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Sample records for plato euthydemus aristotle

  1. Ancient Doctrines of Passions: Plato and Aristotle

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    Iskra-Paczkowska Agnieszka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this essay is a discussion of the doctrines of emotions of Plato and Aristotle. According to both them it is impossible to oust the passions from the good, i.e. happy life. On the contrary, emotions are an important component of human excellence. We investigate this question with reference to Plato’s doctrine of the soul and his concept of a perfect life, and Aristotle’s ethics, poetics and rhetoric.

  2. Plato, Aristotle and the phytagorean influence on Plutarch's De Musica

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    Roosevelt Rocha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In his treatise On Music, Plutarch cites and discusses excerpts from works of Plato and Aristotle in which these authors deal with issues relevant to the harmonic theory. In these passages, we see that the sources used by Plutarch have a strong influence of the Pythagorean school, under which the study of musical scales was developed focusing on the mathematical relationships that exist between the notes and intervals. This indicates that Plutarch or not directly read the texts of Plato and Aristotle, or read, but using some other source, a commentator of Pythagorean extraction, who we can not identify.

  3. Plato and Aristotle on the Problem of Quality

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    Santa Cruz, María Isabel

    2013-01-01

    This paper purports toshow that it is not necessary to read the early Platonic dialogues starting from the "classic" theory of Forms. It argues, instead, that it is possibleto analyze them and, above all, to explain the use of the vocabulary of "presence" starting from the more general and prior possibility of distinguishing a subject from its accidental predicates, especially quality. The relation of "present in" or "being in" to which Plato recurs. is inherited by Aristotle. The distinction...

  4. FORMATION OF ANTIQUE RHETORIC: CHRONOLOGY OF RHETORICAL METHODS AND STYLES (PLATO, ARISTOTLE

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    Irina A. Pantelyeyeva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: to analyze the basic points of philosophical concepts of rhetoric of Plato and Aristotle, to prove that from Plato the rhetoric in the true sense starts being approved, and Aristotle is an ancestor of real theory of speech of the new genre, the new form, the new purposes and tasks of the description of verbal art. Problem statement: development of the ancient principles of rhetorical style’s creating is reached by efforts of outstanding speakers, each of them were differed not only by the ideological sympathies or antipathies, but also by nature of works, the concepts put in their basis. Two Ancient Greek philosophers: Plato and Aristotle are considered as founders of ancient rhetorical science. Methodology. Author has used system method, methods of content and comparative analysis. Scientific novelty is displayed in the received results from the comparative analysis of two concepts of public speech of Plato and Aristotle from a position of philosophical justification of rhetoric’s rules with orientation on ancient "popular" declamation practices. Practical value of article consists in development of insufficiently studied object "Antique declamation discourse" where Plato and Aristotle's two central rhetorical concepts appear as the intermediate stage in development of a declamation discourse of Ancient Greece and, subsequently, and Ancient Rome. Conclusions. The conclusions can be given by the following facts: from Plato the rhetoric in the true sense is approved: true rhetorical art isn’t based only on argument technique, the true rhethor appears as the philosopher. Plato raises the problem of an ambiguity of two opposite rhetorics presented in "Gorgias" and "Phaedrus ". Rhetoric as scientific discipline, as the present theory of speech is first considered by Aristotle. The rhetoric is presented as the science "about speech and about thoughts", about the relation of thinking to the word.

  5. Can Prior Knowledge Hurt Text Comprehension? An Answer Borrowed from Plato, Aristotle, and Descartes.

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    Friedman, Lawrence B.

    Taking a philosophical approach based on what Plato, Aristotle, and Descartes said about knowledge, this paper addresses some of the murkiness in the conceptual space surrounding the issue of whether prior knowledge does or does not facilitate text comprehension. Specifically, the paper first develops a non-exhaustive typology of cases in which…

  6. God as Intellect in the philosophical Theology of Plato, Aristotle and Plotinus.

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    Nadezhda Volkova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of the main stages in the development of philosophical theology in Plato, Aristotle and Plotinus, as well as its central concept - Active Intellect or God. It is shown, firstly, that Plato was the first who formulated the concept of a One omnibenevolent God. Plato opposed this doctrine to the gods of traditional mythology. In the "Timaeus" talking about the creation of the world, Plato represents God as an artisan, i. e. Demiurge, who arranges the World soul and matter with the help of the numbers. Therefore, God is introduced as an Intellect, because looking at an intelligible paradigm, he created the cosmos as its likeness. Secondly, it was shown that Aristotle made theology demonstrative theoretical knowledge. God as a subject of such knowledge is the pure actuality of thinking. Third, it is shown that Plotinus, continuing the line of Plato and Aristotle, gave philosophical theology a new, much more personal character. Theology for Plotinus is not only an demonstrative knowledge of the omnibenevolent God, but also a personal experience of reunion with him. A special attention in the article is paid for Plotinus' interpretation of the Platonic Demiurge. It is shown that Plotinus first connected the two aspects of the divine, namely the Demiurge-creator and the intelligible paradigm that are described in the "Timaeus," into the single hypostasis of Intellect. The main reason for this assertion was the necessity to postulate the unity of the intellect and the intelligible object as a necessary condition for the possibility of all cognitions. As a result, instead of the traditional idea of the two gods, Plotinus elaborates the doctrine of a single divine Intellect, combining both these aspects.

  7. On social justice: Comparing Paul with Plato, Aristotle and the Stoics

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    Johan Strijdom

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available n “In search of Paul” (2004 Crossan and Reed argue that Paul’s vision and program were essentially in continuity with Jesus’: both opposed, be it in Galilean villages or Roman cities, an unjust imperial system by means of an alternative project of egalitarian, distributive justice. Although Crossan elsewhere demonstrates the deep roots of this concern in the Jewish tradition, he tends to downplay the importance of Greek contributions in this regard. The purpose of this essay will be to offer, in constant dialogue with Crossan (and Reed, a more refined comparison of social justice in Paul on the one hand and Plato, Aristotle and the Stoics on the other. If Paul tried to establish egalitarian and sharing Christian communities under the Roman empire, how do this vision and program compare and contrast with Plato's hierarchical but communal concept of justice, Aristotle’s distributive notion according to merit, and most importantly the Stoics’ argument of “oikeiosis” (i.e., other-concern by concentrical familiarization with the other? Imagine, say Crossan and Reed (CR hereafter in their recent book on Paul, the following dialogue between ourselves and Paul: Do you think, Paul, that all men are created equal and endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights? I am not speaking about all men, but about all Christians. But do you think, Paul, that all people should be Christians? Yes, of course,. And do you think, Paul, that all Christians should be equal with one another?Yes, of course. Then do you think, Paul, that it is God’s will for all people to be equal with one another? Well, let me think about that one for a while and, in the meantime, you think about equality in Christ. (CR 2004:234

  8. Aristotle on Deliberation

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    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2014-01-01

    Aristotle differs from most later philosophers in distinguishing clearly between epistemic reasoning, which aims for truth, and practical reasoning, which does not. How can he posit this distinction and yet not dismiss practical reasoning as flattery and manipulation, as Plato did? The answer lies...

  9. Plato's problem an introduction to mathematical platonism

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    Panza, M

    2013-01-01

    What is mathematics about? And how can we have access to the reality it is supposed to describe? The book tells the story of this problem, first raised by Plato, through the views of Aristotle, Proclus, Kant, Frege, Gödel, Benacerraf, up to the most recent debate on mathematical platonism.

  10. Aristotle vs. Plato: The Balkans' Paradoxical Enlightenment

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    D. Michalopoulos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available As it occurred in West, Aristotle’s thought was in Byzantium the main organon of philosophical meditation within the frame of the Christian Faith. Nonetheless, from the ninth century on it was a revival of Platonism that took place – of Neo-Platonism at the beginning and of Platonism itself at the end. The Church, initially indifferent, became suspicious only when, at the turning of the fourteenth to the fifteenth century, the Platonism seemed to engender somewhat a latent paganism; but the Patriarchate was not then able to fight that tendency. So only after the 1453 capture of Constantinople by the Ottomans, Gennadius Scholarius managed to root out from the Greek lands Platonism and its crypto-pagan extension. Be that as it may; the main paradox of the Balkan history is that in the early seventeenth century some leading Greek scholars endorsed the materialist interpretation of Aristotle’s thought – as it was taught in the University of Padua by Cesare Cremonini; and as a corollary this materialistic philosophical system began being taught in both Constantinople and Athens. It was that very way that the Enlightenment took birth in the Balkans – and somehow became a State ideology - long before its prevalence in France. And of course all this had as a result a turn toward Physics and Chemistry with far-reaching consequences

  11. Aristotle's "homo mimeticus" as an Educational Paradigm for Human Coexistence

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    Scaramuzzo, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    In the "Poetics" of Aristotle there is a definition of the human being that perhaps has not yet been well considered in educational theory and practice. This definition calls into question a dynamism that according to Plato was unavoidable for an appropriate understanding of the educational process that turns a human being into a…

  12. Finding Ernst Mayr's Plato.

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    Powers, Jack

    2013-12-01

    Many biologists have accepted Ernst Mayr's claim that evolutionary biology undermined an essentialist or typological view of species that had its roots in Platonic philosophy. However, Mayr has been accused of failing to support with textual evidence his attributions to Plato of these sorts of views about biology. Contemporary work in history and philosophy of biology often seems to take onboard Mayr's account of Plato's view of species. This paper seeks to provide a critical account of putative inconsistencies between an evolutionary view of species and Platonic philosophy with renewed attention to the Platonic texts in light of recent Plato scholarship; I argue that claims that Plato held an essentialist view of species inconsistent with evolutionary biology are inadequately supported by textual evidence. If Mayr's essentialist thesis fails, one might think that the intuition that Platonic philosophy is in tension with Darwinian evolution could nonetheless be accounted for by Plato's apparent privileging of a certain sort of teleological explanation, a thesis that Mayr suggests in his 1959 paper on Louis Agassiz. However, this thesis also faces difficulties. Ernst Mayr's Plato is more likely to be found in the writings of anti-evolutionary 19th century biologists like Mayr's frequent target, Agassiz, than in a cautious reading of the Platonic dialogues themselves. Interlocutors in discussions of the history of biological thought and classificatory methods in biology should be cautious in ascribing views about biology to Plato and using terms like "Platonic essentialism." Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Plato psychiatrist, Foucault platonic].

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    Mathov, Nicolás

    2016-05-01

    This work explores the links between the concepts of "soul", "law" and "word" in Plato's work, in order to highlight the importance and the centrality of the philosophical-therapeutic dimension in the Greek philosopher's thought. In that way, this work pretends to show that "contemporary" problems usually discussed within "Human Sciences" in general, and Psychiatry in particular, should confront their knowledge with Plato's work, mainly due to the profound influence his ideas have had in our Greco-Christian culture. In that sense, and with that objective, this work also explores Michel Foucault's lucid and controversial interpretation of Plato.

  14. The Problem of the Object of Mathematics as Intelligible Substance in Aristotle's Metaphysics

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    Cattanei, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    The A. examines the problem of intermediat emathematical entities by analyzing Metaphysics l017a9-l4, since, according to Aristotle. this passage is both a source and a critique of Plato's theory. The goal is to identify four cardinal points that may ground a dialogue between two contesting positions regarding this problem. Through them, it becomes evident that Aristotle severs the question of the intelligible nature of mathematical entities by using the conceptual scalpel of his own ousiolog...

  15. Aristotle on Deliberation:Its Place in Ethics, Politics and Rhetoric

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    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2014-01-01

    Aristotle differs from most later philosophers in distinguishing clearly between epistemic reasoning, which aims for truth, and practical reasoning, which does not. How can he posit this distinction and yet not dismiss practical reasoning as flattery and manipulation, as Plato did? The answer lies in the concepts of deliberation (boulē, bouleusis) and deliberate choice (proairesis). They link Aristotle's rhetoric, ethics, and politics together and help provide definitions of all three: Ethics...

  16. Irreflexivity and Aristotle's Syllogismos

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    Duncombe, Matthew

    Aristotle's definition of syllogismos at Prior Analytics 24b18–20 specifies syllogistic consequence as an irreflexive relation: the conclusion must be different from each premise and any conjunction of the premises. Typically, commentators explain this irreflexivity condition as Aristotle's attempt

  17. PLATO Esperanto Materials.

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    Sherwood, Judith

    1981-01-01

    A summary is presented of types of Esperanto materials available on PLATO--a general overview section, a picture introduction, lessons that accompany a textbook, vocabulary drills, crossword puzzles, dictation drills, reading practice, and a concentration game. The general overview lesson gives a comprehensive summary of the history and…

  18. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

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    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  19. THE JOURNEY OF TRUTH: FROM PLATO TO ZOLA

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    Ribut Basuki

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Western theater theory and criticism is generally considered to be set forth by the Greeks. Plato was "the first theater critic" with his negative comments about theater owing to his idealistic views about "the truth." Then came Aristotle who used a different viewpoint from that of Plato, saying that there is "truth" in theater. However, hostile criticism on theater came back in the Middle Ages, championed by Tertulian before Aristotelian theory was revived by the neo-classicists such as Scaliger and Castelvetro. Theater theory and criticism discourse was then made more alive by the romanticists who disagreed with the neo-classicists' rigid rules on theater. As the influence of science became dominant in the theater world, naturalism and realism emerged and became the mainstream of theater theory and criticism until well into the twentieth century.

  20. From Pericles to Plato

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    Larsen, Øjvind

    2012-01-01

    Plato is normally taken as one of the founders of Western political philosophy, not at least with his Republic. Here, he constructs a hierarchy of forms of governments, beginning with aristocracy at the top as a critical standard for the other forms of governments, and proceeding through timocracy......’ funeral oration is used to show that Pericles presented a democratic political philosophy that can serve as a counterpoint to Plato’s political philosophy in the Republic....

  1. Stock Issues in Aristotle's Rhetoric

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    Harpine, Bill

    1977-01-01

    Defines "stock issue" by the manner in which they function in Aristotle's theory, reviews examples of modern theories of stock issues, examines previous investigations of the "Rhetoric," and analyzes Aristotle's approach to this aspect of argumentation. (MH)

  2. Judgment, Probability, and Aristotle's Rhetoric.

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    Warnick, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    Discusses Aristotle's five means of making judgments: intelligence, "episteme" (scientific knowledge), "sophia" (theoretical wisdom), "techne" (art), and "phronesis" (practical wisdom). Sets Aristotle's theory of rhetorical argument within the context of his overall view of human judgment. Notes that…

  3. Aristotle's Example: The Rhetorical Induction.

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    Benoit, William Lyon

    1980-01-01

    Examines the concept of example in Aristotle's inventional theory. Rejects recent claims that the example reasons from part to part, without a mediating generalization, and then explicates Aristotle's view of the example. (JMF)

  4. Mathematics in Aristotle

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    Heath, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Originally published in 1949. This meticulously researched book presents a comprehensive outline and discussion of Aristotle's mathematics with the author's translations of the greek. To Aristotle, mathematics was one of the three theoretical sciences, the others being theology and the philosophy of nature (physics). Arranged thematically, this book considers his thinking in relation to the other sciences and looks into such specifics as squaring of the circle, syllogism, parallels, incommensurability of the diagonal, angles, universal proof, gnomons, infinity, agelessness of the universe, surface of water, meteorology, metaphysics and mechanics such as levers, rudders, wedges, wheels and inertia. The last few short chapters address 'problems' that Aristotle posed but couldn't answer, related ethics issues and a summary of some short treatises that only briefly touch on mathematics.

  5. Peers on Socrates and Plato

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    Mackenzie, Jim

    2014-01-01

    There is more to be said about two of the topics Chris Peers addresses in his article "Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A morpho-logic of teaching and learning" (2012, Educational Philosophy and Theory, 44, 760-774), namely the Socratic method of teaching and Plato's stance with regard to women and feminism. My purpose in this article is…

  6. "Kairos" in Aristotle's "Rhetoric."

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    Kinneavy, James L.; Eskin, Catherine R.

    1994-01-01

    Considers how Aristotle uses the Greek term "kairos" (right timing and due measure) in his "Rhetoric." Examines each of the 16 references to "kairos" in the "Rhetoric." Argues for a fuller understanding of Aristotelian "kairos" among contemporary theorists of rhetoric. (HB)

  7. Aristotle, Motion, and Rhetoric.

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    Sutton, Jane

    Aristotle rejects a world vision of changing reality as neither useful nor beneficial to human life, and instead he reaffirms both change and eternal reality, fuses motion and rest, and ends up with "well-behaved" changes. This concept of motion is foundational to his world view, and from it emerges his theory of knowledge, philosophy of…

  8. Aristotle's "Rhetoric": Reinterpreting Invention.

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    Quandahl, Ellen

    1986-01-01

    Shows that Aristotle's common topics are part of a theory of interpretation rather than a collection of devices for invention. Argues that it is more Aristotelian and more useful to understand composing as interpretation and not invention. Uses scholarship to inform pedagogy and to reorient composing toward acts of reading. (EL)

  9. Plato's patricide in the sophist

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    Deretić Irina J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author attempts to elucidate validity of Plato's criticism of Parmenides' simplified monistic ontology, as well as his concept of non-being. In contrast to Parmenides, Plato introduces a more complex ontology of the megista gene and redefines Parmenides' concept of non-being as something absolutely different from being. According to Plato, not all things are in the same sense, i. e. they have the different ontological status. Additionally, he redefines Parmenides' concept of absolute non-being as 'difference' or 'otherness.' .

  10. Is Aristotle a Virtue Ethicist?

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    Aufderheide, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    The chapter explores whether we should take Aristotle to be a virtue ethicist, understood as distinct from consequentialist and deontological approaches. For Aristotle the decisive questions whether virtue is prior to ethically good action or vice versa is equivalent to the question which mean is prior, the one characterising virtue or the one characterising good action. I argue that Aristotle would not seem to be a virtue ethicist because a) the definition of virtue in EN 2.6 tends towards p...

  11. Aristotle on Memory and Recollection

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    Bloch, David Kristian

    Twentieth-century scholarship on Aristotle's De Memoria et Reminiscentia was dominated by the view that Aristotle's theories of memory and recollection are basically very similar to ours. By means of a new critical edition of the Greek text, an essay on Aristotle's own theories and an essay...... on these theories as they were received in the Latin West, the present book offers material that challenges the opinio communis. The result is a new interpretation of Aristotle's De Memoria et Reminiscentia and its relevance to the concerns of 21st-century philosophers, both regarding the concepts of memory...

  12. Leonico Tomeo—the First Interpreter and Translater of Aristotle From Original Greek

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    Mulaj, Tatjana; Mulaj, Zenun

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of XV century, in European Renaissance, it was necessary to study the Aristotle in original Greek, because translations from Arab in Latin had caused considerable alterations in the meaning of original texts. This task in the beginning was trusted to Leonico Tomeo, which, not only opened the way for the studying of the Aristotle in original, but himself made important interpretations about philosophic and social problems and gave his arguments about concepts of natural sciences, as for motion, atoms etc. He translated some works of Plato, Aristotle, Ptolemy etc, from the Greek to Latin. The work of Tomeo gave revolutionary results and prepared the way for the scientific method of Galileo, which from Padua, where worked and lived Tomeo and later, Galileo, propagates in all European universities.

  13. Phusis and Nomos in Plato

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    Zahra Nouri Sanghdehi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems in Plato that appears in different forms in his works is the relation of nomos and phusis. This thesis has been in fifth century B.C as the contradiction of phusis and nomos among big thinkers. In this essay, we tried to investigate the relation of phusis and nomos in Plato’s thoughts according to current theories of the contradiction of these in dialogues Gorgias, Republic and Protagoras. Plato tries to minimize consequences of belief to contradiction of phusis and nomos in social and political life by assertion large scale relation between phusis and nomos. Plato depicts the ultimate solution of this problem in Law. There he accounts nomos as raised from phusis that is sub sovereignty of divine. Indeed union of phusis and gods in Plato’s thought is sanction for the identity of phusis and nomos.

  14. Four Educators in Plato's "Theaetetus"

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    Mintz, Avi I.

    2011-01-01

    Scholars who have taken interest in "Theaetetus'" educational theme argue that Plato contrasts an inferior, even dangerous, sophistic education to a superior, philosophical, Socratic education. I explore the contrasting exhortations, methods, ideals and epistemological foundations of Socratic and Protagorean education and suggest that Socrates'…

  15. Aristotle's Theory of Deviance and Contemporary Symbolic Interactionist Scholarship: Learning from the Past, Extending the Present, and Engaging the Future.

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    Prus, Robert

    Although his work has been largely overlooked by symbolic interactionists and other students of deviance, Aristotle (c384-322BCE) addresses community life, activity, agency, and persuasive interchange in ways that not only are remarkably consistent with contemporary symbolic interactionist approaches to deviance, but that also conceptually inform present day theories of deviance and provide valuable transhistorical comparison points for subsequent analysis. Following (1) a brief overview of an interactionist approach to the study of deviance, attention is given to (2) classical Greek conceptions of good and evil (especially as these are articulated by Plato) before turning more directly to (3) Aristotle's notions of wrongdoing as this is reflected in his considerations of community, morality, agency, and culpability. While informed by Aristotle's considerations of causality (as addressed in Physics and Metaphysics ), this statement builds most centrally on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics and Rhetoric . Striving for a broader understanding of deviance as a humanly engaged feature of community life, the paper briefly compares Aristotle's "theory of deviance" with Prus and Grills (2003) interactionist analysis of deviance. The paper (4) concludes with an assessment of the relative contributions of contemporary interactionist scholarship and Aristotle's materials for the study of deviance as a community-engaged process.

  16. New Perspectives on Aristotle's De caelo

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    Bowen, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Aristotle's great ambition in his "De caelo" was to determine the nature and structure of the geocentric universe. This collection of essays addresses key epistemological and methodological issues raised by the numerous arguments that Aristotle offers.

  17. The Greekless Reader and Aristotle's "Rhetoric."

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    Conley, Thomas M.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the inadequacy of translations of Aristotle's "Rhetoric," particularly three passages from the commonly used translation by Lane Cooper. The misleading nature of these passages is cited as a major cause for the lack of understanding of Aristotle. (JMF)

  18. A short commentary on Aristotle's scientific legacy and his definition of the physiologist.

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    Zarros, Apostolos

    2014-06-01

    The roots of physiology - on the basis of a systematic study of the human body's functions and their correlation to anatomy - date back to the works of Aristotle. The pupil of Plato and the tutor of Alexander the Great was a one-man university, and his contributions to the medical sciences have been immense. His surviving works highlight the first serious approach towards the rejection of metaphysical and mythological thought, and have: (i) demonstrated a deep appreciation for a systematic, non-metaphysical study of the natural world, (ii) set the foundations of comparative and human anatomy, (iii) established the first (indirect) definition of the "physiologist", and (iv) exercised a dominant influence upon the subsequent history of Hellenistic, European and Arabic Medicine. The current letter provides a short commentary on the historical account of Physiology as a scientific field and underlines the unique legacy that Aristotle has provided us with.

  19. Aristotle on Love and Friendship

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    Konstan, David

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available David Konstan (Brown University, Providence argues that the term philia, in Aristotle, represents an elective, affective relationship, and not, as many scholars have maintained, a relation of mutual obligation, like that of kinship, with no necessary affective element; in addition, he disambiguates two senses of philia, one corresponding to “love”, the other designating the reciprocal affection characteristic of friendship.

  20. Relations as Plural-Predications in Plato

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    Scaltsas, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    Plato was the first philosopher to discover the metaphysical phenomenon of plural-subjects and plural-predication; e.g. you and I are two, but neither you, nor I are two. I argue that Plato devised an ontology for plural-predication through his Theory of Forms, namely, plural-partaking in a Form. Furthermore, I argue that Plato used plural-partaking to offer an ontology of related individuals without reifying relations. My contention is that Plato’s theory of plural-relatives has evaded detec...

  1. Aristotle Meets Zeno: Psychophysiological Evidence

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    Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Stachtea, Xanthi; Papageorgiou, Panos; Alexandridis, Antonio T.; Tsaltas, Eleftheria; Angelopoulos, Elias

    2016-01-01

    This study, a tribute to Aristotle's 2400 years, used a juxtaposition of valid Aristotelian arguments to the paradoxes formulated by Zeno the Eleatic, in order to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of attentional and /or memory processing effects in the course of deductive reasoning. Participants undertook reasoning tasks based on visually presented arguments which were either (a) valid (Aristotelian) statements or (b) paradoxes. We compared brain activation patterns while partic...

  2. Statistical inference and Aristotle's Rhetoric.

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    Macdonald, Ranald R

    2004-11-01

    Formal logic operates in a closed system where all the information relevant to any conclusion is present, whereas this is not the case when one reasons about events and states of the world. Pollard and Richardson drew attention to the fact that the reasoning behind statistical tests does not lead to logically justifiable conclusions. In this paper statistical inferences are defended not by logic but by the standards of everyday reasoning. Aristotle invented formal logic, but argued that people mostly get at the truth with the aid of enthymemes--incomplete syllogisms which include arguing from examples, analogies and signs. It is proposed that statistical tests work in the same way--in that they are based on examples, invoke the analogy of a model and use the size of the effect under test as a sign that the chance hypothesis is unlikely. Of existing theories of statistical inference only a weak version of Fisher's takes this into account. Aristotle anticipated Fisher by producing an argument of the form that there were too many cases in which an outcome went in a particular direction for that direction to be plausibly attributed to chance. We can therefore conclude that Aristotle would have approved of statistical inference and there is a good reason for calling this form of statistical inference classical.

  3. Simplicius on Aristotle physics 81-5

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    Bodnár, István; Share, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary on Aristotle Physics book eight, chapters one to five, the sixth-century philosopher Simplicius quotes and explains important fragments of the Presocratic philosophers, provides the fragments of his Christian opponent Philoponus Against Aristotle On the Eternity of the World, and makes extensive use of the lost commentary of Aristotles leading defender, Alexander of Aphrodisias. This volume contains an English translation of Simplicius important commentary, as well as a detailed introduction, explanatory notes and a bibliography.

  4. Ancient philosophical ideas of the soul (Plato-Aristotelian tradition and Stoicism as a source of Patristic Thought

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    Zaitsev Cornelius

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the ancient idea of the soul that in the patristic era has been enriched by the perception of the methodology of ancient philosophy. Greek and Roman thinkers considered some properties of the soul, its immortality, revealed its “levels and strata” (Plato, Aristotle, expressed first guesses about the nature of sinful passions (the Stoics. But some aspects still remained unresolved so far. This is the issue of materiality or immateriality, of the soul, which "raised" in the Russian Empire in the 19th century (the dispute saints Theophan the Recluse and Ignatius Brianchaninov and remains relevant today.

  5. On social justice: Comparing Paul with Plato, Aristotle and the Stoics ...

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  6. On social justice: Comparing Paul with Plato, Aristotle and the Stoics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · Journal Quality.

  7. On social justice: Comparing Paul with Plato, Aristotle and the Stoics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    If Paul tried to establish egalitarian and sharing Christian communities under ... study on Paul for the debate on universal human values – except to suggest ... challenge until, at least for many, Caesar's apotheosis meant not ... just the promise, but the start of the world's salvation, redemption, ..... All will be on a par together.

  8. About Being a Friend: Friendship and Metaphysics by Plato, Aristotle, Augustine and Albert the Great

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Quero Sánchez

    2014-11-01

    of friendship in his commentaries on the Nicomachian Ethics (both Super Ethica and Ethica and we show how his metaphysics should be considered as Christian Aristotelism, according to the traditional interpretation, which has, as is known, been questioned for decades

  9. The Quest for a Poetics of Goodness in Plato and Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dairo Orozco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo compara las concepciones de actividad artística en Platón y Aristóteles y se divide en tres partes. En la primera, se discuten la mimesis y la technē en el Ion de Platón, así como el papel de la poesía en la República. En la segunda, se hace un recuento de la idea de felicidad de Aristóteles como fin de la acción. En la última se discute el intento de reconciliación de las posiciones de Platón y Aristóteles realizado por el pensador neoplatónico renacentista, Torquato Tasso.

  10. On social justice: Comparing Paul with Plato, Aristotle and the Stoics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although Crossan elsewhere demonstrates the deep roots of this concern in the Jewish tradition, he tends to downplay the importance of Greek contributions in this regard. The purpose of this essay will be to offer, in constant dialogue with. Crossan (and Reed), a more refined comparison of social justice in Paul on the one ...

  11. Aristotle and the Postmodern World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Marcos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the support of recent scholarship the author proposes an understanding of the Aristotelian Corpus inspired by the biological works. He points out that this understanding is bound up with other current philosophical discussions, especially on biology, rationality, realism, the knowledge of an individual, metaphor, and poetics. The author concludes that Aristotle offers the most promising ontological, epistemological and anthropological basis not only for undertaking a series of urgent reconciliations (of facts and values, of theoretical and practical reason, of understanding and sensation, and of intelligence and emotion, but also for solving many dualisms of modern times, in their Platonic or materialist varieties.

  12. The Aldine Edition of Aristotle's De Sensu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2006-01-01

    This small article examines the quality of and the textual foundation for the først printed edition ever of Aristotle's De Sensu et Sensibilibus, that is, Aldus Manutius' (1497).......This small article examines the quality of and the textual foundation for the først printed edition ever of Aristotle's De Sensu et Sensibilibus, that is, Aldus Manutius' (1497)....

  13. Public Speaking Practices: Analysis of Aristotle's "Rhetoric."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Reed

    Aristotle's "Rhetoric" is divided into three books which describe the stages of preparing a public address. Book One establishes the philosophical position of rhetoric to logic. It also establishes four purposes of rhetoric and discusses three types of proof. Aristotle defines rhetoric as a faculty for providing two modes of…

  14. William Harvey, Aristotle and astrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    In this paper I argue that William Harvey believed in a form of astrology. It has long been known that Harvey employed a macrocosm-microcosm analogy and used alchemical terminology in describing how the two types of blood change into one another. This paper then seeks to examine a further aspect of Harvey in relation to the magical tradition. There is an important corollary to this line of thought, however. This is that while Harvey does have a belief in astrology, it is strongly related to Aristotle's views in this area and is quite restricted and attenuated relative to some contemporary beliefs in astrology. This suggests a more general thesis. While Harvey was amenable to ideas which we associate with the natural magic tradition, those ideas had a very broad range of formulation and there was a limit to how far he would accept them. This limit was largely determined by Harvey's adherence to Aristotle's natural philosophy and his Christian beliefs. I argue that this is also the case in relation to Harvey's use of the macrocosm-microcosm analogy and of alchemical terminology, and, as far as we can rely on the evidence, this informs his attitudes towards witches as well. Understanding Harvey's influences and motives here is important in placing him properly in the context of early seventeenth-century thought.

  15. The Method of Hypothesis in Plato's Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Aboie Mehrizi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the examination of method of hypothesis in Plato's philosophy. This method, respectively, will be examined in three dialogues of Meno, Phaedon and Republic in which it is explicitly indicated. It will be shown the process of change of Plato’s attitude towards the position and usage of the method of hypothesis in his realm of philosophy. In Meno, considering the geometry, Plato attempts to introduce a method that can be used in the realm of philosophy. But, ultimately in Republic, Plato’s special attention to the method and its importance in the philosophical investigations, leads him to revise it. Here, finally Plato introduces the particular method of philosophy, i.e., the dialectic

  16. Plato's Anti-Kohlbergian Program for Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Following Lawrence Kohlberg it has been commonplace to regard Plato's moral theory as "intellectualist", where Plato supposedly believes that becoming virtuous requires nothing other than "philosophical knowledge or intuition of the ideal form of the good". This is a radical misunderstanding of Plato's educational programme,…

  17. Human Flourishing from the Foot's Viewpoint Regarding to Aristotle's Ideas

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Mollayousefi Mollayousefi; Sakine Aflatooni Aflatooni

    2011-01-01

    Aristotle's virtue ethics is a teleological ethics, namely, for him, the purpose of achieving moral virtues by human beings is to obtain eudaimonia. The best interpretation of eudaimonia in Aristotle is human flourishing that is the main axis of Aristotle's ethics and also contemporary virtue ethics. Aristotle's analysis of human flourishing that is performed in biological context is based on the concept of ergon or function. Therefore, Aristotle, in description of human flourishing, emphasiz...

  18. The PLATO 2.0 mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauer, H.; et al., [Unknown; Hekker, S.

    2014-01-01

    PLATO 2.0 has recently been selected for ESA’s M3 launch opportunity (2022/24). Providing accurate key planet parameters (radius, mass, density and age) in statistical numbers, it addresses fundamental questions such as: How do planetary systems form and evolve? Are there other systems with planets

  19. Quoting Plato in Porphyrius' Cuestiones homericas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Rodríguez‑Noriega Guillén

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the quotations of Plato in Porphyry’s Homeric Questions,including their typology (literal quotation, allusion, paraphrase, etc., their beingor not direct citations, their function in the work, and their possible parallels inother authors.

  20. Aristotle Meets Zeno: Psychophysiological Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Stachtea, Xanthi; Papageorgiou, Panos; Alexandridis, Antonio T; Tsaltas, Eleftheria; Angelopoulos, Elias

    2016-01-01

    This study, a tribute to Aristotle's 2400 years, used a juxtaposition of valid Aristotelian arguments to the paradoxes formulated by Zeno the Eleatic, in order to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of attentional and /or memory processing effects in the course of deductive reasoning. Participants undertook reasoning tasks based on visually presented arguments which were either (a) valid (Aristotelian) statements or (b) paradoxes. We compared brain activation patterns while participants maintained the premises / conclusions of either the valid statements or the paradoxes in working memory (WM). Event-related brain potentials (ERPs), specifically the P300 component of ERPs, were recorded during the WM phase, during which participants were required to draw a logical conclusion regarding the correctness of the valid syllogisms or the paradoxes. During the processing of paradoxes, results demonstrated a more positive event-related potential deflection (P300) across frontal regions, whereas processing of valid statements was associated with noticeable P300 amplitudes across parieto-occipital regions. These findings suggest that paradoxes mobilize frontal attention mechanisms, while valid deduction promotes parieto-occipital activity associated with attention and/or subsequent memory processing.

  1. Aristotle Meets Zeno: Psychophysiological Evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalabos Papageorgiou

    Full Text Available This study, a tribute to Aristotle's 2400 years, used a juxtaposition of valid Aristotelian arguments to the paradoxes formulated by Zeno the Eleatic, in order to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of attentional and /or memory processing effects in the course of deductive reasoning. Participants undertook reasoning tasks based on visually presented arguments which were either (a valid (Aristotelian statements or (b paradoxes. We compared brain activation patterns while participants maintained the premises / conclusions of either the valid statements or the paradoxes in working memory (WM. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs, specifically the P300 component of ERPs, were recorded during the WM phase, during which participants were required to draw a logical conclusion regarding the correctness of the valid syllogisms or the paradoxes. During the processing of paradoxes, results demonstrated a more positive event-related potential deflection (P300 across frontal regions, whereas processing of valid statements was associated with noticeable P300 amplitudes across parieto-occipital regions. These findings suggest that paradoxes mobilize frontal attention mechanisms, while valid deduction promotes parieto-occipital activity associated with attention and/or subsequent memory processing.

  2. Socrates the Pythagorean: an Invention of Plato?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Shichalin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the image of Socrates as found in the Works of Plato and Aristophanes. The author discovers Pythagorean traits in the image of Socrates as portrayed by these two ancient authors. The author also discusses the Pythagoreans and their role in the creation of stable schools of Philosophy. He likewise shows that the sophists were not the only ones contributing to the creation of centres of education and learning in the ancient world

  3. Pemikiran Epistemologi Barat: dari Plato Sampai Gonseth

    OpenAIRE

    Nunu Burhanuddin

    2015-01-01

    This paper riviewing the Western epistemology thought. The theme focuses on Plato to Gonseth. The Epistemology that referred in this article, is to think about "how humans acquire knowledge?". From this then appear four types of sect modern western epistemology thought, namely: sect of empiricism, rationalism sect, kantinian sect, sect of positivism. Furthermore, the social positivism sciences developed by Comte leaves serious problems associated with the loss of the role of the subject. This...

  4. Evaluating PLATO: postgraduate teaching and learning online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Menna; Bullock, Alison

    2014-02-01

      The use of the Internet as a teaching medium has increased rapidly over the last decade. PLATO (postgraduate learning and teaching online) was launched in 2008 by the e-learning unit (ELU) of Wales Deanery. Located within Learning@NHSWales, a Moodle virtual learning environment (VLE), it hosts a wide range of freely available courses and resources tailored to support the education, training and continuing professional development (CPD) needs of health care professionals working across the National Health Service (NHS) Wales. The evaluation aimed to identify the costs and benefits of PLATO, report its value as attributed by users, identify potential cost savings and make recommendations.   Five courses (case studies) were selected, representing the range of available e-learning resources: e-induction; fetal heart monitoring; cervical screening; GP prospective trainers; and tools for trainers. Mixed methods were used: one-to-one qualitative interviews, focus group discussions and surveys explored user views, and identified individual and organisational value.   Qualitative findings identified six key areas of value for users: ELU support and guidance; avoidance of duplication and standardisation; central reference; local control; flexibility for learners; and specific features. Survey results (n=72) indicated 72 per cent of consultants reported that PLATO was easy to access and user friendly. E-learning was rated as 'very/important' for CPD by 79 per cent of respondents. Key challenges were: access, navigation, user concerns, awareness and support.   PLATO supports education and helps deliver UK General Medical Council standards. Future plans should address the suggested recommendations to realise cost savings for NHS Wales and the Wales Deanery. The findings have wider applicability to others developing or using VLEs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The problem of slavery in Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel García Mercado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle, without a doubt, is one of the greatest geniuses of all time, not only for his philosophical and scientific works, but also for his profound ethical disposition in his writings. In his works he asks the human being to live in accordance with the best that is in him. However, Aristotle is also recognized as one of the defenders of slavery. How can we explain this fact to the contemporary human being? This question requires special attention to the methodological and historical reasons in which Aristotle’s thought is immersed. There are also other deeper reasons that allow Aristotle to justify the existence of men who are slaves by nature, even considering the slave as «a possession with a soul».

  6. Aristotle, De Memoria et Reminiscentia. Text, Translation and Interpretive Essays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2006-01-01

    The dissertation analyses Aristotle's De Memoria et Reminiscentia. It contains an introduction, a critical edition accompanied by an English translation, an essay on Aristotle's own theories and an essay on the Aristotelian tradition.......The dissertation analyses Aristotle's De Memoria et Reminiscentia. It contains an introduction, a critical edition accompanied by an English translation, an essay on Aristotle's own theories and an essay on the Aristotelian tradition....

  7. Aristotle and the Theory of Decision (Prohairesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Shirkhan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The term of prohairesis was systematically entered in philosophical debates by Aristotle. This concept is generally translated as intention, will, purpose, choice, purposive choice, rational choice, and deliberative choice that the later seems to be Aristotle’s definition of prohairesis. To understand the internal structure of prohairesiss, we have to understand the conceptions of action, intention, belief, whish, will, and virtues. For Aristotle if an action will be done through a decision, this action is voluntary, but its contrary is not credible. He believes that the children and animals act voluntarily, but they have not any decision, because they have not any deliberation.

  8. Noncommutative phase spaces on Aristotle group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancille Ngendakumana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We realize noncommutative phase spaces as coadjoint orbits of extensions of the Aristotle group in a two dimensional space. Through these constructions the momenta of the phase spaces do not commute due to the presence of a naturally introduced magnetic eld. These cases correspond to the minimal coupling of the momentum with a magnetic potential.

  9. Transference and katharsis, Freud to Aristotle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turri, Maria Grazia

    2015-04-01

    Aristotle's theory of tragic katharsis is the most ancient and debated theory of the effect of the theatrical experience on the audience. It affirms that tragedy effects the katharsis of fear and pity, engaging readers with the controversy whether by katharsis Aristotle meant purification of the emotions (i.e. their perfection within the mind) or purification of the mind from the emotions (i.e. their abreaction from the mind). In this paper I will explore how Freud's theory of transference can suggest a new interpretation of Aristotle's tragic katharsis. Transference allows for the representation and expression of repressed emotions through the re-enactment of past relational dynamics. Although this process is essential to the psychoanalytic method, it is the subsequent analytic endeavour which allows for the "working through" of repressed emotions, bringing into effect the transference cure. I argue that the dynamic between emotional arousal in re-enactment and emotional distancing in analysis offers an effective parallel of the dynamic between katharsis of fear and katharsis of pity in Aristotle's theory. Such interpretation of tragic katharsis suggests that the theatrical effect in audiences may be an opportunity for self-analysis and the 'working through' of unconscious psychic dynamics. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  10. Perspectives on Rhetorical History: Aristotle's Rhetorical Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Reed

    The most important historical theory of persuasion is Aristotelian Rhetorical Theory. Aristotle's work, "The Rhetoric," is divided into three books, each of which discuss principles relevant to persuasion. Book One establishes the philosophical position of rhetoric to logic; establishes the purposes of rhetoric; discusses three types of…

  11. Teaching Public Speaking Using Aristotle's "Rhetoric."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Candida

    Rather than relegating Aristotle's "Rhetoric" to history of rhetoric courses, where it is regarded with only an antiquarian interest, it can be used as a practical text for introductory public speaking courses. The advantages would be threefold: (1) its emphasis is essentially on rhetoric as a speaking art rather than an art of…

  12. Pemikiran Epistemologi Barat: dari Plato Sampai Gonseth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunu Burhanuddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper riviewing the Western epistemology thought. The theme focuses on Plato to Gonseth. The Epistemology that referred in this article, is to think about "how humans acquire knowledge?". From this then appear four types of sect modern western epistemology thought, namely: sect of empiricism, rationalism sect, kantinian sect, sect of positivism. Furthermore, the social positivism sciences developed by Comte leaves serious problems associated with the loss of the role of the subject. This problem being the background of epistemology philosophy appears that by Emund Husserl developed through the phenomenology, Habermas through hermeneutics, and Ferdinand Gonseth through critical theory.

  13. Plato's ghost the modernist transformation of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    Plato's Ghost is the first book to examine the development of mathematics from 1880 to 1920 as a modernist transformation similar to those in art, literature, and music. Jeremy Gray traces the growth of mathematical modernism from its roots in problem solving and theory to its interactions with physics, philosophy, theology, psychology, and ideas about real and artificial languages. He shows how mathematics was popularized, and explains how mathematical modernism not only gave expression to the work of mathematicians and the professional image they sought to create for themselves, but how modernism also introduced deeper and ultimately unanswerable questions

  14. Plato the Pederast: Rhetoric and Cultural Procreation in the Dialogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Examines Plato's Dialogues by reading them through two cultural lenses: the role of eros in classical Greece and its analogous relationship to language and rhetoric; and the educational function of eros within the ancient institution of pederasty. Shows how the cultural values of ancient Greece manifested themselves in Plato's erotic educational…

  15. Plato's Theories of Knowledge and Education: an Examination of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plato's Theories of Knowledge and Education: an Examination of the Interpretations of Cloete and Agyemang. ... UJAH: Unizik Journal of Arts and Humanities ... views, this article reveals some serious logical and factual errors in Cloete's interpretations, and thereby clarifies Plato's epistemology and theories of education.

  16. Plato and the teaching of entrepreneurship studies as general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondly to use Plato's model of education to stress the importance of the practical aspect of entrepreneurial studies so as to avoid the old syndrome of breeding certificate Laden, theory filled entrepreneurial studies. For Plato, education should be tailored to suit the learner specialization; that is a carpenter should be taught ...

  17. Plato: from Socrates to Pre-Socratics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU. SHICHALIN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The traditional view on the chronology of the Corpus Platonicum (CP texts turns out to be anachronistic from several, especially formal and historical, points of view. From the formal point of view all the CP texts can be divided into speeches, framed dialogues and dialogues in dramatic form; there are serious reasons for correlating these groups of dialogues with different chronological periods. Historically, to view Plato’s works as modern philosophical and scholarly literature is incorrect; instead, it would seem expedient to correlate the three groups of dialogues mentioned with their changing audiences for which Plato wrote before the establishment of the Academy, during the first stage of its existence (before the second trip to Sicily and in the later period. The evolution of Plato’s philosophy is to be correlated with the evolution of the school created by him. Lack of attention to these methods can lead to incorrect assumptions concerning Plato’s evolution which found their way, among others, into the book “Plato and the Post-Socratic Dialogue” by Prof. Ch. Kahn where he speaks of a transition from Socratic to Pre-Socratic problems in Plato’s works; the book is critically examined by the author of the present article.

  18. Aristotle on Animals in the Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the apparently very harsh views on animals that are found in two passages of the Politics. These passages have not received much scholarly attention, but they have regularly been invoked by defenders of animal rights. In this article it is argued that an interpretation...... of these passages demands close scrutiny of the context, and furthermore that they must be taken into consideration along with the psychological and the biological writings if Aristotle's views on animals are to be convincingly established....

  19. The pancreas from Aristotle to Galen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Ryoichi; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Eguchi, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    The first description of the pancreas in literature is found in Aristotle's Historia Animalium, but it is modified by "so-called". Therefore, the origin is pursued more extensively. The Greek-English Lexicon recommends three treatises as a possible original source. These three and Galen's other papers are investigated. In 2005, Sachs et al. suggested an origin of the pancreas might have derived from the intestinal divination using the avian pancreas. This report is evaluated. The avian pancreas which is the intraperitoneal organ, might have been well known by the intestinal divination, and people have called the organ pankreas or kallikreas. Anatomical dissection on human body was not accepted before the Aristotle's time. "So-called pancreas" in Historia must have been interpolated by Theophrastus. He was the most faithful and reliable disciple of Aristotle and succeeded the Aristotle's school. He and Macedonian ruler of Egypt Ptolemy I had known each other and there had been a strong link between them. The contemporary Herophilus performed many public dissections on both human and animal bodies in Alexandria. He named the various parts of the human body and designated the beginning intestine as duodenum. Yet in his extant works, the pancreas is not found. It is surmised that Herophilus may be the first to recognize the human pancreas, which is fixed with retroperitoneal tissue, and he named it "so-called pancreas". Theophrastus might have interpolated Herophilus' designation in Historia Animalium. Galen also uses "so-called pancreas" to designate the human pancreas. Galen's descriptions, that is, "Nature created 'so-called pancreas 'and spread it beneath all vessels" are not generally acceptable but propose the very rare portal vein anomalies. Since the early years of the 20th century, cases with a preduodenal portal vein or a prepancreatic portal vein have been reported. Although the incidence is very rare, its surgical importance is emphasized. Copyright © 2014

  20. A scientific approach to Plato's Atlantis

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    Massimo Rapisarda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The myth of Atlantis is hard to die. This attempt to use scientific evidence to give it the final smash ends up with the doubt that it might not be totally unsubstantiated. The time of the supposed existence of Atlantis (around twelve thousand years ago was, in fact, characterized by technological revolutions, acknowledged by archaeology, and abrupt climate changes, documented by geology. In principle, it cannot therefore be ruled out that some of those dramatic events left a memory, later used by Plato as a basis for its tale. The climate changes involved the majority of the northern hemisphere, thus all the ancient civilizations (Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Indian and Chinese could have preserved reminiscence, but it is clear that the events occurring closer to Greece would have been more accessible to Plato. Among the Mediterranean sites that experienced the cataclysms of the beginning of the Holocene, a good candidate to host a primordial civilization might have been the archipelago then existing in the Strait of Sicily, a natural maritime link between Tunisia and Italy, prized by the presence of an obsidian source at Pantelleria. Eleven thousand five hundred years ago, a sudden sea level rise erased the archipelago, submerging the possible settlements, but Pantelleria obsidian ores are still there and could provide a significant clue. In fact, the potential discovery of artefacts, originating from a source now submerged by the sea level rise, would imply that the collection of the mineral took place when it was still emerged, namely at the time of Atlantis. Even if such discovery would not be sufficient to prove the existence of the mythical island, it would be enough to shake up the timeline of the human occupation in the region.

  1. What Plato and Murdoch Think About Love

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    Shadi Shakouri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are many interpretations of love and lots of scholars write and talk on love; however, what exactly is the meaning of love? Iris Murdoch’s works are an accumulation of emotional relationships and feelings of love. Her great subject is love, both sexual and non-sexual, and her characters are the portrayal of a small group of people caught up in convoluted ties of love and hate, with Eros ruling over them (Cohen 22. Murdoch was one of the most respected British writers and philosophers of the second half of the twentieth century and, of course, the postwar period. In Murdoch’s novels, love is one of the central themes—marriage, as the institution of love, more often binds than frees. Her characters are mainly ego-centric people who struggle to love and are often overwhelmed by the factor of self-obsession, jealousy, ambition, fascination with suffering and charismatic power. They are absolutely ordinary people with a consuming demand for love, and mental and physical exile. Murdoch was inspired by Plato’s ideas in many ways. Like art, here again Plato’s idea of love is more skeptical than Murdoch’s, whereas Murdoch kept it only as a way to the Good, creation, and happiness. Murdoch and Plato saw love more as a Freudian concept, the Eros, the word that comes from the name of the first Greek god of love. Both the philosophers, Plato and Murdoch, believed that this erotic longing and desires revived by Eros can led to a new direction, a way toward virtue and truth. Her protagonist or marginalized characters are usually tackling it with either vulgarity or the heavenly, which results in creation, art or salvation. Murdoch, as a major moral philosopher, usually grasps the chances to encapsulate her moral visions in her works, and created novels that should be counted as meditations on human love and goodness.

  2. Anamnesis and the Silent Narrator in Plato and John

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George L. Parsenios

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Gospel of John is often compared to the dialogues of Plato by those who connect Johannine theology and Platonic philosophy. The comparison operates on the level of ideas. The present paper does not ignore issues of theology and philosophy but grounds a comparison of John and Plato first and foremost on the literary level. In several key places in John 1, 3, and 14, the Johannine narrator recedes from view and is unexpectedly silent where one would expect a narrator’s comment to organize the conversations and interactions between characters in John. Plato also renders the voice of the narrator silent in a dialogue like the Theaetetus. This paper argues that John and Plato both suppress the narrator’s voice in order to further their anamnetic efforts and to make later generations not only readers but participants in their original conversations.

  3. 1 Plato's Theories of Knowledge and Education: an Examination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ngozi Ezenwa-Ohaeto

    doing introduced some of the most insightful theories of knowledge that ..... major deductions he makes from that quotation (but does not explain), are: (i). That Plato 'assumes' that there is 'a pre- linguistic realm whose representation either.

  4. Isocrates and Plato on Rhetoric and Rhetorical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    1991-01-01

    Compares the views of Isocrates and Plato on rhetoric and rhetorical education. Elucidates their criticisms of the sophists, their general assumptions about the nature and function of rhetoric, and their views on rhetorical education. (PRA)

  5. Rationality and Motivation: Moral Psychology in Plato's Socratic Dialogues

    OpenAIRE

    Neiders, Ivars

    2011-01-01

    "Rationality and Motivation: Moral Psychology in Plato's Socratic Dialogues" Annotation The dissertation "Rationality and Motivation: Moral Psychology in Plato's Socratic Dialogues" is a philosophical study of Socratic views in moral psychology. Particular attention is paid to what the author calls (1) Doxastic competence and (2) Orectic competence. It is argued that according to Socrates these two different epistemic relations are important aspects of our self-understanding. The doxast...

