Freire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Seung Hwan

    2008-01-01

    This study proposes the ideal role of teachers through the examination of Plato, Confucius, Buber, and Freire on the subject. Teachers not only contribute to the development of individuals and societies but also attain self-realization through teaching. As such, the role of teachers is important as a goal as well as a means. To examine such role,…

  13. Genesis 2–3 and Alcibiades's speech in Plato's Symposium: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-26

    Aug 26, 2015 ... Friedländer 1975:26f; Gauss 1958:111–117) is the last speech in Plato's ... leader (450–404/3 BCE), appears to be in a great state of intoxication .... command (Gn 2:18: 'You are free to eat of all the trees in the garden.

  14. Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A Morpho-Logic of Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses two well-known texts that respectively describe learning and teaching, drawn from the work of Freud and Plato. These texts are considered in psychoanalytic terms using a methodology drawn from the philosophy of Luce Irigaray. In particular the article addresses Irigaray's approach to the analysis of speech and utterance as a…

  15. From Plato to Erikson: How the War on "Bad Play" Has Impoverished Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    For centuries, the titans of educational reform--Plato, Rousseau, Dewey, Piaget, Erikson, Csikszentmihalyi and others--have championed the educational benefits of play. Yet many professors and administrators are boggled by the idea of playing academic games in college. They instantly dismiss faculty initiatives like "Reacting to the…

  16. Decreasing IV Infiltrates in the Pediatric Patient--System-Based Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Tracie Wilt; Huey, Tricia K

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous infiltrates pose tremendous risk for the hospitalized pediatric patient. Infiltrate events increase hospital-acquired harm, the number of painful procedures, use of supplies, length of stay, and nursing time; it threatens relationships essential in patient- and family-centered care. The goal of this quality improvement project was to achieve a 10% decrease in the baseline infiltrate rate on two inpatient units and in the overall infiltrate rate across all of the pediatric units. A Lean Six Sigma methodology was used to guide project activities. Improvement strategies focused on evidence-based education, intravenous (IV) catheter securement, and family engagement. A comparative purposive sample was used to evaluate the pre- and post-implementation period to determine if desired project success measures were achieved. Data analysis revealed positive results across all units, with the number of events (n = 51 pre; n = 19 post) and the infiltration rates (13.5 pre; 7.1 post) decreasing over a three-month period. A decrease was also noted in the overall percent of IVs that infiltrated in the first 24 hours (45% pre; 42% post). A statistically significant increase (t = 15.16; p < 0.001) was noted in nurses' education pre- and post-assessment survey scores. The family engagement strategy revealed overall parental responses to be 88% positive. By decreasing infiltrates, quality of care improved, resulting in the delivery of safe, effective, and patient-centered IV therapy.

  17. Real-Time Series Resistance Monitoring in PV Systems Without the Need for I-V Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deceglie, Michael G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Silverman, Timothy J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marion, Bill [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Sarah R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We apply the physical principles of a familiar method, suns-Voc, to a new application: the real-time detection of series resistance changes in modules and systems operating outside. The real-time series resistance (RTSR) method that we describe avoids the need for collecting I-V curves or constructing full series resistance-free I-V curves. RTSR is most readily deployable at the module level on microinverters or module-integrated electronics, but it can also be extended to full strings. We found that automated detection of series resistance increases can provide early warnings of some of the most common reliability issues, which also pose fire risks, including broken ribbons, broken solder bonds, and contact problems in the junction or combiner box. We also describe the method in detail and describe a sample application to data collected from modules operating in the field.

  18. NOx emissions from Euro IV busses with SCR systems associated with urban, suburban and freeway driving patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mingliang; Ge, Yunshan; Wang, Xin; Tan, Jianwei; Yu, Linxiao; Liang, Bin

    2013-05-01

    NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDVs) have become the most important sources of pollutants affecting urban air quality in China. In recent years, a series of emission control strategies and diesel engine polices have been introduced that require advanced emission control technology. China and Europe mostly have used Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with urea to meet the Euro IV diesel engine emission standard. In this study, two Euro IV busses with SCR were tested by using potable emission measurement system (PEMS) to assess NOx emissions associated with urban, suburban and freeway driving patterns. The results indicated that with the SCR system, the urea injection time for the entire driving period increased with higher vehicle speed. For freeway driving, the urea injection time covered 71%-83% of the driving period; the NOx emission factors from freeway driving were lower than those associated with urban and suburban driving. Unfortunately, the NOx emission factors were 2.6-2.8-, 2.3-2.7- and 2.2-2.3-fold higher than the Euro IV standard limits for urban, suburban and freeway driving, respectively; NOx emission factors (in g/km and g/(kW·h)) from the original vehicles (without SCR) were higher than their corresponding vehicles with SCR for suburban and freeway driving. Compared with the IVE model results, the measured NOx emission factors were 1.60-1.16-, 1.77-1.27-, 2.49-2.44-fold higher than the NOx predicted by the IVE model for urban and suburban driving, respectively. Thus, an adjustment of emission factors is needed to improve the estimation of Euro IV vehicle emissions in China.

  19. DNA Delivery and Genomic Integration into Mammalian Target Cells through Type IV A and B Secretion Systems of Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores L. Guzmán-Herrador

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We explore the potential of bacterial secretion systems as tools for genomic modification of human cells. We previously showed that foreign DNA can be introduced into human cells through the Type IV A secretion system of the human pathogen Bartonella henselae. Moreover, the DNA is delivered covalently attached to the conjugative relaxase TrwC, which promotes its integration into the recipient genome. In this work, we report that this tool can be adapted to other target cells by using different relaxases and secretion systems. The promiscuous relaxase MobA from plasmid RSF1010 can be used to deliver DNA into human cells with higher efficiency than TrwC. MobA also promotes DNA integration, albeit at lower rates than TrwC. Notably, we report that DNA transfer to human cells can also take place through the Type IV secretion system of two intracellular human pathogens, Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii, which code for a distantly related Dot/Icm Type IV B secretion system. This suggests that DNA transfer could be an intrinsic ability of this family of secretion systems, expanding the range of target human cells. Further analysis of the DNA transfer process showed that recruitment of MobA by Dot/Icm was dependent on the IcmSW chaperone, which may explain the higher DNA transfer rates obtained. Finally, we observed that the presence of MobA negatively affected the intracellular replication of C. burnetii, suggesting an interference with Dot/Icm translocation of virulence factors.

  20. Asteroids IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    Asteroids are fascinating worlds. Considered the building blocks of our planets, many of the authors of this book have devoted their scientific careers to exploring them with the tools of our trade: ground- and spacebased observations, in situ space missions, and studies that run the gamut from theoretical modeling efforts to laboratory work. Like fossils for paleontologists, or DNA for geneticists, they allow us to construct a veritable time machine and provide us with tantalizing glimpses of the earliest nature of our solar system. By investigating them, we can probe what our home system was like before life or even the planets existed. The origin and evolution of life on our planet is also intertwined with asteroids in a different way. It is believed that impacts on the primordial Earth may have delivered the basic components for life, with biology favoring attributes that could more easily survive the aftermath of such energetic events. In this fashion, asteroids may have banished many probable avenues for life to relative obscurity. Similarly, they may have also prevented our biosphere from becoming more complex until more recent eras. The full tale of asteroid impacts on the history of our world, and how human life managed to emerge from myriad possibilities, has yet to be fully told. The hazard posed by asteroid impacts to our civilization is low but singular. The design of efficient mitigation strategies strongly relies on asteroid detection by our ground- and spacebased surveys as well as knowledge of their physical properties. A more positive motivation for asteroid discovery is that the proximity of some asteroids to Earth may allow future astronauts to harvest their water and rare mineral resources for use in exploration. A key goal of asteroid science is therefore to learn how humans and robotic probes can interact with asteroids (and extract their materials) in an efficient way. We expect that these adventures may be commonplace in the future

  1. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Task 5 Report: Generation IV Reactor Virtual Mockup Proof-of-Principle Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Task 5 report is part of a 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Created a virtual mockup of PBMR reactor cavity and discussed applications of virtual mockup technology to improve Gen IV design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning.

  2. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Final report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Mockups applied to design review of AP600/1000, Construction planning for AP 600, and AP 1000 maintenance evaluation. Proof of concept study also performed for GenIV PBMR models.

  3. Mechanisms Governing the Creep Behavior of High Temperature Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, Vijay [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Carroll, Laura [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sham, Sam [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-06

    This research project, which includes collaborators from INL and ORNL, focuses on the study of alloy 617 and alloy 800H that are candidates for applications as intermediate heat exchangers in GEN IV nuclear reactors, with an emphasis on the effects of grain size, grain boundaries and second phases on the creep properties; the mechanisms of dislocation creep, diffusional creep and cavitation; the onset of tertiary creep; and theoretical modeling for long-term predictions of materials behavior and for high temperature alloy design.

  4. Structural characterization of outer membrane components of the type IV pili system in pathogenic Neisseria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samta Jain

    Full Text Available Structures of the type IV pili secretin complexes from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis, embedded in outer membranes were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Single particle averaging revealed additional domains not observed previously. Secretin complexes of N. gonorrhoeae showed a double ring structure with a 14-15-fold symmetry in the central ring, and a 14-fold symmetry of the peripheral ring with 7 spikes protruding. In secretin complexes of N. meningitidis, the spikes were absent and the peripheral ring was partly or completely lacking. When present, it had a 19-fold symmetry. The structures of the complexes in several pil mutants were determined. Structures obtained from the pilC1/C2 adhesin and the pilW minor pilin deletion strains were similar to wild-type, whereas deletion of the homologue of N. meningitidis PilW resulted in the absence of secretin structures. Remarkably, the pilE pilin subunit and pilP lipoprotein deletion mutants showed a change in the symmetry of the peripheral ring from 14 to 19 and loss of spikes. The pilF ATPase mutant also lost the spikes, but maintained 14-fold symmetry. These results show that secretin complexes contain previously unidentified large and flexible extra domains with a probable role in stabilization or assembly of type IV pili.

  5. 布鲁氏菌的IV型分泌系统%Type IV secretion system of Brucella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘倩宏

    2012-01-01

    Brucellosis, which is caused by Brucella, is one of the most important bacterial zoonoses. It brings serious harm to stock raising, human health and animal-derived food security. Type IV secretion system of Brucella is essential for survival and multiplication within the host cells, which also play an important role in pathogenicity of Brucella. Type IV secretion system that is encoded by the virB operon is described as a family of multi-protein and crossing-envelope complex, and regulated by the same promoter. Type IV secretion system is also affected by multi-factor, which may be PH, temperature, nutrition and the type of the cells infected and it plays an important role in regulation intracellular and extracellular survival of Brucella.%布鲁氏菌病是由布鲁氏菌引起的人兽共患病,给养殖业、人类健康和动物源性食品安全带来很大威胁.布鲁氏菌的IV型分泌系统在布鲁氏菌的致病力上发挥重要作用,与布鲁氏菌在宿主细胞内生存、复制有密切关系.IV型分泌系统由virB操纵子编码,由同一启动子调控,是一个多蛋白的跨膜复合物,受感染宿主细胞类型、生长温度、营养条件、pH值等多因素调控;并且对布鲁氏菌的胞内、胞外的生存产生重要影响.

  6. CagY Is an Immune-Sensitive Regulator of the Helicobacter pylori Type IV Secretion System.

    OpenAIRE

    Barrozo, RM; Hansen, LM; Lam, AM; Skoog, EC; Martin, ME; Cai, LP; Lin, Y; Latoscha, A; Suerbaum, S; Canfield, DR; Solnick, JV

    2016-01-01

    Peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer are caused most often by Helicobacter pylori strains that harbor the cag pathogenicity island, which encodes a type IV secretion system (T4SS) that injects the CagA oncoprotein into host cells. cagY is an essential gene in the T4SS and has an unusual DNA repeat structure that predicts in-frame insertions and deletions. These cagY recombination events typically lead to a reduction in T4SS function in mouse and primate models. We examined the role of the ...

  7. Thermodynamic properties of actinide complexes. II. Thorium(IV)--acetate system. [Formation of thorium(IV)-acetate complexes in aqueous perchlorate medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portanova, R.; Di Bernardo, P.; Traverso, O.; Mazzocchin, G.A.; Magon, L.

    1975-10-01

    The changes in free energy, enthalpy and entropy for the formation of thorium(IV)--acetate complexes have been determined at 25/sup 0/C and in 1.00 M aqueous perchlorate-medium. All five complexes formed, are found to be stabilized by a large gain of entropy. The marked increase in the values of ..delta..H/sub j/ and ..delta..S/sub j/, relative to the third step of complexation has been explained in terms of a coordination change.

  8. Radiological outcome of reconstructive hip surgery in children with gross motor function classification system IV and V cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiran; Wilson, Nichola C; Mackey, Anna H; Stott, Ngaire Susan

    2014-09-01

    Hip subluxation is common in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this study was to describe the radiological outcome of reconstructive hip surgery in children with CP, gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) level IV and V, and determine whether the GMFCS level plays a predictive role in outcome. This was a retrospective cohort study conducted at a tertiary-level pediatric hospital with a CP hip surveillance program. Of 110 children with GMFCS IV and V CP registered for hip surveillance, 45 underwent reconstructive hip surgery between 1997 and 2009, defined as varus derotational proximal femoral osteotomy with or without additional pelvic osteotomy. Eleven children were excluded because of lack of 12-month follow-up (n=10) or missing clinical records (n=1). Thus, 21 GMFCS IV children (median age 6 years at surgery) and 13 GMFCS V children (median age 5 years at surgery), who underwent 58 index surgeries, were included in the study. Clinical records and radiology were reviewed. The two surgical groups were femoral osteotomy (varus derotational femoral osteotomy with an AO blade plate or femoral locking plate fixation), or femoral ostetotomy with additional pelvic osteotomy. Reimer's migration percentage (MP) was calculated from anteroposterior pelvis radiographs to determine the outcome for each hip independently. Failure was defined as MP of greater than 60% or further operation on the hip. Reconstructive surgeries were performed for 58 hips with a median preoperative MP of 55%. There were 15 failures at a median of 62 months, including nine failures in 35 GMFCS IV hips and six failures in 23 GMFCS V hips. Overall, GMFCS V hips tended to fail earlier, (hazard ratio 2.3) with a median time to failure of 78 and 39 months for GMFCS IV and V hips, respectively. Combined femoral and pelvic osteotomies had the lowest failure rates in both groups of patients. The GMFCS classification may have some predictive value for outcomes following reconstructive

  9. DESIGN AND LAYOUT CONCEPTS FOR COMPACT, FACTORY-PRODUCED, TRANSPORTABLE, GENERATION IV REACTOR SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mynatt Fred R.; Townsend, L.W.; Williamson, Martin; Williams, Wesley; Miller, Laurence W.; Khan, M. Khurram; McConn, Joe; Kadak, Andrew C.; Berte, Marc V.; Sawhney, Rapinder; Fife, Jacob; Sedler, Todd L.; Conway, Larry E.; Felde, Dave K.

    2003-11-12

    The purpose of this research project is to develop compact (100 to 400 MWe) Generation IV nuclear power plant design and layout concepts that maximize the benefits of factory-based fabrication and optimal packaging, transportation and siting. The reactor concepts selected were compact designs under development in the 2000 to 2001 period. This interdisciplinary project was comprised of three university-led nuclear engineering teams identified by reactor coolant type (water, gas, and liquid metal) and a fourth Industrial Engineering team. The reactors included a Modular Pebble Bed helium-cooled concept being developed at MIT, the IRIS water-cooled concept being developed by a team led by Westinghouse Electric Company, and a Lead-Bismuth-cooled concept developed by UT. In addition to the design and layout concepts this report includes a section on heat exchanger manufacturing simulations and a section on construction and cost impacts of proposed modular designs.

  10. Central nervous system infection caused by vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (SCCmec type IV, ST8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Hiroyoshi; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Notake, Shigeyuki; Oishi, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Miyazaki, Haruko; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Uemura, Kazuya; Matsumura, Akira

    2014-10-01

    A 77-year-old Japanese man with a history of surgical treatment of chronic subdural hemorrhage was hospitalized for drainage of a subdural abscess and brain abscess in the right occipital area. Pus obtained from both the subdural abscess and brain abscess grew vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) (minimum inhibitory concentration = 4 μg/mL), which was confirmed by population analysis. The SCCmec type and sequence type were subsequently identified as IV and ST8, respectively. The VISA strains were both sensitive to levofloxacin, clindamycin, minocycline, and linezolid. The patient was successfully treated with linezolid and discharged on day 51 after admission. We herein describe the first reported case of a brain abscess and subdural abscess caused by VISA in Japan.

  11. C IV absorption in damped and sub-damped Lyman-alpha systems: correlations with metallicity and implications for galactic winds at z~2-3

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, Andrew J; Petitjean, Patrick; Srianand, Raghunathan

    2007-01-01

    We present a study of C IV absorption in a sample of 63 damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) systems and 11 sub-DLAs in the redshift range 1.75IV absorption line components indicate the presence of both warm, photoionized and hot, collisionally ionized gas. We report new correlations between the metallicity (measured in the neutral-phase) and each of the C IV column density, the C IV total line width, and the maximum C IV velocity. We explore the effect on these correlations of the sub-DLAs, the proximate DLAs (defined as those within 5 000 km/s of the quasar), the saturated absorbers, and the metal line used to measure the metallicity, and we find the correlations to be robust. There is no evidence for any difference between the measured properties of DLA C IV and sub-DLA C IV. In 25 DLAs and 4 sub-DLAs, covering 2.5 dex in [Z/H], we directly observe C IV moving above the escape speed, where v...

  12. Comparison between GEOCOR IV SIGN-BIT an DFS-V 16-bit floating point recording systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, D.D.; Givens, R.

    1986-04-01

    A Vibroseis line was repeatedly shot in Andrews County, Texas. The first shot used a DFS-V 16-bit floating point recording system with parameters optimized for that particular recording system and subsurface geology. Then the line was shot with a GEOCOR IV SIGN-BIT recording system, once using the same parameters as on the floating point recording system, then with parameters optimized for a SIGN-BIT recording system - mainly higher fold, closer channel spacing, and using the VARISWEEP technique. The three lines were processed to stacked sections using identical processing parameters. When the 16-bit floating point recording system is compared to the SIGN-BIT system with identical parameters, the results indicate the systems are equivalent for Vibroseis recording. Basic primary reflections are similar in signal to noise and frequency. Multiple reflection energy is greater on the floating point section. However, the results differ when the two systems are compared using optimal parameters for each system. The SIGN-BIT section had shallower data because the receiver line has no gapping. The SIGN-BIT system also had better temporal and spatial resolution because channel spacing was reduced and a different sweep technique was used.

  13. Plato, Wilde, and Woolf: the poetics of homoerotic "intercourse" in A Room of One's Own.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanita, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    This article places Woolf in the context of homoerotic literary ancestry. It suggests that the overall argument in A Room of One's Own owes a debt to Wilde's 1891 pamphlet The Soul of Man under Socialism. It also examines Woolf's controversial meditation on male-female collaboration and intercourse in A Room, and suggests a homoerotic reading of this meditation, drawing on images and ideas of literary transmission and creation from Plato's Symposium.

  14. The philosopher Socrates had exophthalmos (a term coined by Plato) and probably Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapetrou, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    According to a previously published theory, Socrates was afflicted with temporal lobe epilepsy since his childhood. Plato, Xenophon, and Aristoxenus described Socrates as having exophthalmos, probably diplopia, and some symptoms compatible with hyperthyroidism. Using these data, we theorize that Socrates had Graves' disease. In order to determine a cause of his temporal lobe epilepsy, we speculate that the philosopher also had autoimmune thyroiditis and Hashimoto encephalopathy during his childhood and his epilepsy may have been a sequel to this hypothesized encephalopathy.

  15. Analyses of Bifurcations and Stability in a Predator-prey System with Holling Type-IV Functional Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-cai Huang; Dong-mei Xiao

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the dynamical behaviors of a predator-prey system with Holling Type-IV functional response are investigated in detail by using the analyses of qualitative method,bifurcation theory,and numerical simulation.The qualitative analyses and numerical simulation for the model indicate that it has a unique stable limit cycle.The bifurcation analyses of the system exhibit static and dynamical bifurcations including saddlenode bifurcation,Hopf bifurcation,homoclinic bifurcation and bifurcation of cusp-type with codimension two(ie,the Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation),and we show the existence of codimension three degenerated equilibrium and the existence of homoclinic orbit by using numerical simulation.

  16. Evidence that a modified type IV pilus-like system powers gliding motility and polysaccharide secretion in filamentous cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayatan, Behzad; Meeks, John C; Risser, Douglas D

    2015-12-01

    In filamentous cyanobacteria, the mechanism of gliding motility is undefined but posited to be driven by a polysaccharide secretion system known as the junctional pore complex (JPC). Recent evidence implies that the JPC is a modified type IV pilus-like structure encoded for in part by genes in the hps locus. To test this hypothesis, we conducted genetic, cytological and comparative genomics studies on hps and pil genes in Nostoc punctiforme, a species in which motility is restricted to transiently differentiated filaments called hormogonia. Inactivation of most hps and pil genes abolished motility and abolished or drastically reduced secretion of hormogonium polysaccharide, and the subcellular localization of several Pil proteins in motile hormogonia corresponds to the site of the junctional pore complex. The non-motile ΔhpsE-G strain, which lacks three glycosyltransferases that synthesize hormogonium polysaccharide, could be complemented to motility by the addition of medium conditioned by wild-type hormogonia. Based on this result, we speculate that secretion of hormogonium polysaccharide facilitates but does not provide the motive force for gliding. Both the Hps and Pil homologs characterized in this study are almost universally conserved among filamentous cyanobacteria, with the Hps homologs rarely found in unicellular strains. These results support the theory that Hps and Pil proteins compose the JPC, a type IV pilus-like nanomotor that drives motility and polysaccharide secretion in filamentous cyanobacteria.

  17. Sensor System for Long-term Recording of Photovoltaic (PV) IV-curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Kasper; Nymand, Morten; Haase, Frerk

    The purpose of this paper is to present a recording system for long-term investigation of PV panel dynamics under partial shading conditions. The system is intended to be a low-cost system deployable for stand-alone field use and long-term data recording at PV-plants. Passing clouds will affect...

  18. A simple Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system for rapid and simultaneous reduction of Cr(VI) and oxidative degradation of organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Yanan; Yang, Shaojie [Department of Environmental Science, Hubei Key Lab of Biomass Resource Chemistry and Environmental Biotechnology, School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, 430079 (China); Zhou, Danna, E-mail: zdncug@163.com [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wu, Feng [Department of Environmental Science, Hubei Key Lab of Biomass Resource Chemistry and Environmental Biotechnology, School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, 430079 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Rapid and simultaneous reduction of Cr(VI) and degradation of organic pollutants occur. • Oxysulfur radicals generated in Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system oxidize the organic pollutants. • Acidic pH facilitates the reactions from both directions of reduction and oxidation. • Degradation potential of aromatic amines depends on the substituted groups. • Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system is promising for “waste control by waste”. - Abstract: Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a heavy-metal contaminant, can be easily reduced to less toxic trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) by sulfite ions (S(IV)). However, S(IV) has not drawn as much attention as the ferrous ion has. We report herein a novel Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system containing sulfite ions that rapidly and simultaneously reduces Cr(VI) and oxidize organic pollutants in the presence of oxygen in aqueous solutions. This Cr(VI)–S(IV)-O{sub 2} system contains the initiator Cr(VI), the reductant S(IV), and the oxidant O{sub 2}, which produce oxysulfur radicals (mainly SO{sub 4}·{sup −} and SO{sub 5}·{sup −}) and hydroxyl radicals (OH·). The Cr(VI)/S(IV) molar ratio, pH, and oxygen content play important roles in the entire reaction system. Acidic conditions (pH 3.0) facilitated degradation of organic compounds and reduction of Cr(VI) as well. In addition, experiments of rapid degradation of several kinds of organic pollutants such as azo dye (acid orange 7, AO7), aniline, phenol, bisphenol A etc were also conducted. Preliminary results show that the removal rates of the analogs of phenols or aromatic amines in this Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system have a relationship with the electronic parameters (Hammett constant, σ) of the substituted groups. Thus, the Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system, provides an excellent strategy of “waste control by waste” for removing multiple industrial contaminants.

  19. The Del Mod System: An External Evaluation, Final Report, Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Donald W.; And Others

    This is one of five volumes prepared to describe various aspects of the Del Mod System. This volume deals with the evaluation of the Del Mod System. Included are the following: (1) Del Mod Responsive Evaluation; (2) Evaluation Outcomes; (3) Validation of the Del Mod Responsive Evaluation Process; and (4) Conclusions. Appendices include: (A)…

  20. Transit Timing Observations from Kepler: IV. Confirmation of 4 Multiple Planet Systems by Simple Physical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Fabrycky, Daniel C; Steffen, Jason H; Rowe, Jason F; Carter, Joshua A; Moorhead, Althea V; Batalha, Natalie M; Borucki, William J; Bryson, Steve; Buchhave, Lars A; Christiansen, Jessie L; Ciardi, David R; Cochran, William D; Endl, Michael; Fanelli, Michael N; Fischer, Debra; Fressin, Francois; Geary, John; Haas, Michael R; Hall, Jennifer R; Holman, Matthew J; Jenkins, Jon M; Koch, David G; Latham, David W; Li, Jie; Lissauer, Jack J; Lucas, Philip; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Mazeh, Tsevi; McCauliff, Sean; Quinn, Samuel; Ragozzine, Darin; Sasselov, Dimitar; Shporer, Avi

    2012-01-01

    Eighty planetary systems of two or more planets are known to orbit stars other than the Sun. For most, the data can be sufficiently explained by non-interacting Keplerian orbits, so the dynamical interactions of these systems have not been observed. Here we present 4 sets of lightcurves from the Kepler spacecraft, which each show multiple planets transiting the same star. Departure of the timing of these transits from strict periodicity indicates the planets are perturbing each other: the observed timing variations match the forcing frequency of the other planet. This confirms that these objects are in the same system. Next we limit their masses to the planetary regime by requiring the system remain stable for astronomical timescales. Finally, we report dynamical fits to the transit times, yielding possible values for the planets' masses and eccentricities. As the timespan of timing data increases, dynamical fits may allow detailed constraints on the systems' architectures, even in cases for which high-precis...

  1. Complete plasmid sequence carrying type IV-like and type VII secretion systems from an atypical mycobacteria strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Sergio Mascarenhas; Marín, Michel Abanto; Freitas, Fernanda S; Fonseca, Erica Lourenço; Vicente, Ana Carolina Paulo

    2017-07-01

    The genus Mycobacterium is highly diverse and ubiquitous in nature, comprehending fast- and slow-growing species with distinct impact in public health. The plasmid-mediated horizontal gene transfer represents one of the major events in bacteria evolution. Here, we report the complete sequence of a 160,489 bp circular plasmid (pCBMA213_2) from an atypical and fast-growing environmental mycobacteria. This is a unique plasmid, in comparison with the characterised mycobacteria plasmids, harboring a type IV-like and ESX-P2 type VII secretion systems. pCBMA213_2 can be further explored for evolutionary and conjugation studies as well as a tool to manipulate DNA within this bacteria genus.

  2. A dialogical exploration of the grey zone of health and illness: medical science, anthropology, and Plato on alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Kieran

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes a phenomenological hermeneutic orientation to explicate and explore the notion of the grey zone of health and illness and seeks to develop the concept through an examination of the case of alcohol consumption. The grey zone is an interpretive area referring to the irremediable zone of ambiguity that haunts even the most apparently resolute discourse. This idea points to an ontological indeterminacy, in the face of which decisions have to be made with regard to the health of a person (e.g., an alcoholic), a system (e.g., the health system), or a society. The fundamental character of this notion will be developed in relation to the discourse on health and the limitations of different disciplinary practices. The case of alcohol consumption will be used to tease out the grey zone embedded in the different kinds of knowledge made available through the disciplinary traditions of medical science, with its emphasis on somatic well-being, and anthropology, with its focus on communal well-being. This tension or grey zone embedded in different knowledge outcomes will be shown to have a discursive parallel with the dialogue between the Athenian, the Spartan, and the Cretan in Plato's Laws. Making use of the dialogical approach as described by Gadamer, the Athenian's particular resolution of the tension will be explored as a case study to demonstrate the necessarily particular analysis involved in a grey zone resolution.

  3. Creep Behavior of High Temperature Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xingshuo

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is one of the leading concepts of the Generation IV nuclear reactor development, which is the core component of Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The major challenge in the research and development of NGNP is the performance and reliability of structure materials at high temperature. Alloy 617, with an exceptional combination of high temperature strength and oxidation resistance, has been selected as a primary candidate material for structural use, particularly in Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) which has an outlet temperature in the range of 850 to 950°C and an inner pressure from 5 to 20MPa. In order to qualify the material to be used at the operation condition for a designed service life of 60 years, a comprehensive scientific understanding of creep behavior at high temperature and low stress regime is necessary. In addition, the creep mechanism and the impact factors such as precipitates, grain size, and grain boundary characters need to be evaluated for the purpose of alloy design and development. In this study, thermomechanically processed specimens of alloy 617 with different grain sizes were fabricated, and creep tests with a systematic test matrix covering the temperatures of 850 to 1050°C and stress levels from 5 to 100MPa were conducted. Creep data was analyzed, and the creep curves were found to be unconventional without a well-defined steady-state creep. Very good linear relationships were determined for minimum creep rate versus stress levels with the stress exponents determined around 3-5 depending on the grain size and test condition. Activation energies were also calculated for different stress levels, and the values are close to 400kJ/mol, which is higher than that for self-diffusion in nickel. Power law dislocation climb-glide mechanism was proposed as the dominant creep mechanism in the test condition regime. Dynamic recrystallization happening at high strain range enhanced dislocation climb and

  4. A Topos Foundation for Theories of Physics: IV. Categories of Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Doering, A

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the fourth in a series whose goal is to develop a fundamentally new way of building theories of physics. The motivation comes from a desire to address certain deep issues that arise in the quantum theory of gravity. Our basic contention is that constructing a theory of physics is equivalent to finding a representation in a topos of a certain formal language that is attached to the system. Classical physics arises when the topos is the category of sets. Other types of theory employ a different topos. The previous papers in this series are concerned with implementing this programme for a single system. In the present paper, we turn to considering a collection of systems: in particular, we are interested in the relation between the topos representation for a composite system, and the representations for its constituents. We also study this problem for the disjoint sum of two systems. Our approach to these matters is to construct a category of systems and to find a topos representation of the entire...

  5. Transit Timing Observations from Kepler: IV. Confirmation of 4 Multiple Planet Systems by Simple Physical Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrycky, Daniel C.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Ford, Eric B.; /Florida U.; Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; Rowe, Jason F.; /SETI Inst., Mtn. View /NASA, Ames; Carter, Joshua A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Moorhead, Althea V.; /Florida U.; Batalha, Natalie M.; /San Jose State U.; Borucki, William J.; /NASA, Ames; Bryson, Steve; /NASA, Ames; Buchhave, Lars A.; /Bohr Inst. /Copenhagen U.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; /SETI Inst., Mtn. View /NASA, Ames /Caltech

    2012-01-01

    Eighty planetary systems of two or more planets are known to orbit stars other than the Sun. For most, the data can be sufficiently explained by non-interacting Keplerian orbits, so the dynamical interactions of these systems have not been observed. Here we present 4 sets of lightcurves from the Kepler spacecraft, which each show multiple planets transiting the same star. Departure of the timing of these transits from strict periodicity indicates the planets are perturbing each other: the observed timing variations match the forcing frequency of the other planet. This confirms that these objects are in the same system. Next we limit their masses to the planetary regime by requiring the system remain stable for astronomical timescales. Finally, we report dynamical fits to the transit times, yielding possible values for the planets masses and eccentricities. As the timespan of timing data increases, dynamical fits may allow detailed constraints on the systems architectures, even in cases for which high-precision Doppler follow-up is impractical.

  6. Extraction mechanism of cerium(IV) in H2SO4/H3PO4 system using bifunctional ionic liquid extractants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 陈继; 金为群; 邓岳锋; 田君; 张阳

    2013-01-01

    The extraction of Ce(IV) in H2SO4/H3PO4 system was investigated systematically using bifunctional ionic liquid extrac-tants (Bif-ILES) [A336][P507], [A336][P204] and [A336][C272] in n-heptane. The effects of H2SO4 concentration, extractant con-centration and salting-out agent concentration were observed in detail. The extraction mechanism of Ce(IV) in H2SO4/H3PO4 system was obtained. The comparison with other extractants such as Cyanex923, TBP was also studied. Thermodynamic functions of the ex-traction reaction were calculated, showing that the extraction was an exothermic process. The separation of Ce(IV) from RE(III) and Th(IV) was also investigated. The result indicated that Ce(IV) could be selectively extracted in this system. CePO4 nanoparticles were obtained in the process of stripping using H2O2 in H2SO4/H3PO4 system. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and spectroscopy were adopted for the characterization of the sample.

  7. Session IV. Problem Solving. Vehicle lighting system. Four steps in glare reduction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1972-01-01

    A number of proposals are described that may help to reduce glare. The systems are either only a partial improvement, or they are expensive, or their introduction raises severe problems. One solution, already widely in use, is applica- tion of overhead lighting. In order to really improve the situa

  8. System Engineering on the Use for Ares I,V - the Simpler, the Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, William; Greene, William D.; Greasley, Paul; Ackerman, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    The Ares I and Ares V Vehicles will utilize the J-2X rocket engine developed for NASA by the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Company. The J-2X is an improved higher power version of the original J-2 engine used during the Apollo program. With higher power and updated requirements for safety and performance, the J-2X becomes a new engine using state-of-the-art design methodology, materials and manufacturing processes. The implementation of Systems Engineering (SE) principles enables the rapid J-2X development program to remain aligned with the ARES I and V vehicle programs, Meeting the aggressive development schedule is a challenge. Coordinating the best expertise thai NASA and PWR have to offer requires effectively utilizing resources at multiple sites. This presents formidable communication challenges. SE allows honest and open discussions of issues and problems. This simple idea is often overlooked in large and complex SE programs. Regular and effective meetings linking SE objectives to component designs are used to voice differences of opinions with customer and contractor in attendance so that the best mutual decisions can be made on the shortest possible schedule. Regular technical interchange meetings on secure program wide computer networks and CM processes are effective,in the "Controlled Change" process that exemplifies good SE. Good communication is a key effective SE implementation. The System of Systems approach is the vision of the Orion program which facilitates the establishment of dynamic SE processes at all levels including the engine. SE enables requirements evolution by facilitating organizational and process agility. Flow down and distribution of requirements is controlled by Allocation Reports which breakdown numerical design objectives (weight, reliability, etc.) into quanta goals for each component area. Linked databases of design and verification requirements helps eliminate redundancy and potential mistakes inherent m separated systems. Another

  9. Progress in the development of the neutron flux monitoring system of the French GEN-IV SFR: simulations and experimental validations [ANIMMA--2015-IO-98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammes, C.; Filliatre, P.; De Izarra, G. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation, Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, (France); Elter, Zs.; Pazsit, I. [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Division of Nuclear Engineering, SE-412 96 Goteborg, (Sweden); Verma, V.; Hellesen, C.; Jacobsson, S. [Division of Applied Nuclear Physics, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala, (Sweden); Hamrita, H.; Bakkali, M. [CEA, DRT, LIST, Sensors and Electronic Architecture Laboratory, Saclay, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Chapoutier, N.; Scholer, A-C.; Verrier, D. [AREVA NP, 10 rue Juliette Recamier F-69456 Lyon, (France); Cantonnet, B.; Nappe, J-C. [PHONIS France S.A.S, Nuclear Instrumentation, Avenue Roger Roncier, B.P. 520, F-19106 Brive Cedex, (France); Molinie, P.; Dessante, P.; Hanna, R.; Kirkpatrick, M.; Odic, E. [Supelec, Department of Power and Energy System, F-91192 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Jadot, F. [CEA, DEN, DER, ASTRID Project Group, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, (France)

    2015-07-01

    The neutron flux monitoring system of the French GEN-IV sodium-cooled fast reactor will rely on high temperature fission chambers installed in the reactor vessel and capable of operating over a wide-range neutron flux. The definition of such a system is presented and the technological solutions are justified with the use of simulation and experimental results. (authors)

  10. Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – Volume IV

    OpenAIRE

    Neven Duić

    2016-01-01

    The Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems - JSDEWES is an international journal dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies and technologies for increasing the sustainability of development by de-coupling growth from natural resources and replacing them with knowledge based economy, taking into account its economic, environmental and social pillars, as well as methods for assessing and measuring sustainability of devel...

  11. Space physiology IV: mathematical modeling of the cardiovascular system in space exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Sharp, M; Batzel, Jerry Joseph; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2013-08-01

    Mathematical modeling represents an important tool for analyzing cardiovascular function during spaceflight. This review describes how modeling of the cardiovascular system can contribute to space life science research and illustrates this process via modeling efforts to study postflight orthostatic intolerance (POI), a key issue for spaceflight. Examining this application also provides a context for considering broader applications of modeling techniques to the challenges of bioastronautics. POI, which affects a large fraction of astronauts in stand tests upon return to Earth, presents as dizziness, fainting and other symptoms, which can diminish crew performance and cause safety hazards. POI on the Moon or Mars could be more critical. In the field of bioastronautics, POI has been the dominant application of cardiovascular modeling for more than a decade, and a number of mechanisms for POI have been investigated. Modeling approaches include computational models with a range of incorporated factors and hemodynamic sophistication, and also physical models tested in parabolic and orbital flight. Mathematical methods such as parameter sensitivity analysis can help identify key system mechanisms. In the case of POI, this could lead to more effective countermeasures. Validation is a persistent issue in modeling efforts, and key considerations and needs for experimental data to synergistically improve understanding of cardiovascular responses are outlined. Future directions in cardiovascular modeling include subject-specific assessment of system status, as well as research on integrated physiological responses, leading, for instance, to assessment of subject-specific susceptibility to POI or effects of cardiovascular alterations on muscular, vision and cognitive function.

  12. Echoes in Plato's cave : ontology of sound objects in computer music and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Marsden, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The sonic aspects of Plato's analogy of the cave is taken as a starting point for thought experiments to investigate the objective nature of sound, and the idea of quasi-Platonic forms in music. Sounds are found to be objects in a way that sights or appearances are not, and it is only in the presence of technology that they become artificial. When recognition, control and communication about sound come into play, abstract concepts emerge, but there is no reason to give these the priority stat...

  13. Ontological Questions in Schelling’s Late Philosophy: Plato and Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Courtine

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to understand the reasons and procedures employed by F. W. Schelling in his Plato and Aristotle re-appropriation, and to extract the authentically ontological thematic of it. It makes a path through the Schelling’s late writings and letters, to construct a complete view about the relation between this appropriation and the possibility of the constitution of a positive philosophy, as a particular science, in opposition to a negative philosophy, understood as metaphysics.

  14. Numbers Rule The Vexing Mathematics of Democracy, from Plato to the Present

    CERN Document Server

    Szpiro, George G

    2010-01-01

    Since the very birth of democracy in ancient Greece, the simple act of voting has given rise to mathematical paradoxes that have puzzled some of the greatest philosophers, statesmen, and mathematicians. Numbers Rule traces the epic quest by these thinkers to create a more perfect democracy and adapt to the ever-changing demands that each new generation places on our democratic institutions. In a sweeping narrative that combines history, biography, and mathematics, George Szpiro details the fascinating lives and big ideas of great minds such as Plato, Pliny the Younger, Ramon Llull, Pierre Simo

  15. Classification review of dental adhesive systems: from the IV generation to the universal type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofan, Eshrak; Sofan, Afrah; Palaia, Gaspare; Tenore, Gianluca; Romeo, Umberto; Migliau, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Adhesive dentistry has undergone great progress in the last decades. In light of minimal-invasive dentistry, this new approach promotes a more conservative cavity design, which relies on the effectiveness of current enamel-dentine adhesives. Adhesive dentistry began in 1955 by Buonocore on the benefits of acid etching. With changing technologies, dental adhesives have evolved from no-etch to total-etch (4(th) and 5(th) generation) to self-etch (6(th), 7(th) and 8(th) generation) systems. Currently, bonding to dental substrates is based on three different strategies: 1) etch-and-rinse, 2) self-etch and 3) resin-modified glass-ionomer approach as possessing the unique properties of self-adherence to the tooth tissue. More recently, a new family of dentin adhesives has been introduced (universal or multi-mode adhesives), which may be used either as etch-and-rinse or as self-etch adhesives. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on the current knowledge for each adhesive system according to their classification that have been advocated by many authorities in most operative/restorative procedures. As noted by several valuable studies that have contributed to understanding of bonding to various substrates helps clinicians to choose the appropriate dentin bonding agents for optimal clinical outcomes.

