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Sample records for plato aristotle ptolemy

  1. Democratic Freedom and the Concept of Freedom in Plato and Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogens Herman Hansen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the several meanings of eleutheria used by Greeks in the classical period, democratic freedom is rejected by both Plato and Aristotle, who do not articulate a theory of political freedom but rather confine eleutheria to a social context.

  2. Can Prior Knowledge Hurt Text Comprehension? An Answer Borrowed from Plato, Aristotle, and Descartes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lawrence B.

    Taking a philosophical approach based on what Plato, Aristotle, and Descartes said about knowledge, this paper addresses some of the murkiness in the conceptual space surrounding the issue of whether prior knowledge does or does not facilitate text comprehension. Specifically, the paper first develops a non-exhaustive typology of cases in which…

  3. Ontological Questions in Schelling’s Late Philosophy: Plato and Aristotle

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    Jean-François Courtine

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to understand the reasons and procedures employed by F. W. Schelling in his Plato and Aristotle re-appropriation, and to extract the authentically ontological thematic of it. It makes a path through the Schelling’s late writings and letters, to construct a complete view about the relation between this appropriation and the possibility of the constitution of a positive philosophy, as a particular science, in opposition to a negative philosophy, understood as metaphysics.

  4. Arete and Gender-Differentiation in Socrates/Plato and Aristotle

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    Thomas Robinson

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The article grapples with the question whether Plato believed that, in the matter of arete, the female psyche had a built-in inclination to immorality in a way that the male psyche did not, and was therefore assuch signiticantly different from the male psyche. It is argued that the evidence of the Timaeus ( and, to some lesser degree, of the Laws suggests very strongly that he did, though fortunately the political consequence she drew from this (in the Laws tum out to be positive rather than negative. Aristotle, by contrast,it is argued, while still holding to the lamentable theory of the inferiority of woman, talks of ditl'eringquanta of (one and the same arete in male and female souls, rather than a difference in their very arete.

  5. The quest for a poetics of goodness in plato and aristotle

    OpenAIRE

    Dairo Orozco

    2012-01-01

    The paper, which compares Plato and Aristotle’s different approaches towards artistic activity, is divided into three parts. The first part discusses Plato’s Ion on mimesis and technē, as well as the role that poetry plays in the Republic. The second section offers an account of Aristotle’s idea of happiness as the end of action. Thelast section of this study deals with an attempt to reconcile Plato and Aristotle’s attitude towards mimetic art in a treatise by a Neoplatonic renaissance thinke...

  6. The influence of Plato, Aristotle, and the ancient Polis on a programme for congenital cardiac surgery: the virtuous partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroudis, Constantine; Backer, Carl L

    2007-09-01

    The problems that exist in maintaining a partnership in paediatric cardiac surgery are considerable. They relate to fairness in allocation of time for leisure, the apportioning of cases between the partners, internal competition between them, financial considerations, and promotion of the ego. In this review, we discuss our own experiences in maintaining a partnership over a period of more than 18 years, relating such a "virtuous partnership" to the writings of Plato and Aristotle, and setting it against the tenets of the ancient Greek polis. The polis, or city state, came to prominence in ancient Greece during the golden age of Pericles, this period seeing the initial evolution of Western philosophy, as well as numerous other scientific, artistic and architectural advances. The concept of the polis was to create a natural association with its citizens that nurtured all that is best in people, at the same time defining their character. In this respect, according to Plato, the person and the polis are mirror images. Aristotle then expanded this notion to incorporate the various forms of friendship, which he pointed out last only as long as the interrelated pleasure survives. Using these principles as the point of departure, we argue that cardiac surgeons should respect moral virtue in each other. Extending this process means that we should also respect, and celebrate, our relationships with affiliated physicians, nurses, perfusionists, administrators, and all concerned in the care of children with congenitally malformed hearts. In this way, we create a virtuous partnership for congenital cardiac surgery that promotes all that was good, as engendered in the ancient Greek polis. As we extend these observations to the modern world, we discuss some of the features that have permitted us to work so well together. One of the most important is a summoning and unwritten tenet that greets us as we enter the operating room, namely "check your ego at the door". The operative

  7. 苏格拉底、柏拉图、亚里士多德与丑%Socrates,Plato and Aristotle's Views on Ugliness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区翰子; 李佳

    2014-01-01

    尽管从苏格拉底开始就萌生“丑”这个美学范畴,其在古代一直处于被忽视和非独立的地位。拟通过分析苏格拉底、柏拉图和亚里士多德三位巨匠的“丑”观,揭示“审丑”在萌芽时期的状态。%Despite its first faint showing started from Socrates , Ugliness had constantly been over-looked as a dependent aesthetic category in the ancient time .The following discussion will analyze the views of Socrates ,Plato and Aristotle on the appreciation of ugliness ,thus revealing the state of the appre-ciation of ugliness in its earlier stage .

  8. On Aesthetic Thoughts of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle%古希腊“三贤”美育思想概论

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    秦宾; 刘忠伟

    2011-01-01

    Based on analysis of aesthetic thoughts of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, the famous philosophers in ancient Greek, this paper attempts to use their ideas for reference in guiding the cur- rent teaching practice to better aesthetic education.%通过对古希腊时期三位著名哲学家苏格拉底、柏拉图、亚里土多德美育思想的简要概括和论述,试图从他们对美育思想的主张中提取有益于符合我们现实国情的教育理念,对我们在教学实践中更好地实施美育教育提供可资借鉴的依据。

  9. Leonico Tomeo—the First Interpreter and Translater of Aristotle From Original Greek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulaj, Tatjana; Mulaj, Zenun

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of XV century, in European Renaissance, it was necessary to study the Aristotle in original Greek, because translations from Arab in Latin had caused considerable alterations in the meaning of original texts. This task in the beginning was trusted to Leonico Tomeo, which, not only opened the way for the studying of the Aristotle in original, but himself made important interpretations about philosophic and social problems and gave his arguments about concepts of natural sciences, as for motion, atoms etc. He translated some works of Plato, Aristotle, Ptolemy etc, from the Greek to Latin. The work of Tomeo gave revolutionary results and prepared the way for the scientific method of Galileo, which from Padua, where worked and lived Tomeo and later, Galileo, propagates in all European universities.

  10. The Differences between Plato and Aristotle's Educational Philosophy%柏拉图与亚里士多德教育哲学的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘良华

    2012-01-01

    古典西方教育哲学分为两个阵营:柏拉图以苏格拉底的名义组建他的“理想国”,按照“理论理性”设计他的“政治哲学”和教育方案;柏拉图坚持“哲人王”统治、公产制和道德教育。亚里士多德虽然坚持了哲学对政治的指导,但他看到了哲学对政治的危险,按照“实践理性”的优先性开创了不同于柏拉图的“政治哲学”的“政治科学”以及相关的教育方案。亚里士多德重视轮流制、私有制和法制教育。%The classical philosophy of education is divided into two camps. Plato built his Republic in the name of Socrates and designed the political philosophy and education plan with the theoretical reason. He adhered to the rule of the “philosophy king”, the communist membership system and moral education. Aristotle realized the danger of the philosophy to the politics, although he insisted in the guidance of philosophy to politics. He created the political science and education plan with the practical reason instead of Plato's political philosophy. He valued the political rule, the private ownership, and the legal education.

  11. Aristotle on Deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2014-01-01

    Aristotle differs from most later philosophers in distinguishing clearly between epistemic reasoning, which aims for truth, and practical reasoning, which does not. How can he posit this distinction and yet not dismiss practical reasoning as flattery and manipulation, as Plato did? The answer lies...... in the concepts of deliberation (boulē, bouleusis) and deliberate choice (proairesis). They link Aristotle's rhetoric, ethics, and politics together and help provide definitions of all three: Ethics is about deliberate choices by individuals. Politics and rhetoric are about the collective deliberate choices...

  12. Plato's Embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilberding, James

    2015-01-01

    Embryology was a subject that inspired great cross-disciplinary discussion in antiquity, and Plato's Timaeus made an important contribution to this discussion, though Plato's precise views have remained a matter of controversy, especially regarding three key questions pertaining to the generation and nature of the seed: whether there is a female seed; what the nature of seed is; and whether the seed contains a preformed human being. In this paper I argue that Plato's positions on these three issues can be adequately determined, even if some other aspects of his theory cannot. In particular, it is argued that (i) Plato subscribes to the encephalo-myelogenic theory of seed, though he places particular emphasis on the soul being the true seed; (ii) Plato is a two-seed theorist, yet the female seed appears to make no contribution to reproduction; and (iii) Plato cannot be an advocate of preformationism.

  13. Aristotle's Aesthetic Thoughts in Tragedy

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    耿利红

    2010-01-01

    @@ Aristotle is the greatest thinker and profound scholar in ancient Greece,who inherits the philosophy achievements of ancient Greece since Thales,especially the fruits of Plato'S thought.His inheritance takes criticism as the basis and innovation as the objective.Poetics has long been known as the foundation-laying work in the history of western literary theory among the most works of Aristotle.In Poetics,tragedy is focused by Aristotle.He attaches more importance to tragedy,analyzes its artistic features and elements to show its aesthetic significance and value.This is not simply to discuss the artistic technique but to discuss his aesthetic thoughts in tragedy.

  14. Aristotle and His Idea on Imitation

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    彭侃

    2009-01-01

    Aristode's contribution to art and literature is significant.His idea on imitation is a fundamental theory for further literacy critics.This paper compares Aristode's theory on imitation with plato's,and summaries Aristotle's contributions to the field of art.

  15. Aristotle vs. Plato: The Balkans' Paradoxical Enlightenment

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    D. Michalopoulos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available As it occurred in West, Aristotle’s thought was in Byzantium the main organon of philosophical meditation within the frame of the Christian Faith. Nonetheless, from the ninth century on it was a revival of Platonism that took place – of Neo-Platonism at the beginning and of Platonism itself at the end. The Church, initially indifferent, became suspicious only when, at the turning of the fourteenth to the fifteenth century, the Platonism seemed to engender somewhat a latent paganism; but the Patriarchate was not then able to fight that tendency. So only after the 1453 capture of Constantinople by the Ottomans, Gennadius Scholarius managed to root out from the Greek lands Platonism and its crypto-pagan extension. Be that as it may; the main paradox of the Balkan history is that in the early seventeenth century some leading Greek scholars endorsed the materialist interpretation of Aristotle’s thought – as it was taught in the University of Padua by Cesare Cremonini; and as a corollary this materialistic philosophical system began being taught in both Constantinople and Athens. It was that very way that the Enlightenment took birth in the Balkans – and somehow became a State ideology - long before its prevalence in France. And of course all this had as a result a turn toward Physics and Chemistry with far-reaching consequences

  16. Plato's problem an introduction to mathematical platonism

    CERN Document Server

    Panza, M

    2013-01-01

    What is mathematics about? And how can we have access to the reality it is supposed to describe? The book tells the story of this problem, first raised by Plato, through the views of Aristotle, Proclus, Kant, Frege, Gödel, Benacerraf, up to the most recent debate on mathematical platonism.

  17. Ptolemy Coding Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-05

    JavaTemplate.java. In addition useful tools are provided in the directories under $PTII/util/ to help enforce the standards. • lisp /ptjavastyle.el is a... lisp module for GNU Emacs that has appropriate indenting rules. This file works well with Emacs under both Unix and Windows. • testsuite/ptspell is a...key by inserting spaces rather than the tab character. To set up Emacs to follow the Ptolemy II indentation style, see $PTII/util/ lisp /ptemacs.el. To

  18. Plato on Metaphysical Explanation: Does 'Participating' Mean Nothing?

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    Christine J. Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to Aristotle, Plato's efforts at metaphysical explanation not only fail, they are nonsensical. In particular, Plato's appeals to Forms as metaphysically explanatory of the sensibles that participate in them is "empty talk" since "'participating' means nothing" (Met. 992a28-9. I defend Plato against Aristotle's charge by identifying a particular, substantive model of metaphysical predication as the favored model of Plato's late ontology. The model posits two basic metaphysical predication relations: self-predication and participation. In order to understand the participation relation, it is important first to understand how Plato's Forms are self-predicative paradigms. According to the favored model, Forms are self-predicative paradigms insofar as they are ideal, abstract encoders of structural essences. Sensibles participate in Forms by exemplifying the structures encoded in the Forms. Given plausible conditions on metaphysical explanation, Plato's appeals to abstract Forms as metaphysically explanatory of sensibles is a reasonable competitor for Aristotle's appeals to natural, substantial forms. At the very least, Plato's appeals to a participation relation are not empty.

  19. THEORY OF LOVE IN PLATO'S PHILOSOPHY

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    ZOHREH MOZAFARI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a philosophical analysis of the phenomenon of Plato’s love. It is noted that a large number of works are devoted to the philosophy of Plato’s love, but not all aspects of his philosophy are studied, for example the problems of erotosophy of Plato. Phenomenon of love interested philosophers since ancient times. The first attempts to explain the phenomenon of love appeared in ancient times. These attempts were made by ancient philosophers Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. Platonism is a multifaceted teaching; identification of all possibilities of Plato’s erotic philosophy which can supplement other fields of philosophy is important and topical. 

  20. Plato's Cosmic Theology: A Rationale for a Polytheistic Astrology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, André

    2015-05-01

    Plato's cosmology influenced classical astronomy and religion, but was in turn influenced by the polytheistic context of its time. Throughout his texts, including the cosmological treatise Timaeus, and the discussions on the soul in the Phaedrus, Plato (c.428-c.348 BC) established what can be generalised as Platonic cosmological thought. An understanding of the philosophical and mythical levels of Platonic thought can provide a rationale for polytheistic and astrological worldviews, pointing to some cosmological continuity, alongside major shifts, from ancient Greek religion to the astrological thought of ancient astronomers such as Claudius Ptolemy.

  1. Some biological aspects of Aristotle's glottology

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    Maricki-Gađanski Ksenija

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 B. C was for a long time an authority on ancient grammatical theory. His formulations of word categories supplemented by abundant logical and rhetorical considerations, made foundations for traditional linguistic concepts of grammar. He dealt with these matters almost throughout all his life, leaning on the knowledge of his predecessors, especially Plato and other philosophers. The author of this paper states that there was yet another field of investigation important for Aristotle especially in last the 25 years of his life, which contributed to his grasp of human language. Those were his biological preoccupations, which resulted in the works Historia animalium, De generatione animalium, De Partibus animalium, Parva naturalia. In these books he separated himself from Plato's dualism, treating human being as part of the living world, after his thorough empirical research of the systems and functioning of more than 500 animal species he knew. In several titles he insists that there is language only in man (Tõ lógõ chrçtai mónoz tõn zõõn d anthrõpoz, De generatione animalium 7, 786 b 2. That is his own discovery. He analyzes the role and function of all the organs by which the language is produced: mouth, lips tongue, larynx, palate, nose, then stream of air, etc. Doing so, he formulates in fact an early type of phonetics. The author of the paper further indicates that this 'biological' knowledge of Aristotle's should be confronted and paralleled with his 'grammatical' formulations, which should lead to a more complete image of Aristotle's glottology, a theory of language in broader sense than linguistics of today. As for the physei - thései traditional division among ancient Greek philosophers, Aristotle did not seem to care a lot, but one can conclude that Aristotle thought of language as being katà synthçkçn, i. e. of arbitrary nature.

  2. Aristotle's "homo mimeticus" as an Educational Paradigm for Human Coexistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramuzzo, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    In the "Poetics" of Aristotle there is a definition of the human being that perhaps has not yet been well considered in educational theory and practice. This definition calls into question a dynamism that according to Plato was unavoidable for an appropriate understanding of the educational process that turns a human being into a…

  3. Pursuing the Good, Ethics and Metaphysics in Plato s Republic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Douglas; Cairns; Fritz-Gregor; Herrmann; Terry; Penner

    2008-01-01

    ‘Pursuing the good’ is an old subject in both social history of ancient Greece and Greek philosophy studies. There is hardly anything new when we talk about virtue or morality in the time of Plato and Aristotle. In the area of Greek history, many books and articles on or relevant to that

  4. Parmenide e Platone (e Aristotele nel Contro Colote di Plutarco Parménide et Platon (et Aristote dans le Contre Colotès de Plutarque Parmenides and Plato (and Aristotle in Plutarch's Against Colotes

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    Mauro Bonazzi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The chapters dedicated to Parmenides and Plato play a decisive role in the composition strategy of the Adversus Colotem, since this is where Plutarch most clearly defines the background dualist thesis that will help demonstrate that Platonism is superior to Epicurism. By showing Parmenides too as a dualist engaged in distinguishing between the sensible and the intelligible world, Plutarch structures a history of ancient philosophy entirely focused on Plato. These chapters also bear witness of another centre of interest, namely Aristoteles (§ 14, who, despite the criticism he aimed at the theory of ideas, is not completely refuted, but rather used as a possible ally against epicurean materialists, Plutarch’s true bête noire.Les chapitres consacrés à Parménide et Platon jouent un rôle décisif dans la stratégie de composition de l’Adversus Colotem : c’est là en effet que Plutarque définit de la manière la plus claire la thèse dualiste de fond qui va servir à démontrer la supériorité du platonisme sur l’épicurisme. En présentant Parménide lui aussi comme un dualiste occupé à distinguer entre monde sensible et monde intelligible, Plutarque articule une histoire de la philosophie antique entièrement centrée sur Platon. Les chapitres témoignent ensuite d’un autre centre d’intérêt, avec la mention d’Aristote (§ 14, lequel, malgré les critiques qu’il adresse à la théorie des idées, n’est pas complètement réfuté, mais plutôt utilisé comme un allié possible contre les matérialistes épicuriens, la véritable « bête noire » de Plutarque.I capitoli dedicati a Parmenide e Platone giocano un ruolo decisivo nella strategia compositiva dell’Adversus Colotem: è qui infatti che Plutarco delinea nel modo più chiaro la tesi dualistica di fondo che servirà a dimostrare la superiorità del platonismo sull’epicureismo. Presentando anche Parmenide come un dualista, impegnato a distinguere tra mondo

  5. The pancreas from Aristotle to Galen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Ryoichi; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Eguchi, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    The first description of the pancreas in literature is found in Aristotle's Historia Animalium, but it is modified by "so-called". Therefore, the origin is pursued more extensively. The Greek-English Lexicon recommends three treatises as a possible original source. These three and Galen's other papers are investigated. In 2005, Sachs et al. suggested an origin of the pancreas might have derived from the intestinal divination using the avian pancreas. This report is evaluated. The avian pancreas which is the intraperitoneal organ, might have been well known by the intestinal divination, and people have called the organ pankreas or kallikreas. Anatomical dissection on human body was not accepted before the Aristotle's time. "So-called pancreas" in Historia must have been interpolated by Theophrastus. He was the most faithful and reliable disciple of Aristotle and succeeded the Aristotle's school. He and Macedonian ruler of Egypt Ptolemy I had known each other and there had been a strong link between them. The contemporary Herophilus performed many public dissections on both human and animal bodies in Alexandria. He named the various parts of the human body and designated the beginning intestine as duodenum. Yet in his extant works, the pancreas is not found. It is surmised that Herophilus may be the first to recognize the human pancreas, which is fixed with retroperitoneal tissue, and he named it "so-called pancreas". Theophrastus might have interpolated Herophilus' designation in Historia Animalium. Galen also uses "so-called pancreas" to designate the human pancreas. Galen's descriptions, that is, "Nature created 'so-called pancreas 'and spread it beneath all vessels" are not generally acceptable but propose the very rare portal vein anomalies. Since the early years of the 20th century, cases with a preduodenal portal vein or a prepancreatic portal vein have been reported. Although the incidence is very rare, its surgical importance is emphasized. Copyright © 2014

  6. Irreflexivity and Aristotle's Syllogismos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncombe, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Aristotle's definition of syllogismos at Prior Analytics 24b18–20 specifies syllogistic consequence as an irreflexive relation: the conclusion must be different from each premise and any conjunction of the premises. Typically, commentators explain this irreflexivity condition as Aristotle's attempt

  7. Filsafat Ketuhanan Menurut Plato

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    Ivan Th.J Weismann

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Plato adalah filsuf pertama yang menulis secara filosofis dan secara sistematik teologis mengenai konsep Ketuhanan sehingga dapatlah dikatakan bahwa ia adalah peletqk dasar bagi ilmu teologia dan memberikan pengaruh besar bagi perkembanganfilsafat Barat khususnya tentangkonsep Ketuhanan. Pemikiran Plato tentang Ketuhanan adalah upayanya untuk mereformasi konsep Ketuhanan yang terdapat pada masyarakat Yunani kuno. Tulisan ini berupaya menganalisis dan memahami Ketuhanan menurut Plato agar pembaca masa kini dapat mengerti lebih dalam lagi tentong konsep Ketuhanan yang dipahami masyarakat Yunani kuno dan khususnya menurut Plato, dan juga dapat dijadikan sebagai bahan perbandingan bagifilsafat Ketuhanan pada masa kini. Filsafat Ketuhanan menurut Plato ini penulis jelaskan dengan memperhatikandimensi metafisika, epistemologi, dan etika.

  8. [Plato psychiatrist, Foucault platonic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathov, Nicolás

    2016-05-01

    This work explores the links between the concepts of "soul", "law" and "word" in Plato's work, in order to highlight the importance and the centrality of the philosophical-therapeutic dimension in the Greek philosopher's thought. In that way, this work pretends to show that "contemporary" problems usually discussed within "Human Sciences" in general, and Psychiatry in particular, should confront their knowledge with Plato's work, mainly due to the profound influence his ideas have had in our Greco-Christian culture. In that sense, and with that objective, this work also explores Michel Foucault's lucid and controversial interpretation of Plato.

  9. Ptolemy's Theorem and Familiar Trigonometric Identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, James K.

    1993-01-01

    Integrates the sum, difference, and multiple angle identities into an examination of Ptolemy's Theorem, which states that the sum of the products of the lengths of the opposite sides of a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle is equal to the product of the lengths of the diagonals. (MDH)

  10. Aristotle on Memory and Recollection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    Twentieth-century scholarship on Aristotle's De Memoria et Reminiscentia was dominated by the view that Aristotle's theories of memory and recollection are basically very similar to ours. By means of a new critical edition of the Greek text, an essay on Aristotle's own theories and an essay on th...

  11. Aristotle The first encyclopedist

    CERN Document Server

    Rosu, H C

    2002-01-01

    Aristotle was the first to declare himself in the class of natural philosophers ({\\em physiologoi}) and he was the first physicist because he spelled out the first definitions of some basic physical concepts. Moreover, he was the first encyclopedist of the world and perhaps the greatest

  12. THE JOURNEY OF TRUTH: FROM PLATO TO ZOLA

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    Ribut Basuki

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Western theater theory and criticism is generally considered to be set forth by the Greeks. Plato was "the first theater critic" with his negative comments about theater owing to his idealistic views about "the truth." Then came Aristotle who used a different viewpoint from that of Plato, saying that there is "truth" in theater. However, hostile criticism on theater came back in the Middle Ages, championed by Tertulian before Aristotelian theory was revived by the neo-classicists such as Scaliger and Castelvetro. Theater theory and criticism discourse was then made more alive by the romanticists who disagreed with the neo-classicists' rigid rules on theater. As the influence of science became dominant in the theater world, naturalism and realism emerged and became the mainstream of theater theory and criticism until well into the twentieth century.

  13. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  14. A Modular Formal Semantics for Ptolemy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    computation, both untimed and timed, to be composed hierarchically in an arbitrary fashion . This paper proposes a formal semantics for Ptolemy which is...0720882 ( CSR -EHS: PRET) and #0931843 (ActionWebs), the U. S. Army Research Office (ARO #W911NF-11-2-0038), the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL), the Multiscale...Finally, a number of component-oriented frameworks come from the fields of traditional pro- gramming and software engineering, e.g., object-oriented

  15. Aristotle, Autonomy, and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-30

    utilitarianism and virtue theory in regarding reason as incomplete by itself.) Moral judgment, in my opinion, requires a pre-deliberative canon of...about the chief good at the beginning of the Nicomachean Ethics : And since it [political science] uses the other sciences concerned with action, and...extremes of excess and deficiency. Courage, for example, is the moral virtue concerned with our feelings of confidence in 2 Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics

  16. Control Data's Education Offering: "Plato Would Have Enjoyed PLATO"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datamation, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Programmed Learning and Teaching Operation (PLATO) distributes instructional materials in the form of text, numbers, animated drawings and other graphics for individualized, self-paced learning. (Author)

  17. From Pericles to Plato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2012-01-01

    Plato is normally taken as one of the founders of Western political philosophy, not at least with his Republic. Here, he constructs a hierarchy of forms of governments, beginning with aristocracy at the top as a critical standard for the other forms of governments, and proceeding through timocrac......’ funeral oration is used to show that Pericles presented a democratic political philosophy that can serve as a counterpoint to Plato’s political philosophy in the Republic....

  18. Peers on Socrates and Plato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Jim

    2014-01-01

    There is more to be said about two of the topics Chris Peers addresses in his article "Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A morpho-logic of teaching and learning" (2012, Educational Philosophy and Theory, 44, 760-774), namely the Socratic method of teaching and Plato's stance with regard to women and feminism. My purpose in this article is…

  19. PLATO Sitcom Dialogs for Russian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Clayton; Provenzano, Nolen

    1981-01-01

    Situation comedy (sitcom) dialogs that are included in PLATO lessons for first year Russian students are described. These comprehension exercises make use of both the touch panel and the audio capabilities of PLATO. The sitcom dialogs were written by a native speaker of Russian and are based on the vocabulary in the textbook plus a small number of…

  20. Peers on Socrates and Plato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Jim

    2014-01-01

    There is more to be said about two of the topics Chris Peers addresses in his article "Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A morpho-logic of teaching and learning" (2012, Educational Philosophy and Theory, 44, 760-774), namely the Socratic method of teaching and Plato's stance with regard to women and feminism. My purpose in this article is…

  1. Aristotle's ethical theory & modern health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, S K

    1996-01-01

    The Greek physician of antiquity - Hippocrates (460-356 B.C.) is called the Father of Modern Medicine and the Hippocratic Oath to which doctors of modern medicine traditionally and formally express their allegiance, forms the basic foundation of medical ethics. The tradition of Western ethical philosophy began with the ancient Greeks. From Socrates (469-399 B.C.) and his immediate successors, Plato (427-347 B.C.) and Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), there is a clear line of continuity, through Hellenistic period (from the death of Alexander the Great (323 B.C.) to the end of Ptolemic dynasty (30 B.C.) and the Roman annexation of Egypt - broadly post-Aristotelian and medieval thought to the present day. But the society has qualitatively and quantitatively changed since the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Society, today, is just a collection of discrete individuals, each with his or her own purposes and interests. Hence it has become almost imperative to apply the principle of autonomy to issues in the ethics of health care. The aim of this short essay is, therefore, an attempt to explore the relevance, if any, of Aristotelian ethical theory to the modern health care.

  2. Automated Distributed Simulation in Ptolemy II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lázaro Cuadrado, Daniel; Ravn, Anders Peter; Koch, Peter

    2007-01-01

    the ensuing communication and synchronization problems. Very often the designer has to explicitly specify extra information concerning distribution for the framework to make an effort to exploit parallelism. This paper presents Automated Distributed Simulation (ADS), which allows the designer to forget about......Despite the well known advantages of distributed processing for intensive computations like simulation, frameworks often fail to exploit them. A distributed simulation is harder to develop than a sequential one, because it is necessary to interface and map activities to processors and handle...... distribution concerns while benefiting from the advantages. ADS relies on the actor formalism. It is realized as an open source implementation for the Ptolemy II simulation framework. Experiments compare different topologies, granularities and number of blocks, achieving linear speedups for practical cases. We...

  3. New Perspectives on Aristotle's De caelo

    CERN Document Server

    Bowen, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Aristotle's great ambition in his "De caelo" was to determine the nature and structure of the geocentric universe. This collection of essays addresses key epistemological and methodological issues raised by the numerous arguments that Aristotle offers.

  4. High-Field Superconducting Magnets Supporting PTOLEMY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Ann; Luo, Audrey; Osherson, Benjamin; Gentile, Charles; Tully, Chris; Cohen, Adam

    2013-10-01

    The Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early Universe, Massive Neutrino Yield (PTOLEMY) is an experiment planned to collect data on Big Bang relic neutrinos, which are predicted to be amongst the oldest and smallest particles in the universe. Currently, a proof-of-principle prototype is being developed at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to test key technologies associated with the experiment. A prominent technology in the experiment is the Magnetic Adiabatic Collimation with an Electrostatic Filter (MAC-E filter), which guides tritium betas along magnetic field lines generated by superconducting magnets while deflecting those of lower energies. B field mapping is performed to ensure the magnets produce a minimum field at the midpoint of the configuration of the magnets and to verify accuracy of existing models. Preliminary tests indicate the required rapid decrease in B field strength from the bore of the more powerful 3.35 T magnet, with the field dropping to 0.18 T approximately 0.5 feet from the outermost surface of the magnet.

  5. Phusis and Nomos in Plato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nouri Sanghdehi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems in Plato that appears in different forms in his works is the relation of nomos and phusis. This thesis has been in fifth century B.C as the contradiction of phusis and nomos among big thinkers. In this essay, we tried to investigate the relation of phusis and nomos in Plato’s thoughts according to current theories of the contradiction of these in dialogues Gorgias, Republic and Protagoras. Plato tries to minimize consequences of belief to contradiction of phusis and nomos in social and political life by assertion large scale relation between phusis and nomos. Plato depicts the ultimate solution of this problem in Law. There he accounts nomos as raised from phusis that is sub sovereignty of divine. Indeed union of phusis and gods in Plato’s thought is sanction for the identity of phusis and nomos.

  6. Introducing Triquetrum, A Possible Future for Kepler and Ptolemy II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Christopher [University of California, Berkeley; Billings, Jay Jay [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Triquetrum is an open platform for managing and executing scientific workflows that is under development as an Eclipse project. Both Triquetrum and Kepler use Ptolemy II as their execution engine. Triquetrum presents opportunities and risks for the Kepler community. The opportunities include a possibly larger community for interaction and a path for Kepler to move from Kepler's one-off ant-based build environment towards a more common OSGi-based environment and a way to maintain a stable Ptolemy II core. The risks include the fact that Triquetrum is a fork of Ptolemy II that would result in package name changes and other possible changes. In addition, Triquetrum is licensed under the Eclipse Public License v1.0, which includes a patent clause that could conflict with the University of California patent clause. This paper describes these opportunities and risks.

  7. What is Plato? Inference and Allusion in Plato's "Sophist."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandahl, Ellen

    1989-01-01

    Discusses inference and allusion in the dialogue in Plato's Sophist. Examines the sense in which a locution is used, distinguishing among senses of the verb to be, and sets the ball rolling for the development of logic and the whole metaphysics of categories of being. (RAE)

  8. AsmL Specification of a Ptolemy II Scheduler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lázaro Cuadrado, Daniel; Koch, Peter; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2003-01-01

    Ptolemy II is a tool that combines different computational models for simulation and design of embedded systems. AsmL is a software specification language based on the Abstract State Machine formalism. This paper reports on development of an AsmL model of the Synchronous Dataflow domain scheduler...... of Ptolemy II. By building this model we can give precise semantics to the implementation. Furthermore it allows us to isolate the scheduling problem from the tool and make the potential parallelism of the implementation explicit. The model is executable and is tested against the implementation...

  9. Simplicius on Aristotle physics 81-5

    CERN Document Server

    Bodnár, István; Share, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary on Aristotle Physics book eight, chapters one to five, the sixth-century philosopher Simplicius quotes and explains important fragments of the Presocratic philosophers, provides the fragments of his Christian opponent Philoponus Against Aristotle On the Eternity of the World, and makes extensive use of the lost commentary of Aristotles leading defender, Alexander of Aphrodisias. This volume contains an English translation of Simplicius important commentary, as well as a detailed introduction, explanatory notes and a bibliography.

  10. ARISTOTLE AND THE POSTMODERN WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFREDO MARCOS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the support of recent scholarship the author proposes an understanding of the Aristotelian Corpus inspired by the biological works. He points out that this understanding is bound up with other current philosophical discussions, especially on biology, rationality, realism, the knowledge of an individual, metaphor, and poetics. The author concludes that Aristotle offers the most promising ontological, epistemological and anthropological basis not only for undertaking a series of urgent reconciliations (of facts and values, of theoretical and practical reason, of understanding and sensation, and of intelligence and emotion, but also for solving many dualisms of modern times, in their Platonic or materialist varieties.

  11. Aristotle's Conception of Childhood and the Poliscraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Examines Aristotle's conception of childhood in relation to the creation of the ideal community. According to Aristotle, children are incompletely developed, so the goal of education should be to help children outgrow their original, animal-like natures so that they will find happiness as adults in rational behavior. (AM)

  12. Interoperation of heterogeneous CAD tools in Ptolemy II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Wu, Bicheng; Liu, Xiaojun; Lee, Edward A.

    1999-03-01

    Typical complex systems that involve microsensors and microactuators exhibit heterogeneity both at the implementation level and the problem level. For example, a system can be modeled using discrete events for digital circuits and SPICE-like analog descriptions for sensors. This heterogeneity exist not only in different implementation domains, but also at different level of abstraction. This naturally leads to a heterogeneous approach to system design that uses domain-specific models of computation (MoC) at various levels of abstractions to define a system, and leverages multiple CAD tools to do simulation, verification and synthesis. As the size and scope of the system increase, the integration becomes too difficult and unmanageable if different tools are coordinated using simple scripts. In addition, for MEMS devices and mixed-signal circuits, it is essential to integrate tools with different MoC to simulate the whole system. Ptolemy II, a heterogeneous system-level design tool, supports the interaction among different MoCs. This paper discusses heterogeneous CAD tool interoperability in the Ptolemy II framework. The key is to understand the semantic interface and classify the tools by their MoC and their level of abstraction. Interfaces are designed for each domain so that the external tools can be easily wrapped. Then the interoperability of the tools becomes the interoperability of the semantics. Ptolemy II can act as the standard interface among different tools to achieve the overall design modeling. A micro-accelerometer with digital feedback is studied as an example.

  13. Extending the Real-Time Maude Semantics of Ptolemy to Hierarchical DE Models

    CERN Document Server

    Bae, Kyungmin; 10.4204/EPTCS.36.3

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends our Real-Time Maude formalization of the semantics of flat Ptolemy II discrete-event (DE) models to hierarchical models, including modal models. This is a challenging task that requires combining synchronous fixed-point computations with hierarchical structure. The synthesis of a Real-Time Maude verification model from a Ptolemy II DE model, and the formal verification of the synthesized model in Real-Time Maude, have been integrated into Ptolemy II, enabling a model-engineering process that combines the convenience of Ptolemy II DE modeling and simulation with formal verification in Real-Time Maude.

  14. William Harvey, Aristotle and astrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    In this paper I argue that William Harvey believed in a form of astrology. It has long been known that Harvey employed a macrocosm-microcosm analogy and used alchemical terminology in describing how the two types of blood change into one another. This paper then seeks to examine a further aspect of Harvey in relation to the magical tradition. There is an important corollary to this line of thought, however. This is that while Harvey does have a belief in astrology, it is strongly related to Aristotle's views in this area and is quite restricted and attenuated relative to some contemporary beliefs in astrology. This suggests a more general thesis. While Harvey was amenable to ideas which we associate with the natural magic tradition, those ideas had a very broad range of formulation and there was a limit to how far he would accept them. This limit was largely determined by Harvey's adherence to Aristotle's natural philosophy and his Christian beliefs. I argue that this is also the case in relation to Harvey's use of the macrocosm-microcosm analogy and of alchemical terminology, and, as far as we can rely on the evidence, this informs his attitudes towards witches as well. Understanding Harvey's influences and motives here is important in placing him properly in the context of early seventeenth-century thought.

  15. About Being a Friend: Friendship and Metaphysics by Plato, Aristotle, Augustine and Albert the Great

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Quero Sánchez

    2014-11-01

    of friendship in his commentaries on the Nicomachian Ethics (both Super Ethica and Ethica and we show how his metaphysics should be considered as Christian Aristotelism, according to the traditional interpretation, which has, as is known, been questioned for decades

  16. On social justice: Comparing Paul with Plato, Aristotle and the Stoics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    And the means, they stress further, to achieve the objective should be non-violent and ..... Equality of class, gender and ethnicity within the Christian community is indeed of ...... Upheavals of thought: The intelligence of emotions. Cambridge:.

  17. The Quest for a Poetics of Goodness in Plato and Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dairo Orozco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo compara las concepciones de actividad artística en Platón y Aristóteles y se divide en tres partes. En la primera, se discuten la mimesis y la technē en el Ion de Platón, así como el papel de la poesía en la República. En la segunda, se hace un recuento de la idea de felicidad de Aristóteles como fin de la acción. En la última se discute el intento de reconciliación de las posiciones de Platón y Aristóteles realizado por el pensador neoplatónico renacentista, Torquato Tasso.

  18. Ancient philosophical ideas of the soul (Plato-Aristotelian tradition and Stoicism as a source of Patristic Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaitsev Cornelius

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the ancient idea of the soul that in the patristic era has been enriched by the perception of the methodology of ancient philosophy. Greek and Roman thinkers considered some properties of the soul, its immortality, revealed its “levels and strata” (Plato, Aristotle, expressed first guesses about the nature of sinful passions (the Stoics. But some aspects still remained unresolved so far. This is the issue of materiality or immateriality, of the soul, which "raised" in the Russian Empire in the 19th century (the dispute saints Theophan the Recluse and Ignatius Brianchaninov and remains relevant today.

  19. Triarchic theories of intelligence: Aristotle and Sternberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigner, R B; Tigner, S S

    2000-05-01

    Aristotle's triarchic theory of intelligence prefigures, but apparently does not serve directly as a source for, Sternberg's comparable contemporary theory. The indepently derived similarities in their gross structure lend weight to some triarchic view. Sternberg's analytical, practical, and creative intelligences closely resemble Aristotle's theoretical, practical, and productive excellences of intelligence. Each comparable component incorporates significantly related ideas. Disparities may be attributed to a variety of differences in the aims, methods, and resources of Aristotle's and Sternberg's inquiries. This is not the first time in the history of psychology that roughly parallel investigations have yielded comparable theories, but it is surely among the most temporally disjoined.

  20. Themistius on Aristotle physics 1-3

    CERN Document Server

    Themistius

    2013-01-01

    Themistius' treatment of Books 1-3 of Aristotle's Physics presents central features of Aristotle's thought about principles, causation, change and infinity. The tradition of synthesising and epitomising exegesis is here raised to a new level by the innovative method of paraphrase pioneered by Themistius. Taking a selective, but telling, account of the earlier Peripatetic and Presocratic tradition, Themistius creates a framework that can still be profitably used in the study of Aristotle. This volume contains the first English translation of Themistius' commentary, accompanied by a detailed int

  1. Aristotle on physiology of logos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benéitez Prudencio, José Javier

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a view of Aristotle’s understanding of the relation of human intellect to human body. Given that for Aristotle intellect is a ‘psychic’ capacity or power: does Aristotle think of human understanding as a part or aspect of form (ειδος of the human body, in the way that the other powers (i.e. sensitive and nutritive are both parts of the form of an animal body? This question is still in dispute, but the objective in my inquiry is to justify the possibilities of an Aristotelian’s physiology of mind or thought.

    El presente artículo trata de estudiar la relación del entendimiento humano con el cuerpo en el pensamiento aristotélico. Dado que para Aristóteles la inteligencia constituye una capacidad o facultad ‘psíquica’, podríamos preguntarnos si no piensa, entonces, que sea una parte o un aspecto de la forma (ειδος del cuerpo humano, de la misma manera que se da esta relación con los otras facultades (así, por ejemplo, con la sensación y la nutrición. La cuestión es motivo todavía de disputa. El objetivo de mi investigación radica en justificar las posibilidades de una fisiología aristotélica de la mente o del pensamiento.

  2. Human Flourishing from the Foot's Viewpoint Regarding to Aristotle's Ideas

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Mollayousefi Mollayousefi; Sakine Aflatooni Aflatooni

    2011-01-01

    Aristotle's virtue ethics is a teleological ethics, namely, for him, the purpose of achieving moral virtues by human beings is to obtain eudaimonia. The best interpretation of eudaimonia in Aristotle is human flourishing that is the main axis of Aristotle's ethics and also contemporary virtue ethics. Aristotle's analysis of human flourishing that is performed in biological context is based on the concept of ergon or function. Therefore, Aristotle, in description of human flourishing, emphasiz...

  3. Real-time C Code Generation in Ptolemy II for the Giotto Model of Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-20

    BAUER . The time-triggered architecture. In Proceedings of the IEEE, volume 91, pages 112–126, January 2003. [18] N. V. Krishnan. Real-Time Systems Design...http://www.freertos.org. [23] The Ptolemy Project. http://ptolemy.eecs.berkeley.edu/. [24] a. J. T. Wolfgang Pree. The Timing Definition Language, October 21 2005. 38

  4. European Cartography on the Eve of the Discoveries, Part 5: Ptolemy's Map of the World, A.D. 1478.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzer, Gerald A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes Ptolemy's map of the world. Discusses the idea of mapping the ecumene or known world. Lists Ptolemy's map making conventions still in use today including location of north at the top, 90 degrees latitude between the equator and each pole, and style of representing physical features. Emphasizes Ptolemy's view of the world as dynamic. (DK)

  5. Rectification of position data of Scotland in Ptolemy's Geographike Hyphegesis

    CERN Document Server

    Marx, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The ancient geographic coordinates given for places of Great Britain in Ptolemy's Geographike Hyphegesis are investigated by means of geodetic methods. The turning of Scotland to the east is modelled by a three-dimensional rotation. On the basis of different data sets of control points, the parameters of the rotation are estimated by means of methods of adjustment theory. Furthermore, a geodetic-statistical analysis method is applied to Scotland, by which groups of places of homogenous distortions and modern counterparts of the ancient places are determined. Based on the results of the investigations, answers are given for questions concerning Ptolemaic positions unsolved so far.

  6. From EUCLID to Ptolemy in English Crop Circles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, G. S.

    1997-12-01

    The late Lord Soli Zuckerman, science advisor to several British governments, encouraged the author, an astronomer, to test the theory that all crop circles were made by hoaxers. Within the hundreds of formations in Southern England he saw a thread of surprising historical content at the intellectual level of College Dons. One diagram in celestial mechanics involved triple conjunctions of Mercury, Venus and Mars every 67 2/3 years. Ptolemy's fourth musical scale, tense diatonic, occurred in the circles during the period 1978-88. Starting on E, Ptolemaic ratios make our perfect diatonic scale of white notes on the keyboard of the piano or church organ. For separated circles the ratio was given by diameters, and for concentric circles it was diameters squared. A series of rotationally symmetric figures began in 1988 which combined Ptolemy's ratios with Euclid's theorems. In his last plane theorem, Euclid (Elements 13,12) proved that the square on the side of an equilateral triangle is 3 times the square on the circum-circle radius -- diatonic note G(2). From the 1988 figure one can prove the square on the side is 16/3 times the square on the semi-altitude, giving note F(3). Later rotational figures over the next 5 years led to diatonic ratios for the hexagon, square and triangle. They gave with the exactness of Euclidean theorems the notes F, C(2) and E(2), and they are the only regular polygons to do so. Although these 4 crop theorems derive from Euclid, they were previously unknown as a set in the literature, nor had the Ptolemaic connection been published. Professional magazines asked the readers to provide a fifth theorem that would generate the above 4 theorems, but none was forthcoming. Ultimately the cicle makers showed knowledge of this generating theorem using a 200-ft design at Litchfield, Hampshire. After 1993, rotationally symmetric geometries continued to appear, but with much more complicated patterns. One design showed 6 crescent moons in a hexagon

  7. Aristotle, De Memoria et Reminiscentia. Text, Translation and Interpretive Essays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2006-01-01

    The dissertation analyses Aristotle's De Memoria et Reminiscentia. It contains an introduction, a critical edition accompanied by an English translation, an essay on Aristotle's own theories and an essay on the Aristotelian tradition.......The dissertation analyses Aristotle's De Memoria et Reminiscentia. It contains an introduction, a critical edition accompanied by an English translation, an essay on Aristotle's own theories and an essay on the Aristotelian tradition....

  8. Modeling the History of Astronomy: Ptolemy, Copernicus and Tycho

    CERN Document Server

    Timberlake, Todd

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a series of activities in which students investigate and use the models of planetary motion introduced by the Hellenistic astronomer Claudius Ptolemy in the 2nd Century, by the Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus in the mid-16th Century, and by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe in the late16th Century. The activities involve the use of open source software to help students discover important observational facts, learn the necessary vocabulary, understand the fundamental properties of different theoretical models, and relate the theoretical models to observational data. Once they understand the observations and models, students complete a series of projects in which they observe and model a fictitious solar system with four planets orbiting in circles around a central star.

  9. Investigations of the coordinates in Ptolemy's Geographike Hyphegesis Book 8

    CERN Document Server

    Marx, Christian

    2015-01-01

    In Book 8 of his Geographike Hyphegesis Ptolemy gives coordinates for ca. 360 so-called noteworthy cities. These coordinates are the time difference to Alexandria, the length of the longest day, and partly the ecliptic distance from the summer solstice. The supposable original conversions between the coordinates in Book 8 and the geographical coordinates in the location catalogue of Books 2-7 including the underlying parameters and tabulations are here reconstructed. The results document the differences between the $\\Omega$- and $\\Xi$-recension. The known difference in the longitude of Alexandria underlying the conversion of the longitudes is examined more closely. For the ecliptic distances from the summer solstice of the $\\Omega$-recension it is revealed that they were originally computed by means of a so far undiscovered approximate, linear conversion. Further it is shown that the lengths of the longest day could be based on a linear interpolation of the data in the Mathematike Syntaxis 2.6.

  10. Modeling and Analysis of NGC System using Ptolemy II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Sreekumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Model based system design has been used in real time embedded systems for validating and testing during the development lifecycle. Computation models - synchronous dataflow model (SDF and Discrete Event (DE have been used and finite state machine has been integrated with SDF and Discrete Event (DE modeling domains for simulating the functionalities in the system. Here a case study of resource augmented Navigation, Guidance and Control unit of onboard computers in satellite launch vehicle has been selected as a frame work and fault tolerant algorithm has been modeled and simulated with Ptolemy II. Feasibility of the scheduling of the fault tolerant algorithm has been analyzed and dependencies existing between different components and processes in the system have been investigated. The future work consists of modeling original functionality of NGC units inside each state of FSM and can be validated for the correct performance. Non-deterministic communication and clock drifts can be accounted into the model.

  11. Aristotle and the Theory of Decision (Prohairesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Shirkhan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The term of prohairesis was systematically entered in philosophical debates by Aristotle. This concept is generally translated as intention, will, purpose, choice, purposive choice, rational choice, and deliberative choice that the later seems to be Aristotle’s definition of prohairesis. To understand the internal structure of prohairesiss, we have to understand the conceptions of action, intention, belief, whish, will, and virtues. For Aristotle if an action will be done through a decision, this action is voluntary, but its contrary is not credible. He believes that the children and animals act voluntarily, but they have not any decision, because they have not any deliberation.

  12. Luck in Aristotle's physics and ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Van

    2015-01-01

    © Cambridge University Press 2015. Aristotle was the first philosopher to offer a systematic account of luck (hê tuchê) and to include it as a significant topic in both physics and ethics. In the Physics he complains that his predecessors, although they treat luck as a cause, have not explained its relation to art, nature, and necessity: ‘they all speak of some things happening by luck and others not, and so they should have at least taken some note of these things’ (196a15–17). Thus Aristotl...