  6. Philoponus on Aristotle physics 41-5

    CERN Document Server

    Algra, Keimpe; van Ophuijsen, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Aristotles account of place, in which he defined a things place as the inner surface of its nearest immobile container, was supported by the Latin Middle Ages, even 1600 years after his death, though it had not convinced many ancient Greek philosophers. The sixth century commentator Philoponus took a more common-sense view. For him, place was an immobile three-dimensional extension, whose essence did not preclude its being empty, even if for other reasons it had always to be filled with body. However, Philoponus reserved his own definition for an excursus, already translated in this series, Th

  7. The Similarities of the Mean between Confucius and Aristotle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗亚男; 庄梦琪

    2017-01-01

    The doctrine of the Mean is praised by Aristotle and Confucius. It has an important academic position in ethics theories both in the Western and Eastern philosophical fields. Having a better understanding of the doctrine of the Mean will benefit us in further study of virtuous ethical theories. By comparison, we can discover that the thoughts of Confucius and Aristotle have many similar places.

  8. Aristotle on the Pleasure of Knowledge and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines Aristotle's views on the pleausre of learning with particular reference to the Nicomachean Ethics, the Rhetorics and the Poetics.......This paper examines Aristotle's views on the pleausre of learning with particular reference to the Nicomachean Ethics, the Rhetorics and the Poetics....

  9. Plato, Nightingale, and Nursing: Can You Hear Me Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Jacqueline Michele; Fitzsimons, Virginia

    2015-10-01

    A historical perspective on how the writings of Plato influenced Florence Nightingale in the formation of nursing as a respected profession for women. Comparing Nightingale's life and legacy to Platonic philosophy demonstrates how philosophy continues to speak to the profession of nursing practice as guardians of society in the 21st century. A review of the literature using EBSCO, SAGEpub, MEDLINE, and CINAHL databases and hand searches of literature were initiated for the years 1990-2014 using the terms "Plato," "Nightingale," and "nursing" restricted to English. Florence Nightingale, known as the mother of modern-day nursing, embodied her life and work after the philosophic tenets of Plato. Plato's Allegory of the Cave influenced Nightingale's attitudes with regard to the value of education, knowledge of the good, and the importance of imparting learned knowledge to others. Plato's work spoke of educating both men and women to seek the truth, affording both sexes to become competent as future leaders in the role of guardians to society. Nightingale's emphasis of education for women as a conduit for their usefulness to society mirrored Plato's philosophy. Over 100 years after her death, the impact Florence Nightingale still has on professional nursing practice remains. Scholarship in nursing education today is infused with a liberal arts background in philosophy, ethics, and the sciences. Nightingale's holistic concepts of person, health, and environment in the practice of nursing coalesced with her statistical analyses in validating nursing actions foreshadowed the development of universal nursing knowledge and language base and meta-paradigm concepts in nursing. Further classification and categorization of Nightingale's concepts of assessing, implementing, and evaluating delivery of care became the linguistic precursors for the identification of nursing process, nursing actions, and nursing diagnoses. Plato's and Nightingale's holistic, scientific, and

  10. A Comparative Vision Between Bharata and Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Armando Rentería Alejandre

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The forms of love in India are as complex as in the rest of cultures; especially when they are reflected in literature. One of the tasks of Indian literary poets about these forms is concentrated on the cultural and the social field. The Indian lyric poetry reflects images which go beyond linguistic structural morphosyntactic forms. For both Indian and Greek theorists and poets it is very important not only the structural form of poetry but also the images in it. With this I refer to alamkaras or rhetoric figures, as it is usual translate them thanks to all poetic Greek tradition, of which Aristotle, with his Poetics and Rhetorics, is the representative maximum. The rupaka or metaphor is a figure very used by both Indian and Greek poets. The stylistic reach of rupaka or metaphor manages to transcend into theoretical and poetical texts. In this sense, into this essay I set out a comparison between the definition of metaphor in Aristotle’s Poetics and Rhetorics and the definition of rupaka in Bharata’s Natyashastra, treatise about playwriting, very important for the studies on Indian theater as well as for those on Indian poetry. All this comparative theory helps me to find the aim of metaphor into Sanskrit poetry, through the vision of Aristotle and Bharata, thanks to the poetic reach of rupaka or metaphor.

  11. Eugenics concept: from Plato to present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güvercin, C H; Arda, B

    2008-01-01

    All prospective studies and purposes to improve cure and create a race that would be exempt of various diseases and disabilities are generally defined as eugenic procedures. They aim to create the "perfect" and "higher" human being by eliminating the "unhealthy" prospective persons. All of the supporting actions taken in order to enable the desired properties are called positive eugenic actions; the elimination of undesired properties are defined as negative eugenics. In addition, if such applications and approaches target the public as a whole, they are defined as macro-eugenics. On the other hand, if they only aim at individuals and/or families, they are called micro-eugenics. As generally acknowledged, Galton re-introduced eugenic proposals, but their roots stretch as far back as Plato. Eugenic thoughts and developments were widely accepted in many different countries beginning with the end of the 19th to the first half of the 20th centuries. Initially, the view of negative eugenics that included compulsory sterilizations of handicapped, diseased and "lower" classes, resulted in tens of thousands being exterminated especially in the period of Nazi Germany. In the 1930s, the type of micro positive eugenics movement found a place within the pro-natalist policies of a number of countries. However, it was unsuccessful since the policy was not able to become effective enough and totally disappeared in the 1960s. It was no longer a fashionable movement and left a deep impression on public opinion after the long years of war. However, developments in genetics and its related fields have now enabled eugenic thoughts to reappear under the spotlight and this is creating new moral dilemmas from an ethical perspective.

  12. Aristotelian Presocratics A Look at Aristotle\\'s Interpretation of Presocratic Phiolosophers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Qavam Safari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle's understanding of Presocratic philosophers and his interpretation of their theses based on his own framework has always been a matter of dispute among scholars. His role of representing them as one of the main sources of Presocratic philosophy makes this is more. Here in this paper we try to investigate, analyzing Metaphysics, Physics and Generation and Destruction, how Aristotle interprets all the Presocratics in the same way and based on his own framework. He understands their arche as a simple element came out of nothing and constructing all other things and even considers it as substance while every other thing as accident which is obviously on the basis of his own distinction. He also interprets their change on the basis of his own distinction between change on the one hand and generation and destruction on the other that is itself based on the substance-accident distinction. All these show that he interprets them Aristotelian and this is what we should be aware of while we look at Presocratic philosophers through Aristotle.

  13. Civic Friendship in Aristotle: Concord and Fraternity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Farrés Juste

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available the article shows the importance of friendship in the context of Aristotelian political philosophy. this importance is verified in its specific weight compared with justice. As it is known, Aristotle argues that the pursuit of friendship outranks the pursuit of justice in the polis. Particularly, the article focuses on the role of concord, as a special type of civic friendship, in terms of preserving the unity and stability of the polis. to grasp its significance, we have to consider the role of concord as a supplement of the political condition of the human being. Concord is necessary in the light of the trend to the struggle between the parts of the city, between the demos and the oligarchs. Since this fight endangers the continuity of the polis, concord among citizens becomes a privileged background of early republican fraternity, which has not enjoyed sufficient attention in the field of history of political philosophy.

  14. "Most brilliant in judgment": Alexander the Great and Aristotle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainas, Panagiotis; Panutsopulos, Dimitrios; Skandalakis, Panagiotis N; Zoras, Odysseas; Skandalakis, John E

    2005-03-01

    From historical sources, it is evident that Alexander the Great was indebted to one of his teachers, Aristotle of Stagira. It was the teaching of Aristotle that evoked all the nascent talents of young Alexander and turned him into a great man. Alexander was extremely interested in the secrets of medicine and considered it an art. The medical knowledge he acquired from Aristotle may have saved his life and the lives of his troops on many occasions. If Alexander did not possess medical knowledge and if his everyday life had not been so greatly influenced by medicine, he might never have been able to create his empire.

  15. Plato's Cosmic Theology: A Rationale for a Polytheistic Astrology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, André

    2015-05-01

    Plato's cosmology influenced classical astronomy and religion, but was in turn influenced by the polytheistic context of its time. Throughout his texts, including the cosmological treatise Timaeus, and the discussions on the soul in the Phaedrus, Plato (c.428-c.348 BC) established what can be generalised as Platonic cosmological thought. An understanding of the philosophical and mythical levels of Platonic thought can provide a rationale for polytheistic and astrological worldviews, pointing to some cosmological continuity, alongside major shifts, from ancient Greek religion to the astrological thought of ancient astronomers such as Claudius Ptolemy.

  16. Expected asteroseismic performances with the space project PLATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goupil Mariejo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The PLATO (PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of star space project will observe about fifty percents of the sky with the main purpose of detecting, confirming and characterizing transiting exoplanets of (superEarth sizes in the habitable zone of solar-like stars. Determining masses, radii and ages of exoplanets require the knowledge the masses, radii and ages of the host stars. We give a brief presentation of the main features of the mission. We then discuss some expected seismic performances of PLATO for characterizing bright solar-like stars, focusing on the challenging determination of accurate/precise stellar ages.

  17. The Rhetoric of Explanation: Explanatory Rhetoric from Aristotle to 1850.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Robert J.

    1984-01-01

    Follows the slow growth of a body of knowledge about how information could best be communicated without necessary references to overt persuasion from Aristotle's "Rhetoric" through the beginnings of a theory of written discourse in the American nineteenth century. (FL)

  18. The necessity of dialectics according to Plato and Adorno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anne-Marie Eggert

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the notion of philosophy as, on the one hand, an academic or scientific discipline and, on the other, something perhaps superior to the disciplines and in any case dealing with what is not a 'disciplinary' matter. Through an interpretation of Plato's concept of dialectics and...

  19. Plato and Play: Taking Education Seriously in Ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angour, Armand

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines Plato's notions of play in ancient Greek culture and shows how the philosopher's views on play can be best appreciated against the background of shifting meanings and evaluations of play in classical Greece. Play--in various forms such as word play, ritual, and music--proved central to the development of…

  20. Plato, Freud and Marx on Human Nature: A Comparative Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the conceptions of human nature by Plato, Sigmund Freud and Karl Marx, with a view to revealing and explaining the convergence and divergence between these conceptions. It shows that agreement or disagreement on the distinguishing characteristics of human individuals can be situated on ...

  1. Three Misunderstandings of Plato's Theory of Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, Mark Jonas argues that there are three broadly held misconceptions of Plato's philosophy that work against his relevance for contemporary moral education. The first is that he is an intellectualist who is concerned only with the cognitive aspect of moral development and does not sufficiently emphasize the affective and conative…

  2. PLATO[R] Achieve Now. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "PLATO[R] Achieve Now" is a software-based curriculum for the elementary and middle school grades. Instructional content is delivered via the PlayStation Portable (PSP[R]) system, allowing students to access learning materials in various settings. Software-based assessments are used to customize individual instruction, allowing students…

  3. Go Tell Alcibiades: Tragedy, Comedy, and Rhetoric in Plato's "Symposium"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Nathan; Poulakos, John

    2008-01-01

    Plato's "Symposium" is a significant but neglected part of his elaborate and complex attitude toward rhetoric. Unlike the intellectual discussion of the "Gorgias" or the unscripted conversation of the "Phaedrus," the "Symposium" stages a feast celebrating and driven by the forces of "Eros." A luxuriously stylish performance rather than a rational…

  4. Future development of the PLATO Observatory for Antarctic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Michael C. B.; Bonner, Colin S.; Everett, Jon R.; Lawrence, Jon S.; Luong-Van, Daniel; McDaid, Scott; McLaren, Campbell; Storey, John W. V.

    2010-07-01

    PLATO is a self-contained robotic observatory built into two 10-foot shipping containers. It has been successfully deployed at Dome A on the Antarctic plateau since January 2008, and has accumulated over 730 days of uptime at the time of writing. PLATO provides 0.5{1kW of continuous electrical power for a year from diesel engines running on Jet-A1, supplemented during the summertime with solar panels. One of the 10-foot shipping containers houses the power system and fuel, the other provides a warm environment for instruments. Two Iridium satellite modems allow 45 MB/day of data to be transferred across the internet. Future enhancements to PLATO, currently in development, include a more modular design, using lithium iron-phosphate batteries, higher power output, and a light-weight low-power version for eld deployment from a Twin Otter aircraft. Technologies used in PLATO include a CAN (Controller Area Network) bus, high-reliability PC/104 com- puters, ultracapacitors for starting the engines, and fault-tolerant redundant design.

  5. [The haematogenous reproduction theory of Aristotle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, J

    2003-12-20

    From the very beginning, man has been fascinated by the continuous coming into being of new life on Earth. Archeological and anthropological data indicate that in prehistoric times, reproduction was attributed to a fertility goddess that required no sperm for this purpose. In the early historical Middle East it was believed that a godly being brought about pregnancy by using male and female semen. It was the merit of the Greek philosophers of the 6th-3rd century B.C. to realize that reproduction was governed by natural laws. Several theories were developed to understand how reproduction could occur. The haematogenous theory of reproduction, developed by Aristotle, has received the most attention. The essence of this theory is that the male sperm, with a haematogenous origin, causes the development of an embryo from menstrual blood present in the female uterus. The theory survived about 2000 years, with modifications, and was also introduced into Christianity. It was only about 150 years ago that the reproduction theory based on hypotheses was changed into a reproduction science based on facts.

  6. Shedding genomic light on Aristotle's lantern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodergren, Erica; Shen, Yufeng; Song, Xingzhi; Zhang, Lan; Gibbs, Richard A; Weinstock, George M

    2006-12-01

    Sea urchins have proved fascinating to biologists since the time of Aristotle who compared the appearance of their bony mouth structure to a lantern in The History of Animals. Throughout modern times it has been a model system for research in developmental biology. Now, the genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus is the first echinoderm genome to be sequenced. A high quality draft sequence assembly was produced using the Atlas assembler to combine whole genome shotgun sequences with sequences from a collection of BACs selected to form a minimal tiling path along the genome. A formidable challenge was presented by the high degree of heterozygosity between the two haplotypes of the selected male representative of this marine organism. This was overcome by use of the BAC tiling path backbone, in which each BAC represents a single haplotype, as well as by improvements in the Atlas software. Another innovation introduced in this project was the sequencing of pools of tiling path BACs rather than individual BAC sequencing. The Clone-Array Pooled Shotgun Strategy greatly reduced the cost and time devoted to preparing shotgun libraries from BAC clones. The genome sequence was analyzed with several gene prediction methods to produce a comprehensive gene list that was then manually refined and annotated by a volunteer team of sea urchin experts. This latter annotation community edited over 9000 gene models and uncovered many unexpected aspects of the sea urchin genetic content impacting transcriptional regulation, immunology, sensory perception, and an organism's development. Analysis of the basic deuterostome genetic complement supports the sea urchin's role as a model system for deuterostome and, by extension, chordate development.

  7. Approach to the problem of motion in Plato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio García Peña

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the first philosophers began to reflect about the idea of nature, the problem of motion became a crucial topic in their discussions. The entire pre-Socratic tradition was gathered by Plato, whose reflections are often triggered by fragments of Parmenides and Heraclitus. The Athenian philosopher analyzed motion in relation to the visible and intelligible regions that he distinguishes in the sphere of reality, as well as the fine line that links it to the soul

  8. Aristotle on justice in exchange:commensurability by fiat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Peacock

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay offers an interpretation of Aristotle's remarks on the commensurability of goods in Book V of the Nicomachean Ethics. It explores the term ‘by hypothesis’ (ἐξ ὑποθέσεως which Aristotle uses to describe the institution of currency through which commensurability is established. The term implies that Aristotle conceives the origins of currency to lie in a conscious act of stipulation rather than through a spontaneous process in which currency is established via the unintended consequences of individual action. In conclusion, contemporary theories of money are considered and it is asked with which Aristotle’s conception of money aligns most closely.

  9. Being qua becoming: Aristotle's "Metaphysics", quantum physics, and Process Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David Kelley

    In Aristotle's First Philosophy, science and philosophy were partners, but with the rise of empiricism, went their separate ways. Metaphysics combined the rational and irrational (i.e. final cause/unmoved mover) elements of existence to equate being with substance, postulating prime matter as pure potential that was actuated by form to create everything. Modern science reveres pure reason and postulates its theory of being by a rigorous scientific methodology. The Standard Model defines matter as energy formed into fundamental particles via forces contained in fields. Science has proved Aristotle's universe wrong in many ways, but as physics delves deeper into the quantum world, empiricism is reaching its limits concerning fundamental questions of existence. To achieve its avowed mission of explaining existence completely, physics must reunite with philosophy in a metascience modeled on the First Philosophy of Aristotle. One theory of being that integrates quantum physics and metaphysics is Process Philosophy.

  10. An Explanation of True Dreams: Aristotle and Jung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sanai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The naturalistic explanation of realized dream (or dreams that come true means that this phenomen will be explained regardless of supernatural agents. Aristotle in Parva naturalia and Jung in his works explained dream visionary. In this article by scrutiny on these thinkers’ theory, we will indicate the naturalistic approach to dream that is far- fetched for followers of metaphysics. In spite of this fact that Aristotle and Jung both belongs to different historical contexts, they have common aspects in terms of naturalistic method; in the universal or broad sense of word, but in terms of content both explain the true dream by the term “coincidence” or accidental conformity between objective events and psychological affairs. It also seems that the notion of Neutral monism in Jung is adaptive to Hylomorphism in Aristotle psychology, and this, provides a path for naturalistic approach to dream as one forms of consciousness.

  11. Space, Time, Matter, and Form Essays on Aristotle's Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bostock, David

    2006-01-01

    Space, Time, Matter, and Form collects ten of David Bostock's essays on themes from Aristotle's Physics, four of them published here for the first time. The first five papers look at issues raised in the first two books of the Physics, centred on notions of matter and form, and the idea of substance as what persists through change. They also range over other of Aristotle's scientific works, such as his biology and psychology and the account of change in his De Generatione et Corruptione. The volume's remaining essays examine themes in later books of the Physics, including infinity, place, time

  12. Aristotle revisited: the function of pyloric caeca in fish.

    OpenAIRE

    Buddington, R K; Diamond, J M

    1986-01-01

    The function of the pyloric caeca of fish has been uncertain since their detailed description in 345 B.C. by Aristotle. He suggested three hypotheses about their function: "to store up the food," "putrify it up," and "concoct it" (i.e., storage, fermentation, and digestion). Our results for trout, cod, largemouth bass, and striped bass support the third but not the first or second of Aristotle's theories. In all four species, the caeca prove to be a major site of sugar, amino acid, and dipept...

  13. Aristotle's "De Caelo" III introduction, translation and commentary

    CERN Document Server

    Kouremenos, Theokritos

    2013-01-01

    This is the first full-scale commentary on Aristotle's de Caelo III to appear in recent decades. de Caelo III can serve as a good introduction to Aristotle's physics and its character. In it he answers some very general questions about the elements of all material things except celestial objects: how many these elements are, why they cannot be infinitely many but must be more than one, whether they are eternal or can be generated and decay, and, if the second, how. His discussion is often framed as a critique of rival theories, and he argues systematically against the geometri

  14. Aristotle and Social-Epistemic Rhetoric: The Systematizing of the Sophistic Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James E.

    While Aristotle's philosophical views are more foundational than those of many of the Older Sophists, Aristotle's rhetorical theories inherit and incorporate many of the central tenets ascribed to Sophistic rhetoric, albeit in a more systematic fashion, as represented in the "Rhetoric." However, Aristotle was more than just a rhetorical…

  15. The Aristotle, McDonald's, "Star Trek" Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensinger, Steve

    1985-01-01

    Explains a method of teaching students about the modes of persuasion (i.e., through logic, emotion, and ethos) identified by Aristotle. Explains how a class discussion of two familiar entities (i.e., a fast food chain and a media production) can introduce these concepts to students. (DMM)

  16. Aristotle's Humanistic Ethics | Onwuegbusi | Global Journal of Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an attempt to argue that Aristotle has no clear metaphysical basis for his ethical treatise as presented in his Nicomachean Ethics. What he claims as the supreme good for man which is happiness in accordance with the highest virtue of the soul has no metaphysical foundation in his metaphysical system.

  17. Revisiting Aristotle's causality: model for development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, the development equation must be balanced. Aristotle‟s theory of causality balances the equation. Since Aristotle has no theory of development therefore every individual, nation or industry in pursuit of development should seek to drive economic growth and human capital development together rather than focus on ...

  18. The issue of life: Aristotle in nursing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, Ingunn; Torjuul, Kirsti

    2009-10-01

    This paper explores the issue of life and its relevance to nursing, through Aristotle's philosophy and an Aristotelian interpretation of Nightingale's Notes on Nursing. Life as process and becoming has ontological status in Aristotle's philosophy and this dynamism is particularly relevant for nursing. The paper presents aspects of Aristotle's philosophy of life: his account of life as inherent powers of the individual, his analysis of change and time, and his understanding of sickness and health as qualitative states of living beings. It is shown how the Greek medical-philosophical tradition, continued by Galenic medicine and hygiene into modern time, influenced Nightingale's nursing. Individuals' life-maintaining metabolic relations to their surroundings are investigated through Aristotle and modern philosophy of biology and through Nightingale's nursing emphasis on the patient's relation to her or his immediate surroundings. It is argued that Nightingale's concern is really the processes of individual life, which in sickness necessitate temporally continuous nursing observation. Humans' radical dependency on their surroundings is actualized as interpersonal interdependency. The paper argues that the end of nursing care, the telos for which sake it is practised, is inherent in the individual course of the patients' life. When life processes are affected by sickness, infirmity, medical interventions or mental suffering, individuals need competent help to live - and to live as well as possible. It is suggested that the special responsibility of nursing is to facilitate, relieve and protect individual life continuously during such times.

  19. Finding Aristotle's Golden Mean: Social Justice and Academic Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, John

    2005-01-01

    Over 2,000 years ago, Aristotle wrote a treatise on ethics in which he proposed that there were both intellectual and moral virtues to be developed in the human being. Virtue ("aristeia") was roughly equivalent to the English word "excellence" and the unifying virtue that was both a moral and an intellectual virtue was…

  20. Vehicles to Belief: Aristotle's Enthymeme and George Campbell's Vivacity Compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roob, Andy

    The central concepts from two rhetorical systems (the enthymeme in Aristotle's rhetoric and vivacity in George Campbell's) may be understood as the connection between speech act and ascension to belief. A review of the literature indicates a gap in the scholarly works seeking to compare and contrast the periods developed by D. Ehninger's systems…

  1. Discourse, Dialectic and Intrapersonal Rhetoric: A Reinterpretation of Plato's Rhetorical Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikins, James W.

    The idea that rhetoric might operate in epistemologically significant ways was first presented by Plato. This paper argues that the heart of Plato's conception of epistemic discourse is a recognition of the centrality of intrapersonal rhetoric. Through a careful study of Platonic writing, particularly the "Phaedrus," three principal…

  2. Worldly and Otherworldly Virtue: Likeness to God as Educational Ideal in Plato, Plotinus, and Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zovko, Marie-Élise

    2018-01-01

    In Plato, 'Becoming like God' constitutes the "telos" of the philosophical life. Our 'likeness to God' is rooted in the relationship of the divine paradeigma to its image established in the generation of the Cosmos. This relationship makes knowledge and virtue possible, and informs Plato's theory of education. Related concepts preexist…

  3. Plato and the Modern American "Right": Agendas, Assumptions, and the Culture of Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interpretation of Plato's "Republic" that has many striking similarities to the social agenda of modern educational conservatives in the United States, which is particularly timely because George W. Bush's administration is, at this writing, coming to an end. Plato's ideal city is best seen as one that promoted an…

  4. Reversing Plato’s Anti-Democratism: Castoriadis’ “Quirky” Plato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamblet, Wendy C.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the conflicting "loves" of Cornelius Castoriadis--his love for the ancients, and especially Plato, and for the common person of the demos. A detailed study of Castoriadis' analysis of Plato's Statesman exposes that Castoriadis attempts to resolve the paradox by rereading Plato as a radical democrat. I argue that this unorthodox reading is at best "quirky, " (a charge Castoriadis levels at Plato at worst a groundless sophism. However, I conjecture that Castoriadis' reading may not constitute a serious attempt to describe a Platonic politics, so much as a prescriptive reading of what otherwise might have been, given certain strands of political generosity evident elsewhere in Plato's corpus.

  5. The Relationship between Virtue and Happiness in Aristotle and Al-Fārābī’s Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sabri

    2016-09-01

    and regarding to its species is a middle term. All in all, he believed in doctrine of virtue as being a “golden mean” between the extremes of excess and deficiency. Concerning the relationship between happiness and virtue, he believed that these two elements are neither dependent on nor independent of one another. Therefore, to distinguish between these two ends, attention must be paid to rules and goals: happiness is according to goals and virtue is according to rules .He contended that virtue does not guarantee happiness and that happiness requires something more than virtue. As the founder of Islamic philosophy, Al-Fārābī’s definition of happiness is similar to that introduced by Aristotle. That is, he knows happiness as the perfection that appeals to all humans and every in some ways attempt to reach it. In civil science whose aim is to define happiness, Al-Fārābī divides happiness into two categories: true happiness which is gained because of its essence and speculative happiness which is delusive one. The latter can be also named as common shares such as wealth, knowledge, etc. What Al-Fārābī speaks of virtue is mostly like what Greek people conceived of ‘Arête’. He named virtue as a thing with inherent goodness and as a fundamental concept of achieving happiness. He classifies virtues into four classes of theoretical virtues, intentional virtues, moral virtues, and practical arts. Following Plato, Al-Fārābī deems of 'virtuous city' ('al-madīnat al-fāḍilah' as a healthy complete body whose parts would function well. In this view, 'virtuous city' ('al-madīnat al-fāḍilah' is a society where its members know happiness, cooperate to achieve it and ultimate destiny of all members is interweaved. For exemplifying the relationship between happiness and virtue, he presents the allegory of soul and body. In his viewpoint, both happiness and virtue imply perfection in a way that humans can achieve the second perfection (happiness through

  6. On Three Locations Connected with Aristotle: Ancient Stagira - Mieza - Athens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kalan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed well-nigh simultaneous discoveries on three archaeological sites connected with Aristotle, which have eliminated many cliches and mistaken assumptions about the philosopher's life and work. These are: (1 his native town of Stagira, or Stagirus; (2 his school in the Macedonian town of Mieza; and (3 the location of the Peripatetic school, the Lyceum, at Athens. The first part of the article thus briefly surveys the most important discoveries about the layout of ancient Stagira, as described in the monograph by Konstantinos Sismanidis. The  main  archaeological finds include an early classical town-wall (an admirable example of military architecture, the  stoa,  an  aqueduct, the  foundations of three  temples, silver coins with the type of a wild boar, etc.-The second part moves from a preliminary description of Mieza to an  attempt at  reconstructing the philosophical ideas transmitted by Aristotle to Alexander and  his peers at Mieza- not  Pella-, using  Plutarch's Life of Alexander as a starting-point. Such education would have been  impossible if the Macedonians had not been  Greeks  and  their  language a Greek  dialect, and  it is the failure to realize this fact that has long impeded- and  still does- our understanding of Aristotle's attitude to Philip and  Alexander. The article touches on  the potential relevance of Alexander's politics for  the  present, which  may be sought in  its interplay of  two processes: the  spreading of Greek culture abroad on  the  one hand, and, on  the  other, the  preservation of  other cultures with which  the Greeks came into contact. The third part, drawing on  Rupp's book Peripatoi, presents the  latest archaeological discoveries relating to the exact location of Aristotle's Peripatos in Athens. In 323 BC -immediately after Alexander's death- Aristotle retired from Athens for the  second time, his life endangered by the  prevailing anti

  7. Is There Abduction in Aristotle? Peirce, Eco, and Some Further Remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Proni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In several places of the Collected Papers , Peirce states that Abduction, or adoption of a Hypothesis, the form of inference he has discovered and described, could be found in Aristotle, though not fully developed. Umberto Eco (1983, investigates, following Peirce, the presence of abductive elements in Aristotle, and extends Peirce's scope, finding more traces of hypothetical logic. The purpose of this article is to extend and refine the inquiry, trying to answer the question "Did Aristotle know Abductive reasoning?"

  8. Prospects for detecting decreasing exoplanet frequency with main-sequence age using PLATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, D.; Brown, D. J. A.; Mustill, A. J.; Pollacco, D.

    2017-09-01

    The space mission PLATO will usher in a new era of exoplanetary science by expanding our current inventory of transiting systems and constraining host star ages, which are currently highly uncertain. This capability might allow PLATO to detect changes in planetary system architecture with time, particularly because planetary scattering due to Lagrange instability may be triggered long after the system was formed. Here, we utilize previously published instability time-scale prescriptions to determine PLATO's capability to detect a trend of decreasing planet frequency with age for systems with equal- mass planets. For two-planet systems, our results demonstrate that PLATO may detect a trend for planet masses which are at least as massive as super-Earths. For systems with three or more planets, we link their initial compactness to potentially detectable frequency trends in order to aid future investigations when these populations will be better characterized.

  9. Democratic institutions: the spell of Plato and the return to the classics

    OpenAIRE

    Colen, José

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper, that reflects an ongoing research, is to suggest the usefulness of an analysis of the readings of Karl Popper and Leo Strauss on Plato's political philosophy. Very different as they are, both thinkers saw in the Republic one of the most powerful critics of democracy and built interpretations and polemic arguments by contrast with Plato's arguments. There are currently two arguments questioning liberal or constitutional democracy. The first originates in the social s...

  10. The role of the poet in Plato's ideal cities of Callipolis and Magnesia

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Naddaf

    2008-01-01

    Plato's attitude toward the poets and poetry has always been a flashpoint of debate, controversy and notoriety, but most scholars have failed to see their central role in the ideal cities of the Republic and the Laws, that is, Callipolis and Magnesia. In this paper, I argue that in neither dialogue does Plato "exile" the poets, but, instead, believes they must, like all citizens, exercise the expertise proper to their profession, allowing them the right to become full-fledged participants in ...

  11. THE LOGIC OF JUSTICE IN ARISTOTLE'S NICOMACHEAN ETHICS, BOOK V

    OpenAIRE

    HIDEYA, YAMAKAWA; 桃山学院大学文学部

    1999-01-01

    In this paper I probe into the geometrical structure which lurks behind Aristotle's argument of justice in distribution (το διανεμητικον δικαιου) and especially justice in reciprocity (το αντιπεπονθοζ δικαιον) in the Book V of Nicomachean Ethics, and present a new solution for the interpretation of justice in reciprocity.

  12. Dialectic and science: Galen, Herophilus and Aristotle on phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieleman, T

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of Galen's argument in the De placitis Hippocratis et Platonis, books 2-3, concerned with the location of the psychic functions within the body. To this question Galen applies a coherent set of methodological principles, integrating Aristotelian dialectic and scientific demonstration based on anatomical experiments. Galen disagrees with Aristotle in that he relegates the endoxa from the realm of dialectic to that of rhetoric. His attitude is marked by a distinctive emphasis on perceptible phenomena as the starting point for scientific inquiry. This and other features can be traced back to the Hellenistic scientist Herophilus.

  13. A cladistic analysis of Aristotle's animal groups in the Historia animalium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lieven, Alexander Fürst; Humar, Marcel

    2008-01-01

    The Historia animalium (HA) of Aristotle contains an extraordinarily rich compilation of descriptions of animal anatomy, development, and behaviour. It is believed that Aristotle's aim in HA was to describe the correlations of characters rather than to classify or define animal groups. In order to assess if Aristotle, while organising his character correlations, referred to a pre-existing classification that underlies the descriptions in HA, we carried out a cladistic analysis according to the following procedure: by disentangeling 147 species and 40 higher taxa-designations from 157 predicates in the texts, we transcribed Aristotle's descriptions on anatomy and development of animals in books I-V of HA into a character matrix for a cladistic analysis. By analysing the distribution of characters as described in his books, we obtained a non-phylogenetic dendrogram displaying 58 monophyletic groups, 29 of which have equivalents among Aristotle's group designations. Eleven Aristotelian groupings turned out to be non-monophyletic, and six of them are inconsistent with the monophyletic groups. Twelve of 29 taxa without equivalents in Aristotle's works have equivalents in modern classifications. With this analysis we demonstate there exists a fairly consistent underlying classification in the zoological works of Aristotle. The peculiarities of Aristotle's character basis are discussed and the dendrogram is compared with a current phylogenetic tree.

  14. Books and Becoming Good: Demonstrating Aristotle's Theory of Moral Development in the Act of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    In the Nicomachean ethics, Aristotle sets down a scattered and fractional account of the development of moral virtue within young people. Philosopher Martha Nussbaum defends Aristotle's neglect of a systematic account of moral development and argues that more complex expressions of character-building, such as learning to expose oneself to proper…

  15. Rhetorical Inventions and Cultural Diversity--A Historical Approach: Aristotle and Confucius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia

    While Aristotle treats the nature of rhetoric as philosophical, political/practical, and artistic/technical, Confucius views language use as philosophical and political/practical but not as artistic/technical, with the result that Confucius does not seem to offer as much as Aristotle does. In their essay "Refiguring Rhetoric as an Art:…

  16. Aristotle's Definition of Rhetoric in the "Rhetoric": The Metaphors and Their Message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sara J.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates Aristotle's metaphorical definitions of rhetoric in book 1 of his "Rhetoric," using his own theory of metaphor as a measure of his practice in these definitions. Indicates that Aristotle's practice in the situation does not match his theory, a circumstance that has consequences for one's reading of the "Rhetoric."…

  17. Plato: A localised orbital based density functional theory code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, S. D.; Horsfield, A. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Plato package allows both orthogonal and non-orthogonal tight-binding as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations to be performed within a single framework. The package also provides extensive tools for analysing the results of simulations as well as a number of tools for creating input files. The code is based upon the ideas first discussed in Sankey and Niklewski (1989) [1] with extensions to allow high-quality DFT calculations to be performed. DFT calculations can utilise either the local density approximation or the generalised gradient approximation. Basis sets from minimal basis through to ones containing multiple radial functions per angular momenta and polarisation functions can be used. Illustrations of how the package has been employed are given along with instructions for its utilisation. Program summaryProgram title: Plato Catalogue identifier: AEFC_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFC_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 219 974 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 821 493 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C/MPI and PERL Computer: Apple Macintosh, PC, Unix machines Operating system: Unix, Linux and Mac OS X Has the code been vectorised or parallelised?: Yes, up to 256 processors tested RAM: Up to 2 Gbytes per processor Classification: 7.3 External routines: LAPACK, BLAS and optionally ScaLAPACK, BLACS, PBLAS, FFTW Nature of problem: Density functional theory study of electronic structure and total energies of molecules, crystals and surfaces. Solution method: Localised orbital based density functional theory. Restrictions: Tight-binding and density functional theory only, no exact exchange. Unusual features: Both atom centred and uniform meshes available

  18. Aristotle, alive and well in Papua New Guinea science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeha, Beno B.

    1990-09-01

    National High School students from Papua New Guinea were interviewed about two situations; the results of their Aristotle-like views regarding `forced' and `natural' motion are presented and discussed. Twenty-one National High School Students were interviewed about two situations similarly used elsewhere (Osborne and Gibert 1979, 1980, Osborne 1980a) and the results of these Aristotle-like views possessed by students have been presented and discussed above. With each of the six summary statements some extracts have been provided from interviews conducted by the author with students who had come from various parts of Pupua New Guinea. Students' views have been compiled to give a composite picture of the Aristotle-like ideas. Some impression of the commonality of the ideas/beliefs has been provided by reference to the work of others who have reported similar tendencies in testing and interviewing physics students. Throughout the study, students' Aristotlean-like views have been given a respected status that reflects their widespread use, their internal coherence and their tenacity in the face of classroom teaching in a Pupua New Guinea National High School. In analysing individual interview transcripits, attempts were made to construct ideas/beliefs that can account for statements by each student in a manner that statements are consistent with each other. The assumption that all of a student's statements are logically compatible to a listener or reader is difficult to maintain. However, it is one that has to be made as a hypothesis to work with, otherwise it is too easy to discount sections of a student's discourse that seem inconsistent with understandable parts. The aims of this part of the study have been to provide science educationalists with a repertoire of common Aristolean-like beliefs which have persisted in students. These views differ in some ways from the orthodox physics views. By better understanding of the students' beliefs and commitments about

  19. The PLATO Dome A site-testing observatory: Power generation and control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J. S.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Hengst, S.; Luong-van, D. M.; Storey, J. W. V.; Yang, H.; Zhou, X.; Zhu, Z.

    2009-06-01

    The atmospheric conditions above Dome A, a currently unmanned location at the highest point on the Antarctic plateau, are uniquely suited to astronomy. For certain types of astronomy Dome A is likely to be the best location on the planet, and this has motivated the development of the Plateau Observatory (PLATO). PLATO was deployed to Dome A in early 2008. It houses a suite of purpose-built site-testing instruments designed to quantify the benefits of Dome A site for astronomy, and science instruments designed to take advantage of the observing conditions. The PLATO power generation and control system is designed to provide continuous power and heat, and a high-reliability command and communications platform for these instruments. PLATO has run and collected data throughout the winter 2008 season completely unattended. Here we present a detailed description of the power generation, power control, thermal management, instrument interface, and communications systems for PLATO, and an overview of the system performance for 2008.

  20. Aristotelian pre-Socratics, A glance at Aristotle's Narrative from pre-Socratics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Qavam Safari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it's tried to study Aristotle's narrative of  pre-Socratics on the base of Aristotle's texts and mainly using  metaphysics, physics, genesis and decadence books. It is also tried to show how Aristotle has interpreted all the pre-Socratics in one way and on the base of his own philosophy framework. He interprets pre-Socratic Arche as an element that means comprehensive matter which is nothing itself, but everything is combination of it and even considers that as substance and the other things as accident. He interprets the distinction of Arche and other things on the basis of this contrast in his philosophy. Aristotle, also analyzes pre-Socratics' viewpoint to change on the base of his distinction among change, genesis and corruption. All these cases show that Aristotle has interpreted the pre-Socratics on the basis of his thought, as Aristotelians. On this basis, since Aristotle's thoughts are the first and the most important sources of pre-Socratic philosophy, Aristotle's role should be considered in studies.

  1. Aristotle and Aquinas on the Teleology of Parts and Wholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F.J. Martin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle, in the first book of the Nicomachean Ethics, makes two attempts at establishing the thesis that being a human being has a point (a telos, using two parallel sets of examples. His first step is to claim that whenever anything has a characteristic activity (ergon that activity is its end (telos, using the example of “the flute-player, the sculptor, and in general any craftsman”. This identification of the characteristic activity of a craftsman with the location of his “good and well”, qua craftsman, and thus presumably with the telos of the craftsman may be questioned, of course, but it does not affect the course of the arguments and the use of the examples I wish to pursue. It is enough that for given roles there should be a teleological relation to some point for that role.

  2. Aristotle on Sentence Types and Forms of Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Bolonyai

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the Hermeneutics, Ch. 4, the analysis of non-assertoric sentences such as wishes, commands, etc. belongs to rhetoric or poetics. They are, however, examined neither in the Rhetoric nor in the Poetics, where (Ch. 20 their treatment. is explicitly excluded from the art of poetry and referred to that of delivery or performance. The paper gives an explanation for this discrepancy, based on an interpretation of Aristotle's rejection of Protagoras' criticism of Homer. The sophist found fault with the first line of the Iliad where Homer invokes the Muse by the imperative Menin aeide, thea thus uttering a command while believing that he is expressing a prayer. Aristotle's grounds for rejecting this criticism remain implicit, but it appears very likely that he thought that, if uttered or performed in the right manner, the sentence could he taken as a prayer. From this observation, which is certainly valid in this particular case, he drew the conclusion that performative or vocal features in themselves, i.e. rhythm, intonation and volume of sound, are always sufficient to identify particular „figures of speech“, as he calls non-assertoric sentence types in the Poetics. This conclusion is, however, not entirely justified. Performative features are not always enough to differentiate between two `figures of speech'; the possible range of verbal moods and sentence types is likewise determined by morphological marks (e.g. mood signs, syntactical features (word-order, and lexical items (certain adverbs or particles. Aristotle’s decision to dismiss figures of speech altogether from the field of lexis may also have contributed to the later development of keeping linguistics and theory of style apart as two separate branches of inquiry.

  3. Aristotelian pre-Socratics, A glance at Aristotle's Narrative from pre-Socratics

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Qavam Safari; M.B Ghomi

    2015-01-01

    In this article, it's tried to study Aristotle's narrative of  pre-Socratics on the base of Aristotle's texts and mainly using  metaphysics, physics, genesis and decadence books. It is also tried to show how Aristotle has interpreted all the pre-Socratics in one way and on the base of his own philosophy framework. He interprets pre-Socratic Arche as an element that means comprehensive matter which is nothing itself, but everything is combination of it and even considers that as substance and ...

  4. The role of the poet in Plato's ideal cities of Callipolis and Magnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Naddaf

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Plato's attitude toward the poets and poetry has always been a flashpoint of debate, controversy and notoriety, but most scholars have failed to see their central role in the ideal cities of the Republic and the Laws, that is, Callipolis and Magnesia. In this paper, I argue that in neither dialogue does Plato "exile" the poets, but, instead, believes they must, like all citizens, exercise the expertise proper to their profession, allowing them the right to become full-fledged participants in the productive class. Moreover, attention to certain details reveals that Plato harnesses both positive and negative factors in poetry to bring his ideal cities closer to a practical realization. The status of the poet and his craft in this context has rarely to my knowledge been addressed.

  5. Platón ako Pseudo-Sókratés? Niekoľko poznámok k problematike autorstva filozofického textu v antike ( “Plato as Pseudo-Socrates? Some Remarks on the Problems Related to the Autorship of a Philosophical Text in Antiquity“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Škvrnda ml.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper deals with the problematic category of authorship in ancient philosophical literature. Philosophers are divided into two groups: the first consist of non-writing protagonists (e. g. Socrates, Ammonius of Saccas, while the second category includes writing authors (e. g. Plato, Aristotle. Paper argues that with regard to their „historicity“, between these two groups of philosophers is no substantial difference. Philosophical texts were often written in co-authorship. Many students and later adherents passed their own doctrines off as teacherʼs originals. Moreover, due to the fact that the very texts were transcribed countless times, there is no certainty about original phrasing of the documents that came down to our modern or renaissance era. The „historicity“ of philosophersʼ attitudes and ideas therefore can not be deduced from the existence of authorized text, written by some particular author.

  6. Plato's Critique of Rhetoric in the "Gorgias" (447a-466a): Epistemology, Methodology, and the Lyotardian Differend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComiskey, Bruce

    The uncritical acceptance of Plato's treatment of sophistic doctrines (specifically in Plato's dialogue the "Gorgias") in the university has resulted in an impoverished contemporary view of sophistic rhetoric. Since Socrates' foundational epistemology allows for the knowledge of immutable truth and Gorgias' relativistic epistemology does…

  7. Purification through Emotions: The Role of Shame in Plato's "Sophist" 230B4-E5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candiotto, Laura

    2018-01-01

    This article proposes an analysis of Plato's "Sophist" (230b4--e5) that underlines the bond between the logical and the emotional components of the Socratic "elenchus", with the aim of depicting the social valence of this philosophical practice. The use of emotions characterizing the 'elenctic' method described by Plato is…

  8. The Figures of Speech, "Ethos," and Aristotle: Notes toward a Rhetoric of Business Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallendorf, Craig; Kallendorf, Carol

    1985-01-01

    Demonstrates that business writers rely far more heavily than expected on classical figures of speech. Uses Aristotle's "Rhetoric" to show that figures of speech offer a powerful tool for the persuasive function of modern business communication. (PD)

  9. Nursing Philosophy 2016, response to Peter Allmark's article, "Aristotle for Nursing".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Beverly J B

    2017-10-01

    Preparing to lecture on Aristotle's contribution to Nursing at the International Philosophy of Nursing Conference August 22, 2016, in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, I came upon the recently published article by my IPONS colleague, Allmark (2016), "Aristotle for Nursing." Allmark (2016) provides a comprehensive and understandable overview of Aristotle's philosophical system including the substantial nature of being and the four causes of change. Nurses using Aristotle to support practice and theoretical research will benefit from a careful reading of Allmark to enrich their use of the realist understanding of knowledge of nature (epistemology) and the matter-form causal relationships within natural being (ontology and teleology). Allmark carefully displays the distinction between good health and flourishing; a distinction sometimes hard to grasp. Nurses are concerned with the end of health, but cannot achieve for others, the fullness of living which is flourishing. We will limit ourselves to expanding three areas that seem important, first, that nursing is much more than a productive science or craft, second, that Aristotle does provide an important note on the persistence of the soul, and, third, while Aristotle does not address the possibility of a personal creative highest being as Allmark says, his references to the divine are worth considering. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. ARISTOTLE AND THE ECONOMY WITHIN THE BOUNDS OF PRACTICAL REASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATTHIAS VOLLET

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Comparada con la economía de hoy, la de la Grecia antigua —por lo menos en una de sus concepciones— era una economía limitada. Exteriormente,porque en Hesíodo sirve para el sustento de la casa, y en Aristóteles para el sustento de la ciudad; interiormente y de manera sistemática, en el primer caso, por su origen divino y su sentido dentro de la relación hombre-dioses, y en el segundo caso, por su subordinación a la teleología ética y política de la vida humana, tal y como la concibe Aristóteles. La autarquía, como límite de la economía, es doble. Por una parte, autarquía económica en sentido estricto, ya que la economía sólo ha de llegar hasta el punto de poder asegurar la supervivencia de la comunidad que es su sujeto. Pero, por otra, la autarquía, para Aristóteles, tiene sobre todo un sentido antropológico: el hombre más autárquico es el que practica aquello que, para su praxis, no necesita de otra cosa: esta praxis más alta es la de la razón, desarrollada en la Polis, que es su meta. Esta autarquía del ser razonable da sentido y también límite al buen actuar económico, que es una mera herramienta.Abstract: By contrast to the contemporary economy, Ancient Greece had a closed economy. In what follows I distinguish an outer and an inner perspective. The outer perspective is determined by the autarky of the household (Hesiod or of the city (Aristotle, which is the exclusive moral aim for economic activity. The inner perspective is determined by the moral implications of economic activity, founded in the gods (Hesiod or in practical human reason (Aristotle. Both of these perspectives limit the scope and range of an economy and of economic influence on society. The distinction between the persepcectives gives us the basis for another distinction explicitly stated in Aristotle’s Politics. That distinction has influenced economic thought for several centuries and consistsin distinguishing two forms of

  11. ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes in the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armstrong, Paul W; Siha, Hany; Fu, Yuling

    2012-01-01

    Ticagrelor, when compared with clopidogrel, reduced the 12-month risk of vascular death/myocardial infarction and stroke in patients with ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes intended to undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO...

  12. Genesis 2–3 and Alcibiades's speech in Plato's Symposium : A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genesis 2–3 and Alcibiades's speech in Plato's Symposium : A cultural critical reading. ... Abstract. The purpose of this article is to discuss some basic problems and methodological steps concerning the encounter between Hebrews and Greeks in the Classical period and its impact on the Hellenistic era. The relationship ...

  13. Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A Morpho-Logic of Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses two well-known texts that respectively describe learning and teaching, drawn from the work of Freud and Plato. These texts are considered in psychoanalytic terms using a methodology drawn from the philosophy of Luce Irigaray. In particular the article addresses Irigaray's approach to the analysis of speech and utterance as a…

  14. From Plato to Erikson: How the War on "Bad Play" Has Impoverished Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    For centuries, the titans of educational reform--Plato, Rousseau, Dewey, Piaget, Erikson, Csikszentmihalyi and others--have championed the educational benefits of play. Yet many professors and administrators are boggled by the idea of playing academic games in college. They instantly dismiss faculty initiatives like "Reacting to the…

  15. The PLATO System: A Study in the Diffusion of an Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Francis D.; Wolf, W. C., Jr.

    This study was designed to ascertain the relationships between the steps of a tool designed to link knowledge production and the needs of knowledge users (the Wolf-Welsh Linkage Methodology or WWLM) with milestones in the evolution of an innovative computer-assisted instructional system called PLATO (Programming Logic for Advanced Teaching…

  16. The Four Causes of ADHD: Aristotle in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Álvarez, Marino

    2017-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most well-established and at the same time controversial disorders to the extreme of being placed in doubt. In the first of two parts, the established position is critically reviewed, beginning with showing fallacious reasoning on which the diagnosis is based, lacking clinical proof. Similarly, a certain rhetoric and metaphysics in genetic and neurobiological research is highlighted, where, for example, a meager accumulation of data is offered as robust conclusions, and correlates and correlations as causes and bases. However, that may be, the controversy is silenced in a dialog of the deaf between "defenders" and "critics." with no way out in sight in empirical and scientific terms. A new meta-scientific position is necessary to analyze the science of ADHD itself and its social uses. In this respect, the second part introduces Aristotle's four causes, material, formal, efficient, final, as an instrument of enquiry. According to this analysis, ADHD is not the pretended clinical entity as presented, but a practical entity providing a variety of functions. The implications would be rather different from the usual.

  17. Patterns of Light Chasing the Spectrum from Aristotle to LEDs

    CERN Document Server

    Beeson, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Light is all around us – even when we do not see it. Our eyes do not detect the higher energy and shorter-than-visible-wavelength ultraviolet radiation, yet we know it is there from the sunburn we receive in Arizona. We know that window glass can block ultraviolet rays so we do not get a burn while driving with the windows rolled up. Our eyes do not detect the low-energy, long-wavelength infrared (IR) radiation but we know it exists from discussions of war applications and televised images of guided weapons targets. We also know about radio waves from the little boxes that talk to us and x-rays from the dentist's office. Patterns of Light, Chasing the Spectrum from Aristotle to LEDs, written by Steve Beeson and Jim Mayer starts with the visible – the straight path of light. It continues with chapters detailing reflection (mirrors, storefront windows) and refraction (eyeglasses, binoculars). Color is then introduced with the query "Why is the sky blue?" After answering that and other similar questions ("Wh...

  18. Riemann-Hypothesis Millennium-Problem(MP) Physics Proof via CATEGORY-SEMANTICS(C-S)/F =C Aristotle SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION(SoO) DEduction-LOGIC DichotomY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Joao-Joan; Lapidaryus, Michelle; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2013-03-01

    Riemann-hypothesis physics-proof combines: Siegel-Antono®-Smith[AMS Joint Mtg.(2002)- Abs.973-03-126] digits on-average statistics HIll[Am. J. Math 123, 3, 887(1996)] logarithm-function's (1,0)- xed-point base =units =scale-invariance proven Newcomb [Am. J. Math. 4, 39(1881)]-Weyl[Goett. Nachr.(1914); Math. Ann.7, 313(1916)]-Benford[Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 78, 4, 51(1938)]-law [Kac,Math. of Stat.-Reasoning(1955); Raimi, Sci. Am. 221, 109(1969)] algebraic-inversion to ONLY Bose-Einstein quantum-statistics(BEQS) with digit d = 0 gapFUL Bose-Einstein Condensation(BEC) insight that digits are quanta are bosons because bosons are and always were quanta are and always were digits, via Siegel-Baez category-semantics tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics in Plato-Aristotle classic ''square-of-opposition'' : FUZZYICS =CATEGORYICS/Category-Semantics, with Goodkind Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC) ABOVE ground-state with/and Rayleigh(cut-limit of ''short-cut method''1870)-Polya(1922)-''Anderson''(1958) localization [Doyle and Snell,Random-Walks and Electrical-Networks, MAA(1981)-p.99-100!!!] in Brillouin[Wave-Propagation in Periodic-Structures(1946) Dover(1922)]-Hubbard-Beeby[J.Phys.C(1967)] Siegel[J.Nonxline-Sol.40,453(1980)] generalized-disorder collective-boson negative-dispersion mode-softening universality-principle(G...P) first use of the ``square-of-opposition'' in physics since Plato and Aristote!!!