  16. Classification review of dental adhesive systems: from the IV generation to the universal type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofan, Eshrak; Sofan, Afrah; Palaia, Gaspare; Tenore, Gianluca; Romeo, Umberto; Migliau, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Summary Adhesive dentistry has undergone great progress in the last decades. In light of minimal-invasive dentistry, this new approach promotes a more conservative cavity design, which relies on the effectiveness of current enamel-dentine adhesives. Adhesive dentistry began in 1955 by Buonocore on the benefits of acid etching. With changing technologies, dental adhesives have evolved from no-etch to total-etch (4th and 5th generation) to self-etch (6th, 7th and 8th generation) systems. Currently, bonding to dental substrates is based on three different strategies: 1) etch-and-rinse, 2) self-etch and 3) resin-modified glass-ionomer approach as possessing the unique properties of self-adherence to the tooth tissue. More recently, a new family of dentin adhesives has been introduced (universal or multi-mode adhesives), which may be used either as etch-and-rinse or as self-etch adhesives. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on the current knowledge for each adhesive system according to their classification that have been advocated by many authorities in most operative/restorative procedures. As noted by several valuable studies that have contributed to understanding of bonding to various substrates helps clinicians to choose the appropriate dentin bonding agents for optimal clinical outcomes. PMID:28736601

  17. THE LIMIT CYCLES AND HOPF BIFURCATION OF A CLASS OF SIMPLIFIED HOLLING TYPE-IV PREDATOR-PREY SYSTEM WITH LINEAR STATE FEEDBACK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a class of simplified Type-IV predator-prey system with linear state feedback is investigated. We prove the boundedness of the positive solutions to this system, and analyze the quality of the equilibria and the existence of limit cycles of the system surrounding the positive equilibra. By Hopf bifurcation theory, the result of having two limit cycles to the system is obtained.

  18. Integrating model of the Project Independence Evaluation System. Volume IV. Model documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M L; Allen, B J; Gale, J E; Lutz, M S; O& #x27; Hara, N E; Wood, R K

    1979-02-01

    This volume is the fourth in a series of seven documenting the PIES Integrating Model. It contains detailed descriptions of the basic assumptions behind each of the components of PIES and how they interact with one another. Chapter II of this volume presents the methodology used to integrate supply and demand. It includes a discussion of both the interface between the Demand Model and the equilibrating mechanism and the various supply models via the equilibrating algorithm used by PIES. Chapters III through IX describe each supply submodel in turn: coal, oil, and natural gas supply, utilities, refineries, advanced technologies, and transportation. Code and data documentation are covered elsewhere in this series (Volumes V and VI respectively). PIES is an evolving system. As this document was being prepared, many parts of the model were being modified. This document describes the PIES Integrating Model as of January 1, 1978.

  19. Interaction of plutonium(iv) with mono-n-butylphosphoric acid in nitric acid solutions and in the system 30% TBP + n-dodecane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovnyi, S.I.; Boikova, I.A.; Fedoseev, D.A.; Goncharuk, L.V.; Milovanova, A.S.; Sokhina, L.P.

    1986-03-01

    The methods of elementary and spectrophotometric analysis at the temperature 22 + or - 2 degrees C were used to investigate the interaction of mono-n-butylphosphoric acid (MBPA, H/sub 2/B) with Pu(IV) in nitric acid solutions and in the system 30% TBP + n-dodecane. The conditions of formatin, solubility, and composition of precipitates of MBPA with Pu(OV) were investigated; the effective stability constants K of complexes of Pu(IV) with MBPA of various compositions were determined. The results of the studies are discussed in comparison with the interaction of Zn(IV) with MBPA in nitric acid solutions and in the system 30% TBP + n-dodecane.

  20. Validation of the Monte Carlo criticality program KENO IV and the Hansen-Roach sixteen-energy-group-cross sections for high-assay uranium systems. [KENO IV criticality code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handley, G. R.; Masters, L. C.; Stachowiak, R. V.

    1981-04-10

    Validation of the Monte Carlo criticality code, KENO IV, and the Hansen-Roach sixteen-energy-group cross sections was accomplished by calculating the effective neutron multiplication constant, k/sub eff/, of 29 experimentally critical assemblies which had uranium enrichments of 92.6% or higher in the uranium-235 isotope. The experiments were chosen so that a large variety of geometries and of neutron energy spectra were covered. Problems, calculating the k/sub eff/ of systems with high-uranium-concentration uranyl nitrate solution that were minimally reflected or unreflected, resulted in the separate examination of five cases.

  1. Deriving physical parameters of unresolved star clusters IV. The M33 star cluster system

    CERN Document Server

    de Meulenaer, P; Mineikis, T; Vansevičius, V

    2015-01-01

    Context. When trying to derive the star cluster physical parameters of the M33 galaxy using broad-band unresolved ground-based photometry, previous studies mainly made use of simple stellar population models, shown in the recent years to be oversimplified. Aims. In this study, we aim to derive the star cluster physical parameters (age, mass, and extinction; metallicity is assumed to be LMC-like for clusters with age below 1\\,Gyr and left free for older clusters) of this galaxy using models that take stochastic dispersion of cluster integrated colors into account. Methods. We use three recently published M33 catalogs of cluster optical broad-band photometry in standard $UBVRI$ and in CFHT/MegaCam $u^{*}g'r'i'z'$ photometric systems. We also use near-infrared $JHK$ photometry that we derive from deep 2MASS images. We derive the cluster parameters using a method that takes into account the stochasticity problem, presented in previous papers of this series. Results. The derived differential age distribution of th...

  2. Philosophy and Mathematics in the Teaching of Plato: the Development of Idea and Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhailova N. V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the largest philosophers differently explain the origin of mathematics. This question was investigated in antiquity, a substantial and decisive role in this respect was played by the Platonic doctrine. Therefore, discussing this issue the problem of interaction of philosophy and mathematics in the teachings of Plato should be taken into consideration. Many mathematicians believe that abstract mathematical objects belong in a certain sense to the world of ideas and that consistency of objects and theories really describes mathematical reality, as Plato quite clearly expressed his views on math, according to which mathematical concepts objectively exist as distinct entities between the world of ideas and the world of material things. In the context of foundations of mathematics, so called “Gödel’s Platonism” is of particular interest. It is shown in the article how Platonic objectification of mathematical concepts contributes to the development of modern mathematics by revealing philosophical understanding of the nature of abstraction. To substantiate his point of view, the author draws the works of contemporary experts in the field of philosophy of mathematics.

  3. The PLATO Simulator: Modelling of High-Precision High-Cadence Space-Based Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Marcos-Arenal, P; De Ridder, J; Aerts, C; Huygen, R; Samadi, R; Green, J; Piotto, G; Salmon, S; Catala, C; Rauer, H

    2014-01-01

    Many aspects of the design trade-off of a space-based instrument and its performance can best be tackled through simulations of the expected observations. The complex interplay of various noise sources in the course of the observations make such simulations an indispensable part of the assessment and design study of any space-based mission. We present a formalism to model and simulate photometric time series of CCD images by including models of the CCD and its electronics, the telescope optics, the stellar field, the jitter movements of the spacecraft, and all important natural noise sources. This formalism has been implemented in a versatile end-to-end simulation software tool, called PLATO Simulator, specifically designed for the PLATO space mission to be operated from L2, but easily adaptable to similar types of missions. We provide a detailed description of several noise sources and discuss their properties, in connection with the optical design, the allowable level of jitter, the quantum efficiency of th...

  4. Planets around Low-mass Stars (PALMS). IV. The Outer Architecture of M Dwarf Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C.; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Tamura, Motohide

    2015-01-01

    in the outskirts of M dwarf planetary systems. Although the first directly imaged planets were found around massive stars, there is currently no statistical evidence for a trend of giant planet frequency with stellar host mass at large separations as predicted by the disk instability model of giant planet formation. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation. This work was also based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  5. PLANETS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS (PALMS). IV. THE OUTER ARCHITECTURE OF M DWARF PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowler, Brendan P. [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Tamura, Motohide, E-mail: bpbowler@caltech.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    to single M dwarfs between 10-100 AU is 2.8{sub −1.5}{sup +2.4}%. Altogether we find that giant planets, especially massive ones, are rare in the outskirts of M dwarf planetary systems. Although the first directly imaged planets were found around massive stars, there is currently no statistical evidence for a trend of giant planet frequency with stellar host mass at large separations as predicted by the disk instability model of giant planet formation.

  6. A comparison of outcomes according to different diagnostic systems for delirium (DSM-5, DSM-IV, CAM, and DRS-R98).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamis, Dimitrios; Meagher, David; Rooney, Siobhan; Mulligan, Owen; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2017-09-14

    Studies indicate that DSM-5 criteria for delirium are relatively restrictive, and identify different cases of delirium compared with previous systems. We evaluate four outcomes of delirium (mortality, length of hospital stay, institutionalization, and cognitive improvement) in relation to delirium defined by different DSM classification systems. Prospective, longitudinal study of patients aged 70+ admitted to medical wards of a general hospital. Participants were assessed up to a maximum of four times during two weeks, using DSM-5 and DSM-IV criteria, DRS-R98 and CAM scales as proxies for DSM III-R and DSM III. Of the 200 assessed patients (mean age 81.1, SD = 6.5; and 50% female) during hospitalization, delirium was identified in 41 (20.5%) using DSM-5, 45 (22.5%) according to DSM-IV, 46 (23%) with CAM positive, and 37 (18.5%) with DRS-R98 severity score >15. Mortality was significantly associated with delirium according to any classification system, but those identified with DSM-5 were at greater risk. Length of stay was significantly longer for those with DSM-IV delirium. Discharge to a care home was associated only with DRS-R98 defined delirium. Cognitive improvement was only associated with CAM and DSM-IV. Different classification systems for delirium identify populations with different outcomes.

  7. Parallel evolution of a type IV secretion system in radiating lineages of the host-restricted bacterial pathogen Bartonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Philipp; Salzburger, Walter; Liesch, Marius; Chang, Chao-Chin; Maruyama, Soichi; Lanz, Christa; Calteau, Alexandra; Lajus, Aurélie; Médigue, Claudine; Schuster, Stephan C; Dehio, Christoph

    2011-02-10

    Adaptive radiation is the rapid origination of multiple species from a single ancestor as the result of concurrent adaptation to disparate environments. This fundamental evolutionary process is considered to be responsible for the genesis of a great portion of the diversity of life. Bacteria have evolved enormous biological diversity by exploiting an exceptional range of environments, yet diversification of bacteria via adaptive radiation has been documented in a few cases only and the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show a compelling example of adaptive radiation in pathogenic bacteria and reveal their genetic basis. Our evolutionary genomic analyses of the α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella uncover two parallel adaptive radiations within these host-restricted mammalian pathogens. We identify a horizontally-acquired protein secretion system, which has evolved to target specific bacterial effector proteins into host cells as the evolutionary key innovation triggering these parallel adaptive radiations. We show that the functional versatility and adaptive potential of the VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS), and thereby translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps), evolved in parallel in the two lineages prior to their radiations. Independent chromosomal fixation of the virB operon and consecutive rounds of lineage-specific bep gene duplications followed by their functional diversification characterize these parallel evolutionary trajectories. Whereas most Beps maintained their ancestral domain constitution, strikingly, a novel type of effector protein emerged convergently in both lineages. This resulted in similar arrays of host cell-targeted effector proteins in the two lineages of Bartonella as the basis of their independent radiation. The parallel molecular evolution of the VirB/Bep system displays a striking example of a key innovation involved in independent adaptive processes and the emergence of bacterial pathogens

  8. Parallel evolution of a type IV secretion system in radiating lineages of the host-restricted bacterial pathogen Bartonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Engel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive radiation is the rapid origination of multiple species from a single ancestor as the result of concurrent adaptation to disparate environments. This fundamental evolutionary process is considered to be responsible for the genesis of a great portion of the diversity of life. Bacteria have evolved enormous biological diversity by exploiting an exceptional range of environments, yet diversification of bacteria via adaptive radiation has been documented in a few cases only and the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show a compelling example of adaptive radiation in pathogenic bacteria and reveal their genetic basis. Our evolutionary genomic analyses of the α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella uncover two parallel adaptive radiations within these host-restricted mammalian pathogens. We identify a horizontally-acquired protein secretion system, which has evolved to target specific bacterial effector proteins into host cells as the evolutionary key innovation triggering these parallel adaptive radiations. We show that the functional versatility and adaptive potential of the VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS, and thereby translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps, evolved in parallel in the two lineages prior to their radiations. Independent chromosomal fixation of the virB operon and consecutive rounds of lineage-specific bep gene duplications followed by their functional diversification characterize these parallel evolutionary trajectories. Whereas most Beps maintained their ancestral domain constitution, strikingly, a novel type of effector protein emerged convergently in both lineages. This resulted in similar arrays of host cell-targeted effector proteins in the two lineages of Bartonella as the basis of their independent radiation. The parallel molecular evolution of the VirB/Bep system displays a striking example of a key innovation involved in independent adaptive processes and the emergence of bacterial

  9. Molecular characterization and polyclonal antibody generation against core component CagX protein of Helicobacter pylori type IV secretion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Gopal Jee; Kumar, Awanish; Pal, Jagannath; Mukhopadhyay, Gauranga

    2014-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria Helicobacter pylori cause gastric ulcer, duodenal cancer, and found in almost half of the world’s residents. The protein responsible for this disease is secreted through type IV secretion system (TFSS) of H. pylori. TFSS is encoded by 40-kb region of chromosomal DNA known as cag-pathogenicity island (PAI). TFSS comprises of three major components: cytoplasmic/inner membrane ATPase, transmembrane core-complex and outer membranous pilli, and associated subunits. Core complex consists of CagX, CagT, CagM, and Cag3(δ) proteins as per existing knowledge. In this study, we have characterized one of the important component of core-complex forming sub-unit protein, i.e., CagX. Complete ORF of CagX except signal peptide coding region was cloned and expressed in pET28a vector. Purification of CagX protein was performed, and polyclonal anti-sera against full-length recombinant CagX were raised in rabbit model. We obtained a very specific and high titer, CagX anti-sera that were utilized to characterize endogenous CagX. Surface localization of CagX was also seen by immunofluorescence microscopy. In short for the first time a full-length CagX was characterized, and we showed that CagX is the part of high molecular weight core complex, which is important for assembly and function of H. pylori TFSS. PMID:24637488

  10. Adherence to Physical Activity Among Older Adults Using a Geographic Information System: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examinations Survey IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hye-A; Jung, Dukyoo; Choi, Mona

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the adherence to physical activity (PA) among older adults in Korea using data from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANESIV), and to illustrate geographic variations in PA using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). A secondary analysis of the KNHANES IV data from 2007 to 2008 was used for this study. Participants of the study included 2,241 older adults over the age of 65. Estimates on adherence to PA were obtained for vigorous, moderate, walking, strengthening, and stretching activities. All estimates were weighted to represent Korean population. The association between participants' characteristics and PA was analyzed using Wald chi-square test. Maps depicting regional variations in PA were created using GIS software. Adherence to PA among Korean older adults who met national recommendations during the period of year 2007-2008 was about 9% in vigorous activity, 10% in moderate activity, and 48% in walking. The most common type of PA was walking. A higher level of PA was associated with male gender, younger age, high level of income and education, and living with family. The majority of older adults did not meet the national PA recommendations, suggesting that consistent surveillance and intervention for PA in the geriatric population are needed in the future. Maps generated using GIS visually showed regional differences in PA among the study participants. Copyright © 2011 Korean Society of Nursing Science. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Contribution of alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) Collagen IV to the Mechanical Properties of the Glomerular Basement Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyoneva, Lazarina

    The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a vital part of the blood-urine filtration barrier in the kidneys. In healthy GBMs, the main tension-resisting component is alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) type IV collagen, but in some diseases it is replaced by other collagen IV isoforms. As a result, the GBM becomes leaky and disorganized, ultimately resulting in kidney failure. Our goal is to understanding the biomechanical aspects of the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains and how their absence could be responsible for (1) the initial injury to the GBM and (2) progression to kidney failure. A combination of experiments and computational models were designed for that purpose. A model basement membrane was used to compare experimentally the distensibility of tissues with the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains present and missing. The experiments showed basement membranes containing alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains were less distensible. It has been postulated that the higher level of lateral cross-linking (supercoiling) in the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks contributes additional strength/stability to basement membranes. In a computational model of supercoiled networks, we found that supercoiling greatly increased the stiffness of collagen IV networks but only minimally decreased the permeability, which is well suited for the needs of the GBM. It is also known that the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks are more protected from enzymatic degradation, and we explored their significance in GBM remodeling. Our simulations showed that the more protected network was needed to prevent the system from entering a dangerous feedback cycle due to autoregulation mechanisms in the kidneys. Overall, the work adds to the evidence of biomechanical differences between the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks and other collagen IV networks, points to supercoiling as the main source of biomechanical differences, discusses the suitability of alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV

  12. Computational prediction of secretion systems and secretomes of Brucella: identification of novel type IV effectors and their interaction with the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankarasubramanian, Jagadesan; Vishnu, Udayakumar S; Dinakaran, Vasudevan; Sridhar, Jayavel; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2016-01-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens that cause brucellosis in various mammals including humans. Brucella survive inside the host cells by forming vacuoles and subverting host defence systems. This study was aimed to predict the secretion systems and the secretomes of Brucella spp. from 39 complete genome sequences available in the databases. Furthermore, an attempt was made to identify the type IV secretion effectors and their interactions with host proteins. We predicted the secretion systems of Brucella by the KEGG pathway and SecReT4. Brucella secretomes and type IV effectors (T4SEs) were predicted through genome-wide screening using JVirGel and S4TE, respectively. Protein-protein interactions of Brucella T4SEs with their hosts were analyzed by HPIDB 2.0. Genes coding for Sec and Tat pathways of secretion and type I (T1SS), type IV (T4SS) and type V (T5SS) secretion systems were identified and they are conserved in all the species of Brucella. In addition to the well-known VirB operon coding for the type IV secretion system (T4SS), we have identified the presence of additional genes showing homology with T4SS of other organisms. On the whole, 10.26 to 14.94% of total proteomes were found to be either secreted (secretome) or membrane associated (membrane proteome). Approximately, 1.7 to 3.0% of total proteomes were identified as type IV secretion effectors (T4SEs). Prediction of protein-protein interactions showed 29 and 36 host-pathogen specific interactions between Bos taurus (cattle)-B. abortus and Ovis aries (sheep)-B. melitensis, respectively. Functional characterization of the predicted T4SEs and their interactions with their respective hosts may reveal the secrets of host specificity of Brucella.

  13. Dialectic and Dialogue in Plato: Refuting the Model of Socrates-as-Teacher in the Pursuit of Authentic "Paideia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, James Michael

    2014-01-01

    Incorporating Gadamer and other thinkers from the continental tradition, this essay is a close and detailed hermeneutic, phenomenological, and ontological study of the dialectic practice of Plato's Socrates--it radicalizes and refutes the Socrates-as-teacher model that educators from scholar academic ideology embrace.

  14. The Education of the Third Class in "The Republic": Plato and the "Locus Classicus" of Formative Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Avi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: In one of the classics of educational philosophy, a key issue is remains unsettled. In Plato's "Republic," Socrates makes a case for the importance of a comprehensive education. Socrates is unclear, however, about whether the producer class is eligible for this comprehensive education. Purpose/Objective: Previous…

  15. Dialectic and Dialogue in Plato: Refuting the Model of Socrates-as-Teacher in the Pursuit of Authentic "Paideia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, James Michael

    2014-01-01

    Incorporating Gadamer and other thinkers from the continental tradition, this essay is a close and detailed hermeneutic, phenomenological, and ontological study of the dialectic practice of Plato's Socrates--it radicalizes and refutes the Socrates-as-teacher model that educators from scholar academic ideology embrace.

  16. The Differences between Plato and Aristotle's Educational Philosophy%柏拉图与亚里士多德教育哲学的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘良华

    2012-01-01

    古典西方教育哲学分为两个阵营:柏拉图以苏格拉底的名义组建他的“理想国”,按照“理论理性”设计他的“政治哲学”和教育方案;柏拉图坚持“哲人王”统治、公产制和道德教育。亚里士多德虽然坚持了哲学对政治的指导,但他看到了哲学对政治的危险,按照“实践理性”的优先性开创了不同于柏拉图的“政治哲学”的“政治科学”以及相关的教育方案。亚里士多德重视轮流制、私有制和法制教育。%The classical philosophy of education is divided into two camps. Plato built his Republic in the name of Socrates and designed the political philosophy and education plan with the theoretical reason. He adhered to the rule of the “philosophy king”, the communist membership system and moral education. Aristotle realized the danger of the philosophy to the politics, although he insisted in the guidance of philosophy to politics. He created the political science and education plan with the practical reason instead of Plato's political philosophy. He valued the political rule, the private ownership, and the legal education.

  17. "Ideal" and "Body Ideal": Reading Plato, Foucault, Vico and Socrates%“理想”与“身体理想”——读柏拉图、福珂、维科和苏格拉底

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙潜

    2012-01-01

    从柏拉图的古希腊起,身体在人认知的体系中,是意识形态的,是价值判断的,亦是意义功能的。身体不是单纯的自然物,身体不能被看为一个独立的物体,它是一种社会现象。%Since Plato' s ancient Greece body has been considered part of human cognition system, involving the value judgment and meaning function. Body is not simply natural, but social as well.

  18. Evidence of transfer by conjugation of type IV secretion system genes between Bartonella species and Rhizobium radiobacter in amoeba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watcharee Saisongkorh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bartonella species cospeciate with mammals and live within erythrocytes. Even in these specific niches, it has been recently suggested by bioinformatic analysis of full genome sequences that Lateral Gene Transfer (LGT may occur but this has never been demonstrated biologically. Here we describe the sequence of the B. rattaustraliani (AUST/NH4(T circular plasmid (pNH4 that encodes the tra cluster of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS and we eventually provide evidence that Bartonella species may conjugate and exchange this plasmid inside amoeba. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The T4SS of pNH4 is critical for intracellular viability of bacterial pathogens, exhibits bioinformatic evidence of LGT among bacteria living in phagocytic protists. For instance, 3 out of 4 T4SS encoding genes from pNH4 appear to be closely related to Rhizobiales, suggesting that gene exchange occurs between intracellular bacteria from mammals (bartonellae and plants (Rhizobiales. We show that B. rattaustraliani and Rhizobium radiobacter both survived within the amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga and can conjugate together. Our findings further support the hypothesis that tra genes might also move into and out of bacterial communities by conjugation, which might be the primary means of genomic evolution for intracellular adaptation by cross-talk of interchangeable genes between Bartonella species and plant pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this, we speculate that amoeba favor the transfer of genes as phagocytic protists, which allows for intraphagocytic survival and, as a consequence, promotes the creation of potential pathogenic organisms.

  19. The Theory of Argumentation within Language and its relation to Plato, Saussure and Benveniste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Dall'Cortivo-Lebler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Theory of Argumentation within Language, developed by Oswald Ducrot, Jean-Claude Anscombre and Marion Carel, has experienced along its development different phases and forms, constantly seeking to align to what its main developer, Oswald Ducrot, called external hypotheses and internal hypotheses. This paper discusses the presence of Linguistic Theories and Philosophy in Ducrot’s work regarding concepts of Plato, Ferdinand de Saussure and Émile Benveniste, which constitute its external assumptions. The presence of these concepts culminated in the creation of different concepts that comprise the Linguistic Semantics, and gave it a specific point of view about language that emphasizes the internal relationships among language components and understands that speech is the result of a linguistic activity where an “I” speaks to a “you”.

  20. Efficient methods for solving discrete topology design problems in the PLATO-N project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canh, Nam Nguyen; Stolpe, Mathias

    This paper considers the general multiple load structural topology design problems in the framework of the PLATO-N project. The problems involve a large number of discrete design variables and were modeled as a non-convex mixed 0–1 program. For the class of problems considered, a global...... optimization method based on the branch-and-cut concept was developed and implemented. In the method a large number of continuous relaxations were solved. We also present an algorithm for generating cuts to strengthen the quality of the relaxations. Several heuristics were also investigated to obtain efficient...... algorithms. The branch and cut method is used to solve benchmark examples which can be used to validate other methods and heuristics....

  1. Banishing the Poet: The Pedagogical Function of Mythology in the Dialogues of Plato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martínez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This text attempts to develop a sound justification for Plato’s pedagogical use of myth in the dialogues. In particular, I seek to resolve a seeming contradiction: why Plato personally made use of myths in spite of his many statements that seem to contradict such a pedagogical approach, especially his edict that poets and myth-makers be banished from his republic for the danger their works pose to the attainment of true philosophical wisdom. An analysis of the centrality of myths to the dialogues is carried out, followed by a discussion of the place of muthos in its Ionian historical context. This establishes the basis for resolving the contradiction through the division of muthos into two distinct modes: the fantastic and the eikastic.

  2. Arete and Gender-Differentiation in Socrates/Plato and Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Robinson

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The article grapples with the question whether Plato believed that, in the matter of arete, the female psyche had a built-in inclination to immorality in a way that the male psyche did not, and was therefore assuch signiticantly different from the male psyche. It is argued that the evidence of the Timaeus ( and, to some lesser degree, of the Laws suggests very strongly that he did, though fortunately the political consequence she drew from this (in the Laws tum out to be positive rather than negative. Aristotle, by contrast,it is argued, while still holding to the lamentable theory of the inferiority of woman, talks of ditl'eringquanta of (one and the same arete in male and female souls, rather than a difference in their very arete.

  3. T4SP Database 2.0: An Improved Database for Type IV Secretion Systems in Bacterial Genomes with New Online Analysis Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Type IV secretion system (T4SS can mediate the passage of macromolecules across cellular membranes and is essential for virulent and genetic material exchange among bacterial species. The Type IV Secretion Project 2.0 (T4SP 2.0 database is an improved and extended version of the platform released in 2013 aimed at assisting with the detection of Type IV secretion systems (T4SS in bacterial genomes. This advanced version provides users with web server tools for detecting the existence and variations of T4SS genes online. The new interface for the genome browser provides a user-friendly access to the most complete and accurate resource of T4SS gene information (e.g., gene number, name, type, position, sequence, related articles, and quick links to other webs. Currently, this online database includes T4SS information of 5239 bacterial strains. Conclusions. T4SS is one of the most versatile secretion systems necessary for the virulence and survival of bacteria and the secretion of protein and/or DNA substrates from a donor to a recipient cell. This database on virB/D genes of the T4SS system will help scientists worldwide to improve their knowledge on secretion systems and also identify potential pathogenic mechanisms of various microbial species.

  4. T4SP Database 2.0: An Improved Database for Type IV Secretion Systems in Bacterial Genomes with New Online Analysis Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na; Yu, Weiwen; Qiang, Yujun

    2016-01-01

    Type IV secretion system (T4SS) can mediate the passage of macromolecules across cellular membranes and is essential for virulent and genetic material exchange among bacterial species. The Type IV Secretion Project 2.0 (T4SP 2.0) database is an improved and extended version of the platform released in 2013 aimed at assisting with the detection of Type IV secretion systems (T4SS) in bacterial genomes. This advanced version provides users with web server tools for detecting the existence and variations of T4SS genes online. The new interface for the genome browser provides a user-friendly access to the most complete and accurate resource of T4SS gene information (e.g., gene number, name, type, position, sequence, related articles, and quick links to other webs). Currently, this online database includes T4SS information of 5239 bacterial strains. Conclusions. T4SS is one of the most versatile secretion systems necessary for the virulence and survival of bacteria and the secretion of protein and/or DNA substrates from a donor to a recipient cell. This database on virB/D genes of the T4SS system will help scientists worldwide to improve their knowledge on secretion systems and also identify potential pathogenic mechanisms of various microbial species.

  5. Platón y el silogismo Plato and the syllogism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Correia Machuca

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La cuestión de si Platón pudo ser el autor de una primera noción de deducción silogística (un método que Aristóteles hizo conocido a través de una definición y un progreso teórico en los Analíticos Primeros fue discutida en la antigüedad y, desde entonces, debatida por varios comentaristas. En este artículo, comento dos pasajes de la literatura post-aristotélica, uno atestiguado por Boecio (que se remonta a Alejandro de Afrodisia y el otro presente en Juan Filópono, en su comentario a los Analíticos Primeros. El artículo intenta mostrar que estos pasajes contienen información suficiente para favorecer a Platón como conocedor de la técnica deductiva silogística, aunque no para conferirle el desarrollo de la metodología silogística.The question of whether Plato could be the author of a first concept of syllogistic deduction (a method that Aristotle made known by means of a definition and a theoretical improvement in his Prior Analytics was known in the antiquity and from that time, the question has usually examined by several commentators. In this article, I comment on two passages of post-Aristotelian tradition; one is given by Boethius (which stems from Alexander of Aphrodisias and the other was given by Johannes Philoponus in his commentary on Prior Analytics. The article intends to show that these passages contain information that is sufficient to come to an opinion favoring Plato, although it does not imply that they are sufficient to confer him the syllogistic method.

  6. Functional interactions of VirB11 traffic ATPases with VirB4 and VirD4 molecular motors in type IV secretion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll-Rozada, Jorge; Zunzunegui, Sandra; de la Cruz, Fernando; Arechaga, Ignacio; Cabezón, Elena

    2013-09-01

    Pilus biogenesis and substrate transport by type IV secretion systems require energy, which is provided by three molecular motors localized at the base of the secretion channel. One of these motors, VirB11, belongs to the superfamily of traffic ATPases, which includes members of the type II secretion system and the type IV pilus and archaeal flagellar assembly apparatus. Here, we report the functional interactions between TrwD, the VirB11 homolog of the conjugative plasmid R388, and TrwK and TrwB, the motors involved in pilus biogenesis and DNA transport, respectively. Although these interactions remained standing upon replacement of the traffic ATPase by a homolog from a phylogenetically related conjugative system, namely, TraG of plasmid pKM101, this homolog could not replace the TrwD function for DNA transfer. This result suggests that VirB11 works as a switch between pilus biogenesis and DNA transport and reinforces a mechanistic model in which VirB11 proteins act as traffic ATPases by regulating both events in type IV secretion systems.

  7. Methodology for commissioning a brachytherapy treatment planning system in the era of 3D planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Claire

    2010-12-01

    To describe the steps undertaken to commission a 3D high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment planning system (TPS). Emphasis was placed on validating previously published recommendations, in addition to checking 3D parameters such as treatment optimization and dose volume histogram (DVH) analysis. Commissioning was performed of the brachytherapy module of the Nucletron Oncentra MasterPlan treatment planning system (version 3.2). Commissioning test results were compared to an independent external beam TPS (Varian Eclipse v 8.6) and the previously commissioned Nucletron Plato (v 14.3.7) brachytherapy treatment planning system, with point doses also independently verified using the brachytherapy module in RadCalc (v 6.0) independent point dose calculation software. Tests were divided into eight categories: (i) Image import accuracy, (ii) Reconstruction accuracy, (iii) Source configuration data check, (iv) Dose calculation accuracy, (v) Treatment optimization validation, (vi) DVH reproducibility, (vii) Treatment export check and (viii) Printout consistency. Point dose agreement between Oncentra, Plato and RadCalc was better than 5% with source data and dose calculation protocols following the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) guidelines. Testing of image accuracy (import and reconstruction), along with validation of automated treatment optimization and DVH analysis generated a more comprehensive set of testing procedures than previously listed in published recommendations.

  8. Simulation results for PLATO: a prototype hybrid X-ray photon counting detector with a low energy threshold for fusion plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, A.; Menouni, M.; Pangaud, P.; Fenzi, C.; Colledani, G.; Moureau, G.; Escarguel, A.; Morel, C.

    2017-01-01

    PLATO is a prototype hybrid X-ray photon counting detector that has been designed to meet the specifications for plasma diagnostics for the WEST tokamak platform (Tungsten (W) Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) in southern France, with potential perspectives for ITER. PLATO represents a customized solution that fulfills high sensitivity, low dispersion and high photon counting rate. The PLATO prototype matrix is composed of 16 × 18 pixels with a 70 μm pixel pitch. New techniques have been used in analog sensitive blocks to minimize noise coupling through supply rails and substrate, and to suppress threshold dispersion across the matrix. The PLATO ASIC is designed in CMOS 0.13 μm technology and was submitted for a fabrication run in June 2016. The chip is designed to be bump-bonded to a silicon sensor. This paper presents pixel architecture as well as simulation results while highlighting novel solutions.

  9. VirB7 and VirB9 Interactions Are Required for the Assembly and Antibacterial Activity of a Type IV Secretion System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, Luciana Coutinho; Souza, Diorge Paulo; Oka, Gabriel Umaji; Lima, Filipe da Silva; Oliveira, Ronaldo Junio; Favaro, Denize Cristina; Wienk, Hans; Boelens, Rolf; Farah, Chuck Shaker; Salinas, Roberto Kopke

    2016-01-01

    The type IV secretion system (T4SS) from the phytopathogen Xanthomonas citri (Xac) is a bactericidal nanomachine. The T4SS core complex is a ring composed of multiple copies of VirB7-VirB9-VirB10 subunits. Xac-VirB7 contains a disordered N-terminal tail (VirB7(NT)) that recognizes VirB9, and a C-ter

  10. The Canadian Systemic Sclerosis Oral Health Study IV: oral radiographic manifestations in systemic sclerosis compared with the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagenais, Marie; MacDonald, David; Baron, Murray; Hudson, Marie; Tatibouet, Solène; Steele, Russell; Gravel, Sabrina; Mohit, Shrisha; Sayegh, Tarek El; Pope, Janet; Fontaine, Audrey; Masseto, Ariel; Matthews, Debora; Sutton, Evelyn; Thie, Norman; Jones, Niall; Copete, Maria; Kolbinson, Dean; Markland, Janet; Nogueira-Filho, Getulio; Robinson, David; Gornitsky, Mervyn

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare oral radiologic abnormalities associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc) against abnormalities in the general population. Study Design Patients with SSc and healthy controls were enrolled in a multi-site cross-sectional study. Included in the radiology examination were a panoramic radiograph, four bitewings, and an anterior mandibular periapical radiograph. Radiographs were evaluated by two oral and maxillofacial radiologists tested for interobserver and intraobserver reliability. Chi-squared tests, Fisher exact tests, and Mann Whitney U tests were used to summarize the radiologic manifestations of patients and controls. Results We assessed 163 SSc patients and 231 controls. Widening of the periodontal ligament space (PLS) (P < .001), with higher percentage of teeth with PLS widening (P < .001), was significantly more frequent in patients with SSc than in controls. The most significant differences between the two groups were found in the molars and premolars (P < .001). Moreover, 26% of the patients with SSc had a periapical PLS greater than 0.19 mm compared with 13% of the controls (P = .003). Patients with SSc had significantly more erosions compared with controls (14.5% vs. 3.6%; P < .001), mostly in the condyles (P = .022), coronoid processes (P = .005) and other locations (P = .012). Conclusion Patients with SSc had more teeth with PLS widening and erosions of the mandible compared with controls. PMID:25959972

  11. Cocaine use disorder prevalence: From current DSM-IV to proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria with both a two and three severity level classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Steven L; Kopak, Albert M; Hoffmann, Norman G

    2014-06-01

    This article presents a secondary analysis from a study investigating the compatibility of the current DSM-IV and previously proposed DSM-5 cocaine use disorder (CUD) criteria (S. L. Proctor, A. M. Kopak, & N. G. Hoffmann, 2012, Compatibility of current DSM-IV and proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for cocaine use disorders. Addictive Behaviors, 37, 722-728). The current analyses examined the compatibility of the current DSM-IV and two sets of proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for CUDs among adult male inmates (N = 6,871) recently admitted to the Minnesota Department of Corrections state prison system from 2000-2003. Initially proposed DSM-5 criteria (DSM-5.0) featured only two diagnostic designations (i.e., moderate and severe). A subsequent revision (DSM-5.1) included the addition of a mild designation and required a greater number of positive findings for the severe designation. A computer-prompted structured diagnostic interview was administered to all inmates as part of routine clinical assessments. The past 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV CUDs was 12.70% (Abuse, 3.78%, Dependence, 8.92%), while 10.98% met past 12-month DSM-5.1 criteria for a CUD (Mild [MiCUD], 1.72%; Moderate [MCUD], 1.12%; and Severe [SCUD], 8.14%). The vast majority of those with no diagnosis (99.6%) continued to have no diagnosis, and most of those with a dependence diagnosis (91.2%) met SCUD criteria of the proposed DSM-5.1. Most of the variation in DSM-5.1 diagnostic classifications was accounted for by those with a current abuse diagnosis. DSM-5.0 MCUD cases were most affected when DSM-5.1 criteria were applied. The proposed diagnostic changes might translate to reduced access to treatment for those individuals evincing symptoms consistent with DSM-IV cocaine abuse.

  12. Generation IV nuclear energy system initiative. Large GFR core subassemblydesign for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, E. A.; Kulak, R. F.; Therios, I. U.; Wei, T. Y. C.

    2006-07-31

    Gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) designs are being developed to meet Gen IV goals of sustainability, economics, safety and reliability, and proliferation resistance and physical protection as part of an International Generation IV Nuclear Energy System Research Initiative effort. Different organizations are involved in the development of a variety of GFR design concepts. The current analysis has focused on the evaluation of low-pressure drop, pin-core designs with favorable passive cooling properties. Initial evaluation of the passive cooling safety case for the GFR during depressurized decay heat removal accidents with concurrent loss of electric power have resulted in requirements for a reduction of core power density to the 100 w/cc level and a low core pressure drop of 0.5 bars. Additional design constraints and the implementation of their constraints are evaluated in this study to enhance and passive cooling properties of the reactor. Passive cooling is made easier by a flat radial distribution of the decay heat. One goal of this study was to evaluate the radial power distribution and determine to what extent it can be flattened, since the decay heat is nearly proportional to the fission power at shutdown. In line with this investigation of the radial power profile, an assessment was also made of the control rod configuration. The layout provided a large number of control rod locations with a fixed area provided for control rods. The number of control rods was consistent with other fast reactor designs. The adequacy of the available control rod locations was evaluated. Future studies will be needed to optimize the control rod designs and evaluate the shutdown system. The case for low pressure drop core can be improved by the minimization of pressure drop sources such as the number of required fuel spacers in the subassembly design and by the details of the fuel pin design. The fuel pin design is determined by a number of neutronic, thermal-hydraulic (gas dynamics

  13. A new family of donor-acceptor systems comprising tin(IV) porphyrin and anthracene subunits: Synthesis, spectroscopy and energy transfer studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Ashok Kumar; L Giribabu; Bhaskar G Maiya

    2002-12-01

    A new family of covalently linked `Sn(IV) porphyrin-anthracene’ diad (1), triad (2) and tetrad (3) donor-acceptor (D-A) systems have been designed and synthesized in good-to-moderate yields. While diad 1 possesses one anthracene subunit at the peripheral (meso) position of the tin(IV) porphyrin scaffold, triad 2 possesses two trans axial anthracene subunits at the tin(IV) centre. On the other hand, tetrad 3 is endowed with both the peripheral and axial anthracene subunits in its architecture. These D-A systems have been fully characterised by elemental analysis, FAB-MS, UV-Vis, 1H and 13C NMR and electrochemical methods. UV-Vis, NMR and redox data suggest the absence of intramolecular - interaction between the porphyrin and the anthracene/s in 1-3. Fluorescence from the anthracene subunit in 1 and 3 is found to be quenched in comparison with the fluorescence of free anthracene in four different solvents. This is not the case with compound 2. Excitation spectral data provides evidence for an intramolecular excitation energy transfer (EET) from the singlet anthracene to the porphyrin in 1 and 3. The energy transfer efficiency is in the order: 2 (almost negligible) < 3 (∼ 30%) < 1 (nearly quantitative), with the peripheral anthracene → porphyrin pathway being largely favoured. This orientation dependence of EET could be analysed using Forster’s dipole dipole mechanism.