  13. The Method of Hypothesis in Plato's Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Aboie Mehrizi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the examination of method of hypothesis in Plato's philosophy. This method, respectively, will be examined in three dialogues of Meno, Phaedon and Republic in which it is explicitly indicated. It will be shown the process of change of Plato’s attitude towards the position and usage of the method of hypothesis in his realm of philosophy. In Meno, considering the geometry, Plato attempts to introduce a method that can be used in the realm of philosophy. But, ultimately in Republic, Plato’s special attention to the method and its importance in the philosophical investigations, leads him to revise it. Here, finally Plato introduces the particular method of philosophy, i.e., the dialectic

  14. Plato's Anti-Kohlbergian Program for Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Following Lawrence Kohlberg it has been commonplace to regard Plato's moral theory as "intellectualist", where Plato supposedly believes that becoming virtuous requires nothing other than "philosophical knowledge or intuition of the ideal form of the good". This is a radical misunderstanding of Plato's educational programme,…

  15. Heterogeneous Concurrent Modeling and Design in Java (Volume 1: Introduction to Ptolemy II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    which receives support from the National Science Foundation (NSF awards #0720882 ( CSR -EHS: PRET), #0647591 ( CSR -SGER), and #0720841 ( CSR -CPS)), the U...Foundation (NSF awards #0720882 ( CSR -EHS: PRET), #0647591 ( CSR -SGER), and #0720841 ( CSR -CPS)), the U. S. Army Research Office (ARO #W911NF-07-2...Ptolemy II configuration [26]. The ability to create such separately branded and packaged subsets of Ptolemy II is a major feature. The semantics of hybrid

  16. Aristotle CHRONICLES OF MEDICAL HISTORY IN AFRICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-02

    Dec 2, 2009 ... philosophy, religion, and science, the heart has represented the seat of the ... went to Athens to study at Plato's Academy. Trained ..... Which Indian doctor discovered a cure for Kala-azar (Visceral Leishmaniasis)?. 3. Who first ...

  17. Radulphus Brito's Commentary on Aristotle's De anima

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Sander W.

    2012-01-01

    In 1974, Winfried Fauser published his edition of Radulphus Brito's commentary on the third book of Aristotle's De anima. This contribution continues his project by providing an edition of Brito's commentary on the first book and the first third of the second book. An analysis of this part of the co

  18. Perspectives on Rhetorical History: Aristotle's Rhetorical Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Reed

    The most important historical theory of persuasion is Aristotelian Rhetorical Theory. Aristotle's work, "The Rhetoric," is divided into three books, each of which discuss principles relevant to persuasion. Book One establishes the philosophical position of rhetoric to logic; establishes the purposes of rhetoric; discusses three types of…

  19. Transference and katharsis, Freud to Aristotle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turri, Maria Grazia

    2015-04-01

    Aristotle's theory of tragic katharsis is the most ancient and debated theory of the effect of the theatrical experience on the audience. It affirms that tragedy effects the katharsis of fear and pity, engaging readers with the controversy whether by katharsis Aristotle meant purification of the emotions (i.e. their perfection within the mind) or purification of the mind from the emotions (i.e. their abreaction from the mind). In this paper I will explore how Freud's theory of transference can suggest a new interpretation of Aristotle's tragic katharsis. Transference allows for the representation and expression of repressed emotions through the re-enactment of past relational dynamics. Although this process is essential to the psychoanalytic method, it is the subsequent analytic endeavour which allows for the "working through" of repressed emotions, bringing into effect the transference cure. I argue that the dynamic between emotional arousal in re-enactment and emotional distancing in analysis offers an effective parallel of the dynamic between katharsis of fear and katharsis of pity in Aristotle's theory. Such interpretation of tragic katharsis suggests that the theatrical effect in audiences may be an opportunity for self-analysis and the 'working through' of unconscious psychic dynamics. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  20. Why Aristotle took so long to die

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Dennis

    2006-04-01

    Like young people looking askance at their parents, we often have trouble taking seriously the interests or even the intellects of ``scientists'' from centuries gone by (an attitude already betrayed by the urge to use quotation marks). After all, their theories were wrong. But the greatest wrong physicist of them all was Aristotle. The earliest thinkers we today classify as scientists (Bacon, Galileo, Newton) cut their teeth trying to show how he was wrong--but it wasn't easy. In order to see why it was so hard, we need to transport ourselves mentally back to the period between ancient Greece and seventeenth-century Europe and try to think like Aristotelians. That way we can catch a taste of the intellectual pleasures of Aristotelian physics and cosmology--including Aristotle's concepts of elements, cause, natural motion, and the ``two-storey'' universe. By becoming (temporary) Aristotelians, we'll be able to see better, for example, why Copernicanism took a hundred years to catch on. For the heliocentric ``celestial machine'' demanded a new physics that nobody had yet provided. Finally, to examine Aristotle's long monopoly on physics--based on what had grown to look like simple common sense--is also to stir up questions about how we might gain enough perspective on our present habits of thought to avoid getting stuck in our own orthodoxies. We may even find that those habits, as exemplified by modern astrophysics, still conceal unpurged remnants of Aristotle.

  1. Quoting Plato in Porphyrius' Cuestiones homericas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Rodríguez‑Noriega Guillén

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the quotations of Plato in Porphyry’s Homeric Questions,including their typology (literal quotation, allusion, paraphrase, etc., their beingor not direct citations, their function in the work, and their possible parallels inother authors.

  2. The PLATO 2.0 mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauer, H.; et al., [Unknown; Hekker, S.

    2014-01-01

    PLATO 2.0 has recently been selected for ESA’s M3 launch opportunity (2022/24). Providing accurate key planet parameters (radius, mass, density and age) in statistical numbers, it addresses fundamental questions such as: How do planetary systems form and evolve? Are there other systems with planets

  3. Results of the 1975 Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    During the Spring semester of 1975, the University of Delaware initiated a PLATO project with the dual purpose of demonstrating how a computer system might function in a university and of evaluating what part such a system might play in the future of the university and its supporting community. The demonstration phase of the project, which…

  4. Socrates, Plato, "Eros" and Liberal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherran, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the educational method--the "elenchos"--of Plato's Socrates, arguing, against some prominent interpretations, that it is love, both "eros" and "philia", that is the key that links Socrates' philosophy with his education. This analysis, of course, raises some difficult questions regarding the relationship between teacher and…

  5. Plato's Protagoras: Professional Models, Ethical Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Marshall W.

    1983-01-01

    In Plato's model his clear criticism of Protagorean careerism and his negotiation with Socratic radicalism shows he is a centrist cultivating criticism and open discourse. In an age when academe seems to have lost a sense of its identify and function in society, its most enduring contributions are criticism and discourse. (MLW)

  6. Aristotle on Animals in the Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the apparently very harsh views on animals that are found in two passages of the Politics. These passages have not received much scholarly attention, but they have regularly been invoked by defenders of animal rights. In this article it is argued that an interpretation...... of these passages demands close scrutiny of the context, and furthermore that they must be taken into consideration along with the psychological and the biological writings if Aristotle's views on animals are to be convincingly established....

  7. What scientists can learn from Plato's Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, Tim

    2015-04-01

    Conferences and scientific meetings are as old as science itself. The ancient Greeks where (in)famous for organizing so-called symposiums. During a symposium (from Greek, drinking together), attendees followed a program that contained both social and scientific aspects, focused around a certain topic. Whilst drinking and eating, all participants were expected to share their vision on the topic of interest by giving an oral presentation. The goal of these meetings was to arrive at a new common understanding and to come closer to the truth. Plato et al. knew very well how to organize an effective scientific conference, which should make use overthink the way we are organizing present-day conferences. Scientific meetings aim to connect researchers, share research and unravel the truth. The question is now: how do we get this done effectively? Plato knew that discussing science with strangers is difficult and he believed that talking about heavy matter could be done best when combined with social events. What if we try to go back to the times of Plato and model our conferences after the ancient symposiums? We might drop laying on couches and covering ourselves in ivy and flowers. However, a mix of social and scientific events will contribute to achieving the ultimate goal of why scientists go to conferences: to connect, to share and to unravel the truth.

  8. Platón y el silogismo Plato and the syllogism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Correia Machuca

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La cuestión de si Platón pudo ser el autor de una primera noción de deducción silogística (un método que Aristóteles hizo conocido a través de una definición y un progreso teórico en los Analíticos Primeros fue discutida en la antigüedad y, desde entonces, debatida por varios comentaristas. En este artículo, comento dos pasajes de la literatura post-aristotélica, uno atestiguado por Boecio (que se remonta a Alejandro de Afrodisia y el otro presente en Juan Filópono, en su comentario a los Analíticos Primeros. El artículo intenta mostrar que estos pasajes contienen información suficiente para favorecer a Platón como conocedor de la técnica deductiva silogística, aunque no para conferirle el desarrollo de la metodología silogística.The question of whether Plato could be the author of a first concept of syllogistic deduction (a method that Aristotle made known by means of a definition and a theoretical improvement in his Prior Analytics was known in the antiquity and from that time, the question has usually examined by several commentators. In this article, I comment on two passages of post-Aristotelian tradition; one is given by Boethius (which stems from Alexander of Aphrodisias and the other was given by Johannes Philoponus in his commentary on Prior Analytics. The article intends to show that these passages contain information that is sufficient to come to an opinion favoring Plato, although it does not imply that they are sufficient to confer him the syllogistic method.

  9. Philoponus on Aristotle physics 41-5

    CERN Document Server

    Algra, Keimpe; van Ophuijsen, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Aristotles account of place, in which he defined a things place as the inner surface of its nearest immobile container, was supported by the Latin Middle Ages, even 1600 years after his death, though it had not convinced many ancient Greek philosophers. The sixth century commentator Philoponus took a more common-sense view. For him, place was an immobile three-dimensional extension, whose essence did not preclude its being empty, even if for other reasons it had always to be filled with body. However, Philoponus reserved his own definition for an excursus, already translated in this series, Th

  10. From Plato to Orwell: Utopian Rhetoric in a Dystopian World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deatherage, Scott

    Plato's "Republic" and George Orwell's "1984" both posit visionary worlds, one where humans are virtuous and understand what Plato refers to as "the Good," and the other where citizens are pawns of a government which uses language as a form of tyranny and control. Despite these overarching differences in philosophical…

  11. A Summary of Plato Curriculum and Research Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Elisabeth R.

    PLATO (programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations) is a computer-based teaching system which was developed in the Coordinated Science Laboratory at the University of Illinois to explore the possibilities of automation in individual instruction. The history of the PLATO program is summarized here, along with a list of courses which used…

  12. From Plato to Orwell: Utopian Rhetoric in a Dystopian World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deatherage, Scott

    Plato's "Republic" and George Orwell's "1984" both posit visionary worlds, one where humans are virtuous and understand what Plato refers to as "the Good," and the other where citizens are pawns of a government which uses language as a form of tyranny and control. Despite these overarching differences in philosophical…

  13. Plato the Pederast: Rhetoric and Cultural Procreation in the Dialogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Examines Plato's Dialogues by reading them through two cultural lenses: the role of eros in classical Greece and its analogous relationship to language and rhetoric; and the educational function of eros within the ancient institution of pederasty. Shows how the cultural values of ancient Greece manifested themselves in Plato's erotic educational…

  14. Plato's Philosophy of Education and the Common Core Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Madonna M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines Plato's Philosophy of Education asking what he would say about the current Common Core initiative which is to better help students to become college and career ready. Plato would be in favor of the common core in as much as the standards are tied to specific skills needed in various career jobs as he was a proponent of…

  15. Fourth Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    A brief history of the Delaware PLATO project and descriptions of new developments in facilities, applications, user services, research, evaluation, and courseware produced since the Third Summative Report (1978) are provided, as well as an overview of PLATO applications at the University of Delaware. Sample lessons, illustrations, and activity…

  16. Fifth Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    A brief history of the Delaware PLATO project and descriptions of the new developments in facilities, applications, user services, research, evaluation, and courseware produced since the Fourth Summative Report (1979) are provided, as well as an overview of PLATO applications at the University of Delaware. Sample lessons, illustrations, and…

  17. Third Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    Descriptions of new developments in the areas of facilities, applications, user services, support staff, research, evaluation, and courseware production since the Second Summative Report (1977) are provided, as well as a summative overview of PLATO applications at the University of Delaware. Through the purchase of its own PLATO system, this…

  18. Heterogeneous Concurrent Modeling and Design in Java (Volume 2: Ptolemy II Software Architecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    the State of California Micro Program, and the following companies: Agilent, Bosch, HSBC , Lockheed-Martin, National Instruments, and Toyota. PTOLEMY II...FA9550-06-0312), the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL), the State of California Micro Program, and the following companies: Agilent, Bosch, HSBC , Lockheed

  19. Heterogeneous Concurrent Modeling and Design in Java (Volume 3: Ptolemy II Domains)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-15

    State of California Micro Program, and the following companies: Agilent, Bosch, HSBC , Lockheed-Martin, National Instruments, and Toyota. PTOLEMY II...MURI #FA9550-06-0312), the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL), the State of California Micro Program, and the following companies: Agi- lent, Bosch, HSBC

  20. Plato's ghost the modernist transformation of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    Plato's Ghost is the first book to examine the development of mathematics from 1880 to 1920 as a modernist transformation similar to those in art, literature, and music. Jeremy Gray traces the growth of mathematical modernism from its roots in problem solving and theory to its interactions with physics, philosophy, theology, psychology, and ideas about real and artificial languages. He shows how mathematics was popularized, and explains how mathematical modernism not only gave expression to the work of mathematicians and the professional image they sought to create for themselves, but how modernism also introduced deeper and ultimately unanswerable questions

  1. Pemikiran Epistemologi Barat: dari Plato Sampai Gonseth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunu Burhanuddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper riviewing the Western epistemology thought. The theme focuses on Plato to Gonseth. The Epistemology that referred in this article, is to think about "how humans acquire knowledge?". From this then appear four types of sect modern western epistemology thought, namely: sect of empiricism, rationalism sect, kantinian sect, sect of positivism. Furthermore, the social positivism sciences developed by Comte leaves serious problems associated with the loss of the role of the subject. This problem being the background of epistemology philosophy appears that by Emund Husserl developed through the phenomenology, Habermas through hermeneutics, and Ferdinand Gonseth through critical theory.

  2. A Comparative Vision Between Bharata and Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Armando Rentería Alejandre

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The forms of love in India are as complex as in the rest of cultures; especially when they are reflected in literature. One of the tasks of Indian literary poets about these forms is concentrated on the cultural and the social field. The Indian lyric poetry reflects images which go beyond linguistic structural morphosyntactic forms. For both Indian and Greek theorists and poets it is very important not only the structural form of poetry but also the images in it. With this I refer to alamkaras or rhetoric figures, as it is usual translate them thanks to all poetic Greek tradition, of which Aristotle, with his Poetics and Rhetorics, is the representative maximum. The rupaka or metaphor is a figure very used by both Indian and Greek poets. The stylistic reach of rupaka or metaphor manages to transcend into theoretical and poetical texts. In this sense, into this essay I set out a comparison between the definition of metaphor in Aristotle’s Poetics and Rhetorics and the definition of rupaka in Bharata’s Natyashastra, treatise about playwriting, very important for the studies on Indian theater as well as for those on Indian poetry. All this comparative theory helps me to find the aim of metaphor into Sanskrit poetry, through the vision of Aristotle and Bharata, thanks to the poetic reach of rupaka or metaphor.

  3. The PLATO 2.0 Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Rauer, H; Aerts, C; Appourchaux, T; Benz, W; Brandeker, A; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Deleuil, M; Gizon, L; Güdel, M; Janot-Pacheco, E; Mas-Hesse, M; Pagano, I; Piotto, G; Pollacco, D; Santos, N C; Smith, A; -C., J; Suárez,; Szabó, R; Udry, S; Adibekyan, V; Alibert, Y; Almenara, J -M; Amaro-Seoane, P; Eiff, M Ammler-von; Antonello, E; Ball, W; Barnes, S; Baudin, F; Belkacem, K; Bergemann, M; Birch, A; Boisse, I; Bonomo, A S; Borsa, F; Brandão, I M; Brocato, E; Brun, S; Burleigh, M; Burston, R; Cabrera, J; Cassisi, S; Chaplin, W; Charpinet, S; Chiappini, C; Csizmadia, Sz; Cunha, M; Damasso, M; Davies, M B; Deeg, H J; Fialho, F de Oliveira; DÍaz, R F; Dreizler, S; Dreyer, C; Eggenberger, P; Ehrenreich, D; Eigmüller, P; Erikson, A; Farmer, R; Feltzing, S; Figueira, P; Forveille, T; Fridlund, M; García, R; Giuffrida, G; Godolt, M; da Silva, J Gomes; Goupil, M -J; Granzer, T; Grenfell, J L; Grotsch-Noels, A; Günther, E; Haswell, C A; Hatzes, A P; Hébrard, G; Hekker, S; Helled, R; Heng, K; Jenkins, J M; Khodachenko, M L; Kislyakova, K G; Kley, W; Kolb, U; Krivova, N; Kupka, F; Lammer, H; Lanza, A F; Lebreton, Y; Magrin, D; Marcos-Arenal, P; Marrese, P M; Marques, J P; Martins, J; Mathis, S; Mathur, S; Messina, S; Miglio, A; Montalban, J; Montalto, M; Monteiro, M J P F G; Moradi, H; Moravveji, E; Mordasini, C; Morel, T; Mortier, A; Nascimbeni, V; Nielsen, M B; Noack, L; Norton, A J; Ofir, A; Oshagh, M; Ouazzani, R -M; Pápics, P; Parro, V C; Petit, P; Plez, B; Poretti, E; Quirrenbach, A; Ragazzoni, R; Raimondo, G; Rainer, M; Reese, D R; Redmer, R; Reffert, S; Rojas-Ayala, B; Roxburgh, I W; Solanki, S K; Salmon, S; Santerne, A; Schneider, J; Schou, J; Schuh, S; Schunker, H; Silva-Valio, A; Silvotti, R; Skillen, I; Snellen, I; Sohl, F; Sousa, A S; Sozzetti, A; Stello, D; Strassmeier, K G; Švanda, M; Szabó, G M; Tkachenko, A; Valencia, D; van Grootel, V; Vauclair, S D; Ventura, P; Wagner, F W; Walton, N A; Weingrill, J; Werner, S C; Wheatley, P J; Zwintz, K

    2013-01-01

    PLATO 2.0 is a mission candidate for ESA's M3 launch opportunity (2022/24). It addresses fundamental questions such as: How do planetary systems form and evolve? Are there other systems with planets like ours, able to develop life? The PLATO 2.0 instrument consists of 34 small aperture telescopes providing a wide field-of-view and a large photometric magnitude range. It targets bright stars in wide fields to detect and characterize planets down to Earth-size by photometric transits, whose masses can then be determined by ground-based radial-velocity follow-up measurements. Asteroseismology will be performed for stars <=11mag to obtain highly accurate stellar parameters, including masses and ages. The combination of bright targets and asteroseismology results in high accuracy for the bulk planet parameters: 2%, 4-10% and 10% for planet radii, masses and ages, respectively. The foreseen baseline observing strategy includes two long pointings (2-3 years) to detect and bulk characterize planets reaching into t...

  4. "Most brilliant in judgment": Alexander the Great and Aristotle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainas, Panagiotis; Panutsopulos, Dimitrios; Skandalakis, Panagiotis N; Zoras, Odysseas; Skandalakis, John E

    2005-03-01

    From historical sources, it is evident that Alexander the Great was indebted to one of his teachers, Aristotle of Stagira. It was the teaching of Aristotle that evoked all the nascent talents of young Alexander and turned him into a great man. Alexander was extremely interested in the secrets of medicine and considered it an art. The medical knowledge he acquired from Aristotle may have saved his life and the lives of his troops on many occasions. If Alexander did not possess medical knowledge and if his everyday life had not been so greatly influenced by medicine, he might never have been able to create his empire.

  5. Simplicius on Aristotle on the heavens 1-3-4

    CERN Document Server

    Simplicius

    2013-01-01

    This is the first English translation of Simplicius responses to Philoponus Against Aristotle on the Eternity of the World. The commentary is published in two volumes: Ian Muellers previous book in the series, Simplicius: On Aristotle On the Heavens 1.2-3, and this book on 1.3-4. Philoponus, the Christian, had argued that Aristotles arguments do not succeed. For all they show to the contrary, Christianity may be right that the heavens were brought into existence by the only divine being and one moment in time, and will cease to exist at some future moment. Simplicius upholds the pagan view tha

  6. Technology validation of the PLATO CCD at ESA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prod'homme, Thibaut; Verhoeve, Peter; Beaufort, Thierry; Duvet, Ludovic; Lemmel, Frederic; Smit, Hans; Blommaert, Sander; Oosterbroek, Tim; van der Luijt, Cornelis; Visser, Ivo; Heijnen, Jerko; Butler, Bart

    2016-07-01

    PLATO { PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars { is the third medium-class mission to be selected in the European Space Agency (ESA) Science and Robotic Exploration Cosmic Vision programme. Due for launch in 2025, the payload makes use of a large format (8 cm x 8 cm) Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) the e2v CCD270 operated at 4 MHz. The manufacture of such large device in large quantity constitutes an unprecedented effort. To de-risk the PLATO CCD procurement and aid the mission definition process, ESA's Payload Technology Validation team is characterizing the electro-optical performance of a number of PLATO devices before and after proton irradiation.

  7. A scientific approach to Plato's Atlantis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Rapisarda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The myth of Atlantis is hard to die. This attempt to use scientific evidence to give it the final smash ends up with the doubt that it might not be totally unsubstantiated. The time of the supposed existence of Atlantis (around twelve thousand years ago was, in fact, characterized by technological revolutions, acknowledged by archaeology, and abrupt climate changes, documented by geology. In principle, it cannot therefore be ruled out that some of those dramatic events left a memory, later used by Plato as a basis for its tale. The climate changes involved the majority of the northern hemisphere, thus all the ancient civilizations (Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Indian and Chinese could have preserved reminiscence, but it is clear that the events occurring closer to Greece would have been more accessible to Plato. Among the Mediterranean sites that experienced the cataclysms of the beginning of the Holocene, a good candidate to host a primordial civilization might have been the archipelago then existing in the Strait of Sicily, a natural maritime link between Tunisia and Italy, prized by the presence of an obsidian source at Pantelleria. Eleven thousand five hundred years ago, a sudden sea level rise erased the archipelago, submerging the possible settlements, but Pantelleria obsidian ores are still there and could provide a significant clue. In fact, the potential discovery of artefacts, originating from a source now submerged by the sea level rise, would imply that the collection of the mineral took place when it was still emerged, namely at the time of Atlantis. Even if such discovery would not be sufficient to prove the existence of the mythical island, it would be enough to shake up the timeline of the human occupation in the region.

  8. Intra-Socratic Polemics: The Symposia of Plato and Xenophon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Danzig

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Textual relationships between the two Symposia suggest that Xenophon wrote first, prompting Plato to write Socrates' critique of Phaedrus, to which Xenophon responded by appending his ch. 8.

  9. A statistical approach to latitude measurements: Ptolemy's and Riccioli's geographical works as case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Luca

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze latitude measurements typically used in historical geographical works through a statistical approach. We use two sets of different age as case studies: Ptolemy's Geography and Riccioli's work on geography. A statistical approach to historical latitude and longitude databases can reveal systematic errors in geographical georeferencing processes. On the other hand, once exploiting the right statistical analysis, this approach can also lead to new information about ancient city locations.

  10. Rationality and Motivation: Moral Psychology in Plato's Socratic Dialogues

    OpenAIRE

    Ivars Neiders

    2011-01-01

    "Rationality and Motivation: Moral Psychology in Plato's Socratic Dialogues" Annotation The dissertation "Rationality and Motivation: Moral Psychology in Plato's Socratic Dialogues" is a philosophical study of Socratic views in moral psychology. Particular attention is paid to what the author calls (1) Doxastic competence and (2) Orectic competence. It is argued that according to Socrates these two different epistemic relations are important aspects of our self-understanding. The doxast...

  11. Ptolemy operations at the surface of a comet, from planning to reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, A. D.; Andrews, D. J.; Morgan, G. H.; Sheridan, S.; Barber, S. J.; Wright, I. P.

    2016-08-01

    Ptolemy is a Gas Chromatograph-Isotope Ratio-Mass Spectrometer (GC-IR-MS) aboard the Philae lander element of the Rosetta mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Developed to determine the chemical and stable light isotopic composition of cometary material, Ptolemy was conceived as a highly flexible instrument able to accommodate changes in operational functionality via software modification. This was considered essential to allow for different modes of operation not only in response to rapid/unexpected changes and opportunities, but also to longer-term shifts in priorities as the overall mission plan (and indeed cometary science in general) changed during the decades from initial concept to landing. Against the backdrop of events of the Philae landing, this paper describes the methods of instrument operation and rational behind them used to achieve the Ptolemy scientific results during the period 12-14th November 2014. In particular we demonstrate the importance of a flexible modular approach to the instrument architecture enabling complex instrument operations, especially in a situation where the environment of exploration is effectively unknown and some of the engineering solutions were being tested in the field for the first time.

  12. Spacetime deformation effect on the early universe and the PTOLEMY experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Raul; Trampetic, Josip; You, Jiangyang

    2017-09-01

    Using a fully-fledged formulation of gauge field theory deformed by the spacetime noncommutativity, we study its impact on relic neutrino direct detection, as proposed recently by the PTOLEMY experiment. The noncommutative background tends to influence the propagating neutrinos by providing them with a tree-level vector-like coupling to photons, enabling thus otherwise sterile right-handed (RH) neutrinos to be thermally produced in the early universe. Such a new component in the universe's background radiation has been switched today to the almost fully active sea of non-relativistic neutrinos, exerting consequently some impact on the capture on tritium at PTOLEMY. The peculiarities of our nonperturbative approach tend to reflect in the cosmology as well, upon the appearances of the coupling temperature, above which RH neutrinos stay permanently decoupled from thermal environment. This entails the maximal scale of noncommutativity as well, being of order of 10-4MPl, above which there is no impact whatsoever on the capture rates at PTOLEMY. The latter represents an exceptional upper bound on the scale of noncommutativity coming from phenomenology.

  13. What Plato and Murdoch Think About Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Shakouri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are many interpretations of love and lots of scholars write and talk on love; however, what exactly is the meaning of love? Iris Murdoch’s works are an accumulation of emotional relationships and feelings of love. Her great subject is love, both sexual and non-sexual, and her characters are the portrayal of a small group of people caught up in convoluted ties of love and hate, with Eros ruling over them (Cohen 22. Murdoch was one of the most respected British writers and philosophers of the second half of the twentieth century and, of course, the postwar period. In Murdoch’s novels, love is one of the central themes—marriage, as the institution of love, more often binds than frees. Her characters are mainly ego-centric people who struggle to love and are often overwhelmed by the factor of self-obsession, jealousy, ambition, fascination with suffering and charismatic power. They are absolutely ordinary people with a consuming demand for love, and mental and physical exile. Murdoch was inspired by Plato’s ideas in many ways. Like art, here again Plato’s idea of love is more skeptical than Murdoch’s, whereas Murdoch kept it only as a way to the Good, creation, and happiness. Murdoch and Plato saw love more as a Freudian concept, the Eros, the word that comes from the name of the first Greek god of love. Both the philosophers, Plato and Murdoch, believed that this erotic longing and desires revived by Eros can led to a new direction, a way toward virtue and truth. Her protagonist or marginalized characters are usually tackling it with either vulgarity or the heavenly, which results in creation, art or salvation. Murdoch, as a major moral philosopher, usually grasps the chances to encapsulate her moral visions in her works, and created novels that should be counted as meditations on human love and goodness. Keywords: Eros, erotic love and real artwork, moral philosopher, The Black Prince

  14. Aristotle's biopolitics: a defense of biological teleology against biological nihilism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnhart, L

    1988-02-01

    Modern Darwinian biology seems to promote nihilism, for it seems to teach that there is no rationally discoverable standard in nature for giving meaning to life. The purpose of this article is to argue for a revival of Aristotle's biological teleology as a reasonable alternative to biological nihilism. The article begins with Edward Wilson's vain struggle against nihilism. Then it is argued that a teleological understanding of nature is assumed in the practice of medicine, as illustrated by one case from Oliver Sacks' neurological practice. The article then considers the importance of biological teleology for Aristotle's moral and political philosophy, and attention is given to some points of agreement and disagreement with contemporary sociobiologists. The main part of the article is then devoted to a defense of Aristotle's biology against the five objections that might be made by a Darwinian biologist. Finally, the article illustrates the practical implications of this issue for bioethics by considering the recent work of Engelhardt.

  15. Reversing Plato’s Anti-Democratism: Castoriadis’ “Quirky” Plato

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy C. Hamblet

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the conflicting "loves" of Cornelius Castoriadis--his love for the ancients, and especially Plato, and for the common person of the demos. A detailed study of Castoriadis' analysis of Plato's Statesman exposes that Castoriadis attempts to resolve the paradox by rereading Plato as a radical democrat. I argue that this unorthodox reading is at best "quirky, " (a charge Castoriadis levels at Plato) at worst a groundless sophism. However, I conjecture that Castoriadis' readin...

  16. Eugenics concept: from Plato to present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güvercin, C H; Arda, B

    2008-01-01

    All prospective studies and purposes to improve cure and create a race that would be exempt of various diseases and disabilities are generally defined as eugenic procedures. They aim to create the "perfect" and "higher" human being by eliminating the "unhealthy" prospective persons. All of the supporting actions taken in order to enable the desired properties are called positive eugenic actions; the elimination of undesired properties are defined as negative eugenics. In addition, if such applications and approaches target the public as a whole, they are defined as macro-eugenics. On the other hand, if they only aim at individuals and/or families, they are called micro-eugenics. As generally acknowledged, Galton re-introduced eugenic proposals, but their roots stretch as far back as Plato. Eugenic thoughts and developments were widely accepted in many different countries beginning with the end of the 19th to the first half of the 20th centuries. Initially, the view of negative eugenics that included compulsory sterilizations of handicapped, diseased and "lower" classes, resulted in tens of thousands being exterminated especially in the period of Nazi Germany. In the 1930s, the type of micro positive eugenics movement found a place within the pro-natalist policies of a number of countries. However, it was unsuccessful since the policy was not able to become effective enough and totally disappeared in the 1960s. It was no longer a fashionable movement and left a deep impression on public opinion after the long years of war. However, developments in genetics and its related fields have now enabled eugenic thoughts to reappear under the spotlight and this is creating new moral dilemmas from an ethical perspective.

  17. Space, Time, Matter, and Form Essays on Aristotle's Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bostock, David

    2006-01-01

    Space, Time, Matter, and Form collects ten of David Bostock's essays on themes from Aristotle's Physics, four of them published here for the first time. The first five papers look at issues raised in the first two books of the Physics, centred on notions of matter and form, and the idea of substance as what persists through change. They also range over other of Aristotle's scientific works, such as his biology and psychology and the account of change in his De Generatione et Corruptione. The volume's remaining essays examine themes in later books of the Physics, including infinity, place, time

  18. Simplicius on Aristotle on the heavens 1.2-3

    CERN Document Server

    Simplicius

    2013-01-01

    One of the arguments in Aristotles On the Heavens propounds that the world neither came to be nor will perish. This volume contains the pagan Neoplatonist Simplicius of Cilicias commentary on the first part of this this important work. The commentary is notable and unusual because Simplicius includes in his discussion lengthy representations of the Christian John Philoponus criticisms of Aristotle along with his own, frequently sarcastic, responses. This is the first complete translation into a modern language of Simplicius commentary, and is accompanied by a detailed introduction, extensive e

  19. Aristotle's "De Caelo" III introduction, translation and commentary

    CERN Document Server

    Kouremenos, Theokritos

    2013-01-01

    This is the first full-scale commentary on Aristotle's de Caelo III to appear in recent decades. de Caelo III can serve as a good introduction to Aristotle's physics and its character. In it he answers some very general questions about the elements of all material things except celestial objects: how many these elements are, why they cannot be infinitely many but must be more than one, whether they are eternal or can be generated and decay, and, if the second, how. His discussion is often framed as a critique of rival theories, and he argues systematically against the geometri

  20. Positure in Plato's Laws: An Introduction to Figuration on Civic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the research was to determine the benefits of applying the new Figuration philosophy of dance, based in part on Plato, to civic education. Design/methodology: A close phenomenological reading of Plato's "The Laws," with a strategic focus on its account of the concept of posture. Findings: Plato considers posture to be…

  1. ESA's CCD test bench for the PLATO mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufort, Thierry; Duvet, Ludovic; Bloemmaert, Sander; Lemmel, Frederic; Prod'homme, Thibaut; Verhoeve, Peter; Smit, Hans; Butler, Bart; van der Luijt, Cornelis; Heijnen, Jerko; Visser, Ivo

    2016-08-01

    PLATO { PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars { is the third medium-class mission to be selected in the European Space Agency (ESA) Science and Robotic Exploration Cosmic Vision programme. Due for launch in 2025, the payload makes use of a large format (8 cm x 8 cm) Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs), the e2v CCD270 operated at 4 MHz and at -70 C. To de-risk the PLATO CCD qualification programme initiated in 2014 and support the mission definition process, ESA's Payload Technology Validation section from the Future Missions Office has developed a dedicated test bench.

  2. Aristotle, Camus, and Teaching and Learning about Citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Describes a high school citizenship class unit that contrasted Aristotle's concept of a public citizen with the actions of Meursault in Albert Camus's "The Stranger." Through writing assignments and class activities, the students connected their own ideas of citizenship, freedom, and conformity with Aristotelian and existentialist…

  3. The Aristotle, McDonald's, "Star Trek" Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensinger, Steve

    1985-01-01

    Explains a method of teaching students about the modes of persuasion (i.e., through logic, emotion, and ethos) identified by Aristotle. Explains how a class discussion of two familiar entities (i.e., a fast food chain and a media production) can introduce these concepts to students. (DMM)

  4. The issue of life: Aristotle in nursing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, Ingunn; Torjuul, Kirsti

    2009-10-01

    This paper explores the issue of life and its relevance to nursing, through Aristotle's philosophy and an Aristotelian interpretation of Nightingale's Notes on Nursing. Life as process and becoming has ontological status in Aristotle's philosophy and this dynamism is particularly relevant for nursing. The paper presents aspects of Aristotle's philosophy of life: his account of life as inherent powers of the individual, his analysis of change and time, and his understanding of sickness and health as qualitative states of living beings. It is shown how the Greek medical-philosophical tradition, continued by Galenic medicine and hygiene into modern time, influenced Nightingale's nursing. Individuals' life-maintaining metabolic relations to their surroundings are investigated through Aristotle and modern philosophy of biology and through Nightingale's nursing emphasis on the patient's relation to her or his immediate surroundings. It is argued that Nightingale's concern is really the processes of individual life, which in sickness necessitate temporally continuous nursing observation. Humans' radical dependency on their surroundings is actualized as interpersonal interdependency. The paper argues that the end of nursing care, the telos for which sake it is practised, is inherent in the individual course of the patients' life. When life processes are affected by sickness, infirmity, medical interventions or mental suffering, individuals need competent help to live - and to live as well as possible. It is suggested that the special responsibility of nursing is to facilitate, relieve and protect individual life continuously during such times.

  5. Aristotle's 'completeness test' as Heuristics for an Account of Dynamicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibt, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    (s) must be to locate suitable linguistic data that can represent the conceptual content to be modelled by an ontological domain theory. I try to show that Aristotle’s so-called ‘completeness test’ in Metaphysics Theta. 6, and the discussion of this passage in Aristotle scholarship, offers some useful...

  6. Finding Aristotle's Golden Mean: Social Justice and Academic Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, John

    2005-01-01

    Over 2,000 years ago, Aristotle wrote a treatise on ethics in which he proposed that there were both intellectual and moral virtues to be developed in the human being. Virtue ("aristeia") was roughly equivalent to the English word "excellence" and the unifying virtue that was both a moral and an intellectual virtue was…

  7. A Data Bank Experience on the PLATO System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Wallace; St-Denis, Richard

    1980-01-01

    Current theories on terminology and lexicography which underlie the logical components of the terminology bank set up on the PLATO system and established standards are briefly presented. The units that were essential to developing the bank are discussed. References are listed. (Author)

  8. Plato and Play: Taking Education Seriously in Ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angour, Armand

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines Plato's notions of play in ancient Greek culture and shows how the philosopher's views on play can be best appreciated against the background of shifting meanings and evaluations of play in classical Greece. Play--in various forms such as word play, ritual, and music--proved central to the development of…

  9. Stonecutter Mills, Inc., Isothermal Community College. PLATO Evaluation Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Greg

    Stonecutter Mills, Inc., is a textile manufacturing company with a major production facility in Spindale, North Carolina. In the past few years, Stonecutter Mills employees have been given an opportunity to spend up to 2 hours a week on company time to participate in PLATO-supported learning at Isothermal Community College. Employees could choose…

  10. Future development of the PLATO Observatory for Antarctic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Michael C. B.; Bonner, Colin S.; Everett, Jon R.; Lawrence, Jon S.; Luong-Van, Daniel; McDaid, Scott; McLaren, Campbell; Storey, John W. V.

    2010-07-01

    PLATO is a self-contained robotic observatory built into two 10-foot shipping containers. It has been successfully deployed at Dome A on the Antarctic plateau since January 2008, and has accumulated over 730 days of uptime at the time of writing. PLATO provides 0.5{1kW of continuous electrical power for a year from diesel engines running on Jet-A1, supplemented during the summertime with solar panels. One of the 10-foot shipping containers houses the power system and fuel, the other provides a warm environment for instruments. Two Iridium satellite modems allow 45 MB/day of data to be transferred across the internet. Future enhancements to PLATO, currently in development, include a more modular design, using lithium iron-phosphate batteries, higher power output, and a light-weight low-power version for eld deployment from a Twin Otter aircraft. Technologies used in PLATO include a CAN (Controller Area Network) bus, high-reliability PC/104 com- puters, ultracapacitors for starting the engines, and fault-tolerant redundant design.

  11. The CGE-PLATO Electronic Laboratory Station Structure and Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, J. P.

    An electronic laboratory station was designed for student use in learning electronic instrumentation and measurement by means of the computer-guided experimentation (CGE) system. The station features rack-mounted electronic laboratory equipment on a laboratory table adjacent to a PLATO IV terminal. An integrated logic system behind the laboratory…

  12. Eschatological narrative in Plato: between logos and myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Casadesús Bordoy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In his dialogues, Plato frequently resorted to alternate and intertwine his dialectic expositions with images and allegories, aiming to illustrate his arguments. This paper analyses in detail his use of the opposition between logos and myth tointroduce his descriptions of Hades

  13. Go Tell Alcibiades: Tragedy, Comedy, and Rhetoric in Plato's "Symposium"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Nathan; Poulakos, John

    2008-01-01

    Plato's "Symposium" is a significant but neglected part of his elaborate and complex attitude toward rhetoric. Unlike the intellectual discussion of the "Gorgias" or the unscripted conversation of the "Phaedrus," the "Symposium" stages a feast celebrating and driven by the forces of "Eros." A luxuriously stylish performance rather than a rational…

  14. The Cost of PLATO in a University Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    1983-01-01

    This analysis of the cost-effectiveness of the University of Delaware's own PLATO system discusses the initial expense of acquiring the system, decreases in unit cost as number of users increased, capital investment in hardware, expenditures and funding sources, comparisons of actual and projected costs, and benefits of individualized instruction.…

  15. Second Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    Begun on an experimental basis in March 1975, the ongoing PLATO project at the University of Delaware has become an established part of the University's academic program. This descriptive report is divided into three sections: (1) project history and development, including organization, utilization, instructor and author training, and projections…

  16. Dodecahedrane—The chemical transliteration of Plato's universe (A Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Leo A.

    1982-07-01

    The development of chemical interest in three of Plato's five convex polyhedra is described from an historical perspective. The successful synthesis of 1,16-dimethyldodecahedrane and its structural characteristics are outlined. Finally, an account of recent work leading to the still more aesthetically appealing and ultrasymmetric parent dodecahedrane is given.

  17. Arete and physics: The lesson of Plato's "Timaeus"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, John R.

    Plato's Timaeus is traditionally read as a work dedicated to the sole purpose of describing the origin and nature of the cosmos, as a straightforward attempt by Plato to produce a peri phuseos treatise. In accord with this reading, the body of Timaeus' monologue is then seen as nothing more than an attempt by Plato to convey his own cosmological doctrines. I propose an alternative to the view that the Timaeus is nothing more than a textbook of Platonic physics. The Timaeus is rather squarely focused on the human being, in her moral and political dimensions, and on her relation to the natural world as a whole. Ultimately, this account of the human being is intended to provide part of the answer to the question of how society can produce good citizens and leaders, and thus serves to provide a theoretical basis for the practices of paideia. When viewed in this light many of the curious features of the Timaeus appear less strange. The various parts of the dialogue: the dramatic introduction, Critias' tale of the Ancient Athenians, and Timaeus' monologue can be seen as each contributing to an investigation of a single topic. It further allows us to understand why Plato chooses to employ Timaeus the Locrian as the principle speaker of the dialogue rather than Socrates. Finally, when read in this way, the Timaeus no longer appears as an outlier in the Platonic corpus, as a work devoted to a radically different subject matter than the rest of his writings. It can be seen as dedicated to the same issues which preoccupied Plato throughout his entire life, as about the determination of the best life and providing the tools with which to realize it.

  18. The Relationship between Virtue and Happiness in Aristotle and Al-Fārābī’s Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sabri

    2016-09-01

    and regarding to its species is a middle term. All in all, he believed in doctrine of virtue as being a “golden mean” between the extremes of excess and deficiency. Concerning the relationship between happiness and virtue, he believed that these two elements are neither dependent on nor independent of one another. Therefore, to distinguish between these two ends, attention must be paid to rules and goals: happiness is according to goals and virtue is according to rules .He contended that virtue does not guarantee happiness and that happiness requires something more than virtue. As the founder of Islamic philosophy, Al-Fārābī’s definition of happiness is similar to that introduced by Aristotle. That is, he knows happiness as the perfection that appeals to all humans and every in some ways attempt to reach it. In civil science whose aim is to define happiness, Al-Fārābī divides happiness into two categories: true happiness which is gained because of its essence and speculative happiness which is delusive one. The latter can be also named as common shares such as wealth, knowledge, etc. What Al-Fārābī speaks of virtue is mostly like what Greek people conceived of ‘Arête’. He named virtue as a thing with inherent goodness and as a fundamental concept of achieving happiness. He classifies virtues into four classes of theoretical virtues, intentional virtues, moral virtues, and practical arts. Following Plato, Al-Fārābī deems of 'virtuous city' ('al-madīnat al-fāḍilah' as a healthy complete body whose parts would function well. In this view, 'virtuous city' ('al-madīnat al-fāḍilah' is a society where its members know happiness, cooperate to achieve it and ultimate destiny of all members is interweaved. For exemplifying the relationship between happiness and virtue, he presents the allegory of soul and body. In his viewpoint, both happiness and virtue imply perfection in a way that humans can achieve the second perfection (happiness through

  19. Teaching Early Mathematics with PLATO[R] Software: An Overview of the New PLATO Elementary Mathematics Curricula and How To Use Them. Technical Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Bill; Foshay, Rob; Morris, Barbara

    The "PLATO[R] Math Expeditions" and "PLATO[R] Projects for the Real World" curricula are designed to implement effective, research-based instructional practices. "Math Expeditions" is designed to give elementary grade users the mathematics skills and practice needed to solve real-life problems. Across the eight…

  20. Einstein contra Aristotle: the sound from the heavens

    CERN Document Server

    Neves, J C S

    2016-01-01

    In "On the Heavens" Aristotle criticizes the Pythagorean point of view which claims the existence of a cosmic music. According to the Pythagorean argument, there exists a cosmic music produced by stars and planets. These celestial bodies generate sound in its movements, and the music appears due to the cosmic harmony. For Aristotle, there is no sound produced by celestial bodies. Then, there is no music as well. However, recently, LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Waves Observatory) has detected the gravitational waves predicted by Einstein. In some sense, a sound originated from black holes has been heard. That is, Einstein and LIGO appear to be with the Pythagoreanism and against the master of the Lyceum.

  1. A Comparison Between Aristotle's Tragedy Theory And That of Boileau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美姣

    2010-01-01

    In this article,the author intends to illustrate and clarify the differences and similarities reflected from their representative works in both Aristotle's and Bioleau's tragedy theory."Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious,complete and of a certain magnitude":Aristotle holds that tragedy is composed of six elements:plot-structure.character,style,spectacle,and lyric poetry and that"tragedy should evoke fear and pity".According to Boileau,"Tragic art was said to provide an idealizing imitation of the terrifying 1n which pain is transformed into pleasure"and he helieves that"Only the true is beautiful",reason must be respected".

  2. Brecht e Aristóteles Brecht and Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Fernando Bolognesi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A concepção teatral de Brecht não é radicalmente oposta à de Aristóteles. A estética brechtiana, em muitos aspectos, é herdeira das idéias de Aristóteles. O teatro épico proposto por Brecht tem em seu horizonte de combate o teatro de matriz naturalista e o drama psicológico. Mimese e catarse não significam identificação do público com a cena e com o herói.The Bertold Brecht's conception of the theater is not radically opposed to that of Aristotle. Brechtian aesthetics is, in many aspects, heiress of Aristotle's ideas. The epic theater proposed by Brecht opposes naturalistic theater and psychological drama. Mimesis and catharsis don't mean the identification of the public with the scene and the hero.

  3. The necessity of dialectics according to Plato and Adorno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anne-Marie Eggert

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the notion of philosophy as, on the one hand, an academic or scientific discipline and, on the other, something perhaps superior to the disciplines and in any case dealing with what is not a 'disciplinary' matter. Through an interpretation of Plato's concept of dialectics and...... and Adorno's understanding of philosophy as expression (Ausdruck) it is proposed that this two-fold nature of philosophy is what makes dialectics necessary....

  4. Optical and dark characterization of the PLATO CCD at ESA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeve, Peter; Prod'homme, Thibaut; Oosterbroek, Tim; Duvet, Ludovic; Beaufort, Thierry; Blommaert, Sander; Butler, Bart; Heijnen, Jerko; Lemmel, Frederic; van der Luijt, Cornelis; Smit, Hans; Visser, Ivo

    2016-07-01

    PLATO - PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars - is the third medium-class mission (M3) to be selected in the European Space Agency (ESA) Science and Robotic Exploration Cosmic Vision programme. It is due for launch in 2025 with the main objective to find and study terrestrial planets in the habitable zone around solar-like stars. The payload consists of >20 cameras; with each camera comprising 4 Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs), a large number of flight model devices procured by ESA shall ultimately be integrated on the spacecraft. The CCD270 - specially designed and manufactured by e2v for the PLATO mission - is a large format (8 cm x 8 cm) back-illuminated device operating at 4 MHz pixel rate and coming in two variants: full frame and frame transfer. In order to de-risk the PLATO CCD procurement and aid the mission definition process, ESA's Payload Technology Validation section is currently validating the PLATO CCD270. This validation consists in demonstrating that the device achieves its specified electrooptical performance in the relevant environment: operated at 4 MHz, at cold and before and after proton irradiation. As part of this validation, CCD270 devices have been characterized in the dark as well as optically with respect to performance parameters directly relevant for the photometric application of the CCDs. Dark tests comprise the measurement of gain sensitivity to bias voltages, charge injection tests, and measurement of hot and variable pixels after irradiation. In addition, the results of measurements of Quantum Efficiency for a range of angles of incidence, intra- pixel response (non-)uniformity, and response to spot illumination, before and after proton irradiation. In particular, the effect of radiation induced degradation of the charge transfer efficiency on the measured charge in a star-like spot has been studied as a function of signal level and of position on the pixel grid, Also, the effect of various levels of background light on the

  5. Organics in comet 67P - a first comparative analysis of mass spectra from ROSINA-DFMS, COSAC and Ptolemy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altwegg, Kathrin; Balsiger, H.; Berthelier, J. J.; Bieler, A.; Calmonte, U.; Fuselier, S. A.; Goesmann, F.; Gasc, S.; Gombosi, T. I.; Le Roy, L.; de Keyser, J.; Morse, A.; Rubin, M.; Schuhmann, M.; Taylor, M. G. G. T.; Tzou, C.-Y.; Wright, I.

