Sample records for plato elementary mathematics

  1. Plato's problem an introduction to mathematical platonism

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    Panza, M


    What is mathematics about? And how can we have access to the reality it is supposed to describe? The book tells the story of this problem, first raised by Plato, through the views of Aristotle, Proclus, Kant, Frege, Gödel, Benacerraf, up to the most recent debate on mathematical platonism.

  2. Plato's ghost the modernist transformation of mathematics

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    Gray, Jeremy


    Plato's Ghost is the first book to examine the development of mathematics from 1880 to 1920 as a modernist transformation similar to those in art, literature, and music. Jeremy Gray traces the growth of mathematical modernism from its roots in problem solving and theory to its interactions with physics, philosophy, theology, psychology, and ideas about real and artificial languages. He shows how mathematics was popularized, and explains how mathematical modernism not only gave expression to the work of mathematicians and the professional image they sought to create for themselves, but how modernism also introduced deeper and ultimately unanswerable questions

  3. Elementary Mathematics Leaders (United States)

    Fennell, Francis; Kobett, Beth McCord; Wray, Jonathan A.


    Elementary school mathematics leaders often come to the realization that their position, however titled and determined, although dedicated to addressing needs in math teaching and learning, also entails and directly involves leadership. Elementary school math specialists/instructional leaders (referenced here as elementary mathematics leaders, or…

  4. Elementary School Mathematics Priorities (United States)

    Wilson, W. Stephen


    This article first describes some of the basic skills and knowledge that a solid elementary school mathematics foundation requires. It then elaborates on several points germane to these practices. These are then followed with a discussion and conclude with final comments and suggestions for future research. The article sets out the five…

  5. Vision in elementary mathematics

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    Sawyer, W W


    Sure-fire techniques of visualizing, dramatizing, and analyzing numbers promise to attract and retain students' attention and understanding. Topics include basic multiplication and division, algebra, word problems, graphs, negative numbers, fractions, many other practical applications of elementary mathematics. 1964 ed. Answers to Problems.

  6. Explorations in Elementary Mathematical Modeling (United States)

    Shahin, Mazen


    In this paper we will present the methodology and pedagogy of Elementary Mathematical Modeling as a one-semester course in the liberal arts core. We will focus on the elementary models in finance and business. The main mathematical tools in this course are the difference equations and matrix algebra. We also integrate computer technology and…

  7. Numbers Rule The Vexing Mathematics of Democracy, from Plato to the Present

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    Szpiro, George G


    Since the very birth of democracy in ancient Greece, the simple act of voting has given rise to mathematical paradoxes that have puzzled some of the greatest philosophers, statesmen, and mathematicians. Numbers Rule traces the epic quest by these thinkers to create a more perfect democracy and adapt to the ever-changing demands that each new generation places on our democratic institutions. In a sweeping narrative that combines history, biography, and mathematics, George Szpiro details the fascinating lives and big ideas of great minds such as Plato, Pliny the Younger, Ramon Llull, Pierre Simo

  8. An excursion through elementary mathematics

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    Caminha Muniz Neto, Antonio


    This book provides a comprehensive, in-depth overview of elementary mathematics as explored in Mathematical Olympiads around the world. It expands on topics usually encountered in high school and could even be used as preparation for a first-semester undergraduate course. This first volume covers Real Numbers, Functions, Real Analysis, Systems of Equations, Limits and Derivatives, and much more. As part of a collection, the book differs from other publications in this field by not being a mere selection of questions or a set of tips and tricks that applies to specific problems. It starts from the most basic theoretical principles, without being either too general or too axiomatic. Examples and problems are discussed only if they are helpful as applications of the theory. Propositions are proved in detail and subsequently applied to Olympic problems or to other problems at the Olympic level. The book also explores some of the hardest problems presented at National and International Mathematics Olympiads, as we...

  9. An excursion through elementary mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Caminha Muniz Neto, Antonio

    This book provides a comprehensive, in-depth overview of elementary mathematics as explored in Mathematical Olympiads around the world. It expands on topics usually encountered in high school and could even be used as preparation for a first-semester undergraduate course. This first volume covers Real Numbers, Functions, Real Analysis, Systems of Equations, Limits and Derivatives, and much more. As part of a collection, the book differs from other publications in this field by not being a mere selection of questions or a set of tips and tricks that applies to specific problems. It starts from the most basic theoretical principles, without being either too general or too axiomatic. Examples and problems are discussed only if they are helpful as applications of the theory. Propositions are proved in detail and subsequently applied to Olympic problems or to other problems at the Olympic level. The book also explores some of the hardest problems presented at National and International Mathematics Olympiads, as we...

  10. Mathematical Models of Elementary Mathematics Learning and Performance. Final Report. (United States)

    Suppes, Patrick

    This project was concerned with the development of mathematical models of elementary mathematics learning and performance. Probabilistic finite automata and register machines with a finite number of registers were developed as models and extensively tested with data arising from the elementary-mathematics strand curriculum developed by the…

  11. Explorations in Elementary Mathematical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen Shahin


    Full Text Available In this paper we will present the methodology and pedagogy of Elementary Mathematical Modeling as a one-semester course in the liberal arts core. We will focus on the elementary models in finance and business. The main mathematical tools in this course are the difference equations and matrix algebra. We also integrate computer technology and cooperative learning into this inquiry-based learning course where students work in small groups on carefully designed activities and utilize available software to support problem solving and understanding of real life situations. We emphasize the use of graphical and numerical techniques, rather than theoretical techniques, to investigate and analyze the behavior of the solutions of the difference equations.As an illustration of our approach, we will show a nontraditional and efficient way of introducing models from finance and economics. We will also present an interesting model of supply and demand with a lag time, which is called the cobweb theorem in economics. We introduce a sample of a research project on a technique of removing chaotic behavior from a chaotic system.

  12. Exploring Collective Mathematical Creativity in Elementary School (United States)

    Levenson, Esther


    This study combines theories related to collective learning and theories related to mathematical creativity to investigate the notion of collective mathematical creativity in elementary school classrooms. Collective learning takes place when mathematical ideas and actions, initially stemming from an individual, are built upon and reworked,…

  13. Mathematical Modeling: Challenging the Figured Worlds of Elementary Mathematics (United States)

    Wickstrom, Megan H.


    This article is a report on a teacher study group that focused on three elementary teachers' perceptions of mathematical modeling in contrast to typical mathematics instruction. Through the theoretical lens of figured worlds, I discuss how mathematics instruction was conceptualized across the classrooms in terms of artifacts, discourse, and…

  14. "Mathematics Is Like a Lion": Elementary Students' Beliefs about Mathematics (United States)

    Markovits, Zvia; Forgasz, Helen


    The aim of this study was to explore the beliefs of elementary school students about mathematics and about themselves as mathematics learners. The participants, Israeli grade 4 and grade 6 students, completed questionnaires. Using an "animal metaphor" to tap beliefs, some students perceived mathematics as difficult and complicated, while…

  15. Addressing Priorities for Elementary School Mathematics (United States)

    Venenciano, Linda; Dougherty, Barbara


    Findings from international assessments present an opportunity to reconsider mathematics education across the grades. If concepts taught in elementary grades lay the foundation for continued study, then children's introduction to school mathematics deserves particular attention. We consider Davydov's theory (1966), which sequences…

  16. Elementary Preservice Teachers' and Elementary Inservice Teachers' Knowledge of Mathematical Modeling (United States)

    Schwerdtfeger, Sara


    This study examined the differences in knowledge of mathematical modeling between a group of elementary preservice teachers and a group of elementary inservice teachers. Mathematical modeling has recently come to the forefront of elementary mathematics classrooms because of the call to add mathematical modeling tasks in mathematics classes through…

  17. The Relationship among Elementary Teachers’ Mathematics Anxiety, Mathematics Instructional Practices, and Student Mathematics Achievement


    Hadley, Kristin M.; Dorward, Jim


    Many elementary teachers have been found to have high levels of mathematics anxiety but the impact on student achievement was unknown. Elementary teachers (N = 692) completed the modified Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Revised (Hopko, 2003) along with a questionnaire probing anxiety about teaching mathematics and current mathematics instructional practices. Student mathematics achievement data were collected for the classrooms taught by the teachers. A positive relationship was found betwee...

  18. Visuospatial training improves elementary students' mathematics performance. (United States)

    Lowrie, Tom; Logan, Tracy; Ramful, Ajay


    Although spatial ability and mathematics performance are highly correlated, there is scant research on the extent to which spatial ability training can improve mathematics performance. This study evaluated the efficacy of a visuospatial intervention programme within classrooms to determine the effect on students' (1) spatial reasoning and (2) mathematics performance as a result of the intervention. The study involved grade six students (ages 10-12) in eight classes. There were five intervention classes (n = 120) and three non-intervention control classes (n = 66). A specifically designed 10-week spatial reasoning programme was developed collaboratively with the participating teachers, with the intervention replacing the standard mathematics curriculum. The five classroom teachers in the intervention programme presented 20 hr of activities aimed at enhancing students' spatial visualization, mental rotation, and spatial orientation skills. The spatial reasoning programme led to improvements in both spatial ability and mathematics performance relative to the control group who received standard mathematics instruction. Our study is the first to show that a classroom-based spatial reasoning intervention improves elementary school students' mathematics performance. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Mathematics, Language, and Learning: A Longitudinal Study of Elementary Teachers and Their Mathematics Teaching Practices


    Yeh, Cathery


    Elementary school mathematics has gained increased attention in the last few decades. A growing field of research has studied the programmatic design and development of elementary mathematics teaching in teacher education, however, few studies have examined longitudinally the mathematics teaching of novice elementary teachers. Existing longitudinal studies on elementary mathematics teaching have generally focused on the effects of teacher preparation on their beginning practices and have exam...

  20. Sheaves in Elementary Mathematics: The case of positive integer numbers


    Luna-Torres, Joaquin


    We aim to use the concept of sheaf to establish a link between certain aspects of the set of positive integers numbers, a topic corresponding to the elementary mathematics, and some fundamental ideas of contemporary mathematics. We hope that this type of approach helps the school students to restate some problems of elementary mathematics in an environment deeper and suitable for its study.

  1. ABC Problem in Elementary Mathematics Education: Arithmetic "before" Comprehension (United States)

    Boote, Stacy K.; Boote, David N.


    Mathematical habits of prospective teachers affect problem comprehension and success and expose their beliefs about mathematics. Prospective elementary teachers (PSTs) (n = 121) engaged in a problem solving activity each week in class. Data were collected from PSTs enrolled in an undergraduate elementary mathematics methods course at a…

  2. The Relationships among Mathematics Teaching Efficacy, Mathematics Self-Efficacy, and Mathematical Beliefs for Elementary Pre-Service Teachers (United States)

    Briley, Jason S.


    Ninety-five elementary pre-service teachers enrolled in a mathematics content course for elementary school teachers completed 3 surveys to measure mathematics teaching efficacy, mathematics self-efficacy, and mathematical beliefs. The pre-service teachers who reported stronger beliefs in their capabilities to teach mathematics effectively were…

  3. Preservice Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Level of Relating Mathematical Concepts in Daily Life Contexts (United States)

    Akkus, Oylum


    The purpose of this study was to investigate preservice elementary mathematics teachers' ability of relating mathematical concepts and daily life context. Two research questions were set; what is the preservice elementary mathematics teachers' level of relating mathematical concepts and daily life context regarding to their education year and…

  4. Elementary Pre-Service Teachers' Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Teaching Anxiety (United States)

    Haciomeroglu, Guney


    The present study examined the structure of elementary pre-service teachers' mathematics anxiety and mathematics teaching anxiety by asking whether the two systems of anxiety are related. The Turkish Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale Short Version and the Mathematics Teaching Anxiety Scale were administered to 260 elementary pre-service teachers.…

  5. Reciprocal Relationships between Mathematics Anxiety and Attitude towards Mathematics in Elementary Students (United States)

    Haciomeroglu, Guney


    This current study examined the reciprocal relationship between anxiety and attitude towards mathematics in elementary students. Two instruments (attitudes towards mathematics inventory short form [ATMI-Short Form] and the Revised Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Anxiety Scale [Revised-FSMAS]) were administered to 310 fourth grade elementary students.…

  6. The Relationship of Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematical Knowledge to the Learning of Mathematical Pedagogy by Preservice Elementary Teachers. (United States)

    Battista, Michael T.


    Examined how preservice elementary teachers' (N=38) mathematical knowledge and mathematics anxiety affect their success in a mathematics methods course. Also examined the hypothesis that a mathematics methods course can reduce the mathematics anxiety of these teachers. One finding is that mathematics anxiety does not inhibit their learning of…

  7. Elementary General and Special Education Teachers' Mathematics Skills and Efficacy (United States)

    Flores, Margaret M.; Thornton, Jennifer; Franklin, Toni M.; Hinton, Vanessa M.; Strozier, Shaunita


    The purpose of this study was to extend the literature regarding elementary teachers' beliefs about mathematics instruction to include special education teachers by surveying special education and general education teachers' mathematics teaching efficacy. In addition, the researchers' surveyed teachers' mathematics skills. The participants (n =…

  8. Flipping Preservice Elementary Teachers' Mathematics Anxieties (United States)

    Dove, Anthony; Dove, Emily


    In preparing future elementary educators in mathematics, helping them overcome their anxieties of mathematics and teaching mathematics is paramount. This study examined how different instructional practices (in-class lecture, flipped learning with teacher-created videos, flipped classroom with Khan Academy videos) compared in improving students'…

  9. Elementary Mathematics Specialists: Ensuring the Intersection of Research and Practice (United States)

    McGatha, Maggie B.


    This paper provides a historical overview of the role and impact of elementary mathematics specialists as well as current implications and opportunities for the field. Furthermore, suggestions are offered for the mathematics education field for ensuring the intersection of practice and research. [For complete proceedings, see ED581294.

  10. Preservice Elementary Teachers' Mathematics Content Knowledge and Teacher Efficacy (United States)

    Newton, Kristie Jones; Leonard, Jacqueline; Evans, Brian R.; Eastburn, Julie A.


    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mathematics content knowledge and teacher efficacy during an elementary mathematics methods course. A positive moderate relationship between content knowledge and personal teaching efficacy was found, and this relationship was stable during the course. No relationship was found…

  11. Effects of an Additional Mathematics Content Course on Elementary Teachers' Mathematical Beliefs and Knowledge for Teaching (United States)

    Smith, Marvin E.; Swars, Susan L.; Smith, Stephanie Z.; Hart, Lynn C.; Haardorfer, Regine


    This longitudinal study examines the effects of changes in an elementary teacher preparation program on mathematics beliefs and content knowledge for teaching of two groups of prospective teachers (N = 276): (1) those who completed a program with three mathematics content courses and two mathematics methods courses and (2) those who completed a…

  12. (Re)Envisioning Mathematics Education: Examining Equity and Social Justice in an Elementary Mathematics Methods Course (United States)

    Koestler, Courtney


    In this dissertation, I present my attempts at designing an elementary mathematics methods course to support prospective teachers in developing an understanding of how to teach all students in learning powerful mathematics. To do this, I introduced them to teaching mathematics for equity and social justice by discussing ways to support students'…

  13. Reform in Turkish Elementary Mathematics Curriculum


    BABADOĞAN, Cem; OLKUN, Sinan


    Disappointed from such major international studies as TIMSS, PISA, PIRLS andsome internal indicators such as national university entrance examination, the Turkish Ministry ofNational Education initiated a massive reform movement in education. These reforms includedeveloping new curricula for both elementary and secondary education and developing teachercompetencies. The purpose of this paper is to present an evaluation of the elementary schoolmathematics curriculum, which is a part of the ref...

  14. Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Perceptions and Lived Experiences on Mathematical Communication (United States)

    Kaya, Defne; Aydin, Hasan


    Mathematical thinking skills and meaningful mathematical understanding are among the goals of current mathematics education. There is a wide consensus among scholars about the purpose of developing mathematical understanding and higher order thinking skills in students. However, how to develop those skills in classroom settings is an area that…

  15. The Preparation Experiences of Elementary Mathematics Specialists: Examining Influences on Beliefs, Content Knowledge, and Teaching Practices (United States)

    Swars, Susan L.; Smith, Stephanie Z.; Smith, Marvin E.; Carothers, Jody; Myers, Kayla


    Many in the field of mathematics education call for elementary schools to have elementary mathematics specialists (EMSs) who provide needed mathematical expertise and support for children and teachers. EMSs serve as a reasonable, immediate alternative to the challenges generated by elementary teachers needing improved mathematical knowledge for…

  16. Math Is Like a Lion Hunting a Sleeping Gazelle: Preservice Elementary Teachers' Metaphors of Mathematics (United States)

    Latterell, Carmen M.; Wilson, Janelle L.


    Preservice elementary teachers hold a variety of beliefs about mathematics and mathematics learning, which influence their teaching. Previous research has shown that preservice elementary teachers believe that mathematics is doing arithmetic. However, it is unclear if preservice elementary teachers truly believe that mathematics is only…

  17. Preparing Elementary Mathematics-Science Teaching Specialists. (United States)

    Miller, L. Diane


    Describes a professional development program to train math/science specialists for the upper elementary school grades. Using results from an interest survey, 30 teachers were chosen to participate in a 3-year program to become math/science specialists. Presents the teaching model used and the advantages for teachers and students in having subject…

  18. Integrating Children's Literature in Elementary Mathematics (United States)

    Thomas, Lynsey; Feng, Jay


    The purpose of this professional development project was to train teachers in using children's literature for math instruction and to also examine its effect on student math learning at an elementary school. Teachers were taught how to use children's literature to instruct and enhance their math curriculum through the use of literature pieces,…

  19. Using Manipulatives to Teach Elementary Mathematics (United States)

    Boggan, Matthew; Harper, Sallie; Whitmire, Anna


    The purpose of this paper is to explain the importance and benefits of math manipulatives. For decades, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics has encouraged school districts nationwide to use manipulatives in mathematical instruction. The value of manipulatives has been recognized for many years, but some teachers are reluctant to use…

  20. Teacher Perceptions of an Online Tutoring Program for Elementary Mathematics (United States)

    Whetstone, Patti; Clark, Amy; Flake, Mari Wheeler


    This study explores elementary teacher perceptions related to the implementation of an online tutoring program. Teachers were surveyed regarding factors that affected use of the online tutoring program as a supplement to mathematics instruction. Results indicated that teachers overwhelmingly reported positive views of the training and support…

  1. Dynamic Assessment, Potential Giftedness and Mathematics Achievement in Elementary School (United States)

    Popa, Nicoleta Laura; Pauc, Ramona Loredana


    Dynamic assessment is currently discussed in educational literature as one of the most promising practices in stimulating learning among various groups of students, including gifted and potentially gifted students. The present study investigates effects of dynamic assessment on mathematics achievement among elementary school students, with…

  2. The Effects of Elementary Departmentalization on Mathematics Proficiency (United States)

    Taylor-Buckner, Nicole C.


    Mathematics education in the elementary schools has experienced many changes in recent decades. With the curriculum becoming more complex as a result of each modification, immense pressure has been put on schools to increase student proficiency. The Common Core State Standards is the latest example of this. These revisions to the mathematics…

  3. Concrete Math Manipulatives in Upper Elementary Mathematics Classrooms (United States)

    Graham, Janina Maria


    Today's mathematics standards require teachers to use concrete math manipulatives (CMM) to increase the proficiency of students, but many upper elementary teachers fail to use these resources. The effects of this resource disuse may decrease student learning potential and impede successful standardized test results. This case study allows leaders…

  4. Investigating Classroom Teaching Competencies of Pre Service Elementary Mathematics Teachers (United States)

    Gokalp, Murat


    The study has sought answers to two major questions: What is the current situation in Elementary Mathematics Education programs at Faculty of Education in terms of classroom teaching competencies? To what extent do pre service teachers acquire these competencies? The research was conducted on 202 senior pre service teachers studying at the…

  5. Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Mathematics Content Knowledge: A Predictor of Sixth Graders' Mathematics Performance (United States)

    Shirvani, Hosin


    This study examined the knowledge of mathematics content of elementary pre-service teachers at a sixth grade level. The researcher administered a mathematics test for sixth graders mandated by the Texas Education Agency to pre-service teachers; the same test was given to sixth graders in Texas. The study found that pre-service teachers performed…

  6. Investigating Alignment between Elementary Mathematics Teacher Education and Graduates' Teaching of Mathematics for Conceptual Understanding (United States)

    Jansen, Amanda; Berk, Dawn; Meikle, Erin


    In this article, Amanda Jansen, Dawn Berk, and Erin Meikle investigate the impact of mathematics teacher education on teaching practices. In their study they interviewed six first-year teachers who graduated from the same elementary teacher education program and who were oriented toward teaching mathematics conceptually. They observed each teacher…

  7. The Mathematical Structure of Elementary Particles. (United States)


    Physical Mathematics) *Instituto de Matematica Pura e Aplicada, Estrada Dona Castorina 110, 22460 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Sponsored by the the basic method of analysis to be employed in this work. *Instituto de Matematica Pura e Aplicada, Estrada Dona Castorina 110, 22460 Rio de Janeiro

  8. Elementary Mathematics Specialists: Influencing Student Achievement (United States)

    Campbell, Patricia F.; Malkus, Nathaniel N.


    "To whom do you turn in this school for advice or information about mathematics instruction?" (Spillane, Healey, and Parise 2009, p. 413). When teachers in forty-four schools were asked this question, they were more likely to indicate a teacher leader in their school, rather than the school's principal or any other administrator.…

  9. Preparing Experienced Elementary Teachers as Mathematics Specialists (United States)

    Nickerson, Susan D.


    High quality teaching is critical to student learning, yet takes considerable time to develop in particular content areas. Students in high-poverty, urban settings are less likely to encounter experienced and trained teachers. Administrators from a large school district and university mathematics education faculty partnered and attempted to…

  10. Mathematics Teacher Identity in the Context of Mathematics Reform: Elementary Teacher Experiences


    Sun, Jennifer


    ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATIONMathematics Teacher Identity in the Context of Mathematics Reform:Elementary Teacher Experiences ByJennifer SunDoctor of Philosophy in EducationUniversity of California, Irvine, 2017Associate Professor Elizabeth A. van Es, ChairReform efforts and changes in mathematics education have brought on a shift towards a new vision of mathematics teaching in the United States. In light of recent accountability standards, the focus on teacher learning within the context of m...

  11. Engaging Elementary Students in the Creative Process of Mathematizing Their World through Mathematical Modeling

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    Jennifer M. Suh


    Full Text Available This paper examines the experiences of two elementary teachers’ implementation of mathematical modeling in their classrooms and how the enactment by the teachers and the engagement by students exhibited their creativity, critical thinking, collaboration and communication skills. In particular, we explore the questions: (1 How can phases of mathematical modeling as a process serve as a venue for exhibiting students’ critical 21st century skills? (2 What were some effective pedagogical practices teachers used as they implemented mathematical modeling with elementary students and how did these promote students’ 21st century skills? We propose that mathematical modeling provides space for teachers and students to have a collective experience through the iterative process of making sense of and building knowledge of important mathematical ideas while engaging in the critical 21st century skills necessary in our complex modern world.

  12. Edmodo social learning network for elementary school mathematics learning (United States)

    Ariani, Y.; Helsa, Y.; Ahmad, S.; Prahmana, RCI


    A developed instructional media can be as printed media, visual media, audio media, and multimedia. The development of instructional media can also take advantage of technological development by utilizing Edmodo social network. This research aims to develop a digital classroom learning model using Edmodo social learning network for elementary school mathematics learning which is practical, valid and effective in order to improve the quality of learning activities. The result of this research showed that the prototype of mathematics learning device for elementary school students using Edmodo was in good category. There were 72% of students passed the assessment as a result of Edmodo learning. Edmodo has become a promising way to engage students in a collaborative learning process.

  13. Finding Ernst Mayr's Plato. (United States)

    Powers, Jack


    Many biologists have accepted Ernst Mayr's claim that evolutionary biology undermined an essentialist or typological view of species that had its roots in Platonic philosophy. However, Mayr has been accused of failing to support with textual evidence his attributions to Plato of these sorts of views about biology. Contemporary work in history and philosophy of biology often seems to take onboard Mayr's account of Plato's view of species. This paper seeks to provide a critical account of putative inconsistencies between an evolutionary view of species and Platonic philosophy with renewed attention to the Platonic texts in light of recent Plato scholarship; I argue that claims that Plato held an essentialist view of species inconsistent with evolutionary biology are inadequately supported by textual evidence. If Mayr's essentialist thesis fails, one might think that the intuition that Platonic philosophy is in tension with Darwinian evolution could nonetheless be accounted for by Plato's apparent privileging of a certain sort of teleological explanation, a thesis that Mayr suggests in his 1959 paper on Louis Agassiz. However, this thesis also faces difficulties. Ernst Mayr's Plato is more likely to be found in the writings of anti-evolutionary 19th century biologists like Mayr's frequent target, Agassiz, than in a cautious reading of the Platonic dialogues themselves. Interlocutors in discussions of the history of biological thought and classificatory methods in biology should be cautious in ascribing views about biology to Plato and using terms like "Platonic essentialism." Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. From the University to the Classroom: Prospective Elementary Mathematics Specialists' Pedagogical Shifts (United States)

    Myers, Kayla D.; Swars, Susan L.; Smith, Stephanie Z.


    This project focuses on the development of prospective Elementary Mathematics Specialists (EMSs) in a K-5 Mathematics Endorsement Program. Program courses emphasized elementary mathematics content and pedagogy while providing opportunities for participants to evidence their learning through classroom teaching practice, all in an attempt to…

  15. Could Elementary Mathematics Textbooks Help Give Attention to Reasons in the Classroom? (United States)

    Newton, Douglas P.; Newton, Lynn D.


    Trainee teachers, new and non-specialist teachers of elementary mathematics have a tendency to avoid thought about reasons in mathematics. Instead, they tend to favour the development of computational skill through the rote application of procedures, routines and algorithms. Could elementary mathematics textbooks serve as models of practice and…

  16. [Plato psychiatrist, Foucault platonic]. (United States)

    Mathov, Nicolás


    This work explores the links between the concepts of "soul", "law" and "word" in Plato's work, in order to highlight the importance and the centrality of the philosophical-therapeutic dimension in the Greek philosopher's thought. In that way, this work pretends to show that "contemporary" problems usually discussed within "Human Sciences" in general, and Psychiatry in particular, should confront their knowledge with Plato's work, mainly due to the profound influence his ideas have had in our Greco-Christian culture. In that sense, and with that objective, this work also explores Michel Foucault's lucid and controversial interpretation of Plato.

  17. Music-Themed Mathematics Education as a Strategy for Improving Elementary Preservice Teachers' Mathematics Pedagogy and Teaching Self-Efficacy (United States)

    An, Song A.; Tillman, Daniel A.; Paez, Carlos R.


    This study investigated the effects upon elementary preservice teachers' mathematics teaching self-efficacy and interdisciplinary lesson design strategies, which resulted from an educational intervention that emphasized integrated music-mathematics instruction. The participating elementary preservice teachers (n = 152) were recruited for this…

  18. Mathematical reasoning in Elementary School and Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Mata-Pereira


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the reasoning processes in mathematical tasks of two students in the 9th year of elementary school and two students in the second year of college. It also focuses the representation and meaningfulness, given their close relation with the mathematical reasoning. Results presented are based on two qualitative and interpretive studies which resort to several data sources. These results show that mastering of the algebraic language by the students in the 9th year is still insufficient to promptly solve the problems proposed, which does not occur with the college students though. All students use inductive initial strategies. However, one of the students in the 9th year and both college students revealed clearly their capability to reason deductively. The signification levels vary considerably, and several students have shown skills to build or mobilize relevant meanings. The model of analysis presented, articulating reasoning, representations and meaningfulness proved itself a promising tool to study the students’ reasoning processes.

  19. One Point of View: Elementary School Mathematics Specialists: Where Are They? (United States)

    Dossey, John A.


    A plea is made for the mathematics education community to support the need for elementary school mathematics specialists. Roles of such specialists in primary as well as intermediate grades are listed. (MNS)

  20. Mathematics Anxiety and Beliefs of Turkish Pre-Service Elementary Teachers (United States)

    Uysal, Figen; Dede, Yüksel


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between pre-service elementary teachers' mathematics teaching beliefs and mathematics anxiety. The participants of the study consist of 96 pre-service elementary teachers from a department of primary education in a state university in Turkey during the 2010-2011 spring term. Mathematics…

  1. A Multi-Method Investigation of Mathematics Motivation for Elementary Age Students (United States)

    Linder, Sandra M.; Smart, Julie B.; Cribbs, Jennifer


    This paper presents the results of a multi-method study examining elementary students with high self-reported levels of mathematics motivation. Second- through fifth-grade students at a Title One school in the southeastern United States completed the Elementary Mathematics Motivation Instrument (EMMI), which examines levels of mathematics…

  2. A Case Study on Mathematical Literacy of Prospective Elementary School Teachers (United States)

    Suharta, I. Gusti Putu; Suarjana, I. Made


    The purpose of this study is to describe Mathematical Literacy (ML) of Prospective Elementary School Teachers with attention to aspects of mathematical skills and gender. The type of research is qualitative with the research design of Case Study. Respondents are assigned 12 Prospective Elementary School Teachers, consisting of 6 men and 6 women.…

  3. Does Teaching Geometry with Augmented Reality Affect the Technology Acceptance of Elementary School Mathematics Teacher Candidates? (United States)

    Önal, Nezih; Ibili, Emin; Çaliskan, Erkan


    The purpose of this research is to determine the impact of augmented reality technology and geometry teaching on elementary school mathematics teacher candidates' technology acceptance and to examine participants' views on augmented reality. The sample of the research was composed of 40 elementary school mathematics teacher candidates who were…

  4. The Investigation of Elementary Mathematics Teacher Candidates' Problem Solving Skills According to Various Variables (United States)

    Kaya, Deniz; Izgiol, Dilek; Kesan, Cenk


    The aim was to determine elementary mathematics teacher candidates' problem solving skills and analyze problem solving skills according to various variables. The data were obtained from total 306 different grade teacher candidates receiving education in Department of Elementary Mathematics Education, Buca Faculty of Education, Dokuz Eylul…

  5. Factors Influencing Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs in Reform-Based Teaching (United States)

    Sawyer, Amanda Gantt


    I investigated a reform based teachers' beliefs about the nature of mathematics, teaching mathematics, and learning mathematics, and the factors leading to their formation. I interviewed and observed a reform-based elementary mathematics teacher with 13 years' experience teaching first grade. She held a Platonist/problem solver view of…

  6. Changes in Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Understanding of Cognitive Demand: When Adapting, Creating, and Using Mathematical Performance Tasks (United States)

    Jamieson, Thad Spencer


    The use of mathematics performance tasks can provide a window into how a student is applying mathematics to various situations, how they are reasoning mathematically and how they are applying conceptual knowledge through problem solving and critical thinking. The purpose of this study was to investigate, according to the elementary mathematics…

  7. An excursion through elementary mathematics, volume ii euclidean geometry

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    Caminha Muniz Neto, Antonio


    This book provides a comprehensive, in-depth overview of elementary mathematics as explored in Mathematical Olympiads around the world. It expands on topics usually encountered in high school and could even be used as preparation for a first-semester undergraduate course. This second volume covers Plane Geometry, Trigonometry, Space Geometry, Vectors in the Plane, Solids and much more. As part of a collection, the book differs from other publications in this field by not being a mere selection of questions or a set of tips and tricks that applies to specific problems. It starts from the most basic theoretical principles, without being either too general or too axiomatic. Examples and problems are discussed only if they are helpful as applications of the theory. Propositions are proved in detail and subsequently applied to Olympic problems or to other problems at the Olympic level. The book also explores some of the hardest problems presented at National and International Mathematics Olympiads, as well as many...

  8. Prospective elementary and secondary school mathematics teachers’ statistical reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study investigated prospective elementary (PEMTs and secondary (PSMTs school mathematics teachers’ statistical reasoning. The study began with the adaptation of the Statistical Reasoning Assessment (Garfield, 2003 test. Then, the test was administered to 82 PEMTs and 91 PSMTs in a metropolitan city of Turkey. Results showed that both groups were equally successful in understanding independence, and understanding importance of large samples. However, results from selecting appropriate measures of center together with the misconceptions assessing the same subscales showed that both groups selected mode rather than mean as an appropriate average. This suggested their lack of attention to the categorical and interval/ratio variables while examining data. Similarly, both groups were successful in interpreting and computing probability; however, they had equiprobability bias, law of small numbers and representativeness misconceptions. The results imply a change in some questions in the Statistical Reasoning Assessment test and that teacher training programs should include statistics courses focusing on studying characteristics of samples.

  9. An excursion through elementary mathematics, volume iii discrete mathematics and polynomial algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Caminha Muniz Neto, Antonio


    This book provides a comprehensive, in-depth overview of elementary mathematics as explored in Mathematical Olympiads around the world. It expands on topics usually encountered in high school and could even be used as preparation for a first-semester undergraduate course. This third and last volume covers Counting, Generating Functions, Graph Theory, Number Theory, Complex Numbers, Polynomials, and much more. As part of a collection, the book differs from other publications in this field by not being a mere selection of questions or a set of tips and tricks that applies to specific problems. It starts from the most basic theoretical principles, without being either too general or too axiomatic. Examples and problems are discussed only if they are helpful as applications of the theory. Propositions are proved in detail and subsequently applied to Olympic problems or to other problems at the Olympic level. The book also explores some of the hardest problems presented at National and International Mathematics Ol...

  10. PLATO Esperanto Materials. (United States)

    Sherwood, Judith


    A summary is presented of types of Esperanto materials available on PLATO--a general overview section, a picture introduction, lessons that accompany a textbook, vocabulary drills, crossword puzzles, dictation drills, reading practice, and a concentration game. The general overview lesson gives a comprehensive summary of the history and…

  11. PLATO IV Accountancy Index. (United States)

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  12. Factors Considered by Elementary Teachers When Developing and Modifying Mathematical Tasks to Support Children's Mathematical Thinking (United States)

    Fredenberg, Michael Duane

    The idea that problems and tasks play a pivotal role in a mathematics lesson has a long standing in mathematics education research. Recent calls for teaching reform appeal for training teachers to better understand how students learn mathematics and to employ students' mathematical thinking as the basis for pedagogy (CCSSM, 2010; NCTM, 2000; NRC 1999). The teaching practices of (a) developing a task for a mathematics lesson and, (b) modifying the task for students while enacting the lesson fit within the scope of supporting students' mathematical thinking. Surprisingly, an extensive search of the literature did not yield any research aimed to identify and refine the constituent parts of the aforementioned teaching practices in the manner called for by Grossman and xiii colleagues (2009). Consequently, my research addresses the two questions: (a) what factors do exemplary elementary teachers consider when developing a task for a mathematics lesson? (b) what factors do they consider when they modify a task for a student when enacting a lesson? I conducted a multiple case study involving three elementary teachers, each with extensive training in the area of Cognitively Guided Instruction (CGI), as well as several years experience teaching mathematics following the principles of CGI (Carpenter et al., 1999). I recorded video of three mathematics lessons with each participant and after each lesson I conducted a semi-structured stimulated recall interview. A subsequent follow-up clinical interview was conducted soon thereafter to further explore the teacher's thoughts (Ginsberg, 1997). In addition, my methodology included interjecting myself at select times during a lesson to ask the teacher to explain her reasoning. Qualitative analysis led to a framework that identified four categories of influencing factors and seven categories of supporting objectives for the development of a task. Subsets of these factors and objectives emerged as particularly relevant when the

  13. The Relationship between Preservice Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs and Metacognitive Awareness (United States)

    Hart, Lynn Cecilia; Memnun, Dilek Sezgin


    The purpose of this study was to examine the metacognitive awareness and the beliefs about mathematics teaching and learning of preservice elementary mathematics teachers and to explore the relationship between the two. The Metacognitive Awareness Instrument (MAI) and the Mathematics Beliefs Instrument (MBI) were implemented with 118 elementary…

  14. Reading and Reflecting: Elementary Preservice Teachers' Conceptions about Teaching Mathematics for Equity (United States)

    Jackson, Christa; Jong, Cindy


    Teaching mathematics for equity is critical because it provides opportunities for all students, especially those who have been traditionally marginalised, to learn mathematics that is rigorous and relevant to their lives. This article reports on our work, as mathematics teacher educators, on exposing and engaging 60 elementary preservice teachers…

  15. Recent Trends in Japanese Mathematics Textbooks for Elementary Grades: Supporting Teachers to Teach Mathematics through Problem Solving (United States)

    Takahashi, Akihiko


    Problem solving has been a major theme in Japanese mathematics curricula for nearly 50 years. Numerous teacher reference books and lesson plans using problem solving have been published since the 1960s. Government-authorized mathematics textbooks for elementary grades, published by six private companies, have had more and more problem solving over…

  16. MIPS to the "4", Mathematics Improves Promotes Students. A Program of Mathematics for the Elementary Math Laboratory. Limited Edition. (United States)

    Wichita Unified School District 259, KS.