  14. Establishment of systemic Brucella melitensis infection through the digestive tract requires urease, the type IV secretion system, and lipopolysaccharide O antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Tatiane A; Roux, Christelle M; den Hartigh, Andreas B; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi; Dandekar, Satya; Santos, Renato L; Tsolis, Renée M

    2009-10-01

    Human brucellosis is caused mainly by Brucella melitensis, which is often acquired by ingesting contaminated goat or sheep milk and cheese. Bacterial factors required for food-borne infection of humans by B. melitensis are poorly understood. In this study, a mouse model of oral infection was characterized to assess the roles of urease, the VirB type IV secretion system, and lipopolysaccharide for establishing infection through the digestive tract. B. melitensis strain 16M was consistently recovered from the mesenteric lymph node (MLN), spleen, and liver beginning at 3 or 7 day postinfection (dpi). In the gut, persistence of the inoculum was observed up to 21 dpi. No inflammatory lesions were observed in the ileum or colon during infection. Mutant strains lacking the ureABC genes of the ure1 operon, virB2, or pmm encoding phosphomannomutase were constructed and compared to the wild-type strain for infectivity through the digestive tract. Mutants lacking the virB2 and pmm genes were attenuated in the spleen (P melitensis transited rapidly through polarized enterocyte monolayers containing M-like cells; however, transit through monolayers containing only enterocytes was reduced or absent. These results indicate that B. melitensis is able to spread systemically from the digestive tract after infection, most likely through M cells of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.

  15. CagI is an essential component of the Helicobacter pylori Cag type IV secretion system and forms a complex with CagL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieu Thuy Pham

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori, the causative agent of type B gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma, uses the Cag type IV secretion system to induce a strong proinflammatory response in the gastric mucosa and to inject its effector protein CagA into gastric cells. CagA translocation results in altered host cell gene expression profiles and cytoskeletal rearrangements, and it is considered as a major bacterial virulence trait. Recently, it has been shown that binding of the type IV secretion apparatus to integrin receptors on target cells is a crucial step in the translocation process. Several bacterial proteins, including the Cag-specific components CagL and CagI, have been involved in this interaction. Here, we have examined the localization and interactions of CagI in the bacterial cell. Since the cagI gene overlaps and is co-transcribed with the cagL gene, the role of CagI for type IV secretion system function has been difficult to assess, and conflicting results have been reported regarding its involvement in the proinflammatory response. Using a marker-free gene deletion approach and genetic complementation, we show now that CagI is an essential component of the Cag type IV secretion apparatus for both CagA translocation and interleukin-8 induction. CagI is distributed over soluble and membrane-associated pools and seems to be partly surface-exposed. Deletion of several genes encoding essential Cag components has an impact on protein levels of CagI and CagL, suggesting that both proteins require partial assembly of the secretion apparatus. Finally, we show by co-immunoprecipitation that CagI and CagL interact with each other. Taken together, our results indicate that CagI and CagL form a functional complex which is formed at a late stage of secretion apparatus assembly.

  16. MasABK Proteins Interact with Proteins of the Type IV Pilin System to Affect Social Motility of Myxococcus xanthus

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Fremgen; Amanda Williams; Gou Furusawa; Katarzyna Dziewanowska; Matthew Settles; Patricia Hartzell

    2013-01-01

    Gliding motility is critical for normal development of spore-filled fruiting bodies in the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Mutations in mgl block motility and development but one mgl allele can be suppressed by a mutation in masK, the last gene in an operon adjacent to the mgl operon. Deletion of the entire 5.5 kb masABK operon crippled gliding and fruiting body development and decreased sporulation. Expression of pilAGHI, which encodes type IV pili (TFP) components essential for social (S...

  17. From Pericles to Plato – from democratic political praxis to totalitarian political philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øjvind Larsen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Plato is normally taken as one of the founders of Western political philosophy, not at least with his Republic. Here, he constructs a hierarchy of forms of governments, beginning with aristocracy at the top as a critical standard for the other forms of governments, and proceeding through timocracy and oligarchy to democracy and tyranny at the bottom. Following Karl Popper, the paper argues that Plato’s is a totalitarian philosophy that emphasizes the similarities between democracy and tyranny, which it considers to be the two worst forms of government. Plato’s denigration of democracy has dominated the tradition of political philosophy until recent times. This paper, however, shows that political philosophy in fact originates in democracy, especially as developed by the sophists and that philosophy is only a form of sophism with a similar origin in ancient Greek democracy. A discussion of Pericles’ funeral oration is used to show that Pericles presented a democratic political philosophy that can serve as a counterpoint to Plato’s political philosophy in the Republic.

  18. Plato's Concept of Justice%论柏拉图的正义观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣如

    2015-01-01

    本文以柏拉图的作品《申辩》、《斐多》、《理想国》为切入点,论述了正义是在应在的位置上做应做之事、正义的本质是灵魂的一种属性以及正义的产生,并通过作品提供的背景和对话讨论了正义之人和不义之人的区别、正义的种类、正义行为的动机、正义的各种不同状态等问题.%In this paper, the works of Plato,"defense","Phaedo","Utopia"as the starting point, discusses the justice should be done is to do things in a position to be in, the nature of justice is an attribute of the soul, and justice generation, background and dialogue and through providing discussed works of justice and the unrighteous man of distinction, just the kind of moti-vation act of justice, justice of various states and other issues.

  19. Wolbachia lipoproteins: abundance, localisation and serology of Wolbachia peptidoglycan associated lipoprotein and the Type IV Secretion System component, VirB6 from Brugia malayi and Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, Denis; Guimarães, Ana F; Molyneux, Gemma R; Johnston, Kelly L; Ford, Louise; Taylor, Mark J

    2014-10-06

    Lipoproteins are the major agonists of Wolbachia-dependent inflammatory pathogenesis in filariasis and a validated target for drug discovery. Here we characterise the abundance, localisation and serology of the Wolbachia lipoproteins: Wolbachia peptidoglycan associated lipoprotein and the Type IV Secretion System component, VirB6. We used proteomics to confirm lipoprotein presence and relative abundance; fractionation, immunoblotting and confocal and electron immuno-microscopy for localisation and ELISA for serological analysis. Proteomic analysis of Brugia malayi adult female protein extracts confirmed the presence of two lipoproteins, previously predicted through bioinformatics: Wolbachia peptidoglycan associated lipoprotein (wBmPAL) and the Type IV Secretion System component, VirB6 (wBmVirB6). wBmPAL was among the most abundant Wolbachia proteins present in an extract of adult female worms with wBmVirB6 only detected at a much lower abundance. This differential abundance was reflected in the immunogold-labelling, which showed wBmPAL localised at numerous sites within the bacterial membranes, whereas wBmVirB6 was present as a single cluster on each bacterial cell and also located within the bacterial membranes. Immunoblotting of fractionated extracts confirmed the localisation of wBmPAL to membranes and its absence from cytosolic fractions of C6/36 mosquito cells infected with wAlbB. In whole worm mounts, antibody labelling of both lipoproteins were associated with Wolbachia. Serological analysis showed that both proteins were immunogenic and raised antibody responses in the majority of individuals infected with Wuchereria bancrofti. Two Wolbachia lipoproteins, wBmPAL and wBmVirB6, are present in extracts of Brugia malayi with wBmPAL among the most abundant of Wolbachia proteins. Both lipoproteins localised to bacterial membranes with wBmVirB6 present as a single cluster suggesting a single Type IV Secretory System on each Wolbachia cell.

  20. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1976-03-26 to 1976-05-08 (NCEI Accession 7700224)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the National Marine...

  1. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1975-02-15 to 1976-05-21 (NCEI Accession 7601744)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the National Marine...

  2. Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of the anti-tubercular prodrug isoniazid and its analog by iridium(iv) as models for biological redox systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jingran; Ren, Yanli; Sun, Sufang; Yang, Jiao; Nan, Chunxia; Shi, Hongmei; Xu, Jianzhong; Duan, Jie; Shi, Tiesheng; Elding, Lars I

    2017-07-04

    A complex reaction mechanism of oxidation of the anti-tubercular prodrug isoniazid (isonicotinic hydrazide, INH) by [IrCl6](2-) as a model for redox processes of such drugs in biological systems has been studied in aqueous solution as a function of pH between 0 and 8.5. Similar experiments have been performed with its isomer nicotinic hydrazide (NH). All reactions are overall second-order, first-order in [IrCl6](2-) and hydrazide, and the observed second-order rate constants k' have been determined as a function of pH. Spectrophotometric titrations indicate a stoichiometry of [Ir(iv)] : [hydrazide] = 4 : 1. HPLC analysis shows that the oxidation product of INH is isonicotinic acid. The derived reaction mechanism, based on rate law, time-resolved spectra and stoichiometry, involves parallel attacks by [IrCl6](2-) on all four protolytic species of INH and NH as rate-determining steps, depending on pH. These steps are proposed to generate two types of hydrazyl free radicals. These radicals react further in three rapid consecutive processes, leading to the final oxidation products. Rate constants for the rate-determining steps have been determined for all protolytic species I-IV of INH and NH. They are used to calculate reactivity-pH diagrams. These diagrams demonstrate that for both systems, species IV is ca. 10(5) times more reactive in the redox process than the predominant species III at the physiological pH of 7.4. Thus, species IV will be the main reactant, in spite of the fact that its concentration at this pH is extremely low, a fact that has not been considered in previous work. The results indicate that pH changes might be an important factor in the activation process of INH in biological systems also, and that in such systems this process most likely is more complicated than previously assumed.

  3. In silico identification of potential chaperone genes that belong to type III and type IV secretion systems in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Khater

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The secretion of bacterial virulence factors and flagellar components requires the assistance of specific type III and flagellar chaperones. Standard computational annotation of the genome of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri, a plant pathogen that causes citrus canker, initially did not identify any genes belonging to these chaperone categories since the primary sequence homology between them was very low. However, in a search for hypothetical proteins with characteristics similar to these chaperones, we have now identified 30 chromosomal and 10 plasmidial potential genes encoding chaperones belonging to types III/IV, and flagellar secretion systems in this organism. The significance of these findings is discussed.

  4. Lost in follow-up rates in TRACER, ATLAS ACS 2, TRITON and TRA 2P trials: challenging PLATO mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNicolantonio, James J; Can, Mehmet Mustafa; Serebruany, Victor L

    2013-04-15

    Extreme rates of vascular and all-cause mortality especially in the clopidogrel arm of the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) non-USA cohort raise concerns of data integrity, and call for independent verification of vital records in the national death registries. Four recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) trials: Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRACER), Anti-Xa therapy to lower cardiovascular events in addition to standard therapy in subjects with acute coronary syndrome (ATLAS-ACS 2), Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition with Prasugrel (TRITON), and the Thrombin Receptor Antagonist in Secondary Prevention of Atherothrombotic Ischemic Events (TRA 2P), provide a valuable opportunity to match lost in follow-up (LIFU) with mortality rates among similar ACS studies. To compare the LIFU from PLATO, TRACER, ATLAS-ACS 2, TRITON-TIMI 38 and TRA 2P trials. The disturbingly high (8.9%-14.7%) LIFU in PLATO was no match to LIFU in TRACER (0.1%), ATLAS ACS 2 (0.3%), TRITON (0.1%) and TRA 2P (0.1%). In fact, such an astronomical (49-147 fold higher) PLATO LIFU rate should result in less mortality compared to the other ACS trials since no event can be reported or adjudicated if the patient has been lost. Adjusting LIFU rate revealed that vascular (5.55%) and all cause (6.05%) mortality in PLATO was even more disparate than in TRACER (3.2% and 4.9%), ATLAS-ACS 2 (4.1% and 4.5%), TRITON-TIMI 38 (2.4% and 3.2%) and TRA 2P (3.0% and 5.3%) control arms, respectfully. Moreover, the incomplete CV follow-up in the ATLAS ACS 2 trial was later revealed to be around 12%, which lead to the rejection of rivaroxaban for the treatment of ACS. PLATO's LIFU rate was just as high, if not higher, than seen in ATLAS ACS 2. The chance to die in PLATO far exceeds the mortality risks observed in the clopidogrel arms of four recent ACS trials, which becomes especially evident after

  5. Influence of UV lamp, sulfur(IV) concentration, and pH on bromate degradation in UV/sulfite systems: Mechanisms and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qian; Wang, Ting; Yu, Shuili; Yi, Peng; Li, Lei

    2017-03-15

    Bromate (BrO3(-)) is a possible human carcinogen regulated worldwide at a strict standard of 10 μg/L in drinking water. Removal of BrO3(-) by advanced reduction processes (ARPs) has attracted much attention due to its high reduction efficiency and easier combination with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. In this study, we employed a UV/sulfite process to degrade BrO3(-) and studied the effects of UV lamp, sulfur(IV) concentration, and pH on effectiveness of the system in degrading BrO3(-). Low-pressure UV lamps (UV-L) instead of medium-pressure UV lamps (UV-M) were selected because of the high ultraviolet-C (UV-C) efficiency of UV-L. The increased sulfur(IV) concentration is proportionally correlated with enhanced degradation kinetics. BrO3(-) reduction was improved by increasing pH when pH is within 6.0-9.0, and principal component analysis demonstrated that pH is the most influential factor over sulfur(IV) concentration and type of UV lamp. Degradation mechanisms at different pH levels were subsequently investigated. Results showed that the reduction reactions are induced by hydrated electron (eaq(-)) at pH > 9.0, by H at pH 4.0, and by both eaq(-) and H at pH 7.0. Effective quantum efficiency for the formation of eaq(-) and H in the photocatalytic systems was determined to be 0.109 ± 0.001 and 0.034 ± 0.001 mol E(-1), respectively. Furthermore, mass balance calculation of bromine and sulfur at pH 7 showed that bromide, sulfate and possibly dithionate ions were the major products, and a degradation pathway was proposed accordingly. Moreover, UV/sulfite processes could reduce the initial bromate concentration of 0.1 mM by 82% and 95% in the presence and absence of O2 in tap water respectively, and 99% in the absence of O2 in deionized water within 20 min at pH 9.0 and 2.0 mM sulfur (IV).

  6. PRECIOUS METALS IN SDSS QUASAR SPECTRA. I. TRACKING THE EVOLUTION OF STRONG, 1.5 < z < 4.5 C IV ABSORBERS WITH THOUSANDS OF SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooksey, Kathy L. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 37-685 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Kao, Melodie M. [Caltech, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Simcoe, Robert A. [Department of Physics, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 37-664D, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); O' Meara, John M. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael' s College, One Winooski Park, Colchester, VT 05439 (United States); Prochaska, J. Xavier, E-mail: kcooksey@space.mit.edu, E-mail: mkao@caltech.edu, E-mail: simcoe@space.mit.edu, E-mail: jomeara@smcvt.edu, E-mail: xavier@ucolick.org [Department of Astronomy and UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-01-20

    We have vastly increased the C IV statistics at intermediate redshift by surveying the thousands of quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data-Release 7. We visually verified over 16,000 C IV systems with 1.46 < z < 4.55-a sample size that renders Poisson error negligible. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations show that we are approximately 50% complete down to rest equivalent widths W {sub r} Almost-Equal-To 0.6 A. We analyzed the sample as a whole and in 10 small redshift bins with approximately 1500 doublets each. The equivalent width frequency distributions f(W {sub r}) were well modeled by an exponential, with little evolution in shape. In contrast with previous studies that modeled the frequency distribution as a single power law, the fitted exponential gives a finite mass density for the C IV ions. The comoving line density dN{sub CIV}/dX evolved smoothly with redshift, increasing by a factor of 2.37 {+-} 0.09 from z = 4.55-1.96, then plateauing at dN{sub CIV}/dX{approx}0.34 for z = 1.96-1.46. Comparing our SDSS sample with z < 1 (ultraviolet) and z > 5 (infrared) surveys, we see an approximately 10-fold increase in dN{sub CIV}/dX over z Almost-Equal-To 6 {yields} 0, for W {sub r} {>=} 0.6 A. This suggests a monotonic and significant increase in the enrichment of gas outside galaxies over the 12 Gyr lifetime of the universe.

  7. Bifurcation of Codimension 3 in a Predator-Prey System of Leslie Type with Simplified Holling Type IV Functional Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jicai; Xia, Xiaojing; Zhang, Xinan; Ruan, Shigui

    It was shown in [Li & Xiao, 2007] that in a predator-prey model of Leslie type with simplified Holling type IV functional response some complex bifurcations can occur simultaneously for some values of parameters, such as codimension 1 subcritical Hopf bifurcation and codimension 2 Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation. In this paper, we show that for the same model there exists a unique degenerate positive equilibrium which is a degenerate Bogdanov-Takens singularity (focus case) of codimension 3 for other values of parameters. We prove that the model exhibits degenerate focus type Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation of codimension 3 around the unique degenerate positive equilibrium. Numerical simulations, including the coexistence of three hyperbolic positive equilibria, two limit cycles, bistability states (one stable equilibrium and one stable limit cycle, or two stable equilibria), tristability states (two stable equilibria and one stable limit cycle), a stable limit cycle enclosing a homoclinic loop, a homoclinic loop enclosing an unstable limit cycle, or a stable limit cycle enclosing three unstable hyperbolic positive equilibria for various parameter values, confirm the theoretical results.

  8. Ancient philosophical ideas of the soul (Plato-Aristotelian tradition and Stoicism as a source of Patristic Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaitsev Cornelius

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the ancient idea of the soul that in the patristic era has been enriched by the perception of the methodology of ancient philosophy. Greek and Roman thinkers considered some properties of the soul, its immortality, revealed its “levels and strata” (Plato, Aristotle, expressed first guesses about the nature of sinful passions (the Stoics. But some aspects still remained unresolved so far. This is the issue of materiality or immateriality, of the soul, which "raised" in the Russian Empire in the 19th century (the dispute saints Theophan the Recluse and Ignatius Brianchaninov and remains relevant today.

  9. Toward a Poeticognosis: Re-reading Plato's The Republic via Wallace Stevens' "An Ordinary Evening in New Haven"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Disney

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a language-based re-reading of Plato's exile of the poets via Wallace Stevens' poem-manifesto, "An Ordinary Evening in New Haven." I examine how philosophy and poetry use language differently in order to deconstruct an origin of the speech-acts -- wonder -- that I then identify as a phenomenological difference between philosophers and poets. I contend that the thinking-into-language of philosophers is based in theoria, comprehension, and a resulting closure of wonder. I contrast this with the processes of poets, who I show to be moving thought into language via gnosis, apprehension, and a phenomenology opening onto inexhaustible wonder.

  10. Love and/in psychoanalysis: a commentary on Lacan's reading of Plato's Symposium in Seminar VIII: Transference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bruce

    2015-02-01

    What is love and what part does it play in psychoanalysis? Where are the analyst and the analysand situated in relation to the roles defined as those of the "lover" and the "beloved"? Jacques Lacan explores these and other questions in his soon-to-be-published Seminar VIII: Transference by providing an extensive commentary on Plato's most famous dialogue on love, the Symposium. This paper outlines some of the major points about love that grow out of Lacan's reading of the dialogue and examines their relevance to the analytic setting. Can the analyst be characterized as a sort of modern-day Socrates?

  11. In vivo efficacy of azithromycin in treatment of systemic infection and septic arthritis induced by type IV group B Streptococcus strains in mice: comparative study with erythromycin and penicillin G.

    OpenAIRE

    Tissi, L; von Hunolstein, C; Mosci, P; Campanelli, C; Bistoni, F.; Orefici, G

    1995-01-01

    We compared the activities of azithromycin, erythromycin, and penicillin G in a mouse model of systemic infection and septic arthritis induced by type IV group B streptococci (GBS). The in vitro and in vivo efficacy data for these drugs were analyzed relative to the pharmacokinetics of the drugs in sera, joints, and kidneys. Adult CD-1 mice were infected intravenously with 10(7) CFU of type IV GBS. Intraperitoneal drug administration was initiated with different dose regimens at different tim...

  12. MasABK proteins interact with proteins of the type IV pilin system to affect social motility of Myxococcus xanthus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Fremgen

    Full Text Available Gliding motility is critical for normal development of spore-filled fruiting bodies in the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Mutations in mgl block motility and development but one mgl allele can be suppressed by a mutation in masK, the last gene in an operon adjacent to the mgl operon. Deletion of the entire 5.5 kb masABK operon crippled gliding and fruiting body development and decreased sporulation. Expression of pilAGHI, which encodes type IV pili (TFP components essential for social (S gliding, several cryptic pil genes, and a LuxR family protein were reduced significantly in the Δmas mutant while expression of the myxalamide operon was increased significantly. Localization and two-hybrid analysis suggest that the three Mas proteins form a membrane complex. MasA-PhoA fusions confirmed that MasA is an integral cytoplasmic membrane protein with a ≈100 amino acid periplasmic domain. Results from yeast two-hybrid assays showed that MasA interacts with the lipoprotein MasB and MasK, a protein kinase and that MasB and MasK interact with one another. Additionally, yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed a physical interaction between two gene products of the mas operon, MasA and MasB, and PilA. Deletion of mas may be accompanied by compensatory mutations since complementation of the Δmas social gliding and developmental defects required addition of both pilA and masABK.

  13. MasABK proteins interact with proteins of the type IV pilin system to affect social motility of Myxococcus xanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremgen, Sarah; Williams, Amanda; Furusawa, Gou; Dziewanowska, Katarzyna; Settles, Matthew; Hartzell, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Gliding motility is critical for normal development of spore-filled fruiting bodies in the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Mutations in mgl block motility and development but one mgl allele can be suppressed by a mutation in masK, the last gene in an operon adjacent to the mgl operon. Deletion of the entire 5.5 kb masABK operon crippled gliding and fruiting body development and decreased sporulation. Expression of pilAGHI, which encodes type IV pili (TFP) components essential for social (S) gliding, several cryptic pil genes, and a LuxR family protein were reduced significantly in the Δmas mutant while expression of the myxalamide operon was increased significantly. Localization and two-hybrid analysis suggest that the three Mas proteins form a membrane complex. MasA-PhoA fusions confirmed that MasA is an integral cytoplasmic membrane protein with a ≈100 amino acid periplasmic domain. Results from yeast two-hybrid assays showed that MasA interacts with the lipoprotein MasB and MasK, a protein kinase and that MasB and MasK interact with one another. Additionally, yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed a physical interaction between two gene products of the mas operon, MasA and MasB, and PilA. Deletion of mas may be accompanied by compensatory mutations since complementation of the Δmas social gliding and developmental defects required addition of both pilA and masABK.

  14. Chemiluminescent determination of vanadium(IV) using a cinchomeronic hydrazide-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system and flow injection analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradana Perez, J.A. [Departamento de Ciencias Analiticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, c/Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Alegria, J.S. Durand [Departamento de Ciencias Analiticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, c/Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Hernando, P. Fernandez [Departamento de Ciencias Analiticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, c/Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: pfhernando@ccia.uned.es; Sierra, A. Narros [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y del Medio Ambiente, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2005-04-22

    This paper proposes a new chemiluminescent flow injection analysis (FIA) method for the determination of vanadium(IV) ions in aqueous media. The method is based on the chemiluminescent reaction that occurs between cinchomeronic hydrazide (CH) and hydrogen peroxide in a strongly alkaline medium, in which vanadium(IV) acts as a catalyst. The chemical and physical variables involved in the flow injection system are optimised using a modified simplex method. Vanadium ions can be detected in the 0.08 and 1.00 {mu}g mL{sup -1} range; the detection limit for a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 is 0.08 {mu}g mL{sup -1}. Great variations in the quantum yield were observed when cobalt(II), chromium(III), copper(II) and/or nickel(II) were present in the reaction medium. The proposed method is selective and simple, and can be successfully used to analyse water samples without the need for separation or preconcentration processes.

  15. Polypropylene non-woven fabric membrane via surface modification with biomimetic phosphorylcholine in Ce(IV)/HNO{sub 3} redox system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Jie; Shi Qiang; Luan Shifang; Song Lingjie; Yang Huawei [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Stagnaro, Paola [Istituto per Io Studio delle Macromolecole, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via de Marini 6, 16149 Genova (Italy); Yin Jinghua, E-mail: yinjh@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-10-01

    Surface modification of polypropylene non-woven fabric membrane (NWF) for improving its hemocompatibility was developed by grafting a biomimic monomer, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorycholine (MPC). The NWF membrane surface was first activated by potassium peroxydisulfate to form hydroxyl groups, and then grafted with MPC using ceric (IV) ammonium nitrate as the redox initiator. The surface chemical changes before and after modification were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with an ATR unit (FTIR-ATR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); the water contact angle results showed the gradual changes in wettability from hydrophobic to hydrophilic surface. Meanwhile, the hemocompatibility of these samples was also evaluated by protein adsorption and platelet adhesion. These experimental results exhibited that the introduction of poly(MPC) onto the NWF membrane surfaces substantially improved their hemocompatibility. The feasibility and simplicity of this procedure may lead to potential applications of NWF membranes in biomedical separation and blood purification. - Graphical abstract: 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorycholine (MPC), was grafted onto non-woven fabric (NWF) membrane surface by Ce(IV)/HNO{sub 3} redox system. The protein adsorption and platelet adhesion were substantially suppressed by the introduction of poly(MPC). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPC was successfully grafted onto NWF PP membrane surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Obviously enhanced hemocompatibility was acquired by the modified samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A facile redox grafting was adopted in the whole process.

  16. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IV. Commercial potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) report provides time and cost estimates for positioning new nuclear power systems for commercial deployment. The assessment also estimates the rates at which the new systems might penetrate the domestic market, assuming the continuing viability of the massive light-water reactor network that now exists worldwide. This assessment does not recommend specific, detailed program plans and budgets for individual systems; however, it is clear from this analysis that any of the systems investigated could be deployed if dictated by national interest.

  17. ¿Solamente platos? Cerámicas de barniz rojo en el depósito ibérico del Zacatín (Granada)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Moreno, Amparo; Niveau de Villedary y Mariñas, Ana María; Adroher Auroux, Andrés María

    2015-01-01

    Se presenta un conjunto homogéneo de platos de barniz rojo indígena con un perfil muy particular y sin paralelos conocidos por el momento. Dicho conjunto formaba parte del depósito ritual hallado en la granadina calle del Zacatín, una fosa junto al río Darro que se rellenó con los resultantes de un festín sagrado posiblemente en relación con el propio río. En este trabajo planteamos que estos platos fueron fabricados ex profeso para el ritual que tuvo lugar fuera de las murallas de Iliberri e...

  18. Explorations of new phases in the Ga(III)/In(III)-Cu(II)-Se(IV)-O system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fang; Lin, Qi-Pu; Yi, Fei-Yan; Mao, Jiang-Gao

    2009-07-20

    Four new gallium(III)/indium(III), copper(II), selenium(IV) oxides, namely, Ga(2)Cu(SeO(3))(4) (1), Ga(2)CuO(SeO(3))(3) (2), and M(2)Cu(3)(SeO(3))(6) (M = Ga 3, In 4), have been synthesized by hydrothermal or high-temperature solid-state reactions. The structure of Ga(2)Cu(SeO(3))(4) (1) features a 2D layer of corner-sharing GaO(6) and CuO(6) octahedra with the SeO(3) groups hanging on both sides of the 2D layer. Ga(2)CuO(SeO(3))(3) (2) features a pillared layered structure in which the 1D Cu(SeO(3))(3)(4-) chains act as the pillars between 2D layers formed by corner- and edge-sharing GaO(n) (n = 4, 5) polyhedra. Although the chemical compositions of M(2)Cu(3)(SeO(3))(6) (M = Ga 3, In 4) are comparable, they belong to two different structural types. Ga(2)Cu(3)(SeO(3))(6) (3) exhibits a pillared layered structure built by [Ga(2)Cu(3)(SeO(3))(4)](4+) thick layers with Se(3)O(3)(2-) groups as pillars. The structure of In(2)Cu(3)(SeO(3))(6) (4) features a 3D network composed of [In(2)(SeO(3))(2)](2+) layers and [Cu(3)(SeO(3))(4)](2-) layers interconnected through Se-O-Cu and In-O-Cu bridges, exhibiting 8-MR helical tunnels along the a-axis. Results of magnetic property measurements indicate that there are considerable antiferromagnetic interactions between copper(II) centers in Ga(2)CuO(SeO(3))(3) (2) and M(2)Cu(3)(SeO(3))(6) (M = Ga 3, In 4). Interestingly, Ga(2)Cu(3)(SeO(3))(6) (3) behaves as a weak ferromagnet below the critical temperature of T(c) = 15 K. Further magnetic studies indicate that the compound is a canted antiferromagnet with a large canting angle of about 7.1 degrees.

  19. Negação e diferença em Platão Negation and diference in Plato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Christina de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Platão, ao tratar da negação no diálogo Sofista, afirma que sempre que enunciamos o que não é, não enunciamos algo contrário ao que é, mas algo diferente. A negação significa cada parte da natureza da diferença em antítese ao que é. Tal tratamento da negação resulta da necessidade de resolver alguns problemas colocados pelo eleatismo. Propõe-se indicar esses problemas e examinar o tratamento que Platão dá ao não-ser como diferença.Plato, in dealing with negation in the dialogue Sophist, says that when we say what is not, we speak not of something that is the opposite of being, but of something different. Negation means each part of the nature of the difference in antithesis to what is. This treatment of negation results from the need to solve some problems posed by eleatism. It is proposed to indicate these problems and examine the treatment that Plato gives to non-being as difference.

  20. Comparative Study of Meanings and Status of Imagination in Mathnavi and Plato’s Ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sh alyari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Describing and explaining the nature of imagination and its function with regard to human being and ontology has always been one of the preoccupations of philosophers and thinkers. Plato is the first philosopher who considered an epistemological status for imagination and, by dividing the world into the world of reason and world of senses, he ascribed the knowledge of imagination to the world of senses. In different parts of Mathnavi, Molavi, the great Muslim-Iranian mystic, has paid much attention to imagination, its types, its status in the Knowledge of Man (both physical and metaphysical affairs and its various influences on the body, soul and mental states of any individual. Thus, the present article aims to compare the concept of imagination in the view of the two thinkers. For reaching such aim, while using a descriptive-comparative method, first, the definitions of imagination in Mathnavi and Plato’s ideas are investigated and, then, the similarities and differences of the two views are shown. The conclusion is that their ideas are similar with regard to unreality and shadowiness of the world and phenomena, the relation between imitation and imagination, deficiency and restrictions of imagination for understanding the reality, whereas their ideas are different regarding the power of imagination, its epistemological status and the meaning and influence of it.

  1. A scaffold protein connects type IV pili with the Chp chemosensory system to mediate activation of virulence signaling in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inclan, Yuki F; Persat, Alexandre; Greninger, Alexander; Von Dollen, John; Johnson, Jeffery; Krogan, Nevan; Gitai, Zemer; Engel, Joanne N

    2016-08-01

    Type IV pili (TFP) function as mechanosensors to trigger acute virulence programs in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. On surface contact, TFP retraction activates the Chp chemosensory system phosphorelay to upregulate 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) production and transcription of virulence-associated genes. To dissect the specific interactions mediating the mechanochemical relay, we used affinity purification/mass spectrometry, directed co-immunoprecipitations in P. aeruginosa, single cell analysis of contact-dependent transcriptional reporters, subcellular localization and bacterial two hybrid assays. We demonstrate that FimL, a Chp chemosensory system accessory protein of unknown function, directly links the integral component of the TFP structural complex FimV, a peptidoglycan binding protein, with one of the Chp system output response regulators PilG. FimL and PilG colocalize at cell poles in a FimV-dependent manner. While PilG phosphorylation is required for TFP function and mechanochemical signaling, it is not required for polar localization or binding to FimL. Phylogenetic analysis reveals other bacterial species simultaneously encode TFP, the Chp system, FimL, FimV and adenylate cyclase homologs, suggesting that surface sensing may be widespread among TFP-expressing bacteria. We propose that FimL acts as a scaffold enabling spatial colocalization of TFP and Chp system components to coordinate signaling leading to cAMP-dependent upregulation of virulence genes on surface contact. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Comparative investigations on the protective effects of rhodioside, ciwujianoside-B and astragaloside IV on radiation injuries of the hematopoietic system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Rong; Cao, Wei; Guo, Jun; Miao, Shan; Ding, Gui-Rong; Li, Kang-Chu; Wang, Jin; Guo, Guo-Zhen

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of three glycosides (rhodioside, ciwujianoside-B and astragaloside IV) on the hematopoietic system in the mice exposed to γ-rays, and to examine the possible mechanisms involved. Mice were pretreated with the glycosides (40 mg/kg, i.g.) daily for 7 days prior to radiation. The survival of mice pretreated with three glycosides after total body irradiation (6.0 Gy) was examined. Peripheral blood leucocytes and endogenous spleen colony counts, colony-forming unit-granulocyte macrophage assay, analysis of DNA content and apoptosis rate determination were performed to evaluate the effects of the three glycosides on hematogenesis. The fragmentation of double-stranded DNA in lymphocytes was detected by the comet assay. The changes in cell cycle were analysed by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) were measured by western blot and the electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The results showed that pretreatment with all of the glycosides improved survival time and increased the number of leucocytes, spleen colonies and granulocyte-macrophage colonies in mice exposed to 6.0 Gy γ-radiation. Rhodioside showed more protective efficacy than both ciwujianoside-B and astragaloside IV. All three glycosides significantly increased the proliferation abilities of bone marrow cells, and decreased the ratio of cells in G(0)/G(1) phase. Further analysis showed that these three glycosides were able to decrease DNA damage and the increment in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio induced by radiation. In summary, the three glycosides showed radioprotective effects on the hematopoietic system in mice, which was associated with changes in the cell cycle, a reduction in DNA damage, and down-regulation of the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in bone marrow cells exposed to radiation.

  3. A display model for the TOU of PLATO: just a cool toy or a benchmark of opportunities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, M.; Greggio, D.; Bergomi, M.; Biondi, F.; Farinato, J.; Farisato, G.; Magrin, D.; Lessio, L.; Marafatto, L.; Munari, M.; Pagano, I.; Ragazzoni, R.; Viotto, V.; Piazza, D.

    2016-07-01

    We produced a "toy-model" of one Telescope Optical Unit of PLATO, the Medium sized mission selected by ESA to fly in 2024. This is a six lenses dioptric very wide field camera with a window in front to take care of radiation impact on the first lens whose optical glass cannot be replaced with a radiation hardened one. The main aim of this project is just to produce a "cool" model for display purposes, in which one can "explore" the details of the inside through some openings in the tube, in order to visually inspect some of the fine details of the opto-mechanics. While its didactic and advertising role is out of doubt, during its construction we realized that some interesting outcome can be of some relevance for the project itself and that some findings could be useful, in order to assess the ability of producing with the same technology some (of course of much more modest quality) optical systems. In this context, we immediately dropped the option of producing the lenses with opaque material painted with a color resembling a refractive material (like blue for instance) and decided to actually produce them with transparent plastic. Furthermore the surfaces are then finely polished in order to give them basic optical properties. Such an optical system has only very coarsely the converging properties of the original nominal design for a number of reasons: the refractive indexes are not the nominal ones, the quality of the surfaces and their nominal values are only roughly, within a few percent, the targeted one, and the way the surfaces are built up makes them prone to some diffraction effects. However, the bulk of the lens and the surface roughness will give a large magnification of the scattering effects that will be experienced, at a much lower level, on the actual flight model. We investigated through propagation of a laser beam and by digital camera the main stray light modes that this toymodel offers. In other words, the model amplifies, to a large extent, the

  4. Physics of laser fusion. Volume IV. The future development of high-power solid-state laser systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmett, J.L.; Krupke, W.F.; Trenholme, J.B.

    1982-11-01

    Solid state lasers, particularly neodymium glass systems, have undergone intensive development during the last decade. In this paper, we review solid state laser technology in the context of high-peak-power systems for inertial confinement fusion. Specifically addressed are five major factors: efficiency, wavelength flexibility, average power, system complexity, and cost; these factors today limit broader application of the technology. We conclude that each of these factors can be greatly improved within current fundamental physical limits. We further conclude that the systematic development of new solid state laser madia, both vitreous and crystalline, should ultimately permit the development of wavelength-flexible, very high average power systems with overall efficiencies in the range of 10 to 20%.

  5. TRANSIT TIMING OBSERVATIONS FROM KEPLER. IV. CONFIRMATION OF FOUR MULTIPLE-PLANET SYSTEMS BY SIMPLE PHYSICAL MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrycky, Daniel C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ford, Eric B.; Moorhead, Althea V. [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Sciences Center, Gainesville, FL 32111 (United States); Steffen, Jason H. [Fermilab Center for Particle Astrophysics, P.O. Box 500, MS 127, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Rowe, Jason F.; Christiansen, Jessie L. [SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Carter, Joshua A.; Fressin, Francois; Geary, John [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Batalha, Natalie M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Borucki, William J.; Bryson, Steve; Haas, Michael R. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, 94035 (United States); Buchhave, Lars A. [Department of Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Ciardi, David R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91126 (United States); Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael [McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas, Austin TX 78730 (United States); Fanelli, Michael N. [Bay Area Environmental Research Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Fischer, Debra [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Hall, Jennifer R., E-mail: daniel.fabrycky@gmail.com [Orbital Sciences Corporation/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); and others

    2012-05-10

    Eighty planetary systems of two or more planets are known to orbit stars other than the Sun. For most, the data can be sufficiently explained by non-interacting Keplerian orbits, so the dynamical interactions of these systems have not been observed. Here we present four sets of light curves from the Kepler spacecraft, each which of shows multiple planets transiting the same star. Departure of the timing of these transits from strict periodicity indicates that the planets are perturbing each other: the observed timing variations match the forcing frequency of the other planet. This confirms that these objects are in the same system. Next we limit their masses to the planetary regime by requiring the system remain stable for astronomical timescales. Finally, we report dynamical fits to the transit times, yielding possible values for the planets' masses and eccentricities. As the timespan of timing data increases, dynamical fits may allow detailed constraints on the systems' architectures, even in cases for which high-precision Doppler follow-up is impractical.

  6. Complexation parameters for the actinides(IV)-humic acid system: a search for consistency and application to laboratory and field observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiller, P.E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CE Saclay, Gif-sur Yvette (France). Nuclear Energy Div./DPC/SECR/Lab. de Speciation des Radionucleides et des Molecules; Evans, N.D.M. [Loughborough Univ., Leics (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Szabo, G. [' Frederic Joliot-Curie' National Research Inst. for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, Budapest (Hungary)

    2008-07-01

    The coherence of actinide(IV) complexation by humic substances (HS) is reviewed and new data are proposed. In a first attempt, the values of independent data from literature on Th(IV), U(IV), and Pu(IV) are collected, selected, and compiled. The data obtained follow the 'classical' trend of increasing conditional formation 'constants' with pH, led both by the increasing ionisation of HS and by the extensive hydrolysis of the tetravalent actinides. Even though a fair agreement is evident, the experimental uncertainties do not permit a full analogy between the actinides(IV) to be ascertained. In a second attempt, the experiments from which the original data are available were reinterpreted using only one hydrolysis constant set for U(IV) as an example, considering that all actinides(IV) have analogous humic complexation behaviour. Hence, the obtained evolution of conditional formation 'constants' is much more coherent and the uncertainties do not permit to distinguish an actinide(IV) from one another. The obtained data are then applied to independent laboratory and in situ experiments in order to delimit the domain of possible applicability. This exercise demonstrates the treatment of data through analogy in the case of actinides(IV) and would permit to limit and orientate the number of necessary, but difficult, experiment with redox sensitive elements like U, Np, or Pu. It also demonstrates that complexation-only mechanisms may not be sufficient to understand field observations. (orig.)