    2017-07-01

    The ESA Rosetta spacecraft followed comet 67P at a close distance for more than 2 yr. In addition, it deployed the lander Philae on to the surface of the comet. The (surface) composition of the comet is of great interest to understand the origin and evolution of comets. By combining measurements made on the comet itself and in the coma, we probe the nature of this surface material and compare it to remote sensing observations. We compare data from the double focusing mass spectrometer (DFMS) of the ROSINA experiment on ESA's Rosetta mission and previously published data from the two mass spectrometers COSAC (COmetary Sampling And Composition) and Ptolemy on the lander. The mass spectra of all three instruments show very similar patterns of mainly CHO-bearing molecules that sublimate at temperatures of 275 K. The DFMS data also show a great variety of CH-, CHN-, CHS-, CHO2- and CHNO-bearing saturated and unsaturated species. Methyl isocyanate, propanal and glycol aldehyde suggested by the earlier analysis of the measured COSAC spectrum could not be confirmed. The presence of polyoxymethylene in the Ptolemy spectrum was found to be unlikely. However, the signature of the aromatic compound toluene was identified in DFMS and Ptolemy data. Comparison with remote sensing instruments confirms the complex nature of the organics on the surface of 67P, which is much more diverse than anticipated.

  6. ARISTOTLE AND BERTOLT BRECHT'S EFFECTS ON ENGLISH THEATRE

    OpenAIRE

    Güney, Ajda

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to interpret the effects to English theatre of Aristotle who defined the first theory of theatre art in the 4th century B.C,and those of Bertolt Brecht who marked upon the 20th century theatre. The most significant theatre theorist of the 20th century, the German playwright, theatre director and commentator Bertolt Brecht, provided outstanding clues to contemporary playwrights. Brecht, who witnessed the two great world wars of human history, conducted his works in ord...

  7. Aristotle's theory of tragedy plot and comparison with modern plot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋莹

    2008-01-01

    This paper is to study Aristotle's theory of tragedy and his tragedy plot from the Poetics. He says,'tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious,complete,and of adequate magnitude-in language embellished in different ways in different parts-in the form of action,not of narration-through pity and fear effecting the purgation of these emotions. The elements of tragedy are plot,character,thought,diction,melody and spectacle in their order of importance.' However there exist some differences and similarities between his plot in Poetics and modern plot.

  8. A cladistic analysis of Aristotle's animal groups in the Historia animalium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lieven, Alexander Fürst; Humar, Marcel

    2008-01-01

    The Historia animalium (HA) of Aristotle contains an extraordinarily rich compilation of descriptions of animal anatomy, development, and behaviour. It is believed that Aristotle's aim in HA was to describe the correlations of characters rather than to classify or define animal groups. In order to assess if Aristotle, while organising his character correlations, referred to a pre-existing classification that underlies the descriptions in HA, we carried out a cladistic analysis according to the following procedure: by disentangeling 147 species and 40 higher taxa-designations from 157 predicates in the texts, we transcribed Aristotle's descriptions on anatomy and development of animals in books I-V of HA into a character matrix for a cladistic analysis. By analysing the distribution of characters as described in his books, we obtained a non-phylogenetic dendrogram displaying 58 monophyletic groups, 29 of which have equivalents among Aristotle's group designations. Eleven Aristotelian groupings turned out to be non-monophyletic, and six of them are inconsistent with the monophyletic groups. Twelve of 29 taxa without equivalents in Aristotle's works have equivalents in modern classifications. With this analysis we demonstate there exists a fairly consistent underlying classification in the zoological works of Aristotle. The peculiarities of Aristotle's character basis are discussed and the dendrogram is compared with a current phylogenetic tree.

  9. 76 FR 37290 - Children's Online Privacy Protection Rule; Aristotle International, Inc.'s Application for Safe...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ...; ] FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 312 Children's Online Privacy Protection Rule; Aristotle.... (Aristotle) under the safe harbor provision of the Children's Online Privacy Protection Rule. DATES: Written..., Attorney, (202) 326- 2854, or Mamie Kresses, Attorney, (202) 326-2070, Division of Advertising...

  10. The Fallacy of Continuity, on the references to Aristotle in Arendt and Agamben

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Huppes-Cluysenaer

    2011-01-01

    Agamben characterizes in Homo Sacer the modern state in terms of biopolitics, referring to the theories of Arendt and Foucault. Agamben takes up in this context on a very influential interpretation of Aristotle by Arendt. Arendt maintains in this reference to Aristotle a false idea of continuity and

  11. Books and Becoming Good: Demonstrating Aristotle's Theory of Moral Development in the Act of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    In the Nicomachean ethics, Aristotle sets down a scattered and fractional account of the development of moral virtue within young people. Philosopher Martha Nussbaum defends Aristotle's neglect of a systematic account of moral development and argues that more complex expressions of character-building, such as learning to expose oneself to proper…

  12. Discriminating between thermal and nonthermal cosmic relic neutrinos through an annual modulation at PTOLEMY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guo-yuan; Zhou, Shun

    2016-12-01

    If massive neutrinos are Dirac particles, the proposed PTOLEMY experiment will hopefully be able to discover the cosmic neutrino background via νe+3H →3He+e- with a capture rate of ΓD≈4 yr-1 . Recently, it has been pointed out that right-handed components of Dirac neutrinos could also be copiously produced in the early Universe and become an extra thermal or nonthermal ingredient of cosmic relic neutrinos, enhancing the capture rate to ΓD≈5.1 yr-1 or ΓD≈6.1 yr-1. In this work, we investigate the possibility to distinguish between thermal and nonthermal spectra of cosmic relic neutrinos by measuring the annual modulation of the capture rate. For neutrino masses of 0.1 eV, we find that the amplitude of annual modulation in the standard case is M ≈0.05 %, which will be increased to 0.1% and 0.15% in the presence of additional thermal and nonthermal right-handed neutrinos, respectively. The future detection of such a modulation will be helpful in understanding the Majorana or Dirac nature of massive neutrinos.

  13. The Philosopher's Arete or theStructure of Plato's Parmenides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Gutierrez

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The controversy conceming the unity of Plato's Parmenides and the meaning of its first part is stillongoing. The A. proposes a solution, pointing out its structural coincidence with the Republic's simile of the line. This leads him to confine young Socrates in the segment that corresponds to óuivoux and old Parmenides in the vór¡olc; segment. As the one who "possesses insight" of truth based on his apprehension of the One-Good. Parmenides is the actual representative of the philosopher's arete.

  14. Tibial plato leveling osteotomy / Osteotomia de nivelamento do plato da tíbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Maria Matera

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO is a relatively new and innovative surgical treatment for the cranial cruciate ligament rupture in the canine species. The real intent of the procedure is to provide functional stability to the stifle joint by eliminating or neutralizing the cranial tibial thrust during weight bearing instead to restore the cranial cruciate ligament function. The proposal of this study is to report a review of the TPLO procedure, emphasizing procedure, surgical technique, post operative care and complications. The TPLO procedure consists in a radial osteotomy in the tibial plato and rotation of the caudal plateau in order to obtain a desired angle. After the leveling of the tibial plateau, a bone plate and screws are used to stabilize the osteotomy until bone is healed up. The complications that have been associated with the procedure include tibial tuberosity fracture and patellar tendon tendinosis. This procedure has become increasingly more popular for surgical treatment of cranial cruciate ligament injuries in large breed dog. The long term clinical results have not been completely elucidated yet. It has been showed that this technique doesn’t halt the degenerative joint disease.A osteotomia do platô da tíbia (TPLO é um tratamento relativamente novo e inovador para a ruptura do ligamento cruzado cranial (RLCC na espécie canina. Ao invés de restaurar a função do ligamento, o procedimento promove estabilidade funcional para a articulação do joelho, por eliminar ou neutralizar a força tibial cranial durante a sustentação de peso. A proposta do presente estudo é revisar a técnica de TPLO, enfatizando o procedimento, técnica cirúrgica, cuidados pós-operatórios e complicações. A técnica da TPLO consiste na realização de uma osteotomia circular do platô da tíbia com rotação de sua porção caudal até a obtenção do ângulo desejado. Após o nivelamento do platô da tíbia, placa e parafusos

  15. Reversing Plato’s Anti-Democratism: Castoriadis’ “Quirky” Plato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamblet, Wendy C.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the conflicting "loves" of Cornelius Castoriadis--his love for the ancients, and especially Plato, and for the common person of the demos. A detailed study of Castoriadis' analysis of Plato's Statesman exposes that Castoriadis attempts to resolve the paradox by rereading Plato as a radical democrat. I argue that this unorthodox reading is at best "quirky, " (a charge Castoriadis levels at Plato at worst a groundless sophism. However, I conjecture that Castoriadis' reading may not constitute a serious attempt to describe a Platonic politics, so much as a prescriptive reading of what otherwise might have been, given certain strands of political generosity evident elsewhere in Plato's corpus.

  16. Facing disability with resources from Aristotle and Nietzsche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Susan S

    2002-01-01

    Suddenly unable to walk, I found resources for facing disability in the works of Aristotle and Nietzsche, even though their respective ethical schemes are incommensurable. Implementing Amélie Rorty's notion of crop rotation, I show how each scheme offers the patient something quite indispensable, having to do with how each has its own judgmentally-motivated psychological underpinnings. Aristotle's notion of empathy, wherein the moral move occurs whenever we take up someone else's good as our own, is empowering, especially to those who face an imperiled embodiment. However, Nietzsche teaches us that pity is demeaning both to the pitier and to the pitied, because it falsely assumes that life should be easy so that we are filled with ressentiment when it isn't. Those facing disability need empathy, not pity. The richness of this distinction is vividly conveyed in narratives that show how empathy and pity play out in lived situations, thereby avoiding the dissociation that too often characterizes ethical theorizing. By honoring narrative accounts of how these relational moves are either snagged or successfully made, the attuned moral agency of medical practitioners can be fostered.

  17. Radiation, Thermal Gradient and Weight: a threefold dilemma for PLATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrin, Demetrio; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Bruno, Giordano; Piazza, Daniele; Borsa, Francesco; Ghigo, Mauro; Mogulsky, Valery; Bergomi, Maria; Biondi, Federico; Chinellato, Simonetta; Dima, Marco; Farinato, Jacopo; Greggio, Davide; Gullieuszik, Marco; Marafatto, Luca; Viotto, Valentina; Munari, Matteo; Pagano, Isabella; Sicilia, Daniela; Basso, Stefano; Spiga, Daniele; Bandy, Timothy; Brändli, Mathias; Benz, Willy; De Roche, Thierry; Rieder, Martin; Brandeker, Alexis; Klebor, Maximilian; Schweitzer, Mario; Wieser, Matthias; Erikson, Anders; Rauer, Heike

    2016-07-01

    The project PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars (PLATO) is one of the selected medium class (M class) missions in the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The mean scientific goal of PLATO is the discovery and study of extrasolar planetary systems by means of planetary transits detection. The opto mechanical subsystem of the payload is made of 32 normal telescope optical units (N-TOUs) and 2 fast telescope optical units (FTOUs). The optical configuration of each TOU is an all refractive design based on six properly optimized lenses. In the current baseline, in front of each TOU a Suprasil window is foreseen. The main purposes of the entrance window are to shield the following lenses from possible damaging high energy radiation and to mitigate the thermal gradient that the first optical element will experience during the launch from ground to space environment. In contrast, the presence of the window increases the overall mass by a non-negligible quantity. We describe here the radiation and thermal analysis and their impact on the quality and risks assessment, summarizing the trade-off process with pro and cons on having or dropping the entrance window in the optical train.

  18. Manufacturing and alignment tolerance analysis through Montecarlo approach for PLATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrin, Demetrio; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Bergomi, Maria; Biondi, Federico; Chinellato, Simonetta; Dima, Marco; Farinato, Jacopo; Greggio, Davide; Gullieuszik, Marco; Marafatto, Luca; Viotto, Valentina; Munari, Matteo; Pagano, Isabella; Sicilia, Daniela; Basso, Stefano; Borsa, Francesco; Ghigo, Mauro; Spiga, Daniele; Bandy, Timothy; Brändli, Mathias; Benz, Willy; Bruno, Giordano; De Roche, Thierry; Piazza, Daniele; Rieder, Martin; Brandeker, Alexis; Klebor, Maximilian; Mogulsky, Valery; Schweitzer, Mario; Wieser, Matthias; Erikson, Anders; Rauer, Heike

    2016-07-01

    The project PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars (PLATO) is one of the selected medium class (M class) missions in the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The main scientific goal of PLATO is the discovery and study of extrasolar planetary systems by means of planetary transits detection. According to the current baseline, the scientific payload consists of 34 all refractive telescopes having small aperture (120mm) and wide field of view (diameter greater than 37 degrees) observing over 0.5-1 micron wavelength band. The telescopes are mounted on a common optical bench and are divided in four families of eight telescopes with an overlapping line-of-sight in order to maximize the science return. Remaining two telescopes will be dedicated to support on-board star-tracking system and will be specialized on two different photometric bands for science purposes. The performance requirement, adopted as merit function during the analysis, is specified as 90% enclosed energy contained in a square having size 2 pixels over the whole field of view with a depth of focus of +/-20 micron. Given the complexity of the system, we have followed a Montecarlo analysis approach for manufacturing and alignment tolerances. We will describe here the tolerance method and the preliminary results, speculating on the assumed risks and expected performances.

  19. Aristotle, alive and well in Papua New Guinea science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeha, Beno B.

    1990-09-01

    National High School students from Papua New Guinea were interviewed about two situations; the results of their Aristotle-like views regarding `forced' and `natural' motion are presented and discussed. Twenty-one National High School Students were interviewed about two situations similarly used elsewhere (Osborne and Gibert 1979, 1980, Osborne 1980a) and the results of these Aristotle-like views possessed by students have been presented and discussed above. With each of the six summary statements some extracts have been provided from interviews conducted by the author with students who had come from various parts of Pupua New Guinea. Students' views have been compiled to give a composite picture of the Aristotle-like ideas. Some impression of the commonality of the ideas/beliefs has been provided by reference to the work of others who have reported similar tendencies in testing and interviewing physics students. Throughout the study, students' Aristotlean-like views have been given a respected status that reflects their widespread use, their internal coherence and their tenacity in the face of classroom teaching in a Pupua New Guinea National High School. In analysing individual interview transcripits, attempts were made to construct ideas/beliefs that can account for statements by each student in a manner that statements are consistent with each other. The assumption that all of a student's statements are logically compatible to a listener or reader is difficult to maintain. However, it is one that has to be made as a hypothesis to work with, otherwise it is too easy to discount sections of a student's discourse that seem inconsistent with understandable parts. The aims of this part of the study have been to provide science educationalists with a repertoire of common Aristolean-like beliefs which have persisted in students. These views differ in some ways from the orthodox physics views. By better understanding of the students' beliefs and commitments about

  20. Did Ptolemy make novel predictions? Launching Ptolemaic astronomy into the scientific realism debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Christián; Díez, José

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this paper, both historical and philosophical, is to launch a new case into the scientific realism debate: geocentric astronomy. Scientific realism about unobservables claims that the non-observational content of our successful/justified empirical theories is true, or approximately true. The argument that is currently considered the best in favor of scientific realism is the No Miracles Argument: the predictive success of a theory that makes (novel) observational predictions while making use of non-observational content would be inexplicable unless such non-observational content approximately corresponds to the world "out there". Laudan's pessimistic meta-induction challenged this argument, and realists reacted by moving to a "selective" version of realism: the approximately true part of the theory is not its full non-observational content but only the part of it that is responsible for the novel, successful observational predictions. Selective scientific realism has been tested against some of the theories in Laudan's list, but the first member of this list, geocentric astronomy, has been traditionally ignored. Our goal here is to defend that Ptolemy's Geocentrism deserves attention and poses a prima facie strong case against selective realism, since it made several successful, novel predictions based on theoretical hypotheses that do not seem to be retained, not even approximately, by posterior theories. Here, though, we confine our work just to the detailed reconstruction of what we take to be the main novel, successful Ptolemaic predictions, leaving the full analysis and assessment of their significance for the realist thesis to future works.

  1. Aristotle on Sentence Types and Forms of Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Bolonyai

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the Hermeneutics, Ch. 4, the analysis of non-assertoric sentences such as wishes, commands, etc. belongs to rhetoric or poetics. They are, however, examined neither in the Rhetoric nor in the Poetics, where (Ch. 20 their treatment. is explicitly excluded from the art of poetry and referred to that of delivery or performance. The paper gives an explanation for this discrepancy, based on an interpretation of Aristotle's rejection of Protagoras' criticism of Homer. The sophist found fault with the first line of the Iliad where Homer invokes the Muse by the imperative Menin aeide, thea thus uttering a command while believing that he is expressing a prayer. Aristotle's grounds for rejecting this criticism remain implicit, but it appears very likely that he thought that, if uttered or performed in the right manner, the sentence could he taken as a prayer. From this observation, which is certainly valid in this particular case, he drew the conclusion that performative or vocal features in themselves, i.e. rhythm, intonation and volume of sound, are always sufficient to identify particular „figures of speech“, as he calls non-assertoric sentence types in the Poetics. This conclusion is, however, not entirely justified. Performative features are not always enough to differentiate between two `figures of speech'; the possible range of verbal moods and sentence types is likewise determined by morphological marks (e.g. mood signs, syntactical features (word-order, and lexical items (certain adverbs or particles. Aristotle’s decision to dismiss figures of speech altogether from the field of lexis may also have contributed to the later development of keeping linguistics and theory of style apart as two separate branches of inquiry.

  2. FORMATION OF ANTIQUE RHETORIC: CHRONOLOGY OF RHETORICAL METHODS AND STYLES (PLATO, ARISTOTLE СТАНОВЛЕННЯ АНТИЧНОЇ РИТОРИКИ: ХРОНОЛОГІЯ РИТОРИЧНИХ МЕТОДІВ І СТИЛІВ (ПЛАТОН, АРИСТОТЕЛЬ СТАНОВЛЕНИЕ АНТИЧНОЙ РИТОРИКИ: ХРОНОЛОГИЯ РИТОРИЧЕСКИХ МЕТОДОВ И СТИЛЕЙ (ПЛАТОН, АРИСТОТЕЛЬ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Pantelyeyeva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the article represents one of the investigation stages devoted to studying the ancient theory of speech in the light of the analysis of rhetorical methods and styles. Purpose of the article: to analyze the basic points of philosophical concepts of rhetoric of Plato and Aristotle, to prove that from Plato the rhetoric in the true sense starts being approved, and Aristotle is an ancestor of real theory of speech of the new genre, the new form, the new purposes and tasks of the description of verbal art. Problem statement: development of the ancient principles of rhetorical style’s creating is reached by efforts of outstanding speakers, each of them were differed not only by the ideological sympathies or antipathies, but also by nature of works, the concepts put in their basis. Two Ancient Greek philosophers: Plato and Aristotle are considered as founders of ancient rhetorical science. The main material of article represents philosophical research of features of scientific concepts of the ancient philosophers Plato and Aristotle based on studying and generalization of authentic sources and literary critics. Findings and their discussion: basic points of philosophical concepts of rhetoric of Plato and Aristotle are analyzed, their main features and regularities are defined, and their interrelation with practice of public oratorical speech is established. Scientific novelty is displayed in the received results from the comparative analysis of two concepts of public speech of Plato and Aristotle from a position of philosophical justification of rhetoric’s rules with orientation on ancient "popular" declamation practices. Practical value of article consists in development of insufficiently studied object "Antique declamation discourse" where Plato and Aristotle's two central rhetorical concepts appear as the intermediate stage in development of a declamation discourse of Ancient Greece and, subsequently, and Ancient Rome. Conclusions

  3. Love as an Object of Initiation in Plato's Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euaggelia Maraggianou

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Initiation ( muvhsh was the first stage of the ancient mysteries celebrating Demeter, the earth-goddess, and her daughter Kore, soon identified with Persephone or Persephasa, a pre-Greek deity of the underworld. Next came the stage of contemplation ( ejpopteiva , at which worshippers were shown a vision of the goddess of Hades. This led them to identify themselves with her, thus reaching the highest form of happiness. The Eleusinian Mysteries were inseparably linked to the Orphic doctrine, which in its turn influenced the thought of Plato. Plato sees love as an object of initiation and as one of the greatest mysteries of human existence. Plato’s dialogues, Phaedrus and Symposium, contain expressions borrowed directly from the vocabulary of the Mysteries. Although neither Socrates in Phaedrus nor Diotima in Symposium make any explicit reference to the mystic ceremonies, it is certain that both allude to them in expounding the mysteries of spiritual life. The latter has to start at the stage of physical love in order to end up in the contemplation of Ideas. The mystery into which Socrates is initiated by Diotima is the following: there is a mystic stairway leading from the earth to the sky, from man to God. It is made visible by Love, and its steps are represented by different kinds of beauty. The ascent is a gradual one, with a long stop at each of the stages. In this way Love, disciplined by philosophy and spiritualised by increasing de-personalisation, ends up in the Intellectual, conceiving the latter with an intuitive insight. By this spiritual process, one is purified, led to the road of salvation and enabled to participate in the Divine.

  4. PLATO as it is : A legacy mission for Galactic archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglio, A.; Chiappini, C.; Mosser, B.; Davies, G. R.; Freeman, K.; Girardi, L.; Jofré, P.; Kawata, D.; Rendle, B. M.; Valentini, M.; Casagrande, L.; Chaplin, W. J.; Gilmore, G.; Hawkins, K.; Holl, B.; Appourchaux, T.; Belkacem, K.; Bossini, D.; Brogaard, K.; Goupil, M.-J.; Montalbán, J.; Noels, A.; Anders, F.; Rodrigues, T.; Piotto, G.; Pollacco, D.; Rauer, H.; Prieto, C. Allende; Avelino, P. P.; Babusiaux, C.; Barban, C.; Barbuy, B.; Basu, S.; Baudin, F.; Benomar, O.; Bienaymé, O.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bressan, A.; Cacciari, C.; Campante, T. L.; Cassisi, S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Combes, F.; Creevey, O.; Cunha, M. S.; Jong, R. S.; Laverny, P.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Deheuvels, S.; Depagne, É.; Ridder, J.; Matteo, P. Di; Mauro, M. P. Di; Dupret, M.-A.; Eggenberger, P.; Elsworth, Y.; Famaey, B.; Feltzing, S.; García, R. A.; Gerhard, O.; Gibson, B. K.; Gizon, L.; Haywood, M.; Handberg, R.; Heiter, U.; Hekker, S.; Huber, D.; Ibata, R.; Katz, D.; Kawaler, S. D.; Kjeldsen, H.; Kurtz, D. W.; Lagarde, N.; Lebreton, Y.; Lund, M. N.; Majewski, S. R.; Marigo, P.; Martig, M.; Mathur, S.; Minchev, I.; Morel, T.; Ortolani, S.; Pinsonneault, M. H.; Plez, B.; Moroni, P. G. Prada; Pricopi, D.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Reylé, C.; Robin, A.; Roxburgh, I. W.; Salaris, M.; Santiago, B. X.; Schiavon, R.; Serenelli, A.; Sharma, S.; Aguirre, V. Silva; Soubiran, C.; Steinmetz, M.; Stello, D.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Ventura, P.; Ventura, R.; Walton, N. A.; Worley, C. C.

    2017-07-01

    Deciphering the assembly history of the Milky Way is a formidable task, which becomes possible only if one can produce high-resolution chrono-chemo-kinematical maps of the Galaxy. Data from large-scale astrometric and spectroscopic surveys will soon provide us with a well-defined view of the current chemo-kinematical structure of the Milky Way, but will only enable a blurred view on the temporal sequence that led to the present-day Galaxy. As demonstrated by the (ongoing) exploitation of data from the pioneering photometric missions CoRoT, Kepler, and K2, asteroseismology provides the way forward: solar-like oscillating giants are excellent evolutionary clocks thanks to the availability of seismic constraints on their mass and to the tight age-initial-mass relation they adhere to. In this paper we identify five key outstanding questions relating to the formation and evolution of the Milky Way that will need precise and accurate ages for large samples of stars to be addressed, and we identify the requirements in terms of number of targets and the precision on the stellar properties that are needed to tackle such questions. By quantifying the asteroseismic yields expected from PLATO for red-giant stars, we demonstrate that these requirements are within the capabilities of the current instrument design, provided that observations are sufficiently long to identify the evolutionary state and allow robust and precise determination of acoustic-mode frequencies. This will allow us to harvest data of sufficient quality to reach a 10% precision in age. This is a fundamental pre-requisite to then reach the more ambitious goal of a similar level of accuracy, which will only be possible if we have to hand a careful appraisal of systematic uncertainties on age deriving from our limited understanding of stellar physics, a goal which conveniently falls within the main aims of PLATO's core science.

  5. SOME CLASSICAL HYPOTEXTS IN MARGARET DOODY’S ARISTOTLE AND POETIC JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pauw

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The philosopher Aristotle appears in seven detective novels by the academic Margaret Doody in which he makes use of hisinvestigative powers to solve murder mysteries. In Aristotle andpoetic justice Stephanos, a friend of Aristotle, narrates how Anthia, the heiress of a silver merchant, has been abducted. While Stephanosand Aristotle pursue the abductor and the heiress on the road to Delphi, two murders complicate their challenge.

    Doody’s novel provides a convenient framework for opening awindow onto the Greek world of 330 BC. In the body of the article,hypertextual allusions introduced by Doody are examined andevaluated, using a modified version of Genette’s scheme ashermeneutic paradigm.

  6. Economics, chrematistics, oikos and polis in Aristotle and St. Thomas Aquinas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José Luis Cendejas Bueno

    2017-01-01

    In Aristotle's thought, economic activity refers to a kind of praxis consisting in allocating the human and material means that constitute the oikos -the domestic community- to fulfil its natural ends...

  7. Angiographic outcomes in the PLATO Trial (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kunadian, Vijay; James, Stefan K; Wojdyla, Daniel M; Zorkun, Cafer; Wu, Jinhui; Storey, Robert F; Steg, Ph Gabriel; Katus, Hugo; Emanuelsson, Hakan; Horrow, Jay; Maya, Juan; Wallentin, Lars; Harrington, Robert A; Gibson, C Michael

    2013-01-01

    The PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) angiographic substudy sought to compare the efficacy of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel with respect to angiographic outcomes before and after PCI in the setting of acute coronary syndrome...

  8. The Legacies of Literacy: From Plato to Freire through Harvey Graff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    1989-01-01

    Reviews "The Legacies of Literacy: Continuities and Contradictions in Western Culture and Society" (Harvey G. Graff). Discusses the historical role of literacy education as a tool for liberation, emphasizing the viewpoints of Plato and Freire. (FMW)

  9. Genesis 2–3 and Alcibiades's speech in Plato's Symposium : A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genesis 2–3 and Alcibiades's speech in Plato's Symposium : A cultural critical reading. ... interpretation can arise from the analysis of Alcibiades's speech compared to M- and LXX-Genesis ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  10. Prospects for detecting decreasing exoplanet frequency with main sequence age using PLATO

    CERN Document Server

    Veras, Dimitri; Mustill, Alexander J; Pollacco, Don

    2015-01-01

    The space mission PLATO will usher in a new era of exoplanetary science by expanding our current inventory of transiting systems and constraining host star ages, which are currently highly uncertain. This capability might allow PLATO to detect changes in planetary system architecture with time, particularly because planetary scattering due to Lagrange instability may be triggered long after the system was formed. Here, we utilize previously published instability timescale prescriptions to determine PLATO's capability to detect a trend of decreasing planet frequency with age for systems with equal-mass planets. For two-planet systems, our results demonstrate that PLATO may detect a trend for planet masses which are at least as massive as super-Earths. For systems with three or more planets, we link their initial compactness to potentially detectable frequency trends in order to aid future investigations when these populations will be better characterized.

  11. Plato's Charmides as a Political Act: Apologetics and the Promotion of Ideology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danzig, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

      By showing that Critias and Socrates understood the same matters differently, Plato was able to treat seriously ideas that came to be associated with the Thirty and with Socrates while shielding himself from criticism...

  12. Platerm: la banque de terminologie du systeme Platon (PLATERM: The Terminology Bank of the PLATO System).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Wallace; St-Denis, Richard

    1980-01-01

    Describes the elements and functioning of the terminology bank of the PLATO (Programmed Loqic for Automated Teaching Operation) system. Discusses contemporary terminology and lexicography notions on which the bank is based and outlines the tasks performed through PLATERM. (MES)

  13. Platerm: la banque de terminologie du systeme Platon (PLATERM: The Terminology Bank of the PLATO System).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Wallace; St-Denis, Richard

    1980-01-01

    Describes the elements and functioning of the terminology bank of the PLATO (Programmed Loqic for Automated Teaching Operation) system. Discusses contemporary terminology and lexicography notions on which the bank is based and outlines the tasks performed through PLATERM. (MES)

  14. Notes on Agricultural Terminology in Aristotle (Sens. 441a10-17)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2006-01-01

    This article examines Aristotle's terminology in a much debated passage of the De Sensu et Sensibilibus. Based on this examination, the text itself and the conjectures that have so far been proposed are discussed.......This article examines Aristotle's terminology in a much debated passage of the De Sensu et Sensibilibus. Based on this examination, the text itself and the conjectures that have so far been proposed are discussed....

  15. ARISTOTLE AND THE ECONOMY WITHIN THE BOUNDS OF PRACTICAL REASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATTHIAS VOLLET

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Comparada con la economía de hoy, la de la Grecia antigua —por lo menos en una de sus concepciones— era una economía limitada. Exteriormente,porque en Hesíodo sirve para el sustento de la casa, y en Aristóteles para el sustento de la ciudad; interiormente y de manera sistemática, en el primer caso, por su origen divino y su sentido dentro de la relación hombre-dioses, y en el segundo caso, por su subordinación a la teleología ética y política de la vida humana, tal y como la concibe Aristóteles. La autarquía, como límite de la economía, es doble. Por una parte, autarquía económica en sentido estricto, ya que la economía sólo ha de llegar hasta el punto de poder asegurar la supervivencia de la comunidad que es su sujeto. Pero, por otra, la autarquía, para Aristóteles, tiene sobre todo un sentido antropológico: el hombre más autárquico es el que practica aquello que, para su praxis, no necesita de otra cosa: esta praxis más alta es la de la razón, desarrollada en la Polis, que es su meta. Esta autarquía del ser razonable da sentido y también límite al buen actuar económico, que es una mera herramienta.Abstract: By contrast to the contemporary economy, Ancient Greece had a closed economy. In what follows I distinguish an outer and an inner perspective. The outer perspective is determined by the autarky of the household (Hesiod or of the city (Aristotle, which is the exclusive moral aim for economic activity. The inner perspective is determined by the moral implications of economic activity, founded in the gods (Hesiod or in practical human reason (Aristotle. Both of these perspectives limit the scope and range of an economy and of economic influence on society. The distinction between the persepcectives gives us the basis for another distinction explicitly stated in Aristotle’s Politics. That distinction has influenced economic thought for several centuries and consistsin distinguishing two forms of

  16. Knowledge and Accountability in Aristotle - Wissen und Zurechenbarkeit bei Aristoteles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin F. Meyer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is intended to show that Aristotle was the first European philosopher to provide a systematic analysis of the so-called accountability problem. In the third book of his Nicomachean Ethics, he lays particular stress on the central role of knowledge: deficiencies in the knowledge of the perpetrator mean that we do not hold him responsible for his actions, or only to a limited extent; he is thus either not at all, or only to a certain degree, accountable for his acts.Der Beitrag soll zeigen, daß Aristoteles als erster europäischer Denker eine systematische Analyse der sog. Zurechnungsproblematik vorgelegt hat. Im 3. Buch seiner Nikomachischen Ethik hebt er dabei v. a. auf die zentrale Rolle des Wissens ab: Wissensmängel auf Seiten des Täters führen dazu, daß wir ihn nicht oder nur eingeschränkt für seine Handlungen verantwortlich machen; ihm also seine Taten entweder gar nicht oder nur begrenzt zurechnen.

  17. Prudence. The Basic Concept of the Practical in Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthold Wald

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is written in German. The article begins by recalling the most important understandings associated with the term prudence in the history of philosophy. Then it introduces the Aristotelian concept of prudence linked to practical truth—prudence seen in contrast to wisdom and knowledge of manufacturing. The article discusses various forms of rational knowledge associated with the right will, and proves the need of linking prudence to all the other ethical virtues based on moral principles. It emphasizes the problem of how to relate general principles to specific actions which involve particular goods. For resolving this problem, the article refers to Aristotle who sees the solution in political ethics which has a significant impact on individual behavior; consequently, good law and proper education are considered to be necessary conditions which allow to form the moral judgment skills for providing a morally good life. The article concludes with the claim that the proper field to capture the specificity of prudence includes the theory of human action and that of human morality.

  18. Patterns of Light Chasing the Spectrum from Aristotle to LEDs

    CERN Document Server

    Beeson, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Light is all around us – even when we do not see it. Our eyes do not detect the higher energy and shorter-than-visible-wavelength ultraviolet radiation, yet we know it is there from the sunburn we receive in Arizona. We know that window glass can block ultraviolet rays so we do not get a burn while driving with the windows rolled up. Our eyes do not detect the low-energy, long-wavelength infrared (IR) radiation but we know it exists from discussions of war applications and televised images of guided weapons targets. We also know about radio waves from the little boxes that talk to us and x-rays from the dentist's office. Patterns of Light, Chasing the Spectrum from Aristotle to LEDs, written by Steve Beeson and Jim Mayer starts with the visible – the straight path of light. It continues with chapters detailing reflection (mirrors, storefront windows) and refraction (eyeglasses, binoculars). Color is then introduced with the query "Why is the sky blue?" After answering that and other similar questions ("Wh...

  19. Riemann-Hypothesis Millennium-Problem(MP) Physics Proof via CATEGORY-SEMANTICS(C-S)/F =C Aristotle SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION(SoO) DEduction-LOGIC DichotomY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Joao-Joan; Lapidaryus, Michelle; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2013-03-01

    Riemann-hypothesis physics-proof combines: Siegel-Antono®-Smith[AMS Joint Mtg.(2002)- Abs.973-03-126] digits on-average statistics HIll[Am. J. Math 123, 3, 887(1996)] logarithm-function's (1,0)- xed-point base =units =scale-invariance proven Newcomb [Am. J. Math. 4, 39(1881)]-Weyl[Goett. Nachr.(1914); Math. Ann.7, 313(1916)]-Benford[Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 78, 4, 51(1938)]-law [Kac,Math. of Stat.-Reasoning(1955); Raimi, Sci. Am. 221, 109(1969)] algebraic-inversion to ONLY Bose-Einstein quantum-statistics(BEQS) with digit d = 0 gapFUL Bose-Einstein Condensation(BEC) insight that digits are quanta are bosons because bosons are and always were quanta are and always were digits, via Siegel-Baez category-semantics tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics in Plato-Aristotle classic ''square-of-opposition'' : FUZZYICS =CATEGORYICS/Category-Semantics, with Goodkind Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC) ABOVE ground-state with/and Rayleigh(cut-limit of ''short-cut method''1870)-Polya(1922)-''Anderson''(1958) localization [Doyle and Snell,Random-Walks and Electrical-Networks, MAA(1981)-p.99-100!!!] in Brillouin[Wave-Propagation in Periodic-Structures(1946) Dover(1922)]-Hubbard-Beeby[J.Phys.C(1967)] Siegel[J.Nonxline-Sol.40,453(1980)] generalized-disorder collective-boson negative-dispersion mode-softening universality-principle(G...P) first use of the ``square-of-opposition'' in physics since Plato and Aristote!!!

  20. The PLATO Dome A site-testing observatory: Power generation and control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J. S.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Hengst, S.; Luong-van, D. M.; Storey, J. W. V.; Yang, H.; Zhou, X.; Zhu, Z.

    2009-06-01

    The atmospheric conditions above Dome A, a currently unmanned location at the highest point on the Antarctic plateau, are uniquely suited to astronomy. For certain types of astronomy Dome A is likely to be the best location on the planet, and this has motivated the development of the Plateau Observatory (PLATO). PLATO was deployed to Dome A in early 2008. It houses a suite of purpose-built site-testing instruments designed to quantify the benefits of Dome A site for astronomy, and science instruments designed to take advantage of the observing conditions. The PLATO power generation and control system is designed to provide continuous power and heat, and a high-reliability command and communications platform for these instruments. PLATO has run and collected data throughout the winter 2008 season completely unattended. Here we present a detailed description of the power generation, power control, thermal management, instrument interface, and communications systems for PLATO, and an overview of the system performance for 2008.

  1. Gaia and WEAVE/WxES: Supporting the PLATO Exoplanet Hunter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, N. A.

    2016-10-01

    This paper briefly describes the powerful linkages between the Gaia and PLATO missions and the potential for WEAVE in the study of exoplanet populations, for instance through the proposed WxES survey. Gaia successfully launched in December 2013, and over the course of its nominal five year mission will discover, via their astrometric signatures, upwards of 20 000 massive Jupiter sized long period planets at distances out to several hundred parsecs around all star types. In addition Gaia will discover up to a thousand short period hot Jupiters around M stars. PLATO, to launch in 2024, will through precision photometry, observe in detail some million host stars, and will detect, via the transit technique, planets down to Earth masses. PLATO will observe two fields of over 2 000 square degrees for 2-3 years each. At least one of these will be in the northern hemisphere. WEAVE has the potential to provide detailed chemical characterization of the host stars of the Gaia and PLATO exoplanet systems. This will enable insights into, for instance, metallicity of the host star correlations against both massive exoplanets (perhaps confirming current relationships), and lower mass exoplanets. We note how the rapid exploitation of such a potential WEAVE survey could be achieved, utilizing the WEAVE processing systems being developed at the IoA, Cambridge, coupled with efficient interfaces to both Gaia and PLATO data products, that are also being generated at the IoA.

  2. In Defence of Aristotle on Character: Toward a Synthesis of Recent Psychology, Neuroscience and the Thought of Michael Polanyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, various forms of character education have become popular in both elementary and professional education. They are often criticised, however, for their reliance on Aristotle, who is said to be problematic at several points. In response to these criticisms, I argue that Aristotle's ancient account of character and its formation…

  3. The role of the poet in Plato's ideal cities of Callipolis and Magnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Naddaf

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Plato's attitude toward the poets and poetry has always been a flashpoint of debate, controversy and notoriety, but most scholars have failed to see their central role in the ideal cities of the Republic and the Laws, that is, Callipolis and Magnesia. In this paper, I argue that in neither dialogue does Plato "exile" the poets, but, instead, believes they must, like all citizens, exercise the expertise proper to their profession, allowing them the right to become full-fledged participants in the productive class. Moreover, attention to certain details reveals that Plato harnesses both positive and negative factors in poetry to bring his ideal cities closer to a practical realization. The status of the poet and his craft in this context has rarely to my knowledge been addressed.

  4. PLATO - the next-generation AASTINO for robotic site-testing on the Antarctic plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengst, S.; Lawrence, J.; Luong-van, D.; Everett, J.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Storey, J. W. V.; Hall, S.

    2006-08-01

    A new site-testing facility, PLATO (Plateau Observatory), is under development at UNSW for deployment to remote sites on the Antarctic Plateau including Dome A. The new facility will adopt many of the features of the AASTINO (Automated Astrophysical Site Testing InterNational Observatory) facility at Dome C. PLATO will autonomously control a flexible site testing and observing instrument suite, monitored via the Iridium satellite network. A challenging aspect of PLATO is to maximise the reliability of the power source while minimising fuel consumption. We are building a low pressure, low temperature environmental chamber to simulate operation at the highest altitudes (4,100 m at Dome A). Two types of engines will be tested: a single-cylinder diesel engine and a Stirling engine.

  5. Efficient methods for solving discrete topology design problems in the PLATO-N project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canh, Nam Nguyen; Stolpe, Mathias

    This paper considers the general multiple load structural topology design problems in the framework of the PLATO-N project. The problems involve a large number of discrete design variables and were modeled as a non-convex mixed 0–1 program. For the class of problems considered, a global optimizat......This paper considers the general multiple load structural topology design problems in the framework of the PLATO-N project. The problems involve a large number of discrete design variables and were modeled as a non-convex mixed 0–1 program. For the class of problems considered, a global...

  6. A Similar Comparison between the Thought of Plato and Confucius on Social Hierarchy and Elitism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨馥遥

    2014-01-01

    The spring-autumn period and warring state period of Chinese thoughts coincide strikingly with the thoughts of the Hel enic Age in the west. Plato and Confucius, the two outstanding seminal thinkers have shaped the philosophy of their respective cultures through some similar means and thoughts which definitely meet at a series of significant points. The highlight of the academic thesis lies in the comparison of the general similarities be-tween Plato and Confucius especial y in terms of social hierarchy and elitism.

  7. The PLATO End-to-End CCD Simulator -- Modelling space-based ultra-high precision CCD photometry for the assessment study of the PLATO Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Zima, W; De Ridder, J; Salmon, S; Catala, C; Kjeldsen, H; Aerts, C

    2010-01-01

    The PLATO satellite mission project is a next generation ESA Cosmic Vision satellite project dedicated to the detection of exo-planets and to asteroseismology of their host-stars using ultra-high precision photometry. The main goal of the PLATO mission is to provide a full statistical analysis of exo-planetary systems around stars that are bright and close enough for detailed follow-up studies. Many aspects concerning the design trade-off of a space-based instrument and its performance can best be tackled through realistic simulations of the expected observations. The complex interplay of various noise sources in the course of the observations made such simulations an indispensable part of the assessment study of the PLATO Payload Consortium. We created an end-to-end CCD simulation software-tool, dubbed PLATOSim, which simulates photometric time-series of CCD images by including realistic models of the CCD and its electronics, the telescope optics, the stellar field, the pointing uncertainty of the satellite ...

  8. Difference between the Approach of Aristotle and Avicenna in Proof of the Existence of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadsaleh Tayebnia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available   Comparing between approach of Aristotle and Avicenna in proof of the existence of God, is a sign of basic difference between Peripatetic idea of Aristotle and Avicenna, also the different way that has been gone in the Muslim world compared to the west, in proof of the existence of God.   Aristotle in “Philosophies”, has been mentioned to the two arguments: "degrees of perfection argument" and "teleological argument", but his main argument on the existence of God, is “the argument from motion” that has explained details of it in the Lambda Book of Metaphysics and Physics. Each of the three above arguments has a cosmological approach and is categorized as the posteriori arguments.   For Avicenna, acceptance of that Aristotle had wanted to prove the existence of God by natural things, such as world motion, is very hard. According to this thinking, he focused all his efforts on not using the cosmological arguments to prove the existence of God. Avicenna used “the proof of middle and the end” and “the proof from contingency and necessity” in several of his books and his latest exposition of the proof from contingency and necessity has named “proof of the truthful”. His argument is ontological and priori too.

  9. Apixaban vs. warfarin with concomitant aspirin in patients with atrial fibrillation: insights from the ARISTOTLE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, J.H.; Lopes, R.D.; Thomas, L.; Alings, M.; Atar, D.; Aylward, P.; Goto, S.; Hanna, M.; Huber, K.; Husted, S.; Lewis, B.S.; McMurray, J.J.; Pais, P.; Pouleur, H.; Steg, P.G.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Wojdyla, D.M.; Granger, C.B.; Wallentin, L.

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: We assessed the effect of concomitant aspirin use on the efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS AND RESULTS: In ARISTOTLE, 18 201 patients were randomized to apixaban 5 mg twice daily or warfarin. Concomitant aspirin use was le

  10. Apixaban vs. warfarin with concomitant aspirin in patients with atrial fibrillation: insights from the ARISTOTLE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, J.H.; Lopes, R.D.; Thomas, L.; Alings, M.; Atar, D.; Aylward, P.; Goto, S.; Hanna, M.; Huber, K.; Husted, S.; Lewis, B.S.; McMurray, J.J.; Pais, P.; Pouleur, H.; Steg, P.G.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Wojdyla, D.M.; Granger, C.B.; Wallentin, L.

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: We assessed the effect of concomitant aspirin use on the efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS AND RESULTS: In ARISTOTLE, 18 201 patients were randomized to apixaban 5 mg twice daily or warfarin. Concomitant aspirin use was

  11. The Problems of Translating Aristotle: Some Typical Unresolved Questions of Terminology and Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kalan

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle's scientific language of' philosophy includes "sublime words", (semna onomata such as Being, Cosmos, Harmony, God, infinity, and so remains halfway between poetry and science. In Vico's view Aristotle's prose represents a completed transition from poetry to ordinary language, whereas Heidegger's theory of translating considers the basic Greek philosophical terms, such as to on and logos to be as untranslatable as high poetry. Aristotle's language and terminology are a reflection of his philosophy. The foundation of his first philosophy is the experience that the term "being" (to on has several senses (pollahos legetai In order to engage in debate we must first be able to establish ill how many senses a given term can be used. Therefore some philosophical subjects are treated by Aristotle in the form of a philosophical dictionary, i.e. Book V of the Metaphysics. The rendering of many basic terms from Greek philosophy into modern languages entails a preliminary interpretation, as well as an inquiry into the terminological possibilities of the target language. In the case of Slovene some Greek terms lack translation equivalents while others have been translated with an overabundance of synonyms.

  12. Difference between the Approach of Aristotle and Avicenna in Proof of the Existence of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saeedimehr

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparing between approach of Aristotle and Avicenna in proof of the existence of God, is a sign of basic difference between Peripatetic idea of Aristotle and Avicenna, also the different way that has been gone in the Muslim world compared to the west, in proof of the existence of God.   Aristotle in “Philosophies”, has been mentioned to the two arguments: "degrees of perfection argument" and "teleological argument", but his main argument on the existence of God, is “the argument from motion” that has explained details of it in the Lambda Book of Metaphysics and Physics. Each of the three above arguments has a cosmological approach and is categorized as the posteriori arguments.   For Avicenna, acceptance of that Aristotle had wanted to prove the existence of God by natural things, such as world motion, is very hard. According to this thinking, he focused all his efforts on not using the cosmological arguments to prove the existence of God. Avicenna used “the proof of middle and the end” and “the proof from contingency and necessity” in several of his books and his latest exposition of the proof from contingency and necessity has named “proof of the truthful”. His argument is ontological and priori too.

  13. Aristotle's Rhetoric, Hitler's Program, and the Ideological Problem of Praxis, Power, and Professional Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Steven B.