    This book is a guide for the reinforcement of the elementary mathematics laboratory program. It uses a hands-on and activity approach with maximum involvement of the students. Reinforcement strategies for the first three phases (concrete, semiconcrete, and semiabstract) of each mathematics concept are suggested. Also included are specific job…

  17. From Pericles to Plato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind


    Plato is normally taken as one of the founders of Western political philosophy, not at least with his Republic. Here, he constructs a hierarchy of forms of governments, beginning with aristocracy at the top as a critical standard for the other forms of governments, and proceeding through timocracy......’ funeral oration is used to show that Pericles presented a democratic political philosophy that can serve as a counterpoint to Plato’s political philosophy in the Republic....

  18. Comparing the Effects of Elementary Music and Visual Arts Lessons on Standardized Mathematics Test Scores (United States)

    King, Molly Elizabeth


    The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to compare the effect elementary music and visual arts lessons had on third through sixth grade standardized mathematics test scores. Inferential statistics were used to compare the differences between test scores of students who took in-school, elementary, music instruction during the…

  19. Professional Learning for Cultural Mathematics in Papua New Guinea's Elementary Schools (United States)

    Owens, Kay; Edmonds-Wathen, Cris; Kravia, Geori; Sakopa, Priscilla


    A design of principles for teacher professional learning was developed to improve the teaching of "Cultural Mathematics" in elementary schools in Papua New Guinea. The design's appropriateness for PNG elementary schools is the focus of the research implemented through week-long workshops using technology enhancement. Implementation has…

  20. Collaborating to Improve Inquiry-Based Teaching in Elementary Science and Mathematics Methods Courses (United States)

    Magee, Paula A.; Flessner, Ryan


    This study examines the effect of promoting inquiry-based teaching (IBT) through collaboration between a science methods course and mathematics methods course in an elementary teacher education program. During the collaboration, preservice elementary teacher (PST) candidates experienced 3 different types of inquiry as a way to foster increased…

  1. Linking Reform-Oriented Experiences to Teacher Identity: The Case of an Elementary Mathematics Teacher (United States)

    Jong, Cindy


    Novice teachers often have difficulty transferring what they learn in teacher education programs to classroom practice. This is especially true for elementary school teachers who are expected to teach mathematics with reform-oriented methods. The purpose of this longitudinal case study was to examine the experience of one novice elementary school…

  2. Views of Elementary School Pre-Service Teachers About the Use of Educational Mathematics Games in Mathematics Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Topçu


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reveal the opinions of elementary school pre-service teachers about the usage of educational mathematics games in elementary mathematics teaching. In this study, case study that, one of qualitative research methods, was used. Data were collected by utilizing a semi-structured interview form to these elementary school pre-service teachers and analyzed using by content analysis method. A total of 10 junior pre-service teachers enrolled in undergraduate programs of elementary teaching attended to this research. In conclusion, these pre-service teachers indicated that educational computer games would provide benefits such as making students’ learning more permanent, visualizing concepts, making students love mathematics, learning by entertaining, reinforcing what has been learnt and developing thinking skills. Nevertheless, these elementary school pre-service teachers stated the limitations about educational computer games such as causing addiction and physical damages, being time-consuming, requiring special equipment and software and making class management difficult. Besides, it was revealed that the pre-service teachers demonstrated positive attitudes towards the use of games in courses while that they did not feel themselves competent in terms of application.Key Words:    Educational computer games, mathematics teaching, elementary school pre-service teachers

  3. PLATO[R] Achieve Now. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010


    "PLATO[R] Achieve Now" is a software-based curriculum for the elementary and middle school grades. Instructional content is delivered via the PlayStation Portable (PSP[R]) system, allowing students to access learning materials in various settings. Software-based assessments are used to customize individual instruction, allowing students…

  4. An Investigation of Elementary Preservice Teachers' Self-Efficacy for Teaching Mathematics (United States)

    Giles, Rebecca McMahon; Byrd, Kelly O.; Bendolph, Angelia


    Research has consistently shown that teacher efficacy is related to a variety of desirable student outcomes, thus, making teacher efficacy an important factor in high quality mathematics instruction. The purpose of this study was to determine elementary preservice teachers' self-efficacy beliefs related to teaching mathematics. Forty-one…

  5. Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley Elementary Mathematics. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010


    "Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley Elementary Mathematics" is a core curriculum for students at all ability levels in prekindergarten through grade 6. The program supports students' understanding of key math concepts and skills and covers a range of mathematical content across grades. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) reviewed 12 studies on…

  6. Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley Elementary Mathematics. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report. Updated (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013


    "Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley Elementary Mathematics" is a core mathematics curriculum for students in prekindergarten through grade 6. The program aims to improve students' understanding of key math concepts through problem-solving instruction, hands-on activities, and math problems that involve reading and writing. The curriculum…

  7. Coaches' and Principals' Conceptualizations of the Roles of Elementary Mathematics Coaches (United States)

    Salkind, Gwenanne M.


    Many schools employ coaches to support mathematics instruction and student learning. This research study investigated the roles of coaches from five school districts in Virginia. Participants included 125 elementary mathematics coaches and 59 principals. Results from cross-sectional surveys revealed that most coaches did not have a degree in…

  8. The Development of a Mathematics Self-Report Inventory for Turkish Elementary Students (United States)

    Akin, Ayça; Güzeller, Cem Oktay; Evcan, Sinem Sezer


    The purpose of the current study is to develop a mathematics self-report inventory (MSRI) to measure Turkish elementary students' mathematics expectancy beliefs and task values based on the expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation. In Study-1 (n = 1,315), exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and reliability analysis are used to evaluate the…

  9. Complementing Mathematics Teachers’ Horizon Content Knowledge with an Elementary-on-Advanced Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-An Cho


    Full Text Available Although Ball and her colleagues provided empirical evidence to support the existence of the six sub-domains in mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT and further explained or defined the majority of these sub-domains, there were few explanations of what horizon content knowledge (HCK embedded in MKT meant and they merely provided ideas about HCK. Many researchers attempted to provide some teaching incidents and exemplification to interpret the construct of HCK. Moreover, they thought teachers’ studies of tertiary mathematics are useful for classroom teaching practice. Their discourse and instantiation of HCK was correspondent with a higher perspective on elementary mathematics mentioned by Felix Klein (1924, but was not entirely coincide with a kind of elementary perspective on advanced knowledge introduced by Ball and Bass (2009. This study lasted 1 years, and data collection included in-depth interviews, classroom observation and video analysis. We provide a shared classroom teaching incidence and illustrations to explain and to describe the construct of HCK. HCK not only is a kind of elementary perspective on advanced mathematical knowledge, but also complements to a higher perspective on elementary mathematics. Furthermore, HCK could be seen as a reciprocal pathway between the elementary and advanced mathematical knowledge.

  10. Peers on Socrates and Plato (United States)

    Mackenzie, Jim


    There is more to be said about two of the topics Chris Peers addresses in his article "Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A morpho-logic of teaching and learning" (2012, Educational Philosophy and Theory, 44, 760-774), namely the Socratic method of teaching and Plato's stance with regard to women and feminism. My purpose in this article is…

  11. Executive functioning predicts reading, mathematics, and theory of mind during the elementary years. (United States)

    Cantin, Rachelle H; Gnaedinger, Emily K; Gallaway, Kristin C; Hesson-McInnis, Matthew S; Hund, Alycia M


    The goal of this study was to specify how executive functioning components predict reading, mathematics, and theory of mind performance during the elementary years. A sample of 93 7- to 10-year-old children completed measures of working memory, inhibition, flexibility, reading, mathematics, and theory of mind. Path analysis revealed that all three executive functioning components (working memory, inhibition, and flexibility) mediated age differences in reading comprehension, whereas age predicted mathematics and theory of mind directly. In addition, reading mediated the influence of executive functioning components on mathematics and theory of mind, except that flexibility also predicted mathematics directly. These findings provide important details about the development of executive functioning, reading, mathematics, and theory of mind during the elementary years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Elementary school students’ mathematical intelligence based on mathematics learning using classical music of the baroque era as the backsound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Many studies suggest that classical music can inccrease the listeners’ intelligence, including mathematical intelligence [3, 12, 2, 11]. In this research, we used the classical music of Baroque era as the backsound during math learning. The research method used was quasi experiment with nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design to grade V SD students in Tasikmalaya city. The results show that the use of classical music of Baroque era during the learning of mathematics gave a high contribution to the mathematical intelligence of fifth grade elementary school students. The student's mathematical intelligence can be seen in the cognitive abilities which were at the high level in the knowledge up to analysis, and at the low level in the synthesis and evaluation. Low mathematical intelligence was shown by students in calculating amount and difference of time, and projecting word problem into the form of mathematical problems. High mathematical intelligence arose in reading and writing integers in words and numbers. Thus, the mathematical intelligence of fifth grade Elementary School students will be better if classical music of Baroque era is used as the backsound in mathematics learning about solving math problems.

  13. Mathematics Anxiety Among 4th And 5th Grade Turkish Elementary School Students


    Fulya Yüksel-Şahin


    Using a sample of 4th and 5th graders, this study investigated whether students’ mathematics anxiety differed significantly according to a group of variables. A total of 249 students participated in the study. “The Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Elementary School Students” and “The Personal Information Form” were used for data collection. Independent samples t-tests, Oneway Anova and Schefee test were used to analyze the data. Results showed that students’ mathematics anxiety differed signific...

  14. Expanding Mathematics Preparation of Elementary and Middle School Teachers (United States)

    Buck, Robert E.


    One of the major problems facing education today is the inadequate mathematics' preparation of pre-college students and their teachers. Most colleges and universities have well established programs for students planning to teach mathematics at the secondary schools; however, in many institutions pre-secondary mathematics has been addressed only…

  15. Prospective elementary teachers' conceptions of multidigit number: exemplifying a replication framework for mathematics education (United States)

    Jacobson, Erik; Simpson, Amber


    Replication studies play a critical role in scientific accumulation of knowledge, yet replication studies in mathematics education are rare. In this study, the authors replicated Thanheiser's (Educational Studies in Mathematics 75:241-251, 2010) study of prospective elementary teachers' conceptions of multidigit number and examined the main claim that most elementary pre-service teachers think about digits incorrectly at least some of the time. Results indicated no statistically significant difference in the distribution of conceptions between the original and replication samples and, moreover, no statistically significant differences in the distribution of sub-conceptions among prospective teachers with the most common conception. These results suggest confidence is warranted both in the generality of the main claim and in the utility of the conceptions framework for describing prospective elementary teachers' conceptions of multidigit number. The report further contributes a framework for replication of mathematics education research adapted from the field of psychology.

  16. Plato's patricide in the sophist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deretić Irina J.


    Full Text Available In this paper, the author attempts to elucidate validity of Plato's criticism of Parmenides' simplified monistic ontology, as well as his concept of non-being. In contrast to Parmenides, Plato introduces a more complex ontology of the megista gene and redefines Parmenides' concept of non-being as something absolutely different from being. According to Plato, not all things are in the same sense, i. e. they have the different ontological status. Additionally, he redefines Parmenides' concept of absolute non-being as 'difference' or 'otherness.' .

  17. An investigation of elementary preservice teachers’ self-efficacy for teaching mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca McMahon Giles


    Full Text Available Research has consistently shown that teacher efficacy is related to a variety of desirable student outcomes, thus, making teacher efficacy an important factor in high quality mathematics instruction. The purpose of this study was to determine elementary preservice teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs related to teaching mathematics. Forty-one participants from a single university responded to the Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (MTEBI after completing a constructivist-based elementary mathematics methods course prior to student teaching. The MTEBI is 21-item survey using a 5-point, forced choice Likert-like scale to provide an individual's perceptions of mathematics teaching efficacy beliefs on two subscales—Personal Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Belief (PMTE and Mathematics Teaching Outcome Expectancy (MTOE. Responses on the PMTE subscale (Mean = 51.08, SD=5.171 indicate that the respondents’ personal mathematics teach efficacy is positive. Participants’ responses (Mean = 29.32, SD = 3.29 on the MTOE subscale indicate positive expectations of students' mathematics learning. Attending to preservice teacher efficacy is worthy of examination. Teacher preparation programs must identify opportunities to positively impact mathematics teaching efficacy of preservice teachers.

  18. Elementary Teachers' Perspectives of Mathematics Problem Solving Strategies (United States)

    Bruun, Faye


    Participants in this study were asked to report what strategies were most often used in their attempts to foster their students' problem solving abilities. Participants included 70 second through fifth-grade elementary teachers from 42 schools in a large state of the south central region in the U.S. Data analyses of the interviews revealed that…

  19. Plato, Aristotle and the phytagorean influence on Plutarch's De Musica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosevelt Rocha


    Full Text Available In his treatise On Music, Plutarch cites and discusses excerpts from works of Plato and Aristotle in which these authors deal with issues relevant to the harmonic theory. In these passages, we see that the sources used by Plutarch have a strong influence of the Pythagorean school, under which the study of musical scales was developed focusing on the mathematical relationships that exist between the notes and intervals. This indicates that Plutarch or not directly read the texts of Plato and Aristotle, or read, but using some other source, a commentator of Pythagorean extraction, who we can not identify.

  20. Development Mathematic Assessment to Increase Mathematical Prerequisite Ability on The Student with Learning Disabilities in Inclusive Elementary School (United States)

    Robiansyah, S. T. U.; Nanang, F.; Hidayat


    The purpose of this study was to introduce about mathematic assessment is a process of obtaining data or information about the mastery of a student's mathematical skills as an ingredient in preparing a learning program. With this mathematics assessment can be known obstacles, difficulties and needs of students especially in the field of mathematic, so that the learning program will be in accordance with the potential students because it is tailored to what is required of students. This research study was conducted at elementary school of inclusive precisely at SDN Sukagalih I Bandung City based learning in setting of inclusive education. This research study is motivated by the existence of a first-grade student who has disabilities learning in mathematics, the ability of the mathematical prerequisite mastery of the classification of objects by color. The results of the research can provide a profile picture of student data information, the data obtained from the results of the development of systematic and formal mathematical assessment. After doing the development of mathematics assessment then the teacher gets important related information: 1. process the analysis of students’ learning needs, especially in the field of mathematics, 2. preparing the learning program planning according to student learning needs, 3. Designing procedural of method remedial program.

  1. Simple and Intuitive Mathematics for Learning Elementary Physics (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yukio

    Mathematics is the language of physics and simple and intuitive mathematics is effective for imaging physical pictures of phenomena. This is important because geometrical viewpoints inspire ideas in physics. For example, some problems on the motion of a particle in a uniform gravitational field can be well illustrated by simple diagrams. Calculus is not only a way of calculating but is also closely related to the law of inertia through slope on a position-time graph. As such, cross-curricular study between mathematics and physics is effective for broadly developing thinking power at the high school and college levels.

  2. Diffusion, quantum theory, and radically elementary mathematics (MN-47)

    CERN Document Server

    Faris, William G


    Diffusive motion--displacement due to the cumulative effect of irregular fluctuations--has been a fundamental concept in mathematics and physics since Einstein''s work on Brownian motion. It is also relevant to understanding various aspects of quantum theory. This book explains diffusive motion and its relation to both nonrelativistic quantum theory and quantum field theory. It shows how diffusive motion concepts lead to a radical reexamination of the structure of mathematical analysis. The book''s inspiration is Princeton University mathematics professor Edward Nelson''s influential work in

  3. Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of Mathematics Instruction in Montessori and Traditional Classrooms (United States)

    Kofa, Linda


    Students in grades 3 and 4 attending a traditional public elementary school in a northeastern state did not meet proficiency levels in mathematics as measured by the state's assessment system. Published reports indicated that students attending the Montessori programs were more proficient in solving math problems compared to students in…

  4. Measuring Practices of Teaching for Social Justice in Elementary Mathematics Classrooms (United States)

    Reagan, Emilie Mitescu; Pedulla, Joseph J.; Jong, Cindy; Cannady, Mac; Cochran-Smith, Marilyn


    This study used the Teaching for Social Justice Observation Scale (TSJOS) of the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol-Plus (RTOP+) to examine the extent to which twenty-two novice elementary teachers implemented practices related to teaching for social justice in their mathematics instruction. In addition, this study sought to examine the extent…

  5. Study of Fractions in Elementary Mathematics Textbooks from Finland and Taiwan (United States)

    Yang, Der-Ching


    This study examines the different ways in which fractions are dealt with in two elementary mathematics textbook series: Kang Hsuan (KH) in Taiwan and Laskutaito in Finland. The results showed that the total number of fraction questions in Laskutaito is higher than that in KH and that Laskutaito highlights the basic definition of fractions to help…

  6. Analyzing the Psychological Symptoms of Students in Undergraduate Program in Elementary Mathematics Teaching (United States)

    Masal, Ercan; Koc, Mustafa; Colak, Tugba Seda; Takunyaci, Mithat


    The main purpose of this research is to analyse whether there is a difference or not in levels of having psychological symptoms of the students of undergraduate program in elementary mathematics teaching. Another aim of the research is to determine whether the levels of having psychological symptoms of the students differ or not regarding various…

  7. Improving the Mathematics Preparation of Elementary Teachers, One Lesson at a Time (United States)

    Berk, Dawn; Hiebert, James


    In this paper, we describe a model for systematically improving the mathematics preparation of elementary teachers, one lesson at a time. We begin by identifying a serious obstacle for teacher educators: the absence of mechanisms for developing a shareable knowledge base for teacher preparation. We propose our model as a way to address this…

  8. Striking the Right Balance: Students' Motivation and Affect in Elementary Mathematics (United States)

    Schweinle, Amy; Meyer, Debra K.; Turner, Julianne C.


    The authors explored the relationship between motivation and affect in upper elementary mathematics classes from the perspective of flow theory. They also investigated the relationship between students' motivation and teachers' instructional practices. Students' reported classroom experiences formed 4 factors--Social Affect, Personal Affect,…

  9. Pre-Service Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Metaphors on Scientific Research and Foundations of Their Perceptions (United States)

    Bas, Fatih


    In this study, it is aimed to investigate pre-service elementary mathematics teachers' perceptions about scientific research with metaphor analysis and determine the foundations of these perceptions. This phenomenological study was conducted with 182 participants. The data were collected with two open-ended survey forms formed for investigating…

  10. Designing and Testing a Mathematics Card Game for Teaching and Learning Elementary Group Theory (United States)

    Galarza, Patrick


    This paper explores the viability and development of the first edition of the researcher's mathematical card game, Groups, as a learning tool for elementary group theory, a topic in abstract algebra. "Groups" was play-tested by six undergraduate students in late 2016 who provided feedback on "Groups" from both utility-centric…

  11. River Falls Mall Math Trails: Connecting Elementary Mathematics to the World. (United States)

    Ryan, Walter F.

    This collection of activities demonstrates how the study of elementary mathematics can be extended beyond the school and involve teachers and students in investigative, problem-based experiences. The activities include topics in geometry, concept of number, algebra, measurement, graphing, statistics, and probability, and are organized into five…

  12. A Comparative Study of Geometry in Elementary School Mathematics Textbooks from Five Countries (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Ling; Yang, Der-Ching


    The purposes of this study were to compare the differences in the use of geometry in elementary school mathematics textbooks among Finland, Mainland China, Singapore, Taiwan, and the USA and to investigate the relationships between the design of the textbooks and students' performance on large-scale tests such as TIMSS-4 geometry, TIMSS-8…

  13. Working toward a Third Space in the Teaching of Elementary Mathematics (United States)

    Flessner, Ryan


    Building on work in the area of third space theory, this study documents one teacher's efforts to create third spaces in an elementary mathematics classroom. In an attempt to link the worlds of theory and practice, I examine how the work of other theorists and researchers--inside and outside the field of education--can create new lenses for…

  14. Integration of Technology in Elementary Pre-Service Teacher Education: An Examination of Mathematics Methods Courses (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Laski, Elida


    Instructors (N = 204) of elementary mathematics methods courses completed a survey assessing the extent to which they stay informed about research related to effective uses of educational technology and the kinds and numbers of educational technologies they include in their courses. Findings indicate that, while they view educational technology…

  15. Use of Creative Drama in Science and Mathematics by Preservice Elementary Teachers (United States)

    Ozdemir, Pinar; Akkus Cikla, Oylum


    The purpose of this study is to analyse science and mathematics lesson plans prepared in the light of drama based instruction by preservice elementary teachers. For this purpose, 12 female participants were chosen volunteerly. They gained basic knowledge and experience about creative drama by involving sample creative drama activities and lesson…

  16. Motivational and Affective Determinants of Self-Regulatory Strategy Use in Elementary School Mathematics (United States)

    Chatzistamatiou, Mariza; Dermitzaki, Irini; Efklides, Anastasia; Leondari, Angeliki


    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between elementary students' reported use of self-regulatory strategies in mathematics and their motivational and affective determinants. Participants of the study were 344 fifth- and sixth-grade Greek students. Students were asked to complete self-reported measures regarding the strategies…

  17. Improving of prospective elementary teachers' reasoning: Learning geometry through mathematical investigation (United States)

    Sumarna, Nana; Sentryo, Izlan


    This research applies mathematical investigation approach in teaching geometry to improve mathematical reasoning abilities of prospective elementary teachers. Mathematical investigation in this study involved non-routine tasks through a mathematical investigation process, namely through a series of activities as an attribute of mathematical investigation. Developing the ability of mathematical reasoning of research subjects obtained through capability of research subjects in the analysis, generalization, synthesis, justify, and resolve non-routine, which is operationally constructed as an indicator of research and is used as a criterion for measuring the ability of mathematical reasoning. Research design using Quasi-Experimental design. Based on this type, the researchers apply a pre-and posttest design, which is divided into two study groups: control group and the treatment group. The number of research subjects were 111 students consisting of 56 students in the experimental group and 55 students in the control group. The conclusion of this study stated that (1) Investigation of mathematics as an approach to learning is able to give a positive response to the increasing ability of mathematical reasoning, and (2) There is no interaction effect of the factors of learning and prior knowledge of mathematics to the increased ability of mathematical reasoning.

  18. Effects of Game Technology on Elementary Student Learning in Mathematics (United States)

    Shin, Namsoo; Sutherland, LeeAnn M.; Norris, Cathleen A.; Soloway, Elliot


    This paper reports the effects of game technology on student learning in mathematics as investigated in two data sets collected from slightly different subjects. In the first, 41 second graders (7 or 8 years old) from two classes used either a technology-based game or a paper-based game for 5 weeks. For the next 13 weeks, both classes used a…

  19. Predictors of Mathematics Achievement in Jamaican Elementary School Children. (United States)

    Roach, D. A.


    Using 418 sixth-graders in Jamaica, sex, family size, birth order, occupational level, father's presence, preference for conceptual style, field dependence, reading achievement, and mental ability were examined in relationship to mathematics achievement. Mental ability, reading achievement, and family size, in that order, were found to predict…

  20. Changing Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Beliefs about Mathematical Knowledge (United States)

    Stohlmann, Micah; Moore, Tamara; Cramer, Kathleen; Maiorca, Cathrine


    Studies have reported that pre-service teachers often enter teacher preparation programs with beliefs and attitudes not conducive to teaching the subject conceptually. In the USA, the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics have brought a renewed focus on procedural and conceptual understanding. However, many U.S. pre-service teachers have…

  1. Phusis and Nomos in Plato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nouri Sanghdehi


    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems in Plato that appears in different forms in his works is the relation of nomos and phusis. This thesis has been in fifth century B.C as the contradiction of phusis and nomos among big thinkers. In this essay, we tried to investigate the relation of phusis and nomos in Plato’s thoughts according to current theories of the contradiction of these in dialogues Gorgias, Republic and Protagoras. Plato tries to minimize consequences of belief to contradiction of phusis and nomos in social and political life by assertion large scale relation between phusis and nomos. Plato depicts the ultimate solution of this problem in Law. There he accounts nomos as raised from phusis that is sub sovereignty of divine. Indeed union of phusis and gods in Plato’s thought is sanction for the identity of phusis and nomos.

  2. Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs and Practices: Understanding the Influence of Teaching in a STEAM Setting (United States)

    Negreiros, Melissa


    Many elementary mathematics teachers hold beliefs about the teaching and learning of mathematics and enact practices that are not aligned with the recommendations of reform efforts in the field of mathematics education (Stigler & Hiebert, 2009). For standards-based reform to gain any significant success, many teachers will have to alter the…

  3. Connecting Mathematics and Literature: An Analysis of Pre-Service Elementary School Teachers' Changing Beliefs and Knowledge (United States)

    Wilburne, Jane M.; Napoli, Mary


    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics calls for students to see relationships and connections with mathematics (2000). This study examined the influences on eight pre-service elementary school teachers' beliefs and knowledge of teaching mathematics through literature. The semester long project involved both the language arts and…

  4. Mathematics Teacher Identity in the Context of Mathematics Reform: Elementary Teacher Experiences (United States)

    Sun, Jennifer


    Reform efforts and changes in mathematics education have brought on a shift towards a new vision of mathematics teaching in the United States. In light of recent accountability standards, the focus on teacher learning within the context of mathematics professional development is even more pressing. Prior research on teacher learning in the context…

  5. Improving the Reasoning Ability of Elementary School Student through the Indonesian Realistic Mathematics Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Saleh


    Full Text Available By taking the role as a mentor and a facilitator, a teacher in the 4th grade of elementary school needs to look at the condition of the students in the concrete thinking stage. Learning process needs to be adjusted such that the abstract objects in mathematics can be represented through concrete objects as a bridge to enter the knowledge that the students already had, especially for the material of fraction. This research aims to analyze the achievement and the improvement of students’ mathematics reasoning ability through the implementation of Indonesian realistic mathematics education (PMRI approach. The research subject consisted of 51 students in the experiment group and 45 students in the control group which categorized into three levels (low, intermediate, and high. The result suggests that the achievement and the improvement of students’ reasoning ability in the mathematics learning using PMRI approach are better than the conventional learning.

  6. Four Educators in Plato's "Theaetetus" (United States)

    Mintz, Avi I.


    Scholars who have taken interest in "Theaetetus'" educational theme argue that Plato contrasts an inferior, even dangerous, sophistic education to a superior, philosophical, Socratic education. I explore the contrasting exhortations, methods, ideals and epistemological foundations of Socratic and Protagorean education and suggest that Socrates'…

  7. The Impact of Competition on Raising Mathematics Competency at Camelot Elementary School in Chesapeake, Virginia (United States)

    Hayden, L. B.; Johnson, D.


    In 1995, the Virginia Department of Education approved a federal mandate for No Child Left Behind 2001 Education Act implementing the Standards of Learning (SOL) in four content areas: Mathematics, Science, English, and History and Social Sciences. These new guidelines set forth learning and achievement expectations for content areas for grades K-12 in Virginia's Public Schools. Given the SOL mandates, Virginia's elementary teachers and school leaders utilized research for specific teaching methods intended to encourage score improvements on end of year mathematics tests. In 2001, the concept of the Math Sprint Competition was introduced to Camelot Elementary School in Chesapeake Virginia, by researchers at Elizabeth City State University of Elizabeth City, North Carolina. Camelot Elementary, a K-5 school, is a Title I school nestled in a lower middle class neighborhood and houses a high number of minority students. On average, these students achieve lower test score gains than students in higher socioeconomic status district schools. Defined as a test-review based in relay format that utilizes released SOL test items, Math Sprint promotes mathematical skills outlined in Virginia SOL's and encourages competition among students that motivated them to quickly pick up on new material and retain the old material in order to out-do the others. Research identified was based on specific relationships between student competition and statewide testing results in mathematics for grades three, four, and five at Camelot Elementary. Data was compiled from results of the Math Sprint Competition and research focused on methods for motivating students encouraged by the use of a math sprint competition. Individual Pearson Product Moment Correlations were conducted to determine which variables possess strong and statistically significant relationships. Significantly, positive results came from 2005 to 2010 math sprints data from which students participated.

  8. Exploring the Reasons for Using Electric Books and Technologic Pedagogical and Content Knowledge of Taiwanese Elementary Mathematics and Science Teachers (United States)

    Chen, Ho-Yuan; Jang, Syh-Jong


    This study highlights trends and features of E-books and their versatility of this tool in elementary educational settings. There has been little quantitative research employed to examine teachers' reasons for using or not using E-books. The purpose of this study was to examine elementary school mathematics and science teachers' reasons for using…

  9. Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers: Are New Mexico's Education School Graduates Ready to Teach Reading and Mathematics in Elementary Classrooms? (United States)

    Greenberg, Julie; Jacobs, Sandi


    As a follow up to National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ's) national studies of how well elementary teachers are prepared to teach reading and mathematics, NCTQ looks at preparation in both subjects in all undergraduate teacher preparation programs in New Mexico. This analysis evaluated New Mexico's eight undergraduate elementary teacher…

  10. The Realities of Teaching Elementary Mathematics by Student Teachers: A Phenomenological Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Ann M. Petancio


    Full Text Available This study probed into the lived experiences of the student-teachers as they go through teaching Elementary Mathematics. Apart from Mathematics, these student-teachers who are generalists teach the other seven subjects. This phenomenological study was conducted during the first semester, school year 2017-2018 in Cebu Normal University-Integrated Laboratory School in Cebu City, Philippines. The researchers interviewed twelve student teachers and used Colaizzi’s method of data analysis. Results revealed that the essence of teaching Math from the lens of elementary student teachers is condensed in the following themes: a Emotional mix-up; b Challenging; c Never stop learning and reach out for help; d Success is a joint venture of teacher and student; e Values count; f We are work in progress. The researchers recommend that teacher education institutions may consider revisiting their policies and practices to strengthen the support lent by the supervisor, mentors and staff to the budding teachers; providing supplemental training and coaching towards improving the student teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge in Math; and providing the pre-service teachers with reflective strategies in processing one’s own experiences in teaching the subject. Moreover, since elementary student-teachers teach not only Math but the other subjects as well, the researchers also recommend that further researches may be conducted on topics related on how the teaching of the other subjects influence one’s way of teaching Mathematics.

  11. Performance-based classrooms: A case study of two elementary teachers of mathematics and science (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth W.

    This case study depicts how two elementary teachers develop classrooms devoted to performance-based instruction in mathematics and science. The purpose is to develop empirical evidence of classroom practices that leads to a conceptual framework about the nature of performance-based instruction. Performance-based assessment and instruction are defined from the literature to entail involving students in tasks that are complex and engaging, requiring them to apply knowledge and skills in authentic contexts. In elementary mathematics and science, such an approach emphasizes problem solving, exploration, inquiry, and reasoning. The body of the work examines teacher beliefs, curricular orientations, instructional strategies, assessment approaches, management and organizational skills, and interpersonal relationships. The focus throughout is on those aspects that foster student performance in elementary mathematics and science. The resulting framework describes five characteristics that contribute to performance-based classrooms: a caring classroom community, a connectionist learning theory, a thinking and doing curriculum, diverse opportunities for learning, and ongoing assessment, feedback, and adjustment. The conclusion analyzes factors external to the classroom that support or constrain the development of performance-based classrooms and discusses the implications for educational policy and further research.

  12. Listening to Early Career Teachers: How Can Elementary Mathematics Methods Courses Better Prepare Them to Utilize Standards-Based Practices in Their Classrooms? (United States)

    Coester, Lee Anne


    This study was designed to gather input from early career elementary teachers with the goal of finding ways to improve elementary mathematics methods courses. Multiple areas were explored including the degree to which respondents' elementary mathematics methods course focused on the NCTM Process Standards, the teachers' current standards-based…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Elizabeth Barrera-del Castillo


    Full Text Available In this work is described the proposal of a model of semi-presence educational intervention for the subject, "Teaching of Mathematics in basic education", corresponding to the fourth semester of Special Education Bachelor's Degree, Plan 2004, of the Specializing Teaching School of the State of Sinaloa (ENEES, that attend the desirable characteristics of the graduates in the effective and efficient use of the technological tools, disciplinary competences, collaborative work and digital competences which are developed through the adaptation and the use of the model proposed. In this task, it is attended the digital literacy too, that the society of knowledge demands; firstly in function of the personal development needs, and then to respond to the actual educational context. The model of educational intervention defined in this task contributes to the interaction of teachers and students with technological background, collaborative work, groups of study, material and activities for each topic to develop. It was used the e-Collaborative Learning Sistema Integral Colaborativo para la Educación sin Barreras (SICEB implemented by the Secretary of Public Education and Culture (SEPyC, in which various types of learning objects are integrated among synchronized and unsynchronized activities. The proposed model is given through the defined criteria by the e-pedagogy which involves concepts such as quality, values and efficiency with support of the Learning Technologies and Knowledge (TAC.

  14. It's about time elementary mathematical aspects of relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Roger


    This book has three main goals. First, it explores a selection of topics from the early period of the theory of relativity, focusing on particular aspects that are interesting or unusual. These include the twin paradox relativistic mechanics and its interaction with Maxwell's laws the earliest triumphs of general relativity relating to the orbit of Mercury and the deflection of light passing near the sun and the surprising bizarre metric of Kurt Godel, in which time travel is possible. Second, it provides an exposition of the differential geometry needed to understand these topics on a level that is intended to be accessible to those with just two years of university-level mathematics as background. Third, it reflects on the historical development of the subject and its significance for our understanding of what reality is and how we can know about the physical universe. The book also takes note of historical prefigurations of relativity, such as Euler's 1744 result that a particle moving on a surface and sub...

  15. Effects of Cooperative Learning STAD on Mathematical Communication Ability of Elementary School Student (United States)

    Maelasari, E.; Wahyudin


    The aim of this study is to describe the increasing of mathematical communications capability, and difference between students who get STAD cooperative learning and students who receive Direct Instruction. This study is a quasi-experimental study with pretest posttest study design. Subjects in this study in one of the fifth grade elementary school located in Cibeureum District, Kuningan. The research instrument used was a written test mathematical communication skills. The results showed that the improvement of mathematical communication capabilities Direct Instruction students who scored significantly better than students who learned with STAD cooperative learning. By grouping according to the ability of students will show a positive impact on student achievement in the classroom.

  16. Developing a Multi-Dimensional Early Elementary Mathematics Screener and Diagnostic Tool: The Primary Mathematics Assessment. (United States)

    Brendefur, Jonathan L; Johnson, Evelyn S; Thiede, Keith W; Strother, Sam; Severson, Herb H


    There is a critical need to identify primary level students experiencing difficulties in mathematics to provide immediate and targeted instruction that remediates their deficits. However, most early math screening instruments focus only on the concept of number, resulting in inadequate and incomplete information for teachers to design intervention efforts. We propose a mathematics assessment that screens and provides diagnostic information in six domains that are important to building a strong foundation in mathematics. This article describes the conceptual framework and psychometric qualities of a web-based assessment tool, the Primary Math Assessment (PMA). The PMA includes a screener to identify students at risk for poor math outcomes and a diagnostic tool to provide a more in-depth profile of children's specific strengths and weaknesses in mathematics. The PMA allows teachers and school personnel to make better instructional decisions by providing more targeted analyses.

  17. A Simple Mathematical Model for Standard Model of Elementary Particles and Extension Thereof (United States)

    Sinha, Ashok


    An algebraically (and geometrically) simple model representing the masses of the elementary particles in terms of the interaction (strong, weak, electromagnetic) constants is developed, including the Higgs bosons. The predicted Higgs boson mass is identical to that discovered by LHC experimental programs; while possibility of additional Higgs bosons (and their masses) is indicated. The model can be analyzed to explain and resolve many puzzles of particle physics and cosmology including the neutrino masses and mixing; origin of the proton mass and the mass-difference between the proton and the neutron; the big bang and cosmological Inflation; the Hubble expansion; etc. A novel interpretation of the model in terms of quaternion and rotation in the six-dimensional space of the elementary particle interaction-space - or, equivalently, in six-dimensional spacetime - is presented. Interrelations among particle masses are derived theoretically. A new approach for defining the interaction parameters leading to an elegant and symmetrical diagram is delineated. Generalization of the model to include supersymmetry is illustrated without recourse to complex mathematical formulation and free from any ambiguity. This Abstract represents some results of the Author's Independent Theoretical Research in Particle Physics, with possible connection to the Superstring Theory. However, only very elementary mathematics and physics is used in my presentation.