  7. Application analysis of solar total energy systems to the residential sector. Volume IV, market penetration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    This volume first describes the residential consumption of energy in each of the 11 STES regions by fuel type and end-use category. The current and projected costs and availability of fossil fuels and electricity for the STES regions are reported. Projections are made concerning residential building construction and the potential market for residential STES. The effects of STES ownership options, institutional constraints, and possible government actions on market penetration potential were considered. Capital costs for two types of STES were determined, those based on organic Rankine cycle (ORC) heat engines and those based on flat plate, water-cooled photovoltaic arrays. Both types of systems utilized parabolic trough collectors. The capital cost differential between conventional and STE systems was calculated on an incremental cost per dwelling unit for comparison with projected fuel savings in the market penetration analysis. The market penetration analysis was planned in two phases, a preliminary analysis of each of the geographical regions for each of the STE systems considered; and a final, more precise analysis of those regions and systems showing promise of significant market penetration. However, the preliminary analysis revealed no geographical regions in which any of the STES considered promised to be competitive with conventional energy systems using utility services at the prices projected for future energy supplies in the residential market. Because no promising situations were found, the analysis was directed toward an examination of the parameters involved in an effort to identify those factors which make a residential STES less attractive than similar systems in the commercial and industrial areas. Results are reported. (WHK)

  8. Investigation of a Novel NDE Method for Monitoring Thermomechanical Damage and Microstructure Evolution in Ferritic-Martensitic Steels for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Peter

    2013-09-30

    materials. Through the results obtained from this integrated materials behavior and NDE study, new insight will be gained into the best nondestructive creep and microstructure monitoring methods for the particular mechanisms identified in these materials. The proposed project includes collaboration with a national laboratory partner and the results will also serve as a foundation to guide the efforts of scientists in the DOE laboratory, university, and industrial communities concerned with the technological challenges of monitoring creep and microstructural evolution in materials planned to be used in Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems.

  9. Phase IV of Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvarna, Viraj

    2010-04-01

    Not all Phase IV studies are post-marketing surveillance (PMS) studies but every PMS study is a phase IV study. Phase IV is also an important phase of drug development. In particular, the real world effectiveness of a drug as evaluated in an observational, non-interventional trial in a naturalistic setting which complements the efficacy data that emanates from a pre-marketing randomized controlled trial (RCT). No matter how many patients are studied pre-marketing in a controlled environment, the true safety profile of a drug is characterized only by continuing safety surveillance through a spontaneous adverse event monitoring system and a post-marketing surveillance/non-interventional study. Prevalent practice patterns can generate leads that could result in further evaluation of a new indication via the RCT route or even a signal that may necessitate regulatory action (change in labeling, risk management/minimization action plan). Disease registries are another option as are the large simple hybrid trials. Surveillance of spontaneously reported adverse events continues as long as a product is marketed. And so Phase IV in that sense never ends.

  10. Phase IV of Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viraj Suvarna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Not all Phase IV studies are post-marketing surveillance (PMS studies but every PMS study is a phase IV study. Phase IV is also an important phase of drug development. In particular, the real world effectiveness of a drug as evaluated in an observational, non-interventional trial in a naturalistic setting which complements the efficacy data that emanates from a pre-marketing randomized controlled trial (RCT. No matter how many patients are studied pre-marketing in a controlled environment, the true safety profile of a drug is characterized only by continuing safety surveillance through a spontaneous adverse event monitoring system and a post-marketing surveillance/non-interventional study. Prevalent practice patterns can generate leads that could result in further evaluation of a new indication via the RCT route or even a signal that may necessitate regulatory action (change in labeling, risk management/minimization action plan. Disease registries are another option as are the large simple hybrid trials. Surveillance of spontaneously reported adverse events continues as long as a product is marketed. And so Phase IV in that sense never ends.

  11. The PHASES Differential Astrometry Data Archive IV: The Triple Star Systems 63 Gem A and HR 2896

    CERN Document Server

    Muterspaugh, Matthew W; Lane, Benjamin F; Hartkopf, William I; Kulkarni, S R; Konacki, Maciej; Burke, Bernard F; Colavita, M M; Shao, M; Williamson, M

    2010-01-01

    (Abridged) Differential astrometry measurements from the Palomar High-precision Astrometric Search for Exoplanet Systems (PHASES) are used to constrain the astrometric orbit of the previously known lesssim 2 day subsystem in the triple system 63 Gem A and have detected a previously unknown 2 year Keplerian wobble superimposed on the visual orbit of the much longer period (213 years) binary system HR 2896. The very small astrometric perturbation caused by the inner pair in 63 Gem A stretches the limits of current astrometric capabilities, but PHASES observations are able to constrain the orientation of the orbit. The two bright stars comprising the HR 2896 long period (213 year) system have a combined spectral type of K0III and the newly detected object's mass estimate places it in the regime of being a M dwarf. The motion of the stars are slow enough that their spectral features are always blended, preventing Doppler studies. The PHASES measurements and radial velocities (when available) have been combined wi...

  12. BANANA IV: Two aligned stellar rotation axes in the young eccentric binary system EP Crucis: primordial orientation and tidal alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, Simon; Torres, Guillermo; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Winn, Joshua N

    2012-01-01

    With observations of the EP Cru system, we continue our series of measurements of spin-orbit angles in eclipsing binary star systems, the BANANA project (Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned). We find a close alignment between the sky projections of the rotational and orbital angular momentum vectors for both stars (beta_p = -1.8+-1.6 deg and |beta_s|<17 deg). We also derive precise absolute dimensions and stellar ages for this system. The EP Cru and DI Her systems provide an interesting comparison: they have similar stellar types and orbital properties, but DI Her is younger and has major spin-orbit misalignments, raising the question of whether EP Cru also had a large misalignment at an earlier phase of evolution. We show that tidal dissipation is an unlikely explanation for the good alignment observed today, because realignment happens on the same timescale as spin-orbit synchronization, and the stars in EP Cru are far from syncrhonization (they are spinning 9 times too quickly). Therefore it seems th...

  13. The GAPS programme with HARPS-N at TNG. IV. A planetary system around XO-2S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desidera, S.; Bonomo, A. S.; Claudi, R. U.; Damasso, M.; Biazzo, K.; Sozzetti, A.; Marzari, F.; Benatti, S.; Gandolfi, D.; Gratton, R.; Lanza, A. F.; Nascimbeni, V.; Andreuzzi, G.; Affer, L.; Barbieri, M.; Bedin, L. R.; Bignamini, A.; Bonavita, M.; Borsa, F.; Calcidese, P.; Christille, J. M.; Cosentino, R.; Covino, E.; Esposito, M.; Giacobbe, P.; Harutyunyan, A.; Latham, D.; Lattanzi, M.; Leto, G.; Lodato, G.; Lovis, C.; Maggio, A.; Malavolta, L.; Mancini, L.; Martinez Fiorenzano, A. F.; Micela, G.; Molinari, E.; Mordasini, C.; Munari, U.; Pagano, I.; Pedani, M.; Pepe, F.; Piotto, G.; Poretti, E.; Rainer, M.; Ribas, I.; Santos, N. C.; Scandariato, G.; Silvotti, R.; Southworth, J.; Zanmar Sanchez, R.

    2014-07-01

    We performed an intensive radial velocity monitoring of XO-2S, the wide companion of the transiting planet-host XO-2N, using HARPS-N at TNG in the framework of the GAPS programme. The radial velocity measurements indicate the presence of a new planetary system formed by a planet that is slightly more massive than Jupiter at 0.48 au and a Saturn-mass planet at 0.13 au. Both planetary orbits are moderately eccentric and were found to be dynamically stable. There are also indications of a long-term trend in the radial velocities. This is the first confirmed case of a wide binary whose components both host planets, one of which is transiting, which makes the XO-2 system a unique laboratory for understanding the diversity of planetary systems. Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundacion Galileo Galilei of the INAF at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the IAC as part of the programme Global Architecture of Planetary Systems (GAPS), and on observations made at Asiago, Serra La Nave, and Valle D'Aosta observatories.Table 2 and Fig. 3 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. The Case against the Arts from Plato to Tolstoy and Its Implications for Why and How the Arts Should Be Taught in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    From Plato onwards many of the great Western thinkers have explored the nature of the arts, their contribution to society and their role in education. This has often involved a discussion of the potentially negative impact of the arts. The recurring message has been that the arts can warp judgment, elevate emotion at the expense of reason,…

  15. Why Did Socrates Deny That He Was a Teacher? Locating Socrates among the New Educators and the Traditional Education in Plato's "Apology of Socrates"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Avi I.

    2014-01-01

    Plato's "Apology of Socrates" contains a spirited account of Socrates' relationship with the city of Athens and its citizens. As Socrates stands on trial for corrupting the youth, surprisingly, he does not defend the substance and the methods of his teaching. Instead, he simply denies that he is a teacher. Many scholars have…

  16. Cardiovascular events in acute coronary syndrome patients with peripheral arterial disease treated with ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel: Data from the PLATO trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Manesh R.; Becker, Richard C.; Wojdyla, Daniel M.;

    Abstract 14299: Cardiovascular Events in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease Treated With Ticagrelor Compared to Clopidogrel: Data From the PLATO Trial Manesh R Patel1; Richard C Becker1; Daniel M Wojdyla2; Håkan Emanuelsson3; William Hiatt4; Jay Horrow5; Steen Husted6...

  17. radiation chemical behavior of actinides in extraction systems. III. Pu(IV) Precipitates from gamma -irradiated 30% tbp + n-dodecane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimirova, M.V.; Boikova, I.A.; Fedoseev, D.A.; Teterin, E.G.

    1986-07-01

    Spectrophotometric, gravimetric, and ..gamma..-spectrometric analyses, together with solubility and IR methods, were used to investigate the composition and structure, as well as the conditions and behavior in various polar and low-polarity solvents, of Pu(IV) precipitates formed in the ..gamma..-irradiated system 30% TBP + n-dodecane. It was found that the formation of precipitates in solutions containing Pu(IV) in the range 4.10/sup -3/ to 2.10/sup -2/ M occurs at an absorbed ..gamma..-radiation doses E..gamma.. in the range 2.10/sup 5/ to 2.6.10/sup 6/ Gy. At the same time the molar ratio of DBPA (formed by the ..gamma..-radiolysis of TBP) to metal lies in the range 3-5. In the given range of values of E..gamma.. effectively all the plutonium passes into the precipitate. The precipitates form a gelatinous mass. 30-50 wt. % of which consists of the mother liquor. The plutonium content amounts to 11-14 wt. %. The molar ratios of DBPA and MBPA to plutonium (nD and nM, respectively) in precipitates formed at values of E..gamma.. in the range 7.0.10/sup 5/ to 2.6.10/sup 6/ Gy are 2.9 +/- 0.5 and 0.5 +/0.1, respectively. Analyses of the IR spectra of washed and unwashed precipitates indicate the presence of hydrogen-bonded DMPA, carbonyl compounds (butyraldehyde or the anhydride), and NO/sub 3//sup -/ ions in precipitates washed with n-dodecane and the absence of these components in precipitates washed with ethanol. On the basis of the experimental data assumptions are made about the composition of the precipitates formed at doses E..gamma.. in the range 2.10/sup 5/ to 2.6.10/sup 6/ Gy.

  18. Postreplication Roles of the Brucella VirB Type IV Secretion System Uncovered via Conditional Expression of the VirB11 ATPase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erin P.; Miller, Cheryl N.; Child, Robert; Cundiff, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Brucella abortus, the bacterial agent of the worldwide zoonosis brucellosis, primarily infects host phagocytes, where it undergoes an intracellular cycle within a dedicated membrane-bound vacuole, the Brucella-containing vacuole (BCV). Initially of endosomal origin (eBCV), BCVs are remodeled into replication-permissive organelles (rBCV) derived from the host endoplasmic reticulum, a process that requires modulation of host secretory functions via delivery of effector proteins by the Brucella VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS). Following replication, rBCVs are converted into autophagic vacuoles (aBCVs) that facilitate bacterial egress and subsequent infections, arguing that the bacterium sequentially manipulates multiple cellular pathways to complete its cycle. The VirB T4SS is essential for rBCV biogenesis, as VirB-deficient mutants are stalled in eBCVs and cannot mediate rBCV biogenesis. This has precluded analysis of whether the VirB apparatus also drives subsequent stages of the Brucella intracellular cycle. To address this issue, we have generated a B. abortus strain in which VirB T4SS function is conditionally controlled via anhydrotetracycline (ATc)-dependent complementation of a deletion of the virB11 gene encoding the VirB11 ATPase. We show in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) that early VirB production is essential for optimal rBCV biogenesis and bacterial replication. Transient expression of virB11 prior to infection was sufficient to mediate normal rBCV biogenesis and bacterial replication but led to T4SS inactivation and decreased aBCV formation and bacterial release, indicating that these postreplication stages are also T4SS dependent. Hence, our findings support the hypothesis of additional, postreplication roles of type IV secretion in the Brucella intracellular cycle. PMID:27899503

  19. Postreplication Roles of the Brucella VirB Type IV Secretion System Uncovered via Conditional Expression of the VirB11 ATPase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin P. Smith

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Brucella abortus, the bacterial agent of the worldwide zoonosis brucellosis, primarily infects host phagocytes, where it undergoes an intracellular cycle within a dedicated membrane-bound vacuole, the Brucella-containing vacuole (BCV. Initially of endosomal origin (eBCV, BCVs are remodeled into replication-permissive organelles (rBCV derived from the host endoplasmic reticulum, a process that requires modulation of host secretory functions via delivery of effector proteins by the Brucella VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS. Following replication, rBCVs are converted into autophagic vacuoles (aBCVs that facilitate bacterial egress and subsequent infections, arguing that the bacterium sequentially manipulates multiple cellular pathways to complete its cycle. The VirB T4SS is essential for rBCV biogenesis, as VirB-deficient mutants are stalled in eBCVs and cannot mediate rBCV biogenesis. This has precluded analysis of whether the VirB apparatus also drives subsequent stages of the Brucella intracellular cycle. To address this issue, we have generated a B. abortus strain in which VirB T4SS function is conditionally controlled via anhydrotetracycline (ATc-dependent complementation of a deletion of the virB11 gene encoding the VirB11 ATPase. We show in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs that early VirB production is essential for optimal rBCV biogenesis and bacterial replication. Transient expression of virB11 prior to infection was sufficient to mediate normal rBCV biogenesis and bacterial replication but led to T4SS inactivation and decreased aBCV formation and bacterial release, indicating that these postreplication stages are also T4SS dependent. Hence, our findings support the hypothesis of additional, postreplication roles of type IV secretion in the Brucella intracellular cycle.

  20. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment IV. Health and safety aspects of the eucalypt biomass to methanol energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The basic eucalyptus-to-methanol energy process is described and possible health and safety risks are identified at all steps of the process. The toxicology and treatment for exposure to these substances are described and mitigating measures are proposed. The health and safety impacts and risks of the wood gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to those of the coal liquefaction and conversion system. The scope of this report includes the health and safety risks of workers (1) in the laboratory and greenhouse, where eucalyptus seedlings are developed, (2) at the biomass plantation, where these seedlings are planted and mature trees harvested, (3) transporting these logs and chips to the refinery, (4) in the hammermill, where the logs and chips will be reduced to small particles, (5) in the methanol synthesis plant, where the wood particles will be converted to methanol, and (6) transporting and dispensing the methanol. Finally, the health and safety risks of consumers using methanol is discussed.

  1. Study of Eclipsing Binary and Multiple Systems in OB Associations IV: Cas OB6 Member DN Cas

    CERN Document Server

    Bakis, V; Bilir, S; Eker, Z

    2016-01-01

    An early-type, massive, short-period ($P_{\\rm orb}=2^{\\rm d}.310951$) eclipsing spectroscopic binary DN Cas has been re-visited with new spectral and photometric data. The masses and radii of the components have been obtained as $M_1=19.04\\pm0.07 M_\\odot$, $M_2=13.73\\pm 0.05M_\\odot$ and $R_1=7.22\\pm0.06 R_\\odot$, $R_2=5.79\\pm0.06R_\\odot$, respectively. Both components present synchronous rotation ($V_{\\rm rot1}=160\\,$km s$^{-1}$, $V_{\\rm rot2}=130\\,$km s$^{-1}$) with their orbit. Orbital period analysis yielded a physically bound additional component in the system with a minimum mass of $M_3=0.88 M_\\odot$ orbiting in an eccentric orbit ($e=0.37\\pm0.2$) with an orbital period of $P_{12}=42\\pm9$ yrs. High precision absolute parameters of the system allowed us to derive a distance to DN Cas as 1.7$\\pm$0.2 kpc which locates the system within the borders of the Cas OB6 association (d=1.8 kpc; Mel'nik & Dambis, 2009). The space velocities and the age of DN Cas are in agreement with those of Cas OB6. The age of ...

  2. Characterizing the Cool KOIs IV: Kepler-32 as a prototype for the formation of compact planetary systems throughout the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Swift, Jonathan J; Morton, Timothy D; Crepp, Justin R; Montet, Benjamin T; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Muirhead, Philip S

    2013-01-01

    The Kepler space telescope has opened new vistas in exoplanet discovery space by revealing populations of Earth-sized planets that provide a new context for understanding planet formation. Approximately 70% of all stars in the Galaxy belong to the diminutive M dwarf class, several thousand of which lie within Kepler's field of view, and a large number of these targets show planet transit signals. Kepler-32 is a typical star in the Kepler M dwarf sample that presents us with a rare opportunity: five planets transit this star giving us an expansive view of its architecture. All five planets of this compact system orbit their host star within a distance one third the size of Mercury's orbit with the innermost planet positioned a mere 4.3 stellar radii from the stellar photosphere. New observations limit possible false positive scenarios allowing us to validate the entire Kepler-32 system making it the richest known system of transiting planets around an M dwarf. Based on considerations of the stellar dust sublim...

  3. MTA Computer Based Evaluation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Lisa P.; And Others

    The MTA PLATO-based evaluation system, which has been implemented by a consortium of schools of medical technology, is designed to be general-purpose, modular, data-driven, and interactive, and to accommodate other national and local item banks. The system provides a comprehensive interactive item-banking system in conjunction with online student…

  4. MTA Computer Based Evaluation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Lisa P.; And Others

    The MTA PLATO-based evaluation system, which has been implemented by a consortium of schools of medical technology, is designed to be general-purpose, modular, data-driven, and interactive, and to accommodate other national and local item banks. The system provides a comprehensive interactive item-banking system in conjunction with online student…

  5. Plan for IER-443 Testing of the Y-12 and AWE Criticality Accident Alarm System Detectors at the Godiva IV Burst Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scorby, J. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hickman, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hudson, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Garbett, S. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom); Auld, G. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom); Horrne, A. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom); Beller, T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goda, J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Haught, C. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Woodrow, C. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ward, D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-24

    This document provides the scope and details of the “Plan for Testing the Y-12 and AWE Criticality Accident Alarm System Detectors at the Godiva IV Burst Reactor”. Due to the relative simplicity of the testing goals, scope, and methodology, the NCSP Manager approved execution of the test when ready. No preliminary CED-1 or final design CED-2 reports were required or issued. The test will subject Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) detectors supplied by Y- 12 and AWE to very intense and short duration mixed neutron and gamma radiation fields. The goals of the test will be to (1) substantiate functionality, for both existing and newly acquired Y- 12 CAAS detectors, and (2) the ability of the AWE detectors to provide quality temporal dose information after a hypothetical criticality accident. ANSI/ANS-8.3.1997 states that the “system shall be sufficiently robust as to actuate an alarm signal when exposed to the maximum radiation expected”, which has been defined at Y-12, in Documented Safety Analyses (DSAs), to be a dose rate of 10 Rad/s. ANSI/ANS-8.3.1997 further states that “alarm actuation shall occur as a result of a minimum duration transient” which may be assumed to be 1 msec. The pulse widths and dose rates which will be achieved in this test will exceed these requirements. Pulsed radiation fields will be produced by the Godiva IV fast metal burst reactor at the National Criticality Experimental Research Center (NCERC) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The magnitude of the pulses and the relative distances to the detectors will be varied to afford a wide range of radiation fluence and pulse widths. The magnitude of the neutron and gamma fields will be determined by reactor temperature rise to fluence and dose conversions which have been previously established through extensive measurements performed under IER-147. The requirements for CAAS systems to detect and alarm under a “minimum accident of concern” as well as other

  6. Evidence of the presence of a functional Dot/Icm type IV-B secretion system in the fish bacterial pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A Gómez

    Full Text Available Piscirickettsia salmonis is a fish bacterial pathogen that has severely challenged the sustainability of the Chilean salmon industry since its appearance in 1989. As this Gram-negative bacterium has been poorly characterized, relevant aspects of its life cycle, virulence and pathogenesis must be identified in order to properly design prophylactic procedures. This report provides evidence of the functional presence in P. salmonis of four genes homologous to those described for Dot/Icm Type IV Secretion Systems. The Dot/Icm System, the major virulence mechanism of phylogenetically related pathogens Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii, is responsible for their intracellular survival and multiplication, conditions that may also apply to P. salmonis. Our results demonstrate that the four P. salmonis dot/icm homologues (dotB, dotA, icmK and icmE are expressed both during in vitro tissue culture cells infection and growing in cell-free media, suggestive of their putative constitutive expression. Additionally, as it happens in other referential bacterial systems, temporal acidification of cell-free media results in over expression of all four P. salmonis genes, a well-known strategy by which SSTIV-containing bacteria inhibit phagosome-lysosome fusion to survive. These findings are very important to understand the virulence mechanisms of P. salmonis in order to design new prophylactic alternatives to control the disease.

  7. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2014.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  8. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2016.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  9. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2015.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  10. A Proposal for a Dimensional Classification System Based on the Shared Features of the "DSM-IV" Anxiety and Mood Disorders: Implications for Assessment and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Timothy A.; Barlow, David H.

    2009-01-01

    A wealth of evidence attests to the extensive current and lifetime diagnostic comorbidity of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., "DSM-IV") anxiety and mood disorders. Research has shown that the considerable cross-sectional covariation of "DSM-IV" emotional disorders is accounted for by common higher order…

  11. A SINFONI Integral Field Spectroscopy Survey for Galaxy Counterparts to Damped Lyman-alpha Systems - IV. Masses and Gas Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Peroux, Celine; Kulkarni, Varsha P; York, Donald G

    2013-01-01

    The circumgalactic medium (CGM) of typical galaxies is crucial to our understanding of the cycling of gas into, through and out of galaxies. One way to probe the CGM is to study gas around galaxies detected via the absorption lines they produce in the spectra of background quasars. Here, we present medium resolution and new ~0.4-arcsec resolution (~3 kpc at z~1) 3D observations with VLT/SINFONI of galaxies responsible for high-N(HI) quasar absorbers. These data allow to determine in details the kinematics of the objects: the four z~1 objects are found to be rotation-supported as expected from inclined discs, while the fifth z~2 system is dispersion-dominated. Two of the systems show sign of interactions and merging. In addition, we use several indicators (star formation per unit area, a comparison of emission and absorption kinematics, arguments based on the inclination and the orientation of the absorber to the quasar line-of-sight and the distribution of metals) to determine the direction of the gas flows i...

  12. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Hillaris, Alexander; Nindos, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts which extend to the hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type IV IP bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprised 48 Interplanetary type IV bursts observed by the Wind/WAVES in the 13.825 MHz?20 KHz frequency range. The dynamic spec tra of the RSTN, DAM, ARTEMIS-IV, CULGOORA, Hiraiso and IZMIRAN Radio-spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona; these were supplemented with SXR ?ux recordings from GOES and CME data from LASCO. Positional information for the coronal bursts were obtained by the Nan\\c{c}ay radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs and SXR ?ares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact; their duration was on average 106 min. This type of events were, mostly, associated with M and X class ?ares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs; 32 of these events had CME...

  13. Thermodynamic data for predicting concentrations of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), and Pu(IV) in geologic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Dhanpat; Roa, Linfeng; Weger, H.T.; Felmy, A.R. [Battelle, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) (United States); Choppin, G.R. [Florida State University (United States); Yui, Mikazu [Waste Isolation Research Division, Tokai Works, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    This report provides thermodynamic data for predicting concentrations of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), and Pu(IV) in geologic environments, and contributes to an integration of the JNC chemical thermodynamic database, JNC-TDB (previously PNC-TDB), for the performance analysis of geological isolation system for high-level radioactive wastes. Thermodynamic data for the formation of complexes or compounds with hydroxide, chloride, fluoride, carbonate, nitrate, sulfate and phosphate are discussed in this report. Where data for specific actinide(IV) species was lacking, the data were selected based on chemical analogy to other tetravalent actinides. In this study, the Pitzer ion-interaction model is used to extrapolate thermodynamic constants to zero ionic strength at 25degC. (author)

  14. CHARACTERIZING THE COOL KOIs. IV. KEPLER-32 AS A PROTOTYPE FOR THE FORMATION OF COMPACT PLANETARY SYSTEMS THROUGHOUT THE GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, Jonathan J.; Johnson, John Asher; Morton, Timothy D.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Muirhead, Philip S. [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Fabrycky, Daniel C., E-mail: jswift@astro.caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    The Kepler space telescope has opened new vistas in exoplanet discovery space by revealing populations of Earth-sized planets that provide a new context for understanding planet formation. Approximately 70% of all stars in the Galaxy belong to the diminutive M dwarf class, several thousand of which lie within Kepler's field of view, and a large number of these targets show planet transit signals. The Kepler M dwarf sample has a characteristic mass of 0.5 M {sub Sun} representing a stellar population twice as common as Sun-like stars. Kepler-32 is a typical star in this sample that presents us with a rare opportunity: five planets transit this star, giving us an expansive view of its architecture. All five planets of this compact system orbit their host star within a distance one-third the size of Mercury's orbit, with the innermost planet positioned a mere 4.3 stellar radii from the stellar photosphere. New observations limit possible false positive scenarios, allowing us to validate the entire Kepler-32 system making it the richest known system of transiting planets around an M dwarf. Based on considerations of the stellar dust sublimation radius, a minimum mass protoplanetary nebula, and the near period commensurability of three adjacent planets, we propose that the Kepler-32 planets formed at larger orbital radii and migrated inward to their present locations. The volatile content inferred for the Kepler-32 planets and order of magnitude estimates for the disk migration rates suggest that these planets may have formed beyond the snow line and migrated in the presence of a gaseous disk. If true, then this would place an upper limit on their formation time of {approx}10 Myr. The Kepler-32 planets are representative of the full ensemble of planet candidates orbiting the Kepler M dwarfs for which we calculate an occurrence rate of 1.0 {+-} 0.1 planet per star. The formation of the Kepler-32 planets therefore offers a plausible blueprint for the formation

  15. Gen IV Nuclear Energy Systems Interim Status Report on Pre-conceptual LFR Design Studies and Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, W G; Brown, N W; Smith, C F; Sienicki, J J; Moisseytsev, A V; Kim, S J; Smith, M A; Yang, W S; Williamson, M; Li, N

    2005-02-09

    Previous pre-conceptual core neutronics and system thermal hydraulics calculations initiated the investigation of viability of a Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR) lead-cooled small modular fast reactor concept.1 The calculations indicated that a single-phase natural circulation SSTAR reactor concept with good core reactor physics performance, good system thermal hydraulics performance, and a high Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle efficiency of 40 % may be viable at an electrical power of 18 MWe (45 MWt). Pre-conceptual studies of SSTAR viability have continued with the objective of improving the system thermal hydraulic performance and raising the plant efficiency as well as extending the neutronics analysis. This effort has been motivated by several considerations. First, the initial Pre-conceptual studies were focused upon a ''pancake'' core having a height-to-diameter of 0.5. It was found that a compact core with high average burn up could be realized with a height-to-diameter ratio of 0.8. Second, the initial assumed reactor vessel height of 12.2 meters limited the height of the Pb-to-CO{sub 2} in-reactor heat exchangers (HXs) which reduced the efficiency of supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton cycle power converter. It was found that by increasing the reactor vessel height to 18 meters, the greater driving head for single-phase natural circulation would offset both the greater pressure drop of the 0.8 height-to-diameter ratio core as well as the pressure drop of taller HXs. This has enabled the plant efficiency to be increased from 40 to 43 % and the plant electrical power to be raised from 18 to 20 MWe. Third, reactivity feedback coefficients, which had previously not been generated for SSTAR, have now been calculated for the core. The reactivity feedback coefficients provide a basis for future investigation of the autonomous load following and passive shutdown behavior of the reactor. The

  16. Impact of plasmids, including those encodingVirB4/D4 type IV secretion systems, on Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg virulence in macrophages and epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuppan Gokulan

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (S. Heidelberg can cause foodborne illness in humans following the consumption of contaminated meat and poultry products. Recent studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that certain S. Heidelberg isolated from food-animal sources harbor multiple transmissible plasmids with genes that encode antimicrobial resistance, virulence and a VirB4/D4 type-IV secretion system. This study examines the potential role of these transmissible plasmids in bacterial uptake and survival in intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, and the molecular basis of host immune system modulation that may be associated with disease progression. A series of transconjugant and transformant strains were developed with different combinations of the plasmids to determine the roles of the individual and combinations of plasmids on virulence. Overall the Salmonella strains containing the VirB/D4 T4SS plasmids entered and survived in epithelial cells and macrophages to a greater degree than those without the plasmid, even though they carried other plasmid types. During entry in macrophages, the VirB/D4 T4SS encoding genes are up-regulated in a time-dependent fashion. When the potential mechanisms for increased virulence were examined using an antibacterial Response PCR Array, the strain containing the T4SS down regulated several host innate immune response genes which likely contributed to the increased uptake and survival within macrophages and epithelial cells.

  17. Impact of plasmids, including those encodingVirB4/D4 type IV secretion systems, on Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg virulence in macrophages and epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokulan, Kuppan; Khare, Sangeeta; Rooney, Anthony W; Han, Jing; Lynne, Aaron M; Foley, Steven L

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (S. Heidelberg) can cause foodborne illness in humans following the consumption of contaminated meat and poultry products. Recent studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that certain S. Heidelberg isolated from food-animal sources harbor multiple transmissible plasmids with genes that encode antimicrobial resistance, virulence and a VirB4/D4 type-IV secretion system. This study examines the potential role of these transmissible plasmids in bacterial uptake and survival in intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, and the molecular basis of host immune system modulation that may be associated with disease progression. A series of transconjugant and transformant strains were developed with different combinations of the plasmids to determine the roles of the individual and combinations of plasmids on virulence. Overall the Salmonella strains containing the VirB/D4 T4SS plasmids entered and survived in epithelial cells and macrophages to a greater degree than those without the plasmid, even though they carried other plasmid types. During entry in macrophages, the VirB/D4 T4SS encoding genes are up-regulated in a time-dependent fashion. When the potential mechanisms for increased virulence were examined using an antibacterial Response PCR Array, the strain containing the T4SS down regulated several host innate immune response genes which likely contributed to the increased uptake and survival within macrophages and epithelial cells.

  18. Asteroid observations at low phase angles. IV. Average parameters for the new H, G1, G2 magnitude system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Vasilij G.; Belskaya, Irina N.; Muinonen, Karri; Penttilä, Antti; Krugly, Yurij N.; Velichko, Feodor P.; Chiorny, Vasilij G.; Slyusarev, Ivan G.; Gaftonyuk, Ninel M.; Tereschenko, Igor A.

    2016-04-01

    We present new observational data for selected main-belt asteroids of different compositional types. The detailed magnitude-phase dependences including small phase angles (Aurelia (0.1°, F-type), (596) Scheila (0.2°, D-type), (635) Vundtia (0.2°, B-type), (671) Carnegia (0.2°, P-type), (717) Wisibada (0.1°, T-type), (1021) Flammario (0.6°, B-type), and (1279) Uganda (0.5°, E-type). For several asteroids, the dependences of brightness on the phase angle were investigated in the BVRI bands. We found a great diversity in the opposition-effect behavior both in the magnitude and the width of the opposition surges, especially for low-albedo asteroids. Some low-albedo asteroids (e.g., (10) Hygiea) display a broad opposition effect with an amplitude of 0.15-0.20 mag relative to the extrapolation of the linear part of the phase curve. Other asteroids (e.g., (596) Scheila, (1021) Flammario) show linear magnitude-phase dependences down to small phase angles (0.1-0.2°). Using numerous data sets on the magnitude-phase dependences with extensive phase-angle coverage, we examined in more detail the new three-parameter H, G1, G2 magnitude system. We determined the values of the G1 and G2 parameters for magnitude phase dependences of individual asteroids and obtained the average parameters for main asteroid compositional types. The values obtained can be used for the estimation of the absolute magnitude of an asteroid from a single observed magnitude when the magnitude-phase dependency is unknown and/or to calculate a visible magnitude for the ephemerides.

  19. IV&V Project Assessment Process Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) will launch NASA's Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). This launch vehicle will provide American launch capability for human exploration and travelling beyond Earth orbit. SLS is designed to be flexible for crew or cargo missions. The first test flight is scheduled for December 2017. The SLS SRR/SDR provided insight into the project development life cycle. NASA IV&V ran the standard Risk Based Assessment and Portfolio Based Risk Assessment to identify analysis tasking for the SLS program. This presentation examines the SLS System Requirements Review/System Definition Review (SRR/SDR), IV&V findings for IV&V process validation correlation to/from the selected IV&V tasking and capabilities. It also provides a reusable IEEE 1012 scorecard for programmatic completeness across the software development life cycle.

  20. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillaris, A.; Bouratzis, C.; Nindos, A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts that extend to hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprises 48 interplanetary type IV bursts observed with the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) instrument onboard Wind in the 13.825 MHz - 20 kHz frequency range. The dynamic spectra of the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), the Nançay Decametric Array (DAM), the Appareil de Routine pour le Traitement et l' Enregistrement Magnetique de l' Information Spectral (ARTEMIS-IV), the Culgoora, Hiraso, and the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) Radio Spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona. These were supplemented with soft X-ray (SXR) flux-measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and coronal mass ejections (CME) data from the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Positional information of the coronal bursts was obtained by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs, and SXR flares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact, their duration was on average 106 minutes. This type of events was, mostly, associated with M- and X-class flares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs, 32 of these events had CMEs faster than 1000 km s^{-1}. Furthermore, in 43 compact events the CME was possibly subjected to reduced aerodynamic drag as it was propagating in the wake of a previous CME. A minority (three) of long-lived type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts was detected, with durations from 960 minutes to 115 hours. These events are referred to as extended or long duration and appear to replenish their energetic electron content, possibly from electrons escaping from the corresponding coronal

  1. Identification of VceA and VceC, two members of the VjbR regulon that are translocated into macrophages by the Brucella type IV secretion system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Maarten F.; Sun, Yao-Hui; den Hartigh, Andreas B.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Tsolis, Renee M.

    2008-01-01

    Survival and replication inside host cells by Brucella spp. requires a type IV secretion system (T4SS), encoded by the virB locus. However, the identity of the molecules secreted by the T4SS has remained elusive. We hypothesized that proteins translocated by the T4SS would be co-regulated with the v

  2. Identification of VceA and VceC, two members of the VjbR regulon that are translocated into macrophages by the Brucella type IV secretion system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Maarten F.; Sun, Yao-Hui; den Hartigh, Andreas B.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Tsolis, Renee M.

    2008-01-01

    Survival and replication inside host cells by Brucella spp. requires a type IV secretion system (T4SS), encoded by the virB locus. However, the identity of the molecules secreted by the T4SS has remained elusive. We hypothesized that proteins translocated by the T4SS would be co-regulated with the

  3. Helicobacter pylori cholesteryl glucosides interfere with host membrane phase and affect type IV secretion system function during infection in AGS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hung-Jung; Cheng, Wen-Chi; Cheng, Hsin-Hung; Lai, Chih-Ho; Wang, Wen-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is an aetiological cause of gastric disorders worldwide. H. pylori has been shown to assimilate and convert host cholesterol into cholesteryl glucosides (CGs) by cholesterol-α-glucosyltransferase encoded by capJ. Here, we show that CapJ-deficient (ΔcapJ) H. pylori resulted in greatly reduced type IV secretion system (TFSS)-associated activities, including the hummingbird phenotype of AGS cells, IL-8 production, CagA translocation/phosphorylation and CagA-mediated signalling events. Complementation of the ΔcapJ mutation with wild type cagJ or by adding CGs-containing lysates or exogenous fluorophore-tagged CGs reversed the mutant phenotypes. We also show that the wild-type but not ΔcapJ H. pylori recruited raft-associated components to sites of bacterial attachment. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis of AGS cells treated with fluorescence-tagged cholesterol/CGs revealed that there was a higher proportion of CGs associated with immobile fractions. CGs-associated membranes were also more resistant to a cold detergent extraction. Thus, we propose that CGs synthesized by H. pylori around host-pathogen contact sites partition in detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs), alters lateral-phase segregation in membrane and reorganizes membrane architecture. These processes together promote the formation of a functional TFSS and H. pylori infection.

  4. A simple and rapid flow-injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of noscapine with Ru(phen)3(2+)-Ce(IV) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Behzad; Mokhtari, Ali; Khayamian, Taghi

    2007-08-01

    A new flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) system was used for the determination of noscapine. This technique is based on the reduction effect of noscapine on the Ru(phen)3(3+), which is produced by reaction between Ru(phen)3(2+) and acidic Ce(IV) solutions, and this rapid reduction produces strong CL. Calibration plots were linear over the range of 3.0 x 10(-7) - 2.0 x 10(-6) mol L(-1) and 2.0 x 10(-6) - 2.0 x 10(-4) mol L(-1). The CL intensity was so high, that it is able to produce a detection limit of 6.6 x 10(-8) M noscapine (3sigma). The relative standard deviation of 2.0 x 10(-6) M noscapine was 1.0% (n=10). The proposed method was successfully applied for the flow injection determination of noscapine in cough and Tonin syrup samples. The results of real sample analyses show good recovery percentages (97.3-102.4%). The minimum sampling rate was 100 samples per hour.

  5. Effect of a single IV administration of L-propionylcarnitine on myocardial microcirculation assessed by coronary flow velocity reserve measurement in patients with systemic sclerosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montisci, Roberta; Ruscazio, Massimo; Lai, Stefania; Vacca, Alessandra; Cauli, Alberto; Passiu, Giuseppe; Montisci, Massimo; Meloni, Luigi; Mathieu, Alessandro; Iliceto, Sabino

    2007-01-01

    Scleroderma-related cardiac involvement primarily affects coronary microvascular structures and function. The microvasculature disorder is responsible for impairment of coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR), which has been reported in studies of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). L-propionylcarnitine (L-PC) is a metabolic substance that is associated with a beneficial effect on both microcirculation and myocyte function. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not CFVR was acutely improved or restored in patients with SSc after a single administration of IV L-PC. In this pilot study, we screened volunteers with SSc who had no clinical evidence of ischemic heart disease. CFVR was determined by a blinded investigator by evaluating the left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA) by transthoracic echocardiography during adenosine infusion (140 microg/kg x min(-1) for 5 minutes), 30 minutes before and 15 minutes after administration of L-PC (300 mg IV in 5-minute bolus). Thirty-three patients were screened for this study. Fourteen patients (mean [SD] age, 54.3 [11.2] years; mean [SD] weight, 63.8 [14.5] kg; mean [SD] height, 156.3 [8.7] cm) with SSc and no evidence of coronary heart disease were included in the study; 13 women and 1 man (4 with the diffuse cutaneous form of SSc and 10 with the limited cutaneous form). After administration of L-PC to patients with SSc, median CFVR was significantly increased from 2.60 to 3.23 (P < 0.001), whereas peak diastolic velocity in the LADCA decreased significantly at the basal evaluation (30.0 vs 26.0, P = 0.009) and significantly increased (80.0 vs 87.5, P = 0.005) during adenosine infusion. No adverse events occurred before, during, or after L-PC infusion. Acute administration of L-PC was associated with a short-term beneficial effect on CFVR in this pilot study of patients with SSc. These results suggest that further, randomized, controlled, double-blind evaluation of longer-term administration to

  6. IV access in dental practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, J J

    2009-04-01

    Intravenous (IV) access is a valuable skill for dental practitioners in emergency situations and in IV sedation. However, many people feel some apprehension about performing this procedure. This article explains the basic principles behind IV access, and the relevant anatomy and physiology, as well as giving a step-by-step guide to placing an IV cannula.