    1993-01-01

    Examines Hitler's use of propaganda to construct praxis and define phronesis in Nazi Germany in terms of the rational but open-ended nature of Aristotle's political-ethical thought. Examines the failure of professional discourse surrounding the siting of a low-level nuclear waste facility to create a persuasive reality and yet ideologically…

  14. The "Physically Educated" Person: Physical Education in the Philosophy of Reid, Peters and Aristotle

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAllister, James

    2013-01-01

    This article will derive a definition and account of the physically educated person, through an examination of the philosophy of Andrew Reid, Richard Peters and Aristotle. Initially, Reid's interpretation of Peters' views about the educational significance of practical knowledge (and physical education) will be considered. While it will…

  15. ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes in the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armstrong, Paul W; Siha, Hany; Fu, Yuling;

    2012-01-01

    Ticagrelor, when compared with clopidogrel, reduced the 12-month risk of vascular death/myocardial infarction and stroke in patients with ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes intended to undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) tr...

  16. Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A Morpho-Logic of Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses two well-known texts that respectively describe learning and teaching, drawn from the work of Freud and Plato. These texts are considered in psychoanalytic terms using a methodology drawn from the philosophy of Luce Irigaray. In particular the article addresses Irigaray's approach to the analysis of speech and utterance as a…

  17. Dialectic of Eros and Myth of the Soul in Plato's Phaedrus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jens Kristian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I question a widespread reading of a passage in the last part of the Phaedrus dealing with the science of dialectic. According to this reading, the passage announces a new method peculiar to the later Plato aiming at defining natural kinds. I show that the Phaedrus itself does not ...

  18. Evaluation of a Three Year Health Sciences PLATO IV Computer-Based Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlie, William E.; Essex, Diane L.

    Significant findings of the comprehensive evaluation of a computer-based curriculum in the basic medical sciences using the PLATO IV computer system are presented. The study was conducted by the Office of Curriculum and Evaluation (OCE) of the School of Basic Medical Sciences (SBMS) at the University of Illinois, Urbana/Champaign (UC). It was…

  19. Cost of Initial Development of PLATO Instruction in Veterinary Medicine. CERL Report X-43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, George M.

    An academic program instituting the PLATO system of computer-assisted instruction at the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine is discussed. Procedures involved setting up an organization, establishing an administrative system, studying capabilities of the system, studying factors making a lesson suitable for programming, and…

  20. From Dialogos to Dialogue: The Use of the Term from Plato to the Second Century CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Jazdzewska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In Plato the verb διαλέγεσθαι is far more common than the noun, and both denote question-and-answer discussions; it was only in the Hellenistic period that διάλογος became a genre term, though its other meanings survived.

  1. Two examples of the relation between the contemporary science and Plato

    CERN Document Server

    Antonello, Elio

    2016-01-01

    The philosopher Plato is remembered even today by scientists, and his writings are still inspiring the scientific research. In the present short note (intended essentially for public outreach) two examples are briefly illustrated: 1) the European space project that bears his name, dedicated to the discovery of exoplanets; 2) the discussion about platonism in contemporary physics.

  2. Grades 1-8, Apache Junction Unified School District 43, Apache Junction, Arizona. PLATO Evaluation Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, David W.; Quinn, Nancy W.

    Apache Junction Unified School District, Arizona, has embarked on a 5-year program of instructional improvement using technology. PLATO Elementary reading and mathematics products were installed in the district's elementary and middle schools at the beginning of the 1999-2000 school year. This evaluation studied the use and preliminary student…

  3. A Philosophical Investigation of the Role of Teachers: A Synthesis of Plato, Confucius, Buber, and Freire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Seung Hwan

    2008-01-01

    This study proposes the ideal role of teachers through the examination of Plato, Confucius, Buber, and Freire on the subject. Teachers not only contribute to the development of individuals and societies but also attain self-realization through teaching. As such, the role of teachers is important as a goal as well as a means. To examine such role,…

  4. Genesis 2–3 and Alcibiades's speech in Plato's Symposium: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-26

    Aug 26, 2015 ... Friedländer 1975:26f; Gauss 1958:111–117) is the last speech in Plato's ... leader (450–404/3 BCE), appears to be in a great state of intoxication .... command (Gn 2:18: 'You are free to eat of all the trees in the garden.

  5. Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A Morpho-Logic of Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses two well-known texts that respectively describe learning and teaching, drawn from the work of Freud and Plato. These texts are considered in psychoanalytic terms using a methodology drawn from the philosophy of Luce Irigaray. In particular the article addresses Irigaray's approach to the analysis of speech and utterance as a…

  6. From Plato to Erikson: How the War on "Bad Play" Has Impoverished Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    For centuries, the titans of educational reform--Plato, Rousseau, Dewey, Piaget, Erikson, Csikszentmihalyi and others--have championed the educational benefits of play. Yet many professors and administrators are boggled by the idea of playing academic games in college. They instantly dismiss faculty initiatives like "Reacting to the…

  7. The Thousand Star Magnitudes in the Catalogues of Ptolemy, Al Sufi, and Tycho Are All Corrected For Atmospheric Extinction

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Bradley E

    2013-01-01

    Three pre-telescopic star catalogues contain about a thousand star magnitudes each (with magnitudes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6), with these reported brightnesses as the original basis for what has become the modern magnitude scale. These catalogues are those of Ptolemy (c. 137, from Alexandria at a latitude of 31.2), Al Sufi (c. 960, from Isfahan at a latitude of 32.6), and Tycho Brahe (c. 1590, from the island of Hven at a latitude of 55.9). Previously, extensive work has been made on the positions of the catalogued stars, but only scant attention has been paid to the magnitudes as reported. These magnitudes will be affected by a variety of processes, including the dimming of the light by our Earth's atmosphere (atmospheric extinction), the quantization of the brightnesses into magnitude bins, and copying or influence from prior catalogues. This paper provides a detailed examination of these effects. Indeed, I find all three catalogues to report magnitudes that have near-zero extinction effects, so the old observe...

  8. The Relationship between Virtue and Happiness in Aristotle and Al-Fārābī’s Views

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Sabri; Seyed Mohammad Kazem Alavi

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the history, different schools including both descriptive and non-descriptive ones, have been concerned with revealing relationship between happiness and virtue. As the First and Second teachers, Aristotle and Al-Fārābī can be named as having very important roles in this sense. So, the main tenet of ethics for these two philosophers is happiness, which is mostly derived from virtue. Considering theories of these two philosophers, it became evident that Aristotle had significant eff...

  9. Holding or Breaking with Ptolemy's Generalization: Considerations about the Motion of the Planetary Apsidal Lines in Medieval Islamic Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, S Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    Argument In the Almagest, Ptolemy finds that the apogee of Mercury moves progressively at a speed equal to his value for the rate of precession, namely one degree per century, in the tropical reference system of the ecliptic coordinates. He generalizes this to the other planets, so that the motions of the apogees of all five planets are assumed to be equal, while the solar apsidal line is taken to be fixed. In medieval Islamic astronomy, one change in this general proposition took place because of the discovery of the motion of the solar apogee in the ninth century, which gave rise to lengthy discussions on the speed of its motion. Initially Bīrūnī and later Ibn al-Zarqālluh assigned a proper motion to it, although at different rates. Nevertheless, appealing to the Ptolemaic generalization and interpreting it as a methodological axiom, the dominant idea became to extend it in order to include the motion of the solar apogee as well. Another change occurred after correctly making a distinction between the motion of the apogees and the rate of precession. Some Western Islamic astronomers generalized Ibn al-Zarqālluh's proper motion of the solar apogee to the apogees of the planets. Analogously, Ibn al-Shāṭir maintained that the motion of the apogees is faster than precession. Nevertheless, the Ptolemaic generalization in the case of the equality of the motions of the apogees remained untouchable, despite the notable development of planetary astronomy, in both theoretical and observational aspects, in the late Islamic period.

  10. Plato, Wilde, and Woolf: the poetics of homoerotic "intercourse" in A Room of One's Own.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanita, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    This article places Woolf in the context of homoerotic literary ancestry. It suggests that the overall argument in A Room of One's Own owes a debt to Wilde's 1891 pamphlet The Soul of Man under Socialism. It also examines Woolf's controversial meditation on male-female collaboration and intercourse in A Room, and suggests a homoerotic reading of this meditation, drawing on images and ideas of literary transmission and creation from Plato's Symposium.

  11. The philosopher Socrates had exophthalmos (a term coined by Plato) and probably Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapetrou, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    According to a previously published theory, Socrates was afflicted with temporal lobe epilepsy since his childhood. Plato, Xenophon, and Aristoxenus described Socrates as having exophthalmos, probably diplopia, and some symptoms compatible with hyperthyroidism. Using these data, we theorize that Socrates had Graves' disease. In order to determine a cause of his temporal lobe epilepsy, we speculate that the philosopher also had autoimmune thyroiditis and Hashimoto encephalopathy during his childhood and his epilepsy may have been a sequel to this hypothesized encephalopathy.

  12. The instrument control unit of the ESA-PLATO 2.0 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focardi, M.; Pezzuto, S.; Cosentino, R.; Giusi, G.; Pancrazzi, M.; Noce, V.; Ottensamer, R.; Steller, M.; Di Giorgio, A. M.; Pace, E.; Plasson, P.; Peter, G.; Pagano, I.

    2016-07-01

    PLATO 2.0 has been selected by ESA as the third medium-class Mission (M3) of the Cosmic Vision Program. Its Payload is conceived for the discovery of new transiting exoplanets on the disk of their parent stars and for the study of planetary system formation and evolution as well as to answer fundamental questions concerning the existence of other planetary systems like our own, including the presence of potentially habitable new worlds. The PLATO Payload design is based on the adoption of four sets of short focal length telescopes having a large field of view in order to exploit a large sky coverage and to reach, at the same time, the needed photometry accuracy and signalto- noise ratio (S/N) within a few tens of seconds of exposure time. The large amount of data produced by the telescope is collected and processed by means of the Payload's Data Processing System (DPS) composed by many processing electronics units. This paper gives an overview of the PLATO 2.0 DPS, mainly focusing on the architecture and processing capabilities of its Instrument Control Unit (ICU), the electronic subsystem acting as the main interface between the Payload (P/L) and the Spacecraft (S/C).

  13. LAS CRÍTICAS DE ARISTÓTELES A PLATÓN EN METAFÍSICA I, 9 ARISTOTLE’S CRITICISMS OF PLATO IN METAPHYSICS I, 9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Gabriela Di Camillo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    O recurso à exposição crítica das doutrinas anteriores é um procedimento metodológico usual em Aristóteles. Mas a característica distintiva do Livro I da Metafísica é que, ao invés de estabelecer uma nova doutrina, o exame dos predecessores serve para confirmar os próprios conceitos aristotélicos, os quais ele usa para avaliar os êxitos e os erros das doutrinas analisadas. Essa imposição de conceitos próprios lhe valeu a acusação de ter uma compreensão histórica distorcida. Com a análise detalhada das críticas da teoria platônica das Idéias na Metafísica I, 9, pretendemos mostrar: a que as críticas de manipulação e distorção das opiniões dos seus antecessores ofuscam o grau em que as suas próprias posições emergem de uma análise crítica do pensamento anterior; e b que a imposição de conceitos próprios não é uma distorção, mas uma proposta de solução para os problemas que as teorias anteriores deixaram sem solução.

    The use of critical exposition of previous doctrines is a methodological procedure usual in Aristotle. But the distinctive characteristic of Book I of the Metaphysics is that, rather than to establish a new doctrine, a review of  predecessors serves to confirm the own concepts to be used in the evaluation of the doctrines examined. This imposition of own terms has cost him the charge of distorting historical understanding. With the detailed analysis of the criticisms of Plato's theory of Ideas in Metaphysics I, 9, we intend to show a that the criticism of manipulation and distortion of his predecessors' views overshadow the degree to which Aristotle's own positions emerge from a critical review of previous thought and b that the

  14. Aristotle's illusion in Parkinson's disease: evidence for normal interdigit tactile perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorio, Mirta; Marotta, Angela; Ottaviani, Sarah; Pozzer, Lara; Tinazzi, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Sensory alterations, a common feature of such movement disorders as Parkinson's disease (PD) and dystonia, could emerge as epiphenomena of basal ganglia dysfunction. Recently, we found a selective reduction of tactile perception (Aristotle's illusion, the illusory doubling sensation of one object when touched with crossed fingers) in the affected hand of patients with focal hand dystonia. This suggests that reduced tactile illusion might be a specific feature of this type of dystonia and could be due to abnormal somatosensory cortical activation. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether Aristotle's illusion is reduced in the affected hand of patients with PD. We tested 15 PD patients, in whom motor symptoms were mainly localised to one side of the body, and 15 healthy controls. Three pairs of fingers were tested in crossed (evoking the illusion) or parallel position (not evoking the illusion). A sphere was placed in the contact point between the two fingers and the blindfolded participants had to say whether they felt one or two stimuli. Stimuli were applied on the affected and less or unaffected side of the PD patients. We found no difference in illusory perception between the PD patients and the controls, nor between the more affected and less/unaffected side, suggesting that Aristotle's illusion is preserved in PD. The retained tactile illusion in PD and its reduction in focal hand dystonia suggest that the basal ganglia, which are dysfunctional in both PD and dystonia, may not be causally involved in this function. Instead, the level of activation between digits in the somatosensory cortex may be more directly involved. Finally, the similar percentage of illusion in the more affected and less or unaffected body sides indicates that the illusory perception is not influenced by the presence or amount of motor symptoms.

  15. Aristotle's illusion in Parkinson's disease: evidence for normal interdigit tactile perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta Fiorio

    Full Text Available Sensory alterations, a common feature of such movement disorders as Parkinson's disease (PD and dystonia, could emerge as epiphenomena of basal ganglia dysfunction. Recently, we found a selective reduction of tactile perception (Aristotle's illusion, the illusory doubling sensation of one object when touched with crossed fingers in the affected hand of patients with focal hand dystonia. This suggests that reduced tactile illusion might be a specific feature of this type of dystonia and could be due to abnormal somatosensory cortical activation. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether Aristotle's illusion is reduced in the affected hand of patients with PD. We tested 15 PD patients, in whom motor symptoms were mainly localised to one side of the body, and 15 healthy controls. Three pairs of fingers were tested in crossed (evoking the illusion or parallel position (not evoking the illusion. A sphere was placed in the contact point between the two fingers and the blindfolded participants had to say whether they felt one or two stimuli. Stimuli were applied on the affected and less or unaffected side of the PD patients. We found no difference in illusory perception between the PD patients and the controls, nor between the more affected and less/unaffected side, suggesting that Aristotle's illusion is preserved in PD. The retained tactile illusion in PD and its reduction in focal hand dystonia suggest that the basal ganglia, which are dysfunctional in both PD and dystonia, may not be causally involved in this function. Instead, the level of activation between digits in the somatosensory cortex may be more directly involved. Finally, the similar percentage of illusion in the more affected and less or unaffected body sides indicates that the illusory perception is not influenced by the presence or amount of motor symptoms.

  16. Echoes in Plato's cave : ontology of sound objects in computer music and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Marsden, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The sonic aspects of Plato's analogy of the cave is taken as a starting point for thought experiments to investigate the objective nature of sound, and the idea of quasi-Platonic forms in music. Sounds are found to be objects in a way that sights or appearances are not, and it is only in the presence of technology that they become artificial. When recognition, control and communication about sound come into play, abstract concepts emerge, but there is no reason to give these the priority stat...

  17. Numbers Rule The Vexing Mathematics of Democracy, from Plato to the Present

    CERN Document Server

    Szpiro, George G

    2010-01-01

    Since the very birth of democracy in ancient Greece, the simple act of voting has given rise to mathematical paradoxes that have puzzled some of the greatest philosophers, statesmen, and mathematicians. Numbers Rule traces the epic quest by these thinkers to create a more perfect democracy and adapt to the ever-changing demands that each new generation places on our democratic institutions. In a sweeping narrative that combines history, biography, and mathematics, George Szpiro details the fascinating lives and big ideas of great minds such as Plato, Pliny the Younger, Ramon Llull, Pierre Simo

  18. The Fallacy of Continuity, on the references to Aristotle in Arendt and Agamben

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Huppes-Cluysenaer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2011v10n2p223Agamben characterizes in Homo Sacer the modern state in terms of biopolitics, referring to the theories of Arendt and Foucault. Agamben takes up in this context on a very influential interpretation of Aristotle by Arendt.  Arendt maintains in this reference to Aristotle a false idea of continuity and ignores the fact that – as Foucault shows - at the end of the eighteenth century an inherent connection was established between a completely new type of rationality, governing and the state. There is therefore an ontological difference between the ancient and modern era and this has – as will be shown in this article – far reaching consequences for the key-concepts of Homo Sacer such as bare life, sovereignty and law. The recent development of globalization gives new relevance to this ontological difference, especially by undermining  absolute state-sovereignty.

  19. Philosophy and Mathematics in the Teaching of Plato: the Development of Idea and Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhailova N. V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the largest philosophers differently explain the origin of mathematics. This question was investigated in antiquity, a substantial and decisive role in this respect was played by the Platonic doctrine. Therefore, discussing this issue the problem of interaction of philosophy and mathematics in the teachings of Plato should be taken into consideration. Many mathematicians believe that abstract mathematical objects belong in a certain sense to the world of ideas and that consistency of objects and theories really describes mathematical reality, as Plato quite clearly expressed his views on math, according to which mathematical concepts objectively exist as distinct entities between the world of ideas and the world of material things. In the context of foundations of mathematics, so called “Gödel’s Platonism” is of particular interest. It is shown in the article how Platonic objectification of mathematical concepts contributes to the development of modern mathematics by revealing philosophical understanding of the nature of abstraction. To substantiate his point of view, the author draws the works of contemporary experts in the field of philosophy of mathematics.

  20. The PLATO Simulator: Modelling of High-Precision High-Cadence Space-Based Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Marcos-Arenal, P; De Ridder, J; Aerts, C; Huygen, R; Samadi, R; Green, J; Piotto, G; Salmon, S; Catala, C; Rauer, H

    2014-01-01

    Many aspects of the design trade-off of a space-based instrument and its performance can best be tackled through simulations of the expected observations. The complex interplay of various noise sources in the course of the observations make such simulations an indispensable part of the assessment and design study of any space-based mission. We present a formalism to model and simulate photometric time series of CCD images by including models of the CCD and its electronics, the telescope optics, the stellar field, the jitter movements of the spacecraft, and all important natural noise sources. This formalism has been implemented in a versatile end-to-end simulation software tool, called PLATO Simulator, specifically designed for the PLATO space mission to be operated from L2, but easily adaptable to similar types of missions. We provide a detailed description of several noise sources and discuss their properties, in connection with the optical design, the allowable level of jitter, the quantum efficiency of th...

  1. Aristotle Reclaimed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, John; Sharp, Taylor

    2013-01-01

    Given that social media dominates informal and often formal communication routes, we argue that schools must reshape their attention to a fourth rhetorical dimension: the media through which they communicate. Specifically, schools must find ways to embrace social media as a mechanism to reach their broad audiences. This article identifies clear…

  2. P ≠NP Millenium-Problem(MP) TRIVIAL Physics Proof Via NATURAL TRUMPS Artificial-``Intelligence'' Via: Euclid Geometry, Plato Forms, Aristotle Square-of-Opposition, Menger Dimension-Theory Connections!!! NO Computational-Complexity(CC)/ANYthing!!!: Geometry!!!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, London; Menger, Karl; Rota, Gian-Carlo; Euclid, Alexandria; Siegel, Edward

    P ≠NP MP proof is by computer-''science''/SEANCE(!!!)(CS) computational-''intelligence'' lingo jargonial-obfuscation(JO) NATURAL-Intelligence(NI) DISambiguation! CS P =(?) =NP MEANS (Deterministic)(PC) = (?) =(Non-D)(PC) i.e. D(P) =(?) = N(P). For inclusion(equality) vs. exclusion (inequality) irrelevant (P) simply cancels!!! (Equally any/all other CCs IF both sides identical). Crucial question left: (D) =(?) =(ND), i.e. D =(?) = N. Algorithmics[Sipser[Intro. Thy.Comp.(`97)-p.49Fig.1.15!!!

  3. Fuzzyics =CATEGORYICS =PRAGMATYICS (``Son of ``TRIZ''')/CATEGORY-SEMANTICS Cognition (fcp/csc) of Plato-Aristotle ``SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION''(SoO): Linguistics: Antonyms VS ``SYNONYMS'' VS Analogy/ Metaphor: Coarsest-Possible Topology: Shocks/High-Pressures Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Edward Plato Aristotle Archimedes Carl-Ludwig; Young, Frederic; Lewis, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    Siegel[MRS Fall-Mtgs,:Symp.Fractals(89)-5-papers!!!;Symp.Scaling(90)] FCP/CSC {aka SPD}(Tic-Tac-Toe-Matrix/Tabular List-Format) ``COMMON-FUNCTIONING-PRINCIPLE'' DI/TRI-CHOTOMY GENERIC ``INEVITABILITY_-WEB'' PURPOSEFUL PARSIMONY-of-DI/TRI-CHOTOMY STRATEGY REdiscovery of SoO automatically/optimality is in NON-list-format/matrix: DIMENSIONALITY-DOMINATION -INEVIT-ABILITY ROOT-CAUSE(RC) ULTIMATE-ORIGIN(UO): (level-0.-logic) DIMENSIONALITY (level-0. logic): [dst = ODD-Z] {Dst=FRACTAL-UNcertainty FLUCTUATIONS} (dst = EVEN-Z): CAUSES: (level- I.-logic): EXTENT/SCALE/RADIUS: (relative)-[LOCALITY] (relative)-(...GLOBALITY...) & (level-II.-logic): POWER-SPECTRUM{noise ≅generalized-susceptibility}: [``l''/ω0-White] (...-``l''/ω 1 . 000 . . . - HYPERBOLICITY...) & (level-III.-logic) CRITICAL-EXPONENT:n =0 n = 1.000... ; BUT ALL 3 ALSO CAUSED BY ANOTHER INdependent RCUO (level-IV.-logic):

  4. Dialectic and Dialogue in Plato: Refuting the Model of Socrates-as-Teacher in the Pursuit of Authentic "Paideia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, James Michael

    2014-01-01

    Incorporating Gadamer and other thinkers from the continental tradition, this essay is a close and detailed hermeneutic, phenomenological, and ontological study of the dialectic practice of Plato's Socrates--it radicalizes and refutes the Socrates-as-teacher model that educators from scholar academic ideology embrace.

  5. Three Aspects of PLATO Use at Chanute AFB: CBE Production Techniques, Computer-Aided Management, Formative Development of CBE Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klecka, Joseph A.

    This report describes various aspects of lesson production and use of the PLATO system at Chanute Air Force Base. The first chapter considers four major factors influencing lesson production: (1) implementation of the "lean approach," (2) the Instructional Systems Development (ISD) role in lesson production, (3) the transfer of…

  6. A Plan for the Evaluation of a Project to Develop Basic Medical Sciences Lessons on PLATO IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Les A.; And Others

    A project to introduce PLATO IV computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in medical sciences education for health professionals was implemented at the School of Basic Medical Sciences at the University of Illinois. This paper describes the plan for evaluation of the project. Using a student questionnaire and additional general questions, the…

  7. An Evaluation of the Teaching Effectiveness of PLATO in a First Level Biology Course. CERL Report X-32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenty, Richard P.; Kieffer, George H.

    This paper describes a study of the teaching effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction using the PLATO system at the University of Illinois in a first level biology course. College enrollment, class rank, final grade, and time study data of the control and experimental groups were obtained from master rosters. A questionnaire administered to…

  8. The Education of the Third Class in "The Republic": Plato and the "Locus Classicus" of Formative Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Avi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: In one of the classics of educational philosophy, a key issue is remains unsettled. In Plato's "Republic," Socrates makes a case for the importance of a comprehensive education. Socrates is unclear, however, about whether the producer class is eligible for this comprehensive education. Purpose/Objective: Previous…

  9. Dialectic and Dialogue in Plato: Refuting the Model of Socrates-as-Teacher in the Pursuit of Authentic "Paideia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, James Michael

    2014-01-01

    Incorporating Gadamer and other thinkers from the continental tradition, this essay is a close and detailed hermeneutic, phenomenological, and ontological study of the dialectic practice of Plato's Socrates--it radicalizes and refutes the Socrates-as-teacher model that educators from scholar academic ideology embrace.

  10. Aristotle's illusion reveals interdigit functional somatosensory alterations in focal hand dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinazzi, Michele; Marotta, Angela; Fasano, Alfonso; Bove, Francesco; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Squintani, Giovanna; Pozzer, Lara; Fiorio, Mirta

    2013-03-01

    In focal hand dystonia, the cortical somatosensory representation of the fingers is abnormal, with overlapping receptive fields and reduced interdigit separation. These abnormalities are associated with deficits in sensory perception, as previously demonstrated by applying tactile stimuli to one finger at a time. What is still unknown is whether the sensory deficits can be observed when tactile perception involves more than one finger. To address this issue, we applied 'Aristotle's illusion' to 15 patients with focal hand dystonia, 15 patients with dystonia not affecting the hand (blepharospasm and cervical dystonia) and 15 healthy control subjects. In this illusion, one object touching the contact point of two crossed fingertips is perceived as two objects by a blindfolded subject. The same object placed between two parallel fingertips is correctly perceived as one. The illusory doubling sensation is because of the fact that the contact point between the crossed fingers consists of non-adjacent and functionally unrelated skin regions, which usually send sensory signals to separate spots in the somatosensory cortex. In our study, participants were touched by one sphere between the second-third digits, the second-fourth digits and the fourth-fifth digits of both hands, either in crossed or in parallel position, and had to refer whether they felt one or two stimuli. The percentage of 'two stimuli' responses was an index of the illusory doubling. Both healthy control subjects and dystonic patients presented Aristotle's illusion when the fingers were crossed. However, patients with focal hand dystonia presented a significant reduction of the illusion when the sphere was placed between the crossed fourth and fifth digits of the affected hand. This reduction correlated with the severity of motor disease at the fingers. Similar findings were not observed in non-hand dystonia and control groups. The reduction of Aristotle's illusion in non-affected fingers and its

  11. FABLES IN THE AGORA: FROM ARISTOTLE TO THE CENTURY OF ENLIGHTENMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Seabra Neves

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Having been long established in western poetic tradition as a short composition of ethical intent, usually performed by anthropomorphized animals and conveying a rule of behavior, the fable has represented, ever since its origins, a key strategy of persuasion at the service of orators seeking to convince and influence an audience. Originally defined as a rhetorical genre and inevitably mirroring social and historical mutations, the fable as well as the moralities inferred from it have played varying functions and accomplished different goals in the course of centuries, so as to accommodate changing communicative needs. In this article, we seek to provide a critical and diachronic survey of the resonance of classical rhetoric in the definition of fable as a genre and examine its literary manifestations from Aristotle to the Enlightenment.

  12. COMIC AGENTS: FROM A POETIC TO AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL PARADIGM OF COMEDY (ARISTOTLE AND ALFRED GELL

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    ANNA KAWALEC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle was concerned with the comedy genre as a kind of poetry. Its creators, the comic poets, interested him only marginally. This genological approach to its subject-matter dominated the theory and philosophy of art for subsequent centuries as evidenced by the subsequent elaborations of interpretations of Aristotle’s catharsis. The alternative approach focused instead on subjects as creators of art. As a consequence of the long-term development of anthropocentrism in the humanities, however, this approach took over. The “ performative turn” represents its more recent version. It allows one to interpret Poetics and other classical works not in the context of an object (comedy, but in the context of the acting subject. I claim that social anthropology further explores the concept of comedy and itself presumes it in its conceptual foundations and research approach. I elaborate the argument on the basis of the concept of the “spirit of comedy” coined by Alfred Gell .

  13. From Aristotle to Schrödinger the curiosity of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Modinos, Antonis

    2014-01-01

    From Aristotle to Schrödinger: The Curiosity of Physics offers a novel introduction to the topics commonly encountered in the first two years of an undergraduate physics course, including classical mechanics, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, electromagnetism, relativity, quantum mechanics, atomic and molecular physics, and astrophysics. The book presents physics as it evolved historically; it covers in considerable depth the development of the subject from ancient Greece to the present day. Though the emphasis is on the observations, experiments, theories, and applications of physics, there are additionally short sections on the life and times of the main protagonists of physics. This book grew out of the author's long experience in giving undergraduate and graduate courses in classical physics and in quantum mechanics and its elementary applications. Although meant primarily for the student and teacher of physics, it will be of interest to other scientists and to historians of science, and to those...

  14. In search of Aristotle: temperament, human nature, melancholia, creativity and eminence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiskal, Hagop S; Akiskal, Kareen K

    2007-06-01

    Is suffering associated with melancholia and "madness" necessary for artistic creativity and eminence? Or do creativity and leadership have something to do with the temperaments associated with affective disease? We integrate concepts dating back to Greek psychological medicine and philosophy--especially work attributed to Aristotle--with modern data-based examination of the role of cyclothymic and related temperaments in the interface between mixity, the bipolar spectrum and normality. We place our query within the general framework of evolutionary biology and human nature. In doing so, we propose that affective disease--including mania and associated psychotic states--exist because they serve as the genetic reservoir for adaptive temperaments and the genes for genius. Affective disorder can therefore be regarded as the price of exceptional greatness. Thus, creative and eminent individuals, by virtue of their being exceptional, occupy a somewhat unstable terrain between temperament and affective disease.

  15. Aristotle vs. Ringelmann: A response to Scholtes et al. on Superlinear Production in Open Source Software

    CERN Document Server

    Maillart, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    On December 19, 2015, Scholtes et al.'s work was published online in the Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, in which they challenged the exciting findings that we (with another co-author) presented in 2014, showing that open source software production exhibits superlinear productive bursts. We presented our findings as the first quantification of Aristotle's famous adage: The whole is more than the sum of its parts. In contrast, Scholtes et al. referred to Maximilien Ringelmann, a French agricultural engineer (1861-1931) who discovered the tendency for individual members of a group to become increasingly less productive as the size of their group increases. Since Ringelmann, the topic of collective intelligence has interested numbers of researchers in social sciences, as well as practitioners in management aiming at improving the performance of their team. And indeed, in most research and practice case studies, the Ringelmann effect has been found to hold. Our results challenge common wisdom, precisel...

  16. The Theory of Argumentation within Language and its relation to Plato, Saussure and Benveniste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Dall'Cortivo-Lebler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Theory of Argumentation within Language, developed by Oswald Ducrot, Jean-Claude Anscombre and Marion Carel, has experienced along its development different phases and forms, constantly seeking to align to what its main developer, Oswald Ducrot, called external hypotheses and internal hypotheses. This paper discusses the presence of Linguistic Theories and Philosophy in Ducrot’s work regarding concepts of Plato, Ferdinand de Saussure and Émile Benveniste, which constitute its external assumptions. The presence of these concepts culminated in the creation of different concepts that comprise the Linguistic Semantics, and gave it a specific point of view about language that emphasizes the internal relationships among language components and understands that speech is the result of a linguistic activity where an “I” speaks to a “you”.

  17. Efficient methods for solving discrete topology design problems in the PLATO-N project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canh, Nam Nguyen; Stolpe, Mathias

    This paper considers the general multiple load structural topology design problems in the framework of the PLATO-N project. The problems involve a large number of discrete design variables and were modeled as a non-convex mixed 0–1 program. For the class of problems considered, a global...... optimization method based on the branch-and-cut concept was developed and implemented. In the method a large number of continuous relaxations were solved. We also present an algorithm for generating cuts to strengthen the quality of the relaxations. Several heuristics were also investigated to obtain efficient...... algorithms. The branch and cut method is used to solve benchmark examples which can be used to validate other methods and heuristics....

  18. Alternative communication network designs for an operational Plato 4 CAI system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, R. E., Jr.; Eastwood, L. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The cost of alternative communications networks for the dissemination of PLATO IV computer-aided instruction (CAI) was studied. Four communication techniques are compared: leased telephone lines, satellite communication, UHF TV, and low-power microwave radio. For each network design, costs per student contact hour are computed. These costs are derived as functions of student population density, a parameter which can be calculated from census data for one potential market for CAI, the public primary and secondary schools. Calculating costs in this way allows one to determine which of the four communications alternatives can serve this market least expensively for any given area in the U.S. The analysis indicates that radio distribution techniques are cost optimum over a wide range of conditions.

  19. Banishing the Poet: The Pedagogical Function of Mythology in the Dialogues of Plato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martínez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This text attempts to develop a sound justification for Plato’s pedagogical use of myth in the dialogues. In particular, I seek to resolve a seeming contradiction: why Plato personally made use of myths in spite of his many statements that seem to contradict such a pedagogical approach, especially his edict that poets and myth-makers be banished from his republic for the danger their works pose to the attainment of true philosophical wisdom. An analysis of the centrality of myths to the dialogues is carried out, followed by a discussion of the place of muthos in its Ionian historical context. This establishes the basis for resolving the contradiction through the division of muthos into two distinct modes: the fantastic and the eikastic.

  20. Srovnání Platónova a Aristotelova pojetí etiky ctnosti

    OpenAIRE

    TISCHLEROVÁ, Monika

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with the comparison of Plato and Aristotle's conception of virtue ethics. The first part describes Plato's view of this area of philosophy. Plato puts his ethics based on the analogy between the municipality and the soul. Plato also operates with good ideas. In the second part, Aristotle view. First, I discuss the objectives of its philosophy, which is good, and then bliss. Then there is the division of the moral virtues and intellectual. Then describe each of Aristotle's virt...

  1. Simulation results for PLATO: a prototype hybrid X-ray photon counting detector with a low energy threshold for fusion plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, A.; Menouni, M.; Pangaud, P.; Fenzi, C.; Colledani, G.; Moureau, G.; Escarguel, A.; Morel, C.

    2017-01-01

    PLATO is a prototype hybrid X-ray photon counting detector that has been designed to meet the specifications for plasma diagnostics for the WEST tokamak platform (Tungsten (W) Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) in southern France, with potential perspectives for ITER. PLATO represents a customized solution that fulfills high sensitivity, low dispersion and high photon counting rate. The PLATO prototype matrix is composed of 16 × 18 pixels with a 70 μm pixel pitch. New techniques have been used in analog sensitive blocks to minimize noise coupling through supply rails and substrate, and to suppress threshold dispersion across the matrix. The PLATO ASIC is designed in CMOS 0.13 μm technology and was submitted for a fabrication run in June 2016. The chip is designed to be bump-bonded to a silicon sensor. This paper presents pixel architecture as well as simulation results while highlighting novel solutions.

  2. Teleological Functionalism: the Paradigm of Explanation of Aristotle,s Theory of Soul%目的论功能主义:亚里士多德灵魂观的解释范式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思良

    2012-01-01

    The dispute that whether Aristotle could be regard as a functionalist has always been arising great controversy. After our interpretation, we can find that the teleology and functionalism play a significant role in Aristotle metaphysics. Faced with the problem of soul which all of the ancient Greek philosophers were concerned, Aristotle has selected a distinctive theoretical route. In the solution of the problem of soul, teleology and functionalism were put into practice by Aristotle. He defined the soul as an actuality of the first kind of a natural organized body, and explained the soul with teleological functionalism.%对于亚里士多德是否是功能主义者这一问题历来学者们争论不休。从对亚里士多德形而上学的解读中我们发现目的论与功能主义都在其中扮演着重要的角色。面对古希腊哲学家们十分关注的灵魂问题,亚里士多德选取了一条与众不同的理论路径。他将目的论和功能主义的立场贯彻到对于灵魂问题的解决中,把灵魂定义为具有诸官能的自然物体的原始实现,从而对灵魂做了目的论功能主义的阐释。

  3. Available means: manifestations of Aristotle's three modes of rhetorical appeal in antinuclear fiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannix, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The abundance of sympathetic scientists, military men and clergymen in antinuclear fiction reflects a public perception that authorities speak most knowledgeably about an issue. Other antinuclear works employ characters with less traditional ethical appeals: nurturing women, vital youths, and even infallible computers. Antinuclear fiction uses enthymeme and example to reflect the history of the nuclear weapons debate. Some works attach the immorality of the weapons by examining the moral dilemmas of nuclear scientists. Others admit the permanence of the nuclear threat. By arousing emotions, fiction is capable of mobilizing its audience's active support for the ideas it presents. The principal emotions that various antinuclear works arouse highlight the close relationship between literature and rhetoric. The most dominant emotions, pity and fear, are the two Aristotle links to tragedy. Scorn, the principal emotion that Dr. Strangelove arouses - is the crucial emotion on which all satire depends. However, the other principal emotion in anti-nuclear fiction - hope - has principally a rhetorical function ensuring that the feelings the works provoke will be channeled constructively.

  4. The power of semen: Aristotle and some Galen’s fallacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Darovskikh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I try to demonstrate how critical empiricism and philosophical reasoning intertwine with each other and affected the development of medicine. It is a case study considering the problems of generation and semen in the writings of Aristotle and Galen via relationship between such concepts as matter, form, movement, change, causes and some others. The main question addressed in the paper is the reason of Galen’s return to Hippocratic paradigm of two-semina (male and female. I argue that the reason is two-fold: 1 Different philosophical reasoning and erroneous understanding of some aspects of Aristotle’s embryological model by Galen. 2 Empirical discoveries, which proved to be wrong. I demonstrate that Galen’s understanding of form/matter relationship, and his view on matter as an underling principle conditioned his understanding of the notion of physical change, that allowed him to speak about conception only as quantitative mixture between equal substrata. Finally, I show that Galen’s view on teleology and his limited understanding of formal/final vs efficient causes and their relationship forced him to claim the inadequacy of Aristotle’s biology and necessitated Galen to introduce emendations in definitions of seminal faculties of genders and reproductive fluids.

  5. Klugheit. Grundbegriff des Praktischen bei Aristoteles [Prudence.The Basic Concept of the Practical in Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthold Wald

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by recalling the most important understandings associated with the term prudence in the history of philosophy.Then it introduces the Aristotelian concept of prudence linked to practical truth—prudence seen in contrast to wisdom and knowledge of manufacturing. The article discusses various forms of rational knowledge associated with the right will, and proves the need of linking prudence to all the other ethical virtues based on moral principles. It emphasizes the problem of how to relate general principles to specific actions which involve particular goods. For resolving this problem, the article refers to Aristotle who sees the solution in political ethics which has a significant impact on individual behavior; consequently, good law and proper education are considered to be necessary conditions which allow to form the moral judgment skills for providing a morally good life. The article concludes with the claim that the proper field to capture the specificity of prudence includes the theory of human action and that of human morality.

  6. Perceiving the moral dimension of practice: insights from Murdoch, Vetlesen, and Aristotle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, P Anne

    2006-07-01

    This paper situates the moral domain of practice within the context of a particular description of nursing practice - one that sees human interaction at the heart of that practice. Such a description fits not only with professional rhetoric but also with literature from patients and recent empirical work exploring the nature of nursing practice. Martha Levine in her 1977 description of ethics, within the context of nursing practice, indicated that what was important from an ethical perspective was how we interact with each other, with patients and colleagues, on a daily basis. What enables such interaction to display moral sensitivity, insight into patient need, and a focus on the good for the patient? Of relevance when answering this question is the empirical evidence indicating that professional socialization, as a nurse or a doctor, may dull the individual's moral sense. If this is the case, cognizance needs to be taken of such evidence when identifying theoretical approaches from mainstream ethics that may provide insight and value for nurse education. It is suggested that such insight and value can be gained from a consideration of the work of Aristotle, Murdoch, and Vetlesen.

  7. From Pericles to Plato – from democratic political praxis to totalitarian political philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øjvind Larsen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Plato is normally taken as one of the founders of Western political philosophy, not at least with his Republic. Here, he constructs a hierarchy of forms of governments, beginning with aristocracy at the top as a critical standard for the other forms of governments, and proceeding through timocracy and oligarchy to democracy and tyranny at the bottom. Following Karl Popper, the paper argues that Plato’s is a totalitarian philosophy that emphasizes the similarities between democracy and tyranny, which it considers to be the two worst forms of government. Plato’s denigration of democracy has dominated the tradition of political philosophy until recent times. This paper, however, shows that political philosophy in fact originates in democracy, especially as developed by the sophists and that philosophy is only a form of sophism with a similar origin in ancient Greek democracy. A discussion of Pericles’ funeral oration is used to show that Pericles presented a democratic political philosophy that can serve as a counterpoint to Plato’s political philosophy in the Republic.

  8. Plato's Concept of Justice%论柏拉图的正义观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣如

    2015-01-01

    本文以柏拉图的作品《申辩》、《斐多》、《理想国》为切入点,论述了正义是在应在的位置上做应做之事、正义的本质是灵魂的一种属性以及正义的产生,并通过作品提供的背景和对话讨论了正义之人和不义之人的区别、正义的种类、正义行为的动机、正义的各种不同状态等问题.%In this paper, the works of Plato,"defense","Phaedo","Utopia"as the starting point, discusses the justice should be done is to do things in a position to be in, the nature of justice is an attribute of the soul, and justice generation, background and dialogue and through providing discussed works of justice and the unrighteous man of distinction, just the kind of moti-vation act of justice, justice of various states and other issues.

  9. Discovery that the Magnitudes in the Ancient Star Catalogs of Ptolemy, Al-Sufi, and Tycho Were All Corrected for Atmospheric Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    2012-01-01

    The three ancient star catalogs of Ptolemy (c. 127, Alexandria Egypt), Al Sufi (c. 961, Isfahan Iran), and Tycho Brahe (c. 1600, Hven now in Sweden) all record independent measures of the visual magnitudes of close to a thousand stars over their entire visible sky. For stars culminating 60° from zenith to the south (around -29° declination for Alexandria), they should appear roughly a quarter or a third of a magnitude fainter than those at zenith, and this is easily detected with the many stars near this declination band, despite the quantization of the reported magnitudes to roughly one third of a magnitude. For stars near the southern limit, the dimming should be 1-2 mag. To seek this effect, I use stars culminating near zenith to set up a correspondence between the reported magnitudes and modern V magnitudes, compare the modern equivalent magnitude to the star's real magnitude, and looked to see the dimming as the southern horizon is approached. Surprisingly, no dimming towards the south is viewed in any of the three ancient star catalogs. A formal fit to the effective extinction coefficient for each catalog is +0.01+-0.01, +0.05+-0.01, and +0.01+-0.01 mag/airmass respectively. That is, the reported magnitudes have already been corrected for extinction. This new result is surprising because no astronomer or historian has previously reported the effect. This is also surprising because no written source before 1729 even mentions the existence of the phenomenon of extinction (although the effect is easily recognized by any studious visual observer), so the expectation would be that the pre-telescopic astronomers were not aware of the phenomenon, not interested, or not able to do the corrections. Nevertheless, this discovery that the ancient catalogers all corrected for extinction opens new horizons in `archaeophotometry’ and new recognition for the ability of pre-telescopic observers.

  10. Croatian Philosophers I: Hermann of Dalmatia (1110–1154

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stipe Kutlesa

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The article includes a short biography of Hermann of Dalmatia and gives an account of his translations and philosophical and scientific work. In order to have a better understanding of Hermann’s philosophy, a reminder of Greek and Arabic philosophy of nature, on which he relies in his interpretation of the world picture, needs to be presented. Cosmological models by Plato, Aristotle, Eudoxus, Heraclides of Pont, Apollonius of Perga, Hipparchus, Ptolemy, and the Arab scientist Abu Ma’shar, are presented. The main focus of interest is on Hermann’s translations. The immense importance of his translations from Greek and Arabic into Latin is due to the fact that some of the seminal Greek and Arabic works became known in Western Europe in the middle of the twelfth century. Hermann is also important as the author of the original work De essentiis, which presented a blend of Platonian and Aristotelian as well as Western European and Arab traditions.

  11. Lost in follow-up rates in TRACER, ATLAS ACS 2, TRITON and TRA 2P trials: challenging PLATO mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNicolantonio, James J; Can, Mehmet Mustafa; Serebruany, Victor L

    2013-04-15

    Extreme rates of vascular and all-cause mortality especially in the clopidogrel arm of the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) non-USA cohort raise concerns of data integrity, and call for independent verification of vital records in the national death registries. Four recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) trials: Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRACER), Anti-Xa therapy to lower cardiovascular events in addition to standard therapy in subjects with acute coronary syndrome (ATLAS-ACS 2), Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition with Prasugrel (TRITON), and the Thrombin Receptor Antagonist in Secondary Prevention of Atherothrombotic Ischemic Events (TRA 2P), provide a valuable opportunity to match lost in follow-up (LIFU) with mortality rates among similar ACS studies. To compare the LIFU from PLATO, TRACER, ATLAS-ACS 2, TRITON-TIMI 38 and TRA 2P trials. The disturbingly high (8.9%-14.7%) LIFU in PLATO was no match to LIFU in TRACER (0.1%), ATLAS ACS 2 (0.3%), TRITON (0.1%) and TRA 2P (0.1%). In fact, such an astronomical (49-147 fold higher) PLATO LIFU rate should result in less mortality compared to the other ACS trials since no event can be reported or adjudicated if the patient has been lost. Adjusting LIFU rate revealed that vascular (5.55%) and all cause (6.05%) mortality in PLATO was even more disparate than in TRACER (3.2% and 4.9%), ATLAS-ACS 2 (4.1% and 4.5%), TRITON-TIMI 38 (2.4% and 3.2%) and TRA 2P (3.0% and 5.3%) control arms, respectfully. Moreover, the incomplete CV follow-up in the ATLAS ACS 2 trial was later revealed to be around 12%, which lead to the rejection of rivaroxaban for the treatment of ACS. PLATO's LIFU rate was just as high, if not higher, than seen in ATLAS ACS 2. The chance to die in PLATO far exceeds the mortality risks observed in the clopidogrel arms of four recent ACS trials, which becomes especially evident after

  12. Why does a woman’s deliberative faculty have no authority? Aristotle on the political role of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deretić Irina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will discuss Aristotle’s controversial philosophical views on women. I will critically examine three main interpretations of his claim that women have deliberative faculty “without authority”. According to the first line of interpretation, Aristotle has in mind that women’s incapacity of advice-giving and decision-making in public affairs are determined by conventions in the political context of his time. I will attempt to point out the disadvantages of this kind of interpretation. Furthermore, I will put forward the reasons why is implausible the more recent interpretation, given by Marguerite Deslauriers. According to her reading, the lack of authority of deliberative faculty in women means nothing else than the tasks over which women have authority are for the purpose of the tasks put forth by men. The prevailing interpretation among scholars is that, in Aristotle’s view, women are naturally inferior to men, due to the fact that they are all too frequently overruled by the irrational “forces” of their nature. I will argue that this line of interpretation elucidates what Aristotle presumably has in mind, although it makes his account of women and their rationality, if not inconclusive, then indisputably problematic. In other words, I attempt to prove that, if the prevailing line of interpretation is correct, such view of women produces some philosophically “insurmountable” problems for Aristotle. The aim of the last section of the paper is to point out how some of these problems could eventually be resolved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: History of Serbian Philosophy

  13. Dosimetric evaluation of PLATO and Oncentra treatment planning systems for High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy gynecological treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hardev; Herman, Tania De La Fuente; Showalter, Barry; Thompson, Spencer J.; Syzek, Elizabeth J.; Herman, Terence; Ahmad, Salahuddin

    2012-10-01

    This study compares the dosimetric differences in HDR brachytherapy treatment plans calculated with Nucletron's PLATO and Oncentra MasterPlan treatment planning systems (TPS). Ten patients (1 T1b, 1 T2a, 6 T2b, 2 T4) having cervical carcinoma, median age of 43.5 years (range, 34-79 years) treated with tandem & ring applicator in our institution were selected retrospectively for this study. For both Plato and Oncentra TPS, the same orthogonal films anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral were used to manually draw the prescription and anatomical points using definitions from the Manchester system and recommendations from the ICRU report 38. Data input for PLATO was done using a digitizer and Epson Expression 10000XL scanner was used for Oncentra where the points were selected on the images in the screen. The prescription doses for these patients were 30 Gy to points right A (RA) and left A (LA) delivered in 5 fractions with Ir-192 HDR source. Two arrangements: one dwell position and two dwell positions on the tandem were used for dose calculation. The doses to the patient points right B (RB) and left B (LB), and to the organs at risk (OAR), bladder and rectum for each patient were calculated. The mean dose and the mean percentage difference in dose calculated by the two treatment planning systems were compared. Paired t-tests were used for statistical analysis. No significant differences in mean RB, LB, bladder and rectum doses were found with p-values > 0.14. The mean percent difference of doses in RB, LB, bladder and rectum are found to be less than 2.2%, 1.8%, 1.3% and 2.2%, respectively. Dose calculations based on the two different treatment planning systems were found to be consistent and the treatment plans can be made with either system in our department without any concern.

