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Sample records for platinum-lined flowing autoclave

  1. Resin flow and void formation in an autoclave cure cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionetto, Francesca; Lucia, Massimo; Dell'Anna, Riccardo; Maffezzoli, Alfonso

    2016-05-01

    A finite element (FE) model able to evaluate both the evolution of resin flow, degree of reaction and void formation during autoclave cure cycles was developed. The model was implemented using a commercial epoxy matrix widely used in aeronautic field. The FE model also included a kinetic and rheological model whose input parameters were experimentally determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry and rheological analysis. The FE model was able to predict the evolution of degree of reaction with very good agreement with the experimental data. Moreover, the predicted resin losses were lower than 3% of the overall composite resin content.

  2. Numerical and Experimental Study of the Bleeder Flow in Autoclave Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanxia; Li, Min; Gu, Yizhuo; Zhang, Zuoguang

    2011-08-01

    In the autoclave process, resin flow is a primary mechanics for the removing of excess resin and voids entrapped in the laminate and obtaining a uniform and void free composite part. A numerical method was developed to simulate the resin flow in the laminate and the bleeder, and the effects of `bleeder flow' on the resin flow and fiber compaction were conducted. At the same time, fiber distribution in the cured laminates was investigated by both experiments and simulations for the CF/Epoxy and CF/BMI composites. The data of the experiments and simulations demonstrated that fibers consolidated and reconsolidated in the laminate and it was impacted by the viscosity and gel time of the resin system. Compared to the post study in which only resin flow in the laminate are considered, these results will deepen the understanding of the consolidation process, resin pressure variation and void control during the autoclave process, which is valuable for the study of the performance of composite parts, provided that fiber distribution does affect some properties of composite material.

  3. Solubility study of nickel ferrite in boric acid using a flow-through autoclave system under high temperature and high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Joon; Choi, Ke Chon; Ha, Yeong Keong [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The solubility of nickel ferrite in an aqueous solution of boric acid was studied by varying the pH at the temperatures ranging from 25 .deg. C to 320 .deg. C. A flow-through autoclave system was specially designed and fabricated to measure the solubility of Fe in hydrothermal solutions under high temperature and pressure. The performance of this flow-through system was directly compared with the conventional static state technique using a batch-type autoclave system. The stability of fluid velocity for the flow-through autoclave system was verified prior to the solubility measurement. The influence of chemical additives, such as boric acid and H2, on the solubility of nickel ferrite was also evaluated.

  4. Autoclave processing for composite material fabrication. 1: An analysis of resin flows and fiber compactions for thin laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    High quality long fiber reinforced composites, such as those used in aerospace and industrial applications, are commonly processed in autoclaves. An adequate resin flow model for the entire system (laminate/bleeder/breather), which provides a description of the time-dependent laminate consolidation process, is useful in predicting the loss of resin, heat transfer characteristics, fiber volume fraction and part dimension, etc., under a specified set of processing conditions. This could be accomplished by properly analyzing the flow patterns and pressure profiles inside the laminate during processing. A newly formulated resin flow model for composite prepreg lamination process is reported. This model considers viscous resin flows in both directions perpendicular and parallel to the composite plane. In the horizontal direction, a squeezing flow between two nonporous parallel plates is analyzed, while in the vertical direction, a poiseuille type pressure flow through porous media is assumed. Proper force and mass balances have been made and solved for the whole system. The effects of fiber-fiber interactions during lamination are included as well. The unique features of this analysis are: (1) the pressure gradient inside the laminate is assumed to be generated from squeezing action between two adjacent approaching fiber layers, and (2) the behavior of fiber bundles is simulated by a Finitely Extendable Nonlinear Elastic (FENE) spring.

  5. Variation law of gas holdup in an autoclave during the pressure leaching process by using a mixed-flow agitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lei; Liu, Yan; Tang, Jun-jie; Lü, Guo-zhi; Zhang, Ting-an

    2017-08-01

    The multiphase reaction process of pressure leaching is mainly carried out in the liquid phase. Therefore, gas holdup is essential for the gas-liquid-solid phase reaction and the extraction rate of valuable metals. In this paper, a transparent quartz autoclave, a six blades disc turbine-type agitator, and a high-speed camera were used to investigate the gas holdup of the pressure leaching process. Furthermore, experiments determining the effects of agitation rate, temperature, and oxygen partial pressure on gas holdup were carried out. The results showed that when the agitation rate increased from 350 to 600 r/min, the gas holdup increased from 0.10% to 0.64%. When the temperature increased from 363 to 423 K, the gas holdup increased from 0.14% to 0.20%. When the oxygen partial pressure increased from 0.1 to 0.8 MPa, the gas holdup increased from 0.13% to 0.19%. A similar criteria relationship was established by Homogeneous Principle and Buckingham's theorem. Comprehensively, empirical equation of gas holdup was deduced on the basis of experimental data and the similarity theory, where the criterion equation was determined as ɛ = 4.54 × 10-11 n 3.65 T 2.08 P g 0.18. It can be seen from the formula that agitation rate made the most important impact on gas holdup in the pressure leaching process using the mixed-flow agitator.

  6. ASRM test report: Autoclave cure process development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbar, D. L.; Mitchell, Suzanne

    1992-01-01

    ASRM insulated segments will be autoclave cured following insulation pre-form installation and strip wind operations. Following competitive bidding, Aerojet ASRM Division (AAD) Purchase Order 100142 was awarded to American Fuel Cell and Coated Fabrics Company, Inc. (Amfuel), Magnolia, AR, for subcontracted insulation autoclave cure process development. Autoclave cure process development test requirements were included in Task 3 of TM05514, Manufacturing Process Development Specification for Integrated Insulation Characterization and Stripwind Process Development. The test objective was to establish autoclave cure process parameters for ASRM insulated segments. Six tasks were completed to: (1) evaluate cure parameters that control acceptable vulcanization of ASRM Kevlar-filled EPDM insulation material; (2) identify first and second order impact parameters on the autoclave cure process; and (3) evaluate insulation material flow-out characteristics to support pre-form configuration design.

  7. Autoclave nuclear criticality safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Aquila, D.M. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States); Tayloe, R.W. Jr. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Steam-heated autoclaves are used in gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plants to heat large cylinders of UF{sub 6}. Nuclear criticality safety for these autoclaves is evaluated. To enhance criticality safety, systems are incorporated into the design of autoclaves to limit the amount of water present. These safety systems also increase the likelihood that any UF{sub 6} inadvertently released from a cylinder into an autoclave is not released to the environment. Up to 140 pounds of water can be held up in large autoclaves. This mass of water is sufficient to support a nuclear criticality when optimally combined with 125 pounds of UF{sub 6} enriched to 5 percent U{sup 235}. However, water in autoclaves is widely dispersed as condensed droplets and vapor, and is extremely unlikely to form a critical configuration with released UF{sub 6}.

  8. Identification of autoclave-resistant Anisakis simplex allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballeda-Sangiao, Noelia; Olivares, Fabiola; Rodriguez-Mahillo, Ana I; Careche, Mercedes; Tejada, Margarita; Moneo, Ignacio; González-Muñoz, Miguel

    2014-04-01

    Anisakis simplex is a fish parasite able to induce allergic reactions in humans infected when eating raw or undercooked fish parasitized with viable third-stage larvae. Some authors claim that exposure to nonviable Anisakis material can result in allergic symptoms in previously sensitized patients, indicating that parasite allergens are resistant to the thermal treatments of usual cooking procedures. Furthermore, some patients report symptoms after eating canned fish. The aim of this work was the analysis of parasite allergen stability in heating to 121 °C in an autoclave to simulate the thermal process applied to canned fish. Third-stage larvae were subjected to autoclaving for 20, 40, and 80 min, and parasite crude extracts were analyzed by electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and a flow-cytometric basophil activation test. Allergens resistant to autoclaving were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by ion trap mass spectrometry. Protein analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that autoclaving considerably reduced the number and intensity of identifiable protein bands in a time-dependent manner. Several allergens were detected by immunoblotting with a pool of A. simplex allergic patients' sera after autoclaving. Allergens of 9 and 14 kDa resistant to autoclaving were identified as Ani s 4 and Ani s 1 allergens, respectively. Functional analysis showed that allergens retain their capacity to activate basophils even after autoclaving for 80 min. In conclusion, some relevant A. simplex allergens retain their capacity to bind immunoglobulin E and activate basophils after being subjected to autoclaving, which is a method equivalent to that used in industrial canning processes.

  9. Comparison of Autoclave and Out-of-Autoclave Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, James K.; Kenner, W. Scott; Pelham, Larry; Miller, Sandi G.; Polis, Danel L.; Nailadi, Chaitra; Zimmerman, Thomas J.; Lort, Richard D.; Hou, Tan-Hung; Quade, Derek J.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Systems Mission Directorate initiated an Advanced Composite Technology Project through the Exploration Technology Development Program in order to support the polymer composite needs for future heavy lift launch architectures. As an example, the large composite dry structural applications on Ares V inspired the evaluation of autoclave and out-of-autoclave (OOA) composite materials. A NASA and industry team selected the most appropriate materials based on component requirements for a heavy lift launch vehicle. Autoclaved and OOA composites were fabricated and results will highlight differences in processing conditions, laminate quality, as well as initial room temperature thermal and mechanical performance. Results from this study compare solid laminates that were both fiber-placed and hand-laid. Due to the large size of heavy-lift launch vehicle composite structures, there is significant potential that the uncured composite material or prepreg will experience significant out-life during component fabrication. Therefore, prepreg out-life was a critical factor examined in this comparison. In order to rigorously test material suppliers recommended out-life, the NASA/Industry team extended the out-time of the uncured composite prepreg to values that were approximately 50% beyond the manufacturers out-time limits. Early results indicate that the OOA prepreg composite materials suffered in both composite quality and mechanical property performance from their extended out-time. However, the OOA materials performed similarly to the autoclaved composites when processed within a few days of exposure to ambient "shop" floor handling. Follow on studies evaluating autoclave and OOA aluminum honeycomb core sandwich composites are planned.

  10. Volume of an Industrial Autoclave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Madaffari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We were able to determine the volume of an industrial autoclave sterilization tank using a technique learned in calculus. By measuring the dimensions of the tank and roughly estimating the equation of curvature at the ends of the tank, we were able to revolve half of the end of the tank around the x axis to get its fluid volume. Adding the two volumes of the ends and the volume of the cylindrical portion on the tank yielded the total volume.

  11. Mercury release during autoclave sterilization of amalgam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsell, D E; Karns, L; Buchanan, W T; Johnson, R B

    1996-05-01

    Natural teeth are an invaluable teaching tool for preclinical instruction in operative dentistry and endodontic techniques. Cavity preparation in teeth containing amalgam restorations is a realistic simulation of an often experienced clinical situation. As various pathogens are contained in saliva, teeth must be disinfected before use by students. The purpose of this study is to indirectly evaluate whether mercury vapor is released from amalgam restorations in such teeth during steam autoclave sterilization. Mercury vapor detection, sample mass changes and x-ray fluorescence data were collected from experimental steam autoclave sterilization of amalgam samples sealed in autoclave bags. All of the data showed evidence of mercury vapor generation coincident to steam autoclave sterilization. Mercury vapor levels within the room where amalgam was exposed to steam autoclave sterilization reached levels that constitute an unnecessary health risk to dental personnel. The volume of amalgam tested simulated that contained in 175 amalgam restored teeth. Initial venting of the autoclave chamber produced mercury vapor concentrations significantly in excess of OSHA vapor concentration ceiling levels. Thus, the use of a steam autoclave for sterilization of amalgam containing teeth for use in preclinical laboratory exercises may be harmful to personnel involved.

  12. Autoclaves for Aerospace Applications: Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Upadhya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Council of Scientific and Industerial Research National Aerospace Laboratories (CSIR-NAL, Bangalore, India has been engaged in the research of autoclaves for the past three decades and has pioneered their development and usage in India for aerospace/aircraft structural applications. The autoclaves at CSIR-NAL have played a significant role in all the major national aircraft/aerospace programs. The largest aerospace autoclave in India (working size of 4.4 m diameter and 9.0 m length has been successfully commissioned at CSIR-NAL. This paper gives the technological challenges faced and the innovative concepts that were introduced in these autoclaves.

  13. Autoclave foam concrete: Structure and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestnikov, Alexei; Semenov, Semen; Strokova, Valeria; Nelubova, Viktoria

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the technology and properties of autoclaved foam concrete taking into account practical experience and laboratory studies. The results of study of raw materials and analysis of structure and properties of foam-concrete before and after autoclave treatment are basic in this work. Experimental studies of structure and properties of foam concrete are carried out according to up-to-date methods and equipment on the base of the shared knowledge centers. Results of experimental studies give a deep understanding of properties of raw materials, possible changes and new formations in inner layers of porous material providing the improvement of constructional and operational properties of autoclaved foam concrete. Principal directions of technology enhancement as well as developing of production of autoclave foam concretes under cold-weather conditions in Russia climate are justified.

  14. NON-AUTOCLAVE SILICATE BRICK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Yaglov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a technology for obtaining bricks on the basis of lime-silica mixtures where chemical interactions are practically completely realized in dispersive state at the stage of preparation of binding contact maturing and raw mixture as a whole. The role of forming operation (moulding is changed in principle because in this case conversion of dispersive system into a rock-like solid occurs and due to this the solid obtains complete water-resistance in contact with water immediately after forming operation. Theoretical basis for the developed technology is capability of silicate dispersive substances (hydrated calcium silicate to transit in non-stable state, to form a rock-like water-resistant solid in the moment of mechanical load application during forming process. Specific feature of the proposed method is an exclusion of additional operations for autoclaving of products from the process of obtaining a silicate brick.Synthetic hydrated calcium silicate in contrast to natural ones are more uniform in composition and structure, they contain less impurities and they are characterized by dispersive composition and due to the mentioned advantages they find wider practical application. Contact-condensation binders permit to manipulate product properties on their basis and ensure maximum correspondence to the requirements of the concrete application. Raw material sources for obtaining synthetic hydrated calcium silicates are practically un-limited because calcium-silicon containing substances are found as in various technogenic wastes so in natural compounds as well. So the problem for obtaining hydrated calcium silicates having contact-condensation ability for structure formation becomes more and more actual one. This transition is considered as dependent principally on arrangement rate of substance particles which determined the level of its instability.

  15. Autoclave performance and operator knowledge of autoclave use in primary care: a survey of UK practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, W A; Chew-Graham, C A; Cheung, S W; Burke, F J

    2001-07-01

    Changes in the delivery of health care have increased the demand for minor surgical and screening procedures in general practice. This has increased the risk of cross-infection with blood-borne viruses and the demand for sterile instruments. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and training of medical personnel in England and Wales on aspects of autoclave use, and to test the effectiveness of their practice autoclaves. An anonymous postal questionnaire and autoclave performance survey using biological indicators was made of 700 general medical practitioners selected at random from FHSA lists from 12 Health Authorities in England and Wales. The overall response rate was 53.1% (N= 372) comprising 10% general practitioners and 90% practice nurses. Eighty-two percent of respondents used autoclaves with a mean age of 2.5 years, of which 91% had been serviced in the past year. While 35% of respondents made daily observation of gauges, 19% did not routinely monitor autoclave effectiveness. Six autoclaves failed to sterilize the spore test ampoules. Fourteen percent of respondents did not autoclave instruments after every patient. Only 33.1% reported wearing gloves during minor operations. Fifty five percent had training in cross-infection prevention. It was concluded that although there has been improvement in instrument decontamination procedures in general practice compared with previous surveys, further education of medical practitioners and practice nurses in the use of autoclaves and infection prevention and control is indicated. The failure of 2% of the autoclaves to kill spores suggests the need for increased monitoring of autoclave performance. Two-thirds of practitioners exposed themselves to increased risk of infection by carrying out minor surgery without the protection of gloves. Copyright 2001 The Hospital Infection Society.

  16. Mechanical Properties of Autoclaved Shell-aggregate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Hailong; CUI Chong; LI Xing; Pierre Chevrier; Vanessa Bouchart; TANG Feng

    2011-01-01

    Waste solid propylene oxide sludge(POS)and fly ash were used as main raw material to prepare propylene oxide sludge aggregate(POSA)under the condition of autoclaved(180 ℃,1.0 MPa)curing.Three different test methods namely cylinder compressive strength(CCS),individual aggregate compressive strength(IACS)and strength contribution rate(SCR)proposed were used to characterize the mechanical properties of the autoclaved POSA.POS shell-aggregate with SCR of 94% were prepared under the hydrothermal synthesis and autoclaved curing.The experimental results indicate that CCS and IACS have good consistency in characterizing mechanical properties of POSA.It is suggested that SCR not only can characterize the strength of POSA core,but also can reflect the effect of shell on the performance of POSA.By means of least square method,relationships between CCS and IACS,CCS and SCR,IACS and SCR were deduced.

  17. Shear reinforced beams in autoclaved aerated concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelius, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Shear behaviour in concrete materials is very well documented, for normal density concrete materials. In this paper results of various tests on low density concrete materials like aerated autoclaved concrete (in the following denoted aircrete) will be presented and analyzed for different combinat......Shear behaviour in concrete materials is very well documented, for normal density concrete materials. In this paper results of various tests on low density concrete materials like aerated autoclaved concrete (in the following denoted aircrete) will be presented and analyzed for different...

  18. Out-of-Autoclave Cure Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brian S.

    2015-01-01

    As the size of aerospace composite parts exceeds that of even the largest autoclaves, the development of new out-of-autoclave processes and materials is necessary to ensure quality and performance. Many out-of-autoclave prepreg systems can produce high-quality composites initially; however, due to long layup times, the resin advancement commonly causes high void content and variations in fiber volume. Applied Poleramic, Inc. (API), developed an aerospace-grade benzoxazine matrix composite prepreg material that offers more than a year out-time at ambient conditions and provides exceptionally low void content when out-of-autoclave cured. When compared with aerospace epoxy prepreg systems, API's innovation offers significant improvements in terms of out-time at ambient temperature and the corresponding tack retention. The carbon fiber composites developed with the optimized matrix technology have significantly better mechanical performance in terms of hot-wet retention and compression when compared with aerospace epoxy matrices. These composites also offer an excellent overall balance of properties. This matrix system imparts very low cure shrinkage, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and low density when compared with most aerospace epoxy prepreg materials.

  19. Short RNA indicator sequences are not completely degraded by autoclaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnithan, Veena V.; Unc, Adrian; Joe, Valerisa; Smith, Geoffrey B.

    2014-01-01

    Short indicator RNA sequences (autoclaving and are recovered intact by molecular amplification. Primers targeting longer sequences are most likely to produce false positives due to amplification errors easily verified by melting curves analyses. If short indicator RNA sequences are used for virus identification and quantification then post autoclave RNA degradation methodology should be employed, which may include further autoclaving. PMID:24518856

  20. Autoclave performance and practitioner knowledge of autoclave use: a survey of selected UK practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, F J; Coulter, W A; Cheung, S W; Palenik, C J

    1998-04-01

    It is essential that the dental surgery autoclave be tested regularly to ensure that it is operating at a temperature and pressure that will kill all microorganisms. The aims of this study were to investigate the knowledge of general dental practitioners on aspects of autoclave use, to examine their autoclaving routines, and to test the effectiveness of the sterilization cycle of their practice's autoclave. A 35-question questionnaire was distributed to 840 dental practitioners in the United Kingdom. They were also sent three spore test ampules with details of their function and instructions on their use. The practitioners were asked to use the spore test ampules in their own practice's autoclave and to return these for testing. Four hundred one questionnaires and associated spore test ampules were returned for analysis, a 47.7% response rate. Eight practice autoclaves (2.0%) failed to sterilize the spores. These practices were offered a retest following counseling. A total of 77.8% of respondents had received formal training in infection control. Of the 71.3% of respondents who stated that they check the performance of their autoclave routinely, 31.5% use a chemical strip every cycle, 17.5% use it once per day, and 30.4% use it once per week. However, only five respondents (1.2%) use a spore test; two of these respondents use it every cycle, one once per day, and two once per week. Further education of practitioners may be necessary to enhance their awareness of the need for routine checking of autoclave effectiveness.

  1. Control over particle size distribution by autoclaving poloxamer-stabilized trimyristin nanodispersions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göke, Katrin; Roese, Elin; Arnold, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    into the bloodstream. Consequently, small particles with a narrow particle size distribution are desired. Hitherto, there are, however, only limited possibilities for the preparation of monodisperse, pharmaceutically relevant dispersions. In this work, the effect of autoclaving at 121 °C on the particle size...... distribution of lipid nanoemulsions and -suspensions consisting of the pharmaceutically relevant components trimyristin and poloxamer 188 was studied. Additionally, the amount of emulsifier needed to stabilize both untreated and autoclaved particles was assessed. In our study, four dispersions of mean particle...... sizes from 45 to 150 nm were prepared by high-pressure melt homogenization. The particle size distribution before and after autoclaving was characterized using static and dynamic light scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, and transmission electron microscopy. Asymmetrical flow field...

  2. Effects of steam autoclave treatment on Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesca-Espitia, L C; Suvira, M; Rosenbeck, K; Korza, G; Setlow, B; Li, W; Wang, S; Li, Y-Q; Setlow, P

    2016-11-01

    To determine the mechanism of autoclave killing of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores used in biological indicators (BIs) for steam autoclave sterilization, and rates of loss of spore viability and a spore enzyme used in BIs. Spore viability, dipicolinic acid (DPA) release, nucleic acid staining, α-glucosidase activity, protein structure and mutagenesis were measured during autoclaving of G. stearothermophilus spores. Loss of DPA and increases in spore core nucleic acid staining were slower than loss of spore viability. Spore core α-glucosidase was also lost more slowly than spore viability, although soluble α-glucosidase in spore preparations was lost more rapidly. However, spores exposed to an effective autoclave sterilization lost all viability and α-glucosidase activity. Apparently killed autoclaved spores were not recovered by artificial germination in supportive media, much spore protein was denatured during autoclaving, and partially killed autoclave-treated spore preparations did not acquire mutations. These results indicate that autoclave-killed spores cannot be revived, spore killing by autoclaving is likely by protein damage, and spore core α-glucosidase activity is lost more slowly than spore viability. This work provides insight into the mechanism of autoclave killing of spores of an organism used in BIs, and that a spore enzyme in a BI is more stable to autoclaving than spore viability. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Control over Particle Size Distribution by Autoclaving Poloxamer-Stabilized Trimyristin Nanodispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göke, Katrin; Roese, Elin; Arnold, Andreas; Kuntsche, Judith; Bunjes, Heike

    2016-09-06

    Lipid nanoparticles are under investigation as delivery systems for poorly water-soluble drugs. The particle size in these dispersions strongly influences important pharmaceutical properties like biodistribution and drug loading capacity; it should be below 500 nm for direct injection into the bloodstream. Consequently, small particles with a narrow particle size distribution are desired. Hitherto, there are, however, only limited possibilities for the preparation of monodisperse, pharmaceutically relevant dispersions. In this work, the effect of autoclaving at 121 °C on the particle size distribution of lipid nanoemulsions and -suspensions consisting of the pharmaceutically relevant components trimyristin and poloxamer 188 was studied. Additionally, the amount of emulsifier needed to stabilize both untreated and autoclaved particles was assessed. In our study, four dispersions of mean particle sizes from 45 to 150 nm were prepared by high-pressure melt homogenization. The particle size distribution before and after autoclaving was characterized using static and dynamic light scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, and transmission electron microscopy. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation was used for particle size distribution analyses and for the determination of free poloxamer 188. Upon autoclaving, the mean particle size increased to up to 200 nm, but not proportionally to the initial size. At the same time, the particle size distribution width decreased remarkably. Heat treatment thus seems to be a promising approach to achieve the desired narrow particle size distribution of such dispersions. Related to the lipid content, suspension particles needed more emulsifier for stabilization than emulsion droplets, and smaller particles more than larger ones.

  4. No-Oven, No-Autoclave Composite Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Very large composite structures, such as those used in NASA's Space Launch System, push the boundaries imposed by current autoclaves. New technology is needed to maintain composite performance and free manufacturing engineers from the restraints of curing equipment size limitations. Recent efforts on a Phase II project by Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), have advanced the technology and manufacturing readiness levels of a unique two-part epoxy resin system. Designed for room-temperature infusion of a dry carbon preform, the system includes a no-heat-added cure that delivers 350 F composite performance in a matter of hours. This no-oven, no-autoclave (NONA) composite processing eliminates part-size constraints imposed by infrastructure and lowers costs by increasing throughput and reducing capital-specific, process-flow bottlenecks. As a result of the Phase II activity, NONA materials and processes were used to make high-temperature composite tooling suitable for further production of carbon-epoxy laminates and honeycomb/ sandwich-structure composites with an aluminum core. The technology platform involves tooling design, resin infusion processing, composite part design, and resin chemistry. The various technology elements are combined to achieve a fully cured part. The individual elements are not unusual, but they are combined in such a way that enables proper management of the heat generated by the epoxy resin during cure. The result is a self-cured carbon/ epoxy composite part that is mechanically and chemically stable at temperatures up to 350 F. As a result of the successful SBIR effort, CRG has launched NONA Composites as a spinoff subsidiary. The company sells resin to end users, fabricates finished goods for customers, and sells composite tooling made with NONA materials and processes to composite manufacturers.

  5. Process For Autoclaving HMW PMR-II Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Cifani, Diane

    1990-01-01

    Parts made of graphite-reinforced, high-molecular-weight (HMW) PMR-II polyimide easy to fabricate by autoclaving. Study showed autoclaved HMW PMR-II parts equal in quality to those made by compression molding. Well suited to use at temperatures up to 700 degrees F (371 degrees C). In aircraft engines, they offer advantages of strength and light weight.

  6. Autoclave use in dental practice in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, C M; Kearns, H P O; Coulter, W A; Stevenson, M; Burke, F J T

    2004-08-01

    To assess by postal questionnaire, cross-infection control methods, especially sterilisation procedures, of 700 general dental practitioners in the Republic of Ireland, and to biologically monitor steam pressure sterilisers or autoclaves in their practices. Methods of instrument cleaning and sterilisation, autoclave efficacy. A response rate of 40% with all, except one practitioner, using steam sterilisation. 49% also reported the use of chemical sterilisation with a quarter of these using glutaraldehyde. However, instrument soaking time varied greatly from 2.5 minutes to 74 hours. Methods of instrument cleaning prior to autoclaving were as follows: scrubbing by hand 41.5%, ultrasonic cleaning 7.0%, combination of both 50%. 52.9% of the respondents did not autoclave their dental handpieces and only 44.7% disinfected impressions before sending them to the laboratory. The autoclaves of thirty practitioners (11.3%) did not pass the initial biological test. Following counselling about possible causes of failure, four autoclaves (1.5%) failed a repeat biological test. However, seven practitioners did not return the repeat biological test. Some aspects of recommended cross-infection control procedures are well adhered to, e.g. instrument cleaning, but further education is required in certain key areas, in particular the use of chemical sterilisation, dental handpiece autoclaving and impression disinfection. There is also a need to increase awareness of the importance of routine autoclave servicing and calibration, along with validation and monitoring.

  7. Lightweight autoclavable wide-angle contact lens for vitreous surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalam, K V; Gupta, Shailesh K; Agarwal, Swati

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe an autoclavable, self-stabilizing, lightweight wide-angle contact lens for vitrectomy. The lens has two optical pieces with perforated plastic casing to sustain a high temperature (150 degrees C) for autoclaving. The lens has a 106 degrees static and 127 degrees dynamic field of view. The footplates and reduced weight (2.4 grams) due to the plastic casing allow self-stabilization of the lens. The open lens design.with high temperature resistant plastic prevents fogging during autoclaving and surgery. The autoclavable, self-stabilizing, lightweight wide-angle contact lens allows visualization of the peripheral retina during surgery and faster sterilization by autoclaving between surgeries without the disadvantage of lens fogging.

  8. Evaluation of dimensional stability of autoclavable elastomeric impression material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, G P; Anjum, Ayesha; Satish Babu, C L; Shetty, Shilpa

    2011-03-01

    Impressions are important sources of cross contamination between patients and dental laboratories. As a part of infection control impressions contaminated with variety of micro-organisms via blood and oral secretions should be cleaned and disinfected or sterilized before being handled in dental laboratory. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of autoclaving on dimensional stability of elastomeric impression material (polyvinyl siloxane-Affinis). In this in vitro study standardized stainless steel die as per ADA specification number 19 was fabricated. Polyvinyl siloxane (Affinis) light body and putty viscosity elastomeric impression materials were used. A total of 40 impressions of the stainless steel die were made and numeric coding system was used to identify the samples. Measurements were made using a measuring microscope. Distance between the cross lines CD and C'D' reproduced in the impression were measured before autoclaving, immediately after autoclaving and 24 hours after autoclaving and dimensional change was calculated. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. The mean difference in dimensional change between the three groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). However the results revealed that there was higher mean dimensional change immediately after autoclaving when compared to the other 2 time intervals. It is desirable to delay the casting of an autoclavable elastomeric impression material by about 24 hours. Though disinfection of impression is routinely followed autoclaving of impression is an effective method of sterilization.

  9. No-Oven, No-Autoclave, Composite Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to continue the efforts from the 2010 NASA SBIR Phase I topic X5.03, "No-Oven, No-Autoclave (NONA) Composite...

  10. Autoclave decomposition method for metals in soils and sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-López, M; Jonathan, M P; Rodríguez-Espinosa, P F; Salgado-Galeana, J A

    2012-04-01

    Leaching of partially leached metals (Fe, Mn, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) was done using autoclave technique which was modified based on EPA 3051A digestion technique. The autoclave method was developed as an alternative to the regular digestion procedure passed the safety norms for partial extraction of metals in polytetrafluoroethylene (PFA vessel) with a low constant temperature (119.5° ± 1.5°C) and the recovery of elements were also precise. The autoclave method was also validated using two Standard Reference Materials (SRMs: Loam Soil B and Loam Soil D) and the recoveries were equally superior to the traditionally established digestion methods. Application of the autoclave was samples from different natural environments (beach, mangrove, river, and city soil) to reproduce the recovery of elements during subsequent analysis.

  11. Generating Autoclave-Level Mechanical Properties with Out-of-Autoclave Thermoplastic Placement of Large Composite Aerospace Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Out-of-autoclave thermoplastic tape/tow placement (TP-ATP) is nearing commercialization but suffers a moderate gap in mechanical properties compared with laminates...

  12. Relationship between Structural Characteristics of Fly Ash and Reactivity under Autoclave Curing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The reactivity of autoclaved materials is conventionally estimated by their chemical composition. In this paper, after determining the chemical composition of various types of fly ash, a series of new tests which included X-ray Diffraction (XRD), infrared spectral analysis (IR) and bound water testing, were applied to investigate the performance of autoclaved fly ash products. The relationship between the infrared spectral analysis of Si-O wavenumber (about 1 100 cm-1) and its autoclaved chemical reactivity, and compressive strength of its autoclaved samples, is analyzed. The results show that fly ash with a lower wavenumber will have stronger autoclaved chemical reactivity and higher compressive strength for its autoclaved sample. Thus, the Si-O stretching vibration wavelength can be used to estimate autoclaved chemical reactivity of fly ash, so as to control the quality of fly ash to be autoclaved, and to predict the compressive strength of autoclaved fly ash products.

  13. 700 F properties of autoclave cured PMR-II composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifani, Diane

    1988-01-01

    Studies were conducted to develop autoclave processing parameters for graphite reinforced PMR-2 resin composite materials intended for use in applications at temperatures up to 371 degrees (700 F). The effect of resin composition on autoclaveability was investigated. The effect of various graphite fibers and resin composition on 343 C (650 F) and 371 C (700 F) thermo-oxidative stability and mechanical properties was also investigated. The results of the processing studies show that PMR-2 resin composites can be easily fabricated under autoclave conditions. Autoclaved laminates exposed to 1 atm of air at 343 C (650 F) and 371 C (700 F) exhibited less than 5 percent weight loss after 750 hr exposure to 650 F air and 8 percent weight loss during exposure to 700 F air for 500 hr. After 500 hr exposure, autoclaved laminates exhibited greater than 90 percent retention of initial 650 and 700 F flexural and interlaminar shear strengths. The effect of resin formulated molecular weight and postcure conditions on laminate glass transition temperature is also discussed.

  14. The 700 F properties of autoclave cured PMR-2 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Cifani, Diane

    1988-01-01

    Studies were conducted to develop autoclave processing parameters for graphite reinforced PMR-2 resin composite materials intended for use in applications at temperatures up to 371 degrees (700 F). The effect of resin composition on autoclaveability was investigated. The effect of various graphite fibers and resin composition on 343 C (650 F) and 371 C (700 F) thermo-oxidative stability and mechanical properties was also investigated. The results of the processing studies show that PMR-2 resin composites can be easily fabricated under autoclave conditions. Autoclaved laminates exposed to 1 atm of air at 343 C (650 F) and 371 C (700 F) exhibited less than 5 percent weight loss after 750 hr exposure to 650 F air and 8 percent weight loss during exposure to 700 F air for 500 hr. After 500 hr exposure, autoclaved laminates exhibited greater than 90 percent retention of initial 650 and 700 F flexural and interlaminar shear strengths. The effect of resin formulated molecular weight and postcure conditions on laminate glass transition temperature is also discussed.

  15. The effect of autoclave resterilisation on polyester vascular grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riepe, G; Whiteley, M S; Wente, A; Rogge, A; Schröder, A; Galland, R B; Imig, H

    1999-11-01

    polyester grafts are expensive, single-use items. Some manufacturers of uncoated, woven grafts include instructions for autoclave resterilisation to be performed at the surgeon's own request. Others warn against such manipulation. Theoretically, the glass transition point of polyester at 70-80 degrees C and the possible acceleration of hydrolysis suggest that autoclave resterilisation at 135 degrees C might be a problem. a DeBakey Soft Woven Dacron Vascular Prosthesis (Bard) and a Woven Double Velour Dacron Graft (Meadox) were autoclave-resterilised 0 to 20 times, having been weighed before and after sterilisation. Tactile testing was performed. Mechanical properties were examined by probe puncture and single-filament testing, the surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy and the degree of hydrolysis by infra-red spectroscopy. tactile testing revealed a change of feeling with increasing cycles of resterilisation. Investigation of weight, textile strength, single-filament strength, electron microscopy of the surface and infra-red spectroscopy showed no change of the material. changes felt are presumably a surface phenomenon, not measurably affecting strength or chemistry of material after autoclave resterilisation. We therefore feel that it is safe to use once-autoclave-resterilised surplus uncoated polyester grafts, provided that sterility is guaranteed. Copyright 1999 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  16. INVESTIGATION OF IN-AUTOCLAVE ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING COMPOSITE TOOLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Lindahl, John M [ORNL; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Post, Brian K [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Duty, Chad [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Matlack, Mike [Boeing Co., St. Louis, MO; Fahey Jr., Richard [Boeing Co., St. Louis, MO; Hassen, Ahmed A [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The autoclave is a crucial piece of equipment for fabricating Tier 1 polymer composite aerospace structural components with very low void content (i.e. < 5 %). The essential component in this composite manufacturing process is the rigid mold that defines the final shape of the fabricated composite component. The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL) Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) has been used to manufacture a new generation of in-autoclave tools that can be used to fabricate various aerospace composite parts. Different tools made form Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) with 50 % by weight carbon fiber and Polyphenylsulfone (PPSU) with 25 % carbon fiber are investigated in this study. The behavior of the printed tools under different temperature ramp rates for the autoclave cycles was observed and analyzed.

  17. BALU: Largest autoclave research facility in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ucan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the large-scale facilities operated at the Center for Lightweight-Production-Technology of the German Aerospace Center in Stade BALU is the world's largest research autoclave. With a loading length of 20m and a loading diameter of 5.8 m the main objective of the facility is the optimization of the curing process operated by components made of carbon fiber on an industrial scale. For this reason, a novel dynamic autoclaving control has been developed that is characterized by peripheral devices to expend the performance of the facility for differential applications, by sensing systems to detect the component state throughout the curing process and by a feedback system, which is capable to intervene into the running autoclave process.

  18. Color stability of shade guides after autoclave sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeling, Max; Sartori, Neimar; Monteiro, Sylvio; Baratieri, Luiz

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of 120 autoclave sterilization cycles on the color stability of two commercial shade guides (Vita Classical and Vita System 3D-Master). The specimens were evaluated by spectrophotometer before and after the sterilization cycles. The color was described using the three-dimensional CIELab system. The statistical analysis was performed in three chromaticity coordinates, before and after sterilization cycles, using the paired samples t test. All specimens became darker after autoclave sterilization cycles. However, specimens of Vita Classical became redder, while those of the Vita System 3D-Master became more yellow. Repeated cycles of autoclave sterilization caused statistically significant changes in the color coordinates of the two shade guides. However, these differences are considered clinically acceptable.

  19. Improving and monitoring autoclave performance in dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenik, C J; Burke, F J; Coulter, W A; Cheung, S W

    1999-12-11

    The sterilisation of instruments is central to the infection control process in the dental surgery, with the autoclave being most frequently used for this process. For effective operation, among other factors, it is essential that the autoclave is loaded correctly and tested regularly to ensure that it is operating at a temperature and pressure which will kill all micro-organisms. Biological indicators are another method of verifying the sterilisation process, since the sterilisation of the bacterial spores within the test ampoule provides a guarantee that sterilising conditions have been achieved.

  20. Development of autoclave moldable addition-type polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. W.; Jones, R. J.; Orell, M. K.; Zakrzewski, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    Chemistry and processing modifications of the poly(Diels Alder) polyimide (PDA) resin were performed to obtain structural composites suitable for 589 K (600 F) service. This work demonstrated that the PDA resin formulation is suitable for service at 589 K (600 F) for up to 125 hours when used in combination with Hercules HTS graphite fiber. Sandwich panels were autoclave molded using PDA/HTS skins and polyimide/glass honeycomb core. Excellent adhesion between honeycomb core and the facing skins was demonstrated. Fabrication ease was demonstrated by autoclave molding three-quarter scale YF-12 wing panels.

  1. Long Out-time, Out-of-Autoclave Cure Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the size of composite parts exceed that of even the largest autoclaves, new out-of-autoclave processes and materials are necessary to achieve the same level of...

  2. Methane biofiltration using Autoclaved Aerated Concrete as the carrier material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganendra, Giovanni; Mercado-Garcia, Daniel; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Boeckx, P.; Ho, Adrian; Boon, N.

    2015-01-01

    The methane removal capacity of mixed methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) culture in a biofilter setup using autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) as a highly porous carrier material was tested. Batch experiment was performed to optimize MOB immobilization on AAC specimens where optimum methane removal was

  3. Low-void polyimide resins for autoclave processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. J.; Vaughan, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Development of an advanced A-type polyimide, which can be used to produce autoclave molded, low-void content composites suitable for use at temperatures up to 316 C is reported. It consists of a mixture of methyl nadic anhydride, an 80:20 molar ratio of methylene dianaline and thiodianilene, and pyromellitic dianhydride.

  4. Curing A Large Composite Cylinder Without An Autoclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed technique provides application of heat and pressure to cure fiber-wound composite cylinder too large to fit in autoclave. Tube wound around cylinder applies pressure. Blanket distributes pressure. Pressure expels gas bubbles from material. Heat applied by conventional methods.

  5. Effectiveness of Bench Top Non-Vacuum Autoclaves on Dental Turbine Chamber Sterilization Effectiveness of Bench Top Non-Vacuum Autoclaves on Dental Turbine Chamber Sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraneh Movahhed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental turbine chamber is a suitable reservoir for living microorganisms, so chamber sterilization is necessary for reducing cross contamination risk. On the other hand, in non-vacuum autoclaves, steam penetration into turbine chamber is doubtful, while they are still in use in dental clinics. In this study, performance of small non-vacuum autoclave in turbine chamber sterilization was evaluated. Methods: A total of 48 dental turbines were sterilized by large vacuum autoclaves. The turbin chamber cap was opened in aseptic enviroment and a strip contaminated with bacillus stearothermophilus endospores was placed into chamber and chamber cap was closed. Twelve dental turbines were loaded in each of four autoclaves (2 large pre-vacuum autoclaves, 2 bench top non-vacuum autoclaves and sterilization process preformed according to the manufacturer's instructions. After the sterilization cycle, the strips were transferred to culture medium and incubated at 56°C for 48 Hours. As control sample, a biologic indicator that had not been autoclaved was used for each group. Results: Being loaded in different autoclaves, All 48 turbines were sterilized properly and all the cultures were negative. The culture results of four control indicators which were not sterilized, were positive. Conclusion: There was no difference between performance of vacuum and non-vacuum autoclaves in dental turbine chamber sterilization. Both types performed sterilization properly.

  6. [A project to improve the validity rate for nursing staff operating single door autoclave sterilizers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Hung; Li, Cheng-Chang; Chou, Chuan-Yu; Chen, Shu-Hwa

    2009-08-01

    This project was designed to improve the low validity rate for nurses responsible to operate single door autoclave sterilizers in the operating room. By investigating the current status, we found that the nursing staff validity rate of cognition on the autoclave sterilizer was 85%, and the practice operating check validity rate was only 80%. Such was due to a lack of in-service education. Problems with operation included: 1. Unsafe behaviors - not following standard procedure, lacking relevant operating knowledge and absence of a check form; 2. Unsafe environment - the conveying steam piping was typically not covered and lacked operation marks. Recommended improvement measures included: 1. holding in-service education; 2. generating an operation procedure flow chart; 3. implementing obstacle eliminating procedures; 4. covering piping to prevent fire and burns; 5. performing regular checks to ensure all procedures are followed. Following intervention, nursing staff cognition rose from 85% to 100%, while the operation validity rate rose from 80% to 100%. These changes ensure a safer operating room environment, and helps facilities move toward a zero accident rate in the healthcare environment.

  7. Porosity and Mechanical Strength of an Autoclaved Clayey Cellular Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Guglielmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the porosity and the mechanical strength of an Autoclaved Clayey Cellular Concrete (ACCC with the binder produced with 75 wt% kaolinite clay and 25 wt% Portland cement. Aluminum powder was used as foaming agent, from 0.2 wt% to 0.8 wt%, producing specimens with different porosities. The results show that the specimens with higher content of aluminum presented pore coalescence, which can explain the lower porosity of these samples. The porosities obtained with the aluminum contents used in the study were high (approximately 80%, what accounts for the low mechanical strength of the investigated cellular concretes (maximum of 0.62 MPa. Nevertheless, comparing the results obtained in this study to the ones for low temperature clayey aerated concrete with similar compositions, it can be observed that autoclaving is effective for increasing the material mechanical strength.