  18. The Nature of Feedback Given to Elementary Student Teachers from University Supervisors after Observations of Mathematics Lessons (United States)

    Schwartz, Catherine; Walkowiak, Temple A.; Poling, Lisa; Richardson, Kerri; Polly, Drew


    This research explores the frequency and nature of mathematics-specific feedback given to elementary student teachers by university supervisors across a collection of post-lesson observation forms. Approximately one-third of the forms (n = 250) analysed from five large universities had no comments related to mathematics. Forms that did have…

  19. Assessment of Training Programs for Elementary Mathematics Teachers on Developed Curricula and Attitudes towards Teaching in Najran-Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Aly, Hassan Shawky; Abdulhakeem, Hassan Daker


    This study aimed at assessing the training programs for Mathematics teachers at elementary stage on developed Curricula and attitudes toward teaching at Najran educational administration in Saudi Arabia. To achieve this objective, two instruments were developed, one of them measures the opinions of Mathematics teachers about the training programs…

  20. Implementation of Technology in an Elementary Mathematics Lesson: The Experiences of Pre-Service Teachers at One University (United States)

    Herron, Julie


    This study examined pre-service teachers' responses to implementing technology into elementary mathematics lessons. Instructional Architect (IA) was the web-base technology used by the pre-service teachers. Four themes emerged from the data: (a) insights into technology, (b) struggles with technology, (c) access to the mathematics and (d) learning…

  1. Self-Contained versus Departmentalized Settings in Urban Elementary Schools: An Analysis of Fifth-Grade Student Mathematics Performance (United States)

    Jack, Diamond Marie


    Student achievement in mathematics, particularly in urban areas, is a consistent concern in the United States. Research suggests that teachers either are under qualified or have a negative perception of themselves as mathematics teachers. Departmentalization on the elementary level is an organizational structure that may benefit urban students and…

  2. Nurturing Mathematical Promise in a Regular Elementary Classroom: Exploring the Role of the Teacher and Classroom Environment (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Christos


    This article presents findings from a case study of an in-classroom program based on ability grouping for Year 2 (ages 6-7) primary (elementary) children identified as high ability in mathematics. The study examined the role of classroom setting, classroom environment, and teacher's approach in realizing and developing mathematical promise. The…

  3. Construction of teacher knowledge in context: Preparing elementary teachers to teach mathematics and science (United States)

    Lowery, Maye Norene Vail


    The purposes of this study were to further the understanding of how preservice teacher construct teacher knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge of elementary mathematics and science and to determine the extent of that knowledge in a school-based setting. Preservice teachers, university instructors, inservice teachers, and other school personnel were involved in this context-specific study. Evidence of the preservice teachers' knowledge construction (its acquisition, its dimensions, and the social context) was collected through the use of a qualitative methodology. Collected data included individual and group interviews, course documents, artifacts, and preservice teaching portfolios. Innovative aspects of this integrated mathematics and science elementary methods course included standards-based instruction with immediate access to field experiences. Grade-level teams of preservice and inservice teachers planned and implemented lessons in mathematics and science for elementary students. An on-site, portable classroom building served as a mathematics and science teaching and learning laboratory. A four-stage analysis was performed, revealing significant patterns of learning. An ecosystem of learning within a constructivist learning environment was identified to contain three systems: the university system; the school system; and the cohort of learners system. A mega system for the construction of teacher knowledge was revealed in the final analysis. Learning venues were discovered to be the conduits of learning in a situated learning context. Analysis and synthesis of data revealed an extensive acquisition of teacher knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge through identified learning components. Patience, flexibility, and communication were identified as necessities for successful teaching. Learning components included: collaboration with inservice teachers; implementation of discovery learning and hands-on/minds-on learning; small groupwork; lesson planning

  4. Developing a Multi-Dimensional Early Elementary Mathematics Screener and Diagnostic Tool: The Primary Mathematics Assessment (United States)

    Brendefur, Jonathan L.; Johnson, Evelyn S.; Thiede, Keith W.; Strother, Sam; Severson, Herb H.


    There is a critical need to identify primary level students experiencing difficulties in mathematics to provide immediate and targeted instruction that remediates their deficits. However, most early math screening instruments focus only on the concept of number, resulting in inadequate and incomplete information for teachers to design intervention…

  5. Teaching Elementary Mathematics through Problem Solving and Its Relationship to Mathematics Achievement (United States)

    Bullock, Audrey N.


    Problem solving in mathematics has been a goal for students for decades. In the reviewed literature, problem solving was most often treated as the dependent variable and was defined very broadly; however, few studies were found that included problem solving as a treatment or independent variable. The purpose of this study was to investigate the…

  6. Elementary mathematical and computational tools for electrical and computer engineers using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Manassah, Jamal T


    Ideal for use as a short-course textbook and for self-study Elementary Mathematical and Computational Tools for Electrical and Computer Engineers Using MATLAB fills that gap. Accessible after just one semester of calculus, it introduces the many practical analytical and numerical tools that are essential to success both in future studies and in professional life. Sharply focused on the needs of the electrical and computer engineering communities, the text provides a wealth of relevant exercises and design problems. Changes in MATLAB's version 6.0 are included in a special addendum.

  7. ICT media design for higher grade of elementary school mathematics learning using CS6 program (United States)

    Zainil, M.; Prahmana, R. C. I.; Helsa, Y.; Hendri, S.


    Technological innovation contributes to the emerging of new possibilities to change the learning process. The development of technology could bring the higher quality of education through the integration of technology in the learning. The purpose of this research is to create an interactive multimedia using CS6 program for mathematics learning in higher grade of elementary school. It was a development research using ADDIE model which consists of analysis, design, and evaluation stages. It has successfully developed interactive multimedia in a form of learning CD used in the material of plane figures and solid figures. The prototype has been validated and then tested for the 4th grade of elementary schools. Two schools were involved and the students taught by utilizing the prototype, and then, in the end of learning, they are examined to determine the learning result. There were 72% of the students passed the examination as they classified at good and excellent categories. Finally, the use of CS6 program is promising to help the students learning plane and solid figure in mathematics learning.

  8. The Effect of Teacher Education Programs on Future Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge: A Five-Country Analysis Using TEDS-M Data (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Youngs, Peter


    This article addresses the problem of how opportunities to learn in teacher education programs influence future elementary mathematics teachers' knowledge. This study used data collected for the Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M). TEDS-M measured the mathematics content knowledge (MCK) and the mathematics pedagogical…

  9. Status of teaching elementary science for English learners in science, mathematics and technology centered magnet schools (United States)

    Han, Alyson Kim

    According to the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (2001), one in three students speaks a language other than English. Additionally, the Commission stated that a student is considered to be an English learner if the second language acquisition is English. In California more than 1.4 million English learners enter school speaking a variety of languages, and this number continues to rise. There is an imminent need to promote instructional strategies that support this group of diverse learners. Although this was not a California study, the results derived from the nationwide participants' responses provided a congruent assessment of the basic need to provide effective science teaching strategies to all English learners. The purpose of this study was to examine the status of elementary science teaching practices used with English learners in kindergarten through fifth grade in public mathematics, science, and technology-centered elementary magnet schools throughout the country. This descriptive research was designed to provide current information and to identify trends in the areas of curriculum and instruction for English learners in science themed magnet schools. This report described the status of elementary (grades K-5) school science instruction for English learners based on the responses of 116 elementary school teachers: 59 grade K-2, and 57 grade 3-5 teachers. Current research-based approaches support incorporating self-directed learning strategy, expository teaching strategy, active listening strategies, questioning strategies, wait time strategy, small group strategy, peer tutoring strategy, large group learning strategy, demonstrations strategy, formal debates strategy, review sessions strategy, mediated conversation strategy, cooperative learning strategy, and theme-based instruction into the curriculum to assist English learners in science education. Science Technology Society (STS) strategy, problem-based learning strategy, discovery learning

  10. The Language Factor in Elementary Mathematics Assessments: Computational Skills and Applied Problem Solving in a Multidimensional IRT Framework (United States)

    Hickendorff, Marian


    The results of an exploratory study into measurement of elementary mathematics ability are presented. The focus is on the abilities involved in solving standard computation problems on the one hand and problems presented in a realistic context on the other. The objectives were to assess to what extent these abilities are shared or distinct, and…

  11. Goals for Mathematical Education of Elementary School Teachers: A Report of the Cambridge Conference on Teacher Training. (United States)

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    This report is intended to provide attention to issues that the Cambridge Conference feels are related to the mathematical training of elementary school teachers. The document is divided into three parts. Part I, titled "The Problems and Proposals Towards the Solution," contains the following chapters: (1) Introduction to the Report; (2)…

  12. The Effects of Single-Sex Classrooms on Student Outcomes on Mathematics and Reading in an Elementary School (United States)

    Pilson, Sylvia Yvonne Reddick


    The curriculum for elementary students has undergone a significant change in the past decade. This led to an increased expectation for higher academic performance for fifth grade students in the areas of reading and mathematics. Teachers seek innovative ways to provide instructional practices within their classrooms that will aid success for all…

  13. A Study of Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Mathematical Sophistication in a Reform-Oriented Calculus Course (United States)

    Ritter, Carrie Lineberry


    Calls for better preparation of STEM teachers have been prominent in educational communities and among the public for the past several years (e.g. American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, 2007). Some research suggests one way to improve mathematics instruction is to increase elementary pre-service teachers' "mathematical…

  14. Relations as Plural-Predications in Plato


    Scaltsas, Theodore


    Plato was the first philosopher to discover the metaphysical phenomenon of plural-subjects and plural-predication; e.g. you and I are two, but neither you, nor I are two. I argue that Plato devised an ontology for plural-predication through his Theory of Forms, namely, plural-partaking in a Form. Furthermore, I argue that Plato used plural-partaking to offer an ontology of related individuals without reifying relations. My contention is that Plato’s theory of plural-relatives has evaded detec...

  15. The Elementary School Students’ Mathematical Problem Solving Based on Reading Abilities (United States)

    Wulandari, R. D.; Lukito, A.; Khabibah, S.


    The aim of this research is to describe the third grade of elementary school students’ mathematical problem in solving skills based on their reading abilities. This research is a descriptive research with qualitative approach. This research was conducted at elementary school Kebraon II Surabaya in second semester of 2016-2017 academic years. The participants of this research consist of third grade students with different reading abilities that are independent level, instructional level and frustration level. The participants of this research were selected with purposive sampling technique. The data of this study were collected using reading the narration texts, the Ekwall and Shanker Informal Reading Inventory, problem solving task and interview guidelines. The collected data were evaluated using a descriptive analysis method. Once the study had been completed, it was concluded that problem solving skills varied according to reading abilities, student with independent level and instructional level can solve the problem and students with frustration level can’t solve the problem because they can’t interpret the problem well.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoerul Umam


    Full Text Available Many learners hold traditional beliefs about perimeter and area that a shape with a larger area must have a larger perimeter while shape with the same perimeter must have the same area. To address this issue, non-routine geometry problem is given. This qualitative descriptive research used to reach the goal and to explore the effect of non-routine geometry problem on elementary student belief in mathematics. The instrument has been developed to accommodate intuitive student belief and student’s belief about the concept of perimeter. The results provide evidence that students’ intuitive belief about perimeter can be change through non-routine geometry problem which is required understanding and some mathematical analysis. Fortunately, the problem has helped the elementary students revise and correct their beliefs, thoughts, and understandings relating to the circumference of shape.

  17. The Impacts of Mathematical Representations Developed through Webquest and Spreadsheet Activities on the Motivation of Pre-Service Elementary School Teachers (United States)

    Halat, Erdogan; Peker, Murat


    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of instruction using WebQuest activities with the influence of an instruction using spreadsheet activities on the motivation of pre-service elementary school teachers in mathematics teaching course. There were a total of 70 pre-service elementary school teachers involved in this study. Thirty…

  18. The Method of Hypothesis in Plato's Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Aboie Mehrizi


    Full Text Available The article deals with the examination of method of hypothesis in Plato's philosophy. This method, respectively, will be examined in three dialogues of Meno, Phaedon and Republic in which it is explicitly indicated. It will be shown the process of change of Plato’s attitude towards the position and usage of the method of hypothesis in his realm of philosophy. In Meno, considering the geometry, Plato attempts to introduce a method that can be used in the realm of philosophy. But, ultimately in Republic, Plato’s special attention to the method and its importance in the philosophical investigations, leads him to revise it. Here, finally Plato introduces the particular method of philosophy, i.e., the dialectic

  19. Trickle down Mathematics: Adult Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Gain Confidence in Mathematics--Enough to Pass It Along? (United States)

    Ashun, Mary Apea; Reinink, John


    Much research (Ma, 1999; Cohen & Leung, 2004; English, 2003) has been done on mathematics education and pre-service teachers with special emphasis on how the mathematics is taught and the psychology of the pre-service teachers. While there is concern among North American mathematicians that mathematics instruction in K-12 grades needs to be…

  20. Plato's Anti-Kohlbergian Program for Moral Education (United States)

    Jonas, Mark E.


    Following Lawrence Kohlberg it has been commonplace to regard Plato's moral theory as "intellectualist", where Plato supposedly believes that becoming virtuous requires nothing other than "philosophical knowledge or intuition of the ideal form of the good". This is a radical misunderstanding of Plato's educational programme,…

  1. Mathematics Teachers' Readiness to Integrate ICT in the Classroom: The Case of Elementary and Middle School Arab Teachers in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimer F. Baya'a


    Full Text Available ICT integration in mathematics education provides mathematics teachers with integrative teaching methods that motivate students learning, support their independent learning and active participation in the discovery of mathematics concepts and topics, and, as a result, helps them have deeper understanding of the mathematical ideas. So, the integration of ICT in the teaching and learning of mathematics, as a result of ICT educational affordances, helps students have better achievement in mathematics. These potentialities of the ICT make its integration in the mathematics classroom a promising practice, but the success of this practice is dependent on various factors, among which are the following: teachers' perceptions of their ability in ICT, teachers' attitudes towards ICT contribution to the mathematics teaching, teachers' attitudes towards ICT contribution to students' mathematics learning, teachers' emotions towards the use of ICT in the mathematics classroom, teachers' feelings of self-esteem and control in the presence of ICT in the mathematics classroom, and teachers' intentions to actually integrate ICT in their teaching. The current research came to verify the readiness of Arab teachers in elementary and middle schools in Israel regarding the integration of ICT in the classroom, and hence its interest in the six above constructs. The research used a questionnaire that included statements related to each one of the above constructs. This questionnaire was administered to 475 Arab teachers in elementary and middle schools in the North, Center and Haifa regions in Israel. The research findings show that more than seventy percent of the participating teachers have positive perceptions of their competence in technology and technology integration in their teaching. Further, they have positive attitudes towards the integration of ICT in teaching and learning and of their self-esteem in the presence of technology, in addition to positive

  2. Beyond Mathematics, a Standard Elementary Particle, and the Unified Field of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sourial, A.S.


    Teaching methods are presented based on a theoretical logical thesis of: A Standard Elementary Particle, i nstead of the current 200 odd different subatomic particles, and their plausible derivation from such a standard particle, similar to the derivation of our body cells from a multi potential S tem Cell, T he thesis reintroduces the theory of A Material Ether a s a necessary medium for the transmission of the Electro-Magnetic-Gravitational Waves. It solves and demystifies the following riddles: 1. The A ether Vacuum, by offering a plausible composition of A n elastic solid medium, t hat meets the specific physical requirements needed for the transmission of the electro magnetic gravitational waves, Explains the vast amount of Potential Energy that such an A ether can carry, That there is No Action at a Distance, 2. It explains Q uantum Mechanics, o n simple Newtonian principles, It nullifies the H eisenberg Uncertainty Principle, s howing that there is no uncertainty whatsoever, for individual particle interactions, and the existence of F unctional Barriers f or the disc like aggregates of contiguous particles representing I ntra-atomic Electrons, a nd A full P hysical e xplanation of the their quantum numbers, their electronic shells, as well as: The Pauli Exclusion Principle. 3. The possible explanation of Hubbell's Law without an expansion of the Universe, that the C osmic Red Shift g ives the illusion of an expanding Universe similar to that of the B ent Stick i n the water due to refraction. 4. That the Big Bang I nflation Theory, f or the origin of the Universe is: a Figment of Imagination similar to Aladdin's D jinni out of the bottle. a nd a Fantasy of Mathematics with complete lack of touch with reality. The thesis suggests a plausible explanation - Modus Operandi - for, and composition of: i) Gravity, II) The structure of nucleons, III) The nature of the strong force, IV) The structure of the string of The String Theory

  3. Music Activities as a Meaningful Context for Teaching Elementary Students Mathematics: A Quasi-Experiment Time Series Design with Random Assigned Control Group (United States)

    An, Song A.; Tillman, Daniel A.


    The purpose of the current research was to examine the effects of a sequence of classroom activities that integrated mathematics content with music elements aimed at providing teachers an alternative approach for teaching mathematics. Two classes of third grade students (n = 56) from an elementary school in the west coast of the United States…

  4. Signs of In/Equality: A History of Representation and Reform in Elementary School Mathematics from the 1950s to the Present (United States)

    Diaz, Jennifer DeNet


    This study begins with the assumption that the equal sign (=) in elementary school mathematics is not merely a symbol of mathematical logic. Rather, as the equal sign (=) appears in the school math curriculum, it orders children's thinking about equality by assigning identities to things of the world--as expressions of equivalences and…

  5. The PLATO 2.0 mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauer, H.; et al., [Unknown; Hekker, S.


    PLATO 2.0 has recently been selected for ESA’s M3 launch opportunity (2022/24). Providing accurate key planet parameters (radius, mass, density and age) in statistical numbers, it addresses fundamental questions such as: How do planetary systems form and evolve? Are there other systems with planets

  6. Quoting Plato in Porphyrius' Cuestiones homericas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Rodríguez‑Noriega Guillén


    Full Text Available This paper studies the quotations of Plato in Porphyry’s Homeric Questions,including their typology (literal quotation, allusion, paraphrase, etc., their beingor not direct citations, their function in the work, and their possible parallels inother authors.

  7. Math Self-Assessment, but Not Negative Feelings, Predicts Mathematics Performance of Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Geraldi Haase


    Full Text Available Mathematics anxiety has been associated to performance in school mathematics. The association between math anxiety and psychosocial competencies as well as their specific contribution to explain school mathematics performance are still unclear. In the present study, the impact of sociodemographic factors, psychosocial competencies, and math anxiety on mathematics and spelling performance was examined in school children with and without mathematics difficulties. The specific contributions of psychosocial competencies (i.e., general anxiety and attentional deficits with hyperactivity and math anxiety (i.e., self-assessment in mathematics to school mathematics performance were found to be statistically independent from each other. Moreover, psychosocial competencies—but not math anxiety—were related also to spelling performance. These results suggest that psychosocial competencies are more related to general mechanisms of emotional regulation and emotional response towards academic performance, while mathematics anxiety is related to the specific cognitive aspect of self-assessment in mathematics.

  8. Elementary school students’ mathematical intelligence based on mathematics learning using classical music of the baroque era as the backsound




    Many studies suggest that classical music can inccrease the listeners’ intelligence, including mathematical intelligence [3, 12, 2, 11]. In this research, we used the classical music of Baroque era as the backsound during math learning. The research method used was quasi experiment with nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design to grade V SD students in Tasikmalaya city. The results show that the use of classical music of Baroque era during the learning of mathematics gave a high co...

  9. Bilingualism of Colombian Deaf Children in the Teaching-Learning of Mathematics in the First Year of Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lucía León Corredor


    Full Text Available This paper summarizes some results of the first ethnographic research study conducted in Colombia in three different elementary schools for deaf children in which bilingualism (sign-language and written-language is starting to be emphasized. This study focuses on the teaching of mathematics in classrooms for deaf children using contexts proclaimed as bilingual. The participants in the study were first grade teachers. The analysis presented in this paper illustrates the struggles that teachers experience teaching arithmetic in such a context. The teaching of arithmetic using bilingualism requires three types of semiotic registers: sign-language and written-Spanish, and the Hindu-Arabic numeration system. The analysis indicates some puzzling teaching learning issues interweaving language and mathematics. These issues are of linguistic and communicative, social and cultural, and cognitive and pedagogical nature.

  10. Incorporating the Common Core's Problem Solving Standard for Mathematical Practice into an Early Elementary Inclusive Classroom (United States)

    Fletcher, Nicole


    Mathematics curriculum designers and policy decision makers are beginning to recognize the importance of problem solving, even at the earliest stages of mathematics learning. The Common Core includes sense making and perseverance in solving problems in its standards for mathematical practice for students at all grade levels. Incorporating problem…

  11. Transition from Realistic to Real World Problems with the Use of Technology in Elementary Mathematical Education (United States)

    Budinski, Natalija; Milinkovic, Dragica


    The availability of technology has a big impact on education, and that is the main reason for discussing the use of technologies in mathematical education in our paper. The availability of technology influences how mathematical contents could be presented to students. We present the benefits of learning mathematical concepts through real life…

  12. Mathematical Abstraction in the Solving of Ill-Structured Problems by Elementary School Students in Korea (United States)

    Hong, Jee Yun; Kim, Min Kyeong


    Ill-structured problems can be regarded as one of the measures that meet recent social needs emphasizing students' abilities to solve real-life problems. This study aimed to analyze the mathematical abstraction process in solving such problems, and to identify the mathematical abstraction level ([I] Recognition of mathematical structure through…

  13. Intrinsic Motivation and Achievement in Mathematics in Elementary School: A Longitudinal Investigation of Their Association (United States)

    Garon-Carrier, Gabrielle; Boivin, Michel; Guay, Frédéric; Kovas, Yulia; Dionne, Ginette; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Séguin, Jean R.; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.


    This study examined the associations between intrinsic motivation and achievement in mathematics in a sample of 1,478 Canadian school-age children followed from Grades 1 to 4 (ages 7-10). Children self-reported their intrinsic motivation toward mathematics, whereas achievement was measured through direct assessment of mathematics abilities.…

  14. Elementary Students' Spontaneous Metacognitive Functions in Different Types of Mathematical Problems (United States)

    Mokos, Evagelos; Kafoussi, Sonia


    Metacognition is the mind's ability to monitor and control itself or, in other words, the ability to know about our knowing (Dunlosky & Bjork, 2008). In mathematics education, the importance of the investigation of students' metacognition during their mathematical activity has been focused on the area of mathematics problem solving. This study…

  15. Number sense or working memory? The effect of two computer-based trainings on mathematical skills in elementary school. (United States)

    Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias; Holling, Heinz


    Research on the improvement of elementary school mathematics has shown that computer-based training of number sense (e.g., processing magnitudes or locating numbers on the number line) can lead to substantial achievement gains in arithmetic skills. Recent studies, however, have highlighted that training domain-general cognitive abilities (e.g., working memory [WM]) may also improve mathematical achievement. This study addressed the question of whether a training of domain-specific number sense skills or domain-general WM abilities is more appropriate for improving mathematical abilities in elementary school. Fifty-nine children (M age = 9 years, 32 girls and 27 boys) received either a computer-based, adaptive training of number sense (n = 20), WM skills (n = 19), or served as a control group (n = 20). The training duration was 20 min per day for 15 days. Before and after training, we measured mathematical ability using a curriculum-based math test, as well as spatial WM. For both training groups, we observed substantial increases in the math posttest compared to the control group (d = .54 for number sense skills training, d = .57 for WM training, respectively). Whereas the number sense group showed significant gains in arithmetical skills, the WM training group exhibited marginally significant gains in word problem solving. However, no training group showed significant posttest gains on the spatial WM task. Results indicate that a short training of either domain-specific or domain-general skills may result in reliable short-term training gains in math performance, although no stable training effects were found in the spatial WM task.

  16. Digital fabrication as an instructional technology for supporting upper elementary and middle school science and mathematics education (United States)

    Tillman, Daniel

    The purpose of this three-paper manuscript dissertation was to study digital fabrication as an instructional technology for supporting elementary and middle school science and mathematics education. Article one analyzed the effects of digital fabrication activities that were designed to contextualize mathematics education at a summer mathematics enrichment program for upper elementary and middle school students. The primary dependent variables studied were the participants' knowledge of mathematics and science content, attitudes towards STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) and STEM-related careers. Based upon the data collected, three results were presented as having justifiable supporting empirical evidence: (1) The digital fabrication activities, combined with the other mathematics activities at the enrichment program, resulted in non-significant overall gains in students' mathematics test scores and attitudes towards STEM. (2) The digital fabrication activities, combined with the other mathematics activities at the enrichment program, resulted in noteworthy gains on the "Probability & Statistics" questions. (3) Some students who did poorly on the scored paper test on mathematics and science content were nonetheless nominated by their teachers as demonstrating meritorious distinction during the digital fabrication activities (termed "Great Thinkers" by the 5th-grade teachers). Article two focused on how an instructional technology course featuring digital fabrication activities impacted (1) preservice elementary teachers' efficacy beliefs about teaching science, and (2) their attitudes and understanding of how to include instructional technology and digital fabrication activities into teaching science. The research design compared two sections of a teaching with technology course featuring digital fabrication activities to another section of the same course that utilized a media cycle framework (Bull & Bell, 2005) that did not feature digital

  17. Socrates the Pythagorean: an Invention of Plato?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Shichalin


    Full Text Available This article discusses the image of Socrates as found in the Works of Plato and Aristophanes. The author discovers Pythagorean traits in the image of Socrates as portrayed by these two ancient authors. The author also discusses the Pythagoreans and their role in the creation of stable schools of Philosophy. He likewise shows that the sophists were not the only ones contributing to the creation of centres of education and learning in the ancient world

  18. Pemikiran Epistemologi Barat: dari Plato Sampai Gonseth


    Nunu Burhanuddin


    This paper riviewing the Western epistemology thought. The theme focuses on Plato to Gonseth. The Epistemology that referred in this article, is to think about "how humans acquire knowledge?". From this then appear four types of sect modern western epistemology thought, namely: sect of empiricism, rationalism sect, kantinian sect, sect of positivism. Furthermore, the social positivism sciences developed by Comte leaves serious problems associated with the loss of the role of the subject. This...

  19. Ancient Doctrines of Passions: Plato and Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskra-Paczkowska Agnieszka


    Full Text Available The subject of this essay is a discussion of the doctrines of emotions of Plato and Aristotle. According to both them it is impossible to oust the passions from the good, i.e. happy life. On the contrary, emotions are an important component of human excellence. We investigate this question with reference to Plato’s doctrine of the soul and his concept of a perfect life, and Aristotle’s ethics, poetics and rhetoric.

  20. Evaluating PLATO: postgraduate teaching and learning online. (United States)

    Brown, Menna; Bullock, Alison


      The use of the Internet as a teaching medium has increased rapidly over the last decade. PLATO (postgraduate learning and teaching online) was launched in 2008 by the e-learning unit (ELU) of Wales Deanery. Located within Learning@NHSWales, a Moodle virtual learning environment (VLE), it hosts a wide range of freely available courses and resources tailored to support the education, training and continuing professional development (CPD) needs of health care professionals working across the National Health Service (NHS) Wales. The evaluation aimed to identify the costs and benefits of PLATO, report its value as attributed by users, identify potential cost savings and make recommendations.   Five courses (case studies) were selected, representing the range of available e-learning resources: e-induction; fetal heart monitoring; cervical screening; GP prospective trainers; and tools for trainers. Mixed methods were used: one-to-one qualitative interviews, focus group discussions and surveys explored user views, and identified individual and organisational value.   Qualitative findings identified six key areas of value for users: ELU support and guidance; avoidance of duplication and standardisation; central reference; local control; flexibility for learners; and specific features. Survey results (n=72) indicated 72 per cent of consultants reported that PLATO was easy to access and user friendly. E-learning was rated as 'very/important' for CPD by 79 per cent of respondents. Key challenges were: access, navigation, user concerns, awareness and support.   PLATO supports education and helps deliver UK General Medical Council standards. Future plans should address the suggested recommendations to realise cost savings for NHS Wales and the Wales Deanery. The findings have wider applicability to others developing or using VLEs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Fraction Multiplication and Division Word Problems Posed by Different Years of Pre-Service Elementary Mathematics Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Aydogdu Iskenderoglu


    Full Text Available It is important for pre-service teachers to know the conceptual difficulties they have experienced regarding the concepts of multiplication and division in fractions and problem posing is a way to learn these conceptual difficulties. Problem posing is a synthetic activity that fundamentally has multiple answers. The purpose of this study is to analyze the multiplication and division of fractions problems posed by pre-service elementary mathematics teachers and to investigate how the problems posed change according to the year of study the pre-service teachers are in. The study employed developmental research methods. A total of 213 pre-service teachers enrolled in different years of the Elementary Mathematics Teaching program at a state university in Turkey took part in the study. The “Problem Posing Test” was used as the data collecting tool. In this test, there are 3 multiplication and 3 division operations. The data were analyzed using qualitative descriptive analysis. The findings suggest that, regardless of the year, pre-service teachers had more conceptual difficulties in problem posing about the division of fractions than in problem posing about the multiplication of fractions.

  2. Elementary and Advanced Mathematic thinking as human activity in permanent evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Penagos


    Full Text Available The objective of this text is to present a reflection and analysis about the processes in the development of fundamental and advanced mathematical thinking as a human activity. Traditionally, mathematics education has had two barriers to overcome: First, advanced mathematical thinking is only shown at a determined age and therefore it must be addressed in university level courses. Second, the teachers of this discipline regularly introduce mathematics to students as a body of complete and irrefutable knowledge shared by a scientific community. The task of the student is to learn it, do demonstrations and reproduce this knowledge in a given period of time. Mathematical entities or objects that in occasions have taken centuries to build. In contrast with the true sense of education of this discipline that must be to empower in the students the development of mathematical thinking.

  3. Elementary Students' Metacognitive Processes and Post-Performance Calibration on Mathematical Problem-Solving Tasks (United States)

    García, Trinidad; Rodríguez, Celestino; González-Castro, Paloma; González-Pienda, Julio Antonio; Torrance, Mark


    Calibration, or the correspondence between perceived performance and actual performance, is linked to students' metacognitive and self-regulatory skills. Making students more aware of the quality of their performance is important in elementary school settings, and more so when math problems are involved. However, many students seem to be poorly…

  4. [Experimental Course in Elementary Number Theory, Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics Feasibility Study No. 35. (United States)

    Hatch, Mary Jacqueline

    In the winter of 1965, an experimental course in Elementary Number Theory was presented to a 6th grade class in the Hosmer School, Watertown, Massachusetts. Prior to the introduction of the present material, students had been exposed in class to such topics from the University of Illinois Arithmetic Project as lattices, number lines, frame…

  5. Making Teacher Change Visible: Developing an Action Research Protocol for Elementary Mathematics Instruction (United States)

    Rice, Linda J.; McKeny, Timothy S.


    Professional development is a well-established component of teacher change, and action research can make that change visible. In this study, quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 237 elementary teachers and intervention specialists from 33 federally-designated Appalachian counties of Southeastern Ohio who participated in the…

  6. Mathematics Learning Disabilities in Girls with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome during Late Elementary School (United States)

    Murphy, Melissa M.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.


    The present study focuses on math and related skills among 32 girls with fragile X (n = 14) or Turner (n = 18) syndrome during late elementary school. Performance in each syndrome group was assessed relative to Full Scale IQ-matched comparison groups of girls from the general population (n = 32 and n = 89 for fragile X syndrome and Turner…

  7. Academic Emphasis of Urban Elementary Schools and Student Achievement in Reading and Mathematics: A Multilevel Analysis. (United States)

    Goddard, Roger D.; Sweetland, Scott R.; Hoy, Wayne K.


    Examines importance of a school climate characterized by high levels of academic emphasis. Drawing on effective-schools research and social-cognitive theory, uses hierarchical linear modeling to show that academic emphasis accounts for differences among urban elementary schools in student math and reading achievement. (Contains 48 references.)…

  8. Testing the Limits: The Purposes and Effects of Additional, External Elementary Mathematics Assessment (United States)

    Lombardi, Karen Ann


    This mixed-methods case study focuses on the third through fifth grade classrooms at a public elementary school in a Midwestern urban school district where the Northwest Evaluation Association's (NWEA) Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) assessment is being implemented. According to the school district, the goals of these tests are: to show…

  9. Stimulating students’ academic language : Opportunities in instructional methods in elementary school mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, Nanke; Aarts, Rian; Kurvers, J.J.H.; Ros, Anje; Kroon, Sjaak


    Mastering academic language (AL) by elementary school students is important for achieving school success. The extent to which teachers play a role in stimulating students’ AL development may differ. Two types of AL stimulating behavior are distinguished: aimed at students’ understanding and at

  10. Stimulating students’ academic language : opportunities in instructional methods in elementary school mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rian Aarts; Jeanne Kurvers; Sjaak Kroon; Anje Ros; Nanke Dokter


    Mastering academic language (AL) by elementary school students is important for achieving school success. The extent to which teachers play a role in stimulating students’ AL development may differ. Two types of AL stimulating behavior are distinguished: aimed at students’ understanding and at

  11. Immigrant Pupils in Elementary Classrooms of Cyprus: How Teachers View Them as Learners of Mathematics (United States)

    Xenofontos, Constantinos


    Research in diverse mathematics classrooms suggests that pupils' learning is influenced by both linguistic and cultural factors. In recent years, the demographics of Cypriot (mathematics) classrooms have become very diverse. In 2003, the Ministry of Education and Culture introduced the Zones of Educational Priorities, a UNESCO strategy for…

  12. A Randomized Trial of an Elementary School Mathematics Software Intervention: Spatial-Temporal Math (United States)

    Rutherford, Teomara; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg; Burchinal, Margaret; Kibrick, Melissa; Graham, Jeneen; Richland, Lindsey; Tran, Natalie; Schneider, Stephanie; Duran, Lauren; Martinez, Michael E.


    Fifty-two low performing schools were randomly assigned to receive Spatial-Temporal (ST) Math, a supplemental mathematics software and instructional program, in second/third or fourth/fifth grades or to a business-as-usual control. Analyses reveal a negligible effect of ST Math on mathematics scores, which did not differ significantly across…

  13. Low and High Mathematics Achievement in Japanese, Chinese, and American Elementary-School Children. (United States)

    Uttal, David H.; And Others


    First and fifth grade students who scored high or low on a mathematics test were tested for intellectual ability and reading achievement. Students and their mothers were interviewed. Results indicated that factors associated with levels of achievement in mathematics operate in a similar fashion across three cultures that differ greatly in their…

  14. Level of Students' Achievement in Mathematics at the End of Elementary Education in Yemen (United States)

    Khair, Tarig Mohamed Ali Mohamed; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri; Elrofai, Tahra Aisa


    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the level of student's achievement in mathematics in Yemen. This study use a sample of 200 male students and 200 female students, chosen from eight government schools on the basis of diversified sampling techniques. A mathematics test which composed of seventy five items that covered geometrical…

  15. Exploring Logical Reasoning and Mathematical Proof in Grade 6 Elementary School Students (United States)

    Flegas, Konstantinos; Charalampos, Lemonidis


    Research and classroom experience reveal that the construction of mathematical proofs is difficult for all students. While many contemporary mathematics curricula recognize the importance of teaching reasoning and proof, in Greece these concepts are introduced at the secondary education level. In this study, we will attempt to investigate a group…

  16. Elementary School Quality: The Mathematics Curriculum and the Role of Local Knowledge. (United States)

    Balfanz, Robert

    This report considers how the mathematical knowledge children develop on their own outside of formal school instruction can be used to increase the distribution and level of mathematical knowledge attained by students in grades K-3. Included are preliminary results of an investigation of the counting and calculating abilities brought to…

  17. Model program for the recruitment and preparation of high ability elementary mathematics/science teachers: A collaborative project among scientists, teacher educators and classroom teachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This teacher education program will provide a model for recruiting, educating and retaining high ability students to become mathematics and science lead teachers in elementary schools. The quality experiences and support provided these students will help them develop the knowledge and attitudes necessary to provide leadership for elementary mathematics and science programs. Students will have research experiences at the Ames Laboratory, high quality field experiences with nationally recognized mathematics and science teachers in local schools and opportunities to meaningfully connect these two experiences. This program, collaboratively designed and implemented by scientists, teacher educators and classroom teachers, should provide a replicatable model for other teacher education institutions. In addition, materials developed for the project should help other laboratories interface more effectively with K-8 schools and help other teacher education programs incorporate real science and mathematics experience into their curriculum.

  18. Two Teacher Educators’ Approaches to Developing Preservice Elementary Teachers’ Mathematics Assessment Literacy: Intentions, Outcomes, and New Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Eun Lee


    approaches to developing preservice elementary teachers’ mathematics assessment literacy. We explored the similarities and differences in preservice teachers’ conceptions of good assessment practices and their critique of assessment items. We found that we, as course instructors, had different assumptions pertaining to the role of preservice teachers in the development of assessment and offered different assessment-related course activities. Despite these differences, there were more similarities than differences between the two groups of the preservice teachers with regard to their overall perceptions about good assessment practices and their critique of assessment items. However, we also observed differences in the criteria they used in critiquing assessment items. Discussions and implications are presented in accordance with these findings as a means to improve our own teaching and student learning.