  19. Plato crater, first observative session: not any "hook" but a shark fin? (Italian Title: La 1° Campagna Osservativa del cratere Plato: non un "uncino" ma una "pinna di squalo"?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercatali, A.

    2018-01-01

    On 1st March 2012 an observative session of Moon's Plato crater was made. The purpose of these observations was to check the presence of one shadow with "hook" form at the inner of Plato crater already reported by H. Percy Wilkins, 3th April 21:30 UT, 1952. The results obtained by us have not shown any shadow with an hook form, but a shadow like a shark fin.

  20. Good and Bad: Love and Intimacy From Plato to Melanie Klein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, David

    2018-06-01

    Melanie Klein's theories on love outline a complex system of relations-an oscillating dynamic of psychical and emotional tendencies following from both actual experience and fantasies produced by the mind. Her insights are often discussed and applied in psychoanalytical contexts, but the philosophical implications of her theory-especially in relation to Platonic thought-have rarely been discussed. In this article, I will attempt to address this gap by setting out some preliminary yet core considerations shared by both Plato and Klein. First, I will describe some structural parallels between Kleinian and Platonic thought, especially in dialectical terms. Second, I will outline Plato's covert influence on Freud as passing through the teachings of philosopher Franz Brentano. And last, I will discuss intimacy as a struggle between the forces of good and bad, creativity and destruction, and love and hate-suggesting that Klein's conception of love emerges as a moral exigency.

  1. One aspect of the methodology of cognition in Plato and Dionysius the Areopagite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseev, Petr

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Petr Moiseev (Perm State Institute of Arts and Cultureshows how the concept of ascension to truth, first formulated by Plato, was later reworked and reevaluated in new cognitive context by such later thinkers, as Plutarch, Iamblichus and, finally, Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite. Special attention is given to the concept of knowledge beyond human cognition and the role symbolism played in the process of its development.

  2. Los platos de los peces y el más allá

    OpenAIRE

    Aranegui Gascó, Carmen

    1996-01-01

    - Interpretación de la decoración de los platos de peces ibéticos como expresión de una determinada concepción del orden del universo y del tránsito a la otra vida. Flores, estrellas y espirales son la expresion de los tres elementos, mientras que el pez muestra el camino hacia el más allá.

  3. [History and reception of the translations of Plato's Dialogues by Antoni Bronikowski].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mróz, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the history of translations of Plato's dialogues as made by A. Bronikowski (1817-1884), their assessment formulated by the contemporary for the translator recipients and today's opinions on them. Bronikowski began his translation work on the legacy of Plato in the '50s of the 19th century and carried them out systematically, despite the many adversities, until his death. The article presents the most important criticisms of the reviewers of Bronikowski's translations, which focused on the flaws of his style. The critics pointed out numerous shortcomings, archaisms, which hindered and prevented smooth reading of the text by readers unfamiliar with the language of the original. Most of the criticisms came from the Warsaw environment, especially from K. Kozłowski, the son of the first Polish translator of Plato, FA. Kozłowski. Among the defenders of Bronikowski there were K. Libelt and J.I. Kraszewski. They raised the subject of difficulty which the translator had to deal with and the lack of literary taste of the audience. It seems that both parties were partially right. Bronikowski's text was indeed not suitable for smooth reading in many places, however, it could serve as a useful tool for students who acquainted themselves with the Greek originals of the dialogues.

  4. 76 FR 37290 - Children's Online Privacy Protection Rule; Aristotle International, Inc.'s Application for Safe...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... #0;notices is to give interested persons an opportunity to participate in #0;the rule making prior to..., formulas, patterns, devices, manufacturing processes, or customer names. If you want the Commission to give.../ftc/aristotle , by following the instructions on the Web-based form. If you prefer to file your...

  5. The "Physically Educated" Person: Physical Education in the Philosophy of Reid, Peters and Aristotle

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAllister, James

    2013-01-01

    This article will derive a definition and account of the physically educated person, through an examination of the philosophy of Andrew Reid, Richard Peters and Aristotle. Initially, Reid's interpretation of Peters' views about the educational significance of practical knowledge (and physical education) will be considered. While it will…

  6. Difference between the Approach of Aristotle and Avicenna in Proof of the Existence of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saeedimehr

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparing between approach of Aristotle and Avicenna in proof of the existence of God, is a sign of basic difference between Peripatetic idea of Aristotle and Avicenna, also the different way that has been gone in the Muslim world compared to the west, in proof of the existence of God.   Aristotle in “Philosophies”, has been mentioned to the two arguments: "degrees of perfection argument" and "teleological argument", but his main argument on the existence of God, is “the argument from motion” that has explained details of it in the Lambda Book of Metaphysics and Physics. Each of the three above arguments has a cosmological approach and is categorized as the posteriori arguments.   For Avicenna, acceptance of that Aristotle had wanted to prove the existence of God by natural things, such as world motion, is very hard. According to this thinking, he focused all his efforts on not using the cosmological arguments to prove the existence of God. Avicenna used “the proof of middle and the end” and “the proof from contingency and necessity” in several of his books and his latest exposition of the proof from contingency and necessity has named “proof of the truthful”. His argument is ontological and priori too.

  7. Difference between the Approach of Aristotle and Avicenna in Proof of the Existence of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Tayebnia, M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparing between approach of Aristotle and Avicenna in proof of the existence of God, is a sign of basic difference between Peripatetic idea of Aristotle and Avicenna, also the different way that has been gone in the Muslim world compared to the west, in proof of the existence of God.Aristotle in “On Philosophies”, has been mentioned to the two arguments: "degrees of perfection argument" and "teleological argument", but his main argument on the existence of God, is “the argument from motion” that has explained details of it in the Lambda Book of Metaphysics and Physics. Each of the three above arguments has a cosmological approach and is categorized as the posteriori arguments.For Avicenna, acceptance of that Aristotle had wanted to prove the existence of God by natural things, such as world motion, is very hard. According to this thinking, he focused all his efforts on not using the cosmological arguments to prove the existence of God. Avicenna used “the proof of middle and the end” and “the proof from contingency and necessity” in several of his books and his latest exposition of the proof from contingency and necessity has named “proof of the truthful”. His argument is ontological and priori too

  8. Difference between the Approach of Aristotle and Avicenna in Proof of the Existence of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadsaleh Tayebnia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available   Comparing between approach of Aristotle and Avicenna in proof of the existence of God, is a sign of basic difference between Peripatetic idea of Aristotle and Avicenna, also the different way that has been gone in the Muslim world compared to the west, in proof of the existence of God.   Aristotle in “Philosophies”, has been mentioned to the two arguments: "degrees of perfection argument" and "teleological argument", but his main argument on the existence of God, is “the argument from motion” that has explained details of it in the Lambda Book of Metaphysics and Physics. Each of the three above arguments has a cosmological approach and is categorized as the posteriori arguments.   For Avicenna, acceptance of that Aristotle had wanted to prove the existence of God by natural things, such as world motion, is very hard. According to this thinking, he focused all his efforts on not using the cosmological arguments to prove the existence of God. Avicenna used “the proof of middle and the end” and “the proof from contingency and necessity” in several of his books and his latest exposition of the proof from contingency and necessity has named “proof of the truthful”. His argument is ontological and priori too.

  9. Rhetoric and Truth: A Note on Aristotle, Rhetoric 1355a 21-24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, William M. A.

    1978-01-01

    A passage from Aristotle is discussed and interpreted. Rhetoric represents truth and justice in any situation for the auditor through the use of language. The usefulness of rhetoric lies in its ability to assure an adequate and competent articulation of truth and justice. (JF)

  10. Aristotle's Rhetoric, Hitler's Program, and the Ideological Problem of Praxis, Power, and Professional Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Steven B.

    1993-01-01

    Examines Hitler's use of propaganda to construct praxis and define phronesis in Nazi Germany in terms of the rational but open-ended nature of Aristotle's political-ethical thought. Examines the failure of professional discourse surrounding the siting of a low-level nuclear waste facility to create a persuasive reality and yet ideologically…

  11. Using Hip-Hop Music and Music Videos to Teach Aristotle's Three Proofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciullo, Nick J.

    2014-01-01

    Aristotle's three proofs remain central to students' understanding of argumentation and persuasion. They are fundamental for those just beginning rhetorical study, as well as being of interest to experienced scholars. Investing time in learning the proofs supports students' future practice and study of rhetoric. Unfortunately, the…

  12. Apixaban vs. warfarin with concomitant aspirin in patients with atrial fibrillation: insights from the ARISTOTLE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, J.H.; Lopes, R.D.; Thomas, L.; Alings, M.; Atar, D.; Aylward, P.; Goto, S.; Hanna, M.; Huber, K.; Husted, S.; Lewis, B.S.; McMurray, J.J.; Pais, P.; Pouleur, H.; Steg, P.G.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Wojdyla, D.M.; Granger, C.B.; Wallentin, L.

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: We assessed the effect of concomitant aspirin use on the efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS AND RESULTS: In ARISTOTLE, 18 201 patients were randomized to apixaban 5 mg twice daily or warfarin. Concomitant aspirin use was

  13. LAS CRÍTICAS DE ARISTÓTELES A PLATÓN EN METAFÍSICA I, 9 ARISTOTLE’S CRITICISMS OF PLATO IN METAPHYSICS I, 9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Gabriela Di Camillo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    O recurso à exposição crítica das doutrinas anteriores é um procedimento metodológico usual em Aristóteles. Mas a característica distintiva do Livro I da Metafísica é que, ao invés de estabelecer uma nova doutrina, o exame dos predecessores serve para confirmar os próprios conceitos aristotélicos, os quais ele usa para avaliar os êxitos e os erros das doutrinas analisadas. Essa imposição de conceitos próprios lhe valeu a acusação de ter uma compreensão histórica distorcida. Com a análise detalhada das críticas da teoria platônica das Idéias na Metafísica I, 9, pretendemos mostrar: a que as críticas de manipulação e distorção das opiniões dos seus antecessores ofuscam o grau em que as suas próprias posições emergem de uma análise crítica do pensamento anterior; e b que a imposição de conceitos próprios não é uma distorção, mas uma proposta de solução para os problemas que as teorias anteriores deixaram sem solução.

    The use of critical exposition of previous doctrines is a methodological procedure usual in Aristotle. But the distinctive characteristic of Book I of the Metaphysics is that, rather than to establish a new doctrine, a review of  predecessors serves to confirm the own concepts to be used in the evaluation of the doctrines examined. This imposition of own terms has cost him the charge of distorting historical understanding. With the detailed analysis of the criticisms of Plato's theory of Ideas in Metaphysics I, 9, we intend to show a that the criticism of manipulation and distortion of his predecessors' views overshadow the degree to which Aristotle's own positions emerge from a critical review of previous thought and b that the

  14. The role of the poet in Plato's ideal cities of Callipolis and Magnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Naddaf

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Plato's attitude toward the poets and poetry has always been a flashpoint of debate, controversy and notoriety, but most scholars have failed to see their central role in the ideal cities of the Republic and the Laws, that is, Callipolis and Magnesia. In this paper, I argue that in neither dialogue does Plato "exile" the poets, but, instead, believes they must, like all citizens, exercise the expertise proper to their profession, allowing them the right to become full-fledged participants in the productive class. Moreover, attention to certain details reveals that Plato harnesses both positive and negative factors in poetry to bring his ideal cities closer to a practical realization. The status of the poet and his craft in this context has rarely to my knowledge been addressed.A atitude de Platão com relação aos poetas e à poesia tem sempre sido um ponto de debate, controvérsia e notoriedade, mas a maioria dos estudiosos não consegue ver seu papel central nas cidades ideais da República e das Leis, ou seja, Callipolis e Magnésia. Neste artigo, defendo que em nenhum dos dois diálogos Platão exila os poetas, mas, ao contrário, acredita que eles devem, como todos os cidadãos, exercitar a competência própria à sua profissão, permitindo-lhes o direito de se tornarem participantes com todos os direitos da classe produtora. Principalmente, se prestarmos a atenção devida em certos detalhes, veremos que Platão controla tanto os fatores positivos, como os negativos na poesia, para aproximar mais suas cidades ideais da realização prática. A meu ver, o estatuto do poeta e de sua habilidade, nesse contexto, foram raramente estudados.

  15. On-ground and in-orbit characterisation plan for the PLATO CCD normal cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, J. P. D.; Walton, D.; Smith, A.; Hailey, M.; Curry, P.; Kennedy, T.

    2017-11-01

    PLAnetary Transits and Ocillations (PLATO) is the third European Space Agency (ESA) medium class mission in ESA's cosmic vision programme due for launch in 2026. PLATO will carry out high precision un-interrupted photometric monitoring in the visible band of large samples of bright solar-type stars. The primary mission goal is to detect and characterise terrestrial exoplanets and their systems with emphasis on planets orbiting in the habitable zone, this will be achieved using light curves to detect planetary transits. PLATO uses a novel multi- instrument concept consisting of 26 small wide field cameras The 26 cameras are made up of a telescope optical unit, four Teledyne e2v CCD270s mounted on a focal plane array and connected to a set of Front End Electronics (FEE) which provide CCD control and readout. There are 2 fast cameras with high read-out cadence (2.5 s) for magnitude ~ 4-8 stars, being developed by the German Aerospace Centre and 24 normal (N) cameras with a cadence of 25 s to monitor stars with a magnitude greater than 8. The N-FEEs are being developed at University College London's Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL) and will be characterised along with the associated CCDs. The CCDs and N-FEEs will undergo rigorous on-ground characterisation and the performance of the CCDs will continue to be monitored in-orbit. This paper discusses the initial development of the experimental arrangement, test procedures and current status of the N-FEE. The parameters explored will include gain, quantum efficiency, pixel response non-uniformity, dark current and Charge Transfer Inefficiency (CTI). The current in-orbit characterisation plan is also discussed which will enable the performance of the CCDs and their associated N-FEE to be monitored during the mission, this will include measurements of CTI giving an indication of the impact of radiation damage in the CCDs.

  16. Dialectic of Eros and Myth of the Soul in Plato's Phaedrus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jens Kristian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I question a widespread reading of a passage in the last part of the Phaedrus dealing with the science of dialectic. According to this reading, the passage announces a new method peculiar to the later Plato aiming at defining natural kinds. I show that the Phaedrus itself does not ...... not support such a reading. As an alternative reading, I suggest that the science of dialectic, as discussed in the passage, must be seen as dealing primarily with philosophical rhetoric and knowledge of human souls....

  17. Numbers Rule The Vexing Mathematics of Democracy, from Plato to the Present

    CERN Document Server

    Szpiro, George G

    2010-01-01

    Since the very birth of democracy in ancient Greece, the simple act of voting has given rise to mathematical paradoxes that have puzzled some of the greatest philosophers, statesmen, and mathematicians. Numbers Rule traces the epic quest by these thinkers to create a more perfect democracy and adapt to the ever-changing demands that each new generation places on our democratic institutions. In a sweeping narrative that combines history, biography, and mathematics, George Szpiro details the fascinating lives and big ideas of great minds such as Plato, Pliny the Younger, Ramon Llull, Pierre Simo

  18. [Plato's philosophy and the bioethical debate on the end of life: intersections in public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Schramm, Fermin Roland

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses bioethical aspects of medical futility, focusing on some of its intersections in public health. Starting from a demarcation of finitude in the core of the philosophical and bioethical debate on the end of life, we confront the contemporary criticism regarding medical futility with the ideas of Plato (427-347 B.C.), a philosopher who proposed significant considerations on numerous features of the medicine of his time. We thus explore novel theoretic references to guide the disputes related to this essential problem, the implications of which are decisive to health and life.

  19. Slovenian test case Vrbanski Plato aquifer in the EU HORIZON 2020 FREEWAT project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kopač

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Slovenian case study in the EU HORIZON 2020 FREEWAT project was Vrbanski Plato aquifer. Slovenia is divided into two river basin districts: the Danube and the North Adriatic. The Vrbanski Plato aquifer, which he presents both natural and artificial bank filtration from the river Drava, is a part of the Danube river basin district and is the most important water source for 14 municipalities in the northeastern part of Slovenia. We investigated the groundwatersurface water interaction between river Drava and the porous aquifer in the geological old riverbed and possible reduction of city impact. This site is the oldest managed artificial groundwater recharge with riverbank filtration and has more than thirty years of successful operation. It is something special, very abundant in a small space, independent of drought and climate changes, but vulnerable due to the impact of the city. Under the city there is watershed dividing, which is shifting with different water management condition and we would like to have the least possible impact of the city. For optimal water management we decided to use FREEWAT plug-in within QGIS platform. With new developed FREEWAT plug-in in project FREEWAT, we made steady-state and transient groundwater model for presenting this shift of the watershed dividing under the city and optimal water management for this area. The model was designed in a way that it identifies and describes all major aspects of the physical hydrogeological system and water management. During the running of a project, there was an accident with heating oil spillage in city area, right on the watershed dividing. So we oriented with the transient groundwater model as well on heating oil spillage and pumping with additional wells at the place of the accident to present successful rehabilitation and the importance of the managed groundwater recharge. Our experience with FREEWAT platform during the Vrbanski Plato aquifer case study was very

  20. The Relationship between Virtue and Happiness in Aristotle and Al-Fārābī’s Views

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Sabri; Seyed Mohammad Kazem Alavi

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the history, different schools including both descriptive and non-descriptive ones, have been concerned with revealing relationship between happiness and virtue. As the First and Second teachers, Aristotle and Al-Fārābī can be named as having very important roles in this sense. So, the main tenet of ethics for these two philosophers is happiness, which is mostly derived from virtue. Considering theories of these two philosophers, it became evident that Aristotle had significant eff...

  1. Aristotle in the medical works of Arnau de Vilanova (c. 1240-1311).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau Torras, Sergi

    2014-01-01

    Arnau de Vilanova, one of the most important physicians of the Latin Middle Ages, was familiar with the vast majority of Aristotle's works that had been translated into Latin. He used a wide range of them, such as the Organon--the introductory books on logic - and the natural philosophical books, which cover a different branches of knowledge. He used Aristotle as an authority, trying to reconcile him with the field of medicine as practiced in his time. In so going, he defined a new theoretical model of medicine by the standards of natural philosophy, while continuing to emphasize the boundaries between medicine and natural philosophy. This paper represents to a first attempt to investigate the Aristotelian quotations in the medical writings of Arnau de Vilanova.

  2. COMIC AGENTS: FROM A POETIC TO AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL PARADIGM OF COMEDY (ARISTOTLE AND ALFRED GELL)

    OpenAIRE

    ANNA KAWALEC

    2016-01-01

    Aristotle was concerned with the comedy genre as a kind of poetry. Its creators, the comic poets, interested him only marginally. This genological approach to its subject-matter dominated the theory and philosophy of art for subsequent centuries as evidenced by the subsequent elaborations of interpretations of Aristotle’s catharsis. The alternative approach focused instead on subjects as creators of art. As a consequence of the long-term development of anthropocentrism in the humanities...

  3. Hot heads and cold brains. Aristotle, Galen and the "radiator theory".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, O

    1996-01-01

    The Author examines two similar theories about the functioning of human brain as a refrigerator: Falk's and Fialkowski's (1990) and Aristotle's (IVth century b.C.). There are surprising, although fortuitous, convergences between the two, with the remarkable difference, however, that Artistotle's doctrine (later severely criticized by Galen) thinks of the brain merely as an organ for the cooling of the body's (the heart's) heat, while according to the modern radiator theory the human brain developed starting as a refrigerator of itself.

  4. Education and the doctrine of the Mean in Aristotle and in Confucius

    OpenAIRE

    Panos ELIOPOULOS

    2014-01-01

    Aristotle and Confucius elaborate their theories on the basis of a complex apprehen - sion of the ethical and political problem as one. The Greek and the Chinese philosopher focus on the importance of virtue, which signifies a passage from an initial understanding of communal life to a life with others that becomes self-fulfilling and facilitates self improvement and excellence. The individual goal is the same as the collective goal; this becomes the foundation o...

  5. Social developmnet of ecologically sensitive rural areas: Case studies of the Moravian Karst (Czech Republic) and the Devetashko Plato (Bulgaria)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletalová, Jana; Stefanová, D.; Vaishar, Antonín; Stefanov, P.; Dvořák, Petr; Tcherkezova, E.

    3-4, 3-4 (2016), s. 65-84 ISSN 0204-7209 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : social development * rural sensitive areas * Devetashko Plato * Bulgaria * Moravian karst - Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Cultural and economic geography http://geoproblems.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/2016_34/4_zapletalova.pdf

  6. Three Aspects of PLATO Use at Chanute AFB: CBE Production Techniques, Computer-Aided Management, Formative Development of CBE Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klecka, Joseph A.

    This report describes various aspects of lesson production and use of the PLATO system at Chanute Air Force Base. The first chapter considers four major factors influencing lesson production: (1) implementation of the "lean approach," (2) the Instructional Systems Development (ISD) role in lesson production, (3) the transfer of…

  7. Synergies Between the Kepler, K2 and TESS Missions with the PLATO Mission (Revised)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jon M.

    2017-01-01

    Two transit survey missions will have been flown by NASA prior to the launch of ESA's PLATO Mission in 2026, laying the groundwork for exoplanet discovery via the transit method. The Kepler Mission, which launched in 2009, collected data on its 100+ square degree field of view for four years before failure of a reaction wheel ended its primary mission. The results from Kepler include 2300+ confirmed or validated exoplanets, 2200+ planetary candidates, 2100+ eclipsing binaries. Kepler also revolutionized the field of asteroseismology by measuring the pressure mode oscillations of over 15000 solar-like stars spanning the lifecycle of such stars from hydrogen-burning dwarfs to helium-burning red giants. The re-purposed Kepler Mission, dubbed K2, continues to observe fields of view in and near the ecliptic plane for 80 days each, significantly broadening the scope of the astrophysical investigations as well as discovering an additional 156 exoplanets to date. The TESS mission will launch in 2017 to conduct an all-sky survey for small exoplanets orbiting stars 10X closer and 100X brighter than Kepler exoplanet host stars, allowing for far greater follow-up and characterization of their masses as well as their sizes for at least 50 small planets. Future assets such as James Webb Space Telescope, and ground-based assets such as ESOs Very Large Telescope (VLT) array, the Exremely Large Telescope (ELT), and the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be able to characterize the atmospheric composition and properties of these small planets. TESS will observe each 24 X 96 field of view for 30 days and thereby cover first the southern and then the northern hemisphere over 13 pointings during each year of the primary mission. The pole-most camera will observe the James Webb continuous viewing zone for one year in each hemisphere, permitting much longer period planets to be detected in this region. The PLATO mission will seek to detect habitable Earth-like planets with an instrument

  8. PLATO: a computer code for the analysis of fission product plateout in HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katsuo; Morimoto, Toshio.

    1981-01-01

    The computer code PLATO for estimating plateout activities on surfaces of primary cooling system of HTGRs has been developed, and in this report, analytical model and digital calculation method incorporated in the code are described. The code utilizes the mass transfer model analogous to heat transfer coupled with an expression for adsorption-desorption phenomenon, and is able to analyze plateout behaviours in a closed circuit, like a reactor cooling system, which is constructed from a various kind of components, as well as in an open-ended tube. With the code, fission product concentration in the coolant and plateout amount on the surfaces are calculated along the coolant stream, and total removal rate by the plateout process is also obtained. Comparison of the analytical results with the experimental results, including checks of the effects of some calculation conditions on the results, and preliminary analysis on the VHTR plant have been made. (author)

  9. Efficient methods for solving discrete topology design problems in the PLATO-N project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canh, Nam Nguyen; Stolpe, Mathias

    This paper considers the general multiple load structural topology design problems in the framework of the PLATO-N project. The problems involve a large number of discrete design variables and were modeled as a non-convex mixed 0–1 program. For the class of problems considered, a global...... optimization method based on the branch-and-cut concept was developed and implemented. In the method a large number of continuous relaxations were solved. We also present an algorithm for generating cuts to strengthen the quality of the relaxations. Several heuristics were also investigated to obtain efficient...... algorithms. The branch and cut method is used to solve benchmark examples which can be used to validate other methods and heuristics....

  10. Fuzzyics =CATEGORYICS =PRAGMATYICS (``Son of ``TRIZ''')/CATEGORY-SEMANTICS Cognition (fcp/csc) of Plato-Aristotle ``SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION''(SoO): Linguistics: Antonyms VS ``SYNONYMS'' VS Analogy/ Metaphor: Coarsest-Possible Topology: Shocks/High-Pressures Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Edward Plato Aristotle Archimedes Carl-Ludwig; Young, Frederic; Lewis, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    Siegel[MRS Fall-Mtgs,:Symp.Fractals(89)-5-papers!!!;Symp.Scaling(90)] FCP/CSC {aka SPD}(Tic-Tac-Toe-Matrix/Tabular List-Format) ``COMMON-FUNCTIONING-PRINCIPLE'' DI/TRI-CHOTOMY GENERIC ``INEVITABILITY_-WEB'' PURPOSEFUL PARSIMONY-of-DI/TRI-CHOTOMY STRATEGY REdiscovery of SoO automatically/optimality is in NON-list-format/matrix: DIMENSIONALITY-DOMINATION -INEVIT-ABILITY ROOT-CAUSE(RC) ULTIMATE-ORIGIN(UO): (level-0.-logic) DIMENSIONALITY (level-0. logic): [dst = ODD-Z] {Dst=FRACTAL-UNcertainty FLUCTUATIONS} (dst = EVEN-Z): CAUSES: (level- I.-logic): EXTENT/SCALE/RADIUS: (relative)-[LOCALITY] (relative)-(...GLOBALITY...) & (level-II.-logic): POWER-SPECTRUM{noise ≅generalized-susceptibility}: [``l''/ω0-White] (...-``l''/ω 1 . 000 . . . - HYPERBOLICITY...) & (level-III.-logic) CRITICAL-EXPONENT:n =0 n = 1.000... ; BUT ALL 3 ALSO CAUSED BY ANOTHER INdependent RCUO (level-IV.-logic):

  11. P ≠NP Millenium-Problem(MP) TRIVIAL Physics Proof Via NATURAL TRUMPS Artificial-``Intelligence'' Via: Euclid Geometry, Plato Forms, Aristotle Square-of-Opposition, Menger Dimension-Theory Connections!!! NO Computational-Complexity(CC)/ANYthing!!!: Geometry!!!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, London; Menger, Karl; Rota, Gian-Carlo; Euclid, Alexandria; Siegel, Edward

    P ≠NP MP proof is by computer-''science''/SEANCE(!!!)(CS) computational-''intelligence'' lingo jargonial-obfuscation(JO) NATURAL-Intelligence(NI) DISambiguation! CS P =(?) =NP MEANS (Deterministic)(PC) = (?) =(Non-D)(PC) i.e. D(P) =(?) = N(P). For inclusion(equality) vs. exclusion (inequality) irrelevant (P) simply cancels!!! (Equally any/all other CCs IF both sides identical). Crucial question left: (D) =(?) =(ND), i.e. D =(?) = N. Algorithmics[Sipser[Intro. Thy.Comp.(`97)-p.49Fig.1.15!!!

  12. Irreconcilable demands: friendship and the question of the political in Aristotle, Kant and Schmitt

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Blair

    2017-01-01

    This thesis takes issue with the politics and ethics of friendship vis-à-vis the Western philosophic tradition, in particular, the work of Aristotle, Immanuel Kant and Carl Schmitt in the aftermath of Jacques Derrida’s study Politics of Friendship (Politiques de l’amitié). I consider the relation between philosophy, politics, ethics and friendship and ask in what ways we can use the topic of friendship as grounds for rethinking the demands of ethical responsibility and calls for new politica...

  13. Comments on three-dimensional modeling in ancient greek and roman architecture: Herodotus, Aristotle and Vitruvius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Rozestraten

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews Herodotus' and Aristotle's text's extracts refered on specific bibliography as proofs of the use of architectural scale models in greek ancient architect's design process. This review of the original texts reveals mistaken traductions over whom insustainable historical perspectives have been built. The historical documents review extends to the roman world and analizes Vitruvius' text's extracts. This study aims, by relating textual documents and objects gattered by archaeology, to build new interpretations on the subject of representation and design process in Antiquity.

  14. Emotions in aristotle: animic faculties in the formation of opinions and judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Garcés Giraldo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Emotions for Aristotle are emotional faculties in human beings, which can generate susceptibility and cause at some point that judgments be changed and other types of impressions be generated; they are accompanied by pleasure and pain, depending on the moods (that are present at the moment of feeling some emotion. In this article, in addition to developing a reflection on emotions from the Stagirita, there are described some of them and their opposites, which are the most common in all his writings, such as anger and calmness; love and hate; fear and trust; shame and shamelessness; compassion and indignation; and finally, envy and emulation.

  15. Simulation results for PLATO: a prototype hybrid X-ray photon counting detector with a low energy threshold for fusion plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, A.; Menouni, M.; Pangaud, P.; Morel, C.; Fenzi, C.; Colledani, G.; Moureau, G.; Escarguel, A.

    2017-01-01

    PLATO is a prototype hybrid X-ray photon counting detector that has been designed to meet the specifications for plasma diagnostics for the WEST tokamak platform (Tungsten (W) Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) in southern France, with potential perspectives for ITER. PLATO represents a customized solution that fulfills high sensitivity, low dispersion and high photon counting rate. The PLATO prototype matrix is composed of 16 × 18 pixels with a 70 μm pixel pitch. New techniques have been used in analog sensitive blocks to minimize noise coupling through supply rails and substrate, and to suppress threshold dispersion across the matrix. The PLATO ASIC is designed in CMOS 0.13 μm technology and was submitted for a fabrication run in June 2016. The chip is designed to be bump-bonded to a silicon sensor. This paper presents pixel architecture as well as simulation results while highlighting novel solutions.

  16. Comparative Study of the Concept of Space in Aristotle, Descartes and Heidegger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ safiyan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ''place'' depends on the modern understanding of Being. Today, we regard place simply as a mathematical and measurable space which contains things. Furthermore, we regard this concept as a self-evident concept, while this conception belongs to modern understanding of Being. Since in modern ages Being is understood as an object, place is only measurable space that, in the final analysis, is not separate of the things themselves. But, in the traditional pre-modern thought, for example in Aristotle, since Being means actuality and substance, in accordance to this concept place is the last level of the container of things. Place, for Aristotle, is a natural thing containing natural things but he does not think about it as a mere quantitative thing (as Descartes thinks so. Everything, according to its special nature, has natural place. Soil, water, air and fire, each one has its own special place. Heidegger, who believes that old and modern Metaphysical thought are based on neglecting the Truth of Being, criticizes traditional conception of place and tries to think about it according to the human beings Dasein, nearness and distance to Being and beings.

  17. Viewpoint: Central adjudication of myocardial infarction in outcome-driven clinical trials--common patterns in TRITON, RECORD, and PLATO?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebruany, Victor L; Atar, Dan

    2012-09-01

    Central adjudication in randomised controlled outcome-driven trials represents a traditional approach to maintain data integrity by applying uniformed rules for assessment of clinical events. It was the purpose of this investigation to determine the patterns of myocardial infarction (MI) adjudication in the TRITON, RECORD, and PLATO trials. We were matching centrally-adjudicated MI's (CAMI's) from the official trial publication with the site-reported MI (SRMI's) count from the Food and Drug Administration's secondary analyses for the investigational compounds prasugrel (TRITON), rosiglitazone (RECORD), and ticagrelor (PLATO). CAMI numbers showed a remarkable discrepancy to SRMI's by more than a doubling of the difference: from 72 to 145 events in TRITON favoring prasugrel (from a hazard ratio [HR]=0.76, p=0.08; to a HR=0.76, p<0.001), and from 44 to 89 events in favour of ticagrelor in PLATO (from a HR=0.94, p=0.095; to a HR=0.84, p<0.001). In contrast, in the RECORD trial, the CAMI count was less than the SRMI count (from 24 to 8 events, from a HR=1.42, p=0.93; to a HR=1.14, p=0.96), in this case diminishing cardiovascular hazards in favour of rosiglitazone. In conclusion, central adjudication in the TRITON, the RECORD, and the PLATO trial turned out to have a critical impact on study outcomes. Trial publications should in the future include site-reported major efficacy and safety endpoints to preserve data integrity. The regulatory authorities should consider independent audits when there is a major disagreement between centrally adjudicated and site reported events influencing the results of a major clinical trial.

  18. Plato (power load analysis tool) - a module of west wall monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjan, Sutapa; Travere, Jean-marcel; Moreau, P.

    2015-01-01

    The mandate of the WEST (W Environment for Steady-state Tokamak) project, is to upgrade the medium- sized superconducting Tokamak, Tore Supra in a major scale. One of it's objectives, is to also act as a test-bed for ITER divertor components, to be procured and used in ITER. WEST would be installing actively cooled Tungsten divertor elements, like the ones to be used in ITER. These components would be tested under two experimental scenarios: high power (Ip = 0.8MA, lasting 30s with 15MW injected power) and high fluence (Ip = 0.6 MA, lasting 1000s with 12 MW injected power). Heat load on the divertor target will range from a few MW/m 2 up to 20 MW/m 2 depending on the X point location and the heat flux decay length. The tungsten Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) are less tolerant to overheating than their Carbon counterparts and prevention of their burnout is a major concern. It is in this context that the Wall Monitoring System (WMS) - a software framework aimed at monitoring the health of the Wall components, was conceived. WMS has been divided into three parts: a) a pre-discharge power load analysis tool to check compatibility between plasma scenario and PFC's operational limits in terms of heat flux b) a real-time system during discharge, to take into account all necessary measurements involved in the PFCs protection c) a set of analysis tools that would be used post-discharge, that would access WEST database and compare predicted and experimental results. This paper presents an overview of PLATo - the pre-pulse module of WMS that has been recently developed under IPR-IRFM research collaboration. PLAto has two major components - one that produces heat flux information of the PFCS and the other that produces energy graphs depending on shot profile defined by time variant magnetic equilibrium and injected power profiles. Preliminary results will be presented based on foreseen WEST plasma reference scenarios. (author)

  19. Aristotle Reclaimed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, John; Sharp, Taylor

    2013-01-01

    Given that social media dominates informal and often formal communication routes, we argue that schools must reshape their attention to a fourth rhetorical dimension: the media through which they communicate. Specifically, schools must find ways to embrace social media as a mechanism to reach their broad audiences. This article identifies clear…

  20. From Pericles to Plato – from democratic political praxis to totalitarian political philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øjvind Larsen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Plato is normally taken as one of the founders of Western political philosophy, not at least with his Republic. Here, he constructs a hierarchy of forms of governments, beginning with aristocracy at the top as a critical standard for the other forms of governments, and proceeding through timocracy and oligarchy to democracy and tyranny at the bottom. Following Karl Popper, the paper argues that Plato’s is a totalitarian philosophy that emphasizes the similarities between democracy and tyranny, which it considers to be the two worst forms of government. Plato’s denigration of democracy has dominated the tradition of political philosophy until recent times. This paper, however, shows that political philosophy in fact originates in democracy, especially as developed by the sophists and that philosophy is only a form of sophism with a similar origin in ancient Greek democracy. A discussion of Pericles’ funeral oration is used to show that Pericles presented a democratic political philosophy that can serve as a counterpoint to Plato’s political philosophy in the Republic.

  1. Percutaneous coronary intervention and antiplatelet therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation receiving apixaban or warfarin: Insights from the ARISTOTLE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopin, D.; Jones, W.S.; Sherwood, M.W.; Wojdyla, D.M.; Wallentin, L.; Lewis, B.S.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Vinereanu, D.; Bahit, M.C.; Halvorsen, S.; Huber, K.; Parkhomenko, A.; Granger, C.B.; Lopes, R.D.; Alexander, J.H.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We assessed antiplatelet therapy use and outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during the ARISTOTLE trial. METHODS: Patients were categorized based on the occurrence of PCI during follow-up (median 1.8 years); PCI details and outcomes post-PCI are

  2. Srovnání Platónova a Aristotelova pojetí etiky ctnosti

    OpenAIRE

    TISCHLEROVÁ, Monika

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with the comparison of Plato and Aristotle's conception of virtue ethics. The first part describes Plato's view of this area of philosophy. Plato puts his ethics based on the analogy between the municipality and the soul. Plato also operates with good ideas. In the second part, Aristotle view. First, I discuss the objectives of its philosophy, which is good, and then bliss. Then there is the division of the moral virtues and intellectual. Then describe each of Aristotle's virt...

  3. COMIC AGENTS: FROM A POETIC TO AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL PARADIGM OF COMEDY (ARISTOTLE AND ALFRED GELL

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    ANNA KAWALEC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle was concerned with the comedy genre as a kind of poetry. Its creators, the comic poets, interested him only marginally. This genological approach to its subject-matter dominated the theory and philosophy of art for subsequent centuries as evidenced by the subsequent elaborations of interpretations of Aristotle’s catharsis. The alternative approach focused instead on subjects as creators of art. As a consequence of the long-term development of anthropocentrism in the humanities, however, this approach took over. The “ performative turn” represents its more recent version. It allows one to interpret Poetics and other classical works not in the context of an object (comedy, but in the context of the acting subject. I claim that social anthropology further explores the concept of comedy and itself presumes it in its conceptual foundations and research approach. I elaborate the argument on the basis of the concept of the “spirit of comedy” coined by Alfred Gell .

  4. From Aristotle to Schrödinger the curiosity of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Modinos, Antonis

    2014-01-01

    From Aristotle to Schrödinger: The Curiosity of Physics offers a novel introduction to the topics commonly encountered in the first two years of an undergraduate physics course, including classical mechanics, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, electromagnetism, relativity, quantum mechanics, atomic and molecular physics, and astrophysics. The book presents physics as it evolved historically; it covers in considerable depth the development of the subject from ancient Greece to the present day. Though the emphasis is on the observations, experiments, theories, and applications of physics, there are additionally short sections on the life and times of the main protagonists of physics. This book grew out of the author's long experience in giving undergraduate and graduate courses in classical physics and in quantum mechanics and its elementary applications. Although meant primarily for the student and teacher of physics, it will be of interest to other scientists and to historians of science, and to those...

  5. The Soul, the Virtues, and the Human Good: Comments on Aristotle's Moral Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathi Beier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In modern moral philosophy, virtue ethics has developed into one of the major approaches to ethical inquiry. As it seems, however, it is faced with a kind of perplexity similar to the one that Elisabeth Anscombe has described in Modern moral philosophy with regard to ethics in general. For if we assume that Anscombe is right in claiming that virtue ethics ought to be grounded in a sound philosophy of psychology, modern virtue ethics seems to be baseless since it lacks or even avoids reflections on the human soul. To overcome this difficulty, the paper explores the conceptual connections between virtue and soul in Aristotle's ethics. It claims that the human soul is the principle of virtue since reflections on the soul help us to define the nature of virtue, to understand the different kinds of virtues, and to answer the question why human beings need the virtues at all.

  6. FABLES IN THE AGORA: FROM ARISTOTLE TO THE CENTURY OF ENLIGHTENMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Seabra Neves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Having been long established in western poetic tradition as a short composition of ethical intent, usually performed by anthropomorphized animals and conveying a rule of behavior, the fable has represented, ever since its origins, a key strategy of persuasion at the service of orators seeking to convince and influence an audience. Originally defined as a rhetorical genre and inevitably mirroring social and historical mutations, the fable as well as the moralities inferred from it have played varying functions and accomplished different goals in the course of centuries, so as to accommodate changing communicative needs. In this article, we seek to provide a critical and diachronic survey of the resonance of classical rhetoric in the definition of fable as a genre and examine its literary manifestations from Aristotle to the Enlightenment.

  7. Amenable to reason: Aristotle's rhetoric and the moral psychology of practical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, A J

    2000-12-01

    An Aristotelian conception of practical ethics can be derived from the account of practical reasoning that Aristotle articulates in is Rhetoric and this has important implications for the way we understand the nature and limits of practical ethics. an important feature of this conception of practical ethics is its responsiveness to the complex ways in which agents form and maintain moral commitments, and this has important implications for the debate concerning methods of ethics in applied ethics. In particular, this feature enables us to understand casuistry, narrative, and principlism as mutually supportive modes of moral inquiry, rather than divergent and mutually exclusive methods of ethics. As a result, an Aristotelian conception of practical ethics clears the conceptual common ground upon which practical ethicists can forge a stable and realistic self-understanding.

  8. ABOUT ARISTOTLE'S PHILOSOPHY ON MIND È POSSIBILE UNA FILOSOFIA DELLA MENTE IN ARISTOTELE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Botter

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the three books of the De Anima Aristotle ranges over a diverse array of philosophical and scientific topics, such as the nature of life, self-movement, the senses, perception, imagination, thought, and the relation between mind and body. As a result, this work may seem to be a strange collection of only marginally related philosophical and biological topics given our modern sensibilities. Nonetheless it is united by Aristotle's basic concern for the nature and functioning of life in all its diverse forms. This inquiry offers modern readers significant insight into contemporary debates in the philosophy of mind.

    Nei tre libri del De Anima Aristotele presenta differenti argomenti di interesse filosofico e scientifico in relazione alla natura della vita, al movimento, ai sensi, alla percezione e immaginazione, al pensiero e alla relazione fra mente e corpo. De Anima sembra, pertanto, una accozzaglia di teorie filosofiche e biologiche che solo marginalmente potrebbero impressionare un ricercatore contemporaneo. Nondimeno, questa impressione è solo superficiale, in quanto l’unità dell’opera è fornita da una acuta analisi della natura dell’essere vivente e delle sue funzioni proprie. Lo studio di Aristotele si rivela, perciò, un contributo significativo nel moderno dibattito nella filosofia della mente.

  9. Dosimetric evaluation of PLATO and Oncentra treatment planning systems for High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy gynecological treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Hardev; De La Fuente Herman, Tania; Showalter, Barry; Thompson, Spencer J.; Syzek, Elizabeth J.; Herman, Terence; Ahmad, Salahuddin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peggy and Charles Stephenson Oklahoma Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States)

    2012-10-23

    This study compares the dosimetric differences in HDR brachytherapy treatment plans calculated with Nucletron's PLATO and Oncentra MasterPlan treatment planning systems (TPS). Ten patients (1 T1b, 1 T2a, 6 T2b, 2 T4) having cervical carcinoma, median age of 43.5 years (range, 34-79 years) treated with tandem and ring applicator in our institution were selected retrospectively for this study. For both Plato and Oncentra TPS, the same orthogonal films anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral were used to manually draw the prescription and anatomical points using definitions from the Manchester system and recommendations from the ICRU report 38. Data input for PLATO was done using a digitizer and Epson Expression 10000XL scanner was used for Oncentra where the points were selected on the images in the screen. The prescription doses for these patients were 30 Gy to points right A (RA) and left A (LA) delivered in 5 fractions with Ir-192 HDR source. Two arrangements: one dwell position and two dwell positions on the tandem were used for dose calculation. The doses to the patient points right B (RB) and left B (LB), and to the organs at risk (OAR), bladder and rectum for each patient were calculated. The mean dose and the mean percentage difference in dose calculated by the two treatment planning systems were compared. Paired t-tests were used for statistical analysis. No significant differences in mean RB, LB, bladder and rectum doses were found with p-values > 0.14. The mean percent difference of doses in RB, LB, bladder and rectum are found to be less than 2.2%, 1.8%, 1.3% and 2.2%, respectively. Dose calculations based on the two different treatment planning systems were found to be consistent and the treatment plans can be made with either system in our department without any concern.

  10. Love and/in psychoanalysis: a commentary on Lacan's reading of Plato's Symposium in Seminar VIII: Transference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bruce

    2015-02-01

    What is love and what part does it play in psychoanalysis? Where are the analyst and the analysand situated in relation to the roles defined as those of the "lover" and the "beloved"? Jacques Lacan explores these and other questions in his soon-to-be-published Seminar VIII: Transference by providing an extensive commentary on Plato's most famous dialogue on love, the Symposium. This paper outlines some of the major points about love that grow out of Lacan's reading of the dialogue and examines their relevance to the analytic setting. Can the analyst be characterized as a sort of modern-day Socrates?

  11. [Plato's conceptions of disorders of the soul (Ta peri psuchên nosêmata). Timaeus as the beginning of a dynamic and ethic psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godderis, J

    1998-01-01

    This contribution to the study of the evolution of fundamental concepts in psychiatry, and in particular of the interpretative models of mental disease, focuses on Plato's conceptions concerning the "disorders of the soul". Plato's "psychopathological" work suggests the decline of an hereditary conglomeration of interpretative arrangements of the irrational phenomena related to mental disease which, corresponding to the social needs of that time, had been united by the belief in myth and its therapeutic value. These archaic religious conceptions have most certainly been reversed by Plato, especially in his Timaeus, one of the three most influential of his dialogues. In a notable passage in this cosmological dialogue (86b ff.) Plato treats of those diseases of the soul which are caused by things physical, whether this be a "defective bodily constitution" or "faulty education". The diseases of the soul are thus no longer considered having a divine origin. Mental diseases to which man is unwittingly subject by defects in birth or education concern himself and his inner life and they cannot be dismissed with simplistic allegories. According to Plato they originate from a conflict, supported by a secret, hidden, irrational "self" that has its roots in the sôma, the rational "self" being only able to recuperate its total integrity if it manages, through self-discipline and knowledge, to check the somatic impulses, the folly of the body. Also, Plato offers a series of remedies to correct the undue influence of body on soul and soul on body, with a view to instituting a right balance and proportion between them. This, together with a stress on "care of the soul", particularly of the divine and immortal element, implicitly assumes that it is in man's power to apply the necessary remedies to himself and effect some sort of readjustment.

  12. The micro-fascism of Plato's good citizen: producing (dis)order through the construction of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Patrick; Holmes, Dave

    2007-04-01

    The human body has come to be seen as forever susceptible to both external and internal hazards, which in many circumstances require immediate, heroic, and expensive intervention. In response to this, there has been a shift from a treatment-based healthcare model to one of prevention wherein nurses play an integral role by identifying and assessing risks for individuals, communities, and populations. This paper uses Deborah Lupton's outline of the spectrum of risk and applies the theoretical works of Foucault and Plato to demonstrate the means by which nurses maintain social order by identifying and counselling risk takers. It also utilizes the work of Deleuze and Guattari to illustrate how Plato's framework for creating social order through the creation of the good citizen can be viewed as a micro-fascist system, which has been adopted wholeheartedly by preventative health professionals. The goal of this paper is to present an alternate understanding of risk to provide nurses and other healthcare professionals with a non-traditional appreciation of certain aspects of their practice as researchers and clinicians.

  13. The power of semen: Aristotle and some Galen’s fallacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Darovskikh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I try to demonstrate how critical empiricism and philosophical reasoning intertwine with each other and affected the development of medicine. It is a case study considering the problems of generation and semen in the writings of Aristotle and Galen via relationship between such concepts as matter, form, movement, change, causes and some others. The main question addressed in the paper is the reason of Galen’s return to Hippocratic paradigm of two-semina (male and female. I argue that the reason is two-fold: 1 Different philosophical reasoning and erroneous understanding of some aspects of Aristotle’s embryological model by Galen. 2 Empirical discoveries, which proved to be wrong. I demonstrate that Galen’s understanding of form/matter relationship, and his view on matter as an underling principle conditioned his understanding of the notion of physical change, that allowed him to speak about conception only as quantitative mixture between equal substrata. Finally, I show that Galen’s view on teleology and his limited understanding of formal/final vs efficient causes and their relationship forced him to claim the inadequacy of Aristotle’s biology and necessitated Galen to introduce emendations in definitions of seminal faculties of genders and reproductive fluids.

  14. Klugheit. Grundbegriff des Praktischen bei Aristoteles [Prudence.The Basic Concept of the Practical in Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthold Wald

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by recalling the most important understandings associated with the term prudence in the history of philosophy.Then it introduces the Aristotelian concept of prudence linked to practical truth—prudence seen in contrast to wisdom and knowledge of manufacturing. The article discusses various forms of rational knowledge associated with the right will, and proves the need of linking prudence to all the other ethical virtues based on moral principles. It emphasizes the problem of how to relate general principles to specific actions which involve particular goods. For resolving this problem, the article refers to Aristotle who sees the solution in political ethics which has a significant impact on individual behavior; consequently, good law and proper education are considered to be necessary conditions which allow to form the moral judgment skills for providing a morally good life. The article concludes with the claim that the proper field to capture the specificity of prudence includes the theory of human action and that of human morality.

  15. Available means: manifestations of Aristotle's three modes of rhetorical appeal in antinuclear fiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannix, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The abundance of sympathetic scientists, military men and clergymen in antinuclear fiction reflects a public perception that authorities speak most knowledgeably about an issue. Other antinuclear works employ characters with less traditional ethical appeals: nurturing women, vital youths, and even infallible computers. Antinuclear fiction uses enthymeme and example to reflect the history of the nuclear weapons debate. Some works attach the immorality of the weapons by examining the moral dilemmas of nuclear scientists. Others admit the permanence of the nuclear threat. By arousing emotions, fiction is capable of mobilizing its audience's active support for the ideas it presents. The principal emotions that various antinuclear works arouse highlight the close relationship between literature and rhetoric. The most dominant emotions, pity and fear, are the two Aristotle links to tragedy. Scorn, the principal emotion that Dr. Strangelove arouses - is the crucial emotion on which all satire depends. However, the other principal emotion in anti-nuclear fiction - hope - has principally a rhetorical function ensuring that the feelings the works provoke will be channeled constructively.

  16. Perceiving the moral dimension of practice: insights from Murdoch, Vetlesen, and Aristotle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, P Anne

    2006-07-01

    This paper situates the moral domain of practice within the context of a particular description of nursing practice - one that sees human interaction at the heart of that practice. Such a description fits not only with professional rhetoric but also with literature from patients and recent empirical work exploring the nature of nursing practice. Martha Levine in her 1977 description of ethics, within the context of nursing practice, indicated that what was important from an ethical perspective was how we interact with each other, with patients and colleagues, on a daily basis. What enables such interaction to display moral sensitivity, insight into patient need, and a focus on the good for the patient? Of relevance when answering this question is the empirical evidence indicating that professional socialization, as a nurse or a doctor, may dull the individual's moral sense. If this is the case, cognizance needs to be taken of such evidence when identifying theoretical approaches from mainstream ethics that may provide insight and value for nurse education. It is suggested that such insight and value can be gained from a consideration of the work of Aristotle, Murdoch, and Vetlesen.

  17. Why Did Socrates Deny That He Was a Teacher? Locating Socrates among the New Educators and the Traditional Education in Plato's "Apology of Socrates"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Avi I.