  7. Gene Flow Across Genus Barriers - Conjugation of Dinoroseobacter shibae's 191-kb Killer Plasmid into Phaeobacter inhibens and AHL-mediated Expression of Type IV Secretion Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, Diana; Michael, Victoria; Päuker, Orsola; Ebert, Matthias; Tielen, Petra; Jahn, Dieter; Tomasch, Jürgen; Petersen, Jörn; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Rhodobacteraceae harbor a conspicuous wealth of extrachromosomal replicons (ECRs) and therefore the exchange of genetic material via horizontal transfer has been supposed to be a major evolutionary driving force. Many plasmids in this group encode type IV secretion systems (T4SS) that are expected to mediate transfer of proteins and/or DNA into host cells, but no experimental evidence of either has yet been provided. Dinoroseobacter shibae, a species of the Roseobacter group within the Rhodobacteraceae family, contains five ECRs that are crucial for anaerobic growth, survival under starvation and the pathogenicity of this model organism. Here we tagged two syntenous but compatible RepABC-type plasmids of 191 and 126-kb size, each encoding a T4SS, with antibiotic resistance genes and demonstrated their conjugational transfer into a distantly related Roseobacter species, namely Phaeobacter inhibens. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis showed transfer of those replicons into the recipient both individually but also together documenting the efficiency of conjugation. We then studied the influence of externally added quorum sensing (QS) signals on the expression of the T4SS located on the sister plasmids. A QS deficient D. shibae null mutant (ΔluxI1 ) lacking synthesis of N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) was cultivated with a wide spectrum of chemically diverse long-chain AHLs. All AHLs with lengths of the acid side-chain ≥14 reverted the ΔluxI1 phenotype to wild-type. Expression of the T4SS was induced up to log2 ∼3fold above wild-type level. We hypothesize that conjugation in roseobacters is QS-controlled and that the QS system may detect a wide array of long-chain AHLs at the cell surface.

  8. Dibromidodimethyldipyridineplatinum(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairéad E. Kelly

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [PtBr2(CH32(C5H5N2], the PtIV metal centre lies on a twofold rotation axis and adopts a slightly distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The structure displays weak intramolecular C—H...Br hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  9. Marketing produktu Karel IV.

    OpenAIRE

    Mikšů, Šárka

    2009-01-01

    Goal of the thesis Marketing of the product Karel IV. is to propose chanels of marketing communication and indicate possibilities of next product's development. Theoretical part is based on marketing plan and it's partition. In the practical part you can find market analysis and competing products analysis, product's evolution description and marketing research.

  10. T346Hunter: a novel web-based tool for the prediction of type III, type IV and type VI secretion systems in bacterial genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Manuel Martínez-García

    Full Text Available T346Hunter (Type Three, Four and Six secretion system Hunter is a web-based tool for the identification and localisation of type III, type IV and type VI secretion systems (T3SS, T4SS and T6SS, respectively clusters in bacterial genomes. Non-flagellar T3SS (NF-T3SS and T6SS are complex molecular machines that deliver effector proteins from bacterial cells into the environment or into other eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells, with significant implications for pathogenesis of the strains encoding them. Meanwhile, T4SS is a more functionally diverse system, which is involved in not only effector translocation but also conjugation and DNA uptake/release. Development of control strategies against bacterial-mediated diseases requires genomic identification of the virulence arsenal of pathogenic bacteria, with T3SS, T4SS and T6SS being major determinants in this regard. Therefore, computational methods for systematic identification of these specialised machines are of particular interest. With the aim of facilitating this task, T346Hunter provides a user-friendly web-based tool for the prediction of T3SS, T4SS and T6SS clusters in newly sequenced bacterial genomes. After inspection of the available scientific literature, we constructed a database of hidden Markov model (HMM protein profiles and sequences representing the various components of T3SS, T4SS and T6SS. T346Hunter performs searches of such a database against user-supplied bacterial sequences and localises enriched regions in any of these three types of secretion systems. Moreover, through the T346Hunter server, users can visualise the predicted clusters obtained for approximately 1700 bacterial chromosomes and plasmids. T346Hunter offers great help to researchers in advancing their understanding of the biological mechanisms in which these sophisticated molecular machines are involved. T346Hunter is freely available at http://bacterial-virulence-factors.cbgp.upm.es/T346Hunter.

  11. Adsorption of thorium(IV) from simulated radioactive solutions using a novel electrospun PVA/TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanofiber adsorbent functionalized with mercapto groups: Study in single and multi-component systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alipour, Dariush [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Keshtkar, Ali Reza, E-mail: akeshtkar@aeoi.org.ir [Nuclear Fuel Cycle School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moosavian, Mohammad Ali [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We have fabricated a novel PVA/TiO{sub 2}/ZnO/TMPTMS nanofiber adsorbent by electrospinning method. • The properties of prepared novel adsorbent were determined by SEM, FTIR and BET analysis. • The adsorption capacity of Th(IV) in single system was higher than the multi-component system. • The mechanism of Th(IV) adsorption was endothermic and spontaneous within both systems. • In the binary systems, maximum inhibition on Th(IV) adsorption was seen in the presence of aluminum ion. - Abstract: The novel polyvinyl alcohol/titanium oxide/zinc oxide (PVA/TiO{sub 2}/ZnO) nanofiber adsorbent functionalized with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (TMPTMS) was prepared by electrospinning method and its potential was investigated for the adsorption of thorium from single and multi-metal aqueous solutions. The prepared adsorbent was characterized by FTIR, SEM and BET analysis. The influences of different operational parameters such as pH, ionic strength, equilibrium time, initial concentration and temperature were studied in batch mode. Investigation of ionic strength effect showed that the addition of NaNO{sub 3} to metal solution has a slight effect on the thorium adsorption, whereas pH value has a serious effect on the thorium adsorption at pH values lower than 4. The double-exponential model described the adsorption of Th(IV) ions much better than other kinetic models within both the single and multi-component systems. Among various isotherm models used, the equilibrium data of Th(IV) conformed the Langmuir isotherm in the single system, while those were best fitted by Dubinin–Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm in multi-component system. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔH°, ΔS°, and ΔG° indicated that the nature of adsorption process was spontaneous, endothermic and thermodynamically favored. The inhibitory effect of other metal ions on the adsorption capacity of Th(IV) was in order of Al(III) > Cu(II) > Cd(II) > Ni(II) > U

  12. Evolutionary dynamics of pathoadaptation revealed by three independent acquisitions of the VirB/D4 type IV secretion system in Bartonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Alexander; Segers, Francisca H I D; Quebatte, Maxime; Mistl, Claudia; Manfredi, Pablo; Körner, Jonas; Chomel, Bruno B; Kosoy, Michael; Maruyama, Soichi; Engel, Philipp; Dehio, Christoph

    2017-03-07

    The α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises a group of ubiquitous mammalian pathogens that are studied as a model for the evolution of bacterial pathogenesis. Vast abundance of two particular phylogenetic lineages of Bartonella had been linked to enhanced host adaptability enabled by lineage-specific acquisition of a VirB/D4 type IV secretion system (T4SS) and parallel evolution of complex effector repertoires. However, the limited availability of genome sequences from one of those lineages as well as other, remote branches of Bartonella has so far hampered comprehensive understanding of how the VirB/D4 T4SS and its effectors called Beps have shaped Bartonella evolution. Here, we report the discovery of a third repertoire of Beps associated with the VirB/D4 T4SS of B. ancashensis, a novel human pathogen that lacks any signs of host adaptability and is only distantly related to the two species-rich lineages encoding a VirB/D4 T4SS. Furthermore, sequencing of ten new Bartonella isolates from under-sampled lineages enabled combined in silico analyses and wet lab experiments that suggest several parallel layers of functional diversification during evolution of the three Bep repertoires from a single ancestral effector. Our analyses show that the Beps of B. ancashensis share many features with the two other repertoires, but may represent a more ancestral state that has not yet unleashed the adaptive potential of such an effector set. We anticipate that the effectors of B. ancashensis will enable future studies to dissect the evolutionary history of Bartonella effectors and help unraveling the evolutionary forces underlying bacterial host adaptation.

  13. Critical role of ASC inflammasomes and bacterial type IV secretion system in caspase-1 activation and host innate resistance to Brucella abortus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marco Tulio R; Campos, Priscila C; Oliveira, Fernanda S; Corsetti, Patricia P; Bortoluci, Karina R; Cunha, Larissa D; Zamboni, Dario S; Oliveira, Sergio C

    2013-04-01

    Pathogens are detected by innate immune receptors that, upon activation, orchestrate an appropriate immune response. Recent studies revealed the intracellular signaling cascades involved in the TLR-initiated immune response to Brucella abortus infection. However, no report has elucidated the role of inflammasome receptors in Brucella recognition. Therefore, we decided to investigate the function of NLRC4, NLRP3, and AIM2 in sensing Brucella. In this study, we showed that NLRC4 is not required to induce caspase-1 activation and further secretion of IL-1β by B. abortus in macrophages. In contrast, we determined that AIM2, which senses Brucella DNA, and NLRP3 are partially required for caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion. Additionally, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species induced by Brucella were implicated in IL-1β production. Furthermore, AIM2, NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 knockout mice were more susceptible to B. abortus infection than were wild-type animals, suggesting that multiple ASC-dependent inflammasomes contribute to host protection against infection. This protective effect is due to the inflammatory response caused by IL-1β and IL-18 rather than pyroptosis, because we observed augmented bacterial burden in IL-1R and IL-18 knockout mice. Finally, we determined that bacterial type IV secretion system VirB and live, but not heat-killed, Brucella are required for full inflammasome activation in macrophages during infection. Taken together, our results indicate that Brucella is sensed by ASC inflammasomes that collectively orchestrate a robust caspase-1 activation and proinflammatory response.

  14. The virB-encoded type IV secretion system is critical for establishment of infection and persistence of Brucella ovis infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Joicy C; Silva, Teane M A; Costa, Erica A; Silva, Ana P C; Tsolis, Renée M; Paixão, Tatiane A; Carvalho Neta, Alcina V; Santos, Renato L

    2012-09-14

    Brucella spp. are gram-negative intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause chronic infections. Brucella virulence factors include a type IV secretion system (T4SS) and its lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which are essential for persistence. However, the role of the virB-encoded T4SS has not been investigated in naturally rough Brucella species such as Brucella ovis. In this study, male 6-week old BALBc mice were infected with B. ovis, Brucella abortus, and their respective ΔvirB2 mutant strains. During early infection, B. ovis and B. abortus wild type strains were similarly recovered from spleen. Interestingly, in contrast to ΔvirB2 B. abortus that was recovered at similar levels when compared to the wild type strain, the ΔvirB2 B. ovis was markedly attenuated as early as 24h post infection (hpi). The ΔvirB2 B. ovis was unable to survive and multiply in murine peritoneal macrophages and extracellularly within the peritoneal cavity at 12 and 24 hpi with lower splenic colonization than the parental strain at 6, 12 and 24 hpi. In contrast, wild type B. abortus and ΔvirB2 B. abortus had a similar kinetics of infection in this model. As expected, the T4SS was essential for intracellular replication of smooth and rough strains in RAW macrophages at 48 hpi. These results suggest that T4SS is important for survival of B. ovis in murine model, and that a T4SS deficient B. ovis strain is cleared at earlier stages of infection when compared to a similar B. abortus mutant.

  15. Evolutionary Dynamics of Pathoadaptation Revealed by Three Independent Acquisitions of the VirB/D4 Type IV Secretion System in Bartonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Alexander; Segers, Francisca H.I.D.; Quebatte, Maxime; Mistl, Claudia; Manfredi, Pablo; Körner, Jonas; Chomel, Bruno B.; Kosoy, Michael; Maruyama, Soichi; Engel, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    The α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises a group of ubiquitous mammalian pathogens that are studied as a model for the evolution of bacterial pathogenesis. Vast abundance of two particular phylogenetic lineages of Bartonella had been linked to enhanced host adaptability enabled by lineage-specific acquisition of a VirB/D4 type IV secretion system (T4SS) and parallel evolution of complex effector repertoires. However, the limited availability of genome sequences from one of those lineages as well as other, remote branches of Bartonella has so far hampered comprehensive understanding of how the VirB/D4 T4SS and its effectors called Beps have shaped Bartonella evolution. Here, we report the discovery of a third repertoire of Beps associated with the VirB/D4 T4SS of B. ancashensis, a novel human pathogen that lacks any signs of host adaptability and is only distantly related to the two species-rich lineages encoding a VirB/D4 T4SS. Furthermore, sequencing of ten new Bartonella isolates from under-sampled lineages enabled combined in silico analyses and wet lab experiments that suggest several parallel layers of functional diversification during evolution of the three Bep repertoires from a single ancestral effector. Our analyses show that the Beps of B. ancashensis share many features with the two other repertoires, but may represent a more ancestral state that has not yet unleashed the adaptive potential of such an effector set. We anticipate that the effectors of B. ancashensis will enable future studies to dissect the evolutionary history of Bartonella effectors and help unraveling the evolutionary forces underlying bacterial host adaptation. PMID:28338931

  16. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (CD26 activity in the hematopoietic system: differences between the membrane-anchored and the released enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Pereira

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV; CD26 (EC 3.4.14.5 is a membrane-anchored ectoenzyme with N-terminal exopeptidase activity that preferentially cleaves X-Pro-dipeptides. It can also be spontaneously released to act in the extracellular environment or associated with the extracellular matrix. Many hematopoietic cytokines and chemokines contain DPP-IV-susceptible N-terminal sequences. We monitored DPP-IV expression and activity in murine bone marrow and liver stroma cells which sustain hematopoiesis, myeloid precursors, skin fibroblasts, and myoblasts. RT-PCR analysis showed that all these cells produced mRNA for DPP-IV. Partially purified protein reacted with a commercial antibody to CD26. The K M values for Gly-Pro-p-nitroanilide ranged from 0.43 to 0.98 mM for the membrane-associated enzyme of connective tissue stromas, and from 6.76 to 8.86 mM for the enzyme released from the membrane, corresponding to a ten-fold difference, but only a two-fold difference in K M was found in myoblasts. K M of the released soluble enzyme decreased in the presence of glycosaminoglycans, nonsulfated polysaccharide polymers (0.8-10 µg/ml or simple sugars (320-350 µg/ml. Purified membrane lipid rafts contained nearly 3/4 of the total cell enzyme activity, whose K M was three-fold decreased as compared to the total cell membrane pool, indicating that, in the hematopoietic environment, DPP-IV activity is essentially located in the lipid rafts. This is compatible with membrane-associated events and direct cell-cell interactions, whilst the long-range activity depending upon soluble enzyme is less probable in view of the low affinity of this form.

  17. Republican Utopia:from Plato to Moore%共和主义乌托邦:从柏拉图到莫尔

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐百军

    2012-01-01

    通过对柏拉图的《理想国》和莫尔的《乌托邦》的文本分析,我们发现他们的乌托邦思想中潜藏着共和主义叙事,实质上柏拉图和莫尔都希图建构一种共和主义乌托邦,由此也可以说乌托邦思想与共和主义之间原本就存在着一种共生的却被遗忘的历史关系,因而我们试图恢复以柏拉图和莫尔为代表的乌托邦思想家在共和主义政治光谱中的理论地位也并非一种主观冲动。%Through making a text analysis of Plato's Republic and Moore's Utopia,we find that a republican narrative has been hidden in their Utopian thought.Essencially,Plato and Moore both hoped to construct a republican utopia.It also can be said that there is a symbiotic and forgotten historical relation between the utopian thought and republicanism.So it is not a subjective impulse that we try to give the theoretical status in the republican political spectrum back to the utopian thinkers whose representatives are Plato and Moore.

  18. The Design of the IGE Evaluation Project Phase IV Comparative Studies. Comparative Study of Phase IV IGE Evaluation Project. Phase IV, Project Paper 80-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romberg, Thomas A.; And Others

    This paper outlines the design of two Comparative Studies of Phase IV of the Individually Guided Education (IGE) Evaluation Project. More than 2,000 elementary schools in 25 states use the IGE system. The Evaluation Project was designed to gain a comprehensive view of the system's operation and effectiveness. Phase IV investigated pupil outcomes,…

  19. The great Lisbon earthquake and tsunami of 1755: lessons from the recent Sumatra earthquakes and possible link to Plato's Atlantis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutscher, M.-A.

    2006-05-01

    Great earthquakes and tsunami can have a tremendous societal impact. The Lisbon earthquake and tsunami of 1755 caused tens of thousands of deaths in Portugal, Spain and NW Morocco. Felt as far as Hamburg and the Azores islands, its magnitude is estimated to be 8.5 9. However, because of the complex tectonics in Southern Iberia, the fault that produced the earthquake has not yet been clearly identified. Recently acquired data from the Gulf of Cadiz area (tomography, seismic profiles, high-resolution bathymetry, sampled active mud volcanoes) provide strong evidence for an active east dipping subduction zone beneath Gibraltar. Eleven out of 12 of the strongest earthquakes (M>8.5) of the past 100 years occurred along subduction zone megathrusts (including the December 2004 and March 2005 Sumatra earthquakes). Thus, it appears likely that the 1755 earthquake and tsunami were generated in a similar fashion, along the shallow east-dipping subduction fault plane. This implies that the Cadiz subduction zone is locked (like the Cascadia and Nankai/Japan subduction zones), with great earthquakes occurring over long return periods. Indeed, the regional paleoseismic record (contained in deep-water turbidites and shallow lagoon deposits) suggests great earthquakes off South West Iberia every 1500 2000 years. Tsunami deposits indicate an earlier great earthquake struck SW Iberia around 200 BC, as noted by Roman records from Cadiz. A written record of even older events may also exist. According to Plato's dialogues The Critias and The Timaeus, Atlantis was destroyed by ‘strong earthquakes and floods … in a single day and night’ at a date given as 11,600 BP. A 1 m thick turbidite deposit, containing coarse grained sediments from underwater avalanches, has been dated at 12,000 BP and may correspond to the destructive earthquake and tsunami described by Plato. The effects on a paleo-island (Spartel) in the straits of Gibraltar would have been devastating, if inhabited, and may

  20. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. E. Kramer

    1999-05-18

    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the ''Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b) and (CRWMS M&O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as ''line load''. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding the 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.13) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and a drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance.

  1. Computer-Based Science Education. CERL Report X-37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, Donald L.; And Others

    The PLATO IV system of computer-based education developed at the University of Illinois is discussed. A brief description of the PLATO system operation is given, and lesson examples are provided for the areas of biology, geometry, chemistry, and physics. Basic problems in the field of computer-based education are discussed, along with possible…

  2. Aircraft Environmental System Mechanic, 2-9. Block IV--Utility Systems and Flight Line Maintenance. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This publication contains a teaching guide and student instructional materials for conducting a high school or adult vocational education course to train persons to perform duties as an aircraft environmental systems mechanic. The instructional design for this course is self-paced and/or small group-paced. Instructor materials contained in the…

  3. Helicobacter pylori exploits a unique repertoire of type IV secretion system components for pilus assembly at the bacteria-host cell interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie L Shaffer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori is an important risk factor for development of gastric cancer. The H. pylori cag pathogenicity island (cag PAI encodes components of a type IV secretion system (T4SS that translocates the bacterial oncoprotein CagA into gastric epithelial cells, and CagL is a specialized component of the cag T4SS that binds the host receptor α5β1 integrin. Here, we utilized a mass spectrometry-based approach to reveal co-purification of CagL, CagI (another integrin-binding protein, and CagH (a protein with weak sequence similarity to CagL. These three proteins are encoded by contiguous genes in the cag PAI, and are detectable on the bacterial surface. All three proteins are required for CagA translocation into host cells and H. pylori-induced IL-8 secretion by gastric epithelial cells; however, these proteins are not homologous to components of T4SSs in other bacterial species. Scanning electron microscopy analysis reveals that these proteins are involved in the formation of pili at the interface between H. pylori and gastric epithelial cells. ΔcagI and ΔcagL mutant strains fail to form pili, whereas a ΔcagH mutant strain exhibits a hyperpiliated phenotype and produces pili that are elongated and thickened compared to those of the wild-type strain. This suggests that pilus dimensions are regulated by CagH. A conserved C-terminal hexapeptide motif is present in CagH, CagI, and CagL. Deletion of these motifs results in abrogation of CagA translocation and IL-8 induction, and the C-terminal motifs of CagI and CagL are required for formation of pili. In summary, these results indicate that CagH, CagI, and CagL are components of a T4SS subassembly involved in pilus biogenesis, and highlight the important role played by unique constituents of the H. pylori cag T4SS.

  4. Bartonella henselae trimeric autotransporter adhesin BadA expression interferes with effector translocation by the VirB/D4 type IV secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun-Yueh; Franz, Bettina; Truttmann, Matthias C; Riess, Tanja; Gay-Fraret, Jérémie; Faustmann, Marco; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Dehio, Christoph

    2013-05-01

    The Gram-negative, zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae is the aetiological agent of cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis in humans. Two pathogenicity factors of B. henselae - each displaying multiple functions in host cell interaction - have been characterized in greater detail: the trimeric autotransporter Bartonella adhesin A (BadA) and the type IV secretion system VirB/D4 (VirB/D4 T4SS). BadA mediates, e.g. binding to fibronectin (Fn), adherence to endothelial cells (ECs) and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VirB/D4 translocates several Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) into the cytoplasm of infected ECs, resulting, e.g. in uptake of bacterial aggregates via the invasome structure, inhibition of apoptosis and activation of a proangiogenic phenotype. Despite this knowledge of the individual activities of BadA or VirB/D4 it is unknown whether these major virulence factors affect each other in their specific activities. In this study, expression and function of BadA and VirB/D4 were analysed in a variety of clinical B. henselae isolates. Data revealed that most isolates have lost expression of either BadA or VirB/D4 during in vitro passages. However, the phenotypic effects of coexpression of both virulence factors was studied in one clinical isolate that was found to stably coexpress BadA and VirB/D4, as well as by ectopic expression of BadA in a strain expressing VirB/D4 but not BadA. BadA, which forms a dense layer on the bacterial surface, negatively affected VirB/D4-dependent Bep translocation and invasome formation by likely preventing close contact between the bacterial cell envelope and the host cell membrane. In contrast, BadA-dependent Fn binding, adhesion to ECs and VEGF secretion were not affected by a functional VirB/D4 T4SS. The obtained data imply that the essential virulence factors BadA and VirB/D4 are likely differentially expressed during different stages of the infection cycle of

  5. What is good sport: Plato's view Co je to dobrý sport: Platónův pohled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Pisk

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available One of Plato's most common questions found in his dialogues is "What is something?" By asking this question Plato usually brought his co-speakers to the recognition that in fact they do not have a full comprehension of what something is, although they have a partial comprehension of it. The awareness of one's incomplete cognition is the first step to be made on the philosophic way to truth. As in ancient times also today Plato asks us – the modern philosophers of sport – "What is sport?" or more precisely "What is good sport?" Probably the best of Plato's answers to this question can be found in the basic concepts of his philosophy regarding his hierarchical division of the state and human soul into three parts. Since sport is derived from human being also the goodness of sport can be divided into three stages. The lowest stage of sport corresponds to the first part of the soul – the appetite soul. On this stage sport is based on the gaining of material goods through prizes won at competitions. In the philosophic view, this is the lowest possible stage of goodness of sport. The second stage of sport corresponds to the second part of the soul – the emotional soul. Sport at this stage is based on the elementary ancient agon, which seeks fulfilment in the winning of honour and glory. The greatest and the most superior is the third part of the soul – the reasonable soul. According to this, also the sport corresponding to the third part of the soul is the best. For this kind of sport it is no longer necessary to compete with other contestants, since it can achieve it's fulfilment in perfect execution of movement or exercise, in which the perfect cooperation between reason (soul and body is attained. At this stage of sport it is the most important to compete and win over one's self, and this can be achieved by everyone, without regard to his/her physical abilities in comparison with others. In Plato's view, good sport is the sport directed

  6. Progress in the development of the neutron flux monitoring system of the French GEN-IV SFR: simulations and experimental validations [ANIMMA--2015-IO-392

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammes, C.; Filliatre, P.; Izarra, G. de [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Reactor Studies Department, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Elter, Zs. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Reactor Studies Department, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Division of Nuclear Engineering, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Verma, V. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Reactor Studies Department, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Uppsala University, Division of Applied Nuclear Physics, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Hamrita, H.; Bakkali, M. [CEA, DRT, LIST, Metrology, Instrumentation and Information Department, Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chapoutier, N.; Scholer, A.C.; Verrier, D. [AREVA NP, 10 rue Juliette Recamier F-69456 Lyon (France); Hellesen, C.; Jacobsson, S. [Uppsala University, Division of Applied Nuclear Physics, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Pazsit, I. [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Division of Nuclear Engineering, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Cantonnet, B.; Nappe, J.C. [PHOTONIS France, Nuclear Instrumentation, 19100 Brive-la-Gaillarde (France); Molinie, P.; Dessante, P.; Hanna, R.; Kirkpatrick, M.; Odic, E. [Supelec, Energy Department, 3 rue Joliot-Curie, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-07-01

    France has a long experience of about 50 years in designing, building and operating sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR) such as RAPSODIE, PHENIX and SUPER PHENIX. Fast reactors feature the double capability of reducing nuclear waste and saving nuclear energy resources by burning actinides. Since this reactor type is one of those selected by the Generation IV International Forum, the French government asked, in the year 2006, CEA, namely the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission, to lead the development of an innovative GEN-IV nuclear- fission power demonstrator. The major objective is to improve the safety and availability of an SFR. The neutron flux monitoring (NFM) system of any reactor must, in any situation, permit both reactivity control and power level monitoring from startup to full power. It also has to monitor possible changes in neutron flux distribution within the core region in order to prevent any local melting accident. The neutron detectors will have to be installed inside the reactor vessel because locations outside the vessel will suffer from severe disadvantages; radially the neutron shield that is also contained in the reactor vessel will cause unacceptable losses in neutron flux; below the core the presence of a core-catcher prevents from inserting neutron guides; and above the core the distance is too large to obtain decent neutron signals outside the vessel. Another important point is to limit the number of detectors placed in the vessel in order to alleviate their installation into the vessel. In this paper, we show that the architecture of the NFM system will rely on high-temperature fission chambers (HTFC) featuring wide-range flux monitoring capability. The definition of such a system is presented and the justifications of technological options are brought with the use of simulation and experimental results. Firstly, neutron-transport calculations allow us to propose two in-vessel regions, namely the above-core and under

  7. CDDIS Data Center Summary for the IVS 2012 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Carey

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes activities during 2012 and future plans of the Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS) with respect to the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). Included in this report are background information about the CDDIS, the computer architecture, staff supporting the system, archive contents, and future plans for the CDDIS within the IVS.

  8. An Examination of a Proposed DSM-IV Pathological Gambling Hierarchy in a Treatment Seeking Population: Similarities with Substance Dependence and Evidence for Three Classification Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Darren R; Jackson, Alun C; Dowling, Nicki A; Volberg, Rachel A; Thomas, Shane A

    2015-09-01

    Toce-Gerstein et al. (Addiction 98:1661-1672, 2003) investigated the distribution of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) pathological gambling criteria endorsement in a U.S. community sample for those people endorsing a least one of the DSM-IV criteria (n = 399). They proposed a hierarchy of gambling disorders where endorsement of 1-2 criteria were deemed 'At-Risk', 3-4 'Problem gamblers', 5-7 'Low Pathological', and 8-10 'High Pathological' gamblers. This article examines these claims in a larger Australian treatment seeking population. Data from 4,349 clients attending specialist problem gambling services were assessed for meeting the ten DSM-IV pathological gambling criteria. Results found higher overall criteria endorsement frequencies, three components, a direct relationship between criteria endorsement and gambling severity, clustering of criteria similar to the Toce-Gerstein et al. taxonomy, high accuracy scores for numerical and criteria specific taxonomies, and also high accuracy scores for dichotomous pathological gambling diagnoses. These results suggest significant complexities in the frequencies of criteria reports and relationships between criteria.

  9. 柏拉图论“诗与哲学之争”的政治哲学思考%Thinking on the Comments on “Quarrel about Poetry and Philosophy” by Plato from the Perspective of Political Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁建东

    2013-01-01

    In The Republic, Plato criticized poetry and poets, which caused the quarrel about poetry and philosophy in the history of western thoughts. The death of Socrates awaked Plato to that the politicians educat-ed by ancient Athens education, which was characterized by poetry controlling the government in Athens, re-jected truly advantageous proposals for Athens City States and caused harm to people of true wisdom. Poetry is the destruction of soul and national ruling. The quarrel about poetry and philosophy is actually the quarrel about political system and life style. Poetry which represents common people�s daily life is the patriarchal clan life that most people in city state live, and is closely identified with the political community. Philosophy represents a new life that a few people live to pursue wisdom, and it would inevitably clash with the polis political commu-nity.%  古希腊哲人柏拉图在其《理想国》中批判诗和诗人,引发了西方思想史上的“诗与哲学之争”。苏格拉底之死使柏拉图认识到,被以诗为主要内容的雅典教育培养出的政客把持着雅典政府,拒绝对城邦真正有利的提议,并对真正有智慧的人实施了伤害。诗是对灵魂与国家统治的败坏。诗与哲学之争实质上是政治制度和生活方式之争。诗代表了普通民众的日常生活,是城邦中多数人过的宗法生活,与城邦政治共同体密不可分;哲学则代表了一种新兴的生活,是少数人过的追求智慧的生活,与城邦政治共同体必然发生冲突。

  10. An enhanced cerium(IV)-rhodamine 6G chemiluminescence system using guest-host interactions in a lab-on-a-chip platform for estimating the total phenolic content in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Haddabi, Buthaina; Al Lawati, Haider A J; Suliman, FakhrEldin O

    2016-04-01

    Two chemiluminescence-microfluidic (CL-MF) systems, e.g., Ce(IV)-rhodamine B (RB) and Ce(IV)-rhodamine 6G (R6G), for the determination of the total phenolic content in teas and some sweeteners were evaluated. The results indicated that the Ce(IV)-R6G system was more sensitive in comparison to the Ce(IV)-RB CL system. Therefore, a simple (CL-MF) method based on the CL of Ce(IV)-R6G was developed, and the sensitivity, selectivity and stability of this system were evaluated. Selected phenolic compounds (PCs), such as quercetin (QRC), catechin (CAT), rutin (RUT), gallic acid (GA), caffeic acid (CA) and syringic acid (SA), produced analytically useful chemiluminescence signals with low detection limits ranging from 0.35 nmol L(-1) for QRC to 11.31 nmol L(-1) for SA. The mixing sequence and the chip design were crucial, as the sensitivity and reproducibility could be substantially affected by these two factors. In addition, the anionic surfactant (i.e., sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) can significantly enhance the CL signal intensity by as much as 300% for the QRC solution. Spectroscopic studies indicated that the enhancement was due to a strong guest-host interaction between the cationic R6G molecules and the anionic amphiphilic environment. Other parameters that could affect the CL intensities of the PCs were carefully optimized. Finally, the method was successfully applied to tea and sweetener samples. Six different tea samples exhibited total phenolic/antioxidant levels from 7.32 to 13.5 g per 100g of sample with respect to GA. Four different sweetener samples were also analyzed and exhibited total phenolic/antioxidant levels from 500.9 to 3422.9 mg kg(-1) with respect to GA. The method was selective, rapid and sensitive when used to estimate the total phenolic/antioxidant level, and the results were in good agreement with those reported for honey and tea samples.

  11. Diaquatetrabromidotin(IV trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ye

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [SnBr4(H2O2]·3H2O, forms large colourless crystals in originally sealed samples of tin tetrabromide. It constitutes the first structurally characterized hydrate of SnBr4 and is isostructural with the corresponding hydrate of SnCl4. It is composed of SnIV atoms octahedrally coordinated by four Br atoms and two cis-related water molecules. The octahedra exhibit site symmetry 2. They are arranged into columns along [001] via medium–strong O—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the two lattice water molecules (one situated on a twofold rotation axis while the chains are interconnected via longer O—H...Br hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  12. IVS contribution to ITRF2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Sabine; Thaller, Daniela; Roggenbuck, Ole; Lösler, Michael; Messerschmitt, Linda

    2016-07-01

    Every few years the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) Center of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) decides to generate a new version of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). For the upcoming ITRF2014 the official contribution of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) comprises 5796 combined sessions in SINEX file format from 1979.6 to 2015.0 containing 158 stations, overall. Nine AC contributions were included in the combination process, using five different software packages. Station coordinate time series of the combined solution show an overall repeatability of 3.3 mm for the north, 4.3 mm for the east and 7.5 mm for the height component over all stations. The minimum repeatabilities are 1.5 mm for north, 2.1 mm for east and 2.9 mm for height. One of the important differences between the IVS contribution to the ITRF2014 and the routine IVS combination is the omission of the correction for non-tidal atmospheric pressure loading (NTAL). Comparisons between the amplitudes of the annual signals derived by the VLBI observations and the annual signals from an NTAL model show that for some stations, NTAL has a high impact on station height variation. For other stations, the effect of NTAL is low. Occasionally other loading effects have a higher influence (e.g. continental water storage loading). External comparisons of the scale parameter between the VTRF2014 (a TRF based on combined VLBI solutions), DTRF2008 (DGFI-TUM realization of ITRS) and ITRF2008 revealed a significant difference in the scale. A scale difference of 0.11 ppb (i.e. 0.7 mm on the Earth's surface) has been detected between the VTRF2014 and the DTRF2008, and a scale difference of 0.44 ppb (i.e. 2.8 mm on the Earth's surface) between the VTRF2014 and ITRF2008. Internal comparisons between the EOP of the combined solution and the individual solutions from the AC contributions show a WRMS in X- and Y-Pole between

  13. Painlevé IV coherent states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, David, E-mail: david.bermudez@weizmann.ac.il [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Departamento de Física, Cinvestav, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico); Contreras-Astorga, Alonso, E-mail: aloncont@iun.edu [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary IN 46408 (United States); Departamento de Física, Cinvestav, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico); Fernández C, David J., E-mail: david@fis.cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Física, Cinvestav, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-11-15

    A simple way to find solutions of the Painlevé IV equation is by identifying Hamiltonian systems with third-order differential ladder operators. Some of these systems can be obtained by applying supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSY QM) to the harmonic oscillator. In this work, we will construct families of coherent states for such subset of SUSY partner Hamiltonians which are connected with the Painlevé IV equation. First, these coherent states are built up as eigenstates of the annihilation operator, then as displaced versions of the extremal states, both involving the related third-order ladder operators, and finally as extremal states which are also displaced but now using the so called linearized ladder operators. To each SUSY partner Hamiltonian corresponds two families of coherent states: one inside the infinite subspace associated with the isospectral part of the spectrum and another one in the finite subspace generated by the states created through the SUSY technique. - Highlights: • We use SUSY QM to obtain Hamiltonians with third-order differential ladder operators. • We show that these systems are related with the Painlevé IV equation. • We apply different definitions of coherent states to these Hamiltonians using the third-order ladder operators and some linearized ones. • We construct families of coherent states for such systems, which we called Painlevé IV coherent states.

  14. The influence of Plato, Aristotle, and the ancient Polis on a programme for congenital cardiac surgery: the virtuous partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroudis, Constantine; Backer, Carl L

    2007-09-01

    The problems that exist in maintaining a partnership in paediatric cardiac surgery are considerable. They relate to fairness in allocation of time for leisure, the apportioning of cases between the partners, internal competition between them, financial considerations, and promotion of the ego. In this review, we discuss our own experiences in maintaining a partnership over a period of more than 18 years, relating such a "virtuous partnership" to the writings of Plato and Aristotle, and setting it against the tenets of the ancient Greek polis. The polis, or city state, came to prominence in ancient Greece during the golden age of Pericles, this period seeing the initial evolution of Western philosophy, as well as numerous other scientific, artistic and architectural advances. The concept of the polis was to create a natural association with its citizens that nurtured all that is best in people, at the same time defining their character. In this respect, according to Plato, the person and the polis are mirror images. Aristotle then expanded this notion to incorporate the various forms of friendship, which he pointed out last only as long as the interrelated pleasure survives. Using these principles as the point of departure, we argue that cardiac surgeons should respect moral virtue in each other. Extending this process means that we should also respect, and celebrate, our relationships with affiliated physicians, nurses, perfusionists, administrators, and all concerned in the care of children with congenitally malformed hearts. In this way, we create a virtuous partnership for congenital cardiac surgery that promotes all that was good, as engendered in the ancient Greek polis. As we extend these observations to the modern world, we discuss some of the features that have permitted us to work so well together. One of the most important is a summoning and unwritten tenet that greets us as we enter the operating room, namely "check your ego at the door". The operative

  15. dBASE IV basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, P.

    1994-09-01

    This is a user`s manual for dBASE IV. dBASE IV is a popular software application that can be used on your personal computer to help organize and maintain your database files. It is actually a set of tools with which you can create, organize, select and manipulate data in a simple yet effective manner. dBASE IV offers three methods of working with the product: (1) control center: (2) command line; and (3) programming.

  16. Phase IV of Drug Development

    OpenAIRE

    Viraj Suvarna

    2010-01-01

    Not all Phase IV studies are post-marketing surveillance (PMS) studies but every PMS study is a phase IV study. Phase IV is also an important phase of drug development. In particular, the real world effectiveness of a drug as evaluated in an observational, non-interventional trial in a naturalistic setting which complements the efficacy data that emanates from a pre-marketing randomized controlled trial (RCT). No matter how many patients are studied pre-marketing in a controlled environment, ...

  17. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdnack, James A.; Zhou, Xiaobin; Larrabee, Glenn J.; Millis, Scott R.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory…

  18. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdnack, James A.; Zhou, Xiaobin; Larrabee, Glenn J.; Millis, Scott R.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory…

  19. Successful Secondary Principalship in Cyprus: What Have "Thucydides" and "Plato" Revealed to Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashiardis, Petros; Kafa, Antonios; Marmara, Christiana

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into successful secondary school principals in Cyprus, focusing on identifying their actions and behaviours through the adoption of a systemic view of the quality of leadership in school organizations from multiple stakeholders (i.e. self, parents, students and teachers).…

  20. Beyond the DSM-IV: Assumptions, Alternatives, and Alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Shane J.; Edwards, Lisa M.; Pedrotti, Jennifer Teramoto; Prosser, Ellie C.; LaRue, Stephanie; Spalitto, Susan Vehige; Ulven, Jon C.

    2006-01-01

    Current diagnostic processes reflect the limitations and utility of the framework of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Clinical information in the DSM-IV's 5-axis system almost exclusively focuses on weaknesses and pathology and is summarized in a flawed…

  1. Adsorption of thorium(IV) from simulated radioactive solutions using a novel electrospun PVA/TiO2/ZnO nanofiber adsorbent functionalized with mercapto groups: Study in single and multi-component systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Dariush; Keshtkar, Ali Reza; Moosavian, Mohammad Ali

    2016-03-01

    The novel polyvinyl alcohol/titanium oxide/zinc oxide (PVA/TiO2/ZnO) nanofiber adsorbent functionalized with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (TMPTMS) was prepared by electrospinning method and its potential was investigated for the adsorption of thorium from single and multi-metal aqueous solutions. The prepared adsorbent was characterized by FTIR, SEM and BET analysis. The influences of different operational parameters such as pH, ionic strength, equilibrium time, initial concentration and temperature were studied in batch mode. Investigation of ionic strength effect showed that the addition of NaNO3 to metal solution has a slight effect on the thorium adsorption, whereas pH value has a serious effect on the thorium adsorption at pH values lower than 4. The double-exponential model described the adsorption of Th(IV) ions much better than other kinetic models within both the single and multi-component systems. Among various isotherm models used, the equilibrium data of Th(IV) conformed the Langmuir isotherm in the single system, while those were best fitted by Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm in multi-component system. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔH°, ΔS°, and ΔG° indicated that the nature of adsorption process was spontaneous, endothermic and thermodynamically favored. The inhibitory effect of other metal ions on the adsorption capacity of Th(IV) was in order of Al(III) > Cu(II) > Cd(II) > Ni(II) > U(VI) > Fe(II).