  14. Dosimetric evaluation of PLATO and Oncentra treatment planning systems for High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy gynecological treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Hardev; De La Fuente Herman, Tania; Showalter, Barry; Thompson, Spencer J.; Syzek, Elizabeth J.; Herman, Terence; Ahmad, Salahuddin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peggy and Charles Stephenson Oklahoma Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States)

    2012-10-23

    This study compares the dosimetric differences in HDR brachytherapy treatment plans calculated with Nucletron's PLATO and Oncentra MasterPlan treatment planning systems (TPS). Ten patients (1 T1b, 1 T2a, 6 T2b, 2 T4) having cervical carcinoma, median age of 43.5 years (range, 34-79 years) treated with tandem and ring applicator in our institution were selected retrospectively for this study. For both Plato and Oncentra TPS, the same orthogonal films anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral were used to manually draw the prescription and anatomical points using definitions from the Manchester system and recommendations from the ICRU report 38. Data input for PLATO was done using a digitizer and Epson Expression 10000XL scanner was used for Oncentra where the points were selected on the images in the screen. The prescription doses for these patients were 30 Gy to points right A (RA) and left A (LA) delivered in 5 fractions with Ir-192 HDR source. Two arrangements: one dwell position and two dwell positions on the tandem were used for dose calculation. The doses to the patient points right B (RB) and left B (LB), and to the organs at risk (OAR), bladder and rectum for each patient were calculated. The mean dose and the mean percentage difference in dose calculated by the two treatment planning systems were compared. Paired t-tests were used for statistical analysis. No significant differences in mean RB, LB, bladder and rectum doses were found with p-values > 0.14. The mean percent difference of doses in RB, LB, bladder and rectum are found to be less than 2.2%, 1.8%, 1.3% and 2.2%, respectively. Dose calculations based on the two different treatment planning systems were found to be consistent and the treatment plans can be made with either system in our department without any concern.

  15. Toward a Poeticognosis: Re-reading Plato's The Republic via Wallace Stevens' "An Ordinary Evening in New Haven"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Disney

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a language-based re-reading of Plato's exile of the poets via Wallace Stevens' poem-manifesto, "An Ordinary Evening in New Haven." I examine how philosophy and poetry use language differently in order to deconstruct an origin of the speech-acts -- wonder -- that I then identify as a phenomenological difference between philosophers and poets. I contend that the thinking-into-language of philosophers is based in theoria, comprehension, and a resulting closure of wonder. I contrast this with the processes of poets, who I show to be moving thought into language via gnosis, apprehension, and a phenomenology opening onto inexhaustible wonder.

  16. Love and/in psychoanalysis: a commentary on Lacan's reading of Plato's Symposium in Seminar VIII: Transference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bruce

    2015-02-01

    What is love and what part does it play in psychoanalysis? Where are the analyst and the analysand situated in relation to the roles defined as those of the "lover" and the "beloved"? Jacques Lacan explores these and other questions in his soon-to-be-published Seminar VIII: Transference by providing an extensive commentary on Plato's most famous dialogue on love, the Symposium. This paper outlines some of the major points about love that grow out of Lacan's reading of the dialogue and examines their relevance to the analytic setting. Can the analyst be characterized as a sort of modern-day Socrates?

  17. Tracing the Origin of the Concept of Ethics in the West: An Existentialist Interpretation of Aristotle's Concept of Ethics%西方伦理学概念溯源--亚里士多德伦理学概念的实存论阐释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓安庆

    2006-01-01

    @@ Western "ethics" as an independent discipline gained its definition from Aristotle.However, in none of his works - The Nicomachean Ethics, Magna Moralia, Ethics Eudemia, and The Politics (in Aristotle's view, ethics belonged to politics) - have people found a clear definition of ethics. Mr Miao Litian translated Aristotle's The Nicomachean Ethics from Greek into Chinese.

  18. ¿Solamente platos? Cerámicas de barniz rojo en el depósito ibérico del Zacatín (Granada)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Moreno, Amparo; Niveau de Villedary y Mariñas, Ana María; Adroher Auroux, Andrés María

    2015-01-01

    Se presenta un conjunto homogéneo de platos de barniz rojo indígena con un perfil muy particular y sin paralelos conocidos por el momento. Dicho conjunto formaba parte del depósito ritual hallado en la granadina calle del Zacatín, una fosa junto al río Darro que se rellenó con los resultantes de un festín sagrado posiblemente en relación con el propio río. En este trabajo planteamos que estos platos fueron fabricados ex profeso para el ritual que tuvo lugar fuera de las murallas de Iliberri e...

  19. Modeling and Simulation of Adaptive Cruise System Based on Ptolemy%基于Ptolemy的自适应巡航系统建模与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洪智; 李仁发; 曾理宁

    2015-01-01

    信息物理融合系统( CPS)是计算、通信与控制技术的融合,汽车自适应巡航控制系统是一种典型的CPS,具有广泛的应用前景。通过建立汽车纵向行驶的数学模型,并基于CPS给出自适应巡航控制系统的结构,设计系统的状态机模型。基于Ptolemy分别设计前车、测量距离和本车的计算模型,构建系统的层次模型,在子模型中采用模态模式对基于时间的模型与状态机模型相结合的混合系统行为进行建模。仿真结果表明,该方法能满足自适应巡航控制系统的要求,保证系统的安全性。%Cyber Physical System( CPS) ,as a new topic in research of computer science and technology,is the fusion of computation,communication and control. The Auto Adaptive Cruise Control ( ACC ) system is thought as a typical CPS,which has wide application prospect. This paper builds the mathematical model for the vertical travel of the car,and gives the architecture and the system state machine model of the ACC based on the theory of CPS. It designs the model of vehicle ahead,own vehicle and the distance between the two vehicles based on Ptolemy,and builds the hierarchical model of the system. In the submodel of the system, it constructs the system behavior model which is combined with model based on time and state model with the modal model. Simulation results show that the method can meet the requirements and ensures the security of ACC system.

  20. Las Bellas Artes como Terapia en Aristóteles The Fine Arts as Therapy in Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio González A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde Homero en adelante, los textos griegos abundan en menciones a la función terapéutica de las bellas artes. En los diálogos platónicos se encuentra el sistema más acabado respecto a este tema en sus diversas manifestaciones, sin embargo los múltiples análisis aristotélicos se encuentran dispersos y aislados. Para empezar, se expone la visión de la salud como armonía en el pensamiento de Aristóteles, a continuación se describen y comparan los conceptos de tékhne y phrónesis, se demuestra la necesidad del arte para la paideía, y se detalla el uso terapéutico de diferentes artes para preservar o restaurar la salud.From Homer onwards, Greek texts show abundant references to the therapeutic applications of the fine arts. The most complete system dealing with this issue in its diverse manifestations is to be found in the Platonic dialogues. However, Aristotle's manifold analyses are scattered and isolated. First, the view of health as harmony in Aristotle's thought is expounded, then the concepts of tékhne and phrónesis are described and compared, the necessity of art to paideía is demonstrated, and finally the therapeutic use of the different arts in order to preserve or restore health is examined'm detall.

  1. The micro-fascism of Plato's good citizen: producing (dis)order through the construction of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Patrick; Holmes, Dave

    2007-04-01

    The human body has come to be seen as forever susceptible to both external and internal hazards, which in many circumstances require immediate, heroic, and expensive intervention. In response to this, there has been a shift from a treatment-based healthcare model to one of prevention wherein nurses play an integral role by identifying and assessing risks for individuals, communities, and populations. This paper uses Deborah Lupton's outline of the spectrum of risk and applies the theoretical works of Foucault and Plato to demonstrate the means by which nurses maintain social order by identifying and counselling risk takers. It also utilizes the work of Deleuze and Guattari to illustrate how Plato's framework for creating social order through the creation of the good citizen can be viewed as a micro-fascist system, which has been adopted wholeheartedly by preventative health professionals. The goal of this paper is to present an alternate understanding of risk to provide nurses and other healthcare professionals with a non-traditional appreciation of certain aspects of their practice as researchers and clinicians.

  2. Negação e diferença em Platão Negation and diference in Plato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Christina de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Platão, ao tratar da negação no diálogo Sofista, afirma que sempre que enunciamos o que não é, não enunciamos algo contrário ao que é, mas algo diferente. A negação significa cada parte da natureza da diferença em antítese ao que é. Tal tratamento da negação resulta da necessidade de resolver alguns problemas colocados pelo eleatismo. Propõe-se indicar esses problemas e examinar o tratamento que Platão dá ao não-ser como diferença.Plato, in dealing with negation in the dialogue Sophist, says that when we say what is not, we speak not of something that is the opposite of being, but of something different. Negation means each part of the nature of the difference in antithesis to what is. This treatment of negation results from the need to solve some problems posed by eleatism. It is proposed to indicate these problems and examine the treatment that Plato gives to non-being as difference.

  3. Comparative Study of Meanings and Status of Imagination in Mathnavi and Plato’s Ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sh alyari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Describing and explaining the nature of imagination and its function with regard to human being and ontology has always been one of the preoccupations of philosophers and thinkers. Plato is the first philosopher who considered an epistemological status for imagination and, by dividing the world into the world of reason and world of senses, he ascribed the knowledge of imagination to the world of senses. In different parts of Mathnavi, Molavi, the great Muslim-Iranian mystic, has paid much attention to imagination, its types, its status in the Knowledge of Man (both physical and metaphysical affairs and its various influences on the body, soul and mental states of any individual. Thus, the present article aims to compare the concept of imagination in the view of the two thinkers. For reaching such aim, while using a descriptive-comparative method, first, the definitions of imagination in Mathnavi and Plato’s ideas are investigated and, then, the similarities and differences of the two views are shown. The conclusion is that their ideas are similar with regard to unreality and shadowiness of the world and phenomena, the relation between imitation and imagination, deficiency and restrictions of imagination for understanding the reality, whereas their ideas are different regarding the power of imagination, its epistemological status and the meaning and influence of it.

  4. The Case against the Arts from Plato to Tolstoy and Its Implications for Why and How the Arts Should Be Taught in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    From Plato onwards many of the great Western thinkers have explored the nature of the arts, their contribution to society and their role in education. This has often involved a discussion of the potentially negative impact of the arts. The recurring message has been that the arts can warp judgment, elevate emotion at the expense of reason,…

  5. Why Did Socrates Deny That He Was a Teacher? Locating Socrates among the New Educators and the Traditional Education in Plato's "Apology of Socrates"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Avi I.

    2014-01-01

    Plato's "Apology of Socrates" contains a spirited account of Socrates' relationship with the city of Athens and its citizens. As Socrates stands on trial for corrupting the youth, surprisingly, he does not defend the substance and the methods of his teaching. Instead, he simply denies that he is a teacher. Many scholars have…

  6. Cardiovascular events in acute coronary syndrome patients with peripheral arterial disease treated with ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel: Data from the PLATO trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Manesh R.; Becker, Richard C.; Wojdyla, Daniel M.;

    Abstract 14299: Cardiovascular Events in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease Treated With Ticagrelor Compared to Clopidogrel: Data From the PLATO Trial Manesh R Patel1; Richard C Becker1; Daniel M Wojdyla2; Håkan Emanuelsson3; William Hiatt4; Jay Horrow5; Steen Husted6...

  7. Competition, Values and the Rhythm of Life: Some Reflections on Antiphon, Thucydides and Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kalan

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Games had more than a gymnastic significance in ancient Greece, as is best attested by Pindar’s odes. The modern interpretation of Greek culture was first introduced to the notion of the ajgwvn and the concept of the agonistic or competitive, “das Agonale”, by J. Burckhardt. Nietzsche elaborated it further, perceiving the phenomenon of competition as the origin of the fundamental Greek values, especially of justice and truth, and as the prerequisite for any fair evaluation. In Antiphon, the idea of competition runs both through his forensic speeches and philosophical writings. His Tetralogies in particular reveal the competitive dynamics of judicial trials. A judicial procedure is a competition, ajgwnivzesqai, between the truth of facts and the truth of words, which may result in an unjust verdict. In that case injustice has prevailed over justice and truth. What is thus at stake is the truth of facts, ajlhv/qeia tw`n pragmavtwn. Antiphon uses the Olympic and Pythian competitions to elucidate the important decisions and activities in human life, such as education, marriage, and the pursuit of happiness in general. Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War provides not only a description of the historical facts but also their evaluation. The development of military events, which is a competition of actions, ajgw;n e[rgwn, is elucidated by speeches, which frequently occur in antithetic pairs as antilogies, ajgw;n lovgwn. Political competition, however, is not limited to foreign policy but can be seen in the Athenian home politics as well. According to Alcibiades, the Athenian polis could only retain its supremacy through incessant competition, ajgwnizomevnhn aijei;. Nor does Thucydides neglect the Panhellenic significance of the Olympic festival. Aristotle's philosophy, on the other hand, appears to distance itself from competition, being based on rJa/stwvnh, "easiness", and diagwgh, “pastime”. None the less, the

  8. El ¿delito? de Aristóteles Aristotle's crime?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA CLAUDIA CECCHI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available El filósofo griego Aristóteles es reconocido como uno de los más tempranos naturalistas del mundo occidental. Sus acabados y precisos conocimientos sobre zoología están contenidos en una variedad de escritos dedicados al estudio de los animales. Sorprende que, pese a su gran acervo de conocimientos biológicos, el estagirita nunca se planteó la posibilidad de que los organismos pudieran transformarse o estar conectados por relaciones de origen, ideas sustentadoras de la teoría de la evolución orgánica. Nosotros planteamos que hay en la biología aristotélica tres factores principales que explican esta falta de visión: (1 la idea eternizadora de la reproducción de los entes que no da lugar a la posibilidad de la transformación genérica de los organismos a través del nexo reproductivo; (2 el planteamiento que los fenómenos naturales tienen un propósito (causa final que determina su existencia, cuestión que lleva a desestimar la eventual existencia de conexiones en el origen entre los distintos géneros (sensu Aristóteles de organismos vivos; y (3 como consecuencia de lo anterior, la clasificación de los seres vivos según criterios analógico-funcionales que oscurece la existencia de vínculos estructurales y semejanzas de origen entre los organismos. El análisis de esta situación propia de la biología aristotélica nos lleva a examinar la importancia que tiene, para la formulación y desarrollo de las ideas evolucionistas, el advenimiento de una clasificación biológica de tipo jerárquica, inclusiva y ramificada, como la fundada por Linné y desarrollada, sobre la base de correspondencias estructurales y semejanzas de origen entre los organismos, por los grandes naturalistas del siglo XVIII y XIXThe Greek philosopher Aristotle is recognized as one of the earliest naturalists of the Western world. His thorough and precise knowledge of zoology is contained in various writings dedicated to the study of animals. It is

  9. 论亚里士多德的阶梯幸福观∗%On Aristotle's Multistep Happiness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙倩

    2014-01-01

    亚里士多德在《尼各马可伦理学》的第一卷中通过目的论论证与功能论证得出幸福是最高的善与灵魂合乎德性的活动,而在第十卷中,幸福却变成了仅仅与智慧同一的思辨活动。这显然是两种对立的观点,体现出亚里士多德思想的不一致之处,同时也引发后世思想家对幸福是涵盖论或理智论的论争。但通过细入分析亚里士多德对幸福的目的论、功能论证及外在善的佐证,可以将其幸福观解释为一种温和的涵盖论---阶梯幸福观。在阶梯幸福观中,思辨活动是首要的幸福,而合乎德性的活动则是第二位的幸福,同时过实践生活所需要的外在善也包含其中。%In the First Volume of Ethika Nikomachea,Aristotle makes a teleology argument and function argument to demonstrate that happiness is the highest good in accordance with the virtue. But in Volume Ⅹ,happiness turns into the contemplation that identifies with wisdom.Obviously, the two contradictory opinions imply the inconsistence of Aristotle and trigger a continuous debate a-bout whether happiness is inclusive or just intellectual among later generations.However,through deep analysis into the teleology argument,function argument and external good evidence,we can in-terpret Aristotle's view about happiness into a mild inclusive theory-multistep happiness.In multi-step happiness,contemplation is the first happiness,and the activity in accordance with virtue is the secondary,and the external good that we need to live a practical life also includes in it.

  10. The family as the foundation of political rule in western philosophy: a comparative analysis of Aristotle's politics and Hegel's philosophy of right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Douglas E

    2011-01-01

    For both Aristotle and Hegel, the family is the foundation in which the universalized rule of law is validated according to the political structure of the 'Polis' or 'State' itself. This composite whole or structure of society (Ancient Polis/Modern State) is the political end of humanity for both philosophers, which in turn finds its primordial beginning in the family. For Aristotle, it is in the kingly rule of the household that the property-based distinction of citizenship is set for the rule of his ideal Polis. For Hegel, it is in the love affirmed through caring affection within the nuclear family that the dialectical framework for the freedom of civil society, and the rational unity of a congregational 'spirit' in the State, finds its foundation. For both thinkers, the family sets the base for a political theory that defines citizenship in a manner that transcends the particularities of kin bonds.

  11. 孔子与亚里士多德的朋友观之比较%Confucius and Aristotle on friendship: A comparative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何元国

    2007-01-01

    Before and during the times Of Confucius and Aristotle,the concept of friendship had very difierent implications.This Paper compares Confucius'friendship.Aristotle holds that there are three kinds of friends and corresponding to them are three types of friendship.In the friendship for the sake of pleasure,there is no xin;in the legal form of friendship for the sake of utility,xin is guaranteed by law;and in the moral fotm of friendship for the sake of utility,xin is guaranteed by morality:in the friendship for the sake of virtue,xin is an indispensable part.Both thinkers believe friends can bring joy to human life.Aristotle,it is the joy of Reason.There are many commonalities and differences between the two.The commonalities reveal some inner links between Confucian rendao and Aristotelian Reason.It seems that the difierences between rendao and Reason are the differences between moral reason and logical reason.The comparative study is helpful for us to understand the two masters' ethics,politics and philosophy.

  12. Republican Utopia:from Plato to Moore%共和主义乌托邦:从柏拉图到莫尔

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐百军

    2012-01-01

    通过对柏拉图的《理想国》和莫尔的《乌托邦》的文本分析,我们发现他们的乌托邦思想中潜藏着共和主义叙事,实质上柏拉图和莫尔都希图建构一种共和主义乌托邦,由此也可以说乌托邦思想与共和主义之间原本就存在着一种共生的却被遗忘的历史关系,因而我们试图恢复以柏拉图和莫尔为代表的乌托邦思想家在共和主义政治光谱中的理论地位也并非一种主观冲动。%Through making a text analysis of Plato's Republic and Moore's Utopia,we find that a republican narrative has been hidden in their Utopian thought.Essencially,Plato and Moore both hoped to construct a republican utopia.It also can be said that there is a symbiotic and forgotten historical relation between the utopian thought and republicanism.So it is not a subjective impulse that we try to give the theoretical status in the republican political spectrum back to the utopian thinkers whose representatives are Plato and Moore.

  13. The great Lisbon earthquake and tsunami of 1755: lessons from the recent Sumatra earthquakes and possible link to Plato's Atlantis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutscher, M.-A.

    2006-05-01

    Great earthquakes and tsunami can have a tremendous societal impact. The Lisbon earthquake and tsunami of 1755 caused tens of thousands of deaths in Portugal, Spain and NW Morocco. Felt as far as Hamburg and the Azores islands, its magnitude is estimated to be 8.5 9. However, because of the complex tectonics in Southern Iberia, the fault that produced the earthquake has not yet been clearly identified. Recently acquired data from the Gulf of Cadiz area (tomography, seismic profiles, high-resolution bathymetry, sampled active mud volcanoes) provide strong evidence for an active east dipping subduction zone beneath Gibraltar. Eleven out of 12 of the strongest earthquakes (M>8.5) of the past 100 years occurred along subduction zone megathrusts (including the December 2004 and March 2005 Sumatra earthquakes). Thus, it appears likely that the 1755 earthquake and tsunami were generated in a similar fashion, along the shallow east-dipping subduction fault plane. This implies that the Cadiz subduction zone is locked (like the Cascadia and Nankai/Japan subduction zones), with great earthquakes occurring over long return periods. Indeed, the regional paleoseismic record (contained in deep-water turbidites and shallow lagoon deposits) suggests great earthquakes off South West Iberia every 1500 2000 years. Tsunami deposits indicate an earlier great earthquake struck SW Iberia around 200 BC, as noted by Roman records from Cadiz. A written record of even older events may also exist. According to Plato's dialogues The Critias and The Timaeus, Atlantis was destroyed by ‘strong earthquakes and floods … in a single day and night’ at a date given as 11,600 BP. A 1 m thick turbidite deposit, containing coarse grained sediments from underwater avalanches, has been dated at 12,000 BP and may correspond to the destructive earthquake and tsunami described by Plato. The effects on a paleo-island (Spartel) in the straits of Gibraltar would have been devastating, if inhabited, and may

  14. A dialogical exploration of the grey zone of health and illness: medical science, anthropology, and Plato on alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Kieran

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes a phenomenological hermeneutic orientation to explicate and explore the notion of the grey zone of health and illness and seeks to develop the concept through an examination of the case of alcohol consumption. The grey zone is an interpretive area referring to the irremediable zone of ambiguity that haunts even the most apparently resolute discourse. This idea points to an ontological indeterminacy, in the face of which decisions have to be made with regard to the health of a person (e.g., an alcoholic), a system (e.g., the health system), or a society. The fundamental character of this notion will be developed in relation to the discourse on health and the limitations of different disciplinary practices. The case of alcohol consumption will be used to tease out the grey zone embedded in the different kinds of knowledge made available through the disciplinary traditions of medical science, with its emphasis on somatic well-being, and anthropology, with its focus on communal well-being. This tension or grey zone embedded in different knowledge outcomes will be shown to have a discursive parallel with the dialogue between the Athenian, the Spartan, and the Cretan in Plato's Laws. Making use of the dialogical approach as described by Gadamer, the Athenian's particular resolution of the tension will be explored as a case study to demonstrate the necessarily particular analysis involved in a grey zone resolution.

  15. What is good sport: Plato's view Co je to dobrý sport: Platónův pohled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Pisk

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available One of Plato's most common questions found in his dialogues is "What is something?" By asking this question Plato usually brought his co-speakers to the recognition that in fact they do not have a full comprehension of what something is, although they have a partial comprehension of it. The awareness of one's incomplete cognition is the first step to be made on the philosophic way to truth. As in ancient times also today Plato asks us – the modern philosophers of sport – "What is sport?" or more precisely "What is good sport?" Probably the best of Plato's answers to this question can be found in the basic concepts of his philosophy regarding his hierarchical division of the state and human soul into three parts. Since sport is derived from human being also the goodness of sport can be divided into three stages. The lowest stage of sport corresponds to the first part of the soul – the appetite soul. On this stage sport is based on the gaining of material goods through prizes won at competitions. In the philosophic view, this is the lowest possible stage of goodness of sport. The second stage of sport corresponds to the second part of the soul – the emotional soul. Sport at this stage is based on the elementary ancient agon, which seeks fulfilment in the winning of honour and glory. The greatest and the most superior is the third part of the soul – the reasonable soul. According to this, also the sport corresponding to the third part of the soul is the best. For this kind of sport it is no longer necessary to compete with other contestants, since it can achieve it's fulfilment in perfect execution of movement or exercise, in which the perfect cooperation between reason (soul and body is attained. At this stage of sport it is the most important to compete and win over one's self, and this can be achieved by everyone, without regard to his/her physical abilities in comparison with others. In Plato's view, good sport is the sport directed

  16. Aristotle's Golden Mean Ethics and Its Enlightenments%亚里士多德中庸观及其现代启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊洪; 陈铿

    2014-01-01

    在古希腊的传统思想观念中,中庸之道无论对科学、技术还是艺术或者对思想、情感和行为,都是最理想的方式方法。亚里士多德的中庸思想直接继承古希腊这一传统思想,他在汲取前人思想的同时,根据当时社会状况,对中庸思想在理论上作出论证,并作为一项准则在伦理学、美学、政治等各个领域里加以使用。应当说,亚里士多德的中庸伦理观作为一种对于人的情感和行为的道德指南,在历史上产生了深远的影响。%In the ancient Greek traditional ideas ,moderation was the best way in the fields of science ,technology, and art , or to deal with thoughts , emotions and behaviors .Aristotle's doctrine of the golden mean is the direct successor of the traditional moderation thought in the ancient Greece .Learning from his predecessors ,according to the prevailing social conditions at that time ,Aristotle demonstrated the doctrine of the golden mean as a criterion in ethics,aesthetics,politics and other fields.It can be said that Aristotle's golden mean ethics had a profound impact on a person's emotions and behaviors and is ethical guidelines in history .

  17. Misrepresentation of vital status follow-up: challenging the integrity of the PLATO trial and the claimed mortality benefit of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNicolantonio, James J; Tomek, Ales

    2013-10-30

    Ticagrelor, a novel, reversible, and oral P2Y12 receptor antagonist, was claimed to reduce all-cause mortality compared to clopidogrel in the PLATO trial. We sought to ascertain vital status follow-up for clopidogrel and ticagrelor to determine if any discrepancy existed by reviewing data from the FDA Complete Response Review. The FDA Complete Response Review indicated misrepresentation of vital status follow-up by the sponsor's presenter at the Cardiovascular and Renal Drugs Advisory Committee. Instead of five patients with missing vital status follow-up, the FDA primary efficacy reviewer indicated that there was a minimum of 106 patients. Additionally and more concerning was the fact that significantly more patients on ticagrelor (3.1%, n = 289 patients) had incomplete vital status follow-up versus clopidogrel (2.6%, n = 242 patients, p = 0.04 for the difference). The Advisory Committee that voted in favor to approve ticagrelor was given misrepresented data, which may have affected the approval of ticagrelor. The fact that significantly more patients on ticagrelor had incomplete vital status follow-up versus clopidogrel challenges the claimed mortality benefit of ticagrelor and the approval of the PLATO trial. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Proporción y autoría. Arte mueble paleolítico. Figuras de los Omóplatos de

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Fernández Lombera

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se compone de las siguientes partes : a.- Realización de calcos con una gran objetividad gráfica de las figuras grabadas en los omóplatos de El Castillo, exhumados por OBERMAIER en sus campañas de 1911/12. b.- Diseño, validación y aplicación de un método para el cálculo de la proporción de una figura, independoentemente de cuál sea, enfrentándola a un arquetipo. c.- Aplicación de tal método, una vez validado, a las figuras de los omóplatos de El Castillo. d.- Análisis de la manera de hacer de cada uno de los autores de las figuras de El Castillo ; es a lo que llamamos autoría. e.- Obtención de un conjunto de conclusiones de tipo formal, artístico y paleoetnológico

  19. How Aristotle Discovered DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbrück, Max

    2014-11-01

    I am wondering how to address you, Viki, on this tremendous occasion, dedicated to commemorate your approaching "graduation from college". Like many of us here assembled, you will have to think of a career to choose after this "graduation". Perhaps the most appropriate form of address would be the way the young Goethe was instructed to address his grandfather, namely, "Erhabener Grosspapa!" That could be translated "Exalted Granddaddy", but the flavor is not quite the same. I'll start out with some comments on Stan Ulam's talk. He invited us to speak up in the discussion to his talk, but I prefer to do it now when I have the floor to myself, so he can't talk back. There are several of his quotes that I want to comment on. One quote from Fermi on some theory that had been confirmed better than he, Fermi, thought the theory had any business of being that good. To anybody that works in biology and is aware of the fact that our brain evolved to help us get along in the cave, it is utterly miraculous and completely incomprehensible that this brain is capable of doing science at the success rate at which it is doing it. This is an aspect that mathematicians and physicists and most scientists tend to ignore. But it is one that is very much in the minds of those who are trying to understand more deeply the nature of our perceptive and cognitive capabilities from the point of view of biology...

  20. Aristotle on drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Tony

    2013-01-01

    This paper begins by examining the ethical issues in public health and attempts to resolve them. It then considers three different paradigms responding to heroin addiction and their underlying moral philosophy. Firstly it examines prohibition and abstinence only treatment as an example of deontological ethics and harm reduction approaches as an example of a utilitarian ethics. Policy and practice problems resulting from weaknesses in the underlying philosophies are examined along with the futile debate between abstinence only and harm reduction approaches. A third paradigm, 'recovery' is examined as an example of Aristotelian virtue ethics. The paper concludes by considering the wider implications of this case study in terms of the need for further bioethical enquiry in public health and proposes virtue ethics as a paradigm within which ethical issues can be identified and debated.

  1. Aristotle and Double Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    There are some interesting similarities between Aristotle’s ‘mixed actions’ in Book III of the Nicomachean Ethics and the actions often thought to be justifiable with the Doctrine of Double Effect. Here I analyse these similarities by comparing Aristotle’s examples of mixed actions with standard ...

  2. A dimensão econômica da teoria política aristotélica Economical dimension of aristotle's political theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Rossi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é enfatizar o lugar que ocupa a economia na cosmovisão política de Aristóteles, assumindo o pressuposto segundo o qual o filósofo considera a economia como uma dimensão central da mesma forma que uma condição de possibilidade para pensar a comunidade política. Nesse sentido, percorre-se três aspectos de tal problemática. O primeiro aspecto, o mais visível, cujo descobrimento é mérito da hermenêutica arendtiana, é aquele que diz respeito especificamente ao problema da crematística como desconstrução do objeto da política, considerada como vida comunitária ligada ao bom viver. O segundo aspecto é o que conduz o filósofo a vincular, pela primeira vez na história do Ocidente, os regimes políticos à estrutura social da polis. O terceiro aspecto consiste em realizar uma leitura dos regimes políticos na chave econômica, aspecto central das profundas críticas de Aristóteles à oligarquia. Desse modo, deixa-se explícita outra das hipóteses que se sustenta no texto: a de que as reflexões de Aristóteles se concentram na noção de esfera pública e, por isso, privilegiam teoricamente a aristocracia, a politeia e, inclusive, a democracia.The objetive of the article is to emphasize the place of economics in the political cosmovision of Aristotle under the assumption of economics as a central dimension and a prerequisite of the philosopher's thinking about political community. In that sense, it covers three aspects of that problematic. The firs aspect, the most visible one, which discovery is merit of Arendtian hermeneutics, attends specifically to the problem of bad chrematistic as a deconstruction of the politics's object, in so far as communitarian life is related to the good life. The second aspect allows the philosopher to relate, for the first time in Western history, the political regimes to the social structure of the polis. The third aspect implies a vision of political regimes in economic terms

  3. Toward a pro-active scientific advice on global volcanic activity within the multi-hazard framework of the EU Aristotle project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, Sara; Duncan, Melanie; Loughlin, Susan; Gísladóttir, Bryndis; Roberts, Matthew; Karlsdóttir, Sigrún; Scollo, Simona; Salerno, Giuseppe; Corsaro, Rosa Anna; Charalampakis, Marinos; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos

    2017-04-01

    The demand for timely analysis and advice on global volcanic activity from scientists is growing. At the same time, decision-makers require more than an understanding of hazards; they need to know what impacts to expect from ongoing and future events. ARISTOTLE (All Risk Integrated System TOwards Trans-boundary hoListic Early-warning) is a two-year EC funded pilot project designed to do just that. The Emergency Response Coordination Centre (ERCC) works to support and coordinate response to disasters both inside and outside Europe using resources from the countries participating in the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism. Led by INGV and ZAMG, the ARISTOTLE consortium comprises 15 institutions across Europe and aims to deliver multi-hazard advice on natural events, including their potential interactions and impact, both inside and outside of Europe to the ERCC. Where possible, the ERCC would like a pro-active provision of scientific advice by the scientific group. Iceland Met Office leads the volcanic hazards work, with BGS, INGV and NOA comprising the volcano observatory team. At this stage, the volcanology component of the project comprises mainly volcanic ash and gas dispersal and potential impact on population and ground-based critical infrastructures. We approach it by relying upon available and official volcano monitoring institutions' reporting of activity, existing assessments and global databases of past events, modelling tools, remote-sensing observational systems and official VAAC advisories. We also make use of global assessments of volcanic hazards, country profiles, exposure and proxy indicators of threat to livelihoods, infrastructure and economic assets (e.g. Global Volcano Model outputs). Volcanic ash fall remains the only hazard modelled at the global scale. Volcanic risk assessments remain in their infancy, owing to challenges related to the multitude of hazards, data availability and model representation. We therefore face a number of

  4. La cuadratura del plato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles Mora

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Una de las cosas que el Jurado del X Premio de Poesía Vicente Núñez destacó de este libro fue “su exquisito tratamiento del lenguaje”. Y desde luego lo es, es exquisito su tratamiento del lenguaje pero no porque utilice un lenguaje exquisito o excelso sino porque sabe arrancarle al lenguaje de todos los días, a las palabras sencillas, toda la carga poética de emoción e iluminación que llevan dentro. Mónica Doña nos dice que en su libro ha querido huir de un lirismo que muchas veces resulta falso, hueco, y nos habla de que lo que ha querido hacer es “épica cotidiana”, sin héroes, porque por su libro, como por la vida nuestra de todos los días, lo que circulan son seres que sobreviven como pueden en un mundo adverso.

  5. La cuadratura del plato

    OpenAIRE

    Ángeles Mora

    2012-01-01

    Una de las cosas que el Jurado del X Premio de Poesía Vicente Núñez destacó de este libro fue “su exquisito tratamiento del lenguaje”. Y desde luego lo es, es exquisito su tratamiento del lenguaje pero no porque utilice un lenguaje exquisito o excelso sino porque sabe arrancarle al lenguaje de todos los días, a las palabras sencillas, toda la carga poética de emoción e iluminación que llevan dentro. Mónica Doña nos dice que en su libro ha querido huir de un lirismo que muchas veces resulta fa...

  6. A display model for the TOU of PLATO: just a cool toy or a benchmark of opportunities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, M.; Greggio, D.; Bergomi, M.; Biondi, F.; Farinato, J.; Farisato, G.; Magrin, D.; Lessio, L.; Marafatto, L.; Munari, M.; Pagano, I.; Ragazzoni, R.; Viotto, V.; Piazza, D.

    2016-07-01

    We produced a "toy-model" of one Telescope Optical Unit of PLATO, the Medium sized mission selected by ESA to fly in 2024. This is a six lenses dioptric very wide field camera with a window in front to take care of radiation impact on the first lens whose optical glass cannot be replaced with a radiation hardened one. The main aim of this project is just to produce a "cool" model for display purposes, in which one can "explore" the details of the inside through some openings in the tube, in order to visually inspect some of the fine details of the opto-mechanics. While its didactic and advertising role is out of doubt, during its construction we realized that some interesting outcome can be of some relevance for the project itself and that some findings could be useful, in order to assess the ability of producing with the same technology some (of course of much more modest quality) optical systems. In this context, we immediately dropped the option of producing the lenses with opaque material painted with a color resembling a refractive material (like blue for instance) and decided to actually produce them with transparent plastic. Furthermore the surfaces are then finely polished in order to give them basic optical properties. Such an optical system has only very coarsely the converging properties of the original nominal design for a number of reasons: the refractive indexes are not the nominal ones, the quality of the surfaces and their nominal values are only roughly, within a few percent, the targeted one, and the way the surfaces are built up makes them prone to some diffraction effects. However, the bulk of the lens and the surface roughness will give a large magnification of the scattering effects that will be experienced, at a much lower level, on the actual flight model. We investigated through propagation of a laser beam and by digital camera the main stray light modes that this toymodel offers. In other words, the model amplifies, to a large extent, the

  7. Ethics and education: virtuous character and happy life in Aristotle - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v36i1.19276

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Alexandre Alves

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethical education in Aristotle is analyzed and the formation of the virtuous character as a key factor in the achievement of happiness is emphasized. The happy life is based on virtue which, in turn, is based on education and not on any other forms of life. The formation on the activity of the soul is not enough to achieve a happy life. Rational virtue differentiates the good man from the others. It manifests itself in good acts expressed through balanced attitudes and contemplation. Ethical education is the basic criterion for character formation. The constant practice of virtuous deeds makes the human being achieve discernment to do what is appropriate and thus achieve virtue and happiness.

  8. Analysis of Aristotle's virtuous and human being’s morality%简析亚里士多德善的理念和人的德性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯韩雪

    2014-01-01

    Aristotle as a great ancient Greek ethicists, although his ethics thought though after one thousand years, but its influence is deep and profound at the same time his thought contains the rich content, has the vital significance on the study of virtue ethics. In this paper, based on Aristotle's good concept of virtue, happiness, and one of three categories, some brief carding and hope that through the good and happiness, and the brief analysis of man's virtue, for us to get the benefits of ethics in today's society in the construction, to solve the possible some ethical issues in today's society, and bring some enlightenment to modern people.%亚里士多德作为古希腊伟大的哲学家和伦理学家,他的伦理思想虽然历经千年,但其影响却是悠远而深刻的,其思想蕴含丰富的内容,对于德性伦理学的研究具有重要的意义。主要通过对亚里士多德善的理念、幸福和人的德性三个范畴做了几点简要的梳理和阐述,希望通过对善、幸福和人的德性的简要分析,从中得到对于我们当今社会在伦理建设方面的有益之处,对解决当今社会上可能存在的一些伦理学问题给予启示。

  9. EFFECT OF DIET QUALITY ON NUTRIENT ALLOCATION TO THE TEST AND ARISTOTLE'S LANTERN IN THE SEA URCHIN LYTECHINUS VARIEGATUS (LAMARCK, 1816).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heflin, Laura Elizabeth; Gibbs, Victoria K; Powell, Mickie L; Makowsky, Robert; Lawrence, Addison L; Lawrence, John M

    2012-08-01

    Small adult (19.50 ± 2.01g wet weight) Lytechinus variegatus were fed eight formulated diets with different protein (12 to 36% dry weight as fed) and carbohydrate (21 to 39 % dry weight) levels. Each sea urchin (n = 8 per treatment) was fed a daily ration of 1.5% of the average body weight of all individuals for 9 weeks. Akaike information criterion scores were used to compare six different dietary composition hypotheses for eight growth measurements. For each physical growth response, different mathematical models representing a priori hypotheses were compared using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) score. The AIC is one of many information-theoretic approaches that allows for direct comparison of non-nested models with varying number of parameters. Dietary protein level and protein: energy ratio were the best models for prediction of test diameter increase. Dietary protein level was the best model of test with spines wet weight gain and test with spines dry matter production. When the Aristotle's lantern was corrected for size of the test, there was an inverse relationship with dietary protein level. Log transformed lantern to test with spines index was also best associated with the dietary protein model. Dietary carbohydrate level was a poor predictor for growth parameters. However, the protein × carbohydrate interaction model was the best model of organic content (% dry weight) of the test without spines. These data suggest that there is a differential allocation of resources when dietary protein is limiting and the test with spines, but not the Aristotle's lantern, is affected by availability of dietary nutrients.

  10. The movie"city of sadness"from Aristotle's theory of tragedy%《从亚里士多德的悲剧理论看电影》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽莉

    2014-01-01

    亚里士多德的《诗学》是西方经典的美学、文论专著,“悲剧说”是其中的经典理论。本文以亚里士多德的悲剧理论为依据,对侯孝贤导演的电影《悲情城市》进行解读,从故事情节、人物性格等方面来分析这部电影的悲剧思想。%Aristotle's"Poetics"is a famous Western classical aesthetics, literary theory,"tragedy"is one of the classical theories. In this paper, take the tragedy theory of Aristotle as the basis, to interpret the film"city of sadness", to analyze the film's tragic thought from the aspects of the plot, character, etc.

  11. On the Contemporary Relevance of Greek παιδεία to the Concept of a Balanced Education: Aristotle, Nietzsche, Camus, H. Arendt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kalan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary education systems are in a constant process of restructuring, thus requiring philosophy to reconsider the basic assumptions of education. The phenomenon of education can only be defined and clarified historically, i.e. with reference to the ancient Greek paideia. The Greek culture created a comprehensive system of both education and pedagogy as a theory of education, teaching, and knowledge (Dilthey.  (1 A phenomenological approach to Aristotle's pedagogy. Aristotle's theory of physical, moral, and political education (Nicomachean Ethics and Politics is founded upon the notion of the natural development of every being. In addition, Aristotle creates the concept of philosophical pedagogy. A philosophically educated person (ho pepaideumenos has the competence to treat problems emerging with the formation of particular sciences, and to reflect on the method of each scientific discipline. This philosophical culture is also connected with dialectic, rhetoric, and politics.  (2 Nietzsche's ideas on education and culture are presented in two of his early works: On the Future of Our Educational Institutions and We Philologists. In his criticism of the German education system of his time, he explains his basic historical assumption that the real homeland of education is the Hellenic world. A restructuring of the education system cannot be carried out without the Greek and Roman antiquity as the embodied categorical imperative of all culture. A general education which disregards antiquity is considered barbaric. However, Nietzsche's philosophy of education remains unfinished, giving no definite conclusions.  (3 Camus’ philosophy describes the modern West European culture as nihilistic. The essence of nihilism is a systematic ignorance of the limits of human nature, which can lead to historical crimes and to destroying the conditions for the human existence in the world. The formation of a world that will not be subdued by the

  12. 公正作为德性——亚里士多德公正德性探析%Justice as a virtue: An analysis of Aristotle's virtue of justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄显中

    2007-01-01

    People currently regard justice as the main principle of institutions and society,while in ancient Greek people took it as the virtue of citizens.This article analyzes Aristotle's virtue of justice in his method of virtue ethics,discussing the nature of virtue,how justice is the virtue of citizens,what kind of virtue the iustice of citizens is,and the prospect of the virtue of iustice against a background of institutional justice.Since virtue can be said to be a specific individual character,Aristotle also defines the virtue of justice as the character of justice,with which citizens act justly and desire to do what is just.The virtue of justice is also an individual ethical virtue,differing from others for it is at the same time a social ethic.We can call the virtue of justice a"non-individual individual ethical virtue."It has been explained as between pure altruism and egoism,which is a wrong explanation.John Rawls regards justice as the first virtue of social institutions,challenging Aristotle's virtue,of justice,an assertion which also needs further deliberation.

  13. 亚里士多德、尼采与悲剧%On the Comparison of Aristotle and Nietzsche from the Perspective of Their Tragedy Theories

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    蒙丽芳

    2014-01-01

    亚里士多德和尼采在不同时期给西方文明留下了理论著作和文化财富,分别在《诗学》和《悲剧的诞生》中阐述了各自的悲剧理论。试从理论派别、理论核心和理论联系等角度对其悲剧观进行对比分析,以探讨他们在悲剧发展史中的地位。%Aristotle and Nietzsche lived in different times and left great wealth of theoretical writings and culture. They elaborat-ed their theories for the definition and understanding of the tragedy in their works“Poetics”and“The Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of Music”. The following paper will compare and analyze their theoretical differences and similarities in the tragedy from the perspective of their two different tragedy works. It will be helpful to study their theories and their special roles in the develop-ment of tragedy.

  14. WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO UNDERSTAND ARISTOTLE'S NICOMACHEAN ETHICS? O QUE SIGNIFICA COMPREENDER A ÉTICA NICOMAQUEIA DE ARISTÓTELES?

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    Priscilla Tesch Spinelli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Early in the Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle claims that the goal pursued by that work is not knowledge but action; a bit later he says that reading / studying the lessons therein contained would be useless if it did not serve to somehow make us better. The aim of this paper is to present what I take as being the practical understanding that Aristotle requires from the reader / student of the NE, as opposed to a purely theoretical understanding of the issues addressed by that work. One can read the NE as a purely theoretical treatise, considering irrelevant the question of whether or not we are motivated to pursue a virtuous life. But one should not read it that way, according to Aristotle. To understand that the virtuous life is the best means to pursue that life. As I intend to show, the Aristotelian requirement that students of the NE have been educated in good habits in order to follow its lessons properly is a strong indication supporting the idea above. Aristotle had in mind the fact that it is only in a mature character that moral arguments, even if very general ones such as those in the NE, can motivate action.

  1. New Directions in Interdisciplinarity: Broad, Deep, and Critical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodeman, Robert; Mitcham, Carl

    2007-01-01

    Aristotle launched Western knowledge on a trajectory toward disciplinarity that continues to this day. But is the knowledge management project that began with Aristotle adequate for the age of Google? Perhaps an undisciplined discourse more evocative of Plato can help us constitute new, more relevant inter- and transdisciplinary forms of…

  2. What It Is and that It Is

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannatella, Howard

    2012-01-01

    The title of this paper comes from Aristotle's "Metaphysics." It appropriately captures how he understood art education. In what follows, a considerable amount of the author's thinking is indebted to Plato's and Aristotle's understanding of art education as mimetic education. On first view, an art mimetic educational approach may appear worryingly…

  3. What It Is and that It Is

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannatella, Howard

    2012-01-01

    The title of this paper comes from Aristotle's "Metaphysics." It appropriately captures how he understood art education. In what follows, a considerable amount of the author's thinking is indebted to Plato's and Aristotle's understanding of art education as mimetic education. On first view, an art mimetic educational approach may appear worryingly…

  4. "Ideal" and "Body Ideal": Reading Plato, Foucault, Vico and Socrates%“理想”与“身体理想”——读柏拉图、福珂、维科和苏格拉底

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    龙潜

    2012-01-01

    从柏拉图的古希腊起,身体在人认知的体系中,是意识形态的,是价值判断的,亦是意义功能的。身体不是单纯的自然物,身体不能被看为一个独立的物体,它是一种社会现象。%Since Plato' s ancient Greece body has been considered part of human cognition system, involving the value judgment and meaning function. Body is not simply natural, but social as well.