    2014-01-01

    Plato's "Apology of Socrates" contains a spirited account of Socrates' relationship with the city of Athens and its citizens. As Socrates stands on trial for corrupting the youth, surprisingly, he does not defend the substance and the methods of his teaching. Instead, he simply denies that he is a teacher. Many scholars have…

  18. The Case against the Arts from Plato to Tolstoy and Its Implications for Why and How the Arts Should Be Taught in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    From Plato onwards many of the great Western thinkers have explored the nature of the arts, their contribution to society and their role in education. This has often involved a discussion of the potentially negative impact of the arts. The recurring message has been that the arts can warp judgment, elevate emotion at the expense of reason,…

  19. A hipotética linguagem ideal de Platão Plato's hypothetical ideal language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Alves dos Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Para que um discurso sobre o espetáculo do mundo transcendente seja acolhido como totalidade inteligível e coerente, urge desvencilhar-se da arbitrariedade do domínio de trêmulos contornos do sensível, esfera de opiniões apenas. É o que propõe Platão, na esteira das reflexões dos primeiros pensadores: para suprir deficiências que causam a elisão da realidade e transformar a linguagem num veículo de intelecção autêntica dos conceitos essenciais de um pensar filosófico, ele a coloca no centro de uma especulação rigorosa. Tal como seus antecessores Heráclito e Parmênides, Platão revela logofilia ao empenhar-se na construção de uma nova estrutura discursiva, diferente daquela do homem comum, desencadeando no campo da Filosofia uma revolução que se tornara indispensável: elabora um modelo fundador - princípio de uma ordem permanente propedêutica à construção de uma linguagem formal e abstrata - referente a entes que os homens, na maioria, por si mesmos não conseguem visualizar. Somente nela poderá reverberar a verdade universal das Formas que, ao emprestarem seus nomes à infindável série dos particulares sensíveis, os clarifica e lhes confere significação. Com as teorias que a partir das Formas desenvolve e expõe nos Diálogos, o filósofo visa induzir o leitor a preparar-se para operar, metodicamente, a conversão de sua alma ao plano desses seres ideais, supra-sensíveis, e apreender, assim, a realidade que tudo fundamenta e torna cognoscível.For a discourse on the spectacle of the transcendental world to be received in its comprehensible and coherent totality, its needs to get rid of the arbitrariness of the dominion of tremulous shapes of the sensitive, which is merely the sphere of opinions. This is what Plato suggests, following the course of reflection of the first thinkers: in order to compensate the deficiencies that entail elision of reality and to transform language into a vehicle of authentic

  20. Clockwise rotation of the Santa Marta massif and simultaneous Paleogene to Neogene deformation of the Plato-San Jorge and Cesar-Ranchería basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Camilo; Guzman, Georgina; Bayona, German; Cardona, Agustin; Valencia, Victor; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2010-10-01

    A moderate amount of vertical-axis clockwise rotation of the Santa Marta massif (30°) explains as much as 115 km of extension (stretching of 1.75) along its trailing edge (Plato-San Jorge basin) and up to 56 km of simultaneous shortening with an angular shear of 0.57 along its leading edge (Perijá range). Extensional deformation is recorded in the 260 km-wide, fan-shaped Plato-San Jorge basin by a 2-8 km thick, shallowing-upward and almost entirely fine-grained, upper Eocene and younger sedimentary sequence. The simultaneous initiation of shortening in the Cesar-Ranchería basin is documented by Mesozoic strata placed on to lower Eocene syntectonic strata (Tabaco Formation and equivalents) along the northwest-verging, shallow dipping (9-12° to the southeast) and discrete Cerrejón thrust. First-order subsidence analysis in the Plato-San Jorge basin is consistent with crustal stretching values between 1.5 and 2, also predicted by the rigid-body rotation of the Santa Marta massif. The model predicts about 100 km of right-lateral displacement along the Oca fault and 45 km of left-lateral displacement along the Santa Marta-Bucaramanga fault. Clockwise rotation of a rigid Santa Marta massif, and simultaneous Paleogene opening of the Plato-San Jorge basin and emplacement of the Cerrejón thrust sheet would have resulted in the fragmentation of the Cordillera Central-Santa Marta massif province. New U/Pb ages (241 ± 3 Ma) on granitoid rocks from industry boreholes in the Plato-San Jorge basin confirm the presence of fragments of a now segmented, Late Permian to Early Triassic age, two-mica, granitic province that once spanned the Santa Marta massif to the northernmost Cordillera Central.

  1. Protecting the pipeline of science: openness, scientific methods and the lessons from ticagrelor and the PLATO trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Andrew J Stewart; Nijjer, Sukhjinder S; Francis, Darrel P

    2014-10-20

    Ticagrelor, a potent antiplatelet, has been shown to be beneficial in patients with acute coronary syndromes in a randomised controlled trial published in a highly ranked peer reviewed journal. Accordingly it has entered guidelines and has been approved for clinical use by authorities. However, there remains a controversy regarding aspects of the PLATO trial, which are not immediately apparent from the peer-reviewed publications. A number of publications have sought to highlight potential discrepancies, using data available in publicly published documents from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) leading to disagreement regarding the value of open science and data sharing. We reflect upon potential sources of bias present in even rigorously performed randomised controlled trials, on whether peer review can establish the presence of bias and the need to constantly challenge and question even accepted data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Infância e educação em Platão Childhood and education in Plato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Omar Kohan

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estuda, desde uma perspectiva filosófica, o conceito de infância em Platão, com ênfase nos seguintes diálogos: Alcibíades I, Górgias, A República e As Leis. Num primeiro momento, situamos a questão da infância no marco mais ampliado do projeto filosófico e político de Platão. A seguir, propomos quatro traços principais do conceito de infância em Platão: a como possibilidade (as crianças podem ser qualquer coisa no futuro; b como inferioridade (as crianças - como as mulheres, estrangeiros e escravos - são inferiores em relação ao homem adulto cidadão; c como superfluidade (a infância não é necessária à pólis; d como material da política (a utopia se constrói a partir da educação das crianças. Não há a pretensão de levar Platão a algum tribunal. Busca-se apenas delimitar um problema e uma forma específica de enfrentá-lo, com vistas a contribuir para a análise da produtividade dessa perspectiva na história da filosofia da infância e da educação ocidental, bem como nas atuais teorias e práticas educacionais. Ao mesmo tempo, de forma implícita, procura-se oferecer elementos para problematizar uma visão já consolidada entre os historiadores da infância - particularmente desde o já clássico História social da infância e da família de Philippe Ariès -, segundo a qual a infância seria uma invenção moderna e ela não teria sido "pensada" pelos antigos enquanto tal.This work investigates from a philosophical perspective the concept of childhood in Plato, with an emphasis on the following dialogues: Alcibiades I, Gorgias, The Republic, and The Laws. Initially, we situate the issue of childhood within the wider scenario of Plato's political and philosophical project. We then propose four main features of the concept of childhood in Plato: a as possibility (children can become anything in future; b as inferiority (children - like women, foreigners and slaves - are inferior to the male

  3. Why does a woman’s deliberative faculty have no authority? Aristotle on the political role of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deretić Irina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will discuss Aristotle’s controversial philosophical views on women. I will critically examine three main interpretations of his claim that women have deliberative faculty “without authority”. According to the first line of interpretation, Aristotle has in mind that women’s incapacity of advice-giving and decision-making in public affairs are determined by conventions in the political context of his time. I will attempt to point out the disadvantages of this kind of interpretation. Furthermore, I will put forward the reasons why is implausible the more recent interpretation, given by Marguerite Deslauriers. According to her reading, the lack of authority of deliberative faculty in women means nothing else than the tasks over which women have authority are for the purpose of the tasks put forth by men. The prevailing interpretation among scholars is that, in Aristotle’s view, women are naturally inferior to men, due to the fact that they are all too frequently overruled by the irrational “forces” of their nature. I will argue that this line of interpretation elucidates what Aristotle presumably has in mind, although it makes his account of women and their rationality, if not inconclusive, then indisputably problematic. In other words, I attempt to prove that, if the prevailing line of interpretation is correct, such view of women produces some philosophically “insurmountable” problems for Aristotle. The aim of the last section of the paper is to point out how some of these problems could eventually be resolved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: History of Serbian Philosophy

  4. Význam čísel mezi Platónem a Aristotelem

    OpenAIRE

    Šíma, Antonín

    2016-01-01

    1 Abstract Meaning of numbers between Plato and Aristotle Antonín Šíma The dissertation titled "The Transformation of the Concept of Number between Plato and the Early Academy" deals with the problem of numbers in early Platonism between Aristotle and Plato. In Plato's dialogues, within professional mathematical disciplines of knowledge, numbers fulfil a function of propaedeutic procedure to the method of thinking − dialectic. Dialectic engages in the most general structures of thinking whose...

  5. Tracing the Origin of the Concept of Ethics in the West: An Existentialist Interpretation of Aristotle's Concept of Ethics%西方伦理学概念溯源--亚里士多德伦理学概念的实存论阐释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓安庆

    2006-01-01

    @@ Western "ethics" as an independent discipline gained its definition from Aristotle.However, in none of his works - The Nicomachean Ethics, Magna Moralia, Ethics Eudemia, and The Politics (in Aristotle's view, ethics belonged to politics) - have people found a clear definition of ethics. Mr Miao Litian translated Aristotle's The Nicomachean Ethics from Greek into Chinese.

  6. Las Bellas Artes como Terapia en Aristóteles The Fine Arts as Therapy in Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio González A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde Homero en adelante, los textos griegos abundan en menciones a la función terapéutica de las bellas artes. En los diálogos platónicos se encuentra el sistema más acabado respecto a este tema en sus diversas manifestaciones, sin embargo los múltiples análisis aristotélicos se encuentran dispersos y aislados. Para empezar, se expone la visión de la salud como armonía en el pensamiento de Aristóteles, a continuación se describen y comparan los conceptos de tékhne y phrónesis, se demuestra la necesidad del arte para la paideía, y se detalla el uso terapéutico de diferentes artes para preservar o restaurar la salud.From Homer onwards, Greek texts show abundant references to the therapeutic applications of the fine arts. The most complete system dealing with this issue in its diverse manifestations is to be found in the Platonic dialogues. However, Aristotle's manifold analyses are scattered and isolated. First, the view of health as harmony in Aristotle's thought is expounded, then the concepts of tékhne and phrónesis are described and compared, the necessity of art to paideía is demonstrated, and finally the therapeutic use of the different arts in order to preserve or restore health is examined'm detall.

  7. The notion of Threshold: an investigation into conceptual accompaniment in Aristotle and Hegel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Carter

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available What is unique to the idea of a threshold is that it is a threshold’s proper definition to generate or signal an inevitable accompanying image of a surrounding boundary or a further field of exploration, even though these accompanying terms or images seem like they should be excluded from its definition. Hegel described this phenomenon of the movement from a concept’s definition to its accompanying terms as the determination of a concept through ‘negation’, and viewed such a method as central to philosophical insight. However, what is not usually noted is that Hegel’s notion of negation is both crucially related to Aristotle’s thought on how definitions are formulated, as well as his postulations about opposites and their connection through a third substantial thing. Through a close examination of the problem of Aristotle’s categories, along with Aristotle’s description of the differentiae, movement, and the meaning of the copula, we can demonstrate that Aristotle’s thinking is at core structured by non-binary ‘threshold concepts’ which are essential to his philosophical system. Finally, we will show how Hegel attempted to take these essentially structural threshold concepts in Aristotle and turn their function into a methodology for both thought itself as well as the philosophical determination of the categories of being.Ce qui est particulier à l’idée de seuil c’est que c’est sa propre définition de générer un contour conceptuel qui va vers un autre champ d’exploration, même si ces images de contour semblent devoir être exclues de sa définition. Hegel a décrit ce phénomène du mouvement de la définition d’un concept vers les termes qui l’accompagnent comme la détermination d’un concept à partir de sa « négation » et a considéré cette méthode comme fondamentale à toute approche philosophique. Ce texte explore le fait que la notion hégélienne de la négation remonte aux idées d

  8. El ¿delito? de Aristóteles Aristotle's crime?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA CLAUDIA CECCHI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available El filósofo griego Aristóteles es reconocido como uno de los más tempranos naturalistas del mundo occidental. Sus acabados y precisos conocimientos sobre zoología están contenidos en una variedad de escritos dedicados al estudio de los animales. Sorprende que, pese a su gran acervo de conocimientos biológicos, el estagirita nunca se planteó la posibilidad de que los organismos pudieran transformarse o estar conectados por relaciones de origen, ideas sustentadoras de la teoría de la evolución orgánica. Nosotros planteamos que hay en la biología aristotélica tres factores principales que explican esta falta de visión: (1 la idea eternizadora de la reproducción de los entes que no da lugar a la posibilidad de la transformación genérica de los organismos a través del nexo reproductivo; (2 el planteamiento que los fenómenos naturales tienen un propósito (causa final que determina su existencia, cuestión que lleva a desestimar la eventual existencia de conexiones en el origen entre los distintos géneros (sensu Aristóteles de organismos vivos; y (3 como consecuencia de lo anterior, la clasificación de los seres vivos según criterios analógico-funcionales que oscurece la existencia de vínculos estructurales y semejanzas de origen entre los organismos. El análisis de esta situación propia de la biología aristotélica nos lleva a examinar la importancia que tiene, para la formulación y desarrollo de las ideas evolucionistas, el advenimiento de una clasificación biológica de tipo jerárquica, inclusiva y ramificada, como la fundada por Linné y desarrollada, sobre la base de correspondencias estructurales y semejanzas de origen entre los organismos, por los grandes naturalistas del siglo XVIII y XIXThe Greek philosopher Aristotle is recognized as one of the earliest naturalists of the Western world. His thorough and precise knowledge of zoology is contained in various writings dedicated to the study of animals. It is

  9. Competition, Values and the Rhythm of Life: Some Reflections on Antiphon, Thucydides and Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kalan

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Games had more than a gymnastic significance in ancient Greece, as is best attested by Pindar’s odes. The modern interpretation of Greek culture was first introduced to the notion of the ajgwvn and the concept of the agonistic or competitive, “das Agonale”, by J. Burckhardt. Nietzsche elaborated it further, perceiving the phenomenon of competition as the origin of the fundamental Greek values, especially of justice and truth, and as the prerequisite for any fair evaluation. In Antiphon, the idea of competition runs both through his forensic speeches and philosophical writings. His Tetralogies in particular reveal the competitive dynamics of judicial trials. A judicial procedure is a competition, ajgwnivzesqai, between the truth of facts and the truth of words, which may result in an unjust verdict. In that case injustice has prevailed over justice and truth. What is thus at stake is the truth of facts, ajlhv/qeia tw`n pragmavtwn. Antiphon uses the Olympic and Pythian competitions to elucidate the important decisions and activities in human life, such as education, marriage, and the pursuit of happiness in general. Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War provides not only a description of the historical facts but also their evaluation. The development of military events, which is a competition of actions, ajgw;n e[rgwn, is elucidated by speeches, which frequently occur in antithetic pairs as antilogies, ajgw;n lovgwn. Political competition, however, is not limited to foreign policy but can be seen in the Athenian home politics as well. According to Alcibiades, the Athenian polis could only retain its supremacy through incessant competition, ajgwnizomevnhn aijei;. Nor does Thucydides neglect the Panhellenic significance of the Olympic festival. Aristotle's philosophy, on the other hand, appears to distance itself from competition, being based on rJa/stwvnh, "easiness", and diagwgh, “pastime”. None the less, the

  10. A dialogical exploration of the grey zone of health and illness: medical science, anthropology, and Plato on alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Kieran

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes a phenomenological hermeneutic orientation to explicate and explore the notion of the grey zone of health and illness and seeks to develop the concept through an examination of the case of alcohol consumption. The grey zone is an interpretive area referring to the irremediable zone of ambiguity that haunts even the most apparently resolute discourse. This idea points to an ontological indeterminacy, in the face of which decisions have to be made with regard to the health of a person (e.g., an alcoholic), a system (e.g., the health system), or a society. The fundamental character of this notion will be developed in relation to the discourse on health and the limitations of different disciplinary practices. The case of alcohol consumption will be used to tease out the grey zone embedded in the different kinds of knowledge made available through the disciplinary traditions of medical science, with its emphasis on somatic well-being, and anthropology, with its focus on communal well-being. This tension or grey zone embedded in different knowledge outcomes will be shown to have a discursive parallel with the dialogue between the Athenian, the Spartan, and the Cretan in Plato's Laws. Making use of the dialogical approach as described by Gadamer, the Athenian's particular resolution of the tension will be explored as a case study to demonstrate the necessarily particular analysis involved in a grey zone resolution.

  11. What is good sport: Plato's view Co je to dobrý sport: Platónův pohled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Pisk

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available One of Plato's most common questions found in his dialogues is "What is something?" By asking this question Plato usually brought his co-speakers to the recognition that in fact they do not have a full comprehension of what something is, although they have a partial comprehension of it. The awareness of one's incomplete cognition is the first step to be made on the philosophic way to truth. As in ancient times also today Plato asks us – the modern philosophers of sport – "What is sport?" or more precisely "What is good sport?" Probably the best of Plato's answers to this question can be found in the basic concepts of his philosophy regarding his hierarchical division of the state and human soul into three parts. Since sport is derived from human being also the goodness of sport can be divided into three stages. The lowest stage of sport corresponds to the first part of the soul – the appetite soul. On this stage sport is based on the gaining of material goods through prizes won at competitions. In the philosophic view, this is the lowest possible stage of goodness of sport. The second stage of sport corresponds to the second part of the soul – the emotional soul. Sport at this stage is based on the elementary ancient agon, which seeks fulfilment in the winning of honour and glory. The greatest and the most superior is the third part of the soul – the reasonable soul. According to this, also the sport corresponding to the third part of the soul is the best. For this kind of sport it is no longer necessary to compete with other contestants, since it can achieve it's fulfilment in perfect execution of movement or exercise, in which the perfect cooperation between reason (soul and body is attained. At this stage of sport it is the most important to compete and win over one's self, and this can be achieved by everyone, without regard to his/her physical abilities in comparison with others. In Plato's view, good sport is the sport directed

  12. Negosiasi antara Homoerotika dan Budaya Machismo dalam Novel Aristotle and Dante Discover the Secrets of the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta Natasia Adji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini bertujuan mengungkap negosiasi antara homoerotika dan prinsip machismo yang dijunjung tinggi dalam budaya Meksiko serta pengaruh faktor kelas sosial dan pendidikan keluarga terhadap hubungan tersebut dalam sastra Amerika Latin kontemporer berjudul Aristotle and Dante Discover the Secrets of the Universe karya Benjamin Alire Sáenz. Masalah yang menjadi fokus penelitian adalah bagaimana negosiasi antara homoerotika dan prinsip machismo serta bagaimanakah faktor kelas sosial dan pendidikan keluarga memberikan pengaruh terhadapnya dalam novel tersebut. Dengan perspektif teori queer yang dicetuskan Annamarie Jagose dan metode pembacaan cermat, penelitian ini menghasilkan temuan bahwa machismo yang masih kuat dalam masyarakat Meksiko melahirkan perasaan homofobia, bahkan dalam diri kaum homoseksual sendiri. Kare-nanya, para gay cenderung menjadi rendah diri dengan orientasi seksualnya. Latar belakang pendidikan keluarga dan perbedaan kelas sosial memengaruhi persepsi tentangmachismo pada kaum lelaki. Keduanya merupakan faktor penting yang mendasari perilaku seseorang dalam me-nentukan orientasi seksualnya di lingkungan sekitar. The article strives to reveal the negotiation between homoeroticism and machismo norms highly valued in Mexican culture, as well as the impact of social class and academic background, toward such relationship in a contemporary Latin American literary work, Benjamin Alire Sáenz‘s Aristotle and Dante Discover the Secrets of the Universe. The focus of the study is how the negotiation between homoeroticism and machismo values, as well as social class and academic background, affect that relationship. Using Annamarie Jagose’s queer theory and close reading technique, the study results in the fact that machismo, still strongly held in Mexican communities, begets a homophobic feeling even for the homosexuals themselves. Therefore, the gays tend to feel inferior with their sexual orientation. The family’s academic

  13. Refractory Abundances of Terrestrial Planets and Their Stars: Testing [Si/Fe] Correlations with TESS and PLATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, Angie; Fortney, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    In standard models for planet formation, solid material in protoplanetary disks coagulate and collide to form rocky bodies. It therefore seems reasonable to assume that their chemical composition will follow the abundances of refractory elements, such as Si and Fe, in the host star, which has also accreted material from the disk. Backed by planet formation simulations which validate this assumption, planetary internal structure models have begun to use stellar abundances to break degeneracies in low-mass planet compositions inferred only from mass and radius. Inconveniently, our own Solar System contradicts this approach, as its terrestrial bodies exhibit a range of rock/iron ratios and the Sun's [Si/Fe] ratio is offset from the mean planetary [Si/Fe]. In this work, we explore what number and quality of observations we need to empirically measure the exoplanet-star [Si/Fe] correlation, given future transit missions, RV follow-up, and stellar characterization. Specifically, we generate synthetic datasets of terrestrial planet masses and radii and host star abundances assuming that the planets’ bulk [Si/Fe] ratio exactly tracks that of their host stars. We assign measurement uncertainties corresponding to expected precisions for TESS, PLATO, Gaia, and future RV instrumentation, and then invert the problem to infer the planet-star [Si/Fe] correlation given these observational constraints. Comparing the result to the generated truth, we find that 1% precision on the planet radii is needed to test whether [Si/Fe] ratios are correlated between exoplanet and host star. On the other hand, lower precisions can test for systematic offsets between planet and star [Si/Fe], which can constrain the importance of giant impacts for extrasolar terrestrial planet formation.

  14. Accuracy evaluation of fusion of CT, MR, and SPECT images using commercially available software packages (SRS PLATO and IFS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongioj, Valeria; Brusa, Anna; Loi, Gianfranco; Pignoli, Emanuele; Gramaglia, Alberto; Scorsetti, Marta; Bombardieri, Emilio; Marchesini, Renato

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: A problem for clinicians is to mentally integrate information from multiple diagnostic sources, such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), whose images give anatomic and metabolic information. Methods and Materials: To combine this different imaging procedure information, and to overlay correspondent slices, we used commercially available software packages (SRS PLATO and IFS). The algorithms utilize a fiducial-based coordinate system (or frame) with 3 N-shaped markers, which allows coordinate transformation of a clinical examination data set (9 spots for each transaxial section) to a stereotactic coordinate system. The N-shaped markers were filled with fluids visible in each modality (gadolinium for MR, calcium chloride for CT, and 99m Tc for SPECT). The frame is relocatable, in the different acquisition modalities, by means of a head holder to which a face mask is fixed so as to immobilize the patient. Position errors due to the algorithms were obtained by evaluating the stereotactic coordinates of five sources detectable in each modality. Results: SPECT and MR position errors due to the algorithms were evaluated with respect to CT: Δx was ≤ 0.9 mm for MR and ≤ 1.4 mm for SPECT, Δy was ≤ 1 mm and ≤ 3 mm for MR and SPECT, respectively. Maximal differences in distance between estimated and actual fiducial centers (geometric mismatch) were in the order of the pixel size (0.8 mm for CT, 1.4 mm for MR, and 1.8 mm for SPECT). In an attempt to distinguish necrosis from residual disease, the image fusion protocol was studied in 35 primary or metastatic brain tumor patients. Conclusions: The image fusion technique has a good degree of accuracy as well as the potential to improve the specificity of tissue identification and the precision of the subsequent treatment planning

  15. Cardiovascular events in acute coronary syndrome patients with peripheral arterial disease treated with ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel: Data from the PLATO trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Manesh R.; Becker, Richard C.; Wojdyla, Daniel M.

    Abstract 14299: Cardiovascular Events in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease Treated With Ticagrelor Compared to Clopidogrel: Data From the PLATO Trial Manesh R Patel1; Richard C Becker1; Daniel M Wojdyla2; Håkan Emanuelsson3; William Hiatt4; Jay Horrow5; Steen Husted6...... Uppsala, Sweden 10 Cardiology, Uppsala Clinical Rsch center, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden Background: Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are at high risk for clinical events and are often difficult to manage. We evaluated cardiovascular outcomes of ACS patients...

  16. The Possibility of Phenomenology in Heidegger

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    “democracy to come has always been suicidal” (read: not “life-assured”) .... Plato and Aristotle: “Phenomenology radicalized in ... of Plato and Aristotle brought back to life: the repetition, the ..... notwithstanding, simply to fight the fight is to lose it.

  17. 'Setting the joy free' with Cadbury UK : A CDA analysis of how persuasion is communicated within Cadbury UK's social media discourse, according to Aristotle's 'persuasive proofs'

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Jordan

    2017-01-01

    This study uses a CDA analysis in order to take a critical look at how linguistic and visual techniques are used to create positive messages about a ‘modern’ brand, British confectionary company, Cadbury UK, in their social media discourse on Facebook, Instagram and Twitter. The study goes further in exploring how these messages are constructed in a way which according to Aristotle, is ‘persuasive’, looking at how they appealed to emotion (pathos), the character or trustworthiness of the bran...

  18. The Impacts of Corruption on Economic Development in Afghanistan: A Study of the Effects of Nepotism and Bribery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    corruption as it changes over time. He references philosophers such as Plato , Aristotle and Machiavelli.2 Plato introduces the initial analyses of...corruption as human flaw introduced into governments that distorts and perverts them. Aristotle takes Plato further by identifying the transformation...reemphasizes that while corrupt practices are condoned and rationalized , more damaging forms of corruption will become acceptable. Corruption can co-exist with

  19. Rozdíly v chápání ctnosti u Platóna, Aristotela a Aurelia Augustina

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanová, Blanka

    2011-01-01

    Bachelor's Thesis: Difference in Plato's, Aristotle's and Aurelius Augustinus' Understanding to Virtue Name: Blanka Kavanová Faculty: Faculty of Education, Charles University in Prague Department of Social Sciences and Philosophy Year: 2011 ABSTRACT The bachelor's thesis is concerned with the development and differences in Plato's, Aristotle's and Aurelius Augustinus' concept of virtue. The first part is focused on Plato's concept of four basic virtues, i.e. moderation/reasonableness, justice...

  20. A display model for the TOU of PLATO: just a cool toy or a benchmark of opportunities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, M.; Greggio, D.; Bergomi, M.; Biondi, F.; Farinato, J.; Farisato, G.; Magrin, D.; Lessio, L.; Marafatto, L.; Munari, M.; Pagano, I.; Ragazzoni, R.; Viotto, V.; Piazza, D.

    2016-07-01

    We produced a "toy-model" of one Telescope Optical Unit of PLATO, the Medium sized mission selected by ESA to fly in 2024. This is a six lenses dioptric very wide field camera with a window in front to take care of radiation impact on the first lens whose optical glass cannot be replaced with a radiation hardened one. The main aim of this project is just to produce a "cool" model for display purposes, in which one can "explore" the details of the inside through some openings in the tube, in order to visually inspect some of the fine details of the opto-mechanics. While its didactic and advertising role is out of doubt, during its construction we realized that some interesting outcome can be of some relevance for the project itself and that some findings could be useful, in order to assess the ability of producing with the same technology some (of course of much more modest quality) optical systems. In this context, we immediately dropped the option of producing the lenses with opaque material painted with a color resembling a refractive material (like blue for instance) and decided to actually produce them with transparent plastic. Furthermore the surfaces are then finely polished in order to give them basic optical properties. Such an optical system has only very coarsely the converging properties of the original nominal design for a number of reasons: the refractive indexes are not the nominal ones, the quality of the surfaces and their nominal values are only roughly, within a few percent, the targeted one, and the way the surfaces are built up makes them prone to some diffraction effects. However, the bulk of the lens and the surface roughness will give a large magnification of the scattering effects that will be experienced, at a much lower level, on the actual flight model. We investigated through propagation of a laser beam and by digital camera the main stray light modes that this toymodel offers. In other words, the model amplifies, to a large extent, the

  1. ARISTOTLE (All Risk Integrated System TOward The hoListic Early-warning): a multi-hazard expert advice system for the EU disaster response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, A.; Wotawa, G.; Arnold-Arias, D.

    2017-12-01

    ARISTOTLE (http://aristotle.ingv.it/) is a Pilot Project funded by the DG ECHO (EU Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection) that provides expert scientific advice on natural disasters around the world that may cause a country to seek international help to the EU's Emergency Response Coordination Centre (ERCC) and, consequently, to the Union Civil Protection Mechanism Participating States. The EU is committed to providing disaster response in a timely and efficient manner and to ensure European assistance meets the real needs in the population affected, whether in Europe or beyond. When a disaster strikes, every minute counts for saving lives and rapid, coordinated and pre-planned response is essential. The ARISTOTLE consortium includes 15 partner institutions (11 from EU Countries; 2 from non-EU countries and 2 European organizations) operating in the Meteorological and Geophysical domains. The project coordination is shared among INGV and ZAMG for the geophysical and meteorological communities, respectively. ARISTOTLE harnesses operational expertise from across Europe to form a multi-hazard perspective on natural disasters related to volcanoes, earthquake (and resulting tsunami), severe weather and flooding. Each Hazard Group brings together experts from the particular hazard domain to deliver a `collective analysis' which is then fed into the partnership multi-hazard discussions. Primary target of the pilot project has been the prototyping and the implementation of a scalable system (in terms of number of partners and hazards) capable of providing to ERCC the sought advice. To this end, the activities of the project have been focusing on the establishment of a "Multi-Hazard Operational Board" that is assigned the 24*7 operational duty regulated by a "Standard Operating Protocol" and the implementation of a dedicated IT platform to assembly the resulting reports. The project has reached the point where the routine and emergency advice services are being provided and

  2. Clinical Outcomes and History of Fall in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Treated with Oral Anticoagulation: Insights From the ARISTOTLE Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Meena P; Vinereanu, Dragos; Wojdyla, Daniel M; Alexander, John H; Atar, Dan; Hylek, Elaine M; Hanna, Michael; Wallentin, Lars; Lopes, Renato D; Gersh, Bernard J; Granger, Christopher B

    2018-03-01

    We assessed outcomes among anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation and a history of falling, and whether the benefits of apixaban vs warfarin are consistent in this population. Of the 18,201 patients in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) study, 16,491 had information about history of falling-753 with history of falling and 15,738 without history of falling. The primary efficacy outcome was stroke or systemic embolism; the primary safety outcome was major bleeding. When compared with patients without a history of falling, patients with a history of falling were older, more likely to be female and to have dementia, cerebrovascular disease, depression, diabetes, heart failure, osteoporosis, fractures, and higher CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75 years, Diabetes mellitus, prior Stroke or TIA or thromboembolism, Vascular disease, Age 65-74 years, Sex category female) and HAS-BLED (Hypertension, Abnormal renal and liver function, Stroke, Bleeding, Labile international normalized ratio, Elderly, Drugs or alcohol) scores. Patients with a history of falling had higher rates of major bleeding (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.84; P = .020), including intracranial bleeding (adjusted HR 1.87; 95% CI, 1.02-3.43; P = .044) and death (adjusted HR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.36-2.14; P < .0001), but similar rates of stroke or systemic embolism and hemorrhagic stroke. There was no evidence of a differential effect of apixaban compared with warfarin on any outcome, regardless of history of falling. Among those with a history of falling, subdural bleeding occurred in 5 of 367 patients treated with warfarin and 0 of 386 treated with apixaban. Patients with atrial fibrillation and a history of falling receiving anticoagulation have a higher risk of major bleeding, including intracranial, and death. The efficacy and safety of apixaban compared

  3. Aristotle meets the FERC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ash, H.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that before the era of FERC Order 436.500 and the onset of pipeline competition, making pipelines was a lot like making statues; all the causes and influences could be clearly and easily identified. New markets were well defined, the pipelines already serving the area built the new facilities, and the project didn't usually change too much from application through certification to construction. But the new era of pipeline rivalry has drastically altered the manner in which major new projects are pursued. The scramble for the scarce opportunities for rate base additions has caused some of the most profound changes: pipelines no longer need to feel confined to their traditional market areas---they can't afford to miss the opportunities

  4. Aristotle and Double Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    There are some interesting similarities between Aristotle’s ‘mixed actions’ in Book III of the Nicomachean Ethics and the actions often thought to be justifiable with the Doctrine of Double Effect. Here I analyse these similarities by comparing Aristotle’s examples of mixed actions with standard...... cases from the literature on double effect such as, amongst others, strategic bombing, the trolley problem, and craniotomy. I find that, despite some common features such as the dilemmatic structure and the inevitability of a bad effect, Aristotle’s mixed actions do not count as cases justifiable...... through application of the Doctrine of Double Effect because they fail to meet the crucial necessary condition of the Doctrine according to which the bad effect can only be a merely foreseen side- effect and not an intended means....

  5. Aristotle on drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Tony

    2013-01-01

    This paper begins by examining the ethical issues in public health and attempts to resolve them. It then considers three different paradigms responding to heroin addiction and their underlying moral philosophy. Firstly it examines prohibition and abstinence only treatment as an example of deontological ethics and harm reduction approaches as an example of a utilitarian ethics. Policy and practice problems resulting from weaknesses in the underlying philosophies are examined along with the futile debate between abstinence only and harm reduction approaches. A third paradigm, 'recovery' is examined as an example of Aristotelian virtue ethics. The paper concludes by considering the wider implications of this case study in terms of the need for further bioethical enquiry in public health and proposes virtue ethics as a paradigm within which ethical issues can be identified and debated.

  6. Bringing back Aristotle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, John

    2011-01-01

    Ethical analysis in medicine has been dominated by an approach derived from "the four principles" which focus on actions. By contrast, consideration of the virtues emphasises the importance of the moral agent. A renewed emphasis on virtue ethics, not as a rival, but integrated into deontological ethics is proposed.

  7. Aristotle, Autonomy, and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-30

    by servitude. This particular insight is not especially profound; we might regard it as a philosophical adaptation of Maslow ’ s hierarchy of needs ...built structure would fail to satisfy the needs of a mass housing market that requires broad appeal. In this way, the architect too is constrained in...the course of their lives- a view that most philosophers reject- we will need institutions and programs designed to cultivate it and reinforce it

  8. Toward a pro-active scientific advice on global volcanic activity within the multi-hazard framework of the EU Aristotle project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, Sara; Duncan, Melanie; Loughlin, Susan; Gísladóttir, Bryndis; Roberts, Matthew; Karlsdóttir, Sigrún; Scollo, Simona; Salerno, Giuseppe; Corsaro, Rosa Anna; Charalampakis, Marinos; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos

    2017-04-01

    The demand for timely analysis and advice on global volcanic activity from scientists is growing. At the same time, decision-makers require more than an understanding of hazards; they need to know what impacts to expect from ongoing and future events. ARISTOTLE (All Risk Integrated System TOwards Trans-boundary hoListic Early-warning) is a two-year EC funded pilot project designed to do just that. The Emergency Response Coordination Centre (ERCC) works to support and coordinate response to disasters both inside and outside Europe using resources from the countries participating in the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism. Led by INGV and ZAMG, the ARISTOTLE consortium comprises 15 institutions across Europe and aims to deliver multi-hazard advice on natural events, including their potential interactions and impact, both inside and outside of Europe to the ERCC. Where possible, the ERCC would like a pro-active provision of scientific advice by the scientific group. Iceland Met Office leads the volcanic hazards work, with BGS, INGV and NOA comprising the volcano observatory team. At this stage, the volcanology component of the project comprises mainly volcanic ash and gas dispersal and potential impact on population and ground-based critical infrastructures. We approach it by relying upon available and official volcano monitoring institutions' reporting of activity, existing assessments and global databases of past events, modelling tools, remote-sensing observational systems and official VAAC advisories. We also make use of global assessments of volcanic hazards, country profiles, exposure and proxy indicators of threat to livelihoods, infrastructure and economic assets (e.g. Global Volcano Model outputs). Volcanic ash fall remains the only hazard modelled at the global scale. Volcanic risk assessments remain in their infancy, owing to challenges related to the multitude of hazards, data availability and model representation. We therefore face a number of

  9. Ethics and education: virtuous character and happy life in Aristotle - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v36i1.19276

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Alexandre Alves

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethical education in Aristotle is analyzed and the formation of the virtuous character as a key factor in the achievement of happiness is emphasized. The happy life is based on virtue which, in turn, is based on education and not on any other forms of life. The formation on the activity of the soul is not enough to achieve a happy life. Rational virtue differentiates the good man from the others. It manifests itself in good acts expressed through balanced attitudes and contemplation. Ethical education is the basic criterion for character formation. The constant practice of virtuous deeds makes the human being achieve discernment to do what is appropriate and thus achieve virtue and happiness.

  10. On the Contemporary Relevance of Greek παιδεία to the Concept of a Balanced Education: Aristotle, Nietzsche, Camus, H. Arendt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kalan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary education systems are in a constant process of restructuring, thus requiring philosophy to reconsider the basic assumptions of education. The phenomenon of education can only be defined and clarified historically, i.e. with reference to the ancient Greek paideia. The Greek culture created a comprehensive system of both education and pedagogy as a theory of education, teaching, and knowledge (Dilthey.  (1 A phenomenological approach to Aristotle's pedagogy. Aristotle's theory of physical, moral, and political education (Nicomachean Ethics and Politics is founded upon the notion of the natural development of every being. In addition, Aristotle creates the concept of philosophical pedagogy. A philosophically educated person (ho pepaideumenos has the competence to treat problems emerging with the formation of particular sciences, and to reflect on the method of each scientific discipline. This philosophical culture is also connected with dialectic, rhetoric, and politics.  (2 Nietzsche's ideas on education and culture are presented in two of his early works: On the Future of Our Educational Institutions and We Philologists. In his criticism of the German education system of his time, he explains his basic historical assumption that the real homeland of education is the Hellenic world. A restructuring of the education system cannot be carried out without the Greek and Roman antiquity as the embodied categorical imperative of all culture. A general education which disregards antiquity is considered barbaric. However, Nietzsche's philosophy of education remains unfinished, giving no definite conclusions.  (3 Camus’ philosophy describes the modern West European culture as nihilistic. The essence of nihilism is a systematic ignorance of the limits of human nature, which can lead to historical crimes and to destroying the conditions for the human existence in the world. The formation of a world that will not be subdued by the

  11. Androgynes et gynandres : la relecture péladanienne du Banquet de Platon // Androgynes and gynandres : The Péladan’s reinterpretation of the Symposium by Plato

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Voldřichová Beránková

    2015-01-01

    The Symposium alias The Banquet belongs to those hypotexts by Plato which have been constantly reread and reinterpreted by the authors of French decadence. This article is focused on the Péladan’s reinterpretation of one of its parts, the famous Aristophanes’s speech about love. It implies on one hand the masculine notion of “androgyne”, heavily valorised in the fin de siècle novels, and, on the other hand, the feminine concept of “gynandre”, perceived negatively, feared and mocke...

  12. Přítel Aristotelés

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháček, Kryštof

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 13 (2015), s. 34-45 ISSN 1803-7860 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Aristotle's philosophy of friendship * Plato's philosophy of friendship * medieval philosophy of friendship Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  13. 公正作为德性——亚里士多德公正德性探析%Justice as a virtue: An analysis of Aristotle's virtue of justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄显中

    2007-01-01

    People currently regard justice as the main principle of institutions and society,while in ancient Greek people took it as the virtue of citizens.This article analyzes Aristotle's virtue of justice in his method of virtue ethics,discussing the nature of virtue,how justice is the virtue of citizens,what kind of virtue the iustice of citizens is,and the prospect of the virtue of iustice against a background of institutional justice.Since virtue can be said to be a specific individual character,Aristotle also defines the virtue of justice as the character of justice,with which citizens act justly and desire to do what is just.The virtue of justice is also an individual ethical virtue,differing from others for it is at the same time a social ethic.We can call the virtue of justice a"non-individual individual ethical virtue."It has been explained as between pure altruism and egoism,which is a wrong explanation.John Rawls regards justice as the first virtue of social institutions,challenging Aristotle's virtue,of justice,an assertion which also needs further deliberation.

  14. Efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with warfarin according to age for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: observations from the ARISTOTLE trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Sigrun; Atar, Dan; Yang, Hongqiu; De Caterina, Raffaele; Erol, Cetin; Garcia, David; Granger, Christopher B.; Hanna, Michael; Held, Claes; Husted, Steen; Hylek, Elaine M.; Jansky, Petr; Lopes, Renato D.; Ruzyllo, Witold; Thomas, Laine; Wallentin, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Aims The risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) increases with age. In the ARISTOTLE trial, apixaban when compared with warfarin reduced the rate of stroke, death, and bleeding. We evaluated these outcomes in relation to patient age. Methods and results A total of 18 201 patients with AF and a raised risk of stroke were randomized to warfarin or apixaban 5 mg b.d. with dose reduction to 2.5 mg b.d. or placebo in 831 patients with ≥2 of the following criteria: age ≥80 years, body weight ≤60 kg, or creatinine ≥133 μmol/L. We used Cox models to compare outcomes in relation to patient age during 1.8 years median follow-up. Of the trial population, 30% were 0.11 for all). Results were also consistent for the 13% of patients ≥80 years. No significant interaction with apixaban dose was found with respect to treatment effect on major outcomes. Conclusion The benefits of apixaban vs. warfarin were consistent in patients with AF regardless of age. Owing to the higher risk at older age, the absolute benefits of apixaban were greater in the elderly. PMID:24561548

  15. Comparison of cardiac troponins I and T measured with high-sensitivity methods for evaluation of prognosis in atrial fibrillation: an ARISTOTLE substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijazi, Ziad; Siegbahn, Agneta; Andersson, Ulrika; Lindahl, Bertil; Granger, Christopher B; Alexander, John H; Atar, Dan; Gersh, Bernard J; Hanna, Michael; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Horowitz, John; Husted, Steen; Hylek, Elaine M; Lopes, Renato D; McMurray, John J V; Wallentin, Lars

    2015-02-01

    Although cardiac troponin is associated with outcomes in atrial fibrillation (AF), the complementary prognostic information provided by cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and cTnT is unknown. This study investigated the distribution, determinants, and prognostic value of cTnI and cTnT concentrations in patients with AF. Samples were collected. At the time of randomization, we analyzed cTnI and cTnT concentrations of 14806 AF patients in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial using high-sensitivity assays. Correlations (Spearman), determinants (multivariable linear regression), and outcomes (adjusted Cox models and c-statistics) were investigated. Concentrations of cTnI and cTnT were correlated (r = 0.70) and measurable in most participants [cTnI 98.5% (median 5.4 ng/L, ≥99th percentile in 9.2%) and cTnT 93.5% (median 10.9 ng/L, ≥99th percentile in 34.4%)]. Renal impairment was the most important factor affecting the concentrations of both troponins. cTnI increase was more associated with heart failure, vascular disease, and persistent/permanent AF, and cTnT with age, male sex, and diabetes. Over a median 1.9 years of follow-up, patients with both troponins above the median had significantly higher risk for stroke/systemic embolism [hazard ratio (HR) 1.72 (95% CI 1.31-2.27)], cardiac death [3.14 (2.35-4.20)], and myocardial infarction [2.99 (1.78-5.03)] than those with both troponins below median (all P Chemistry.

  16. What It Is and that It Is

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannatella, Howard

    2012-01-01

    The title of this paper comes from Aristotle's "Metaphysics." It appropriately captures how he understood art education. In what follows, a considerable amount of the author's thinking is indebted to Plato's and Aristotle's understanding of art education as mimetic education. On first view, an art mimetic educational approach may appear worryingly…

  17. Direct healthcare costs and cost-effectiveness of acute coronary syndrome secondary prevention with ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel: economic evaluation from the public payer's perspective in Poland based on the PLATO trial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawęska, Justyna; Macioch, Tomasz; Perkowski, Piotr; Budaj, Andrzej; Niewada, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Ticagrelor is the first reversibly binding oral P2Y12 receptor antagonist designed to reduce clinical thrombotic events in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Compared to clopidogrel, ticagrelor has been proven to significantly reduce the rate of death from vascular causes, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke without an increase in the rate of overall major bleeding in patients who have an ACS with or without ST-segment elevation (STEMI and NSTEMI) or unstable angina (UA). To evaluate the cost-effectiveness and healthcare costs associated with secondary prevention of ACS using ticagrelor or clopidogrel in patients after STEMI, NSTEMI and UA. An economic model based on results from the PLATO trial was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of one-year therapy with ticagrelor or clopidogrel. The structure of the model consisted of two parts, i.e. the decision tree with one-year PLATO results and the Markov model with lifelong estimations, which exceeded PLATO follow-up data. The model was adjusted to Polish settings with country-specific data on death rates in the general population and direct medical costs calculated from the public payer's perspective. Costs were derived from the National Health Fund (NHF) and the Ministry of Health and presented in PLN 2013 values. Annual mean costs of second and subsequent years after stroke or MI were obtained from the literature. Uncertainty of assumed parameters was tested in scenarios and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The adopted model allowed the estimation of an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for life years gained (LYG) and an incremental cost-utility ratio for quality adjusted life years (QALY). Total direct medical costs to the public payer at a one year horizon were 2,905 PLN higher with ticagrelor than with clopidogrel. However, mean healthcare costs at a one year horizon (excluding drug costs and concomitant drugs) were 690 PLN higher for patients treated with clopidogrel. In a lifetime horizon

  18. Apixaban in Comparison With Warfarin in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Valvular Heart Disease: Findings From the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avezum, Alvaro; Lopes, Renato D; Schulte, Phillip J; Lanas, Fernando; Gersh, Bernard J; Hanna, Michael; Pais, Prem; Erol, Cetin; Diaz, Rafael; Bahit, M Cecilia; Bartunek, Jozef; De Caterina, Raffaele; Goto, Shinya; Ruzyllo, Witold; Zhu, Jun; Granger, Christopher B; Alexander, John H

    2015-08-25

    Apixaban is approved for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. However, the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial included a substantial number of patients with valvular heart disease and only excluded patients with clinically significant mitral stenosis or mechanical prosthetic heart valves. We compared the effect of apixaban and warfarin on rates of stroke or systemic embolism, major bleeding, and death in patients with and without moderate or severe valvular heart disease using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Of the 18 201 patients enrolled in ARISTOTLE, 4808 (26.4%) had a history of moderate or severe valvular heart disease or previous valve surgery. Patients with valvular heart disease had higher rates of stroke or systemic embolism and bleeding than patients without valvular heart disease. There was no evidence of a differential effect of apixaban over warfarin in patients with and without valvular heart disease in reducing stroke and systemic embolism (hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.97 and HR, 0.84; 95%, CI 0.67-1.04; interaction P=0.38), causing less major bleeding (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.61-1.04 and HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.55-0.77; interaction P=0.23), and reducing mortality (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.84-1.22 and HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.96; interaction P=0.10). More than a quarter of the patients in ARISTOTLE with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation had moderate or severe valvular heart disease. There was no evidence of a differential effect of apixaban over warfarin in reducing stroke or systemic embolism, causing less bleeding, and reducing death in patients with and without valvular heart disease. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00412984. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Androgynes et gynandres : la relecture péladanienne du Banquet de Platon // Androgynes and gynandres : The Péladan’s reinterpretation of the Symposium by Plato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Voldřichová Beránková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Symposium alias The Banquet belongs to those hypotexts by Plato which have been constantly reread and reinterpreted by the authors of French decadence. This article is focused on the Péladan’s reinterpretation of one of its parts, the famous Aristophanes’s speech about love. It implies on one hand the masculine notion of “androgyne”, heavily valorised in the fin de siècle novels, and, on the other hand, the feminine concept of “gynandre”, perceived negatively, feared and mocked. Why in Péladan’s (1858–1918 eyes and according to many others decadent authors man is gorgeous and intelligent enough to realize on his own the platonic ideal of the union of the two sexes? And what about the woman, henceforth outmoded and “useless”? The decadent misogyny ties itself in knots over its fanciful theories which are reflective of the spirit of this historical period.

  20. Aristotelés a Nová rétorika

    OpenAIRE

    Boháček, K. (Kryštof)

    2014-01-01

    The author shows how important was the rhetorical alternative for Plato's constitution of theoretical philosophy. The second part describes the decline of classical rhetoric from the Greek most influential discourse to the 'zero point' around 1900. Third part is dedicated to Perelman and the 'Rhetorical Turn', treated as return to Aristotle. The last part confronts Aristotle with Perelman's understanding of Aristotelian rhetoric, and asks, if the New Rhetoric really returned to Aristotle?

  1. Efficacy and Safety of Apixaban Versus Warfarin in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and a History of Cancer: Insights from the ARISTOTLE Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloni, Chiara; Dunning, Allison; Granger, Christopher B; Thomas, Laine; Khouri, Michel G; Garcia, David A; Hylek, Elaine M; Hanna, Michael; Wallentin, Lars; Gersh, Bernard J; Douglas, Pamela S; Alexander, John H; Lopes, Renato D

    2017-12-01

    Cancer is associated with a prothrombotic state and increases the risk of thrombotic events in patients with atrial fibrillation. We described the clinical characteristics and outcomes and assessed the safety and efficacy of apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and cancer in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial. The association between cancer and clinical outcomes was assessed using Cox regression models. At baseline, 1236 patients (6.8%) had a history of cancer; 12.7% had active cancer, and 87.3% had remote cancer. There were no significant associations between history of cancer and stroke/systemic embolism, major bleeding, or death. The effect of apixaban versus warfarin for the prevention of stroke/systemic embolism was consistent among patients with a history of cancer (event/100 patient-years = 1.4 vs 1.2; hazard ratio [HR], 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53-2.26) and no cancer (1.3 vs 1.6; HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.64-0.93) (P interaction = .37). The safety and efficacy of apixaban versus warfarin were preserved among patients with and without active cancer. Apixaban was associated with a greater benefit for the composite of stroke/systemic embolism, myocardial infarction, and death in active cancer (HR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.11-0.83) versus without cancer (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-0.95), but not in remote cancer (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.01-2.10) (interaction P = .0028). Cancer was not associated with a higher risk of stroke. The superior efficacy and safety of apixaban versus warfarin were consistent in patients with and without cancer. Our positive findings regarding apixaban use in patients with atrial fibrillation and cancer are exploratory and promising, but warrant further evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Isocrates, Aristotle, and Credibility Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    Both rhetorical theorists and attitude change theorists agree that characteristics of the source of persuasive communication can improve the persuasiveness of that message. Writers from both perspectives have approached this notion from two divergent perspectives. Isocrates was concerned with the speaker's prior reputation, which is quite similar…

  3. Man and «polis»; the gordian knot of education in Aristotle Hombre y «polis»: el nudo gordiano de la educación en Aristóteles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción NAVAL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Education is better seen as a help in order to grow in freedom and dignity, inside a society. Aristotle helps us to better understand this question. He gives us suggestive insights of the concepts of man, and education, very much related to the polis. The social dimesion of education is always present in the Greek tradition, but in Aristotle there is also a genuine knowledge of the individual. There is no educative problem separeted to the social and political roots.La educación se puede ver como una ayuda para crecer en libertad y dignidad. Será educativo aquello que favorezca la perfección de la persona; y por eso, cuando se habla de la educación como un factor de reproducción social, se intentará referir unos factores externos a la propia persona, y determinarlos según la armonía personal. Esta cuestión de plena actualidad tienen un planteamiento sugerente en Aristóteles quien nos ofrece una visión del hombre y de la educación, en estrecha relación con la polis, que son de interés. El carácter social de la educación está siempre presente en la tradición y pensamiento griego, puesto que el hombre es un animal político. Sin embargo, también está vivo en este autor el conocimiento del valor individual. No existía un problema educativo separado del aspecto político y moral.