  8. PREPARATION OF ULTRA-LOW VOLUME WEIGHT AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Koutny

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Autoclaved aerated concrete is a modern construction material that gains its popularity especially due to its thermal insulation performance resulting from low volume weight and porous structure with sufficient mechanical strength. Nowadays, there are attempts to use this material for thermal insulation purposes and to replace current systems, which have many disadvantages, mainly concerning durability. The key for improvement of thermal insulation properties is therefore obtaining a material based on autoclaved aerated concrete with extremely low volume weight (below 200 kg/m ³ ensuring good thermal isolation properties, but with sufficient mechanical properties to allow easy manipulation. This material can be prepared by foaming very fine powder materials such as silica fume or very finely ground sand. This paper deals with the possibilities of preparation and summarizes the basic requirements for successful preparation of such a material.

  9. The use of solar energy for powering a portable autoclave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dravid, M N; Chandak, A; Phute, S U; Khadse, R K; Adchitre, H R; Kulkarni, S D

    2012-04-01

    Climate change and the depletion of fossil fuels have forced the developed world to look for clean energy alternatives. Solar cooking is developing in Asian and African countries blessed with ample sun, but is still at an early stage. A portable autoclave was developed in India using this technology. The Prince-40 Concentrator provided adequate capacity to autoclave culture media and treat biomedical waste in a small laboratory set-up, and could save electricity worth Rs. 15,000 (188.10 GBP)/year or LPG worth Rs. 37,500 (470.25 GBP)/year. This technology would be of immense use in health centres in rural areas with frequent power cuts or no power supply. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Autoclave Sterilization of PEDOT:PSS Electrophysiology Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uguz, Ilke; Ganji, Mehran; Hama, Adel; Tanaka, Atsunori; Inal, Sahika; Youssef, Ahmed; Owens, Roisin M; Quilichini, Pascale P; Ghestem, Antoine; Bernard, Christophe; Dayeh, Shadi A; Malliaras, George G

    2016-12-01

    Autoclaving, the most widely available sterilization method, is applied to poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) electrophysiology devices. The process does not harm morphology or electrical properties, while it effectively kills E. coli intentionally cultured on the devices. This finding paves the way to widespread introduction of PEDOT:PSS electrophysiology devices to the clinic. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Hydrolysis of organic matter during autoclaving of commingled household waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, E K

    2010-04-01

    Commingled household waste (HW) that had a controlled composition was autoclaved at elevated pressures in the presence of saturated steam for one hour at the nominal temperature levels of 130 degrees C, 160 degrees C and 200 degrees C. The focus of this study was the impact of temperature/pressure on hydrolysis of organic matter during autoclaving and the extent of its hydrolysis. The pH decreased with autoclaving temperature with which it had a linear relationship, and ranged from 7.4 and 6 in floc, and 6.7 and 3.6 in steam condensate. Overall, organic matter solubilisation, as indicated by dissolved organic carbon, biological and chemical oxygen demands, and total dissolved solids, increased with temperature. Lignin did not appear to hydrolyse. Hemicellulose hydrolysed and degraded the most, followed by cellulose. The highest recoveries of hemicellulose and cellulose in solution were achieved at 160 degrees C, although the latter could be due to experimental error. The largest losses of hemicellulose and cellulose were recorded at 200 degrees C. The performance of the system in respect to hydrolysis was inferior compared to other hydrothermal systems, particularly those employing wet oxidation.

  12. Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved and untreated food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampio, Elina; Ervasti, Satu; Paavola, Teija; Heaven, Sonia; Banks, Charles; Rintala, Jukka

    2014-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved (160°C, 6.2 bar) and untreated source segregated food waste (FW) was compared over 473 days in semi-continuously fed mesophilic reactors with trace elements supplementation, at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 2, 3, 4 and 6 kg volatile solids(VS)/m(3)d. Methane yields at all OLR were 5-10% higher for untreated FW (maximum 0.483±0.013 m(3) CH4/kg VS at 3 kg VS/m(3) d) than autoclaved FW (maximum 0.439±0.020 m(3) CH4/kg VS at 4 kg VS/m(3) d). The residual methane potential of both digestates at all OLRs was less than 0.110 m(3) CH4/kg VS, indicating efficient methanation in all cases. Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. Reactors fed on autoclaved FW showed lower ammonium and hydrogen sulphide concentrations, probably due to reduced protein hydrolysis as a result of formation of Maillard compounds. In the current study this reduced biodegradability appears to outweigh any benefit due to thermal hydrolysis of ligno-cellulosic components.

  13. Intelligent sensor-model automated control of PMR-15 autoclave processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, S.; Kranbuehl, D.; Loos, A.; Hinds, B.; Koury, J.

    1992-01-01

    An intelligent sensor model system has been built and used for automated control of the PMR-15 cure process in the autoclave. The system uses frequency-dependent FM sensing (FDEMS), the Loos processing model, and the Air Force QPAL intelligent software shell. The Loos model is used to predict and optimize the cure process including the time-temperature dependence of the extent of reaction, flow, and part consolidation. The FDEMS sensing system in turn monitors, in situ, the removal of solvent, changes in the viscosity, reaction advancement and cure completion in the mold continuously throughout the processing cycle. The sensor information is compared with the optimum processing conditions from the model. The QPAL composite cure control system allows comparison of the sensor monitoring with the model predictions to be broken down into a series of discrete steps and provides a language for making decisions on what to do next regarding time-temperature and pressure.

  14. Intelligent sensor-model automated control of PMR-15 autoclave processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, S.; Kranbuehl, D.; Loos, A.; Hinds, B.; Koury, J.

    1992-01-01

    An intelligent sensor model system has been built and used for automated control of the PMR-15 cure process in the autoclave. The system uses frequency-dependent FM sensing (FDEMS), the Loos processing model, and the Air Force QPAL intelligent software shell. The Loos model is used to predict and optimize the cure process including the time-temperature dependence of the extent of reaction, flow, and part consolidation. The FDEMS sensing system in turn monitors, in situ, the removal of solvent, changes in the viscosity, reaction advancement and cure completion in the mold continuously throughout the processing cycle. The sensor information is compared with the optimum processing conditions from the model. The QPAL composite cure control system allows comparison of the sensor monitoring with the model predictions to be broken down into a series of discrete steps and provides a language for making decisions on what to do next regarding time-temperature and pressure.

  15. An autoclave treatment reduces the solubility and antigenicity of an allergenic protein found in buckwheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Rikio; Yamato, Masayuki

    2012-06-01

    The effects of an autoclave treatment of buckwheat flour on a 24-kDa allergenic protein were investigated by measuring reduction in solubility and antibody binding. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed that the intensity of the major bands, including that of the 24-kDa allergen, was reduced by the autoclave treatment. The protein solubility in buckwheat flour was variably decreased by the autoclave treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis using a monoclonal antibody specific for buckwheat 24-kDa protein showed that the reactivity of protein extracts (10 μg/ml) from buckwheat flour was lowered by the autoclave treatment. The autoclave treatment may reduce the major allergen content of buckwheat. Future studies will determine if autoclaving treatments affect the allergenicity of the 24-kDa buckwheat protein.

  16. Carbon Foam Self-Heated Tooling for Out-of-Autoclave Composites Manufacturing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Touchstone Research Laboratory, Ltd. (Touchstone) has developed a novel and innovative Out-of-Autoclave (OOA) composites manufacturing process with an electrically...

  17. Acidic ammonothermal growth of gallium nitride in a liner-free molybdenum alloy autoclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkowski, Thomas F.; Pimputkar, Siddha; Speck, James S.; DenBaars, Steven P.; Nakamura, Shuji

    2016-12-01

    This paper discusses promising materials for use as internal, non-load bearing components as well as molybdenum-based alloys for autoclave structural components for an ammonothermal autoclave. An autoclave was constructed from the commercial titanium-zirconium-molybdenum (TZM) alloy and was found to be chemically inert and mechanically stable under acidic ammonothermal conditions. Preliminary seeded growth of GaN was demonstrated with negligible incorporation of transition metals (including molybdenum) into the grown material (560 °C). The possibility of a 'universal', inexpensive, liner-free ammonothermal autoclave capable of exposure to basic and acidic chemistry is demonstrated.

  18. Sobrerresistencia en estructuras de concreto celular de autoclave

    OpenAIRE

    J. L. Varela Rivera; S. A. Chan Esquivel; L. E. Fernández Baqueiro

    2008-01-01

    En este trabajo se determinan factores de sobrerresistencia globales (R) para estructuras en volado a base de muros de concreto celular de autoclave (CCA). Los factores R se obtienen como el producto de factores de sobrerresistencia independientes asociados a la cantidad de acero de refuerzo, el esfuerzo de fluencia del acero de refuerzo, la velocidad de aplicación de las cargas, los factores de carga y resistencia empleados en el diseño, el método de diseño empleado, la redundancia en las es...

  19. NON-AUTOCLAVE FOAM CONCRETE WITH MINERAL ADDITIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Екатерина Анатольевна Бартеньева

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of mineral additives on the properties of technical foam and its physical and mechanical parameters of non-autoclave foam concrete. It is determined that the introduction in its composition of 1% wollastonite and diopside to reduce the density of finished products, to increase their strength. Thus, there is improvement in the foam stability coefficient in the cement paste, increases its multiplicity. This highly dispersed mineral additives can be used as foam and plastics foam concrete stabilizers. The injection of researched additives allows to obtain the insulating foam with a stable space-frame structure.

  20. NASA Out-of-Autoclave Process Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Norman, J.; Clinton, R. G., Jr.; McMahon, William M.

    2000-01-01

    Polymer matrix composites (PMCS) will play a significant role in the construction of large reusable launch vehicles (RLVs), mankind's future major access to low earth orbit and the international space station. PMCs are lightweight and offer attractive economies of scale and automated fabrication methodology. Fabrication of large RLV structures will require non-autoclave methods which have yet to be matured including (1) thermoplastic forming: heated head robotic tape placement, sheet extrusion, pultrusion, molding and forming; (2) electron beam curing: bulk and ply-by-ply automated placement; (3) RTM and VARTM. Research sponsored by NASA in industrial and NASA laboratories on automated placement techniques involving the first 2 categories will be presented.

  1. Economic method of development of canned food sterilization regimes for industry autoclaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolyanov A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of the sterilization equipment AVK-30M for development of sterilization regimes of canned food for industrial autoclaves, particularly for ASCAMAT 230, has been described. Energy consumption of autoclaves during stages of heating and sterilization has been compared as well

  2. Pilot scale high solids anaerobic digestion of steam autoclaved municipal solid waste (MSW) pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steam autoclaving is an efficient method for the separation and recovery of nearly all organics from MSW, yet a reliable alternative outlet for the large volume of organics produced has not yet been successfully demonstrated. The material produced by the autoclave contains a high concentration of s...

  3. PATI RESISTEN SAGU HASIL PROSES HIDROLISIS ASAM DAN AUTOCLAVING-COOLING [Resistant Starch of Sago from Acid Hydrolyzis and Autoclaving-Cooling Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feri Kusnandar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to produce resistant starch (RS from a combination of acid hydrolysis and autoclaving-cooling processes of sago starch. This study compared two methods of starch modification to produce RS, i.e. (1 acid hydrolysis treatment followed by autoclaving-cooling cycles (AH-AC, and (2 autoclaving-cooling cycles followed by acid hydrolysis treatment (AC-AH. The acid hydrolysis used 1 and 2% HCl while autoclaving-cooling process consisted of three-cycle of autoclaving at 121°C for 30 min followed by cooling at 4°C for 72 hrs. Both AH-AC and AC-AH modification methods decreased starch content, altered amylose and amylopectin ratio, and increased RS contents. Both modification methods also yielded nearly flat pasting profiles at both heating and cooling phases as compared to that of native sago starch. At the same HCl concentration, the AH-AC process yielded a higher RS content than that of AC-AH. Among all treatments, the acid hydrolysis treatment using 1% HCl followed by three cycles of autoclaving-cooling process yielded the highest RS content (74.28%. The crystallinity of RS was also lower than of native sago starch, but its A crystalline type remained the same.

  4. Pressure-accelerated azide-alkyne cycloaddition: micro capillary versus autoclave reactor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borukhova, Svetlana; Seeger, Andreas D; Noël, Timothy; Wang, Qi; Busch, Markus; Hessel, Volker

    2015-02-01

    Pressure effects on regioselectivity and yield of cycloaddition reactions have been shown to exist. Nevertheless, high pressure synthetic applications with subsequent benefits in the production of natural products are limited by the general availability of the equipment. In addition, the virtues and limitations of microflow equipment under standard conditions are well established. Herein, we apply novel-process-window (NPWs) principles, such as intensification of intrinsic kinetics of a reaction using high temperature, pressure, and concentration, on azide-alkyne cycloaddition towards synthesis of Rufinamide precursor. We applied three main activation methods (i.e., uncatalyzed batch, uncatalyzed flow, and catalyzed flow) on uncatalyzed and catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. We compare the performance of two reactors, a specialized autoclave batch reactor for high-pressure operation up to 1800 bar and a capillary flow reactor (up to 400 bar). A differentiated and comprehensive picture is given for the two reactors and the three methods of activation. Reaction speedup and consequent increases in space-time yields is achieved, while the process window for favorable operation to selectively produce Rufinamide precursor in good yields is widened. The best conditions thus determined are applied to several azide-alkyne cycloadditions to widen the scope of the presented methodology. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Cracking in autoclaved aerated concrete: Experimental investigation and XFEM modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, D., E-mail: daniele.ferretti@unipr.it [Department of Civil, Environmental, Land Management Engineering and Architecture, University of Parma, P.co Area delle Scienze 181/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Michelini, E. [Department of Civil, Environmental, Land Management Engineering and Architecture, University of Parma, P.co Area delle Scienze 181/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Rosati, G. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    The paper aims to investigate and model cracking development in beams and deep-beams made of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC). Fracture mechanics of AAC has been first studied by performing three-point bending tests on beams, similar to those commonly used for ordinary concrete elements. In some of these tests, crack growth has been also monitored by using ESPI laser technique. In this way, it has been possible to calibrate the main parameters of a proper cohesive law by means of extended finite element inverse analysis. Subsequently, cracking tests have been also performed on deep-beams, whose behavior is more representative of full scale walls. To validate the proposed cohesive law, deep-beam experimental behavior has been finally simulated through XFEM.

  6. Effect of Autoclave Cycles on Surface Characteristics of S-File Evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavian, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Pedram; Mojtahedi, Hamid; Nazeri, Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Presence of surface defects in endodontic instruments can lead to unwanted complications such as instrument fracture and incomplete preparation of the canal. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of autoclave cycles on surface characteristics of S-File by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In this experimental study, 17 brand new S-Files (#30) were used. The surface characteristics of the files were examined in four steps (without autoclave, 1 autoclave cycle, 5 autoclave cycles and 10 autoclave cycles) by SEM under 200× and 1000× magnifications. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software and the paired sample t-test, independent sample t-test and multifactorial repeated measures ANOVA. The level of significance was set at 0.05. New files had debris and pitting on their surfaces. When the autoclave cycles were increased, the mean of surface roughness also increased at both magnifications (Pautoclave increased the surface roughness of the files and this had was directly related to the number of autoclave cycles.

  7. Wet autoclave pretreatment for immunohistochemical demonstration of oestrogen receptors in routinely processed breast carcinoma tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, B; Bankfalvi, A; Grote, L; Blasius, S; Ofner, D; Böcker, W; Jasani, B; Schmid, K W

    1995-02-01

    The immunohistochemical demonstration of oestrogen receptor (OR) was performed on 32 randomly selected and routinely processed breast carcinomas after wet autoclave pretreatment of sections. The autoclave method was compared to the OR status found on frozen sections as well as to alternative pretreatment methods such as enzymatic predigestion and microwave irradiation. Using four different monoclonal antibody clones (H222, LH1, CC4-5, 1D5.26), the OR status was evaluated for each of the various pretreatment methods applied. All cases with a high OR content on frozen sections (n = 11) also showed a high OR status on wet autoclave-pretreated paraffin tissues using antibody clones 1D5.26 and CC4-5; in cases with low OR content on frozen sections, no false-negative cases were recorded using only the antibody 1D5.26 neither after wet autoclave nor microwave pretreatment. In addition, with this antibody, OR was detectable after autoclave pretreatment in two cases which were considered to be OR-negative even on frozen sections. When the primary antibody was omitted, no false-positive cases were observed after wet autoclave pretreatment. Thus, in our hands, wet autoclave pretreatment, in combination with the antibody 1D5.26, offers a highly sensitive method for the immunohistochemical demonstration of OR in routinely formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of breast carcinomas.

  8. OPTIMAL CONTROL OF AUTOCLAVE START MODE IN THE PRODUCTION OF NITRIC ACID

    OpenAIRE

    Ладієва, Леся Ростиславівна; Ширма, А. В.

    2015-01-01

    The algorithm of optimal control of autoclave start mode in the production of nitric acid is proposed. By optimality criterion is selected minimum time-autoclave at preset mode with the restriction on the concentration of nitric acid. End time start mode is entered on the terminal part of the cost function. The method of penalties and a gradient procedure is used to solve the problem. The applied algorithm is allowed to bring an autoclave at a given technological regime.Keywords: production o...

  9. OPTIMAL CONTROL OF AUTOCLAVE START MODE IN THE PRODUCTION OF NITRIC ACID

    OpenAIRE

    Ладієва, Леся Ростиславівна; Ширма, А. В.

    2015-01-01

    The algorithm of optimal control of autoclave start mode in the production of nitric acid is proposed. By optimality criterion is selected minimum time-autoclave at preset mode with the restriction on the concentration of nitric acid. End time start mode is entered on the terminal part of the cost function. The method of penalties and a gradient procedure is used to solve the problem. The applied algorithm is allowed to bring an autoclave at a given technological regime.Keywords: production o...

  10. Leaching of a copper flotation concentrate with ammonium persulfate in an autoclave system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz Turan, M.; Soner Altundoğan, H.

    2014-09-01

    The leaching behavior of a copper flotation concentrate was investigated using ammonium persulfate (APS) in an autoclave system. The decomposition products of APS, active oxygen, and acidic medium were used to extract metals from the concentrate. Leaching experiments were performed to compare the availability of APS as an oxidizing agent for leaching of the concentrate under atmospheric conditions and in an autoclave system. Leaching temperature and APS concentration were found to be important parameters in both leaching systems. Atmospheric leaching studies showed that the metal extractions increased with the increase in APS concentration and temperature (up to 333 K). A similar tendency was determined in the autoclave studies up to 423 K. It was also determined that the metal extractions decreased at temperatures above 423 K due to the passivation of the particle surface by molten elemental sulfur. The results showed that higher copper extractions could be achieved using an autoclave system.

  11. Carbon Foam Self-Heated Tooling for Out-of-Autoclave Composites Manufacturing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses NASA's need for non-autoclave composites manufacture. The Constellation program, including the Ares V launch vehicle, will require very...

  12. Leaching of a copper flotation concentrate with ammonium persulfate in an autoclave system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Deniz Turan; H Soner Altundoan

    2014-01-01

    The leaching behavior of a copper flotation concentrate was investigated using ammonium persulfate (APS) in an autoclave sys-tem. The decomposition products of APS, active oxygen, and acidic medium were used to extract metals from the concentrate. Leaching ex-periments were performed to compare the availability of APS as an oxidizing agent for leaching of the concentrate under atmospheric condi-tions and in an autoclave system. Leaching temperature and APS concentration were found to be important parameters in both leaching sys-tems. Atmospheric leaching studies showed that the metal extractions increased with the increase in APS concentration and temperature (up to 333 K). A similar tendency was determined in the autoclave studies up to 423 K. It was also determined that the metal extractions de-creased at temperatures above 423 K due to the passivation of the particle surface by molten elemental sulfur. The results showed that higher copper extractions could be achieved using an autoclave system.

  13. Effect of autoclaving and sintering on the formation of β-wollastonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hamisah; Shamsudin, Roslinda; Abdul Hamid, Muhammad Azmi

    2016-01-01

    β-wollastonite (β-CaSiO3) was synthesized from rice husk ash and calcium carbonate, and a study of the effects of the autoclaving and sintering steps is presented here. Autoclaving and sintering at 8h and 2h yielded the β-wollastonite phase in full, with improved crystallinity. Nucleation between rice husk ash and calcium oxide occurred around 135 °C, pressure 0.24 MPa, and growth proved to be more crystalline after the ripening period. For shorter processing times, and for both unsintered and unautoclaved samples, cristobalite and unstable tricalcium silicate phases were present. Crystallite size was increased by longer sintering times but reduced by longer autoclaving times. The β-wollastonite obtained had a random branch-like structure. In conclusion, the introduction of the autoclaving step successfully obtained β-wollastonite from a reaction between rice husk ash and calcium oxide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. In vitro comparison of autoclave polymerization on the transverse strength of denture base resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkan, Rukiye; Ozel, Mehmet Birol; Bağiş, Bora; Usanmaz, Ali

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of autoclave polymerization on the transverse strength of denture base polymers. To this end, 30 rectangular test specimens were fabricated of two heat-polymerized denture base polymers. The test groups were: (I) control, i.e., conventional water bath to polymerize resins by heat at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes; (II) autoclave polymerization at 60 degrees C for 30 minutes followed by 130 degrees C for 10 minutes; and (III) autoclave polymerization at 60 degrees C for 30 minutes followed by 130 degrees C for 20 minutes. The specimens were tested with three-point bending test at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. It was revealed that the transverse strength of specimens increased with statistical significance when the autoclave was used for polymerization.

  15. Thermal Insulation and Strength of Autoclaved Light Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ruochong; ZHU Jipeng; WU Zhishen; WU Zhiren; LI Min; PENG Changhai

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to develop an autoclaved light concrete (ALC) material with ultra-thermal insulation property and to investigate the relationship between its physical characteristics and mechanical properties. Through tests of dry bulk density and compressive strength, relationship of physical characteristics and mechanical properties of samples were studied,resulting in a material with ultra-thermal insulation property. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were applied to analyze the micro-morphology and elemental composition of samples. To identify the product phases, X-ray diffraction (XRD) was engaged. The test results showed that compressive strength and thermal coefficient were reduced with the increasing of aluminum powder within the mixtures. As a result the optimal thermal coefficient and compressive strength of samples were improved to 0.061 W/(m · k) and 1.2 MPa, respectively. SEM,EDX and XRD analyses showed that calcium silicate hydrate and tobermorite crystal were main resultant phases.

  16. Low Temperature Pyrolysis of Graptolite Argillite (Dictyonema Shale in Autoclaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Sharayeva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of the systematic experimental study obtained in this work on the effects of temperature (340–420 °C and exposure time (0–8h at nominal temperature on the yield of pyrolysis products from Estonian graptolite argillite (GA generated in autoclaves without any solvent are described. The yields of solid residue (SR, gas, pyrogenetic water (W and extractable with benzenemix ofthermobitumen and oil (TBO were estimated. The compound groups of TBO were assessed. The highest yield of TBO, 2.18% on dry GA basis and 13.2% of organic matter (OM was obtained at temperature of 420 °C and duration 0.5 h. The main compound groups in TBO obtained at 400 ᵒC are polar hetero-atomic compounds and polycyclic hydrocarbons surpassing 45% and 30% of TBO. The shares of aliphatic and monocyclic hydrocarbons are below 15% of TBO. The yield of W from GA is – about 10-15% of OM. The quantity of OM left in SR after pyrolysis is high, about 65% of OM. The yield of pyrolysis products from GA and the composition of its TBO are compared with those obtained under similar conditions from different oil shales: Estonian Kukersite, US Utah Green River, and Jordanian Attarat.

  17. Radiography Monitoring of Osteoconduction and Osteoinduction of Orthotopic Allograft Autoclaved Covered With Propolis

    OpenAIRE

    BOUDRA Abdellatif; Hamdi, Mohamed; AMARA Karim; BOUKNINE Asma

    2014-01-01

    The veterinarian orthopedic surgeon is often faced to the loss of bone substance in diaphyseal region of long bones. Our study is based on a biological approach to the filling of segmental bone loss by implanting an autoclaved orthotopic allograft of one centimeter length covered and uncovered with propolis in the femoral diaphysis under general anesthesia and sterile condition. The experiment involved eight adult dogs, from local breed and different sex; split into two groups. An autoclaved ...

  18. Toxic anterior segment syndrome caused by autoclave reservoir wall biofilms and their residual toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Andrew L; Sorenson, Robert L; Evans, David J

    2016-11-01

    To identify etiology of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) after uneventful phacoemulsification. EyeMD Laser and Surgery Center, Oakland, California. Retrospective case series. Patient charts with TASS were reviewed. Reservoirs of 2 autoclaves associated with these cases were cultured for bacterial contamination. Cultures were performed on 23 other autoclave reservoirs at surgery centers in the local area. The main outcome measures were the incidence of TASS and prevalence of bacterial biofilm contamination of autoclave reservoirs. From 2010 to 2013, 11 935 consecutive cataract surgeries were performed at 1 center by multiple surgeons with no reported TASS. Between January 1, 2014, and January 15, 2015, 10 cases of TASS occurred out of 3003 cataract surgeries; these patients' charts were reviewed. Cultures of 2 Statim autoclave reservoir walls grew Bacillus species, Williamsia species, Mycobacterium mucogenicum, and Candida parapsilosis. Scanning electron microscopy of reservoir wall sections showed prominent biofilm. The 2 autoclaves were replaced in January 2015. Subsequently, 2875 cataract surgeries were performed with no reported TASS (P autoclaves were also contaminated with bacterial biofilms. Toxic anterior segment syndrome was strongly associated with bacterial biofilm contamination of autoclave reservoirs. An etiological mechanism might involve transport of heat-stable bacterial cell antigens in the steam with deposition on surgical instrumentation. Data suggest widespread prevalence of bacterial biofilms on fluid-reservoir walls, despite adherence to manufacturer guidelines for cleaning and maintenance. Prevention or elimination of autoclave fluid-reservoir biofilms might reduce the risk for postoperative TASS. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of dimensional stability and accuracy of autoclavable polyvinyl siloxane impression material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Subash M; Vijitha, D; Karthikeyan, S; Balasubramanian, R; Satish, A

    2013-12-01

    Dimensionally stable autoclavable impressions will be effective in controlling the cross-infection and contamination caused by patient's saliva and other oral secretions. The accuracy of newly introduced autoclavable polyvinyl siloxane impression material was assessed for its dimensional stability and accuracy. A standard metal model (Dentoform, U-501, Columbia) was customised for impression making. The impressions were made using the newly introduced polyvinyl siloxane impression materials (AFFINIS, Coltene/Whaledent AG, 9450 Alstalten, Switzerland). Fifty impressions were made and were divided into two groups A and B of 25 each. Group A was the control sample (non-autoclaved impressions) and group B was the test sample (autoclaved impressions), which was subjected to the steam autoclave procedure at 134 °C for 18 min, casts were poured in type IV gypsum products. The customised metal model, casts obtained from control and test group were subjected to laboratory evaluation with help of a travelling microscope (×10 magnification), and digital vernier calliper (0.01 mm/10 μm accuracy). Data analysis was done using one-way ANOVA and One-Sample t test to evaluate the overall accuracy (P polyvinyl siloxane impression material is accurate and dimensional stable for clinical use when steam autoclaved at 134 °C for 18 min.

  20. Morphological effects of autoclaved diet on the myenteric neurons of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrícia O Gon(c)alez; Naianne K Clebis; Renata B Mari; Karina M Gagliardo; Sandra R Stabille; Haroldo G Faria; Edson A Liberti; José Roberto Kfoury Jr

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of autoclaved diet on the jejunum neurons of the myenteric plexus of rats during their growth.METHODS: The experimental groups were made up of rats going through weaning whose mothers Received either an autoclaved or a non-autoclaved diet during gestation and lactation, and rats that were fed the same diet as their mothers during the post-weaning period. In order to measure the neurons' body pro-file and to quantify the number of neurons per area, preparations were stained by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-diaphorase method.RESULTS: No significant changes were observed in rats' body weight or in the number of neurons regard-less of the diet used (P > 0.05). There was a decrease in the jejunum-ileum length in rats treated with an autoclaved diet (P < 0.05). An increase in the neuronal cross-sectional area was seen in rats that had Received the autoclaved diet, an effect that was significant for animals undergoing weaning. In addition, all observed factors showed significant differences when related to the age of the animals.CONCLUSION: The autoclaved diet did not alter the quantity of neurons, but increased their cell body area, suggesting changes similar to those observed in pro-tein deficiency.

  1. Quality testing of autoclaved rodent drinking water during short-term and long-term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peveler, Jessica L; Crisler, Robin; Hickman, Deb

    2015-06-01

    All animals need clean water to drink. At the authors' animal facility, drinking water for immunocompromised rodents is filtered by reverse osmosis, acidified during bottling and sterilized in an autoclave. Autoclaved water bottles can be stored in unopened autoclave bags for 7 d or in opened bags for 2 d; if not used during that time, they are emptied, cleaned, refilled and sterilized again. The authors wished to determine whether the storage period of 2-7 d was adequate and necessary to ensure the quality of drinking water. They tested water bottles for pH levels and for the presence of adenosine triphosphate as a measure of organic contamination during short-term and long-term storage. The pH of autoclaved drinking water generally remained stable during storage. Furthermore, no instances of organic contamination were detected in autoclaved water bottles stored for up to 22 d in unopened bags and only one instance was detected in bottles stored for up to 119 d in opened bags in a room with individually ventilated cages. On the basis of these findings, the acceptable storage period for autoclaved water bottles in opened bags at the authors' facility was extended to 21 d.

  2. Effect of autoclave postpolymerization treatments on the fracture toughness of autopolymerizing dental acrylic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkan, Rukiye; Gürbüz, Ayhan; Yilmaz, Burak; Özel, M Birol; Bağış, Bora

    2012-06-26

    Microwave and water bath postpolymerization have been suggested as methods to improve the mechanical properties of heat and autopolymerizing acrylic resins. However, the effects of autoclave heating on the fracture properties of autopolymerizing acrylic resins have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of various autoclave postpolymerization methods on the fracture properties of 3 different autopolymerizing acrylic resins. Forty-two specimens of 3 different autopolymerizing acrylic resins (Orthocryl, Paladent RR and Futurajet) were fabricated (40x8x4mm), and each group was further divided into 6 subgroups (n=7). Control group specimens remained as processed (Group 1). The first test group was postpolymerized in a cassette autoclave at 135°C for 6 minutes and the other groups were postpolymerized in a conventional autoclave at 130°C using different time settings (5, 10, 20 or 30 minutes). Fracture toughness was then measured with a three-point bending test. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by the Duncan test (α=0.05). The fracture toughness of Orthocryl and Paladent-RR acrylic resins significantly increased following conventional autoclave postpolymerization at 130°C for 10 minutes (Pautoclave postpolymerized Futurajet was not significantly different than its control specimens (Pautoclaved at 130°C for 10 minutes. Within the limitations of this study, it can be suggested that autoclave postpolymerization is an effective method for increasing the fracture toughness of tested autoploymerized acrylic resins.

  3. Effect of Sterilization by Dry Heat or Autoclaving on Bacterial Penetration through Berea Sandstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenneman, G E; McInerney, M J; Crocker, M E; Knapp, R M

    1986-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine why bacteria could penetrate lengths of consolidated sandstone (Berea) faster when the sandstone was sterilized by autoclaving than when dry heat (150 degrees C, 3 h) was used. Changes in permeability, porosity, and pore entrance size of the rock as a result of autoclaving were not sufficient to explain the differences in penetration times observed, but electron dispersion spectroscopy and electron microscopy of the rock revealed changes in mineral composition and clay morphology. Autoclaved cores contained more chloride than dry-heated cores, and the clays of autoclaved cores were aggregated and irregularly shaped. Therefore, the decreases in bacterial penetration rates caused by autoclave sterilization were probably the result of a change in surface charge of the pores of the rock and of a reduction in surface area of clays available for adhesion. The results implied that dry-heat sterilization was preferable to autoclaving when examining biotic and abiotic interactions in a native-state rock model.

  4. Surface roughness of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials following chemical disinfection, autoclave and microwave sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah

    2013-05-01

    Autoclave sterilization and microwave sterilization has been suggested as the effective methods for the disinfection of elastomeric impressions, but subjecting elastomeric impressions to extreme temperature may have adverse effects on critical properties of the elastomers. To evaluate the effect of chemical disinfection as well as autoclave and microwave sterilization on the surface roughness of elastomeric impression materials. The surface roughness of five commercially available polyvinyl siloxane impression materials (Coltene President, Affinis Perfect impression, Aquasil, 3M ESPE Express and GC Exafast) were evaluated after subjecting them to chemical disinfection, autoclaving and microwave sterilization using a Talysurf Intra 50 instrument. Twenty specimens from each material were fabricated and divided into four equal groups, three experimental and one control (n=25). The differences in the mean surface roughness between the treatment groups were recorded and statistically analyzed. No statistically significant increase in the surface roughness was observed when the specimens were subjected to chemical disinfection and autoclave sterilization, increase in roughness and discoloration was observed in all the materials when specimens were subjected to microwave sterilization. Chemical disinfection did not have a significant effect but, since it is less effective, autoclave sterilization can be considered effective and autoclaving did not show any specimen discoloration as in microwave sterilization. Microwave sterilization may be considered when impressions are used to make diagnostic casts. A significant increase in surface roughness may produce rougher casts, resulting in rougher tissue surfaces for denture and cast restorations. Autoclave sterilization of vinyl polysiloxane elastomeric impressions for 5 minutes at 134°C at 20 psi may be considered an effective method over chemical disinfection and microwave sterilization, because chemical disinfection does

  5. Effect of autoclave heat treatments on the mechanical properties of the prealloyed powder cobalt-base alloy HS-31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freche, J. C.; Ashbrook, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The cobalt-base alloy HS-31 was atomized into powder and then consolidated by extrusion or by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) in an autoclave over a range of temperatures spanning the solidus, approximately 2340 F. Extrusions were subsequently autoclaved at the same conditions. Extrusions autoclaved at 2420 F had a life of 300 hours at 1200 F and 30 hours at 1800 F at stresses that result in a 10-hour life with cast HS-31. Superior stress rupture lives of autoclaved material are probably related to the solidification structure at the grain boundaries as well as to the increased grain size.

  6. Face-Sheet Quality Analysis and Thermo-Physical Property Characterization of OOA and Autoclave Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Lort, Richard D., III; Zimmerman, Thomas J.; Sutter, James K.; Pelham, Larry I.; McCorkle, Linda S.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    Increased application of polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials in large vehicle structures requires consideration of non-autoclave manufacturing technology. The NASA Composites for Exploration project, and its predecessor, Lightweight Spacecraft Structures and Materials project, were tasked with the development of materials and manufacturing processes for structures that will perform in a heavy-lift-launch vehicle environment. Both autoclave and out of autoclave processable materials were considered. Large PMC structures envisioned for such a vehicle included the payload shroud and the interstage connector. In this study, composite sandwich panels representing 1/16th segments of the barrel section of the Ares V rocket fairing were prepared as 1.8 m x 2.4 m sections of the 10 m diameter arc segment. IM7/977-3 was used as the face-sheet prepreg of the autoclave processed panels and T40-800B/5320-1 for the out of autoclave panels. The core was 49.7 kg/sq m (3.1 lb/cu ft (pcf)) aluminum honeycomb. Face-sheets were fabricated by automated tape laying 153 mm wide unidirectional tape. This work details analysis of the manufactured panels where face-sheet quality was characterized by optical microscopy, cured ply thickness measurements, acid digestion, and thermal analysis.

  7. Morpho-structural variations of bacterial spores after treatment in steam vacuum assisted autoclave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonzi, M; Montomoli, E; Gasparini, R; Devanna, D; Fonzi, L

    1999-01-01

    This study intended to verify, through microbiological techniques and TEM investigations, the killing of bacterial spores after treatment in steam autoclave, and to propose strictly morphological considerations about the target of this sterilisation process. Autoclave is the most common device for sterilising instruments in order to prevent cross infections in dental offices. The autoclave efficiency has been improved in the last years and part of this improvement is related to both a better and more correct use of the autoclave system and to the technological innovations introduced in the last generation of devices. However, associations as ADA or CDC suggest to regularly verify the process of 'autoclaving' through biological indicators (BI). The most commonly used BI are made of spores strips or suspensions of Bacillus Subtilis (pb 168) and Bacillus Stearothermophilus (ATCC 10149). They visually prove, changing colours on enzymatic base, the death of micro-organism and if the physical parameters, necessary for sterilisation, have been achieved. These two strains of endospore-forming bacteria were processed and prepared following two different techniques: Karnovsky fixed and epon embedded--phosphotungstic acid fixed for direct observation. The kind and the extent of analysed modifications are extremely various: from deep lacerations, which changed the spore structure, to little clefts which let the cytoplasm go out.

  8. Modeling and simulation of high-pressure industrial autoclave polyethylene reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure technology for polyethylene production has been widely used by industries around the world. A good model for the reactor fluid dynamics is essential to set the operating conditions of an autoclave reactor. The high-pressure autoclave reactor model developed in this work was based on a non-isothermal dynamic model, where PID control equations are used to maintain the operation at the unstable steady state. The kinetic mechanism to describe the polymerization rate and molecular weight averages are presented. The model is capable of computing temperature, concentration gradients and polymer characteristics. The model was validated for an existing industrial reactor and data for production of homopolymer polyethylene and has represented well the behavior of the autoclave reactor used in ethylene homopolymerization.

  9. ETUDE DU COMPORTEMENT MECANIQUE DU BETON CELLULAIRE AUTOCLAVE PRODUIT EN ALGERIE

    OpenAIRE

    R BELOUETTAR; Klepaczko, J.R.; Abadlia, M.T.

    2002-01-01

    Ce travail présente une étude expérimentale du comportement mécanique du béton cellulaire autoclavé. L’étude est portée essentiellement sur une série d’essais mécaniques en compression quasistatique à différentes vitesses de déformation variables entre 10-4 s-1 et 10 s-1 et à deux états différents (état sec et état saturé d’eau). En général, l’augmentation de la vitesse de déformation donne une augmentation de la contrainte critique du béton cellulaire autoclavé. Le béton cellulaire autoclavé...

  10. The release of 14C—chlorsulfuron bound residue by autoclaving method and its identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUOJiangfeng; PINGXiaofei; 等

    1999-01-01

    When individual microorganisms were used to release bound pesticide resdues,it was ussually not take into full account whether the autoclaving method could lead to the release of bound residues.The soil containing bound 14C-chlorsulfuron residues was treated with an autoclave in this study.The results reveal that the bound 14C-chlorsulfuron residue can be released from the soil when treated with the autoclave and the release rate can be remarkably enhanced by adding water into the soil when subjected to such treatment.A TLC analysis showed that the released 14C-residue was one of the degraded products of 14C-chlorsulfuron.After derivatization and analysis using the GC-MS,the released 14C-residue was tentatively identified as 2-amnino-4-hydroxyl-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine.

  11. Investigation of CFRP in aerospace field and improvement of the molding accuracy by using autoclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamisawa, Takunori

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic) has come to be used in a wide range of industries such as sporting goods, fishing tackle and cars because it has a large number of advantages. In this situation, even the passenger aircraft industry also pays attention to the material. CFRP is an ideal material for airplanes because it has a lot of advantages such as light weight and strong, chemical resistance and corrosion resistance. Generally, autoclave is used for molding CFRP in the field of aerospace engineering. Autoclave is a machine that can mold a product by heating and pressurizing material in an evacuated bag. What is examined in this paper is an observation on handmade CFRP by a polarizing microscope. In addition, mechanical characteristics were investigated. Furthermore, an improvement of accuracy in CFRP molding using an autoclave is suggested from viewpoint of thermodynamics.

  12. Out of the Autoclave Fabrication of LaRC[TradeMark] PETI-9 Polyimide Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Robert J.; Jensen, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center developed polyimide system, LaRC PETI-9, has successfully been processed into composites by high temperature vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (HT-VARTM). To extend the application of this high use temperature material to other out-of-autoclave (OOA) processing techniques, the fabrication of PETI- 9 laminates was evaluated using only a vacuum bag and oven cure. A LaRC PETI-9 polyimide solution in NMP was prepared and successfully utilized to fabricate unidirectional IM7 carbon fiber prepreg that was subsequently processed into composites with a vacuum bag and oven cure OOA process. Composite panels of good quality were successfully fabricated and mechanically tested. Processing characteristics, composite panel quality and mechanical properties are presented in this work. The resultant properties are compared to previously developed LaRC material systems processed by both autoclave and OOA techniques including the well characterized, autoclave processed LaRC PETI-5.

  13. Hydrothermal formation of tobermorite studied by in situ X-ray diffraction under autoclave condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuma, Jun; Tsunashima, Masamichi; Ishikawa, Tetsuji; Matsuno, Shin-ya; Ogawa, Akihiro; Matsui, Kunio; Sato, Masugu

    2009-09-01

    Hydrothermal formation of tobermorite from a pre-cured cake has been investigated by transmission X-ray diffraction (XRD) using high-energy X-rays from a synchrotron radiation source in combination with a newly designed autoclave cell. The autoclave cell has a large and thin beryllium window for wide-angle X-ray diffraction; nevertheless, it withstands a steam pressure of more than 1.2 MPa, which enables in situ XRD measurements in a temperature range of 373 to 463 K under a saturated steam pressure. Formation and/or decomposition of several components has been successfully observed during 7.5 h of reaction time. From the intensity changes of the intermediate materials, namely non-crystalline C-S-H and hydroxylellestadite, two pathways for tobermorite formation have been confirmed. Thus, the newly developed autoclave cell can be used for the analyses of reaction mechanisms under specific atmospheres and temperatures.

  14. Improved extraction procedures for polychlorinated biphenyls in solid samples with aqueous sodium hydroxide under autoclave conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Y; Inouye, Y

    2000-03-01

    The efficacy of the extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from varnish-infiltrated insulating papers as a model of solid materials with an aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH) by autoclaving at 121 degrees C for 30 min was compared with those for the conventional procedures, i.e., saponification with 1 N ethanolic NaOH in a boiling water bath for 60 min and extraction with benzene in a Soxhlet apparatus. The newly invented autoclaving method was found to be superior to the conventional ones, yielding approximately 5- to 6-fold cumulative PCB congeners without being accompanied by extended decomposition. Therefore, the autoclave-based sample treatment is recommended for more accurate determination of PCBs in the case of PCB-impregnated solid materials such as hardened oils and resin-coated or -infiltrated papers instead of being treated conventionally.

  15. One-step formation and sterilization of gellan and hyaluronan nanohydrogels using autoclave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Elita; De Rugeriis, Maria Cristina; Di Meo, Chiara; Censi, Roberta; Coviello, Tommasina; Alhaique, Franco; Matricardi, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    The sterilization of nanoparticles for biomedical applications is one of the challenges that must be faced in the development of nanoparticulate systems. Usually, autoclave sterilization cannot be applied because of stability concerns when polymeric nanoparticles are involved. This paper describes an innovative method which allows to obtain, using a single step autoclave procedure, the preparation and, at the same time, the sterilization of self-assembling nanohydrogels (NHs) obtained with cholesterol-derivatized gellan and hyaluronic acid. Moreover, by using this approach, NHs, while formed in the autoclave, can be easily loaded with drugs. The obtained NHs dispersion can be lyophilized in the presence of a cryoprotectant, leading to the original NHs after re-dispersion in water.