  5. Aristotle on the Fourfold Unity of Virtue%亚里士多德论德性的四重统一

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玮

    2016-01-01

    Since Socrates put forward the thesis of “unity of virtue,”it became a standard doctrine among Greek philosophers,but they also provided different understandings and formulations of this thesis.There are at least three different forms of unity thesis in Platonic oeuvre.And Aristotle,based on his more subtle distinction between different kinds of virtues,articulatesfour different kinds of uni-ty:(1)the unity in/throughgeneral justice (dikaiosynēholē),(2)in magnanimity (magalopsychia), (3)throughprudence (phronēsis),and (4)in the philosopher who possess sophia.In articulating these different levels,we also come to appreciate Aristotle’s reception,revision,and development of this Socratic/Platonic thesis.%自从苏格拉底提出“德性统一论”,这个论题就成为古希腊哲学家的一个重要共识,但是,不同的哲学家给出了不同的表达和理解方式。在柏拉图的著作中至少有三种关于德性统一论的不同表述,而亚里士多德继承、修正和发展了苏格拉底与柏拉图的这个论题,在他自己的德性理论中提出了关于德性统一的四重论证:伦理德性可以在普遍正义“之中”或“通过”普遍正义得到统一,也可以在豪迈“之中”得到统一,还可以“通过”明智这种理智德性得到统一,而最终所有的伦理德性和理智德性都在拥有智慧的哲学家“之中”达到了最终的统一。

  6. Aristóteles e o progresso da investigação científica: o caso do De caelo Aristotle and the progress of scientific investigation: the case of De caelo

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    Lucas Angioni

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina três passagens do De caelo e discute a atitude epistemológica de Aristóteles em relação ao estatuto das teorias que ele introduz, bem como sua atitude em relação à possibilidade de progresso na investigação científica a respeito do mundo celeste. Concluo que a possibilidade de progresso na investigação científica, embora não seja central na reflexão de Aristóteles, não é afastada como impossível, muito menos como indesejável.This article examines three passages of De caelo in order to discuss Aristotle's epistemological attitude towards the theories advanced by him and towards the possibility of progress in the scientific research of the celestial world. It is concluded that, although the possibility of progress in scientific investigation is not central in Aristotle's reflections, progress is not ruled out either as impossible or as undesirable.

  7. The Problem of Focusing and Real Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihas, Pavlos

    2008-01-01

    A historical discussion of the theories which deal with the formation of real images in mirrors and lenses is presented in this paper. Speculations on mirrors appeared as early as Plato. Euclid's, Hero's and Ptolemy's approaches to visual rays are described. The theory on burning mirrors starts with Diocles and later was continued by the Arabs. Al…

  8. Particularism in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Leibowitz, Uri D.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay I offer a new particularist reading of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics. I argue that the interpretation I present not only helps us to resolve some puzzles about Aristotle’s goals and methods, but it also gives rise to a novel account of morality—an account that is both interesting and plausible in its own right. The goal of this paper is, in part, exegetical—that is, to figure out how to best understand the text of the Nicomachean Ethics. But this paper also aims to con...

  9. To Catch A Comet...Learning From Halley's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Comet chronicles and stories extend back over thousands of years. A common theme has been that comets are a major cause of catastrophe and tragedy here on earth. In addition, both Aristotle and Ptolemy believed that comets were phenomena within the earth's atmosphere, and it wasn't until the 16th century, when Danish astronomer Tycho Brache…

  10. Simplicius on the planets and their motions in defense of a heresy

    CERN Document Server

    Bowen, Alan C

    2012-01-01

    The book contends that the digression ending Simplicius' In de caelo 2.12 is not a proper history of early Greek planetary theory, but a creative atempt to show that to accept Ptolemy's planetary hypotheses one need not repudiate Aristotle's argument that the cosmos is eternal.

  11. 柏拉图的“学习即回忆”与分析性默会知识%Plato's“learning is recollection” and Tacit Knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芮夕捷

    2015-01-01

    Abstracts:In Phaedo ,Plato tried to prove the proposition “learning is recollection” based on hu‐man perception of “equality” ,but the process of reasoning is invalid because of his'misunderstanding of logic priority as time priority .In Meno ,he attempted to illustrate the proposition through the dia‐logues between Socrates and Meno's slave .However ,the knowledge involved in the experiment is a kind of analytic tacit knowledge ,and the process in getting it essentially lies in discovering the tacit knowledge that is implied in cognitive subjects'related explicit knowledge but never appearing in his awareness ,and converting it into explicit knowledge .The experiment with Meno'little slave doesn't prove the proposition “learning is recollection” ,but the process in conversion of analytic tacit knowl‐edge to explicit knowledge has great implications for today's creative studies of organizational knowl‐edge .The tacit knowledge in analytic form has a complex structure .The realization of the conversion from analytic tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge is an important way of creation of organizational knowledge ,and requires persistent efforts on the part of cognitive subjects .%在《斐多篇》中柏拉图基于人们拥有“相等”的概念对“学习即回忆”进行了论证,但论证错误地将逻辑在先混淆成了时间在先。在《美诺篇》中柏拉图试图利用苏格拉底与美诺的僮奴的对话实验证明“学习即回忆”,然而实验所涉及的知识属分析性默会知识,它的获得过程本质上在于发现蕴涵于认知主体相关显式知识中但又不曾为其所意识的默会知识,并将其转变为显式知识。僮奴实验虽未能证明“学习即回忆”,但其中所涉及的分析性默会知识向显式知识的转变过程对当代组织知识创造研究具有借鉴意义。分析性默会知识具有较为复杂的结构,实现分析性默会知识向显式知识的转

  12. Predicting mortality after congenital heart surgeries: Evaluation of the Aristotle and Risk Adjustement in Congenital Heart surgery-1 risk prediction scoring systems: A retrospective single center analysis of 1150 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreedhar S Joshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To validate Aristotle basic complexity and Aristotle comprehensive complexity (ABC and ACC and risk adjustment in congenital heart surgery-1 (RACHS-1 prediction models for in hospital mortality after surgery for congenital heart disease in a single surgical unit. Materials and Methods: Patients younger than 18 years, who had undergone surgery for congenital heart diseases from July 2007 to July 2013 were enrolled. Scoring for ABC and ACC scoring and assigning to RACHS-1 categories were done retrospectively from retrieved case files. Discriminative power of scoring systems was assessed with area under curve (AUC of receiver operating curves (ROC. Calibration (test for goodness of fit of the model was measured with Hosmer-Lemeshow modification of χ2 test. Net reclassification improvement (NRI and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI were applied to assess reclassification. Results: A total of 1150 cases were assessed with an all-cause in-hospital mortality rate of 7.91%. When modeled for multivariate regression analysis, the ABC (χ2 = 8.24, P = 0.08, ACC (χ2 = 4.17 , P = 0.57 and RACHS-1 (χ2 = 2.13 , P = 0.14 scores showed good overall performance. The AUC was 0.677 with 95% confidence interval (CI of 0.61-0.73 for ABC score, 0.704 (95% CI: 0.64-0.76 for ACC score and for RACHS-1 it was 0.607 (95%CI: 0.55-0.66. ACC had an improved predictability in comparison to RACHS-1 and ABC on analysis with NRI and IDI. Conclusions: ACC predicted mortality better than ABC and RCAHS-1 models. A national database will help in developing predictive models unique to our populations, till then, ACC scoring model can be used to analyze individual performances and compare with other institutes.

  13. A presença de Aristóteles no livro Como pensamos, de John Dewey The presence of Aristotle in the book How we think by John Dewey

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    Marcus Vinicius da Cunha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo integra um projeto de pesquisa que tem por objetivo discutir eventuais relações entre as teses de John Dewey e a filosofia grega clássica, especialmente em torno da noção de conhecimento ou ciência, no intuito de compreender os mecanismos de "apropriação" e "recontextualização" presentes na elaboração de discursos pedagógicos. Para isso, analisamos o livro Como pensamos, em que se encontram os fundamentos da teoria lógica deweyana, procedendo a uma interpretação das idéias do autor à luz do pensamento de Aristóteles. As conclusões indicam haver certas aproximações e diferenças entre as concepções dos dois filósofos, o que permite formular algumas hipóteses para novos estudos acerca das relações entre Dewey e Aristóteles.This article is part of a research project whose goal is discussing occasional relations between John Dewey's thesis and the classical Greek philosophy, especially concerning the notion of knowledge or science. We intend to understand the mechanisms behind the "appropriation" and "re-contextualization" in Pedagogical discourses. In order to do so, we analyzed the book How we think, in which the fundamentals of Dewey's logical theory can be seen, proceeding to an interpretation of his ideas based on Aristotle's. Our conclusion points to some similarities and distinctions between the two philosophers' conceptions, allowing us to raise some new hypothesis for further studies about relations between Dewey and Aristotle.

  14. Man and «polis»; the gordian knot of education in Aristotle Hombre y «polis»: el nudo gordiano de la educación en Aristóteles

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    Concepción NAVAL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Education is better seen as a help in order to grow in freedom and dignity, inside a society. Aristotle helps us to better understand this question. He gives us suggestive insights of the concepts of man, and education, very much related to the polis. The social dimesion of education is always present in the Greek tradition, but in Aristotle there is also a genuine knowledge of the individual. There is no educative problem separeted to the social and political roots.La educación se puede ver como una ayuda para crecer en libertad y dignidad. Será educativo aquello que favorezca la perfección de la persona; y por eso, cuando se habla de la educación como un factor de reproducción social, se intentará referir unos factores externos a la propia persona, y determinarlos según la armonía personal. Esta cuestión de plena actualidad tienen un planteamiento sugerente en Aristóteles quien nos ofrece una visión del hombre y de la educación, en estrecha relación con la polis, que son de interés. El carácter social de la educación está siempre presente en la tradición y pensamiento griego, puesto que el hombre es un animal político. Sin embargo, también está vivo en este autor el conocimiento del valor individual. No existía un problema educativo separado del aspecto político y moral.

  15. The Plato statistical analysis and countermeasures of internal fixation demolition mishandling%内固定拆除物处置不当的柏拉图统计分析与对策

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    马慧仙; 章霞红; 汪怡翠; 郑剑英

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过质量管理提高内固定拆除物的处理质量,防止纠纷的发生。方法:用柏拉图方法对不良数据进行收集,用鱼骨图进行原因分析,根据原因提出对策,制定措施,进行PDCA。结果:通过柏拉图分析,使得内固定拆除物处理的进步率达到了78%,合格率达到了93%。结论:用柏拉图分析等QC手法对内固定拆除物处理质量进行改进,是一种行之有效的方法。%To improve the quality of internal fixation demolition processing by the quality management methods , thus to prevent the occurrence of disputes .[Method] The data of internal fixation demolition mishandling was collected and an-alyzed by fishbone diagram .According to the reasons ,we put forward countermeasures ,set out measures and carried out plan-do-check action cycle (PDCA) .[Result] The progress rate of internal fixation demolition handling was 78% and the qual-ified rate was 93% with Plato analysis . [Conclusion ] The Plato analysis is one of the effective methods to improve the quality of internal fixation demolition processing by the quality management methods.

  16. Relearning and Recognition of Aristotle's Theory of"Goodness and Happiness"%亚里士多德“善和幸福”理论的再学习再认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冬梅

    2015-01-01

    早在几千年前伟大的哲人亚里士多德提出的“善和幸福”思想,对当下和谐社会建设、社会主义核心价值观建设和社会主义精神文明建设来说很有必要。在经济发展稳步增长的同时,精神文化建设也不能松懈,当前社会上出现许多道德问题,股股歪风邪气横行,如扭曲的金钱观、歪曲的价值观和不和谐的世界观显露,接二连三的炫富者、拜金者、唯物质论者涌现,诸多人认为有钱意味着幸福,认为世界不存在善,认为善是虚伪的。通过一段时间的学习,我想就亚里士多德的“善和幸福”思想浅谈我的体会。对其思想我们应变通地看,认识到其作用和价值。%The thought of"goodness and happiness", put forward by the great philosopher Aristotle several thousand years ago, is necessary for the current harmonious society construction, social-ist core values construction, and socialist spiritual civilization construction. As the economic development is growing steadily, spiritual culture construction should not slacken. Currently in the society, there are many moral problems and pervasive unhealthy tendencies, such as distorted views on money, perverted views on values and disharmonious views on the world. Those who flaunt wealth, worship money and focus merely on material well-being emerge one after another, and many people think that money means happiness and there is no goodness in the world and goodness is hypocritical. After a period of learning, the writer in-tends to briefly discuss some views on Aristotle's"goodness and happiness". We should flexibly view the thought, so as to recog-nize its functions and values.

  17. 柏拉图论“诗与哲学之争”的政治哲学思考%Thinking on the Comments on “Quarrel about Poetry and Philosophy” by Plato from the Perspective of Political Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁建东

    2013-01-01

    In The Republic, Plato criticized poetry and poets, which caused the quarrel about poetry and philosophy in the history of western thoughts. The death of Socrates awaked Plato to that the politicians educat-ed by ancient Athens education, which was characterized by poetry controlling the government in Athens, re-jected truly advantageous proposals for Athens City States and caused harm to people of true wisdom. Poetry is the destruction of soul and national ruling. The quarrel about poetry and philosophy is actually the quarrel about political system and life style. Poetry which represents common people�s daily life is the patriarchal clan life that most people in city state live, and is closely identified with the political community. Philosophy represents a new life that a few people live to pursue wisdom, and it would inevitably clash with the polis political commu-nity.%  古希腊哲人柏拉图在其《理想国》中批判诗和诗人,引发了西方思想史上的“诗与哲学之争”。苏格拉底之死使柏拉图认识到,被以诗为主要内容的雅典教育培养出的政客把持着雅典政府,拒绝对城邦真正有利的提议,并对真正有智慧的人实施了伤害。诗是对灵魂与国家统治的败坏。诗与哲学之争实质上是政治制度和生活方式之争。诗代表了普通民众的日常生活,是城邦中多数人过的宗法生活,与城邦政治共同体密不可分;哲学则代表了一种新兴的生活,是少数人过的追求智慧的生活,与城邦政治共同体必然发生冲突。

  18. Aristòtil: la vigència d'un mestre pensador Aristóteles: la vigencia de un maestro pensador Aristotle: the validity of a master thinker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavi Fullat

    2013-04-01

    ón del autor (nacido en 1928. Lejos de rechazar su influencia en el pensamiento ontológico y metafísico, Fullat reivindica a Aristóteles como maestro pensador. Además, disfrutó del magisterio de Jaume Bofill (catedrático de Metafísica de la Universidad de Barcelona que le hizo amar para siempre la filosofía aristotélica, uno de los puntales de la cultura occidental. De ahí que tanto en la vida real como en el plano intelectual haya establecido un diálogo fluido sobre Aristóteles con el profesor Pierre Aubenque, uno de los mejores especialistas sobre la materia. Todo este proceso formativo e intelectual adquiere más relieve cuando se considera que con la postmodernidad (Nietzsche, Heidegger se ha proclamado el olvido del ser y la muerte de la ontología y, por consiguiente, de la metafísica.This article reviews the role that the figure of Aristotle played during the author's (born in 1928 education. Far from rejecting Aristotle's influence on ontological and metaphysical thought, Fullat defends Aristotle as a master thinker. Fullat was taught by Jaume Bofill (Professor of Metaphysics at the University of Barcelona, who inspired a lifelong love of Aristotelian philosophy, one of the pillars of Western culture. Hence, in real life and on an intellectual level, the author established a fluent dialogue on Aristotle with the lecturer Pierre Aubenque, one of the main authorities on the subject. All of this educational and intellectual process becomes more relevant when we consider that with postmodernity (Nietzsche, Heidegger came a declaration of the "forgetfulness of being" and the death of ontology and, consequently, of metaphysics.

  19. Influencia de la distancia entre la tobera y el plato deflector, en la calidad de la aspersión, de las boquillas difusoras de baja presión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Domínguez G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se muestran los resultados de evaluaciones, en el laboratorio hidráulico, de un prototipo de nueva boquilla difusora. En el estudio se evaluaron diferentes distancias entre las toberas y la superficie del deflector del Instituto de Investigaciones de Riego y Drenaje (IIRD, para un orificio con diámetro de salida de 2.5 mm y presiones de 1.0,1.5,2.0 atmósferas; el que fue comparado con el plato deflector UNIRAIN SP 4, español. Para la prueba se utilizó la norma ISO 8026-1995, se aseguró, una velocidad del viento cero. Como receptores se emplearon vasos cónicos, con superficie de 66.76 cm2, espaciados a 25 cm; las mediciones se efectuaron en los cuatro radios del área humedecida. Como resultado, se tiene que el deflector IIRD, ubicado a 20 mm de distancia de la tobera, y el español situado a 42 mm, no presentaron diferencia significativa para el 5 y 1 % de probalidad, con errores típicos de 0.14 y 0.23 respectivamente

  20. 柏拉图分析法在临床案例安全风险识别中的应用%Application of Plato analysis method in identifying the security risks of the clinical cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小金; 陈雪霞; 林少玲; 成守珍

    2016-01-01

    Objective To apply Plato analysis method to clinical cases which were reported from clinical nursing, finding out the key link of the risks which were related to the cases:the key age, the key period, the key spectrum of disease and the key projects, etc. To carry out the feedforward control of the quality of care, and ensure the quality and safety of nursing. Methods A database were set up including clinical special cases, high-risk cases, security hidden danger cases and emergency cases. The"two eight"principle of Plato analysis method was used to find out the main factors, the principal contradiction, the key hazard and the key problems of the cases, etc. The aim was to provide guidelines of risk analysis, risk prevention and risk aversion for nurses, and improve their consciousness of security hidden danger, and reduce security hidden danger cases. Results The results of 207 cases collected from 2014 to 2015 showed that the main risks involved the age groups were 41-80 years old and 21-30 years old. The major risks involved the spectrum of disease were the nervous system, cardiovascular disease, surgical anesthesia related problems, kidney disease, cancer and respiratory system. The major risks involved the time were the midnight, morning and afternoon. The major risks involved the locations were sickroom, emergency room, auxiliary inspection departments and outpatient. The major risks involved items were disease mutation, psychological problems, medication safety and instrument safety, among the disease mutation, timely discovered, rescued 13 patients with heart and breathing pause, stop 13 patients who attempted suicide. Since the Plato analysis method was applied to identify the security risks of the clinical cases, the number of falling, all kinds of pipe shed, skin problems and suicides were decreased from 6, 6, 7, 5 in 2014 to 2, 2, 2, 1 in 2015, declining trend year by year. Conclusions Applying the Plato analysis method to identify the security risks

  1. Modeling the History of Astronomy: Ptolemy, Copernicus, and Tycho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, Todd K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a series of activities in which students investigate and use the Ptolemaic, Copernican, and Tychonic models of planetary motion. The activities guide students through using open source software to discover important observational facts, learn the necessary vocabulary, understand the fundamental properties of different…

  2. Copernicus Revisited: Overturning Ptolemy's View of the GPER Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ross D; Limbird, Lee E

    2015-11-01

    Whether aldosterone activates the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) has been questioned, recently, in the name of Copernicus. However, for G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) multiple hormone activators are common. Further, studies in mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)-deficient systems, with pharmacological GPER-selective antagonists or regulation of GPER expression, consistently show that some aldosterone effects can be GPER mediated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling the History of Astronomy: Ptolemy, Copernicus, and Tycho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, Todd K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a series of activities in which students investigate and use the Ptolemaic, Copernican, and Tychonic models of planetary motion. The activities guide students through using open source software to discover important observational facts, learn the necessary vocabulary, understand the fundamental properties of different…

  4. Maximally Permissive Composition of Actors in Ptolemy II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    created by Chris Shaver) that should plot the Fibonacci sequence , has a downstream plotter that only accepts Double input, which causes a type conflict...understood as inter- leavings of sequences of computational steps, but physical processes are continuous and influence each other without interruption...increasing inputs will yield a monotonically increasing output sequence . Likewise, evaluation of a series of decreasing inputs will yield a mono- tonically

  5. Dobro v etickém myšlení Platóna a Aristotela

    OpenAIRE

    Tomášková, Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    The present thesis deals with the question of goodness in ethical thinking of Plato and Aristotle. The work aims to answer two research questions: How did Plato and Aristotle perceive the essence of goodness in human life? What are we supposed to do in order to accomplish human well-being? The first chapter contains a brief summary of ethical ideas of both philosophers. In the following chapters their concepts of areté, soul and goodness are analysed and compared. The comparison supports the ...

  6. Les commentaires de Simplicius et de Jean Philopon à la "physique" d'Aristote tradition et innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Golitsis, Pantelis

    2008-01-01

    In Greek Late Antiquity philosophy defined itself above all through the interpretation of authoritative texts such as Plato's dialogues or the treatises of Aristotle. This work looks at the last Late Antique commentaries on Aristotle's Physics, the pagan Simplicius and the Christian Philoponus (both 6th cent. AD). Golitsis demonstrates how differently the two contemporaries interpreted the philosophical tradition and how this led them to deducedifferent routes to finding the truth.

  7. Major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation receiving apixaban or warfarin: The ARISTOTLE Trial (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation): Predictors, Characteristics, and Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylek, Elaine M; Held, Claes; Alexander, John H; Lopes, Renato D; De Caterina, Raffaele; Wojdyla, Daniel M; Huber, Kurt; Jansky, Petr; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Hanna, Michael; Thomas, Laine; Wallentin, Lars; Granger, Christopher B

    2014-05-27

    This study sought to characterize major bleeding on the basis of the components of the major bleeding definition, to explore major bleeding by location, to define 30-day mortality after a major bleeding event, and to identify factors associated with major bleeding. Apixaban was shown to reduce the risk of major hemorrhage among patients with atrial fibrillation in the ARISTOTLE (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) trial. All patients who received at least 1 dose of a study drug were included. Major bleeding was defined according to the criteria of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Factors associated with major hemorrhage were identified using a multivariable Cox model. The on-treatment safety population included 18,140 patients. The rate of major hemorrhage among patients in the apixaban group was 2.13% per year compared with 3.09% per year in the warfarin group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.60 to 0.80; p < 0.001). Compared with warfarin, major extracranial hemorrhage associated with apixaban led to reduced hospitalization, medical or surgical intervention, transfusion, or change in antithrombotic therapy. Major hemorrhage followed by mortality within 30 days occurred half as often in apixaban-treated patients than in those receiving warfarin (HR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.33 to 0.74; p < 0.001). Older age, prior hemorrhage, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack, diabetes, lower creatinine clearance, decreased hematocrit, aspirin therapy, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were independently associated with an increased risk. Apixaban, compared with warfarin, was associated with fewer intracranial hemorrhages, less adverse consequences following extracranial hemorrhage, and a 50% reduction in fatal consequences at 30 days in cases of major hemorrhage. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Alternativa de protección contra la corrosión del acero AISI 310S mediante recubrimiento de aluminio bajo condiciones de platos separadores en celdas de combustible de carbonatos fundidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Orozco-Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La celda de combustible de carbonatos fundidos (MCFC, por sus siglas en inglés convencional opera a 650°C. Consiste de un cátodo de NiO poroso y litiado, una mezcla eutéctica de carbonato de litio (Li2CO3 y carbonato de potasio (K2CO3 fundido en una matriz electrolitica de óxido de aluminio litiado (LiAlO2 y un ánodo poroso de Ni. Los platos separadores entre cada celda presentan problemas de corrosión. Ante eso, un acero inoxidable AISI 310S con recubrimiento fue estudiado en condiciones de un plato separador en una MCFC. Método: Se utilizó un acero inoxidable AISI 310S como sustrato (muestra A, aplicándole un recubrimiento de Al con (B y sin tratamiento térmico (C. Fueron expuestos en carbonatos fundidos (62 mol% Li2CO3 -38 mol% K2CO3 a 650 °C en crisoles de alúmina. El comportamiento electroquímico fue estudiado mediante la técnica de Espectroscopía de Impedancia Electroquimica (EIS. Para el análisis de los diagramas de impedancia, se utilizó el software de simulación “Boukamp Equivalent Circuit”. La sección transversal de las muestras corroídas fue caracterizada mediante Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido (SEM, por sus siglas en inglés y los productos formados por Difracción de rayos X (XRD, por sus siglas en inglés. Resultados: Los diagramas de EIS presentan aumentos y disminuciones en los semicírculos formados a altas frecuencias indicativo de disolución de la capa externa, aumento y disminución de la resistencia de esta última así como el posible rompimiento de ella. La técnica de XRD presentó fases LiFeO2, LiCrO2, -LiAlO2 y -LiAlO2 así como fases intermetálicas para las distintas condiciones de la muestra. De la misma manera, los análisis de SEM presentaron los espesores de cada una de las capas formadas. Discusión o Conclusión: En la muestra A, se formaron capas de LiFeO2 y LiCrO2 después de 200 horas de exposición. La capa de LiCrO2 aumenta por la difusión de Li hacia el

  9. 亚里士多德与孔子论“射”--德性伦理的理性逻辑与情感逻辑%On Archery of Aristotle and Confucius:Rational Logic and Emotional Logic of Virtue Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超

    2014-01-01

    亚里士多德和孔子都曾用“射”来说明中庸德性,但各有特色。亚里士多德论“射”关注射箭之理,目的在于善,价值指向是幸福,侧重于功能实现卓越;其理论预设是灵魂,人的灵魂的本质所在就是理性,故其德性论是一种理性逻辑。孔子论“射”关注射箭之德,目的在于礼,价值指向是和谐,侧重于情感表现中和;其理论预设是天道,天道下贯而成的人道始于情感,故其德性论是一种情感逻辑。通过中西方这两条传统德性伦理学路径的对比发现,当今德性伦理学的复兴不仅需要亚里士多德之学,也需要孔子之学。%Aristotle and Confucius illustrate golden mean by archery while with its own characteristics . Aristotle pays attention to the principle of archery , whose aim is good , value direction is happiness , and excel-lence of function realization is his focus .Since Aristotle thinks that rationality of the soul is its essence , his theory of virtue is based on the rationality logic .Confucius concerns about the morality of archery , which aim is LI, and value direction is harmony .Confucius’ theoretical supposition is TianDao and RenDao manifested from TianDao is evolved from emotion , then we can say that Confucius ’ theory of virtue obeys the emotional logic.Through the contrast of the two traditional paths of virtue ethics between China and West , we can make the conclusion that revival of virtue ethics of the time not only need Aristotle ’ s theory , but also Confucius ’ .

  10. La Traditio Legis de Cristo a Pedro y Pablo en un plato de vidrio de Cástulo, Linares (Jaén = Traditio Legis of Christ to Peter and Paul in a glass bowl from Cástulo, Linares (Jaén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Blázquez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo analizamos la iconografía de un plato de vidrio encontrado en Cástulo con la representación de la Tradicio legis o transmisión de la ley de Cristo a los apóstoles Pedro y Pablo.In this paper we analyze the iconography of a glass bowl found in Cástulo showing the representation of the Traditio legis, or «transmission of the law» of Christ to apostles Peter and Paul.

  11. Thomas Aquinas on the Soul: Old problems, New Solutions. Guiding Premises for a Thomistic Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Shilov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines two main approaches to the doctrine of the soul: that of Plato and that of Aristotle. Each of these approaches had its own development and its own interpretations. Plato and his school was more important during the Middle Ages. Through the neo-platonic philosophers it reached Saint Augustine and became a part of the western cultural and religious heritage until finally it was taken up by member of the Franciscan order - Roger Bacon and Bonaventure. But this paradigm could not solve a host of problems connected with the soul and many of them remained unresolved. The end of the twelfth century brought the growth of the universities and the teaching of Aristotle - a new paradigm - transmitted by the Arabic philosophers which was rediscovered by the West. Two commentators on Aristotle - Averroes and Avicenna -were the most important for the West, especially since Avicenna exerted a great influence on Albert the Great. But both Plato and Aristotle, when taken separately, proved to be quite useless in resolving certain problems. But Thomas Aquinas was able to splice the Gordian knot concealing a solution to the problem of the soul. By combining the psychology of Plato with the metaphysics of Aristotle, Thomas succeeded in creating a new concept of the human person. The author of this article has tried to explain the difficulties which faced Thomas and the way in which Thomas was able to resolve a problem which had troubled philosophy through the ages - the problem of reconciling Plato with Aristotle and finding a way to make their conflicting philosophies agree with each other

  12. 亚里士多德与庄子人生"至境"之比较%A Comparative Study of Two Doctrines of Life's Highest State between Aristotle and Chuang-Tzu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄传根

    2015-01-01

    The highest state of life is not only an ultimate portrayal of the ideal life situation, but is an important point for the ancient philosopher to answer the essence of life. As the founders of western or eastern civilization, Aristotle and Chuang-Tzu gave a rich explanation about the highest state of life. Based on the intercultural perspectives, there are five dimensions to compare their thoughts:patterns or forms (leisure—shiao Yao),ways of access(contemplation and sitting in forgetfulness), value orientation(su-preme happiness and futility of utility ),roles of intellect(intellectualism and anti-intellectualism) and ideal personality(perfect man and imperial person). All of these comparisons indicate that the two philosophers share in some aspects but differe in others,though both of them think that the highest state of life could be boiled down to spiritual freedom. Of course, it also to some extent reflects the similarities and differences of the starting point of cultures.%人生至境是人对理想生活处境的终极性描绘,也是先哲们求解人生问题的重要体现. 作为中西文明的重要思想者,亚里士多德与庄子都对此给予了丰富的阐释. 立足跨文化的比较视域,两位先哲的人生至境可相应地从5大维度进行比照:样态形式——"闲暇"与"逍遥";通达途径——"沉思"与"坐忘";价值旨趣——"至乐"与"无用之用";理智角色——"崇智"与"去智"以及人格形象——"完人"与"至人". 虽然亚里士多德与庄子均将人生至境指向了内在精神性的自由之境,但在5个维度上都既有相通性又有差异性,从而在一定程度上体现了中西文化于始源点上的汇通与分野.

  13. Source of Western Educational Thought Originated From Aristotle, Platon and Socrates%西方教育思想的政治源头--以亚里士多德为主,兼论柏拉图、苏格拉底

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈阳

    2016-01-01

    苏格拉底、柏拉图、亚里士多德的教育思想流传至今,对现代教育理论具有重大贡献,实际上他们的教育思想大都由讨论政治问题延伸而来,这一点在亚里士多德的《政治学》中有明显表现,柏拉图和苏格拉底与之也有类似之处,三者的政治理想都离不开对公民的德性教育,而公民的善与城邦的善是一致的,由此追溯西方教育思想的政治源头。%The educational thoughts of Socrates, Platon and Aristotle has spread up to now, which has made great contribution to modern educational theory.In fact, their educational ideas are mostly extended from the discussion of political issues, which has a clear performance in Aristotle's Political Science.The political ideals of the three people are all based on the moral education of the citizens.At the same time, the good of the citizens is consistent with the good of the city, which can be used to traces back the source of western educational thoughts.

  14. Pioneers in Astronomy and Space Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The pioneers of astronomy and space exploration have advanced humankind's understanding of the universe. These individuals include earthbound theorists such as Aristotle, Ptolemy, and Galileo, as well as those who put their lives on the line travelling into the great unknown. Readers chronicle the lives of individuals positioned at the vanguard of astronomical discovery, laying the groundwork for space exploration past, present, and yet to come.

  15. 教育之"道"与"术"——柏拉图《理想国》中的教育理念解读%Principles and Techniques in Education——an Interpretation of the Educational Philosophy in The Republic by Plato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晶; 连幼平

    2011-01-01

    The Republic of Plato is well known for its broad and profound ideas, yet this paper only intends to make a preliminary analysis of the educational principles and techniques in Plato's philosophy while he was on his way of forging an ideal polis.Education is,in essence,a skill of helping turn the soul of the educated into the right direction as well as a skill of cultivating virtues on the part of the educated.The above are the principles educators shall follow in the process of education, leaving the program layout, teaching contents and methods as the specific educational techniques while carrying out the educational principles.%柏拉图的思想博大精深,本文仅对其教育思想体系中涉及的教育之"道":教育是"灵魂的转向"、教育是美德的养成;以及教育过程中所遵循的原则、内容和教学方法等教育之"术"做了初步探讨.

  16. Would Aristotle have played Russian roulette?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J

    1996-08-01

    This paper continues the debate between myself and Peter Singer et al started in the Journal of Medical Ethics volume 21, no 3 about the ethical respectability of the use of QALYs in health care allocation. It discusses the question of what, in the way of health care provision, would be chosen by rational egoists behind a Rawlsian "veil of ignorance", and takes forward the vexed question of what is to count as "doing good" and hence as "doing the most good" in health care. Most importantly, this paper argues that it would be unfair to discriminate against people because they have been disadvantaged by their genetic condition. It notes that McKie et al in their reply to my first contribution to this debate continue to fail to distinguish between chance and probability and it is argued that this failure causes them to miss the whole point of the argument.

  17. Aristotle and the Ethics of Business Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallendorf, Craig; Kallendorf, Carol

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes business communication to generate an approach to ethics based in the rhetorical process of corporate life. Extends the Aristotelian paradigm for ethical communication to the rhetoric of business by studying the role of language in creating and disseminating values. Demonstrates the model with two case studies. (MM)

  18. Clinical practice: between Aristotle and Cochrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugelli, P

    1998-02-07

    Health and disease consist of amino acids and self image, cell membranes and human ideals, muscles and politics. Only to a limited extent can clinical practice be based on science. It can never be carried on in isolation from political, and cultural forces that influence patients' health behaviour. Evidence-based medicine is essential but not sufficient. A continuous relationship with patients is a conditio sine qua non for general practice. The general practitioner must be a master of pragmatic medicine. Rationality, the dominant modern trend, may be dangerous for patients and doctors: (1) advances in technology can give patients and doctors the illusion of mastering the universe; (2) patients complain of being treated like biomachines, without human touch. Another symptom of modernity is the decline of religion. But patients and doctors are by no means rational beings. God, destiny and hope are replaced by modern medico-scientific megalomania. Modern medicine is also strongly influenced by commercialization and invasion by bureaucrats. Instead of becoming a biomedical robot, the general practitioner must learn to value the Aristotelian concept of phronesis. It means practical wisdom and can only be gained by personal experience; a form of learning by doing. Good clinical practice cannot come from science alone, or from personal experience alone. It is an amalgam of scientia and phronesis.

  19. Teaching Socrates, Aristotle, and Augustine on Akrasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Caleb Clanton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A long-standing debate among moral philosophers centers on the question of whether ignorance is always at the root of moral wrongdoing, or whether, in certain cases, wrongdoing stems from something else—namely akrasia. This paper is a discussion of how undergraduate core curriculum teachers can incorporate Augustine’s work into this debate. I begin by briefly reconstructing Socrates’ and Aristotle’s accounts of wrongdoing, and then I sketch an Augustinian approach to the issue. Socrates contends that ignorance is the fundamental source of all wrongdoing; hence, akrasia is illusory. Though Aristotle’s view can seem more roundabout than Socrates’, it, too, is plausibly interpreted as entailing that robust, open-eyed akrasia is impossible. For Augustine, prior to receiving the illumination that comes with God’s grace, an individual’s sinfulness can be characterized as being the result of ignorance concerning the proper focus of one’s love. However, after receiving this illuminating grace, sinful action can be characterized as an instance of akrasia.

  20. Book Review ‘A short history of ethics and economics – the Greeks’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The book’s cover pictures the sculptures of the four Greek philosophers whose work the book discusses: Socrates, Xenophon, Aristotle and Plato. This picture conveys the main message of the book, namely that economics is not independent from philosophy, including ethics,

  1. Millennia of Discord: The Controversial Educational Program of Isocrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Five years ago in "Theory and Research in Education", James R. Muir fired a new salvo in the debate regarding the merits of Isocrates' educational program, a controversy that has endured for more than two millennia. Was the Isocratean program misguided and lowbrow, as in the estimations of Plato and Aristotle--or was it the most successful program…

  2. Giorgio Agamben's inclusive exclusion of Étienne De la Boétie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    the philosophical parameters of the entire project: the concepts and thinkers that his analysis revolves around are all presented in these few pages. Yet there is one strange anomaly: while all of the thinkers who figure in these pages (Plato, Aristotle, Michel Foucault, Hannah Arendt, Carl Schmitt, Walter Benjamin...

  3. Models and Metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Stanley D.

    2007-01-01

    Humanity delights in spinning conceptual models of the world. These models, in turn, mirror their respective root metaphors. Three root metaphors--spiritual, organic, and mechanical--have dominated western thought. The spiritual metaphor runs from Plato, through Hegel, and connects with Montessori. The organic metaphor extends from Aristotle,…

  4. Liberal Education and Its Enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partington, Geoffrey

    1984-01-01

    References to Plato, Aristotle, Hegel, and Marx illustrate essential characteristics of liberal education; central concern with the educationally valuable; development of mind as a whole; and acceptance of hierarchy within knowledge. Criticizes contemporary groups (primitivists, multiculturalists, reductionists, indoctrinators, vocationalists,…

  5. A Confidence Paradigm for Classification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    M.U. Thomas Date Dean, Graduate School of Engineering and Management Table of Contents Page List of Figures...Plato, Aristotle, Plotinus, St Augustine, St Aquinas , Machi- avelli, Descartes, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Kant, Marx, Mill, Confucius) discuss having...independence, and aggregation of confidence is a linear summation of individual confidence values. Thomas and Allcock [61] develop a statistical confidence

  6. Aristarchus of Samos the ancient Copernicus

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Sir Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This classic work traces Aristarchus of Samos's anticipation by two millennia of Copernicus's revolutionary theory of the orbital motion of the earth. Heath's history of astronomy ranges from Homer and Hesiod to Aristarchus and includes quotes from numerous thinkers, compilers, and scholasticists from Thales and Anaximander through Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle, and Heraclides. 34 figures.

  7. Models and Metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Stanley D.

    2007-01-01

    Humanity delights in spinning conceptual models of the world. These models, in turn, mirror their respective root metaphors. Three root metaphors--spiritual, organic, and mechanical--have dominated western thought. The spiritual metaphor runs from Plato, through Hegel, and connects with Montessori. The organic metaphor extends from Aristotle,…

  8. Liberal Education and Its Enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partington, Geoffrey

    1984-01-01

    References to Plato, Aristotle, Hegel, and Marx illustrate essential characteristics of liberal education; central concern with the educationally valuable; development of mind as a whole; and acceptance of hierarchy within knowledge. Criticizes contemporary groups (primitivists, multiculturalists, reductionists, indoctrinators, vocationalists,…

  9. Engineering Complex Human-Technological Work Systems: A Sensemaking Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    by Rene Descartes , Immanuel Kant, and Ludwig Wittgenstein, and mathematically by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell. Logical rationalism...reductionism—originally introduced by Descartes in 1673)— asserts that complex objects, phenomena, theories, and meanings can always be reduced to a...Positivism Essentialism Analytic Philosophy Social Constructivism Nominalism Autopoiesis Descartes Plato Aristotle Aquinas Bacon Locke Wittgenstein

  10. People's Education (for People's Power) — a promise unfulfilled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A different standpoint to Plato (1994), Aristotle (1943) and Schumpeter's (1950) .... The concept of student representative democracy was rooted in resistance ... policy frameworks … of the education and training system, which are linked to the ... 1996b), the idea of democratic governance in schools was clearly articulated:.

  11. Preconocimiento en Platón y Aristóteles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Andrés Mercado M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the fact that Aristotle often criticizes Plato's theories -especially his conception of reminiscence- some of their explanations of human knowledge seem to present important similarities. Some texts of Meno and De memoria et reminiscentia show one of these interesting parallelisms.

  12. Educating to Think in Environmental Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sponsors the logic of consumption, that is, a worldview in which happiness is supposed to be found only in .... According to Socrates, a life without thinking is not a real human life (Plato, Apology of Socrates .... As Aristotle states, a human is a.

  13. The Boundaries of Language and Rhetoric: Some Historical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Robert O.

    1968-01-01

    Important ideas and events in the history of rhetoric are examined in order to illumine the present situation, especially the problem of defining the concept of rhetoric. From Plato's hostility to rhetoric and Aristotle's epistomological rehabilitation of it to the later ethical emphasis of Cicero and the Medieval Christian rhetoriticians, the…

  14. Philosophy and Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Philosophical thinking which has stood the test of time is summarized in this document. The rationale is that all students benefit from studies of philosophical thinking emphasizing moral standards. Thinkers included are: Plato, Aristotle, Peter Abelard, Francis Bacon, Sir Thomas More, Thomas Campanella, Thomas Hobbes, Benedict Spinoza, John…

  15. Exploring the Spiritual and Moral Light and Dark Sides of Musical Experience and Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, David

    2010-01-01

    Moral significance has been attributed to music from antiquity: for example, both Plato and Aristotle made much of the power of music to influence and shape moral character. However, it would also seem often assumed that music and musical experience have some kind of spiritual significance or value for human development. The present paper sets out…

  16. International Journal of Arts and Humanities(IJAH) Bahir Dar- Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    what part or extent of reality is assessable to man's knowledge. ... with Plato's duality of realities; that everything that exists in the material world is/was ..... according to Ayer, the cogito must not here be understood in its ordinary sense of 'I think' .... Applying Aristotle's logical equivalent called “material implication” which says.

  17. ISLAM IN THE NON-MUSLIM AREAS OF NORTHERN NIGERIA, c

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QUADRI Y A

    encompassing nature of its wisdom or knowledge (which is beyond the absolute ... According to Plato, “time is clearly posited as an objective measurable ordering of everything worldly.”4 For Aristotle, “time is the number. [numbered number ...

  18. The effect of outdoor learning activities on the development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-29

    May 29, 2017 ... This research was designed according to one group pre-test and post-test ... knowledge with practice in nature and outdoor environments ... The idea that education should be given in nature dates back to Aristotle and Plato.

  19. Mizan Text, V1,N1- Final 4-b

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    According to Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, the characteristics. LL.B, LL.M, Lecturer in Law, ..... 1.1 Greek Philosophy (Plato and Aristotle). Prior to Greek City ..... such basic universal values to include: 1) life, 2) knowledge, 3) play, 4) aes-.

  20. Gorgias' scepticism regarding Greek social class distinctions in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    developing these rhetorical or epideictic techniques (Plato, Meno:95c). ... Aristotle can be relied upon for our understanding the nature of the period, and ... of Greek alphabets, although, at this stage, according to them, writing and learn- ... be expressed in bits and pieces in such a way that they yield no further knowledge.

  1. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FEN

    personal identity opens us up to two apertures of knowledge, one ... According to Mundi (1985), it is a concept that gives a ... For Plato the soul is the real person. ... Aristotle (384-322 BC) in his De Anima, taught that every material being is.

  2. Mimesis and ideology - from Plato to Althusser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolar Mladen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The moment one imitates something, it sticks, it marks the imitator, there is no innocent imitation. Imitation necessarily affects the one who imitates, for better or (usually for worse, and the making of a simple copy of something necessarily affects the original. This is perhaps the briefest way to describe Plato’s concerns about the nature of mimesis in the Republic. The purpose of this paper is to give a brief account of looking at the mysterious magic powers of mimesis and of attempts to counteract them. The topic is massive, so the paper will concentrate on a few perspectives, starting with the theatrical parable of St. Genesius, leading to Pascal and to Althusser’s theory of ideology, then scrutinizing the ways in which modernity tried to disentangle itself from mimesis (Brecht’s estrangement, Irigaray’s femininity as mimesis, Badiou’s anti-mimetic stance, Freud’s account of magic and Lacan’s account of enjoyment. What is the real of the mimetic spell which has so vastly ramified aesthetic and political consequences? The paper proposes a defense of mimesis, claiming that modernity, by relegating the traditional art to the past of mimesis and representation, thereby maintained a disavowed kernel of mimesis at its core.

  3. Plato: White and Non-white Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amo Sulaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Plato’s dialogues, the Symposium, and Phaedrus, provide a reasonableexplanation of love. G. Vlastos and M. Nussbaum do not share such anopinion. The former contends that Plato’s view of love is about lovingonly a person’s beauty, but not the entire person; thus, it falls short of anappropriate explanation of love. The latter holds that a theory of love should be complete, and that Plato’s one is incomplete on the grounds that it does not account for personal love. These criticisms will be re-evaluated in light of the duality of love (the white and non-white horses—in Phaedrus as well as participants’ views in the Symposium; a re-assessment will weaken the mentioned objections. This paper contends that from the Symposium and Phaedrus, one can have a fruitful understanding of being in love, being out of love, falling inlove, loving for its own sake and being erotically in love. In order to account for these related issues of love it is important to consider Plato’s works in terms of his “official” and “unofficial” views. The former is construed as the doctrine of the lover or loving for its own sake: this is associates with Diotima’s views which are repeated by Socrates. With reference to the latter, it is possible to explain what personal love or being in love, being out of love, falling in love, and being erotically in love involve. Erotic love will be interpreted as an extension of our philosophical conception of love, related to views of love that are mentioned in the Symposium other than Socrates’ report of Diotima’s conceptions. This paper is divided into two parts: the first one will show views of love in the Symposium. That is, being in love, being out of love, falling in love and loving for its own sake will be discussed. In addition, the forementioned criticisms will be re-evaluated. In the second section, we will show that Aristophanes’ speech expresses erotic love, and then Kant’s objections will be explained and discussed.

  4. The PLATO 2.0 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godolt, Mareike; Rauer, Heike; Plato Consortium

    2015-07-01

    The CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) is a joint ESA-Switzerland space mission dedicated to search for exoplanet transits by means of ultra-high precision photometry. It is expected to be launch-ready at the end of 2017. CHEOPS will be the first space observatory dedicated to search for transits on bright stars already known to host planets. It will have access to more than 70% of the sky. This will provide the unique capability of determining accurate radii for planets for which the mass has already been estimated from ground-based spectroscopic surveys and for new planets discovered by the next generation ground-based transits surveys (Neptune-size and smaller). The measurement of the radius of a planet from its transit combined with the determination of its mass through radial velocity techniques gives the bulk density of the planet, which provides direct insights into the structure and/or composition of the body. In order to meet the scientific objectives, a number of requirements have been derived that drive the design of CHEOPS. For the detection of Earth and super-Earth planets orbiting G5 dwarf stars with V-band magnitudes in the range 6 V 9 mag, a photometric precision of 20 ppm in 6 hours of integration time must be reached. This time corresponds to the transit duration of a planet with a revolution period of 50 days. In the case of Neptune-size planets orbiting K-type dwarf with magnitudes as faint as V=12 mag, a photometric precision of 85 ppm in 3 hours of integration time must be reached. The CHEOPS mission payload consists of only one instrument, a space telescope of 30 cm clear aperture, which has a single CCD focal plane detector. The total required duration of the CHEOPS mission is estimated to be 3.5 years (goal: 5 years).

  5. EDUCATION FOR SALVATION: PLATO'S CONCEPTION OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    which he held very dear to his own philosophy it is the teaching that the best life .... present condition of "amatheia "which means "double ignorance".9. The tragedy ... which of our desires are good and which are bad, but instead we are driven to the ... dreaming.20 Dialectic is the method or process of thought upon which is ...