  4. Paramenide e Platone (e Aristotele nel Contre Colote de Plutarque Parménide et Platon (et Aristote dans le Contre Colotès de Plutarque Parmenides and Plato (and Aristote in Plutarch'sAgainst Colotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Bonazzi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The chapters dedicated to Parmenides and Plato play a decisive role in the composition strategy of the Adversus Colotem, since this is where Plutarch most clearly defines the background dualist thesis that will help demonstrate that Platonism is superior to Epicurism. By showing Parmenides too as a dualist engaged in distinguishing between the sensible and the intelligible world, Plutarch structures a history of ancient philosophy entirely focused on Plato. These chapters also bear witness of another centre of interest, namely Aristoteles (§ 14, who, despite the criticism he aimed at the theory of ideas, is not completely refuted, but rather used as a possible ally against epicurean materialists, Plutarch’s true bête noire.Les chapitres consacrés à Parménide et Platon jouent un rôle décisif dans la stratégie de composition de l’Adversus Colotem : c’est là en effet que Plutarque définit de la manière la plus claire la thèse dualiste de fond qui va servir à démontrer la supériorité du platonisme sur l’épicurisme. En présentant Parménide lui aussi comme un dualiste occupé à distinguer entre monde sensible et monde intelligible, Plutarque articule une histoire de la philosophie antique entièrement centrée sur Platon. Les chapitres témoignent ensuite d’un autre centre d’intérêt, avec la mention d’Aristote (§ 14, lequel, malgré les critiques qu’il adresse à la théorie des idées, n’est pas complètement réfuté, mais plutôt utilisé comme un allié possible contre les matérialistes épicuriens, la véritable « bête noire » de Plutarque.I capitoli dedicati a Parmenide e Platone giocano un ruolo decisivo nella strategia compositiva dell’Adversus Colotem: è qui infatti che Plutarco delinea nel modo più chiaro la tesi dualistica di fondo che servirà a dimostrare la superiorità del platonismo sull’epicureismo. Presentando anche Parmenide come un dualista, impegnato a distinguere tra mondo

  5. Alternativa de protección contra la corrosión del acero AISI 310S mediante recubrimiento de aluminio bajo condiciones de platos separadores en celdas de combustible de carbonatos fundidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Orozco-Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La celda de combustible de carbonatos fundidos (MCFC, por sus siglas en inglés convencional opera a 650°C. Consiste de un cátodo de NiO poroso y litiado, una mezcla eutéctica de carbonato de litio (Li2CO3 y carbonato de potasio (K2CO3 fundido en una matriz electrolitica de óxido de aluminio litiado (LiAlO2 y un ánodo poroso de Ni. Los platos separadores entre cada celda presentan problemas de corrosión. Ante eso, un acero inoxidable AISI 310S con recubrimiento fue estudiado en condiciones de un plato separador en una MCFC. Método: Se utilizó un acero inoxidable AISI 310S como sustrato (muestra A, aplicándole un recubrimiento de Al con (B y sin tratamiento térmico (C. Fueron expuestos en carbonatos fundidos (62 mol% Li2CO3 -38 mol% K2CO3 a 650 °C en crisoles de alúmina. El comportamiento electroquímico fue estudiado mediante la técnica de Espectroscopía de Impedancia Electroquimica (EIS. Para el análisis de los diagramas de impedancia, se utilizó el software de simulación “Boukamp Equivalent Circuit”. La sección transversal de las muestras corroídas fue caracterizada mediante Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido (SEM, por sus siglas en inglés y los productos formados por Difracción de rayos X (XRD, por sus siglas en inglés. Resultados: Los diagramas de EIS presentan aumentos y disminuciones en los semicírculos formados a altas frecuencias indicativo de disolución de la capa externa, aumento y disminución de la resistencia de esta última así como el posible rompimiento de ella. La técnica de XRD presentó fases LiFeO2, LiCrO2, -LiAlO2 y -LiAlO2 así como fases intermetálicas para las distintas condiciones de la muestra. De la misma manera, los análisis de SEM presentaron los espesores de cada una de las capas formadas. Discusión o Conclusión: En la muestra A, se formaron capas de LiFeO2 y LiCrO2 después de 200 horas de exposición. La capa de LiCrO2 aumenta por la difusión de Li hacia el

  6. La Traditio Legis de Cristo a Pedro y Pablo en un plato de vidrio de Cástulo, Linares (Jaén = Traditio Legis of Christ to Peter and Paul in a glass bowl from Cástulo, Linares (Jaén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Blázquez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo analizamos la iconografía de un plato de vidrio encontrado en Cástulo con la representación de la Tradicio legis o transmisión de la ley de Cristo a los apóstoles Pedro y Pablo.In this paper we analyze the iconography of a glass bowl found in Cástulo showing the representation of the Traditio legis, or «transmission of the law» of Christ to apostles Peter and Paul.

  7. Breads, loaves and portable stoves. Two ceramic forms intended for the baking of bread in Al-Andalus: the stove (tannur and the dish (tabag | Panes, hogazas y fogones portátiles. Dos formas cerámicas destinadas a la cocción del pan en Al-Andalus: el hornillo (tannur y el plato (tabag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gutiérrez Lloret

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available With this work we want to identify several pottery's series found in rural archaeological sequences of the Middle Ages beginning from the Eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula with two portable methode for bread-baking —the portable furnace or tannur and the baking-plate or tabaq— cited in the literary Arabian sources, contrasting with similar objects quoted by Latin and visigothics sources. This study includes also their origin and perdurance but, whereas these baking-plate appear in the Late Roman baking technology, the portable furnace was, apparently, introduced in al-Andalus with the Islamic conquest. | En este trabajo pretendemos identificar diversos repertorios cerámicos aparecidos en contextos arqueológicos altomedievales rurales del levante peninsular, con dos sistemas portátiles de coción del pan —el hornillo o tannur y el plato o tabaq— mencionados en las fuentes literarias árabes, relacionándolos, en algunos casos, con objetos similares mencionados en las fuentes latinas y visigodas. Estudiamos también sus orígenes y perduraciones, pero mientras que el plato figura en las tradiciones tardorromanas de panificación, el hornillo, de tradición semita, parece ser introducido en al-Andalus con la conquista islámica.

  8. Plato: White and Non-white Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amo Sulaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Plato’s dialogues, the Symposium, and Phaedrus, provide a reasonableexplanation of love. G. Vlastos and M. Nussbaum do not share such anopinion. The former contends that Plato’s view of love is about lovingonly a person’s beauty, but not the entire person; thus, it falls short of anappropriate explanation of love. The latter holds that a theory of love should be complete, and that Plato’s one is incomplete on the grounds that it does not account for personal love. These criticisms will be re-evaluated in light of the duality of love (the white and non-white horses—in Phaedrus as well as participants’ views in the Symposium; a re-assessment will weaken the mentioned objections. This paper contends that from the Symposium and Phaedrus, one can have a fruitful understanding of being in love, being out of love, falling inlove, loving for its own sake and being erotically in love. In order to account for these related issues of love it is important to consider Plato’s works in terms of his “official” and “unofficial” views. The former is construed as the doctrine of the lover or loving for its own sake: this is associates with Diotima’s views which are repeated by Socrates. With reference to the latter, it is possible to explain what personal love or being in love, being out of love, falling in love, and being erotically in love involve. Erotic love will be interpreted as an extension of our philosophical conception of love, related to views of love that are mentioned in the Symposium other than Socrates’ report of Diotima’s conceptions. This paper is divided into two parts: the first one will show views of love in the Symposium. That is, being in love, being out of love, falling in love and loving for its own sake will be discussed. In addition, the forementioned criticisms will be re-evaluated. In the second section, we will show that Aristophanes’ speech expresses erotic love, and then Kant’s objections will be explained and discussed.

  9. Major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation receiving apixaban or warfarin: The ARISTOTLE Trial (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation): Predictors, Characteristics, and Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylek, Elaine M; Held, Claes; Alexander, John H; Lopes, Renato D; De Caterina, Raffaele; Wojdyla, Daniel M; Huber, Kurt; Jansky, Petr; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Hanna, Michael; Thomas, Laine; Wallentin, Lars; Granger, Christopher B

    2014-05-27

    This study sought to characterize major bleeding on the basis of the components of the major bleeding definition, to explore major bleeding by location, to define 30-day mortality after a major bleeding event, and to identify factors associated with major bleeding. Apixaban was shown to reduce the risk of major hemorrhage among patients with atrial fibrillation in the ARISTOTLE (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) trial. All patients who received at least 1 dose of a study drug were included. Major bleeding was defined according to the criteria of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Factors associated with major hemorrhage were identified using a multivariable Cox model. The on-treatment safety population included 18,140 patients. The rate of major hemorrhage among patients in the apixaban group was 2.13% per year compared with 3.09% per year in the warfarin group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.60 to 0.80; p < 0.001). Compared with warfarin, major extracranial hemorrhage associated with apixaban led to reduced hospitalization, medical or surgical intervention, transfusion, or change in antithrombotic therapy. Major hemorrhage followed by mortality within 30 days occurred half as often in apixaban-treated patients than in those receiving warfarin (HR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.33 to 0.74; p < 0.001). Older age, prior hemorrhage, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack, diabetes, lower creatinine clearance, decreased hematocrit, aspirin therapy, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were independently associated with an increased risk. Apixaban, compared with warfarin, was associated with fewer intracranial hemorrhages, less adverse consequences following extracranial hemorrhage, and a 50% reduction in fatal consequences at 30 days in cases of major hemorrhage. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Thomas Aquinas on the Soul: Old problems, New Solutions. Guiding Premises for a Thomistic Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Shilov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines two main approaches to the doctrine of the soul: that of Plato and that of Aristotle. Each of these approaches had its own development and its own interpretations. Plato and his school was more important during the Middle Ages. Through the neo-platonic philosophers it reached Saint Augustine and became a part of the western cultural and religious heritage until finally it was taken up by member of the Franciscan order - Roger Bacon and Bonaventure. But this paradigm could not solve a host of problems connected with the soul and many of them remained unresolved. The end of the twelfth century brought the growth of the universities and the teaching of Aristotle - a new paradigm - transmitted by the Arabic philosophers which was rediscovered by the West. Two commentators on Aristotle - Averroes and Avicenna -were the most important for the West, especially since Avicenna exerted a great influence on Albert the Great. But both Plato and Aristotle, when taken separately, proved to be quite useless in resolving certain problems. But Thomas Aquinas was able to splice the Gordian knot concealing a solution to the problem of the soul. By combining the psychology of Plato with the metaphysics of Aristotle, Thomas succeeded in creating a new concept of the human person. The author of this article has tried to explain the difficulties which faced Thomas and the way in which Thomas was able to resolve a problem which had troubled philosophy through the ages - the problem of reconciling Plato with Aristotle and finding a way to make their conflicting philosophies agree with each other

  11. Philosophy and Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Philosophical thinking which has stood the test of time is summarized in this document. The rationale is that all students benefit from studies of philosophical thinking emphasizing moral standards. Thinkers included are: Plato, Aristotle, Peter Abelard, Francis Bacon, Sir Thomas More, Thomas Campanella, Thomas Hobbes, Benedict Spinoza, John…

  12. Mimesis in Bible Didactics – an outline in the context of religious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Mimesis' is a concept explored in Antiquity as well as in cultural history. It also plays an important role in the Bible. In this article we argue for 'mimesis' as a role model for Bible teaching in religious education. In the first part we give some insights into the concept of mimesis, drawing on ancient philosophers (Aristotle, Plato) ...

  13. Legitimacy: First Principles and Efficacy in R2P Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    offender. At its core, natural law is then focused on one overriding telos or end, which is to 21 Plato and Aristotle are considered the first scholars...related to some a priori notion in natural law; it is the result of the rational choice of various rulers. Krasner’s argument is persuasive, but he does

  14. Identity Dilemmas: The Consequence of Identity in Protracted Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    prescribe method, or promote thought, the contributions of Thucydides, Plato , Aristotle, Hobbes, Locke, Kant and others offer penetrating insight into...Lebow, A Cultural Theory, 180. 28 Ibid., 180. For an exceptional examination of ontological security-seeking behavior and how rational security

  15. Aristarchus of Samos the ancient Copernicus

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Sir Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This classic work traces Aristarchus of Samos's anticipation by two millennia of Copernicus's revolutionary theory of the orbital motion of the earth. Heath's history of astronomy ranges from Homer and Hesiod to Aristarchus and includes quotes from numerous thinkers, compilers, and scholasticists from Thales and Anaximander through Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle, and Heraclides. 34 figures.

  16. the rhetorical analysis of the letter to the galatians: 1995-2005

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002a:11) points out that sophistic rhetoric was not aimed at reflecting truth or even at achieving logical consistency, but rather at winning the ar- gument at all costs. Furthermore, Vos (2002a:14ff.) describes the attempts by. Plato and Aristotle to ...

  17. Mysticism and/in the Old Testament: Methodological orientation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-17

    Nov 17, 2015 ... suppositions (most directly the concepts rendered by Plato and Aristotle) and rhetorical ... possibilities here would lie the ideals of the disappearance-of-being, when ... There is thus no problem with historically identifying the ... ways typical of the era in which we live under Western(ised) cultural hegemony.

  18. Preconocimiento en Platón y Aristóteles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Andrés Mercado M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the fact that Aristotle often criticizes Plato's theories -especially his conception of reminiscence- some of their explanations of human knowledge seem to present important similarities. Some texts of Meno and De memoria et reminiscentia show one of these interesting parallelisms.

  19. Fysis v rétorice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháček, Kryštof

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 10 (2013), s. 7-31 ISSN 1803-7860 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Physis * rhetoric * Aristotle * Gorgias * Plato * necessity * nature * destiny * free action Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0239423

  20. The Classical Tradition of Dialectics and American Legal Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, William

    1981-01-01

    The case method is a modern discipline of mind, based on classical models of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, and well suited to the education of lawyers, whether in scholarly work or advocacy. It produces sharpness and speed of tongue and mind and a facility for precision, clarity, and quality of expression. (MSE)

  1. Education in the Virtues: Tragic Emotions and the Artistic Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penwell, Derek L.

    2009-01-01

    The profoundly thoughtful--not to mention extensive--character of the scholarship historically applied to the nature of the difference between Plato and Aristotle on the issue of the tragic emotions raises the obvious question: What new is there left to say? In this article, the author seeks to hold together two separate issues that have occupied…

  2. Greek Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Thomas L.

    2014-03-01

    Prefatory note; 1. Introduction; 2. Doxography; 3. Plato; 4. Eudoxus (and Callippus); 5. Aristotle; 6. Heraclides of Pontus; 7. Euclid; 8. Aristarchus of Samos; 9. Eratosthenes; 10. Aratus; 11. Posidonius; 12. Geminus; 13. Hipparchus; 14. Ptolemy; 15. Strabo; 16. Treatise 'De mundo'; 17. Cleomedes; 18. Plutarch; Appendix; Index.

  3. Plagiarism and Prosecution: A New Approach at Air University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Isocrates, Demosthenes, Aes- chines, Menander and Plutarch indulged in it at times. Aristotle lifted whole pages from Democritus. . . . And Plato...There are speeches in Antony and Cleopatra which * are pure Plutarch . Malone painstakingly analyzed Parts I, II, and III of Henry VI, and came to the

  4. Iqbal--Education and Cultivation of Self: A Way Forward for Muslims of the Subcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauman, Sarwat

    2018-01-01

    Whether all educationists were philosophers or not, one thing is clear--that all philosophers were educationists--directly or indirectly. May it be Plato, Aristotle, Rousseau or Dewey, they all came up with the notion that to bring about any change at a greater level in a society, change in its educational system is fundamental. Dr. Mohammad…

  5. On the (Im)potentiality of an African Philosophy of Education to Disrupt Inhumanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghid, Yusef

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances made in the liberal Western philosophical and educational tradition to counteract unethical, immoral and inhumane acts committed by the human species, these acts of inhumanity persist. It would be inapt to apportion blame only to Western thinking, which has its roots in Greek antiquity, as Plato and Aristotle, for instance,…

  6. The Art of Wondering: A Revisionist Return to the History of Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, William A.

    Reacting to the tradition which has reduced rhetorics to summaries of rules and principles, this book presupposes that Plato's "Phaedrus," Aristotle's "Rhetoric," and Cicero's "De Oratore" cannot be reduced to summary information or pedagogical advice. The book considers that these works, on the contrary, along with…

  7. Rhetoric. The Bobbs-Merrill Series in Composition and Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Richard L., Ed.

    Reflecting the opinions of both classical theorists and recent authors, 16 papers on rhetorical theory are collected in this publication. Selections in Part 1, concerned with the definition and objectives of rhetoric, are by Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Kenneth Burke, Donald C. Bryant, and Martin Steinmann, Jr. In Part 2, selections from the pedagogy…

  8. The Boundaries of Language and Rhetoric: Some Historical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Robert O.

    1968-01-01

    Important ideas and events in the history of rhetoric are examined in order to illumine the present situation, especially the problem of defining the concept of rhetoric. From Plato's hostility to rhetoric and Aristotle's epistomological rehabilitation of it to the later ethical emphasis of Cicero and the Medieval Christian rhetoriticians, the…

  9. "Techne" and Technical Communication: Toward a Dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jay

    2002-01-01

    Offers background on how the term "techne" was used up through the fourth century BCE. Discusses how modern discourse on technical communication both converges with and departs from Plato's and Aristotle's statements on the relationship between "techne" and rhetoric. Points out areas for further discussion as teachers of…

  10. The Failure of Memory: Reflections on Rhetoric and Public Remembrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kendall R.

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of public memory studies in the field of rhetoric suggests the need to reflect upon the ways in which the practices of rhetoric and the notion of memory intersect. In this essay, I trace the intersection between memory and rhetoric back to the works of Plato and Aristotle. These early works suggest that one reason for attending to…

  11. The First Sophists and the Uses of History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarratt, Susan C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the history of intellectual views on the Greek sophists in three phases: (1) their disparagement by Plato and Aristotle as the morally disgraceful "other"; (2) nineteenth century British positivists' reappraisal of these relativists as ethically and scientifically superior; and (3) twentieth century versions of the sophists as…

  12. Humane Letters: Notes on the Concept of Integrity and the Meanings of Humanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Chris

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author calls for an analysis of integrity and contends that attempting to describe wholeness precisely and incisively is not necessarily a contradiction in terms. The author makes some distinctions about integrity using two moves, one inspired by Plato, and one by Aristotle. The author uses the phrase "humane letters" to name…

  13. Belief in the Spirits of the Dead in Africa: A Philosophical Interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... view that in this rapidly changing world, philosophy should inquire not only in to theoretical problems, but also into practical ones. Plato and Aristotle's theories of the soul being some of the most carefully discussed philosophical theories on immortality or lack of it, will provide the background of deliberation in this paper.

  14. Philosophy as Pharmakon : Towards the hermeneutics of healing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of philosophy gives us an insight into what good life portends. Plato, Aristotle and other ancient classics developed guiding principles on the ethical basis for behavioural cognition and existential logic. Hence, the interest of philosophy in other disciplines such as medicine and psychology is well known.

  15. Teaching Socrates, Aristotle, and Augustine on Akrasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Caleb Clanton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A long-standing debate among moral philosophers centers on the question of whether ignorance is always at the root of moral wrongdoing, or whether, in certain cases, wrongdoing stems from something else—namely akrasia. This paper is a discussion of how undergraduate core curriculum teachers can incorporate Augustine’s work into this debate. I begin by briefly reconstructing Socrates’ and Aristotle’s accounts of wrongdoing, and then I sketch an Augustinian approach to the issue. Socrates contends that ignorance is the fundamental source of all wrongdoing; hence, akrasia is illusory. Though Aristotle’s view can seem more roundabout than Socrates’, it, too, is plausibly interpreted as entailing that robust, open-eyed akrasia is impossible. For Augustine, prior to receiving the illumination that comes with God’s grace, an individual’s sinfulness can be characterized as being the result of ignorance concerning the proper focus of one’s love. However, after receiving this illuminating grace, sinful action can be characterized as an instance of akrasia.

  16. Aristotle, nursing and health care ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, P A

    1995-12-01

    Even a brief consideration of the nature of nursing will indicate that an ethical dimension underlies much, if not all, of nursing practice. It is therefore important that students and practitioners are facilitated in developing an ethical awareness and sensitivity from early in their professional development. This paper argues that Aristotelian virtue theory provides a practice-based focus for health care ethics for a number of reasons. Also, because of his emphasis on the character of the moral agent, and on the importance of perception and emotion in moral decision-making, Aristotelian virtue theory provides a useful supplement to the traditional duty-based approaches to health care ethics analysis, which are increasingly being identified in the literature as having limits to their application within the health care context.

  17. The Outmoded Psychology of Aristotle's Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Alan

    1990-01-01

    Argues that rhetoric belongs to a class of theories that tend not to become outmoded, and presents examples of effective rhetoric from ancient Greece. Suggests that rhetorical theories should be judged on their own terms rather than on the standards of an allied discipline. (KEH)

  18. The historical origins of the vegetative state: Received wisdom and the utility of the text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Zoe M; Fins, Joseph J

    2017-01-01

    The persistent vegetative state (PVS) is one of the most iconic and misunderstood phrases in clinical neuroscience. Coined as a diagnostic category by Scottish neurosurgeon Bryan Jennett and American neurologist Fred Plum in 1972, the phrase "vegetative" first appeared in Aristotle's treatise On the Soul (circa mid-fourth century BCE). Aristotle influenced neuroscientists of the nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, Xavier Bichat and Walter Timme, and informed their conceptions of the vegetative nervous system. Plum credits Bichat and Timme in his use of the phrase, thus putting the ancient and modern in dialogue. In addition to exploring Aristotle's definition of the "vegetative" in the original Greek, we put Aristotle in conversation with his contemporaries-Plato and the Hippocratics-to better apprehend theories of mind and consciousness in antiquity. Utilizing the discipline of reception studies in classics scholarship, we demonstrate the importance of etymology and historical origin when considering modern medical nosology.

  19. ROLE OF ANCIENT HERITAGE IN FORMING CHRISTIAN WORLD PICTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Vadimovich Kortunov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article compares the views of Plato and Aristotle in terms of their relation to the problem of rationality. In fact, Plato and Aristotle have absolutely opposite positions on the question of the essence of philosophy, its subject, its methods; they call for a completely incompatible with each other interpretations of the basis of the life. For Plato, true being is spiritual, transcendental that does not fit into any rational-logical framework. For Aristotle true being is subject-sensual, quite rationally knowable within the boundaries of logical thinking. For Plato, the subject-sensual - is illusory "shadow" of the spirit; for Aristotle absolute spirit is a theoretical assumption, assumption forced, as a kind of methodological assumption to justify the reality of the subject-sensual, "flesh" world. Aristotle most clearly formulated the idea of the rational-logical totality, as a whole it is quite popular for the ancient metaphysics, with which the natural philosophers, and Eleatics, and sophists were largely agreed. Plato, "Opened" transcendence, outlined ways to super-rational, and in many respects to the irrational and mystical understanding of the philosophical problems. And in this sense, as well as Orphics and the Pythagoreans, he left some opposition to the rational-logical tradition of ancient Greece. Plato argued that the truth - it is itself a spiritual reality, which is originally opened to man: it is beyond controversy, representing the true being. From this he concluded that the forms of life and forms of logical thinking differ from each other. For Aristotle, on the contrary, the truth is the correspondence of the forms of thinking to the forms of being; it is not a reality, but it is a reflection of the reality in the structures of human consciousness. And we need to dad that just such interpretation of truth firmly established in Western philosophy and science.These two tendencies, aimed at forming rational and irrational

  20. Platón, Aristóteles y la narrativa histórica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Picón Casas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most showy questions about the works of Plato and Aristotle rests on them silence brings over of the history. They read and criticized physicists, philosophers, mathematicians, biologists, poets, rhetorical, political, etc. Nevertheless, their appointments about the historians of that moment would fit in a sheet of paper. In this brief article we try to offer an explanation about such an omission. Likewise, we are useful to offer a reason of the Menexenus and to contribute a confirmation of the reasons that L. Edelstein led to questioning the genuineness of seventh and eighth letters attributed to Plato.

  1. Přátelství jako hodnota v klasické řecké filosofii a etice

    OpenAIRE

    Grospičová, Simona

    2012-01-01

    TITLE: Friendship as a Virtue in Classical Greek Philosophy and Ethics AUTHOR: Simona Grospičová DEPARTMENT: Social Sciences and Philosophy Department SUPERVISOR: PhDr. Miloslava Blažková, CSc. ABSTRACT: This work analyses friendship, in Greek philia, as a virtue in Classical Greek philosophy and ethics. The study concentrates on works concerning friendship of two most significant authors of the stated period Plato and Aristotle. Friendship is examined not only as a separated theme but also a...

  2. Newton's Metaphysics of Space as God's Emanative Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquette, Dale

    2014-09-01

    In several of his writings, Isaac Newton proposed that physical space is God's "emanative effect" or "sensorium," revealing something interesting about the metaphysics underlying his mathematical physics. Newton's conjectures depart from Plato and Aristotle's metaphysics of space and from classical and Cambridge Neoplatonism. Present-day philosophical concepts of supervenience clarify Newton's ideas about space and offer a portrait of Newton not only as a mathematical physicist but an independent-minded rationalist philosopher.

  3. Tracing the roots of European bioethics back to the Ancient Greek philosophersphysicians

    OpenAIRE

    Kalokairinou, Eleni M.

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to the usual claim that Bioethics is a contemporary discipline, I argue that its origins can be traced back to the Ancient Greek philosophers-healers. In classical antiquity philosophy was almost inseparable from medicine not only in the sense that philosophers like Empedocles, Plato and Aristotle contributed to its development, but also in that later philosophers conceived of moral principles and rules in order to prevent the physicians’ malpractice and the patients’ harassment. Fro...

  4. Inflamed with Study: Eighteenth-Century Higher Education and the Formation of the American Constitutional Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-30

    the Constitution makers included among the Greeks Plato, Aristotle, Demosthenes, Polybius, Strabo, Thucydides, Xenophon, Plutarch and Dionysius of...condition of the weaker members of the Amphyctionic Confederacy. Plutarch (life of Themistocles) will inform us that it happened but too often that the...in the same essay, in describing the deficiencies of the system, he reiterates, "It happened but too often, according to Plutarch , that the deputies

  5. CUTTING BACK THE STEM: CULTIVATING LIBERAL ARTS IN OFFICER ACCESSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    another. Ancient polymaths like Plato and Aristotle did not separate mathematics and astronomy from the logic and aesthetics of philosophy...know and what you don’t. - Anatole France No way of thinking or doing, however ancient , can be trusted without proof. - Henry David Thoreau...particular focus on diversity and technical degrees.”16 What diversity means is not explicit, but the given rationale includes historic references to

  6. plato and the teaching of entrepreneurship studies as general

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    2016-08-22

    Aug 22, 2016 ... curriculum and teaching of entrepreneurial studies in Universities? .... EMPLOYMENT: the public sector is still is still the largest employer of ..... This care of the body in the case of those who are to be guardians of the .... sponsors for such program. In ... Oguejiofor (eds) African Philosophy and Public Affairs.

  7. PPI, paradoxes and Plato: who's sailing the ship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Jonathan; Damery, Sarah; Redwod, Sabi

    2013-03-01

    Over the last decade, patient and public involvement (PPI) has become a requisite in applied health research. Some funding bodies demand explicit evidence of PPI, while others have made a commitment to developing PPI in the projects they fund. Despite being commonplace, there remains a dearth of engagement with the ethical and theoretical underpinnings of PPI processes and practices. More specifically, while there is a small (but growing) body of literature examining the effectiveness and impact of PPI, there has been relatively little reflection on whether the concept/practice of PPI is internally coherent. Here, the authors unpick a 'paradox' within PPI, which highlights a tension between its moral and pragmatic motivations and its implementation. The authors argue that this 'professionalisation paradox' means we need to rethink the practice, and purpose, of PPI in research.

  8. Pragmatic Critique of Plato's Theory of Education | Umezurike ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of education which involves rigorous process and which he believed could help determine the class where each individual citizen could be grouped. This theory though very fantastic when examined theoretically, is not without some flaws. It is because of these flaws that some philosophers describe his theory as utopian.

  9. Rekindling the Dialogue: Education According to Plato and Dewey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Luchene, Stephen R.

    2004-01-01

    Since passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, thinking about America's schools has been taken over by something like philosopher Rene Descartes's malignant demon of doubt. The act's exclusive focus on assessing student achievement and faculty accountability in terms that can be "proved" mathematically has cast into doubt a…

  10. Plato and the art of leadership citizenship | Nwankwor | Sophia: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sophia: An African Journal of Philosophy. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access ...

  11. "From Plato to Pareto": The Western Civilization Course Reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Marie Marmo

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the importance of historical study within general education. Reviews the rise and fall of the Western Civilization course as the core of general education in the humanities. Suggests ways a revised version of this course can be restored to a central place in the curriculum. (AYC)

  12. Citizenship and Social Order: Reflections on Plato | Ogo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citoyenneté et ordre social: réflexions sur Platon Cet article traite de la relation entre ordre social citoyenneté et en s\\'inspirant de Platon. L\\'ordre social renvoie à des questions fondamentales de justice, de coopération entre les hommes et de recherche du bien commun. Il s\\'agit donc de savoir comment les responsabilités ...

  13. Plato, Socrates, Hunt, and Rotfeld: Eigenforms of Academic Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Louise Ripley

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A number of academic institutions profess to offer Interdisciplinary Studies but few truly achieve it, and not without a great deal of effort over and above the normal workload of a professor and a level of patience and perseverance not found in many university students. This paper will report on a successful academic collaboration between two very different disciplines: philosophy and business. It will examine a course taught jointly by the two disciplines in a strategy of imbrication attempted by a college of York University in Toronto, Atkinson College, housing both liberal arts and professional school.

  14. Historical antecedents to the philosophy of Paul Feyerabend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munévar, Gonzalo

    2016-06-01

    Paul Feyerabend has been considered a very radical philosopher of science for proposing that we may advance hypotheses contrary to well-confirmed experimental results, that observations make theoretical assumptions, that all methodological rules have exceptions, that ordinary citizens may challenge the judgment of experts, and that human happiness should be a key value for science. As radical as these theses may sound, they all have historical antecedents. In defending the Copernican view, Galileo exemplified the first two; Mill, Aristotle and Machiavelli all argued for pluralism; Aristotle gave commonsense reasons for why ordinary citizens may be able to judge the work of experts; and a combination of Plato's and Aristotle's views can offer strong support for the connection between science and happiness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Aristotle Meets Youth Work: A Case for Virtue Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessant, Judith

    2009-01-01

    What ethical framework provides the best guide for contemporary youth work is the central question in this article. An account is provided of why the two dominant ethical frameworks, namely, utilitarianism and deontic ethics, are not appropriate. It is argued that virtue ethics is most relevant because it specifies the nature of social goods, and…

  16. The Text of Aristotle's De Sensu and De Memoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2008-01-01

    An examination of alle the manuscripts of the period 10th-14th centuries, which contain the Aristotelian treatises De Sensu and De Memoria. The article establishes a stemma codicum that includes alle these manuscripts.......An examination of alle the manuscripts of the period 10th-14th centuries, which contain the Aristotelian treatises De Sensu and De Memoria. The article establishes a stemma codicum that includes alle these manuscripts....

  17. Was Aristotle an Exponent of Antiscientific Mumbo-Jumbo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koznjak, Boris

    2012-01-01

    During the past few decades, a wide consensus has been reached in the community of science educators that it is almost unimaginable to conduct a quality science education without including the history and philosophy of science in some form in the science curriculum, and this is especially the case for physics education (Matthews 1994). However, in…

  18. Aristotle's Humanistic Ethics | Onwuegbusi | Global Journal of Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Social Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Explanation and teleology in Aristotle's Philosophy of Nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leunissen, Mariska Elisabeth Maria Philomena Johannes

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation explores Aristotle’s use of teleology as a principle of explanation, especially as it is used in the natural treatises. Its main purposes are, first, to determine the function, structure, and explanatory power of teleological explanations in four of Aristotle’s natural treatises,

  20. Re-configuring Aristotle's Dialogics through Reader-Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Mabel

    In her literature and composition classes, an educator encourages students to correlate their memory and imagination to the rhetorical elements of logos, pathos, and ethos and construct regenerative structures of knowledge through a comprehensive and objective understanding of a contextualized problem. She employs Bakhtin's dialogic method of…

  1. The Four Causes of ADHD: Aristotle in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino Pérez-Álvarez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is one of the most well-established and at the same time controversial disorders to the extreme of being placed in doubt. In the first of two parts, the established position is critically reviewed, beginning with showing fallacious reasoning on which the diagnosis is based, lacking clinical proof. Similarly, a certain rhetoric and metaphysics in genetic and neurobiological research is highlighted, where, for example, a meager accumulation of data is offered as robust conclusions, and correlates and correlations as causes and bases. However, that may be, the controversy is silenced in a dialog of the deaf between “defenders” and “critics.” with no way out in sight in empirical and scientific terms. A new meta-scientific position is necessary to analyze the science of ADHD itself and its social uses. In this respect, the second part introduces Aristotle’s four causes, material, formal, efficient, final, as an instrument of enquiry. According to this analysis, ADHD is not the pretended clinical entity as presented, but a practical entity providing a variety of functions. The implications would be rather different from the usual.

  2. Aristotle's 'completeness test' as Heuristics for an Account of Dynamicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibt, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    If being were ‘dynamic,’ would it be more amenable to a definition? In this paper I present a number of preliminary considerations for an exploration of this question. Working from the methodological stance of analytical ontology, I assume that the first task for an ontology of dynamic being...... heuristic leads to a class of inferential data (aspectual inferences) that analytical ontologists have all but overlooked so far. In addition, I suggest that the passage also can offer some ideas about how one might formulate, in mereological terms, a component of an implicit definition of dynamicity....

  3. [Essentialism and typological thinking in biological systematics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'eva, L N

    2003-01-01

    In biological literature, essentialism and typological thinking are believed to be incompatible with evolutionary ideas. At present, the same considerations underlay the claims to abandon the Linnaean hierarchy, or the fundamental classificatory structure rooted in essentialism. This paper suggests to reconsider the negative views of Plato's typology and Aristotle's essentialism following the narrow interpretations that have nothing to do with the classification of living beings. Plato's theory of 'ideas' (or 'forms') is the basis of classificatory theory; it provided such concepts as 'species', 'genus', 'essence', 'dichotomous division' but the development of this theory in the framework of moral and esthetic values could not be beneficial to biology. Aristotle's essentialism is more complicated and exists in two forms; one of these, or classificatory essentialism, is a modification of Plato's typology; another one, or organismal essentialism, represents the shift of 'essence' from the world of relations between objects to the realm of particular things, where the concept of essence lost its basic meaning. It is senseless to look for unreal 'type of an organism' ('essence of a thing') but precisely this kind of essentialism is attractive for biologists and philosophers. Organismal essentialism is the underlying basis of so-called 'individuality thesis' that is used as a weapon against classificatory essentialism. The same thesis is associated with an extensional vision of taxa that also explains the criticism of Linnaean hierarchy, while the latter is the intentional structure and the first tool suggested for the rank coordination of many unequal taxa.

  4. 'Teraz' u Parminidesa: B 8.5 ('NOW' ACCORDING TO PARMENIDES: B 8.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Pawliszcze

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the concept of time in Parmenides' poem. The author begins with comparison between Parmenides and the concept of eternity in Plato's Timaeus. Some historian agree, that concept of eternity was alien for Parmenides and argue from fragm. 8, 5-6, where Parmenides uses the term 'now' - nyn in non-eternal sense. The author reads the conceptions of Schofield, Kahn, Gallop and Groarke (and many other writers and observe some difficulties with their interpretations. He makes entrance with strictly philological analysis of nyn (Plato, Sophocles, Aristotle and compares their use of 'now' with poems of Pindar. The author introduces the concept of 'cyclical' time, where order of moments is irrelevant and men can achieve salvation relatively easy to access.

  5. Which kind of mathematics was known by and referred to by those who wanted to integrate mathematics in «Wisdom» - Neopythagoreans and others?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    Plato, so the story goes, held mathematics in high esteem, and those philosopher-kings that ought to rule his republic should have a thorough foundation in mathematics. This may well be true - but an observation made by Aristotle suggests that the mathematics which Plato intends is not the one...... based on theorems and proofs which we normally identify with "Greek mathematics". Most other ancient writers who speak of mathematics as a road towardWisdom also appear to be blissfully ignorant of the mathematics of Euclid, Archimedes, Apollonios, etc. The aim of the paper is to identify the kinds...... of mathematics which were available as external sources for this current (on the whole leaving out of consideration Liberal-Arts mathematics as not properly external). A number of borrowings can be traced to various practitioners' traditions - but always as bits borrowed out of context....

  6. Which kind of mathematics was known and referred to by those who wanted to integrate mathematics in «Wisdom»

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Plato, so the story goes, held mathematics in high esteem, and those philosopher-kings that ought to rule his republic should have a thorough foundation in mathematics. This may well be true – but an observation made by Aristotle suggests that the mathematics which Plato intends is not the one...... based on theorems and proofs which we normally identify with “Greek mathematics”. Most other ancient writers who speak of mathematics as a road toward Wisdom also appear to be blissfully ignorant of the mathematics of Euclid, Archimedes, Apollonios, etc. – though not necessarily of their names. The aim...... of the paper is to identify the kinds of mathematics which were available as external sources for this current (on the whole leaving out of consideration Liberal-Arts mathematics as not properly external). A number of borrowings can be traced to various practitioners' traditions – but always as bits borrowed...

  7. [The epiglottis in antiquity in medicine and philosophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repici, L

    1990-01-01

    In Antiquity, the epiglottis and the related question whether drink enters the lung is a problem embracing both differently organized philosophical strategies and differently developed medical competences. Over the centuries, the history of a physiological question gradually turns into a debate where we find philosophers disagreeing with philosophers and physicians with physicians. A peculiar feature of this debate is that from a certain time on it involves a division between those who defend Plato's view on the subject and those who (philosophers as well as physicians) criticize it. Plato, Aristotle and Chrysippus, the Hippocratic authors and Erasistratus in the testimony of Aulus Gellius, Plutarch and indirectly also of Cicero, and then Galen and Macrobius have a special place in the development of this topic.

  8. [Art-chance and art-experience in classical Greece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Deokjin

    2011-06-30

    In Classical Greece, works defining the nature of art appeared in the various disciplines like medicine, rhetoric, dietetics, architecture and painting. Hippocratic authors tried to show that an art of medicine existed indeed. They contrasted the concept of art with that of chance, not experience that Plato and Aristotle distinguished from art. In fact there are similarities and discrepancies between Hippocratic epistemology and Platoic epistemology. Hippocratic authors maintained that the products of chance were not captured by art. They distinguished the domain of art charactered by explanatory knowledge and prediction from the domain of chance ruled by the unexplained and the unforeseeable. They minimized the role of luck and believed the role of art. Hippocratic authors thought that professional ability contained both knowledge and experience. In Hippocratic corpus, experience is a synonym of competence and usually has a positive meaning. But Plato gave empirical knowledge the disdainful sense and decided a ranking between two types of knowledge. Both Hippocratic authors and Plato held that a genuine art had connection with explanatory knowledge of the nature of its subject matter. A common theme that goes through arguments about art-chance and art-chance is the connection between art and nature. Hippocratic authors and Plato regarded art as a highly systematic process. Art provides us with general and explanatory knowledge of human nature. Art and nature is a mutual relationship. The systematic understanding of nature helps us gain the exactness of art and an exact art helps us understand nature well.

  9. Greek theories on eugenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galton, D J

    1998-08-01

    With the recent developments in the Human Genome Mapping Project and the new technologies that are developing from it there is a renewal of concern about eugenic applications. Francis Galton (b1822, d1911), who developed the subject of eugenics, suggested that the ancient Greeks had contributed very little to social theories of eugenics. In fact the Greeks had a profound interest in methods of supplying their city states with the finest possible progeny. This paper therefore reviews the works of Plato (The Republic and Politics) and Aristotle (The Politics and The Athenian Constitution) which have a direct bearing on eugenic techniques and relates them to methods used in the present century.

  10. Economic Thinking from Hesiod to Richard Cantillon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ioan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper makes an analysis between the two effects, considering the general case of an Allen utility function. We can say that about economics that it is a relatively young science, economic and social phenomena we find debated in philosophical thinking of Hesiod Xenophon, Plato, Aristotle. These phenomena were only economic management rules of common affairs of the city. Thus, the study of the economy began to emerge timidly, gaining not only the form that we know it today, but also the importance for a developed society, the very cornerstone of its.

  11. The Use of Aristotelian Dialectics: Reception and Scientific Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel López Molina-Niñirola

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the relevance of Aristotelian dialectic in the twentieth century, which has a scientific use, basically in the construction and development of science. It allows, reasoning from éndoxa, to establish the value of truth in propositions and to understand the common principles of science and the principles inherent to individual sciences. The diaporétic procedure theorized by Aristotle is a method and not a piece of knowledge, unlike Plato, but rooted in the Platonic dialectic of Parmenides.

  12. Mevlana'nın Mesnevi'sinde Tanrı'nın Varlığının Kanıtları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Çiçek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mevlana, like Plato, Aristotle, Farabi and other philosophers before him, believes that God can be proved rationally and he explains the relevant proofs in his Mesnevi with metaphors, stories, and fables. These indicate that it is possible to deduce the most perfect Being from the imperfect things in the universe; it is also possible to deduce the existence of God from the fact that what is known and seen cannot come to exist without any cause, or that there must be a Creator for the things that are created

  13. The Use of Aristotelian Dialectics: Reception and Scientific Meaning

    OpenAIRE

    José Miguel López Molina-Niñirola

    2016-01-01

    This article shows the relevance of Aristotelian dialectic in the twentieth century, which has a scientific use, basically in the construction and development of science. It allows, reasoning from éndoxa, to establish the value of truth in propositions and to understand the common principles of science and the principles inherent to individual sciences. The diaporétic procedure theorized by Aristotle is a method and not a piece of knowledge, unlike Plato, but rooted in the Platonic dialectic ...

  14. Philosophical Creationism: Thomas Aquinas’ Metaphysics of Creatio ex Nihilo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Maryniarczyk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available All philosophers, beginning with the pre-Socratics, through Plato and Aristotle, and up to Thomas Aquinas, accepted as a certain that the world as a whole existed eternally. The foundation for the eternity of the world was the indestructible and eternal primal building material of the world, a material that existed in the form of primordial material elements (the Ionians, in the form of ideas (Plato, or in the form of matter, eternal motion, and the first heavens (Aristotle. The article outlines the main structure of the philosophical theory of creation ex nihilo developed by St. Thomas Aquinas and indebted to his metaphysical thought. It shows the wisdom-based and ratiocinative foundation of the rational cognition of reality—reality that comes from the personal creative act of God. It concludes that the perception that the beings called to existence by the personal act of God the Creator are intelligible is the ultimate rational justification for the fact that our human cognition, love, and spiritual creativity are rational.

  15. Aristoteles'in Sanata Dair Düşünceleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Demiralp

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of Plato’s pupils, Aristotle, whose studying activity might be divided into three periods has been known as a great thinker throughout the history of thought. He was a thinker who could achieve to systematize philosophy. The many sided thinker wrote on logic, grammar, rhetoric, literature critique, natural history, psychology and history of philosophy. Today it seems interesting how often he mentioned some samples of art and artistic creations in his writings to illuminate his principles. It may be said, he followed his teacher Plato with this practice. But we know that the two thinkers' principles differed in many ways such as the way they perceived artistic activity and it’s works. For example; according to Plato, it was impossible to see beauty on a statue of a sculpturor like Polycleitus. Because the real beauty existed only in the universe of ideas. But for Aristotle, it was impossible to comprehension beauty if a beautiful object didn’t exist

  16. Şiir Sanatında Anlatım Araçlarına Poetik Metinlerin Yaklaşımı ve “Yeni” Yorumu (Aristoteles, Şerşeneviç ve Orhan Veli’nin Poetik Metinleri Bağlamında Poetic Text’s Approaches to Means of Expression and “Modern” Interpretation in Poetry (In the Context of Poetic Texts of Aristotle, Shershenevich and Orhan Veli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem PARER

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the history of poetry adventure from ancient times to date, thepoet’s invariable characteristic has been his creativity glorified all thetime. However, creativity criteria may vary in different periods. The firstdescription of Poetry and Poet go back to Poetics of Greek philosopherAristotle, who had an understanding close to modern literary theoryand performed the first systematic study on the literature principlesfunctioning and organization based on perceptible data. The mostimportant aspect of Poetics in terms of the subject of this study is thedescription of the poetry language as a specific area of language and theclassification of the functional elements of this structure. However,poetry elements, which have become a tradition in historical processwith changing sense and expectation of art due to many reasons, wereneeded to be reviewed again and caused the pursuit of novelty in 20thcentury. The opposition to the tradition and pursuit of novelty have ledus to find intersection point between Russian futurism and the “Garip”movement in Turkish poetry, although they are not followers of oraffected by each other. Shershenevich and Orhan Veli, explained theiropposition to the traditional and stereotype attitudes towards poetry foryears such as vocabulary, rhyme and meter and rhetorical devices intheir poetry as well as their poetic knowledge by giving justifications.While reviewing the characteristics of poetry, Russian futuristssupported the tendency to neologism, and Garip poets supported thetendency to simplified language of the people that new poetryconception is addressed to. When discussing the common and differentpoint of views of three different authors from different ages, in the poetictext we have studied by giving examples from 20th century Russian andTurkish poetries, it was found out that the idea welcomed for long thatthe poetry is valuable in proportion to its compliance with specific formshas not been accepted. Antik

  17. Verification of the calculation program for brachytherapy planning system of high dose rate (PLATO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almansa, J.; Alaman, C.; Perez-Alija, J.; Herrero, C.; Real, R. del; Ososrio, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    In our treatments are performed brachytherapy high dose rate since 2007. The procedures performed include gynecological intracavitary treatment and interstitial. The treatments are performed with a source of Ir-192 activity between 5 and 10 Ci such that small variations in treatment times can cause damage to the patient. In addition the Royal Decree 1566/1998 on Quality Criteria in radiotherapy establishes the need to verify the monitor units or treatment time in radiotherapy and brachytherapy. All this justifies the existence of a redundant system for brachytherapy dose calculation that can reveal any abnormality is present.

  18. The idea in John Duns Scotus’ turn-about Between Plato and Descartes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Fiorentino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical distance between the Cartesian concept, on the one hand, and the Platonic concept and Medieval tradition, on the other, would be incomprehensible unless one were to take into account the fundamental link, that lies in the thought of John Duns Scotus. The scope of this contribution is to illustrate the theoretical bearing of the turnabout in theology operated by Scotus as regards the concept of ideas. In fact, for Scotus, as we shall see, the concept of the idea is profoundly transformed, loses its exemplary value and takes on a new semblance that is nearer to the Cartesian concept, all this starting from a theological framework.

  19. PLATO IN V. S. SOLOVYEV’SPHILOSOPHY IN THE 1870-S

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    YU. TIKHEEV

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to critically explore conceptual and historical backgrounds of the assessment of Plato’s intellectual heritage given by V. S. Solovyov during the fi rst decade of his activity as philosopher and university lecturer. Within the scope of investigation are included lectures on the history of ancient philosophy delivered by him in the 1870s, as well as some of his theoretical works of the same period. Author shows that Solovyov’s platonic studies were inspired partly by ideas of European romanticism, but mainly by philosophical program of German idealism. On the other hand platonic doctrine of ideas was used by Solovyov to support his own project of the new metaphysics and early version of the philosophy of unitotality

  20. Delivering on the promise of Plato's academy: educational accessibility for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatly, Michele G; Flach, John; Shingledecker, Clark; Golshani, Forouzan

    2010-01-01

    This special volume is dedicated to eight updated and expanded communications selected from 33 refereed papers presented at the inaugural international conference on Technology-based Learning with Disability (LWD-07) which took place on July 19-20, 2007 at Wright State University in Dayton, Ohio. Approximately 140 researchers and practitioners attended LWD-07 representing a cross-section of K-12 and higher education, pure and applied research, disability-related industry and rehabilitation agencies with common interests in facilitating educational attainment for people with all types of disabilities through use of technology. The communications selected for publication are representative of the breadth of interest at the nexus of disability, assistive technology, and the pedagogy of individualized learning. Access to education is a key component for quality of life and rehabilitation of any individual with a disability.

  1. Nietzsche, Plato and the Power of the Duende: the shamanic roots of poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel de Lima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo lida com as raízes xamânicas da poesia através da análise das antigas deidades artísticas gregas, a saber, Apolo e Dionísio, em suas marcadas dicotomias de tendências artísticas tal como são apresentadas por Friedrich Nietzsche em sua reavaliação das considerações platônicas sobre a criação artística. Esta primeira análise é então seguida por um interessante paralelo à força nietzscheana do dionisíaco que pode ser encontrada no igualmente misterioso poder do “Duende,” presente em Federico García Lorca quando da fusão de seus conceitos surrealistas com o senso de sua cultura nativa da Andaluzia, a fim de se mostrar as raízes xamânicas da representação poética.

  2. Friendship and War: True Political Art as the Alliance of Philosophy and Rhetoric in Plato's Gorgias

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    Nicolás Parra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo explora la relación entre filosofía y retórica desde una nueva perspectiva al enfatizar la naturaleza dramática del diálogo y, por tanto, poniéndole atención no sólo a lo que se dice sobre filosofía y retórica, sino también a lo que se muestra, especialmente por las intervenciones de Gorgias a lo largo del diálogo con el fin de salvar a la comunidad de diálogo que investiga lo bueno y lo justo. Esta reconcepción de la relación entre filosofía y retórica implica una reconcepción de la práctica de la política misma, fundada en una filosofía que busca girar las almas individuales hacia el bien y una retórica que motiva a los individuos a ser girados en esa misma dirección por las palabras de los otros.

  3. The Peloponnesian War, the Spanish Requirement and the Clash of Civilizations: An Application of Plato's Theaetetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy C. Hamblet

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper challenges the notion of “civilization” as focal to, and originative of, the problem of suffering in the world, a legacy that continues to betray its heritage in the third millennium of the Common Era. The current global crisis of terrorism is, on both sides of this confrontation, being posed as a war of “civilizations.” Both sides, the terrorists and the current American administration and its allies, argue for the righteous, divinely-ordained nature of their cause and the demonic nature of their infidel enemy. Both legitimate their violences by claims of superior “civilization” and both cite the god as in their “civilizational” court.

  4. Plato and the Police: Dogs, Guardians, and Why Accountability Is the Wrong Answer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Samantha; Shuffelton, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Attention to significant commonalities between the position of teachers and police officers, we suggest, illuminates problematic aspects of their position within a democracy. Demographically, both the teaching force and the police force are disproportionately white, yet the commonalities extend beyond race. We suspect too little attention has been…

  5. The Problem of Intelligence or the Two Sorts of a priori Knowledge in Plato's Dialogue

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chvatík, Ivan

    -, č. 1 (2011), s. 79-93 ISSN 1934-1474. [Razón y Vida. La responsabilidad de la filosofía. Segovia, 19.09.2011-23.09.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : reason * mathema * phronesis * the idea of the Good Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  6. Two Hundred Years of the Psychology of Attitude - 2000 Years of Contributions, From Plato to Allport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodwin, Martin G.