  19. Pemikiran Epistemologi Barat: dari Plato Sampai Gonseth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunu Burhanuddin


    Full Text Available This paper riviewing the Western epistemology thought. The theme focuses on Plato to Gonseth. The Epistemology that referred in this article, is to think about "how humans acquire knowledge?". From this then appear four types of sect modern western epistemology thought, namely: sect of empiricism, rationalism sect, kantinian sect, sect of positivism. Furthermore, the social positivism sciences developed by Comte leaves serious problems associated with the loss of the role of the subject. This problem being the background of epistemology philosophy appears that by Emund Husserl developed through the phenomenology, Habermas through hermeneutics, and Ferdinand Gonseth through critical theory.

  20. Plato the Pederast: Rhetoric and Cultural Procreation in the Dialogues. (United States)

    Ervin, Elizabeth


    Examines Plato's Dialogues by reading them through two cultural lenses: the role of eros in classical Greece and its analogous relationship to language and rhetoric; and the educational function of eros within the ancient institution of pederasty. Shows how the cultural values of ancient Greece manifested themselves in Plato's erotic educational…

  1. Plato's Theories of Knowledge and Education: an Examination of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plato's Theories of Knowledge and Education: an Examination of the Interpretations of Cloete and Agyemang. ... UJAH: Unizik Journal of Arts and Humanities ... views, this article reveals some serious logical and factual errors in Cloete's interpretations, and thereby clarifies Plato's epistemology and theories of education.

  2. Plato and the teaching of entrepreneurship studies as general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondly to use Plato's model of education to stress the importance of the practical aspect of entrepreneurial studies so as to avoid the old syndrome of breeding certificate Laden, theory filled entrepreneurial studies. For Plato, education should be tailored to suit the learner specialization; that is a carpenter should be taught ...

  3. Intrinsic Motivation and Achievement in Mathematics in Elementary School: A Longitudinal Investigation of Their Association. (United States)

    Garon-Carrier, Gabrielle; Boivin, Michel; Guay, Frédéric; Kovas, Yulia; Dionne, Ginette; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Séguin, Jean R; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E


    This study examined the associations between intrinsic motivation and achievement in mathematics in a sample of 1,478 Canadian school-age children followed from Grades 1 to 4 (ages 7-10). Children self-reported their intrinsic motivation toward mathematics, whereas achievement was measured through direct assessment of mathematics abilities. Cross-lagged models showed that achievement predicted intrinsic motivation from Grades 1 to 2, and from Grades 2 to 4. However, intrinsic motivation did not predict achievement at any time. This developmental pattern of association was gender invariant. Contrary to the hypothesis that motivation and achievement are reciprocally associated over time, our results point to a directional association from prior achievement to subsequent intrinsic motivation. Results are discussed in light of their theoretical and practical implications. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. Plato: from Socrates to Pre-Socratics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The traditional view on the chronology of the Corpus Platonicum (CP texts turns out to be anachronistic from several, especially formal and historical, points of view. From the formal point of view all the CP texts can be divided into speeches, framed dialogues and dialogues in dramatic form; there are serious reasons for correlating these groups of dialogues with different chronological periods. Historically, to view Plato’s works as modern philosophical and scholarly literature is incorrect; instead, it would seem expedient to correlate the three groups of dialogues mentioned with their changing audiences for which Plato wrote before the establishment of the Academy, during the first stage of its existence (before the second trip to Sicily and in the later period. The evolution of Plato’s philosophy is to be correlated with the evolution of the school created by him. Lack of attention to these methods can lead to incorrect assumptions concerning Plato’s evolution which found their way, among others, into the book “Plato and the Post-Socratic Dialogue” by Prof. Ch. Kahn where he speaks of a transition from Socratic to Pre-Socratic problems in Plato’s works; the book is critically examined by the author of the present article.

  5. Modeling Mathematical Ideas: Developing Strategic Competence in Elementary and Middle School (United States)

    Suh, Jennifer M.; Seshaiyer, Padmanabhan


    "Modeling Mathematical Ideas" combining current research and practical strategies to build teachers and students strategic competence in problem solving.This must-have book supports teachers in understanding learning progressions that addresses conceptual guiding posts as well as students' common misconceptions in investigating and…

  6. How Well Do the NSF Funded Elementary Mathematics Curricula Align with the GAISE Report Recommendations? (United States)

    Bargagliotti, Anna E.


    Statistics and probability have become an integral part of mathematics education. Therefore it is important to understand whether curricular materials adequately represent statistical ideas. The "Guidelines for Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education" (GAISE) report (Franklin, Kader, Mewborn, Moreno, Peck, Perry, & Scheaffer, 2007),…

  7. Working Memory, Attention, and Mathematical Problem Solving: A Longitudinal Study of Elementary School Children (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee


    The role of working memory (WM) in children's growth in mathematical problem solving was examined in a longitudinal study of children (N = 127). A battery of tests was administered that assessed problem solving, achievement, WM, and cognitive processing (inhibition, speed, phonological coding) in Grade 1 children, with follow-up testing in Grades…

  8. Student Perceptions of a Mathematics Major for Prospective Elementary Teachers with an Inquiry-Based Philosophy (United States)

    Cook, Samuel A.; Borkovitz, Debra K.


    In this paper we present data from one-on-one interviews conducted with students who have taken intermediate and advanced inquiry-based mathematics courses in a program that prepares future preK-8 teachers. Many of these students entered college with a fear of math, but then gained confidence from a required introductory math course and chose to…

  9. The Impact of Cooperative Learning Methods on Elementary Preservice Education Teachers' Mathematics Achievement and Anxiety (United States)

    Swift, Elijah Raford, Jr.


    The purpose of this study was to address the gap in research regarding the use of cooperative learning instructional methods in college mathematics courses to prepare future teachers. Bruner's constructivist theory and social interdependence theory guided this study. The research questions focused on the effects of the use of cooperative learning…

  10. The Effects of a Model Developmental Mathematics Program on Elementary and Middle School Preservice Teachers (United States)

    Gerber, Lindsey N.


    Teacher quality is instrumental in improving student performance. Unfortunately, discrepancies between teacher preparation programs and national and state K-12 student standards have contributed to the difficult task of producing quality teachers. The contemporary mathematics education paradigm used at most colleges and universities relies on…

  11. Designing of Holistic Mathematic Education Model Based-"System Among" at Low Grade Elementary School (United States)

    Hayati, R.; Fauzan, A.; Iswari, M.; Khaidir, A.


    The purpose of this study was to develop a model of Holistic Mathematics Education (HME) among systems based on low-grade primary school students so that students have a solid foundation when entering a higher behavior. This type of research is desaign research developed by Plomp to have three stages, namely the preliminary research, development or prototyping phase, and assessement Phase. This research resulted in a model Holistic Mathematics Education (HME) -based system is among the primary school students low grade consists of 10 stages, namely 1) Recap through the neighborhood, 2) Discussion groups by exploiting the environment, 3) Demonstration Group, 4) Exercise individuals, 5) mathematical modeling, 6) Demonstration of individuals, 7) Reflections, 8) impressions and messages, and giving meaning, 9) Celebrations and 10) A thorough assessment. Furthermore, this model also produces 7 important components that should be developed teacher, namely 1) constructivism, 2) the nature of nature, 3) independence, 4) parable, 5) inquiry, 6) cooperation, and 7) strengthening. This model will produce a model in the form of books, student books and teacher's guide book as a support system that can help users in its application.

  12. A scientific approach to Plato's Atlantis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Rapisarda


    Full Text Available The myth of Atlantis is hard to die. This attempt to use scientific evidence to give it the final smash ends up with the doubt that it might not be totally unsubstantiated. The time of the supposed existence of Atlantis (around twelve thousand years ago was, in fact, characterized by technological revolutions, acknowledged by archaeology, and abrupt climate changes, documented by geology. In principle, it cannot therefore be ruled out that some of those dramatic events left a memory, later used by Plato as a basis for its tale. The climate changes involved the majority of the northern hemisphere, thus all the ancient civilizations (Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Indian and Chinese could have preserved reminiscence, but it is clear that the events occurring closer to Greece would have been more accessible to Plato. Among the Mediterranean sites that experienced the cataclysms of the beginning of the Holocene, a good candidate to host a primordial civilization might have been the archipelago then existing in the Strait of Sicily, a natural maritime link between Tunisia and Italy, prized by the presence of an obsidian source at Pantelleria. Eleven thousand five hundred years ago, a sudden sea level rise erased the archipelago, submerging the possible settlements, but Pantelleria obsidian ores are still there and could provide a significant clue. In fact, the potential discovery of artefacts, originating from a source now submerged by the sea level rise, would imply that the collection of the mineral took place when it was still emerged, namely at the time of Atlantis. Even if such discovery would not be sufficient to prove the existence of the mythical island, it would be enough to shake up the timeline of the human occupation in the region.

  13. What Plato and Murdoch Think About Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Shakouri


    Full Text Available There are many interpretations of love and lots of scholars write and talk on love; however, what exactly is the meaning of love? Iris Murdoch’s works are an accumulation of emotional relationships and feelings of love. Her great subject is love, both sexual and non-sexual, and her characters are the portrayal of a small group of people caught up in convoluted ties of love and hate, with Eros ruling over them (Cohen 22. Murdoch was one of the most respected British writers and philosophers of the second half of the twentieth century and, of course, the postwar period. In Murdoch’s novels, love is one of the central themes—marriage, as the institution of love, more often binds than frees. Her characters are mainly ego-centric people who struggle to love and are often overwhelmed by the factor of self-obsession, jealousy, ambition, fascination with suffering and charismatic power. They are absolutely ordinary people with a consuming demand for love, and mental and physical exile. Murdoch was inspired by Plato’s ideas in many ways. Like art, here again Plato’s idea of love is more skeptical than Murdoch’s, whereas Murdoch kept it only as a way to the Good, creation, and happiness. Murdoch and Plato saw love more as a Freudian concept, the Eros, the word that comes from the name of the first Greek god of love. Both the philosophers, Plato and Murdoch, believed that this erotic longing and desires revived by Eros can led to a new direction, a way toward virtue and truth. Her protagonist or marginalized characters are usually tackling it with either vulgarity or the heavenly, which results in creation, art or salvation. Murdoch, as a major moral philosopher, usually grasps the chances to encapsulate her moral visions in her works, and created novels that should be counted as meditations on human love and goodness.

  14. Beliefs and Attitudes about Science and Mathematics in Pre-Service Elementary Teachers, STEM, and Non-STEM Majors in Undergraduate Physics Courses (United States)

    Michaluk, Lynnette; Stoiko, Rachel; Stewart, Gay; Stewart, John


    Elementary teachers often hold inaccurate beliefs about the Nature of Science (NoS) and have negative attitudes toward science and mathematics. Using a pre-post design, the current study examined beliefs about the NoS, attitudes toward science and mathematics, and beliefs about the teaching of mathematics and science in a large sample study ( N = 343) of pre-service teachers receiving a curriculum-wide intervention to improve these factors in comparison with Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) and non-STEM majors in other physics courses ( N = 6697) who did not receive the intervention, over a 10-year period. Pre-service teachers evidenced initially more negative attitudes about mathematics and science than STEM majors and slightly more positive attitudes than non-STEM majors. Their attitudes toward mathematics and science and beliefs about the NoS were more similar to non-STEM than STEM majors. Pre-service teachers initially evidenced more positive beliefs about the teaching of mathematics and science, and their beliefs even increased slightly over the course of the semester, while these beliefs in other groups remained the same. Beliefs about the NoS and the teaching of mathematics and science were significantly negatively correlated for STEM and non-STEM majors, but were not significantly correlated for pre-service teachers. Beliefs about the NoS and attitudes toward mathematics and science were significantly positively correlated for both pre-service teachers and STEM students pursing the most mathematically demanding STEM majors. Attitudes toward science and mathematics were significantly positively correlated with accurate beliefs about the teaching of mathematics and science for all student groups.

  15. Anamnesis and the Silent Narrator in Plato and John

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George L. Parsenios


    Full Text Available The Gospel of John is often compared to the dialogues of Plato by those who connect Johannine theology and Platonic philosophy. The comparison operates on the level of ideas. The present paper does not ignore issues of theology and philosophy but grounds a comparison of John and Plato first and foremost on the literary level. In several key places in John 1, 3, and 14, the Johannine narrator recedes from view and is unexpectedly silent where one would expect a narrator’s comment to organize the conversations and interactions between characters in John. Plato also renders the voice of the narrator silent in a dialogue like the Theaetetus. This paper argues that John and Plato both suppress the narrator’s voice in order to further their anamnetic efforts and to make later generations not only readers but participants in their original conversations.

  16. 1 Plato's Theories of Knowledge and Education: an Examination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ngozi Ezenwa-Ohaeto

    doing introduced some of the most insightful theories of knowledge that ..... major deductions he makes from that quotation (but does not explain), are: (i). That Plato 'assumes' that there is 'a pre- linguistic realm whose representation either.

  17. Isocrates and Plato on Rhetoric and Rhetorical Education. (United States)

    Benoit, William L.


    Compares the views of Isocrates and Plato on rhetoric and rhetorical education. Elucidates their criticisms of the sophists, their general assumptions about the nature and function of rhetoric, and their views on rhetorical education. (PRA)

  18. Rationality and Motivation: Moral Psychology in Plato's Socratic Dialogues


    Neiders, Ivars


    "Rationality and Motivation: Moral Psychology in Plato's Socratic Dialogues" Annotation The dissertation "Rationality and Motivation: Moral Psychology in Plato's Socratic Dialogues" is a philosophical study of Socratic views in moral psychology. Particular attention is paid to what the author calls (1) Doxastic competence and (2) Orectic competence. It is argued that according to Socrates these two different epistemic relations are important aspects of our self-understanding. The doxast...

  19. GeoGebra 3D from the perspectives of elementary pre-service mathematics teachers who are familiar with a number of software programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdal Baltaci


    Full Text Available Each new version of the GeoGebra dynamic mathematics software goes through updates and innovations. One of these innovations is the GeoGebra 5.0 version. This version aims to facilitate 3D instruction by offering opportunities for students to analyze 3D objects. While scanning the previous studies of GeoGebra 3D, it is seen that they mainly focus on the visualization of a problem in daily life and the dimensions of the evaluation of the process of problem solving with various variables. Therefore, this research problem was determined to reveal the opinions of pre-service elementary mathematics teachers who can use multiple software programs very well, about the usability of GeoGebra 3D. Compared to other studies conducted in this field, this study is thought to add a new dimension to the literature on GeoGebra 3D because the participants in the study had received training in using the Derive, Cabri, Cabri 3D, GeoGebra and GeoGebra 3D programs and had developed activities throughout their undergraduate programs and in some cases they were held responsible for those programs in their exams. In this research, we used the method of case study. The participants consisted of five elementary pre-service mathematics teachers who were enrolled in fourth year courses. We employed semi-structured interviews to collect data. It is concluded that pre-service elementary mathematics teachers expressed a great deal of opinions about the positive contribution of the GeoGebra 3D dynamic mathematics software.

  20. Plato, Nightingale, and Nursing: Can You Hear Me Now? (United States)

    Arnone, Jacqueline Michele; Fitzsimons, Virginia


    A historical perspective on how the writings of Plato influenced Florence Nightingale in the formation of nursing as a respected profession for women. Comparing Nightingale's life and legacy to Platonic philosophy demonstrates how philosophy continues to speak to the profession of nursing practice as guardians of society in the 21st century. A review of the literature using EBSCO, SAGEpub, MEDLINE, and CINAHL databases and hand searches of literature were initiated for the years 1990-2014 using the terms "Plato," "Nightingale," and "nursing" restricted to English. Florence Nightingale, known as the mother of modern-day nursing, embodied her life and work after the philosophic tenets of Plato. Plato's Allegory of the Cave influenced Nightingale's attitudes with regard to the value of education, knowledge of the good, and the importance of imparting learned knowledge to others. Plato's work spoke of educating both men and women to seek the truth, affording both sexes to become competent as future leaders in the role of guardians to society. Nightingale's emphasis of education for women as a conduit for their usefulness to society mirrored Plato's philosophy. Over 100 years after her death, the impact Florence Nightingale still has on professional nursing practice remains. Scholarship in nursing education today is infused with a liberal arts background in philosophy, ethics, and the sciences. Nightingale's holistic concepts of person, health, and environment in the practice of nursing coalesced with her statistical analyses in validating nursing actions foreshadowed the development of universal nursing knowledge and language base and meta-paradigm concepts in nursing. Further classification and categorization of Nightingale's concepts of assessing, implementing, and evaluating delivery of care became the linguistic precursors for the identification of nursing process, nursing actions, and nursing diagnoses. Plato's and Nightingale's holistic, scientific, and

  1. Motivational beliefs, cognitive engagement, and achievement in language and mathematics in elementary school children. (United States)

    Metallidou, Panagiota; Vlachou, Anastasia


    The contextual differences in the patterns of relations among various motivational, cognitive, and metacognitive components of self-regulated learning and performance in two key curriculum subject areas, language and mathematics, were examined in a sample of 263 Greek primary school children of fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms. Age and gender differences were also investigated. Students were asked to complete the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich & De Groot, 1990 ), which comprised five factors: (a) Self-efficacy, (b) Intrinsic Value, (c) Test Anxiety, (d) Cognitive Strategy Use, and (e) Self-regulation Strategies. They responded to the statements of the questionnaire on a 7-point Likert scale in terms of their behaviour in mathematics and language classes, respectively. Moreover, their teachers were asked to evaluate each of their students' academic achievement in Greek language and mathematics on a 1- to 20-point comparative scale in relation to the rest of the class. The results of the study indicated very few differences in the pattern of relations among self-regulated components within and across the two subject areas and at the same time revealed a context-specific character of self-regulated components at a mean level differences. Further, the current study (a) confirmed the mediatory role of strategies in the motivation-performance relation, (b) stressed the differential role of cognitive and regulatory strategies in predicting performance in subject areas that differ in their structural characteristics of the content, and (c) pointed out the key motivational role of self-efficacy. In fact, self-efficacy proved the most significant predictor not only of performance but of cognitive and regulatory strategy use as well. Gender differences in motivation and strategy use were not reported, while motivation was found to vary mainly with age. The usefulness of these findings for promoting greater clarity among motivational and

  2. Eugenics concept: from Plato to present. (United States)

    Güvercin, C H; Arda, B


    All prospective studies and purposes to improve cure and create a race that would be exempt of various diseases and disabilities are generally defined as eugenic procedures. They aim to create the "perfect" and "higher" human being by eliminating the "unhealthy" prospective persons. All of the supporting actions taken in order to enable the desired properties are called positive eugenic actions; the elimination of undesired properties are defined as negative eugenics. In addition, if such applications and approaches target the public as a whole, they are defined as macro-eugenics. On the other hand, if they only aim at individuals and/or families, they are called micro-eugenics. As generally acknowledged, Galton re-introduced eugenic proposals, but their roots stretch as far back as Plato. Eugenic thoughts and developments were widely accepted in many different countries beginning with the end of the 19th to the first half of the 20th centuries. Initially, the view of negative eugenics that included compulsory sterilizations of handicapped, diseased and "lower" classes, resulted in tens of thousands being exterminated especially in the period of Nazi Germany. In the 1930s, the type of micro positive eugenics movement found a place within the pro-natalist policies of a number of countries. However, it was unsuccessful since the policy was not able to become effective enough and totally disappeared in the 1960s. It was no longer a fashionable movement and left a deep impression on public opinion after the long years of war. However, developments in genetics and its related fields have now enabled eugenic thoughts to reappear under the spotlight and this is creating new moral dilemmas from an ethical perspective.

  3. Plato's Cosmic Theology: A Rationale for a Polytheistic Astrology? (United States)

    Henriques, André


    Plato's cosmology influenced classical astronomy and religion, but was in turn influenced by the polytheistic context of its time. Throughout his texts, including the cosmological treatise Timaeus, and the discussions on the soul in the Phaedrus, Plato (c.428-c.348 BC) established what can be generalised as Platonic cosmological thought. An understanding of the philosophical and mythical levels of Platonic thought can provide a rationale for polytheistic and astrological worldviews, pointing to some cosmological continuity, alongside major shifts, from ancient Greek religion to the astrological thought of ancient astronomers such as Claudius Ptolemy.

  4. Expected asteroseismic performances with the space project PLATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goupil Mariejo


    Full Text Available The PLATO (PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of star space project will observe about fifty percents of the sky with the main purpose of detecting, confirming and characterizing transiting exoplanets of (superEarth sizes in the habitable zone of solar-like stars. Determining masses, radii and ages of exoplanets require the knowledge the masses, radii and ages of the host stars. We give a brief presentation of the main features of the mission. We then discuss some expected seismic performances of PLATO for characterizing bright solar-like stars, focusing on the challenging determination of accurate/precise stellar ages.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vantielen da Silva Silva


    of teaching in mathematics. However, most researches indicate its presence and contributions for the Final Years of Elementary School and High School, and the productions or reflections on the possibility of its use in the first years of elementary school are still incipient.

  6. Philosophy and mathematics: interactions. (United States)

    Rashed, Roshdi

    From Plato to the beginnings of the last century, mathematics provided philosophers with methods of exposition, procedures of demonstration, and instruments of analysis. The unprecedented development of mathematics on the one hand, and the mathematicians' appropriation of Logic from the philosophers on the other hand, have given rise to two problems with which the philosophers have to contend: (1) Is there still a place for the philosophy of mathematics? and (2) To what extent is a philosophy of mathematics still possible? This article offers some reflections on these questions, which have preoccupied a good many philosophers and continue to do so.

  7. Influence of a Mathematics Teachers' Circle on Elementary Teachers' Use of Problem Solving (United States)

    Garner, Mary L.; Watson, Virginia; Rogers, Beth; Head, Catherine


    Math teachers' circles are a form of professional development that is recommended by the Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences in their publication Mathematical Education of Teachers II (2012). However, little research has been published on how effective math teachers' circles are in advancing the mathematical knowledge of teachers and…

  8. Mathematics beliefs and instructional strategies in achievement of elementary-school students in Japan: results from the TIMSS 2003 assessment. (United States)

    House, J Daniel


    Recent findings concerning mathematics assessment indicate that students in Japan consistently score above international averages. Researchers have examined specific mathematics beliefs and instructional strategies associated with mathematics achievement for students in Japan. This study examined relationships among self-beliefs, classroom instructional strategies, and mathematics achievement for a large national sample of students (N=4,207) from the TIMSS 2003 international sample of fourth graders in Japan. Several significant relationships between mathematics beliefs and test scores were found; a number of classroom teaching strategies were also significantly associated with test scores. However, multiple regression using the complete set of five mathematics beliefs and five instructional strategies explained only 25.1% of the variance in mathematics achievement test scores.

  9. The necessity of dialectics according to Plato and Adorno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anne-Marie Eggert


    The paper deals with the notion of philosophy as, on the one hand, an academic or scientific discipline and, on the other, something perhaps superior to the disciplines and in any case dealing with what is not a 'disciplinary' matter. Through an interpretation of Plato's concept of dialectics and...

  10. Plato and Play: Taking Education Seriously in Ancient Greece (United States)

    D'Angour, Armand


    In this article, the author outlines Plato's notions of play in ancient Greek culture and shows how the philosopher's views on play can be best appreciated against the background of shifting meanings and evaluations of play in classical Greece. Play--in various forms such as word play, ritual, and music--proved central to the development of…

  11. Plato, Freud and Marx on Human Nature: A Comparative Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the conceptions of human nature by Plato, Sigmund Freud and Karl Marx, with a view to revealing and explaining the convergence and divergence between these conceptions. It shows that agreement or disagreement on the distinguishing characteristics of human individuals can be situated on ...

  12. Three Misunderstandings of Plato's Theory of Moral Education (United States)

    Jonas, Mark E.


    In this essay, Mark Jonas argues that there are three broadly held misconceptions of Plato's philosophy that work against his relevance for contemporary moral education. The first is that he is an intellectualist who is concerned only with the cognitive aspect of moral development and does not sufficiently emphasize the affective and conative…

  13. Go Tell Alcibiades: Tragedy, Comedy, and Rhetoric in Plato's "Symposium" (United States)

    Crick, Nathan; Poulakos, John


    Plato's "Symposium" is a significant but neglected part of his elaborate and complex attitude toward rhetoric. Unlike the intellectual discussion of the "Gorgias" or the unscripted conversation of the "Phaedrus," the "Symposium" stages a feast celebrating and driven by the forces of "Eros." A luxuriously stylish performance rather than a rational…

  14. Future development of the PLATO Observatory for Antarctic science (United States)

    Ashley, Michael C. B.; Bonner, Colin S.; Everett, Jon R.; Lawrence, Jon S.; Luong-Van, Daniel; McDaid, Scott; McLaren, Campbell; Storey, John W. V.


    PLATO is a self-contained robotic observatory built into two 10-foot shipping containers. It has been successfully deployed at Dome A on the Antarctic plateau since January 2008, and has accumulated over 730 days of uptime at the time of writing. PLATO provides 0.5{1kW of continuous electrical power for a year from diesel engines running on Jet-A1, supplemented during the summertime with solar panels. One of the 10-foot shipping containers houses the power system and fuel, the other provides a warm environment for instruments. Two Iridium satellite modems allow 45 MB/day of data to be transferred across the internet. Future enhancements to PLATO, currently in development, include a more modular design, using lithium iron-phosphate batteries, higher power output, and a light-weight low-power version for eld deployment from a Twin Otter aircraft. Technologies used in PLATO include a CAN (Controller Area Network) bus, high-reliability PC/104 com- puters, ultracapacitors for starting the engines, and fault-tolerant redundant design.

  15. Teacher Learning and Mathematics Manipulatives: A Collective Case Study about Teacher Use of Manipulatives in Elementary and Middle School Mathematics Lessons (United States)

    Puchner, Laurel; Taylor, Ann; O'Donnell, Barbara; Fick, Kathleen


    This collective case study analyzes the use of manipulatives in math lessons developed and taught by 4 groups of elementary teachers (K-8) involved in lesson study as part of a professional development program. The study found that in three of four lessons studied manipulative use was turned into an end in and of itself, rather than a tool, and…

  16. Goals for the Correlation of Elementary Science and Mathematics; The Report of the Cambridge Conference on the Correlation of Science and Mathematics in Schools. (United States)

    Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics, Newton, MA.

    This is The Report of the 1967 Cambridge Conference on the Correlation of Science and Mathematics in the Schools. It is addressed to professionals in education, and is designed to stimulate dialogue among them concerning the mathematics-science curriculum. The report is organized in five chapters, each dealing respectively with (1) educational…

  17. Elementary metallography (United States)

    Kazem, Sayyed M.


    Materials and Processes 1 (MET 141) is offered to freshmen by the Mechanical Engineering Department at Purdue University. The goal of MET 141 is to broaden the technical background of students who have not had any college science courses. Hence, applied physics, chemistry, and mathematics are included and quantitative problem solving is involved. In the elementary metallography experiment of this course, the objectives are: (1) introduce the vocabulary and establish outlook; (2) make qualitative observations and quantitative measurements; (3) demonstrate the proper use of equipment; and (4) review basic mathematics and science.

  18. Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Eringen, A Cemal


    Continuum Physics: Volume 1 - Mathematics is a collection of papers that discusses certain selected mathematical methods used in the study of continuum physics. Papers in this collection deal with developments in mathematics in continuum physics and its applications such as, group theory functional analysis, theory of invariants, and stochastic processes. Part I explains tensor analysis, including the geometry of subspaces and the geometry of Finsler. Part II discusses group theory, which also covers lattices, morphisms, and crystallographic groups. Part III reviews the theory of invariants th

  19. Configurations of Instructional Leadership Enactments that Promote the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics in a New Zealand Elementary School (United States)

    Higgins, Joanna; Bonne, Linda


    Purpose: This article examines how and why four leadership functions are enacted in an elementary school, with a focus on hierarchical and "heterarchical" configurations of leadership. Research Design: The data were collected using an exploratory 2-year case study approach, and the data set comprises one-on-one interviews and relevant school…

  20. Elementary Education Pre-Service Teachers' Development of Mathematics Technology Integration Skills in a Technology Integration Course (United States)

    Polly, Drew


    Preparing pre-service teachers to effectively integrate technology in the classroom requires rich experiences that deepen their knowledge of technology, pedagogy, and content and the intersection of these aspects. This study examined elementary education pre-service teachers' development of skills and knowledge in a technology integration course…

  1. Perspectives and Practices of Elementary Teachers Using an Internet-Based Formative Assessment Tool: The Case of "Assessing Mathematics Concepts" (United States)

    Martin, Christie S.; Polly, Drew; Wang, Chuang; Lambert, Richard G.; Pugalee, David K.


    This study examined the influence of professional development on elementary school teachers' perceptions of and use of an internet-based formative assessment tool focused on students' number sense skills. Data sources include teacher-participants' pre and post survey, open ended response on post survey, use of the assessment tool and their written…

  2. The Interactional Accomplishment of Not Knowing in Elementary School Science and Mathematics: Implications for Classroom Performance Assessment Practices (United States)

    Reis, Giuliano; Barwell, Richard


    The day-to-day business of being a science or mathematics teacher involves the continuous assessment of students. This, in turn, is an inherently discursive process. The aim of the present study is to examine some of the specific discursive practices through which science and mathematics knowing is jointly produced through classroom interaction.…

  3. Why Is the Learning of Elementary Arithmetic Concepts Difficult? Semiotic Tools for Understanding the Nature of Mathematical Objects (United States)

    Godino, Juan D.; Font, Vicenc; Wilhelmi, Miguel R.; Lurduy, Orlando


    The semiotic approach to mathematics education introduces the notion of "semiotic system" as a tool to describe mathematical activity. The semiotic system is formed by the set of signs, the production rules of signs and the underlying meaning structures. In this paper, we present the notions of system of practices and configuration of objects and…

  4. Olympiads for Elementary Schools. (United States)

    Lenchner, George


    The goals and history of the Mathematical Olympiads for Elementary Schools are described. Teams, levels, and gender are discussed, as well as teacher training, administration, scoring, and awards. Sample problems are included. (MNS)

  5. Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Sherman K


    Anyone can appreciate the beauty, depth, and vitality of mathematics with the help of this highly readable text, specially developed from a college course designed to appeal to students in a variety of fields. Readers with little mathematical background are exposed to a broad range of subjects chosen from number theory, topology, set theory, geometry, algebra, and analysis. Starting with a survey of questions on weight, the text discusses the primes, the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, rationals and irrationals, tiling, tiling and electricity, probability, infinite sets, and many other topi

  6. Characterization of mathematics instructional practises for prospective elementary teachers with varying levels of self-efficacy in classroom management and mathematics teaching (United States)

    Lee, Carrie W.; Walkowiak, Temple A.; Nietfeld, John L.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between prospective teachers' (PTs) instructional practises and their efficacy beliefs in classroom management and mathematics teaching. A sequential, explanatory mixed-methods design was employed. Results from efficacy surveys, implemented with 54 PTs were linked to a sample of teachers' instructional practises during the qualitative phase. In this phase, video-recorded lessons were analysed based on tasks, representations, discourse, and classroom management. Findings indicate that PTs with higher levels of mathematics teaching efficacy taught lessons characterised by tasks of higher cognitive demand, extended student explanations, student-to-student discourse, and explicit connections between representations. Classroom management efficacy seems to bear influence on the utilised grouping structures. These findings support explicit attention to PTs' mathematics teaching and classroom management efficacy throughout teacher preparation and a need for formative feedback to inform development of beliefs about teaching practises.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribut Basuki


    Full Text Available Western theater theory and criticism is generally considered to be set forth by the Greeks. Plato was "the first theater critic" with his negative comments about theater owing to his idealistic views about "the truth." Then came Aristotle who used a different viewpoint from that of Plato, saying that there is "truth" in theater. However, hostile criticism on theater came back in the Middle Ages, championed by Tertulian before Aristotelian theory was revived by the neo-classicists such as Scaliger and Castelvetro. Theater theory and criticism discourse was then made more alive by the romanticists who disagreed with the neo-classicists' rigid rules on theater. As the influence of science became dominant in the theater world, naturalism and realism emerged and became the mainstream of theater theory and criticism until well into the twentieth century.

  8. Mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demazure, M.


    The 1988 progress report of the Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Center is composed of different research teams: analysis, Riemann geometry, group theory, formal calculus and algorithm geometry, dynamical systems, topology and singularity. For each team, the members, the research topics, the national and international cooperations, are given. The papers concerning the investigations carried out in 1988, are listed [fr

  9. Approach to the problem of motion in Plato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio García Peña


    Full Text Available Since the first philosophers began to reflect about the idea of nature, the problem of motion became a crucial topic in their discussions. The entire pre-Socratic tradition was gathered by Plato, whose reflections are often triggered by fragments of Parmenides and Heraclitus. The Athenian philosopher analyzed motion in relation to the visible and intelligible regions that he distinguishes in the sphere of reality, as well as the fine line that links it to the soul

  10. Plato and Aristotle on the Problem of Quality


    Santa Cruz, María Isabel


    This paper purports toshow that it is not necessary to read the early Platonic dialogues starting from the "classic" theory of Forms. It argues, instead, that it is possibleto analyze them and, above all, to explain the use of the vocabulary of "presence" starting from the more general and prior possibility of distinguishing a subject from its accidental predicates, especially quality. The relation of "present in" or "being in" to which Plato recurs. is inherited by Aristotle. The distinction...

  11. Matematicas Para La Escuela Primaria, Grado 4 (Parte 1), Comentario. Traduccion Preliminar de la Edicion en Ingles Revisada. (Mathematics for the Elementary School, Grade 4, Part 1, Teacher's Commentary. Preliminary Translation of the Revised English Edition). (United States)

    Beatty, Leslie; And Others

    This is Part 1 of the teacher's commentary for the grade 4 mathematics program. Part 1 includes the commentary for chapters 1 through 5. Topics covered include congruence, numbers and number bases, subtraction of numbers, division of numbers, and elementary geometry. References to the student text are cited. (RH)

  12. Characterization of Mathematics Instructional Practises for Prospective Elementary Teachers with Varying Levels of Self-Efficacy in Classroom Management and Mathematics Teaching (United States)

    Lee, Carrie W.; Walkowiak, Temple A.; Nietfeld, John L.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between prospective teachers' (PTs) instructional practises and their efficacy beliefs in classroom management and mathematics teaching. A sequential, explanatory mixed-methods design was employed. Results from efficacy surveys, implemented with 54 PTs were linked to a sample of…

  13. The Effect of Dynamic and Interactive Mathematics Learning Environments (DIMLE), Supporting Multiple Representations, on Perceptions of Elementary Mathematics Pre-Service Teachers in Problem Solving Process (United States)

    Ozdemir, S.; Reis, Z. Ayvaz


    Mathematics is an important discipline, providing crucial tools, such as problem solving, to improve our cognitive abilities. In order to solve a problem, it is better to envision and represent through multiple means. Multiple representations can help a person to redefine a problem with his/her own words in that envisioning process. Dynamic and…

  14. Levels of line graph question interpretation with intermediate elementary students of varying scientific and mathematical knowledge and ability: A think aloud study (United States)

    Keller, Stacy Kathryn

    This study examined how intermediate elementary students' mathematics and science background knowledge affected their interpretation of line graphs and how their interpretations were affected by graph question levels. A purposive sample of 14 6th-grade students engaged in think aloud interviews (Ericsson & Simon, 1993) while completing an excerpted Test of Graphing in Science (TOGS) (McKenzie & Padilla, 1986). Hand gestures were video recorded. Student performance on the TOGS was assessed using an assessment rubric created from previously cited factors affecting students' graphing ability. Factors were categorized using Bertin's (1983) three graph question levels. The assessment rubric was validated by Padilla and a veteran mathematics and science teacher. Observational notes were also collected. Data were analyzed using Roth and Bowen's semiotic process of reading graphs (2001). Key findings from this analysis included differences in the use of heuristics, self-generated questions, science knowledge, and self-motivation. Students with higher prior achievement used a greater number and variety of heuristics and more often chose appropriate heuristics. They also monitored their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their strategy and answer by asking themselves questions. Most used their science knowledge spontaneously to check their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their answers. Students with lower and moderate prior achievement favored one heuristic even when it was not useful for answering the question and rarely asked their own questions. In some cases, if students with lower prior achievement had thought about their answers in the context of their science knowledge, they would have been able to recognize their errors. One student with lower prior achievement motivated herself when she thought the questions were too difficult. In addition, students answered the TOGS in one of three ways: as if they were mathematics word problems

  15. Mathematical logic

    CERN Document Server

    Kleene, Stephen Cole


    Undergraduate students with no prior instruction in mathematical logic will benefit from this multi-part text. Part I offers an elementary but thorough overview of mathematical logic of 1st order. Part II introduces some of the newer ideas and the more profound results of logical research in the 20th century. 1967 edition.