  16. Adaptive fuzzy PID temperature control system based on single-chip computer for the autoclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Wang, J.; Fu, S. L.; He, Z. T.; Li, X. P.

    2008-12-01

    The autoclave is one of main preparation equipments of crystal preparation by hydrothermal method. The preparation temperature will seriously influence crystals quality and crystals size at high temperature, how to measure and control precisely the autoclave temperature can be of real significance. The characteristic of hysteresis, nonlinearity and difficulty to acquire the precise mathematical model existing in the temperature control of the autoclave was researched. The general PID controller adopted usually in the autoclave temperature control system is hard to improve temperature control performance. Based on the advantages of fuzzy controller that does not depend on the precise mathematical model and the stabilization of PID controller, single-chip computer integrated fuzzy PID control algorithm is adopted, and the temperature system is designed, the foundational working principle was discussed. The control system includes SCM (AT89C52), temperature sensor, A/D converter circuit and corresponding circuit and interface, can make the autoclave temperature measure and control accurately. The system hardware includes main circuit, thyristor drive circuit, audible and visual alarm circuit, watchdog circuit, clock circuit, keyboard and display circuit so on, which can achieve gathering, analyzing, comparing and controlling the autoclave temperature parameter. The program of control system includes the treatment and collection of temperature data, the dynamic display program, the fuzzy PID control system, the audible and visual alarm program, et al, and the system's main software, which includes initialization, key-press processing, input processing, display, and the fuzzy PID control program was analyzed. The results showed that the fuzzy PID control system makes the adjustment time of temperature decreased and the precision of temperature control improved, the quality and the crystals size of the preparation crystals can achieve the expect experiment results.

  17. Autoclave and beta-amylolysis lead to reduced in vitro digestibility of starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, B Elliot; Janaswamy, Srinivas; Yao, Yuan

    2009-08-12

    In this study, a combination of autoclave and beta-amylolysis was used to modulate the digestibility of normal corn starch (NCS) and wheat starch (WS). The modification procedure comprised three cycles of autoclave at 35% moisture content and 121 degrees C, beta-amylolysis, and one additional cycle of autoclave. Starch materials were sampled at each stage and characterized. The fine structure of starch was determined using high-performance size-exclusion chromatography, the micromorphology of starch dispersion was imaged using cryo-SEM, the crystalline pattern was evaluated using wide-angle X-ray powder diffraction, and the digestibility was measured using Englyst assay. After beta-amylolysis, amylose was enriched (from 25.4 to 33.2% for NCS and from 27.5 to 32.8% for WS) and the branch density was increased (from 5.2 to 7.7% for NCS and from 5.3 to 7.9% for WS). Cryo-SEM images showed that the autoclave treatment led to the formation of a low-swelling, high-density gel network, whereas beta-amylolysis nearly demolished the network structure. The loss of A-type crystalline structure and the formation of B- and V-type structures resulted from autoclave, which suggests the formation of amylose-based ordered structure. Englyst assay indicated that, due to beta-amylolysis, the resistant starch (RS) content was increased to 30 from 11% of native NCS and to 23 from 9% of native WS. In contrast, autoclave showed only minor impact on RS levels. The increase of RS observed in this study is associated with enhanced branch density, which is different from the four types of RS commonly defined.

  18. UV irradiation and autoclave treatment for elimination of contaminating DNA from laboratory consumables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefrides, Lisa A; Powell, Mark C; Donley, Michael A; Kahn, Roger

    2010-02-01

    Laboratories employ various approaches to ensure that their consumables are free of DNA contamination. They may purchase pre-treated consumables, perform quality control checks prior to casework, and use in-house profile databases for contamination detection. It is better to prevent contamination prior to DNA typing than identify it after samples are processed. To this end, laboratories may UV irradiate or autoclave consumables prior to use but treatment procedures are typically based on killing microorganisms and not on the elimination of DNA. We report a systematic study of UV and autoclave treatments on the persistence of DNA from saliva. This study was undertaken to determine the best decontamination strategy for the removal of DNA from laboratory consumables. We have identified autoclave and UV irradiation procedures that can eliminate nanogram quantities of contaminating DNA contained within cellular material. Autoclaving is more effective than UV irradiation because it can eliminate short fragments of contaminating DNA more effectively. Lengthy autoclave or UV irradiation treatments are required. Depending on bulb power, a UV crosslinker may take a minimum of 2h to achieve an effective dose for elimination of nanogram quantities of contaminating DNA (>7250mJ/cm(2)). Similarly autoclaving may also take 2h to eliminate similar quantities of contaminating DNA. For this study, we used dried saliva stains to determine the effective dose. Dried saliva stains were chosen because purified DNA as well as fresh saliva are less difficult to eradicate than dried stains and also because consumable contamination is more likely to be in the form of a collection of dry cells.

  19. Bisphenol-A: an estrogenic substance is released from polycarbonate flasks during autoclaving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, A V; Stathis, P; Permuth, S F; Tokes, L; Feldman, D

    1993-06-01

    In studies to determine whether Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced estrogens, the organism was grown in culture media prepared using distilled water autoclaved in polycarbonate flasks. The yeast-conditioned media showed the presence of a substance that competed with [3H]estradiol for binding to estrogen receptors (ER) from rat uterus. However, it soon became clear that the estrogenic substance in the conditioned media was not a product of the yeast grown in culture, but was leached out of the polycarbonate flasks during the autoclaving procedure. [3H]Estradiol displacement activity was monitored by ER RRA, and the active substance was purified from autoclaved medium using a series of HPLC steps. The final purified product was identified as bisphenol-A (BPA) by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. BPA could also be identified in distilled water autoclaved in polycarbonate flasks without the requirement of either the organism or the constituents of the culture medium. Authentic BPA was active in competitive RRAs, demonstrating an affinity approximately 1:2000 that of estradiol for ER. In functional assays, BPA (10-25 nM) induced progesterone receptors in cultured human mammary cancer cells (MCF-7) at a potency of approximately 1:5000 compared to that of estradiol. The BPA effect on PR induction was blocked by tamoxifen. In addition, BPA (25 nM) increased the rate of proliferation of MCF-7 cells assessed by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Thus, BPA exhibited estrogenic activity by both RRA and two functional bioresponse assays. Finally, MCF-7 cells grown in media prepared with water autoclaved in polycarbonate exhibited higher progesterone receptor levels than cells.grown in media prepared with water autoclaved in glass, suggesting an estrogenic effect of the water autoclaved in polycarbonate. Our findings raise the possibility that unsuspected estrogenic activity in the form of BPA may have an impact on experiments employing media autoclaved in

  20. The development of autoclave processable, thermally stable adhesives for titanium alloy and graphite composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. W.; Jones, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    The A-type polyimide adhesive resin P11B was modified by use of mixed diamines (thio-dianiline and meta phenylene diamine) which provided the desired autoclave processability. This new resin was termed P11BA. It was shown that copolymeric blends of P11BA and Amoco AI-1137 amide-imide resin provided improved adhesive properties when autoclave processed over the properties obtained previously by press bonding with P11B based copolymeric blended adhesives. Properties of bonded assemblies are presented for long-term aging at both elevated and low temperatures, and also stress-rupture tests at elevated temperature.

  1. Compact solar autoclave based on steam generation using broadband light-harvesting nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Oara; Feronti, Curtis; Neumann, Albert D; Dong, Anjie; Schell, Kevin; Lu, Benjamin; Kim, Eric; Quinn, Mary; Thompson, Shea; Grady, Nathaniel; Nordlander, Peter; Oden, Maria; Halas, Naomi J

    2013-07-16

    The lack of readily available sterilization processes for medicine and dentistry practices in the developing world is a major risk factor for the propagation of disease. Modern medical facilities in the developed world often use autoclave systems to sterilize medical instruments and equipment and process waste that could contain harmful contagions. Here, we show the use of broadband light-absorbing nanoparticles as solar photothermal heaters, which generate high-temperature steam for a standalone, efficient solar autoclave useful for sanitation of instruments or materials in resource-limited, remote locations. Sterilization was verified using a standard Geobacillus stearothermophilus-based biological indicator.

  2. Low void content autoclave molded titanium alloy and polyimide graphite composite structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. W.; Jones, R. J.; Creedon, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    This paper discusses a resin developed for use in autoclave molding of polyimide graphite composite stiffened, titanium alloy structures. Both primary and secondary bonded structures were evaluated that were produced by autoclave processing. Details of composite processing, adhesive formulary, and bonding processes are provided in this paper, together with mechanical property data for structures. These data include -65 F, room temperature, and 600 F shear strengths; strength retention after aging; and stress rupture properties at 600 F under various stress levels for up to 1000 hours duration. Typically, shear strengths in excess of 16 ksi at room temperature with over 60% strength retention at 600 F were obtained with titanium alloy substrates.

  3. Biofiltration of Methane from Ruminants Gas Effluent Using Autoclaved Aerated Concrete as the Carrier Material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganendra, Giovanni; Mercado-Garcia, Daniel; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Peiren, Nico; De Campeneere, Sam; Ho, Adrian; Boon, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The performance of Methane-Oxidizing Bacteria (MOB) immobilized on Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) in a biofilter setup to remove methane from ruminants gas effluent was investigated. Two dairy cows were housed in respiration chambers for two days where the exhaust gas from the chambers w

  4. Effects of autoclaving on the proximate composition of stored castor (Ricinus communis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTHONY NEGEDU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Negedu A, Ameh JB, Umoh VJ, Atawodi SE, Rai MK. 2013. Effects of autoclaving on the proximate composition of stored castor (Ricinus communis seeds. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 51-56. The effect of autoclaving on the proximate composition, free fatty acids and peroxide value of castor (Ricinus communis L. seeds in storage were studied. Seeds of castor were surface sterilized, dried and divided into two equal sets of 300g each. One set was autoclaved at 15 1b pressure for 30 minutes at 121oC and the other set served as control. Each set was prepared in triplicates and both sets were stored under same room temperature conditions for a period of 180 days and agitated intermittently. Analysis of the proximate composition showed that autoclaving treatment caused an increased total fat content, reduced moisture, protein, nitrogen free extract (soluble sugar and ash contents of the seeds in storage, as well as a non-significant increase in crude fiber (non-soluble sugar content. It increased the free fatty acid content and decreased the peroxide value of seed oil.

  5. Biochemical methane potential tests of different autoclaved and microwaved lignocellulosic organic fractions of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorini, Isabella; Baldi, Francesco; Carnevale, Ennio Antonio; Corti, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this research was to enhance the anaerobic biodegradability and methane production of two synthetic Organic Fractions of Municipal Solid Waste with different lignocellulosic contents by assessing microwave and autoclave pre-treatments. Biochemical Methane Potential assays were performed for 21days. Changes in the soluble fractions of the organic matter (measured by soluble chemical oxygen demand, carbohydrates and proteins), the first order hydrolysis constant kh and the cumulated methane production at 21days were used to evaluate the efficiency of microwaving and autoclaving pretreatments on substrates solubilization and anaerobic digestion. Microwave treatment led to a methane production increase of 8.5% for both the tested organic fractions while autoclave treatment had an increase ranging from 1.0% to 4.4%. Results showed an increase of the soluble fraction after pre-treatments for both the synthetic organic fractions. Soluble chemical oxygen demand observed significant increases for pretreated substrates (up to 219.8%). In this regard, the mediocre results of methane's production led to the conclusion that autoclaving and microwaving resulted in the hydrolysis of a significant fraction of non-biodegradable organic substances recalcitrant to anaerobic digestion.

  6. Autoclave reduction of jarosites and other metal sulfates : a new approach to major waste problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, J.L.T.

    1999-01-01

    Industrial jarosite is a waste product of the zinc industry. It is considered a serious environmental problem, due to the quantity produced and the mobile hazardous metals it contains. Over 50 million tons are already stored worldwide. The jarosite sludge autoclave treatment process described in

  7. Thermal properties of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) recovered from municipal solid waste by steam autoclaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of steam autoclaving on the properties of PET, data which could ultimately be applied to determine the most likely end use of this potentially huge waste stream. Through the course of the study it was determined that stretch blow molding in bottle ...

  8. Effects of autoclaving and pullulanase debranching on the resistant starch yield of normal maize starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIJA S. MILAŠINOVIĆ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, resistant starch (RS, type 3, was prepared by the autoclaving and debranching of normal maize starch isolated from a selected ZP genotype. The objectives of this study were to optimize both starch autoclaving and debranching with pullulanase (PromozymeBrewQ for the production of RS. Autoclaving at 120 °C (30 min increased the RS content of all samples, whereas freezing at –20 °C did not have an obvious effect on the RS contents. The highest RS yield in the autoclaved starch samples was 7.0 % after three autoclaving–cooling cycles. After pullulanase debranching at 50 °C and retrogradation at 4 °C, the RS yields ranged from 10.2 to 25.5 % in all samples (depending on the hydrolysis time. Debranched starch samples with a maximum RS yield of 25.5 % were obtained after a debranching time of 24 h. This study showed that starch from the selected ZP maize genotype is suitable for pullulanase treatment and RS preparation but that additional studies with a greater number of different treatments (incubation time/temperature are necessary to manipulate and promote crystallization and enhance RS formation.

  9. Autoclave reduction of jarosites and other metal sulfates : a new approach to major waste problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, J.T.L.

    1999-01-01

    Industrial jarosite is a waste product of the zinc industry. It is considered a serious environmental problem, due to the quantity produced and the mobile hazardous metals it contains. Over 50 million tons are already stored worldwide. The jarosite sludge autoclave treatment process described in thi

  10. ETUDE DU COMPORTEMENT MECANIQUE DU BETON CELLULAIRE AUTOCLAVE PRODUIT EN ALGERIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R BELOUETTAR

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail présente une étude expérimentale du comportement mécanique du béton cellulaire autoclavé. L’étude est portée essentiellement sur une série d’essais mécaniques en compression quasistatique à différentes vitesses de déformation variables entre 10-4 s-1 et 10 s-1 et à deux états différents (état sec et état saturé d’eau. En général, l’augmentation de la vitesse de déformation donne une augmentation de la contrainte critique du béton cellulaire autoclavé. Le béton cellulaire autoclavé présente une sensibilité à la vitesse de déformation positive. La valeur du module d’élasticité est proche de la valeur standard (1.5 GPa pour un béton cellulaire autoclavé de masse volumique égale à 500-550 kg/m3.

  11. Biofiltration of Methane from Ruminants Gas Effluent Using Autoclaved Aerated Concrete as the Carrier Material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganendra, Giovanni; Mercado-Garcia, Daniel; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Peiren, Nico; De Campeneere, Sam; Ho, Adrian; Boon, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The performance of Methane-Oxidizing Bacteria (MOB) immobilized on Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) in a biofilter setup to remove methane from ruminants gas effluent was investigated. Two dairy cows were housed in respiration chambers for two days where the exhaust gas from the chambers

  12. Utilization of squid pen for the efficient production of chitosanase and antioxidants through prolonged autoclave treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, San-Lang; Wu, Pei-Chen; Liang, Tzu-Wen

    2009-05-26

    We have developed a culture system for efficient production of chitosanase by Bacillus sp. TKU004. TKU004 was cultivated by using squid pen powder as the sole carbon/nitrogen source. The effects of autoclave treatments of the medium on the production of chitosanase were investigated. Autoclave treatment of squid pen powder for 45 min remarkably promoted enzyme productivity. When the culture medium containing an initial squid pen powder concentration of 3% was autoclaved for 45 min, the chitosanase activity was optimal and reached 0.14-0.16 U/mL. In addition, extracellular surfactant-stable chitosanase was purified from the TKU004 culture supernatant. The antioxidant activity of TKU004 culture supernatant was determined through the scavenging ability of DPPH, with 70% per mL. With this method, we have shown that marine wastes can be utilized efficiently through prolonged autoclave treatments to generate a high value-added product, and have revealed its hidden potential in the production of functional foods.

  13. Processing urinary endoscopes in a low-temperature steam and formaldehyde autoclave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, G L

    1977-01-01

    Methods of disinfection and sterilisation of urinary endoscopes are considered. A small mobile low-temperature steam and formaldehyde autoclave (Miniclave 80) is evaluated and shown to be satisfactory for this purpose as judged by a variety of relevant microbiological test pieces. Images PMID:557503

  14. Synthesis and characterization of strontium carboxylates at room temperature and at high temperature in autoclave vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christgau, Stephan; Ståhl, Kenny; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2006-01-01

    -ray crystallography. Optimum conditions were found at T = 120-1400C, a base-to-acid ratio of 1.2 and 15 min. of reaction-time in an autoclave vessel. Large crystals were readily obtained within a time period of hours. The crystal structures of strontium D-glutamate hexahydrate (I) and strontium di-(hydrogen L...

  15. Incineration or autoclave? A comparative study in isfahan hospitals waste management system (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdowsi, Ali; Ferdosi, Masoud; Mehrani, Mohammd Javad

    2013-03-01

    Medical wastes are among hazardous wastes and their disposal requires special methods prior to landfilling. Medical wastes are divided into infected and non-infected wastes and the infected wastes require treatment. Incineration is one of the oldest methods for treatment of medical wastes, but their usage have faced wide objections due to emission of hazardous gases such as CO2 and CO as well as Carcinogenic gases such as Dioxins and Furans which are generated as a result of incomplete combustion of compositions like PVCs. Autoclave is one the newest methods of medical wastes treatment which works based on wet disinfection. The statistical population in this descriptive, comparative study includes hospitals located in Isfahan city and the sample hospitals were selected randomly. To environmentally evaluate the Autoclave method, TST (time, steam, temperature) and Spore tests were used. Also, samples were made from incinerator's stack gases and their analyses results were compared with WHO standards. TST and spore tests results were negative in all cases indicating the success of treatment process. The comparison of incinerator's stack gases with WHO standards showed the high concentration of CO in some samples indicating the incomplete combustion. Also, the incineration efficiency in some cases was less than 99.5 percent, which is the efficiency criterion according to the administrative regulations of wastes management law of Iran. No needle stick was observed in Autoclave method during the compaction of bags containing wastes, and the handlers were facing no danger in this respect. The comparison of costs indicated that despite higher capital investment for purchasing autoclave, its current costs (e.g. maintenance, etc) are much less than the incineration method. Totally, due to inappropriate operation of incinerators and lack of air pollution control devices, the use of incinerators doesn't seem rational anymore. Yet, despite the inefficiency of autoclaves in

  16. Experimental and numerical study of heterogeneous pressure-temperature-induced lethal and sublethal injury of Lactococcus lactis in a medium scale high-pressure autoclave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilimann, K V; Kitsubun, P; Delgado, A; Gänzle, M G; Chapleau, N; Le Bail, A; Hartmann, C

    2006-07-05

    The present contribution is dedicated to experimental and theoretical assessment of microbiological process heterogeneities of the high-pressure (HP) inactivation of Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris MG 1363. The inactivation kinetics are determined in dependence of pressure, process time, temperature and absence or presence of co-solutes in the buffer system namely 4 M sodium chloride and 1.5 M sucrose. The kinetic analysis is carried out in a 0.1-L autoclave in order to minimise thermal and convective effects. Upon these data, a deterministic inactivation model is formulated with the logistic equation. Its independent variables represent the counts of viable cells (viable but injured) and of the stress-resistant cells (viable and not injured). This model is then coupled to a thermo-fluiddynamical simulation method, high-pressure computer fluid dynamics technique (HP-CFD), which yields spatiotemporal temperature and flow fields occurring during the HP application inside any considered autoclave. Besides the thermo-fluiddynamic quantities, the coupled model predicts also the spatiotemporal distribution of both viable (VC) and stress-resistant cell counts (SRC). In order to assess the process non-uniformity of the microbial inactivation in a 3.3-L autoclave experimentally, microbial samples are placed at two distinct locations and are exposed to various process conditions. It can be shown with both, experimental and theoretical models that thermal heterogeneities induce process non-uniformities of more than one decimal power in the counts of the viable cells at the end of the treatment. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Bacteria in crude oil survived autoclaving and stimulated differentially by exogenous bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao-Cui; Liu, Ze-Shen; Guo, Peng; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Chen, Jian; Wang, Xing-Biao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Liu, Chun-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Autoclaving of crude oil is often used to evaluate the hydrocarbon-degrading abilities of bacteria. This may be potentially useful for bioaugmentation and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). However, it is not entirely clear if "endogenous" bacteria (e.g., spores) in/on crude oil survive the autoclaving process, or influence subsequent evaluation of the hydrocarbon-degradation abilities of the "exogenous" bacterial strains. To test this, we inoculated autoclaved crude oil medium with six exogenous bacterial strains (three Dietzia strains, two Acinetobacter strains, and one Pseudomonas strain). The survival of the spore-forming Bacillus and Paenibacillus and the non-spore-forming mesophilic Pseudomonas, Dietzia, Alcaligenes, and Microbacterium was detected using a 16S rRNA gene clone library and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. However, neither bacteria nor bacterial activity was detected in three controls consisting of non-inoculated autoclaved crude oil medium. These results suggest that detection of endogenous bacteria was stimulated by the six inoculated strains. In addition, inoculation with Acinetobacter spp. stimulated detection of Bacillus, while inoculation with Dietzia spp. and Pseudomonas sp. stimulated the detection of more Pseudomonas. In contrast, similar exogenous bacteria stimulated similar endogenous bacteria at the genus level. Based on these results, special emphasis should be applied to evaluate the influence of bacteria capable of surviving autoclaving on the hydrocarbon-degrading abilities of exogenous bacteria, in particular, with regard to bioaugmentation and MEOR. Bioaugmentation and MEOR technologies could then be developed to more accurately direct the growth of specific endogenous bacteria that may then improve the efficiency of treatment or recovery of crude oil.

  18. Bacteria in crude oil survived autoclaving and stimulated differentially by exogenous bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Cui Gong

    Full Text Available Autoclaving of crude oil is often used to evaluate the hydrocarbon-degrading abilities of bacteria. This may be potentially useful for bioaugmentation and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR. However, it is not entirely clear if "endogenous" bacteria (e.g., spores in/on crude oil survive the autoclaving process, or influence subsequent evaluation of the hydrocarbon-degradation abilities of the "exogenous" bacterial strains. To test this, we inoculated autoclaved crude oil medium with six exogenous bacterial strains (three Dietzia strains, two Acinetobacter strains, and one Pseudomonas strain. The survival of the spore-forming Bacillus and Paenibacillus and the non-spore-forming mesophilic Pseudomonas, Dietzia, Alcaligenes, and Microbacterium was detected using a 16S rRNA gene clone library and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis. However, neither bacteria nor bacterial activity was detected in three controls consisting of non-inoculated autoclaved crude oil medium. These results suggest that detection of endogenous bacteria was stimulated by the six inoculated strains. In addition, inoculation with Acinetobacter spp. stimulated detection of Bacillus, while inoculation with Dietzia spp. and Pseudomonas sp. stimulated the detection of more Pseudomonas. In contrast, similar exogenous bacteria stimulated similar endogenous bacteria at the genus level. Based on these results, special emphasis should be applied to evaluate the influence of bacteria capable of surviving autoclaving on the hydrocarbon-degrading abilities of exogenous bacteria, in particular, with regard to bioaugmentation and MEOR. Bioaugmentation and MEOR technologies could then be developed to more accurately direct the growth of specific endogenous bacteria that may then improve the efficiency of treatment or recovery of crude oil.

  19. High-impact strength acrylic denture base material processed by autoclave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulwahhab, Salwan Sami

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the effect of two different cycles of autoclave processing on the transverse strength, impact strength, surface hardness and the porosity of high-impact strength acrylic denture base material. High Impact Acryl was the heat-cured acrylic denture base material included in the study. A total of 120 specimens were prepared, the specimens were grouped into: control groups in which high-impact strength acrylic resins processed by conventional water-bath processing technique (74°C for 1.5 h then boil for 30 min) and experimental groups in which high-impact strength acrylic resins processed by autoclave at 121°C, 210 kPa .The experimental groups were divided into (fast) groups for 15 min, and (slow) groups for 30 min. To study the effect of the autoclave processing (Tuttnauer 2540EA), four tests were conducted transverse strength (Instron universal testing machine), impact strength (Charpy tester), surface hardness (shore D), and porosity test. The results were analyzed to ANOVA and LSD test. In ANOVA test, there were highly significant differences between the results of the processing techniques in transverse, impact, hardness, and porosity test. The LSD test showed a significant difference between control and fast groups in transverse and hardness tests and a non-significant difference in impact test and a highly significant difference in porosity test; while, there were a highly significant differences between control and slow groups in all examined tests; finally, there were a non-significant difference between fast and slow groups in transverse and porosity tests and a highly significant difference in impact and hardness tests. In the autoclave processing technique, the slow (long) curing cycle improved the tested physical and mechanical properties as compared with the fast (short) curing cycle. The autoclave processing technique improved the tested physical and mechanical properties of High Impact Acryl. Copyright © 2013 Japan Prosthodontic Society

  20. Elevated Temperature, Notched Compression Performance of Out of Autoclave Processed Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Sutter, James K.; Dixon, Genevieve D.; Smeltzer, Satn S.

    2013-01-01

    Curved honeycomb sandwich panels composed of carbon fiber reinforced toughened-epoxy polymer facesheets are being evaluated for potential use as payload fairing components on the NASA heavy-lift space launch system (HL-SLS). These proposed composite sandwich panels provide the most efficient aerospace launch structures, and offer mass and thermal advantages when compared with existing metallic payload fairing structures. NASA and industry are investigating recently developed carbon fiber epoxy prepreg systems which can be fabricated using out-of autoclave (OOA) processes. Specifically, OOA processes using vacuum pressure in an oven and thereby significantly reducing the cost associated with manufacturing large (up to 10 m diameter) composite structures when compared with autoclave. One of these OOA composite material systems, CYCOM(R) 5320-1, was selected for manufacture of a 1/16th scale barrel portion of the payload fairing; such that, the system could be compared with the well-characterized prepreg system, CYCOM(R) 977-3, typically processed in an autoclave. Notched compression coupons for each material were obtained from the minimum-gauge flat laminate [60/-60/0]S witness panels produced in this manufacturing study. The coupons were also conditioned to an effective moisture equilibrium point and tested according to ASTM D6484M-09 at temperatures ranging from 25 C up to 177 C. The results of this elevated temperature mechanical characterization study demonstrate that, for thin coupons, the OHC strength of the OOA laminate was equivalent to the flight certified autoclave processed composite laminates; the limitations on the elevated temperature range are hot-wet conditions up to 163 C and are only within the margins of testing error. At 25 C, both the wet and dry OOA material coupons demonstrated greater OHC failure strengths than the autoclave processed material laminates. These results indicate a substantial improvement in OOA material development and

  1. MODIFIKASI PATI GARUT (Marantha arundinacea) DENGAN PERLAKUAN SIKLUS PEMANASAN SUHU TINGGI-PENDINGINAN ( AUTOCLAVING-COOLING CYCLING) UNTUK MENGHASILKAN PATI RESISTEN TIPE III [Arrowroot (Marantha arundinacea) Starch Modification Through Autoclaving-Cooling Cycling Treatment to Produce Resistant Starch Type III

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiyono*; Ratih Pratiwi2); Didah Nur Faridah

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to modify arrowroot starch to produce resistant starch type III by autoclaving-cooling cycling and to characterize the modified arrowroot starches according to their chemical properties. The research consisted of three steps : arrowroot extraction, starch modification, and chemical characterization. The extraction of arrowroot produced 10.78% starch. Starch modification by autoclaving-cooling cycle(s) was run in 6 different treatments with the aim of obser...

  2. Dimensional stability of a polyvinylsiloxane impression material following ethylene oxide and steam autoclave sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtan, J R; Olin, P S; Rudney, J D

    1991-04-01

    Polyvinlsiloxane impressions were made from a stainless steel master die machined to stimulate five full veneer crown preparations symmetrically placed in an arch form. Three groups of 10 impressions each were made. Treatment groups were sterilized using an ethylene oxide gas and a conventional steam autoclave. Casts were poured and intrapreparation, height, and diameter measurements were made using a stereomicroscope, a digital electronic caliper, and a 1-inch travel dial indicator. Analysis of dimensional changes for the two groups showed that casts made from impressions sterilized by ethylene oxide are acceptable for use in the construction of fixed or removable prostheses. Casts made from impressions sterilized in a steam autoclave can be used for the fabrication of diagnostic casts and some transitional prostheses, but not for routine construction of crowns or fixed partial dentures.

  3. Mathematical Model For Autoclave Curing Of Unsaturated Polyester Based Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan A. Abdul Razak

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer process involved in the autoclave curing of fiber-reinforced thermosetting composites is investigated numerically. A model for the prediction of the temperature and the extent of the reaction across the laminate thickness during curing process in the autoclave of unsaturated polyester based composite has been developed. The governing equation for one dimensional heat transfer, and accounting for the heat generation due to the exothermic cure reaction in the composites had been used.  It was found that the temperature at the central of the laminate increases up to the external imposed temperature, because of the thermal conductivity of the resin and fiber. The heat generated by the exothermic reaction of the resin is not adequately removed; the increase in the temperature at the center increases the resins rate reaction, which in turn generates more heat.

  4. A compensation approach to the tool used in autoclave based on FEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ji; Li Yingguang; Li Nanya; and Liao Wenhe

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of the curing process can not control the deformation of composite part prepared in autoclave accurately. And traditional "trial-and-error" tool surface compensation approach is low efficiency, high cost and can not control part deformation quantificationally. In order to address these issues, tool compensation approach based on FEA is presented. Model of multi-field coupling relationship in autoclave is realized. And finite element analysis model of composite part's curing process is developed to analyze part deformation. According to displacement of the part surface nodes after deformation, tool surface which compensated by the displacement of composite part which analyzed by FEA is used to control part deformation. A cylindrical composite part is ana- lyzed to verify the approach, and the result proves the correctness and validity of the approach.

  5. HYACE - a novel autoclave coring equipment for systematic offshore gashydrate sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, H.; Hohnberg, H.J.; Reinelt, R. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Schiffs- und Meerestechnik, Fachgebiet Maritime Technik

    1997-12-31

    HYACE, the acronym for hydrate autoclave coring equipment system, is a research and development project sponsored by the European Union`s Marine Science and Technology Programme MAST. The project was to have started in the fourth quarter of 1997 and is to last 30 months. The main activities of the project will be in the development and prototype testing of an innovative down-hole controlled autoclave coring system. This system will be designed to sample marine sediments at extended down-hole conditions maintaining as many parameters constant as possible. In general terms, the main aim of the project is to contribute to systematic ground truthing of a necessarily ephemeral phenomenon of growing global significance: sampling and analysis of gas hydrates in their natural environment. (MSK)

  6. Torsional properties of stainless-steel and nickel-titanium files after multiple autoclave sterilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilt, B R; Cunningham, C J; Shen, C; Richards, N

    2000-02-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that multiple sterilizations of endodontic stainless-steel and nickel-titanium files will lead to a continuous decrease in the resistance of files to separation by torsion. One hundred stainless-steel and 100 nickel-titanium #30 K-type files were divided into 20 groups of 10 and sterilized in increments of 10 cycles, using a full cycle and a fast cycle autoclave. These files were tested by twisting each of them in a clockwise direction until fracture (torque g-cm). Samples of the fractured files were embedded in an epoxy resin and polished for Knoop hardness tests. In addition, the samples were chemically etched to reveal changes in microstructure. The findings of this study indicate that neither the number of sterilization cycles nor the type of autoclave sterilization used affects the torsional properties, hardness, and microstructure of stainless-steel and nickel-titanium files.

  7. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) fiber optic monitoring of composites during cure in an autoclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druy, Mark A.; Elandjian, Lucy; Stevenson, William A.; Driver, Richard D.; Leskowitz, Garett M.

    1990-01-01

    Real-time in situ monitoring of the chemical states of epoxy resins was investigated during cure in an autoclave using infrared evanescent spectroscopy. Fiber evanescent sensors were developed which may be sandwiched between the plies of the prepreg sample. A short length of sapphire fiber was used as the sensor cell portion of the fiber probe. Heavy metal fluoride glass optical fiber cables were designed for connecting the FTIR spectrometer to the sensor fiber within the autoclave. The sapphire fibers have outstanding mechanical thermal properties which should permit their use as an embedded link in all thermoset composites. The system is capable of operation at a temperature of 250 C for periods up to 8 hours without major changes to the fiber transmission. A discussion of the selection of suitable sensor fibers, the construction of a fiber-optic interface, and the interpretation of in situ infrared spectra of the curing process is presented.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF A HALLOYSITE ADDITIVE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Owsiak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results from the tests of autoclaved aerated concrete with halloysite as a cement additive. Good pozzolanic properties make it a suitable material to be used as a partial replacement of a portion of cement. Basic physical and mechanical properties of the composites with various mineral content are discussed. The compressive strength test results indicate an increase in strength of the AAC containing 2.5 % and 5 % halloysite relative to the reference specimen. Thermal conductivity and density values remained at the same level. Observations of the microstructure in the scanning electron microscope confirmed the results from the XRD tests. Anhydrite was observed in addition to tobermorite. The results from the tests of the autoclaved aerated concretes in which halloysite was incorporated as 7.5 % and 10 % cement replacement showed an increase in compressive strength, density and thermal conductivity values.

  9. Immunoreactivity of specific epitopes of PrPSc is enhanced by pretreatment in a hydrated autoclave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, T; Momotani, E; Kimura, K; Yuasa, N

    1996-01-01

    An abnormal protein (PrPSc) accumulates in animals affected with scrapie. Immunoblotting procedures have been used widely to detect PrPSc. Blotted membranes were subjected to pretreatment in a hydrated autoclave, and the subsequent immunoreactivity of PrPSc was examined. The immunoreactivity of PrPSc to antisera against the synthetic peptides of the mouse PrP amino acid sequences 199 to 208 and 213 to 226 was enhanced by the pretreatment. However, the reactivity to antisera of peptide sequences 100 to 115 and 165 to 174 was not affected. The antibody-binding ability of the specific epitopes which are located close to the C-terminal end of PrP27-30 the proteinase-resistant portion of PrPSc, was enhanced by pretreatment in a hydrated autoclave. This pretreatment increased the sensitivity of PrPSc, and it would be useful for diagnosis of scrapie. PMID:8807215

  10. Achieving appropriate design for developing world heath care: the case of a low-cost autoclave for primary health clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hallie S; Tao, Gregory D; Winter, Amos

    2012-01-01

    In developing world health clinics, incidence of surgical site infection is 2 to 10 times higher than in developed world hospitals. This paper identifies lack of availability of appropriately designed, low-cost autoclaves in developing world health clinics as a major contributing factor to the dramatic gap in surgical site infection rates. The paper describes the process of developing a low-cost autoclave that addresses the unique challenges faced by developing world primary health clinics and discusses how appropriateness of design was determined. The resulting pressure cooker-based autoclave design was fabricated and tested against the CDC specifications. Twelve partnering clinics in Nepal trialed these autoclaves from July until December 2012.

  11. Multiple autoclave cycles affect the surface of rotary nickel-titanium files: an atomic force microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valois, Caroline R A; Silva, Luciano P; Azevedo, Ricardo B

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface of rotary nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) files after multiple autoclave cycles. Two different types of rotary Ni-Ti (Greater Taper and ProFile) were attached to a glass base. After 1, 5, and 10 autoclave cycles the files were positioned in the atomic force microscope. The analyses were performed on 15 different points. The same files were used as control before any autoclave cycle. The following vertical topographic parameters were measured: arithmetic mean roughness, maximum height, and root mean square. The differences were tested by analysis of variance with Tukey test. All topographic parameters were higher for both Greater Taper and ProFile after 10 cycles compared with the control (P autoclave cycles increase the depth of surface irregularities located on rotary Ni-Ti files.

  12. Effect of Autoclave Cycles on Surface Characteristics of S-File Evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Razavian, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Pedram; Mojtahedi, Hamid; Nazeri, Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Presence of surface defects in endodontic instruments can lead to unwanted complications such as instrument fracture and incomplete preparation of the canal. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of autoclave cycles on surface characteristics of S-File by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods and Materials: In this experimental study, 17 brand new S-Files (#30) were used. The surface characteristics of the files were examined in four steps (without autocla...

  13. Effect of Autoclave Cycles on Surface Characteristics of S-File Evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Razavian, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Pedram; Mojtahedi, Hamid; Nazeri, Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Presence of surface defects in endodontic instruments can lead to unwanted complications such as instrument fracture and incomplete preparation of the canal. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of autoclave cycles on surface characteristics of S-File by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods and Materials: In this experimental study, 17 brand new S-Files (#30) were used. The surface characteristics of the files were examined in four steps (without autocla...

  14. Effect of autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue resistance of thermally treated Nickel-Titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D; Shen, Y; Peng, B; Haapasalo, M

    2016-10-01

    To compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of HyFlex CM, Twisted Files (TF), K3XF, Race, and K3, and evaluate the effect of autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue resistance of these instruments both before and after the files were cycled. Five types of NiTi instruments with similar size 30, .06 taper were selected: HyFlex CM, TF, K3XF, Race and K3. Files were tested in a simulated canal with a curvature of 60° and a radius of 3 mm. The number of cycles to failure of each instrument was determined to evaluate cyclic fatigue resistance. Each type of instruments was randomly divided into four experimental groups: group 1 (n = 20), unsterilized instruments; group 2 (n = 20), pre-sterilized instruments subjected to 10 cycles of autoclave sterilization; group 3 (n = 20), instruments tested were sterilized at 25%, 50% and 75% of the mean cycles to failure as determined in group 1, and then cycled to failure; group 4 (n = 20), instruments cycled in the same manner as group 3 but without sterilization. The fracture surfaces of instruments were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). HyFlex CM, TF and K3XF had significantly higher cyclic fatigue resistance than Race and K3 in the unsterilized group 1 (P Autoclave sterilization significantly increased the MCF of HyFlex CM and K3XF (P Autoclaving extended the cyclic fatigue life of HyFlex CM and K3XF. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Outbreak of toxic anterior segment syndrome following cataract surgery associated with impurities in autoclave steam moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinger, Walter C; Hasan, Saiyid A; Bacalis, Laura P; Thornblom, Deborah M; Beckmann, Susan C; Blackmore, Carina; Forster, Terri S; Tirey, Jason F; Ross, Mary J; Nilson, Christian D; Mamalis, Nick; Crook, Julia E; Bendel, Rick E; Shetty, Rajesh; Stewart, Michael W; Bolling, James P; Edelhauser, Henry F

    2006-03-01

    Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS), a complication of cataract surgery, is a sterile inflammation of the anterior chamber of the eye. An outbreak of TASS was recognized at an outpatient surgical center and its affiliated hospital in December 2002. Medical records of patients who underwent cataract surgery during the outbreak were reviewed, and surgical team members who participated in the operations were interviewed. Potential causes of TASS were identified and eliminated. Feedwater from autoclave steam generators and steam condensates were analyzed by use of spectroscopy and ion chromatography. During the outbreak, 8 (38%) of 21 cataract operations were complicated by TASS, compared with 2 (0.07%) of 2,713 operations performed from January 1996 through November 2002. Results of an initial investigation suggested that cataract surgical equipment may have been contaminated by suboptimal equipment reprocessing or as a result of personnel changes. The frequency of TASS decreased (1 of 44 cataract operations) after reassignment of personnel and revision of equipment reprocessing procedures. Further investigation identified the presence of impurities (eg, sulfates, copper, zinc, nickel, and silica) in autoclave steam moisture, which was attributed to improper maintenance of the autoclave steam generator in the outpatient surgical center. When impurities in autoclave steam moisture were eliminated, no cases of TASS were observed after more than 1,000 cataract operations. Suboptimal reprocessing of cataract surgical equipment may evolve over time in busy, multidisciplinary surgical centers. Clinically significant contamination of surgical equipment may result from inappropriate maintenance of steam sterilization systems. Standardization of protocols for reprocessing of cataract surgical equipment may prevent outbreaks of TASS and may be of assistance during outbreak investigations.

  16. West Angeles Community Development Corporation final technical report on export market feasibility planning and research for the solar medical autoclave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, G.D.

    1998-04-20

    This report summarizes core findings from an investigation performed by the staff of West Angeles Community Development Corporation (CDC) regarding the feasibility of marketing the Solar Medical Autoclave (``autoclave``) in South Africa. The investigation was completed during 1997, the period prescribed by the Grant Award made by the U.S. Department of Energy on January 1, 1997, and was monitored by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  17. Autoclaved Tumor Bone for Skeletal Reconstruction in Paediatric Patients: A Low Cost Alternative in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Umer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed in this series forty patients of pediatric age who underwent resection for malignant tumors of musculoskeletal system followed by biological reconstruction. Our surgical procedure for reconstruction included (1 wide en bloc resection of the tumor; (2 curettage of tumor from the resected bone; (3 autoclaving for 8 minutes (4 bone grafting from the fibula (both vascularized and nonvascularized fibular grafts used; (5 reimplantation of the autoclaved bone into the host bone defect and fixation with plates. Functional evaluation was done using MSTS scoring system. At final followup of at least 18 months (mean 29.2 months, 31 patients had recovered without any complications. Thirty-eight patients successfully achieved a solid bony union between the graft and recipient bone. Three patients had surgical site infection. They were managed with wound debridement and flap coverage of the defect. Local recurrence and nonunion occurred in two patients each. One patient underwent disarticulation at hip due to extensive local disease and one died of metastasis. For patients with non-union, revision procedure with bone graft and compression plates was successfully used. The use of autoclaved tumor grafts provides a limb salvage option that is inexpensive and independent of external resources and is a viable option for musculoskeletal tumor management in developing countries.

  18. Role of the wireless thermologger system in the management of the autoclave unequipped with sensor ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetera, Yushi; Shigematsu, Hiroshi; Baba, Zenzou; Kumada, Naohito; Kawamura, Kunio

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the wireless thermologger system was developed. It consists of a wireless logger and the attached computer system. The wireless logger has a wireless structure and can be placed anywhere in the sterilizer chamber for thermometry. In the present study, thermal evaluations were performed twice using the wireless thermologger system in the sterilizer chamber of the prevacuum autoclave unequipped with sensor ports when it failed to pass the Bowie-Dick test and underwent mechanical repairs. Thermometry was performed when the Bowie-Dick test cycle was operated. The heat up time was measured in the range of 120.0-134.0 degrees C. The F0 value was calculated with the reference temperature at 121.0 degrees C and Z value at 10 degrees C when the sterilization temperature was over 120.0 degrees C. The first thermal evaluation was performed after three air-leaking points were repaired along with the replacement of the vacuum pump and the thermosensor. It revealed that the heat-up time was 4 min and 42 s and the F0 value was 137.5. After the temperature control systems were adjusted using the process calibrator in the prevacuum autoclave, the second thermal evaluation revealed that the heat up time was 2 mins 1 s and the F0 value was 102.7. The present study suggests that the wireless thermologger system is useful in the management of the autoclave unequipped with sensor ports when it undergoes mechanical repairs.