  2. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV and other Platforms in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1982-06-02 to 1983-06-22 (NCEI Accession 8300088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV and other Platforms in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the...

  3. 柏拉图分析法在临床案例安全风险识别中的应用%Application of Plato analysis method in identifying the security risks of the clinical cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小金; 陈雪霞; 林少玲; 成守珍

    2016-01-01

    Objective To apply Plato analysis method to clinical cases which were reported from clinical nursing, finding out the key link of the risks which were related to the cases:the key age, the key period, the key spectrum of disease and the key projects, etc. To carry out the feedforward control of the quality of care, and ensure the quality and safety of nursing. Methods A database were set up including clinical special cases, high-risk cases, security hidden danger cases and emergency cases. The"two eight"principle of Plato analysis method was used to find out the main factors, the principal contradiction, the key hazard and the key problems of the cases, etc. The aim was to provide guidelines of risk analysis, risk prevention and risk aversion for nurses, and improve their consciousness of security hidden danger, and reduce security hidden danger cases. Results The results of 207 cases collected from 2014 to 2015 showed that the main risks involved the age groups were 41-80 years old and 21-30 years old. The major risks involved the spectrum of disease were the nervous system, cardiovascular disease, surgical anesthesia related problems, kidney disease, cancer and respiratory system. The major risks involved the time were the midnight, morning and afternoon. The major risks involved the locations were sickroom, emergency room, auxiliary inspection departments and outpatient. The major risks involved items were disease mutation, psychological problems, medication safety and instrument safety, among the disease mutation, timely discovered, rescued 13 patients with heart and breathing pause, stop 13 patients who attempted suicide. Since the Plato analysis method was applied to identify the security risks of the clinical cases, the number of falling, all kinds of pipe shed, skin problems and suicides were decreased from 6, 6, 7, 5 in 2014 to 2, 2, 2, 1 in 2015, declining trend year by year. Conclusions Applying the Plato analysis method to identify the security risks

  4. DSM-IV Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenshil, Thomas H.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV) will become one of most frequently used reference documents in counseling profession. Describes progress being made in development of DSM-IV, scheduled for publication in 1994. Describes revision process and proposed organizational changes and new diagnostic…

  5. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-29

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

  6. TFRC—IVS Flow Control Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEKaijian; LINYaping; YANGAng

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the TCP (Trans-mission Control Protocol) friendliness of multicast video-conferencing systems. Through the analysis and simulation experiments it is shown that the slow response to network state changes and the fixed rate adjustment process lead to TCP unfriendliness in the bandwidth sharing. Therefore,this paper proposes a new TCP friendly flow control al-gorithm called TFRC-IVS flow control algorithm for the current best-effort Internet. TFRC-IVS (TCP-Friendly Rate Control--INRIA Videoconferencing System) algo-rithm utilizes TCP friendly control function derived from complex TCP model to calculate TCP friendly sending rate.Simulation results show that TFRC-IVS flow control algorithm improves the smoothness of transmission rates and converges quickly to the stable sending rate. In addi-tion, the TCP friendly control function in TFRC-IVS flow control algorithm ensures the TCP friendliness of video flows and fair bandwidth allocation with TCP flows, which the traditional static rate adjustment algorithm lacks.

  7. Collagen IV in Normal Skin and in Pathological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Velez, Ana Maria; Howard, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    Type IV collagen is a type of collagen found primarily in the skin within the basement membrane zone. The type IV collagen C4 domain at the C-terminus is not removed in post-translational processing, and the fibers are thus link head-to-head, rather than in a parallel fashion. Also, type IV collagen lacks a glycine in every third amino-acid residue necessary for the tight collagen helix. Thus, the overall collagen-IV conformation is structurally more pliable and kinked, relative to other collagen subtypes. These structural features allow collagen IV to form sheets, which is the primary structural form found in the cutaneous basal lamina. There are six human genes associated with collagen IV, specifically COL4A1, COL4A2, COL4A3, COL4A4, COL4A5 and COL4A6. The aim of this review is to highlight the significance of this protein in normal skin, and in selected diseases. The alpha 3 protein constituent of type IV collagen is thought to be the antigen implicated in Goodpasture's syndrome, wherein the immune system attacks the basement membranes of the renal glomeruli and pulmonary alveoli. In addition, mutations to the genes coding for type IV collagen lead to the Alport syndrome. Furthermore, autoantibodies directed against denatured human type IV collagen have been described in rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, and SLE. Structural studies of collagen IV have been utilized to differentiate between subepidermal blistering diseases, including bullous pemphigoid, acquired epidermolysis bullosa, anti-epiligrin cicatricial pemphigoid, and bullous lupus erythematosus. Collagen IV is also of importance in wound healing and in embryogenesis. Pathological studies have demonstrated that minor structural differences in collagen IV can lead to distinct, clinically different diseases.

  8. Collagen IV in normal skin and in pathological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu-Velez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Type IV collagen is a type of collagen found primarily in the skin within the basement membrane zone. The type IV collagen C4 domain at the C-terminus is not removed in post-translational processing, and the fibers are thus link head-to-head, rather than in a parallel fashion. Also, type IV collagen lacks a glycine in every third amino-acid residue necessary for the tight collagen helix. Thus, the overall collagen-IV conformation is structurally more pliable and kinked, relative to other collagen subtypes. These structural features allow collagen IV to form sheets, which is the primary structural form found in the cutaneous basal lamina. There are six human genes associated with collagen IV, specifically COL4A1, COL4A2, COL4A3, COL4A4, COL4A5 and COL4A6. The aim of this review is to highlight the significance of this protein in normal skin, and in selected diseases. Results: The alpha 3 protein constituent of type IV collagen is thought to be the antigen implicated in Goodpasture′s syndrome, wherein the immune system attacks the basement membranes of the renal glomeruli and pulmonary alveoli. In addition, mutations to the genes coding for type IV collagen lead to the Alport syndrome. Furthermore, autoantibodies directed against denatured human type IV collagen have been described in rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, and SLE. Structural studies of collagen IV have been utilized to differentiate between subepidermal blistering diseases, including bullous pemphigoid, acquired epidermolysis bullosa, anti-epiligrin cicatricial pemphigoid, and bullous lupus erythematosus. Collagen IV is also of importance in wound healing and in embryogenesis. Conclusions: Pathological studies have demonstrated that minor structural differences in collagen IV can lead to distinct, clinically different diseases.

  9. Misrepresentation of vital status follow-up: challenging the integrity of the PLATO trial and the claimed mortality benefit of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNicolantonio, James J; Tomek, Ales

    2013-10-30

    Ticagrelor, a novel, reversible, and oral P2Y12 receptor antagonist, was claimed to reduce all-cause mortality compared to clopidogrel in the PLATO trial. We sought to ascertain vital status follow-up for clopidogrel and ticagrelor to determine if any discrepancy existed by reviewing data from the FDA Complete Response Review. The FDA Complete Response Review indicated misrepresentation of vital status follow-up by the sponsor's presenter at the Cardiovascular and Renal Drugs Advisory Committee. Instead of five patients with missing vital status follow-up, the FDA primary efficacy reviewer indicated that there was a minimum of 106 patients. Additionally and more concerning was the fact that significantly more patients on ticagrelor (3.1%, n = 289 patients) had incomplete vital status follow-up versus clopidogrel (2.6%, n = 242 patients, p = 0.04 for the difference). The Advisory Committee that voted in favor to approve ticagrelor was given misrepresented data, which may have affected the approval of ticagrelor. The fact that significantly more patients on ticagrelor had incomplete vital status follow-up versus clopidogrel challenges the claimed mortality benefit of ticagrelor and the approval of the PLATO trial. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Proporción y autoría. Arte mueble paleolítico. Figuras de los Omóplatos de

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Fernández Lombera

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se compone de las siguientes partes : a.- Realización de calcos con una gran objetividad gráfica de las figuras grabadas en los omóplatos de El Castillo, exhumados por OBERMAIER en sus campañas de 1911/12. b.- Diseño, validación y aplicación de un método para el cálculo de la proporción de una figura, independoentemente de cuál sea, enfrentándola a un arquetipo. c.- Aplicación de tal método, una vez validado, a las figuras de los omóplatos de El Castillo. d.- Análisis de la manera de hacer de cada uno de los autores de las figuras de El Castillo ; es a lo que llamamos autoría. e.- Obtención de un conjunto de conclusiones de tipo formal, artístico y paleoetnológico

  11. An Experiment in Architectural Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Robert W.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the application of the PLATO IV computer-based educational system to a one-semester basic drawing course for freshman architecture, landscape architecture, and interior design students and relates student reactions to the experience. (RAO)

  12. Aqueous complexation of thorium(IV), uranium(IV), neptunium(IV), plutonium(III/IV), and cerium(III/IV) with DTPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M Alex; Paulenova, Alena; Gelis, Artem V

    2012-07-16

    Aqueous complexation of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), Pu(III/IV), and Ce(III/IV) with DTPA was studied by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, and cyclic voltammetry at 1 M ionic strength and 25 °C. The stability constants for the 1:1 complex of each trivalent and tetravalent metal were calculated. From the potentiometric data, we report stability constant values for Ce(III)DTPA, Ce(III)HDTPA, and Th(IV)DTPA of log β(101) = 20.01 ± 0.02, log β(111) = 22.0 ± 0.2, and log β(101) = 29.6 ± 1, respectively. From the absorption spectrophotometry data, we report stability constant values for U(IV)DTPA, Np(IV)DTPA, and Pu(IV)DTPA of log β(101) = 31.8 ± 0.1, 32.3 ± 0.1, and 33.67 ± 0.02, respectively. From the cyclic voltammetry data, we report stability constant values for Ce(IV) and Pu(III) of log β(101) = 34.04 ± 0.04 and 20.58 ± 0.04, respectively. The values obtained in this work are compared and discussed with respect to the ionic radius of each cationic metal.

  13. Gen IV Materials Handbook Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rittenhouse, P.; Ren, W.

    2005-03-29

    A Gen IV Materials Handbook is being developed to provide an authoritative single source of highly qualified structural materials information and materials properties data for use in design and analyses of all Generation IV Reactor Systems. The Handbook will be responsive to the needs expressed by all of the principal government, national laboratory, and private company stakeholders of Gen IV Reactor Systems. The Gen IV Materials Handbook Implementation Plan provided here addresses the purpose, rationale, attributes, and benefits of the Handbook and will detail its content, format, quality assurance, applicability, and access. Structural materials, both metallic and ceramic, for all Gen IV reactor types currently supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) will be included in the Gen IV Materials Handbook. However, initial emphasis will be on materials for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Descriptive information (e.g., chemical composition and applicable technical specifications and codes) will be provided for each material along with an extensive presentation of mechanical and physical property data including consideration of temperature, irradiation, environment, etc. effects on properties. Access to the Gen IV Materials Handbook will be internet-based with appropriate levels of control. Information and data in the Handbook will be configured to allow search by material classes, specific materials, specific information or property class, specific property, data parameters, and individual data points identified with materials parameters, test conditions, and data source. Details on all of these as well as proposed applicability and consideration of data quality classes are provided in the Implementation Plan. Website development for the Handbook is divided into six phases including (1) detailed product analysis and specification, (2) simulation and design, (3) implementation and testing, (4) product release, (5) project/product evaluation, and (6) product

  14. Search for alpha variation in UVES spectra: Analysis of C IV and Si IV doublets towards QSO 1101-264

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Fiorenzano, A. F.; Vladilo, G.; Bonifacio, P.

    Motivated by previous studies of QSO spectra that reported a variation of the fine structure constant alpha , a search for C IV and Si IV doublets was conducted in the absorption spectrum toward QSO 1101-264, obtained by VLT-UVES during the Science Verification. Seven C IV and two Si IV systems were identified and accurate measurements of wavelengths over the redshift range 1.1862 < z < 1.8377 were performed. After a careful selection of pairs of lines, the ``Alkali Doublet" method with a derived analitical expression for the error analysis was applied to compute the alpha variation. The result according in magnitud order with previous doublets measurements, corresponds to one Si IV system: Delta alpha /alpha = (- 3.09 +/- 8.46) x 10-5. Data from UVES-VLT.

  15. Search for alpha variation in UVES spectra: Analysis of C IV and Si IV doublets towards QSO 1101-264

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorenzano, A F M; Bonifacio, P

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by previous studies of QSO spectra that reported a variation of the fine structure constant alpha, a search for C IV and Si IV doublets was conducted in the absorption spectrum towardS QSO 1101-264, obtained by VLT-UVES during the Science Verification. Seven C IV and two Si IV systems were identified and accurate measurements of wavelengths over the redshift range 1.1862 < z < 1.8377 were performed. After a careful selection of pairs of lines, the "Alkali Doublet" method with a derived analitical expression for the error analysis was applied to compute the alpha variation. The result according in magnitud order with previous doublets measurements, corresponds to one Si IV system: Delta alpha/alpha = (- 3.09 +/- 8.46) x 10^(-5).

  16. The Modern RPG IV Language

    CERN Document Server

    Cozzi, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This updated, classic work on the RPG language covers all the new functions and features that have been added since 2003, including new op codes and built-in functions, new chapters on free-format RPG IV and Web programming interfaces, information on implementing XML within RPG IV, and expanded information on procedures. This reference guide takes both novice and experienced RPG IV programmers through the language, from its foundation to its most advanced techniques. More than 100 charts and tables, as well as 350 real-life code samples of functions and operations are included, showing readers

  17. Investing in Computer Technology: Criteria and Procedures for System Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    The criteria used by the University of Delaware in selecting the PLATO computer-based educational system are discussed in this document. Consideration was given to support for instructional strategies, requirements of the student learning station, features for instructors and authors of instructional materials, general operational characteristics,…

  18. AMOS Phase IV Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    the top of the torque motor. Silicone rubber dams were attached to the bottom surfaces of these casting webs to cause oil seepage to drip off the webs...Reactivation and improvement of the ruby laser beam director system including bench calibration; 2) Measurements utilizing a retroreflector satellite to...ranging system performance at medium power output (4.5 J in 22 nsec) with 5 arcsecond beam divergence. Passes of the retroreflector -equipped satellite

  19. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mucopolysaccharidosis type IV (MPS IV), also known as Morquio syndrome, is a progressive condition that mainly affects ... Management Genetic Testing (3 links) Genetic Testing Registry: Morquio syndrome Genetic Testing Registry: Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-IV-A ...

  20. La cuadratura del plato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles Mora

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Una de las cosas que el Jurado del X Premio de Poesía Vicente Núñez destacó de este libro fue “su exquisito tratamiento del lenguaje”. Y desde luego lo es, es exquisito su tratamiento del lenguaje pero no porque utilice un lenguaje exquisito o excelso sino porque sabe arrancarle al lenguaje de todos los días, a las palabras sencillas, toda la carga poética de emoción e iluminación que llevan dentro. Mónica Doña nos dice que en su libro ha querido huir de un lirismo que muchas veces resulta falso, hueco, y nos habla de que lo que ha querido hacer es “épica cotidiana”, sin héroes, porque por su libro, como por la vida nuestra de todos los días, lo que circulan son seres que sobreviven como pueden en un mundo adverso.

  1. La cuadratura del plato

    OpenAIRE

    Ángeles Mora

    2012-01-01

    Una de las cosas que el Jurado del X Premio de Poesía Vicente Núñez destacó de este libro fue “su exquisito tratamiento del lenguaje”. Y desde luego lo es, es exquisito su tratamiento del lenguaje pero no porque utilice un lenguaje exquisito o excelso sino porque sabe arrancarle al lenguaje de todos los días, a las palabras sencillas, toda la carga poética de emoción e iluminación que llevan dentro. Mónica Doña nos dice que en su libro ha querido huir de un lirismo que muchas veces resulta fa...

  2. A Project to Develop and Evaluate a Computerized System for Instructional Response Analysis; Project SIRA. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, J.A., Jr.

    Project SIRA (System for Instructional Response Analysis) used a systems approach to develop a complete range of programs and techniques both for evaluation of student performance and for evaluation and revision of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) lesson material. By use of the PLATO computer-based instructional hardware system at the…

  3. ILLIAC IV Applications Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-31

    necember, 1973 indicates that it would be reasonable to use PF./l ^s a comnatible lanauaoe for the implementation of distributed systems. C...mini-host has even made it cost-effective for the Dinital Eouinment Corporation to include a PDP-11 to IMP interface in their line of peripherals

  4. TraK and TraB are conserved outer membrane proteins of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae Type IV secretion system and are expressed at low levels in wild-type cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Meghan E; Hackett, Kathleen T; Bender, Tobias; Kotha, Chaitra; van der Does, Chris; Dillard, Joseph P

    2014-08-15

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae uses a type IV secretion system (T4SS) to secrete chromosomal DNA into the medium, and this DNA is effective in transforming other gonococci via natural transformation. In addition, the T4SS is important in the initial stages of biofilm development and mediates intracellular iron uptake in the absence of TonB. To better understand the mechanism of type IV secretion in N. gonorrhoeae, we examined the expression levels and localization of two predicted T4SS outer membrane proteins, TraK and TraB, in the wild-type strain as well as in overexpression strains and in a strain lacking all of the T4SS proteins. Despite very low sequence similarity to known homologues, TraB (VirB10 homolog) and TraK (VirB9 homolog) localized similarly to related proteins in other systems. Additionally, we found that TraV (a VirB7 homolog) interacts with TraK, as in other T4SSs. However, unlike in other systems, neither TraK nor TraB required the presence of other T4SS components for proper localization. Unlike other gonococcal T4SS proteins we have investigated, protein levels of the outer membrane proteins TraK and TraB were extremely low in wild-type cells and were undetectable by Western blotting unless overexpressed or tagged with a FLAG3 triple-epitope tag. Localization of TraK-FLAG3 in otherwise wild-type cells using immunogold electron microscopy of thin sections revealed a single gold particle on some cells. These results suggest that the gonococcal T4SS may be present in single copy per cell and that small amounts of T4SS proteins TraK and TraB are sufficient for DNA secretion. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Analysis of system thermal hydraulic responses for passive safety injection experiment at ROSA-IV Large Scale Test Facility. Using JAERI modified version of RELAP5/MOD2 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaka, Hideaki; Yonomoto, Taisuke; Kukita, Yutaka (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment)

    1994-12-01

    An experiment was conducted at the ROSA-IV/Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) on the performance of a gravity-driven emergency core coolant (ECC) injection system attached to a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Such a gravity-driven injection system, though not used in the current-generation PWRs, is proposed for future reactor designs. The experiment was performed to identify key phenomena peculiar to the operation of a gravity injection system and to provide data base for code assessment against such phenomena. The simulated injection system consisted of a tank which was initially filled with cold water of the same pressure as the primary system. The tank was connected at its top and bottom, respectively, to the cold leg and the vessel downcomer. The injection into the downcomer was driven primarily by the static head difference between the cold water in the tank and the hot water in the pressure balance line (PBL) connecting the cold leg to the tank top. The injection flow was oscillatory after the flow through the PBL became two-phase flow. The experiment was post-test analyzed using a JAERI modified version of the RELAP5/MOD2 code. The code calculation simulated reasonably well the system responses observed in the experiment, and suggested that the oscillations in the injection flow was caused by oscillatory liquid holdup in the PBL connecting the cold leg to tank top. (author).

  6. 苏格拉底、柏拉图、亚里士多德与丑%Socrates,Plato and Aristotle's Views on Ugliness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区翰子; 李佳

    2014-01-01

    尽管从苏格拉底开始就萌生“丑”这个美学范畴,其在古代一直处于被忽视和非独立的地位。拟通过分析苏格拉底、柏拉图和亚里士多德三位巨匠的“丑”观,揭示“审丑”在萌芽时期的状态。%Despite its first faint showing started from Socrates , Ugliness had constantly been over-looked as a dependent aesthetic category in the ancient time .The following discussion will analyze the views of Socrates ,Plato and Aristotle on the appreciation of ugliness ,thus revealing the state of the appre-ciation of ugliness in its earlier stage .

  7. On Aesthetic Thoughts of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle%古希腊“三贤”美育思想概论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦宾; 刘忠伟

    2011-01-01

    Based on analysis of aesthetic thoughts of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, the famous philosophers in ancient Greek, this paper attempts to use their ideas for reference in guiding the cur- rent teaching practice to better aesthetic education.%通过对古希腊时期三位著名哲学家苏格拉底、柏拉图、亚里土多德美育思想的简要概括和论述,试图从他们对美育思想的主张中提取有益于符合我们现实国情的教育理念,对我们在教学实践中更好地实施美育教育提供可资借鉴的依据。

  8. Evaluation of Columbia, USMARC-Composite, Suffolk, and Texel rams as terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system: IV. Postfabrication carcass component weights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mousel, M R; Notter, D R; Leeds, T D; Zerby, H N; Moeller, S J; Lewis, G S

    2013-01-01

    ...), 21 Suffolk, and 17 Texel rams to adult Rambouillet ewes. Lambs were reared to weaning in an extensive western rangeland production system and finished in a feedlot on a high-energy finishing diet...

  9. Confirmatory factor analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdnack, James A; Xiaobin Zhou; Larrabee, Glenn J; Millis, Scott R; Salthouse, Timothy A

    2011-06-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV Adult battery (i.e., age 16-69 years) co-norming sample (n = 900) to test 13 measurement models. The results indicated that two models fit the data equally well. One model is a seven-factor solution without a hierarchical general ability factor: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, Auditory Working Memory, Visual Working Memory, Auditory Memory, and Visual Memory. The second model is a five-factor model composed of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, Working Memory, and Memory with a hierarchical general ability factor. Interpretative implications for each model are discussed.

  10. Free-format RPG IV

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This how-to guide offers a concise and thorough introduction to the increased productivity, better readability, and easier program maintenance that comes with the free-format style of programming in RPG IV. Although free-format information is available in IBM manuals, it is not separated from everything else, thereby requiring hours of tedious research to track down the information needed. This book provides everything one needs to know to write RPG IV in the free-format style, and author Jim Martin not only teaches rules and syntax but also explains how this new style of coding has the pot

  11. THE CALIFORNIA PLANET SURVEY IV: A PLANET ORBITING THE GIANT STAR HD 145934 AND UPDATES TO SEVEN SYSTEMS WITH LONG-PERIOD PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katherina Feng, Y.; Wright, Jason T.; Nelson, Benjamin; Wang, Sharon X.; Ford, Eric B. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Howard, Andrew W., E-mail: astrowright@gmail.com [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    We present an update to seven stars with long-period planets or planetary candidates using new and archival radial velocities from Keck-HIRES and literature velocities from other telescopes. Our updated analysis better constrains orbital parameters for these planets, four of which are known multi-planet systems. HD 24040 b and HD 183263 c are super-Jupiters with circular orbits and periods longer than 8 yr. We present a previously unseen linear trend in the residuals of HD 66428 indicative of an additional planetary companion. We confirm that GJ 849 is a multi-planet system and find a good orbital solution for the c component: it is a 1 M {sub Jup} planet in a 15 yr orbit (the longest known for a planet orbiting an M dwarf). We update the HD 74156 double-planet system. We also announce the detection of HD 145934 b, a 2 M {sub Jup} planet in a 7.5 yr orbit around a giant star. Two of our stars, HD 187123 and HD 217107, at present host the only known examples of systems comprising a hot Jupiter and a planet with a well constrained period greater than 5 yr, and with no evidence of giant planets in between. Our enlargement and improvement of long-period planet parameters will aid future analysis of origins, diversity, and evolution of planetary systems.

  12. History of the Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, J. L. E.

    2014-10-01

    Introduction. The earliest cosmological ideas; 1. The early Greek philosophers; 2. The Pythagorean school; 3. Plato; 4. The homocentric spheres of Eudoxus; 5. Aristotle; 6. Herakleides and Aristarchus; 7. The theory of Epicycles; 8. The dimensions of the world; 9. The Ptolemaic system; 10. Medieval cosmology; 11. Oriental astronomers; 12. The revival of astronomy in Europe; 13. Copernicus; 14. Tycho Brahe and his contemporaries; 15. Kepler; 16. Conclusion; Index.

  13. DNA ligase IV syndrome; a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Thomas; Gennery, Andrew R

    2016-10-07

    DNA ligase IV deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency, LIG4 syndrome, often associated with other systemic features. DNA ligase IV is part of the non-homologous end joining mechanism, required to repair DNA double stranded breaks. Ubiquitously expressed, it is required to prevent mutagenesis and apoptosis, which can result from DNA double strand breakage caused by intracellular events such as DNA replication and meiosis or extracellular events including damage by reactive oxygen species and ionising radiation.Within developing lymphocytes, DNA ligase IV is required to repair programmed DNA double stranded breaks induced during lymphocyte receptor development.Patients with hypomorphic mutations in LIG4 present with a range of phenotypes, from normal to severe combined immunodeficiency. All, however, manifest sensitivity to ionising radiation. Commonly associated features include primordial growth failure with severe microcephaly and a spectrum of learning difficulties, marrow hypoplasia and a predisposition to lymphoid malignancy. Diagnostic investigations include immunophenotyping, and testing for radiosensitivity. Some patients present with microcephaly as a predominant feature, but seemingly normal immunity. Treatment is mainly supportive, although haematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used in a few cases.

  14. Effectiveness Evaluation Data for Major City Secondary Education Systems in the United States; Volume IV: Survey of Class of '70 Graduates Vocational Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eninger, M. U.

    Vocational education administrators must think of themselves as managers of manpower development systems and apply tools of management to achieve their objectives. To do this a theoretical model, called the Manpower Conversion Equation, was developed from which six basic vocational education objectives could be generated deductively. The model…

  15. The California Planet Survey IV: A Planet Orbiting the Giant Star HD 145934 and Updates to Seven Systems with Long-Period Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Y Katherina; Nelson, Benjamin; Wang, Sharon X; Ford, Eric B; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Isaacson, Howard; Howard, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    We present an update to seven stars with long-period planets or planetary candidates using new and archival radial velocities from Keck-HIRES and literature velocities from other telescopes. Our updated analysis better constrains orbital parameters for these planets, four of which are known multi-planet systems. HD 24040 b and HD 183263 c are super-Jupiters with circular orbits and periods longer than 8 yr. We present a previously unseen linear trend in the residuals of HD 66428 indicative on an additional planetary companion. We confirm that GJ 849 is a multi-planet system and find a good orbital solution for the c component: it is a $1 M_{\\rm Jup}$ planet in a 15 yr orbit (the longest known for a planet orbiting an M dwarf). We update the HD 74156 double-planet system. We also announce the detection of HD 145934 b, a $2 M_{\\rm Jup}$ planet in a 7.5 yr orbit around a giant star. Two of our stars, HD 187123 and HD 217107, at present host the only known examples of systems comprising a hot Jupiter and a planet...

  16. THE BANANA PROJECT. IV. TWO ALIGNED STELLAR ROTATION AXES IN THE YOUNG ECCENTRIC BINARY SYSTEM EP CRUCIS: PRIMORDIAL ORIENTATION AND TIDAL ALIGNMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N. [Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Setiawan, Johny [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fabrycky, Daniel C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    With observations of the EP Cru system, we continue our series of measurements of spin-orbit angles in eclipsing binary star systems, the BANANA project (Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned). We find a close alignment between the sky projections of the rotational and orbital angular momentum vectors for both stars ({beta}{sub p} = -1. Degree-Sign 8 {+-} 1. Degree-Sign 6 and |{beta}{sub s}| < 17 Degree-Sign ). We also derive precise absolute dimensions and stellar ages for this system. The EP Cru and DI Her systems provide an interesting comparison: they have similar stellar types and orbital properties, but DI Her is younger and has major spin-orbit misalignments, raising the question of whether EP Cru also had a large misalignment at an earlier phase of evolution. We show that tidal dissipation is an unlikely explanation for the good alignment observed today, because realignment happens on the same timescale as spin-orbit synchronization, and the stars in EP Cru are far from synchronization (they are spinning nine times too quickly). Therefore it seems that some binaries form with aligned axes, while other superficially similar binaries are formed with misaligned axes.

  17. Analysis of concentrating PV-T systems for the commercial/industrial sector. Volume IV. Design analysis and trade-off study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1984-09-01

    Detailed reference designs developed for optimally sized photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) systems are presented for three selected applications. The results of trade-off analyses to determine the effects of load variations, new components, changes in location, and variations in array cost are also discussed.

  18. 11. IV avati Draakoni galeriis...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Tanel Saare (sünd. 1979) näitus "Gott und huhn episode IV: seed shower". Eksponeeritakse väljavõtteid aktsioonidest aastatel 2000-2004 Turus, Nürnbergis, Berliinis, Lohusalus ja Soulis. Osa aktsioone toimus koos rühmitusega Non Grata

  19. VeVeRa-IV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evelien Eggink; Debbie Oudijk; Klarita Sadiraj

    2012-01-01

    Original title: VeVeRa-IV The Dutch population is set to age rapidly in the coming years. More and more people will also attain a very great age. This means that the need for home care and care provided in nursing or residential care homes will also increase. As part of the Long-term Care Programme

  20. Sample problems for the novice user of the AMPX-II system. [For generating coupled multigroup neutron--gamma libraries, in FORTRAN IV for IBM 360/91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, W.E. III; Roussin, R.W.; Petrie, L.M.; Diggs, B.R.; Comolander, H.E.

    1979-01-01

    Contents of the IBM version of the APMX system distributed by the Radiation Shielding Information Center (APMX-II) are described. Sample problems which demonstrate the procedure for implementing AMPX-II modules to generate point cross sections; generate multigroup neutron, photon production, and photon interaction cross sections for various transport codes; collapse multigroup cross sections; check, edit, and punch multigroup cross sections; and execute a one-dimensional discrete ordinates transport calculation are detailed. 25 figures, 9 tables.

  1. 基于IV曲线测试的户外多通道光伏组件评测系统%A Multi-channel Outdoor PV Test Evaluation System Based on the IV Curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王传才; 朱炬; 朱文星

    2015-01-01

    为准确对户外光伏组件性能进行比对,设计了一款基于IV曲线测试的户外多通道光伏组件评测系统。系统采用便携式计算机作为上位机,与下位机6个数据采集模块和6个探头盒单元之间分别建立串口通信,实现对下位机采集数据的接受、分析和处理。本文对系统的结构、硬软件方案设计进行了介绍,对系统功能进行了实验验证,性能良好。%In order to accurately compare the performance of outd oor PV modules, a multi-channel outdoor PV test evaluation system based on the IV curve is designed. The portable computer is used as the host computer which establishes serial communications with six data acquisition modules and six probe boxes of the lower computer respectively so that the collected data in the lower computer can be accepted, analyzed and processed. The system structure, hardware and software designs are presented, and the good functions of the system are verified by experiments.

  2. Sorption properties and reversibility of Ti(IV) and Nb(V)-fluoride doped-Ca(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}-MgH{sub 2} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonatto Minella, Christian, E-mail: christian.minella@kit.edu [Institute for Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Garroni, Sebastiano [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Universitá di Sassari and INSTM, Via Vienna 2, I-07100 Sassari (Italy); Pistidda, Claudio [Institute of Materials Research, Materials Technology, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Zentrum für Material- und Küstenforschung GmbH, Max Planck Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Baró, Maria Dolors [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Gutfleisch, Oliver [Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 16, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Klassen, Thomas; Dornheim, Martin [Institute of Materials Research, Materials Technology, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Zentrum für Material- und Küstenforschung GmbH, Max Planck Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Faster desorption reaction for doped materials vs. the pure composite system. • Kinetic improvement concerning re-hydrogenation reaction showed by the addition of NbF{sub 5}. • Full characterization of the de-hydrogenation reaction pathway by means of both SR-PXD and {sup 11}B{"1H} MAS-NMR. • Study of the evolution of the chemical state of the additives upon both milling and sorption reactions. - Abstract: In the last decade, alkaline and alkaline earth metal tetrahydroborates have been the focuses of the research due to their high gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen densities. Among them, Ca(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} and the Ca(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} + MgH{sub 2} reactive hydride composites (RHC), were calculated to have the ideal thermodynamic properties which fall within the optimal range for mobile applications. In this study, the addition of NbF{sub 5} or TiF{sub 4} to the Ca(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} + MgH{sub 2} reactive hydride composite system was attempted aiming to obtain a full reversible system with the simultaneous suppression of CaB{sub 12}H{sub 12}. Structural characterization of the specimens was performed by means of in-situ Synchrotron Radiation Powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) and {sup 11}B{"1H} Solid State Magic Angle Spinning-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS-NMR). The evolution of the chemical state of the Nb- and Ti-based additives was monitored by X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES). The addition of NbF{sub 5} or TiF{sub 4} to the Ca(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} + MgH{sub 2} system have not suppressed completely the formation of CaB{sub 12}H{sub 12} and only a slight improvement concerning the reversible reaction was displayed just in the case of Nb-doped composite material.

  3. The CCTC Quick-Reacting General War Gaming System (QUICK), User’s Manual. Volume IV. Sortie Generation Subsystem. Change 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-30

    requirement of the Studies, Analysis , and Gaming Agency, Organization of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Technical support was provided by System Sciences...CQ 0 ’ c c cc 0 c 0 0 0 Q c Q4c C30 0c0 M n00 -C 0 0 .2-1~C w,7 ,7mt a-.,a.115 CH-2..c MCCg C 0c 1aa. or-cc . CCC ccC C C C ON c ccCMCC C QQ CC CC c C...1 EXTERNAL Chief, Studies, Analysis and Gaming Agency, OJCS ATTN: SFD, Room 1D935, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301

  4. Microwave discharge electrodeless lamps (MDEL). Part IV. Novel self-ignition system incorporating metallic microwave condensing cones to activate MDELs in photochemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Tsuchida, Akihiro; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Sato, Susumu; Serpone, Nick

    2009-11-01

    A metallic condensing cone that concentrates microwave radiation (equivalent to an optical lens) has been developed and used as part of a system to activate a microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (MDEL) in the oxidative treatment of wastewaters by aiding the novel self-ignition of the lamp on irradiation at low microwave power levels. This approach to self-ignition can potentially lead to considerable energy savings in such treatments. System performance was examined for the ignition power of microwaves of such MDEL devices in water, whose usefulness was assessed by investigating the photolytic transformation of aqueous solutions of representatives of three classes of contaminants: chlorinated phenols, herbicides and endocrine disruptors, specifically 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol (bisphenol-A; BPA), respectively, taken as model wastewaters in air-equilibrated, in oxygen-saturated and in TiO2-containing aqueous media. The results are discussed in terms of the dynamics of the photo-induced degradation processes.

  5. Orbital and physical parameters of eclipsing binaries from the ASAS catalogue - IV. A 0.61 + 0.45 M_sun binary in a multiple system

    CERN Document Server

    Hełminiak, K G; Rozyczka, M; Kaluzny, J; Ratajczak, M; Borkowski, J; Sybilski, P; Muterspaugh, M W; Reichart, D E; Ivarsen, K M; Haislip, J B; Crain, J A; Foster, A C; Nysewander, M C; LaCluyze, A P

    2012-01-01

    We present the orbital and physical parameters of a newly discovered low-mass detached eclipsing binary from the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) database: ASAS J011328-3821.1 A - a member of a visual binary system with the secondary component separated by about 1.4 seconds of arc. The radial velocities were calculated from the high-resolution spectra obtained with the 1.9-m Radcliffe/GIRAFFE, 3.9-m AAT/UCLES and 3.0-m Shane/HamSpec telescopes/spectrographs on the basis of the TODCOR technique and positions of H_alpha emission lines. For the analysis we used V and I band photometry obtained with the 1.0-m Elizabeth and robotic 0.41-m PROMPT telescopes, supplemented with the publicly available ASAS light curve of the system. We found that ASAS J011328-3821.1 A is composed of two late-type dwarfs having masses of M_1 = 0.612 +/- 0.030 M_sun, M_2 = 0.445 +/- 0.019 M_sun and radii of R_1 = 0.596 +/- 0.020 R_sun, R_2 = 0.445 +/- 0.024 R_sun, both show a substantial level of activity, which manifests in strong H_alp...

  6. Computational methods of Gaussian Particle Swarm Optimization (GPSO) and Lagrange Multiplier on economic dispatch issues (case study on electrical system of Java-Bali IV area)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komsiyah, S.

    2014-03-01

    The objective in this paper is about economic dispatch problem of electric power generation where scheduling the committed generating units outputs so as to meet the required load demand at minimum operating cost, while satisfying all units and system equality and inequality constraint. In the operating of electric power system, an economic planning problem is one of variables that its must be considered since economically planning will give more efficiency in operational cost. In this paper the economic dispatch problem which has non linear cost function solved by using swarm intelligent method is Gaussian Particle Swarm Optimization (GPSO) and Lagrange Multiplier. GPSO is a population-based stochastic algorithms which their moving inspired by swarm intelligent and probabilities theories. To analize its accuracy, the economic dispatch solution by GPSO method will be compared with Lagrange multiplier method. From the running test result the GPSO method give economically planning calculation which it better than Lagrange multiplier method and the GPSO method faster to getting error convergence. Therefore the GPSO method have better performance to getting global best solution than the Lagrange method.

  7. Tracking Advanced Planetary Systems (TAPAS) with HARPS-N. IV. TYC 3667-1280-1: The most massive red giant star hosting a warm Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzielski, A.; Villaver, E.; Nowak, G.; Adamów, M.; Maciejewski, G.; Kowalik, K.; Wolszczan, A.; Deka-Szymankiewicz, B.; Adamczyk, M.

    2016-05-01

    Context. We present the latest result of the TAPAS project that is devoted to intense monitoring of planetary candidates that are identified within the PennState-Toruń planet search. Aims: We aim to detect planetary systems around evolved stars to be able to build sound statistics on the frequency and intrinsic nature of these systems, and to deliver in-depth studies of selected planetary systems with evidence of star-planet interaction processes. Methods: The paper is based on precise radial velocity measurements: 13 epochs collected over 1920 days with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope and its High-Resolution Spectrograph, and 22 epochs of ultra-precise HARPS-N data collected over 961 days. Results: We present a warm-Jupiter (Teq = 1350 K, m2 sin i = 5.4 ± 0.4 MJ) companion with an orbital period of 26.468 days in a circular (e = 0.036) orbit around a giant evolved (log g = 3.11 ± 0.09, R = 6.26 ± 0.86 R⊙) star with M⋆ = 1.87 ± 0.17 M⊙. This is the most massive and oldest star found to be hosting a close-in giant planet. Its proximity to its host (a = 0.21 au) means that the planet has a 13.9 ± 2.0% probability of transits; this calls for photometric follow-up study. Conclusions: This massive warm Jupiter with a near circular orbit around an evolved massive star can help set constraints on general migration mechanisms for warm Jupiters and, given its high equilibrium temperature, can help test energy deposition models in hot Jupiters. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto

  8. Sympathetic nervous system activity and anti-lipolytic response to iv-glucose load in subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese and obese type 2 diabetic subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Uwe; Jenkinson, Christopher P.; Alt, Andreas; Zügel, Martina; Steinacker, Jürgen M.; Flechtner-Mors, Marion

    2017-01-01

    The study aim was to investigate the effect of endogenous insulin release on lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation in obese subjects diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In 14 obese female T2D subjects, or 14 obese non-T2D controls, glycerol concentration was measured in response to the α1,2,ß-agonist norepinephrine, the α1-agonist norfenefrine and the ß2-agonist terbutaline (each 10−4 M), using the microdialysis technique. After 60 minutes of stimulation, an intravenous glucose load (0.5 g/kg lean body mass) was given. Local blood flow was monitored by means of the ethanol technique. Norepinephrine and norfenefrine induced a four and three fold rise in glycerol dialysate concentration (pnervous system activity and is assumed to be due to ß1-adrenoceptor mediated stimulation by norepinephrine. PMID:28346464

  9. U(IV) fluorescence spectroscopy. A new speciation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, Susanne; Brendler, Vinzenz [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes; Steudtner, Robin [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology

    2017-06-01

    We combined absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy to study the speciation of U(IV) in solution in concentrations down to 10{sup -6} M uranium. With our time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence setup we could determine the fluorescence decay time of U(IV) in perchloric as well as in chloric acid with 2.6 ± 0.3 ns at room temperature and 148.4 ± 6.5 ns at liquid nitrogen temperature. For the U(IV) sulfate system, we observed a bathochromic shift and a peak shape modification in the fluorescence spectra with increasing sulfate concentration in solution. Thus, the potential of U(IV) fluorescence for speciation analysis could be proven.