  16. Schema building profiles among elementary school students in solving problems related to operations of addition to fractions on the basis of mathematic abilities (United States)

    Gembong, S.; Suwarsono, S. T.; Prabowo


    Schema in the current study refers to a set of action, process, object and other schemas already possessed to build an individual’s ways of thinking to solve a given problem. The current study aims to investigate the schemas built among elementary school students in solving problems related to operations of addition to fractions. The analyses of the schema building were done qualitatively on the basis of the analytical framework of the APOS theory (Action, Process, Object, and Schema). Findings show that the schemas built on students of high and middle ability indicate the following. In the action stage, students were able to add two fractions by way of drawing a picture or procedural way. In the Stage of process, they could add two and three fractions. In the stage of object, they could explain the steps of adding two fractions and change a fraction into addition of fractions. In the last stage, schema, they could add fractions by relating them to another schema they have possessed i.e. the least common multiple. Those of high and middle mathematic abilities showed that their schema building in solving problems related to operations odd addition to fractions worked in line with the framework of the APOS theory. Those of low mathematic ability, however, showed that their schema on each stage did not work properly.

  17. Counting to 20: Online Implementation of a Face-to-Face, Elementary Mathematics Methods Problem-Solving Activity (United States)

    Schwartz, Catherine Stein


    This study describes implementation of the same problem-solving activity in both online and face-to-face environments. The activity, done in the first class period or first module of a K-2 mathematics methods course, was initially used in a face-to-face class and then adapted later for use in an online class. While the task was originally designed…

  18. Elementary analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Snell, K S; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A


    Elementary Analysis, Volume 2 introduces several of the ideas of modern mathematics in a casual manner and provides the practical experience in algebraic and analytic operations that lays a sound foundation of basic skills. This book focuses on the nature of number, algebraic and logical structure, groups, rings, fields, vector spaces, matrices, sequences, limits, functions and inverse functions, complex numbers, and probability. The logical structure of analysis given through the treatment of differentiation and integration, with applications to the trigonometric and logarithmic functions, is

  19. Modern mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick


    Modern Mathematics: Made Simple presents topics in modern mathematics, from elementary mathematical logic and switching circuits to multibase arithmetic and finite systems. Sets and relations, vectors and matrices, tesselations, and linear programming are also discussed.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to sets and basic operations on sets, as well as solving problems with Venn diagrams. The discussion then turns to elementary mathematical logic, with emphasis on inductive and deductive reasoning; conjunctions and disjunctions; compound statements and conditional

  20. Discourse, Dialectic and Intrapersonal Rhetoric: A Reinterpretation of Plato's Rhetorical Theory. (United States)

    Hikins, James W.

    The idea that rhetoric might operate in epistemologically significant ways was first presented by Plato. This paper argues that the heart of Plato's conception of epistemic discourse is a recognition of the centrality of intrapersonal rhetoric. Through a careful study of Platonic writing, particularly the "Phaedrus," three principal…

  1. Worldly and Otherworldly Virtue: Likeness to God as Educational Ideal in Plato, Plotinus, and Today (United States)

    Zovko, Marie-Élise


    In Plato, 'Becoming like God' constitutes the "telos" of the philosophical life. Our 'likeness to God' is rooted in the relationship of the divine paradeigma to its image established in the generation of the Cosmos. This relationship makes knowledge and virtue possible, and informs Plato's theory of education. Related concepts preexist…

  2. Plato and the Modern American "Right": Agendas, Assumptions, and the Culture of Fear (United States)

    Ramsey, Paul


    This article presents an interpretation of Plato's "Republic" that has many striking similarities to the social agenda of modern educational conservatives in the United States, which is particularly timely because George W. Bush's administration is, at this writing, coming to an end. Plato's ideal city is best seen as one that promoted an…

  3. Why is there Philosophy of Mathematics AT ALL? | Hacking | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mathematics plays an inordinate role in the work of many of famous Western philosophers, from the time of Plato, through Husserl and Wittgenstein, and even to the present. Why? This paper points to the experience of learning or making mathematics, with an emphasis on proof. It distinguishes two sources of the perennial ...

  4. Reversing Plato’s Anti-Democratism: Castoriadis’ “Quirky” Plato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamblet, Wendy C.


    Full Text Available This paper considers the conflicting "loves" of Cornelius Castoriadis--his love for the ancients, and especially Plato, and for the common person of the demos. A detailed study of Castoriadis' analysis of Plato's Statesman exposes that Castoriadis attempts to resolve the paradox by rereading Plato as a radical democrat. I argue that this unorthodox reading is at best "quirky, " (a charge Castoriadis levels at Plato at worst a groundless sophism. However, I conjecture that Castoriadis' reading may not constitute a serious attempt to describe a Platonic politics, so much as a prescriptive reading of what otherwise might have been, given certain strands of political generosity evident elsewhere in Plato's corpus.

  5. Elementary number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dudley, Underwood


    Ideal for a first course in number theory, this lively, engaging text requires only a familiarity with elementary algebra and the properties of real numbers. Author Underwood Dudley, who has written a series of popular mathematics books, maintains that the best way to learn mathematics is by solving problems. In keeping with this philosophy, the text includes nearly 1,000 exercises and problems-some computational and some classical, many original, and some with complete solutions. The opening chapters offer sound explanations of the basics of elementary number theory and develop the fundamenta

  6. Mathematical statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Pestman, Wiebe R


    This textbook provides a broad and solid introduction to mathematical statistics, including the classical subjects hypothesis testing, normal regression analysis, and normal analysis of variance. In addition, non-parametric statistics and vectorial statistics are considered, as well as applications of stochastic analysis in modern statistics, e.g., Kolmogorov-Smirnov testing, smoothing techniques, robustness and density estimation. For students with some elementary mathematical background. With many exercises. Prerequisites from measure theory and linear algebra are presented.

  7. Assessing Elementary Algebra with STACK (United States)

    Sangwin, Christopher J.


    This paper concerns computer aided assessment (CAA) of mathematics in which a computer algebra system (CAS) is used to help assess students' responses to elementary algebra questions. Using a methodology of documentary analysis, we examine what is taught in elementary algebra. The STACK CAA system,, which uses the CAS…

  8. Elementary number theory with programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lewinter, Marty


    A successful presentation of the fundamental concepts of number theory and computer programming Bridging an existing gap between mathematics and programming, Elementary Number Theory with Programming provides a unique introduction to elementary number theory with fundamental coverage of computer programming. Written by highly-qualified experts in the fields of computer science and mathematics, the book features accessible coverage for readers with various levels of experience and explores number theory in the context of programming without relying on advanced prerequisite knowledge and con

  9. Predicting Relationships between Mathematics Anxiety, Mathematics Teaching Anxiety, Self-efficacy Beliefs towards Mathematics and Mathematics Teaching


    Unlu, Melihan; Ertekin, Erhan; Dilmac, Bulent


    The purpose of the research is to investigate the relationships betweenself-efficacy beliefs toward mathematics, mathematics anxiety and self-efficacybeliefs toward mathematics teaching, mathematics teaching anxiety variables andtesting the relationships between these variables with structural equationmodel. The sample of the research, which was conducted in accordance withrelational survey model, consists of 380 university students, who studied atthe department of Elementary Mathematics Educ...

  10. Mathematics Anxiety: One Size Does Not Fit All (United States)

    Stoehr, Kathleen Jablon


    Mathematics educators agree elementary teachers should possess confidence and competence in teaching mathematics. Many prospective elementary teachers (particularly women) pursue careers in elementary teaching despite personal repeated experiences of mathematics anxiety. Previous studies of mathematics anxiety have tended to focus on physical…

  11. Prospects for detecting decreasing exoplanet frequency with main-sequence age using PLATO (United States)

    Veras, D.; Brown, D. J. A.; Mustill, A. J.; Pollacco, D.


    The space mission PLATO will usher in a new era of exoplanetary science by expanding our current inventory of transiting systems and constraining host star ages, which are currently highly uncertain. This capability might allow PLATO to detect changes in planetary system architecture with time, particularly because planetary scattering due to Lagrange instability may be triggered long after the system was formed. Here, we utilize previously published instability time-scale prescriptions to determine PLATO's capability to detect a trend of decreasing planet frequency with age for systems with equal- mass planets. For two-planet systems, our results demonstrate that PLATO may detect a trend for planet masses which are at least as massive as super-Earths. For systems with three or more planets, we link their initial compactness to potentially detectable frequency trends in order to aid future investigations when these populations will be better characterized.

  12. Democratic institutions: the spell of Plato and the return to the classics


    Colen, José


    The purpose of this paper, that reflects an ongoing research, is to suggest the usefulness of an analysis of the readings of Karl Popper and Leo Strauss on Plato's political philosophy. Very different as they are, both thinkers saw in the Republic one of the most powerful critics of democracy and built interpretations and polemic arguments by contrast with Plato's arguments. There are currently two arguments questioning liberal or constitutional democracy. The first originates in the social s...

  13. The role of the poet in Plato's ideal cities of Callipolis and Magnesia


    Gerard Naddaf


    Plato's attitude toward the poets and poetry has always been a flashpoint of debate, controversy and notoriety, but most scholars have failed to see their central role in the ideal cities of the Republic and the Laws, that is, Callipolis and Magnesia. In this paper, I argue that in neither dialogue does Plato "exile" the poets, but, instead, believes they must, like all citizens, exercise the expertise proper to their profession, allowing them the right to become full-fledged participants in ...

  14. Generalized elementary functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Monteiro, Giselle Antunes; Slavík, A.


    Roč. 411, č. 2 (2014), s. 838-852 ISSN 0022-247X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : elementary functions * Kurzweil-Stieltjes integral * generalized linear ordinary differential equations * time scale calculus Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.120, year: 2014

  15. Which kind of mathematics was known by and referred to by those who wanted to integrate mathematics in «Wisdom» - Neopythagoreans and others?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    Plato, so the story goes, held mathematics in high esteem, and those philosopher-kings that ought to rule his republic should have a thorough foundation in mathematics. This may well be true - but an observation made by Aristotle suggests that the mathematics which Plato intends is not the one...... based on theorems and proofs which we normally identify with "Greek mathematics". Most other ancient writers who speak of mathematics as a road towardWisdom also appear to be blissfully ignorant of the mathematics of Euclid, Archimedes, Apollonios, etc. The aim of the paper is to identify the kinds...... of mathematics which were available as external sources for this current (on the whole leaving out of consideration Liberal-Arts mathematics as not properly external). A number of borrowings can be traced to various practitioners' traditions - but always as bits borrowed out of context....

  16. Plato: A localised orbital based density functional theory code (United States)

    Kenny, S. D.; Horsfield, A. P.


    The Plato package allows both orthogonal and non-orthogonal tight-binding as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations to be performed within a single framework. The package also provides extensive tools for analysing the results of simulations as well as a number of tools for creating input files. The code is based upon the ideas first discussed in Sankey and Niklewski (1989) [1] with extensions to allow high-quality DFT calculations to be performed. DFT calculations can utilise either the local density approximation or the generalised gradient approximation. Basis sets from minimal basis through to ones containing multiple radial functions per angular momenta and polarisation functions can be used. Illustrations of how the package has been employed are given along with instructions for its utilisation. Program summaryProgram title: Plato Catalogue identifier: AEFC_v1_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 219 974 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 821 493 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C/MPI and PERL Computer: Apple Macintosh, PC, Unix machines Operating system: Unix, Linux and Mac OS X Has the code been vectorised or parallelised?: Yes, up to 256 processors tested RAM: Up to 2 Gbytes per processor Classification: 7.3 External routines: LAPACK, BLAS and optionally ScaLAPACK, BLACS, PBLAS, FFTW Nature of problem: Density functional theory study of electronic structure and total energies of molecules, crystals and surfaces. Solution method: Localised orbital based density functional theory. Restrictions: Tight-binding and density functional theory only, no exact exchange. Unusual features: Both atom centred and uniform meshes available


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Pantelyeyeva


    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: to analyze the basic points of philosophical concepts of rhetoric of Plato and Aristotle, to prove that from Plato the rhetoric in the true sense starts being approved, and Aristotle is an ancestor of real theory of speech of the new genre, the new form, the new purposes and tasks of the description of verbal art. Problem statement: development of the ancient principles of rhetorical style’s creating is reached by efforts of outstanding speakers, each of them were differed not only by the ideological sympathies or antipathies, but also by nature of works, the concepts put in their basis. Two Ancient Greek philosophers: Plato and Aristotle are considered as founders of ancient rhetorical science. Methodology. Author has used system method, methods of content and comparative analysis. Scientific novelty is displayed in the received results from the comparative analysis of two concepts of public speech of Plato and Aristotle from a position of philosophical justification of rhetoric’s rules with orientation on ancient "popular" declamation practices. Practical value of article consists in development of insufficiently studied object "Antique declamation discourse" where Plato and Aristotle's two central rhetorical concepts appear as the intermediate stage in development of a declamation discourse of Ancient Greece and, subsequently, and Ancient Rome. Conclusions. The conclusions can be given by the following facts: from Plato the rhetoric in the true sense is approved: true rhetorical art isn’t based only on argument technique, the true rhethor appears as the philosopher. Plato raises the problem of an ambiguity of two opposite rhetorics presented in "Gorgias" and "Phaedrus ". Rhetoric as scientific discipline, as the present theory of speech is first considered by Aristotle. The rhetoric is presented as the science "about speech and about thoughts", about the relation of thinking to the word.

  18. "Real Teaching" in the Mathematics Classroom: A Comparison of the Instructional Practices of Elementary Teachers in Urban High-Poverty Schools (United States)

    McKinney, Sueanne E.; Robinson, Jack; Berube, Clair T.


    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' "Principles and Standards for School Mathematics" outlines fundamental elements that are crucial for creating a problem-solving and inquiry-driven classroom learning environment that highlights conceptual understandings of mathematics ideas. Even though this document outlines…

  19. Working Together to Improve the Quality of Mathematics Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Key words: Parents; mathematics education; perception; school climate; .... elementary school children, established that parents with higher college degrees ..... International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology,.

  20. Which kind of mathematics was known and referred to by those who wanted to integrate mathematics in «Wisdom»

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens


    Plato, so the story goes, held mathematics in high esteem, and those philosopher-kings that ought to rule his republic should have a thorough foundation in mathematics. This may well be true – but an observation made by Aristotle suggests that the mathematics which Plato intends is not the one...... based on theorems and proofs which we normally identify with “Greek mathematics”. Most other ancient writers who speak of mathematics as a road toward Wisdom also appear to be blissfully ignorant of the mathematics of Euclid, Archimedes, Apollonios, etc. – though not necessarily of their names. The aim...... of the paper is to identify the kinds of mathematics which were available as external sources for this current (on the whole leaving out of consideration Liberal-Arts mathematics as not properly external). A number of borrowings can be traced to various practitioners' traditions – but always as bits borrowed...

  1. Exploiting Elementary Landscapes for TSP, Vehicle Routing and Scheduling (United States)


    similar mathematical foundation to enable gradient descent methods for discrete combinatorial optimization problems. We are also generalizing our prior...research has exploited statistical and mathematical properties of elementary landscapes to develop new gradient methods for combinatorial optimization... mathematically methods to more automatically identify elementary landscapes. If a combinatorial optimization problem is a superposition of elemen

  2. The PLATO Dome A site-testing observatory: Power generation and control systems (United States)

    Lawrence, J. S.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Hengst, S.; Luong-van, D. M.; Storey, J. W. V.; Yang, H.; Zhou, X.; Zhu, Z.


    The atmospheric conditions above Dome A, a currently unmanned location at the highest point on the Antarctic plateau, are uniquely suited to astronomy. For certain types of astronomy Dome A is likely to be the best location on the planet, and this has motivated the development of the Plateau Observatory (PLATO). PLATO was deployed to Dome A in early 2008. It houses a suite of purpose-built site-testing instruments designed to quantify the benefits of Dome A site for astronomy, and science instruments designed to take advantage of the observing conditions. The PLATO power generation and control system is designed to provide continuous power and heat, and a high-reliability command and communications platform for these instruments. PLATO has run and collected data throughout the winter 2008 season completely unattended. Here we present a detailed description of the power generation, power control, thermal management, instrument interface, and communications systems for PLATO, and an overview of the system performance for 2008.

  3. An Investigation on the impact of using problem-based trainings in the in-service courses on the teachers' performance and capabilities, by relying on the elementary sixth grade mathematics book (case study: the city of Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pari Cheraq


    Full Text Available Changes in the administrative structure of the education system and the need to coordinate with the world of science and technology and hence, the need to update the general and technical information and knowledge, have doubled the importance and necessity of holding the new and efficient in-service trainings for the teachers. In this study, the attempt was taken to examine and analyze the impact of using problem-based trainings during the in-service courses on the teachers' performance and capabilities, by relying on the mathematics book of the sixth grade elementary level (case study: the city of Ahvaz. To do so, using a quasi-experimental study, 37 teachers of the sixth grade were selected from the elementary schools of Ahvaz city. For the in-service training courses on the teaching of mathematics, the problem-based learning method was used. After conducting the problem-based teaching method and the traditional method of teaching, through using the test and the standard questionnaire, the data about the teaching practice and the capabilities of the teachers were collected. Using t-test for the paired and independent samples, it was demonstrated that the problem-based in-service trainings, enhance the teachers' capabilities and performance regarding the problem-solving skills.

  4. Elementary operators - still not elementary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mathieu


    Full Text Available Properties of elementary operators, that is, finite sums of two-sided multiplications on a Banach algebra, have been studied under a vast variety of aspects by numerous authors. In this paper we review recent advances in a new direction that seems not to have been explored before: the question when an elementary operator is spectrally bounded or spectrally isometric. As with other investigations, a number of subtleties occur which show that elementary operators are still not elementary to handle.

  5. The role of the poet in Plato's ideal cities of Callipolis and Magnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Naddaf


    Full Text Available Plato's attitude toward the poets and poetry has always been a flashpoint of debate, controversy and notoriety, but most scholars have failed to see their central role in the ideal cities of the Republic and the Laws, that is, Callipolis and Magnesia. In this paper, I argue that in neither dialogue does Plato "exile" the poets, but, instead, believes they must, like all citizens, exercise the expertise proper to their profession, allowing them the right to become full-fledged participants in the productive class. Moreover, attention to certain details reveals that Plato harnesses both positive and negative factors in poetry to bring his ideal cities closer to a practical realization. The status of the poet and his craft in this context has rarely to my knowledge been addressed.

  6. Plato's Critique of Rhetoric in the "Gorgias" (447a-466a): Epistemology, Methodology, and the Lyotardian Differend. (United States)

    McComiskey, Bruce

    The uncritical acceptance of Plato's treatment of sophistic doctrines (specifically in Plato's dialogue the "Gorgias") in the university has resulted in an impoverished contemporary view of sophistic rhetoric. Since Socrates' foundational epistemology allows for the knowledge of immutable truth and Gorgias' relativistic epistemology does…

  7. Purification through Emotions: The Role of Shame in Plato's "Sophist" 230B4-E5 (United States)

    Candiotto, Laura


    This article proposes an analysis of Plato's "Sophist" (230b4--e5) that underlines the bond between the logical and the emotional components of the Socratic "elenchus", with the aim of depicting the social valence of this philosophical practice. The use of emotions characterizing the 'elenctic' method described by Plato is…

  8. Algorithmic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hougardy, Stefan


    Algorithms play an increasingly important role in nearly all fields of mathematics. This book allows readers to develop basic mathematical abilities, in particular those concerning the design and analysis of algorithms as well as their implementation. It presents not only fundamental algorithms like the sieve of Eratosthenes, the Euclidean algorithm, sorting algorithms, algorithms on graphs, and Gaussian elimination, but also discusses elementary data structures, basic graph theory, and numerical questions. In addition, it provides an introduction to programming and demonstrates in detail how to implement algorithms in C++. This textbook is suitable for students who are new to the subject and covers a basic mathematical lecture course, complementing traditional courses on analysis and linear algebra. Both authors have given this "Algorithmic Mathematics" course at the University of Bonn several times in recent years.

  9. Which Elementary School Subjects Are the Most Likeable, Most Important, and the Easiest? Why?: A Study of Science and Technology, Mathematics, Social Studies, and Turkish (United States)

    Dündar, Sahin; Güvendir, Meltem Acar; Kocabiyik, Oya Onat; Papatga, Erdal


    The present study was conducted first to identify which school subjects were most liked, most important, and most difficult, as well as least liked, least important and easiest as perceived by elementary school students and second to explore the reasons why students most/least liked, considered as most/least important, and considered as most…

  10. The Effects of Classroom Instructional Strategies on Science Achievement of Elementary-School Students in Japan: Findings from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) (United States)

    House, J. Daniel


    This article deals with the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). TIMSS has provided a comprehensive assessment of educational contexts and mathematics and science achievement (National Research Council, 1999). The initial TIMSS assessment was conducted in 1995 (TIMSS 1995) and several studies have examined factors related to…

  11. Mathematical Graphic Organizers (United States)

    Zollman, Alan


    As part of a math-science partnership, a university mathematics educator and ten elementary school teachers developed a novel approach to mathematical problem solving derived from research on reading and writing pedagogy. Specifically, research indicates that students who use graphic organizers to arrange their ideas improve their comprehension…

  12. Skill Games for Mathematics. (United States)

    Corle, Clyde G.

    This guide is to assist teachers with motivational ideas for teaching elementary school mathematics. The items included are a wide variety of games (paper and pencil, verbal, and physical), jingles, contests, teaching devices, and thought provoking exercises. Suggestions for selection of mathematical games are offered. The devices are used to…

  13. ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes in the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armstrong, Paul W; Siha, Hany; Fu, Yuling


    Ticagrelor, when compared with clopidogrel, reduced the 12-month risk of vascular death/myocardial infarction and stroke in patients with ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes intended to undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO...

  14. Genesis 2–3 and Alcibiades's speech in Plato's Symposium : A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genesis 2–3 and Alcibiades's speech in Plato's Symposium : A cultural critical reading. ... Abstract. The purpose of this article is to discuss some basic problems and methodological steps concerning the encounter between Hebrews and Greeks in the Classical period and its impact on the Hellenistic era. The relationship ...

  15. Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A Morpho-Logic of Teaching and Learning (United States)

    Peers, Chris


    This article discusses two well-known texts that respectively describe learning and teaching, drawn from the work of Freud and Plato. These texts are considered in psychoanalytic terms using a methodology drawn from the philosophy of Luce Irigaray. In particular the article addresses Irigaray's approach to the analysis of speech and utterance as a…

  16. From Plato to Erikson: How the War on "Bad Play" Has Impoverished Higher Education (United States)

    Carnes, Mark C.


    For centuries, the titans of educational reform--Plato, Rousseau, Dewey, Piaget, Erikson, Csikszentmihalyi and others--have championed the educational benefits of play. Yet many professors and administrators are boggled by the idea of playing academic games in college. They instantly dismiss faculty initiatives like "Reacting to the…

  17. Can Prior Knowledge Hurt Text Comprehension? An Answer Borrowed from Plato, Aristotle, and Descartes. (United States)

    Friedman, Lawrence B.

    Taking a philosophical approach based on what Plato, Aristotle, and Descartes said about knowledge, this paper addresses some of the murkiness in the conceptual space surrounding the issue of whether prior knowledge does or does not facilitate text comprehension. Specifically, the paper first develops a non-exhaustive typology of cases in which…

  18. The PLATO System: A Study in the Diffusion of an Innovation. (United States)

    Driscoll, Francis D.; Wolf, W. C., Jr.

    This study was designed to ascertain the relationships between the steps of a tool designed to link knowledge production and the needs of knowledge users (the Wolf-Welsh Linkage Methodology or WWLM) with milestones in the evolution of an innovative computer-assisted instructional system called PLATO (Programming Logic for Advanced Teaching…

  19. The Implementation of APIQ Creative Mathematics Game Method in the Subject Matter of Greatest Common Factor and Least Common Multiple in Elementary School (United States)

    Rahman, Abdul; Saleh Ahmar, Ansari; Arifin, A. Nurani M.; Upu, Hamzah; Mulbar, Usman; Alimuddin; Arsyad, Nurdin; Ruslan; Rusli; Djadir; Sutamrin; Hamda; Minggi, Ilham; Awi; Zaki, Ahmad; Ahmad, Asdar; Ihsan, Hisyam


    One of causal factors for uninterested feeling of the students in learning mathematics is a monotonous learning method, like in traditional learning method. One of the ways for motivating students to learn mathematics is by implementing APIQ (Aritmetika Plus Intelegensi Quantum) creative mathematics game method. The purposes of this research are (1) to describe students’ responses toward the implementation of APIQ creative mathematics game method on the subject matter of Greatest Common Factor (GCF) and Least Common Multiple (LCM) and (2) to find out whether by implementing this method, the student’s learning completeness will improve or not. Based on the results of this research, it is shown that the responses of the students toward the implementation of APIQ creative mathematics game method in the subject matters of GCF and LCM were good. It is seen in the percentage of the responses were between 76-100%. (2) The implementation of APIQ creative mathematics game method on the subject matters of GCF and LCM improved the students’ learning.

  20. Lowering Preservice Teachers' Mathematics Anxiety through an Experience-Based Mathematics Methods Course. (United States)

    Conrad, Karen S.; Tracy, Dyanne M.

    Research has shown that elementary teachers are mathematics anxious, and that this anxiousness can be transmitted to their students. Therefore, many students are not afforded the opportunity to participate in a comfortable mathematics environment. Preservice elementary teachers (n=63) reported their pre- and posttest mathematics anxiety using the…

  1. God as Intellect in the philosophical Theology of Plato, Aristotle and Plotinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Volkova


    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of the main stages in the development of philosophical theology in Plato, Aristotle and Plotinus, as well as its central concept - Active Intellect or God. It is shown, firstly, that Plato was the first who formulated the concept of a One omnibenevolent God. Plato opposed this doctrine to the gods of traditional mythology. In the "Timaeus" talking about the creation of the world, Plato represents God as an artisan, i. e. Demiurge, who arranges the World soul and matter with the help of the numbers. Therefore, God is introduced as an Intellect, because looking at an intelligible paradigm, he created the cosmos as its likeness. Secondly, it was shown that Aristotle made theology demonstrative theoretical knowledge. God as a subject of such knowledge is the pure actuality of thinking. Third, it is shown that Plotinus, continuing the line of Plato and Aristotle, gave philosophical theology a new, much more personal character. Theology for Plotinus is not only an demonstrative knowledge of the omnibenevolent God, but also a personal experience of reunion with him. A special attention in the article is paid for Plotinus' interpretation of the Platonic Demiurge. It is shown that Plotinus first connected the two aspects of the divine, namely the Demiurge-creator and the intelligible paradigm that are described in the "Timaeus," into the single hypostasis of Intellect. The main reason for this assertion was the necessity to postulate the unity of the intellect and the intelligible object as a necessary condition for the possibility of all cognitions. As a result, instead of the traditional idea of the two gods, Plotinus elaborates the doctrine of a single divine Intellect, combining both these aspects.

  2. The music of reason experience the beauty of mathematics through quotations

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, Theoni


    Learn what Alice in Wonderland, Albert Einstein, William Shakespeare, Mae West, Plato and others have to say about mathematics. In this collection of quotations about mathematics and its connections to the imagination, humor, arts, history, nature, etc. comes from a wide variety of mathematicians, writers, scientists, artists and celebrities. With each chapter of quotations, Pappas has written a short insightful essay about mathematics, and has created graphics which enhance the thoughts and quotations.

  3. Rekindling the Dialogue: Education According to Plato and Dewey (United States)

    Van Luchene, Stephen R.


    Since passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, thinking about America's schools has been taken over by something like philosopher Rene Descartes's malignant demon of doubt. The act's exclusive focus on assessing student achievement and faculty accountability in terms that can be "proved" mathematically has cast into doubt a…

  4. Preservice Elementary Teachers and the Fundamentals of Probability (United States)

    Dollard, Clark


    This study examined how preservice elementary teachers think about situations involving probability. Twenty-four preservice elementary teachers who had not yet studied probability as part of their preservice elementary mathematics coursework were interviewed using a task-based interview. The participants' responses showed a wide variety of…

  5. Prospective elementary school teachers’ ways of making sense of mathematical problem posing (Modos en que futuros profesores de primaria dan sentido a la invención de problemas matemáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olive Chapman


    Full Text Available The study tackled prospective teachers’ sense-making of mathematical problem posing and the impact of posing different contextual problems on their learning. Focus was on the generation of new problems and reformulation of given problems. Participants were 40 prospective elementary teachers. The findings provide insights into possible ways these teachers could make sense of problem posing of contextual mathematical problems and the learning afforded by posing diverse problems. Highlighted are five perspectives and nine categories of problem posing tasks to support development of proficiency in problem-posing knowledge for teaching. El estudio indagó sobre los modos en que futuros profesores de primaria dan sentido a la invención de problemas matemáticos y el impacto de plantear diferentes problemas contextualizados en su aprendizaje. El foco fue la invención de nuevos problemas y la reformulación de otros dados. Los participantes fueron 40 futuros maestros de primaria. Los resultados proporcionan elementos sobre posibles modos en que estos maestros dan sentido a la invención de problemas matemáticos y el aprendizaje que ofrece plantear diversos problemas. Se destacan cinco perspectivas y nueve categorías de tareas en la invención de problemas para apoyar el desarrollo de la competencia de plantear problemas en la enseñanza.

  6. Plato crater, first observative session: not any "hook" but a shark fin? (Italian Title: La 1° Campagna Osservativa del cratere Plato: non un "uncino" ma una "pinna di squalo"?) (United States)

    Mercatali, A.


    On 1st March 2012 an observative session of Moon's Plato crater was made. The purpose of these observations was to check the presence of one shadow with "hook" form at the inner of Plato crater already reported by H. Percy Wilkins, 3th April 21:30 UT, 1952. The results obtained by us have not shown any shadow with an hook form, but a shadow like a shark fin.

  7. Elementary Algebra Connections to Precalculus (United States)

    Lopez-Boada, Roberto; Daire, Sandra Arguelles


    This article examines the attitudes of some precalculus students to solve trigonometric and logarithmic equations and systems using the concepts of elementary algebra. With the goal of enticing the students to search for and use connections among mathematical topics, they are asked to solve equations or systems specifically designed to allow…

  8. Using GAISE and NCTM Standards as Frameworks for Teaching Probability and Statistics to Pre-Service Elementary and Middle School Mathematics Teachers (United States)

    Metz, Mary Louise


    Statistics education has become an increasingly important component of the mathematics education of today's citizens. In part to address the call for a more statistically literate citizenship, The "Guidelines for Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education (GAISE)" were developed in 2005 by the American Statistical Association. These…

  9. The Importance of Multiple Representations of Mathematical Problems: Evidence from Chinese Preservice Elementary Teachers' Analysis of a Learning Goal (United States)

    Kang, Rui; Liu, Di


    This article describes a study of how Chinese preservice teachers unpacked a learning goal pertaining to adding fractions and understanding the concepts underlying the operation. Based on work in the USA by Morris, Hiebert, and Spizter ("Journal for Research in Mathematics Education," 40(5), 491-529, 2009), 50 Chinese preservice teachers…

  10. Nuclear Deterrence. Applications of Elementary Probability to International Relations. Modules and Monographs in Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications Project. UMAP Unit 327. (United States)

    Smith, Harvey A.

    This module is designed to apply mathematical models to nuclear deterrent problems, and to aid users in developing enlightened skepticism about the use of linear models in stability analyses and long-term predictions. An attempt is made at avoiding overwhelming complexities through concentration on land-based missile forces. It is noted that after…

  11. Sanskrit-Prakrit interaction in elementary mathematics as reflected in Arabic and Italian formulations of the rule of three – and something more on the rule elsewhere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens


    because the erudite astronomer-mathematicians use commercial arithmetic as the introduction to mathematics. But we have no surviving vernacular texts. From Brahmagupta onward, however, the standard Sanskrit formulation is supplemented by the observation that two of the known magnitudes are similar in kind...

  12. Impact of Organizational Inertia and Dynamic Capabilities on Educational Performance of the Charitable Societies and Its Impact on Mathematical Performance of Elementary At-Risk Students (United States)

    Amiripour, Parvaneh; Dossey, John A.; Shahvarani, Ahmad


    This study is an adjunct to a research effort focused on a mathematical curricular innovation in four non-governmental schools in Tehran, Iran. This study queried balanced, random sample of 100 educational personnel from the schools concerning dynamic capabilities associated with change (sensing opportunities, seizing opportunities, and…

  13. A Comparison of Students in Single-Sex Classes and Coeducational Classes in High Poverty Public Elementary Schools in Mathematics and Reading Achievement (United States)

    Aldridge, Ashley Elizabeth


    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether any statistically significant differences in mathematics and reading academic achievement and academic gains of male and female students taught in single-sex classes existed when compared to male and female students taught in coeducational classes. This study reported findings from mathematics…

  14. Elementary process theory axiomatic introduction and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cabbolet, Marcoen J T F


    Modern physics lacks a unitary theory that applies to all four fundamental interactions. This PhD thesis is a proposal for a single, complete, and coherent scheme of mathematically formulated elementary laws of nature. While the first chapter presents the general background, the second chapter addresses the method by which the main result has been developed. The next three chapters rigorously introduce the Elementary Process Theory, its mathematical foundations, and its applications to physics, cosmology and philosophy of mind. The final two chapters discuss the results and present the conclusions. Summarizing, the Elementary Process Theory is a scheme of seven well-formed closed expressions, written in the mathematical language of set matrix theory – a generalization of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory. In the physical world, these seven expressions can be interpreted as elementary principles governing the universe at supersmall scale. The author critically confronts the theory with Quantum Mechanics and Genera...

  15. GeoGebra 3D from the Perspectives of Elementary Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers Who Are Familiar with a Number of Software Programs (United States)

    Baltaci, Serdal; Yildiz, Avni


    Each new version of the GeoGebra dynamic mathematics software goes through updates and innovations. One of these innovations is the GeoGebra 5.0 version. This version aims to facilitate 3D instruction by offering opportunities for students to analyze 3D objects. While scanning the previous studies of GeoGebra 3D, it is seen that they mainly focus…

  16. Good and Bad: Love and Intimacy From Plato to Melanie Klein. (United States)

    Stromberg, David


    Melanie Klein's theories on love outline a complex system of relations-an oscillating dynamic of psychical and emotional tendencies following from both actual experience and fantasies produced by the mind. Her insights are often discussed and applied in psychoanalytical contexts, but the philosophical implications of her theory-especially in relation to Platonic thought-have rarely been discussed. In this article, I will attempt to address this gap by setting out some preliminary yet core considerations shared by both Plato and Klein. First, I will describe some structural parallels between Kleinian and Platonic thought, especially in dialectical terms. Second, I will outline Plato's covert influence on Freud as passing through the teachings of philosopher Franz Brentano. And last, I will discuss intimacy as a struggle between the forces of good and bad, creativity and destruction, and love and hate-suggesting that Klein's conception of love emerges as a moral exigency.

  17. One aspect of the methodology of cognition in Plato and Dionysius the Areopagite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseev, Petr


    Full Text Available Petr Moiseev (Perm State Institute of Arts and Cultureshows how the concept of ascension to truth, first formulated by Plato, was later reworked and reevaluated in new cognitive context by such later thinkers, as Plutarch, Iamblichus and, finally, Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite. Special attention is given to the concept of knowledge beyond human cognition and the role symbolism played in the process of its development.

  18. Los platos de los peces y el más allá


    Aranegui Gascó, Carmen


    - Interpretación de la decoración de los platos de peces ibéticos como expresión de una determinada concepción del orden del universo y del tránsito a la otra vida. Flores, estrellas y espirales son la expresion de los tres elementos, mientras que el pez muestra el camino hacia el más allá.

  19. Elementary Modeling: Connecting Counting with Sharing (United States)

    Wickstrom, Megan H.; Aytes, Tracy


    Mathematical modeling is an important and accessible process for elementary school students because it allows them to use mathematics to engage with the world and consider if and when to use it to help them reason about a situation. It fosters productive struggle and twenty-first-century skills that will aid them throughout their lifetime.

  20. [History and reception of the translations of Plato's Dialogues by Antoni Bronikowski]. (United States)

    Mróz, Tomasz


    The article presents the history of translations of Plato's dialogues as made by A. Bronikowski (1817-1884), their assessment formulated by the contemporary for the translator recipients and today's opinions on them. Bronikowski began his translation work on the legacy of Plato in the '50s of the 19th century and carried them out systematically, despite the many adversities, until his death. The article presents the most important criticisms of the reviewers of Bronikowski's translations, which focused on the flaws of his style. The critics pointed out numerous shortcomings, archaisms, which hindered and prevented smooth reading of the text by readers unfamiliar with the language of the original. Most of the criticisms came from the Warsaw environment, especially from K. Kozłowski, the son of the first Polish translator of Plato, FA. Kozłowski. Among the defenders of Bronikowski there were K. Libelt and J.I. Kraszewski. They raised the subject of difficulty which the translator had to deal with and the lack of literary taste of the audience. It seems that both parties were partially right. Bronikowski's text was indeed not suitable for smooth reading in many places, however, it could serve as a useful tool for students who acquainted themselves with the Greek originals of the dialogues.