    Developments that laid the groundwork for the modern psychology of attitude began with early Greek philosophy. Conceptions of the cosmologists during the Golden Age of Greek Civilization and the Sophist movement served as a link between mythology and science. Contributions of British Empiricism and German Experimentalism were instrumental to the…

  7. Standard Chronology in Plato’s Dialogues and Stylometric Evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagher Ghomi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract What are to be discussed in this article include two main points: i some kind of a fixed structure can be found in all the chronologies that have been proposed from the last quarter of 19th century onward; a structure that is called here “standard” chronology, and ii in spite of the fact that the appearance of this structure owes too much to the stylistic evidences, these evidences themselves do not confirm anything in the structure but the place of the so-called late dialogues. The standard chronology of Plato’s dialogues is inclined to consider Meno and Republic as dialogues that have been composed after so-called Socratic dialogues and before Parmenides and Theaetetus. This chronology also insists that the latter two dialogues must be dated after so-called middle dialogues and before dialogues like Sophist, Timaeus, Philebus and Laws. This papper is to illuminate the fact that except the similarities between the late dialogues and their probable lateness, the place of other dialogues, more importantly among them the so-called middle period dialogues, Theaetetus and Parmenides, cannot be approved by stylistic evidences.

  8. [Feelings as considered by preplatonic and contemporary philosophers--coincidence or influence?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborowski, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Feelings' role in ancient Greek conceptions up till now has not become clear. As far as the researchers of antiquity are interested in Aristotle's and Hellenistic philosophers, Plato's and his predecessors has not been analysed from this point of view yet. It is often connected with a fact that Preplatonic philosophy is so-called philosophy of physis, and/or its nature is exclusively rationalistic. Thanks to the analysis of three passages (Heraclitus fr. B 85, Parmenides fr. B 3 and Democritus fr. B 31), and multilevel interpretation of Plato's conception one can indicate--if focus one's attention on the elements concerning the affectivity--the similarities to contemporary philosophers' outlooks. Among others, they concern 1) Heraclitus (and Parmenides fr. B 1, 1) versus Hume, Pascal, Ribot, Brentano, Bergson, 2) Parmenides versus Descartes, 3) Democritus versus Ribot, 4) Plato versus Scheler and Hartmann. Such analyses and interpretations let conquer conventional thinking of the Greek emotionality issue, because on the one hand they reveal a kind of deformations and misconstructions in searches, and on the other show a current importance of ancient conceptions. In support of the statement it is worth reminding of the formulation emotional intelligence that recently has enjoyed great popularity. His origins can be found already in Greek philosophers' thought.

  9. Humans, Animals, and Aristotle. Aristotelian Traces in the Current Critique of Moral Individualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Huth

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of moral individualism is part of the foundational structure of most prominent modern moral philosophies. It rests on the assumption that moral obligations towards a respective individual are constituted solely by her or his capacities. Hence, these obligations are independent of any ἔθος (ethos, of any shared ethical sense and social significations. The moral agent and the individual with moral status (who is the target of a respective action are construed as subjects outside of any social relation or lifeworld significations. This assumption has been contested in the last decades by diverse authors with very different approaches to moral philosophy. In the last years, an increasing number of philosophers like Cora Diamond and Alice Crary (with a Wittgensteinian background, but also phenomenologists like Paul Ricœur, Klaus Held, and Bernhard Waldenfels question the presupposition that individual capacities are the agent-neutral and context-neutral ground of moral considerations. This critique of moral individualism in different contemporary discourses shows a striking similarity between Wittgensteinian and phenomenological philosophers as their critical inquiry of prominent theories like the ones by Immanuel Kant, John Rawls, Peter Singer or Tom Regan is derived from mostly implicitly efficacious Aristotelian theorems. Telling examples are the ἔθος (ethos as pre-given normative infrastructure, the ἕξις (hexis as individual internalization of the ethos, the φρόνησις (phronesis described as a specific practical know-how in contrast to scientific knowledge, and not at least the definition of the human being as ζῷον πολιτικόν (zoon politikon. However, the Aristotelian sources of this movement have not yet been scrutinized systematically. This paper aims, first, to reveal the significance of these sources to make them visible and, second, to contribute to the notion of the topicality of Aristotelian philosophy in current debates on ethics.

  10. Neural mechanisms of the mind, Aristotle, Zadeh, and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, Leonid I

    2010-05-01

    Processes in the mind: perception, cognition, concepts, instincts, emotions, and higher cognitive abilities for abstract thinking, beautiful music are considered here within a neural modeling fields (NMFs) paradigm. Its fundamental mathematical mechanism is a process "from vague-fuzzy to crisp," called dynamic logic (DL). This paper discusses why this paradigm is necessary mathematically, and relates it to a psychological description of the mind. Surprisingly, the process from "vague to crisp" corresponds to Aristotelian understanding of mental functioning. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements confirmed this process in neural mechanisms of perception.

  11. Basic Evaluation and the Virtuous Realisation of Values: The Integrative Model of Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Riedenauer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human affectivity is a research topic situated at the intersection of psychology, philosophical anthropology, theory of action and ethics. This article reconstructs the Aristotelian theory of emotions in the context of his theory of aspiration (o/recij and in terms of their function as primary evaluators of situations, which forms the basis for virtue ethics. The Aristotelian model integrates desire, motivation and morality for a rational being in community. Affects (pa/Jh reveal the profile of relevance of the world to a person as an indispensable basis for the work of practical reason. They are analysed in the dimensions of their cognitive core, their social, bodily, and motivational aspects. Affectivity constitutes a primary evaluative response to situations and thereby disposes human beings to realise their call to morally good, virtuous and fulfilling action.

  12. Aristotle: A performance Impact Indicator for the OpenCL Kernels Using Local Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbin Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing complexity of multi/many-core architectures (with their mix of caches and scratch-pad memories and applications (with different memory access patterns, the performance of many workloads becomes increasingly variable. In this work, we address one of the main causes for this performance variability: the efficiency of the memory system. Specifically, based on an empirical evaluation driven by memory access patterns, we qualify and partially quantify the performance impact of using local memory in multi/many-core processors. To do so, we systematically describe memory access patterns (MAPs in an application-agnostic manner. Next, for each identified MAP, we use OpenCL (for portability reasons to generate two microbenchmarks: a “naive” version (without local memory and “an optimized” version (using local memory. We then evaluate both of them on typically used multi-core and many-core platforms, and we log their performance. What we eventually obtain is a local memory performance database, indexed by various MAPs and platforms. Further, we propose a set of composing rules for multiple MAPs. Thus, we can get an indicator of whether using local memory is beneficial in the presence of multiple memory access patterns. This indication can be used to either avoid the hassle of implementing optimizations with too little gain or, alternatively, give a rough prediction of the performance gain.

  13. Development of the ARISTOTLE webware for cloud-based rarefied gas flow modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschenes, Timothy R.; Grot, Jonathan; Cline, Jason A.

    2016-11-01

    Rarefied gas dynamics are important for a wide variety of applications. An improvement in the ability of general users to predict these gas flows will enable optimization of current, and discovery of future processes. Despite this potential, most rarefied simulation software is designed by and for experts in the community. This has resulted in low adoption of the methods outside of the immediate RGD community. This paper outlines an ongoing effort to create a rarefied gas dynamics simulation tool that can be used by a general audience. The tool leverages a direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) library that is available to the entire community and a web-based simulation process that will enable all users to take advantage of high performance computing capabilities. First, the DSMC library and simulation architecture are described. Then the DSMC library is used to predict a number of representative transient gas flows that are applicable to the rarefied gas dynamics community. The paper closes with a summary and future direction.

  14. The Commentary on Aristotle's De Anima by Alphonsus Vargas Toletanus, OESA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, P.J.J.M.; Bercken, J.H.L. van den

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the commentary on Aristotle’s De anima by Alphonsus Vargas Toletanus, OESA († 1366). The commentary has been preserved in one manuscript, Cremona, Biblioteca Statale, Ms. 113 (Nl-12193), written in Bologna in 1475, and in at least five editions printed between 1477 and 1609.

  15. Economics, chrematistics, oikos and polis in Aristotle and St. Thomas Aquinas

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    José Luis Cendejas Bueno

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Aristotle’s thought, economic activity refers to a kind of praxis consisting in allocating the human and material means that constitute the oikos –the domestic community- to fulfil its natural ends: ensure both life and the means of life. By means of natural chrematistics -acquisitive art- families acquire the necessary means for this, which come from production and exchange. Families group together in the political community (polis whose end is living well, according to virtues, among which justice is highlighted as the ‘complete virtue’. For its part, the Christian êthos regards every human act, internal and external, of this complete system (polis, oikos and chrematistics as tending towards its ultimate purpose (beatitudo. In St. Thomas’s view, eternal law harmonizes necessity of irrational beings, loving God’s action (divine law, natural law, and the contingency of ‘human things’ where the economy is included. Trading activity is lawful if it is at the service of the oikos or polis and according to how is exercised, by following commutative justice. The family, political and religious character of human nature establishes what the natural-necessary consists of, embracing, apart from bodily goods, others derived from considering social status and the life chosen (civil, religious, active or contemplative. Economic activity based on this anthropological root has a specific place as a part of an ordered natural-legal totality that provides the economy with meaning and sufficient moral guidance.

  16. There Is Something about Aristotle: The Pros and Cons of Aristotelianism in Contemporary Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Kristján

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to pinpoint some of the features that do--or should--make Aristotelianism attractive to current moral educators. At the same time, it also identifies theoretical and practical shortcomings that contemporary Aristotelians have been overly cavalier about. Section II presents a brisk tour of ten of the "pros":…

  17. ABSTRACT The Hamartia of Aristotle Albert A. Sackey1 The term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    individual's character, the second rejects this moral interpretation but is unable to find a ... through human error than through deliberate wickedness" (emphasis mine).1 Similarly ... of hamartia is primarily in relation to their discussions of drama generally. .... insistence in the Poetics on the separation of character and action.

  18. Aristotle's carp as Claretus' bird comor? Tracing the origin of one medieval term

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedinová, Hana

    -, č. 2 (2016), s. 111-123 ISSN 0567-8269 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13043 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : ancient and medieval zoology * Latin lexicography * Aristoteles * Aristoteles Latinus * Michael Scotus * Thomas of Cantimpré * Claretus * carp * komor * comor Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics http://www.karolinum.cz/ink2_stat/index.jsp?include=AUC_clanek&id=2668&casopis=94&zalozka=0&predkl=0

  19. The whole is more than the sum of its parts: Aristotle, metaphysical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Joseph; Janeka, Ivo; Ferraro, Nalton

    2014-01-01

    This phrase, a favorite of Dr. Joseph E. Murray, can be interpreted in many ways. Mathematically, the whole is equal to the sum of its parts, neither more nor less. Psychological Gestalt theory would maintain that the whole is something else or something different than the sum of its parts. Merely adding up the component parts is meaningless compared with the "part-whole" relationship (SYNERGETICS: Explorations of Thinking. MacMillan Publishing Co, Inc; 1975). Organizational pundits maintain that this principle describes the synergy, which exists between individuals working together in a cooperative effort. Collectively, they are able to achieve an outcome superior to that of 1 or 2 people working alone. This concept is vintage Joseph E. Murray. He was an integral part of the Peter Bent Brigham team, which transformed the dream of organ transplantation into clinical reality over 50 years ago. Although many advances in medicine are made by the serendipity of a prepared mind making a critical observation (Alexander Fleming and penicillin), individual brilliance (Judah Folkman and angiogenesis), or by technology (magnetic resonance imaging), most are achieved by groups of physicians and scientists working together. All have prepared minds. When the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital physicians and researchers at the Harvard Medical School dedicated all of their energy on solving the problems of end-stage renal disease, their effort was concentrated and primarily regional. Today, this cooperation is global, as communication has been facilitated by the Internet, iPhone, iPad, video conferencing, electronic libraries, and the like.

  20. Ancestor Worship in The Logic of Games. How foundational were Aristotle's contributions?

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    John Woods

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding their technical virtuosity and growing presence in mainstream thinking, game theoretic logics have attracted a sceptical question: "Granted that logic can be done game theoretically, but what would justify the idea that this is the preferred way to do it?'' A recent suggestion is that at least part of the desired support might be found in the Greek dialectical writings. If so, perhaps we could say that those works possess a kind of foundational significance. The relation of being foundational for is interesting in its own right. In this paper, I explore its ancient applicability to relevant, paraconsistent and nonmonotonic logics, before returning to the question of its ancestral tie, or want of one, to the modern logics of games.

  1. Aristotle and Autism: Reconsidering a Radical Shift to Virtue Ethics in Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, Heidi

    2017-04-01

    Virtue-based approaches to engineering ethics have recently received considerable attention within the field of engineering education. Proponents of virtue ethics in engineering argue that the approach is practically and pedagogically superior to traditional approaches to engineering ethics, including the study of professional codes of ethics and normative theories of behavior. This paper argues that a virtue-based approach, as interpreted in the current literature, is neither practically or pedagogically effective for a significant subpopulation within engineering: engineers with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Because the main argument for adopting a character-based approach is that it could be more successfully applied to engineering than traditional rule-based or algorithmic ethical approaches, this oversight is problematic for the proponents of the virtue-based view. Furthermore, without addressing these concerns, the wide adoption of a virtue-based approach to engineering ethics has the potential to isolate individuals with ASD and to devalue their contributions to moral practice. In the end, this paper gestures towards a way of incorporating important insights from virtue ethics in engineering that would be more inclusive of those with ASD.

  2. Com"position": Ecocomposition, Aristotle, and the First-Year Writing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Peter Wayne

    2011-01-01

    I see a parallel between the illiteracy I witnessed while working in the court system and the challenges facing first-year writers at the university. In both cases, problems arise due to unfamiliarity with the discourse community into which one enters. In response, because much of the language governing composition and rhetoric is rife with place…

  3. An Analysis of the Agency and Providence in Platonic, Aristotelian and Avicennan Metaphysics

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    Vahideh Hadad

    2013-12-01

    One neither in Plato's own words nor in his commentators' exegeses. Moreover, Demiurge's state of agency in relation to particulars on the one hand, and the quality of the relationship of ideas with material objects on the other, are covered up by ambiguity and such analogies as participation and imitation do not help much to tackle this ambiguity around. In Parmenides, this ambiguity as to the quality of procession of particulars from the ideas has been noted and no slight beam of light ever been shed on it.    Browsing through Aristotelian corpse one would approve the fact that Stagrite's metaphysics could be epitomized in the theory of unmoved mover. Since Aristotle was also a biologist, by studying the movement of heavens he came to the conclusion that celestial spheres are ceaselessly moving around a circle like orbit and whereas every movement needs power to get started (every departure from potentiality toward actuality requires an agent and celestial movement is eternal then it is needless to say that it could not have been occasioned by a corporeal power as corporeality implies limitation and there have to be some non-corporeal entities to take on this movement. Aristotle christens these entities as "intellect" which are purely incorporeal. Aristotelian intellects are thus related to the celestial spheres. Aristotle believed in 55 celestial spheres and 55 correspondent intellects whom he called unmoved movers. Since in Aristotle's view first heaven should be eternal what moves it must be eternal too. Thus Aristotle reached the First Intellect or the Unmoved Mover. (Upon the annulment of circular and infinite regress one can see that the dilemmas which Aristotle was grappling with in physics led him to the domain of metaphysics.    Reading through the works of Avicenna one could find that his core idea as regards to the problem of agency is the very effective and practical theory of "providence". This theory was mooted as a practical theory in Islamic

  4. An Analysis of the Agency and Providence in Platonic, Aristotelian and Avicennan Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahdi Emamijomeh

    2014-01-01

    One neither in Plato's own words nor in his commentators' exegeses. Moreover, Demiurge's state of agency in relation to particulars on the one hand, and the quality of the relationship of ideas with material objects on the other, are covered up by ambiguity and such analogies as participation and imitation do not help much to tackle this ambiguity around. In Parmenides, this ambiguity as to the quality of procession of particulars from the ideas has been noted and no slight beam of light ever been shed on it.    Browsing through Aristotelian corpse one would approve the fact that Stagrite's metaphysics could be epitomized in the theory of unmoved mover. Since Aristotle was also a biologist, by studying the movement of heavens he came to the conclusion that celestial spheres are ceaselessly moving around a circle like orbit and whereas every movement needs power to get started (every departure from potentiality toward actuality requires an agent and celestial movement is eternal then it is needless to say that it could not have been occasioned by a corporeal power as corporeality implies limitation and there have to be some non-corporeal entities to take on this movement. Aristotle christens these entities as "intellect" which are purely incorporeal. Aristotelian intellects are thus related to the celestial spheres. Aristotle believed in 55 celestial spheres and 55 correspondent intellects whom he called unmoved movers. Since in Aristotle's view first heaven should be eternal what moves it must be eternal too. Thus Aristotle reached the First Intellect or the Unmoved Mover. (Upon the annulment of circular and infinite regress one can see that the dilemmas which Aristotle was grappling with in physics led him to the domain of metaphysics.    Reading through the works of Avicenna one could find that his core idea as regards to the problem of agency is the very effective and practical theory of "providence". This theory was mooted as a practical theory in Islamic

  5. Eugenics: some lessons from the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galton, D J

    2005-03-01

    Eugenics was first debated by the ancient Greeks, particularly Plato and Aristotle, developed in the nineteenth century by Francis Galton and Charles Darwin, and then abused in the twentieth century by right-wing politicians. With the new methods of assisted conception combined with the use of genetic markers, all the old problems of eugenics have resurfaced. Gender selection, embryo selection, preimplantation genetic diagnosis of common disease, and gene replacement techniques (somatic cells) have added greatly to the power of the modern eugenicist. How are these procedures to be monitored and regulated? What is the role of the State compared with individual families for the implementation of the new methodologies? Some of these issues will be discussed.

  6. A critical introduction to the metaphysics of time

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    What is the nature of time? Does it flow? Do the past and future exist? Drawing connections between historical and present-day questions, A Critical Introduction to the Metaphysics of Time provides an up-to-date guide to one of the most central and debated topics in contemporary metaphysics. Introducing the views and arguments of Parmenides, Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Newton and Leibniz, this accessible introduction covers the history of the philosophy of time from the Pre-Socratics to the beginning of the 20th Century. The historical survey presents the necessary background to understanding more recent developments, including McTaggart's 1908 argument for the unreality of time, the open future, the perdurance/endurance debate, the possibility of time travel, and the relevance of current physics to the philosophy of time. Informed by cutting-edge philosophical research, A Critical Introduction to the Metaphysics of Time evaluates influential historical arguments in the context of contemporary developments. ...

  7. Permanente homoseksuele verhoudings van liefde en trou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Potgieter

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the argument is made that homosexual relationships of love and commitment was known by the writers of the Bible. Though definitions like �gay� or �homosexuality� was not known, sexual identity was known. According to the anthropology of the Mediterranean people, somebody�s identity was found in the way he or she lived: �If I have a homosexual relationship, then my identity was homosexual�. This article shows that permanent homosexual relationships of love and commitment were known among the Greek philosophers. People like Plato, Aristotle and Pausanius had permanent homosexual partners. Even Paul knew about permanent homosexual relationships of love and commitment. Sufficient evidence has been found in cities like Rome, Corinth and Ephesus on the existence of such relationships.

  8. Die saamspeel van hand, oog en passie: gedagtes oor erotiek en estetika

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    DP Veldsman

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In critical dismissal on the one hand of the viewpoint of Augustine on original sin, and on the other hand of a proposed viewpoint with regard to a theology of God�s good creation, this article explores the intimate interwoveness of aesthetics, erotism and religious experience. The basic communication structure of sender-message-receiver is taken as vantage point and translated into questions regarding the artist, the medium and� the enjoyer of art / art critic. Against a historical-terminological background of aesthetics and erotism from Plato and Aristotle to contemporary views, a theological viewpoint is developed� in playful metaphoric utilization of the concepts hand, eye and passion. Passion is acquitted in this viewpoint in which hamartological short-sightedness is replaced by loving far-sightedness.

  9. A historical introduction to the philosophy of science

    CERN Document Server

    Losee, John

    1993-01-01

    This new edition brings up to date this accessible study of the philosophy of science. Since the time of Plato and Aristotle, scientists and philosophers have raised questions about the proper evaluation of scientific interpretations. A Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Science is an exposition of differing viewpoints on issues such as the distinction between scientific inquiry and other types of interpretation, the relationship between theories and observation reports; the evaluation of competing theories; and the nature of progress in science. The author makes accessible the philosophy of science to readers who may not have extensive knowledge of formal logic or the history of the several sciences. The third edition incorporates an extended discussion of recent developments. Historicist critics of Logical Empiricism have established that evaluative standards and cognitive aims have changed within the history of science. This edition examines these changes, the recent controversies over scientific...

  10. The philosophical origin of the social contract theory

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    Todorović Tanja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the origin of the idea of a social contract in Greek ancient philosophy. The Greeks first discovered this idea in their mythological and cosmological notions. Sophists developed it on the basis of natural law. During its evolution in Greek ancient philosophy the social contract was differently understood: sometimes in a unity with natural law, sometimes in opposition to it. Socrates pointed out the abstract nature of the social contract, while Plato and Aristotle tried to solve the contradictions set by the sophists. The origins of these ideas are very important, because modern and contemporary theories of social contract which use both different customary language and are based on different rationalization of the notion of nature are in part developed on a logic similar to that which can be found in Greek ancient philosophy.

  11. «... Cercare l'esperienza alla sua fonte». Il dono della verità

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    Vincenzo Vitiello

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Un cammino nel territorio della conoscenza, da Wittgenstein a Kant, da Aristotele a Platone, con finale apertura all’etica dell’«accanto», dell’io tu a se medesimo e di se medesimo, ovvero: alla filosofia come testimonianza, alla verità come dono d’altri. «...Look for the experience at its source». The gift of truth A path into the territory of knowledge, from Wittgenstein to Kant, from Aristotle to Plato, with a final opening to the ethics of 'beside', of the I (that is «You» towards Himself and of Himself; that is, to philosophy as witness, to truth as others' gift.

  12. Das Barbarenbild des Poseidonios und seine Stellung in der philosophischen Tradition

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    Reinar Müller

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available The author gives an account of the ideas of the Greeks (Herodot, Hippocrates, Plato, Aristotle about the barbarians. They hesitate between admiring some barbarians, or, on the contrary, considering them unvalued people in comparison with the Greeks, and the theory of the climate, which would be definitive on the formation of the men’s bodies and souls. Poseidonios discusses this problem in a well known fragment in which he tells how the Mariandins submitted to Heraclea because they found themselves inferior. We can come across with traces of his thought on Cicero, De re publica III and Strabo, VI. In conclusion, Poseidonios justifies the Roman world power because its superiority, and this because the climate of Italy. However, he insists that this power must be used with justice and blames the bloody actions of the Sicilian slave war.

  13. Theories About Blood Coagulation in the Writings of Ancient Greek Medico-philosophers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Papaioannou, Theodoros G; Sgantzos, Markos

    2017-01-01

    Anaxagoras and Empedocles both established during the Presocratic era a pioneering theory for the creation of everything in the universe. Macrocosmos' impact through the "Four Elements Theory" explained the conglomeration of the blood inside the vessels. Hippocrates, who instituted the "Four Humours theory", clearly understood blood's coagulation and introduced the term "thrombus". Plato, Aristotle and Galen, all engaged with the clotting phenomenon trying to interpret it. After eons of inquiry, it was the innovative thinking of the ancient Greek medico philosophers that set the scientific bases towards the understanding of a process that had been analyzing until our era. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. A few philosophical ruminations on the human condition and choosing to live well

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    Blake E. Hestir

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion that life is meaningful through choosing to live well has historically received substantive attention in various philosophical circles, notably the ancient Greek philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, and more recently several of the existentialists. In some respects, the idea of choosing to live well is a “thematization” of two widely-recognized, independent components of a meaningful life: happiness and authenticity. I develop this notion of choosing to live well by exploring, developing, and relating these conceptions of happiness and authenticity. By appealing to a very basic account of human nature that has found favor among a great number of people, I show how happiness and authenticity complement each other as conditions for the possibility of living meaningfully.

  15. A history of erotic philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soble, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This essay historically explores philosophical views about the nature and significance of human sexuality, starting with the Ancient Greeks and ending with late 20th-century Western philosophy. Important figures from the history of philosophy (and theology) discussed include Sappho, Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, St. Jerome, the Pelagians, St. Thomas Aquinas, Michel de Montaigne, Rene Descartes, Thomas Hobbes, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Søren Kierkegaard, Arthur Schopenhauer, Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Sigmund Freud, Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Wilhelm Reich, and Herbert Marcuse. Contemporary philosophers whose recent work is discussed include Michel Foucault, Thomas Nagel, Roger Scruton, Karol Wojtyla (Pope John Paul II), Catharine MacKinnon, Richard Posner, and John Finnis. To show the unity of the humanities, the writings of various literary figures are incorporated into this history, including Mark Twain, Arthur Miller, James Thurber, E. B. White, Iris Murdoch, and Philip Roth.

  16. Quale etica per quale futuro? Le vie dell’etica – uno sguardo retrospettivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Caputo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper, starting from the question “Which etichs for what future?”, retraces a few streets of ethical reflection, subdividing the exploration in moments of classical Greece (with Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, of modernity (with Kant, developments science, Hegel and of the current globalized world (with Jürgen Habermas and Karl-Otto Apel. The problem of values, in particular, and of ethics, in general, arises today, as in the past, in a double sense: regards, on the one hand, their possible foundation or legitimation, on the other, their possible sharing and acceptance by all members of the community. Discourse ethics, especially in the version theorized by Karl-Otto Apel, appears more congenial in outlining the minimum basis of a common ethics shared, guaranteed by the universal consensus of ethics intrinsic to the discourse.

  17. Música e políticas socioculturais: a contribuição do canto coral para a inclusão social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Fucci Amato

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss the relevance of choral singing for projects of social inclusion. It presents and analyzes philosophically and historically the social role of singing together, highlighting the thoughts of philosophers as Plato, Aristotle and Rousseau; it also analyzes sociologically the potentialities of choirs for the socio-cultural inclusion of underprivileged communities – introducing concepts and reflections by Pierre Bourdieu, Domenico de Masi and Paulo Freire – and studies multiple cases of successful projects of inclusive choral singing in several regions of Brazil. Finally, it presents a model-proposal of an inclusive project (Pro-InCanto - Program of Social Inclusion through Choral Singing, which can be adapted to the different realities and social contexts of the country. The article concludes that there is a great social potential of choral singing yet to be explored.

  18. Rapport sur l’affaire Darrieussecq // Report on the Darrieussecq affair

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    Judit Lipták-Pikó

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marie Darrieussecq, a contemporary French writer, had been accused of plagiarism several times during her career. Besides defending her reputation, these accusations forced her to think about her conceptions on fiction and writing. Finally, in Rapport de police, she succeeded in showing a mirror to the society of contemporary French writers, in which a tendency towards denying the legitimacy of fiction in certain cases can be observed. This phenomenon is diagnosed by Tiphaine Samoyault as the extension of the domain of plagiarism on simple particles of life. Behind this tendency resurges the old controversy of Plato and Aristotle on mimesis and fiction. Along with Jean-Marie Schaeffer’s analysis on the function of fiction from a cognitive point of view unfolds an apology for lecture and for a fictional writing that is capable of saying the inexpressible and speak for those who don’t have access to language.

  19. ZENÓN DE ELEA Y COMPAÑÍA

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    María Teresa Padilla Longoria

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we have the aim of confronting Plato’s and Aristotle’s ideas on dialectic and other associated practices resourcing to the judgments that both philosophers made in that respect and the position that they showed before such practices achieved by Zeno of Elea and two archetypical sophists like Protagoras and Gorgias. All of this with the aim of emphasising, first, the risk that for Plato entailed the generalisation of such practices and the contrast that implied in relation with his philosophical project of dialogic examination and unselfish search for the truth and, second, with the aim of showing the way that Aristotle intended to open with the position that he had in relation with Zeno and the sophists and that led him to develop other ideas on dialectic itself, rhetoric and sophistic.

  20. Flatland an edition with notes and commentary

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Edwin A; Banchoff, Thomas F

    2010-01-01

    Flatland, Edwin Abbott Abbott's story of a two-dimensional universe, as told by one of its inhabitants who is introduced to the mysteries of three-dimensional space, has enjoyed an enduring popularity from the time of its publication in 1884. This fully annotated edition enables the modern-day reader to understand and appreciate the many "dimensions" of this classic satire. Mathematical notes and illustrations enhance the usefulness of Flatland as an elementary introduction to higher-dimensional geometry. Historical notes show connections to late-Victorian England and to classical Greece. Citations from Abbott's other writings as well as the works of Plato and Aristotle serve to interpret the text. Commentary on language and literary style includes numerous definitions of obscure words. An appendix gives a comprehensive account of the life and work of Flatland's remarkable author.

  1. The Biological Implausibility of the Nature-Nurture Dichotomy & What It Means for the Study of Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowicz, David J

    2011-01-01

    Since the time of the Greeks, philosophers and scientists have wondered about the origins of structure and function. Plato proposed that the origins of structure and function lie in the organism's nature whereas Aristotle proposed that they lie in its nurture. This nature/nurture dichotomy and the emphasis on the origins question has had a powerful effect on our thinking about development right into modern times. Despite this, empirical findings from various branches of developmental science have made a compelling case that the nature/nurture dichotomy is biologically implausible and, thus, that a search for developmental origins must be replaced by research into developmental processes. This change in focus recognizes that development is an immensely complex, dynamic, embedded, interdependent, and probabilistic process and, therefore, renders simplistic questions such as whether a particular behavioral capacity is innate or acquired scientifically uninteresting.

  2. Elements for the Theory of Value in Ancient Philosophy

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    Ivan Ivlampie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although axiology is a new philosophical discipline (the second half of the 19th century, we can talk about both a prehistory and a protohistory of axiology. The most important aspect of axiology belongs to its prehistory. Examining the doctrines of ancient philosophers one can conclude that, although no Greek thinker had the distinct conscience of a specific realm of values, yet each generation had intuitions proper to the axiological perspective. Their intuitions regarded the human act of founding the world of values (the Sophists, or the argumentation in favour of the general character of values (Plato and Aristotle or a hierarchy of values as a model of human education and formation.

  3. Patients who make terrible therapeutic choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzer, Howard J

    2014-01-01

    The traditional approaches to dental ethics include appeals to principles, duties (deontology), and consequences (utilitarianism). These approaches are often inadequate when faced with the case of a patient who refuses reasonable treatment and does not share the same ethical framework the dentist is using. An approach based on virtue ethics may be helpful in this and other cases. Virtue ethics is a tradition going back to Plato and Aristotle. It depends on forming a holistic character supporting general appropriate behavior. By correctly diagnosing the real issues at stake in a patient's inappropriate oral health choices and working to build effective habits, dentists can sometimes respond to ethical challenges that remain intractable given rule-based methods.

  4. VIRTUE ETHICS - NEW COORDINATES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

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    PUP ANCA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Operating with business ethic we meet, some ethical systems, some of them developed in Antiquity, that still have a great influence upon economics development. One of these is the ethics of virtue. The aim of this paper work is to focus upon the one ethical system virtue ethics and to illustrate his influence in economical field, offering a new coordination in this direction. We understand the importance of the human character for a successful leadership and management. Recent ethical dilemmas illustrate us how a vicious character has an influence not only to the possessor of that type of character but also to the entire community where he develop his activities. For a comprehensive understanding I expose a briefly review on virtue ethics as it was developed by Plato and Aristotle, ant its new coordination and influence upon our contemporaneous economy, illustrated by some examples.

  5. Ghirlandaio, Ficino and Hermes Trismegistus: the Prisca Theologia in the Tornabuoni Frescoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Anna Chrzanowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study offers a Neoplatonic reading of certain iconographic elements of Domenico Ghirlandaio’s frescoes in the Tornabuoni Chapel in Florence. It focuses on the nude figure sitting on the steps in the “Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple” as well as the group of four listeners gathered on the right in the “Preaching of St. John the Baptist”. Following an investigation of the relationship between these figures and Marsilio Ficino’s philosophical ideas and the apocryphal gospels the author suggests that the nude represents Saturn and that the four men are Ficino’s famiglia filosofica: Hermes Trismegistus, Moses, Aristotle and Plato. This analysis therefore attempts to show that the decoration not only expresses the political supremacy of the Medicean faction but also conveys Ficino’s ideas about the prisca theologia.

  6. Rhétorique de l’ingenium et personnalité littéraire

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    Cristina Müller

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to briefly outline the historical evolution of the ingenium in the premodern culture. A rhetorical and literary concept, the ingenium organizes the ancient notion of the capacity of invention and of artistic inspiration, and eventually becomes a central concept in the classic Aesthetic thought. But its meaning and evolution are also intimately related to the discovery of the individuality, and to the tension between natura (the natural, inborn characteristics and ars, doctrina (acquired, secondary, elaborated characteristics of an individual style. From Plato and Aristotle, through Cicero, Quintilian and Erasmus, the classic Aesthetics articulates a question still meaningful for the modern reflection on the individual : how can the tension between the acknowledged diversity of ingenia and the necessity for a unifying discipline like Rhetorics be ultimately reduced.

  7. How old is surface science?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paparazzo, E.

    2004-01-01

    Philosophical and literary testimonies from the Classical World (5th century B.C. to 3rd century A.D.) involving solid surfaces are reviewed. Plato thought the surface to be a real entity, whereas Aristotle considered it to possess an unqualified existence, i.e. not to be a substance, but just an accidental entity. The Old Stoics asserted that surfaces do not possess any physical existence, although the Stoic philosopher Posidonius--apparently the only exception in his school--held them to exist both in thought and reality. While both the Atomists and the Epicureans were very little interested in them, the Sceptic philosopher Sextus Empiricus considered surfaces to be the limits of a body, although he maintained that both the view that they are corporeal or the view that they are incorporeal present unsurmountable difficulties. Among Roman authors, the testimony from Pliny the Elder is mostly concerned with metallic surfaces, chemical change occurring there, and surface treatments used in antiquity. Besides the philosophical motivations, the implications of the testimonies are discussed in the light of surface science. The purely geometrical surface of Plato is found to compare favorably to single-crystal surface, Posidonius' 'corporeal' surface is best likened to an air-oxidized, or otherwise ambient-modified surface, and ancient accounts on mixture are compared to XPS results obtained in adhesion studies of enameled steels. I argue that the long-standing dominance of Aristotle's view from antiquity onwards may have had a part in delaying theoretical speculation into solid surfaces

  8. Verification of the calculation program for brachytherapy planning system of high dose rate (PLATO); Programa de verificacion del calculo para un sistema de planificacion de braquiterapia de alta tasa de dosis (PLATO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almansa, J.; Alaman, C.; Perez-Alija, J.; Herrero, C.; Real, R. del; Ososrio, J. L.

    2011-07-01

    In our treatments are performed brachytherapy high dose rate since 2007. The procedures performed include gynecological intracavitary treatment and interstitial. The treatments are performed with a source of Ir-192 activity between 5 and 10 Ci such that small variations in treatment times can cause damage to the patient. In addition the Royal Decree 1566/1998 on Quality Criteria in radiotherapy establishes the need to verify the monitor units or treatment time in radiotherapy and brachytherapy. All this justifies the existence of a redundant system for brachytherapy dose calculation that can reveal any abnormality is present.

  9. Music: Its Expressive Power and Moral Significance

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    Sarah Whitfield

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The creation and practice of music is tightly wound with human emotion, character, and experience. Music arouses sentiment and cannot be underestimated as a powerful shaper of human virtue, character, and emotion. As vehicles of musical expression, musicians possess the ability to profoundly influence an audience for good or for evil. Thus, the nature of music and the manner in which musicians utilize it creates innumerable ramifications that cannot be ignored. The pervasiveness of this notion is largely attributed to the Greek theorists, who ascribed various emotions and moral implications to particular modes. The prominent Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle affirmed that music contained an intrinsic element that was conducive to the promotion of moral or spiritual harmony and order in the soul. Plato and his contemporaries attributed specific character-forming qualities to each of the individual harmonia, or musical modes, believing that each could shape human character in a distinct way. These ideas inevitably persisted and continue to endure. Theorists throughout history have agreed that music profoundly influences human character and shapes morality.

  10. Amicus Plato, sed magis amica veritas: plots must obey the laws they refer to and models shall describe biophysical reality!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkov, Igor I

    2011-06-01

    In the companion paper, we discussed in details proper linearization, calculation of the inactive osmotic volume, and analysis of the results on the Boyle-vant' Hoff plots. In this Letter, we briefly address some common errors and misconceptions in osmotic modeling and propose some approaches, namely: (1) inapplicability of the Kedem-Katchalsky formalism model in regards to the cryobiophysical reality, (2) calculation of the membrane hydraulic conductivity L(p) in the presence of permeable solutes, (3) proper linearization of the Arrhenius plots for the solute membrane permeability, (4) erroneous use of the term "toxicity" for the cryoprotective agents, and (5) advantages of the relativistic permeability approach (RP) developed by us vs. traditional ("classic") 2-parameter model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Gospel of Thomas and Plato : A Study of the Impact of Platonism on the Fifth Gospel

    OpenAIRE

    Miroshnikov, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    It is no secret that Christian dogmatic theology adopted a generous number of its concepts from Platonist philosophy; by the time of the Cappadocian fathers, it was customary to talk about divine matters in Platonist terms. It is, however, much more difficult to track the Platonist influence during the formative centuries of Christianity. In the last decades, the academic community has gradually come to realize that research into the Platonizing tendencies of early Christian texts may shed ne...

  12. How Poets Should Speak of the Gods. Plato, Republic II 377e6–378a1

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    Jera Marušič

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In Plato’s Republic, Socrates and his interlocutors assign to poetry an important educational task in the envisioned just state, but then find the existing poetry mostly unsuitable for it. Examining how poets speak about the gods, Socrates directs at Hesiod the criticism that he »did not speak falsely well« (377e7 when narrating the actions of Uranus and Cronus. We may find this criticism surprising: the poet is not reproached for speaking falsely about the actions of these two gods, but for not speaking falsely well about them. It seems, therefore, that Socrates would not disapprove of Hesiod’s false speaking, provided that the poet spoke falsely well. In order to clarify Socrates’ criticism, it is first examined what it means, in the case of Hesiod, »to speak falsely« (as opposed to »speaking truly«, and then what it means »not to speak falsely well« (as opposed to »speaking falsely well«. Relying on some further arguments by Socrates, a distinction is made between two kinds of claims that can be made about the gods: claims about what the gods are like and claims about what they did. As this paper tries to show, it is acceptable to Socrates if poets speak falsely about what the gods did (for, because there is no knowing about the divine actions, it is not possible to speak truly about this, as is suggested at 382c10–d3, but not about what they are like (for what we do know about the divine nature is that it is good and therefore cannot cause evil, and so it must be spoken of, as is argued at 379b1–16. It turns out, therefore, that poets speak falsely well about what the gods did when they attribute good actions to them, i.e. such actions as they could in fact have done: doing so, the poets speak falsely about what the gods did, but implicitly speak truly about what they are like. As Hesiod attributed bad actions to Uranus and Cronus, he implicitly spoke of the gods as capable of evil. Therefore he did not speak falsely only about the divine actions, but, implicitly, also about the nature of the divine. That is why he did not speak falsely well.

  13. Baseline Q waves as a prognostic modulator in patients with ST-segment elevation: insights from the PLATO trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siha, Hany; Das, Debraj; Fu, Yuling; Zheng, Yinggan; Westerhout, Cynthia M; Storey, Robert F; James, Stefan; Wallentin, Lars; Armstrong, Paul W

    2012-07-10

    Baseline Q waves may provide additional value compared with time from the onset of symptoms in predicting outcomes for patients with ST-segment elevation. We evaluated whether baseline Q waves superseded time from symptom onset as a prognostic marker of one-year mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. Our study was derived from data from patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention within 24 hours in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes trial Q waves on the baseline electrocardiogram were evaluated by a blinded core laboratory. We assessed the associations between baseline Q waves and time from symptom onset to percutaneous coronary intervention with peak biomarkers, ST-segment resolution on the discharge electrocardiogram, and one-year all-cause and vascular mortality. Of 4341 patients with ST-segment elevation, 46% had baseline Q waves. Compared to those without Q waves, those with baseline Q waves were older, more frequently male, had higher heart rates, more advanced Killip class and had a longer time between the onset of symptoms and percutaneous coronary intervention. They also had higher one-year all-cause mortality than patients without baseline Q waves (baseline Q waves: 4.9%; no baseline Q waves: 2.8%; hazard ratio [HR] 1.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-2.45, p waves. After multivariable adjustment, baseline Q waves, but not time from symptom onset, were associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.10-2.01, p = 0.046) and vascular mortality (adjusted HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.09-2.28, p = 0.02). The presence of baseline Q waves provides useful additional prognostic insight into the clinical outcome of patients with ST-segment elevation. Clinical Trials.gov registration no. NCT00391872.

  14. Dua Mazhab Emanasi dalam Filsafat Islam Klasik dan Implikasi Teologisnya

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    Ibnu Ali

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Islamic philosophy, which has been an accumulation of relation between pure logic and religious texts (naql, has a uniquely different features from the philosophy of Aristotle. This is because the Islamic philosophy has met not only with the pre-Islamic sciences but it also has thoroughly interacted with various branches of the Islamic knowledge such as theology, taṣawwuf, uṣûl al-fiqh, and târîkh al-tashrîʻ. The interaction has resulted in numerous different thoughts within the Islamic philosophy itself as can be identified among the peripatetic Islamic philosophers. The article is intended to describe that in discussing cosmological matter, the majority of these philosophers put emphasis on Plotinus’s concept of emanation. However, the concept has led to distinctively diverse schools of philosophy in Islam. The study finds that the philoso-phers with strong background of scientific disciplines produced considerably different thought of emanation from those with strong background of Islamic knowledge. The first school consists of scientists-philosophers affiliated to the thought of Pythagoras, Plato, and Aristotle though with new concepts they proposed. The second school comprises Sufi-philosophers whose concepts have been strongly influenced by intuition though there have been conceptual differences based on their spiritual experiences.

  15. Selected Philosophers’ Views of the Family [Rodzina w poglądach wybranych filozofów

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    Agnieszka SZCZAP

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this article is the history of philosophical speculation on the family. Philosophical reflections on the family date back to Antiquity. The main points of reference for the entire socio-philosophical literature are the views of Plato and Aristotle. Plato’s recognition of private property and the family as the main barriers in the way of a perfect state has weighed on all concepts of equality for many centuries. On the other hand, Aristotle, recognizing the family as the basic social group, place of formation of virtues and one of the conditions of a happy life, contributed to consolidate the view of the distribution of social roles based on sex as natural and necessary. Medieval philosophers placed the family in the perspective of creation, this life, and salvation. Modern philosophical concepts of the family were completely different and sometimes contradictory. On the one hand, there were ideas of such thinkers as John J. Rousseau, with emphasis on the polarization of education and social roles by gender, on the other, strongly egalitarian views of Mary Wollstonecraft. Feminist considerations of Simone de Beauvoire conclude the review of philosophical views on the family

  16. “La tua Grecia, la quale a me non è Dio”: Martello and Metastasio in reinterpreting Aristotle

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    Flavio Ferri-Benedetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Martello in 1714 and Metastasio in 1773-1783: two Italian authors who, bothbelonging to the Accademia dell’Arcadia, tried, on one hand, to reinterpret andunderstand the dictates of Aristotle’s Poetics (largely “twisted” during the previouscentury by a number of zealous scholars through the literary and philosophical innovations of their time; and, on the other hand, to apply this new perspective to the important genre of musical theatre or dramma per musica. We look for (and compare eventual links between both authors in the treatment of Aristotelian prescriptions applied to the rich patterns of late baroque theatre and melodramma.

  17. Praxis, Sittlichkeit and Communicative Action. On the connection between praxis, Sittlichkeit and communicative action in Aristotle, Hegel, Habermas and Honneth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øjvind Larsen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of praxis is one of the most fundamental concepts in the history of political philosophy. The most famous example may be Marx’s statement in the eleventh thesis on Feuerbach. The close relation between praxis and polis was grounded in Aristotle’s political philosophy. Hegel leads this concept further with his concept of praxis as Sittlichkeit. Honneth and Habermas are both grounded in the young Hegel’s writings when they try to extrapolate what is essential in Hegel’s concept of praxis and generate a new concept, which may be valid for our time. Honneth is standing by Hegel’s concept of recognition, which he then is forced to leave many years later when rediscovering Hegel’s concept of Sittlichkeit. However, Honneth fails to reconcile praxis and Sittlichkeit. In contrast, Habermas sets in a hermeneutic maneuver language as a substitute for Hegel’s concept of spirit. With this new, effectively metaphysical concept, he is able to formulate a practical philosophy in which both praxis and Sittlichkeit are summarized in communicative action. Habermas’s practical philosophy follows Hegel's and extends its roots into the history of ideas, back to Aristotle’s foundation of the concept of praxis and, in a broader sense, to the antique democracy of Athens.

  18. Aristotle, the jewish sages and Solomon in an unpublished collection of sayings, Palabras breves: dichos de sabios

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    Marta Haro Cortés

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an edition of an unpublished collection of sayings, of Jewish origin, to be found in Manuscript 5644 of the Biblioteca Nacional in Madrid, on folios 78V (lxxxv to 84V (lxxxviv. The contents are to be found in the Libro de los buenos proverbios (translated from Arabic into Spanish and Hebrew in the 13th century; in the Pirqué Abot, the only wisdom tractate in the Mishnah; and in the Proverbs of Solomon, part of the Tanakh, i.e. the Hebrew bible. The compilation of the work involved selecting and reorganising materials from various sources, following the editor’s tastes and interests, and giving rise to a new literary product which is a perfect example of the process and techniques involved in the assimilation and transmission of the Jewish wisdom legacy to the Castilian Middle Ages.

  19. Apixaban for reduction in stroke and other ThromboemboLic events in atrial fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial: design and rationale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes, R.D.; Alexander, J.H.; Al-Khatib, S.M.; Ansell, J.; Diaz, R.; Easton, J.D.; Gersh, B.J.; Granger, C.B.; Hanna, M.; Horowitz, J.; Hylek, E.M.; McMurray, J.J.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Wallentin, L.

    2010-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased risk of stroke that can be attenuated with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). Vitamin K antagonist use is limited, in part, by the high incidence of complications when patients' international normalized ratios (INRs) deviate from the target range. The

  20. An Inquiry of NCATE's Move into Virtue Ethics by Way of Dispositions (Is This What Aristotle Meant?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    The recent turn in teacher education reform in the United States toward hyper "professionalization" and assessment-based accreditation, spearheaded by the largest accrediting agency, the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), has moved beyond codifying knowledge and skills to codifying the internal existence of those…

  1. The Beginnings of the History of Philosophy in Ancient Greece

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    Ignacija J. Fridl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Like many contemporary researchers into the ancient history of philosophy and into encyclopedic Hellenistic works (Mejer, Schoefield, Runia, Maasfeld ..., the author observes that a great deal of research into ancient doxography and Diogenes Laertius has focused on evaluation. Her own paper, on the other hand, turns to the question: What can Laertius’ attention to philosophers’ biographies in his Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers tell us about the Ancient Greek view of the philosophical thought from the past?  As noted by the author, the term ‘doxography’ itself, which bears the connotation of a less reliable source and is applied today to almost every ancient explanation of any philosophical doctrine, was established by Hermann Diels as late as the 19th century. Yet this view of earlier thought was in fact already developed by Aristotle. His treatise On the Soul defines the philosophical tenets of his precursors as ‘opinions’, which are then critically examined and rejected. This attitude to earlier philosophy informs all Aristotle’s writings and his methodology of philosophy in general, for his prima philosophia as a ‘science which considers the truth’ is founded precisely on the critique of earlier thought. He critically evaluates even the tenets of his teacher Plato, in order to surpass him with his own philosophy. Thus he lays the foundations of evolutionary historiography, which perceives history as a spiritual progress and has lasted through Hegel, Marx, and – with a negative historical connotation – Heidegger – to this day. Plato, by contrast, envisages, through the very form of the dialogue, the relation to earlier philosophy as a conversation, a constant interweaving and fertilisation of one’s own thought with the wisdom of one’s precursors. This perception is further reinforced by his doctrine of knowledge as a process of remembering, that is, of philosophy as a road to wisdom leading back

  2. Normatywna definicja filozofii analitycznej (A NORMATIVE DEFINITION OF ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHY

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    Wacław Janikowski

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Analytic philosophy cannot be defined as a philosophical school in the world. This is a broad type of philosophy and most prominent ideas popularly attached to the term 'analytic philosophy' are: (1 generally it concerns questions of language, concepts, logic and methodology; (2 it is rather rigouristic as to the way of exposition and considering of philosophical problems, perhaps more logically demanding and careful than any other sort of philosophy; (3 in consequence its primary objective is analysis of concrete concepts and theoretical problems, and only secondary (if at all larger synthesis of thought. These three characteristics are however only common associations. As such they should be included in working out purely reportive definition of the term 'analytic philosophy', probably insuperable task. We stay with different definitions, and various analytic philosophies themselves. In spite of that the author proposes to stipulate one normative definition. It is also reportive due to equivalences or strong resemblance to definitions made by Ernest Nagel, Józef Maria Bochenski, Dagfinn Frilesdal, Ray Monk and many others (so often not quite explicit definitions, though understandings being sufficiently recognizable as pertaining to one genre. Summing up all definitional requirements, analytic philosophy has been characterized as: (1 having high standards of objectivity and justifiability (formulating explicit theses, always preferring uniquely and clearly interpretable expressions, finding scrupulous arguments pros and cons etc.; and (2 approving of (moderately at least empirical sciences, with assumption of privileged status of empirical knowledge. Second feature is less important, and yet without it a philosophy cannot be completely analytic in preferred sense. Philosophical analyticity is gradable, relatively to these two features. There are some virtues of such definition. For example, we may properly say that Aristotle was certainly

  3. Gastronomía, turismo y potencialidades territoriales: el plato minero y la salazón, bases para el turismo alimentario en Nemocón

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    Fabián Andrés Llano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available La promoción turística de un municipio como Nemocón pasa por el reconocimiento de su gastronomía, asociada a la cultura alimentaria andina. Esta aceptación del patrimonio culinario de un lugar como Nemocón, sirve como referente para la construcción de la ruta de la sal a partir de las bases del turismo alimentario. Desde el marco conceptual de la geografía humana, el estudio utilizó un enfoque metodológico que involucró como estrategia de investigación la historia oral, privilegiando la narración en el rescate de elementos culturales.