  6. The GUIDO System and the PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenson, Michael A.; Hofstetter, Fred T.

    1983-01-01

    The GUIDO system offers programing in ear training and theory for kindergarten through college levels, using high-resolution graphics, touch input, and a sound synthesizer. Ear training includes intervals, melodies, chord qualities, harmonies, and rhythm. Theory covers octave designation, beat units, scales, intervals, diatonic chords,…

  7. Prevenção domiciliar da dengue: avaliação preliminar de tela protetora para pratos de vasos de planta Prevención domiciliar de la dengue: evaluación preliminar de tela protectora para platos de macetas de planta Dengue prevention at the household level: preliminary evaluation of a mesh cover for flowerpot saucers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Torres Schall

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se em laboratório a eficácia de um protótipo de capa de tela de poliéster (evidengue® destinada a vedar o acesso de fêmeas do mosquito Aedes aegypti a pratos de vasos de planta. Dois pratos de vasos com água foram envolvidos individualmente com a capa e colocados com os seus respectivos vasos em duas gaiolas entomológicas, um em cada gaiola. Numa terceira gaiola foi colocado um conjunto idêntico de prato e vasos sem a capa. Cada gaiola recebeu 20 fêmeas copuladas do mosquito, alimentadas com sangue de camundongo. Os resultados mostram que a capa foi eficaz como barreira ao acesso de fêmeas. Novos testes são necessários para se avaliar a eficácia da capa como dispositivo de prevenção da ovipostura nos pratos.Se evaluó en laboratorio la eficiencia de una cubierta de tela de polyester (evidengue® con el objetivo de vedar el acceso de hembras del mosquito Aedes aegypti a platos de macetas de planta. Fueron utilizadas tres jaulas entomológicas, dos de ellas con evidengue® y una para control. En cada jaula fueron colocados dos conjuntos de macetas de planta y platos y 20 hembras copuladas, alimentadas con sangre de ratón. Los resultados muestran que la cubierta fue eficaz como barrera al acceso de hembras. Nuevas pruebas son necesarias para evaluar la eficiencia de la cubierta como dispositivo de prevención de la oviposición en los platos.The effectiveness of a polyester mesh cover (evidengue®, aimed at preventing the access of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to flowerpot saucers, was evaluated in laboratory. Two saucers of flowerpot with water were individually wrapped with the cover was placed with their respective pots in two entomological cages. One identical set of flowerpot and saucer was placed in a third cage. In each cage, 20 gravid females, fed on mouse blood, were released. Results show that the cover was effective to prevent access of females. Further tests are necessary to assess cover effectiveness as a

  8. 论康德纯粹实践理性的实现--兼论康德与亚里士多德至善概念的主要异同%On Realization of Kant’s Pure Practical Reason:Also on Main Similarities and Differences of Concept of Supreme Good between Kant and Aristotle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许言; 胡传顺

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical solution of Kant’s pure reason must be based on practice ,which is one of the fundamental tasks of Kant’s pure practical reason .T he realization of pure practical reason itself is the achievement of pure reason on practice . Kant pointed out the specific path or procedure of the realization of pure practical reason ,w hich are the objects of practical reason and the guarantee that the objects can be achieved .In Kantism ,these respectively are the problem of Supreme Good and that of three assumptions (postulations ) . T his paper compares the main similarities and differences of the concept of Supreme Good between Kant and Aristotle ,and leads to the hermeneutic path to solve the ethics of Kant in the end ,namely the possibility of combining the ethics of Kant and Aristotle .%康德的纯粹理性在理论上的解决必须回到实践中,这就是康德纯粹实践理性的根本任务之一。纯粹实践理性本身的实现才是纯粹理性在实践上的完成。康德对纯粹实践理性的实现指出具体的道路或步骤,即实践理性的对象以及其对象得以实现的保证。这在康德哲学中分别是至善问题和三大悬设(公设)的问题。比较了康德与亚里士多德至善概念的主要异同,最后给出解决康德伦理学的解释学路线,即康德和亚里士多德伦理学结合的可能性。

  9. 亚里士多德理想政体的创建使命--基于《政治学》的分析%The Creative Mission of the Ideal Regime of Aristotle---Based on the Analysis of"Politics"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琳

    2016-01-01

    "Politics"is one of the representative works of the famous ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle,which has had the extremely profound influence to the later generation,the classic exposition also stand the repeated testing of theory and prac-tice,it is worth careful studying and mining the treasure.Political thought is the basic kernel of"politics",the concept of"i-deal regime"is an important part in the regime theory of Aristotle.Ideal government is created to achieve justice and public in-terests,the city state citizens mutual happiness as its starting point and foothold.It can provide fully the basic guarantee for the good life for citizens to the most extent as well as provide comprehensive necessary support for the healthy development of the country.%《政治学》是古希腊著名思想家亚里士多德的代表作之一,对后世产生了极其深远的影响,其中的经典论述也经得起理论与实践的反复检验,值得仔细研究,挖掘其中宝藏。政体思想是《政治学》研究的基本内核,“理想政体”的概念是亚里士多德关于政体理论的重要组成部分,理想政体的创建以正义、公共利益、全城邦公民共同幸福的实现为出发点和立足点,最大限度地为公民优良生活提供充分的基本保障,为国家健康发展提供全面的必要支持。

  10. Estimation of the impact of warfarin's time-in-therapeutic range on stroke and major bleeding rates and its influence on the medical cost avoidance associated with novel oral anticoagulant use-learnings from ARISTOTLE, ROCKET-AF, and RE-LY trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Alpesh; Deitelzweig, Steve; Jing, Yonghua; Makenbaeva, Dinara; Wiederkehr, Daniel; Lin, Jay; Graham, John

    2014-01-01

    Warfarin's time-in-therapeutic range (TTR) is highly variable among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of variations in wafarin's TTR on rates of stroke/systemic embolism (SSE) and major bleedings among NVAF patients in the ARISTOTLE, ROCKET-AF, and RE-LY trials. Additionally, differences in medical costs for clinical endpoints when novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) were used instead of warfarin at different TTR values were estimated. Quartile ranges of TTR values and corresponding event rates (%/patient - year = %/py) of SSE and major bleedings among NVAF patients treated with warfarin were estimated from published literature and FDA documents. The associations of SSE and major bleeding rates with TTR values were evaluated by regression analysis and then the calculated regression coefficients were used in analysis of medical cost differences associated with use of each NOAC versus warfarin (2010 costs; US payer perspective) at different TTRs. Each 10 % increase in warfarin's TTR correlated with a -0.32%/py decrease in SSE rate (R(2) = 0.61; p estimated medical cost decreased from -$902 to -$83 for apixaban, from -$506 to +$314 for rivaroxaban, and from -$596 to +$223 for dabigatran. Among NVAF patients there is a significant negative correlation between warfarin's TTR and SSE rate, but not major bleedings. The variations in warfarin's TTR impacted the economic comparison of use of individual NOACs versus warfarin.

  11. Platón, Aristóteles y la narrativa histórica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Picón Casas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most showy questions about the works of Plato and Aristotle rests on them silence brings over of the history. They read and criticized physicists, philosophers, mathematicians, biologists, poets, rhetorical, political, etc. Nevertheless, their appointments about the historians of that moment would fit in a sheet of paper. In this brief article we try to offer an explanation about such an omission. Likewise, we are useful to offer a reason of the Menexenus and to contribute a confirmation of the reasons that L. Edelstein led to questioning the genuineness of seventh and eighth letters attributed to Plato.

  12. Ethics: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    of Happiness in the Democratic Creed: An Analysis of Political Ethics. New York: Praeger, 1959. (JC571 V6) 124. Wakin, Malham M., ed. War, Morality...Affairs. New York: St. Mar- tin’s Press, 1979. (JX1255 M58) 219. Plato . Dialogues of Plato , ed. by Justin D. Kaplan. Translated by Ben- jamin Jowett. New...of Ethics." Army, Vol. 34, December 1984, pp. 22-30. 0 60. DeLue, Steven M. " Aristotle , Kant and Rawls on Moral Motivation in a Just Society." American

  13. Perfect Combination between Aristotle's Persuasive Appealing and Burke's Rhetorical Identification ——Analysis of Michelle Obama's Speech at Peking University%亚式"三诉诸"与伯克"同一论"的糅合 ——以米歇尔·奥巴马北大演讲为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪希平

    2015-01-01

    以美国第一夫人米歇尔·奥巴马2014年北大斯坦福中心《论出国留学的重要性》演讲为例,从西方修辞学视角入手,先后借鉴亚里士多德的劝说诉诸和肯尼斯·伯克的同一理论,分别从内容、形式等方面考察演讲者如何取得受众的认同,如何诉诸人格、理性与情感.研究发现,将亚式劝说诉诸与伯克同一理论应用在演讲中,可以达到以情动人、以理服人的最佳劝说效果.优秀演讲的修辞学分析有助于修辞技巧内化为演讲能力.%The thesis takes Michelle Obama's speech―on the Importance of Studying abroad in Stanford center at Peking University as case analytic discourse from the perspective of Western Rhetorics. Based on Aris-totle's persuasive appeal and Burke's identification, the thesis analyzes how Michelle identifies with audience verbally and literally by appealing to pathos, ethos and logos. The thesis finds out that the perfect way to achieve ideal persuasion is through identification and persuasive appealing, while such rhetorical analysis of ex-cellent speech manuscript is beneficial for improving public speaking skills.

  14. History of the Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, J. L. E.

    2014-10-01

    Introduction. The earliest cosmological ideas; 1. The early Greek philosophers; 2. The Pythagorean school; 3. Plato; 4. The homocentric spheres of Eudoxus; 5. Aristotle; 6. Herakleides and Aristarchus; 7. The theory of Epicycles; 8. The dimensions of the world; 9. The Ptolemaic system; 10. Medieval cosmology; 11. Oriental astronomers; 12. The revival of astronomy in Europe; 13. Copernicus; 14. Tycho Brahe and his contemporaries; 15. Kepler; 16. Conclusion; Index.

  15. La creatividad y la psicopatología

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    What is the relation between creativity and psychopathology? Does psychopathology facilitate creativity? Does creative activity induce psychopathology? We expose here an historical bibliographic review, in search of responses to these questions posed from ancient Greece to these days. For Plato, talent was the enthusiasm which drags one away from oneself. For Aristotle, creativity was a rational process originated in nature, but he noticed that the greatest artists and scientists were melanch...

  16. Conflict and Conscience: Ideological War and the Albigensian Crusade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    subject that has drawn the attention of some of history’s most important philosophical minds. Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, and St. Thomas Aquinas ...Church Doctor, the Dominican St. Thomas Aquinas , who completed his synthesis of Aristotelian philosophy, theology, and Just War Theory in the late...of Europe. Included in this number were two- well known Dominicans, St. Thomas Aquinas and St. Albert the Great, who wrote works of philosophy and

  17. Newton's Metaphysics of Space as God's Emanative Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquette, Dale

    2014-09-01

    In several of his writings, Isaac Newton proposed that physical space is God's "emanative effect" or "sensorium," revealing something interesting about the metaphysics underlying his mathematical physics. Newton's conjectures depart from Plato and Aristotle's metaphysics of space and from classical and Cambridge Neoplatonism. Present-day philosophical concepts of supervenience clarify Newton's ideas about space and offer a portrait of Newton not only as a mathematical physicist but an independent-minded rationalist philosopher.

  18. Literatura i nihilizm

    OpenAIRE

    Januszkiewicz, Michał

    2007-01-01

    This article Literature and Nihilsm is an attempt at capturing nihilism as a category of the study of literature. Considerations concerning three questions: 1) analysis of historical disputes (e.g. between Plato and Aristotle) on nihilism of literature (what is meant basically is the relation of literature to truth understood correspondingly); 2. interpretation (among other things, emphasis of Vattim's motif concerning the relationship between hermeneutics and nihilism) and 3) nih...

  19. Athens and/or Jerusalem: cosmology and/or creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelikan, J

    2001-12-01

    For all three cosmic questions--"Did the universe have a beginning?" "Is the universe designed?" and "Are we alone?"--it was the conjunction as well as the divergence between Athens (Classical philosophy, especially Plato's Timaeus and Aristotle's Physics) and Jerusalem (the Bible, especially the Book of Genesis and the apostle Paul) that illumined the questions themselves, provided material for the answers, and set the terms for the subsequent discussion of them in later centuries.

  20. Military Representation: The Theoretical and Practical Implications of Population Representation in the American Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    law where it is defective owing to its universality" (pp. 1019-1020 (Bk V: Ch. 10]). / t 105 Plato and Aristotle differed in their conceptions of...34the greatest happiness of the greatest number." 1 This balance of selfish interests is central to the thinking of Bentham, John Stuart Mill, and...tend to pursue their own personal interests. In order to reach decisions which will "maximize the happi - ness" of the community, it is necessary to

  1. A few philosophical ruminations on the human condition and choosing to live well

    OpenAIRE

    Blake E. Hestir

    2008-01-01

    The notion that life is meaningful through choosing to live well has historically received substantive attention in various philosophical circles, notably the ancient Greek philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, and more recently several of the existentialists. In some respects, the idea of choosing to live well is a “thematization” of two widely-recognized, independent components of a meaningful life: happiness and authenticity. I develop this notion of choosing to live well by explori...

  2. Kærlighed II

    OpenAIRE

    Reith-Hauberg, Søren; Hansen, Morten; Larsen, Nicolai Bo; Sørensen, Agnete Bach

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the concept of love. Based on the complications that currently exists in modern society’s understanding of love, it is the focus of this examination to try and acquire a greater understanding on how to love better. This will be done through an analysis of selected philosophical and psychological works on the notion of love with Plato, Aristotle, Søren Kierkegaard and Alain Badiou representing philosophy and Robert Sternberg and Erich Fromm representing psychology. We will ...

  3. Conflito político-religioso e embate discursivo entre Eunômio de Cízico e Basílio de Cesaréia: utilização do manual de Aristóteles Politico-religious conflict and discursive clash between Eunomius of Cizic and Basil of Caesarea: application of the manual of Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Amália Papa

    2010-01-01

    , we intend to analyze and compare their testimonies Apology e Against Eunomius, respectively, using the manual Aristotle's Rhetorical Art.

  4. Historical antecedents to the philosophy of Paul Feyerabend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munévar, Gonzalo

    2016-06-01

    Paul Feyerabend has been considered a very radical philosopher of science for proposing that we may advance hypotheses contrary to well-confirmed experimental results, that observations make theoretical assumptions, that all methodological rules have exceptions, that ordinary citizens may challenge the judgment of experts, and that human happiness should be a key value for science. As radical as these theses may sound, they all have historical antecedents. In defending the Copernican view, Galileo exemplified the first two; Mill, Aristotle and Machiavelli all argued for pluralism; Aristotle gave commonsense reasons for why ordinary citizens may be able to judge the work of experts; and a combination of Plato's and Aristotle's views can offer strong support for the connection between science and happiness.

  5. ThreadedComposite: A Mechanism for Building Concurrent and Parallel Ptolemy II Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-07

    Air Force Research Lab (AFRL), the State of California Micro Program, and the following companies: Agilent, Bosch, HSBC , Lockheed-Martin, National...following companies: Agilent, Bosch, HSBC , Lockheed-Martin, National Instruments, and Toyota. ThreadedComposite Actor 2 This paper introduces a new

  6. Cleopatra's Egypt. A Museum Exhibition Explores Egypt during the Age of the Ptolemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the historical premises behind a traveling exhibit of Egyptian Hellenistic art from the Ptolemic Period. Focuses on the uniquely Egyptian characteristics of this art, including religious symbolism, costume elements, and characteristics of craftsmanship. (LS)

  7. Aristotle Meets Youth Work: A Case for Virtue Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessant, Judith

    2009-01-01

    What ethical framework provides the best guide for contemporary youth work is the central question in this article. An account is provided of why the two dominant ethical frameworks, namely, utilitarianism and deontic ethics, are not appropriate. It is argued that virtue ethics is most relevant because it specifies the nature of social goods, and…

  8. Aristotle Meets Youth Work: A Case for Virtue Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessant, Judith

    2009-01-01

    What ethical framework provides the best guide for contemporary youth work is the central question in this article. An account is provided of why the two dominant ethical frameworks, namely, utilitarianism and deontic ethics, are not appropriate. It is argued that virtue ethics is most relevant because it specifies the nature of social goods, and…

  9. Was Aristotle an Exponent of Antiscientific Mumbo-Jumbo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koznjak, Boris

    2012-01-01

    During the past few decades, a wide consensus has been reached in the community of science educators that it is almost unimaginable to conduct a quality science education without including the history and philosophy of science in some form in the science curriculum, and this is especially the case for physics education (Matthews 1994). However, in…

  10. Re-configuring Aristotle's Dialogics through Reader-Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Mabel

    In her literature and composition classes, an educator encourages students to correlate their memory and imagination to the rhetorical elements of logos, pathos, and ethos and construct regenerative structures of knowledge through a comprehensive and objective understanding of a contextualized problem. She employs Bakhtin's dialogic method of…

  11. From Aristotle to Disney World: Cinematic Paradigms and Perceptual Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Ann Marie

    This paper contrasts classical Aristotelian narrative, which encouraged intellectual reflection and came to dominate Hollywood film by the 1930s, with the pulsating images which began to appear in the 1980 as a result of MTV's influence on films. The discussion focuses on two major Hollywood films: "Grapes of Wrath" (1940) and "Top…

  12. From Aristotle to Angelou: Best Practices in Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovre, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    The modern character education movement emerged in the 1980s as a consequence of growing parental and public concern for moral drift, or what sociologist James Davison Hunter referred to as "the death of character." This public anomie was captured in these words from Sanford McDonnell, chairman emeritus of McDonnell Douglas and chair of…

  13. Business ethics from Aristotle, Kant and Mill's perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Belak, Jernej; Pevec Rozman, Mateja

    2015-01-01

    The presence and use of the informal and formal measures of business ethics implementation may be crucial and should therefore be known to managers/owners. Based on the case study research, this paper aims to suggest that enterprise awareness of importance of business ethics implementation can be of essential meaning for its long-term existence, success, growth, and development. The purpose of this paper is to discover the presence and use of the informal and formal measures of business ethic...

  14. Derivation of muscles of the Aristotle's lantern from coelomic epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmatov, Igor Y; Mashanov, Vladimir S; Zueva, Olga R

    2007-02-01

    Transmission electron microscopy was employed to study structural changes in the lantern muscles occurring during the transition from young to adult in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus. A comparative examination of four major lantern muscles (compass depressors, compass elevators, protractors and retractors) suggests that myogenesis involves four consecutive stages. At the initial stage, the muscles show the organization of a mesentery delimited by pseudostratified coelomic epithelia, which are composed of peritoneal cells spanning the whole height of each epithelium, and myoepithelial cells, which are clustered together to fill the interstices between the basal processes of the peritoneal cells. During the next stage, the clusters of myoepithelial cells partly "sink" into the underlying connective tissue. At the third stage of muscularization, the myoepithelial cells increase in size and further invade the underlying connective tissue so that the myoepithelium splits into an apical peritoneal layer and a deeper mass of myoepithelial cells immersed in the connective tissue. However, these two layers are connected by a continuous basal lamina. This is thus the first description of an intermediate developmental stage between pseudostratified myoepithelim and genuine echinoderm muscles. For such a myoepithelium, we propose the term "immersed myoepithelium". At the most advanced stage of myogenesis, the myocytes detach completely from the epithelium to form subepithelial muscle bundles. Myogenesis in the sea urchin takes a long time during which continuous myogenic differentiation occurs in the coelomic epithelium and the newly formed myocytes and associated neurons penetrate into the underlying connective tissue.

  15. Actors of Becoming. Aristotle and the new mimesis’ profils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Attisani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Una nuova edizione critica della Poetica di Aristotele consente di fare il punto sul dibattito contemporaneo circa i fondamenti della cultura teatrale, vale a dire sull’aristotelismo e l’antiaristotelismo che più o meno esplicitamente percorrono tutta la teatrologia del Novecento. È convinzione dell’autore che unarilettura della Poetica aiuti a comprendere come il teatro di oggi tenda a un “neodrammatico”invece che a un “postdrammatico”, che la teoria delle azioni essenziali non rimandi al teatro di prosa nella sua accezione strettamente narrativa e realistica e che, soprattutto, la questione delle arti dinamiche dovrebbe, anche in coerenza con il dettato aristotelico, dovrebbe essere posta al centro del processo educativo.

  16. From Aristotle to Angelou: Best Practices in Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovre, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    The modern character education movement emerged in the 1980s as a consequence of growing parental and public concern for moral drift, or what sociologist James Davison Hunter referred to as "the death of character." This public anomie was captured in these words from Sanford McDonnell, chairman emeritus of McDonnell Douglas and chair of the…

  17. The Text of Aristotle's De Sensu and De Memoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2008-01-01

    An examination of alle the manuscripts of the period 10th-14th centuries, which contain the Aristotelian treatises De Sensu and De Memoria. The article establishes a stemma codicum that includes alle these manuscripts.......An examination of alle the manuscripts of the period 10th-14th centuries, which contain the Aristotelian treatises De Sensu and De Memoria. The article establishes a stemma codicum that includes alle these manuscripts....

  18. CAAPM: Computer-Aided Admissible Probability Measurement on PLATO IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    late Renaissance paintings b. Byzantine mosaics c. gothic stained glass 2. Of the following, the watercolorist noted for seascapes is: a...Theodore Gericault *b. Winslow Homer c. Jacob Epstein 3. Which of the following Dutch artists is noted for his genre paint- ings? *a. Jan Steen b. Jan

  19. Plato's Child and the Limit-Points of Educational Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bernadette

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes how the figure of the child has been used to authorize a series of boundaries that have been constituted the limit points of educational theories or philosophies. Concludes that the meaning-space that the child can occupy has been important to depicting Utopian and cosmological imaginings at different historical moments. (Contains 37…

  20. "From Plato to Pareto": The Western Civilization Course Reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Marie Marmo

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the importance of historical study within general education. Reviews the rise and fall of the Western Civilization course as the core of general education in the humanities. Suggests ways a revised version of this course can be restored to a central place in the curriculum. (AYC)

  1. Rekindling the Dialogue: Education According to Plato and Dewey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Luchene, Stephen R.

    2004-01-01

    Since passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, thinking about America's schools has been taken over by something like philosopher Rene Descartes's malignant demon of doubt. The act's exclusive focus on assessing student achievement and faculty accountability in terms that can be "proved" mathematically has cast into doubt a…

  2. Plato, Socrates, Hunt, and Rotfeld: Eigenforms of Academic Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Louise Ripley

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A number of academic institutions profess to offer Interdisciplinary Studies but few truly achieve it, and not without a great deal of effort over and above the normal workload of a professor and a level of patience and perseverance not found in many university students. This paper will report on a successful academic collaboration between two very different disciplines: philosophy and business. It will examine a course taught jointly by the two disciplines in a strategy of imbrication attempted by a college of York University in Toronto, Atkinson College, housing both liberal arts and professional school.

  3. Clio's kerstening. Pedagogische literatuurkritiek van Plato tot Luther

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, G.

    2005-01-01

    Storytelling no longer occupies a central position in school education. The question of why this element has largely disappeared in standard school education has led us to an historical inquiry into the history of European institutional education. We found that this was the first time this question

  4. The History of Linguistics in Europe from Plato to 1600.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Vivien

    This book examines the history of western linguistics over a 2,000-year timespan, from its origins in ancient Greece up to the crucial moments of change in the Renaissance that lay the foundations of modern linguistics. The book explores how ideas about language over the centuries have changed to reflect changing modes of thinking. Twelve chapters…

  5. Plato, Pascal, and the Dynamics of Personal Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Michael Friedrich; Campos, Tania M. M.; Abido, Alexandre S.

    2013-01-01

    Educational practices are to be based on proven scientific knowledge, not least because the function science has to perform in human culture consists of unifying practical skills and general beliefs, the episteme and the techne (Amsterdamski, 1975, pp. 43-44). Now, modern societies first of all presuppose regular and standardized ways of…

  6. plato and the teaching of entrepreneurship studies as general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    2016-08-22

    Aug 22, 2016 ... Mgbakoigba, Journal of African Studies. Vol.6 No.1. July 2016. 1 ... The second worry is the growing global melt down and the increasing rate of ..... Entrepreneurship and management in Nigeria: The concept, philosophy and ...

  7. Plato and the Internet: Liberating Knowledge From Our Heads

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hara, Kieron

    2010-01-01

    My aim in this paper is to look at corporate knowledge engineering and see what it tells us about the philosophy of knowledge. The question I am asking is whether there is anything specific in engineering that could change our understanding of what or how we know. I am interested less in generating a theory of the relationship, rather more in raising a set of questions which I hope will stimulate a dialogue between the disciplines of knowledge and engineering. The distinguished computer scien...

  8. Estimación de la incertidumbre global de un procedimiento para la determinación de humedad por gravimetría en platos preparados (Raciones individuales de combate Nutritional analysis in ready meals (individual combat rations, Calculation of Uncertainty global estimated in a procedure for determination of moisture by gravimetric technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pérez Grana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Realizar una estimación de la incertidumbre de forma global para la determinación de humedad en platos preparados por gravimetría aprovechando los datos obtenidos en el proceso de validación. Material y métodos: Se analiza, mediante un diseño anidado, un material de referencia certificado (MRC con un contenido de humedad certificado de 61,8 ±0,7 g/100g. La estimación de la incertidumbre combinada, se halla aplicando la ley de propagación de la incertidumbre. La incertidumbre expandida se obtiene aplicando un factor de cobertura K=2 (nivel de confianza del 95%. Mediante la aproximación SUMU se añade el sesgo a la incertidumbre expandida. Resultados: El límite de repetibilidad y reproductibilidad, para un nivel de confianza del 95%, es igual a 0,58 % y 1,21 %, respectivamente. Se obtienen los siguientes valores de incertidumbre: duplicados (0,12%, precisión (0,44 %, trazabilidad/ sesgo (0,39 %, incertidumbre combinada (0,60 % e incertidumbre expandida corregida (1,38 %. Conclusiones: El uso de un diseño anidado (analista, instrumento, día, replicado, permite variar los factores de una forma ordenada, entre cada serie, y estimar la precisión intermedia debida a varios factores. El cálculo de la incertidumbre de forma global supone una ventaja en cuanto a simplicidad, especialmente para laboratorios con pocos recursos humanos y materiales. La inclusión del sesgo experimental no significativo como un componente de la incertidumbre tiende a evitar la infraestimación de la incertidumbre de los resultados.Objectives: The aim of this article was to estimate the uncertainty total for the determination of moisture in ready meals by gravimetric using data obtained in the validation process. Material and methods: Samples were analyzed by gravimetric method in certified reference material (CRM (moisture certificate content: 61.8 ± 0.7 a 100 g. in nested design. The combined uncertainty was estimated by applying the law of

  9. I want you to pretend to be sincere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Julia

    2016-12-01

    Medical education has changed dramatically since the inception of this journal 50 years ago and is indeed a work in progress: there is now heavy emphasis on the character of the physician, in particular, and professionalism, in general. The subjects of communications skills and the teaching of sincerity, empathy and compassion are relative newcomers to the stage: they are not even as old as this journal itself. Nevertheless, these topics arose in an ancient debate dating from classical antiquity. 'Can we teach virtue?' Plato wondered in the Meno. Not exactly, he concluded. Aristotle believed that acquirement of the virtues enables one to attain the human good, which, in turn, spills over to any profession in which the human being decides to engage. Aristotle, along with his successor, Thomas Aquinas, the 13th century philosopher, argued that the virtues cannot be taught but only acquired, with practice and time, in the real situation.

  10. Socrates on Philosophy and Politics: Ancient and Contemporary Interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Gonzalez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Socrates can be said to have left the subsequent philosophical tradition with the problem of the relation between philosophy and politics. Already in the Republic the proposal of philosopher-kings represents more a tension than an identity. While Aristotle responds by insisting on a sharp distinction between politics and philosophical wisdom, this distinction proves on closer examination much less sharp than might appear. Heidegger characterizes philosophy as the only authentic politics and the philosopher as ruling just by virtue of being a philosopher. In contrast, Foucault insists that, if philosophy can play a role in relation to politics by transforming the subject who lives politically, it plays no role within politics. In this contrast can be seen the ‘fallout’ of the tension bequeathed by Socrates through both Plato and Aristotle.

  11. Catharsis and moral therapy II: An Aristotelian account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbakk, Jan Helge

    2006-01-01

    This article aims at analysing Aristotle's poetic conception of catharsis to assess whether it may be of help in enlightening the particular didactic challenges involved when training medical students to cope morally with complex or tragic situations of medical decision-making. A further aim of this investigation is to show that Aristotle's criteria for distinguishing between history and tragedy may be employed to reshape authentic stories of sickness into tragic stories of sickness. Furthermore, the didactic potentials of tragic stories of sickness will be tried out. The ultimate aim is to investigate whether the possibilities of developing a therapeutic conception of medical ethics researched in a previous article on catharsis and moral therapy in Plato may be strengthened through the hermeneutics of the Aristotelian conception of tragic catharsis.

  12. [Art-chance and art-experience in classical Greece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Deokjin

    2011-06-30

    In Classical Greece, works defining the nature of art appeared in the various disciplines like medicine, rhetoric, dietetics, architecture and painting. Hippocratic authors tried to show that an art of medicine existed indeed. They contrasted the concept of art with that of chance, not experience that Plato and Aristotle distinguished from art. In fact there are similarities and discrepancies between Hippocratic epistemology and Platoic epistemology. Hippocratic authors maintained that the products of chance were not captured by art. They distinguished the domain of art charactered by explanatory knowledge and prediction from the domain of chance ruled by the unexplained and the unforeseeable. They minimized the role of luck and believed the role of art. Hippocratic authors thought that professional ability contained both knowledge and experience. In Hippocratic corpus, experience is a synonym of competence and usually has a positive meaning. But Plato gave empirical knowledge the disdainful sense and decided a ranking between two types of knowledge. Both Hippocratic authors and Plato held that a genuine art had connection with explanatory knowledge of the nature of its subject matter. A common theme that goes through arguments about art-chance and art-chance is the connection between art and nature. Hippocratic authors and Plato regarded art as a highly systematic process. Art provides us with general and explanatory knowledge of human nature. Art and nature is a mutual relationship. The systematic understanding of nature helps us gain the exactness of art and an exact art helps us understand nature well.

  13. Narrative and cognition: a study of Disgrace, by J.M. Coetzee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamella Tucunduva da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to speak about the type of knowledge provided by fictional narratives. Based on the concepts of "fiction" proposed by Plato, Aristotle and Searle (2002, the text investigates how you can gain knowledge from fictional works that pretend reality. For this, we analyzed the trajectory of the protagonist of the novel Disgrace, by JM Coetzee (2000. The proposal is to investigate how the character starts to know themselves in the story and find out how their experiences reverberate in the reader.

  14. Economic Thinking from Hesiod to Richard Cantillon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ioan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper makes an analysis between the two effects, considering the general case of an Allen utility function. We can say that about economics that it is a relatively young science, economic and social phenomena we find debated in philosophical thinking of Hesiod Xenophon, Plato, Aristotle. These phenomena were only economic management rules of common affairs of the city. Thus, the study of the economy began to emerge timidly, gaining not only the form that we know it today, but also the importance for a developed society, the very cornerstone of its.

  15. Entre la ciencia y el sueño: Notas sobre la fortuna de los cuatro elementos en las letras españolas

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Rincón, Javier

    2002-01-01

    The statement of the early Greek philosophers which says that the material world we know is the result of the combination of four basic elements —fire, air, water and earth— has been one of the most successful ideas in the western thought: Accepted by Plato, consolidated in Aristotle and inherited by the Roman poets and philosophers first, and by the Christians afterwards (St Isidor, St Thomas, Ramon Llull and so on), such teaching was used not only to explain the composition of the lifeless ...

  16. What makes genetically modified organisms so distasteful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, K G

    2001-10-01

    The debate concerning genetically modified organisms goes on unabated and reflects some genuine concerns. I suggest that a significantly large number of educated people believe that moving genes around between species is intuitively wrong and that this is based on an essentialist view of the world. This essentialist view has a long history that dates back to Plato and Aristotle and was eventually overthrown by the population thinking of Charles Darwin. The essentialist, who is antipathetic to population thinking, will naturally find the transfer of a gene from one organism to another distasteful, and this, I argue, is the result of Platonic thinking, which still remains and casts its spell over us today.

  17. Oligarchies: Naming, Enumerating Counting

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Derrida

    2010-01-01

    The following text is the first chapter of Jacques Derrida’s book Politiques de l’amitié [The Politics of Friendship], being the exemplary and standard case of deconstruction, in this particular case, of philosophical texts (Cicero, Plato and, notably, Aristotle). The starting point for the discussion is the performative contradiction inscribed in the wellknown fragment On friendship from Essays by Michel de Montaigne: “O mes amis, il n’y a nul amy” (O my friends, there is no friend). Apparen...

  18. Kærlighed

    OpenAIRE

    Buhl Pedersen, Lykke; Alrø Birkkjær, Thore; Lyborg, Mie; Psihogiudakis Iversen, Nikolaj; Castro Bøjgaard, Anton

    2016-01-01

    This project deals with the subject love. Love is an important part of most people’s lives, and there are many different opinions about what love is. In this project, we have selected three great philosophers and their definitions of love, namely the concept Agape in “Works of Love” by Søren Kierkegaard, Eros in “The Symposium” by Plato and Philia in “Etichs” by Aristotle. We have chosen these three concepts of love due to both their difference in the description of love, and due to the two d...

  19. Hvad er lykke?

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeck, Caroline Mandrup; Mølgaard, Katrine; Larsen, Louise Kring; Zarp, Matilde Lynge; Sørensen, Katrin á Dul; Gersbøll, Sigrid Dam; Rasmussen, Simone Puk Schiødte; Møller, Christoffer Steensen

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore ancient philosophy’s notion of happiness in order to investigate its potential viability in the modern world of today. In an attempt to achieve this, we have analy-zed the work of Plato and Aristotle side by side with a recent report on happiness by “Institut for Lykkeforskning” and the work of contemporary professor Bent Greve. With the divergent and elaborate views on happiness we encounter in each of these works, we establish an un-derstanding of how happiness wa...

  20. Oligarchies: Naming, Enumerating Counting

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Derrida

    2010-01-01

    The following text is the first chapter of Jacques Derrida’s book Politiques de l’amitié [The Politics of Friendship], being the exemplary and standard case of deconstruction, in this particular case, of philosophical texts (Cicero, Plato and, notably, Aristotle). The starting point for the discussion is the performative contradiction inscribed in the wellknown fragment On friendship from Essays by Michel de Montaigne: “O mes amis, il n’y a nul amy” (O my friends, there is no friend). Apparen...

  1. Karl Marx’s Intellectual Roots in John Locke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Allen ENGLE

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Marx supposedly represents a radical break from liberal individualist property oriented thinking. In fact however, Marx integrates the best points of a variety of liberal individualists, notably Locke and Rousseau, but also to a lesserextent Aristotle and even Plato. Marx is an extension of, not a break from, mainstream thinkers in Western thought: all Marx’s main ideas can be traced to one canonical Western scholar or another. Understanding analytical tools common to bothLiberalism and Marxism contextualizes their divergences and allows one to better understand both the successes and failures of Marxism as a critique in practice of liberal state theory.

  2. Şiir Sanatında Anlatım Araçlarına Poetik Metinlerin Yaklaşımı ve “Yeni” Yorumu (Aristoteles, Şerşeneviç ve Orhan Veli’nin Poetik Metinleri Bağlamında Poetic Text’s Approaches to Means of Expression and “Modern” Interpretation in Poetry (In the Context of Poetic Texts of Aristotle, Shershenevich and Orhan Veli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem PARER

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the history of poetry adventure from ancient times to date, thepoet’s invariable characteristic has been his creativity glorified all thetime. However, creativity criteria may vary in different periods. The firstdescription of Poetry and Poet go back to Poetics of Greek philosopherAristotle, who had an understanding close to modern literary theoryand performed the first systematic study on the literature principlesfunctioning and organization based on perceptible data. The mostimportant aspect of Poetics in terms of the subject of this study is thedescription of the poetry language as a specific area of language and theclassification of the functional elements of this structure. However,poetry elements, which have become a tradition in historical processwith changing sense and expectation of art due to many reasons, wereneeded to be reviewed again and caused the pursuit of novelty in 20thcentury. The opposition to the tradition and pursuit of novelty have ledus to find intersection point between Russian futurism and the “Garip”movement in Turkish poetry, although they are not followers of oraffected by each other. Shershenevich and Orhan Veli, explained theiropposition to the traditional and stereotype attitudes towards poetry foryears such as vocabulary, rhyme and meter and rhetorical devices intheir poetry as well as their poetic knowledge by giving justifications.While reviewing the characteristics of poetry, Russian futuristssupported the tendency to neologism, and Garip poets supported thetendency to simplified language of the people that new poetryconception is addressed to. When discussing the common and differentpoint of views of three different authors from different ages, in the poetictext we have studied by giving examples from 20th century Russian andTurkish poetries, it was found out that the idea welcomed for long thatthe poetry is valuable in proportion to its compliance with specific formshas not been accepted. Antik

  3. Philosophical Creationism: Thomas Aquinas’ Metaphysics of Creatio ex Nihilo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Maryniarczyk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available All philosophers, beginning with the pre-Socratics, through Plato and Aristotle, and up to Thomas Aquinas, accepted as a certain that the world as a whole existed eternally. The foundation for the eternity of the world was the indestructible and eternal primal building material of the world, a material that existed in the form of primordial material elements (the Ionians, in the form of ideas (Plato, or in the form of matter, eternal motion, and the first heavens (Aristotle. The article outlines the main structure of the philosophical theory of creation ex nihilo developed by St. Thomas Aquinas and indebted to his metaphysical thought. It shows the wisdom-based and ratiocinative foundation of the rational cognition of reality—reality that comes from the personal creative act of God. It concludes that the perception that the beings called to existence by the personal act of God the Creator are intelligible is the ultimate rational justification for the fact that our human cognition, love, and spiritual creativity are rational.

  4. Sobre la categoría de relativos en Platón y Aristóteles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Santa Cruz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los textos de lectura y comentario casi obligados en las escuelas medio y neoplatónicas fue el tratado Categorías de Aristóteles. No contamos con evidencia de que Platón haya desarrollado algo tan elaborado como las categorías aristotélicas, pero ya la Antigüedad encontró en los diálogos un anticipo de ellas. Los textos y testimonios de los que disponemos permiten sostener que Platón ya tenía en claro la distinción entre algunas de lo que Aristóteles llamó luego "categorías", al menos las de sustancia, cualidad, cantidad y relativos. En el artículo se presta atención a algunos aspectos del tratamiento aristotélico de la categoría de relativos y se trata de mostrar cómo hay en él elementos ya presentes en los diálogos de Platón.Aristotle's Categories was one of the texts read and commented in Medioplatonist and Neoplatonic schools. We have no evidence that Plato developed something as elaborate as the Aristotelian categories, but the Ancients found in the dialogues an advance of them. The available texts and testimonies allowed us to sustain that Plato already made a clear distinction between some of what Aristotle called "categories", at least substance, quality, quantity and relatives. The article pays attention to some aspects of the Aristotelian treatment of the category of relatives and tries to show that in that treatment there are different elements already present in the dialogues of Plato.

  5. Aristotle and Autism: Reconsidering a Radical Shift to Virtue Ethics in Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, Heidi

    2017-04-01

    Virtue-based approaches to engineering ethics have recently received considerable attention within the field of engineering education. Proponents of virtue ethics in engineering argue that the approach is practically and pedagogically superior to traditional approaches to engineering ethics, including the study of professional codes of ethics and normative theories of behavior. This paper argues that a virtue-based approach, as interpreted in the current literature, is neither practically or pedagogically effective for a significant subpopulation within engineering: engineers with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Because the main argument for adopting a character-based approach is that it could be more successfully applied to engineering than traditional rule-based or algorithmic ethical approaches, this oversight is problematic for the proponents of the virtue-based view. Furthermore, without addressing these concerns, the wide adoption of a virtue-based approach to engineering ethics has the potential to isolate individuals with ASD and to devalue their contributions to moral practice. In the end, this paper gestures towards a way of incorporating important insights from virtue ethics in engineering that would be more inclusive of those with ASD.

  6. Aristotle: A performance Impact Indicator for the OpenCL Kernels Using Local Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbin Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing complexity of multi/many-core architectures (with their mix of caches and scratch-pad memories and applications (with different memory access patterns, the performance of many workloads becomes increasingly variable. In this work, we address one of the main causes for this performance variability: the efficiency of the memory system. Specifically, based on an empirical evaluation driven by memory access patterns, we qualify and partially quantify the performance impact of using local memory in multi/many-core processors. To do so, we systematically describe memory access patterns (MAPs in an application-agnostic manner. Next, for each identified MAP, we use OpenCL (for portability reasons to generate two microbenchmarks: a “naive” version (without local memory and “an optimized” version (using local memory. We then evaluate both of them on typically used multi-core and many-core platforms, and we log their performance. What we eventually obtain is a local memory performance database, indexed by various MAPs and platforms. Further, we propose a set of composing rules for multiple MAPs. Thus, we can get an indicator of whether using local memory is beneficial in the presence of multiple memory access patterns. This indication can be used to either avoid the hassle of implementing optimizations with too little gain or, alternatively, give a rough prediction of the performance gain.

  7. Aristotle Imagines Being. Dialectics and Phantasia in the Origin of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Carbonell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to explore the cognitive performance of imagination [φαντασία] in building the starting point of scientific explanations. I wish to indicate how φαντασία plays a rol in the construction of meaningful wholes which allow the emergence of conceptual horizons for scientific theories. With this in mind, I turn first to the traditional doctrine of the knowledge of principles in Posterior Analytics II, 19. Secondly, I will discuss De Anima 402b16-403a2, a text which I believe sheds light on this issue. In conclusion, I point out some overlaps between the role of imagination in understanding theoretical principles and the role its plays in shaping the ultimate goal of human life.

  8. Galileo, Aristotle, and Science in Counseling Psychology: To Theorize or Not to Theorize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelso, Charles J.

    1991-01-01

    Responds to previous article by Strong on theory-driven science and naive empiricism in counseling psychology. Contrasts theory-driven science with discovery-oriented science, seeing two as complementary. Contends that findings from discovery-oriented research must eventually be placed in theoretical context to have optimum impact. Questions some…

  9. Com"position": Ecocomposition, Aristotle, and the First-Year Writing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Peter Wayne

    2011-01-01

    I see a parallel between the illiteracy I witnessed while working in the court system and the challenges facing first-year writers at the university. In both cases, problems arise due to unfamiliarity with the discourse community into which one enters. In response, because much of the language governing composition and rhetoric is rife with place…

  10. Development of the ARISTOTLE webware for cloud-based rarefied gas flow modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschenes, Timothy R.; Grot, Jonathan; Cline, Jason A.

    2016-11-01

    Rarefied gas dynamics are important for a wide variety of applications. An improvement in the ability of general users to predict these gas flows will enable optimization of current, and discovery of future processes. Despite this potential, most rarefied simulation software is designed by and for experts in the community. This has resulted in low adoption of the methods outside of the immediate RGD community. This paper outlines an ongoing effort to create a rarefied gas dynamics simulation tool that can be used by a general audience. The tool leverages a direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) library that is available to the entire community and a web-based simulation process that will enable all users to take advantage of high performance computing capabilities. First, the DSMC library and simulation architecture are described. Then the DSMC library is used to predict a number of representative transient gas flows that are applicable to the rarefied gas dynamics community. The paper closes with a summary and future direction.

  11. What is political in sub-politics? How Aristotle might help STS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent contributions by Collins, Evans, Jasanoff and Wynne to the discussion of how science and technology studies (STS) might contribute to understanding ‘subpolitics’ - the complex, expert knowledge-intensive and distributed political issues technological societies have to deal with - and involvem

  12. 浅析亚里士多德的幸福观%Aristotle's Concept of Happiness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖宁; 傅长吉

    2013-01-01

    幸福问题是个万古常新的伦理学问题,许多哲学家都对“幸福”问题有过阐述,亚里士多德汲取了梭伦、毕达哥拉斯、德谟克利特以及柏拉图等哲学家关于幸福的思想,形成了自己独有的幸福观.在亚里士多德看来,幸福是最高的善,幸福是灵魂合乎德性的实践活动,幸福就是中道,幸福需要外在的善作为补充的,这些论述告诫人们,幸福可以通过努力获得的,幸福就是思辨的生活,幸福应该遵循“小我”与“大我”相统一的原则.本文试从亚里士多德幸福观的来源、内容及对当代生活的启示三个方面来阐述笔者对亚里士多德幸福观的理解.

  13. Aristotle's View 0n Happiness%亚里士多德论快乐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓国宏

    2008-01-01

    亚里士多德在其中集中讨论快乐问题的地方有两处:第七卷ll-14章和第十卷1-5章,在表面上好像得出了快乐是一种实现活动和快乐完善实现活动两种不同结论.本文认为,亚里士多德的两处分析完全一致而又相互补充,从而构成了亚里士多德对快乐性质和价值的完整理解:快乐在于我们正常品质的完善的实现活动,是其中必然产生的我们灵魂方面的感受和情绪,这种令人愉悦的感受和情绪将加强我们的相应的实现活动.

  14. 论亚里士多德的幸福观%On Aristotle' Theory of Happiness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯显德

    2005-01-01

    在亚里士多德的伦理思想中,幸福问题是主题性的问题,并且与善、德性等问题有紧密的逻辑关系.在他看来,善是人的一切活动的目的,而至善即是幸福,幸福同时又是合乎德性的实现活动,并且合于理智德性的生活是最大的幸福.总的来讲,幸福是生活优裕、行为优良的统一,是完满、自足的生活.

  15. Aristotle's possibility of "happiness"%亚里士多德"幸福"之可能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳琴

    2007-01-01

    亚里士多德是西方哲学史上最伟大的哲学家之一,其思想影响极其深远.其中他的幸福观是其伦理学研究的核心.他把"幸福"作为人生追求的最终目的;认为幸福在于德性,实践性的现实活动;指出中道原则在实现幸福中的重要作用.尽管在一定程度上,亚里士多德的"幸福"太理想化、圣化.不过,其幸福观在今天仍有一定的借鉴意义.

  16. 亚里士多德幸福论%The Happiness Theory of Aristotle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄晓英

    2006-01-01

    亚里士多德在其著作中,从理性和感性的角度论述了对幸福的观点.从理性的角度认为,在善的体系中,那个最好的、终极的、自足的、最完满的、以自身为目的、最高的善就是幸福.追求幸福的生活体现了人区别于动物的特殊性,这就是人能够通过主动选择理性生活来过一种道德生活.他认为思辨的人生是最幸福的人生.从感性的角度认为,幸福的生活必然是快乐,这样他把人的心理体验、情感体现拉入到幸福中来,力图克服把幸福空洞化,体现了其理论的调和主义色彩.

  17. Monstrosities and Twitterings: A Note on the Early Reception of Aristotle's Posterior Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David

    2010-01-01

    En kort undersøgelse af et problem i den tidligere reception af Aristoteles' Analytica Posteriora i forbindelse med de første latinske oversættelser.......En kort undersøgelse af et problem i den tidligere reception af Aristoteles' Analytica Posteriora i forbindelse med de første latinske oversættelser....

  18. Drivin' Trucks, Huntin' Bucks, and Reading Aristotle?: The Rural Student's College Choice Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawn, Rachel Mayes

    2014-01-01

    Even though rural students make up a fifth of the population of all American students, they do not attend college in numbers equivalent to urban and suburban students. The rural student faces influences related to college choice that differ from those of suburban and urban students. These influences, which could be considered problems or barriers,…

  19. Action Theory of Aristotle%亚里斯多德行动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙轮

    2010-01-01

    @@ 亚里斯多德的悲剧定义首句是:"悲剧是对于一个严肃、完整、有一定长度的行动的摹仿;"(亚里斯多德,人民文学出版社1962年,第19页)行动是其中的关键词,什么是亚里斯多德行动?