  1. Elementary Statistics Tables

    CERN Document Server

    Neave, Henry R


    This book, designed for students taking a basic introductory course in statistical analysis, is far more than just a book of tables. Each table is accompanied by a careful but concise explanation and useful worked examples. Requiring little mathematical background, Elementary Statistics Tables is thus not just a reference book but a positive and user-friendly teaching and learning aid. The new edition contains a new and comprehensive "teach-yourself" section on a simple but powerful approach, now well-known in parts of industry but less so in academia, to analysing and interpreting process dat

  2. What is good sport: Plato's view Co je to dobrý sport: Platónův pohled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Pisk


    Full Text Available One of Plato's most common questions found in his dialogues is "What is something?" By asking this question Plato usually brought his co-speakers to the recognition that in fact they do not have a full comprehension of what something is, although they have a partial comprehension of it. The awareness of one's incomplete cognition is the first step to be made on the philosophic way to truth. As in ancient times also today Plato asks us – the modern philosophers of sport – "What is sport?" or more precisely "What is good sport?" Probably the best of Plato's answers to this question can be found in the basic concepts of his philosophy regarding his hierarchical division of the state and human soul into three parts. Since sport is derived from human being also the goodness of sport can be divided into three stages. The lowest stage of sport corresponds to the first part of the soul – the appetite soul. On this stage sport is based on the gaining of material goods through prizes won at competitions. In the philosophic view, this is the lowest possible stage of goodness of sport. The second stage of sport corresponds to the second part of the soul – the emotional soul. Sport at this stage is based on the elementary ancient agon, which seeks fulfilment in the winning of honour and glory. The greatest and the most superior is the third part of the soul – the reasonable soul. According to this, also the sport corresponding to the third part of the soul is the best. For this kind of sport it is no longer necessary to compete with other contestants, since it can achieve it's fulfilment in perfect execution of movement or exercise, in which the perfect cooperation between reason (soul and body is attained. At this stage of sport it is the most important to compete and win over one's self, and this can be achieved by everyone, without regard to his/her physical abilities in comparison with others. In Plato's view, good sport is the sport directed

  3. Elementary Thermal Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lostaglio, Matteo; Alhambra, Álvaro M.; Perry, Christopher


    To what extent do thermodynamic resource theories capture physically relevant constraints? Inspired by quantum computation, we define a set of elementary thermodynamic gates that only act on 2 energy levels of a system at a time. We show that this theory is well reproduced by a Jaynes-Cummings in......To what extent do thermodynamic resource theories capture physically relevant constraints? Inspired by quantum computation, we define a set of elementary thermodynamic gates that only act on 2 energy levels of a system at a time. We show that this theory is well reproduced by a Jaynes......-Cummings interaction in rotating wave approximation and draw a connection to standard descriptions of thermalisation. We then prove that elementary thermal operations present tighter constraints on the allowed transformations than thermal operations. Mathematically, this illustrates the failure at finite temperature...... to do so, including necessary and sufficient conditions for a given change of the population to be possible. As an example, we describe the resource theory of the Jaynes-Cummings model. Finally, we initiate an investigation into how our resource theories can be applied to Heat Bath Algorithmic Cooling...

  4. Content Analysis of Jordanian Elementary Textbooks during 1970-2013 as Case Study (United States)

    Abed, Eman Rasmi; Al-Absi, Mohammad Mustafa


    This study aims to determine types of mathematic disciplines (in term of topics) in Jordanian Elementary textbooks. This study evaluates mathematics text books especially in the period between 1970 and 2013 and identifies types and quantities of mathematics. To examine the relative quantity of mathematics, branches of mathematics, presentation…

  5. “I Consider Myself a Mathematics Teacher”: the understanding that elementary school teachers have about themselves as mathematics educators “Eu me Considero Professora de Matemática”: a compreensão que as professoras dos ciclos iniciais têm de si mesmas como educadoras matemáticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Antonio Marques


    Full Text Available In this article I analyzed aspects of the understanding that teachers of the beginning grades of elementary school have regarding themselves as Mathematical Educators. Using Discourse Analysis resources, I sought to identify and discuss the manners in which the interviewees structure their speech, assume and respond (to and for enunciations and positions in the school context. The analysis of the interviews shows that the teachers’ understanding of themselves as Mathematical Educators goes through the mediations that are established while they seek solutions for challenges to their condition and practice as teachers. The concerns identified in their speech indicate the need for addressing cultural aspects of the conditions for teaching mathematics in training courses for these teachers.Neste artigo analisei aspectos da compreensão que professoras dos ciclos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental têm de si mesmas como Educadoras Matemáticas. Lançando mão de recursos da Análise do Discurso, busquei identificar e discutir os modos pelos quais as entrevistadas estruturam suas falas, assumem e respondem a/por discursos e posições no cenário escolar. A análise das entrevistas revela que a compreensão que as professoras têm de si mesmas como Educadoras Matemáticas passa pelas mediações que elas estabelecem na busca de soluções para os desafios de sua condição e prática docente. As preocupações identificadas nos seus depoimentos apontam para a necessidade dos cursos de formação de professores contemplarem os aspectos culturais que permeiam a condição docente de quem ensina Matemática. Palavras-chave: Condição e Prática Docente. Formação de Professores. Educação Matemática.

  6. Foundations of mathematical logic

    CERN Document Server

    Curry, Haskell B


    Written by a pioneer of mathematical logic, this comprehensive graduate-level text explores the constructive theory of first-order predicate calculus. It covers formal methods, including algorithms and epitheory, and offers a brief treatment of Markov's approach to algorithms, explains elementary facts about lattices and similar algebraic systems, and more. 1963 edition.

  7. Mathematical methods in neutronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planchard, J.


    This book presents the mathematical theory of nuclear reactors. It applies to engineers in neutronics and applied mathematicians. After a recall of the elementary notions of neutronics and of diffusion-type partial derivative equations, the theory of reactors criticality calculation is described. (J.S.)

  8. The role of the poet in Plato's ideal cities of Callipolis and Magnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Naddaf


    Full Text Available Plato's attitude toward the poets and poetry has always been a flashpoint of debate, controversy and notoriety, but most scholars have failed to see their central role in the ideal cities of the Republic and the Laws, that is, Callipolis and Magnesia. In this paper, I argue that in neither dialogue does Plato "exile" the poets, but, instead, believes they must, like all citizens, exercise the expertise proper to their profession, allowing them the right to become full-fledged participants in the productive class. Moreover, attention to certain details reveals that Plato harnesses both positive and negative factors in poetry to bring his ideal cities closer to a practical realization. The status of the poet and his craft in this context has rarely to my knowledge been addressed.A atitude de Platão com relação aos poetas e à poesia tem sempre sido um ponto de debate, controvérsia e notoriedade, mas a maioria dos estudiosos não consegue ver seu papel central nas cidades ideais da República e das Leis, ou seja, Callipolis e Magnésia. Neste artigo, defendo que em nenhum dos dois diálogos Platão exila os poetas, mas, ao contrário, acredita que eles devem, como todos os cidadãos, exercitar a competência própria à sua profissão, permitindo-lhes o direito de se tornarem participantes com todos os direitos da classe produtora. Principalmente, se prestarmos a atenção devida em certos detalhes, veremos que Platão controla tanto os fatores positivos, como os negativos na poesia, para aproximar mais suas cidades ideais da realização prática. A meu ver, o estatuto do poeta e de sua habilidade, nesse contexto, foram raramente estudados.

  9. On-ground and in-orbit characterisation plan for the PLATO CCD normal cameras (United States)

    Gow, J. P. D.; Walton, D.; Smith, A.; Hailey, M.; Curry, P.; Kennedy, T.


    PLAnetary Transits and Ocillations (PLATO) is the third European Space Agency (ESA) medium class mission in ESA's cosmic vision programme due for launch in 2026. PLATO will carry out high precision un-interrupted photometric monitoring in the visible band of large samples of bright solar-type stars. The primary mission goal is to detect and characterise terrestrial exoplanets and their systems with emphasis on planets orbiting in the habitable zone, this will be achieved using light curves to detect planetary transits. PLATO uses a novel multi- instrument concept consisting of 26 small wide field cameras The 26 cameras are made up of a telescope optical unit, four Teledyne e2v CCD270s mounted on a focal plane array and connected to a set of Front End Electronics (FEE) which provide CCD control and readout. There are 2 fast cameras with high read-out cadence (2.5 s) for magnitude ~ 4-8 stars, being developed by the German Aerospace Centre and 24 normal (N) cameras with a cadence of 25 s to monitor stars with a magnitude greater than 8. The N-FEEs are being developed at University College London's Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL) and will be characterised along with the associated CCDs. The CCDs and N-FEEs will undergo rigorous on-ground characterisation and the performance of the CCDs will continue to be monitored in-orbit. This paper discusses the initial development of the experimental arrangement, test procedures and current status of the N-FEE. The parameters explored will include gain, quantum efficiency, pixel response non-uniformity, dark current and Charge Transfer Inefficiency (CTI). The current in-orbit characterisation plan is also discussed which will enable the performance of the CCDs and their associated N-FEE to be monitored during the mission, this will include measurements of CTI giving an indication of the impact of radiation damage in the CCDs.

  10. Dialectic of Eros and Myth of the Soul in Plato's Phaedrus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jens Kristian


    In this paper, I question a widespread reading of a passage in the last part of the Phaedrus dealing with the science of dialectic. According to this reading, the passage announces a new method peculiar to the later Plato aiming at defining natural kinds. I show that the Phaedrus itself does not ...... not support such a reading. As an alternative reading, I suggest that the science of dialectic, as discussed in the passage, must be seen as dealing primarily with philosophical rhetoric and knowledge of human souls....

  11. [Plato's philosophy and the bioethical debate on the end of life: intersections in public health]. (United States)

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Schramm, Fermin Roland


    This article discusses bioethical aspects of medical futility, focusing on some of its intersections in public health. Starting from a demarcation of finitude in the core of the philosophical and bioethical debate on the end of life, we confront the contemporary criticism regarding medical futility with the ideas of Plato (427-347 B.C.), a philosopher who proposed significant considerations on numerous features of the medicine of his time. We thus explore novel theoretic references to guide the disputes related to this essential problem, the implications of which are decisive to health and life.

  12. Slovenian test case Vrbanski Plato aquifer in the EU HORIZON 2020 FREEWAT project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kopač


    Full Text Available The Slovenian case study in the EU HORIZON 2020 FREEWAT project was Vrbanski Plato aquifer. Slovenia is divided into two river basin districts: the Danube and the North Adriatic. The Vrbanski Plato aquifer, which he presents both natural and artificial bank filtration from the river Drava, is a part of the Danube river basin district and is the most important water source for 14 municipalities in the northeastern part of Slovenia. We investigated the groundwatersurface water interaction between river Drava and the porous aquifer in the geological old riverbed and possible reduction of city impact. This site is the oldest managed artificial groundwater recharge with riverbank filtration and has more than thirty years of successful operation. It is something special, very abundant in a small space, independent of drought and climate changes, but vulnerable due to the impact of the city. Under the city there is watershed dividing, which is shifting with different water management condition and we would like to have the least possible impact of the city. For optimal water management we decided to use FREEWAT plug-in within QGIS platform. With new developed FREEWAT plug-in in project FREEWAT, we made steady-state and transient groundwater model for presenting this shift of the watershed dividing under the city and optimal water management for this area. The model was designed in a way that it identifies and describes all major aspects of the physical hydrogeological system and water management. During the running of a project, there was an accident with heating oil spillage in city area, right on the watershed dividing. So we oriented with the transient groundwater model as well on heating oil spillage and pumping with additional wells at the place of the accident to present successful rehabilitation and the importance of the managed groundwater recharge. Our experience with FREEWAT platform during the Vrbanski Plato aquifer case study was very

  13. Elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, R.


    Two previous monographs report on investigations into the extent to which a unified field theory can satisfactorily describe physical reality. The first, Unified field Theory, showed that the paths within a non-Riemannian space are governed by eigenvalue equations. The second, Fundamental Constants, show that the field tensors satisfy sets of differential equations with solutions which represent the evolution of the fields along the paths of the space. The results from the first two monographs are used in this one to make progress on the theory of elementary particles. The five chapters are as follows - Quantum mechanics, gravitation and electromagnetism are aspects of the Unified theory; the fields inside the particle; the quadratic and linear theories; the calculation of the eigenvalues and elementary particles as stable configurations of interacting fields. It is shown that it is possible to construct an internal structure theory for elementary particles. The theory lies within the framework of Einstein's programme-to identify physical reality with a specified geometrical structure. (U.K.)

  14. Mathematics for the Student Scientist (United States)

    Lauten, A. Darien; Lauten, Gary N.


    The Earth Day:Forest Watch Program, introduces elementary, middle, and secondary students to field laboratory, and satellite-data analysis methods for assessing the health of Eastern White Pine ( Pinus strobus). In this Student-Scientist Partnership program, mathematics, as envisioned in the NCTM Standards, arises naturally and provides opportunities for science-mathematics interdisciplinary student learning. School mathematics becomes the vehicle for students to quantify, represent, analyze, and interpret meaningful, real data.

  15. Freedom Quilts: Mathematics on the Underground Railroad (United States)

    Neumann, Maureen D.


    A mathematics activity is presented which is a lesson frequently taught to upper elementary school students. It helps the students to see the connection of mathematics with a real-world activity, appreciate the mathematical knowledge required of quilt makers, reinforce their knowledge of the geometrical properties of different shapes and bring…

  16. Elementary vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wolstenholme, E Œ


    Elementary Vectors, Third Edition serves as an introductory course in vector analysis and is intended to present the theoretical and application aspects of vectors. The book covers topics that rigorously explain and provide definitions, principles, equations, and methods in vector analysis. Applications of vector methods to simple kinematical and dynamical problems; central forces and orbits; and solutions to geometrical problems are discussed as well. This edition of the text also provides an appendix, intended for students, which the author hopes to bridge the gap between theory and appl

  17. Supersymmetry of elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardanashvili, G.A.; Zakharov, O.A.


    Some difficulties, connected with correct application of supersymmetry mathematical tools in the field and elementary particle theory are pointed out. The role of Grassman algebra in the usual field theory and the role of Lee superalgebra in supertransformations mixing bosons and fermions are shown. Grassman algebra in the theory of supersymmetries plays a role of numerical field. A supersymmetrical model, when indexes {i} of Grassman algebra corresponding to ''color'', and indexes {α} of Lee superalgebra representations - to ''flavor'', is considered. It is marked that the problem of interpretation of Grassman algebra indexes is a key one for the theory of supersymmetries. In particular, it gives no possibility to come from the theory of supersymmetries to the usual field theory, whose indexes of Grassman algebra possess obvious physical meaning

  18. Upper Elementary Grades Bear the Brunt of Accountability (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.


    Upper elementary teachers won't be surprised to learn that in every state, students enrolled in grades 3 through 8 bear the brunt of educational accountability. All states test all students at these grade levels in English/language arts and mathematics. Furthermore, an increasing number of states are testing students at selected elementary and…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacarato, Adair Mendes


    importance of the oral communication in maths lessons. The present article aims to discuss the constitution of a learning environment which allows oral communication in maths lessons as a way to develop students’ argumentation skills and help the conceptual construction movement. Vygotsky’s and Bakhtin’s premises are the starting point for the construction of a theoretical framework which supports the communication and meaning processes in the classroom. Such premises guide the analysis of two classroom episodes with students from the initial years of public elementary school in the state of São Paulo. These episodes made it possible to clearly observe how verbal interactions and the pedagogical mediation allow argumentation modes and the circulation of mathematical meanings.

  20. Social developmnet of ecologically sensitive rural areas: Case studies of the Moravian Karst (Czech Republic) and the Devetashko Plato (Bulgaria)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletalová, Jana; Stefanová, D.; Vaishar, Antonín; Stefanov, P.; Dvořák, Petr; Tcherkezova, E.

    3-4, 3-4 (2016), s. 65-84 ISSN 0204-7209 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : social development * rural sensitive areas * Devetashko Plato * Bulgaria * Moravian karst - Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Cultural and economic geography

  1. Three Aspects of PLATO Use at Chanute AFB: CBE Production Techniques, Computer-Aided Management, Formative Development of CBE Lessons. (United States)

    Klecka, Joseph A.

    This report describes various aspects of lesson production and use of the PLATO system at Chanute Air Force Base. The first chapter considers four major factors influencing lesson production: (1) implementation of the "lean approach," (2) the Instructional Systems Development (ISD) role in lesson production, (3) the transfer of…

  2. STEM Is Elementary: Challenges Faced by Elementary Teachers in the Era of the Next Generation Science Standards (United States)

    Isabelle, Aaron D.


    For students to achieve the goals of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) by Grade 12, thinking and acting like scientists and engineers must begin in the elementary grades. However, elementary teachers may find this challenging -because language arts and mathematics still dominate many classrooms--often at the expense of science. This…

  3. Algebraic Thinking: Conceptions of Elementary School Teachers


    Rodrigues Rézio, Ana Sofia


    Students’ algebraic reasoning, at the beginning of their schooling years, includes the development and promotion of functional thinking and the understanding of mathematical properties, which can be stimulated by solving problems. In the latest Portuguese Program for Mathematics Elementary Education, we do not see the topic Algebra in the first year of school although some other topics include objectives of algebraic nature. This fact showed the importance of research about the introduction o...

  4. Synergies Between the Kepler, K2 and TESS Missions with the PLATO Mission (Revised) (United States)

    Jenkins, Jon M.


    Two transit survey missions will have been flown by NASA prior to the launch of ESA's PLATO Mission in 2026, laying the groundwork for exoplanet discovery via the transit method. The Kepler Mission, which launched in 2009, collected data on its 100+ square degree field of view for four years before failure of a reaction wheel ended its primary mission. The results from Kepler include 2300+ confirmed or validated exoplanets, 2200+ planetary candidates, 2100+ eclipsing binaries. Kepler also revolutionized the field of asteroseismology by measuring the pressure mode oscillations of over 15000 solar-like stars spanning the lifecycle of such stars from hydrogen-burning dwarfs to helium-burning red giants. The re-purposed Kepler Mission, dubbed K2, continues to observe fields of view in and near the ecliptic plane for 80 days each, significantly broadening the scope of the astrophysical investigations as well as discovering an additional 156 exoplanets to date. The TESS mission will launch in 2017 to conduct an all-sky survey for small exoplanets orbiting stars 10X closer and 100X brighter than Kepler exoplanet host stars, allowing for far greater follow-up and characterization of their masses as well as their sizes for at least 50 small planets. Future assets such as James Webb Space Telescope, and ground-based assets such as ESOs Very Large Telescope (VLT) array, the Exremely Large Telescope (ELT), and the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be able to characterize the atmospheric composition and properties of these small planets. TESS will observe each 24 X 96 field of view for 30 days and thereby cover first the southern and then the northern hemisphere over 13 pointings during each year of the primary mission. The pole-most camera will observe the James Webb continuous viewing zone for one year in each hemisphere, permitting much longer period planets to be detected in this region. The PLATO mission will seek to detect habitable Earth-like planets with an instrument

  5. Describing Pre-Service Teachers' Developing Understanding of Elementary Number Theory Topics (United States)

    Feldman, Ziv


    Although elementary number theory topics are closely linked to foundational topics in number and operations and are prevalent in elementary and middle grades mathematics curricula, little is currently known about how students and teachers make sense of them. This study investigated pre-service elementary teachers' developing understanding of…

  6. Indian Mathematics and Astronomy: Some Land- marks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mathematics and astronomy from the ... tion of the Indian contribution to math- .... only 16 years to go before Whish's re- ... which is based on the recent paper of ... The last chapter of this book is dedi- ... interesting, though elementary, exam-.

  7. Preservice Teachers' Perceptions about Teaching Mathematics through Music (United States)

    An, Song A.; Tillman, Daniel; Shaheen, Andrea; Boren, Rachel


    This study examined preservice teachers' perceptions about teaching elementary level mathematics lessons integrated with music. It also sought to determine how preservice teachers would strategize the integration of music activities when introducing elementary level mathematics lessons. The participants, 53 undergraduate preservice teachers at a…

  8. Effects of a Mathematics Fluency Program on Mathematics Performance of Students with Challenging Behaviors (United States)

    Whitney, Todd; Hirn, Regina G.; Lingo, Amy S.


    In the present study, we examined the effects of a fluency-building mathematics program called Great Leaps Math on fluency of basic addition mathematics facts zero to nine and word problem solving using a multiple probe design across participants. Three elementary students with challenging behaviors and mathematics difficulty participated in the…

  9. Studies in Mathematics, Volume X. Applied Mathematics in the High School. (United States)

    Schiffer, Max M.

    This publication contains a sequence of lectures given to high school mathematics teachers by the author. Applications of mathematics emphasized are elementary algebra, geometry, and matrix algebra. Included are: (1) an introduction concerning teaching applications of mathematics; (2) Chapter 1: Mechanics for the High School Student; (3) Chapter…

  10. PLATO: a computer code for the analysis of fission product plateout in HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katsuo; Morimoto, Toshio.


    The computer code PLATO for estimating plateout activities on surfaces of primary cooling system of HTGRs has been developed, and in this report, analytical model and digital calculation method incorporated in the code are described. The code utilizes the mass transfer model analogous to heat transfer coupled with an expression for adsorption-desorption phenomenon, and is able to analyze plateout behaviours in a closed circuit, like a reactor cooling system, which is constructed from a various kind of components, as well as in an open-ended tube. With the code, fission product concentration in the coolant and plateout amount on the surfaces are calculated along the coolant stream, and total removal rate by the plateout process is also obtained. Comparison of the analytical results with the experimental results, including checks of the effects of some calculation conditions on the results, and preliminary analysis on the VHTR plant have been made. (author)

  11. Efficient methods for solving discrete topology design problems in the PLATO-N project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canh, Nam Nguyen; Stolpe, Mathias

    This paper considers the general multiple load structural topology design problems in the framework of the PLATO-N project. The problems involve a large number of discrete design variables and were modeled as a non-convex mixed 0–1 program. For the class of problems considered, a global...... optimization method based on the branch-and-cut concept was developed and implemented. In the method a large number of continuous relaxations were solved. We also present an algorithm for generating cuts to strengthen the quality of the relaxations. Several heuristics were also investigated to obtain efficient...... algorithms. The branch and cut method is used to solve benchmark examples which can be used to validate other methods and heuristics....

  12. Iteration in Early-Elementary Engineering Design (United States)

    McFarland Kendall, Amber Leigh


    K-12 standards and curricula are beginning to include engineering design as a key practice within Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education. However, there is little research on how the youngest students engage in engineering design within the elementary classroom. This dissertation focuses on iteration as an essential aspect…

  13. Transitions from Elementary to Middle School Math (United States)

    Schielack, Janie; Seeley, Cathy L.


    In the move from elementary to middle school mathematics, students encounter major changes in instructional materials and approaches, work expectations, school structure, and general level of difficulty in material. Research shows that, in general, students suffer significant declines in academic achievement in the transition from elementary…

  14. On social justice: Comparing Paul with Plato, Aristotle and the Stoics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Strijdom


    Full Text Available n “In search of Paul” (2004 Crossan and Reed argue that Paul’s vision and program were essentially in continuity with Jesus’: both opposed, be it in Galilean villages or Roman cities, an unjust imperial system by means of an alternative project of egalitarian, distributive justice. Although Crossan elsewhere demonstrates the deep roots of this concern in the Jewish tradition, he tends to downplay the importance of Greek contributions in this regard. The purpose of this essay will be to offer, in constant dialogue with Crossan (and Reed, a more refined comparison of social justice in Paul on the one hand and Plato, Aristotle and the Stoics on the other. If Paul tried to establish egalitarian and sharing Christian communities under the Roman empire, how do this vision and program compare and contrast with Plato's hierarchical but communal concept of justice, Aristotle’s distributive notion according to merit, and most importantly the Stoics’ argument of “oikeiosis” (i.e., other-concern by concentrical familiarization with the other? Imagine, say Crossan and Reed (CR hereafter in their recent book on Paul, the following dialogue between ourselves and Paul: Do you think, Paul, that all men are created equal and endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights? I am not speaking about all men, but about all Christians. But do you think, Paul, that all people should be Christians? Yes, of course,. And do you think, Paul, that all Christians should be equal with one another?Yes, of course. Then do you think, Paul, that it is God’s will for all people to be equal with one another? Well, let me think about that one for a while and, in the meantime, you think about equality in Christ. (CR 2004:234

  15. The historical roots of elementary mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Bunt, Lucas N H; Bedient, Jack D


    Exciting, hands-on approach to understanding fundamental underpinnings of modern arithmetic, algebra, geometry and number systems examines their origins in early Egyptian, Babylonian, and Greek sources.

  16. Mathematical methods for physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Arfken, George B


    This best-selling title provides in one handy volume the essential mathematical tools and techniques used to solve problems in physics. It is a vital addition to the bookshelf of any serious student of physics or research professional in the field. The authors have put considerable effort into revamping this new edition.* Updates the leading graduate-level text in mathematical physics* Provides comprehensive coverage of the mathematics necessary for advanced study in physics and engineering* Focuses on problem-solving skills and offers a vast array of exercises * Clearly illustrates and proves mathematical relationsNew in the Sixth Edition:* Updated content throughout, based on users'' feedback * More advanced sections, including differential forms and the elegant forms of Maxwell''s equations* A new chapter on probability and statistics* More elementary sections have been deleted

  17. The Problem of the Object of Mathematics as Intelligible Substance in Aristotle's Metaphysics


    Cattanei, Elisabetta


    The A. examines the problem of intermediat emathematical entities by analyzing Metaphysics l017a9-l4, since, according to Aristotle. this passage is both a source and a critique of Plato's theory. The goal is to identify four cardinal points that may ground a dialogue between two contesting positions regarding this problem. Through them, it becomes evident that Aristotle severs the question of the intelligible nature of mathematical entities by using the conceptual scalpel of his own ousiolog...

  18. Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of the Integration of Mathematics, Reading, and Writing. (United States)

    Reinke, Kathryn; Mokhtari, Kouider; Willner, Elizabeth


    Examined the perceptions of preservice elementary teachers enrolled in reading, mathematics, and integrating reading and mathematics methods courses about integrating mathematics, reading, and writing instruction at the elementary/middle school level. Surveys indicated that all students were generally positive about instructional integration. They…

  19. Infusing Mathematics Content into a Methods Course: Impacting Content Knowledge for Teaching (United States)

    Burton, Megan; Daane, C. J.; Giesen, Judy


    This study compared content knowledge for teaching mathematics differences between elementary pre-service teachers in a traditional versus an experimental mathematics methods course. The experimental course replaced 20 minutes of traditional methods, each class, with an intervention of elementary mathematics content. The difference between groups…

  20. Simulation results for PLATO: a prototype hybrid X-ray photon counting detector with a low energy threshold for fusion plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, A.; Menouni, M.; Pangaud, P.; Morel, C.; Fenzi, C.; Colledani, G.; Moureau, G.; Escarguel, A.


    PLATO is a prototype hybrid X-ray photon counting detector that has been designed to meet the specifications for plasma diagnostics for the WEST tokamak platform (Tungsten (W) Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) in southern France, with potential perspectives for ITER. PLATO represents a customized solution that fulfills high sensitivity, low dispersion and high photon counting rate. The PLATO prototype matrix is composed of 16 × 18 pixels with a 70 μm pixel pitch. New techniques have been used in analog sensitive blocks to minimize noise coupling through supply rails and substrate, and to suppress threshold dispersion across the matrix. The PLATO ASIC is designed in CMOS 0.13 μm technology and was submitted for a fabrication run in June 2016. The chip is designed to be bump-bonded to a silicon sensor. This paper presents pixel architecture as well as simulation results while highlighting novel solutions.

  1. Mathematical analysis fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bashirov, Agamirza


    The author's goal is a rigorous presentation of the fundamentals of analysis, starting from elementary level and moving to the advanced coursework. The curriculum of all mathematics (pure or applied) and physics programs include a compulsory course in mathematical analysis. This book will serve as can serve a main textbook of such (one semester) courses. The book can also serve as additional reading for such courses as real analysis, functional analysis, harmonic analysis etc. For non-math major students requiring math beyond calculus, this is a more friendly approach than many math-centric o

  2. Applied mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick


    Applied Mathematics: Made Simple provides an elementary study of the three main branches of classical applied mathematics: statics, hydrostatics, and dynamics. The book begins with discussion of the concepts of mechanics, parallel forces and rigid bodies, kinematics, motion with uniform acceleration in a straight line, and Newton's law of motion. Separate chapters cover vector algebra and coplanar motion, relative motion, projectiles, friction, and rigid bodies in equilibrium under the action of coplanar forces. The final chapters deal with machines and hydrostatics. The standard and conte

  3. Conflicts in Developing an Elementary STEM Magnet School (United States)

    Sikma, Lynn; Osborne, Margery


    Elementary schools in the United States have been the terrain of a highly politicized push for improved reading and mathematics attainment, as well as calls for increased importance to be given to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). With priorities placed on basic skills, however, instructional time in subjects such as…

  4. Lakatos' Proofs and Refutations Comes Alive in an Elementary Classroom. (United States)

    Atkins, Sandra L.


    Presents an alternative pedagogy implicit in Imre Lakatos's "Proofs and Refutations: The Logic of Mathematical Discovery." Lakatos reveals that learning mathematics is a discourse-laden activity in which it is acceptable, if not preferable, to refute conjecture. Provides examples of using a Lakatosian approach in an elementary classroom.…

  5. What If Quantum Theory Violates All Mathematics? (United States)

    Rosinger, Elemér Elad


    It is shown by using a rather elementary argument in Mathematical Logic that if indeed, quantum theory does violate the famous Bell Inequalities, then quantum theory must inevitably also violate all valid mathematical statements, and in particular, such basic algebraic relations like 0 = 0, 1 = 1, 2 = 2, 3 = 3, … and so on … An interest in that result is due to the following three alternatives which it imposes upon both Physics and Mathematics: Quantum Theory is inconsistent. Quantum Theory together with Mathematics are inconsistent. Mathematics is inconsistent. In this regard one should recall that, up until now, it is not known whether Mathematics is indeed consistent.

  6. An Introduction to Business Mathematics


    Henk van Elst


    These lecture notes provide a self-contained introduction to the mathematical methods required in a Bachelor degree programme in Business, Economics, or Management. In particular, the topics covered comprise real-valued vector and matrix algebra, systems of linear algebraic equations, Leontief's stationary input-output matrix model, linear programming, elementary financial mathematics, as well as differential and integral calculus of real-valued functions of one real variable. A special focus...

  7. Financial mathematic at secondary school


    ISER, Aleš


    The aim of this work is to define financial literacy as one of the main themes of the contemporary world in relation to basic education and development of core competencies. Work summarizes the theoretical knowledge of literature, which converge the issue of financial mathematics and education of students in the selected areas. Simultaneously explore different options for care of pupils in mathematics at elementary school, describes the procedures and methods of work and does not avoid the sp...

  8. Viewpoint: Central adjudication of myocardial infarction in outcome-driven clinical trials--common patterns in TRITON, RECORD, and PLATO? (United States)

    Serebruany, Victor L; Atar, Dan


    Central adjudication in randomised controlled outcome-driven trials represents a traditional approach to maintain data integrity by applying uniformed rules for assessment of clinical events. It was the purpose of this investigation to determine the patterns of myocardial infarction (MI) adjudication in the TRITON, RECORD, and PLATO trials. We were matching centrally-adjudicated MI's (CAMI's) from the official trial publication with the site-reported MI (SRMI's) count from the Food and Drug Administration's secondary analyses for the investigational compounds prasugrel (TRITON), rosiglitazone (RECORD), and ticagrelor (PLATO). CAMI numbers showed a remarkable discrepancy to SRMI's by more than a doubling of the difference: from 72 to 145 events in TRITON favoring prasugrel (from a hazard ratio [HR]=0.76, p=0.08; to a HR=0.76, p<0.001), and from 44 to 89 events in favour of ticagrelor in PLATO (from a HR=0.94, p=0.095; to a HR=0.84, p<0.001). In contrast, in the RECORD trial, the CAMI count was less than the SRMI count (from 24 to 8 events, from a HR=1.42, p=0.93; to a HR=1.14, p=0.96), in this case diminishing cardiovascular hazards in favour of rosiglitazone. In conclusion, central adjudication in the TRITON, the RECORD, and the PLATO trial turned out to have a critical impact on study outcomes. Trial publications should in the future include site-reported major efficacy and safety endpoints to preserve data integrity. The regulatory authorities should consider independent audits when there is a major disagreement between centrally adjudicated and site reported events influencing the results of a major clinical trial.

  9. Moving toward Positive Mathematics Beliefs and Developing Socio-Mathematical Authority: Urban Preservice Teachers in Mathematics Methods Courses (United States)

    Saran, Rupam; Gujarati, Joan


    This article explores how preservice elementary teachers change their negative beliefs toward mathematics into positive ones after taking a mathematics methods course that follows the Concrete-Pictorial-Abstract (CPA) instructional method. Also explored is the relationship between those beliefs and sociomathematical authority. By administering…

  10. Plato (power load analysis tool) - a module of west wall monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjan, Sutapa; Travere, Jean-marcel; Moreau, P.


    The mandate of the WEST (W Environment for Steady-state Tokamak) project, is to upgrade the medium- sized superconducting Tokamak, Tore Supra in a major scale. One of it's objectives, is to also act as a test-bed for ITER divertor components, to be procured and used in ITER. WEST would be installing actively cooled Tungsten divertor elements, like the ones to be used in ITER. These components would be tested under two experimental scenarios: high power (Ip = 0.8MA, lasting 30s with 15MW injected power) and high fluence (Ip = 0.6 MA, lasting 1000s with 12 MW injected power). Heat load on the divertor target will range from a few MW/m 2 up to 20 MW/m 2 depending on the X point location and the heat flux decay length. The tungsten Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) are less tolerant to overheating than their Carbon counterparts and prevention of their burnout is a major concern. It is in this context that the Wall Monitoring System (WMS) - a software framework aimed at monitoring the health of the Wall components, was conceived. WMS has been divided into three parts: a) a pre-discharge power load analysis tool to check compatibility between plasma scenario and PFC's operational limits in terms of heat flux b) a real-time system during discharge, to take into account all necessary measurements involved in the PFCs protection c) a set of analysis tools that would be used post-discharge, that would access WEST database and compare predicted and experimental results. This paper presents an overview of PLATo - the pre-pulse module of WMS that has been recently developed under IPR-IRFM research collaboration. PLAto has two major components - one that produces heat flux information of the PFCS and the other that produces energy graphs depending on shot profile defined by time variant magnetic equilibrium and injected power profiles. Preliminary results will be presented based on foreseen WEST plasma reference scenarios. (author)

  11. What If Quantum Theory Violates All Mathematics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosinger Elemér Elad


    Full Text Available It is shown by using a rather elementary argument in Mathematical Logic that if indeed, quantum theory does violate the famous Bell Inequalities, then quantum theory must inevitably also violate all valid mathematical statements, and in particular, such basic algebraic relations like 0 = 0, 1 = 1, 2 = 2, 3 = 3, … and so on …

  12. Elementary astronomy (United States)

    Fierro, J.


    In developing nations such as Mexico, basic science education has scarcely improved. There are multiple reasons for this problem; they include poor teacher training and curricula that are not challenging for students. I shall suggest ways in which astronomy can be used to improve basic education, it is so attractive that it can be employed to teach how to read and write, learn a second language, mathematics, physics, as well as geography. If third world nations do not teach science in an adequate way, they will be in serious problems when they will try to achieve a better standard of living for their population. I shall also address informal education, it is by this means that most adults learn and keep up to date with subjects that are not their specialty. If we provide good outreach programs in developing nations we can aid adult training; astronomy is ideal since it is particularly multidisciplinary. In particular radio and television programs are useful for popularization since they reach such wide audiences.