  19. Curing Pressure Influence of Out-of-Autoclave Processing on Structural Composites for Commercial Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios M. Drakonakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoclaving is a process that ensures the highest quality of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP composite structures used in aviation. During the autoclave process, consolidation of prepreg laminas through simultaneous elevated pressure and temperature results in a uniform high-end material system. This work focuses on analyzing in a fundamental way the applications of pressure and temperature separately during prepreg consolidation. A controlled pressure vessel (press-clave has been designed that applies pressure during the curing process while the temperature is being applied locally by heat blankets. This vessel gives the ability to design manufacturing processes with different pressures while applying temperature at desired regions of the composite. The pressure role on the curing extent and its effect on the interlayer region are also tested in order to evaluate the consolidation of prepregs to a completely uniform material. Such studies may also be used to provide insight into the morphology of interlayer reinforcement concepts, which are widely used in the featherweight composites. Specimens manufactured by press-clave, which separates pressure from heat, are analytically tested and compared to autoclaved specimens in order to demonstrate the suitability of the press-clave to manufacture high-quality composites with excessively reduced cost.

  20. Autoclave method for rapid preparation of bacterial PCR-template DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmon, Keith E; Steadman, Dewey D; Durkin, Sarah; Baldwin, Amy; Jeffrey, Wade H; Sheridan, Peter; Horton, Rene; Shields, Malcolm S

    2004-02-01

    An autoclave method for preparing bacterial DNA for PCR template is presented, it eliminates the use of detergents, organic solvents, and mechanical cellular disruption approaches, thereby significantly reducing processing time and costs while increasing reproducibility. Bacteria are lysed by rapid heating and depressurization in an autoclave. The lysate, cleared by microcentrifugation, was either used directly in the PCR reaction, or concentrated by ultrafiltration. This approach was compared with seven established methods of DNA template preparation from four bacterial sources which included boiling Triton X-100 and SDS, bead beating, lysozyme/proteinase K, and CTAB lysis method components. Bacteria examined were Enterococcus and Escherichia coli, a natural marine bacterial community and an Antarctic cyanobacterial-mat. DNAs were tested for their suitability as PCR templates by repetitive element random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The autoclave method produced PCR amplifiable template comparable or superior to the other methods, with greater reproducibility, much shorter processing time, and at a significantly lower cost.

  1. Mechanical Characterization of In and Out-of-Autoclave Cured Composite Panels for Large Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Lerch, Bradley A.; Wilmoth, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Two manufacturing demonstration panels (1/16th-arc-segments of 10 m diameter cylinder) were fabricated under the composites part of the Lightweight Space Structures and Materials program. Both panels were of sandwich construction with aluminum core and 8-ply quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy facesheets. One of the panels was constructed with in-autoclave curable unidirectional prepreg (IM7/977-3) and the second with out-of-autoclave unidirectional prepreg (T40-800B/5320-1). Following NDE inspection, each panel was divided into a number of small specimens for material property characterization and a large (0.914 m wide by 1.524 m long) panel for a buckling study. Results from the small specimen tests were used to (a) assess the fabrication quality of each 1/16th arc segment panel and (b) to develop and/or verify basic material property inputs to Finite Element analysis models. The mechanical performance of the two material systems is assessed at the coupon level by comparing average measured properties such as flatwise tension, edgewise compression, and facesheet tension. The buckling response of the 0.914 m wide by 1.524 m long panel provided a comparison between the in- and out-of autoclave systems at a larger scale.

  2. Failure Predictions of Out-of-Autoclave Sandwich Joints with Delaminations Under Flexure Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordendale, Nikolas A.; Goyal, Vinay K.; Lundgren, Eric C.; Patel, Dhruv N.; Farrokh, Babak; Jones, Justin; Fischetti, Grace; Segal, Kenneth N.

    2015-01-01

    An analysis and a test program was conducted to investigate the damage tolerance of composite sandwich joints. The joints contained a single circular delamination between the face-sheet and the doubler. The coupons were fabricated through out-of-autoclave (OOA) processes, a technology NASA is investigating for joining large composite sections. The four-point bend flexure test was used to induce compression loading into the side of the joint where the delamination was placed. The compression side was chosen since it tends to be one of the most critical loads in launch vehicles. Autoclave cure was used to manufacture the composite sandwich sections, while the doubler was co-bonded onto the sandwich face-sheet using an OOA process after sandwich panels were cured. A building block approach was adopted to characterize the mechanical properties of the joint material, including the fracture toughness between the doubler and face-sheet. Twelve four-point-bend samples were tested, six in the sandwich core ribbon orientation and six in sandwich core cross-ribbon direction. Analysis predicted failure initiation and propagation at the pre-delaminated location, consistent with experimental observations. A building block approach using fracture analyses methods predicted failure loads in close agreement with tests. This investigation demonstrated a small strength reduction due to a flaw of significant size compared to the width of the sample. Therefore, concerns of bonding an OOA material to an in-autoclave material was mitigated for the geometries, materials, and load configurations considered.

  3. [Influence of autoclave sterilization on dimensional stability and detail reproduction of 5 additional silicone impression materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tong-kai; Sun, Zhi-hui; Jiang, Yong

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the dimensional stability and detail reproduction of five additional silicone impression materials after autoclave sterilization. Impressions were made on the ISO 4823 standard mold containing several marking lines, in five kinds of additional silicone. All the impressions were sterilized by high temperature and pressure (135 °C, 212.8 kPa) for 25 min. Linear measurements of pre-sterilization and post-sterilization were made with a measuring microscope. Statistical analysis utilized single-factor analysis with pair-wise comparison of mean values when appropriate. Hypothesis testing was conducted at alpha = 0.05. No significant difference was found between the pre-sterilization and post-sterilization conditions for all locations, and all the absolute valuse of linear rate of change less than 8%. All the sterilization by the autoclave did not affect the surfuce detail reproduction of the 5 impression materials. The dimensional stability and detail reproduction of the five additional silicone impression materials in the study was unaffected by autoclave sterilization.

  4. Impact of autoclave sterilization on the activity and structure of formulated heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudet, Julie M; Weyers, Amanda; Solakyildirim, Kemal; Yang, Bo; Takieddin, Majde; Mousa, Shaker; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J

    2011-08-01

    The stability of a formulated heparin was examined during its sterilization by autoclaving. A new method to follow loss in heparin binding to the serine protease inhibitor, antithrombin III, and the serine protease, thrombin, was developed using a surface plasmon resonance competitive binding assay. This loss in binding affinity correlated well with loss in antifactor IIa (thrombin) activity as well as antifactor Xa activity as measured using conventional amidolytic assays. Autoclaving also resulted in a modest breakdown of the heparin backbone as confirmed by a slight reduction in number-averaged and weight-averaged molecular weight and an increase in polydispersity. Although no clear changes were observed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, disaccharide composition analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry suggested that loss of selected sulfo groups had taken place. It is this sulfo group loss that probably accounts for a decrease in the binding of autoclaved heparin to antithrombin III and thrombin as well as the observed decrease in its amidolytic activity. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Influence of autoclave sterilization on the surface parameters and mechanical properties of six orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernier, C; Grosgogeat, B; Ponsonnet, L; Benay, G; Lissac, M

    2005-02-01

    Orthodontic wires are frequently packaged in individual sealed bags in order to avoid cross-contamination. The instructions on the wrapper generally advise autoclave sterilization of the package and its contents if additional protection is desired. However, sterilization can modify the surface parameters and the mechanical properties of many types of material. The aim of this research was to determine the influence of one of the most widely used sterilization processes, autoclaving (18 minutes at 134 degrees C, as recommended by the French Ministry of Health), on the surface parameters and mechanical properties of six wires currently used in orthodontics (one stainless steel alloy: Tru-Chrome RMO; two nickel-titanium shape memory alloys: Neo Sentalloy and Neo Sentalloy with Ionguard GAC; and three titanium-molybdenum alloys: TMA(R) and Low Friction TMA Ormco and Resolve GAC). The alloys were analysed on receipt and after sterilization, using surface structure observation techniques, including optical, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy and profilometry. The mechanical properties were assessed by three-point bending tests. The results showed that autoclave sterilization had no adverse effects on the surface parameters or on the selected mechanical properties. This supports the possibility for practitioners to systematically sterilize wires before placing them in the oral environment.

  6. Pressure impact of autoclave treatment on water sorption and pectin composition of flax cellulosic-fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alix, S; Colasse, L; Morvan, C; Lebrun, L; Marais, S

    2014-02-15

    The tensile properties of flax fibres might permit them to be used in composites as reinforcement in organic resin, as long as their mechanical properties are reproducible and their water sorption are reduced. In this study, to minimise the variability of mechanical properties, several samples of flax fibres were blended as a non-woven fabric. In order to reduce the water absorption of this non-woven technical fibres, an autoclave treatment was performed which was expected to remove the pectins and then to reduce the water sorption on their negative charges. The impact of autoclave pressure (0.5, 1 and 2 bars) on water sorption was investigated by using a gravimetric static equilibrium method. The Park model based on the three sorption modes: Langmuir, Henry's law and clustering, was successfully used to simulate the experimental sorption data. The lowest pressure treatments impacted only the Langmuir contribution while the 2 bar autoclave-treatment positively impacted the water resistance in the core of fibres by reducing Henry's absorption rate. This was shown to be related to the chemical modifications at the surface and in the core of fibres. A schematic model is presented relating the water sorption and the pectic composition of the fabric. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

    2009-03-31

    Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a

  8. Effects of autoclave sterilization on properties of dental rubber dam as related to its use as barrier membrane in guided tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apinhasmit, Wandee; Limsombutanon, Somchai; Swasdison, Somporn; Suppipat, Nophadol

    2003-10-01

    Dental rubber dams (RDs) were used as barrier membranes in guided tissue regeneration for the treatment of periodontal intraosseous defects with acceptable clinical results. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of autoclave sterilization on properties of RD as related to its use as a barrier membrane in guided tissue regeneration. RDs were sterilized by either an autoclave, gamma irradiation, or chemical agents and then co-cultured with human gingival fibroblasts. The cell responses to sterilized RDs were investigated by inverted phase contrast microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) technique. The surface alterations of the autoclaved RDs were observed under SEM. The tensile strength, tear strength and elongation at break of the autoclaved RDs were tested by a universal testing machine. The results from cell culture, microscopic and MTT studies showed that RDs sterilized by autoclave and gamma irradiation did not deteriorate gingival fibroblasts and provided surfaces suitable for cell attachment, whereas chemical-sterilized RDs were toxic to these cells. Ultrastructurally, surface changes from the non-autoclaved RDs, including some melted areas, small pores and folds were observed on the autoclaved RD surface. The tensile strength and tear strength of the autoclaved RDs were significantly lower than those of the non-autoclaved RDs (p = 0.042, p autoclaved RDs was higher than that of the non-autoclaved RDs (p autoclave sterilization deteriorated the physical properties of RDs even though they seemed to be compatible to the cultured human cells. Therefore, the sterilization method should be taken into consideration when RDs are utilized as barrier membranes.

  9. Monoclinic phase transformation and mechanical durability of zirconia ceramic after fatigue and autoclave aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Yasmine A; Cotes, Caroline; Carvalho, Rodrigo F; Machado, João P B; Leite, Fabíola P P; Souza, Rodrigo O A; Özcan, Mutlu

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of two aging procedures on the biaxial flexural strength of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia ceramics. Disc-shaped zirconia specimens and (ZE: E.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar; ZT: Zirkon Translucent, Zirkonzahn) (N = 80) (∅:12 mm; thickness:1.2 mm, ISO 6872) were prepared and randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 per group) according to the aging procedures: C: Control, no aging; M: mechanical cycling (2 × 10(6) cycles/3.8 Hz/200 N); AUT: Aging in autoclave at 134°C, 2 bar for 24 h; AUT + M: Autoclave aging followed by mechanical cycling. After aging, the transformed monoclinic zirconia (%) were evaluated using X-ray diffraction and surface roughness was measured using atomic force microscopy. The average grain size was measured by scanning electron microscopy and the specimens were submitted to biaxial flexural strength testing (1 mm/min, 1000 kgf in water). Data (MPa) were statistically analyzed using 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Aging procedures significantly affected (p = 0.000) the flexural strength data but the effect of zirconia type was not significant (p = 0.657). AUTZT (936.4 ± 120.9(b) ) and AUT + MZE (867.2 ± 49.3(b) ) groups presented significantly higher values (p autoclave aging alone or with mechanical aging increased the flexure strength but also induced higher transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic phase in both zirconia materials tested. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1972-1977, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Evaluation of the effect of inactivation by microwave and autoclave in homeopathic medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Moacir Bonato

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Brazilian Pharmacopoeia defines the sterilization process as a "method" intended to remove or destroy all forms of life, animal or plant, macroscopic or microscopic, saprophytic or not, present in the product concerned, without ensuring the complete inactivation of toxins or cellular enzymes. Microwaves are electromagnetic waves with frequencies ranging between 300MHz (300x106 Hz and 300 GHz (300x109 Hz and wavelengths from 1 m to 1 mm[1]. They are waves that lie within the region between TV waves and the infrared region within the spectrum of electromagnetic waves. According to the Technical Standards Textbook for Homeopathic Pharmacy, glass tubes may be reused after washed with running and purified water and inactivated by autoclaving at 120oC for 30 minutes or by a dry air buffer at 180oC for 30 minutes or at 140oC for 1 hour [2]. Aims: Current experiment evaluates the influence of ultra-diluted Sulphur with and without inactivation by autoclaving and microwaving for certain variables in the germination and growth of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench - cv TX623B. Methodology: Ten milliliters of Sulphur in homeopathic dinamizations (proposed by Hering - DH 9DH, 18DH and 30DH inactivated by microwave and by autoclave heat, and control with water, were added to petri dishes in which 20 sorghum seeds were distributed. The experiment was conducted in a growth chamber (BOD at 25oC and during a 16-h photoperiod. Double-blind methodology to avoid researcher’s possible interferences or trends, coupled to statistic treatment at the end of the experiment, was employed. Data underwent variance analysis and means were compared by Scott-Knott’s test at 5% probability. Results: Homeopathy Sulphur changed the evaluated parameters of 9DH, 18 DH and 30 DH dinamizations when compared to control (water. Differences existed with regard to effects of the different microwave-treated (M9DH, M18DH, M30DH and

  11. Preparation of high-performance optical coatings with fluoride nanoparticle films made from autoclaved sols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Tsuyoshi; Ishizawa, Hitoshi; Motoyama, Izumi; Tanaka, Akira

    2006-03-01

    An ultralow refractive index is very advantageous when one designs antireflective coatings. We successfully obtained high-quality MgF2 thin films with ultralow refractive indices from autoclaved sols prepared from magnesium acetate and hydrofluoric acid. The MgF2 films consist of nanosized particles, and they have high laser-exposure durability at 193 nm. The reflectance of the antireflective coating with five layers, of which the top layer is formed by our method, is lower than 0.6% in the incident angle range of 0 degrees - 60 degrees at 193 nm.

  12. AUTOCLAVE INFUSION OF AEROSPACE RIBS BASED ON PROCESS MONITORING AND CONTROL BY ULTRASOUND SENSORS

    OpenAIRE

    Liebers, Nico; Buggisch, Manuel; Kleineberg, Markus; Wiedemann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the manufacturing of a series of two wing carbon fiber reinforced ribs by an autoclave based infusion process is presented. The manufacturing concept is based on a low cost male aluminum tool, where the expected spring-in deformation was fed into the tool design. The spring-in angles were predicted by a novel pheno-numerical simulation. The manufacturing process was monitored by a network of a high number of ultrasound sensors, which were mounted on the bottom tool side and ...

  13. Measurement of formaldehyde concentrations in a subatmospheric steam-formaldehyde autoclave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, D; Wiseman, D

    1979-01-01

    A method has been developed for measuring formaldehyde concentrations in a subatmospheric steam-formaldehyde autoclave. Data obtained using this method indicate that the concentration of formaldehyde in the chamber atmosphere is not homogeneous and that it decreases rapidly with time. The penetration of formaldehyde vapour into narrow tubes has also been investigated and was shown to be dependent on the length-to-bore ratio of the tubes. The formaldehyde concentration within the tubes could be increased by using a lower vacuum in the air removal stage at the beginning of the cycle. PMID:572833

  14. Autoclave sterilization produces acrylamide in rodent diets: implications for toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twaddle, Nathan C; Churchwell, Mona I; McDaniel, L Patrice; Doerge, Daniel R

    2004-06-30

    Acrylamide (AA) is a neurotoxic and carcinogenic contaminant that is formed during the cooking of starchy foods. Assessment of human risks from toxicants is routinely performed using laboratory rodents, and such testing requires careful control of unintended exposures, particularly through the diet. This study describes an analytical method based on liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry that was used to measure endogenous AA in rodent diets and to survey a number of commercial products for contamination. Method sensitivity permitted accurate quantification of endogenous levels of AA in raw diets below 20 ppb. Autoclaving a standard rodent diet (NIH-31) increased the AA content 14-fold, from 17 to 240 ppb. A nutritionally equivalent diet that was sterilized by irradiation was found to contain approximately 10 ppb of AA (NIH-31IR). A toxicokinetic study of AA and its epoxide metabolite, glycidamide, was performed by switching mice from NIH-31IR to the autoclaved diet for a 30 min feeding period (average AA dose administered was 4.5 microg/kg of body weight). The concentrations of AA and glycidamide were measured in serum collected at various times. The elimination half-lives and the areas under the respective concentration-time curves were similar for AA and glycidamide. Mice maintained on autoclaved NIH-31 diet, but otherwise untreated, showed elevated steady state levels of a glycidamide-derived DNA adduct in liver relative to mice maintained on the irradiated diet. This study demonstrates that a heat sterilization procedure used in laboratory animal husbandry (i.e., autoclaving) can lead to the formation of significant levels of AA in basal diets used for toxicity testing. AA in rodent diets is bioavailable, is distributed to tissues, and is metabolically activated to a genotoxic metabolite, which produces quantifiable cumulative DNA damage. Although the contribution of endogenous AA to the incidence of tumors in multiple organs of

  15. Effects of Autoclaving and Mercuric Chloride Sterilization on PAHs Dissipation in a Two-Liquid-Phase Soil Slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cong-Ying; WANG Fang; WANG Tao; YANG Xing-Lun; BIAN Yong-Rong; F.O.KENGARA; LI Zeng-Bo; JIANG Xin

    2011-01-01

    A two-liquid-phase (TLP) soil slurry system was employed to quantify the efficiencies of autoclaving and mercuric chloride sterilization in the dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The fates of 11 PAHs (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, dibenzo(a, h)anthracene) were recorded over 113 days of incubation. No microorganisms were detected in the HgCl2-sterilized soil slurries during the whole incubation period, indicating very effective sterilization. However, about 2%-36% losses of PAHs were observed in the HgCl2-sterilized slurry. In contrast to the HgCl2-sterilized soil slurry, some microorganisms survived in the autoclaved soil slurries. Moreover,significant biodegradation of 6 PAHs (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene) was observed in the autoclaved soil slurries. This indicated that biodegradation results of PAHs in the soil slurries, calculated on basis of the autoclaved control, would be underestimated. It could be concluded that the sterilization efficiency and effectiveness of HgCl2 on soil slurry was much higher than those of autoclaving at 121 ℃ for 45 min.

  16. Autoclave Fully Automatic Feeding and Discharging Can Trolley%杀菌釜全自动进出料台车

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周东; 陈书琼; 陈凯; 林伟杰

    2013-01-01

    针对八宝粥罐头杀菌茏进出杀菌釜一直由人工完成,存在效率低,劳动强度大,可靠性差的问题,提出了一种杀菌釜全自动进出料台车设计方法.主要设计理念为装满八宝粥罐头的杀菌笼放置在台车轨道上,随台车运送到杀菌釜,杀菌釜内有与台车相对应的运送轨道,通过电机控制两端推块翻转,顺利实现将杀菌笼推进和拉出杀菌釜.%For the end of eight-treasure can bactericidal cage feeding and discharging autoclave had been done manuelly with low efficiency, high labor intensity and poor reliability. This paper put forward a kind of autoclave automatic feeding and discharging can trolley design method. The main design concept is the bactericidal cage full of eight-treasure porridge can be put on the tracks and sent to the autoclave with the trolley. There are tracks in the autoclave corresponding to the trolley with controlled the both ends ejector pads roll-over through the motor, push and pull out the bactericidal cage from autoclave smoothly.

  17. Numeric model of the normative consumption of heat for the colour homogenisation of wood in pressure autoclaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurenda, Ladislav

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a numeric model of the normative consumption of heat for the colour homogenisation of unfrozen wood using saturated steam in pressure autoclaves, in the form of a technically feasible standard. For more effective determination of the objectively necessary consumption of heat for steaming non-frozen wood in a steam autoclave, a program was prepared in EXCEL in the form of a numeric table. Based on the technical and technological data on machinery, the range of colour homogenised wood and the colour-homogenisation regime, the program provides information about normative - the consumption of heat per 1 mł - of colour homogenised wood as well as about the consumption of heat for individual items of the thermal balance off the process of colour homogenisation in a pressure autoclave.

  18. 压力蒸汽灭菌器的性能验证%The Performance Validation of Autoclave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕恒源; 杨海军

    2014-01-01

    Autoclave is a common device of validation. By the performance validation of autoclave, we can confirm that the autoclave can reaches the performance requirements of equipment within the prescribed time, temperature and pressure conditions, reagents can be effective sterilization.%压力蒸汽灭菌器是一种常见的消毒灭菌装置。通过开展灭菌效果验证可确认压力蒸汽灭菌器是否能在规定的时间、温度和压力条件下达到设备性能指标要求,试剂是否能被有效灭菌。

  19. The Design of Autoclave Controlling System%发泡建材蒸压釜控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴滢

    2012-01-01

    发泡建材蒸压釜属大型压力容器,主要介绍了符合蒸压釜相关安全性能规定的控制器设计方法,以及规模蒸压釜群的能源管理系统的设计方法,从而可以实现设备与能源的最优利用.%The autoclave is a kind of large pressure vessel. The design method of autoclave controller, used in the production of aerated concrete, was mainly introduced, as well as the energy management system for scaled autoclave group by which the optimal utilization of facilities and energy could be realized.

  20. Validation of the efficacy of a solar-thermal powered autoclave system for off-grid medical instrument wet sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaseman, Tremayne; Boubour, Jean; Schuler, Douglas A

    2012-10-01

    This work describes the efficacy of a solar-thermal powered autoclave used for the wet sterilization of medical instruments in off-grid settings where electrical power is not readily available. Twenty-seven trials of the solar-thermal powered system were run using an unmodified non-electric autoclave loaded with a simulated bundle of medical instruments and biological test agents. Results showed that in 100% of the trials the autoclave achieved temperatures in excess of 121°C for 30 minutes, indicator tape displayed visible reactions to steam sterilization, and biological tests showed that microbial agents had been eliminated, in compliance with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention requirements for efficacious wet sterilization.

  1. Use of clinoptilolite for the immobilization of heavy metal ions and preparation of autoclaved building composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozgawa, W., E-mail: mozgawa@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Krol, M.; Pichor, W. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2009-09-15

    The work presents the results of application of natural clinoptilolite for immobilization of heavy metal cations (Ag{sup +}, Pb{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+} and Cr{sup 3+}) from aqueous solutions and uses zeolite to prepare autoclaved building composites. Sorption has been conducted on sodium form of natural clinoptilolite originated from Poland. Clinoptilolite (sodium form containing heavy metal cations) has been applied to obtain new building materials which have good physical properties. Samples produced by autoclaving process showed relatively low bulk density (about 1.35 g/cm{sup 3}). The compressive strength depended on the amount of CaO in the initial mixture. Its maximum value was about 40 MPa. The influence of heavy metal cations on the compressive strength values was insignificant (except for the Cr{sup 3+} ions). However, all the cations modified the microstructure and the ordered state of C-S-H phase. Efficiency of Ag{sup +}, Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} ions immobilization on the mineral matrix was shown. In the work, results of IR spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) studies, X-ray diffraction analysis, SEM observations and technological investigations are presented.

  2. Treatment of Clinical Solid Waste Using a Steam Autoclave as a Possible Alternative Technology to Incineration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Omar Ab Kadir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A steam autoclave was used to sterilize bacteria in clinical solid waste in order to determine an alternative to incineration technology in clinical solid waste management. The influence of contact time (0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min and temperature (111 °C, 121 °C and 131 °C at automated saturated steam pressure was investigated. Results showed that with increasing contact time and temperature, the number of surviving bacteria decreased. The optimum experimental conditions as measured by degree of inactivation of bacteria were 121 °C for 15 minutes (min for Gram negative bacteria, 121 °C and 131 °C for 60 and 30 min for Gram positive bacteria, respectively. The re-growth of bacteria in sterilized waste was also evaluated in the present study. It was found that bacterial re-growth started two days after the inactivation. The present study recommends that the steam autoclave cannot be considered as an alternative technology to incineration in clinical solid waste management.

  3. The effect of autoclaving on soluble protein composition and trypsin inhibitor activity of cracked soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Slađana P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of autoclaving conditions (heating for 5, 10 and 15 minutes at 0.5 bars over pressure and oil-extracting temperatures (40°C, 60°C on protein content, composition, and inhibitor activity of cracked soybeans were investigated. The results obtained indicated that oil-extracting method and heat treatment had significant influence on soluble protein content and composition. Raw soybean samples defatted at lower temperature had better solubility (535.42±2.10 mg/g than those obtained by the Soxhlet procedure (345.53±2.80. The same results were obtained for nitrogen solubility index. Autoclaving combined with two oil-extraction methods decreased protein solubility to 180.32±1.50 -245.41±1.41 mg/g, while the dominant component of heat treated flours was 11S fraction. High content of glycinin fraction (44.59-41.10% implies the possible use of treated samples in food industry. Residual activity of treated samples was 43.40-84.26%. Kunitz inhibitor (KTI was responsible for residual inhibitor activity.

  4. Stress Free Temperature Testing and Residual Stress Calculations on Out-of-Autoclave Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sarah; Tate, LaNetra C.; Danley, Susan; Sampson, Jeff; Taylor, Brian; Miller, Sandi

    2012-01-01

    Future launch vehicles will require the incorporation large composite parts that will make up primary and secondary components of the vehicle. NASA has explored the feasibility of manufacturing these large components using Out-of-Autoclave impregnated carbon fiber composite systems through many composites development projects. Most recently, the Composites for Exploration Project has been looking at the development of a 10 meter diameter fairing structure, similar in size to what will be required for a heavy launch vehicle. The development of new material systems requires the investigation of the material properties and the stress in the parts. Residual stress is an important factor to incorporate when modeling the stresses that a part is undergoing. Testing was performed to verify the stress free temperature with two-ply asymmetric panels. A comparison was done between three newly developed out of autoclave IM7 /Bismalieimide (BMI) systems. This paper presents the testing results and the analysis performed to determine the residual stress of the materials.

  5. Evaluation of Sandwich Structure Bonding In Out-of-Autoclave Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tan-Hung; Baughman, James M.; Zimmerman, Thomas J.; Sutter, James K.; Gardner, John M.

    2010-01-01

    The out-of-autoclave-vacuum-bag-only (OOA-VBO) process is low in capital expenditures compared to the traditional autoclave, however, the material challenges for OOA-VBO workable material systems are high. Presently there are few such aerospace grade prepreg materials available commercially. In this study, we evaluated processing and properties of honeycomb sandwich structure (HC/SS) panels fabricated by co-curing composite face sheet with adhesives by the OOA-VBO process in an oven. The prepreg materials were IM7/MTM 45-1 and T40-800B/5320. Adhesives studied were AF-555M, XMTA-241/PM15, FM-309-1M and FM-300K. Aluminum H/C cores with and without perforations were included. It was found that adhesives in IM7/MTM 45-1/AF-555M, T40-800B/5320/FM 309-1M and T40-800B/5320/FM-300K panels all foamed but yielded high flatwise tensile (FWT) strength values above 8,275 kPA (1,200 psi). IM7/MTM 45-1/XMTA-241/PM15 did not foam, yet yielded a low FWT strength. SEM photomicrographs revealed that the origin of this low strength was poor adhesion in the interfaces between the adhesive and face sheet composite due to poor wetting associated with the high initial viscosity of the XMTA-241/PM15 adhesive.

  6. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of Alport's syndrome in paraffin-embedded renal sections: antigen retrieval with autoclave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Ichiro; Ninomiya, Yoshifumi; Nomura, Shinsuke

    2003-03-01

    Alport's syndrome (AS) is a hereditary renal disease caused by mutations in the genes encoding collagen type IV. Immunohistochemical analysis of the alpha chains of collagen type IV has been found to be useful for the diagnosis of this disease. The monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) generated by us recognize alpha 1(IV) through alpha 6(IV) chains of collagen type IV on fresh-frozen sections but not on paraffin-embedded sections. Antigen retrieval by autoclave heating has been found to restore the epitopes recognized by the mAbs; however the heating conditions had not been well established. In this study, the heating conditions were carefully examined using renal sections obtained from AS and non-AS patients. The heating was performed in an autoclave, at 105 degrees -127 degrees C for 6-8 min. During the heating, the sections were immersed in 0.2 N HCl solution (pH 0.9). Then, the mAbs were applied for 30 min, and the bound mAbs were detected using the LSAB kit. The optimal temperature for the antigen retrieval varied among specimens, and was dependent on the type of basement membrane examined. Thus, it was considered that heating at two or three different temperatures could be helpful for the precise diagnosis of AS. Adopting the antigen retrieval method could extend the possibility of immunohistochemical diagnosis of AS to cases without using fresh-frozen sections.

  7. Elevated Temperature, Residual Compressive Strength of Impact-Damaged Sandwich Structure Manufactured Out-of-Autoclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Sutter, James K.; Burke, Eric R.; Dixon, Genevieve D.; Gyekenyesi, Thomas G.; Smeltzer, Stanley S.

    2012-01-01

    Several 1/16th-scale curved sandwich composite panel sections of a 10 m diameter barrel were fabricated to demonstrate the manufacturability of large-scale curved sections using minimum gauge, [+60/-60/0]s, toughened epoxy composite facesheets co-cured with low density (50 kilograms per cubic meters) aluminum honeycomb core. One of these panels was fabricated out of autoclave (OoA) by the vacuum bag oven (VBO) process using Cycom(Registered Trademark) T40-800b/5320-1 prepreg system while another panel with the same lay-up and dimensions was fabricated using the autoclave-cure, toughened epoxy prepreg system Cycom(Registered Trademark) IM7/977-3. The resulting 2.44 m x 2 m curved panels were investigated by non-destructive evaluation (NDE) at NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) to determine initial fabrication quality and then cut into smaller coupons for elevated temperature wet (ETW) mechanical property characterization. Mechanical property characterization of the sandwich coupons was conducted including edge-wise compression (EWC), and compression-after-impact (CAI) at conditions ranging from 25 C/dry to 150 C/wet. The details and results of this characterization effort are presented in this paper.

  8. Evaluation of an autoclave resistant anatomic nose model for the testing of nasal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolitius, Lennart; Frickmann, Hagen; Warnke, Philipp; Ottl, Peter; Podbielski, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    A nose model that allows for the comparison of different modes of sample acquisition as well as of nasal swab systems concerning their suitability to detect defined quantities of intranasal microorganisms, and further for training procedures of medical staff, was evaluated. Based on an imprint of a human nose, a model made of a silicone elastomer was formed. Autoclave stability was assessed. Using an inoculation suspension containing Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, the model was compared with standardized glass plate inoculations. Effects of inoculation time, mode of sampling, and sample storage time were assessed. The model was stable to 20 autoclaving cycles. There were no differences regarding the optimum coverage from the nose and from glass plates. Optimum sampling time was 1 h after inoculation. Storage time after sampling was of minor relevance for the recovery. Rotating the swab around its own axis while circling the nasal cavity resulted in best sampling results. The suitability of the assessed nose model for the comparison of sampling strategies and systems was confirmed. Without disadvantages in comparison with sampling from standardized glass plates, the model allows for the assessment of a correct sampling technique due to its anatomically correct shape.

  9. Treatment of clinical solid waste using a steam autoclave as a possible alternative technology to incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sohrab; Balakrishnan, Venugopal; Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Kadir, Mohd Omar Ab

    2012-03-01

    A steam autoclave was used to sterilize bacteria in clinical solid waste in order to determine an alternative to incineration technology in clinical solid waste management. The influence of contact time (0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min) and temperature (111 °C, 121 °C and 131 °C) at automated saturated steam pressure was investigated. Results showed that with increasing contact time and temperature, the number of surviving bacteria decreased. The optimum experimental conditions as measured by degree of inactivation of bacteria were 121 °C for 15 minutes (min) for Gram negative bacteria, 121 °C and 131 °C for 60 and 30 min for Gram positive bacteria, respectively. The re-growth of bacteria in sterilized waste was also evaluated in the present study. It was found that bacterial re-growth started two days after the inactivation. The present study recommends that the steam autoclave cannot be considered as an alternative technology to incineration in clinical solid waste management.

  10. Curcumin complexation with cyclodextrins by the autoclave process: Method development and characterization of complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagbani, Turki Al; Nazzal, Sami

    2017-03-30

    One approach to enhance curcumin (CUR) aqueous solubility is to use cyclodextrins (CDs) to form inclusion complexes where CUR is encapsulated as a guest molecule within the internal cavity of the water-soluble CD. Several methods have been reported for the complexation of CUR with CDs. Limited information, however, is available on the use of the autoclave process (AU) in complex formation. The aims of this work were therefore to (1) investigate and evaluate the AU cycle as a complex formation method to enhance CUR solubility; (2) compare the efficacy of the AU process with the freeze-drying (FD) and evaporation (EV) processes in complex formation; and (3) confirm CUR stability by characterizing CUR:CD complexes by NMR, Raman spectroscopy, DSC, and XRD. Significant differences were found in the saturation solubility of CUR from its complexes with CD when prepared by the three complexation methods. The AU yielded a complex with expected chemical and physical fingerprints for a CUR:CD inclusion complex that maintained the chemical integrity and stability of CUR and provided the highest solubility of CUR in water. Physical and chemical characterizations of the AU complexes confirmed the encapsulated of CUR inside the CD cavity and the transformation of the crystalline CUR:CD inclusion complex to an amorphous form. It was concluded that the autoclave process with its short processing time could be used as an alternate and efficient methods for drug:CD complexation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiple autoclave cycle effects on cyclic fatigue of nickel-titanium rotary files produced by new manufacturing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilfer, Paul B; Bergeron, Brian E; Mayerchak, Michael J; Roberts, Howard W; Jeansonne, Billie G

    2011-01-01

    Novel nickel-titanium rotary files with proprietary manufacturing techniques have recently been marketed. The purpose of this study was to assess multiple autoclave cycle effects on cyclic fatigue of GT Series X files (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) and Twisted Files (SybronEndo, Orange, CA) METHODS: A jig using a 5-mm radius curve with 90° of maximum file flexure was used to induce cyclic fatigue failure. Files (n = 10) representing each experimental group (GT Series X 20/.04 and 20/.06; Twisted Files 25/.04 and 25/.06) were first tested to establish baseline mean cycles to failure (MCF). Experimental groups (n = 20) were then cycled to 25% of the established baseline MCF and then autoclaved. Additional autoclaving was accomplished at 50% and 75% of MCF followed by continual testing until failure. Control groups (n = 20) underwent the same procedures except autoclaving was not accomplished. The GT Series X (20/.04 and 20/.06) files showed no significant difference (p = 0.918/p = 0.096) in MCF for experimental versus control files. Twisted Files (25/.04) showed no significant difference (p = 0.432) in MCF between experimental and control groups. However, the Twisted Files (25/.06) experimental group showed a significantly lower (p = 0.0175) MCF compared with the controls. Under the conditions of this evaluation, autoclave sterilization significantly decreased cyclic fatigue resistance of one of the four file groups tested. Repeated autoclaving significantly reduced the MCF of 25/.06 Twisted Files; however, 25/.04 Twisted Files and both GT Series X files tested were not significantly affected by the same conditions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Treatment of infectious waste: development and testing of an add-on set for used gravity displacement autoclaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolze, René; Kühling, Jan-Gerd

    2009-06-01

    The safe management of potentially infectious healthcare waste is gaining increasing worldwide importance. In developing countries, simple incinerators are used for the treatment of this type of waste stream. However, as these incinerators produce high emissions and represent the main generators of dioxin and furans in these countries, alternative and cost-effective solutions are needed. As steam treatment systems do not produce persistent organic pollutants, the use of existing (older) medical autoclaves could represent a solution for the treatment of infectious waste. ETLog Health EnviroTech & Logistics, the German-based consulting and engineering company carried out the first research into whether gravity air displacement autoclaves can be used for the safe decontamination of infectious waste. The research showed that it is not possible to decontaminate waste using this type of autoclave. A subsequent research and development phase might, however, make it possible to develop a new process cycle. Tests carried out on the basis of international standards and norms showed that by applying this process cycle and using an add-on set, it is possible to treat healthcare waste using the existing stock of older medical autoclaves. The process cycle and the add-on set developed were tested under existing conditions in Hanoi, Vietnam using the treatment cycle developed for a 13-year-old autoclave. All the parameters for infectious waste decontamination were reached. As modified autoclaves prevent the emission of toxic substances, this approach presents an interim solution, which avoids the impacts on human health and the environment caused by the incineration of healthcare waste.

  13. CHOICE THEORY OF CREEP DEFORMATION FOR EVALUATION OF LONG FINE-GRAINED AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE IN VIEW OF FACTORS CARBONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K-S. Bataev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental data on the effect of the age of autoclaved aerated concrete with and without carbonation factor to change its physical and mechanical characteristics, as well as by the amount of creep deformation and degree of reversibility. It was found that the solution of applied problems creep theory for structures of autoclaved aerated concrete, in accordance with their carbonation from the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide, it is necessary to use the theory of elastic-creeping body on the basis of function creep measures in the form proposed by prof. S.V. Alexandrovsky. 

  14. Process test on five-autoclave linkage operation for autoclaved fly ash brick%蒸压粉煤灰砖“五釜联动操作”的工艺试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王光建

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the possibility analysis of five-autoclave linkage operation for autoclaving fly ash brick combine of the Tianyie building material company autoclaved fly ash brick production line, the paper describes the improvement on supply steam equipment of autoclave, so as to achieve energy conservation.%结合天业建材公司蒸压粉煤灰砖的生产实践,在对蒸压粉煤灰砖五釜联动操作的可行性分析、研究的基础上,提出了对蒸压釜供汽部分的设备改造方案和蒸压粉煤灰砖五釜联动操作的工艺试验方案,指出砖瓦企业实现节能减排、低碳发展必须抓好关键设备的技术改造、技术创新。

  15. MODIFIKASI PATI GARUT (Marantha arundinacea DENGAN PERLAKUAN SIKLUS PEMANASAN SUHU TINGGI-PENDINGINAN ( AUTOCLAVING-COOLING CYCLING UNTUK MENGHASILKAN PATI RESISTEN TIPE III [Arrowroot (Marantha arundinacea Starch Modification Through Autoclaving-Cooling Cycling Treatment to Produce Resistant Starch Type III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiyono1

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to modify arrowroot starch to produce resistant starch type III by autoclaving-cooling cycling and to characterize the modified arrowroot starches according to their chemical properties. The research consisted of three steps : arrowroot extraction, starch modification, and chemical characterization. The extraction of arrowroot produced 10.78% starch. Starch modification by autoclaving-cooling cycle(s was run in 6 different treatments with the aim of observing optimal yield of resistant starch. Resistant starch (RS was produced through 1, 3, 5 cycle(s of autoclaving-cooling treatment with different gelatinization periods (15 and 30 minutes autoclaving for each cycle. Properties analyzed were starch digestibility, fat content, protein content, resistant starch content, and dietary fiber content. Native starch and commercial RS type III (Novelose 330 were also analyzed as a comparison. Based on the starch digestibility, modified starch from 5 cycles, 15 minutes gelatinization period had the lowest digestibility while modified starch from 3 cycles, 15 minutes gelatinization period had no significant difference with commercial RS type III. Those two modified starches, native starch, and Novelose 330 were chosen for further chemical analysis. The fat content and protein content of the four samples were below 1% (db. Low fat and protein content were required to optimize the RS yield. The modification treatment increased the dietary fiber content. The RS content of native starch, Novelose 330, modified starch 3 cycles, 15 minutes gelatinization period, and modified starch 5 cycles, 15 minutes gelatinization period were 2.12% (db, 20.80% (db, 10.91% (db, and 12.15% (db, respectively. It means that repeating autoclaving-cooling cycling could increase RS yield up to 6 times.

  16. The effect of autoclaving on the physical and biological properties of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate bioceramics: brushite vs. monetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Faleh; Le Nihouannen, Damien; Eimar, Hazem; Sheikh, Zeeshan; Komarova, Svetlana; Barralet, Jake

    2012-08-01

    Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (brushite) is an osteoconductive biomaterial with great potential as a bioresorbable cement for bone regeneration. Preset brushite cement can be dehydrated into dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (monetite) bioceramics by autoclaving. This heat treatment results in changes in the physical characteristics of the material, improving in vivo bioresorption. This property is a great advantage in bone regeneration; however, it is not known how autoclaving brushite preset cement might improve its capacity to regenerate bone. This study was designed to compare brushite bioceramics with monetite bioceramics in terms of physical characteristics in vitro, and in vivo performance upon bone implantation. In this study we observed that monetite bioceramics prepared by autoclaving preset brushite cements had higher porosity, interconnected porosity and specific surface area than their brushite precursors. In vitro cell culture experiments revealed that bone marrow cells expressed higher levels of osteogenic genes Runx2, Opn, and Alp when the cells were cultured on monetite ceramics rather than on brushite ones. In vivo experiments revealed that monetite bioceramics resorbed faster than brushite ones and were more infiltrated with newly formed bone. In summary, autoclaving preset brushite cements results in a material with improved properties for bone regeneration procedures.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Dimensional Accuracy of Elastomeric Impression Materials when Treated with Autoclave, Microwave, and Chemical Disinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Kamble, Suresh S.; Khandeparker, Rakshit Vijay; P.Somasundaram; Raghav, Shweta; Babaji, Rashmi P; Varghese, T Joju

    2015-01-01

    Background: Impression materials during impression procedure often get infected with various infectious diseases. Hence, disinfection of impression materials with various disinfectants is advised to protect the dental team. Disinfection can alter the dimensional accuracy of impression materials. The present study was aimed to evaluate the dimensional accuracy of elastomeric impression materials when treated with different disinfectants; autoclave, chemical, and microwave method. Materials and...