  10. Platinum(iv) anticancer prodrugs - hypotheses and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Dan

    2016-08-16

    In this manuscript we focus on Pt(iv) anticancer prodrugs. We explore the main working hypotheses for the design of effective Pt(iv) prodrugs and note the exceptions to the common assumptions that are prevalent in the field. Special attention was devoted to the emerging class of "dual action" Pt(iv) prodrugs, where bioactive ligands are conjugated to the axial positions of platinum in order to obtain orthogonal or complementary effects that will increase the efficacy of killing the cancer cells. We discuss the rationale behind the design of the "dual action" prodrugs and the results of the pharmacological studies obtained. Simultaneous release of two bioactive moieties inside the cancer cells often triggers several processes that together determine the fate of the cell. Pt(iv) complexes provide many opportunities for applying new concepts in targeting, synergistic cell killing and exploiting novel nanodelivery systems.

  11. Evaluation of Columbia, USMARC-Composite, Suffolk, and Texel rams as terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system: IV. Postfabrication carcass component weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousel, M R; Notter, D R; Leeds, T D; Zerby, H N; Moeller, S J; Lewis, G S

    2013-05-01

    Postfabrication carcass component weights of 517 crossbred wether lambs were analyzed to evaluate 4 terminal-sire breeds. Wethers were produced over 3 yr from single-sire matings of 22 Columbia, 22 USMARC-Composite (Composite), 21 Suffolk, and 17 Texel rams to adult Rambouillet ewes. Lambs were reared to weaning in an extensive western rangeland production system and finished in a feedlot on a high-energy finishing diet. When wethers reached a mean BW of 54.4, 61.2, or 68.0 kg, they were transported to The Ohio State University abattoir for harvest. After refrigeration for approximately 24 h, chilled carcass weight (CCW) was measured, carcasses were fabricated according to Style A of Institutional Meat Purchase Specifications, and postfabrication weights were recorded. At comparable numbers of days on feed, Suffolk-sired lambs had heavier (P wholesale cut weights) and high-value trimming loss were greatest (P 0.06) flank weight. Data adjusted to comparable CCW reduced the number of significant sire-breed effects and changed sire-breed rankings of carcass component weights, for which sire breeds differed. After adjusting, Suffolk-sired lambs had lighter (P < 0.05) loins than Columbia- and Composite-sired lambs, Composite-sired lambs had heavier (P < 0.05) high-value cuts than Suffolk-sired lambs, and Suffolk- and Columbia-sired lambs had heavier (P < 0.05) necks than Texel-sired lambs. At predicted backfat thickness of 6.6 mm, Composite-sired lambs had a greater (P < 0.05) percentage of high-value cuts than Suffolk-sired lambs before but not after trimming. Producers can use these results to select terminal-sire breeds that will complement their production system and improve lamb value.

  12. European waste-to-energy systems. Case study of Munich: Munich North IA and IB, Munich North II, Munich South IV and V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    The city of Munich has a population of 1,315,000. Solid waste is collected by a city department and delivered to the city's own Electricity Works. The Electricity Works incinerates the waste in five incinerators in two separate locations (the North and South plants). Munich's five incinerators represent three different designs for co-generation of heat and electrical energy. All burn both waste and fossil fuel and all use Benson boilers to produce steam at 184 bars (181.5 atm) and 540/sup 0/C (1,000/sup 0/F). The Electricity Works recovers energy in the form of electricity, hot water, and steam. Ash, bulky objects, and non-incinerable waste are dumped on a ''garbage mountain'' within the city limits. The system's priority is to produce electricity for the city grid rather than to treat waste. The hot water and steam produced are used in district heating. The system is peakloaded both for electricity and for district heating, and, as a result, is operated with some diseconomy. Over 450,000 metric tons (495,700 short tons) of waste were burned in 1975. That amount represents practically all the solid waste collected in Munich. A shredder with a capacity of 30,000 metric tons (33,000 short tons) per year will be added in 1977 and this will allow for even more complete incineration in the future. Some fees for collection go towards the difference between the total costs ofincineration and the revenue earned from the sale of energy and scrap metal. The rates charged appear to be far below actual costs of incineration, which suggests that the sale of electricity is subsidizing the cost of incineration.

  13. A comprehensive biological insight of trinuclear copper(II)-tin(IV) chemotherapeutic anticancer drug entity: in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo systemic toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Yusra; Arjmand, Farukh; Zaidi, Nida; Usmani, Jawed Ahmad; Zubair, Haseeb; Akhtar, Kafil; Hossain, Mobarak; Shadab, G G H A

    2014-08-01

    Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II), CDDP) causes severe systemic toxicity, which limits its application in cancer treatment. Nevertheless, incorporation of endogenously present essential metal ions (copper) in anticancer drug regimes in a heterometallic ligand scaffold can substantially modulate the toxic effects of non-essential metals (platinum), thereby reducing unwanted toxic side effects. A chiral l-tryptophan derived [bis(1,2-diaminobenzene) copper(II)] chloride complex [CuSn2(Trp)] was previously synthesized by us as an active chemotherapeutic agent. Furthermore, we have explored CuSn2(Trp) induced in vitro cytotoxicity in a panel of human cancer cell lines and in vivo acute and systemic toxicities in healthy female Rattus norvegicus (Wistar) rats. MTT assay showed that CuSn2(Trp) exhibits strong anticancer potency against ovarian (PA-1) and prostate carcinomas (PC-3) but lower potency towards liver (HepG2) and breast carcinomas (MCF-7). Further, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that CuSn2(Trp) kills PA-1 cells dose-dependently after 48 h treatment. Fluorescence microscopy and western blotting revealed that the plausible mechanism behind CuSn2(Trp) cytotoxicity was apoptosis, which was substantiated by cleavage of caspase-3 and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Furthermore, it has lower toxicity than CDDP in rats as evident from its eight fold (98.11 mg kg(-1)) more medial lethal dose (LD50) than CDDP (12 mg kg(-1)). Besides, the safety profile of CuSn2(Trp) was also established and no measurable DNA damage, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity were observed when assessed as a function of oxidative stress markers in contrast to CDDP at equivalent lower doses. Our findings are of high importance in the context of further in vivo cancer studies on the CuSn2(Trp) drug entity.

  14. Congestion based mechanism for route discovery in a V2I-V2V system applying smart devices and IoT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrado, Natalia; Donoso, Yezid

    2015-03-31

    The Internet of Things is a new paradigm in which objects in a specific context can be integrated into traditional communication networks to actively participate in solving a determined problem. The Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) technologies are specific cases of IoT and key enablers for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). V2V and V2I have been widely used to solve different problems associated with transportation in cities, in which the most important is traffic congestion. A high percentage of congestion is usually presented by the inappropriate use of resources in vehicular infrastructure. In addition, the integration of traffic congestion in decision making for vehicular traffic is a challenge due to its high dynamic behavior. In this paper, an optimization model over the load balancing in the congestion percentage of the streets is formulated. Later, we explore a fully congestion-oriented route discovery mechanism and we make a proposal on the communication infrastructure that should support it based on V2I and V2V communication. The mechanism is also compared with a modified Dijkstra's approach that reacts at congestion states. Finally, we compare the results of the efficiency of the vehicle's trip with the efficiency in the use of the capacity of the vehicular network.

  15. Post-Newtonian gravitational radiation and equations of motion via direct integration of the relaxed Einstein equations. IV. Radiation reaction for binary systems with spin-spin coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Will, Clifford M.

    2007-03-01

    Using post-Newtonian equations of motion for fluid bodies that include radiation-reaction terms at 2.5 and 3.5 post-Newtonian (PN) order (O[(v/c)5] and O[(v/c)7] beyond Newtonian order), we derive the equations of motion for binary systems with spinning bodies, including spin-spin effects. In particular we determine the effects of radiation-reaction coupled to spin-spin effects on the two-body equations of motion, and on the evolution of the spins. We find that radiation damping causes a 3.5PN order, spin-spin induced precession of the individual spins. This contrasts with the case of spin-orbit coupling, where we earlier found no effect on the spins at 3.5PN order. Employing the equations of motion and of spin precession, we verify that the loss of total energy and total angular momentum induced by spin-spin effects precisely balances the radiative flux of those quantities calculated by Kidder et al.

  16. Congestion Based Mechanism for Route Discovery in a V2I-V2V System Applying Smart Devices and IoT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Parrado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things is a new paradigm in which objects in a specific context can be integrated into traditional communication networks to actively participate in solving a determined problem. The Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I technologies are specific cases of IoT and key enablers for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS. V2V and V2I have been widely used to solve different problems associated with transportation in cities, in which the most important is traffic congestion. A high percentage of congestion is usually presented by the inappropriate use of resources in vehicular infrastructure. In addition, the integration of traffic congestion in decision making for vehicular traffic is a challenge due to its high dynamic behavior. In this paper, an optimization model over the load balancing in the congestion percentage of the streets is formulated. Later, we explore a fully congestion-oriented route discovery mechanism and we make a proposal on the communication infrastructure that should support it based on V2I and V2V communication. The mechanism is also compared with a modified Dijkstra’s approach that reacts at congestion states. Finally, we compare the results of the efficiency of the vehicle’s trip with the efficiency in the use of the capacity of the vehicular network.

  17. Congestion Based Mechanism for Route Discovery in a V2I-V2V System Applying Smart Devices and IoT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrado, Natalia; Donoso, Yezid

    2015-01-01

    The Internet of Things is a new paradigm in which objects in a specific context can be integrated into traditional communication networks to actively participate in solving a determined problem. The Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) technologies are specific cases of IoT and key enablers for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). V2V and V2I have been widely used to solve different problems associated with transportation in cities, in which the most important is traffic congestion. A high percentage of congestion is usually presented by the inappropriate use of resources in vehicular infrastructure. In addition, the integration of traffic congestion in decision making for vehicular traffic is a challenge due to its high dynamic behavior. In this paper, an optimization model over the load balancing in the congestion percentage of the streets is formulated. Later, we explore a fully congestion-oriented route discovery mechanism and we make a proposal on the communication infrastructure that should support it based on V2I and V2V communication. The mechanism is also compared with a modified Dijkstra’s approach that reacts at congestion states. Finally, we compare the results of the efficiency of the vehicle’s trip with the efficiency in the use of the capacity of the vehicular network. PMID:25835185

  18. A DFT study of the Karplus-type dependence of vicinal (3)J(Sn-C-X-C), X=N,O,S, in organotin(iv) compounds: application to conformationally flexible systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Girolamo; Ferrante, Francesco; Saielli, Giacomo

    2010-06-21

    ZORA relativistic and non-relativistic DFT protocols have been used to investigate vicinal coupling constants, (3)J(Sn-C-X-C), in several organotin(iv) compounds, with particular emphasis on cyclic alpha-aminoorganostannanes. The dependence of the coupling constant on the heteroatom X (X = N,O,S) in the coupling path, and, for X = N, its substituents, has been studied in detail. The electron-withdrawing strength of the N-substituents has been found to strongly affect the magnitude and shape of the Karplus-type curve. The results obtained for the simple model systems, having no or little conformational flexibility, have helped in rationalizing the data concerning real flexible cyclic systems recently investigated in the literature. For these intricate cases a population analysis of various conformers has allowed to obtain a very good agreement between calculated and experimental data. It is therefore established that NMR J couplings, together with DFT calculations, are a very useful tool to investigate conformational issues in solution by comparison of experimental and weighted average calculated values.

  19. Alle har en historie, IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydegaard, Torbjørn

    Alle har en historie IV: Pædagogik med Freedom Writers lader et væld af pædagogiske facetter udspringe af den kendte skole-film Freedom Writers’ scener og handlinger. Der er både fokus på en almen tilgang til pædagogik og på Freedom Writer-metodikken, dels gennem de filmscener, der sættes til...

  20. Neurohypophyseal hormone-responsive renal adenylate cyclase. IV. A random-hit matrix model for coupline in a hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R N; Hechter, O

    1978-05-10

    (A), uniformly observed in different membrane preparations: 2) variable hormone concentration-dependent trajectories of approach to the final steady state A:O value (A:Oss) which may be either monophasic or biphasic; 3) the loss of intrinsic adenylate cyclase activity observed in bovine membranes for a series of NHH analogs with progressively diminishing affinity for receptors. The model represents an explicit theory of coupling where a successive series of temporal events are quantitatively related to each other and privide major constraints to any interpretation of the molecular organization of receptors and adenylate cyclase units in membranes. The model excludes a number of mechanistic proposals and suggests a new hypothesis for membrane coupling with features which may be generally applicable to other hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase systems.

  1. Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum for Generation IV Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anghel, C. (Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)); Penttilae, S. (Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland))

    2010-03-15

    A network for material issues for Generation IV nuclear power has been initiated within the Nordic countries. The objectives of the Generation IV Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum (NOMAGE4) are to put the basis of a sustainable forum for Gen IV issues, especially focussing on fuels, cladding, structural materials and coolant interaction. Other issues include reactor physics, dynamics and diagnostics, core and fuel design. The present report summarizes the work performed during the year 2009. The efforts made include identification of organisations involved in Gen IV issues in the Nordic countries, update of the forum website, http://www.studsvik.se/GenerationIV, and investigation of capabilities for research within the area of Gen IV. Within the NOMAGE4 project a seminar on Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems has been organized during 15-16th of October 2009. The aim of the seminar was to provide a forum for exchange of information, discussion on future research needs and networking of experts on Generation IV reactor concepts. As an outcome of the NOMAGE4, a few collaboration project proposals have been prepared/planned in 2009. The network was welcomed by the European Commission and was mentioned as an exemplary network with representatives from industries, universities, power companies and research institutes. NOMAGE4 has been invited to participate to the 'European Energy Research Alliance, EERA, workshop for nuclear structural materials' http://www.eera-set.eu/index.php?index=41 as external observers. Future plans include a new Nordic application for continuation of NOMAGE4 network. (author)

  2. Investigating the reasons of variability in Si IV and C IV broad absorption line troughs of quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, Dimitrios; Lyratzi, Evangelia; Danezis, Emmanuel; Antoniou, Antonios; Tzimeas, Dimitrios

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we analyze the C IV and Si IV broad absorption troughs of two BALQSOs (J101056.69+355833.3, J114548.38+393746.6) to the individual components they consist of. By analyzing a BAL trough to its components we have the advantage to study the variations of the individual absorbing systems in the line of sight and not just the variations of the whole absorption trough or the variations of selected portions of BAL troughs exhibiting changes. We find that the velocity shifts and FWHMs (Full Width at Half Maximum) of the individual components do not vary between an interval of six years. All variable components show changes in the optical depths at line centers which are manifested as variations in the EW (Equivalent Width) of the components. In both BALQSOs, over corresponding velocities, Si IV has higher incidence of variability than C IV. From our analysis, evidence is in favour of different covering fractions between C IV and Si IV. Finally, although most of our results favour the crossing cloud scenario as the cause of variability, there is also strong piece of evidence indicating changing ionization as the source of variability. Thus, a mixed situation where both physical mechanisms contribute to BAL variability is the most possible scenario.

  3. A mild, three-component one-pot synthesis of 2,4,5-trisubstituted imidazoles using Mo(IV) salen complex in homogeneous catalytic system and Mo(IV) salen complex nanoparticles onto silica as a highly active, efficient, and reusable heterogeneous nanocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharghi, Hashem; Aberi, Mahdi; Doroodmand, Mohammad Mahdi

    2015-02-01

    Mo(IV) salen complex (2.5 mol%) was found to be a highly efficient catalyst for the one-pot synthesis of 2,4,5-triarylimidazoles via a three-component reaction using benzil or benzoin, aryl aldehydes, and ammonium acetate as a nitrogen source under mild conditions. In order to recover and the reuse of the catalyst, a new Mo(IV) salen-silica nanoparticle as heterogeneous catalyst was prepared by simple and successful immobilization of the catalyst onto silica (3-aminopropyl functionalized silica gel). This procedure can be applied to large-scale conditions with high efficiency. Experimental evidence showed that the catalyst is stable and can be easily recovered and reused for at least five times without significant loss of activity. The nanocatalyst was characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction , transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric instrument for analysis of nitrogen adsorption, and inductively coupled plasma spectrometer.

  4. 旧概念与新环境(一):柏拉图的“恒”%OLD CONCEPTS AND NEW SITUATIONS ( Ⅰ ): PLATO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁鹤年

    2012-01-01

    "Justice" is emphasized both in Plato's worldview (Timaeus) and political view (The Republic). "Justice", as an Idea, a Form, is changeless; it governs man and the Universe; it is the combination of order and balance. In city planning, Le Corbusier comes closest to the Platonic ideal, and for which he has been severely criticized by mainstream Empiricism and Individualism. City planning cannot avoid ordering and balancing. Confucianism does not only share a lot with Platonism, but also provide additional insights.%柏拉图的《宇宙论》和《理想国》都强调“义”.“义”是一种永恒的天道与人道原则,是秩序和平衡的组合,是宇宙之法.在城市规划中,柯布西耶最得其精粹.但也因此而备受现代主流经验主义与个人主义的批判.城市规划不能离开秩序与平衡,中国孔孟之道与柏拉图思路不仅有很多吻合之处,更另创新意.

  5. Report on the O IV and S IV lines observed by IRIS

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The O IV intercombination lines observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) between 1397 and 1407 A provide useful density diagnostics. This document presents data that address two issues related to these lines: (1) the contribution of S IV to the O IV 1404.8 line; and (2) the range of sensitivity of the O IV 1399.8/1401.2 ratio.

  6. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a clinical tool for extending the…

  7. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a…

  8. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a…

  9. Gene flow across genus barriers – Conjugation of Dinoroseobacter shibae´s 191-kb killer plasmid into Phaeobacter inhibens and AHL-mediated expression of type IV secretion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana ePatzelt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhodobacteraceae harbor a conspicuous wealth of extrachromosomal replicons (ECRs and therefore the exchange of genetic material via horizontal transfer has been supposed to be a major evolutionary driving force. Many plasmids in the roseobacter group encode type IV secretion systems (T4SS that generally mediate transfer of proteins and/or DNA into host cells, but no experimental evidence of either has yet been provided. Dinoroseobacter shibae contains five ECRs that are crucial for anaerobic growth, survival under starvation and the pathogenicity of this model organism. Here we tagged two syntenous but compatible RepABC-type plasmids of 191 kb and 126-kb size, each harboring a T4SS, with antibiotic resistance genes and demonstrated their conjugational transfer into a distantly related roseo-bacter species, namely Phaeobacter inhibens. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis showed transfer of those replicons into the recipient both individually but also together documenting the efficiency of conjugation. We then studied the influence of externally added quorum sensing (QS signals on the expression of the T4SS located on the sister plasmids. A QS deficient D. shibae null mutant (ΔluxI1 lacking synthesis of N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs was cultivated with a wide spectrum of chemically diverse long-chain AHLs. All AHLs with lengths of the acid side-chain >14 reverted the ΔluxI1 phenotype to wild-type. Expression of the T4SS was induced above wild-type level. We hypothesize that conjugation in roseobacters is QS-controlled and that the QS system may detect a wide array of long-chain AHLs at the cell surface.

  10. BCS class IV drugs: Highly notorious candidates for formulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadi, Rohan; Dand, Neha

    2017-02-28

    BCS class IV drugs (e.g., amphotericin B, furosemide, acetazolamide, ritonavir, paclitaxel) exhibit many characteristics that are problematic for effective oral and per oral delivery. Some of the problems associated include low aqueous solubility, poor permeability, erratic and poor absorption, inter and intra subject variability and significant positive food effect which leads to low and variable bioavailability. Also, most of the class IV drugs are substrate for P-glycoprotein (low permeability) and substrate for CYP3A4 (extensive pre systemic metabolism) which further potentiates the problem of poor therapeutic potential of these drugs. A decade back, extreme examples of class IV compounds were an exception rather than the rule, yet today many drug candidates under development pipeline fall into this category. Formulation and development of an efficacious delivery system for BCS class IV drugs are herculean tasks for any formulator. The inherent hurdles posed by these drugs hamper their translation to actual market. The importance of the formulation composition and design to successful drug development is especially illustrated by the BCS class IV case. To be clinically effective these drugs require the development of a proper delivery system for both oral and per oral delivery. Ideal oral dosage forms should produce both a reasonably high bioavailability and low inter and intra subject variability in absorption. Also, ideal systems for BCS class IV should produce a therapeutic concentration of the drug at reasonable dose volumes for intravenous administration. This article highlights the various techniques and upcoming strategies which can be employed for the development of highly notorious BCS class IV drugs. Some of the techniques employed are lipid based delivery systems, polymer based nanocarriers, crystal engineering (nanocrystals and co-crystals), liquisolid technology, self-emulsifying solid dispersions and miscellaneous techniques addressing the P

  11. Generation of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV-Inhibiting Peptides from β-Lactoglobulin Secreted by Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguru Shigemori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that hydrolysates of β-lactoglobulin (BLG prepared using gastrointestinal proteases strongly inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV activity in vitro. In this study, we developed a BLG-secreting Lactococcus lactis strain as a delivery vehicle and in situ expression system. Interestingly, trypsin-digested recombinant BLG from L. lactis inhibited DPP-IV activity, suggesting that BLG-secreting L. lactis may be useful in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  12. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of enrofloxacin using the Ru(phen)3(2+)-Ce(IV) system and central composite design for the optimization of chemical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, B; Mokhtari, A

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop an inexpensive, simple, rapid and sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of enrofloxacin (ENRO) using a flow-injection system. This method is based on rapid reduction of Ru(phen)(3)(3+), which is produced in the reaction between Ru(phen)(3)(2+) and acidic Ce(IV) by ENRO, producing strong CL. A central composite design (CCD) was used for optimization of the chemical variables. Regression analysis of the data from the CCD demonstrated that a second-order polynomial model is an adequate description of the surface over the factor limits studied. Optimization using CCD gave approximately four-fold better results than the single-factor-at-a-time method. Under optimal experimental conditions, the CL response was proportional to the concentration of ENRO over a wide range (0.008-3.6 microg/mL) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9986 and a detection limit of 0.003 microg/mL (3sigma). The relative standard deviation for 11 repeated determinations of 0.14 microg/mL ENRO was 4.2%. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of commercial formulations, spiked plasma and spiked poultry tissue. Sample analyses showed good recovery percentages for drugs and spiked plasma (95.1-103.9%). Recovery percentages for spiked poultry tissue were in the range 77.6-87.3%. The minimum sampling rate was 100 samples/h. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The abcEDCBA-Encoded ABC Transporter and the virB Operon-Encoded Type IV Secretion System of Brucella ovis Are Critical for Intracellular Trafficking and Survival in Ovine Monocyte-Derived Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auricelio A Macedo

    Full Text Available Brucella ovis infection is associated with epididymitis, orchitis and infertility in rams. Most of the information available on B. ovis and host cell interaction has been generated using murine macrophages or epithelial cell lines, but the interaction between B. ovis and primary ovine macrophages has not been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the B. ovis abcEDCBA-encoded ABC transporter and the virB operon-encoded Type IV Secretion System (T4SS during intracellular survival of B. ovis in ovine peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages. ΔabcBA and ΔvirB2 mutant strains were unable to survive in the intracellular environment when compared to the WT B. ovis at 48 hours post infection (hpi. In addition, these mutant strains cannot exclude the lysosomal marker LAMP1 from its vacuolar membrane, and their vacuoles do not acquire the endoplasmic reticulum marker calreticulin, which takes place in the WT B. ovis containing vacuole. Higher levels of nitric oxide production were observed in macrophages infected with WT B. ovis at 48 hpi when compared to macrophages infected with the ΔabcBA or ΔvirB2 mutant strains. Conversely, higher levels of reactive oxygen species were detected in macrophages infected with the ΔabcBA or ΔvirB2 mutant strains at 48 hpi when compared to macrophages infected with the WT strain. Our results demonstrate that B. ovis is able to persist and multiply in ovine macrophages, while ΔabcBA and ΔvirB2 mutations prevent intracellular multiplication, favor phagolysosome fusion, and impair maturation of the B. ovis vacuole towards an endoplasmic reticulum-derived compartment.

  14. Counsellors Respond to the DSM-IV-TR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Tom; Gaete, Joaquin; Sametband, Ines N.; French, Jared; Eeson, Jen

    2012-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) is an administrative fact for many counsellors. This psychiatric approach to formulating client concerns runs counter to those used by counsellors of many approaches (e.g., systemic, feminist). Using an online survey of counsellors (N = 116), invited contributions to a website…

  15. Lamstatin - a novel inhibitor of lymphangiogenesis derived from collagen IV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckmann, Markus; Moir, Lyn Margaret; Heckman, Caroline Akemi; Black, Judith Lee; Oliver, Brian Gregory; Burgess, Janette Kay

    2012-01-01

    The lymphatic system is essential for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and immunity. Its dysfunction in disease (such as lymphangioleiomyomatosis) can lead to chylous effusions, oedema or dissemination of malignant cells. Collagen IV has six a chains, of which some of the non-collagenous-1 doma

  16. Solar neutrino measurements in Super-Kamiokande-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K.; Haga, Y.; Hayato, Y.; Ikeda, M.; Iyogi, K.; Kameda, J.; Kishimoto, Y.; Marti, Ll.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakajima, T.; Nakayama, S.; Orii, A.; Sekiya, H.; Shiozawa, M.; Sonoda, Y.; Takeda, A.; Tanaka, H.; Takenaga, Y.; Tasaka, S.; Tomura, T.; Ueno, K.; Yokozawa, T.; Akutsu, R.; Irvine, T.; Kaji, H.; Kajita, T.; Kametani, I.; Kaneyuki, K.; Lee, K. P.; Nishimura, Y.; McLachlan, T.; Okumura, K.; Richard, E.; Labarga, L.; Fernandez, P.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Gustafson, J.; Kachulis, C.; Kearns, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Berkman, S.; Tobayama, S.; Goldhaber, M.; Bays, K.; Carminati, G.; Griskevich, N. J.; Kropp, W. R.; Mine, S.; Renshaw, A.; Smy, M. B.; Sobel, H. W.; Takhistov, V.; Weatherly, P.; Ganezer, K. S.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Hill, J.; Keig, W. E.; Hong, N.; Kim, J. Y.; Lim, I. T.; Park, R. G.; Akiri, T.; Albert, J. B.; Himmel, A.; Li, Z.; O'Sullivan, E.; Scholberg, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wongjirad, T.; Ishizuka, T.; Nakamura, T.; Jang, J. S.; Choi, K.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Smith, S. N.; Friend, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nishikawa, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakashita, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Tsukamoto, T.; Nakano, Y.; Suzuki, A. T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Yano, T.; Cao, S. V.; Hayashino, T.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Huang, K.; Ieki, K.; Jiang, M.; Kikawa, T.; Minamino, A.; Murakami, A.; Nakaya, T.; Patel, N. D.; Suzuki, K.; Takahashi, S.; Wendell, R. A.; Fukuda, Y.; Itow, Y.; Mitsuka, G.; Muto, F.; Suzuki, T.; Mijakowski, P.; Frankiewicz, K.; Hignight, J.; Imber, J.; Jung, C. K.; Li, X.; Palomino, J. L.; Santucci, G.; Taylor, I.; Vilela, C.; Wilking, M. J.; Yanagisawa, C.; Fukuda, D.; Ishino, H.; Kayano, T.; Kibayashi, A.; Koshio, Y.; Mori, T.; Sakuda, M.; Takeuchi, J.; Yamaguchi, R.; Kuno, Y.; Tacik, R.; Kim, S. B.; Okazawa, H.; Choi, Y.; Ito, K.; Nishijima, K.; Koshiba, M.; Totsuka, Y.; Suda, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Bronner, C.; Calland, R. G.; Hartz, M.; Martens, K.; Obayashi, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Vagins, M. R.; Nantais, C. M.; Martin, J. F.; de Perio, P.; Tanaka, H. A.; Konaka, A.; Chen, S.; Sui, H.; Wan, L.; Yang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, Y.; Connolly, K.; Dziomba, M.; Wilkes, R. J.; Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Upgraded electronics, improved water system dynamics, better calibration and analysis techniques allowed Super-Kamiokande-IV to clearly observe very low-energy 8B solar neutrino interactions, with recoil electron kinetic energies as low as ˜3.5 MeV . Super-Kamiokande-IV data-taking began in September of 2008; this paper includes data until February 2014, a total livetime of 1664 days. The measured solar neutrino flux is (2.308 ±0.020 (stat)-0.040 +0.039(syst ))×1 06/(cm2 sec ) assuming no oscillations. The observed recoil electron energy spectrum is consistent with no distortions due to neutrino oscillations. An extended maximum likelihood fit to the amplitude of the expected solar zenith angle variation of the neutrino-electron elastic scattering rate in SK-IV results in a day/night asymmetry of (-3.6 ±1.6 (stat )±0.6 (syst ))% . The SK-IV solar neutrino data determine the solar mixing angle as sin2θ12=0.327-0.031+0.026 , all SK solar data (SK-I, SK-II, SK III and SK-IV) measures this angle to be sin2θ12=0.334-0.023+0.027 , the determined mass-squared splitting is Δ m212=4.8-0.8+1.5×10-5 eV2 .

  17. A cerium(IV)-carbon multiple bond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregson, Matthew; Lu, Erli; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.; Liddle, Stephen T. [Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Chemistry

    2013-12-02

    Straightforward access to a cerium(IV)-carbene complex was provided by one-electron oxidation of an anionic ''ate'' cerium(III)-carbene precursor, thereby avoiding decomposition reactions that plague oxidations of neutral cerium(III) compounds. The cerium(IV)-carbene complex is the first lanthanide(IV)-element multiple bond and involves a twofold bonding interaction of two electron pairs between cerium and carbon. [German] Auf direktem Wege zu einem Cer(IV)-Carbenkomplex gelangt man durch die Einelektronenoxidation einer anionischen Carben-Cerat(III)-Vorstufe. So werden Zersetzungsprozesse vermieden, die die Oxidation neutraler Cer(III)-Verbindungen erschweren. Der Cer(IV)-Carbenkomplex enthaelt die erste Lanthanoid(IV)-Element-Mehrfachbindung; dabei binden Cer und Kohlenstoff ueber zwei Elektronenpaare.

  18. Coordination Chemistry of Homoleptic Actinide(IV)-Thiocyanate Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tyler J; Wilson, Richard E

    2015-10-26

    The synthesis, X-ray crystal structure, vibrational and optical spectroscopy for the eight-coordinate thiocyanate compounds, [Et4 N]4 [Pu(IV) (NCS)8 ], [Et4 N]4 [Th(IV) (NCS)8 ], and [Et4 N]4 [Ce(III) (NCS)7 (H2 O)] are reported. Thiocyanate was found to rapidly reduce plutonium to Pu(III) in acidic solutions (pHcoordination in acetonitrile based on the observation of intense ligand-to-metal charge-transfer bands. Spectroscopic and crystallographic data do not support the interaction of the metal orbitals with the ligand π system, but support an enhanced An(IV) -NCS interaction, as the Lewis acidity of the metal ion increases from Th to Pu.

  19. The fundamental characters of soma in Plato's later dialogues: an introduction to the reanalysis of Plato's physical education theory%柏拉图后期对话篇中"身体(soma)"的原理性特征——柏拉图体育论再考的前提

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    木庭康树

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify Plato's view of soma through consideration of the fundamental characters of soma in Plato's later dialogues. Soma, which had a very large extension in classical Greek, denotes not only the hu-man body but also the elemental bodies (fire, water, air, earth), the corpse, the cosmic body, the celestial body, the animal body, etc, and there also lies such a large extension in the background of the Plato's view of the human body.According to Laws, Plato's last work, soma has three common characters: spaciality, movability and sensibil-ity, and takes on a different aspect fi'om the body in the present age. Firstly, the spaciality of soma is the likeness of Form, which is copied into chora (the place of plenum), and it is the solid, which is geometrically formed by fol-lowing Form. Secondly, the movability of soma is originally motion by others or disorderly and dotted linear mo-tion, which is necessarily caused by the accidental collision between the particles, but in connection with Soul and Reason it becomes a pseudo-autonomous and orderly circular motion. Thirdly, the sensibility of soma is pathema (accidental affection), which is based on the multiplicity in the geometrical structures of the particles. Pathema in-jutes Soul and soma when it is left to Chance and Ignorance, but in the control of Reason it contributes to the reali-zation of the good and the restoration of the order.Since soma, which has close connections to Soul, Reason and Form, is represented as such a subordinate and necessarily conditional existence in Plato's later dialogues, the hu-man body, which is also called soma, should be considered on the basis of the above mentioned fundamental char-acters.%通过考察柏拉图后期对话篇中"身体(soma)"的原理性特征,阐明柏拉图身体(soma)观."身体(soma)"是具有极其宽广外延的词汇,不仅指人的身体,还代指动物的躯体、宇宙或天体的结构、丧失生命的尸体,甚至具有构成基

  20. Tethys and Annex IV Progress Report for FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, Luke A.; Butner, R. Scott; Whiting, Jonathan M.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-09-01

    The marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) environmental Impacts Knowledge Management System, dubbed “Tethys” after the mythical Greek titaness of the seas, is being developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s Wind and Water Power Program (WWPP). Functioning as a smart database, Tethys enables its users to identify key words or terms to help gather, organize and make available information and data pertaining to the environmental effects of MHK and offshore wind (OSW) energy development. By providing and categorizing relevant publications within a simple and searchable database, Tethys acts as a dissemination channel for information and data which can be utilized by regulators, project developers and researchers to minimize the environmental risks associated with offshore renewable energy developments and attempt to streamline the permitting process. Tethys also houses a separate content-related Annex IV data base with identical functionality to the Tethys knowledge base. Annex IV is a collaborative project among member nations of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Ocean Energy Systems – Implementing Agreement (OES-IA) that examines the environmental effects of ocean energy devices and projects. The U.S. Department of Energy leads the Annex IV working with federal partners such as the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). While the Annex IV database contains technical reports and journal articles, it is primarily focused on the collection of project site and research study metadata forms (completed by MHK researchers and developers around the world, and collected by PNNL) which provide information on environmental studies and the current progress of the various international MHK developments in the Annex IV member nations. The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the content

  1. Baseline Q waves and time from symptom onset to ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: insights from PLATO on the influence of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholaif, Naji; Zheng, Yinggan; Jagasia, Pushpa; Himmelmann, Anders; James, Stefan K; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Storey, Robert F; Westerhout, Cynthia M; Armstrong, Paul W

    2015-08-01

    The prognostic value of time from symptom onset to reperfusion may be enhanced by the identification of Q waves on the presenting electrocardiogram (ECG) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We evaluated whether the relative prognostic utility of these 2 metrics was altered by sex. Q waves in the distribution of the ST-segment elevation on the baseline ECG were evaluated by a blinded core laboratory in 2838 STEMI patients (2163 men and 675 women) from the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) within 12 hours of symptom onset. Women were older (median 63 vs 57 years), more likely to be diabetic (24.1% vs 15.5%), hypertensive (69.2% vs 50.9%), and a higher Killip class > I (8.6% vs 5.9%), as compared with men. Whereas the Q waves frequency rose progressively over time to ECG in men, this relationship was attenuated in women (P = .057). Q waves on the baseline ECG were associated with a higher excess hazard of 1-year vascular death in men (hazard ratio [HR] 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-3.72), and a similar trend existed in women (HR 1.97; 95% CI, 0.86-4.51). Women with baseline Q waves tended to have higher risk of 1-year vascular death than men as continuous time from symptom onset to PCI increased (P[interaction] = .182). These differences in the evolution of baseline Q waves and relationship between time from symptom onset and vascular death in women and men deserve recognition in future studies of STEMI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Safety assessment of Tin(IV) oxide as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wilbur; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    Tin(IV) oxide functions as an abrasive, bulking, and opacifying agent in cosmetic products and is used at concentrations up to 0.4% in rinse-off products and up to 1.3% in leave-on products. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) noted that tin(IV) oxide is a water-insoluble inorganic metal compound and should not be percutaneously absorbed; therefore, systemic exposure is not likely. Studies of dermal application of tin(IV) oxide were considered to determine toxicity at the site of application. The Panel concluded that tin(IV) oxide is safe in the present practices of use and concentration.

  3. The MAX IV storage ring project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Pedro F; Leemann, Simon C; Sjöström, Magnus; Andersson, Ake

    2014-09-01

    The MAX IV facility, currently under construction in Lund, Sweden, features two electron storage rings operated at 3 GeV and 1.5 GeV and optimized for the hard X-ray and soft X-ray/VUV spectral ranges, respectively. A 3 GeV linear accelerator serves as a full-energy injector into both rings as well as a driver for a short-pulse facility, in which undulators produce X-ray pulses as short as 100 fs. The 3 GeV ring employs a multibend achromat (MBA) lattice to achieve, in a relatively short circumference of 528 m, a bare lattice emittance of 0.33 nm rad, which reduces to 0.2 nm rad as insertion devices are added. The engineering implementation of the MBA lattice raises several technological problems. The large number of strong magnets per achromat calls for a compact design featuring small-gap combined-function magnets grouped into cells and sharing a common iron yoke. The small apertures lead to a low-conductance vacuum chamber design that relies on the chamber itself as a distributed copper absorber for the heat deposited by synchrotron radiation, while non-evaporable getter (NEG) coating provides for reduced photodesorption yields and distributed pumping. Finally, a low main frequency (100 MHz) is chosen for the RF system yielding long bunches, which are further elongated by passively operated third-harmonic Landau cavities, thus alleviating collective effects, both coherent (e.g. resistive wall instabilities) and incoherent (intrabeam scattering). In this paper, we focus on the MAX IV 3 GeV ring and present the lattice design as well as the engineering solutions to the challenges inherent to such a design. As the first realisation of a light source based on the MBA concept, the MAX IV 3 GeV ring offers an opportunity for validation of concepts that are likely to be essential ingredients of future diffraction-limited light sources.

  4. Xylanase XYN IV from Trichoderma reesei showing exo- and endo-xylanase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel xylanase from Trichoderma reesei Rut C30, named XYN IV, was purified from the cellulolytic system of the fungus. The enzyme was discovered on its ability to attack aldotetraohexenuronic acid (HexA-2Xyl-4Xyl-4Xyl, HexA3Xyl3), releasing the reducing-end xylose residue. XYN IV exhibited catalyt...