  13. From Pericles to Plato – from democratic political praxis to totalitarian political philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øjvind Larsen


    Full Text Available Plato is normally taken as one of the founders of Western political philosophy, not at least with his Republic. Here, he constructs a hierarchy of forms of governments, beginning with aristocracy at the top as a critical standard for the other forms of governments, and proceeding through timocracy and oligarchy to democracy and tyranny at the bottom. Following Karl Popper, the paper argues that Plato’s is a totalitarian philosophy that emphasizes the similarities between democracy and tyranny, which it considers to be the two worst forms of government. Plato’s denigration of democracy has dominated the tradition of political philosophy until recent times. This paper, however, shows that political philosophy in fact originates in democracy, especially as developed by the sophists and that philosophy is only a form of sophism with a similar origin in ancient Greek democracy. A discussion of Pericles’ funeral oration is used to show that Pericles presented a democratic political philosophy that can serve as a counterpoint to Plato’s political philosophy in the Republic.

  14. Quantum mechanics from elementary view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Karl


    This book offers an introduction to quantum mechanics as well as interesting supplements up to the beginnings of quantum field theory. A comprehensive mathematical block facilitates the access. It is rich on examples and otherwise mostly not findable calculations, which make it so transparent in its results. It likes the historical relations and brings so the feeling how much has been grown from the past. It brings also a short outline about relativity theory up to the understanding of the term ''metrics''. The spotlight holds the term product space, by means of which quantum mechanics is put together to a practicable theory. A simpler notation for instance at the Dirac equation facilitates also the understanding. On the mathematical side it is above all the term distributive law as well as the term linear combination, which lead so simple transparent definitions fast to more general. Generally it is tried to find an as possible elementary access to at least not elementary connections. So may it be for many both instructive and interesting

  15. A course of higher mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, Vladimir Ivanovich; Lohwater, A J


    A Course of Higher Mathematics, I: Elementary Calculus is a five-volume course of higher mathematics used by mathematicians, physicists, and engineers in the U.S.S.R. This volume deals with calculus and principles of mathematical analysis including topics on functions of single and multiple variables. The functional relationships, theory of limits, and the concept of differentiation, whether as theories and applications, are discussed. This book also examines the applications of differential calculus to geometry. For example, the equations to determine the differential of arc or the parameter

  16. The Vector Space as a Unifying Concept in School Mathematics. (United States)

    Riggle, Timothy Andrew

    The purpose of this study was to show how the concept of vector space can serve as a unifying thread for mathematics programs--elementary school to pre-calculus college level mathematics. Indicated are a number of opportunities to demonstrate how emphasis upon the vector space structure can enhance the organization of the mathematics curriculum.…

  17. The Way Adults with Orientation to Mathematics Teaching Cope with the Solution of Everyday Real-World Problems (United States)

    Gazit, Avikam; Patkin, Dorit


    The article aims to check the way adults, "some who are" practicing mathematics teachers at elementary school, "some who are" academicians making a career change to mathematics teachers at junior high school and the "rest who are" pre-service mathematics teachers at elementary school, cope with the solution of…

  18. The Influence of Mathematics Vocabulary Instruction Embedded within Addition Tutoring for First-Grade Students with Mathematics Difficulty (United States)

    Powell, Sarah R.; Driver, Melissa K.


    Researchers and practitioners indicate students require explicit instruction on mathematics vocabulary terms, yet no study has examined the effects of an embedded vocabulary component within mathematics tutoring for early elementary students. First-grade students with mathematics difficulty (MD; n = 98) were randomly assigned to addition tutoring…

  19. Mathematics Underground (United States)

    Luther, Kenneth H.


    Mathematical modeling of groundwater flow is a topic at the intersection of mathematics and geohydrology and is rarely encountered in undergraduate mathematics. However, this subject is full of interesting and meaningful examples of truly "applied" mathematics accessible to undergraduates, from the pre-calculus to advanced mathematics levels. This…

  20. Que geometria ensinar? uma breve história da redefinição do conhecimento elementar matemático para crianças Which geometry should we teach? a brief history of the redefinition of elementary mathematics knowledge for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Rodrigues Valente


    Full Text Available O artigo aborda a geometria para crianças, seu ensino para alunos das primeiras séries escolares. Leva em conta, inicialmente, a trajetória da Geometria para o nível elementar, desde, praticamente, a Independência do Brasil. Nessa análise, evidencia a permanência de conteúdos da geometria euclidiana até quase meados do século XX. Em seguida, analisa as propostas de alteração do ensino de Geometria elaboradas na década de 1960. Com isso, procura mostrar as intenções de modificar os conteúdos desse ramo matemático, em busca da redefinição de um novo elementar: um novo conhecimento elementar de geometria, vindo de processos de apropriação das contribuições trazidas pelos estudos da Psicologia cognitiva.The article discusses geometry for children and its teaching for students from early grades. It takes into account, firstly, the geometry journey at the elementary level since practically the Independence of Brazil. This analysis highlights the presence of Euclidean geometry contents up to the mid-twentieth century. It then analyzes the proposed amendment to the teaching of geometry developed in the 1960s. Thus, this article attempts to show the intentions to modify the contents of this branch of mathematics in search of a redefinition of the 'new elementary': a new elementary knowledge of geometry, coming from the appropriation processes of the contributions made by studies of cognitive psychology.

  1. Mathematics Connection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MATHEMATICS CONNECTION aims at providing a forum topromote the development of Mathematics Education in Ghana. Articles that seekto enhance the teaching and/or learning of mathematics at all levels of theeducational system are welcome.

  2. Dosimetric evaluation of PLATO and Oncentra treatment planning systems for High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy gynecological treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Hardev; De La Fuente Herman, Tania; Showalter, Barry; Thompson, Spencer J.; Syzek, Elizabeth J.; Herman, Terence; Ahmad, Salahuddin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peggy and Charles Stephenson Oklahoma Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States)


    This study compares the dosimetric differences in HDR brachytherapy treatment plans calculated with Nucletron's PLATO and Oncentra MasterPlan treatment planning systems (TPS). Ten patients (1 T1b, 1 T2a, 6 T2b, 2 T4) having cervical carcinoma, median age of 43.5 years (range, 34-79 years) treated with tandem and ring applicator in our institution were selected retrospectively for this study. For both Plato and Oncentra TPS, the same orthogonal films anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral were used to manually draw the prescription and anatomical points using definitions from the Manchester system and recommendations from the ICRU report 38. Data input for PLATO was done using a digitizer and Epson Expression 10000XL scanner was used for Oncentra where the points were selected on the images in the screen. The prescription doses for these patients were 30 Gy to points right A (RA) and left A (LA) delivered in 5 fractions with Ir-192 HDR source. Two arrangements: one dwell position and two dwell positions on the tandem were used for dose calculation. The doses to the patient points right B (RB) and left B (LB), and to the organs at risk (OAR), bladder and rectum for each patient were calculated. The mean dose and the mean percentage difference in dose calculated by the two treatment planning systems were compared. Paired t-tests were used for statistical analysis. No significant differences in mean RB, LB, bladder and rectum doses were found with p-values > 0.14. The mean percent difference of doses in RB, LB, bladder and rectum are found to be less than 2.2%, 1.8%, 1.3% and 2.2%, respectively. Dose calculations based on the two different treatment planning systems were found to be consistent and the treatment plans can be made with either system in our department without any concern.

  3. Love and/in psychoanalysis: a commentary on Lacan's reading of Plato's Symposium in Seminar VIII: Transference. (United States)

    Fink, Bruce


    What is love and what part does it play in psychoanalysis? Where are the analyst and the analysand situated in relation to the roles defined as those of the "lover" and the "beloved"? Jacques Lacan explores these and other questions in his soon-to-be-published Seminar VIII: Transference by providing an extensive commentary on Plato's most famous dialogue on love, the Symposium. This paper outlines some of the major points about love that grow out of Lacan's reading of the dialogue and examines their relevance to the analytic setting. Can the analyst be characterized as a sort of modern-day Socrates?

  4. Ancient philosophical ideas of the soul (Plato-Aristotelian tradition and Stoicism as a source of Patristic Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaitsev Cornelius


    Full Text Available The article discusses the ancient idea of the soul that in the patristic era has been enriched by the perception of the methodology of ancient philosophy. Greek and Roman thinkers considered some properties of the soul, its immortality, revealed its “levels and strata” (Plato, Aristotle, expressed first guesses about the nature of sinful passions (the Stoics. But some aspects still remained unresolved so far. This is the issue of materiality or immateriality, of the soul, which "raised" in the Russian Empire in the 19th century (the dispute saints Theophan the Recluse and Ignatius Brianchaninov and remains relevant today.

  5. The Emphasis of Inquiry Instructional Strategies: Impact on Preservice Teachers' Mathematics Efficacy (United States)

    Althauser, Krista L.


    Using a Mixed Methods approach, this study investigated changes in levels of self-efficacy among elementary preservice teachers following a semester course on teaching elementary students' mathematics. Participants in this study included 347 preservice elementary teachers at a mid-size regional university who had just completed an elementary…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina KARIKJ


    Full Text Available The goal of the research was to compare the level of mathematic language acquisition between students of lower grades in special elementary schools for children who are hearing impaired and students of a mainstream elementary school. A total of 239 children attending mainstream and special schools in the territory of Serbia were included in the research. Instruction of mathematics in schools for students who are hearing impaired has a different character as it contains elements of native language instruction. Obtained results show a significant difference in some fields. A conclusion stating that the level of language acquisition is in direct correlation with the level of acquisition of mathematics language imposes itself. What that means is that hearing impaired children have not only to comprehend mathematics relations, but also to learn mathematics terms in a completely different way as compared to children who are hearing.

  7. Elementary particle theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.


    The present state of the art in elementary particle theory is reviewed. Topics include quantum electrodynamics, weak interactions, electroweak unification, quantum chromodynamics, and grand unified theories. 113 references

  8. [Plato's conceptions of disorders of the soul (Ta peri psuchên nosêmata). Timaeus as the beginning of a dynamic and ethic psychopathology]. (United States)

    Godderis, J


    This contribution to the study of the evolution of fundamental concepts in psychiatry, and in particular of the interpretative models of mental disease, focuses on Plato's conceptions concerning the "disorders of the soul". Plato's "psychopathological" work suggests the decline of an hereditary conglomeration of interpretative arrangements of the irrational phenomena related to mental disease which, corresponding to the social needs of that time, had been united by the belief in myth and its therapeutic value. These archaic religious conceptions have most certainly been reversed by Plato, especially in his Timaeus, one of the three most influential of his dialogues. In a notable passage in this cosmological dialogue (86b ff.) Plato treats of those diseases of the soul which are caused by things physical, whether this be a "defective bodily constitution" or "faulty education". The diseases of the soul are thus no longer considered having a divine origin. Mental diseases to which man is unwittingly subject by defects in birth or education concern himself and his inner life and they cannot be dismissed with simplistic allegories. According to Plato they originate from a conflict, supported by a secret, hidden, irrational "self" that has its roots in the sôma, the rational "self" being only able to recuperate its total integrity if it manages, through self-discipline and knowledge, to check the somatic impulses, the folly of the body. Also, Plato offers a series of remedies to correct the undue influence of body on soul and soul on body, with a view to instituting a right balance and proportion between them. This, together with a stress on "care of the soul", particularly of the divine and immortal element, implicitly assumes that it is in man's power to apply the necessary remedies to himself and effect some sort of readjustment.

  9. Mathematical Footprints Discovering Mathematics Everywhere

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, Theoni


    MATHEMATICAL FOOTPRINTS takes a creative look at the role mathematics has played since prehistoric times, and will play in the future, and uncovers mathematics where you least expect to find it from its many uses in medicine, the sciences, and its appearance in art to its patterns in nature and its central role in the development of computers. Pappas presents mathematical ideas in a readable non-threatening manner. MATHEMATICAL FOOTPRINTS is another gem by the creator of THE MATHEMATICS CALENDAR and author of THE JOY OF MATHEMATICS. "Pappas's books have been gold mines of mathematical ent

  10. National Center for Mathematics and Science - K-12 education research (United States)

    Reasoning in the Elementary Grades Classroom Assessment as the Basis for Teacher Change (CATCH) Statistics motion, calculus, statistics, genetics, evolution, astronomy, and other topics. Teacher professional populations in California, Massachusetts, and Wisconsin are examining (a) children's mathematical and

  11. Shifting Roles and Responsibilities to Support Mathematical Understanding (United States)

    Hansen, Pia; Mathern, Donna


    This article describes the journey that one elementary school took in examining the roles and responsibilities of the principal, teachers, students, and school environment in supporting mathematical understanding as described by the NCTM Standards. (Contains 2 tables and a bibliography.)

  12. Exploring Kuwaiti mathematics: student-teachers' beliefs toward using Logo and mathematics education


    Sulaiman, NAJ


    The main objective of this study is to explore the effect of one taught course, a Logo module, on Kuwaiti elementary mathematics student-teachers’ beliefs about Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Logo. The Logo module incorporated ICT, in particular the Logo programming language, as a cognitive tool, that supports the constructivist perspective for mathematics instruction. The Logo module comprised of 24-sessions (deducted from the hours of the Methods of Teaching Mathematics ...

  13. Using Science to Promote Preservice Teacher Understanding of Problem Solving in Mathematics (United States)

    Tobias, Jennifer M.; Ortiz, Enrique


    Preservice elementary teachers need to be given the experiences of integrating mathematics with other subjects. They need to go into the classroom with the understanding that mathematics is not an isolated topic. This article describes a paper airplane activity that was presented in a class of preservice elementary education teachers to show how…

  14. Investigation of Prospective Primary Mathematics Teachers' Perceptions and Images for Quadrilaterals (United States)

    Turnuklu, Elif; Gundogdu Alayli, Funda; Akkas, Elif Nur


    The object of this study was to show how prospective elementary mathematics teachers define and classify the quadrilaterals and to find out their images. This research was a qualitative study. It was conducted with 36 prospective elementary mathematics teachers studying at 3rd and 4th years in an educational faculty. The data were collected by…

  15. What Is the Long-Run Impact of Learning Mathematics during Preschool? (United States)

    Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie


    The current study estimated the causal links between preschool mathematics learning and late elementary school mathematics achievement using variation in treatment assignment to an early mathematics intervention as an instrument for preschool mathematics change. Estimates indicate (n = 410) that a standard deviation of intervention-produced change…

  16. Emphasis on Conceptual Knowledge and Its Impact on Mathematics Anxiety for Community College Students (United States)

    Khoule, Alioune


    The study investigated the relationship between conceptual knowledge and mathematics anxiety of remedial mathematics students in an urban community college. The impact that conceptual understanding has on mathematics achievement was also examined. The study sample consisted of 105 remedial mathematics students from four elementary algebra courses.…

  17. Puzzle of the particles and the universe. The inner life of the elementary particles IX d

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geitner, Uwe W.


    The series The Inner Life of the Elementary Particles attempts to develop the elementary particles along of a genealogical tree, which begins before the ''big bang''. The simple presentation without mathematics opens also for the interested layman a plastic understanding. Volume IX discusses the known puzzles of particle physics and cosmology and offers for many of them explanation models. Explanation approaches are among others the ''DNA'' of the elementary particles and the interpretation of the quanta and the spin.

  18. The Role of Proof in Comprehending and Teaching Elementary Linear Algebra. (United States)

    Uhlig, Frank


    Describes how elementary linear algebra can be taught successfully while introducing students to the concept and practice of mathematical proof. Suggests exploring the concept of solvability of linear systems first via the row echelon form (REF). (Author/KHR)

  19. Matematicas Para La Escuela Primaria, Grado 4 (Parte 2), Comentario. Traduccion Preliminar de la Edicion en Ingles Revisada. (Mathematics for the Elementary School, Grade 4, Part 2, Teacher's Commentary. Preliminary Translation of the Revised English Edition). (United States)

    Beatty, Leslie; And Others

    This is Part 2 of the teacher's commentary for the grade 4 mathematics program. Part 2 includes the commentary for chapters 6 through 10. Topics covered include addition and subtraction, multiplication and division, geometrical figures, lines and lineal measurement, and fractions. (RH)

  20. The micro-fascism of Plato's good citizen: producing (dis)order through the construction of risk. (United States)

    O'Byrne, Patrick; Holmes, Dave


    The human body has come to be seen as forever susceptible to both external and internal hazards, which in many circumstances require immediate, heroic, and expensive intervention. In response to this, there has been a shift from a treatment-based healthcare model to one of prevention wherein nurses play an integral role by identifying and assessing risks for individuals, communities, and populations. This paper uses Deborah Lupton's outline of the spectrum of risk and applies the theoretical works of Foucault and Plato to demonstrate the means by which nurses maintain social order by identifying and counselling risk takers. It also utilizes the work of Deleuze and Guattari to illustrate how Plato's framework for creating social order through the creation of the good citizen can be viewed as a micro-fascist system, which has been adopted wholeheartedly by preventative health professionals. The goal of this paper is to present an alternate understanding of risk to provide nurses and other healthcare professionals with a non-traditional appreciation of certain aspects of their practice as researchers and clinicians.

  1. Using Citizen Science to Engage Preservice Elementary Educators in Scientific Fieldwork (United States)

    Scott, Catherine M.


    Preservice elementary teachers' lack of confidence in teaching science is an ongoing concern. Only 29% of elementary teachers in the field felt "very well prepared to teach life science," according to the National Survey of Science and Mathematics Education. Research has suggested that bridging informal and formal science education can…

  2. Urban Elementary Single-Sex Math Classrooms: Mitigating Stereotype Threat for African American Girls (United States)

    Bowe, Anica G.; Desjardins, Christopher D.; Covington Clarkson, Lesa M.; Lawrenz, Frances


    This study utilized a mixed-methods approach to holistically examine single-sex and coeducational urban elementary mathematics classes through situated cognitive theory. Participants came from two urban low-income Midwestern elementary schools with a high representation of minority students (n = 77 sixth graders, n = 4 teachers, n = 2 principals).…

  3. The Effects of a STEM Intervention on Elementary Students' Science Knowledge and Skills (United States)

    Cotabish, Alicia; Dailey, Debbie; Robinson, Ann; Hughes, Gail


    The purpose of the study was to assess elementary students' science process skills, content knowledge, and concept knowledge after one year of participation in an elementary Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) program. This study documented the effects of the combination of intensive professional development and the use of…

  4. Conceptualizing Routines of Practice That Support Algebraic Reasoning in Elementary Schools: A Constructivist Grounded Theory (United States)

    Store, Jessie Chitsanzo


    There is ample literature documenting that, for many decades, high school students view algebra as difficult and do not demonstrate understanding of algebraic concepts. Algebraic reasoning in elementary school aims at meaningfully introducing algebra to elementary school students in preparation for higher-level mathematics. While there is research…

  5. The Association between Elementary School Start Time and Students' Academic Achievement in Wayzata Public Schools (United States)

    Dupuis, Danielle N.


    The Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement (CAREI) conducted two analyses with the purpose of examining the association between elementary school start time and students' academic achievement in mathematics and reading in Wayzata Public Schools. The first analysis examined the association between elementary school start time and…

  6. Teacher Perspectives on Specialisation in the Elementary Classroom: Implications for Science Instruction (United States)

    Poland, Susan; Colburn, Amanda; Long, David E.


    In the current educational climate of testing and accountability, many elementary teachers find they lack adequate time and confidence to enact reform-based science teaching due to pressure to perform in reading and mathematics. With this tension in mind, we explore the phenomenon of elementary teacher specialisation in comparison to the…

  7. Analysis of Elementary School students’ algebraic perceptions and procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mara Marasini


    Full Text Available This study aims to verify how students in elementary school see themselves in relation to mathematics and, at the same time, analyze the procedures used to solve algebraic tasks. These students in the 8th year of elementary school, and first and third years of high school, from two State schools in Passo Fundo/RS, answered a questionnaire about their own perceptions of the mathematics lessons, the subject mathematics and algebraic content. The analysis was based mainly on authors from the athematical education and the historic-cultural psychology areas. It was verifi ed that even among students who claimed to be happy with the idea of having mathematicsclasses several presented learning diffi culties regarding algebraic contents, revealed by the procedures employed. It was concluded that it is necessary to design proposals with didactic sequences, mathematically and pedagogically based, which can effi cientlyoptimize the appropriation of meaning from the concepts approached and their application in different situations.

  8. Mathematics Reform and Teacher Quality in Elementary Grades: Assessments, Teacher Licensure, and Certification Reforma matemática y calidad docente en la escuela primaria: Evaluaciones, licencias y certificación docente Reforma matemática e qualidade de professores no Ensino Fundamental: Avaliações, licenciamento e certificação de professores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Georges


    Full Text Available We analyzed the gap in mathematics standards, assessments and accountability, and teacher licensure and certification requirements in mathematics for elementary grades. We found states delineated mathematics academic standards in specific content areas. Licensure and certification requirements were weak indicators since they lacked the specificity of conceptual and procedural knowledge that could strengthen mathematics content knowledge and inform instructional practices. The most recent changes in licensure and certification requirements intended to affect teacher quality are not reaching a large proportion of elementary teachers; thus, their overall impact on teacher quality is likely to be limited. We discuss policy strategies for licensure and certification requirements likely to have a broader reach in addressing teacher quality at the elementary grades. Se analizaron las diferencias en estándares, evaluaciones, procesos de rendición de cuentas, y requisitos de certificación docente en el área de matemáticas para la escuela primaria. Encontramos que los Estados determinaron los niveles académicos en matemáticas en áreas de contenido específicos. Las licencias y los requisitos de certificación son indicadores débiles porque carecen de especificidad sobre conocimientos conceptuales y de procedimiento que podrían reforzar los conocimientos acerca de los contenidos de matemáticas e ayudar a mejorar a las prácticas de enseñanza. Los cambios más recientes en los modelos de licenciamiento y los requisitos de certificación que intentan mejorar la calidad de la formación de los docentes en el área de matemáticas no llegan a la mayoría de los maestros de primaria, por lo que su impacto global es bastante limitado. Discutimos las estrategias de política para obtener la licencia y los requisitos de certificación que podrían tener un mayor alcance para mejorar la calidad de los docentes en la escuela

  9. Elementary Environmental Activities. (United States)

    Larson, Robert J.

    This guide presents suggestions for field trips, out-of-doors activities, material for centers, and individualized activities in the teaching of elementary school science and particularly environmental education at the elementary level. The guide includes a section on preparation and procedures for conducting field trips, including sample…

  10. Departmentalize Elementary Schools (United States)

    Chan, Tak Cheung; Jarman, Delbert


    In elementary schools today, most students receive their education in a single classroom from one teacher who is responsible for teaching language arts, social studies, math, and science. The self-contained classroom organization is predicated on the assumption that an elementary school teacher is a Jack (or Jill)-of-all-trades who is equally…

  11. Mathematical analysis I

    CERN Document Server

    Canuto, Claudio


    The purpose of the volume is to provide a support for a first course in Mathematics. The contents are organised to appeal especially to Engineering, Physics and Computer Science students, all areas in which mathematical tools play a crucial role. Basic notions and methods of differential and integral calculus for functions of one real variable are presented in a manner that elicits critical reading and prompts a hands-on approach to concrete applications. The layout has a specifically-designed modular nature, allowing the instructor to make flexible didactical choices when planning an introductory lecture course. The book may in fact be employed at three levels of depth. At the elementary level the student is supposed to grasp the very essential ideas and familiarise with the corresponding key techniques. Proofs to the main results befit the intermediate level, together with several remarks and complementary notes enhancing the treatise. The last, and farthest-reaching, level requires the additional study of ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna P. Osadcha


    Full Text Available The paper describes the tutor activity in the process of mathematics teaching support on the basis of the use of information and communication technologies (ICT. The author has analysed the available Internet resources and mobile applications in mathematics, which are classified according to their functional purposes into groups: systems of mass open courses, platforms for adaptive learning, video channels, mathematical online simulators, online tasks, mathematical games, mathematical portals, online platforms, mathematical sites, mathematical online platforms, mathematical services, mobile applications in mathematics (simulators, games, generators of example, assistant programs, training complexes, calculators. In accordance with the student age categories mathematical information and communication technologies are divided into three groups: for elementary school students, secondary school students and high school students. The basic ICT tools for teaching mathematics are outlined. The algorithm for constructing tutorial classes with their application is presented.

  13. Views of Elementary School Pre-Service Teachers About the Use of Educational Mathematics Games in Mathematics Teaching [Sınıf Öğretmeni Adaylarının İlköğretim Matematik Öğretiminde Eğitsel Bilgisayar Oyunlarının Kullanımına Yönelik Görüşleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Topçu


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reveal the opinions of elementary school pre-service teachers about the usage of educational mathematics games in elementary mathematics teaching. In this study, case study that, one of qualitative research methods, was used. Data were collected by utilizing a semi-structured interview form to these elementary school pre-service teachers and analyzed using by content analysis method. A total of 10 junior pre-service teachers enrolled in undergraduate programs of elementary teaching attended to this research. In conclusion, these pre-service teachers indicated that educational computer games would provide benefits such as making students’ learning more permanent, visualizing concepts, making students love mathematics, learning by entertaining, reinforcing what has been learnt and developing thinking skills. Nevertheless, these elementary school pre-service teachers stated the limitations about educational computer games such as causing addiction and physical damages, being time-consuming, requiring special equipment and software and making class management difficult. Besides, it was revealed that the pre-service teachers demonstrated positive attitudes towards the use of games in courses while that they did not feel themselves competent in terms of application. [Bu çalışmanın amacı sınıf öğretmeni adaylarının ilköğretim matematik öğretiminde eğitsel bilgisayar oyunlarının kullanımına yönelik görüşlerini ortaya koymaktır. Nitel araştırma yöntemi kullanılarak gerçekleştirilen bu çalışmaya üçüncü sınıfta öğrenim görmekte olan 10 sınıf öğretmeni adayı katılmıştır. Araştırma verileri yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formu kullanılarak elde edilmiş ve bu veriler içerik analizi yöntemi ile incelenmiştir. Araştırmanın sonucunda, öğretmen adaylarının eğitsel bilgisayar oyunlarının öğrencilere matematik dersini sevdirme, öğrencilerin

  14. Mathematical bridges

    CERN Document Server

    Andreescu, Titu; Tetiva, Marian


    Building bridges between classical results and contemporary nonstandard problems, Mathematical Bridges embraces important topics in analysis and algebra from a problem-solving perspective. Blending old and new techniques, tactics and strategies used in solving challenging mathematical problems, readers will discover numerous genuine mathematical gems throughout that will heighten their appreciation of the inherent beauty of mathematics. Most of the problems are original to the authors and are intertwined in a well-motivated exposition driven by representative examples. The book is structured to assist the reader in formulating and proving conjectures, as well as devising solutions to important mathematical problems by making connections between various concepts and ideas from different areas of mathematics. Instructors and educators teaching problem-solving courses or organizing mathematics clubs, as well as motivated mathematics students from high school juniors to college seniors, will find Mathematical Bri...

  15. Early predictors of high school mathematics achievement. (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S; Duncan, Greg J; Davis-Kean, Pamela E; Duckworth, Kathryn; Claessens, Amy; Engel, Mimi; Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Chen, Meichu


    Identifying the types of mathematics content knowledge that are most predictive of students' long-term learning is essential for improving both theories of mathematical development and mathematics education. To identify these types of knowledge, we examined long-term predictors of high school students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement. Analyses of large, nationally representative, longitudinal data sets from the United States and the United Kingdom revealed that elementary school students' knowledge of fractions and of division uniquely predicts those students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement in high school, 5 or 6 years later, even after statistically controlling for other types of mathematical knowledge, general intellectual ability, working memory, and family income and education. Implications of these findings for understanding and improving mathematics learning are discussed.

  16. Does Math Achievement "h'APP'en" when iPads and Game-Based Learning Are Incorporated into Fifth-Grade Mathematics Instruction? (United States)

    Carr, Jennie M.


    After 10 years of No Child Left Behind standards-focused education, mathematics scores have improved only marginally for elementary-aged students. Students who developed a solid conceptual mathematics foundation at the elementary level succeeded later in higher-level mathematics courses; thus, educators have sought ways to increase mathematics…

  17. Why Did Socrates Deny That He Was a Teacher? Locating Socrates among the New Educators and the Traditional Education in Plato's "Apology of Socrates" (United States)

    Mintz, Avi I.


    Plato's "Apology of Socrates" contains a spirited account of Socrates' relationship with the city of Athens and its citizens. As Socrates stands on trial for corrupting the youth, surprisingly, he does not defend the substance and the methods of his teaching. Instead, he simply denies that he is a teacher. Many scholars have…

  18. The Case against the Arts from Plato to Tolstoy and Its Implications for Why and How the Arts Should Be Taught in Schools (United States)

    Tate, Nicholas


    From Plato onwards many of the great Western thinkers have explored the nature of the arts, their contribution to society and their role in education. This has often involved a discussion of the potentially negative impact of the arts. The recurring message has been that the arts can warp judgment, elevate emotion at the expense of reason,…

  19. Quantum Duality in Mathematical Finance


    McCloud, Paul


    Mathematical finance explores the consistency relationships between the prices of securities imposed by elementary economic principles. Commonplace among these are replicability and the absence of arbitrage, both essentially algebraic constraints on the valuation map from a security to its price. The discussion is framed in terms of observables, the securities, and states, the linear and positive maps from security to price. Founded on the principles of replicability and the absence of arbitr...

  20. A Case Study in Elementary Statistics: The Florida Panther Population (United States)

    Lazowski, Andrew; Stopper, Geffrey


    We describe a case study that was created to intertwine the fields of biology and mathematics. This project is given in an elementary probability and statistics course for non-math majors. Some goals of this case study include: to expose students to biology in a math course, to apply probability to real-life situations, and to display how far a…

  1. Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions of Departmentalization of Elementary Schools (United States)

    Liu, Fuchang


    This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of departmentalization of elementary schools, with an emphasis on teaching mathematics, as perceived by preservice teachers who shared their opinions through online discussion. Advantages include teachers' enthusiasm about and focused attention on the specialized area and students' easier…

  2. Measuring the Readability of Elementary Algebra Using the Cloze Technique. (United States)

    Kulm, Gerald

    The relationship to readability of ten variables characterizing structural properties of mathematical prose was investigated in elementary algebra textbooks. Readability was measured by algebra student's responses to two forms of cloze tests. Linear and currilinear correlations were calculated between each structural variable and the cloze test.…

  3. Elementary School Teacher Candidates' Perceptions of Good Problems (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Eun; Kim, Kyoung-Tae


    This study describes a classroom action research activity regarding a group of elementary school teacher candidates' perceptions of good mathematics problems. A questionnaire containing 20 problems was given, and the candidates were asked to rate the quality of each problem on a 5-point scale. The results revealed that the majority of the teacher…

  4. Calculus of Elementary Functions, Part I. Teacher's Commentary. Revised Edition. (United States)

    Herriot, Sarah T.; And Others

    This course is intended for students who have a thorough knowledge of college preparatory mathematics including algebra, axiomatic geometry, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. It does not assume they have acquired a background of elementary functions. This teacher's guide contains background information, suggested instructional procedures, and…

  5. Online Software Applications for Learning: Observations from an Elementary School (United States)

    Tay, Lee Yong; Lim, Cher Ping; Nair, Shanthi Suraj; Lim, Siew Khiaw


    This exploratory case study research describes the integration of Information Communication Technology (ICT) into the teaching and learning of English, mathematics and science in an elementary school in Singapore. The school in this case study research is one of the first primary-level future schools that was set up under the…

  6. Mathematics disorder (United States)

    ... this page: // Mathematics disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's ...

  7. A hipotética linguagem ideal de Platão Plato's hypothetical ideal language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Alves dos Santos


    Full Text Available Para que um discurso sobre o espetáculo do mundo transcendente seja acolhido como totalidade inteligível e coerente, urge desvencilhar-se da arbitrariedade do domínio de trêmulos contornos do sensível, esfera de opiniões apenas. É o que propõe Platão, na esteira das reflexões dos primeiros pensadores: para suprir deficiências que causam a elisão da realidade e transformar a linguagem num veículo de intelecção autêntica dos conceitos essenciais de um pensar filosófico, ele a coloca no centro de uma especulação rigorosa. Tal como seus antecessores Heráclito e Parmênides, Platão revela logofilia ao empenhar-se na construção de uma nova estrutura discursiva, diferente daquela do homem comum, desencadeando no campo da Filosofia uma revolução que se tornara indispensável: elabora um modelo fundador - princípio de uma ordem permanente propedêutica à construção de uma linguagem formal e abstrata - referente a entes que os homens, na maioria, por si mesmos não conseguem visualizar. Somente nela poderá reverberar a verdade universal das Formas que, ao emprestarem seus nomes à infindável série dos particulares sensíveis, os clarifica e lhes confere significação. Com as teorias que a partir das Formas desenvolve e expõe nos Diálogos, o filósofo visa induzir o leitor a preparar-se para operar, metodicamente, a conversão de sua alma ao plano desses seres ideais, supra-sensíveis, e apreender, assim, a realidade que tudo fundamenta e torna cognoscível.For a discourse on the spectacle of the transcendental world to be received in its comprehensible and coherent totality, its needs to get rid of the arbitrariness of the dominion of tremulous shapes of the sensitive, which is merely the sphere of opinions. This is what Plato suggests, following the course of reflection of the first thinkers: in order to compensate the deficiencies that entail elision of reality and to transform language into a vehicle of authentic

  8. Mathematical Chemistry


    Trinajstić, Nenad; Gutman, Ivan


    A brief description is given of the historical development of mathematics and chemistry. A path leading to the meeting of these two sciences is described. An attempt is made to define mathematical chemistry, and journals containing the term mathematical chemistry in their titles are noted. In conclusion, the statement is made that although chemistry is an experimental science aimed at preparing new compounds and materials, mathematics is very useful in chemistry, among other things, to produc...

  9. Clockwise rotation of the Santa Marta massif and simultaneous Paleogene to Neogene deformation of the Plato-San Jorge and Cesar-Ranchería basins (United States)

    Montes, Camilo; Guzman, Georgina; Bayona, German; Cardona, Agustin; Valencia, Victor; Jaramillo, Carlos


    A moderate amount of vertical-axis clockwise rotation of the Santa Marta massif (30°) explains as much as 115 km of extension (stretching of 1.75) along its trailing edge (Plato-San Jorge basin) and up to 56 km of simultaneous shortening with an angular shear of 0.57 along its leading edge (Perijá range). Extensional deformation is recorded in the 260 km-wide, fan-shaped Plato-San Jorge basin by a 2-8 km thick, shallowing-upward and almost entirely fine-grained, upper Eocene and younger sedimentary sequence. The simultaneous initiation of shortening in the Cesar-Ranchería basin is documented by Mesozoic strata placed on to lower Eocene syntectonic strata (Tabaco Formation and equivalents) along the northwest-verging, shallow dipping (9-12° to the southeast) and discrete Cerrejón thrust. First-order subsidence analysis in the Plato-San Jorge basin is consistent with crustal stretching values between 1.5 and 2, also predicted by the rigid-body rotation of the Santa Marta massif. The model predicts about 100 km of right-lateral displacement along the Oca fault and 45 km of left-lateral displacement along the Santa Marta-Bucaramanga fault. Clockwise rotation of a rigid Santa Marta massif, and simultaneous Paleogene opening of the Plato-San Jorge basin and emplacement of the Cerrejón thrust sheet would have resulted in the fragmentation of the Cordillera Central-Santa Marta massif province. New U/Pb ages (241 ± 3 Ma) on granitoid rocks from industry boreholes in the Plato-San Jorge basin confirm the presence of fragments of a now segmented, Late Permian to Early Triassic age, two-mica, granitic province that once spanned the Santa Marta massif to the northernmost Cordillera Central.

  10. Mathematical methods for physicists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Royal Eugene


    This practical, highly readable text provides physics and engineering students with the essential mathematical tools for thorough comprehension of their disciplines. Featuring all the necessary topics in applied mathematics in the form of programmed instruction, the text can be understood by advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students without any assistance from the instructor. Topics include elementary vector calculus, matrix algebra, and linear vector operations; the many and varied methods of solving linear boundary value problems, including the more common special functions o



    Sead Rešić; Eldina Atić


    In this research, the application of contemporary teaching aids in Mathematics teaching in elementary school was analyzed from the aspect of teachers, students and parents. The application of contemporary teaching aids in Mathematics teaching was analyzed through a sample of 100 students, and attitudes about the aids were examined from the points of view of students, teachers and parents. In this research, descriptive method, questionnaire and test were used. Results of the resear...