  4. Avance al estudio de las pinturas rupestres esquemáticas de la Cueva del Plato. Panel "A" (Otiñar, Jaén

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    Javier CARRASCO RUS

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En estos últimos años se han descubierto una serie de abrigos y cuevas con pinturas rupestres de tipo «esquemático» en la provincia de Jaén. En muchos de los casos han sido dadas a conocer de forma muy sucinta a modo de pequeño informe, llamando la atención de los especialistas e interesándoles por ellas. Otras veces las noticias de los hallazgos no han pasado de las páginas del periódico local, con el consiguiente detrimento para el conocimiento de las manifestaciones artísticas de las primitivas poblaciones del Alto Guadalquivir.

  5. Dose distribution around Ir192 brachytherapy source in non-full scattering conditions: comparison of in-phantom measurements and Nucletron-Oldelft plato system calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jastrzembski, Michal; Kabacinska, Renata; Makarewicz, Roman

    1996-01-01

    Introduction: Comparing the values of doses measured in vivo during gynaecological brachytherapy with those computed with the use of Nucletron-Oldelft brachytherapy treatment planning system a high level of uncertainty appears. In case of points located close to the media border this is also due to the lack of scattering in this region. The influence of the lack of scattering on dose distribution has been investigated. Measured data has been compared to those given by Nucletron-Oldelft BPS. Materials and methods: Profiles in a large water phantom (PTW MP3 system) has been measured in directions perpendicular to the long axis of the fixed source at varied water level and at varied source-to-detector distances. Normalization values for the curves has been acquired by absolute dose measurements. Obtained data has been compared to profiles calculated in the same axes by Nucletron-Oldelft BPS. Results: The lack of scattering in the region close to water surface (up to 8cm) results in significant drop in measured dose. The decrease depends both on the distance from the medium border and on the distance from the source. For source-to-detector distance of 6.5cm the difference between calculated and measured dose is 8% for 3cm and 21% for 1cm of water above the source. Profiles in this region become flattened and asymmetric according to the drop in dose level. Conclusions: The lack of scattering in the region close to the patient skin results in significant drop in dose which is not taken into account by Nucletron-Oldelft BPS. This means that dose distribution calculated in this region by the System is not correct

  6. Gastronomía, turismo y potencialidades territoriales: el plato minero y la salazón, bases para el turismo alimentario en Nemocón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Andrés Llano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La promoción turística de un municipio como Nemocón pasa por el reconocimiento de su gastronomía, asociada a la cultura alimentaria andina. Esta aceptación del patrimonio culinario de un lugar como Nemocón, sirve como referente para la construcción de la ruta de la sal a partir de las bases del turismo alimentario. Desde el marco conceptual de la geografía humana, el estudio utilizó un enfoque metodológico que involucró como estrategia de investigación la historia oral, privilegiando la narración en el rescate de elementos culturales.

  7. Seria a moqueca apenas uma peixada? ¿La moqueca seria unicamente un plato de pescado? Alimentacion e identidad en Salvador, Bahia (Brasil

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    Jane Fajans

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Comidas regionais no Brasil incorporam a história, geografia, cultura, “raça”, classe social e identidade de uma região. Um exemplo claro destes fatores se encontra na competição entre os Estados da Bahia e do Espírito Santo acerca de quem faz a melhor moqueca. A competição não está apenas associada ao gosto desta especialidade, mas também aos valores religiosos, culturais, raciais e de classe a ela associados. São incorporadas as qualidades de quem prepara e o contexto no qual é preparada e servida a moqueca.Las comidas regionales del Brasil revelan la historia, la geografía, la cultura, la “raza”, las clases sociales y la identidad de cada región. Un ejemplo claro de esos factores se encuentra en la competencia entre los Estados de Bahia y Espírito Santo acerca que quién hace la mejor moqueca. En esta competencia, finalmente, el sabor de esta especialidad culinaria no tiene tanta importancia como los valores religiosos, culturales, raciales y de clase a los cuales está asociada. Este platillo incorpora las cualidades de las personas que lo cocinan y el contexto en el cual está elaborado y servido.

  8. Philosophy and Politics: The anti-political character of Socrates’ philosophy and Plato ’s project of making philosophy political

    OpenAIRE

    Hrvoje Cvijanović

    2016-01-01

    The intention of this research is to elaborate on Socrates’ philosophy and its serious consequences for the relationship between philosophy and politics, hence making them hostile to each other, and Socrates an enemy of the people. The author explores the tension between philosophy and public life by comparing and contrasting two opposing philosophical projects – Socrates and Plato’s – while illuminating different methods and paths they follow in their understanding of philosophy and politics...

  9. A natureza dos números na República de Platão

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    Anastácio Borges de Araújo Jr.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available É incontestável a presença das matemáticas nos diálogos de Platão, todavia o alcance e o sentido desta presença é matéria de controvérsia entre os especialistas. Alguns acreditam que os temas matemáticos empregados nos diálogos são fantasias matemáticas, outros defendem baseados, sobretudo no testemunho de Aristóteles, que Platão teria substituído na sua hipótese as formas inteligíveis pelos números ideais. Sem tomar partido de antemão nestas querelas, o que propomos aqui é uma investigação acerca da natureza dos números fundamentada exclusivamente nos textos de Platão, particularmente orientada por uma passagem do livro VII do diálogo República(525 b11- c3, em que Sócrates diz o seguinte: "Seria, portanto, conveniente colocar este estudo, ò Glaucon, dentro de uma legislação e persuadir aqueles que vão participar das grandes coisas na cidade a irem ao cálculo e a aplicarem-se a ele, não nos seus afazeres privados, mas até chegarem à contemplação da natureza dos números através da própria intelecção (...".The presence of the mathematics in Plato's dialogues is unquestionable. However, its reach and sense is controversial for some specialists. Some believe that the mathematical themes employed in the dialogues are mathematical fantasies; on the other hand, others defend, based on the Aristotle's testimonies, that Plato would have substituted the intelligible forms by the ideal numbers in his hypothesis. Having not taken part in the quarrel, we propose an investigation on the nature of the numbers based exclusively in Plato's texts, particularly oriented by the a passage in book VII of Republic (525 b11 - c3, in which Socrates says: "Then it would be fitting, Glaucon, to set this study down in law and persuade those who are going to participate in the greatest things in the city to go to calculation and to take it up, not after the fashion of private men, but stay with it until they come to the

  10. Sing to the Lord a New Song: John Calvin and the Spiritual Discipline of Metrical Psalmody

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    Brandon J. Bellanti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this essay is to evaluate the way that psalmody - specifically metrical psalmody - serves as a sort of spiritual discipline. In other words, this essay seeks to demonstrate how the singing of psalms can be a tool to aid in spiritual growth. Much of the research for this essay focuses on the theological writings of the Protestant reformer John Calvin, as well as the way in which he incorporated metrical psalmody into his liturgical framework. The research also comprises primary writings from Aristotle, Plato, Saint John Chrysostom, Saint Basil, and Saint Augustine - all of whom influenced Calvin’s own philosophy regarding the use of art, music, and psalmody in worship. Additional areas examined in this research include the historical musical development of psalmody and the collection and arrangement of metrical psalms into psalters. For reference, specific examples of metrical psalms and psalters have been added. These additional areas and examples help to give a more holistic understanding of the nature of metrical psalmody, and they help to show how it may accurately be considered a spiritual discipline.

  11. The Three Laws of Thought, Plus One: The Law of Comparisons

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    Thomas L. Saaty

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The rules of logic are nearly 2500 years old and date back to Plato and Aristotle who set down the three laws of thought: identity, non-contradiction, and excluded middle. The use of language and logic has been adequate for us to develop mathematics, prove theorems, and create scientific knowledge. However, the laws of thought are incomplete. We need to extend our logical system by adding to the very old laws of thought an essential yet poorly understood law. It is a necessary law of thought that resides in our biology even deeper than the other three laws. It is related to the rudiments of how we as living beings, and even nonliving things, respond to influences as stimuli. It helps us discriminate between being ourselves and sensing that there is something else that is not ourselves that even amoebas seem to know. It is the intrinsic ability to sense and distinguish. This fourth law is the law of comparisons. Although it has been missing from our logical deductions it underlies the other three laws of thought because without it we cannot know what is and what is not.

  12. Bioethics and Transhumanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Allen

    2017-06-01

    Transhumanism is a "technoprogressive" socio-political and intellectual movement that advocates for the use of technology in order to transform the human organism radically, with the ultimate goal of becoming "posthuman." To this end, transhumanists focus on and encourage the use of new and emerging technologies, such as genetic engineering and brain-machine interfaces. In support of their vision for humanity, and as a way of reassuring those "bioconservatives" who may balk at the radical nature of that vision, transhumanists claim common ground with a number of esteemed thinkers and traditions, from the ancient philosophy of Plato and Aristotle to the postmodern philosophy of Nietzsche. It is crucially important to give proper scholarly attention to transhumanism now, not only because of its recent and ongoing rise as a cultural and political force (and the concomitant potential ramifications for bioethical discourse and public policy), but because of the imminence of major breakthroughs in the kinds of technologies that transhumanism focuses on. Thus, the articles in this issue of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy are either explicitly about transhumanism or are on topics, such as the ethics of germline engineering and criteria for personhood, that are directly relevant to the debate between transhumanists (and technoprogressives more broadly) and bioconservatives. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. THE PLAY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY, CULTURE AND PEDAGOGY

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    T. V. Nadolinskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers various concepts of the game phenomenon based on the retrospective analysis of different epochs and relating viewpoints of philosophers, cultural workers and pedagogues; and emphasizes the link between the game genesis and evolution on the  one hand and the changes in the mythology, religious and secular customs, traditions and rituals on the other hand. The author refers to Plato, Aristotle, and Heraclites – the ancient philosophers emphasizing the educational, ethical and aesthetic values of the game. The critical and controversial position of the Middle Age Church is reviewed along with the summarized ideas of pedagogues and thinkers of the Renaissance and the age of Enlightenment, all of them recognizing the universal character of game, its versatile influence on the child’s personal development.Philosophical, culturological and pedagogical game concepts developed in different ages prove that the game is a creative instrument and powerful channel for familiarizing children with knowledge, practical experience and mental activity. The game, being a symbolic model of the surrounding world, can be used to the full capacity if the teacher is competent in the game modeling and interactions, ready for improving the game technique, directing and organizing the game environment. Only then, in author’s opinion, the game can turn into one of the key factors of pupils’ individuality formation and harmonious development. 

  14. Mimesis in Bible Didactics – an outline in the context of religious education

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    Mirjam Zimmermann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ‘Mimesis’ is a concept explored in Antiquity as well as in cultural history. It also plays an important role in the Bible. In this article we argue for ‘mimesis’ as a role model for Bible teaching in religious education. In the first part we give some insights into the concept of mimesis, drawing on ancient philosophers (Aristotle, Plato. ‘Mimesis’ does not denote a copy of a prescribed object; instead, the type of depiction and reference brings it into the present in an intensive, creative and productive way. In the second part we want to give some examples for how ‘mimesis’ is used in the Bible itself. Biblical tradition can be described as a ‘mimetic process’. Furthermore, authors like Paul explicitly use the concept of ‘mimesis’, for example in his ethical admonition. Thus, the use of ‘mimesis’ in the Bible inspires directly our teaching on biblical genres, motifs and ways of thinking. The third part gives a draft of how the ‘mimetic didactic’ works, drawing on parables, Gospel writing, Johannine theology and coping with painful fate like Job. Mimetic hermeneutics transforms tradition in applying it into the contemporary situation. This can prove stimulating for contemporary contexts: mimesis is closely connected to tradition, but simultaneously encourages its transmission into the present day with astonishing variability and freedom.

  15. La Ciudad de Dios desde la perspectiva de la razón: la cuarta politeia de la antigüedad

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    Óscar Velásquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo reflexiona acerca de la relación entre los conceptos de politeia, res publica y civitas en cuatro grandes obras: República de Platón, Política de Aristóteles, República de Cicerón y Ciudad de Dios de san Agustín, poniendo especial atención en esta última, en la medida en que se inserta en una tradición en la que Cicerón ocupa un lugar privilegiado de enlace con el pensamiento griego, y que, en fin, tuvo profundas repercusiones en la visión de mundo en occidente.This article reflects on the relationship between the concepts of politeia, res publica and civitas in four major works: The Republic by Plato, Politics by Aristotle, Republic by Cicero and City of God by Saint Augustine, with special attention on the latter, insofar as it is inserted in a tradition in which Cicero occupies a privileged position of a link with Greek thought, and which, in the end, had profound repercussions on the Western world view.

  16. Modest Reflections on the Term ‘Religious Experience’

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    Torre Michael Durham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper urges a reconsideration of the term “religious experience,” as it is presently used in textbooks in the Philosophy of Religion (to which it first refers. The term needs to include not only what might be termed “extraordinary” religious experience (as used in those texts, but the “ordinary” experience of most who practice a religion, and it needs to assess such experience not so much as a “proof” of God (or a “Transcendent Reality”, but rather as a credible witness to what it affirms. The central portion of the paper then investigates how “experience” was used and understood-as a conscious term of analysis-by Plato, Aristotle, and Aquinas. It then argues that this understanding of “experience” can be applied successfully to refer to “religious experience,” whether “ordinary” or “extraordinary”: it argues that such an understanding would fit well any phenomenological description of what most people mean by their “religious experience.” It concludes that there is work to be done both to develop adequate criteria to discern how credible religious experience is, as a witness to its object, and to apply such criteria to major religions.

  17. Promotion of Human Rights in the Republic of Kosovo

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    MSc. Albulena Ukimeraj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental rights and freedoms are constitutional category of democratic states whereas the standards for guaranteeing these rights have been determined in the highest international acts of the United Nations. Promotion of equality and compliance with human rights initially originated in social developments in antiquity period. The Greek philosophy represented by world class philosophers Plato and Aristotle, created the foundation for complying with these rights which still serve as principles in the modern times and democratic developments. In later stages of social developments, despite the progress, compliance with human rights in the slavery era but even in the medieval times was faced with many challenges. Meanwhile, the development of the modern world, as an enlightening historic moment, it is the French Revolution, which was of course preceded by important documents in the history of development and advancement of human rights such as: Magna Carta Libertatum and the US Constitution. The reason for addressing this topic consists in the fact that these fundamental rights and freedoms are parts of constitutions of many countries including Kosovo, which are proclaimed and protected by different acts and norms, however they continue to be infringed either by individuals or institutions. Thus, with the aim of promotion of human rights and legal basis related to them in the Republic of Kosovo, this paper will elaborate development of human rights and the legal infrastructure for protection and compliance of human rights in a chronological manner by providing conclusions on the promotion of human rights in the Republic of Kosovo.

  18. Finding a Reasonable Foundation for Peace

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    Roberta Bayer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Can world peace come about through a world federation of governments? Is growing agreement and appreciation for, throughout the world, the doctrine of equal human rights inevitable? Such questions are raised by Mortimer Adler in How to Think about War and Peace. Adler argues in this book that both are possible, and in doing so he argues that the insights of liberal contract thinkers, particularly Immanuel Kant, are essentially true. Kant argues that each person has the capacity to discover within himself the foundation for human rights because they are self-evident. It follows that over time inequalities and prejudices will disappear, and people will gain the freedom to advance the cause of peace. About this account of the possibility of world peace I ask the question: is it indeed reasonable? For if it is reasonable, it is not reasonable for the reasons that would have been advanced by Aristotle or Plato or their medieval followers. In older political philosophy it is agreement about the unchanging truth of things that can bring peace. To seek the unchanging truth of things, philosophical speculation about God and things divine, is the highest human activity. It is that end to which life in this world is directed, and upon which human flourishing depends. Freedom depends upon our openness to unchanging eternal truth, even more than self-evident rights; the exercise of speculative reasoning allows for political discourse and an open society.

  19. Empirical models of structure of personal qualities of heads: affective type of social action by M. Weber (results of applied researches

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    A. A. Oseev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to methodological foundations of research of leader’s personal qualities. In difference from the previous work, which was devoted to a research of personal qualities of heads, including civil officers, at works of Plato, Aristotle and M. Weber, where were shown empirical models of structure of personal qualities of heads: instrumental-rational and value-rational social actions. This publication presents the empirical models of structure of personal qualities of heads of affective type of M. Weber’s social action. Thanks to it, M. Weber’s concept about social action receives one more approach to verification in practice. The following directions of social researches are allocated. The first direction. When in structure of personal qualities the emotional component is a dominant (“emotional unbalance”, in comparison with intellectual, moral, strong-willed and other personal qualities (diplomacy, social experience, and so forth. Those people, whose indicators of emotional unbalance are in extreme, in maximum borders - carry to psychopaths and they are an object of clinical psychology and medicine. The second direction. When in structure of personal qualities emotional unbalance competes on equal terms (equally has bright difference, a deviation from average values to intellectual, moral and strong-willed qualities. The third direction. When in structure of personal qualities intellectual, moral and strong-willed and others personal qualities dominate over affective lines.

  20. The unborn child: history, philosophy and religion

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    Lucan Maria Casandra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available All throughout history the unborn, and implicitly its protection, have been subject for academics and practitioners of various areas. The problem of the origin of the soul and the exact determination of the moment when it is united with the body was crucial in enabling us to define the exact moment when the human life begins, and, consequently, for providing proper protection for the unborn child. In this context visions of the Greek philosophers like Plato, Aristotle, Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas, and of the Latin writer Tertullian, as well as Christian perspectives were analysed in order to identify the starting point of the human being to help determine the level of protection provided for the unborn in history. Finally, considering the fact that not even today has consensus been achieved concerning the beginning of human life, it was and still is difficult to provide proper legal protection for the unborn child, but in our opinion this is by far not impossible.

  1. RATIONAL STRUCTURES OF POLITICS IN MONTESQUIEU’S THE SPIRIT OF THE LAWS. PART I: THE KEY ELEMENTS LEGITIMATING THE POWER AND ITS SOURCES

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    MARIUS DUMITRESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In The Spirit of the Laws, Montesquieu tried not to discuss about laws, but in fact, about the type of power hiding behind them. Inspired by Plato and Aristotle, he built his own vision on the palingenesis of the political forms and of the principles governing them. Baron de La Brède started from ideas, from spiritual structures, that have the role to create certain social behaviors, and identified three types of government forms, each characterized by its own nature and principle: monarchy, democracy, and despotism. The French philosopher tried to understand, besides the principles ensuring the nature of each government, the key elements legitimating the power and also its sources. The monarchy is seen by Montesquieu as the most suitable regime, for his time, to rule free societies. The aristocracy helps to the maintenance of freedom in royalty by resisting to any attempt of the crown to exceed its constitutional prerogatives. The transition from one form of government to another is done because of the alteration of principles. Democracy is maybe the most exposed to alteration as its excess of freedom leads to the affirmation of the spirit of endless equality that makes everybody wanting to be the equals to the rulers. Montesquieu sees no other solution to replace the degraded forms of political organization than the confederative republic. Such a political organization would answer the need for permanent political flexibility.

  2. Tribute to a triad: history of splenic anatomy, physiology, and surgery--part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClusky, D A; Skandalakis, L J; Colborn, G L; Skandalakis, J E

    1999-03-01

    The spleen is an enigmatic organ with a peculiar anatomy and physiology. Though our understanding of this organ has improved vastly over the years, the spleen continues to produce problems for the surgeon, the hematologist, and the patient. The history of the spleen is full of fables and myths, but it is also full of realities. In the Talmud, the Midrash, and the writings of Hippocrates, Plato, Aristotle, Galen, and several other giants of the past, one can find a lot of Delphian and Byzantine ambiguities. At that time, splenectomy was the art of surgery for many splenic diseases. From antiquity to the Renaissance, efforts were made to study the structure, functions, and anatomy of the spleen. Vesalius questioned Galen; and Malpighi, the founder of microscopic anatomy, gave a sound account of the histology and the physiologic destiny of the spleen. Surgical inquiry gradually became a focal point, yet it was still not clear what purpose the spleen served. It has been within the past 50 years that the most significant advances in the knowledge of the spleen and splenic surgery have been made. The work of Campos Christo in 1962 about the segmental anatomy of the spleen helped surgeons perform a partial splenectomy, thereby avoiding complications of postsplenectomy infection. With the recent successes of laparoscopic splenectomy in selected cases, the future of splenic surgery will undoubtedly bring many more changes.

  3. EL PLACER: ESCENARIO ESTÉTICO-VITALIZADOR DE LA EDUCACIÓN | PLEASURE: AESTHETIC VITALIZING-DESIGN OF EDUCATION

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    Yolimar Herrera Bastardo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to reveal the historicity of the category pleasure as the foundation of an aesthetic - vitalizing proposal of education. For this, genealogy is the alternative to build another rationality around pleasure. In that sense, the following themes were discussed: a pleasure, as a determinant factor in life. Woven ethical - aesthetic reconfigurator of education; b pleasure of divinity and of psychic life: aesthetic overlaps in pedagogy, c pleasure of modernity: scenario for the education of the future. With the theoretical contributions of Plato, Aristotle, Epicurus, St. Augustine, Freud, Foucault, Onfray and Lipovestky, discursive paths were rewritten in relation to pleasure and were placed interweaved with the educational context to reveal lines of escape that in the aesthetic ground make education a space for creativity, inter-subjectivity and otherness. In conclusion, the vitalizing power of pleasure makes the social meaning of education to transform towards the formation of a new citizen more human in the understanding of aiming the common good.

  4. The theory of discourse in the linguistic scenario: a new route for the clash interior x exterior in the studies of the language

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    Daiany Bonácio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The language has always aroused human interest. Since ancient times, it was discussed by wise men like Aristotle and Plato. Philosophers discoursed, for example, on the relationship between the names and the things which they named, if the relationship was natural or conventional, in an attempt to explain the functioning of the language. Such discussions fomented a question: the studies of the language should focus on what aspect? What is going on inside the subject, in his ability to speak? Or what goes on outside, the manifestation of the interior considering the social? This impasse was extending over the linguistic studies. Faced with the reality described, this article aimed to discuss the impasse between an approach to the language focused on interiority and another focused on the exteriority, tracing a route through language studies from the classics, through the materialist theory of Michel Pêcheux to reach concepts proposed by the philosopher Michel Foucault, which will be used for analysis from a discursive perspective. The Discourse Analysis tries to think Linguistic out of this issue of logicism and sociology: it proposes to look at the discourse, offering another field of study for the language.

  5. KEADILAN DALAM PERSPEKTIF FILSAFAT ILMU HUKUM

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    Inge Dwisvimiar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The author in this paper tries to investigate and describe the perspective of Justice in Legal Studies. Fairness in Legal Studies Philosophy attention to all aspects of terminology relating to justice and legal philosophy of science. Justice is the ideals and purposes of the law that reach from the philosophy of science perspective of the law by providing that justice is realized through law. By reviewing the opinion of Plato and Aristotle as the foundations of justice, Thomas Aquinas, who called for justice as well as John Rawls proportional equality with justice fairness the the basic values of justice are included in the study of philosophy of science philosophy of law will be answered by the legal science it self.The justice is not just there and read the text of legislation but also the legal justice in society. Both Article 16 paragraph (1 Law 4/2004 and Article 5 paragraph (1 Law 48/2009 states that justice shall be upheld in spite of no normative provisions and how thejudge alone buat also to explore and understand the values and sense of justice that exists in the community.

  6. Rhetoric in Augustine of Hippo’s De libero arbítrio

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    Ricardo Reali Taurisano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at demonstrating in which way the three books of the philosophical and theological dialogue of Augustine of Hippo, De libero arbitrio, is situated also in the scope of “Rhetoric”, or yet, grosso modo, in the scope of “discourse”.  It also becomes evident that no discourse, philosophical or theological, can renounce the resources offered by the ars rhetorica, as claimed Plato. Neither, it can be said, the so called “religious” discourse, which sets itself in search of a Truth that is unique, far beyond the eikós. Hence, being one and another, simultaneously philosophical and religious, dialectic and theological, this work attempted to make evident that De libero arbitrio can be understood and studied as a “discourse”; not, however, in the depreciative and prejudiced sense of the term, set on by part of Plato’s work, which bequeathed a stubborn trace; but in the sense which Aristotle, Cicero and the modern scholars of the Rhetoric art ascribe to it, as a “verbal production”, production which is carefully elaborated, projected and adorned, in order to not only instruct, but also to delight and put in motion.Keywords: Augustine. Rhetoric. Discourse. Rhetoric genres. Christian Philosophy.

  7. Yet another time about time … Part I: An essay on the phenomenology of physical time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, Plamen L

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents yet another personal reflection on one the most important concepts in both science and the humanities: time. This elusive notion has been not only bothering philosophers since Plato and Aristotle. It goes throughout human history embracing all analytical and creative (anthropocentric) disciplines. Time has been a central theme in physical and life sciences, philosophy, psychology, music, art and many more. This theme is known with a vast body of knowledge across different theories and categories. What has been explored concerns its nature (rational, irrational, arational), appearances/qualia, degrees, dimensions and scales of conceptualization (internal, external, fractal, discrete, continuous, mechanical, quantum, local, global, etc.). Of particular interest have been parameters of time such as duration ranges, resolutions, modes (present, now, past, future), varieties of tenses (e.g. present perfect, present progressive, etc.) and some intuitive, but also fancy phenomenological characteristics such as "arrow", "stream", "texture", "width", "depth", "density", even "scent". Perhaps the most distinct characteristic of this fundamental concept is the absolute time constituting the flow of consciousness according to Husserl, the reflection of pure (human) nature without having the distinction between exo and endo. This essay is a personal reflection upon time in modern physics and phenomenological philosophy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Away from the Poet!

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    Ralph McInerny

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to what some readers believe, the author claims that The Point of View is a text as important and authoritative as every other work of Kierkegaard, and that it is of special interest to analyze the interpretative key that is there offered for the pseudonimous texts towards the Discourses of 1843. Here it is analyzed the sensuous, the aesthetic and the poetic as a possible mode of existence rejected by Christianity to then conclude in the Kierkegaardian claim that poetic life or aesthetic life is not only a life of despair, but an impossible one. The sensuous-erotic genius, represented by Don Juan, apears as a figure that can only be expressed in music, as Mozart did, and that this can not really exist. Here there are analyzed the greek positions on the sensuous against happyness both in Aristotle, with the érgon argument, and Plato, reading the Protagoras with is hierarchical vision of the powers and activities of the human being, in order to culminate with Kierkegaard's argument: aesthetic life is imposible because it is the effort to consciously live an unconscious life, it is to force the mind to be mindless.

  9. IMPLICIT PHILOSOPHY OF LOVE IN THE ANTIQUITY: AN ATTEMPT TO RETHINK

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    Turenko Vitali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It proved the position according to which, in the study of a particular “words of love” in Ancient Greek or Latin Dictionaries, it must indicate in what period, what form of cultural heritage (literature, geography, history, philosophy, etc. his used. This approach, in opinion of author, be able to give a more objective and complete picture of a particular understanding of the diversity of one or the other “word of love”. It was revealed that in the study of the philosophical understanding of love, amorousness, friendship is must not limited to the classical works of Plato (Symposium, Phaedrus, Lysis and Aristotle (ethical works of Stagirite in the context of these phenomenons. This methodological position will allow for the understanding of the evolution of the views of both the Titans of Greek philosophy, as well as avoiding any “prejudices” that the matter can be found in the pages of some of the scientific research. It is noted that among the philosophical heritage of ancient civilization on the phenomenon of love is not enough studied of fragments of the early Greek philosophers (notably anthropological aspect of love, the Sophists and the Socratic schools, as well as treatises of representatives schools of the Hellenistic period.

  10. SCAMBI CULTURALI ALLE RADICI DELL’UMANESIMO

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    Simonetta Valtieri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available he foundation of “Magna Greciae” colonies in Southern Italy has been a fundamental element of connection between East and West, allowing to Ancient Greece to reach high levels in the social, cultural and economic field, with libraries and study centers that have formed philosophers, writers, doctors, leading artists. Calabria in particular, has played a strategic role in the Mediterranean Sea for the development of European Western culture and of humanism. Calabria was the only Mediterranean region to have welcomed for centuries, and often at the same time, the two major cultures: the Eastern and the Western. In Calabria, people spoke ancient Greek language in modern age and until the last century there were areas where the Greek language was the only spoken language (Area Grecofona of Calabria. This circumstance explains the critical role the region had in the Middle Ages: libraries, study centers, scriptoria allowed the Latin translation and dissemination of the works of Plato and Aristotle, these two philosophers were at the basis of medieval scholasticism and, as a result, at the basis of the development of Humanism.

  11. KEADILAN DALAM PERSPEKTIF FILSAFAT ILMU HUKUM

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    Inge Dwisvimiar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The author in this paper tries to investigate and describe the perspective of Justice in Legal Studies. Fairness in Legal Studies Philosophy attention to all aspects of terminology relating to justice and legal philosophy of science. Justice is the ideals and purposes of the law that reach from the philosophy of science perspective of the law by providing that justice is realized through law. By reviewing the opinion of Plato and Aristotle as the foundations of justice, Thomas Aquinas, who called for justice as well as John Rawls proportional equality with justice fairness the the basic values  of justice are included in the study of philosophy of science philosophy of law will be answered by the legal science it self.The justice is not just there and read the text of legislation but also the legal justice in society. Both Article 16 paragraph (1 Law 4/2004 and Article 5 paragraph (1 Law 48/2009 states that justice shall be upheld in spite of no normative provisions and how thejudge alone buat also to explore and understand the values and sense of justice that exists in the community. Key words: justice, legal studies, philosophy of science of law

  12. Oligarchies: Naming, Enumerating Counting

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    Jacques Derrida

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The following text is the first chapter of Jacques Derrida’s book Politiques de l’amitié [The Politics of Friendship], being the exemplary and standard case of deconstruction, in this particular case, of philosophical texts (Cicero, Plato and, notably, Aristotle. The starting point for the discussion is the performative contradiction inscribed in the wellknown fragment On friendship from Essays by Michel de Montaigne: “O mes amis, il n’y a nul amy” (O my friends, there is no friend. Apparently, everything here is well-known and obvious, even the very notion of friendship, but as we proceed in the argument provided by Derrida, the obvious becomes less obvious to us and takes on new shades and hues in meaning, acquires new values. What is objective mixes in this fascinating argument with what is subjective. What is friendship? What is friendship today? Is friendship limited to just private sphere of interpersonal relations? The answer to the latter question is, according to Derrida, clearly negative. In the course of his argument he states: “There is no democracy without a community of friends”. This argument provides clues to understand a particular archeology of the notion, revealing oblique senses and contexts of the word “friendship”, its istory shown from the antiquity to the present day.

  13. The Hippocratic Oath: a code for physicians, not a Pythagorean manifesto.

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    Prioreschi, P

    1995-06-01

    The Hippocratic Oath is to be considered a code of conduct for all physicians and not a Pythagorean manifesto, in spite of the view of Edelstein. In fact, it can be shown that the prohibitions and requirements on which the Pythagorean hypothesis rests (the prohibition against helping suicide, inducing abortion, performing surgery, and having sex with patients or with members of their household and the rules of confidentiality and collegiality) do not necessarily link the Hippocratic Oath to the Pythagoreans. Edelstein affirms that only the Pythagoreans condemned suicide, whereas it can be shown that Plato, Aristotle, the Epicureans, and several authors in antiquity opposed it. Similarly, induced abortion was by no means universally accepted in antiquity. Soranus, for example, clearly states that many physicians opposed it in all cases. The passage of the oath concerning surgery can be shown to refer only to lithotomy (as others have underlined). As for sexual relations with patients or members of their household (male or female), the existence of laws against promiscuity (homo- or heterosexual), and other evidence, indicates that it was usually condemned. Finally, confidentiality and collegiality were virtues that the Pythagoreans were not alone in upholding. In addition, many of the principles upheld by the Oath are found in other documents unrelated to the Pythagoreans.

  14. Facilitating the development of moral insight in practice: teaching ethics and teaching virtue.

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    Begley, Ann M

    2006-10-01

    Abstract The teaching of ethics is discussed within the context of insights gleaned from ancient Greek ethics, particularly Aristotle and Plato and their conceptions of virtue (arete, meaning excellence). The virtues of excellence of character (moral virtue) and excellence of intelligence (intellectual virtue), particularly practical wisdom and theoretical wisdom, are considered. In Aristotelian ethics, a distinction is drawn between these intellectual virtues: experience and maturity is needed for practical wisdom, but not for theoretical wisdom. In addition to this, excellence of character is acquired through habitual practice, not instruction. This suggests that there is a need to teach more than theoretical ethics and that the ethics teacher must also facilitate the acquisition of practical wisdom and excellence of character. This distinction highlights a need for various educational approaches in cultivating these excellences which are required for a moral life. It also raises the question: is it possible to teach practical wisdom and excellence of character? It is suggested that virtue, conceived of as a type of knowledge, or skill, can be taught, and people can, with appropriate experience, habitual practice, and good role models, develop excellence of character and become moral experts. These students are the next generation of exemplars and they will educate others by example and sustain the practice of nursing. They need an education which includes theoretical ethics and the nurturing of practical wisdom and excellence of character. For this purpose, a humanities approach is suggested.

  15. [The mentally ill artist--a historical retrospect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergdolt, K

    1995-07-01

    The painting of the mentally ill has fascinated artists and their public throughout the 20th century. Yet the psychologically as well as art-historically interesting topic can be traced back over a long period in the history of Western culture. Aristotle emphasizes that all men who create great works, such as artists, philosophers, poets and politicians, are prone to melancholy, that excess of black gall which is characteristic of artists and depressive. Although Plato distinguished between creative and clinical mania, the topos of "genius and madness" prevails up to our century. The cult of melancholy is taken up bei Marsilio Ficino and becomes fashionable among the artists of the 16th and 17th centuries. During the Romantic period of the early 19th century the psychologically unstable or even sick intellectual and artist becomes the focus of attention. Artistic madness is glorified in an almost mystical fashion. However, disillusionment was soon to follow. Schopenhauer, Lombroso and many physicians stress the close relationship between genius and madness. However, they judge madness to be merely morbid and negative. During the 20th century the artists of the avantgarde show much interest in psychoanalysis and in the art of the mentally ill. The rise of National Socialism brought about a drastic break in the appraisal of the art of the mentally ill, which today is an acknowledged factor in contemporary art.

  16. Pengaruh Orientalis terhadap Liberalisasi Pemikiran Islam

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    Abbas Mansur Tammam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The liberalization of Islamic thought, which is considered and proclaimed as “renewal of Islamic thought,” did not come from the core concepts of Islam, it came from the outside of Islamic concepts (read: Western. Initially, the Western-Christian liberalism is an extension of the sophism, with ever implicated in Greece. Among the important figures is Heraclitus, Democritos and Protagoras. Although they received fierce opposition from Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, but liberalism got a new fresh air in the heyday of the Roman. This sophism trend, later gave birth to the relativism of truth, which is also the spirit of liberalism itself. Worse, liberalism was brought to Islam, the emergence of which can be traced to the Arabian Peninsula, Albania, and Syria. While in Egypt, Sultan Abdul Hamid II gave a note that a few Egyptian stunned with Western ideas, taking liberalism as a way of salvation. By using justifications of Qur’anic verses and hadiths, interpreted unilaterally, the liberalist thought was a tajdid to Islamic thought. The spirit (power of liberalism is in the distribution process of using old methods, that is the tradition of orientalism, misionarism, and imperialism. The basis of liberalist support can be traced to some of the states concerned with it, such as the United States, Britain and France. Finally, this simple article will briefly try to uncover how this all happened.

  17. Dialoguing from a Fixed Point: How Aristotle and Pope Francis Illuminate the Promise--and Limits--of Inclusion in Catholic Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrusek, Matthew Richard

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the meaning of the word "inclusion" as it relates to Catholic identity in higher education. Noting the widespread presence of this value in the mission statements of Catholic colleges, the article draws on insights from Aristotelian logic and Pope Francis's theology of encounter to argue that inclusion can only be…

  18. The Arabic Aristotle In The 10 Century Bagdãd: the case of yahyã ibn 'adî`s commentary on metaph. alpha elatton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonadeo, Cecilia Martini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, procura-se mostrar, através de um autor cristão do século 10, como comentários às obras de Aristóteles foram continuamente feitos, desde os gregos até Averróis. Por meio de alguns textos da metafísica, é possível percebere que, mesmo sem ter contato direto com o original grego, foram cotejadas pelo autor diversas traduções, tanto do grego como do siríaco. Nesses casos, tratava-se não apenas de traduçõ, mas também de comentário ao texto de Aristóteles

  19. ["adeste omnes Logicae et Mathematicae Musae". Johannes Broscius's Apology of Aristotle and Euclid (1652) and the issue of anti-Ramism at the Academy of Cracow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choptiany, Michał

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a largely overlooked aspect of the last work by Johannes Broscius (1585 - 1652), his Apologia pro Aristotele et Euclide contra Petrum Ramum et alios of 1652. While the past researchers focused their attention on the evaluation of Broscius's contribution to mathematics, geometry in particular, they ignored the socio-scientific aspect of his work, that is the way Peter Ramus and his followers have been presented and how did the dark legend of Ramus have been thus revived at the Central-European university in the middle of 17th century. I am showing types of rhetorical arguments employed by Broscius and analyse the way he portrayed Ramus and depicted events related to the reception of Ramism at the Academy of Cracow. The article is followed by an appendix which contains a critical edition of excerpts from the manuscript rough draft of Apologia which has been preserved until nowadays (Jagiellonian Library MS. 3205 I). In the apparatus I identify the references and show how Broscius rewrote and rearranged the original paragraphs of his anti-Ramist work.

  20. The eternal search for justice: from Aristotle to Chaim PerelmanA eterna busca pela justiça: de Aristóteles a Chaim Perelman

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    Zélia Maria Cardoso Montal

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the search for Justice, equity, whose roots date back to Antiquity, and the new rhetoric, proposed by Chaim Perelman in the work Ethics and Law, should be used as guiding instruments for the application of rules to specific cases. In order to assure a fair and balanced social coexistence in a society with an increasing and rapid evolution, whose legislation is not always able to follow this same evolution, it is necessary that the interpreters of the Law make use of ethical values. Justice is an aspiration of the human being who intends to find the Justice that is possible to be achieved, having the Law as a means to achieve this purpose, through the establishment of rules of conduct that assure peace and social harmony. However, Justice is an unfinished idea, since society is always in constant transformation and evolution, seeking to improve what it considers as fair and good.>Na busca da Justiça, deve-se utilizar da eqüidade, cujas raízes remontam à Antigüidade, e da lógica do razoável, proposta por Chaim Perelman na obra Ética e Direito, como instrumentos norteadores da aplicação das normas aos casos concretos. É preciso garantir um convívio social justo e equilibrado numa sociedade em crescente e acelerada evolução, porém as leis nem sempre conseguem acompanhar, então é necessário que os intérpretes do Direito se utilizem de valores éticos. A Justiça é uma aspiração do ser humano que procura encontrar aquela Justiça possível de ser concretizada, e o Direito é um vetor na consecução deste objetivo, mediante o estabelecimento de regras de conduta que garantam a paz e a harmonia social. Porém, a Justiça é uma idéia inacabada, uma vez que a sociedade está sempre em constante transformação e evolução, e busca aprimorar o que considera como justo e bom.

  1. The universal numbers. From Biology to Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    I will explain how the mathematicians have discovered the universal numbers, or abstract computer, and I will explain some abstract biology, mainly self-reproduction and embryogenesis. Then I will explain how and why, and in which sense, some of those numbers can dream and why their dreams can glue together and must, when we assume computationalism in cognitive science, generate a phenomenological physics, as part of a larger phenomenological theology (in the sense of the greek theologians). The title should have been "From Biology to Physics, through the Phenomenological Theology of the Universal Numbers", if that was not too long for a title. The theology will consist mainly, like in some (neo)platonist greek-indian-chinese tradition, in the truth about numbers' relative relations, with each others, and with themselves. The main difference between Aristotle and Plato is that Aristotle (especially in its common and modern christian interpretation) makes reality WYSIWYG (What you see is what you get: reality is what we observe, measure, i.e. the natural material physical science) where for Plato and the (rational) mystics, what we see might be only the shadow or the border of something else, which might be non physical (mathematical, arithmetical, theological, …). Since Gödel, we know that Truth, even just the Arithmetical Truth, is vastly bigger than what the machine can rationally justify. Yet, with Church's thesis, and the mechanizability of the diagonalizations involved, machines can apprehend this and can justify their limitations, and get some sense of what might be true beyond what they can prove or justify rationally. Indeed, the incompleteness phenomenon introduces a gap between what is provable by some machine and what is true about that machine, and, as Gödel saw already in 1931, the existence of that gap is accessible to the machine itself, once it is has enough provability abilities. Incompleteness separates truth and provable, and machines can

  2. The Creation Process in Digital Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Adérito Fernandes; Branco, Pedro Sérgio; Zagalo, Nelson Troca

    The process behind the act of the art creation or the creation process has been the subject of much debate and research during the last fifty years at least, even thinking art and beauty has been a subject of analysis already by the ancient Greeks such were Plato or Aristotle. Even though intuitively it is a simple phenomenon, creativity or the human ability to generate innovation (new ideas, concepts, etc.) is in fact quite complex. It has been studied from the perspectives of behavioral and social psychology, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, philosophy, history, design research, digital art, and computational aesthetics, among others. In spite of many years of discussion and research there is no single, authoritative perspective or definition of creativity, i.e., there is no standardized measurement technique. Regarding the development process that supports the intellectual act of creation it is usually described as a procedure where the artist experiments the medium, explores it with one or more techniques, changing shapes, forms, appearances, where beyond time and space, he/she seeks his/her way out to a clearing, i.e., envisages a path from intention to realization. Duchamp in his lecture "The Creative Act" states the artist is never alone with his/her artwork; there is always the spectator that later on will react critically to the work of art. If the artist succeeds in transmitting his/her intentions in terms of a message, emotion or feeling to the spectator then a form of aesthetic osmosis actually takes place through the inert matter (the medium) that enabled this communication or interaction phenomenon to occur. The role of the spectator may become gradually more active by interacting with the artwork itself possibly changing or becoming a part of it [2][4].

  3. Innate ideas in Islamic philosophy

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    Halilović Tehran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The human soul is the subject of debates in numerous scientific disciplines. Philosophical considerations encompass a special dimension of the human soul that is related to ontological truths. Among different philosophical questions raised regarding the human soul, the issue of innate ideas particularly stands out. Well-known points of disagreement between Plato and Aristotle regarding this question are usually focused on whether a person possesses knowledge and thoughts from their creation, i.e. birth, or they acquire them through time and experience. With the appearance of Cartesian scepticism and following the solutions Descartes offered for the problem of certain knowledge, the issue of innate ideas has remained the focal question for many prominent philosophers. In the Islamic philosophy, the rational explanation of the nature of innate ideas originates from the more comprehensive theory of the human soul and it states that a person, according to their nature, possesses already existent cognitive abilities they were born with. Innate cognitive abilities discussed in the Islamic philosophy do not refer just to theoretical, but to practical knowledge, as well. Therefore, the analysis of innate ideas in the works of Muslim philosophers is connected to a larger number of scientific disciplines than when it comes to most Western philosophers. The difference between the practical and theoretic intellect will serve as a cognitive basis for defining another aspect of innate ideas. The products of a practical intellect, the human will and his actions, are personal and particular and, therefore, can be connected to the everyday life of a person. Owing to the general presence of the practical intellect in all life spheres, the influence of innate ideas, which are determined in a human being, is recognizable in all most detailed moments of their life.

  4. PARMÊNIDES E O CAMINHO DA JUSTIÇA

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    Hilda Helena Soares Bentes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Propõe-se a analisar o pensamento de Parmênides, indicativo de uma concepção de Justiça a meio caminho entre o período pré-socrático e os sistemas filosóficos de Platão e Aristóteles. Inscreve-se Parmênides na fronteira de um pensar mítico e na busca de uma ordenação racional de ideias. O caminho delineado por Parmênides estabelece vias antitéticas, destacando-se o caminho do conhecimento verdadeiro. Viagem conduzida pela Deusa Justiça, em que se revela o itinerário rumo a um nível de maior abstração, afastando-se do plano da dóxa, reino das opiniões contrastantes. Trata-se da viagem do homem sábio em busca da sabedoria, dos fundamentos teóricos que balizam a condição humana e o Direito. Abstract: It seeks to analyze Parmenides´ thought, expressive of a conception of Justice that can be situated between the presocratic period and the philosophical systems of Plato and Aristotle. Parmenides is classified on the border of a mythical thinking and a search of a rational organization of ideas. The way outlined by Parmenides establishes two antithetical directions, with emphasis on the way of true knowledge. The journey is led by the Goddess of Justice, occasion when the path towards a level of more abstraction is taken, off the dóxa stage, considered the realm of the contrasting opinions. It concerns the journey of the wise man in search of wisdom, of the theoretical bases that founded the human condition and the Law.

  5. Limits of Thought in the Light of Nature and Divinity. A Return to Ancient Thought or the Quest for the Being of Primordial Thinking in the Later Heidegger

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    Viktor Okorokov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Question about the essence of thought itself may be formulated in two ways: is it a manifestation of the existential presence or a habit to considerate a Universe as a representation of its rational core? Among various methods of inquiry of essential nature of thought, I would emphasize a Martin Heidegger’s approach, which was represented in his late papers. I mean, widely accepted in oriental culture but almost forgotten in European intellectual tradition approach which considers thought as luminous and light-bearing logos – the fundamental origin and principle of the Universe. The problem of logos appearance in primordial chaos and discovery of the thought origins, on Heidegger’s opinion, becomes the crucial matter of his “fundamental ontology”. Heidegger is confident that the problem of transformation of primordial chaos into well-ordered (by “logos” Universe was the most significant topic which the ancient philosophers (Anaximander, Heraclitus, and Parmenides were focused on. My research, represented in this article, discovers European philosopher’s acceptation and reception of the ancient interpretation of primordial thought as a “divine light”. My conclusion is that all classical European philosophical ontological theories (since the first philosophers to Plato, Aristotle, post-Aristotelian thinkers, and to the contemporary philosophers may be considered as the different varieties of interpretation of the primordial (given by gods luminous thinking itself and became a simulation of the primordial nature of thought. Another conclusion is, that origins of mentioned above ancient philosophical inquiries on the divine-light essence of primordial thinking, may be found in earlier, than Heidegger thinks, texts composed by Homer, Hesiod, and perhaps even in the religious philosophical texts of the Orient heritage (India, Egypt, Mesopotamia, and other ancient states, created before the sixth century BC.

  6. The future of philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, J R

    1999-12-29

    There is no sharp dividing line between science and philosophy, but philosophical problems tend to have three special features. First, they tend to concern large frameworks rather than specific questions within the framework. Second, they are questions for which there is no generally accepted method of solution. And third they tend to involve conceptual issues. For these reasons a philosophical problem such as the nature of life can become a scientific problem if it is put into a shape where it admits of scientific resolution. Philosophy in the 20th century was characterized by a concern with logic and language, which is markedly different from the concerns of earlier centuries of philosophy. However, it shared with the European philosophical tradition since the 17th century an excessive concern with issues in the theory of knowledge and with scepticism. As the century ends, we can see that scepticism no longer occupies centre stage, and this enables us to have a more constructive approach to philosophical problems than was possible for earlier generations. This situation is somewhat analogous to the shift from the sceptical concerns of Socrates and Plato to the constructive philosophical enterprise of Aristotle. With that in mind, we can discuss the prospects for the following six philosophical areas: (1) the traditional mind-body problem; (ii) the philosophy of mind and cognitive science; (iii) the philosophy of language; (iv) the philosophy of society; (v) ethics and practical reasons; (vi) the philosophy of science. The general theme of these investigations, I believe, is that the appraisal of the true significance of issues in the philosophy of knowledge enables us to have a more constructive account of various other philosophical problems than has typically been possible for the past three centuries.

  7. Cicero and the Mixed Constitution (res publica mixta

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    Mitja Sadek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The story of the mixed constitution is the story of the most stable and just constitution. In theory, this is a combination of at least two of the three elementary forms of government (monarchy, aristocracy and democracy, with some advantages that elementary forms may lack. It originated with the deliberation of Greek philosophers, who wanted to draw up a constitution safeguarding against the permanent variation of elementary constitutional forms and against coups d’état. For both Plato and Aristotle, the mixed constitution was, above all, the reflection of a search for balance between the two extreme forms of government, direct (Athenian democracy on the one hand and the exclusion of the people from governing on the other. The Greek theory was applied by the historian Polybius to the traditional tripartite constitution of the Roman republic. In his view, the consuls were monarchic elements, the senate an aristocratic element, and the comitia a democratic one. Cicero’s introduction of the idea of the mixed constitution in De re publica can only be understood in the light of the author’s personal situation and contemporary political circumstances. His political engagement at a time when the republic was gradually transforming into a monarchy aimed at restoring the important role of the nobility, represented by the senate. For Cicero, the mixed constitution was mainly an instrument for restoring the lost balance between the consuls, the senate, and the comitia, a last chance to save the decaying republic. The concluding part of the article addresses Alois Riklin’s recent discussion of the modern reception of the mixed constitution idea, which advances the controversial thesis that the paradigm of power division, the foundation of modern representative democracy, originates directly from the mixed constitution.

  8. Greek paideia and terms of probability

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    Fernando Leon Parada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses three aspects of the conceptual framework for a doctoral dissertation research in process in the field of Mathematics Education, in particular, in the subfield of teaching and learning basic concepts of Probability Theory at the College level. It intends to contrast, sustain and elucidate the central statement that the meanings of some of these basic terms used in Probability Theory were not formally defined by any specific theory but relate to primordial ideas developed in Western culture from Ancient Greek myths. The first aspect deals with the notion of uncertainty, with that Greek thinkers described several archaic gods and goddesses of Destiny, like Parcas and Moiras, often personified in the goddess Tyche—Fortuna for the Romans—, as regarded in Werner Jaeger’s “Paideia”. The second aspect treats the idea of hazard from two different approaches: the first approach deals with hazard, denoted by Plato with the already demythologized term ‘tyche’ from the viewpoint of innate knowledge, as Jaeger points out. The second approach deals with hazard from a perspective that could be called “phenomenological”, from which Aristotle attempted to articulate uncertainty with a discourse based on the hypothesis of causality. The term ‘causal’ was opposed both to ‘casual’ and to ‘spontaneous’ (as used in the expression “spontaneous generation”, attributing uncertainty to ignorance of the future, thus respecting causal flow. The third aspect treated in the paper refers to some definitions and etymologies of some other modern words that have become technical terms in current Probability Theory, confirming the above-mentioned main proposition of this paper.