  20. There Is Something about Aristotle: The Pros and Cons of Aristotelianism in Contemporary Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Kristján

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to pinpoint some of the features that do--or should--make Aristotelianism attractive to current moral educators. At the same time, it also identifies theoretical and practical shortcomings that contemporary Aristotelians have been overly cavalier about. Section II presents a brisk tour of ten of the "pros":…

  1. ABSTRACT The Hamartia of Aristotle Albert A. Sackey1 The term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    individual's character, the second rejects this moral interpretation but is unable ... in virtue and righteousness, and yet does not fall into bad .... And happiness and unhappiness reside in action, and the ... the initiators of the tragic flaw theory, may provide the answer. .... In the Apology, 22D, Socrates equates hamartema with.

  2. Pangea B: a plausible impossibility is always preferable to an uncommitting possibility (Aristotle, Poetics 7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttoni, G.; Kent, D. V.; Garzanti, E.; Brack, P.; Abrahamsen, N.; Gaetani, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Wegenerian configuration of Pangea at Jurassic times is not questioned among Earth scientists. Debate exists on its pre-Jurassic configuration since Ted Irving in 1977 introduced Pangea 'B' by placing Gondwana to the East by ≈3000km with respect to Laurasia on the basis of paleomagnetic data. Pangea 'B' and its tectonic implications have not been however broadly accepted by the scientific community. We review data from Gondwana and Laurasia strictly from igneous rocks, and conclude that Pangea 'B' is indeed paleomagnetically acceptable in the Early Permian. Importantly, the exclusive use of paleomagnetic data from igneous rocks virtually excludes possible effects of sedimentary inclination error as an explanation for Pangea 'B' as envisaged by Rochette and Vandamme (1998). The ultimate option to reject Pangea 'B' is to abandon the geocentral axial dipole (GAD) hypothesis by introducing a specific octupole component of a specific amount with a specific sign in the Late Paleozoic time-averaged geomagnetic field (Van der Voo and Torsvik, 2001). We demonstrate, however, by using a dataset made exclusively and entirely of paleomagnetic directions with low inclinations from the northern hemisphere, that the effects of an octupole field contamination can not account for Pangea 'B' in the Early Permian. We therefore review geological data from the literature in support of Pangea dextral mega-shear. The transformation from Pangea 'B' to Pangea 'A' occurred after the cooling of the Varisican lithosphere during the Permian at a minimum plate speed of ≈15cm/yr. No Triassic transformation is herein envisaged. The transformation is coeval with the opening of the Neotethys Ocean, which took place along the eastern margin of Gondwanan between India/Arabia and the Cimmerian continents, and widespread lithospheric wrenching and magmatism in the west, along the margin of the Adriatic promontory. We show that the "push-pull" driving forces associated with the Gondwana grand plate circuit are qualitatively consistent with a right-lateral shear couple between Gondwana and Laurasia during the Permian.

  3. What Einstein Would Have Said to Aristotle Regarding Dynamics and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favio Ernesto Cala Vitery

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a parallel in the forms of Aristotle’s and Einstein’s physics. It’s an exercise on conceptual analysis rather than history. The possible similarity between Aristotle’s world and the form (global geometry of Einstein’s universe is discussed. The correlation between kinematics, dynamics and gravity in their respective theories is also studied. Finally, Aristotle’s ontology of space is compared to the relativistic ontology spacetime.

  4. There Is Something about Aristotle: The Pros and Cons of Aristotelianism in Contemporary Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Kristján

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to pinpoint some of the features that do--or should--make Aristotelianism attractive to current moral educators. At the same time, it also identifies theoretical and practical shortcomings that contemporary Aristotelians have been overly cavalier about. Section II presents a brisk tour of ten of the "pros":…

  5. Husserl's Eidos and Plato's Idea%胡塞尔的Eidos与柏拉图的idea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高秉江

    2004-01-01

    当我们由传统哲学语境进入现象学语境时,最让我们感到迷惑的是现象学中频繁出现的几个术语:“本质直观”、“本质经验”、“本质还原”等。本质如何能被直观?本质如何能作为经验?产生这种迷惑的主要原因在于现象学与传统哲学对“本质”定义的差异。传统

  6. Plan de empresa para un negocio de platos preparados a domicilio con puntos de venta

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    El negocio sobre el que voy a desarrollar el presente plan de empresa es un negocio de comida preparada de elevada calidad y alto valor gastronómico, entregada de forma diferenciada a cada uno de los segmentos de mercado seleccionados, a través de una adecuada combinación de producto y servicio, con puntos de venta y reparto a domicilio en la ciudad de Barcelona. La carta de Productos ofrecidos será única y podrá ir sufriendo modificaciones con el tiempo, según se vaya anali...

  7. Two Hundred Years of the Psychology of Attitude - 2000 Years of Contributions, From Plato to Allport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodwin, Martin G.

    Developments that laid the groundwork for the modern psychology of attitude began with early Greek philosophy. Conceptions of the cosmologists during the Golden Age of Greek Civilization and the Sophist movement served as a link between mythology and science. Contributions of British Empiricism and German Experimentalism were instrumental to the…

  8. Plato vs Socrates: The Devolving Relationship between Higher Education Institutions and their Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, William P.; Palfreyman, David

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine student legal claims against colleges and universities in the US and in the UK under contract, tort and public law principles, focusing particularly on the evolving legal relationship between higher education institutions and their students. The authors' goal is to provide the reader with a comparative analysis…

  9. On Plato's View of Psyche%柏拉图的灵魂观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦

    2007-01-01

    一直以来,灵魂问题在西方哲学中占据了重要的地位,现代西方心灵哲学(Philosophy of Mind)中对"心灵"(Mind)本质的探讨则可以追溯到古希腊先哲对"灵魂"(Psyche,Soul)的思考.柏拉图作为古希腊哲学的重要代表之一,他对灵魂起源、本质、能力等问题的回答给予我们一副融合宗教与哲学元素在内的奇妙图式.

  10. PLATO: data-oriented approach to collaborative large-scale brain system modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannon, Takayuki; Inagaki, Keiichiro; Kamiji, Nilton L; Makimura, Kouji; Usui, Shiro

    2011-11-01

    The brain is a complex information processing system, which can be divided into sub-systems, such as the sensory organs, functional areas in the cortex, and motor control systems. In this sense, most of the mathematical models developed in the field of neuroscience have mainly targeted a specific sub-system. In order to understand the details of the brain as a whole, such sub-system models need to be integrated toward the development of a neurophysiologically plausible large-scale system model. In the present work, we propose a model integration library where models can be connected by means of a common data format. Here, the common data format should be portable so that models written in any programming language, computer architecture, and operating system can be connected. Moreover, the library should be simple so that models can be adapted to use the common data format without requiring any detailed knowledge on its use. Using this library, we have successfully connected existing models reproducing certain features of the visual system, toward the development of a large-scale visual system model. This library will enable users to reuse and integrate existing and newly developed models toward the development and simulation of a large-scale brain system model. The resulting model can also be executed on high performance computers using Message Passing Interface (MPI).

  11. Baudelaire and Plato's Aesthetic%波德莱尔与柏拉图美学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亘; 胡华

    2015-01-01

    理想的光芒往往是照耀波德莱尔关学空间的光源所在.由于诗人评述和创作文字的歧义,波德莱尔的美学思索常常被引向绝对的层面,成为通往柏拉图理念世界的十九世纪阶梯.这一阶梯的搭建是否来自波德莱尔的本意?诗人的诗歌创作与其说是引向理念世界,倒不如说是在揭示一个超自然的世界.原型的地位来自波德莱尔美学意识中绝对理念的缺席,他的摹仿和再现方式的意义也是建立在对于他那个时代美学柏拉图式倾向的批评之上.

  12. Successful Secondary Principalship in Cyprus: What Have "Thucydides" and "Plato" Revealed to Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashiardis, Petros; Kafa, Antonios; Marmara, Christiana

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into successful secondary school principals in Cyprus, focusing on identifying their actions and behaviours through the adoption of a systemic view of the quality of leadership in school organizations from multiple stakeholders (i.e. self, parents, students and teachers).…

  13. The Peloponnesian War, the Spanish Requirement and the Clash of Civilizations: An Application of Plato's Theaetetus

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy C. Hamblet

    2008-01-01

    This paper challenges the notion of “civilization” as focal to, and originative of, the problem of suffering in the world, a legacy that continues to betray its heritage in the third millennium of the Common Era. The current global crisis of terrorism is, on both sides of this confrontation, being posed as a war of “civilizations.” Both sides, the terrorists and the current American administration and its allies, argue for the righteous, divinely-ordained nature of their cause and the demonic...

  14. The Peloponnesian War, the Spanish Requirement and the Clash of Civilizations: An Application of Plato's Theaetetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy C. Hamblet

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper challenges the notion of “civilization” as focal to, and originative of, the problem of suffering in the world, a legacy that continues to betray its heritage in the third millennium of the Common Era. The current global crisis of terrorism is, on both sides of this confrontation, being posed as a war of “civilizations.” Both sides, the terrorists and the current American administration and its allies, argue for the righteous, divinely-ordained nature of their cause and the demonic nature of their infidel enemy. Both legitimate their violences by claims of superior “civilization” and both cite the god as in their “civilizational” court.

  15. PLATO'S INVISIBLE HERO OF DEMOCRACY: SOCRATES IN THE REPUBLIC AND CRITO

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard J Klonoski

    2014-01-01

    ... intends the reader to see Socrates as an invisible moral and political hero of the democratic polis even though Socrates was, for much of his life, a critic of the Athenian democracy, and even given...

  16. Plato's view on justice%柏拉图的正义观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马俊峰

    2007-01-01

    对柏拉图的空间正义学说作深入分析与论证,展现柏拉图对正义的思考,不同于现代人对正义思考的缘由,揭示现代政治哲学正义学说的缺陷,从而警示当代人防止陷入现代性的陷阱.

  17. Εἰκὼς λόγος: Plato in Translation(s)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoenig, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Cette étude examine le rôle de traduction comme médium dans la tradition des interprétations de Platon. L’examen porte sur une partie du Timée de Platon (29b2-d3), traduite par trois interprètes: un premier échantillon de traduction moderne permet tout d’abord de mettre en lumière certains reflets de la recherche platonicienne contemporaine. Deux spécimens plus détaillés de traductions latines, de Cicéron et de Calcidius, datée du IVe siècle, permettent ensuite d’approfondir l’exégèse ancienn...

  18. En un plato sin trigo, ¿comen? tres tristes tigres

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A pesar que los precios de lo que Argentina exporta sólo subieron un 40% en los últimos 10 años contra una triplicación de los precios de otras commodities como los metales, el petróleo y la energía, algunos indicadores sociales y de estructura económica muestran mejores resultados en la Argentina respecto de los países fetiches del mundo financiero internacional como Chile, Perú o Colombia, más beneficiados por el auge del precio de las commodities. Este comportamiento pone en tela de juicio...

  19. 柏拉图的自我批判%Plato's Self-Criticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆沉

    2003-01-01

    《巴门尼德篇》是柏拉图(Platon)最重要的哲学著作之一,它主要由两个部分组成,第一部分是柏拉图对自己的以《斐多篇》—《国家篇》为代表的“相论”的错误的反思批判,在第二部分,柏拉图尝试重建“相论”,结果是一个初步的范畴论。

  20. Heraclitus, Plato, and the philosophic dogs (A note on Republic II, 375e-376c)

    OpenAIRE

    Piccone, Enrique Hülsz

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on a neglected instance of the Platonic reception of Heraclitus in the Republic (II, 375e-376c), trying to show that it’s likely that Plato’s passage makes an allusion to Heraclitus’ B97 (“Dogs bark at whom they don’t know”) and B85 (“It’s difficult to fight θυμός, for what it longs for it pays with ψυχή). The main claim is that Plato’s use of the image of dogs looks back to Heraclitus, which invites an exploration of the possibility that at least some elements of Plato’s ka...

  1. Plato and Socrates: From an Educator of Childhood to a Childlike Educator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohan, Walter Omar

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with two forms of education--Platonic and Socratic. The former educates childhood to transform it into what it ought to be. The latter does not form childhood, but makes education childlike. To unfold the philosophical and pedagogical dimensions of this opposition, the first part of the paper highlights the way in which philosophy…

  2. Friendship and War: True Political Art as the Alliance of Philosophy and Rhetoric in Plato's Gorgias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Parra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo explora la relación entre filosofía y retórica desde una nueva perspectiva al enfatizar la naturaleza dramática del diálogo y, por tanto, poniéndole atención no sólo a lo que se dice sobre filosofía y retórica, sino también a lo que se muestra, especialmente por las intervenciones de Gorgias a lo largo del diálogo con el fin de salvar a la comunidad de diálogo que investiga lo bueno y lo justo. Esta reconcepción de la relación entre filosofía y retórica implica una reconcepción de la práctica de la política misma, fundada en una filosofía que busca girar las almas individuales hacia el bien y una retórica que motiva a los individuos a ser girados en esa misma dirección por las palabras de los otros.

  3. Do we need hermeneutics at all? Plato on the art of interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deretić Irina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main claim of this paper is to show how Plato’s views on hermeneutike techne are more relevant to the contemporary discussions on hermeneutics than it is commonly regarded. We will elucidate and critically discuss whether Plato’s understanding of the grounds, methods and merits of the hermeneutics in the Protagoras is adequate, consistent and still relevant. Also, we will attempt to find out which position in the contemporary discussion of hermeneutics is the closest to Plato’s own ideas and claims on the essence and meaning of the art of interpretation.

  4. Nietzsche, Plato and the Power of the Duende: the shamanic roots of poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel de Lima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo lida com as raízes xamânicas da poesia através da análise das antigas deidades artísticas gregas, a saber, Apolo e Dionísio, em suas marcadas dicotomias de tendências artísticas tal como são apresentadas por Friedrich Nietzsche em sua reavaliação das considerações platônicas sobre a criação artística. Esta primeira análise é então seguida por um interessante paralelo à força nietzscheana do dionisíaco que pode ser encontrada no igualmente misterioso poder do “Duende,” presente em Federico García Lorca quando da fusão de seus conceitos surrealistas com o senso de sua cultura nativa da Andaluzia, a fim de se mostrar as raízes xamânicas da representação poética.

  5. Development of the concept of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Maxwell R

    2007-12-01

    A short account is given of the development of concepts of soul, mind and brain in order to place in historical context the subject of neuropsychiatry. A selection of primary and secondary historical sources is used to trace development of these concepts. Beginning with the spirits of Animism in the 3rd millennium BC, the Greek invention of the soul and its properties, of thymos (emotion), menos (rage) and nous (intellect) are then traced from the time of Homer, in which the soul does not last the death of the body, to Plato in the 4th century BC who argued that the soul, incorporating the nous (now called mind) is incorporeal and immortal. Plato's pupil, Aristotle, commented on the impossibility of an incorporeal soul interacting with a corporeal body. He instituted a revolution in the concept of mind. This involved pointing out that 'mind' is a manner of speaking about our psychological powers as in thinking and remembering. Given that such powers are not a thing the problem does not arise as to the relation between mind and a corporeal body. These ideas of Plato and Aristotle were held by competing scholars and theologians during the next 2000 years. Plato was favoured by many in the Church who could more readily grasp the concept of an immortal and incorporeal soul within the context of Christian thought. Galen established in the 2nd century AD that psychological capacities are associated with the brain, and argued that the fluid-filled ventricles were the part of the brain involved. This argument stood for over 1500 years until the 17th century when Willis, as a consequence of the new blood perfusion techniques developed by Wren following Harvey, showed that blood did not enter the ventricles but the cortex, thereby transferring interest from the ventricles to the cortex. The hegemony of Plato's ideas was broken about this time by Descartes when he argued that the incorporeal soul does not consist of three parts (thymos, nous and menos) but is solely identical

  6. Entre foscors i clarors. La ‘mirada’ com a ‘exercici filosòfic’ a la Caverna de Plató / Entre ombres et lumière. Le « regard » en tant qu’"exercise philosophique" dans la caverne de Platon Between darkness and light: “sight” as a philosophical exercise in Plato's allegory of the Cave Entre claros y oscuros. La ‘mirada’ como ‘ejercicio filosófico" en la Caverna de Platón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Bosch-Veciana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquest estudi pretén situar dins d’un context filològic, cultural i filosòfic l’«itinerari de la mirada» que llegim en la «narració de la Caverna» del llibre VII de La República de Plató. Amb aquest propòsit es posen en relleu algunes consideracions sobre la relació de complementarietat entre la «imatge» i la «paraula». El fragment platònic tractat aquí és llegit com un «exercici filosòfic» de la «mirada » del tot necessari per tal d’accedir a la contemplació del Bé, condició indispensable per exercir el poder polític a la ciutat _______________________________________________________ Cette étude a pour but de situer dans un contexte philologique, culturel et philosophique l’« itinéraire du regard » que l’on peut lire dans la « narration de la Caverne » du livre VII de La République de Platon. Pour ce faire, elle met en relief certaines considérations sur la relation de com-plémentarité qui existe entre l’« image » et la « parole ». Le fragment platonique traité est lu comme un « exercice philosophique » du « regard » tout à fait nécessaire pour accéder à la con-templation du Bien, condition indispensable pour exercer le pouvoir politique dans la ville.This study aims to place in the context of language, culture and philosophy the “path of sight” found in the Allegory of the Cave in Book VII of Plato’s Republic. To achieve this, we present some considerations of the complementary relationship between the “image” and the “word”. The excerpt from Plato that is addressed here is interpreted as a philosophical exercise on sight, which is vital to be able to contemplate Good. In turn, this is essential for holding political power in a city.Este estudio pretende situar en un contexto filológico, cultural y filosófico el «itinerario de la mirada» que leemos en la «narración de la Caverna» del libro VII de La República de Platón. Con este propósito se ponen de relieve

  7. An Analysis of the Agency and Providence in Platonic, Aristotelian and Avicennan Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahdi Emamijomeh

    2014-01-01

    One neither in Plato's own words nor in his commentators' exegeses. Moreover, Demiurge's state of agency in relation to particulars on the one hand, and the quality of the relationship of ideas with material objects on the other, are covered up by ambiguity and such analogies as participation and imitation do not help much to tackle this ambiguity around. In Parmenides, this ambiguity as to the quality of procession of particulars from the ideas has been noted and no slight beam of light ever been shed on it.    Browsing through Aristotelian corpse one would approve the fact that Stagrite's metaphysics could be epitomized in the theory of unmoved mover. Since Aristotle was also a biologist, by studying the movement of heavens he came to the conclusion that celestial spheres are ceaselessly moving around a circle like orbit and whereas every movement needs power to get started (every departure from potentiality toward actuality requires an agent and celestial movement is eternal then it is needless to say that it could not have been occasioned by a corporeal power as corporeality implies limitation and there have to be some non-corporeal entities to take on this movement. Aristotle christens these entities as "intellect" which are purely incorporeal. Aristotelian intellects are thus related to the celestial spheres. Aristotle believed in 55 celestial spheres and 55 correspondent intellects whom he called unmoved movers. Since in Aristotle's view first heaven should be eternal what moves it must be eternal too. Thus Aristotle reached the First Intellect or the Unmoved Mover. (Upon the annulment of circular and infinite regress one can see that the dilemmas which Aristotle was grappling with in physics led him to the domain of metaphysics.    Reading through the works of Avicenna one could find that his core idea as regards to the problem of agency is the very effective and practical theory of "providence". This theory was mooted as a practical theory in Islamic

  8. An Analysis of the Agency and Providence in Platonic, Aristotelian and Avicennan Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Hadad

    2013-12-01

    One neither in Plato's own words nor in his commentators' exegeses. Moreover, Demiurge's state of agency in relation to particulars on the one hand, and the quality of the relationship of ideas with material objects on the other, are covered up by ambiguity and such analogies as participation and imitation do not help much to tackle this ambiguity around. In Parmenides, this ambiguity as to the quality of procession of particulars from the ideas has been noted and no slight beam of light ever been shed on it.    Browsing through Aristotelian corpse one would approve the fact that Stagrite's metaphysics could be epitomized in the theory of unmoved mover. Since Aristotle was also a biologist, by studying the movement of heavens he came to the conclusion that celestial spheres are ceaselessly moving around a circle like orbit and whereas every movement needs power to get started (every departure from potentiality toward actuality requires an agent and celestial movement is eternal then it is needless to say that it could not have been occasioned by a corporeal power as corporeality implies limitation and there have to be some non-corporeal entities to take on this movement. Aristotle christens these entities as "intellect" which are purely incorporeal. Aristotelian intellects are thus related to the celestial spheres. Aristotle believed in 55 celestial spheres and 55 correspondent intellects whom he called unmoved movers. Since in Aristotle's view first heaven should be eternal what moves it must be eternal too. Thus Aristotle reached the First Intellect or the Unmoved Mover. (Upon the annulment of circular and infinite regress one can see that the dilemmas which Aristotle was grappling with in physics led him to the domain of metaphysics.    Reading through the works of Avicenna one could find that his core idea as regards to the problem of agency is the very effective and practical theory of "providence". This theory was mooted as a practical theory in Islamic

  9. Antiquity's Missive to Transhumanism1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Susan B

    2017-06-01

    To reassure those concerned about wholesale discontinuity between human existence and posthumanity, transhumanists assert shared ground with antiquity on vital challenges and aspirations. Because their claims reflect key misconceptions, there is no shared vision for transhumanists to invoke. Having exposed their misuses of Prometheus, Plato, and Aristotle, I show that not only do transhumanists and antiquity crucially diverge on our relation to ideals, contrast-dependent aspiration, and worthy endeavors but that illumining this divide exposes central weaknesses in transhumanist argumentation. What is more, antiquity's handling of these topics suggests a way through the impasse in current enhancement debates about human "nature" and helps to resolve a tension within transhumanists' accounts of what our best moments signify about the ontological requirements for real flourishing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Permanente homoseksuele verhoudings van liefde en trou

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    J Potgieter

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the argument is made that homosexual relationships of love and commitment was known by the writers of the Bible. Though definitions like �gay� or �homosexuality� was not known, sexual identity was known. According to the anthropology of the Mediterranean people, somebody�s identity was found in the way he or she lived: �If I have a homosexual relationship, then my identity was homosexual�. This article shows that permanent homosexual relationships of love and commitment were known among the Greek philosophers. People like Plato, Aristotle and Pausanius had permanent homosexual partners. Even Paul knew about permanent homosexual relationships of love and commitment. Sufficient evidence has been found in cities like Rome, Corinth and Ephesus on the existence of such relationships.

  11. VIRTUE ETHICS - NEW COORDINATES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

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    PUP ANCA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Operating with business ethic we meet, some ethical systems, some of them developed in Antiquity, that still have a great influence upon economics development. One of these is the ethics of virtue. The aim of this paper work is to focus upon the one ethical system virtue ethics and to illustrate his influence in economical field, offering a new coordination in this direction. We understand the importance of the human character for a successful leadership and management. Recent ethical dilemmas illustrate us how a vicious character has an influence not only to the possessor of that type of character but also to the entire community where he develop his activities. For a comprehensive understanding I expose a briefly review on virtue ethics as it was developed by Plato and Aristotle, ant its new coordination and influence upon our contemporaneous economy, illustrated by some examples.

  12. Die saamspeel van hand, oog en passie: gedagtes oor erotiek en estetika

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    DP Veldsman

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In critical dismissal on the one hand of the viewpoint of Augustine on original sin, and on the other hand of a proposed viewpoint with regard to a theology of God�s good creation, this article explores the intimate interwoveness of aesthetics, erotism and religious experience. The basic communication structure of sender-message-receiver is taken as vantage point and translated into questions regarding the artist, the medium and� the enjoyer of art / art critic. Against a historical-terminological background of aesthetics and erotism from Plato and Aristotle to contemporary views, a theological viewpoint is developed� in playful metaphoric utilization of the concepts hand, eye and passion. Passion is acquitted in this viewpoint in which hamartological short-sightedness is replaced by loving far-sightedness.

  13. Abstracts of papers in this issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Man, language and existence: Five queries about Heidegger's view of language (p. 803) HU Zhuanglin (English Dept., Peking University, Beijing 100871, China) The late German philosopher Heidegger was well-known for his criticism on the long- standing tradition of formalism and rationalism represented by Plato and Aristotle from the per- spectives of existentialism, phenomenology and hermeneutics, and his argument that language di- rects man. All this has been highly recognized by modem western philosophers. However, several points of his view of language need further clarification and discussion, such as inexplicitness of his writing style, word's archaeological meaning as his principle of argument, the relation between language and science/technology, the meaning of "God" in the schema of "heaven, land, God, man", and the unity of natural language and human language. The present writer attempts to answer some of the questions and expresses his own views.

  14. Patients who make terrible therapeutic choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzer, Howard J

    2014-01-01

    The traditional approaches to dental ethics include appeals to principles, duties (deontology), and consequences (utilitarianism). These approaches are often inadequate when faced with the case of a patient who refuses reasonable treatment and does not share the same ethical framework the dentist is using. An approach based on virtue ethics may be helpful in this and other cases. Virtue ethics is a tradition going back to Plato and Aristotle. It depends on forming a holistic character supporting general appropriate behavior. By correctly diagnosing the real issues at stake in a patient's inappropriate oral health choices and working to build effective habits, dentists can sometimes respond to ethical challenges that remain intractable given rule-based methods.

  15. «... Cercare l'esperienza alla sua fonte». Il dono della verità

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    Vincenzo Vitiello

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Un cammino nel territorio della conoscenza, da Wittgenstein a Kant, da Aristotele a Platone, con finale apertura all’etica dell’«accanto», dell’io tu a se medesimo e di se medesimo, ovvero: alla filosofia come testimonianza, alla verità come dono d’altri. «...Look for the experience at its source». The gift of truth A path into the territory of knowledge, from Wittgenstein to Kant, from Aristotle to Plato, with a final opening to the ethics of 'beside', of the I (that is «You» towards Himself and of Himself; that is, to philosophy as witness, to truth as others' gift.

  16. Das Barbarenbild des Poseidonios und seine Stellung in der philosophischen Tradition

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    Reinar Müller

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available The author gives an account of the ideas of the Greeks (Herodot, Hippocrates, Plato, Aristotle about the barbarians. They hesitate between admiring some barbarians, or, on the contrary, considering them unvalued people in comparison with the Greeks, and the theory of the climate, which would be definitive on the formation of the men’s bodies and souls. Poseidonios discusses this problem in a well known fragment in which he tells how the Mariandins submitted to Heraclea because they found themselves inferior. We can come across with traces of his thought on Cicero, De re publica III and Strabo, VI. In conclusion, Poseidonios justifies the Roman world power because its superiority, and this because the climate of Italy. However, he insists that this power must be used with justice and blames the bloody actions of the Sicilian slave war.

  17. Quale etica per quale futuro? Le vie dell’etica – uno sguardo retrospettivo

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    Francesca Caputo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper, starting from the question “Which etichs for what future?”, retraces a few streets of ethical reflection, subdividing the exploration in moments of classical Greece (with Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, of modernity (with Kant, developments science, Hegel and of the current globalized world (with Jürgen Habermas and Karl-Otto Apel. The problem of values, in particular, and of ethics, in general, arises today, as in the past, in a double sense: regards, on the one hand, their possible foundation or legitimation, on the other, their possible sharing and acceptance by all members of the community. Discourse ethics, especially in the version theorized by Karl-Otto Apel, appears more congenial in outlining the minimum basis of a common ethics shared, guaranteed by the universal consensus of ethics intrinsic to the discourse.

  18. The literary work and the real: between the ambition of grasping the world and the challenge of creation

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    Diana Marcela Patiño Rojas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present article proposes a reflection about the nature (character of the relationship between the literary work and reality taking into account different theoretical stances from philosophers, writers and literature scholars such as Plato, Aristotle, Diderot, Hugo, Balzac, Champfleury, Maupassant, Baudelaire, Cousin, Proust and Barthes. According to this perspective, the idea is to look over these author´s conceptions about literary work and their connection with reality in order to define an outlook in which it is possible to make clear the development of this dialogue carried out for centuries. The aim of this study is also to introduce another point of view about the question for encouraging the discussion. Likewise, the final phase is to validate the considerations about reality and his connection with literary work are still the object of many reflections and the source of literary creation.

  19. Flatland an edition with notes and commentary

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Edwin A; Banchoff, Thomas F

    2010-01-01

    Flatland, Edwin Abbott Abbott's story of a two-dimensional universe, as told by one of its inhabitants who is introduced to the mysteries of three-dimensional space, has enjoyed an enduring popularity from the time of its publication in 1884. This fully annotated edition enables the modern-day reader to understand and appreciate the many "dimensions" of this classic satire. Mathematical notes and illustrations enhance the usefulness of Flatland as an elementary introduction to higher-dimensional geometry. Historical notes show connections to late-Victorian England and to classical Greece. Citations from Abbott's other writings as well as the works of Plato and Aristotle serve to interpret the text. Commentary on language and literary style includes numerous definitions of obscure words. An appendix gives a comprehensive account of the life and work of Flatland's remarkable author.

  20. A history of erotic philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soble, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This essay historically explores philosophical views about the nature and significance of human sexuality, starting with the Ancient Greeks and ending with late 20th-century Western philosophy. Important figures from the history of philosophy (and theology) discussed include Sappho, Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, St. Jerome, the Pelagians, St. Thomas Aquinas, Michel de Montaigne, Rene Descartes, Thomas Hobbes, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Søren Kierkegaard, Arthur Schopenhauer, Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Sigmund Freud, Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Wilhelm Reich, and Herbert Marcuse. Contemporary philosophers whose recent work is discussed include Michel Foucault, Thomas Nagel, Roger Scruton, Karol Wojtyla (Pope John Paul II), Catharine MacKinnon, Richard Posner, and John Finnis. To show the unity of the humanities, the writings of various literary figures are incorporated into this history, including Mark Twain, Arthur Miller, James Thurber, E. B. White, Iris Murdoch, and Philip Roth.

  1. A few philosophical ruminations on the human condition and choosing to live well

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    Blake E. Hestir

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion that life is meaningful through choosing to live well has historically received substantive attention in various philosophical circles, notably the ancient Greek philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, and more recently several of the existentialists. In some respects, the idea of choosing to live well is a “thematization” of two widely-recognized, independent components of a meaningful life: happiness and authenticity. I develop this notion of choosing to live well by exploring, developing, and relating these conceptions of happiness and authenticity. By appealing to a very basic account of human nature that has found favor among a great number of people, I show how happiness and authenticity complement each other as conditions for the possibility of living meaningfully.

  2. Platão e Aristóteles: diferentes perspectivas da atividade mimética

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    Gabriela Luft

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO:Aristóteles freqüentou a Academia de Platão e a fidelidade ao mestre foi entremeada por críticas que mais tarde justificaria dizendo: “Sou amigo de Platão, mas mais amigo da verdade”. Os filósofos em questão são figurais cruciais no embate que cerca a constituição da base da teoria literária. Explorado desde a Antigüidade, o conceito de mímesis ganhou significações e funções diversas no decorrer dos séculos. Em sua Poética, Aristóteles não define a palavra, mas se pressupõe que a tomou emprestado de Platão em seu uso corrente, com o objetivo de observar diferenças na concepção do termo entre eles. A retomada de Platão e Aristóteles atenta para a necessidade de revisitação dos filósofos, cujas idéias são base para alguns dos grandes problemas que envolvem a teoria literária desde o seu surgimento, visto que constantemente dialogam com algumas visões modernas acerca da natureza da literatura e de sua relação com o objeto de arte. A questão da mímesis surge, assim, dentro de uma reflexão global que envolve criação e historicidade.PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Platão. Aristóteles. Literatura.ABSTRATC:Aristotle attended the Academy of Plato and the fidelity to the master was permeated by critics, that later he justified saying: “I am Plato’s friend, but more a friend of truth”. The philosophers in question are crucial figures in the discussion that surrounds the base of the literary theory formation. Explorated since Antiquity, the concept of mimesis got various functions and meanings over the centuries. In his Poetics, Aristotle does not define the word, but he assumes that he borrowed it from Plato in its current use, in order to observe differences in the design of the term between them. The resumption of Plato and Aristotle call the attention to the need for revisitation of these philosophers, whose ideas are the basis for some of the major problems around the literary theory since its emergence, in

  3. A critical introduction to the metaphysics of time

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    What is the nature of time? Does it flow? Do the past and future exist? Drawing connections between historical and present-day questions, A Critical Introduction to the Metaphysics of Time provides an up-to-date guide to one of the most central and debated topics in contemporary metaphysics. Introducing the views and arguments of Parmenides, Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Newton and Leibniz, this accessible introduction covers the history of the philosophy of time from the Pre-Socratics to the beginning of the 20th Century. The historical survey presents the necessary background to understanding more recent developments, including McTaggart's 1908 argument for the unreality of time, the open future, the perdurance/endurance debate, the possibility of time travel, and the relevance of current physics to the philosophy of time. Informed by cutting-edge philosophical research, A Critical Introduction to the Metaphysics of Time evaluates influential historical arguments in the context of contemporary developments. ...

  4. Theories About Blood Coagulation in the Writings of Ancient Greek Medico-philosophers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Papaioannou, Theodoros G; Sgantzos, Markos

    2017-01-01

    Anaxagoras and Empedocles both established during the Presocratic era a pioneering theory for the creation of everything in the universe. Macrocosmos' impact through the "Four Elements Theory" explained the conglomeration of the blood inside the vessels. Hippocrates, who instituted the "Four Humours theory", clearly understood blood's coagulation and introduced the term "thrombus". Plato, Aristotle and Galen, all engaged with the clotting phenomenon trying to interpret it. After eons of inquiry, it was the innovative thinking of the ancient Greek medico philosophers that set the scientific bases towards the understanding of a process that had been analyzing until our era. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. La polémica acerca de la generación del mundo en el tiempo: Plotino frente a sus predecesores

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    Malena Tonelli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze some of the arguments Plotinus offers in his treatise II, 1 [On Heaven, 40 in chronological order] to defend the eternity of the world without implying, in his eyes, a departure from the teachings of Plato's Timaeus. We will focus on the objections Plotinus presents in the first chapter of his treatise to two arguments in favor of the eternity of the cosmos and we will try to show that, although we may find these two arguments in the Timaeus, the dialogue is not the aim of Plotinus's criticism. We argue that it is important to take into account the divergent views of Atticus and Aristotle in this regard, because they could contribute, first, to illuminate how Plotinus reelaborates the Platonic philosophy and, second, to highlight the metaphysical assumptions underlying his postulation of the eternity of the world

  6. LA PREGUNTA SOCRÁTICA Y ARISTÓTELES

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    H. G. Gadamer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Every understanding of the evolution of the idea of a practical philosophy between the greeks depends on acknowledging that, here, they gave us two fundamentally different types, regarding the class of philosophical texts in Plato and Aristotle. On the one side, well made dialogues that evoque Socrates or someone similar to him as if they were present, and, on the other side, lines written without the art of an articulating spirit, through a work of thought and words of teaching. The one is litterature in the highest sense of the word. The other one is a material which is difficult to decipher and which still needs to be awaken in a life of ideas. But the same excersise is done in front of both. Both classes of texts, as two forms of speaking, are presented to us as the same effort in giving an account and, with that, conducting the socratic question to its truth.

  7. ZENÓN DE ELEA Y COMPAÑÍA

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    María Teresa Padilla Longoria

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we have the aim of confronting Plato’s and Aristotle’s ideas on dialectic and other associated practices resourcing to the judgments that both philosophers made in that respect and the position that they showed before such practices achieved by Zeno of Elea and two archetypical sophists like Protagoras and Gorgias. All of this with the aim of emphasising, first, the risk that for Plato entailed the generalisation of such practices and the contrast that implied in relation with his philosophical project of dialogic examination and unselfish search for the truth and, second, with the aim of showing the way that Aristotle intended to open with the position that he had in relation with Zeno and the sophists and that led him to develop other ideas on dialectic itself, rhetoric and sophistic.

  8. A historical introduction to the philosophy of science

    CERN Document Server

    Losee, John

    1993-01-01

    This new edition brings up to date this accessible study of the philosophy of science. Since the time of Plato and Aristotle, scientists and philosophers have raised questions about the proper evaluation of scientific interpretations. A Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Science is an exposition of differing viewpoints on issues such as the distinction between scientific inquiry and other types of interpretation, the relationship between theories and observation reports; the evaluation of competing theories; and the nature of progress in science. The author makes accessible the philosophy of science to readers who may not have extensive knowledge of formal logic or the history of the several sciences. The third edition incorporates an extended discussion of recent developments. Historicist critics of Logical Empiricism have established that evaluative standards and cognitive aims have changed within the history of science. This edition examines these changes, the recent controversies over scientific...

  9. Elements for the Theory of Value in Ancient Philosophy

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    Ivan Ivlampie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although axiology is a new philosophical discipline (the second half of the 19th century, we can talk about both a prehistory and a protohistory of axiology. The most important aspect of axiology belongs to its prehistory. Examining the doctrines of ancient philosophers one can conclude that, although no Greek thinker had the distinct conscience of a specific realm of values, yet each generation had intuitions proper to the axiological perspective. Their intuitions regarded the human act of founding the world of values (the Sophists, or the argumentation in favour of the general character of values (Plato and Aristotle or a hierarchy of values as a model of human education and formation.

  10. Yet another time about time

    CERN Document Server

    Simeonov, Plamen L

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents yet another personal reflection on one the most important concepts in both science and the humanities: time. This elusive notion has been not only bothering philosophers since Plato and Aristotle and goes throughout human history embracing all analytical and creative (anthropocentric) disciplines from mathematics through physical and life sciences to philosophy, psychology, music and art, with a vast body of knowledge across different theories and categories concerning its nature (rational, irrational, arational), appearances/qualia, degrees, dimensions and scales of conceptualization (internal, external, rational, irrational, fractal, discrete, continuous, mechanical, quantum, local, global, etc.), duration ranges, resolutions, modes (present, now, past, future), variety of tenses (e.g. present perfect, present progressive, etc.) and some intuitive, but also fancy phenomenological characteristics such as arrow, stream, texture, width, depth, and perhaps the most distinct one of them, the ...

  11. How old is surface science?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paparazzo, E. E-mail: paparazzo@ism.cnr.it

    2004-01-01

    Philosophical and literary testimonies from the Classical World (5th century B.C. to 3rd century A.D.) involving solid surfaces are reviewed. Plato thought the surface to be a real entity, whereas Aristotle considered it to possess an unqualified existence, i.e. not to be a substance, but just an accidental entity. The Old Stoics asserted that surfaces do not possess any physical existence, although the Stoic philosopher Posidonius--apparently the only exception in his school--held them to exist both in thought and reality. While both the Atomists and the Epicureans were very little interested in them, the Sceptic philosopher Sextus Empiricus considered surfaces to be the limits of a body, although he maintained that both the view that they are corporeal or the view that they are incorporeal present unsurmountable difficulties. Among Roman authors, the testimony from Pliny the Elder is mostly concerned with metallic surfaces, chemical change occurring there, and surface treatments used in antiquity. Besides the philosophical motivations, the implications of the testimonies are discussed in the light of surface science. The purely geometrical surface of Plato is found to compare favorably to single-crystal surface, Posidonius' 'corporeal' surface is best likened to an air-oxidized, or otherwise ambient-modified surface, and ancient accounts on mixture are compared to XPS results obtained in adhesion studies of enameled steels. I argue that the long-standing dominance of Aristotle's view from antiquity onwards may have had a part in delaying theoretical speculation into solid surfaces.

  12. About the world of law which rests on the moral values

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    Trajković Marko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theories of the unity of ethics and morals, whose roots are in the ideas of Plato, Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas, see in the law one 'higher', 'true' law meant to achieve general good and justness in a political community, as well as to contribute to the ethical growth and advancement of man. The goal of such a view of the unity of ethics and morals is to accomplish absolute good. The idea of the natural law is presented as the existence of an unchangeable order as part of the natural world. In the theories of the unity of ethics and law, morality is considered as a must, as something in the domain of imperative, in which an ethically developed personality of man i the highest value of all, and happiness the uppermost good, chosen to serve just him. The need for the unity of law and morals, one discovers in the works of Plato, Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas is based on a simple truth, and that is man's perennial need for the conquest of the absolute good, happiness, his aspiration towards God. Despite the fact that our reality may be 'sated', or 'fed up' with law, it 'wants' morals, that would be in such a unity of 'correcting' the defects of law, making our reality worth living in. Thus, the necessity to make law and morals closer to each other is the imperative of our time. Man can nether rely on law only, nor found all the principles of 'living' in a reality on legal principles. Our reality does not want only a turn, especially in hard cases, to morals, but also to the primordial unity of law and morals.

  13. Antikythera Mechanism and the Ancient World

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    A. N. Safronov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this historical review, the opinions of Ancient Greece philosophers, astronomers, and poets such as Thales Milesian, Pythagoras, Plato, Eudoxus, Aristotle, Archimedes, Cicero, Diogenes Laertius, Iamblichus, Plutarch, Homer, and Aratus about the planet position calculations and about the possibility of predictions of natural phenomena are analyzed. The planet positions were predicted before Eudoxus (probably before Philolaus by a spindle of Ananke and after Eudoxus by Antikythera mechanism. Following Pythagoras and Plato, it is established that the regular seismoacoustic observations were performed. In the Ancient World in the Mediterranean area, there was an extensive network of acoustic stations (~10 pcs, which were located in close proximity to the geologic faults. Also, it is shown that the ship that was carrying Antikythera mechanism (A-Ship was built in 244 BC in Syracuse with direct participation of Archimedes and Archias from Corinthian. Later, the A-Ship was a part of the Roman Republic safety system. The grain volumes, which were delivered to Rome city by large grain vessels, and the population of Rome city in the period 74–71 BC were estimated. Planetary calculator might be used for the chronology of the historical events as a backward prediction in addition to present Radiocarbon dating and Dendrochronology methods.

  14. Music: Its Expressive Power and Moral Significance

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    Sarah Whitfield

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The creation and practice of music is tightly wound with human emotion, character, and experience. Music arouses sentiment and cannot be underestimated as a powerful shaper of human virtue, character, and emotion. As vehicles of musical expression, musicians possess the ability to profoundly influence an audience for good or for evil. Thus, the nature of music and the manner in which musicians utilize it creates innumerable ramifications that cannot be ignored. The pervasiveness of this notion is largely attributed to the Greek theorists, who ascribed various emotions and moral implications to particular modes. The prominent Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle affirmed that music contained an intrinsic element that was conducive to the promotion of moral or spiritual harmony and order in the soul. Plato and his contemporaries attributed specific character-forming qualities to each of the individual harmonia, or musical modes, believing that each could shape human character in a distinct way. These ideas inevitably persisted and continue to endure. Theorists throughout history have agreed that music profoundly influences human character and shapes morality.

  15. Origen’s theological and mystical approach to the Scriptures in the introduction to his commentary on John’s Gospel

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    P.B. Decock

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores Origen’s approach to interpreting John’s Gospel as can be seen in the introduction to his commentary. It deals with the points which were usually discussed in the introductions to Aristotle and Plato. It was this educational aim of the philosophical tradition that was Origen’s chief concern in commenting on the Scriptures; an aim which was not seen as merely becoming skilled or well-informed. Rather, it was about developing in virtue, in wisdom, in conversion to the Good (Plato; or as Origen understood it, development in love for God. Origen perceived the development of love for God in three basic steps: moral purification, by which the person is enabled to appreciate moral values; enlightenment, by which the person recognises God as the supreme and absolute value; and finally, union with God in love, which is never fully achieved in this life. The New Testament together with the Old Testament (understood in the light of the New Testament, reveals the power of the Gospel “in mirror darkly” while the “eternal gospel” will be the full revelation of it at the eschaton. John’s Gospel is the clearest expression of the divine Logos; but no one can understand the text fully as expression of the Logos unless one becomes like John – who was intimately related to the Logos, as the Logos is related to the Father (John 13:23, 25; 1:18.

  16. Geregtigheid, billikheid en waarheid in Platoniese en hedendaagse perspektief: Antieke waardes in Suid-Afrikaanse konteks

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    Deon van Zyl S.C.

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Justice, fairness and truth In Platonic and contemporary perspective: ancient values in South African contextThe concept of justice (dikaiosyne in the thought of Plato was only one of the four cardinal virtues described by him, the others being wisdom (sophia, restraint (sophrosyne and courage (andreia. Justice was inevitably linked with fairness or equity (epieikeia, a concept more fully developed by Plato's most famous pupil, Aristotle. It was likewise associated with the concept of truth (aletheia as a virtue and as part of a purifying process. Later generations ofphilosophers, from Cicero to Rawls, were fascinated by such Platonic and Aristotelian thought, although they interpreted it in various ways. In a changing world many ancient values are as relevant today as they were in the distant past. They are basic to fundamental human rights, which have become so prominent in modern times. They are essential ingredients of peace and reconciliation, as amply recognised in South Africa, which has only recently joined the community of democratic nations and is dependent on instruments, such as its new Bill o f Rights and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, to achieve transformation.

  17. Estética, técnica y didáctica de la pictura de Sición

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Tomas Garcia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La pintura griega adquirió en Sición una dimensión hasta entonces desconocida. Con Eupompo, un nuevo elemento didáctico entra en el mundo de la pintura y se establece una nueva posición social para el artista y para la pintura. Las posteriores figuras de la escuela, como Pánfilo o Pausias, continuaron el camino iniciado por Eupompo y difundieron el estilo de la escuela. Este estilo tenía a la naturaleza como principal motivo de su arte, siendo la primera y única maestra. A partir de aquí se perfeccionaron técnicas nuevas, como la encaústica. La pintura entró a formar parte de la educación liberal en Sición y después en el resto de Grecia. Platón y Aristóteles simbolizan los extremos opuestos de este nuevo panorama intelectual y artístico. The Sicyonian school of painting has always been identified as one of the main enemies of Plato for many reasons, in particular for the use of scientific disciplines that, according to Plato should be reserved for the study of philosophy or dialectic. By contrast, Aristotle shares much of the aesthetic ideals of the school of Sicyon: his love for nature as a teacher of art or the maximum value of drawing within the liberal arts education. Fundamental advances in the development of Greek painting occurred during the second half of the fifth century BC and early fourth century BC, coinciding with the most creative period of Plato. During the first half of fourth century BC, the art of painting clearly flourished and the social function of art also changed dramatically from the news coming from Sicyon.

  18. An Inquiry of NCATE's Move into Virtue Ethics by Way of Dispositions (Is This What Aristotle Meant?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    The recent turn in teacher education reform in the United States toward hyper "professionalization" and assessment-based accreditation, spearheaded by the largest accrediting agency, the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), has moved beyond codifying knowledge and skills to codifying the internal existence of those…

  19. “La tua Grecia, la quale a me non è Dio”: Martello and Metastasio in reinterpreting Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Ferri-Benedetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Martello in 1714 and Metastasio in 1773-1783: two Italian authors who, bothbelonging to the Accademia dell’Arcadia, tried, on one hand, to reinterpret andunderstand the dictates of Aristotle’s Poetics (largely “twisted” during the previouscentury by a number of zealous scholars through the literary and philosophical innovations of their time; and, on the other hand, to apply this new perspective to the important genre of musical theatre or dramma per musica. We look for (and compare eventual links between both authors in the treatment of Aristotelian prescriptions applied to the rich patterns of late baroque theatre and melodramma.

  20. 试析亚里士多德的德性幸福论%Aristotle's virtue theory of happiness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴寿波

    2010-01-01

    古往今来许多哲人的学说都涉及过幸福问题,但其中最具有智慧和影响力的要数古希腊思想家亚里士多德的幸福论.亚里士多德认为至善是幸福,幸福是灵魂合与德性的实现活动,只有具备一定德性的人才能够获得幸福.