  18. 蒸压釜釜盖开裂失效分析%Failure Analysis on Cracking of Autoclave Cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘安霞; 师红旗; 丁毅; 马立群

    2011-01-01

    采用宏微观组织分析、化学成分分析、SEM断口形貌分析、EDS腐蚀产物化学成分分析等手段,分析了321不锈钢釜盖开裂的原因.结果表明,该釜盖的开裂属于氯化物应力腐蚀开裂,蒸压釜的工作介质和工作压力共同导致了釜盖的开裂,并提出了相应的改进措施.%The cracking of autoclave cover was analyzed by morphology and microstnicture analysis, SEM micro-morphology of fracture surface, EDS corrosion products analysis. The results show that the cracking of autoclave cover is attributed to stress corrosion cracking. Working stress and working fluid of the autoclave cover lead to the cracking of the autoclave cover jointly. Finally, the relative protection countermeasures are proposed.

  19. Effect of autoclave induced low-temperature degradation on the adhesion energy between yttria-stabilized zirconia veneered with porcelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai Chun; Waddell, J Neil; Prior, David J; Ting, Stephanie; Girvan, Liz; van Vuuren, Ludwig Jansen; Swain, Michael V

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the effect of autoclave induced low-temperature degradation on the adhesion energy between yttria-stabilized zirconia veneered with porcelain. The strain energy release rate using a four-point bending stable fracture test was evaluated for two different porcelains [leucite containing (VM9) and glass (Zirox) porcelain] veneered to zirconia. Prior to veneering the zirconia had been subjected to 0 (control), 1, 5, 10 and 20 autoclave cycles. The specimens were manufactured to a total bi-layer dimension of 30 mm × 8 mm × 3 mm. Subsequent scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometry, electron backscatter diffraction and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed to identify the phase transformation and fracture behavior. The strain energy release rate for debonding of the VM9 specimens were significantly higher (pautoclave cycles lowered the strain energy release rate significantly (pautoclave cycles between 5 and 20. The monoclinic phase reverted back to tetragonal phase after undergoing conventional porcelain firing cycles. EBSD data showed significant changes of the grain size distribution between the control and autoclaved specimen (cycle 20). Increasing autoclave cycles only significantly decreased the adhesion of the VM9 layered specimens. In addition, a conventional porcelain firing schedule completely reverted the monoclinic phase back to tetragonal. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Autoclaved Brick from Volume-Stability-Modified Steel Slag and Low Silicon Tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Peng-guan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Steel slag is a major industrial waste. Because of poor volume stability, its utilization was limited. We adopted polyphosphate modified steel slag and tailings to produce the autoclaved brick. The effects of various factors influencing the performance of brick were investigated, and the results were obtained: forming water 9%, forming pressure 20MPa, curing regime 4(temperature rising, hr-4(temperature holding at 180°C, hr-natural cooling (temperature dropping. With the content of modified steel slag in brick increased from 11% to 25%, the content of cement reduced from 7% to 5%, the compressive strength value increased from 11.6MPa to 22.1MPa.

  1. Effect Of Ethylene Oxide, Autoclave and Ultra Violet Sterilizations On Surface Topography Of Pet Electrospun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebnem DUZYER

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study to investigate the effects of different sterilization methods on electrospun polyester. Ethylene oxide (EO, autoclave (AU and ultraviolet (UV sterilization methods were applied to electrospun fibers produced from polyethylene terephthalate (PET solutions with concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 wt.%. The surface characteristics of the fibers were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM, atomic force microscope (AFM, surface pore size studies and contact angle measurements. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC tests were carried out to characterize the thermal properties. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR tests were performed to analyze the micro structural properties. SEM studies showed that different sterilization methods made significant changes on the surfaces of the fibers depending on the PET concentration. Although the effects were decreased with the increasing polymer concentration, the fiber structure was damaged especially with the EO sterilization. The contact angle values were decreased with the UV sterilization method the most.

  2. An Investigation of Steam Curing Pressure Effect on Pozzolan Additive Autoclaved Aerated Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Güçlüer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC is a porous light weight concrete obtained by adding a pore-forming material to a mixture made of finely pulverized siliceous aggregate and inorganic binder (lime and/or cement and hardened by steam cure. In this study fly ash was used instead of siliceous aggregate and experiment samples were obtained by adding 3%, 6%, 9%, 12% silica fume to the cement. Samples were cured under 1560C and 4 bars and 1770C and 8 bars, and were investigated for compressive strength, bulk density and ultrasound pulse velocity to determine their mechanical and physical properties. Microstructure of samples was observed by using SEM and XRD techniques. Samples’ bulk density values and compressive strengths are changing between 0.6-0.7 kg/dm3 and 2.5-4.4 MPa respectively.

  3. Preparation of Slowly Digestible Starch by Citric Acid-hydrolysis with Autoclaving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansong Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study is to produce Slowly Digestible Starch (SDS by a combination of citric acid-hydrolysis and autoclaving from raw corn starch. The effects of citric acid concentration, acid hydrolysis time, temperature and refrigeration and retro gradation time on the formation of SDS were investigated. The optimal process conditions optimized by Box-Benhnken’s central composite design and response surface analysis was as follows: concentration of citric acid is 0.08 M, acid hydrolyzed at 116°C for 14.5 min, and then stored at 0°C for 72 h. Under these optimal conditions, the content of SDS peaked at 19.38%.

  4. High temperature antigen retrieval and loss of nuclear morphology: a comparison of microwave and autoclave techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, N C; Attanoos, R; Jasani, B

    1996-01-01

    The use of high temperature antigen retrieval methods has been of major importance in increasing the diagnostic utility of immunocytochemistry. However, these techniques are not without their problems and in this report attention is drawn to a loss of nuclear morphological detail, including mitotic figures, following microwave antigen retrieval. This was not seen with an equivalent autoclave technique. This phenomenon was quantified using image analysis in a group of B cell lymphomas stained with the antibody L26. Loss of nuclear morphological detail may lead to difficulty in identifying cells accurately, which is important in the diagnostic setting-for example, when trying to distinguish a malignant lymphoid infiltrate within a mixed cell population. In such cases it would clearly be wise to consider the use of alternative high temperature retrieval methods and accept their slightly lower staining enhancement capability compared with the microwave technique. Images PMID:9038766

  5. Spring-back simulation of flat symmetrical laminates with angled plies manufactured through autoclave processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Aminanda, Y.; Mezeix, L.; Seman, M. A.; Rivai, A.; Ali, K. M.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a non-linear finite element analysis (FEA) method to predict the spring-back deformation for composite structures manufactured using autoclave processing. It is a progression from previous accompanying study on flat unidirectional samples and the aim is to observe spring-back warpage on laminates consisting of angled (±45°) plies compared to unidirectional (0°) laminate. Three samples for each of the symmetrical laminates with angled plies [45/0]S and [45/-45]S are manufactured and the warpage form is observed. FEA model that was utilized in the previous study, along with the physical mechanisms of spring-back such as the first ply stretching and tool-part interaction mechanisms, are maintained with only changes in material orientation for the part and the tool-part interface components. Upon comparison, the data shows that the spring-back form for symmetrical laminate becomes more complex to predict.

  6. Note: CO₂-mineral dissolution experiments using a rocking autoclave and a novel titanium reaction cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Gemma; Rochelle, Christopher A; Wallis, Humphrey C; Rosenqvist, Jörgen; Kilpatrick, Andrew D; Yardley, Bruce W D

    2014-08-01

    A novel titanium reaction cell has been constructed for the study of water-rock-CO2 reactions. The reaction cell has been used within a direct-sampling rocking autoclave and offers certain advantages over traditional "flexible gold/titanium cell" approaches. The main advantage is robustness, as flexible cells are prone to rupture on depressurisation during gas-rich experiments. The reaction cell was tested in experiments during an inter-laboratory comparison study, in which mineral kinetic data were determined. The cell performed well during experiments up to 130 °C and 300 bars pressure. The data obtained were similar to those of other laboratories participating in the study, and also to previously published data.

  7. [Methods Used for Monitoring Cure Reactions in Real-time in an Autoclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John B.; Wise, Kent L.; Jensen, Brian J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the research was to investigate methods for monitoring cure reactions in real-time in an autoclave. This is of particular importance to NASA Langley Research Center because polyimides were proposed for use in the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) program. Understanding the cure chemistry behind the polyimides would allow for intelligent processing of the composites made from their use. This work has led to two publications in peer-reviewed journals and a patent. The journal articles are listed as Appendix A which is on the instrument design of the research and Appendix B which is on the cure chemistry. Also, a patent has been awarded for the instrumental design developed under this grant which is given as Appendix C. There has been a significant amount of research directed at developing methods for monitoring cure reactions in real-time within the autoclave. The various research efforts can be categorized as methods providing either direct chemical bonding information or methods that provide indirect chemical bonding information. Methods falling into the latter category are fluorescence, dielectric loss, ultrasonic and similar type methods. Correlation of such measurements with the underlying chemistry is often quite difficult since these techniques do not allow monitoring of the curing chemistry which is ultimately responsible for material properties. Direct methods such as vibrational spectroscopy, however, can often be easily correlated with the underlying chemistry of a reaction. Such methods include Raman spectroscopy, mid-IR absorbance, and near-IR absorbance. With the recent advances in fiber-optics, these spectroscopic techniques can be applied to remote on-line monitoring.

  8. Report: Factors affecting the content of potentially toxic elements in the biodegradable fraction of autoclaved household waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Efstathios K; Barton, John R

    2009-10-01

    A total of 3.4 tonnes of household waste (HW) that had a controlled composition were autoclaved in the presence of saturated steam for 1 h at the nominal temperature levels of 130, 160 and 200 degrees C. The levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, and Zn were examined in samples of the fibrous, predominantly-biodegradable fraction (floc) derived from the autoclaved HW, aqueous extracts from floc, and the condensate from steam that was released from the reactor. This data was used to study the impact of the overall levels of potential toxic elements (PTEs) in HW feed and autoclaving process parameters on the levels of PTEs in floc. No consistent correlation was found to exist between the levels of PTEs in HW feed and those in the produced floc. This was primarily attributed in the inherent variability of PTEs in waste materials. Autoclaving temperature, pressure and mixing were all found to affect the mobilization and removal of PTEs from HW and their presence in floc. Temperature/pressure appeared to increase PTE removal through the condensate path, although that removal had only a negligible impact on the contents of PTEs in floc. Autoclaving temperature correlated positively, although not significantly at a 95% confidence level, with the levels of Pb and Zn in floc. On the other hand, it correlated negatively with the Hg content in floc. Increasing temperature/pressure also increased the water extraction of PTEs from floc, with the exception of Cr. However, in the context of producing high quality compost, the extraction rates were too low to bring about a substantial decrease of PTEs in floc.

  9. Comparative analysis of the effect of autoclaving and 10% formalin storage on extracted teeth: A microleakage evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attam Kanika

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study compares the effect of formalin and autoclaving the tooth samples by evaluating microleakage in-vitro . Materials and Methods: Forty-five extracted human permanent incisor teeth were taken and randomly divided into three groups (with different methods of storage and disinfection with 15 teeth each: Group 1: Control-extracted teeth in this group were stored in normal saline, Group 2: the extracted teeth in this group were stored in 10 % formalin for two weeks and Group 3: the extracted teeth were Autoclaved at 121°C, at 15 psi pressure for 40 minutes. In all the groups after the specified storage period, class V cavities were prepared on the labial surface and restoration was performed with Z100 restorative. Finished and polished samples were subjected to 500 cycles of thermocycling. All specimens were immersed in methylene blue for 24 hours. After sectioning, the margins of restora-tion were evaluated for dye leakage at 10 X magnification, using an optical microscope. Data were subjected to nonparametric Kruskal Wallis one way analysis of variance. Inter-group comparisons were performed using the Mann Whitney test ( P < 0.05. Results: The authors found that the microleakage in the formalin group was considerably lower than that in the control group. The autoclave group showed slightly higher mean microleakage, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Both autoclaving and formalin storage affect, to a varying degree, the microleakage values in vitro . The results in the autoclaving group matched those of the control group more closely, with only a slight difference.

  10. New Low-Sn Zr Cladding Alloys with Excellent Autoclave Corrosion Resistance and High Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiqian Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that low-Sn Zr alloys are a good candidate to improve the corrosion resistance of Zr cladding alloys in nuclear reactors, presenting excellent corrosion resistance and high strength. The present work developed a new alloy series of Zr-0.25Sn-0.36Fe-0.11Cr-xNb (x = 0.4~1.2 wt % to investigate the effect of Nb on autoclave corrosion resistance. Alloy ingots were prepared by non-consumable arc-melting, solid-solutioned, and then rolled into thin plates with a thickness of 0.7 mm. It was found that the designed low-Sn Zr alloys exhibit excellent corrosion resistances in three out of pile autoclave environments (distilled water at 633 K/18.6 MPa, 70 ppm LiOH solution at 633 K/18.6 MPa, and superheated water steam at 673 K/10.3 MPa, as demonstrated by the fact of the Zr-0.25Sn-0.36Fe-0.11Cr-0.6Nb alloy shows a corrosion weight gain ΔG = 46.3 mg/dm2 and a tensile strength of σUTS = 461 MPa following 100 days of exposure in water steam. The strength of the low-Sn Zr alloy with a higher Nb content (x = 1.2 wt % is enhanced up to 499 MPa, comparable to that of the reference high-Sn N36 alloy (Zr-1.0Sn-1.0Nb-0.25Fe, wt %. Although the strength improvement is at a slight expense of corrosion resistance with the increase of Nb, the corrosion resistance of the high-Nb alloy with x = 1.2 (ΔG = 90.4 mg/dm2 for 100-day exposure in the water steam is still better than that of N36 (ΔG = 103.4 mg/dm2.

  11. Comparative study and histomorphometric analysis of bone allografts lyophilized and sterilized by autoclaving, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otavio Machado de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare three sterilization methods (autoclave, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide over non demineralized lyophilized bone allografts. METHODS: Bone allografts were implanted on paravertebral muscles of 21 rats. After 30 days animals were sacrificed and grafts underwent comparative analysis regarding histomorphometric and macroscopic parameters. RESULTS: Allografts that underwent the three sterilization methods presents similar weight gain, cortical thickness similar to control group, and less fibrosis than the control group. Grafts that underwent sterilization in autoclave presented less presence of multinucleated giant cells, although not statistically significant. There was also no statistically significant difference regarding mineralization on the three groups. CONCLUSION: The three sterilization methods cause similar effects on bone allografts regarding macroscopic and histomorphometric parameters.

  12. Direct Synthesis of Fe3C-Functionalized Graphene by High Temperature Autoclave Pyrolysis for Oxygen Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yang; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel approach to direct fabrication of few-layer graphene sheets with encapsulated Fe3C nanoparticles from pyrolysis of volatile non-graphitic precursors without any substrate. This one-step autoclave approach is facile and potentially scalable for production. Tested as an electroca......We present a novel approach to direct fabrication of few-layer graphene sheets with encapsulated Fe3C nanoparticles from pyrolysis of volatile non-graphitic precursors without any substrate. This one-step autoclave approach is facile and potentially scalable for production. Tested...... as an electrocatalyst, the graphene-based composite exhibited excellent catalytic activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline solution with an onset potential of ca. 1.05 V (vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode) and a half-wave potential of 0.83 V, which is comparable to the commercial Pt/C catalyst....

  13. [Technological process of cell disruption for extracting astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma by acid method under autoclave conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Baoju; Xiao, Anfeng; Lil, Lijun; Ni, Hui; Cai, Huinong; Su, Wenjin

    2008-07-01

    Phaffia rhodozyma is one of the organisms for production of astaxanthin, and the key process for extracting intracellular astaxanthin is cell disruption. In this work, cell disruption for extracting astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma was studied with autoclave method at low acid concentration. The optimum disrupting conditions were: autoclave pressure 0.1 MPa, 121 degrees C; hydrochloric acid concentration 0.5 mol/L; liquid to material ratio (V/W) 30 mL/g dry cell weight and disruption time 2 min. Under the optimum conditions, medium scale experiment showed that astaxanthin and total carotenoids recovery from Phaffia rhodozyma were (84.8 +/- 3.2)% and (93.3 +/- 2)%, respectively. This new method can lead to no poisonous residues and get high extraction yield, which have good prospects to be put into industrial production.

  14. Improving the purity of GaN grown by the ammonothermal method with in-autoclave gas-phase acidic mineralizer synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomida, D.; Chichibu, S. F.; Kagamitani, Y.; Bao, Q.; Hazu, K.; Simura, R.; Sugiyama, K.; Yokoyama, C.; Ishiguro, T.; Fukuda, T.

    2012-06-01

    In-autoclave synthesis of a gas-phase acidic mineralizer was investigated for high-purity GaN growth by the ammonothermal (AT) method. To reduce oxygen contamination of GaN from highly hygroscopic NH4Cl powder, purified NH3 and HCl gases were introduced sequentially fed into a Pt-lined autoclave to synthesize NH4Cl within the autoclave. The autoclave was pre-charged with GaN seed wafers and polycrystalline precursors, and carefully dehydrated under dynamic vacuum. Because of the decrease in oxygen concentration, the lattice parameter approached the intrinsic value. The Ga-polar layers exhibit a near-band-edge emission peak at room temperature.

  15. The Hydrothermal Autoclave Synthesis of the Nanopowders of the Refractory ZrO2 and HfO2 Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Karpovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The nanopowders of the transition metal ZrO2 and HfO2 oxides were obtained by the hydrothermal autoclave synthesis. The nanoparticles possess a rounded shape and a size range of 40 to 80 nm (ZrO2, of 10 to 40 nm (HfO2. X-ray diffraction analysis and electron microscopy show that the structure of the nanoparticles is monoclinic.

  16. [The influence of autoclave sterilization on surface characteristics and cyclic fatigue resistance of 3 nickel-titanium rotary instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-fen; Zheng, Ping; Xu, Li; Su, Qin

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of autoclave sterilization on surface characteristics and cyclic fatigue resistance of 3 types of nickel-titanium rotary instruments (K3, Mtwo, ProTaper). Three brands of NiTi rotary endodontic instruments of the same size (tip diameter 0.25 mm and constant 0.06 taper) were selected: K3, Mtwo and Protaper (F2). 24 instruments for each brand were used to evaluate the effects of autoclave sterilization on inner character in the as-received condition and after subjection to 0, 1, 5, and 10 sterilization cycles (6 for each group). Time to fracture (TtF) from the start of the test to the moment of file breakage and the length of the fractured fragment were recorded. Means and standard deviations of TtF and fragment length were calculated. The data was analyzed with SPSS13.0 software package. Another 12 NiTi rotary instruments for each brand were used, 6 subjected to 10 autoclave sterilization cycles and the other as control. Scanning electron microscope was used to observe the changes in surface topography and inner character. For cyclic fatigue resistance, when sterilization was not performed, K3 showed the highest value of TtF means and ProTaper the lowest. The differences between each brand were statistically significant (Pautoclave sterilization cycled 5 times and 10 times. The difference between 10 cycles of sterilization and the control was statistically significant (PAutoclave sterilization may increase fatigue resistance of the 3 brands. Autoclave sterilization may increase the surface roughness and inner defects in cross section.

  17. Nonlinear Modeling of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Masonry Wall Strengthened using Ferrocement Sandwich Structure

    KAUST Repository

    M., Abdel-Mooty

    2011-01-01

    Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) block are used mainly as non-load-bearing walls that provide heat insulation. This results in considerable saving in cooling energy particularly in hot desert environment with large variation of daily and seasonal temperatures. However, due to the relatively low strength there use load bearing walls is limited to single storey and low-rise construction. A system to enhance the strength of the AAC masonry wall in resisting both inplane vertical and combined vertical and lateral loads using ferrocement technology is proposed in this research. The proposed system significantly enhances the load carrying capacity and stiffness of the AAC wall without affecting its insulation characteristics. Ferrocement is made of cement mortar reinforced with closely spaced wire mesh. Full scale wall specimens with height of 2100mm and width of 1820mm were tested with different configuration of ferrocement. A finite elementmodel is developed and verified against the experimentalwork. The results of the finite element model correlates well with the experimental results.

  18. Obtaining zeolites from slags and ashes from a waste combustion plant in an autoclave process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grela Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste combustion is associated with the generation of post-processing solid products – waste such as slag and ash. One of the promising technologies in waste management and processing is the synthesis of zeolites and other materials exhibiting sorption properties. The aim of this study was to characterise and assess the physicochemical properties of the waste and the products synthesised from it. This paper presents the possibility of synthesis zeolites from the slag and ash from two waste combustion plants. The investigated waste is classified as hazardous waste and denoted by the EWC code 190111*. The paper presents the results of physicochemical studies of these materials. As a result of synthesis in an autoclave at 140°C with the use of 2 M NaOH, and other compounds, such zeolite forms as chabazite and sodalite were obtained. Textural studies and ion-exchange capacity investigations carried out allowed characterisation of the sorption properties of the materials. It was found that the materials obtained are characterised by the BET specific surface areas of 25.45 m2/g and 16.79 m2/g.

  19. Synthesis of hollow ZnO microspheres by an integrated autoclave and pyrolysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jinxia; Huang, Xintang; Wang, Enke; Ai, Hanhua

    2006-03-28

    Hollow zinc oxide microspheres have been synthesized from a micro ZnBr2·2H2O precursor obtained by an autoclave process in bromoform steam at 220 °C /2.5 MPa. Field-emission scanning electron microscropy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show that the products are about 1.0 µm single crystal spherical particles with hollow interiors, partly open surfaces and walls self-assembled by ZnO nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the as-prepared ZnO hollow spheres are of a hexagonal phase structure. A possible formation mechanism is suggested on the basis of the shape evolution of ZnO nanostructures observed by SEM and TEM. The room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum shows UV emission around 386 nm and weak green emission peaks indicating that there are few defects in the single crystal grains of the ZnO microspheres.

  20. Preparation of New Cementitious System using Fly Ash and Dehydrated Autoclaved Aerated Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUI Zhonghe; LU Jianxin; TIAN Sufang; SHEN Peiliang; DING Sha

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally studied the interaction between pozzolanic material (fly ash) and dehydrated autoclaved aerated concrete (DAAC). The DAAC powder was obtained by grinding aerated concrete waste to particles finer than 75μm and was then heated to temperatures up to 900℃. New cementitious material was prepared by proportioning fly ash and DAAC, named as AF. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was employed to identify the crystalline phases of DAAC before and after rehydration. The hydration process of AF was analyzed by the heat of hydration and non-evaporable water content (Wn). The experimental results show that the highest reactivity of DAAC can be obtained by calcining the powder at 700℃and the dehydrated products are mainlyβ-C2S and CaO. The cumulative heat of hydration and Wn was found to be strongly dependent on the replacement level of fly ash, increasing the replacement level of fly ash lowered them in AF. The strength contribution rates on pozzolanic effect of fly ash in AF are always negative, showing a contrary tendency of that of cement-fly ash system.

  1. Monitoring cure properties of out-of-autoclave BMI composites using IFPI sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amardeep; Anandan, Sudharshan; Yuan, Lei; Watkins, Steve E.; Chandrashekhara, K.; Xiao, Hai; Phan, Nam

    2016-04-01

    A non-destructive technique for inspection of a Bismaleimide (BMI) composite is presented using an optical fiber sensor. High performance BMI composites are used for Aerospace application for their mechanical strength. They are also used as an alternative to toughened epoxy resins. A femtosecond-laser-inscribed Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) sensor is used to perform real time cure monitoring of a BMI composite. The composite is cured using the out-of-autoclave (OOA) process. The IFPI sensor was used for in-situ monitoring; different curing stages are analyzed throughout the curing process. Temperature-induced-strain was measured to analyze the cure properties. The IFPI structure comprises of two reflecting mirrors inscribed on the core of the fiber using a femtosecond-laser manufacturing process. The manufacturing process makes the sensor thermally stable and robust for embedded applications. The sensor can withstand very high temperatures of up to 850 °C. The temperature and strain sensitivities of embedded IFPI sensor were measured to be 1.4 pm/μepsilon and 0.6 pm/μepsilon respectively.

  2. Development and calibration of a load sensing cervical distractor capable of withstanding autoclave sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetropoulos, C K; Truumees, E; Herkowitz, H N; Yang, K H

    2005-05-01

    In surgery of the cervical spine, a Caspar pin distractor is often used to apply a tensile load to the spine in order to open up the disc space. This is often done in order to place a graft or other interbody fusion device in the spine. Ideally a tight interference fit is achieved. If the spine is over distracted, allowing for a large graft, there is an increased risk of subsidence into the endplate. If there is too little distraction, there is an increased risk of graft dislodgement or pseudoarthrosis. Generally, graft height is selected from preoperative measurements and observed distraction without knowing the intraoperative compressive load. This device was designed to give the surgeon an assessment of this applied load. Instrumentation of the device involved the application of strain gauges and the selection of materials that would survive standard autoclave sterilization. The device was calibrated, sterilized and once again calibrated to demonstrate its suitability for surgical use. Results demonstrate excellent linearity in the calibration, and no difference was detected in the pre- and post-sterilization calibrations.

  3. CO2 sequestration by carbonation of steelmaking slags in an autoclave reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, E-E; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chu, Hsiao-Wen; Wang, Chu-Fang; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2011-11-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) sequestration experiments using the accelerated carbonation of three types of steelmaking slags, i.e., ultra-fine (UF) slag, fly-ash (FA) slag, and blended hydraulic slag cement (BHC), were performed in an autoclave reactor. The effects of reaction time, liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S), temperature, CO(2) pressure, and initial pH on CO(2) sequestration were evaluated. Two different CO(2) pressures were chosen: the normal condition (700 psig) and the supercritical condition (1300 psig). The carbonation conversion was determined quantitatively by using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The major factors that affected the conversion were reaction time (5 min to 12h) and temperature (40-160°C). The BHC was found to have the highest carbonation conversion of approximately 68%, corresponding to a capacity of 0.283 kg CO(2)/kg BHC, in 12h at 700 psig and 160°C. In addition, the carbonation products were confirmed to be mainly in CaCO(3), which was determined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) to analyze samples before and after carbonation. Furthermore, reaction kinetics were expressed with a surface coverage model, and the carbon footprint of the developed technology in this investigation was calculated by a life cycle assessment (LCA). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Production by Lintnerization-Autoclaving and Physicochemical Characterization of Resistant Starch III from Sago Palm (Metroxylon sagu rottb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwit Sri Werdi Pratiwi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is one of the biggest central distributions of sago starch. There are some characteristics of sago starch which make it difficult to use in variation of foods. In this study, resistant starch type III (RS3 was produced from sago starch by using lintnerization-autoclaving (LA. Physicochemical characterizations of RS3 were compared by native sago starch (NA, hydrolyzed starch by distilled water (DW and lintnerized starch (L. Amylose content decreased after hydrolyzed by DW and L, but increasing by using LA. Protein and fat contents decreased after hydrolysis, but crude fiber content increasing, the highest value was obtained lintnerized-autoclaved starch. Lintnerized-autoclaved starch has more compact and rigid structure. The RVA viscosity, swelling power and water holding capacity values reduced after all treatments. Oil in water emulsions were also analyzed by mixture of RS3 and emulsifier (casein or SPI. Viscosities of emulsions from RS casein were lower than those of RS-SPI. Emulsion capacity and emulsion stability values were better gotten using RS-SPI than RS-casein. The highest of emulsion capacity was obtained 11.33%. For storage period, the lowest peroxide and anisidine values of mixture RS-emulsifier were resulted from 5% emulsifier + 5% RS + 5% fish oil.

  5. Induction of cellular and humoral responses by autoclaved and heat-killed antigen of Leishmania donovani in experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagill, Rajeev; Mahajan, Raman; Sharma, Meenakshi; Kaur, Sukhbir

    2009-12-01

    The potential of autoclaved and heat-killed antigen of Leishmania donovani to induce cell-mediated and humoral response has been evaluated in the present study. The vaccines were delivered thrice subcutaneously at an interval of 2 weeks. Two weeks after second booster, BALB/c mice were challenged with 10(7) stationary phase promastigotes of L. donovani. Significant protection was achieved in immunized mice against L. donovani challenge with 69% to 76% and 59% to 64% reduction in parasite load in the liver and spleen respectively. Immunization induced significantly higher level of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in mice immunized with heat-killed antigen followed by autoclaved antigen. The immune response was assessed by quantifying Leishmania-specific antibodies and cytokine production. The antibody response was predominantly of IgG type with increased IgG2a production and lesser amount of IgM. The immunization preferentially stimulates the production of IFN-gamma and IL-2 in splenocytes which suggests a Th1 type response with a concomitant down-regulation of IL-10 and IL-4. These results indicate a potential for the heat-killed and autoclaved antigen as a vaccine which could trigger cell-mediated immune response.

  6. Experimental evaluation on the influence of autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue of new nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotino, Gianluca; Costanzo, Alberto; Grande, Nicola M; Petrovic, Renata; Testarelli, Luca; Gambarini, Gianluca

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of autoclave sterilization on cyclic fatigue resistance of rotary endodontic instruments made of traditional and new nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloys. Four NiTi rotary endodontic instruments of the same size (tip diameter 0.40 mm and constant .04 taper) were selected: K3, Mtwo, Vortex, and K3 XF prototypes. Each group was then divided into 2 subgroups, unsterilized instruments and sterilized instruments. The sterilized instruments were subjected to 10 cycles of autoclave sterilization. Twelve files from each different subgroup were tested for cyclic fatigue resistance. Means and standard deviations of number of cycles to failure (NCF) and fragment length of the fractured tip were calculated for each group, and data were statistically analyzed (P .05) in the mean NCF as a result of sterilization cycles (K3, 424 versus 439 NCF; Mtwo, 409 versus 419 NCF; Vortex, 454 versus 480 NCF). Comparing the results among the different groups, K3 XF (either sterilized or not) showed a mean NCF significantly higher than all other files (P autoclave sterilization do not seem to influence the mechanical properties of NiTi endodontic instruments except for the K3 XF prototypes of rotary instruments that demonstrated a significant increase of cyclic fatigue resistance. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of number of dental autoclave treatment cycles on rotational performance of commercially available air-turbine handpieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Masahiro; Takakuda, Kazuo

    2006-06-01

    The influence of number of autoclave treatment cycles (N) on rotational speed and total indicated run-out of commercially available air-turbine handpieces from five manufacturers was investigated at N=0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 cycles, and the significance in the test results was assessed by Dunnett's multiple comparison test. Some air-turbine handpieces showed the significant differences in rotational speed at N=300 cycles, however, the decreases of the rotational speeds were only 1 to 3.5 percent. Some air-turbine handpieces showed the significant differences in total indicated run-out, however, the respective values were smaller than that at N=0 cycle. Accordingly, it can be considered that the ball bearing in the air-turbine handpieces is not affected significantly by autoclave. To further evaluate rotational performance, this study focused on the rotational vibration of the ball bearing components of the air-turbine, as measured by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis; the power spectra of frequency of the ball's revolution, frequency of the cage's rotation and frequency of the ball's rotation were comparatively investigated at N=0, 150 and 300 cycles, and the influence of autoclave was evaluated qualitatively. No abnormalities in the ball bearings were recognized.

  8. Influence of autoclaved fungal materials on spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) growth, morphogenesis, and secondary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naseem I; Tisserat, Brent; Berhow, Mark; Vaughn, Steven F

    2005-07-01

    The influence of autoclaved fungal materials such as culture filtrate, freeze-dried mycelium (FDM), mycelium suspension, and spore suspension (SS) on the growth, morphogenesis, and carvone production of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) plants was studied. Fungal materials were either applied as a drench or spray on the plants. Spearmint plants (cv. "294099") drenched with SS (1 x 10(8) spores/ml) of Trichoderma reesei showed no significant differences in leaf numbers, root numbers, or shoot numbers compared with nontreated controls. However, significantly higher fresh weights and carvone levels were observed in plants drenched with T. reesei SS compared with the untreated controls. Fungal materials derived from Aspergillus sp., Fusarium graminearum, F. sporotrichoides, Penicillium sp., P. acculeatum, Rhizopus oryzae, and T. reesei were sprayed on spearmint foliage. F. graminearum, F. sporotrichoides, or R. oryzae elicited no enhanced growth, morphogenesis, or secondary metabolism responses. The best growth and morphogenesis responses were obtained employing Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., or T. reesei foliar sprays. For example, spearmint cv. "557807" plants sprayed with 100 mg/l FDM T. reesei isolate NRRL 11460 C30 stimulated higher fresh weights (75%), shoot numbers (39%), leaf numbers (57%), and root numbers (108%) compared with untreated plants. This effect was not dose-dependent because similar growth and morphogenesis responses were obtained by testing 10, 100, or 1000 mg/l FDM concentrations. Carvone levels in fungal-treated foliar-sprayed plants were comparable to nontreated controls. However, total carvone levels per plant were higher in fungal-treated plants because of their increased fresh weight.

  9. Sorption and precipitation of Mn2+ by viable and autoclaved Shewanella putrefaciens: Effect of contact time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubar, Natalia; Visser, Tom; Avramut, Cristina; de Waard, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of Mn(II) by viable and inactivated cells of Shewanella putrefaciens, a non-pathogenic, facultative anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium characterised as a Mn(IV) and Fe(III) reducer, was studied under aerobic conditions, as a function of pH, bacterial density and metal loading. During a short contact time (3-24 h), the adsorptive behaviour of live and dead bacteria toward Mn(II) was sufficiently similar, an observation that was reflected in the studies on adsorption kinetics at various metal loadings, effects of pH, bacteria density, isotherms and drifting of pH during adsorption. Continuing the experiment for an additional 2-30 days demonstrated that the Mn(II) sorption by suspensions of viable and autoclaved cells differed significantly from one another. The sorption to dead cells was characterised by a rapid equilibration and was described by an isotherm. In contrast, the sorption (uptake) to live bacteria exhibited a complex time-dependent uptake. This uptake began as adsorption and ion exchange processes followed by bioprecipitation, and it was accompanied by the formation of polymeric sugars (EPS) and the release of dissolved organic substances. FTIR, EXAFS/XANES and XPS demonstrated that manganese(II) phosphate was the main precipitate formed in 125 ml batches, which is the first evidence of the ability of microbes to synthesise manganese phosphates. XPS and XANES spectra did not detect Mn(II) oxidation. Although the release of protein-like compounds by the viable bacteria increased in the presence of Mn2+ (and, by contrast, the release of carbohydrates did not change), electrochemical analyses did not indicate any aqueous complexation of Mn(II) by the organic ligands.

  10. Sorption and precipitation of Mn2+ by viable and autoclaved Shewanella putrefaciens: Effect of contact time

    KAUST Repository

    Chubar, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of Mn(II) by viable and inactivated cells of Shewanella putrefaciens, a non-pathogenic, facultative anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium characterised as a Mn(IV) and Fe(III) reducer, was studied under aerobic conditions, as a function of pH, bacterial density and metal loading. During a short contact time (3-24h), the adsorptive behaviour of live and dead bacteria toward Mn(II) was sufficiently similar, an observation that was reflected in the studies on adsorption kinetics at various metal loadings, effects of pH, bacteria density, isotherms and drifting of pH during adsorption. Continuing the experiment for an additional 2-30days demonstrated that the Mn(II) sorption by suspensions of viable and autoclaved cells differed significantly from one another. The sorption to dead cells was characterised by a rapid equilibration and was described by an isotherm. In contrast, the sorption (uptake) to live bacteria exhibited a complex time-dependent uptake. This uptake began as adsorption and ion exchange processes followed by bioprecipitation, and it was accompanied by the formation of polymeric sugars (EPS) and the release of dissolved organic substances. FTIR, EXAFS/XANES and XPS demonstrated that manganese(II) phosphate was the main precipitate formed in 125ml batches, which is the first evidence of the ability of microbes to synthesise manganese phosphates. XPS and XANES spectra did not detect Mn(II) oxidation. Although the release of protein-like compounds by the viable bacteria increased in the presence of Mn2+ (and, by contrast, the release of carbohydrates did not change), electrochemical analyses did not indicate any aqueous complexation of Mn(II) by the organic ligands. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Relation between Portland cement carbonation, range of clinker burning and some expansive phenomena in the autoclave test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz de Cauna, A.

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available Not availableEn este trabajo se estudia el doble pico que aparece en la región de altas temperaturas de las curvas derivatométricas, realizadas en atmósfera de vapor de agua, de los cementos portland anhidros e hidratados y en general el efecto de la carbonatación sobre los silicatos y aluminatos presentes en los cementos portland, especialmente sobre el perfil de las curvas derivatométricas de los cementos portland anhidros e hidratados. Se recogen y examinan los cambios experimentados en el doble pico al someter los cementos a la acción de diversos tratamientos y de agentes modificantes, tales como el tiempo, el CO2, la hidratación normal, las hidrataciones bajo agua a ebullición, en autoclave y en suspensión acuosa con agitación, la adición de puzolana y de fuertes proporciones de S04Ca. Se estudia y compara, asimismo, el comportamiento al análisis térmico bajo vapor de agua y al ensayo de autoclave de algunos clínkeres y cementos que presentan el doble pico en forma acusada y poco apreciable, respectivamente. De los resultados obtenidos se deducen conclusiones que explican los comportamientos experimentales observados. Las principales conclusiones se refieren a la interpretación de los picos que aparecen en las curvas derivatométricas o de velocidad de pérdida de peso de los cementos portland anhidros e hidratados, y a algunos aspectos de su carbonatación, a la probable existencia de un compuesto intermedio, consecuencia de la incompleta formación del silicato tricálcico y a la explicación de determinadas grandes expansiones producidas en el ensayo de autoclave.

  12. Measurement on Hydrate Products Crystallinity Degrees of Autoclaved Silicate Products%蒸压硅酸盐制品水化产物的结晶度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯昌君; 王淑英; 王浩; 袁兵

    2012-01-01

    利用烧失量和酸溶法测定不同固体废物蒸压样品的结合水量和溶出差,研究固体废物蒸压样品中水化产物量、结晶度与其强度的关系.结果表明,粉煤灰、废玻璃、废混凝土蒸压样品的结晶度较低,钢渣蒸压样品的结晶度较高.蒸压样品的溶出差、结合水量和结晶度与水化产物种类有关.蒸压样品的结晶度可间接表达结晶良好的水化产物占总水化产物量的多少,并可用来确定不同蒸压制品的合理养护制度,指导蒸压制品的工艺优化.蒸压样品的结晶度存在合理范围.%The relationships of solid waste autoclaved samples compressive strength and their crystal-Unity degrees, hydrate amounts were studied with dissolved amount difference and bound water a-mount measured with loss on ignition and acid digestion method. The results showed that the crystal-linity degrees of autoclaved samples, such as fly ash, waste glass and waste concrete are in a low level except that the crystallinity degree of autoclaved steel slag sample is higher. The dissolved amount difference, bound water amount and crystallinity degree of the autoclaved samples were related to their hydrate types. The crystallinity degrees of autoclaved samples could be indirectly represented as the ratios of well-crystallized hydrate amounts to total hydrate amounts in the autoclaved samples, and used to determine the autoclaved schedule and guide the technology optimization for autoclaved products. There is a reasonable crystallinity degree range for the compressive strength of autoclaved samples.

  13. Autoclaved aerated concrete masonry with external insulation. Features of moisture conditions during the initial period of operation (rus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuptaraeva P.D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Building designs at the moment of commissioning include the initial (building and technological moisture. Thermal insulation systems influence on the yield of the initial moisture from the structures. However, there are no specific design requirements about determining initial moisture content in insulation systems.In this article the features of the initial period of operation on an example of aerated concrete are defined: the results of field surveys and calculations are shown and compared. On the basis of this comparison basic advice on the accounting features of the initial period of operation of autoclaved aerated concrete structures with external insulation are given.

  14. Investigation of MgF2 optical thin films with ultralow refractive indices prepared from autoclaved sols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Tsuyoshi; Ishizawa, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Akira

    2008-05-01

    We have successfully developed a process to form high quality MgF(2) thin films with ultralow refractive indices from autoclaved sols prepared from magnesium acetate and hydrofluoric acid. And we have confirmed that our porous MgF(2) coatings have not only high transmittance in the UV region but also high uniformity of film thickness. They can be uniformly formed on phiv 300 mm substrates as a single coating and as a hybrid coating with sublayers formed by physical vapor deposition. They are expected to be applied to various optics that need high transmittance in the UV region.

  15. Experimental Study of Monitoring and Controlling of Composite Cure Process in Autoclave Featured with Fiber Optic Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With the aid of the latest fiber optic sensing technology, parameters in the cure process of thermosetting resin-matrix composite, such as temperature, viscosity, void and residual stress, can be monitored entirely and efficiently. In this paper, experiment results of viscosity measurement in composite cure process in autoclave using fiber optic sensors are presented. Based on the sensed information, a computer program is utilized to control the cure process. With this technology,the cure process becomes more apparent and controllable, which will greatly improve the cured products and reduce the cost.

  16. Polimerização complementar em autoclave, microondas e estufa de um compósito restaurador direto = The effect of post-cure heating in autoclave, microwave oven and conventional oven on direct composite resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arossi, Guilherme Anziliero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de tornar o processo de confecção de restaurações indiretas mais acessível, reduzindo seus custos com a resina utilizada e os métodos de polimerização complementar, este estudo testou a possibilidade de se utilizar resinas diretas com métodos de polimerização complementar alternativos. Corpos de prova foram confeccionados com a resina Charisma e fotopolimerizados por 20 segundos. Em seguida as amostras foram submetidas à polimerização complementar em autoclave, microondas e estufa. Foram estabelecidos dois grupos controles: um controle negativo, que consistiu na utilização da resina Charisma fotopolimerizada convencionalmente (20s; e um grupo controle positivo, formado por amostras do compósito restaurador indireto Targis. O ensaio de microdureza Knoop foi realizado após uma semana de armazenagem e os resultados submetidos à análise estatística. Os três métodos de polimerização complementar propostos determinaram um aumento na microdureza do compósito restaurador direto quando comparado ao controle negativo (p 0,05. Conclui-se que, considerando o desenho experimental deste estudo, a polimerização complementar em autoclave, microondas ou estufa aumenta a microdureza da resina Charisma previamente fotopolimerizada

  17. Validation of Autoclave Protocols for Successful Decontamination of Category A Medical Waste Generated from Care of Patients with Serious Communicable Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibaldi, Brian T; Reimers, Mallory; Ernst, Neysa; Bova, Gregory; Nowakowski, Elaine; Bukowski, James; Ellis, Brandon C; Smith, Chris; Sauer, Lauren; Dionne, Kim; Carroll, Karen C; Maragakis, Lisa L; Parrish, Nicole M

    2017-02-01

    In response to the Ebola outbreak in 2014, many hospitals designated specific areas to care for patients with Ebola and other highly infectious diseases. The safe handling of category A infectious substances is a unique challenge in this environment. One solution is on-site waste treatment with a steam sterilizer or autoclave. The Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) installed two pass-through autoclaves in its biocontainment unit (BCU). The JHH BCU and The Johns Hopkins biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) clinical microbiology laboratory designed and validated waste-handling protocols with simulated patient trash to ensure adequate sterilization. The results of the validation process revealed that autoclave factory default settings are potentially ineffective for certain types of medical waste and highlighted the critical role of waste packaging in successful sterilization. The lessons learned from the JHH validation process can inform the design of waste management protocols to ensure effective treatment of highly infectious medical waste. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. The effect of multiple autoclave cycles on the surface of rotary nickel-titanium endodontic files: An in vitro atomic force microscopy investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ashish Shashikant; Tilakchand, Mahima; Naik, Balaram Damodar

    2015-01-01

    To observe and study the effect of multiple autoclave sterilization cycles, on the surface of nickel-titanium (NiTi) files. The file used for this study was the Mtwo file (VDW) and ProTaper (Dentsply). The apical 5 mm of the files were attached to a silicon wafer and subjected to autoclave cycles under standardized conditions. They were scanned with an AFM after 1, 5, and 10 cycles. The unsterilized files were used as control, before start of the study. Three vertical topographic parameters namely maximum height (MH), root mean square (RMS) of surface roughness, and arithmetic mean roughness (AMR)were measured with the atomic force microscope (AFM). Analysis of variance along with Tukey's test was used to test the differences. The vertical topographic parameters were higher for both the files, right after the first cycle, when compared with the control (P autoclave cycles, a fact that should be kept in mind during their reuse.