  5. X-Band Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Comparison of Mononuclear Mn(IV)-oxo and Mn(IV)-hydroxo Complexes and Quantum Chemical Investigation of Mn(IV) Zero-Field Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leto, Domenick F; Massie, Allyssa A; Colmer, Hannah E; Jackson, Timothy A

    2016-04-04

    X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to probe the ground-state electronic structures of mononuclear Mn(IV) complexes [Mn(IV)(OH)2(Me2EBC)](2+) and [Mn(IV)(O)(OH)(Me2EBC)](+). These compounds are known to effect C-H bond oxidation reactions by a hydrogen-atom transfer mechanism. They provide an ideal system for comparing Mn(IV)-hydroxo versus Mn(IV)-oxo motifs, as they differ by only a proton. Simulations of 5 K EPR data, along with analysis of variable-temperature EPR signal intensities, allowed for the estimation of ground-state zero-field splitting (ZFS) and (55)Mn hyperfine parameters for both complexes. From this analysis, it was concluded that the Mn(IV)-oxo complex [Mn(IV)(O)(OH)(Me2EBC)](+) has an axial ZFS parameter D (D = +1.2(0.4) cm(-1)) and rhombicity (E/D = 0.22(1)) perturbed relative to the Mn(IV)-hydroxo analogue [Mn(IV)(OH)2(Me2EBC)](2+) (|D| = 0.75(0.25) cm(-1); E/D = 0.15(2)), although the complexes have similar (55)Mn values (a = 7.7 and 7.5 mT, respectively). The ZFS parameters for [Mn(IV)(OH)2(Me2EBC)](2+) were compared with values obtained previously through variable-temperature, variable-field magnetic circular dichroism (VTVH MCD) experiments. While the VTVH MCD analysis can provide a reasonable estimate of the magnitude of D, the E/D values were poorly defined. Using the ZFS parameters reported for these complexes and five other mononuclear Mn(IV) complexes, we employed coupled-perturbed density functional theory (CP-DFT) and complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) calculations with second-order n-electron valence-state perturbation theory (NEVPT2) correction, to compare the ability of these two quantum chemical methods for reproducing experimental ZFS parameters for Mn(IV) centers. The CP-DFT approach was found to provide reasonably acceptable values for D, whereas the CASSCF/NEVPT2 method fared worse, considerably overestimating the magnitude of D in several cases. Both methods were poor in

  6. Stark broadening of B IV spectral lines

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrijevic, Milan S; Simic, Zoran; Kovacevic, Andjelka; Sahal-Brechot, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Stark broadening parameters for 157 multiplets of helium like boron (B IV) have been calculated using the impact semiclassical perturbation formalism. Obtained results have been used to investigate the regularities within spectral series. An example of the influence of Stark broadening on B IV lines in DO white dwarfs is given.

  7. IVS Working Group 4: VLBI Data Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, John

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 the IVS Directing Board established IVS Working Group 4 on VLBI Data Structures. This note discusses the current VLBI data format, goals for a new format, the history and formation of the Working Group, and a timeline for the development of a new VLBI data format.

  8. Metsahovi Radio Observatory - IVS Network Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uunila, Minttu; Zubko, Nataliya; Poutanen, Markku; Kallunki, Juha; Kallio, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, Metsahovi Radio Observatory together with Finnish Geodetic Institute officially became an IVS Network Station. Eight IVS sessions were observed during the year. Two spacecraft tracking and one EVN X-band experiment were also performed. In 2012, the Metsahovi VLBI equipment was upgraded with a Digital Base Band Converter, a Mark 5B+, a FILA10G, and a FlexBuff.

  9. Plutonium(IV) sorption to montmorillonite in the presence of organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Mark A; Dai, Zurong; Kersting, Annie B; Zavarin, Mavrik

    2015-03-01

    The effect of altering the order of addition in a ternary system of plutonium(IV), organic matter (fulvic acid, humic acid and desferrioxamine B), and montmorillonite was investigated. A decrease in Pu(IV) sorption to montmorillonite in the presence of fulvic and humic acid relative to the binary Pu-montmorillonite system, is attributed to strong organic aqueous complex formation with aqueous Pu(IV). No dependence on the order of addition was observed. In contrast, in the system where Pu(IV) was equilibrated with desferrioxamine B (DFOB) prior to addition of montmorillonite, an increase in Pu(IV) sorption was observed relative to the binary system. When DFOB was equilibrated with montmorillonite prior to addition of Pu(IV), Pu(IV) sorption was equivalent to the binary system. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy revealed that DFOB accumulated in the interlayer of montmorillonite. The order of DFOB addition plays an important role in the observed sorption/desorption behavior of Pu. The irreversible nature of DFOB accumulation in the montmorillonite interlayer leads to an apparent dependence of Pu sorption on the order of addition in the ternary system. This work demonstrates that the order of addition will be relevant in ternary systems in which at least one component exhibits irreversible sorption behavior.

  10. Surprising Coordination Geometry Differences in Ce(IV)- and Pu(IV)-Maltol Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Raymond, Kenneth; Szigethy, Geza; Xu, Jide; Gorden, Anne E.V.; Teat, Simon J.; Shuh, David K.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-02-12

    As part of a study to characterize the detailed coordination behavior of Pu(IV), single crystal X-ray diffraction structures have been determined for Pu(IV) and Ce(IV) complexes with the naturally-occurring ligand maltol (3-hydroxy-2-methyl-pyran-4-one) and its derivative bromomaltol (5-bromo-3-hydroxy-2-methyl-pyran-4-one). Although Ce(IV) is generally accepted as a structural analog for Pu(IV), and the maltol complexes of these two metals are isostructural, the corresponding bromomaltol complexes are strikingly different with respect to ligand orientation about the metal ion: All complexes exhibit trigonal dodecahedral coordination geometry but the Ce(IV)-bromomaltol complex displays an uncommon ligand arrangement not mirrored in the Pu(IV) complex, although the two metal species are generally accepted to be structural analogs.

  11. Toward Phase IV, Populating the WOVOdat Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratdomopurbo, A.; Newhall, C. G.; Schwandner, F. M.; Selva, J.; Ueda, H.

    2009-12-01

    One of challenges for volcanologists is the fact that more and more people are likely to live on volcanic slopes. Information about volcanic activity during unrest should be accurate and rapidly distributed. As unrest may lead to eruption, evacuation may be necessary to minimize damage and casualties. The decision to evacuate people is usually based on the interpretation of monitoring data. Over the past several decades, monitoring volcanoes has used more and more sophisticated instruments. A huge volume of data is collected in order to understand the state of activity and behaviour of a volcano. WOVOdat, The World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) Database of Volcanic Unrest, will provide context within which scientists can interpret the state of their own volcano, during and between crises. After a decision during the 2000 IAVCEI General Assembly to create WOVOdat, development has passed through several phases, from Concept Development (Phase-I in 2000-2002), Database Design (Phase-II, 2003-2006) and Pilot Testing (Phase-III in 2007-2008). For WOVOdat to be operational, there are still two (2) steps to complete, which are: Database Population (Phase-IV) and Enhancement and Maintenance (Phase-V). Since January 2009, the WOVOdat project is hosted by Earth Observatory of Singapore for at least a 5-year period. According to the original planning in 2002, this 5-year period will be used for completing the Phase-IV. As the WOVOdat design is not yet tested for all types of data, 2009 is still reserved for building the back-end relational database management system (RDBMS) of WOVOdat and testing it with more complex data. Fine-tuning of the WOVOdat’s RDBMS design is being done with each new upload of observatory data. The next and main phase of WOVOdat development will be data population, managing data transfer from multiple observatory formats to WOVOdat format. Data population will depend on two important things, the availability of SQL database in volcano

  12. Study of the Colour Reaction System of Ge (IV)-Sulfosalicylio Acid-Bromopyrogallol Red-Cetyltri-methylammonium Bromide-OP and its Analytical Application%锗(IV)-磺基水杨酸-澳连苯三酚红-澳化十六烷基三甲基铵-OP显色体系的研究及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗宗铭; 杨树南; 潘东英

    1994-01-01

    @@ 溴连苯三酚红(BPR)是锗的灵敏显色剂[1,2],当有混合表面活性剂溴化十八烷基吡啶和吐温80、以及H2O2存在时,灵敏度很高[3],但反应条件较严,重现性不够好。 我们研究了在溴化十六烷基三甲基铵(CTMAB)和OP混合表面活性剂存在下,Ge(IV)与BPR的显色反应,当有适量磺基水杨酸(SSA)存在时,由于形成混配胶束配合物,不但显色反应灵敏度比文献[1,2]高,条件较宽容;而且有较好选择性。方法可用于烟道灰和矿石中微量锗的测定。

  13. Solar Neutrino Measurements in Super-Kamiokande-IV

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Haga, Y; Hayato, Y; Ikeda, M; Iyogi, K; Kameda, J; Kishimoto, Y; Marti, Ll; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Nakajima, T; Nakayama, S; Orii, A; Sekiya, H; Shiozawa, M; Sonoda, Y; Takeda, A; Tanaka, H; Takenaga, Y; Tasaka, S; Tomura, T; Ueno, K; Yokozawa, T; Akutsu, R; Irvine, T; Kaji, H; Kajita, T; Kametani, I; Kaneyuki, K; Lee, K P; Nishimura, Y; McLachlan, T; Okumura, K; Richard, E; Labarga, L; Fernandez, P; Blaszczyk, F d M; Gustafson, J; Kachulis, C; Kearns, E; Raaf, 32 J L; Stone, J L; Sulak, 32 L R; Berkman, S; Tobayama, S; Goldhaber, M; Bays, K; Carminati, G; Griskevich, N J; Kropp, W R; Mine, S; Renshaw, A; Smy, M B; Sobel, H W; Takhistov, V; Weatherly, P; Ganezer, K S; Hartfiel, B L; Hill, J; Keig, W E; Hong, N; Kim, J Y; Lim, I T; Park, R G; Akiri, T; Albert, J B; Himmel, A; Li, Z; O'Sullivan, E; Scholberg, K; Walter, C W; Wongjirad, T; Ishizuka, T; Nakamura, T; Jang, J S; Choi, K; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Smith, S N; Friend, M; Hasegawa, T; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Kobayashi, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakamura, K; Nishikawa, K; Oyama, Y; Sakashita, K; Sekiguchi, T; Tsukamoto, T; Nakano, Y; Suzuki, A T; Takeuchi, Y; Yano, T; Cao, S V; Hayashino, T; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Huang, K; Ieki, K; Jiang, M; Kikawa, T; Minamino, A; Murakami, A; Nakaya, T; Patel, N D; Suzuki, K; Takahashi, S; Wendell, R A; Fukuda, Y; Itow, Y; Mitsuka, G; Muto, F; Suzuki, T; Mijakowski, P; Frankiewicz, K; Hignight, J; Imber, J; Jung, C K; Li, X; Palomino, J L; Santucci, G; Taylor, I; Vilela, C; Wilking, M J; Yanagisawa, C; Fukuda, D; Ishino, H; Kayano, T; Kibayashi, A; Koshio, Y; Mori, T; Sakuda, M; Takeuchi, J; Yamaguchi, R; Kuno, Y; Tacik, R; Kim, S B; Okazawa, H; Choi, Y; Ito, K; Nishijima, K; Koshiba, M; Totsuka, Y; Suda, Y; Yokoyama, M; Nantais, C M; Martin, J F; de Perio, P; Tanaka, H A; Konaka, A; Chen, S; Sui, H; Wan, L; Yang, Z; Zhang, H; Zhang, Y; Connolly, K; Dziomba, M; Wilkes, R J

    2016-01-01

    Upgraded electronics, improved water system dynamics, better calibration and analysis techniques allowed Super-Kamiokande-IV to clearly observe very low-energy 8B solar neutrino interactions, with recoil electron kinetic energies as low as 3.49 MeV. Super-Kamiokande-IV data-taking began in September of 2008; this paper includes data until February 2014, a total livetime of 1664 days. The measured solar neutrino flux is (2.308+-0.020(stat.) + 0.039-0.040(syst.)) x 106/(cm2sec) assuming no oscillations. The observed recoil electron energy spectrum is consistent with no distortions due to neutrino oscillations. An extended maximum likelihood fit to the amplitude of the expected solar zenith angle variation of the neutrino-electron elastic scattering rate in SK-IV results in a day/night asymmetry of (-3.6+-1.6(stat.)+-0.6(syst.))%. The SK-IV solar neutrino data determine the solar mixing angle as sin2 theta_12 = 0.327+0.026-0.031, all SK solar data (SK-I, SK-II, SK III and SKIV) measures this angle to be sin2 the...

  14. Deconstructing the DSM-IV-TR: a critical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warelow, Philip; Holmes, Colin A

    2011-12-01

    This paper examines and offers a critique of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), underlying principles and assumptions, and the nature and consequences of its nosological framework. The reason for this critique is to look at the rationale for some of the diagnostic categories and also why some categories are retained, including some of the long-standing diagnostic groups, such as schizophrenia. It is not the intention here to rehearse the problems of biological psychiatric thinking, nor argue the strengths and weaknesses of the DSM-IV-TR in its definitions and descriptions of particular syndromes and illnesses. The ideas presented here derive from a range of previous research that argued that the DSM-IV-TR colludes in a system of psychiatric care in which all people, by virtue of characteristically human foibles and idiosyncrasies, are potentially classifiable into a variety of diagnostic mental health categories. In the present study, it was argued that because of resource constraints, professional dispute, and public concern, the major criterion for attracting a formal diagnosis is not classifiability according to the DSM-IV-TR, but rather, that of 'social risk', defined in terms of risk to oneself and/or others and embodying obvious social control functions. Here, we expand and develop some of these ideas, and relate them more specifically to insights offered by critical or deconstructive psychology and the development of the forthcoming the DSM-V.

  15. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in Improving Well-Being in Patients With Stage III-IV Cancer and Their Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-21

    Malignant Female Reproductive System Neoplasm; Malignant Hepatobiliary Neoplasm; Partner; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Colorectal Cancer; Stage III Lung Cancer; Stage III Prostate Cancer; Stage III Skin Melanoma; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Cervical Cancer; Stage IV Colorectal Cancer; Stage IV Lung Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer; Stage IV Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer

  16. Atmosphere of Mars - Mariner IV models compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, V. R.; Fjeldbo, G.; Fjeldbo, W. C.

    1966-01-01

    Mariner IV models of three Mars atmospheric layers analogous to terrestrial E, F-1 and F-2 layers, considering relative mass densities, temperatures, carbon dioxide photodissociation and ionization profile

  17. Periodontal Disease Part IV: Periodontal Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    In Part IV of this article, the author describes two periodontal infections, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (trench mouth) and periodontal abscess, both acute painful conditions for which patients may seek advice from their family physician rather than their dentist.

  18. Campylobacteremia in stage IV gliosarcoma with bevacizumab treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Liu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary campylobacter enteritis with secondary bacteremia was diagnosed in an immunocompromised patient with stage IV gliosarcoma. She developed mild diarrhea followed by systemic symptoms with transient generalized weakness and fever. She was treated with azithromycin and had a full recovery and without relapse through 2 months of follow-up. Her diagnosis was confirmed by a positive stool culture for Campylobacter sp. and blood culture for Campylobacter jejuni/coli.

  19. Comparison of Russian and IVS intensive series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdubov, S. L.

    2013-08-01

    The article presents results of first comparison the Russian National UT1-UTC estimation program Ru-U and IVS-intensive international campaign. It is shown that the Ru-U sessions are performing with good accuracy and results can be included into international VLBI data processing scheme. Comparison of different distributions shows that the problem of correlation lack between single delay formal errors and UT1 estimations are presented both in Ru-U and IVS-intensive series.

  20. Hafnium(IV) complexation with oxalate at variable temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friend, Mitchell T.; Wall, Nathalie A. [Washington State Univ., Pullmanm, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-08-01

    Appropriate management of fission products in the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is crucial in developing advanced reprocessing schemes. The addition of aqueous phase complexing agents can prevent the co-extraction of these fission products. A solvent extraction technique was used to study the complexation of Hf(IV) - an analog to fission product Zr(IV) - with oxalate at 15, 25, and 35 C in 1 M HClO{sub 4} utilizing a {sup 175+181}Hf radiotracer. The mechanism of the solvent extraction system of 10{sup -5} M Hf(IV) in 1 M HClO{sub 4} to thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) in toluene demonstrated a 4{sup th}-power dependence in both TTA and H{sup +}, with Hf(TTA){sub 4} the only extractable species. The equilibrium constant for the extraction of Hf(TTA){sub 4} was determined to be log K{sub ex}=7.67±0.07 (25±1 C, 1 M HClO{sub 4}). The addition of oxalate to the aqueous phase decreased the distribution ratio, indicating aqueous Hf(IV)-oxalate complex formation. Polynomial fits to the distribution data identified the formation of Hf(ox){sup 2+} and Hf(ox){sub 2(aq)} and their stability constants were measured at 15, 25, and 35 C in 1 M HClO{sub 4}. van't Hoff analysis was used to calculate Δ{sub r}G, Δ{sub r}H, and Δ{sub r}S for these species. Stability constants were observed to increase at higher temperature, an indication that Hf(IV)-oxalate complexation is endothermic and driven by entropy.

  1. Observational properties of decameter type IV bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Valentin; Brazhenko, Anatoly; Rucker, Helmut; Konovalenko, Alexander; Briand, Carine; Dorovskyy, Vladimir; Zarka, Philippe; Frantzusenko, Anatoly; Panchenko, Michael; Poedts, Stefan; Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz; Shergelashvili, Bidzina

    2013-04-01

    Oscillations of decameter type IV bursts were registered during observations of solar radio emission by UTR-2, URAN-2 and NDA in 2011-2012. Large majority of these bursts were accompanied by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which were observed by SOHO and STEREO in the visible light. Only in some cases decameter type IV bursts were not associated with CMEs. The largest periods of oscillations P were some tens of minutes. There were some modes of long periods of oscillations simultaneously. Periods of oscillations in flux and in polarization profiles were close. Detailed properties of oscillations at different frequencies were analyzed on the example of two type IV bursts. One of them was observed on April 7, 2011 when a CME happened. Another one (August 1, 2011) was registered without any CME. The 7 April type IV burst had two periods in the frames 75-85 and 35-85 minutes. Interesting feature of these oscillations is decreasing periods with time. The observed decreasing rates dP/dt equaled 0.03-0.07. Concerning type IV burst observed on August 1, 2011 the period of its oscillations increases from 17 min. at 30 MHz to 44 min. at 10 MHz. Connection of type IV burst oscillations with oscillations of magnetic arches and CMEs at corresponding altitudes are discussed. The work is fulfilled in the frame of FP7 project "SOLSPANET".

  2. Modulation of C1-Inhibitor and Plasma Kallikrein Activities by Type IV Collagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Ravindran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The contact system of coagulation can be activated when in contact with biomaterials. As collagen is being tested in novel biomaterials in this study, we have investigated how type IV collagen affects plasma kallikrein and C1-inhibitor. Firstly, we showed C1-inhibitor binds to type IV collagen with a Kd of 0.86 μM. The effects of type IV collagen on plasma kallikrein, factor XIIa, and β-factor XIIa activity and on C1-inhibitor function were determined. Factor XIIa rapidly lost activity in the presence of type IV collagen, whereas plasma kallikrein and β-factor XIIa were more stable. The rate of inhibition of plasma kallikrein by C1-inhibitor was decreased by type IV collagen in a dose-dependent manner. These studies could be relevant to the properties of biomaterials, which contain collagen, and should be considered in the testing for biocompatibility.

  3. Patent Abstract Digest. Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    insert for high strength. ’The 339130ft.130C;361/390, 391, 399, 415 epoxy-glems bushing is machlied fromo poat stock With 339/30 .1 C;the grain...United States Patent [p91 [I 4,280,135 Siosabers [45] Jul 21, 1981 [541 REMOTE POINTING SYSTEM A’mary Examiner- Joseph A. Orsino, Jr. 176] Inventor...ward looking intruder detection system are eliminated MEASUREMENTS by look-up sensor instrumentation that utilizus mono- (751 Inventor: JOsePh L

  4. Synthesis and characterization of chiral thorium(IV) and uranium(IV) benzamidinate complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoene, Sebastian; Maerz, Juliane; Kaden, Peter; Patzschke, Michael; Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Chemistry of the F-Elements

    2017-06-01

    Two chiral benzamidinate complexes of tetravalent actinides (Th(IV) and U(IV)) were synthesized using a salt metathesis reaction of the corresponding actinide(IV) tetrachlorides and the potassium salt of the chiral benzamidine (S,S)-N,N-Bis-(1-phenylethyl)-benzamidine ((S)-HPEBA). The structure of the complexes was determined with single crystal X-ray diffraction. These are the first examples of chiral amidinate complexes of actinides.

  5. Narrow C IV absorption doublets on quasar spectra of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Fu; Gu, Qiu-Sheng; Zhou, Luwenjia; Chen, Yan-Mei

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we extend our work of Papers I and II, which are assigned to systematically survey C IV λλ1548,1551 narrow absorption lines (NALs) with zabs ≪ zem on quasar spectra of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) to collect C IV NALs with zabs ≈ zem from blue to red wings of C IV λ1549 emission lines. Together with Papers I and II, we have collected a total number of 41 479 C IV NALs with 1.4544 ≤ zabs ≤ 4.9224 in surveyed spectral region redward of Lyα until red wing of C IV λ1549 emission line. We find that the stronger C IV NALs tend to be the more saturated absorptions, and associated systems (zabs ≈ zem) seem to have larger absorption strengths when compared to intervening ones (zabs ≪ zem). The redshift density evolution behaviour of absorbers (the number of absorbers per redshift path) is similar to the history of the cosmic star formation. When compared to the quasar-frame velocity (β) distribution of Mg II absorbers, the β distribution of C IV absorbers is broader at β ≈ 0, shows longer extended tail, and exhibits a larger dispersion for environmental absorptions. In addition, for associated C IV absorbers, we find that low-luminosity quasars seem to exhibit smaller β and stronger absorptions when compared to high-luminosity quasars.

  6. Plutonium(IV) precipitates formed in alkaline media in the presence of various anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krot, N.N.; Shilov, V.P.; Yusov, A.B.; Tananaev, I.G.; Grigoriev, M.S.; Garnov, A.Yu.; Perminov, V.P.; Astafurova, L.N.

    1998-09-01

    The tendency of Pu(IV) to hydrolyze and form true solutions, colloid solutions, or insoluble precipitates has been known since the Manhattan Project. Since then, specific studies have been performed to examine in detail the equilibria of Pu(IV) hydrolytic reactions in various media. Great attention also has been paid to the preparation, structure, and properties of Pu(IV) polymers or colloids. These compounds found an important application in sol-gel technology for the preparation of nuclear fuel materials. A most important result of these works was the conclusion that Pu(IV) hydroxide, after some aging, consists of very small PuO{sub 2} crystallites and should therefore be considered to be Pu(IV) hydrous oxide. However, studies of the properties and behavior of solid Pu(IV) hydroxide in complex heterogeneous systems are rare. The primary goal of this investigation was to obtain data on the composition and properties of Pu(IV) hydrous oxide or other compounds formed in alkaline media under different conditions. Such information is important to understand Pu(IV) behavior and the forms of its existence in the Hanford Site alkaline tank waste sludge. This knowledge then may be applied in assessing plutonium criticality hazards in the storage, retrieval, and treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes as well as in understanding its contribution to the transuranic waste inventory (threshold at 100 nCi/g or about 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} M) of the separate solution and solid phases.

  7. Axis IV--psychosocial and environmental problems--in the DSM-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, A; Ekselius, L; Ramklint, M

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to further explore the properties of axis IV in the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV). In a naturalistic cross-sectional design, a group (n = 163) of young (18-25 years old) Swedish psychiatric outpatients was assessed according to DSM-IV. Psychosocial and environmental problems/axis IV were evaluated through structured interviewing by a social worker and by self-assessment on a questionnaire. Reliability between professional assessment and self-assessment of axis IV was examined. Concurrent validity of axis IV was also examined. Reliability between professional and self-assessed axis IV was fair to almost perfect, 0.31-0.83, according to prevalence and bias-adjusted kappa. Categories of psychosocial stress and environmental problems were related to the presence of axis I disorders, co-morbidity, personality disorders and decreasing Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) values. The revised axis IV according to DSM-IV seems to have concurrent validity, but is still hampered by limited reliability.

  8. Group IV direct band gap photonics: Methods, Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eGeiger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of direct band gap group IV materials offers a paradigm change for Si-photonics concerning the monolithic implementation of light emitters: The idea is to integrate fully compatible group IV materials with equally favorable optical properties as the chemically incompatible group III-V-based systems. The concept involves either mechanically applied strain on Ge or alloying of Ge with Sn and permits to drastically improve the insufficient radiative efficiency of Ge. The favorable optical properties result from a modified band structure transformed from an indirect to a direct one. The first demonstration of such a direct band gap laser, accomplished in GeSn, exemplifies the capability of this new concept. These systems may permit a qualitative as well as a quantitative expansion of Si-photonics into traditional but also new areas of applications, provided they can be operated energy efficiently, under ambient conditions and integrated with current Si technologies. This review aims to discuss the challenges along this path in terms of fabrication, characterization and fundamental understanding, and will elaborate on evoking opportunities of this new class of group IV-based laser materials.

  9. Group IV direct band gap photonics: Methods, Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Richard; Zabel, Thomas; Sigg, Hans

    2015-07-01

    The concept of direct band gap group IV materials offers a paradigm change for Si-photonics concerning the monolithic implementation of light emitters: The idea is to integrate fully compatible group IV materials with equally favorable optical properties as the chemically incompatible group III-V-based systems. The concept involves either mechanically applied strain on Ge or alloying of Ge with Sn and permits to drastically improve the insufficient radiative efficiency of Ge. The favorable optical properties result from a modified band structure transformed from an indirect to a direct one. The first demonstration of such a direct band gap laser, accomplished in GeSn, exemplifies the capability of this new concept. These systems may permit a qualitative as well as a quantitative expansion of Si-photonics into traditional but also new areas of applications, provided they can be operated energy efficiently, under ambient conditions and integrated with current Si technologies. This review aims to discuss the challenges along this path in terms of fabrication, characterization and fundamental understanding, and will elaborate on evoking opportunities of this new class of group IV-based laser materials.

  10. Band gap scaling laws in group IV nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chongze; Fu, Xiaonan; Guo, Yangyang; Guo, Zhengxiao; Xia, Congxin; Jia, Yu

    2017-03-01

    By using the first-principles calculations, the band gap properties of nanotubes formed by group IV elements have been investigated systemically. Our results reveal that for armchair nanotubes, the energy gaps at K points in the Brillouin zone decrease as 1/r scaling law with the radii (r) increasing, while they are scaled by ‑1/r 2 + C at Γ points, here, C is a constant. Further studies show that such scaling law of K points is independent of both the chiral vector and the type of elements. Therefore, the band gaps of nanotubes for a given radius can be determined by these scaling laws easily. Interestingly, we also predict the existence of indirect band gap for both germanium and tin nanotubes. Our new findings provide an efficient way to determine the band gaps of group IV element nanotubes by knowing the radii, as well as to facilitate the design of functional nanodevices.

  11. sA Comparison of DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 Diagnostic Classifications in the Clinical Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaylaci, Ferhat; Miral, Suha

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this study was to compare children diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) according to DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 diagnostic systems. One hundred fifty children aged between 3 and 15 years diagnosed with PDD by DSM-IV-TR were included. PDD symptoms were reviewed through psychiatric assessment based on DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 criteria.…

  12. sA Comparison of DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 Diagnostic Classifications in the Clinical Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaylaci, Ferhat; Miral, Suha

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this study was to compare children diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) according to DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 diagnostic systems. One hundred fifty children aged between 3 and 15 years diagnosed with PDD by DSM-IV-TR were included. PDD symptoms were reviewed through psychiatric assessment based on DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 criteria.…

  13. Equilibrium relations in the system TiO{sub 2}/V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and crystal structure of a NASICON-related vanadyl(V) titanium(IV) phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titlbach, Sven; Hoffbauer, Wilfried [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie der Universitaet Bonn, Gerhard-Domagk-Str. 1, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Glaum, Robert, E-mail: rglaum@uni-bonn.de [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie der Universitaet Bonn, Gerhard-Domagk-Str. 1, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Vanadyl(V)-titanium-orthophosphate (V{sup V}O)Ti{sup IV}{sub 6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 9} is formed by solid state reactions in the temperature range 525{<=}{theta}{<=}780 Degree-Sign C. At higher temperature decomposition into V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and the hitherto unknown solid solution Ti(P{sub 1-x}V{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 7} (0{<=}x{<=}0.23; 0.30{<=}x{<=}0.43) is observed. The process of phase formation has been monitored by MAS-NMR ({sup 31}P, {sup 51}V) spectroscopy. Equilibrium phase relations in the quaternary system TiO{sub 2}/VO{sub 2.5}/PO{sub 2.5} have been determined. A structure analysis from X-ray single-crystal data (P6{sub 3}/m (No. 176), Z=2; a=8.4438(3) A, c=22.215(1) A, 14 independent atoms, 87 variables, 2066 unique reflections, R1=0.032, wR2=0.084) shows the relationship of (V{sup V}O)Ti{sup IV}{sub 6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 9} to the NASICON structure family. In marked contrast to the other members of this family [Ti{sup IV}{sub 2}O{sub 9}] double-octahedra and strongly distorted tetrahedral [(V{sup V}=O)O{sub 3}] groups are observed besides isolated [Ti{sup IV}O{sub 6}] octahedra and phosphate tetrahedra. The structure model is in agreement with the results from MAS-NMR ({sup 31}P, {sup 51}V) spectroscopy. - Graphical abstract: (V{sup V}O)Ti{sup IV}{sub 6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 9} belongs to the NASICON structure family. Its structure contains [Ti{sup IV}{sub 2}O{sub 9}] double-octahedra and unprecedented, strongly distorted tetrahedral [(V{sup V}=O)O{sub 3}] groups, in stark contrast to other members of this family. The structure model is in agreement with the results from MAS-NMR ({sup 31}P, {sup 51}V) spectroscopy. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Equilibrium relations for the subsolidus have been established for the system TiO{sub 2}/V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/P{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase formation has been monitored by XRPD as well as by {sup 31}P- and {sup 51}-MAS-NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A solid solution Ti(P{sub 1-x}V{sub x}){sub 2}O

  14. LAS CRÍTICAS DE ARISTÓTELES A PLATÓN EN METAFÍSICA I, 9 ARISTOTLE’S CRITICISMS OF PLATO IN METAPHYSICS I, 9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Gabriela Di Camillo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    O recurso à exposição crítica das doutrinas anteriores é um procedimento metodológico usual em Aristóteles. Mas a característica distintiva do Livro I da Metafísica é que, ao invés de estabelecer uma nova doutrina, o exame dos predecessores serve para confirmar os próprios conceitos aristotélicos, os quais ele usa para avaliar os êxitos e os erros das doutrinas analisadas. Essa imposição de conceitos próprios lhe valeu a acusação de ter uma compreensão histórica distorcida. Com a análise detalhada das críticas da teoria platônica das Idéias na Metafísica I, 9, pretendemos mostrar: a que as críticas de manipulação e distorção das opiniões dos seus antecessores ofuscam o grau em que as suas próprias posições emergem de uma análise crítica do pensamento anterior; e b que a imposição de conceitos próprios não é uma distorção, mas uma proposta de solução para os problemas que as teorias anteriores deixaram sem solução.

    The use of critical exposition of previous doctrines is a methodological procedure usual in Aristotle. But the distinctive characteristic of Book I of the Metaphysics is that, rather than to establish a new doctrine, a review of  predecessors serves to confirm the own concepts to be used in the evaluation of the doctrines examined. This imposition of own terms has cost him the charge of distorting historical understanding. With the detailed analysis of the criticisms of Plato's theory of Ideas in Metaphysics I, 9, we intend to show a that the criticism of manipulation and distortion of his predecessors' views overshadow the degree to which Aristotle's own positions emerge from a critical review of previous thought and b that the

  15. 柏拉图的“学习即回忆”与分析性默会知识%Plato's“learning is recollection” and Tacit Knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芮夕捷

    2015-01-01

    Abstracts:In Phaedo ,Plato tried to prove the proposition “learning is recollection” based on hu‐man perception of “equality” ,but the process of reasoning is invalid because of his'misunderstanding of logic priority as time priority .In Meno ,he attempted to illustrate the proposition through the dia‐logues between Socrates and Meno's slave .However ,the knowledge involved in the experiment is a kind of analytic tacit knowledge ,and the process in getting it essentially lies in discovering the tacit knowledge that is implied in cognitive subjects'related explicit knowledge but never appearing in his awareness ,and converting it into explicit knowledge .The experiment with Meno'little slave doesn't prove the proposition “learning is recollection” ,but the process in conversion of analytic tacit knowl‐edge to explicit knowledge has great implications for today's creative studies of organizational knowl‐edge .The tacit knowledge in analytic form has a complex structure .The realization of the conversion from analytic tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge is an important way of creation of organizational knowledge ,and requires persistent efforts on the part of cognitive subjects .%在《斐多篇》中柏拉图基于人们拥有“相等”的概念对“学习即回忆”进行了论证,但论证错误地将逻辑在先混淆成了时间在先。在《美诺篇》中柏拉图试图利用苏格拉底与美诺的僮奴的对话实验证明“学习即回忆”,然而实验所涉及的知识属分析性默会知识,它的获得过程本质上在于发现蕴涵于认知主体相关显式知识中但又不曾为其所意识的默会知识,并将其转变为显式知识。僮奴实验虽未能证明“学习即回忆”,但其中所涉及的分析性默会知识向显式知识的转变过程对当代组织知识创造研究具有借鉴意义。分析性默会知识具有较为复杂的结构,实现分析性默会知识向显式知识的转

  16. Can children undergoing ophthalmologic examinations under anesthesia be safely anesthetized without using an IV line?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigoda M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Michael M Vigoda, Azeema Latiff, Timothy G Murray, Jacqueline L Tutiven, Audina M Berrocal, Steven GayerBascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAPurpose: To document that with proper patient and procedure selection, children undergoing general inhalational anesthesia for ophthalmologic exams (with or without photos, ultrasound, laser treatment, peri-ocular injection of chemotherapy, suture removal, and/or replacement of ocular prosthesis can be safely anesthetized without the use of an intravenous (IV line. Children are rarely anesthetized without IV access placement. We performed a retrospective study to determine our incidence of IV access placement during examinations under anesthesia (EUA and the incidence of adverse events that required intraoperative IV access placement.Methods: Data collected from our operating room (OR information system includes but is not limited to diagnosis, anesthesiologist, surgeon, and location of IV catheter (if applicable, patient’s date of birth, actual procedure, and anesthesia/procedure times. We reviewed the OR and anesthetic records of children (>1 month and <10 years who underwent EUAs between January 1, 2003 and May 31, 2009. We determined the percentage of children who were anesthetized without IV access placement, as well as the incidence of any adverse events that required IV access placement, intraoperatively.Results: We analyzed data from 3196 procedures performed during a 77-month period. Patients’ ages ranged from 1 month to 9 years. Overall, 92% of procedures were performed without IV access placement. Procedure duration ranged from 1–39 minutes. Reasons for IV access placement included parental preference for antinausea medication and/or attending preference for IV access placement. No child who underwent anesthesia without an IV line had an intraoperative adverse event requiring insertion of an IV line.Conclusion: Our data suggest that for

  17. Alcohol use disorder diagnoses in the criminal justice system: an analysis of the compatibility of current DSM-IV, proposed DSM-5.0, and DSM-5.1 diagnostic criteria in a correctional sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopak, Albert M; Metze, Amanda V; Hoffmann, Norman G

    2014-06-01

    This study explored the compatibility between the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse and dependence with the initial (DSM-5.0) and most recent (DSM-5.1) proposed diagnostic criteria. Data drawn from a structured clinical interview used in the assessment of 6,871 male and 801 female state prison inmates were analyzed according to the existing and proposed diagnostic formulations. The greatest congruence was observed in cases that received no diagnosis according to the DSM-IV-TR because these also received no diagnosis in the DSM-5.1. Most cases with a current dependence diagnosis received a severe designation according to the proposed criteria. However, those with an abuse diagnosis were divided across various DSM-5.1 severity levels. Some diagnostic criteria were nearly universally endorsed among those classified with the highest severity levels, which indicated that some criteria may serve as cardinal indicators of a severe alcohol use disorder (SAUD). Additional diagnostic criteria not yet suggested for inclusion in the DSM (i.e., preoccupation with alcohol use and alcohol use to relieve emotional distress) were also evaluated. Evidence demonstrated these two criteria served as functional indicators of alcohol use disorder (AUD). This assessment approach can be used to establish appropriate treatment objectives based on the severity of diagnosed AUDs. Meeting these treatment objectives, especially in a correctional population, may have important implications for future offending. Recommendations are made for prospective research in this area.

  18. The product of microbial uranium reduction includes multiple species with U(IV)-phosphate coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, Daniel S.; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S.; Stubbs, Joanne E.; Janousch, Markus; Bargar, John R.; Persson, Per; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2014-04-01

    Until recently, the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) during bioremediation was assumed to produce solely the sparingly soluble mineral uraninite, UO2(s). However, results from several laboratories reveal other species of U(IV) characterized by the absence of an EXAFS U-U pair correlation (referred to here as noncrystalline U(IV)). Because it lacks the crystalline structure of uraninite, this species is likely to be more labile and susceptible to reoxidation. In the case of single species cultures, analyses of U extended X-ray fine structure (EXAFS) spectra have previously suggested U(IV) coordination to carboxyl, phosphoryl or carbonate groups. In spite of this evidence, little is understood about the species that make up noncrystalline U(IV), their structural chemistry and the nature of the U(IV)-ligand interactions. Here, we use infrared spectroscopy (IR), uranium LIII-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and phosphorus K-edge XAS analyses to constrain the binding environments of phosphate and uranium associated with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 bacterial cells. Systems tested as a function of pH included: cells under metal-reducing conditions without uranium, cells under reducing conditions that produced primarily uraninite, and cells under reducing conditions that produced primarily biomass-associated noncrystalline U(IV). P X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) results provided clear and direct evidence of U(IV) coordination to phosphate. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy revealed a pronounced perturbation of phosphate functional groups in the presence of uranium. Analysis of these data provides evidence that U(IV) is coordinated to a range of phosphate species, including monomers and polymerized networks. U EXAFS analyses and a chemical extraction measurements support these conclusions. The results of this study provide new insights into the binding mechanisms of biomass-associated U(IV) species which in turn sheds light on the mechanisms of biological U

  19. Type IV Wind Turbine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Margaris, Ioannis D.

    project to be incorporated in the wind power plant level. This document describes the Type 4 wind turbine simulation model, implemented in the EaseWind project. The implemented wind turbine model is one of the initial necessary steps toward integrating new control services in the wind power plant level....... In the project, this wind turbine model will be further incorporated in a wind power plant model together with the implementation in the wind power control level of the new control functionalities (inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping). For this purpose an aggregate wind power plant...... (WPP) will be considered. The aggregate WPP model, which will be based on the upscaling of the individual wind turbine model on the electrical part, will make use of an equivalent wind speed. The implemented model follows the basic structure of the generic standard Type 4 wind turbine model proposed...

  20. Quantum Bio-Informatics IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardi, Luigi; Freudenberg, Wolfgang; Ohya, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    The QP-DYN algorithms / L. Accardi, M. Regoli and M. Ohya -- Study of transcriptional regulatory network based on Cis module database / S. Akasaka ... [et al.] -- On Lie group-Lie algebra correspondences of unitary groups in finite von Neumann algebras / H. Ando, I. Ojima and Y. Matsuzawa -- On a general form of time operators of a Hamiltonian with purely discrete spectrum / A. Arai -- Quantum uncertainty and decision-making in game theory / M. Asano ... [et al.] -- New types of quantum entropies and additive information capacities / V. P. Belavkin -- Non-Markovian dynamics of quantum systems / D. Chruscinski and A. Kossakowski -- Self-collapses of quantum systems and brain activities / K.-H. Fichtner ... [et al.] -- Statistical analysis of random number generators / L. Accardi and M. Gabler -- Entangled effects of two consecutive pairs in residues and its use in alignment / T. Ham, K. Sato and M. Ohya -- The passage from digital to analogue in white noise analysis and applications / T. Hida -- Remarks on the degree of entanglement / D. Chruscinski ... [et al.] -- A completely discrete particle model derived from a stochastic partial differential equation by point systems / K.-H. Fichtner, K. Inoue and M. Ohya -- On quantum algorithm for exptime problem / S. Iriyama and M. Ohya -- On sufficient algebraic conditions for identification of quantum states / A. Jamiolkowski -- Concurrence and its estimations by entanglement witnesses / J. Jurkowski -- Classical wave model of quantum-like processing in brain / A. Khrennikov -- Entanglement mapping vs. quantum conditional probability operator / D. Chruscinski ... [et al.] -- Constructing multipartite entanglement witnesses / M. Michalski -- On Kadison-Schwarz property of quantum quadratic operators on M[symbol](C) / F. Mukhamedov and A. Abduganiev -- On phase transitions in quantum Markov chains on Cayley Tree / L. Accardi, F. Mukhamedov and M. Saburov -- Space(-time) emergence as symmetry breaking effect / I. Ojima