  9. The future of philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, J R

    1999-01-01

    There is no sharp dividing line between science and philosophy, but philosophical problems tend to have three special features. First, they tend to concern large frameworks rather than specific questions within the framework. Second, they are questions for which there is no generally accepted method of solution. And third they tend to involve conceptual issues. For these reasons a philosophical problem such as the nature of life can become a scientific problem if it is put into a shape where it admits of scientific resolution. Philosophy in the 20th century was characterized by a concern with logic and language, which is markedly different from the concerns of earlier centuries of philosophy. However, it shared with the European philosophical tradition since the 17th century an excessive concern with issues in the theory of knowledge and with scepticism. As the century ends, we can see that scepticism no longer occupies centre stage, and this enables us to have a more constructive approach to philosophical problems than was possible for earlier generations. This situation is somewhat analogous to the shift from the sceptical concerns of Socrates and Plato to the constructive philosophical enterprise of Aristotle. With that in mind, we can discuss the prospects for the following six philosophical areas: (1) the traditional mind-body problem; (ii) the philosophy of mind and cognitive science; (iii) the philosophy of language; (iv) the philosophy of society; (v) ethics and practical reasons; (vi) the philosophy of science. The general theme of these investigations, I believe, is that the appraisal of the true significance of issues in the philosophy of knowledge enables us to have a more constructive account of various other philosophical problems than has typically been possible for the past three centuries. PMID:10670025

  10. Virtue vs utility: Alternative foundations for computer ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artz, J.M. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Ethical decisions within the field of computers and information systems are made at two levels by two distinctly different groups of people. At the level of general principles, ethical issues are debated by academics and industry representatives in an attempt to decide what is proper behavior on issues such as hacking, privacy, and copying software. At another level, that of particular situations, individuals make ethical decisions regarding what is good and proper for them in their particular situation. They may use the general rules provided by the experts or they may decide that these rules do not apply in their particular situation. Currently, the literature on computer ethics provides some opinions regarding the general rules, and some guidance for developing further general rules. What is missing is guidance for individuals making ethical decisions in particular situations. For the past two hundred years, ethics has been dominated by conduct based ethical theories such as utilitarianism which attempt to describe how people must be behave in order to be moral individuals. Recently, weaknesses in conduct based approaches such as utilitarianism have led moral philosophers to reexamine character based ethical theories such as virtue ethics which dates back to the Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle. This paper will compare utilitarianism and virtue ethics with respect to the foundations they provide for computer ethics. It will be argued that the very nature of computer ethics and the need to provide guidance to individuals making particular moral decisions points to the ethics of virtue as a superior philosophical foundation for computer ethics. The paper will conclude with the implications of this position for researchers, teachers and writers within the field of computer ethics.

  11. Positioning Model-Supported, Participatory, Water Management Decision Making under Uncertainty within the Western Philosphical Discourse on Knowledge and Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkey, D. R.; Escobar, M.; Mehta, V. K.; Forni, L.

    2016-12-01

    Two important trends currently shape the manner in which water resources planning and decision making occurs. The first relates to the increasing reliance on participatory stakeholder processes as a forum for evaluating water management options and selecting the appropriate course of action. The second relates to the growing recognition that earlier deterministic approaches to this evaluation of options may no longer be appropriate, nor required. The convergence of these two trends poses questions as to the proper role of data, information, analysis and expertise in the inherently social and political process of negotiating water resources management agreements and implementing water resources management interventions. The question of how to discover the best or optimal option in the face of deep uncertainty related to climate change, demography, economic development, and regulatory reform is compelling. More fundamentally the question of whether the "perfect" option even exits to be discovered is perhaps more critical. While this existential question may be new to the water resource management community, it is not new to western political theory. This paper explores early classical philosophical writing related to issues of knowledge and governance as captured in the work of Plato and Aristotle; and then attempts to place a new approach to analysis-supported, stakeholder-driven water resources planning and decision making within this philosophical discourse. Using examples from river systems in California and the Andes, where the theory of Robust Decision Making has been used as an organizing construct for stakeholder processes, it is argued that the expectation that analysis will lead to the discovery of the perfect option is not warranted when stakeholders are engaged in the process of discovering a consensus option. This argument will touch upon issue of the diversity of values, model uncertainty and creditability, and the visualization of model output required

  12. [Greek science in the centre of the Dialogue between Orient and Occident ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, Olivier

    2016-12-01

    Most pre-Socratic Greek philosophers originated from Ionia, in Minor Asia, where Achaeans had been installed since the 11th century B. C. During the Age of Pericles, Empedocles of Agrigento, in Sicily, Leucippus and Democritus from Abdera, Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, active in Athens, and Socrates in Athens also took over philosophy and science in Continental Greece. Plato, Socrates’ disciple and founder of Academia, and his own disciple Aristotle, founder of the Lyceum, and his pupils, such as Theophrastus of Eresos, followed them. In the area of medicine and pharmacy, Hippocrates of Cos and his disciples and followers redacted between 450 and 300 B. C., what is known as Hippocratic corpus. Then came Galen from Pergamum who completed the theory of Humours, during the second century. Nestorian Christians, considered as heretical in the Byzantine Empire, were accepted in Sassanid Persia and carried Greek culture with them. After Arabic conquest and Baghdad City creation, in 762, they translated Hippocratic corpus in Arabic language so that Hippocratico-Galenic theory could pass in Arabic-Muslim world. It was then developed by Al-Kindi in Baghdad, Ibn Al-Jazzar in Kairouan, Razes or Avicenna, both Persians. The 11th and the 12th centuries were characterised by Latin translations, by Constantine the African in Monte-Cassino, Gerard of Cremona or Mark of Toledo. The School of Salerno created then the conditions for the fusion of Greek, Arabic and Jewish medicines. The creation of modern science from Greek philosophy was a consequence of a permanent dialogue between Orient and Occident.

  13. Krása a nesmrteľnosť. O plodení u Platóna a Shakespeara (Beauty and Immortality. On Procreation in Plato and Shakespeare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Vydra

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available There are two moments referred in this essay: (1 A human being, which desires for immortality, desires for to be alive in his child or in an artwork. (2 Full human being’s desire is related for beauty. Is a beauty the same thing as immortality? How looks the relation between them? Shakespeare’s Sonnets begin with the challenge to his friend to procreate the offspring, because this is a way for immortality of the friend’s beauty. And if it is not a child, than verse refused him before the death or the Lethe. Similarly, Plato’s Socrates says in Symposium about his meeting with Diotima of Mantineia. She told him the oration on real Beauty without accidents. To see real Beauty means to be immortal, likewise the gods. Thus, could be a human being immortal?

  14. Krása a nesmrteľnosť. O plodení u Platóna a Shakespeara (Beauty and Immortality. On Procreation in Plato and Shakespeare)

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Vydra

    2007-01-01

    There are two moments referred in this essay: (1) A human being, which desires for immortality, desires for to be alive in his child or in an artwork. (2) Full human being’s desire is related for beauty. Is a beauty the same thing as immortality? How looks the relation between them? Shakespeare’s Sonnets begin with the challenge to his friend to procreate the offspring, because this is a way for immortality of the friend’s beauty. And if it is not a child, than verse refused him before the de...

  15. Plato, Symposium 212a6–7 : The Most Immortal of Men, with an Appendix on Phrases of the Type εἴπερ (τις) ἄλλος

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boter, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents two hitherto neglected arguments in favour of the thesis that the philosopher’s immortality described by Diotima in Plato’s Symposium refers exclusively to immortality by means of posterity and not to some sort of personal immortality after death. Both arguments are contained

  16. Mass transport in a PEMFC fuel battery using combinations of monopolar plates and reaction-diffusion medium; Transporte de masa en una pila a combustible tipo PEMFC utilizando combinaciones de platos monopolares y medios de difusion de reactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas Paleta, M. G. Araceli [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Bautista Rodriguez, C. Moises [Alter-Energias Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)] email: celso.bautista@thyssenkrupp.com; Rivera Marquez, J. Antonio; Tepale Ochoa, Nancy [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    The efficiency of a PEMFC fuel battery is limited due to a variety of mass transport-related phenomena that take place while it is operating. The electromotive force of the PEM fuel battery is related to the generation of concentration gradients resulting from the distribution of the reactants on the active sites of the electrode. The reactant gases supplied to the PEMFC are distributed over the diffusion layer of the electrodes through the channels of the polar plates. They then spread toward the active layer where the semi-reactions take place. Another important aspect is the presence of water molecules, a product of the reaction. When they accumulate, they cover the porosity of the electrodes, involving the reduction in the flow of reactants, even at high current density values and, combined with the diffusion phenomena involved, cause the PEMFC to complete cease functioning. The critical parameters for the transport phenomena are porosity, the diameter of the pore in the diffusion layer and the characteristics of the distribution of the reactants. The present works includes an experimental design of two distribution media and two diffusion media of the reactant gases in a PEMFC, involving three case studies. The results show significantly notable interactions between the diameter of the pore, the type of diffusion layer applied and the type of distributor applied. The combination in the second case significantly reduces the ohmic resistance and moderately reduces the diffusion resistances. While the combination in case three notably increases the ohmic resistance, diffusion resistance is significantly reduced. [Spanish] La eficiencia de una pila a combustible tipo PEMFC es limitada por diversos fenomenos de transporte de masa presentes durante su funcionamiento. La fuerza electromotriz de la pila a combustible tipo PEM esta relacionada con la generacion de gradientes de concentracion los cuales se dan como resultado de la distribucion de los reactivos sobre los sitios activos del electrodo. Los gases reactivos suministrados a una PEMFC se distribuyen sobre la capa de difusion de los electrodos por medio de los canales de las placas polares, posteriormente difunden hacia la capa activa donde se llevan a cabo las semi-reacciones. Otro aspecto importante es la presencia de las moleculas de agua, producto de la reaccion, que al acumularse cubren la porosidad de los electrodos implicando la reduccion del flujo de los reactivos, incluso a altos valores de densidad de corriente se combina con los fenomenos de difusion involucrados, ocasionando; el cese total en el funcionamiento de la PEMFC. Los parametros criticos para los fenomenos de transporte son la porosidad, el diametro del poro en la capa de difusion y las caracteristicas de distribucion de reactivos. El presente trabajo comprende un diseno experimental entre dos medios de distribucion y dos medios de difusion de gases reactivos en una PEMFC, implicando tres casos de estudio. Los resultados obtenidos muestran interacciones notablemente significativas entre el diametro de poro, el tipo de capa de difusion aplicada y el tipo de distribuidor aplicado. La combinacion en el segundo caso reduce significativamente las resistencias ohmicas y moderadamente las resistencias por difusion mientras la combinacion del caso tres incrementa notablemente las resistencias ohmicas sin embargo reducen las resistencias por difusion de forma importante.

  17. Aristotelovo pojetí logiky

    OpenAIRE

    Zavřel, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Bibliografická citace ZAVŘEL, Karel. Aristotelovo pojetí logiky. Bakalářská práce. Praha: Univerzita Karlova - Katolická teologická fakulta, 2014. Abstract Presented bachelor thesis Aristotle's conception of logic describes gradually Aristotle's life, the previous dialectical tradition and also concrete bases of his logical system. There are described in detail the various parts of Aristotle's Organon. The greatest emphasis is placed - and a large space is devoted - especially Aristotle's doc...

  18. Formální aspekty Aristotelovy logiky z historického úhlu pohledu

    OpenAIRE

    Fontán, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on formal properties of Aristotle's syllogistic as seen from the per- spective of both modern logic and Aristotle himself. Its main objective is the proof of the standard completeness theorem that does not employ the indirect deduction as has become a custom in modern reconstructions of Aristotle's deductive system.

  19. Rhetoric and "Phronesis": The Aristotelian Ideal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Lois S.

    A recurring puzzle in Aristotle's "Rhetoric" is the book's ethical stance; Aristotle gives practical advice on the use of persuasive discourse and intends it to be used in association with virtue, although the two seem to be separable. However, persuasion and virtue in Aristotle's theory of rhetoric have connections deriving from the…

  20. A Circular Evolution of Perspectives regarding Ethical Communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, E. Sam

    The contemporary view of ethical communication has come full circle, returning to the approach of Aristotle. Almost every public speaking textbook includes discussion of the basic concepts of what Aristotle called ethos, pathos, and logos. Of particular significance is Aristotle's conception of ethos, as elaborated in his work, "The…

  1. A Study of Muslim Philosophers’ Views about Rhythm and Rhyme (with emphasis on the works of Aristotle, al-Farabi, Averroes, Ibn Sina, Baghdadi, Khajeh Nasir and Ghartajeni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahdi Zarghani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract A part of Muslim philosophers’ studies is allocated to music. They categorize music as a sub-branch of mathematical sciences and investigate it scientifically, not artistically. Al-Musighi al-Kabir by al-Farabi and Javame’ Elm al-Musighi by Ibn Sina are among the most important works in this regard. Under the general category of music, they also allocate a section to the music of poem and investigate it scientifically. Their ideas about the music of poem are similar to as well as different from the ideas of prosodists. This article aims to study their ideas about the music of poem briefly. The first section is allocated to the issue of rhythm in verbal arts and it is shown that our philosophers consider two kinds of rhythm: quantifiable and not quantifiable. The first one exists in poem and the second one is in non-poetic language. Also they define certain characteristics for each of these rhythms. Quantity, the equality of cadences, provoking admiration and having distant returns are the features of poetic rhythm, whereas regular join and separation, similar endings, symmetry of sentences with regard to length, agreement and similarity of symmetrical words regarding movements, pauses and numbers of such words, appropriate usage of music-creating devices such as puns, alliterations and parallelisms are among the features of non-poetic rhythms. The significance of rhythm in poem and its status is another issue investigated in this article and it is shown that music and mimesis are two necessary elements that poem is made simply by the presence of them and the fundamental matter in the music of poem is “proportion”. Also it is shown that such matter is the basis of meters and prosodies. Our investigation shows that musical sounds and poetic meters are following the same system. Under other issues such as “Tanghim” it is shown that, by creating such terms, philosophers try to show that the factor of sound is important in the formation of rhythm and the proposition of issues such as the relationship between rhythm and emotional-semantic backgrounds of poem makes it clear if in their views there is a meaningful relationship between these two factors or not?   Rhyme is the second music-creating element in the poem. Philosophers have investigated this element less than rhythm. For example, Ibn Sina and al-Farabi explain the relation between rhyme and Arabic as well as other poems. The disagreements between philosophers and prosodists with regard to this element are also studied in this article. Â

  2. Physics Proofs of Four Millennium-Problems(MP) via CATEGORY-SEMANTICS(C-S)/F=C Aristotle SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION(SoO) DEduction-LOGIC DichotomY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, London; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    Siegel-Baez Cognitive-Category-Semantics"(C-C-S) tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics SoO jargonial-obfuscation elimination query WHAT? yields four "pure"-maths MP "Feet of Clay!!!" proofs: (1) Siegel [AMS Natl.Mtg.(02)-Abs.973-03-126: (CCNY;64)(94;Wiles)] Fermat's: Last-Thm. = Least-Action Ppl.; (2) P=/=NP TRIVIAL simple Euclid geometry/dimensions: NO computer anything"Feet of Clay!!!"; (3) Birch-Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture; (4) Riemann-hypotheses via COMBO.: Siegel[AMS Natl.Mtg.(02)-Abs.973-60-124] digits log-law inversion to ONLY BEQS with ONLY zero-digit BEC, AND Rayleigh[1870;graph-thy."short-CUT method"[Doyle-Snell, Random-Walks & Electric-Nets,MAA(81)]-"Anderson"[(58)] critical-strip C-localization!!! SoO DichotomY ("V") IdentitY: #s:(Euler v Bernoulli) = (Sets v Multisets) = Quantum-Statistics(FD v BE) = Power-Spectra(1/f(0) v 1/f(1)) = Conic-Sections(Ellipse v Hyperbola) = Extent(Locality v Globality);Siegel[(89)] (so MIScalled) "complexity" as UTTER-SIMPLICITY(!!!) v COMPLICATEDNESS MEASURE(S) definition.

  3. Natureza e Deliberação em Aristóteles: uma aproximação em diálogo com Pierre Aubenque [Nature and Deliberation in Aristotle: an approach in dialogue with Pierre Aubenque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Edmar Lima Filho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo versa sobre uma possível interpretação da natureza em Aristóteles que corresponda à exigência da viabilidade da deliberação para a ação humana, ou seja, sobre o problema da articulação da natureza com a contingência como seu momento interno. Para isso, propõe-se a visualização de um percurso teórico que apresenta brevemente o conceito de natureza desde a Física aristotélica até a interpretação da possibilidade de uma ontologia da contingência  no pensamento do Estagirita, o que é realizado com base na hipótese interpretativade Pierre Aubenque. A consequência da defesa do estabelecimento de um lugar para a indeterminação e a imprevisibilidade, características da ação humana, fortalece a concepção de deliberação e demonstra a importância deste conceito para a política em Aristóteles, algo que justifica a relevância da presente proposta de trabalho.

  4. Natureza e Deliberação em Aristóteles: uma aproximação em diálogo com Pierre Aubenque [Nature and Deliberation in Aristotle: an approach in dialogue with Pierre Aubenque

    OpenAIRE

    José Edmar Lima Filho; Eduardo Ferreira Chagas

    2017-01-01

    O presente artigo versa sobre uma possível interpretação da natureza em Aristóteles que corresponda à exigência da viabilidade da deliberação para a ação humana, ou seja, sobre o problema da articulação da natureza com a contingência como seu momento interno. Para isso, propõe-se a visualização de um percurso teórico que apresenta brevemente o conceito de natureza desde a Física aristotélica até a interpretação da possibilidade de uma ontologia da contingência  no pensamento do Estagirita, o ...

  5. Science and Morality: Mind the Gap, Use Happiness as a Safe Bridge! Book review of ‘‘Exploring Happiness: from Aristotle to Brain Science’’ by Sissela Bok, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Ott (Jan Cornelis)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract In 2002 Sissela Bok re-published her book ‘‘Common Values’’, first published in 1995, about her search for a minimal set of values to be respected all over the world. In her view such a set of values is needed to facilitate international communication and cooperation. Values

  6. Fragmentos da história das concepções de mundo na construção das ciências da natureza: das certezas medievais às dúvidas pré-modernas Episodes in the history of conceptions of the world of natural sciences: from medieval certainties to pre-modern doubts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Fernandes Nascimento Júnior

    2003-01-01

    do mundo. Os pensadores italianos, como uma reação à Escolástica, constroem um pensamento humanista influenciado pelo pensamento grego clássico original e pelos últimos filósofos bizantinos. Por todas essas mudanças se inicia a construção de um novo universo e de um novo método, que viria décadas mais tarde.The philosophical concept of world thought begins with the Greeks, synthesized by Plato and Aristotle. For Plato the one physical world is apparent and, to reach the truth, it is necessary to remember the original ideas that determine its meaning. For Aristotle, material things are guided by ideas and logic is needed to understand them. During the Hellenistic period, the school of Alexandria elaborated Neo-Platonism, the base of Patristics. After the fall of Rome, the Byzantine philosophers kept the classic inheritance. The Church built a Neo-Platonic vision of Christianity, Scholastacism. In the east the Persians also came under Greek influence. Among the Arabs of the East Neo-Platonic thought guided philosophers and religious people so that for them reason and faith were not separated. At this point sciences grew: physics, alchemy, botany, medicine, mathematics and logic, until they were overtaken by the conservative doctrine of the Ottomans. In Muslin Spain, without the restrictions of theology, Aristotle's philosophy was better understood than in the rest of Islam.

  7. The search for virtue

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    Nikitović Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the combat for virtue, waged between Plato and the Sophists, Plato was striving to keep the contents of old Hellenic ethics, but not their mythical form, where Sophism discovered significant shortcomings and thanks to that challenged the whole contents of old Hellenic ethics. On the other hand, Plato accepted the new form of rational thinking, but not the dismantling unilateralism of Sohpism rationality. In other words, Plato embarked on theoreticizing the contents of old Hellenic ethics, aspiring to reconcile the fundamental principle of traditional view of the world with the new ruling form of thinking.

  8. Will and Wille | Wright | Shakespeare in Southern Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Ronald Gray. Shakespeare on Love: The Sonnets and Plays in Relation to Plato's Symposium, Alchemy, Christianity and Renaissance Neo-Platonism. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2011.

  9. Soul and body: Transcending the dialectical intellectual legacy of the West with an integral biblical view?

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    Danie Strauss

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Greek philosophy informed the Medieval dualistic understanding of ‘body’ and ‘soul’, which continued to influence modern Humanism and Christian views during and after the Middle Ages. These fluctuating conceptions express the directing role of dialectical basic motives. It was mainly the Greek motive of matter and form which directed the thought of Plato and Aristotle, resulting in a dualistic view of the relationship between a so-called material body and rational soul. At the Council of Vienne (1312, the Aristotelian-Thomistic doctrine of the soul as the substantial form of the body was adopted. Within Protestant circles, the‘two-substances’ view caused a distinction between a (temporal material body and an (eternal rational soul (see article 7 of the Swiss Confessio Helvetica Posterior and the Westminster Confession Chapter 4, paragraph 2. Dooyeweerd shows how modern philosophy has received its deepest motivation from the dialectical motive of nature and freedom, which informed the development from Descartes up to Gould and Jaspers. Finally, in the last sections, the main contours of a biblically informed view are articulated with reference to the centrality of the human I-ness, to the theory of enkaptic interlacements and to the problem of supra-temporality. Siel en liggaam: Is dit moontlik om die dialektiese intellektuele erfenis van die Westevanuit ‘n integrale bybelse siening te bowe te kom? Die Griekse filosofie vorm die agtergrond van die Middeleeuse dualistiese verstaan van ‘liggaam’ en ‘siel’ wat op sy beurt die moderne Humanisme en latere Christelike opvattinge beïnvloed het – almal in die greep van dialektiese grondmotiewe. Dit was hoofsaaklik die Griekse basiese vorm-materie-motief wat die dualistiese siening van ’n materie-liggaam en ’n redelike siel tot gevolg gehad het, soos dit in die denke van Plato en Aristoteles beslag gekry het. By die Konsilie van Wenen (1312 is die Aristotelies

  10. [AN ENTRY FOR A "DICTIONARY OF GENETICS" GENERATION AND ASPECTS OF HEREDITY FROM THE PRESOCRATICS TO GALEN: THE MAIN NOTIONS AND THE TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgianni, Franco; Provenza, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at dealing with the historical development and the terminology of the notion of generation in ancient Greece, taking as well into consideration several aspects of the notion of heredity, for, at present, research in this field lacks a consistent encyclopedic entry on such subjects. The Presocratic - mainly Empedoclean - notions of 'mixing' and 'separation' lurk behind the Hippocratic treatise De genitura/De natura pueri, in which the process of generation is explained through the 'mixing' mechanism of a female semen and a male one. Semen comes from each part of both parents, so it is sound from the sound parts, and unhealthy from the unhealthy parts. It is considered as the "foam of blood" (Diogenes, A 24 DK), gathering itself into a web of blood vessels that bring it to the genital organs. The mixed semen keeps on fixing itself in the womb thanks to pneuma ('breath'), until the embryo takes human shape. Generation is influenced by both the environment (Airs, Waters, Places) and dietetics (On Regimen, I). Male and female are on different levels in CH, since the former is characterized as hot and strong, and the latter is considered as cold and weak; as a consequence of this, the articulation takes longer in the case of a female embryo. On the other hand, the pangenesis and the preformism theory claim for a strong mutual relationship. Sex determination depends from the 'prevalence' of the male or female semen. The generation of twins of different sex depends from such 'prevalence', as well as from the conformation of the womb and its places (right/male, left/female). Both nature (physis) and use (nomos) have a role in the mechanism of inheritance, as the case of the Macrocephalians in Airs Waters Places shows. On the other hand, Plato's Timaeus exemplifies the theory according to which semen derives from the spinal marrow. The structures of the body - bones, flesh, nerves - aim at protecting marrow itself for the sake of maintaining the continuity

  11. Preliminary thoughts on the relevance of the research field of cognition for Practical Theology

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    Ferdi P. Kruger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research from the vantage point of Practical Theology, the author focusses on the importance and the possible value of the concept of cognition for further research. The philosophical roots of the concepts of knowledge and understanding are highlighted in a qualitative manner by means of a short selection from the insights of philosophers from the era of the Greek Philosophy to the nineteenth century. The insights of Plato, Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas, Descartes and Kant are utilised. The purpose was to indicate the importance of the concepts of knowing and cognition from an early stage. Research from the field of cognitive science also received attention in this research. The purpose of this discussion is to indicate that cognition is not a mere intellectual activity. Cognition is important in the processes of perspective-making and moral choices. Cognitive distortions could possibly endanger people�s ability to have the right cognition about people, events and life itself. The concept of phronesis, as the concept that comes the nearest to the essence of cognition, is also investigated from the vantage point of Philippians 2:5 and Romans 12:3. Wisdom thinking is really important in research on the acts of people from a practical theological vantage point. Cognition must be regarded as people�s attempt to make sense out what they already know and also out of what they are observing. In the final part of the article, fields for possible further investigation are highlighted in order to make the statement that practical theologians can consider the fact to reclaim the field of investigation on cognition in further research. The importance of cognition for liturgy, homiletics, pastoral care and youth ministry is indicated.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article is undertaken from a practical theological vantage point in order to highlight the importance of the concept of cognition for further research. In

  12. Feminists and their perspectives on the church fathers' beliefs regarding women: An inquiry

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    Hannelie Wood

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The church fathers and their views on women were influenced substantially and significantly by philosophical voices, such as that of Aristotle and Plato, amongst others. A brief account on Aristotle�s and Plato�s ideas about women, from feminist perspectives, will be touched upon. The article furthermore explores feminist voices, regarding the church fathers� thinking about women, and how these views contributed to women�s subordination and domination. The research will focus on the many varied views on women held by Latin church fathers, such as Tertullian (c. 155�255, Cyprian (c. 200�258 AD, Jerome (c. 347�419, Ambrose (c. 339�397 and Augustine (354�430, and the Greek church fathers, such as Clement of Alexander (c. 150�215, Origen (c. 185�254 and Chrysostom (c. 347�407, from the perspective of feminists. It will be contended that an insensitive and too early denunciation of the early church fathers as misogynists often occurs in women�s history without taking into consideration the church fathers� philosophical and social contexts and, hence, the opinions that formed their views. One such theory that helped to shape the church fathers� views about women is the classic medical theory, and this therefore merits a brief discussion. Another important point one has to take into account is the church fathers� perceptions of the carnal (sexual and the spiritual world that shaped their views about women.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: History teaches us what people before us did, what their intentions were and where they failed or went wrong. If historical viewpoints about women reflect women�s subordination and oppression, they force women to discover their roots and their past. The church fathers, however, inherited a long tradition of debates, beliefs, and arguments regarding women�s moral, intellectual, and natural capacities. Therefore, generalised, simplified, and unsympathetic views

  13. Rola negacji w opisie świata według arystotelesowskiej Metafizyki

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    Jan BIGAJ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The notions of „being” and „non-being” have entered philosophical language, forming thebasis of ontology and meontology, as the counterparts of the Greek expressions to o]n and tomh o]n (nominalised forms, affirmative and negative, of the participle of the verb ei=nai.Originally, however, these expressions did not have any objectifying meaning, but played therole of meta-language names, representing the copula ei=nai in all its forms, most generallyin its affirmative and negative forms. The copula itself, which in later philosophy took on theexistential meaning, had functioned only as a semantically empty connective of predicates.Over time the participle o]n has been used as a universal name of all predicates.The above-mentioned expressions became central in Greek philosophical terminologythanks to the debates, initiated by Parmenides, on the role of negation in the description of theworld. Parmenides himself proposed a complete excision of negative sentences as describing byelimination, and created a positive-monistic system which abandoned multiplicity, divisibility,and variability. Later philosophers defended negation, fighting back against the paradoxesformulated by the Eleatics and later by the Sophists.Plato observed that without negation it is impossible to describe the multiplicity of things.He also distinguished a relative negation which does not eliminate anything but makes it possibleto confront some things with others. According to the atomists, the divisibility of physicalthings forces us to accept that they consist of a positive element in the form of an impenetrablebody, and of another element lacking any characteristics, i.e. the void. Finally, Aristotle, whenanalysing the process of change, justified the consistency of the statement that something comesout of “not being” and “being”, under the assumption that the former is understood as beingactual, and the latter as being potential. In all these conceptions

  14. A dialética da transformação de valores em preços The dialectis of the transformation of values into prices

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    Cláudio Gontijo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina o estatuto metodológico da transformação de valores em preços. Para tanto, resgata a evolução da dialética, que se tornou método com Platão, assumiu a forma de sistema de demonstrações necessárias que partem dos princípios incondicionados alcançados através da synagoge com Aristóteles e de lógica do Espírito Absoluto com Hegel. Invertendo a dialética hegeliana, Marx concebe a dialética como a lógica da realidade objetiva reproduzida pela razão. Em particular, na dialética de O Capital, mostra como, na sequência do desdobramento da mercadoria, ponto de partida da exposição (Darstellung do capitalismo, a transformação dos valores em preços surge necessariamente como o momento do aparecer da essência do capitalismo (o trabalho abstrato no âmbito do fenômeno. Com os preços de produção, encerra-se a explicação racional da realidade efetiva (Wirklichtkeit, concebida como emergência da essência ao nível do fenômeno, englobando o âmbito da acidentalidade, inescapável em toda ciência empírica.This article examines the methodological statute of the transformation of values into prices. It resumes the evolution of dialectics, which became method with Plato, assumed the form of a system of necessary demonstrations which stem from the unconditioned principles reached through the synagogue with Aristotle and the logic of the Absolute Spirit with Hegel. Inverting the Hegelian reasoning, Marx conceives dialectics as the logic of objective reality that is reproduced by reason. In The Capital, Marx shows how in the unfolding of the commodity - point of departure of the exposition (Darstellung of capitalism - it necessarily emerges the transformation process, as the moment of the essence's blossoming (the abstract labor in the domain of the phenomenon. With the prices of production, the rational explanation of effective reality (Wirklichtkeit is complete, conceived as emergence of the essence at the

  15. Nuclear Energy and Public Opinion: Chile's Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.

    2015-01-01

    Public opinion is as old as history itself. Its origins date back to the ancient Greece where the Agora was consulted about matters of interest and at the same time it was practiced the art of persuasion through dialogue. Philosophers such as Socrates, Plato and Aristotle gave proof of their knowledge and skills of persuasion. These aspects were inherited by the Roman Empire, which sought through the senate the idea of transmitting what we know as “Vox Populi” (The Greek doxa), a term that together with the “Consensus” used by Medieval thinkers, constitute its pre-modern origin. From a conceptual point of view, public opinion comes alongside the creation of the idea of the state and as a result of the historical process called the Enlightenment. Thinkers such as Rousseau, Locke, Montesquieu, Kant and Hegel contextualised it within the legal system of the state. For Rousseau, it should be understood as a expression of the general will; for Kant it was the highest realization of the Enlightenment era and a result of the use of reason and law and for Locke human behaviour was defined by three fundamental laws: the divine, civil and…Public Opinion!. Hegel was much more specific and expressed that public opinion was called to be the instrument by which society expressed its support or rejection to the rulers’ decisions. It was in coffee shops and gatherings where opinion was born; for this reason, it was only the elite who was able to expressed about general interest’s topics, therefore the importance of sociability during modern times. This is how we arrive to the contemporary definition of the term. Since the French Revolution the concept has been associated with the sovereignty of the states and people, i.e. the rule of the majority. Today due to the massive participation of people in issues of importance, the opinion delivered by the media, and the globalization of communications, it is difficult to arrive at a definition of the term we have been

  16. Poesía y filosofía son de palabra

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    Santamaría Pargada, Antonio

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The imaginary and sinister concentration-camp chief Otto Friedrich Zur Linde was conceived by Jorge-Luis Borges as an example of misunderstanding philosophy and life, by seeing in them only the power of fight. This conception is compared with a dynamic understanding of philosophy. For Mr. Zur Linde Aristotle and Plato represent this confrontation, and each philosophical debate in history could be considered as a moment in it. But now, in the last fight, the will to power of man has gone beyond all the limits, even of morality. However some modern techniques of appropriation of ancient philosophy are completely opposed to this conception, namely Paul Ricoeur’s theory of fiction and Heidegger’s Sein und Schein,. Ultimately, the close relationship between poetry and philosophy since its origins speak against this thesis. A closer analysis of Nietzsche and Hölderlin will help to enlighten how wrong Zur Linde´s conception is..El siniestro jefe de un campo de concentración Otto Friedrich Zur Linde, concebido por Borges como ejemplo de una interpretación de la filosofía y la vida en la que la lucha es el único motor, es confrontado con una concepción de la filosofía dinámica. Zur Linde mantiene que Aristóteles y Platón son el enfrentamiento filosófico paradigmático. En el último momento del enfrentamiento la voluntad de poder de un nuevo superhombre ha rebasado todos los límites, incluso el de la conciencia. A esto se oponen las técnicas de apropiación filosófica del mundo griego por parte de la modernidad, a saber: el poder de la ficción, el Schein y el Sein así como el nacimiento de la filosofía, tan cercano a la poesía. Bajo este prisma cabe un análisis de Nietzsche y Hölderlin, que reniega de la interpretación de Zur Linde y clarifica que ante todo poetas y filósofos son seres de palabra.

  17. Socialcultural background of formation of classical metaphysics

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    I. Z. Derzhko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The classical model of philosophy has shaped ideas about its nature and aims that were laid in ancient metaphysics, but have been substantially amended by civilizational change. Socialcultural background of philosophy became trends that began to emerge in late medieval culture has particularly flourished there during modern times. Sphere of existence is important for the development of any spiritual phenomenon. For metaphysics it is the idea of humanity, acting as a kind of cultural protest against the domination of religion. This caused criticism of the medieval way of life and thinking. The idea of human revival based on spirit of antiquity has grounded. Disclaimer theological philosophy medieval variant type is as opposed to free philosophizing, coupled with poetry and literature, University dogmatic philosophy. There were a «rediscovery» of Plato, Aristotle reinterpretation. Philosophers explored a problem of human emotions and relationships, considering the person as a whole being, which is inherent in the mind, which cannot be considered without bodily desires and emotions. Change of the values awakened activity of the human person, led its transformation settings concerning himself and the surrounding world. Thus objectively obtained expression and ideological embodiment of civilization in a need of a new type of man - to a much greater extent compared to medieval activity, initiative, freedom, rationality, responsibility. Under the influence of such attitudes changes within religion gradually took place. Through the efforts of thinkers like Luther, Calvin, Munzer there were laid ideas of the Reformation that go far beyond its borders, gaining general cultural nature. The Church was increasingly losing control over everyday human existence. Gradually standards of a free, relaxed life became conventional; requirements of the body, «earthly» spirit demands fulfilling played a huge role. Thought and Culture of the Renaissance reflects

  18. Análise dos modelos de tomada decisão sob o enfoque cognitivo ANALYSIS OF MODELS OF DECISION MAKING IN THE COGNITIVE APPROACH

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    Eugênio de Oliveira Simonetto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The rationality has been defined from the Greeks as one of the main characteristic that distinguishes man from the other animals. The Greeks ‘influence like Plato and Aristotle and the philosophers empiricist /rationalist,as Descartes and Thomas Hobbes, were remarkable for the formation of models of decision making in organizations proposed by Simon, Allison and Lindblon. This study aims to identify the mainly decision making models and check how the cognitive aspects can affect the behavior of the agents involved in the process. The results show that there is no way to overlook the subjective factors, the different cognitive styles in the decision, there is a system of relations between the elements of nature objective and subjective elements,whichever is the predominant influence of the values of decision makers involved, which is seen as a motivator for the decision.A racionalidade vem sendo definida a partir dos gregos como uma das principais características que distingue o homem dos outros animais. A influência dos gregos, como Platão e Aristóteles, e dos filósofos empiristas/racionalistas, como Descartes e Thomas Hobbes, foram marcantes para a formação dos modelos de tomadas de decisão nas organizações propostas por Simon, Allison e Lindblon. Assim, este trabalho tem o objetivo de identificar os principais modelos de tomada de decisão e verificar como os aspectos cognitivos podem afetar o comportamento dos agentes envolvidos no processo. Os resultados demonstram que não há como negligenciar os fatores subjetivos e os diferentes estilos cognitivos na decisão, pois há um sistema de relações entre os elementos de natureza objetiva e os elementos de natureza subjetiva, prevalecendo o predomínio da influência dos valores dos decisores envolvidos, o que é visto como elemento motivador da decisão.

  19. Hysteria in ancient civilisations: A neurological review: Possible significance for the modern disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Edward H

    2018-05-15

    The word hysteria originated in the Corpus Hippocraticum (c420 BCE) as a natural explanation for a variety of diseases in women linked in the Greco-Roman mind to an animate or inanimate womb, but which in the last five centuries has evolved to describe an elusive disorder of brain ± mind in men and women, currently referred to by neurologists as "functional neurological disorder". The Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians had no knowledge of brain or psychological function. Babylonian and Assyrian descriptions of disease and behaviour include only rare examples suggestive of modern hysteria. An earlier suggestion that the Greek concept of hysteria was transmitted from Egypt is not supported by recent evidence. The Greco-Roman civilisations had some knowledge of neuroanatomy, but little of nervous system function, conceived in terms of humors. The examples cited here suggestive of modern hysteria are relatively infrequent and fragmentary. The most plausible are attempts to separate the "sacred disease" from other causes of loss of consciousness. The great achievement of Greco-Roman medicine was in introducing natural causation, including causation linked to the womb, rather than gods or evil spirits. Nevertheless medicine, magic and religion have remained intertwined to varying degrees in all cultures up to the present time, despite the growth of modern scientific medicine. The study of hysteria in ancient civilisations adds interesting insight into the evolution of thinking about brain, psyche, mind and self. Babylonian and Egyptian medical and behavioural descriptions are based on observation. Greek and Roman accounts include some subjective aspects, probably linked to early attempts to understand identity, the psyche, intellectual and emotional functions. The great philosophical debate whether the latter resided in the head/brain (Plato) or the heart (Aristotle) has only been settled in the last few centuries, during which hysteria also became linked to

  20. THE EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE ON KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT: EMOTION AND REASON FROM ARISTOTELE TO DAMASIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Annarumma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the reason-emotion dynamics intersects several disciplinary fields, such as psychology, medicine, informatics, linguistics, neuroscience, with a specific relevance for Education Sciences, as it offers interesting perspectives over its influence on the learning process. Such issues are rooted in philosophical reflections by Plato, Aristotle and later by Descartes, Vico and Kant. These dualistic perspectives will be definitively abandoned in favour of a globalist vision of the mind-body relationship, during the first half of the XX century, particularly thanks to Dewey (1933 who, inspired by Darwin’s theories, was the first to support this unity by recognizing an intersection among physical, mental and environmental processes. Over the last decades, an imperatively anti-dualistic analysis has been developing in the field of neurosciences and cognitive linguistics: on the one hand, cognitivism, considering the mind in its function of symbolic manipulation; on the other hand, connectionism, studying neural networks. Furthermore, recent scientific research has allowed mapping in a detailed - albeit admittedly incomplete manner - the complex activity of the brain and highlighting analogies between elementary connections and complex interactions. The systemic perspective is hence considering “mind and body”, “reason and emotion” as two interconnected and essential aspects of human complexity. In this regard, Damasio’s research shows how participation of the organism to conscious experience returns to the consciousness itself those biological requirements which are essential to legitimate it as an object of scientific study. Knowledge is generated by socio-experiential relationships that play a crucial role within knowledge representation. The mind takes therefore an active role in shaping the representation of the world: understanding does not just consist in a mere reproduction of the external world in our mind; instead, it

  1. The Abraham Pais Prize Lecture: The historical Development of the Physical Concept of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammer, Max

    2007-04-01

    The Irish physicist and mathematician John Lighton Synge once (1959) proclaimed that of all physical measurements that of time is the most fundamental and its theory ``the most basic theory of all.'' Twenty years later the Belgian physicist and chemist Ilya Prigogine declared that ``the concept of time is much more complex than we thought.'' Indeed, having studied the basic notions in physics like space, mass, force, simultaneity and written on each of them a detailed monograph, I always postponed a similar treatment of the concept of time because I realized that just by being the ``most basic'' it is also the most ``complex'' of all notions in physics and therefore a rather complicated subject of research. In fact, time, as perceived by us, is both ``flowing'' and ``enduring'' and its ``passing'' always ``lasts.'' If I venture nevertheless to offer herewith a survey of the conceptual development of the notion of time, I do so because I delimit myself to the role of time only in physics and ignore as far as possible general metaphysical, psychological or biological issues. The presentation thus ignores the history of the notion of time as conceived in the myths and religions of ancient civilizations and begins, after some brief remarks about the Pythagoreans, with the theories of time as proposed by the Pre-Socratics, Plato and Aristotle. After a critical discourse on the early proponents of an idealistic interpretation of the notion of time, like that of St. Augustine, medieval theories of time, like those which proposed the atomicity of time, are discussed. After a presentation of sixteenth century discussions of time, like that by Bruno or Gassendi, Isaac Barrow's and Isaac Newton's theories of physical time are critically analyzed. This is followed by a brief study of the conceptions of time by Locke and Berkeley and subsequently by Leibniz, who is often regarded as the first proponent of a relational or causal theory of time. Following some brief remarks about

  2. The phenomenon of social assistance in the humanities: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Lazarenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the phenomenon of social assistance in humanitarian schools. Such as: 1 Philosophy; 2 Cultural Studies; 3 Law; 3 Socio-pedagogical science. Retrospective analysis allowed revealing the research principles of social assistance analysis, functional features and differences of this phenomenon. Established that the theoretical basis of social assistance study incorporated in works of ancient philosophers (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle. Analyzed influence on the formation of social assistance scientific research by religious philosophers of the Middle Ages (F. Aquinas, A. Blessed. Deals the transformation of social assistance understanding from a part of society moral to forms of social interaction. Civilizational approach outlined in the cultural mainstream schools (B. Malinowski, C. Polanyi. It was determined that the cultural research traditions of social assistance understood this phenomena as a repeater of cultural heritage through the traditions of the community. Outlined scientific approach to social assistance in Law sciences. It was found that representatives of Socio-pedagogical and Political Science have used theoretical developments sociologists (M. Weber, J. Mead, H. Blumer, T. Parsons, R. Merton, E Giddens. Demonstrated that in Political Science social assistance acts as a functional tool for implementation of social policy. Characterized the role of social assistance within different models of social policy and its positions in state and international organization. Deals with the fundamental difference between the concepts of «social assistance» and «social work». Outlined limits the use of these concepts in humanitarian studies. The analysis allows us to formulate research strategies study the phenomenon of social assistance in modern society. In particular sociological perspective updated study of the phenomenon of social assistance. Actually, applied achievements of classic theory of social capital in the

  3. THE СREATIVE TASKS DURING THE PRACTICAL SESSIONS OF LITERARY SUBJECTS AS THE MEANS OF DEVELOPMENT OF CREATIVITY OF FUTURE LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Shcherbatiuk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article analyzes the methodology of using a number of creative tasks for working with students of Philology Department during the practical sessions of literary subjects. The tasks are focused on designing the creative qualities of future language and literature teachers: imagination, inspiration, initiative, noncommonality, extraordinary nature, his/her own point of view. At present, the students perceive the learning process as something fixed, which necessarily must be studied and passed. They will not think critically, as long as the teacher does not create creative atmosphere to facilitate the active involvement of students into the learning process. And one should allow them to freely speculate, dream up. Each person has the potential of skills, and the tasks of modern teacher are developing these skills and managing the process of the development. Therefore, the main purpose of organization of practical session is to be able to encounter the students’ intellectual forces, to cause them to work, to create a favorable pedagogical environment for their formation and simultaneously to shape the identity of a young person, his/her outlook. Organizing the practical training one should find a way to students’ minds and doesn`t give them ready knowledge but to ensure them to acquire knowledge themselves trying to search, establish dependences, and patterns. They should be engaged in creative dialogue with cultural texts and nourish their own personal position. The problem of creativity is complex and multifaceted. Since ancient times it has been in the scholars’ and philosophers’ field of view (Plato, Aristotle, Hegel, Pestalozzi, etc.. Basic issues of a creative individual are disclosed in the works by A. Luk, Ia. Ponomarev, A. Matiushkin, P. Enhelmeier, V. Moliako, O. Amatev, E. Belkina, A. Bohush, N. Vetluhina, N. Havrish, O. Dronova and others. However, the growing relevance and educational significance of this issue

  4. Aristotelés o snech

    OpenAIRE

    Dekarli, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The thesis deals with the Aristotle concept oť dreams. In introduction we outline a certain tradition ol' discourse about dreams before Aristotle and put foward our main proposition - sensory perception is kind ofthe material change. Within the framework oftradition, Aristotle develops his own concept of dreams and dreaming. Dreams are something deamonic; kind of phantasma, which occurs during the sleep. They are caused by residual movements from sensory perception. Phantasia is the faculty w...

  5. Aristotelovo pojetí etiky

    OpenAIRE

    Vitošková, Markéta

    2013-01-01

    Diploma thesis deals the Aristotle's conception of ethics. The aim of this thesis is to introduce and to do understandable a overview of ethics. First of all, the thesis concentrates general characteristic time, Aristotele's life and status of ethics in the Aristotle's philosophy. Secondly, the thesis mentions general Aristotle's ethics. It deals with the subjekt, goals, good and hapiness, virtue and moral conduct. Third, the thesis deals intelectuall virtue including knowledge, art, wisdom a...

  6. Aristotele, Gorgia e lo sviluppo della retorica

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    Carlo Natali

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In Aristotle's presentation Gorgias seems to be only a rhetor unable to express any philosophically interesting view. The reason for that is that, in Aristotle's opinion, a clear and precise way of speaking is a necessary feature of every philosopher, and Gorgias prefers a complex and obscure style of speech. From the point of view of the evolution of rhetoric, Aristotle believes that Gorgias makes a drawback, because he makes appeal to the emotions and passions and not to logos.

  7. Computer-Based Legal Education at the University of Illinois: A Report of Two Years' Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, Peter B.; Morgan, Thomas D.

    1975-01-01

    Describes experimentation with the Plato IV computer-assisted method of teaching law at the University of Illinois College of Law: development and testing of programs for teaching Future Interests and Offer and Acceptance, and law-related work currently being done on Plato. Potential, limitations, and student enthusiasm are summarized. (JT)

  8. The Test Matters: The Relationship between Classroom Observation Scores and Teacher Value Added on Multiple Types of Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Pam; Cohen, Julie; Ronfeldt, Matthew; Brown, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined how the relationships between one observation protocol, the Protocol for Language Arts Teaching Observation (PLATO), and value-added measures shift when different tests are used to assess student achievement. Using data from the Measures of Effective Teaching Project, we found that PLATO was more strongly related to the…

  9. A Rather Intelligent Language Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Stefano; Breuker, Joost

    1981-01-01

    Characteristics of DART (Didactic Augmented Recursive Transition), an ATN-based system for writing intelligent computer assisted instruction (ICAI) programs that is available on the PLATO system are described. DART allows writing programs in an ATN dialect, compiling them in machine code for the PLATO system, and executing them as if the original…

  10. Response to Mackenzie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Chris Peers begins his response to Jim Mackenzie's article, "Peers on Socrates and Plato" by asking "What is the 'masculine imaginary?'" Peers defines the term "imaginary" as it is applied in his article, "Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A Morpho-Logic of Teaching and Learning" (2012) and draws…

  11. Monologue à plusiers voix : Montaigne et le dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftgaard, Anders

    2010-01-01

    dissatisfaction with Plato's dialogues, he aspired to match Plato's style, not least in achieving a conversational tone. Three different elements of dialogue are analysed : the “Dialogue of One“ between the different parts of Montaigne's mind, the dialogue between the author and the writers quoted and paraphrased...

  12. Rotaryst lahkunud Valev Platot ümbritsevad segased rahaasjad / Nils Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Nils, 1975-

    2004-01-01

    Endine kaitseministri nõunik Valev Plato lahkus Rotary klubi liikmete ridadest. 2003. aastal kõrvaldati ta Tartu Ülikooli Kääriku spordibaasi direktori ametikohalt segaduste tõttu rahaasjades. Tartu Rotary klubi presidendi Andrus Ansipi arvamus Plato klubist lahkumise kohta

  13. The Legitimization of Dialectic: Socratic Strategy in the "Gorgias."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmerton, Patricia

    In the "Gorgias," Plato focuses attention upon the value of dialectic as opposed to rhetoric, as well as the status of orators as opposed to philosophers. Through his agent, Socrates, Plato confirms dialectic as a legitimate endeavor while calling into question the place of rhetoric. Socrates is portrayed as a director who enacts a…

  14. The Inner (and Unavoidable?) Violence of Reason: Re-Reading Heidegger via Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Agnese, Vasco

    2015-01-01

    Since Plato, Western thought has framed knowing as a method within "some realm of what is" and a predetermined "sphere of objects". The roots and the consequences of this stance towards reason and truth were noted by Heidegger, who equates the history of Western thought with the history of metaphysics. Since Plato, truth has…

  15. Platonic Dialogue, Maieutic Method and Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I offer a reading of one of Plato's later works, the "Sophist", that reveals it to be informed by principles comparable on the face of it with those that have emerged recently in the field of critical thinking. As a development of the famous Socratic method of his teacher, I argue, Plato deployed his own pedagogical method, a…

  16. Perfect and imperfect states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Early Greek ethics embodied in Cretan and Spartan mores, served as a model for Plato`s political theory. Plato theorized the contents of early Greek ethics, aspiring to justify and revitalize the fundamental principles of a traditional view of the world. However, according to Plato`s new insight, deed is further from the truth than a thought i.e. theory. The dorian model had to renounce its position to the perfect prototype of a righteous state, which is a result of the inner logic of philosophical theorizing in early Greek ethics. Prototype and model of philosophical reflection, in comparison to philosophical theory, becomes minor and deficient. Philosophical theorizing of early Greek ethics philosophically formatted Greek heritage, initiating substantial changes to the content of traditional ethics. Replacement of the myth with ontology, as a new foundation of politics, transformed early Greek ethics in various relevant ways. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179049

  17. Evaluación de las condiciones higiénico-sanitarias y seguridad microbiológica de establecimientos de restauración colectiva y de platos de ensalada y cárnicos cocidos destinados a poblaciones de riesgo en Andalucía

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Caturla, Magdevis Janet

    2012-01-01

    Los vegetales de IV Gama y productos cárnicos cocidos listos para el consumo son alimentos básicos en los hogares y en los establecimientos de restauración colectiva; y a menudo se incluyen en la dieta destinada a niños, ancianos, enfermos, etc., por su facilidad de preparación y valor nutricional. Sin embargo, son alimentos que no requieren de tratamiento térmico para su consumo, por lo que son muy vulnerables a las contaminaciones microbianas originadas fundamentalmente por p...

  18. Aristóteles y el objeto de la ciencia en la lógica tardomedieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Angel García Cuadrado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea of science developed by Aristotle in his treatises on logic was a necessary reference point for medieval thinkers. However, the interpretation proposed by Ockham and the Nominalists led to a linguistic revolution in the formulation of this concept. Vincent Ferrer, though continuing the Thomistic tradition, assumes the linguistic transformation brought about by Nominalism, and reformulates Aristotle's doctrine.

  19. Insolubilia and the fallacy secundum quid et simpliciter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutilh Novaes, C.; Read, S.

    2008-01-01

    Thomas Bradwardine makes much of the fact that his solution to the insolubles is in accordance with Aristotle's diagnosis of the fallacy in the Liar paradox as that of secundum quid et simpliciter. Paul Spade, however, claims that this invocation of Aristotle by Bradwardine is purely "honorary" in

  20. Mrs. Aristotele’s teeth : How SOEP transformed life satisfaction research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Headey, Bruce; Muffels, R.J.A.; Erlinghagen, M.; Hank, K.; Kreyenfeld, M.

    2018-01-01

    Aristotle thought that women were inferior to men, and cited the well-known »fact« that they have fewer teeth as evidence to support his belief. Bertrand Russell pointed out that all he had to do to check this »fact« was ask Mrs. Aristotle to open her mouth. SOEP has played the same role in research