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Dimensional Accuracy of Elastomeric Impression Materials when Treated with Autoclave, Microwave, and Chemical Disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamble, Suresh S; Khandeparker, Rakshit Vijay; Somasundaram, P; Raghav, Shweta; Babaji, Rashmi P; Varghese, T Joju

    2015-09-01

    Impression materials during impression procedure often get infected with various infectious diseases. Hence, disinfection of impression materials with various disinfectants is advised to protect the dental team. Disinfection can alter the dimensional accuracy of impression materials. The present study was aimed to evaluate the dimensional accuracy of elastomeric impression materials when treated with different disinfectants; autoclave, chemical, and microwave method. The impression materials used for the study were, dentsply aquasil (addition silicone polyvinylsiloxane syringe and putty), zetaplus (condensation silicone putty and light body), and impregum penta soft (polyether). All impressions were made according to manufacturer's instructions. Dimensional changes were measured before and after different disinfection procedures. Dentsply aquasil showed smallest dimensional change (-0.0046%) and impregum penta soft highest linear dimensional changes (-0.026%). All the tested elastomeric impression materials showed some degree of dimensional changes. The present study showed that all the disinfection procedures produce minor dimensional changes of impression material. However, it was within American Dental Association specification. Hence, steam autoclaving and microwave method can be used as an alternative method to chemical sterilization as an effective method.

  20. Diclofenac sodium injection sterilized by autoclave and the occurrence of cyclic reaction producing a small amount of impurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, J; Islam, M; Khan, A H; Das, S C; Akhteruzzaman, M; Deb, A K; Alam, A H

    2001-05-01

    A known impurity is formed in the production of a parenteral dosage form of diclofenac sodium if terminally sterilized by autoclave. This impurity has been detected as 1-(2,6-dichlorophenyl) indolin-2qone, which is also an intermediate from which diclofenac sodium is generally synthesized. It is only the condition of the autoclave method (i.e., 123 +/- 2 degrees C) that enforces the intramolecular cyclic reaction of diclofenac sodium forming the indolinone derivative and sodium hydroxide. The formation of this impurity has been found to depend on the initial pH of the formulation. The reaction follows first-order kinetics, and the energy of activation is 5.34 kcal/mol. The other excipients in the formulation do not have a role in this reaction. The concentration of the impurity in the resultant product in the ampule goes beyond the limit of the raw materials in the pharmacopoeias. It is thus preferable to use an alternative sterilization method; that is, an aseptic filtration method in which the formation of this impurity can be avoided.

  1. [The effect of autoclave sterilization on the surface properties of orthodontic brackets after fitting in the mouth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerhrhaye, W; Ouaki, B; Zaoui, F; Aalloula, E

    2011-12-01

    Repeated sterilizations of the orthodontic bands, after fitting in mouth, are likely to involve modifications of their surface properties. Through this study we have tried to observe the effect of sterilization by autoclave on the surface of the orthodontic bands, as well as the contribution of the use of ultrasound in the chain of sterilization. The sample was composed of 30 orthodontic bands divided into 5 groups: a group of new bands (witnesses) and 4 groups having undergone respectively 1 cycle, 3 cycles, 5 cycles and 7 cycles of autoclave sterilization according to the World Health Organization recommendations. For half of each group bands, ultrasonic cleaning has not been provided. The scanning electron microscopy with the elementary microanalysis by X-rays was used for the investigation of surface. At the exam, new bands showed surface irregularities probably due to manufacturing procedures. And the bands, without ultrasonic cleaning, showed the presence of contamination and discolourations. Moreover, there were no modifications on the surface of the bands cleaned by ultrasounds before sterilization. The presence of surface irregularities associated with deposits observed on the bands surface, may be the site of bio corrosion by contributing bio film accumulation. The stay duration of the orthodontic bands in mouth, during orthodontic treatment, is important. So the effect of sterilization on the surface of the orthodontic bands must encourage other scientific research to determine the long term effects of sterilization which remains an essential process in our daily practice.

  2. Production process and equipment selection of autoclaved brick%一种蒸压砖生产工艺流程及设备选型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周占霞

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes how to reduce the added proportion of calcium carbide slurry, improve the auto⁃claved brick quality, and reduce production costs of autoclaved brick by optimizing the production process and equipment selection to eliminate the mud clumping of calcium carbide slurry in autoclaved calcium carbide sludge brick.%通过优化生产工艺流程及设备选型消除电石泥蒸压砖中的电石泥结团,降低电石泥原料添加比例和提高蒸压砖质量,降低蒸压砖生产成本。

  3. An energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and SEM study of debris remaining on endodontic instruments after ultrasonic cleaning and autoclave sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parirokh, Masoud; Asgary, Saeed; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar

    2005-08-01

    This study was carried out to investigate metallic and non-metallic debris remaining on endodontic files after ultrasonic cleaning and autoclave processing. Forty-eight unused rotary and hand endodontic files, including eight different brands, were tested. Instruments were cleaned with ultrasound, autoclaved and before and after each step were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Adherent debris was analysed by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA). All of the instruments before ultrasound cleaning were contaminated with metallic and non-metallic debris. Although most non-metallic debris was removed by ultrasonic cleaning, most of the metallic debris remained even after the final step of sterilization.

  4. Effects of soaking, boiling and autoclaving on the phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of faba beans (Vicia faba L.) differing in seed coat colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, Siem; Wood, Jennifer A; Agboola, Samson; Konczak, Izabela; Blanchard, Christopher L

    2014-01-01

    The Australian grown faba beans of different seed coat colours were either soaked, boiled or autoclaved, and analysed for phenolic contents and antioxidant activity using an array of reagent-based assays. Soaking, boiling and autoclaving were shown to lower the level of active compounds in faba beans. A significant amount of active compounds was leached to the soaking and cooking medium. Boiling was a better method in retaining active compounds in beans than autoclaving. The boiled beans had more active compounds than those of resulting cooking broths, which was the opposite observation when autoclaving. The buff-genotypes had a similar level of active compounds to red- and green-genotypes. The high performance liquid chromatography-post column derivatisation (HPLC-PCD) system detected a dense collection of high antioxidant HPLC peaks ('humps') in extracts of raw, soaked and boiled beans. The present findings encouraged consumption of faba beans together with cooking broth for the maximum potential health benefits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of metal concentrations in certified plastic reference materials after small-size autoclave and microwave-assisted digestion followed with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtimäki, Esa; Väisänen, Ari

    2017-01-01

    The digestion methods for the determination of As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Sb, Sn and Zn concentrations in plastic samples using microwave-assisted digestion (MW-AD) and small-size autoclave digestion was developed. The certified polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene certified reference materials were used in order to find digestion method working properly for several sample matrices. Efficiency of the digestion methods was evaluated by analyzing the residual carbon in digests by TOC analyzer. MW-AD using a mixture of 7 mL of HNO3 and 3 mL of H2O2 as a digestion solution resulted in excellent recoveries for As, Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn, and were in the range of 92-107% for all the analytes except Pb in polyethylene material. Autoclave digestion using 5 mL of concentrated HNO3 as a digestion solution resulted in similar recoveries with the exception of a higher As recovery (98%). Tin recovery resulted in low level after both MW-AD and autoclave digestion. Autoclave digestion was further developed resulting in a partially open two-step digestion process especially for the determination of Sn and Cr. The method resulted in higher recoveries of Sn and Cr (87 and 76%) but with the lower concentration of easily volatile As, Cd and Sb.

  6. Direct synthesis of Fe3 C-functionalized graphene by high temperature autoclave pyrolysis for oxygen reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yunjie; Cleemann, Lars N; Xing, Wei; Bjerrum, Niels J; Li, Qingfeng

    2014-08-01

    We present a novel approach to direct fabrication of few-layer graphene sheets with encapsulated Fe3 C nanoparticles from pyrolysis of volatile non-graphitic precursors without any substrate. This one-step autoclave approach is facile and potentially scalable for production. Tested as an electrocatalyst, the graphene-based composite exhibited excellent catalytic activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline solution with an onset potential of ca. 1.05 V (vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode) and a half-wave potential of 0.83 V, which is comparable to the commercial Pt/C catalyst. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Effect of Stacking Layup on Spring-back Deformation of Symmetrical Flat Laminate Composites Manufactured through Autoclave Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Seman, M. A.; Mezeix, L.; Aminanda, Y.; Rivai, A.; Ali, K. M.

    2017-03-01

    The residual stresses that develop within fibre-reinforced laminate composites during autoclave processing lead to dimensional warpage known as spring-back deformation. A number of experiments have been conducted on flat laminate composites with unidirectional fibre orientation to examine the effects of both the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters on the warpage. This paper extends the study on to the symmetrical layup effect on spring-back for flat laminate composites. Plies stacked at various symmetrical sequences were fabricated to observe the severity of the resulting warpage. Essentially, the experimental results demonstrated that the symmetrical layups reduce the laminate stiffness in its principal direction compared to the unidirectional laminate thus, raising the spring-back warpage with the exception of the [45/-45]S layup due to its quasi-isotropic property.

  8. Mössbauer study of oxide films of Fe-, Sn-, Cr- doped zirconium alloys during corrosion in autoclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, V. P.; Bateev, A. B.; Lauer, Yu. A.

    2016-12-01

    Mössbauer investigations were used to compare iron atom states in oxide films of binary Zr-Fe, ternary Zr-Fe-Cu and quaternary Zr-Fe-Cr-Sn alloys. Oxide films are received in an autoclave at a temperature of 350-360 °C and at pressure of 16.8 MPa. The corrosion process decomposes the intermetallic precipitates in alloys and forms metallic iron with inclusions of chromium atoms α-Fe(Cr), α-Fe(Cu), α-Fe 2O3 and Fe 3O4 compounds. Some iron ions are formed in divalent and in trivalent paramagnetic states. The additional doping influences on corrosion kinetics and concentration of iron compounds and phases formed in oxide films. It was shown the correlation between concentration of iron in different chemical states and corrosion resistance of alloys.

  9. Mössbauer study of oxide films of Fe-, Sn-, Cr- doped zirconium alloys during corrosion in autoclave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippov, V. P., E-mail: vpfilippov@mephi.ru; Bateev, A. B.; Lauer, Yu. A. [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI” (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Mössbauer investigations were used to compare iron atom states in oxide films of binary Zr-Fe, ternary Zr-Fe-Cu and quaternary Zr-Fe-Cr-Sn alloys. Oxide films are received in an autoclave at a temperature of 350–360 °C and at pressure of 16.8 MPa. The corrosion process decomposes the intermetallic precipitates in alloys and forms metallic iron with inclusions of chromium atoms α–Fe(Cr), α–Fe(Cu), α–Fe {sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe {sub 3}O{sub 4} compounds. Some iron ions are formed in divalent and in trivalent paramagnetic states. The additional doping influences on corrosion kinetics and concentration of iron compounds and phases formed in oxide films. It was shown the correlation between concentration of iron in different chemical states and corrosion resistance of alloys.

  10. Fast response filter module with plug flow of filtrate for on-line sampling from submerged cultures of filamentous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poulsen, B.R.; Ruijter, G.J.G.; Panneman, H.; Iversen, J.J.L.; Visser, J.

    2004-01-01

    Automatic and accurate sampling is both convenient and sometimes necessary to obtain detailed information about cell cultures. We developed an autoclavable sampling system in which culture broth was pumped through an ultrafiltration cross-flow module with a novel filtrate collecting principle and a

  11. A comparative evaluation of the dimensional stability of three different elastomeric impression materials after autoclaving - an invitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thota, Kiran Kumar; Jasthi, Sujana; Ravuri, Rajyalakshmi; Tella, Suchita

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of autoclaving on the dimensional stability of three different elastomeric impression materials at three different time intervals. Standardized stainless steel master die as per ADA specification number 19 was fabricated. The impression materials used for the study were condensation silicone (GP1), addition silicone (GP2) and polyether (GP3). A total of 45 samples of the stainless steel die were made (n = 45), that is 15 samples for each group. Impression materials were mixed according to the manufacturer's instructions and were loaded into the mold to make an impression of the die. Impressions were identified with the help of numerical coding system and measurements were made using stereomicroscope (MAGNUS MSZ-Bi) of 0.65x magnification with the help of image analysis software (IMACE PRO-INSIGHT VERSION.The results were subjected to statistical analysis using one way analysis of variance and student t-test for comparison between the groups. Within the limitations of the study statistically significant dimensional changes were observed for all the three impression materials at three different time intervals but this change was not clinically significant. It is well-known fact that all impressions should be disinfected to avoid possible transmission of infectious diseases either by direct contact or cross contamination. Immersion and spray disinfection as well as various disinfection solutions have been tested and proven to be effective for this purpose. But for elastomeric impression materials these methods have proven to be ineffective as they do not prevent cross contamination among the dental team. So autoclaving was one of the most effective sterilization procedure for condensation silicone and addition silicone. Since polyether is hydrophilic it is better to disinfect the impressions as recommended by the manufacturer or by immersion or spray atomization.

  12. Development of Cooking Test Device with Bantam Autoclave Group%群锅蒸煮实验装置的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明辅; 李淑兰; 陈克利; 别玉

    2011-01-01

    A set of self-made cooking test device with bantam autoclave group is introduced including its principles, main structure, body design , and operation processes. The device is mainly composed of four parts; I is a box and rack supporting the box and two motion systems ; II is the lid movement system for smoothly opening the lid and closing it tightly; IK is a autoclave group base motion system for fixing the autoclaves in the shaft rotating disc supporter and driving axis of the supporter submerged in oil using for heating the autoclaves; IV is a heating measurement and control system to complete heating the oil, measuring, displaying and controlling temperature. Cooking wood or nonwood fibrous material under different conditions in 8 or more autoclaves can simultaneously carried out during one cooking cycle. The advantages of this device are efficient, precise and even temperature control, and reliable seal.%介绍了群锅蒸煮实验装置的基本原理、主要结构、锅体设计、实验过程等.该装置主要结构包括:箱体和机架、箱盖运动系统、蒸煮群锅运动系统、加热测量控制系统.该装置的优点是一次可同时进行8锅以上蒸煮实验,同时还具有加热均匀、温度控制精确、密封可靠、操作简单的特点.

  13. Autoclave sterilization of instruments used on women with cervical neoplasia is an effective method of eradicating residual human papillomavirus DNA: a polymerase chain reaction-based evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Jacob M; Kirby, Tyler O; Huh, Warner K

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether autoclave sterilization eradicates human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA on specula and instruments used to treat women with cervical neoplasia. Specula and instruments used in two referral colposcopy clinics were evaluated to determine the PGMY9/11 primer system's ability to amplify residual HPV DNA. Each speculum and instrument was sampled with a Dacron swab and stored in PreservCyt solution (Cytyc Corporation, Marlborough, MA) at 4 degrees C. DNA amplification was performed under standard conditions with appropriate controls followed by HPV typing using the reverse line blot test (Roche Molecular Systems, Alameda, CA). Once validated, the same polymerase chain reaction method was used on autoclave-sterilized specula and biopsy instruments and heated glass bead- and Cidex bath (Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, NJ)-sterilized instruments. All results, with appropriate positive and negative controls, were confirmed in triplicate. A total of 140 instruments (70 used and 70 autoclaved) were sampled for residual HPV DNA. Five samples in the contaminated specula arm were excluded from analysis secondary to insufficient sampling. Of the remaining samples, 52.3% (34/65) of contaminated instruments-both specula and biopsy instruments-had detectable HPV DNA. Fifty-five percent of contaminated biopsy instruments (11/20) were positive and 51.1% of contaminated specula (23/45) were positive. All 70 autoclaved samples (50 specula and 20 biopsy instruments) were negative for residual HPV DNA or beta-globin. One instrument in the glass bead and Cidex group that was presumed sterile was positive for HPV 16 DNA. The PGMY9/11 primer system is an effective method to detect residual HPV DNA. Autoclave sterilization appears to eradicate HPV DNA to levels undetectable with this sensitive assay, whereas heated glass beads followed by Cidex bath appears to be inadequate methods. These results suggest that autoclave sterilization is effective when using nondisposable

  14. Development and evaluation of methods for starch dissolution using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation. Part II: Dissolution of amylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rea, Daysi; Bergenståhl, Björn; Nilsson, Lars

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether dissolution in water under autoclaving conditions (140 °C, 20 min) or in dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO (100 °C, 1 h), is preferable for characterization of amylose. Two types of amylose, potato and maize, were dissolved either in water using an autoclave or in DMSO. On the aqueous solutions obtained, the extent of molecular dissolution of the sample (referred to as the dissolution yield) was determined by enzymatic analysis as well as the molecular properties, such as molar mass and root-mean-square radius, obtained with asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled to multi-angle light scattering and differential refractive index detection (AF4-MALS-dRI). The results showed that both dissolution methods are efficient at dissolving amylose. However, AF4-MALS-dRI analysis revealed substantial differences. Amylose aqueous solutions obtained by dissolution in DMSO were relatively stable over time, but the dissolution method in autoclave caused some degradation of the molecules, and their solutions display a high tendency to retrograde.

  15. Research on Optimization of Mold Temperature Fields in Autoclave Age Forming%热压罐时效成形模具温度场优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭生; 甘忠; 张海燕

    2011-01-01

    In the process of autoclave age forming, temperature is the most important parameter. Molds and different sections of parts experience temperature difference during the forming process of aircraft integrated panels. Aiming at improving forming qualities, decreasing the temperature difference and homogenizing temperature fields, it analyzes several different types of hole optimizing schemes through simulation of the autoclave and the mold with application software computational fluid mechanics FLUENT. Results show that in the T- shaped wind road, the mould surface temperature field uniformity is the best.%通过计算流体力学方法(CFD),应用软件FLUENT对热压罐以及模具进行建模模拟,对一字型、十字型、T型3种不同风道进行了模拟仿真.分析结果表明,T型风道对改善温度场均匀性效果最优.

  16. 利用油页岩灰制备蒸压砖的试验研究%Study on preparation of autoclaved brick with oil shale ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高子栋; 潘红

    2015-01-01

    The autoclaved brick is prepared with the oil shale ash, the fly ash, the calcium carbide residue, the gyp⁃sum and the stone chips. The effect on properties of autoclaved brick is studied by changing the ratio of oil shale ash and fly ash. When the ratio of oil shale ash increases, the compressive strength and the flexural strength of au⁃toclaved brick increase first, and then decrease, and the drying shrinkage value keep increasing. When the ratio of oil shale ash is 30%, the strength grade of autoclaved brick could achieves MU15. When the ratio of oil shale ash is 50%, the strength grade of autoclaved brick could also achieve MU10.%采用油页岩灰、粉煤灰、电石渣、石膏、石屑等作为原材料,制备了一种蒸压砖,研究了油页岩灰替代粉煤灰的比例对产品性能的影响。试验结果表明,随油页岩灰比例不断增大,蒸压砖的抗压强度、抗折强度均呈先提高后降低的变化趋势,干燥收缩值不断提高。当油页岩灰替代粉煤灰的比例为30%时,蒸压砖强度等级可达到标准JC239—2001《粉煤灰砖》中的MU15;当油页岩灰替代粉煤灰的比例为50%时,蒸压砖强度等级仍可达到MU10。

  17. Interaction of aluminum with PHFtau in Alzheimer's disease neurofibrillary degeneration evidenced by desferrioxamine-assisted chelating autoclave method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, H; Shin, R W; Higuchi, J; Shibuya, S; Muramoto, T; Kitamoto, T

    1999-09-01

    To demonstrate that aluminum III (Al) interacts with PHFtau in neurofibrillary degeneration (NFD) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, we developed a "chelating autoclave method" that allows Al chelation by using trivalent-cationic chelator desferrioxamine. Its application to AD brain sections before Morin histochemistry for Al attenuated the positive fluorescence of neurofibrillary tangles, indicating Al removal from them. This method, applied for immunostaining with phosphorylation-dependent anti-tau antibodies, significantly enhanced the PHFtau immunoreactivity of the NFD. These results suggest that each of the phosphorylated epitopes in PHFtau are partially masked by Al binding. Incubation of AD sections with AlCl(3) before Morin staining revealed Al accumulation with association to neurofibrillary tangles. Such incubation before immunostaining with the phosphorylation-dependent anti-tau antibodies abolished the immunolabeling of the NFD and this abolition was reversed by the Al chelation. These findings indicate cumulative Al binding to and thereby antigenic masking of the phosphorylated epitopes of PHFtau. Al binding was further documented for electrophoretically-resolved PHFtau on immunoblots, indicating direct Al binding to PHFtau. In vitro aggregation by AlCl(3) was observed for PHFtau but was lost on dephosphorylation of PHFtau. Taken together, phosphorylation-dependent and direct PHFtau-Al interaction occurs in the NFD of the AD brain.

  18. Dilute phosphoric acid-catalysed hydrolysis of municipal bio-waste wood shavings using autoclave parr reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Angela M; Al-Muhtaseb, Ala'a H; Albadarin, Ahmad B; Rooney, David; Walker, Gavin M; Ahmad, Mohammad N M

    2011-10-01

    The visibility of using municipal bio-waste, wood shavings, as a potential feedstock for ethanol production was investigated. Dilute acid hydrolysis of wood shavings with H₃PO₄ was undertaken in autoclave parr reactor. A combined severity factor (CSF) was used to integrate the effects of hydrolysis times, temperature and acid concentration into a single variable. Xylose concentration reached a maximum value of 17 g/100 g dry mass corresponding to a yield of 100% at the best identified conditions of 2.5 wt.% H₃PO₄, 175 °C and 10 min reaction time corresponding to a CSF of 1.9. However, for glucose, an average yield of 30% was obtained at 5 wt.% H₃PO₄, 200 °C and 10 min. Xylose production increased with increasing temperature and acid concentration, but its transformation to the degradation product furfural was also catalysed by those factors. The maximum furfural formed was 3 g/100 g dry mass, corresponding to the 24% yield. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reformulating polycaprolactone fumarate to eliminate toxic diethylene glycol: effects of polymeric branching and autoclave sterilization on material properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, M Brett; Wang, Huan; Spinner, Robert J; Windebank, Anthony J; Yaszemski, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Polycaprolactone fumarate (PCLF) is a cross-linkable derivative of polycaprolactone diol that has been shown to be an effective nerve conduit material that supports regeneration across segmental nerve defects and has warranted future clinical trials. Degradation of PCLF (PCLF(DEG)) releases toxic small molecules of diethylene glycol used as the initiator for the synthesis of polycaprolactone diol. In an effort to eliminate this toxic degradation product we present a strategy for the synthesis of PCLF from either propylene glycol (PCLF(PPD)) or glycerol (PCLF(GLY)). PCLF(PPD) is linear and resembles the previously studied PCLF(DEG), while PCLF(GLY) is branched and exhibits dramatically different material properties. The synthesis and characterization of their thermal, rheological, and mechanical properties are reported. The results show that the linear PCLF(PPD) has material properties similar to the previously studied PCLF(DEG). The branched PCLF(GLY) exhibits dramatically lower crystalline properties resulting in lower rheological and mechanical moduli, and is therefore a more compliant material. In addition, the question of an appropriate Food and Drug Administration approvable sterilization method is addressed. This study shows that autoclave sterilization of PCLF materials is an acceptable sterilization method for cross-linked PCLF and has minimal effect on the PCLF thermal and mechanical properties. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Interaction of Aluminum with PHFτ in Alzheimer’s Disease Neurofibrillary Degeneration Evidenced by Desferrioxamine-Assisted Chelating Autoclave Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Harunobu; Shin, Ryong-Woon; Higuchi, Jun; Shibuya, Satoshi; Muramoto, Tamaki; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki

    1999-01-01

    To demonstrate that aluminum III (Al) interacts with PHFτ in neurofibrillary degeneration (NFD) of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain, we developed a “chelating autoclave method” that allows Al chelation by using trivalent-cationic chelator desferrioxamine. Its application to AD brain sections before Morin histochemistry for Al attenuated the positive fluorescence of neurofibrillary tangles, indicating Al removal from them. This method, applied for immunostaining with phosphorylation-dependent anti-τ antibodies, significantly enhanced the PHFτ immunoreactivity of the NFD. These results suggest that each of the phosphorylated epitopes in PHFτ are partially masked by Al binding. Incubation of AD sections with AlCl3 before Morin staining revealed Al accumulation with association to neurofibrillary tangles. Such incubation before immunostaining with the phosphorylation-dependent anti-τ antibodies abolished the immunolabeling of the NFD and this abolition was reversed by the Al chelation. These findings indicate cumulative Al binding to and thereby antigenic masking of the phosphorylated epitopes of PHFτ. Al binding was further documented for electrophoretically-resolved PHFτ on immunoblots, indicating direct Al binding to PHFτ. In vitro aggregation by AlCl3 was observed for PHFτ but was lost on dephosphorylation of PHFτ. Taken together, phosphorylation-dependent and direct PHFτ-Al interaction occurs in the NFD of the AD brain. PMID:10487845

  1. 浅谈粉煤灰蒸压釜安装的几个要点%Talking about Several Key Points in the Installation of Fly-ash Autoclaved Kettle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建锋

    2014-01-01

    详细介绍了粉煤灰蒸压釜安装过程中的几个要点,并提出了粉煤灰蒸压釜安装过程中需要注意的事项。%This paper introduces in detail several key points in the installation of fly-ash autoclaved kettle, and puts forward the matters needing attention in the installation of fly-ash autoclaved kettle.

  2. The effect of multiple autoclave cycles on the surface of rotary nickel-titanium endodontic files: An in vitro atomic force microscopy investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Shashikant Nair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To observe and study the effect of multiple autoclave sterilization cycles, on the surface of nickel-titanium (NiTi files. Materials and Methods: The file used for this study was the M two file (VDW and ProTaper (Dentsply. The apical 5 mm of the files were attached to a silicon wafer and subjected to autoclave cycles under standardized conditions. They were scanned with an AFM after 1, 5, and 10 cycles. The unsterilized files were used as control, before start of the study. Three vertical topographic parameters namely maximum height (MH, root mean square (RMS of surface roughness, and arithmetic mean roughness (AMRwere measured with the atomic force microscope (AFM. Analysis of variance along with Tukey′s test was used to test the differences. Results: The vertical topographic parameters were higher for both the files, right after the first cycle, when compared with the control (P < 0.01. The surface roughness increased sharply for M two when compared to ProTaper, though ProTaper had a rougher surface initially. Conclusions: The study confirmed that the irregularities present on the surface of the file became more prominent with multiple autoclave cycles, a fact that should be kept in mind during their reuse.

  3. Effect of Recycling and Autoclave Sterilization on the Unloading Forces of NiTi Closed-Coil Springs: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni Danaei, Sh; Oshagh, M; Khozaei, A

    2013-12-01

    Clinicians use the NiTi coil springs frequently for its appropriate mechanical properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of recycling and autoclave sterilization on the unloading forces of NiTi closed coil springs. Fourteen NiTi closed coil spring with the length of 9mm were selected. Each coil was stretched to a peak extension of 12 mm. A universal testing machine was used to acquire load/deflection curve of the coil springs at 25±2°C. The influence of thermocycling (1000 cycles,5-55°C), autoclaving (134°C, 32PSI, 3min) and mechanical strain (9mm extension) which simulated the oral condition, were considered. Data were statistically analyzed by adopting Repeated Measures MANOVA Paired t-Test. Autoclaving in the 1, 4, 6 steps increased the force levels of coil springs about 2-5gf (p< 0.01). Thermocycling reduced their force levels about 4-6gf. Prolonged strain at 3, 5 steps decreased the magnitude of forces levels about 3-4gf. Concerning all the limitations; according to the results of this study; it is possible to recycle Ni-Ti closed-coil springs without significant reduction in their force levels.

  4. Buckling Testing and Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Arc Segments of a Full-Scale Fairing Barrel Part 1: 8-Ply In-Autoclave Facesheets. Part 1; 8-Ply In-Autoclave Facesheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, David E.; Pineda, Evan J.; Zalewski, Bart F.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2013-01-01

    Four honeycomb sandwich panels, representing 1/16th arc segments of a 10-m diameter barrel section of the heavy lift launch vehicle, were manufactured under the NASA Composites for Exploration program and the NASA Space Launch Systems program. Two configurations were chosen for the panels: 6-ply facesheets with 1.125 in. honeycomb core and 8-ply facesheets with 1.000 in. honeycomb core. Additionally, two separate carbon fiber/epoxy material systems were chosen for the facesheets: inautoclave IM7/977-3 and out-of-autoclave T40-800b/5320-1. Smaller 3.00- by 5.00-ft panels were cut from the 1/16th barrel sections. These panels were tested under compressive loading at the NASA Langley Research Center. Furthermore, linear eigenvalue and geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis was performed to predict the compressive response of the 3.00- by 5.00-ft panels. This manuscript summarizes the experimental and analytical modeling efforts pertaining to the panel composed of 8-ply, IM7/977-3 facesheets (referred to Panel A). To improve the robustness of the geometrically nonlinear finite element model, measured surface imperfections were included in the geometry of the model. Both the linear and nonlinear models yield good qualitative and quantitative predictions. Additionally, it was predicted correctly that the panel would fail in buckling prior to failing in strength. Furthermore, several imperfection studies were performed to investigate the influence of geometric imperfections, fiber misalignments, and three-dimensional (3 D) effects on the compressive response of the panel.

  5. Immunization against leishmaniasis by PLGA nanospheres loaded with an experimental autoclaved Leishmania major (ALM) and Quillaja saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafaghodi, M; Eskandari, M; Kharazizadeh, M; Khamesipour, A; Jaafari, M R

    2010-12-01

    Immune responses against the Leishmania antigens are not sufficient to protect against a leishmania challenge. Therefore these antigens need to be potentiated by various adjuvants and delivery systems. In this study, Poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanospheres as antigen delivery system and Quillaja saponins (QS) as immunoadjuvant have been used to enhance the immune response against autoclaved Leishmania major (ALM). PLGA nanospheres were prepared by a double-emulsion (W/O/W) technique. Particulate characteristics were studied by scanning electron microscopy and particle size analysis. Mean diameter for nanospheres loaded with ALM+QS was 294 ± 106 nm. BALB/c mice were immunized three times in 3-weeks intervals using ALM plus QS loaded nanospheres [(ALM+QS)PLGA], ALM encapsulated with PLGA nanospheres [(ALM)PLGA], (ALM)PLGA + QS, ALM + QS, ALM alone or PBS. The intensity of infection induced by L. major challenge was assessed by measuring size of footpad swelling. The strongest protection, showed by significantly (P < 0.05) smaller footpad, were observed in mice immunized with (ALM)PLGA. The (ALM+QS)PLGA group showed the least protection and highest swelling, while the (ALM)PLGA+QS, ALM+QS and ALM showed an intermediate protection with no significant difference. The mice immunized with ALM and ALM+QS showed the highest IgG2a/IgG1 ratio (P < 0.01), followed by (ALM)PLGA+QS. The highest IFN-γ and lowest IL-4 production was seen in (ALM)PLGA+QS, ALM+QS groups. The highest parasite burden was observed in (ALM)PLGA+QS and (ALM+QS)PLGA groups. It is concluded that PLGA nanospheres as a vaccine delivery system could increase the protective immune responses, but QS adjuvant has a reverse effect on protective immune responses and the least protective responses were seen in the presence of this adjuvant.

  6. Immunization against leishmaniasis by PLGA nanospheres encapsulated with autoclaved Leishmania major (ALM) and CpG-ODN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Khamesipour, Ali; Jaafari, Mahmoud R

    2011-05-01

    Various adjuvants and delivery systems have been evaluated for increasing the protective immune responses against leishmaniasis and mostly have been shown not to be effective enough. In this study, poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanospheres as an antigen delivery system and CpG-ODN as an immunoadjuvant have been used for the first time to enhance the immune response against autoclaved Leishmania major (ALM). PLGA nanospheres were prepared by a double-emulsion (W/O/W) technique. Particulate characteristics were studied by scanning electron microscopy and particle size analysis. Mean diameter of ALM + CpG-ODN-loaded nanospheres was 300 ± 128 nm. BALB/c mice were immunized three times in 3-week intervals using ALM plus CpG-ODN-loaded nanospheres [(ALM + CpG-ODN)(PLGA)], ALM encapsulated PLGA nanospheres [(ALM)(PLGA)], (ALM)(PLGA) + CpG, ALM + CpG, ALM alone, or phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The intensity of infection induced by L. major challenge was assessed by measuring size of footpad swelling. The strongest protection, showed by significantly (P<0.05) smaller footpad, was observed in mice immunized with (ALM + CpG-ODN)(PLGA). The (ALM)(PLGA), (ALM)(PLGA) + CpG, and ALM + CpG were also showed a significantly (P<0.05) smaller footpad swelling compared to the groups received either PBS or ALM alone. The mice immunized with (ALM + CpG-ODN)(PLGA), (ALM)(PLGA) + CpG, and ALM + CpG showed the highest IgG2a/IgG1 ratio, interferon-γ production, and lowest interleukin-4 production compared to the other groups. It is concluded that when both PLGA nanospheres and CpG-ODN adjuvants were used simultaneously, it induce stronger immune response and enhance protection rate against Leishmania infection.

  7. Composite Cryotank Technologies and Development 2.4 and 5.5M out of Autoclave Tank Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Justin R.; Vickers, John; Fikes, John

    2015-01-01

    The Composite Cryotank Technologies and Demonstration (CCTD) project substantially matured composite, cryogenic propellant tank technology. The project involved the design, analysis, fabrication, and testing of large-scale (2.4-m-diameter precursor and 5.5-m-diameter) composite cryotanks. Design features included a one-piece wall design that minimized tank weight, a Y-joint that incorporated an engineered material to alleviate stress concentration under combined loading, and a fluted core cylindrical section that inherently allows for venting and purging. The tanks used out-of-autoclave (OoA) cured graphite/epoxy material and processes to enable large (up to 10-m-diameter) cryotank fabrication, and thin-ply prepreg to minimize hydrogen permeation through tank walls. Both tanks were fabricated at Boeing using automated fiber placement on breakdown tooling. A fluted core skirt that efficiently carried axial loads and enabled hydrogen purging was included on the 5.5-m-diameter tank. Ultrasonic inspection was performed, and a structural health monitoring system was installed to identify any impact damage during ground processing. The precursor and 5.5-m-diameter tanks were tested in custom test fixtures at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Marshall Space Flight Center. The testing, which consisted of a sequence of pressure and thermal cycles using liquid hydrogen, was successfully concluded and obtained valuable structural, thermal, and permeation performance data. This technology can be applied to a variety of aircraft and spacecraft applications that would benefit from 30 to 40% weight savings and substantial cost savings compared to aluminum lithium tanks.

  8. Technology status of autoclaved aerated concrete by utilizing mine tailings%利用矿山尾矿制备加气混凝土技术现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗立群; 舒伟

    2014-01-01

    根据发展循环经济和矿山清洁生产的开发思路,简述了矿山尾矿的产出和利用现状。针对尾矿堆存侵占土地、破坏生态环境、导致空气污染、易发生安全事故等危害,介绍了尾矿再选和大宗消纳等综合利用的两大途径。叙述了尾矿制备加气混凝土的技术特征,指出尾矿加气混凝土制品具有尾矿利用量大、节能降耗显著、保温隔热、质轻抗震、加工容易等综合优良性能,阐述了加气混凝土制备机理及其制品的性能表征,重点总结了利用铁尾矿、铜尾矿、黄金尾矿和其它矿山尾矿制备加气混凝土的技术现状。结合加气混凝土的生产和工程应用实际,提出尾矿制备加气混凝土应重点注意矿山尾矿粒度对建材原料的适应性、活化石灰的质量与原料中钙质矿物的影响、注重科学试验和人才培训、加强尾矿建材制品的力学性能研究等实际问题。%According to development idea on circular economy and clean production to exploiting mineral resources ,the present output and harm of producing on mine tailings were briefly reviewed .Tailings stockpiling have terrible effects on the expropriation of land ,the destruction of the ecological environment , causing air pollution ,easy to produce the safety accidents ,etc .Therefore ,two approaches of comprehensive utilization on tailings ,i .e .,recycling of useful components and bulk of consumption were introduced .On the basis of descriptions on the technical features of tailings ,related properties of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) with large amount of tailings utilization ,significant in energy saving ,thermal insulation ,light weight ,easy processing ,aseismatic performance were indicated respectively ,The technical status of utilizing iron tailings ,copper tailings ,gold tailings and other mine tailings to produce autoclaved aerated concrete was summarized intensively after the preparation mechanism

  9. Escherichia coli K-12 survives anaerobic exposure at pH 2 without RpoS, Gad, or hydrogenases, but shows sensitivity to autoclaved broth products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Riggins

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli and other enteric bacteria survive exposure to extreme acid (pH 2 or lower in gastric fluid. Aerated cultures survive via regulons expressing glutamate decarboxylase (Gad, activated by RpoS, cyclopropane fatty acid synthase (Cfa and others. But extreme-acid survival is rarely tested under low oxygen, a condition found in the stomach and the intestinal tract. We observed survival of E. coli K-12 W3110 at pH 1.2-pH 2.0, conducting all manipulations (overnight culture at pH 5.5, extreme-acid exposure, dilution and plating in a glove box excluding oxygen (10% H2, 5% CO2, balance N2. With dissolved O2 concentrations maintained below 6 µM, survival at pH 2 required Cfa but did not require GadC, RpoS, or hydrogenases. Extreme-acid survival in broth (containing tryptone and yeast extract was diminished in media that had been autoclaved compared to media that had been filtered. The effect of autoclaved media on extreme-acid survival was most pronounced when oxygen was excluded. Exposure to H2O2 during extreme-acid treatment increased the death rate slightly for W3110 and to a greater extent for the rpoS deletion strain. Survival at pH 2 was increased in strains lacking the anaerobic regulator fnr. During anaerobic growth at pH 5.5, strains deleted for fnr showed enhanced transcription of acid-survival genes gadB, cfa, and hdeA, as well as catalase (katE. We show that E. coli cultured under oxygen exclusion (<6 µM O2 requires mechanisms different from those of aerated cultures. Extreme acid survival is more sensitive to autoclave products under oxygen exclusion.

  10. Research on use of high calcium desulfurization ash in autoclaved brick%利用高钙固硫灰生产蒸压砖的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈滨; 刘恒波; 万军

    2012-01-01

      The paper researches on the process of high calcium desulfurization ash autoclaved brick, and puts forward the ways to use the high calcium, high sulfur and low silicon of fly ash from the circulating fluidized bed boiler.%  对高钙固硫灰生产蒸压砖的生产工艺进行了研究,提出了重点解决循环流化床锅炉粉煤灰的高钙、高硫、低硅难题的有效途径

  11. 基于CATIA的半实物仿真用液压釜的设计与研究%Design and research of autoclave based on CATIA for hardware-in-the-loop simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈江; 赵文纯; 鞠海洪

    2012-01-01

    For the design and research of an autoclave for hardware-in-loop simulation, a design method for autoclave based on the CATIA virtual prototype technology was proposed. The 3D modeling was carried out by using CATIA. Then, the weakness of the autoclave was checked and optimized by using CATIA-Analysis in order to improve the safety and reliability of autoclave. Finally, an autoclave which can meet the design requirements was designed.%针对半实物仿真用液压釜进行了设计与研究.提出了基于CATIA虚拟样机技术的的液压釜设计方法,通过CATIA进行三维实体建模,并通过CATIA-Analysis对液压釜薄弱处进行枝核优化,用以提高液压釜使用运行的安全性和可靠性,最终设计出满足要求的液压釜.

  12. Chemical modification of L-glutamine to alpha-amino glutarimide on autoclaving facilitates Agrobacterium infection of host and non-host plants: A new use of a known compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Pralay

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accidental autoclaving of L-glutamine was found to facilitate the Agrobacterium infection of a non host plant like tea in an earlier study. In the present communication, we elucidate the structural changes in L-glutamine due to autoclaving and also confirm the role of heat transformed L-glutamine in Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation of host/non host plants. Results When autoclaved at 121°C and 15 psi for 20 or 40 min, L-glutamine was structurally modified into 5-oxo proline and 3-amino glutarimide (α-amino glutarimide, respectively. Of the two autoclaved products, only α-amino glutarimide facilitated Agrobacterium infection of a number of resistant to susceptible plants. However, the compound did not have any vir gene inducing property. Conclusions We report a one pot autoclave process for the synthesis of 5-oxo proline and α-amino glutarimide from L-glutamine. Xenobiotic detoxifying property of α-amino glutarimide is also proposed.

  13. On autoclaved aerated concrete block wall and plaster layer anti-crack%浅谈蒸压加气混凝土砌块墙体及粉刷层防裂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林恩凯

    2009-01-01

    According to the comparison on characteristics of the autoclaved aerated concrete block and traditional red brick, the author analyzes causes of wall crack quality common diseases, and provides corresponding control measures, so as to solve the crack problem of the autoclaved aerated concrete block wall and the plaster layer, thus promoting application of the autoclaved aerated concrete block.%通过比较蒸压加气混凝土砌块与传统红砖的特性,分析其墙体裂缝质量通病的原因,并提出相应的控制措施,以解决蒸压加气混凝土砌块墙体及粉刷层的开裂问题,从而推广蒸压加气混凝土砌块的应用.