  12. The history of mathematics a brief course

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Roger L


    Praise for the Second Edition ""An amazing assemblage of worldwide contributions in mathematics and, in addition to use as a course book, a valuable resource . . . essential."" -CHOICE This Third Edition of The History of Mathematics examines the elementary arithmetic, geometry, and algebra of numerous cultures, tracing their usage from Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, India, China, and Japan all the way to Europe during the Medieval and Renaissance periods where calculus was developed. Aimed primarily at undergraduate students studying the history of

  13. Rainforest Mathematics (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Jeremy


    This paper addresses the contested way that ethnomathematics has sometimes been received by mathematicians and others and what that disagreement might suggest about issues in mathematics education; namely, (a) the relation of ethnomathematics to academic mathematics; (b) recent efforts to reform secondary school mathematics so that it prepares…

  14. Protecting the pipeline of science: openness, scientific methods and the lessons from ticagrelor and the PLATO trial. (United States)

    Coats, Andrew J Stewart; Nijjer, Sukhjinder S; Francis, Darrel P


    Ticagrelor, a potent antiplatelet, has been shown to be beneficial in patients with acute coronary syndromes in a randomised controlled trial published in a highly ranked peer reviewed journal. Accordingly it has entered guidelines and has been approved for clinical use by authorities. However, there remains a controversy regarding aspects of the PLATO trial, which are not immediately apparent from the peer-reviewed publications. A number of publications have sought to highlight potential discrepancies, using data available in publicly published documents from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) leading to disagreement regarding the value of open science and data sharing. We reflect upon potential sources of bias present in even rigorously performed randomised controlled trials, on whether peer review can establish the presence of bias and the need to constantly challenge and question even accepted data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Infância e educação em Platão Childhood and education in Plato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Omar Kohan


    Full Text Available Este trabalho estuda, desde uma perspectiva filosófica, o conceito de infância em Platão, com ênfase nos seguintes diálogos: Alcibíades I, Górgias, A República e As Leis. Num primeiro momento, situamos a questão da infância no marco mais ampliado do projeto filosófico e político de Platão. A seguir, propomos quatro traços principais do conceito de infância em Platão: a como possibilidade (as crianças podem ser qualquer coisa no futuro; b como inferioridade (as crianças - como as mulheres, estrangeiros e escravos - são inferiores em relação ao homem adulto cidadão; c como superfluidade (a infância não é necessária à pólis; d como material da política (a utopia se constrói a partir da educação das crianças. Não há a pretensão de levar Platão a algum tribunal. Busca-se apenas delimitar um problema e uma forma específica de enfrentá-lo, com vistas a contribuir para a análise da produtividade dessa perspectiva na história da filosofia da infância e da educação ocidental, bem como nas atuais teorias e práticas educacionais. Ao mesmo tempo, de forma implícita, procura-se oferecer elementos para problematizar uma visão já consolidada entre os historiadores da infância - particularmente desde o já clássico História social da infância e da família de Philippe Ariès -, segundo a qual a infância seria uma invenção moderna e ela não teria sido "pensada" pelos antigos enquanto tal.This work investigates from a philosophical perspective the concept of childhood in Plato, with an emphasis on the following dialogues: Alcibiades I, Gorgias, The Republic, and The Laws. Initially, we situate the issue of childhood within the wider scenario of Plato's political and philosophical project. We then propose four main features of the concept of childhood in Plato: a as possibility (children can become anything in future; b as inferiority (children - like women, foreigners and slaves - are inferior to the male

  16. A Mixed Methods Study of Teach for America Teachers' Mathematical Beliefs, Knowledge, and Classroom Teaching Practices during a Reform-Based University Mathematics Methods Course (United States)

    Swars, Susan Lee


    This mixed methods study examined the mathematical preparation of elementary teachers in a Teach for America (TFA) program, focal participants for whom there is scant extant research. Data collection occurred before and after a university mathematics methods course, with a particular focus on the participants' (n = 22) mathematical beliefs,…

  17. The Effect of a Math Emporium Course Redesign in Developmental and Introductory Mathematics Courses on Student Achievement and Students' Attitudes toward Mathematics at a Two-Year College (United States)

    Bishop, Amy Renee


    The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of computer-based instruction on student mathematics achievement and students' attitudes toward mathematics in developmental and introductory mathematics courses, namely Elementary Algebra, Intermediate Algebra, and College Algebra, at a community college. The researcher also examined the…

  18. Leitura e interpretação de enunciados de problemas escolares de matemática por alunos do ensino fundamental regular e educação de jovens e adultos (EJA Reading and interpretation of school mathematics problems by students of regular elementary school and from the youth and adults education system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Maria Pavanello


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho analisamos a compreensão leitora de alunos do ensino fundamental (na estrutura regular e no sistema de Educação de Jovens e Adultos - EJA de enunciados de problemas escolares de Matemática necessária à resolução destes. Os dados para a análise foram coletados por meio de entrevistas realizadas com vinte alunos do ensino fundamental regular (dez alunos da 5.ª série e dez da 8.ª e dez do EJA (cinco concluintes da Fase I e cinco concluintes da Fase II do ensino fundamental. Nas entrevistas, pautadas no método clínico-crítico de Jean Piaget, foram apresentados aos participantes quatro problemas adaptados de duas das coleções didáticas mais utilizadas pelos professores da região em sala de aula. A análise dos dados foi fundamentada na noção bakthiniana de gênero discursivo e em autores que focalizam aspectos cognitivos da leitura e interpretação de textos como Solé e Kleiman, a comunicação e a linguagem na prática educativa em matemática como Gómez-Granell, e a resolução de problemas como Bacquet e Medeiros. Os resultados mostraram que os participantes apresentavam falhas em sua compreensão leitora conforme os pontos de vista linguístico e matemático e pouca familiaridade com o gênero discursivo "enunciado de problemas matemáticos"; também não tinham noção precisa do significado de resolver um problema e apresentavam dificuldade em reter e manter o controle adequado das informações essenciais dos enunciados.This paper examines the reading comprehension of Elementary School students (in the regular structure and in the Youth and Adults System- EJA concerning statements of school mathematics problems which are needed to their resolution. Data were collected by interviewing twenty elementary school students in regular structure (ten 5th graders and ten 8th graders and 10 students attending the EJA (five Stage I graduates and five Stage II graduates. Based on Piaget's critical-clinical method

  19. Mathematical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomhøj, Morten


    Developing competences for setting up, analysing and criticising mathematical models are normally seen as relevant only from and above upper secondary level. The general belief among teachers is that modelling activities presuppose conceptual understanding of the mathematics involved. Mathematical...... roots for the construction of important mathematical concepts. In addition competences for setting up, analysing and criticising modelling processes and the possible use of models is a formative aim in this own right for mathematics teaching in general education. The paper presents a theoretical...... modelling, however, can be seen as a practice of teaching that place the relation between real life and mathematics into the centre of teaching and learning mathematics, and this is relevant at all levels. Modelling activities may motivate the learning process and help the learner to establish cognitive...

  20. Discrete Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted


    The objectives of Discrete Mathematics (IDISM2) are: The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including the application within programming languages for computer systems. Having passed the IDISM2 course, the student will be able...... to accomplish the following: -Understand and apply formal representations in discrete mathematics. -Understand and apply formal representations in problems within discrete mathematics. -Understand methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics. -Apply methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics......; construct a finite state machine for a given application. Apply these concepts to new problems. The teaching in Discrete Mathematics is a combination of sessions with lectures and students solving problems, either manually or by using Matlab. Furthermore a selection of projects must be solved and handed...

  1. Mathematical Modeling and Pure Mathematics (United States)

    Usiskin, Zalman


    Common situations, like planning air travel, can become grist for mathematical modeling and can promote the mathematical ideas of variables, formulas, algebraic expressions, functions, and statistics. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how the mathematical modeling that is present in everyday situations can be naturally embedded in…

  2. The Impact of an Online Tutoring Program on Mathematics Achievement (United States)

    Clark, Amy K.; Whetstone, Patti


    The authors explored the impact of an online tutoring program, Math Whizz (Whizz Education, 2014), on student mathematics achievement at 15 elementary schools. Students participated in the use of the Math Whizz program for the duration of the school year as a supplement to mathematics instruction. The Math Whizz program recorded such information…

  3. Mathematics and Metacognition in Adolescents and Adults with Learning Disabilities (United States)

    Desoete, Annemie


    A majority of studies on learning disabilities have focused on elementary grades. Although problems with learning disabilities are life-affecting only a few studies focus on deficits in adults. In this study adults with isolated mathematical disabilities (n = 101) and adults with combined mathematical and reading disabilities (n = 130) solved…

  4. Abstract Algebra for Algebra Teaching: Influencing School Mathematics Instruction (United States)

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.


    This article explores the potential for aspects of abstract algebra to be influential for the teaching of school algebra (and early algebra). Using national standards for analysis, four primary areas common in school mathematics--and their progression across elementary, middle, and secondary mathematics--where teaching may be transformed by…

  5. [Probability, Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics Feasibility Study No. 7. (United States)

    Davis, R.

    These materials were written with the aim of reflecting the thinking of the Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics (CCSM) regarding the goals and objectives for school mathematics. They represent a practical response to a proposal by CCSM that some elements of probability be introduced in the elementary grades. These materials provide children…

  6. Students discussing their mathematical ideas: the role of the teacher

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijls, M.; Dekker, R.


    This article adds to current research on enhancing student discourse in mathematics teaching specifically in secondary schools but with equal relevance to elementary schools. Three mathematics teachers in secondary education were confronted with the question of how to encourage students to discuss

  7. Future Directions in Research on Mathematics-Related Teacher Identity (United States)

    Lutovac, Sonja; Kaasila, Raimo


    Mathematics education research has placed great emphasis on teacher identity, examining both pre- and in-service teachers, and within these cohorts, specialised mathematics teachers and non-specialists such as elementary teachers. Extensive research has already been done; hence, this paper discusses possible future directions for research on…

  8. Enhancing Undergraduate Mathematics Curriculum via Coding Theory and Cryptography (United States)

    Aydin, Nuh


    The theory of error-correcting codes and cryptography are two relatively recent applications of mathematics to information and communication systems. The mathematical tools used in these fields generally come from algebra, elementary number theory, and combinatorics, including concepts from computational complexity. It is possible to introduce the…

  9. Comparison of Intelligent Systems in Detecting a Child's Mathematical Gift (United States)

    Pavlekovic, Margita; Zekic-Susac, Marijana; Djurdjevic, Ivana


    This paper compares the efficiency of two intelligent methods: expert systems and neural networks, in detecting children's mathematical gift at the fourth grade of elementary school. The input space for the expert system and the neural network model consisted of 60 variables describing five basic components of a child's mathematical gift…

  10. Mathematics Teacher Educators' Perceptions and Use of Cognitive Research (United States)

    Laski, Elida V.; Reeves, Todd D.; Ganley, Colleen M.; Mitchell, Rebecca


    Instructors ("N"?=?204) of elementary mathematics methods courses completed a survey assessing the extent to which they value cognitive research and incorporate it into their courses. Instructors' responses indicated that they view cognitive research to be fairly important for mathematics education, particularly studies of domain-specific topics,…

  11. Getting Real: Implementing Assessment Alternatives in Mathematics. (United States)

    Hopkins, Martha H.


    Recounts experiences of a university professor who returned to the elementary classroom and attempted to implement the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards and appropriate assessment methods, including nontraditional paper-and-pencil tasks, journal-like writing assignments, focused observations, and performance-based assessments…

  12. Matematicas: Nivel A (Mathematics: Level A). (United States)

    Duron, Dolores; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level A manual is designed for kindergarten and grade 1 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual objectives, vocabulary, and structures are included. Activities are designed to teach either…

  13. Matematicas: Nivel E (Mathematics: Level E). (United States)

    Duron, Dolores, Ed.; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level E manual is designed for grade 4 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual and language objectives, vocabulary, structures, and learning activities are included. Activities are designed to…

  14. Matematicas: Nivel F (Mathematics: Level F). (United States)

    Duron, Dolores, Ed.; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level F manual is designed for grade 5 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual and language objectives, vocabulary, structures, and learning activities are included. Activities are designed to…

  15. MARA: Mathematics/Architecture Related Activities. (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    This document is designed primarily to help teachers in elementary and middle schools to teach basic skills in mathematics, the visual arts, and social interaction. The Introduction contains sections titled: (1) How and Where to Begin; (2) Orientation Exercises; (3) Discovering the Environment; (4) Toothpicks and Gumdrops; (5) A Process for the…

  16. The mathematics of games of strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Dresher, Melvin


    A noted research mathematician explores decision making in the absence of perfect information. His clear presentation of the mathematical theory of games of strategy encompasses applications to many fields, including economics, military, business, and operations research. No advanced algebra or non-elementary calculus occurs in most of the proofs.

  17. Can Pedagogical Concerns Eclipse Mathematical Knowledge? (United States)

    Creager, Mark A.; Jacobson, Erik; Aydeniz, Fetiye


    Mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) is often thought of as a transformed, mutually-influencing mixture of content and pedagogy. However when individuals' MKT does not integrate content and pedagogy, one type of knowledge can supersede the other, sometimes unconsciously. We exemplify this with Emma, a prospective elementary teacher, whose…

  18. Exploring mathematics problem-solving and proof

    CERN Document Server

    Grieser, Daniel


    Have you ever faced a mathematical problem and had no idea how to approach it? Or perhaps you had an idea but got stuck halfway through? This book guides you in developing your creativity, as it takes you on a voyage of discovery into mathematics. Readers will not only learn strategies for solving problems and logical reasoning, but they will also learn about the importance of proofs and various proof techniques. Other topics covered include recursion, mathematical induction, graphs, counting, elementary number theory, and the pigeonhole, extremal and invariance principles. Designed to help students make the transition from secondary school to university level, this book provides readers with a refreshing look at mathematics and deep insights into universal principles that are valuable far beyond the scope of this book. Aimed especially at undergraduate and secondary school students as well as teachers, this book will appeal to anyone interested in mathematics. Only basic secondary school mathematics is requi...

  19. A readable introduction to real mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenthal, Daniel; Rosenthal, Peter


    Designed for an undergraduate course or for independent study, this text presents sophisticated mathematical ideas in an elementary and friendly fashion. The fundamental purpose of this book is to engage the reader and to teach a real understanding of mathematical thinking while conveying the beauty and elegance of mathematics. The text focuses on teaching the understanding of mathematical proofs. The material covered has applications both to mathematics and to other subjects. The book contains a large number of exercises of varying difficulty, designed to help reinforce basic concepts and to motivate and challenge the reader. The sole prerequisite for understanding the text is basic high school algebra; some trigonometry is needed for Chapters 9 and 12. Topics covered include: * mathematical induction * modular arithmetic * the fundamental theorem of arithmetic * Fermat's little theorem * RSA encryption * the Euclidean algorithm * rational and irrational numbers * complex numbers * cardinality * Euclidean pl...

  20. "Project NEO": A Video Game to Promote STEM Competency for Preservice Elementary Teachers (United States)

    Van Eck, Richard N.; Guy, Mark; Young, Timothy; Winger, Austin T.; Brewster, Scott


    The need for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors for our future workforce is growing, yet fewer students are choosing to major in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics areas, and many are underprepared, in part because elementary school preservice teachers are also underprepared. This National Science…

  1. Examining Change in K-3 Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs: The Case of Primarily Math (United States)

    Kutaka, T. S.; Ren, L.; Smith, W. M.; Beattie, H. L.; Edwards, C. P.; Green, J. L.; Chernyavskiy, P.; Stroup, W.; Heaton, R. M.; Lewis, W. J.


    This study examines the impact of the Primarily Math Elementary Mathematics Specialist program on K-3 teachers' mathematical content knowledge for teaching, attitudes toward learning mathematics, and beliefs about mathematics teaching and learning. Three cohorts of teachers participating in the program were compared to a similar group of…

  2. Shifting Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs about Mathematics Teaching: The Contextual Situation of a Mathematics Methods Course (United States)

    Jao, Limin


    For pre-service teachers (PSTs) who have been exposed to traditional approaches, teacher education courses can be a revelatory experience in their development as educators. This study explores if Canadian upper elementary/lower secondary (grades 4-10) PSTs change their beliefs about mathematics teaching as a result of taking a mathematics methods…

  3. Theoretical Mathematics (United States)

    Stöltzner, Michael

    Answering to the double-faced influence of string theory on mathematical practice and rigour, the mathematical physicists Arthur Jaffe and Frank Quinn have contemplated the idea that there exists a `theoretical' mathematics (alongside `theoretical' physics) whose basic structures and results still require independent corroboration by mathematical proof. In this paper, I shall take the Jaffe-Quinn debate mainly as a problem of mathematical ontology and analyse it against the backdrop of two philosophical views that are appreciative towards informal mathematical development and conjectural results: Lakatos's methodology of proofs and refutations and John von Neumann's opportunistic reading of Hilbert's axiomatic method. The comparison of both approaches shows that mitigating Lakatos's falsificationism makes his insights about mathematical quasi-ontology more relevant to 20th century mathematics in which new structures are introduced by axiomatisation and not necessarily motivated by informal ancestors. The final section discusses the consequences of string theorists' claim to finality for the theory's mathematical make-up. I argue that ontological reductionism as advocated by particle physicists and the quest for mathematically deeper axioms do not necessarily lead to identical results.

  4. Mathematical control theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrachev, A.A.


    contains thirteen contributions divided into two parts. The volume, as well as the school it is based on, pursues primarily educational and instructive goals. We tried to distribute the material according to the same purposes. The volume starts with Linear Control Systems, then turns to Nonlinear Systems and Optimal Control Theory. Basic elementary courses are intended to help to study subsequent more specific ones. The volume finishes with some real world applications. We believe that the volume as a whole and its parts can serve for both the self-depended study and the teaching as a kind of contemporary textbook in Mathematical Control Theory. (author)

  5. Mathematical control theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrachev, A A [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); SISSA, Trieste [Italy; ed.


    thirteen contributions divided into two parts. The volume, as well as the school it is based on, pursues primarily educational and instructive goals. We tried to distribute the material according to the same purposes. The volume starts with Linear Control Systems, then turns to Nonlinear Systems and Optimal Control Theory. Basic elementary courses are intended to help to study subsequent more specific ones. The volume fini with some real world applications. We believe that the volume as a whole and its parts can serve for both the self-depended study and the teaching as a kind of contemporary textbook in Mathematical Control Theory. (author)

  6. On combinatorial properties of elementary intramolecular operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rogojin


    Full Text Available Here we tackle a problem from biology in terms of discrete mathematics. We are interested in a complex DNA manipulation process happening in eukaryotic organisms of a subclass of ciliate species called {\\it Stichotrichia} during so-called gene assembly. This process is in particular interesting since one can interpret gene assembly in ciliates as sorting of permutations. We survey here results related to studies on sorting permutations with some specific rewriting rules that formalize elementary intramolecular gene assembly operations. The research question is ``what permutation may be sorted with our operations?"

  7. Not always buried deep a second course in elementary number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pollack, Paul


    Number theory is one of the few areas of mathematics where problems of substantial interest can be fully described to someone with minimal mathematical background. Solving such problems sometimes requires difficult and deep methods. But this is not a universal phenomenon; many engaging problems can be successfully attacked with little more than one's mathematical bare hands. In this case one says that the problem can be solved in an elementary way. Such elementary methods and the problems to which they apply are the subject of this book. Not Always Buried Deep is designed to be read and enjoye

  8. Defining culturally responsive teaching: The case of mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenni L. Harding-DeKam


    Full Text Available Elementary classroom teachers in eight school districts across Colorado, United States, share the knowledge of their students’ home and community life, define culturally responsive mathematics based on the children they instruct, and give examples of how students learn math through culture in their classrooms. Findings from two interviews, classroom observations, and student artifacts reveal that teachers have an intimate cultural knowledge of the students in their classrooms, define culturally responsive mathematical practices consistent with research, use culturally responsive mathematics teaching for authentic learning, and express a need for additional professional development and curriculum support for culturally responsive mathematics instruction. Culturally responsive mathematics is important in elementary classrooms because it allows students to make personal connections to mathematics content.

  9. Teach the Mathematics of Mathematicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Taylor


    Full Text Available The secondary-school mathematics curriculum is narrow in scope and technical in character; this is quite different from the nature of the discipline itself. As a result, it offers little inspiration to both students and teachers, and provides students with poor preparation for university mathematics courses and indeed for life. Over the past century, recently more than ever, there have been calls for change, for a curriculum that is true to the subject of mathematics as the creation and study of patterns and structures. While there are hopeful responses to this at the elementary level, there is almost nothing at the secondary level. Ironically, it is felt that in order to prepare students for university calculus, the secondary curriculum simply has to be what it is. This is a special case of a myth that needs to be destroyed.

  10. On the study and difficulties of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    De Morgan, Augustus


    One of the twentieth century's most eminent mathematical writers, Augustus De Morgan enriched his expositions with insights from history and psychology. On the Study and Difficulties of Mathematics represents some of his best work, containing points usually overlooked by elementary treatises, and written in a fresh and natural tone that provides a refreshing contrast to the mechanical character of common textbooks.Presuming only a knowledge of the rules of algebra and Euclidean theorems, De Morgan begins with some introductory remarks on the nature and objects of mathematics. He discusses the

  11. Mathematical modeling a chemical engineer's perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Aris


    Mathematical modeling is the art and craft of building a system of equations that is both sufficiently complex to do justice to physical reality and sufficiently simple to give real insight into the situation. Mathematical Modeling: A Chemical Engineer's Perspective provides an elementary introduction to the craft by one of the century's most distinguished practitioners.Though the book is written from a chemical engineering viewpoint, the principles and pitfalls are common to all mathematical modeling of physical systems. Seventeen of the author's frequently cited papers are reprinted to illus

  12. Mathematics everywhere

    CERN Document Server

    Aigner, Martin; Spain, Philip G


    Mathematics is all around us. Often we do not realize it, though. Mathematics Everywhere is a collection of presentations on the role of mathematics in everyday life, through science, technology, and culture. The common theme is the unique position of mathematics as the art of pure thought and at the same time as a universally applicable science. The authors are renowned mathematicians; their presentations cover a wide range of topics. From compact discs to the stock exchange, from computer tomography to traffic routing, from electronic money to climate change, they make the "math inside" unde

  13. Financial mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Jothi, A Lenin


    Financial services, particularly banking and insurance services is the prominent sector for the development of a nation. After the liberalisation of financial sector in India, the scope of getting career opportunities has been widened. It is heartening to note that various universities in India have introduced professional courses on banking and insurance. A new field of applied mathematics has come into prominence under the name of Financial Mathematics. Financial mathematics has attained much importance in the recent years because of the role played by mathematical concepts in decision - m

  14. Mathematical scandals

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, Theoni


    In this highly readable volume of vignettes of mathematical scandals and gossip, Theoni Pappas assembles 29 fascinating stories of intrigue and the bizarre ? in short, the human background of the history of mathematics. Might a haberdasher have changed Einstein's life? Why was the first woman mathematician murdered? How come there's no Nobel Prize in mathematics?Mathematics is principally about numbers, equations, and solutions, all of them precise and timeless. But, behind this arcane matter lies the sometimes sordid world of real people, whose rivalries and deceptions

  15. Engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Stroud, K A


    A groundbreaking and comprehensive reference that's been a bestseller since it first debuted in 1970, the new seventh edition of Engineering Mathematics has been thoroughly revised and expanded. Providing a broad mathematical survey, this innovative volume covers a full range of topics from the very basic to the advanced. Whether you're an engineer looking for a useful on-the-job reference or want to improve your mathematical skills, or you are a student who needs an in-depth self-study guide, Engineering Mathematics is sure to come in handy time and time again.

  16. Optimal Assignment Problem Applications of Finite Mathematics to Business and Economics. [and] Difference Equations with Applications. Applications of Difference Equations to Economics and Social Sciences. [and] Selected Applications of Mathematics to Finance and Investment. Applications of Elementary Algebra to Finance. [and] Force of Interest. Applications of Calculus to Finance. UMAP Units 317, 322, 381, 382. (United States)

    Gale, David; And Others

    Four units make up the contents of this document. The first examines applications of finite mathematics to business and economies. The user is expected to learn the method of optimization in optimal assignment problems. The second module presents applications of difference equations to economics and social sciences, and shows how to: 1) interpret…

  17. Use of CAS in Secondary School: A Factor Influencing the Transition to University-Level Mathematics? (United States)

    Varsavsky, Cristina


    Australian secondary school systems offer three levels of senior (year 12) mathematics studies, none of them compulsory: elementary, intermediate and advanced. The intermediate and advanced studies prepare students for further mathematics studies at university level. In the state of Victoria, there are two versions of intermediate mathematics: one…

  18. Results of Third-Grade Students in a Reform Curriculum on the Illinois State Mathematics Test. (United States)

    Carroll, William M.


    Reports on the results of the reform curriculum of the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project's elementary curriculum, Everyday Mathematics, for third-grade students. Results included the fact that only 2% of UCSMP students failed to meet state goals. UCSMP students also scored well in all mathematical areas including number skills and…

  19. A mathematics content course and teaching efficacy beliefs of undergraduate majors in education. (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Haitham M; Abed, Adnan S


    This study was designed to assess the mathematics teaching efficacy beliefs of undergraduates in elementary education through a manipulative-based course in mathematics. Responses of 106 university undergraduates to the 21-item Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs administered as pre- and posttest without a control group showed a significant immediate postcourse change in their efficacy beliefs using dependent t test.

  20. Hong Kong and U.S. Teachers' Perceptions of Mathematical Disagreements and Their Resolution Processes (United States)

    Barlow, Angela T.; Huang, Rongjin; Law, Huk-Yuen; Chan, Yip Cheung; Zhang, Qiaoping; Baxter, Wesley A.; Gaddy, Angeline K.


    Mathematical disagreements occur when students challenge each other's ideas related to a mathematical concept. In this research, we examined Hong Kong and U.S. elementary teachers' perceptions of mathematical disagreements and their resolutions using a video-stimulated survey. Participants were directed to give particular attention to the…

  1. Professional Communities in the Context of Teachers' Professional lives: A Case of Mathematics Specialists (United States)

    Nickerson, Susan D.; Moriarty, Gail


    We describe an urban school initiative aimed at teachers' professional development with the goal of increasing their mathematics content knowledge and helping them improve their practice. In the lowest performing schools, mathematics specialists were employed to teach only mathematics in upper-elementary grades (ages 9-12). One aspect of this…

  2. What Math Matters? Types of Mathematics Knowledge and Relationships to Methods Course Performance (United States)

    Kajander, Ann; Holm, Jennifer


    This study investigated the effect of a departmental focus on enhanced mathematics knowledge for teaching on overall performance in upper elementary mathematics methods courses. The study examined the effect of performance on a new course in mathematics for teaching on performance at the methods course level. In addition, the effect of performance…

  3. Effects of Teacher Preparation Courses: Do Graduates Use What They Learned to Plan Mathematics Lessons? (United States)

    Morris, Anne K.; Hiebert, James


    We investigated whether the content pre-service teachers studied in elementary teacher preparation mathematics courses was related to their performance on a mathematics lesson planning task 2 and 3 years after graduation. The relevant mathematics knowledge was studied when the teachers were freshmen, 5 to 6 years earlier. Results showed that when…

  4. Is an elementary particle really: (i) a particle? (ii) elementary?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Is an elementary particle really: (i) a particle? (ii) elementary? Over centuries, naïve notions about this have turned out incorrect. Particles are not really pointlike. The word elementary is not necessarily well-defined. Notes:

  5. Elementary Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching Science and Classroom Practice: An Examination of Pre/Post NCLB Testing in Science (United States)

    Milner, Andrea R.; Sondergeld, Toni A.; Demir, Abdulkadir; Johnson, Carla C.; Czerniak, Charlene M.


    The impact of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) mandated state science assessment on elementary teachers' beliefs about teaching science and their classroom practice is relatively unknown. For many years, the teaching of science has been minimized in elementary schools in favor of more emphasis on reading and mathematics. This study examines the…

  6. Mathematical Properties Relevant to Geomagnetic Field Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaka, Terence J.; Hulot, Gauthier; Olsen, Nils


    be directly measured. In this chapter, the mathematical foundation of global (as opposed to regional) geomagnetic field modeling is reviewed, and the spatial modeling of the field in spherical coordinates is focussed. Time can be dealt with as an independent variable and is not explicitly considered......Geomagnetic field modeling consists in converting large numbers of magnetic observations into a linear combination of elementary mathematical functions that best describes those observations.The set of numerical coefficients defining this linear combination is then what one refers.......The relevant elementary mathematical functions are introduced, their properties are reviewed, and how they can be used to describe the magnetic field in a source-free (such as the Earth’s neutral atmosphere) or source-dense (such as the ionosphere) environment is explained. Completeness and uniqueness...

  7. Mathematical Properties Relevant to Geomagnetic Field Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaka, Terence J.; Hulot, Gauthier; Olsen, Nils


    be directly measured. In this chapter, the mathematical foundation of global (as opposed to regional) geomagnetic field modeling is reviewed, and the spatial modeling of the field in spherical coordinates is focused. Time can be dealt with as an independent variable and is not explicitly considered......Geomagnetic field modeling consists in converting large numbers of magnetic observations into a linear combination of elementary mathematical functions that best describes those observations. The set of numerical coefficients defining this linear combination is then what one refers....... The relevant elementary mathematical functions are introduced, their properties are reviewed, and how they can be used to describe the magnetic field in a source-free (such as the Earth’s neutral atmosphere) or source-dense (such as the ionosphere) environment is explained. Completeness and uniqueness...

  8. Elementary Thermal Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lostaglio, Matteo; Alhambra, Álvaro M.; Perry, Christopher


    To what extent do thermodynamic resource theories capture physically relevant constraints? Inspired by quantum computation, we define a set of elementary thermodynamic gates that only act on 2 energy levels of a system at a time. We show that this theory is well reproduced by a Jaynes-Cummings in......To what extent do thermodynamic resource theories capture physically relevant constraints? Inspired by quantum computation, we define a set of elementary thermodynamic gates that only act on 2 energy levels of a system at a time. We show that this theory is well reproduced by a Jaynes...

  9. Elementary excitations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmer, R.H.


    The role of elementary quasi-particle and quasi-hole excitations is reviewed in connection with the analysis of data involving high-lying nuclear states. This article includes discussions on: (i) single quasi-hole excitations in pick-up reactions, (ii) the formation of single quasi-hole and quasi-particle excitations (in different nuclei) during transfer reactions, followed by (iii) quasi-particle quasi-hole excitations in the same nucleus that are produced by photon absorption. Finally, the question of photon absorption in the vicinity of the elementary Δ resonance is discussed, where nucleonic as well as nuclear degrees of freedom can be excited

  10. Elementary topology problem textbook

    CERN Document Server

    Viro, O Ya; Netsvetaev, N Yu; Kharlamov, V M


    This textbook on elementary topology contains a detailed introduction to general topology and an introduction to algebraic topology via its most classical and elementary segment centered at the notions of fundamental group and covering space. The book is tailored for the reader who is determined to work actively. The proofs of theorems are separated from their formulations and are gathered at the end of each chapter. This makes the book look like a pure problem book and encourages the reader to think through each formulation. A reader who prefers a more traditional style can either find the pr

  11. Elementary classical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chirgwin, B H; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A; Plumpton, C


    Elementary Classical Hydrodynamics deals with the fundamental principles of elementary classical hydrodynamics, with emphasis on the mechanics of inviscid fluids. Topics covered by this book include direct use of the equations of hydrodynamics, potential flows, two-dimensional fluid motion, waves in liquids, and compressible flows. Some general theorems such as Bernoulli's equation are also considered. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental principles of fluid hydrodynamics, with emphasis on ways of studying the motion of a fluid. Basic c

  12. Making Mathematics. (United States)

    Huckstep, Peter


    Contends teachers must resist the temptation to suggest that, while children can create stories and melodies, they cannot create mathematics. Quotes mathematician G. H. Hardy: "A mathematician, like a painter or poet, is a 'maker' of patterns." Considers mathematics should be able to stand up for itself. (BT)

  13. Mathematical psychology. (United States)

    Batchelder, William H


    Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Mathematics 2

    CERN Document Server

    Kodaira, Kunihiko


    This is the translation from the Japanese textbook for the grade 11 course, "General Mathematics". It is part of the easier of the three elective courses in mathematics offered at this level and is taken by about 40% of students. The book covers basic notions of probability and statistics, vectors, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions, and an introduction to differentiation and integration.

  15. Discrete Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted


    ; construct a finite state machine for a given application. Apply these concepts to new problems. The teaching in Discrete Mathematics is a combination of sessions with lectures and students solving problems, either manually or by using Matlab. Furthermore a selection of projects must be solved and handed...... to accomplish the following: -Understand and apply formal representations in discrete mathematics. -Understand and apply formal representations in problems within discrete mathematics. -Understand methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics. -Apply methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics...... to new problems. Relations and functions: Define a product set; define and apply equivalence relations; construct and apply functions. Apply these concepts to new problems. Natural numbers and induction: Define the natural numbers; apply the principle of induction to verify a selection of properties...

  16. Mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, James D


    The book is a textbook (with many exercises) giving an in-depth account of the practical use of mathematical modelling in the biomedical sciences. The mathematical level required is generally not high and the emphasis is on what is required to solve the real biological problem. The subject matter is drawn, e.g. from population biology, reaction kinetics, biological oscillators and switches, Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, reaction-diffusion theory, biological wave phenomena, central pattern generators, neural models, spread of epidemics, mechanochemical theory of biological pattern formation and importance in evolution. Most of the models are based on real biological problems and the predictions and explanations offered as a direct result of mathematical analysis of the models are important aspects of the book. The aim is to provide a thorough training in practical mathematical biology and to show how exciting and novel mathematical challenges arise from a genuine interdisciplinary involvement with the biosci...

  17. Mathematics unbound

    CERN Document Server

    Parshall, Karen Hunger


    Although today's mathematical research community takes its international character very much for granted, this "global nature" is relatively recent, having evolved over a period of roughly 150 years-from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the middle of the twentieth century. During this time, the practice of mathematics changed from being centered on a collection of disparate national communities to being characterized by an international group of scholars for whom the goal of mathematical research and cooperation transcended national boundaries. Yet, the development of an international community was far from smooth and involved obstacles such as war, political upheaval, and national rivalries. Until now, this evolution has been largely overlooked by historians and mathematicians alike. This book addresses the issue by bringing together essays by twenty experts in the history of mathematics who have investigated the genesis of today's international mathematical community. This includes not only develo...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sead Rešić


    Full Text Available It is very difficult to motivate students when it comes to a school subject like Mathematics. Teachers spend a lot of time trying to find something that will arouse interest in students. It is particularly difficult to find materials that are motivating enough for students that they eagerly wait for the next lesson. One of the solutions may be found in Vedic Mathematics. Traditional methods of teaching Mathematics create fear of this otherwise interesting subject in the majority of students. Fear increases failure. Often the traditional, conventional mathematical methods consist of very long lessons which are difficult to understand. Vedic Mathematics is an ancient system that is very flexible and encourages the development of intuition and innovation. It is a mental calculating tool that does not require a calculator because the calculator is embedded in each of us. Starting from the above problems of fear and failure in Mathematics, the goal of this paper is to do research with the control and the experimental group and to compare the test results. Two tests should be done for each of the groups. The control group would do the tests in the conventional way. The experimental group would do the first test in a conventional manner and then be subjected to different treatment, that is to say, be taught on the basis of Vedic Mathematics. After that, the second group would do the second test according to the principles of Vedic Mathematics. Expectations are that after short lectures on Vedic mathematics results of the experimental group would improve and that students will show greater interest in Mathematics.

  19. Iteration in Early-Elementary Engineering Design (United States)

    McFarland Kendall, Amber Leigh

    K-12 standards and curricula are beginning to include engineering design as a key practice within Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education. However, there is little research on how the youngest students engage in engineering design within the elementary classroom. This dissertation focuses on iteration as an essential aspect of engineering design, and because research at the college and professional level suggests iteration improves the designer's understanding of problems and the quality of design solutions. My research presents qualitative case studies of students in kindergarten and third-grade as they engage in classroom engineering design challenges which integrate with traditional curricula standards in mathematics, science, and literature. I discuss my results through the lens of activity theory, emphasizing practices, goals, and mediating resources. Through three chapters, I provide insight into how early-elementary students iterate upon their designs by characterizing the ways in which lesson design impacts testing and revision, by analyzing the plan-driven and experimentation-driven approaches that student groups use when solving engineering design challenges, and by investigating how students attend to constraints within the challenge. I connect these findings to teacher practices and curriculum design in order to suggest methods of promoting iteration within open-ended, classroom-based engineering design challenges. This dissertation contributes to the field of engineering education by providing evidence of productive engineering practices in young students and support for the value of engineering design challenges in developing students' participation and agency in these practices.

  20. Elementary particle interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Handler, T.; Hart, E.L.; Ward, B.F.L.; Close, F.E.; Christophorou, L.G.


    This report discusses freon bubble chamber experiments exposed to μ + and neutrinos, photon-proton interactions; shower counter simulations; SLD detectors at the Stanford Linear Collider, and the detectors at the Superconducting Super Collider; elementary particle interactions; physical properties of dielectric materials used in High Energy Physics detectors; and Nuclear Physics