  14. Clinical Application of Paper-plastic Package's Extension of Autoclave Pack%纸塑包装延长高压灭菌包的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉成华

    2011-01-01

    目的:纸塑包装延长高压灭菌包的临床应用.方法:双层棉包布常规包装高压灭菌按要求存放7d,霉季5d,而纸塑包装可保存6个月.结果:纸塑包装大大延长无菌包的无菌时间.包装安全经济,可靠,并可预防院内感染.%Goal: clinical application of paper-plastic package’s extension of autoclave pack.Method: things regularly packed with double cotton and autoclaving can be stored for 7d, or 5d in mildew season; but thing packed with paper can be stored for 6 months.Result: paper pack greatly expands the asepsis time of sterility pack.The pack is safe and reliable, and can prevent infection in hospital.

  15. Research on basic mechanical properties of autoclaved fly ash brick%蒸压粉煤灰砖基本力学性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘双龙; 闫欢欢

    2011-01-01

    按照《砌墙砖试验方法》(GB/T2542-2003)对蒸压粉煤灰砖进行砖的含水率、抗压强度、抗折强度试验。确定蒸压粉煤灰砖的基本力学指标,为编制辽宁省地方标准《蒸压粉煤灰砖建筑技术规范》提供试验依据。结果表明,蒸压粉煤灰砖含水率为2.96%,抗压强度为11.46MPa,抗折强度为1.68MPa,在实际工程上可替代普通烧结砖使用。%According to the GB/T 2542-2003 of masonry brick test method,the moisture content,compressive strength,transverse strength of the autoclaved fly ash brick are test.The results show that the autoclaved fly ash brick moisture content is 2.96 %,the compressive strength is 11.46 MPa,and the transverse strength is 1.68 MPa,so it can used as a substitute for the common fired brick in project.The mechanics index can provide a basis for the Liaoning standards of fly ash brick construction technical specifications.

  16. A pilot-scale steam autoclave system for treating municipal solid waste for recovery of renewable organic content: Operational results and energy usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtman, Kevin M; Bozzi, David V; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Offeman, Richard D; Orts, William J

    2016-05-01

    A pilot-scale (1800 kg per batch capacity) autoclave used in this study reduces municipal solid waste to a debris contaminated pulp product that is efficiently separated into its renewable organic content and non-renewable organic content fractions using a rotary trommel screen. The renewable organic content can be recovered at nearly 90% efficiency and the trommel rejects are also much easier to sort for recovery. This study provides the evaluation of autoclave operation, including mass and energy balances for the purpose of integration into organic diversion systems. Several methods of cooking municipal solid waste were explored from indirect oil heating only, a combination of oil and direct steam during the same cooking cycle, and steam only. Gross energy requirements averaged 1290 kJ kg(-1) material in vessel, including the weight of free water and steam added during heating. On average, steam recovery can recoup 43% of the water added and 30% of the energy, supplying on average 40% of steam requirements for the next cook. Steam recycle from one vessel to the next can reduce gross energy requirements to an average of 790 kJ kg(-1). © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Microwave or autoclave treatments destroy the infectivity of infectious bronchitis virus and avian pneumovirus but allow detection by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhafi, G; Naylor, C J; Savage, C E; Jones, R C

    2004-06-01

    A method is described for enabling safe transit of denatured virus samples for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification without the risk of unwanted viable viruses. Cotton swabs dipped in avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) or avian pneumovirus (APV) were allowed to dry. Newcastle disease virus and avian influenza viruses were used as controls. Autoclaving and microwave treatment for as little as 20 sec destroyed the infectivity of all four viruses. However, both IBV and APV could be detected by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR after autoclaving and as long as 5 min microwave treatment (Newcastle disease virus and avian influenza viruses were not tested). Double microwave treatment of IBV and APV with an interval of 2 to 7 days between was tested. After the second treatment, RT-PCR products were readily detected in all samples. Swabs from the tracheas and cloacas of chicks infected with IBV shown to contain infectious virus were microwaved. Swabs from both sources were positive by RT-PCR. Microwave treatment appears to be a satisfactory method of inactivating virus while preserving nucleic acid for PCR identification.

  18. Buckling Testing and Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Arc Segments of a Full-Scale Fairing Barrel: Comparison of In- and Out-of-Autoclave Facesheet Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan Jorge; Myers, David E.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Zalewski, Bart F.; Kellas, Sotiris; Dixon, Genevieve D.; Krivanek, Thomas M.; Gyekenyesi, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    Four honeycomb sandwich panels, representing 1/16th arc segments of a 10-m diameter barrel section of the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle, were manufactured and tested under the NASA Composites for Exploration and the NASA Constellation Ares V programs. Two configurations were chosen for the panels: 6-ply facesheets with 1.125 in. honeycomb core and 8-ply facesheets with 1.0 in. honeycomb core. Additionally, two separate carbon fiber/epoxy material systems were chosen for the facesheets: in-autoclave IM7/977-3 and out-of-autoclave T40-800b/5320-1. Smaller 3 ft. by 5 ft. panels were cut from the 1/16th barrel sections and tested under compressive loading. Furthermore, linear eigenvalue and geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses were performed to predict the compressive response of each 3 ft. by 5 ft. panel. To improve the robustness of the geometrically nonlinear finite element model, measured surface imperfections were included in the geometry of the model. Both the linear and nonlinear models yielded good qualitative and quantitative predictions. Additionally, it was correctly predicted that the panel would fail in buckling prior to failing in strength. Furthermore, several imperfection studies were performed to investigate the influence of geometric imperfections, fiber angle misalignments, and three-dimensional effects on the compressive response of the panel.

  19. STRUCTURAL SOLUTIONS AND SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE THERMAL PROTECTION ANALYSIS OF EXTERIOR WALLS OF BUILDINGS MADE OF AUTOCLAVED GAS-CONCRETE BLOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedov Anatolij Ivanovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Relevant structural solutions, physical and mechanical characteristics, coefficients of thermal conductivity for exterior masonry walls made of autoclaved gas-concrete blocks are provided in the article. If a single-layer wall is under consideration, an autoclaved gas-concrete block is capable of performing the two principal functions of a shell structure, including the function of thermal protection and the bearing function. The functions are performed simultaneously. Therefore, the application of the above masonry material means the design development and erection of exterior walls of residential buildings noteworthy for their thermal efficiency. In the event of frameless structures, the height of the residential building in question may be up to 5 stories, while the use of a monolithic or a ready-made frame makes it possible to build high-rise buildings, and the number of stories is not limited in this case. If the average block density is equal to 400…500 kilograms per cubic meter, the designed wall thickness is to be equal to 400 mm. Its thermal resistance may be lower than the one set in the event of the per-element design of the thermal protection (Rreq = 3.41 м2 C/Watt, in Ufa, although it will meet the requirements of the applicable regulations if per-unit power consumption rate is considered.

  20. Optimization Study on Processing Conditions of Corn Resistant Starch by Autoclaving and Acid Hydrolysis Treatment%压热酸解法制备玉米抗性淀粉的工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯铄涵; 阚建全

    2011-01-01

    The resistant starch was prepared with the High amylose corn starch by autoclaving-cooling cycles combined with acids hydrolysis treatment.The effects of concentration of starch solution,autoclaved temperature,autoclaved time and times of autoclaved-cooling cycles on the content of RS were studied in the autoclaved treatment.The type,concentration and treatment time of acids were also studied in the acid hydrolysis process.The results showed that the optimum conditions is: 30% starch solution was autoclaved at 125℃ for 45min,after repeated 2 times,0.15mol/L citric acid hydrolysised for 12h.The yield of resistant starch is up to 39.27%.%以高直链玉米淀粉为原料,研究压热-冷却循环结合酸解法制备抗性淀粉的最佳工艺条件。通过单因素实验和正交实验探讨了压热-冷却循环过程中淀粉溶液浓度、压热温度、压热时间、循环次数以及酸解处理过程中酸的种类、酸的浓度、酸解时间对抗性淀粉得率的影响。结果表明,在淀粉溶液浓度为30%、压热温度125℃、压热时间45min条件下,经过2次压热-冷却循环,然后0.15mol/L柠檬酸水解处理12h,在此条件下抗性淀粉得率可达39.27%。

  1. Systematic radial flows in the chromosphere, transition region, and corona of the quiet sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Donald M.; Rottman, Gary J.; Orrall, Frank Q.

    1991-05-01

    An observational study of the systematic radial flows representative of the quiet sun's chromosphere, transition region, and corona is presented. A sounding rocket experiment (July 27, 1987) obtained high-resolution EUV spectra along a solar diameter with spatial resolution of 20 x 20 arcsec. The center-to-limb behavior of four representative lines (Si II 1533 A, Fe II 1563 A, C IV 1548 A, Ne VIII 770 A formed at different heights in the solar atmosphere is discussed. Assuming that horizontal motions cancel statistically so that the line-of-sight velocity approaches zero at the limb, the net radial downflow is approximately 7.5 + or - 1.0 km/s for C IV, 2.7 + or - 1.5 km/s for Fe II 1563 A, and upper limits of 0 + or - 1.2 km/s and 0 + or - 4 km/s for Si II and Ne VIII, respectively. The absolute wavelengths of each emission line were determined by direct comparison with wavelengths of known platinum lines generated by an inflight calibration lamp. The assumption of line-of-sight velocity approaching zero at the limb is then tested by comparing the wavelengths with recently published laboratory rest wavelengths of the solar emission lines.

  2. Pilot scale test on autoclaved brick production by semi-dry desulfurization by-products%半干法脱硫灰生产蒸压砖中试试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘松涛; 陈传敏; 赵毅; 卢林; 王涛; 杨艳芬

    2011-01-01

    The semi-dry desulfurization by-products are difficult to be utilized. Pilot scale study on the production technology of autoclaved brick which was mixed with semi-dry desulfurization by-products, slag and quicklime. The results show that autoclaved brick mixed with 50% semi-dry desulfurization ash and 10% quicklime dosage can meet the mechanical properties of MU20 strength grade. The mineral, such as hydrated calcium silicate, hydrated calcium aluminate and hydration sulphoaluminate, formed in autoclaved process can strengthen the strength of autoclaved brick.%为了解决半干法脱硫灰难以利用的问题,用脱硫灰、炉渣和CaO进行了蒸压砖生产的中试试验研究.研究表明:生产强度等级为MU20的脱硫灰蒸压砖,脱硫灰的掺量可控制在50%左右,CaO的掺量控制在10%左右.蒸压过程中形成的水化硅酸钙、水化铝酸钙和水化硫铝酸钙等矿物有利于增强蒸压砖强度.

  3. Analysis on non-autoclave pipe pile concrete raw material and maintenance system%免压蒸管桩混凝土原材料及养护制度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋丽燕

    2016-01-01

    Combining with non-autoclave pipe pile concrete research status,starting from two aspects of raw material selection and maintenance system,the paper explores quality control measures of non-autoclave pipe pile concrete,analyzes the economy of non-autoclave pipe pile,and finally points out that:it not only reduces pipe pile producing energy consumption,but also improves pipe pile concrete durability through applying non-autoclave maintenance technology.%结合免压蒸管桩混凝土的研究现状,从原材料选用与养护制度两方面,探讨了免压蒸管桩混凝土的质量控制措施,并分析了免压蒸管桩的经济性,指出采用免压蒸养护生产工艺,既降低了管桩的生产能耗,又提高了管桩混凝土的耐久性。

  4. 环氧丙烷装置皂化电石渣处理方案%Feasibility scheme of epoxy propane saponification calcium carbide slag produce autoclaved fly ash brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林盛海; 吴学亮

    2012-01-01

    本文介绍了皂化废电石渣用于生产蒸压粉煤灰砖的可行性。%The feasibility scheme of epoxy propane saponification Calcium carbide slag produce autoclaved fly ash brick was introduced.

  5. Application of a new type of electric appliance control mechanical safety interlock protection device in autoclaves%新型蒸压釜电器控制机械安全联锁保护装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏旭明; 李建华

    2016-01-01

    Autoclaves are widely used in industrial production. As a quick opening type pressure vessel, the safety interlock device is not perfect, which affects the safe operation of the autoclave. According to practical use, com⁃bines autoclaved reactor operating conditions, this paper introduces a electrical control mechanical safety interlock protection device which improves the autoclave safety coefficient, and prolongs service life of the interlock protec⁃tion device.%蒸压釜在工业生产中得到了广泛的使用,作为快开门式压力容器,安全联锁装置不完善,会对蒸压釜的安全运行造成影响。根据现场实际使用情况,结合蒸压釜的工作条件,介绍了一种电器控制机械安全联锁装置,提高了蒸压釜安全运行系数,也延长了联锁保护装置的使用寿命。

  6. Pretreatment of banana agricultural waste for bio-ethanol production: individual and interactive effects of acid and alkali pretreatments with autoclaving, microwave heating and ultrasonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabhane, Jagdish; William, S P M Prince; Gadhe, Abhijit; Rath, Ritika; Vaidya, Atul Narayan; Wate, Satish

    2014-02-01

    Banana agricultural waste is one of the potential lignocellulosic substrates which are mostly un-utilized but sufficiently available in many parts of the world. In the present study, suitability of banana waste for biofuel production with respect to pretreatment and reducing sugar yield was assessed. The effectiveness of both acid and alkali pretreatments along with autoclaving, microwave heating and ultrasonication on different morphological parts of banana (BMPs) was studied. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and numerical point prediction tool of MINITAB RELEASE 14. Accordingly, the optimum cumulative conditions for maximum recovery of reducing sugar through acid pretreatment are: leaf (LF) as the substrate with 25 min of reaction time and 180°C of reaction temperature using microwave. Whereas, the optimum conditions for alkaline pretreatments are: pith (PH) as the substrate with 51 min of reaction time and 50°C of reaction temperature using ultrasonication (US).

  7. Cleavage of catalytic ally grown carbon nanofibers into hydrophilic segments by oxidation in a mixture of concentrated HNO3-H2SO4 in an autoclave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Li-hua; WANG Zhi-jiang; TANG Tian-di

    2012-01-01

    The catalytically grown carbon nanofibers were treated by a mixture of concentrated nitric aid and sulfuric aid in an autoclave at temperature 333,363 and 423 K.It was found that the samples treated at 363 K and 423 K were still well dispersed in water 15 hours later,indicating that carbon nanofibers can be made hydrophilicy.It was also found that the dispersion was destroyed when the pH value was lowered by adding acid.The results are significant when the carbon nanofibers are used as enhancing component in polymer composite material because several hundreds of nm are perfect size and the hydrophilicity controls the dispersion of CNFs in the polymer media.It is concluded that the amount of the oxygen-containing groups on the surface and the hydrophilicity of the carbon nanofibers can be controlled by the treatment temperature,and that the carbon nanofibers can be cleaved into uniform segments.

  8. Efetividade de um protocolo de reprocessamento na esterilização de canetas de alta-rotação em autoclave gravitacional

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarenga, Camila Fonseca; Reis, Cleomenes; Tipple,Anaclara Ferreira Veiga; Paiva,Enilza Maria Mendonça de; Sasamoto,Sandra Aragão de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    v.13,n.3,p.560--565,jul./set. 2011. Canetas odontológicas de alta-rotação são instrumentos de grande uso na prática clínica, com descontaminação polêmica, por apresentar complexo funcionamento. Estudo microbiológico, realizado no Serviço Odontológico da Universidade Federal de Goiás, teve como objetivo avaliar a efetividade do reprocessamento de canetas odontológicas de alta-rotação em autoclave gravitacional, seguindo um protocolo. Observados os aspectos éticos, os dados foram obtidos por...

  9. Pretreatment of poultry manure anaerobic-digested effluents by electrolysis, centrifugation and autoclaving process for Chlorella vulgaris growth and pollutants removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengzi; Wu, Yu; Li, Baoming; Dong, Renjie; Lu, Haifeng; Zhou, Hongde; Cao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Different pretreatments (electrolysis, centrifugation and autoclaving) coupled with Chlorella vulgaris biological system was used for the treatment of poultry manure anaerobic-digested effluents. The pretreated effluents were used as the growth medium for algal cultivation. The pollutant removal efficiencies of the combined treatments were determined. Electrochemical pretreatment can efficiently remove the ammonia (NH4+), total phosphorus (TP), total organic carbon (TOC), total carbon (TC), turbidity and bacteria in the digested effluents. About 100.0% NH4+, turbidity and bacteria, 97.6% TP, 81.5% TOC and 96.6% inorganic carbon were removed by 5-h electrochemical treatment. The maximal algal biomass accumulation (0.53 g L(-1)) was obtained from culture in the effluents pretreated with 2-h electrolysis. The pollutants removal amounts by the combination of electrolysis and biological treatment were much higher than the other combinations.

  10. RESEARCH ON THE STERILIZATION DELAY TIME OF AUTOCLAVE%压力蒸汽灭菌器灭菌延迟时间的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨祖顺; 赵世文; 段智泉; 罗山; 杨萍; 田云屏

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究压力蒸汽灭菌器的灭菌延迟时间问题,为科学设定灭菌参数提供依据.方法 用动态温度监测仪监测方法,观察不同包装及装载方式下灭菌器内动态温度变化,确定灭菌器达到设定温度所需的延迟时间.结果灭菌器不同位置、不同载量的灭菌延迟时间为0 min;在空载条件下,以标准测试包和生物垃圾袋全开口方式包装,其灭菌延迟时间为0 min;以玻璃瓶、塑料瓶、生物垃圾袋半开口及生物垃圾袋密闭方式包装,其灭菌延迟时间分别为14 min、35 min、5 min和24 min.在满载复合因素影响下,最长的灭菌延迟时间可达48 min,且若灭菌参数仅设定为121℃、30 min,不能达到灭菌效果.结论 在进行灭菌参数设定时,应考虑压力蒸汽灭菌器的灭菌延迟时间,根据灭菌物品包装及装载方式,调整灭菌参数,否则可能造成灭菌操作失败.%Objective To study the sterilization delay time of autoclave in order to provide a basis for setting its sterilization parameters scientifically. Methods The dynamic temperature recorder monitoring method was utilized in the laboratory to monitor the interior dynamic change of temperature under different packing and loading modes, and to determine the sterilization delay time of autoclave. Results The sterilization delay time of autoclave was 0 min under different position or different load. Under no load condition, there was hardly sterilization delay time when temperature sensing probe were packed with standard test kits and full opening plastic bag. However, the sterilization delay time were 14 min, 35 min, 5 min and 24 min when parked with glass bottle, plastic bottle, half opening plastic bag or sealing plastic bag respectively. The longest sterilization delay time was up to 48 min under complex loading mode. And there was no sterilization efficacy if the sterilization parameters was set as 121 ℃ , 30min only. Conclusion The sterilization delay

  11. Iron atoms redistribution in oxide films of Zr-Fe, Zr-Fe-Cu alloys during corrosion in autoclave at 350°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, V.; Bateev, A.

    2016-04-01

    The data on changes of iron atoms state in the oxide films of binary Zr-1.24 mas.%Fe and ternary Zr-1.39 mas.%Fe-0.60 mas.%Cu zirconium alloys are obtained. Alloys are subjected to corrosion tests under autoclave conditions at 350°C temperature in a steam-water environment under pressure p = 16.8 MPa. In initial specimens of the alloys the iron atoms are in the form of intermetallic compounds. In oxide films the decomposition of intermetallic compounds and formation of new compounds occurs with structural phase distortion. In the oxide films metallic the metallic iron particles α-Fe, iron oxide in the form of hematite α-Fe2O3, solid solutions of iron ions in ZrO2 are formed. The phase composition of the oxide films depends on the alloy composition and changes during the growth process of the oxide film.

  12. Effect of Autoclaved Schedule for Compressive Strength of Hematite Tailing Bricks%蒸压制度对赤铁矿尾矿蒸压砖强度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云良; 张一敏; 陈铁军

    2012-01-01

    Effect of autoclaved schedule for compressive strength of hematite tailing-lime-yellow sand system was studied. The suitable autoclaved schedule was that rise time, autoclave pressure, autoclave time, and decompression time were 2.1 h, 1. 2 MPa, 6 h and 3. 5 h, respectively, when the quality ratio of hematite tailings: lime: yellow sands was equal to 70:15:15 and forming pressure was 20 MPa. The mechanism of Effect of autoclaved schedule for compressive strength was discussed by XRD and DSC. The results show that in the hydration reaction process, hydrogarnet is firstly generated, and then CSH( 1) and high-strength tobermorite under the condition of 1. 2 MPa autoclaved pressure. With autoclave continuing, tobermorite is gradated into relative low-strength xonotlite.%研究了蒸压制度对赤铁矿尾矿-石灰-黄沙体系蒸压砖抗压强度的影响,确定了原料中尾矿、石灰、黄沙的质量比为70∶15∶15,成型压力为20 MPa的砖坯的适宜蒸压制度为∶升压时间2.1h,蒸汽压力1.2 MPa,恒压时间6h,降压时间3.5h.利用XRD 、DSC对蒸压砖抗压强度形成机理进行了探讨,结果表明,赤铁矿尾矿-石灰-黄沙体系在1.2MPa蒸汽压力下首先生成了水石榴石,而后生成CSH(Ⅰ)凝胶和高强度的托勃莫来石,随着蒸压时间的延长,托勃莫来石逐渐转化成强度相对较低的硬硅钙石.

  13. RC-加气混凝土砌块组合墙的抗震性能%Seismic performance of composite walls of RC-autoclaved aerated concrete blocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佩; 袁泉; 郭猛; 李鹏飞

    2012-01-01

    Three composite wall specimens of RC-autoclaved aerated concrete blocks were tested under cyclic lateral loading to investigate their seismic performance. The damage processes and failure characters of the composite wall specimens were presented. And the load-bearing capacity, hysteresis behavior, stiffness and ductility capacity of the composite wall specimens were investigated, which were compared with those of the ordinary wall of autoclaved aerated concrete blocks. Test results show that the presence of constructional columns and beams constrained the propagation of cracks in the autoclaved aerate concrete blocks. And then the brittle behavior of the autoclaved aerated concrete blocks is changed, and the mechanical performance of the autoclaved aerated concrete blocks is improved. Composite walls of RC-autoclaved aerated concrete blocks with reasonable forms possess good seismic performance, and research on the composite walls provides a basis for the application of walls of autoclaved aerated concrete blocks in multi-storey buildings.%为了解RC-加气混凝土砌块组合墙的抗震性能,进行3片不同构造形式的RC-加气混凝土砌块墙的水平低周反复荷载试验.介绍组合墙试件的破坏过程和破坏特点,重点研究3片试件的承载力、滞回曲线、刚度和延性性能,并与已有普通加气混凝土砌块墙试验数据进行对比分析.研究结果表明:构造柱和系梁限制砌块裂缝的产生和发展,改善砌块的脆性性质,提高砌块的力学性能;通过合理构造措施将钢筋混凝土与加气混凝土砌块结合在一起形成的组合承重墙,具有较好的抗震性能,为加气混凝土砌块墙在多层房屋结构中的应用提供基础.

  14. 煅烧磷石膏对蒸压硅酸盐制品水化过程的影响%Effect of calcined phosphogypsum on hydration process of autoclaved silicate products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆金驰; 李东南; 陈凯; 黄金林

    2012-01-01

    磷石膏经高温煅烧改性后与粉煤灰、砂粉、石灰及水泥熟料等制备蒸压硅酸盐制品,研究了不同温度煅烧的磷石膏对蒸压硅酸盐制品水化过程的影响,用蒸压制品中未反应的Ca(OH)2量及结合水量分析它们的反应速率,用XRD测定蒸压硅酸盐制品的水化产物,并结合SEM分析,结果表明,经煅烧的磷石膏对蒸压硅酸盐制品的水化有明显的促进作用,托勃莫来石与C-S-H (1)等水化产物的迅速生长而形成密实的水化产物结构是其增强蒸压硅酸盐制品的根本原因.%The effects of calcined phosphogypsum on the hydration process of the autoclaved silicate products were investigated in this paper. The influence of adding phosphogypsum calcined at different temperatures on the hydration rate of autoclaved silicate products was analyzed for un-reacted Ca(OH)2 content and combined water. The hydrates were determined with XRD and SEM. It was found that the hydration of autoclaved silicate products with added phosphogypsum calcined over 500℃ was greatly improved. The hydrates of the autoclaved silicate products with added phosphogypsum calcined over 500℃ had more un-reacted Ca(OH)2 content and combined water in the same curing time, and the research indicated that adding phosphogypsum calcined over 500℃ could also reinforce the compressive strength of autoclaved silicate products. It was pointed out that the aluminate phase present in the raw materials cannot hydrate to form more ettringite during autoclaved curing, and rapid formation of such hydrates as calcium silicate hydrate (1) and tobermorite with a more compact structure is the main reason for strengthening autoclaved silicate products.

  15. Buckling Testing and Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Arc Segments of a Full-Scale Fairing Barrel. Part 2; 6-Ply In-Autoclave Facesheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Meyers, David E.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Zalewski, Bart F.; Dixon, Genevieve D.

    2013-01-01

    Four honeycomb sandwich panel types, representing 1/16th arc segments of a 10-m diameter barrel section of the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), were manufactured and tested under the NASA Composites for Exploration program and the NASA Constellation Ares V program. Two configurations were chosen for the panels: 6-ply facesheets with 1.125 in. honeycomb core and 8-ply facesheets with 1.000 in. honeycomb core. Additionally, two separate carbon fiber/epoxy material systems were chosen for the facesheets: in-autoclave IM7/977-3 and out-of-autoclave T40-800b/5320-1. Smaller 3- by 5-ft panels were cut from the 1/16th barrel sections. These panels were tested under compressive loading at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Furthermore, linear eigenvalue and geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses were performed to predict the compressive response of each 3- by 5-ft panel. This manuscript summarizes the experimental and analytical modeling efforts pertaining to the panels composed of 6-ply, IM7/977-3 facesheets (referred to as Panels B-1 and B-2). To improve the robustness of the geometrically nonlinear finite element model, measured surface imperfections were included in the geometry of the model. Both the linear and nonlinear models yield good qualitative and quantitative predictions. Additionally, it was correctly predicted that the panel would fail in buckling prior to failing in strength. Furthermore, several imperfection studies were performed to investigate the influence of geometric imperfections, fiber angle misalignments, and three-dimensional (3-D) effects on the compressive response of the panel.

  16. 用于热压浸出工艺的高压釜装备研究及工程放大%Application of Autoclave in Pilot Plant Test in Pressure Leaching Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段东平; 周娥; 陈思明; 夏光祥

    2013-01-01

      热压浸出是湿法冶金领域发展至今非常有推广前景的高效工艺,高压釜是该工艺的核心装备与关键技术。系统回顾了中国科学院过程工程研究所多年来利用热压浸出工艺处理难冶金银精矿、高铁闪锌矿、氧化铜矿及红土矿等的研究历程,从实验室小试—扩试—示范工程直至工业生产的途径,分别采用了管式高压釜、空气搅拌高压釜、钛复合板高压釜以及100 m3生产型高压釜,实现了这些难处理矿产资源的高效清洁利用。%The pressure leaching is a very efficient hydrometallurgy process with autoclave being the key equipment and technology.This paper systematically reviewed gold and silver concentrate,high iron sphalerite, copper oxide ore and Laterite were treated by pressure leaching from laboratory test,expanded test to the industrial production of the demonstration project in IPE.Respectively,in a tubular autoclave,air stirred autoclave,titanium autoclave and industrial autoclave of 100 m3,these refractory mineral resources were extracted efficiently and cleanly.

  17. 响应面法优化压热法制备莲子抗性淀粉工艺的研究%Optimization of the Autoclaving Process for Preparation Lotus Seeds Resistant Starch by Response Surface Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪颖; 郑宝东; 张怡; 林雨菲; 李淑婷

    2012-01-01

    以莲子淀粉为原料,采用压热法制备莲子抗性淀粉,通过单因素试验,研究淀粉乳浓度、压热温度、压热时间和淀粉乳pH值4个因素对莲子抗性淀粉得率的影响.利用响应面法进行分析,得到莲子抗性淀粉制备的最佳工艺条件.结果表明,所得的方程达到显著水平,压热法制备莲子抗性淀粉的最佳工艺条件为:淀粉乳浓度30%,压热温度111℃,压热时间10 min,淀粉乳pH值为6~7.实际测得的莲子抗性淀粉得率为41.89%±1.23%,与理论预测值基本一致.%Lotus seed resistant starch was prepared by autoclaving. On the basis of single factor tests, the effect of starch concentration, autoclaving temperature, autoclaving time and pH value on the yield of lotus seeds resistant starch were studied. The conditions of preparing resistant starch were optimized with response surface methods. Results revealed that the model was significant, and the optimal conditions were as follows: starch concentration of 30%, autoclaving temperature of 111 °C, autoclaving time of 10 min, pH6~7. With these optimized conditions, the yield of lotus seeds resistant starch reached 41.89%±1.23%, the same as the prediction value in the model.

  18. Experimental study on shear property of autoclaved fly ash brick masonry in Xinjiang region%新疆地区蒸压粉煤灰实心砖砌体抗剪性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁康; 陈燕华; 常新军; 何志军

    2011-01-01

    Autoclaved fly ash brick is classified as one new wall material to replace fired brick, promoting the shear property of autoclaved fly ash brick masonry is very important for improving the earthquake resistance and crack resistance of masonry structure.Because of fluting the surface of brick,the shear property of ribbed autoclaved fly ash brick masonry would be improved. In the paper,the shear property of ribbed autoclaved fly ash brick masonry, common autoclaved fly ash brick masonry and fired brick have been comparative studied,and the earthquake resistance and crack resistance measures have been discussed under the premise of relative standard citations,in order to provide the theoretical basis for autoclaved fly ash brick's further promotion and application in Xinjiang which is located in seismic high-incidence area, while have climate characteristics of dry climate, high annual temperature difference,high diurnal temperature difference.%蒸压粉煤灰砖属于可以替代烧结普通砖的新型墙体材料,提高蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体的抗剪性能是改善此类砌体结构抗震、抗裂能力的关键.带肋蒸压粉煤灰砖通过改善砖的外形,在砖的表面开槽形成肋状,可提高砖砌体的抗剪能力.本文对带肋蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体、普通蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体和烧结普通砖砌体的抗剪性能进行了比较研究,并结合相关规范条文探讨了带肋蒸压粉煤灰砖的有关抗震、抗裂措施,为蒸压粉煤灰砖在地处地震高发区同时具备气候干燥,年温差、日温差大的新疆地区推广应用提供理论依据.

  19. Some factors affecting the compressive strength of nickel slag autoclaved product%影响镍渣蒸压制品抗压强度的因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余涛; 曹德光; 刘文威; 李浩璇; 陆石强

    2013-01-01

    试验利用镍渣、水泥熟料、熟石灰、电石渣等原料制备镍渣蒸压制品,探索了成型压力、增强剂加入量、加水量和蒸养制度等因素对镍渣蒸压制品抗压强度的影响规律.结果表明,本试验合适的成型压力为15~20 MPa,增强剂的最佳加入量为0.5%,合理的加水量为8.57%~10.00%,最佳的蒸压养护温度为180℃或190℃,对应的蒸压养护时间为8h或9h.此外,使用电石渣代替熟石灰利用相同工艺条件制备蒸压制品的抗压强度无明显差异.%Prepared from autoclaved product of nickel slag,cement clinker,slaked lime,carbide slag,the experiment studied some factors that affecting the compressive strength of nickel slag autoclaved product,such as molding pressure,content of enhancer,content of water added,steam curing system and so on.The results show that the suitable molding pressure is 15~20 MPa;the optimum enhancer content is 0.5%;the reasonable amount of water added is 8.57%~10.00%;the best autoclaving temperature is 180 ℃ or 190 ℃;autoclaving time is eight or nine hours.In addition,under the same process conditions,autoclaved product was successfully prepared if using carbide slag instead of slaked lime,and the compressive strength of autoclaved product had no significant difference.

  20. An Investigation of Stimulating the Autoclave Curing Process of Resin Matrix/Fiber Reinforced Composite Material,Ⅰ: Process model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical model is made which describes the curing process of composites constructed from continuous fiber-reinforced, thermosetting resin matrix prepreg materials, and the consolidation of the composite is developed. The model provides the variation of temperature distribution, the cure reaction process in the resin, the resin flow and fibers stress inside the composite, and the void variation and the residual stress distribution. It can be used to illustrate the mechanism of curing process and optimize the cure cycle of composite material in order to ensure the quality of a product.

  1. 变电站蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体围墙裂缝分析与防治%Analysis and Prevention of Substation of Autoclaved Fly Ash Brick Masonry Wall Cracks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵国华

    2014-01-01

    本文结合变电站工程实际,分析了变电站工程蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体清水围墙裂缝产生的原因,从蒸压粉煤灰砖的生产、构造设计及砌筑施工等几个方面提出了防治措施。%Combining with the actual substation engineering, Analyzed the causes of transformer substation project of autoclaved fly ash brick masonry wall cracks in water, Puts forward the prevention measures from the aspects of production, structure design and masonry construction of autoclaved fly ash brick.

  2. Research on autoclaved reaction activities of Si/Al -based industrial residues%硅铝质工业废弃物蒸压反应活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆金驰

    2011-01-01

    Mass fractions of active SiO2 and A12O3 ,and infrared spectrum (IR) were used to analyze the autoclaved reaction activities of Si/Al - based industrial residues, such as fly ash and coal dust slag etc. Results showed that autoclaved reaction activities of Si/Al - based industrial residues had an evident relationship with the mass fractions of active SiO2 and A12O3 ,and Si - O stretching vibration frequency about 1 100 cm-1 in strong absorption region of IR,that is the more mass fractions of active SiO2 and Al2 O3, and the lower Si-O stretching vibration frequency about 1 100 cm -1 in strong absorption region of IR, the stronger autoclaved reaction activities and the higher compressive strength of autoclaved products.%通过测定活性二氧化硅、氧化铝含量及红外光谱分析等方法研究粉煤灰、煤粉炉渣等硅铝质工业废弃物的蒸压反应活性.结果表明,硅铝质工业废弃物的蒸压反应活性与其活性二氧化硅、氧化铝含量及红外光谱1 100 cm-1附近强吸收区的Si-O伸缩振动频率存在明显的对应关系,即活性二氧化硅、氧化铝含量越高,红外光谱1 100 cm-1附近强吸收区的Si-O伸缩振动频率越低,蒸压反应活性越强,蒸压制晶强度越高.

  3. 环境温度对蒸压粉煤灰砖混合料消化的影响%Effect of environmental temperature on slaking of autoclaved fly ash brick mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建营

    2012-01-01

      The paper analyzes the effect of environmental temperature on slaking of autoclaved fly ash brick mixture, and the relationship between mixture and environmental temperature.%  分析了蒸压粉煤灰砖影响混合料消化的因素,分析了混合料与环境温度的关系,并对某企业存在的问题给出了解决办法。

  4. KOMPOSISI KIMIA DAN KRISTALINITAS TEPUNG PISANG TERMODIFIKASI SECARA FERMENTASI SPONTAN DAN SIKLUS PEMANASAN BERTEKANAN-PENDINGINAN (Chemical Composition and Crystallinity of Modified Banana Flour by Spontaneous Fermentation and Autoclaving-Cooling Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati Nurhayati

    2014-07-01

    (39,13 – 42,68% bk dibandingkan dengan yang satu siklus (29,34 – 35,93% bk. Proses pemanasan bertekananpendinginan menurunkan kristalinitas tepung pisang dari 18,74-20,08% menjadi 6,98-9,52%. Difraksi sinar X menunjukkan granula pati pisang adalah granula tipe C yang merupakan campuran dari granula tipe A dan tipe B. Kata kunci: Tepung pisang termodifikasi, fermentasi spontan, autoclaving-cooling cycles

  5. Production technology of low silicon iron copper tailings autoclaved brick%低硅铜铁尾矿生产蒸压砖的技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓景明; 唐怀志

    2013-01-01

      以低硅铜铁尾矿为主要原料,掺入适量矿渣、铜渣、硅铝酸盐、硫酸盐、碳酸盐组成的固化剂经过加压成型后,在183℃温度的蒸压养护下制成标准砖,该砖平均抗压强度达到13.6 MPa,抗冻性能指标合格,固体废弃物利用率达到90%以上.%The paper introduces a kind of autoclaved brick, which is made of low silicon copper iron tailings as a main raw material, and appropriate mixture of amount of slag, copper slag, aluminosilicate, sulfates, carbonates as curing agent. The mixture is pressed into brick and cured at 183 ℃, which can reach 13.6 MPa of average compressive strength and qualified frost resistance index.

  6. Manufacturing and Shear Response Characterization of Carbon Nanofiber Modified CFRP Using the Out-of-Autoclave-Vacuum-Bag-Only Cure Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E. McDonald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interlaminar shear response is studied for carbon nanofiber (CNF modified out-of-autoclave-vacuum-bag-only (OOA-VBO carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP. Commercial OOA-VBO prepregs were coated with a CNF modified epoxy solution and a control epoxy solution without CNF to make CNF modified samples and control samples, respectively. Tensile testingwas used to study the in-plane shear performance of [±45°]4s composite laminates. Significant difference in failure modes between the control and CNF modified CFRPs was identified. The control samples experienced half-plane interlaminar delamination, whereas the CNF modified samples experienced a localized failure in the intralaminar region. Digital image correlation (DIC surface strain results of the control sample showed no further surface strain increase along the delaminated section when the sample was further elongated prior to sample failure. On the other hand, the DIC results of the CNF modified sample showed that the surface strain increased relatively and uniformly across the CFRP as the sample was further elongated until sample failure. The failure mode evidence along with microscope pictures indicated that the CNF modification acted as a beneficial reinforcement inhibiting interlaminar delamination.

  7. Manufacturing and shear response characterization of carbon nanofiber modified CFRP using the out-of-autoclave-vacuum-bag-only cure process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Erin E; Wallace, Landon F; Hickman, Gregory J S; Hsiao, Kuang-Ting

    2014-01-01

    The interlaminar shear response is studied for carbon nanofiber (CNF) modified out-of-autoclave-vacuum-bag-only (OOA-VBO) carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). Commercial OOA-VBO prepregs were coated with a CNF modified epoxy solution and a control epoxy solution without CNF to make CNF modified samples and control samples, respectively. Tensile testing was used to study the in-plane shear performance of [± 45°]4s composite laminates. Significant difference in failure modes between the control and CNF modified CFRPs was identified. The control samples experienced half-plane interlaminar delamination, whereas the CNF modified samples experienced a localized failure in the intralaminar region. Digital image correlation (DIC) surface strain results of the control sample showed no further surface strain increase along the delaminated section when the sample was further elongated prior to sample failure. On the other hand, the DIC results of the CNF modified sample showed that the surface strain increased relatively and uniformly across the CFRP as the sample was further elongated until sample failure. The failure mode evidence along with microscope pictures indicated that the CNF modification acted as a beneficial reinforcement inhibiting interlaminar delamination.

  8. Energy filtering transmission electron microscopy immunocytochemistry and antigen retrieval of surface layer proteins from Tannerella forsythensis using microwave or autoclave heating with citraconic anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriguchi, K; Mitamura, Y; Iwami, J; Hasegawa, Y; Higuchi, N; Murakami, Y; Maeda, H; Yoshimura, F; Nakamura, H; Ohno, N

    2012-11-01

    Tannerella forsythensis (Bacteroides forsythus), an anaerobic Gram-negative species of bacteria that plays a role in the progression of periodontal disease, has a unique bacterial protein profile. It is characterized by two unique protein bands with molecular weights of more than 200 kDa. It also is known to have a typical surface layer (S-layer) consisting of regularly arrayed subunits outside the outer membrane. We examined the relationship between high molecular weight proteins and the S-layer using electron microscopic immunolabeling with chemical fixation and an antigen retrieval procedure consisting of heating in a microwave oven or autoclave with citraconic anhydride. Immunogold particles were localized clearly at the outermost cell surface. We also used energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) to visualize 3, 3'-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride (DAB) reaction products after microwave antigen retrieval with 1% citraconic anhydride. The three-window method for electron spectroscopic images (ESI) of nitrogen by the EFTEM reflected the presence of moieties demonstrated by the DAB reaction with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated secondary antibodies instead of immunogold particles. The mapping patterns of net nitrogen were restricted to the outermost cell surface.

  9. Comparison of autoclave, microwave, IR and UV-C stabilization of whole wheat flour branny fractions upon the nutritional properties of whole wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Mustafa Kürşat; Elgün, Adem

    2014-01-01

    In this study, whole wheat bread (WWB) prepared by whole wheat flour (WWF) which its branny fraction (35 ± 1% w/w whole flour) previously was stabilized with different processes. Branny fractions obtained by milling of two different Bezostaja-1 wheat samples (medium and high strong) at 65 ± 1% wheat flour extraction ratio. These fractions were stabilized using autoclave (AU), microwave (MW), infrared (IR) and ultraviolet-C (UV-C) methods. Then, WWF obtained by remixing of stabilized branny fraction (35 ± 1% w/w) and wheat flour (65 ± 1% w/w) of same wheat samples. Following this process, WWB was made from WWF. WWB were analyzed to determine their nutritional properties as crude protein, in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), phytic acid content, total and HCl-extractable mineral concentrations, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity and total dietary fiber (TDF). While IVPD, TPC and antioxidant activity of WWB increased together with all stabilization methods, a significant (P < 0.05) loss was observed on phytic acid content of the WWB. Especially, UV-C and IR treatments had positive effects on TPC and antioxidant activity. AU and MW stabilization methods increased total mineral and HCl-extractable minerals of WWB. As a result of this study, all stabilization processes had an improving effect on nutritional characteristic of WWB.

  10. Effective enzymatic in situ saccharification of bamboo shoot shell pretreated by dilute alkalic salts sodium hypochlorite/sodium sulfide pretreatment under the autoclave system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Gang-Gang; He, Yu-Cai; Liu, Qiu-Xiang; Kou, Xiao-Qin; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Di, Jun-Hua; Ma, Cui-Luan

    2017-10-01

    In this study, dilute alkali salts (0.6% NaClO, 0.067% Na2S) pretreatment at 10% sulfidity under the autoclave system at 120°C for 40min was used for pretreating bamboo shoot shell (BSS). Furthermore, FT-IR, XRD and SEM were employed to characterize the changes in the cellulose structural characteristics (porosity, morphology, and crystallinity) of the pretreated BSS solid residue. After 72h, the reducing sugars and glucose from the enzymatic in situ hydrolysis of 50g/L pretreated BSS in dilute NaClO/Na2S media could be obtained at 31.11 and 20.32g/L, respectively. Finally, the obtained BSS-hydrolysates containing alkalic salt NaClO/Na2S resulted in slightly negative effects on the ethanol production. Glucose in BSS-hydrolysates was fermented from 20.0 to 0.17g/L within 48h, and an ethanol yield of 0.41g/g glucose, which represents 80.1% of the theoretical yield, was obtained. This study provided an effective strategy for potential utilization of BSS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Buckling Testing and Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Arc Segments of a Full-Scale Fairing Barrel. Part 3; 8-ply Out-of-Autoclave Facesheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Myers, David E.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2014-01-01

    Four honeycomb sandwich panels, representing 1/16th arc segments of a 10 m diameter barrel section of the heavy lift launch vehicle, were manufactured under the NASA Composites for Exploration program and the NASA Constellation Ares V program. Two configurations were chosen for the panels: 6-ply facesheets with 1.125 in. honeycomb core and 8-ply facesheets with 1.000 in. honeycomb core. Additionally, two separate carbon fiber/epoxy material systems were chosen for the facesheets: inautoclave IM7/977-3 and out-of-autoclave T40-800B/5320-1. Smaller 3- by 5-ft panels were cut from the 1/16th barrel sections. These panels were tested under compressive loading at the NASA Langley Research Center. Furthermore, linear eigenvalue and geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses were performed to predict the compressive response of the 3- by 5-ft panels. This manuscript summarizes the experimental and analytical modeling efforts pertaining to the panel composed of 8-ply, T40-800B/5320-1 facesheets (referred to as Panel C). To improve the robustness of the geometrically nonlinear finite element model, measured surface imperfections were included in the geometry of the model. Both the linear and nonlinear, two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D), models yield good qualitative and quantitative predictions. Additionally, it was predicted correctly that the panel would fail in buckling prior to failing in strength.

  12. Study on preparation of autoclaved brick by Yellow River silt and fly ash added waste papermaking liquor%利用造纸黑液和粉煤灰-泥砂制备蒸压砖的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新爱; 关润伶

    2014-01-01

    以粉煤灰、黄河泥砂为主要原料,炉渣为骨料,石灰、石膏为激发剂,用造纸黑液代替水做拌和液制备黄河泥砂-粉煤灰蒸压砖。结果表明,造纸黑液代水制备蒸压砖是可行的,制备的蒸压砖可以达到JC 239-2001《粉煤灰砖》规定的MU25级的质量要求。%Autoclaved brick is prepared by fly ash and Yellow River silt as main materials, waste papermaking liquor as mixing liquid. The results show that it is feasible to make autoclaved brick by waste papermaking liquor as mixing liquid. The autoclaved brick meets the demand of MU25 grade in JC 239-2001 (fly ash bricks) standard.

  13. Fast estimating concrete strength method applying microwave autoclave curing technology%应用微波蒸压技术的混凝土强度快速测定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋德稳; 田安国; 胡杰; 赵政

    2015-01-01

    为了快速测定混凝土强度,将微波技术应用到传统的蒸压养护工艺中,自行设计和制作了小型微波蒸压釜。通过试验得出了釜腔内温度压力大小、恒温恒压养护时间对混凝土早期强度的影响规律,进而总结出微波蒸压养护条件下混凝土快速养护制度。通过15批次(5种配合比)不同强度等级混凝土的微波蒸压养护和标准养护对比试验,建立了微波蒸压养护条件下的混凝土强度线性和非线性回归模型,模型中考虑了加速养护混凝土强度和混凝土水灰比,具有较好的相关关系。试验分析发现:运用微波技术,可以均匀、迅速地提高混凝土内部温度,减小温度应力,使混凝土1 h内获得较高(28 d强度40%~50%)、稳定的早期强度,可以作为预拌混凝土生产企业和施工现场进行强度控制和配合比调整时的依据。%In order to estimate concrete strength quickly,microwave was applied to the conditional autoclave curing. Small microwave autoclave suitable for the microwave autoclaved were self designed and made. By experiment research,the effect laws of temperature in autoclave and constant temperature curing time on the early strength of concrete were investigated,and rapid curing system was summa-rized on the condition of microwave and autoclave. By the contrast test of microwave autoclave curing and standard curing of 15 batches of different strength grade concrete,the linear and nonlinear regression model of concrete strength determination were established with better correlativity on the condition of microwave and autoclave. Concrete strength accelerated of curing and water-cement-ratio was considered in the model. It was found that the internal temperature of concrete would be uniformly,rapidly improved by microwave,and the temperature stress would be reduced.The high and stable early strength of concrete(40~50 percent of 28 d strength)was obtained

  14. INFLUENCE OF WATER-TO-CEMENT RATIO ON AIR ENTRAILMENT IN PRODUCTION OF NON-AUTOCLAVED FOAM CONCRETE USING TURBULENCE CAVITATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorshkov Pavel Vladimirovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-autoclaved foam concrete is an advanced thermal insulation material. Until recently, foam concrete production has been based on separate preparation of foam and solution, followed by their blending in a mixer. The situation changed when high-quality synthetic foaming agents and turbulence cavitation technology appeared on the market. Every model provides a dependence between the foam concrete strength and the water-to-cement ratio. According to the water-cement ratio we can distinguish strong concrete mixtures (with the water-to-cement ratio equal to 0.3…0.4 and ductile ones (with the water-to-cement ratio equal to 0.5…0.7. Strong concrete mixtures are more durable. The lower the water-to-cement ratio, the higher the foam concrete strength. However super-plastic substances cannot be mixed by ordinary turbulent mixers. Foam concrete produced using the turbulence cavitation technology needs air-entraining, its intensity being dependent on several factors. One of the main factors is the amount of free water, if it is insufficient, the mixture will not be porous enough. A researcher needs to identify the optimal water-to-cement ratio based on the water consumption rate. Practical production of prefabricated concrete products and structures has proven that the reduction of the water-to-cement ratio improves the strength of the product. The task is to find the water-to-cement ratio for the foam concrete mixture to be plastic enough for air entraining. An increase in the ratio causes loss in the strength. The ratio shall vary within one hundredth points. Super-plasticizers are an alternative solution.

  15. Testing the Chemical/Structural Stability of Proton Conducting Perovskite Ceramic Membranes by in Situ/ex Situ Autoclave Raman Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slodczyk, Aneta; Zaafrani, Oumaya; Sharp, Matthew D; Kilner, John A; Dabrowski, Bogdan; Lacroix, Olivier; Colomban, Philippe

    2013-10-25

    Ceramics, which exhibit high proton conductivity at moderate temperatures, are studied as electrolyte membranes or electrode components of fuel cells, electrolysers or CO2 converters. In severe operating conditions (high gas pressure/high temperature), the chemical activity towards potentially reactive atmospheres (water, CO2, etc.) is enhanced. This can lead to mechanical, chemical, and structural instability of the membranes and premature efficiency loss. Since the lifetime duration of a device determines its economical interest, stability/aging tests are essential. Consequently, we have developed autoclaves equipped with a sapphire window, allowing in situ Raman study in the 25-620 °C temperature region under 1-50 bar of water vapor/gas pressure, both with and without the application of an electric field. Taking examples of four widely investigated perovskites (BaZr0.9Yb0.1O3-δ, SrZr0.9Yb0.1O3-δ, BaZr0.25In0.75O3-δ, BaCe0.5Zr0.3Y0.16Zn0.04O3-δ), we demonstrate the high potential of our unique set-up to discriminate between good/stable and instable electrolytes as well as the ability to detect and monitor in situ: (i) the sample surface reaction with surrounding atmospheres and the formation of crystalline or amorphous secondary phases (carbonates, hydroxides, hydrates, etc.); and (ii) the structural modifications as a function of operating conditions. The results of these studies allow us to compare quantitatively the chemical stability versus water (corrosion rate from ~150 µm/day to less than 0.25 µm/day under 200-500 °C/15-80 bar PH2O) and to go further in comprehension of the aging mechanism of the membrane.

  16. Autoclave treatment of pig manure does not reduce the risk of transmission and transfer of tetracycline resistance genes in soil: successive determinations with soil column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yijun; Gu, Xian; Hao, Yangyang; Hu, Jian

    2016-03-01

    The increasing use of antibiotics, especially tetracycline, in livestock feed adversely affects animal health and ecological integrity. Therefore, approaches to decrease this risk are urgently needed. High temperatures facilitate antibiotic degradation; whether this reduces transmission risk and transfer of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRBs) and tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) in soil remains unknown. Successive experiments with soil columns evaluated the effects of autoclaving pig manure (APM) on soil TRB populations and TRGs over time at different soil depths. The data showed sharp increases in TRB populations and TRGs in each subsoil layer of PM (non-APM) and APM treatments within 30 days, indicating that TRBs and TRGs transferred rapidly. The level of TRBs in the upper soil layers was approximately 15-fold higher than in subsoils. TRBs were not dependent on PM and APM levels, especially in the late phase. Nevertheless, higher levels of APM led to rapid expansion of TRBs as compared to PM. Moreover, temporal changes in TRB frequencies in total culturable bacteria (TCBs) were similar to TRBs, indicating that the impact of PM or APM on TRBs was more obvious than for TCBs. TRBs were hypothesized to depend on the numbers of TRGs and indigenous recipient bacteria. In the plough layer, five TRGs (tetB, tetG, tetM, tetW, and tetB/P) existed in each treatment within 150 days. Selective pressure of TC may not be a necessary condition for the transfer and persistence of TRGs in soil. High temperatures might reduce TRBs in PM, which had minimal impact on the transmission and transfer of TRGs in soil. Identifying alternatives to decrease TRG transmission remains a major challenge.

  17. Autoclave mediated one-pot-one-minute synthesis of AgNPs and Au-Ag nanocomposite from Melia azedarach bark extract with antimicrobial activity against food pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Alok; Lee, Joong Hee; Yun, Soon-Ii

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of nanoparticles and nanocomposite in pharmaceutical and processed food industry have increased the demand for nontoxic and inert metallic nanostructures. Chemical and physical method of synthesis of nanostructures is most popular in industrial production, despite the fact that these methods are labor intensive and/or generate toxic effluents. There has been an increasing demand for rapid, ecofriendly and relatively cheaper synthesis of nanostructures. Here, we propose a strategy, for one-minute green synthesis of AgNPs and a one-pot one-minute green synthesis of Au-Ag nanocomposite, using Melia azedarach bark aqueous extract as reducing agent. The hydrothermal mechanism of the autoclave technology has been successfully used in this study to accelerate the nucleation and growth of nano-crystals. The study also presents high antimicrobial potential of the synthesized nano solutions against common food and water born pathogens. The multistep characterization and analysis of the synthesized nanomaterial samples, using UV-visible spectroscopy, ICP-MS, FT-IR, EDX, XRD, HR-TEM and FE-SEM, also reveal the reaction dynamics of AgNO3, AuCl3 and plant extract in synthesis of the nanoparticles and nanocomposite. The antimicrobial effectiveness of the synthesized Au-Ag nanocomposite, with high gold to silver ratio, reduces the dependency on the AgNPs, which is considered to be environmentally more toxic than the gold counterpart. We hope that this new strategy will change the present course of green synthesis. The rapidity of synthesis will also help in industrial scale green production of nanostructures using Melia azedarach.

  18. Nodulação e micorrização em Anadenanthera peregrina var. falcata em solo de cerrado autoclavado e não autoclavado Nodulation and mycorrhizal infection in Anadenanthera peregrina Var. falcata on autoclaved and non-autoclaved cerrado soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gross

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Anadenanthera peregrina var. falcata (angico-do-cerrado, uma leguminosa arbórea, forma associações simbióticas com bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio (rizóbios e com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares. Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência da inoculação de fungos micorrízicos e rizóbios no crescimento inicial de plantas de angico-do-cerrado, crescidas em solo autoclavado e em solo não autoclavado com e sem inoculação, foi desenvolvido um experimento em casa de vegetação, utilizando raízes micorrizadas de milho e uma mistura de isolados de rizóbios como inoculantes. O crescimento das plantas foi influenciado positivamente pela concomitante inoculação do fungo micorrízico e do rizóbio, tendo as plantas desse tratamento apresentado biomassa cerca de 60 % maior do que o controle no décimo mês. A inoculação de apenas um dos microssimbiontes, entretanto, não provocou diferença na produção de biomassa das plantas. A percentagem de colonização micorrízica foi significativamente mais alta e o número de nódulos maior nas raízes das plantas crescidas no solo não autoclavado, ocasionados pela população de fungos e rizóbios nativos. Nesse tratamento, houve pequeno acúmulo de matéria no xilopódio, provavelmente em virtude do dreno fotossintético por parte dos microssimbiontes, e a concentração de P na parte aérea e xilopódio dessas plantas foi cerca de 1,2 e 8 vezes maior, respectivamente, por causa da colonização micorrízica.The leguminous tree Anadenanthera peregrina var. falcata (angico-do-cerrado forms symbiotic associations with nitrogen fixing bacteria (rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the influence of rhizobial and arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on the initial growth of angico-do-cerrado plants, in autoclaved and non-autoclaved soil with and without inoculations. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse using mycorrhized roots of maize and

  19. Avaliação dos comportamentos mecânico e térmico de laminados de PPS/fibra de carbono processados em autoclave sob diferentes ciclos de consolidação Evaluation of thermal and mechanical behaviors of PPS/carbon fiber laminates processed in autoclave under different consolidation cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana S Marques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Usualmente, um dos processos mais utilizados para fabricação de componentes em termoplásticos estruturais é a moldagem por compressão a quente, porém restringindo-se na obtenção de peças de pequeno e médio porte. Tal restrição deve-se à limitação do tamanho das prensas utilizadas, principalmente pelo custo envolvido. Procurando ampliar a aplicação de compósitos termoplásticos, possibilitando a fabricação de peças maiores e com maior potencial de integração, pelo uso de infra-estrutura já disponível em processadores de compósitos, este trabalho aborda o processamento de laminados de poli(sulfeto de fenileno (PPS reforçado com fibra de carbono em autoclave, pelo uso de quatro diferentes ciclos de consolidação. Os laminados obtidos foram caracterizados por inspeção por ultrassom, análises de DSC para a determinação da cristalinidade e avaliação das propriedades mecânicas em flexão, compressão e cisalhamento interlaminar. Os resultados mostram que laminados obtidos com taxas de resfriamento mais lentas apresentam menor resistência e módulo em compressão, uma vez que o maior grau de cristalinidade (~30% promove maior fragilização da matriz polimérica.One of the most used processes to obtain structural thermoplastic parts is the hot compression molding, which is limited to small and medium size parts because of the size of the press used, mainly related to its cost. This has hampered a wide use of thermoplastic composites in structural applications. In order to extend the application of thermoplastic composites, but still using available infrastructure in composite manufacturers, in this work we investigate the processing of carbon fiber reinforced polyphenylene sulfide (PPS in an autoclave, using four consolidation cycles. The processed laminates were characterized by ultrasound inspection, DSC analyses for the crystallinity determination and mechanical tests to evaluate the compression, flexure and

  20. Efeitos da autoclavação na velocidade e capacidade absorvente de cones de papel empregados em Endodontia Autoclaving effect on the absorption velocity and capability of paper points used in endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Hideki KUBO

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A presença de umidade no interior do sistema de canais radiculares, após o preparo biomecânico e sua desinfecção, pode influenciar no selamento apical e no êxito da obturação endodôntica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do número de esterilizações em autoclave, sobre a capacidade e velocidade de absorção dos cones de papel empregados em Endodontia. Foram analisados 440 cones de papel número 40, dos quais dez cones de cada marca comercial receberam de zero à dez ciclos de esterilização em autoclave (134°C/15 psi/15 minutos. Após cada ciclo de esterilização, os cones foram avaliados quanto a capacidade e velocidade de absorção de solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1%. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística por meio dos testes da ANOVA (dois critérios e Tukey (5%. Pôde-se concluir que, quanto à capacidade de absorção, os cones que sofreram menor influência dos diversos ciclos de esterilização em autoclave foram, em ordem decrescente: Tanari, Tanari "cell pack", Conne e Diadent "cell pack". Quanto à velocidade de absorção, os cones que obtiveram os melhores resultados foram: Tanari "cell pack", Tanari, Conne e Diadent "cell pack". A autoclavação mostrou-se um procedimento viável, em até 10 ciclos, apenas para a esterilização de cones de papel absorvente da marca Tanari utilizados em Endodontia.The presence of humidity inside the root canal system after instrumentation and removal of the septic content can influence the apex sealing, and consequently, the success of the endodontic treatment. The goal of this paper was to evaluate the influence of the number of autoclave sterilization cycles on the absorbing capability and speed of absorption of paper points used in endodontic procedures. Four hundred and forty paper points number 40 were analyzed and the trade marks used were: Tanari, Tanari "cell pack" , Diadent "cell pack" and Conne. Ten points of each manufacturer received

  1. 蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体轴心受压性能试验研究%AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE AXIAL COMPRESSIVE PROPERTIES OF AUTOCLAVED FLY ASH BRICK MASONRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵斐; 何晓雁; 乔建新

    2011-01-01

    36 autoclaved fly ash brick masonries are built for axial compressive tests.An experiment is carried out with the strength of both masonry and mortar serving as the basic parameters and the dial indicator used for measuring the deformation of masonries.Based on the experiment, the development features of cracks and the deformation patterns of masonries under compressure are analyzed.In light of the results of axial compressive tests of all the 36 masonries, a calculative formula of the compressive strength of autoclaved fly ash brick is established, which will supply experimental data for compiling regional technical codes.And, thus, the application of autoclaved fly ash brick will be extended.%试验以块体和砂浆强度为基本参数,砌筑36个蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体试件进行轴心受压试验,并配合百分表量测砌体变形.通过蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体轴心受压试验,分析了砌体受压时裂缝的发展特点和变形规律,根据36个试件的抗压试验结果,建立了蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体抗压强度的计算公式,为相关规范的编制提供试验数据,以利于蒸压粉煤灰砖的推广应用.

  2. Research on use of high calcium desulfurization ash in autoclaved brick CHEN Bin LIU Heng-bo WAN Jun%利用高钙固硫灰生产蒸压砖的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈滨; 刘恒波; 万军

    2012-01-01

      The paper researches on the process of high calcium desulfurization ash autoclaved brick, and puts forward the ways to use the high calcium, high sulfur and low silicon of fly ash from the circulating fluidized bed boiler.%  对高钙固硫灰生产蒸压砖的生产工艺进行了研究,提出了重点解决循环流化床锅炉粉煤灰的高钙、高硫、低硅难题的有效途径。

  3. Synthesis of Thieno[2,3-d]-1,3-dithiol-2-thiones from Thieno[2,3-d]-1,2,3-thiadiazoles: Matryoshka-type autoclave for high-temperature, high-pressure thermolysis microscale reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ving J. Lee

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Thieno[2,3-d]-1,2,3-thiadiazoles (1 react with carbon disulfide in a "Matryoshkatype" double compartment autoclave [1] to yield thieno[2,3-d]-1,3-dithiol-2-thiones (2. With BH3/Me2S the cyclic trithiocarbonate (2d is cleaved and the product characterized after methylation as 4b. Compounds 7a and 7b are prepared via the thieno[2,3-d]-1,3-dithiolium salts (6 followed by NaBH4-reduction.

  4. The Construction Technique of Autoclaved Lightweight Concrete (NALC)Masonry Free Plastering%轻质蒸压加气混凝土(NALC)砌块免抹灰式施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国芳

    2011-01-01

    介绍了轻质蒸压加气混凝土(NALC)砌块的适用范围,论述了NALC砌块免抹灰施工的工艺流程及操作特点,质量标准及保证措施.%It introduces the applicable scope, and the process principle ot Autoclaved Lightweight Concrete( N ALC)Masonry.It tells the process and the operating characteristics of NALC Masonry Free Plastering, and the assurance measures.

  5. Autoclaved Sand-lime Bricks from Silica Tailings Powder and Stone Chips%用硅石尾矿粉和石屑制备蒸压灰砂砖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉敏

    2013-01-01

    The influences of ingredients, molding pressures and autoclave temperatures on properties of autoclaved sand-lime bricks from silica tailings powder and stone chips were studied, and some samples were analyzed by XRD and SEM. The results show that high strength autoclaved sand-lime bricks can be prepared under appropriate conditions by silica tailings powder, stone chips and lime as the main components. When the mass ratio of lime powder to the silica tailings powder is less than 0.45, with the lime powder content increasing, the compressive strength of the samples gradually increases;but when the ratio further increases, the strength of the samples reduces. To improve the content of silica tailings powder and lime, molding pressure and the autoclave temperature can increase the strength of the sand-lime bricks. The stone chips are basically not involved in the hydrothermal reaction.%  研究了配合料组成、成型压力和蒸压温度对硅石尾矿粉(硅尾粉)-石屑蒸压灰砂砖抗压强度的影响,并用X射线衍射(XRD)和扫描电镜(SEM)对部分试样进行了分析。结果表明,以硅尾粉、石屑和石灰为主要组分,在适当条件下可制备强度较高的蒸压灰砂砖。当石灰粉与硅尾粉质量比小于0.45时,随着石灰粉掺量的增加,试样抗压强度逐渐提高;当质量比进一步增加时,试样强度降低。提高硅尾粉和石灰混合物含量、成型压力和蒸压温度,可提高灰砂砖强度。石屑基本上不参与水热反应。

  6. Effect of Steam-Autoclaved Curing on Chloride Permeability of High Strength Concrete%二次高温养护对高强混凝土抗 Cl-渗透性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东升; 朱建舟; 谭克锋

    2014-01-01

    利用氯离子快速渗透法(RCM)研究了普通蒸汽养护后(80℃,0.1 MPa)再进行压蒸(180℃,1 MPa)养护,即二次高温养护,对不同胶凝材料体系的高强混凝土抗Cl-渗透性的影响。结果表明:对于纯水泥混凝土,与标养相比,“蒸养-压蒸”养护使混凝土抗Cl -渗透性能劣化。掺入粉煤灰、矿粉以及硅灰以等比例取代水泥时,“蒸养-压蒸”都较为充分地激发了上述混合材的火山灰活性,但不同掺合料对“蒸养-压蒸”后高强混凝土抗Cl-渗透性能影响差别较大。 XRD和SEM研究表明上述结果的产生与高温下水化产物的种类和分布有关。%Rapid choloride migration test (RCMT) was used to investigate the influence of curing methods and mineral admixtures on chloride ingress resistance of high strength concrete .The results indicate that steam cu-ring and autoclaving curing , especially autoclaving curing , considerably aggravated the chloride penetration through pure cement concrete when compared with normal curing .Incorporating silica fume can improve the chloride ingress resistance of steam curing concrete but degrades autoclaving curing concrete .Adding fly ash with low pozzolanic activity can increase chloride ingress resistance of autoclaving curing concrete , while chlo-ride penetration resistance of steam curing concrete becomes lower .The measure of multi-elements mineral admixtures mixing is propitious to improving the chloride ingress resistance of concrete compared with pure ce-ment concrete under same curing conditions .Results above was analyzed by XRD and SEM .

  7. PET final polycondensation autoclave reaction mechanism and process optimization%聚酯装置终聚釜反应机理及工艺优化探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹克贺; 孙荣召

    2013-01-01

    通过对终聚反应机理及工艺优化的探讨,以提高聚酯装置生成熔体的质量。具体方法是根据生产负荷的变化,控制入口液位在适当范围内,并通过调整搅拌转速,使釜内物料达到最佳成膜效果,以保证物料在正常真空度条件下以最低的反应温度、最短的停留时间完成终聚反应,同时最大限度地减少副反应。通过以上措施,有效降低了聚酯熔体的端羧基含量及 b 值。因此终聚反应工艺优化的核心是控制终聚釜入口液位,稳定真空度及真空蝶阀开度。%Based on the discussion of final polycondensation reaction mechanism and process optimization,in order to improve the quality of polyester device generates melt.The specific method is according to the change of production load,control the entrance level within an appropriate range,and by adjusting the stirring speed,the reac-tor materials to achieve the best film effect,to ensure that the material finish final polymerization in the normal vacu-um conditions with the shortest residence time and the lowest reaction temperature,while minimizing side reaction. Through the above measures,effectively reducing the carboxyl end group content and b value of polyester melt. Therefore,the core of final polycondensation optimization of reaction process is to control the final polycondensation autoclave entrance level,stable vacuum and vacuum valve opening.

  8. Control moderno de una autoclave

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Aquest projecte tracta del disseny elèctric, pneumàtic i del control d'una màquina destinada a l'ús de la indústria farmacèutica. Per a poder realitzar el disseny de les parts anteriorment esmentades es crea un plec d'especificacions que explica les necessitats funcionals de la màquina així com la descripció dels cicles de treball de la mateixa. En primer lloc, es proveïx a la màquina d'un armari elèctric amb els controladors necessaris. En segon lloc es realitza el disseny de la ...

  9. High temperature autoclave vacuum seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, J. R.; Simpson, W. G.; Walker, H. M.

    1971-01-01

    Aluminum sheet forms effective sealing film at temperatures up to 728 K. Soft aluminum wire rings provide positive seal between foil and platen. For applications at temperatures above aluminum's service temperature, stainless steel is used as film material and copper wire as sealant.

  10. Flow visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Merzkirch, Wolfgang

    1974-01-01

    Flow Visualization describes the most widely used methods for visualizing flows. Flow visualization evaluates certain properties of a flow field directly accessible to visual perception. Organized into five chapters, this book first presents the methods that create a visible flow pattern that could be investigated by visual inspection, such as simple dye and density-sensitive visualization methods. It then deals with the application of electron beams and streaming birefringence. Optical methods for compressible flows, hydraulic analogy, and high-speed photography are discussed in other cha

  11. 依托住宅产业化开发蒸压砂加气混凝土成套体系技术%Exploitation of Complete Sets of Sand Autoclaved Aerated Concrete System Technology Relying on the Housing Industrialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超华

    2015-01-01

    Relying on the advantage of group industrialization to develop research and development and application of sand autoclaved aerated concrete materials for the maintenance system of the green, environmental protection,energy saving technology,formed sets of system technology of the sand autoclaved aerated insulation,exterior insulation,partition panel,steel structure within the envelope insulation panels etc.,then summarized the construction method of complete system.%依托集团产业化优势,大力开展以蒸压砂加气混凝土材料为建筑围护体系的绿色、环保、节能技术研发与应用,形成了蒸压砂加气自保温、外墙外保温、內隔墙板、钢结构外围护保温墙板等多项成套体系技术,进而总结提炼出成套体系施工工法。

  12. Discussion on the value of thermal conductivity and heat storage coefficient of autoclaved aerated concrete%论蒸压加气混凝土导热系数和蓄热系数的取值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆繁

    2016-01-01

    介绍了蒸压加气混凝土的导热系数和蓄热系数、干态导热系数、导热系数和蓄热系数理论计算值和设计计算值的目的意义,并就蒸压加气混凝土用作围护结构时,为确保建筑节能设计准确,且符合工程应用实际,如何正确选取导热系数和蓄热系数应如何取值,进行了讨论。%This paper describes the thermal conductivity, heat storage coefficient and dry thermal conductivity of autoclaved aerated concrete, and the purpose and significance of theoretical calculated value and designed calculat⁃ed value of thermal conductivity and heat storage coefficient, and discusses how to value the thermal conductivity and the heat storage coefficient properly when autoclaved aerated concrete is used as encasing structure.

  13. Effect of heat damage in an autoclave on the reactive lysine contents of soy products and corn distillers dried grains with solubles. Use of the results to check on lysine damage in common qualities of these ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Johannes; Zimmer, Ulrike; Moughan, Paul J; Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2007-12-26

    The suitability of the homoarginine reaction for determining the reactive lysine in soy products and corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) was tested. For this purpose, some batches were subjected to deliberate heat damage for up to 30 min in an autoclave with 135 degrees C hot steam, and the samples were analyzed for total lysine and reactive lysine. In addition, 84 samples of common soy and 80 samples of corn DDGS were tested for their content of total and reactive lysine, and the contents were compared with those of the autoclave tests. For soy products conclusive results were obtained. In the case of heat treatment, both total lysine and reactive lysine decrease, but the latter is clearly a more sensitive indicator of lysine damage. Most normal products are quite similar, with toasting-induced damage to reactive lysine of ca. 15% compared to untoasted beans. The cause of the constantly occurring residual lysine after guanidination and the poorer reaction balance in the case of damage were explained. For common DDGS samples, however, less favorable results were obtained. Reactive and total lysine decreased almost in parallel due to heat damage, showing a great gap between them. Results showed indeed that variation of total and reactive lysine in DDGS is high, proving that its production conditions are not yet optimal for a feed ingredient.

  14. Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    an aerodynamic design. A few examples of this type of flow control are winglets , fins, or dimples on a golf ball. The other type of flow control is...represented the density states of the flow field. The first parameter was the composition of the regression vector, Θ j. This regression vector was...Development Using Proper Orthogonal De- composition and Volterra Theory. In AIAA 2003-1922, 2003. A. Mani, M. Wang, and P. Moin. Resolution requirements

  15. Rotating flow

    CERN Document Server

    Childs, Peter R N

    2010-01-01

    Rotating flow is critically important across a wide range of scientific, engineering and product applications, providing design and modeling capability for diverse products such as jet engines, pumps and vacuum cleaners, as well as geophysical flows. Developed over the course of 20 years' research into rotating fluids and associated heat transfer at the University of Sussex Thermo-Fluid Mechanics Research Centre (TFMRC), Rotating Flow is an indispensable reference and resource for all those working within the gas turbine and rotating machinery industries. Traditional fluid and flow dynamics

  16. Network Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    Researchers have suggested other solution strategies, using ideas from nonlinear progamming for solving this general separable convex cost flow problems. Some...plane methods and branch and bound procedures of integer programming, primal-dual methods of linear and nonlinear programming, and polyhedral methods...Combinatorial Optimization: Networks and Matroids), Bazaraa and Jarvis [1978] (Linear Programming and Network Flows), Minieka [1978] (Optimization Algorithms for

  17. Vortical flows

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jie-Zhi; Zhou, Ming-De

    2015-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive and intensive book for graduate students in fluid dynamics as well as scientists, engineers and applied mathematicians. Offering a systematic introduction to the physical theory of vortical flows at graduate level, it considers the theory of vortical flows as a branch of fluid dynamics focusing on shearing process in fluid motion, measured by vorticity. It studies vortical flows according to their natural evolution stages,from being generated to dissipated. As preparation, the first three chapters of the book provide background knowledge for entering vortical flows. The rest of the book deals with vortices and vortical flows, following their natural evolution stages. Of various vortices the primary form is layer-like vortices or shear layers, and secondary but stronger form is axial vortices mainly formed by the rolling up of shear layers.  Problems are given at the end of each chapter and Appendix, some for helping understanding the basic theories, and some involving specific ap...

  18. Efeitos da utilização de ração autoclavada para ratos em crescimento: digestibilidade e desempenho - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1668 Effect of autoclaving diets use for growing rats: digestibility and performance - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1668

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdeci Aparecido Mota

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos experimentos para avaliar o fornecimento de ração autoclavada ou não para ratos em crescimento. Para analisar o desempenho, ratos nascidos de fêmeas recebendo ração autoclavada ou não durante a gestação, foram distribuídos em um delineamento experimental casualizado com dois tratamentos e unidade experimental de um animal. A ração fornecida para ratas em gestação não influenciou o peso dos ratos ao nascer nem ao desmame. Nos ensaios de digestibilidade e desempenho utilizaram-se ratos oriundos de fêmeas que receberam ração autoclavada ou não na gestação distribuídos em um esquema fatorial 2x2 (ração normal ou autoclavada até a desmama versus ração normal ou autoclavada após a desmama. Evidenciou-se redução no aproveitamento digestivo da energia bruta da ração autoclavada fornecida após a desmama e piora na conversão alimentar no período até 42 dias. O teste de solubilidade da proteína em KOH é um bom indicador da redução da qualidade nutricional da raçãoExperiments were carried out to evaluate the use of autoclaving diets for growing rats. To evaluate the performance, rats born from females receiving or not autoclaving diets during the gestation were distributed in a randomized experimental design, with two treatments and a one-animal experimental unit. The diet used for female rats in gestation did not influence the weight of the rats either at birth or during the weaning period. As for digestibility and performance assays, rats from both kinds of females (with and without autoclaving diets during gestation were distributed in a 2x2 factorial outline (normal or autoclaving diets until weaning versus normal or autoclaving diets after weaning. There was a reduction in the digestive use of the autoclaving diet gross energy after weaning and a worsening in the alimentary conversion in the period up to 42 days. The protein solubility in KOH test is a good indicative of the diet's nutritional

  19. The effect of two different multiple autoclave cycles on surface of topography of rotary nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti)files by atomic force microscopy.%两种压力蒸汽灭菌器多次高压灭菌对镍钛锉表面形貌影响的AFM研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡坤娥; 李昀生; 谭荣; 胡冬梅; 李静茹

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect on the surface of nickel-titanium files after two type of multiple autoclave cycles.Method: Six Ni-Ti files were observed by atomic force microscopy, the same files were used as control before any cycles.The six files were observed after 10 rapid autoclaving steriliazation cycles and 10 prevacume autoclaving sterilization cycles respectively, 20 different points were measured as root mean square.The data were tested by spss test.Result:All topographic parameters were higer compared with the control in the group of prevacuum autoclave sterilization (P<0.05),while the rapid sterilization group, there is no much difference between them.Conclusion: In order to reduce the autoclaving influence on the Ni-Ti files, it should be reasonable to use the rapid autoclaving sterilization cycles on the condition of reliable sterilization.%目的:评价两种高压灭菌法对镍钛根管锉表面形貌的影响.方法:选择6支同一批次手动Protaper镍钛根管锉,分为两组,分别用两种灭菌方法经10次灭菌程序后在原子力显微镜(AFM)下观察,从距尖端6 mm范围内的20个不同的点,评价样本的粗糙度均方根,将此6支锉未经消毒时设为对照组.结果:所有参数均显示经预真空压力蒸汽灭菌器消毒组镍钛锉粗糙度大于对照组,而快速压力蒸汽灭菌器消毒组与对照组相比粗糙度相差不明显.结论:在保证灭菌效果的前提下,从延长器械使用寿命考虑,快速高压蒸汽灭菌是镍钛锉理想的灭菌方式.

  20. Autoclaved condition system optimization for the circulating fluidized bed fly ash concrete block%蒸压流化床粉煤灰混凝土砌块养护优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐正坦; 翁仁贵

    2012-01-01

    With X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and X-ray diffraction, the chemical compositions of circulating fluidized bed fly ash are analyzed. We work out the prescription for producing the circulating fluidized bed fly ash concrete block, and study the influences of the autoclaved conditions for the compressive strength of concrete block with the orthogonal design method. The results show that the key factors of the caring system are as following in order: heating time, constant temperature time, temperature decreasing time and constant pressure. The best autoclaved conditions are heating time 3 hours, constant temperature time 6 hours, constant pressure 1 MPa, temperature decreasing time 1.5 hours.%利用X射线荧光光谱仪、XRD等检测手段对循环流化床粉煤灰进行化学成分定性和定量分析。通过选用确定组分的基础蒸压循环流化床粉煤灰混凝土砌块配方,并用正交设计实验方法安排和组织试验,研究了养护制度对蒸压循环流化床粉煤灰混凝土砌块抗压强度等性能的影响。实验结果表明,在蒸压养护制度中,影响循环流化床粉煤灰混凝土试块抗压强度的主要因素为升温时间,因素的主次顺序为:升温时间〉恒温时间〉降温时间〉恒温压力。其最佳的蒸压养护制度:升温时间3h,恒温时间6h,恒温压力1MPa,降温时间1.5h。

  1. Well-defined crystallites autoclaved from the nitrate/NH{sub 4}OH reaction system as the precursor for (Y,Eu){sub 2}O{sub 3} red phosphor: Crystallization mechanism, phase and morphology control, and luminescent property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Qi [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China); Advanced Materials Processing Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Li Jiguang, E-mail: LI.Jiguang@nims.go.jp [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China); Advanced Materials Processing Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Ma, Renzhi; Sasaki, Takayoshi [World Premier International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Yang, Xiaojing [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li Xiaodong; Sun Xudong [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China); Sakka, Yoshio [Advanced Materials Processing Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Autoclaving the rare-earth nitrate/NH{sub 4}OH reaction system under the mild conditions of 120-200 Degree-Sign C and pH 6-13 have yielded four types of well-crystallized compounds with their distinctive crystal shapes, including Ln{sub 2}(OH){sub 5}NO{sub 3}{center_dot}nH{sub 2}O (Ln=Y and Eu) layered rare-earth hydroxide (hexagonal platelets), Ln{sub 4}O(OH){sub 9}NO{sub 3} oxy-hydroxyl nitrate (hexagonal prisms and microwires), Ln(OH){sub 2.94}(NO{sub 3}){sub 0.06}{center_dot}nH{sub 2}O hydroxyl nitrate (square nanoplates), and Ln(OH){sub 3} hydroxide (spindle-shaped microrods). The occurrence domains of the compounds are defined. Ammonium nitrate (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) as a mineralizer effectively widens the formation domains of the NO{sub 3}{sup -} containing compounds while leads to larger crystals at the same time (up to 0.3 mm). Crystallization mechanisms of the compounds and the effects of NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} were discussed. Optical properties (PLE/PL) of the four phases were characterized in detail and were interpreted from the different site symmetries of Eu{sup 3+}. The compounds convert to cubic-structured (Y{sub 0.95}Eu{sub 0.05}){sub 2}O{sub 3} by annealing at 600 Degree-Sign C while retaining their original crystal morphologies. The resultant phosphor oxides of diverse particle shapes exhibit differing optical properties, in terms of luminescent intensity, asymmetry factor of luminescence and fluorescence lifetime, and the underlying mechanism was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Well-defined crystallites of the various phases have been autoclaved from the nitrate/NH{sub 4}OH reaction system. Crystallization mechanisms of the compounds and the effects of NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} were discussed. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Well-defined crystallites of four phases have been hydrothermally synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The occurrence domains of the compounds are defined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystallization mechanisms and the

  2. Lubrication Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, Tasos C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses fluid mechanics for undergraduates including the differential Navier-Stokes equations, dimensional analysis and simplified dimensionless numbers, control volume principles, the Reynolds lubrication equation for confined and free surface flows, capillary pressure, and simplified perturbation techniques. Provides a vertical dip coating…

  3. Hydrothermal interaction of solid wafers of Topopah Spring Tuff with J-13 water and distilled water at 90, 150, and 250{sup 0}C, using Dickson-type, gold-bag rocking autoclaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauss, K.G.; Beiriger, W.J.; Peifer, D.W.; Piwinskii, A.J.

    1985-09-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project has conducted experiments to study the hydrothermal interaction of rock and water representative of a potential high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The results of these experiments help define the near-field repository environment during and shortly after the thermal period that results from the emplacement of nuclear waste. When considered in conjunction with results contained in companion reports, these results can be used to assess our ability to accelerate tests using the surface area/volume parameter and/or temperature. These rock-water interaction experiments were conducted with solid polished wafers cut from both drillcore and outcrop samples of Topopah tuff, using both a natural ground water and distilled water as the reacting fluid. Pre- and post-test characterization of the reacting materials was extensive. Post-test identification and chemical analysis of secondary phases resulting from the hydrothermal interactions were aided by using monoliths of tuff rather than crushed material. All experiments were run in Dickson-type, gold-bag rocking autoclaves that were periodically sampled at in situ conditions. A total of nine short-term (up to 66-day) experiments were run in this series; these experiments covered the range from 90 to 250{sup 0}C and from 50 to 100 bar. The results obtained from the experiments have been used to evaluate the modeled results produced by calculations using the geochemical reaction process code EQ3/6. 31 refs., 37 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. 蒸压膨胀珍珠岩保温板的研制及性能分析%Research on the preparation and properties of autoclaved insulation board made by expanded perlite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宪圆; 林克辉; 谢红波; 杨军

    2012-01-01

    Expanded perlite insulation board was successfully prepared by autoclave curing method,which two kinds of expanded perlite with different packing densities were used as light-weight aggregate respectively,and Portland cement or self-made binder was used as cementing material. Hydrophobic treatment was also applied. The results indicate that the compressive and flexural strengths of insulation board made in this way are much higher than the requirement in national standard GB/T 10303-2001 "Expanded Perlite Thermal Insulation"; volume water absorption of EP insulation board is reduced significantly when the emulsion of silicone hydrophobic agent is used.%采用2种堆积密度不同的膨胀珍珠岩作轻骨料,以水泥和自制胶结料作为胶凝材料,通过蒸压养护方式制备成保温板,并进行了憎水处理.结果表明,采用该工艺制备的保温板其抗压及抗折强度优于GB/T10303-2001《膨胀珍珠岩绝热制品》标准要求;有机硅憎水剂乳液可显著降低保温板的体积吸水率.

  5. Flow Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    Born, Constantin Caratheodory, Richard Couiant, Kurt Friedrichs, Werner Heisenberg, Gustav Herglotz, Erich von Hoist, Pascual Jordan, Walther Nernst...existence of these two flow regimes in boundary layers was discovered by PRANDTL when EIFFEL [8] published in 1912 his measurements on the drag of...simultaneously by G. EIFFEL in Paris and became so successful that other wind tunnels were modelled after it in many countries. Fig. 18 gives an impression of

  6. Media Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabel, Lars

    2016-01-01

    News and other kinds of journalistic stories, 16-17 hours a day, all year round, on all platforms, also the moderated social media. The key research thesis behind this article is that the continuous and speedy stream of news stories and media content now is becoming the centre of the production...... processes and the value creation in converged multimedia newsrooms. The article identify new methods and discuss editorial challenges in handling media flow....

  7. Experimental study on mechanical properties of non-autoclaved and non-sintered fly-ash Perforated brick masonry%免蒸压免烧结粉煤灰多孔砖砌体力学性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠献; 周晓洁; 夏多田; 许小波; 刘泽锋

    2012-01-01

    Non-autoclaved and non-sintered fly-ash perforated brick is a kind of new material for load-bearing walls. In order to promote the application of this new material in village and town buildings of seismic area, compression and shear strength of non-autoclaved and non-sintered fly-ash perforated brick masonry was tested and crack and failure progress was analyzed. The test results show that the failure processes and characteristics of the non-autoclaved and non-sintered fly-ash perforated brick masonry in compression and in shear are similar to that of the common brick masonry, however the non-autoclaved and non-sintered fly-ash perforated brick masonry tends to fail in brittle manner. The compression and shear strength are all less than that of the common brick masonry. A mathematic model of 6-degree polynomial was used to express the compressive constitutive relationship and the whole process of non-autoclaved and non-sintered fly-ash perforated brick masonry in compression was described. The curve was close to the measured data.%免蒸压免烧结粉煤灰多孔砖是一种新型承重墙体材料,为使其在地震区村镇建筑中得到推广应用,进行了多孔砖砌体抗压强度和抗剪强度试验,分析了砌体裂缝开展及破坏过程.试验结果表明:免蒸压免烧结粉煤灰多孔砖砌体的受压、受剪破坏过程及特征与普通黏土砖砌体类似,但具有更大的脆性;抗压、抗剪强度均小于普通黏土砖砌体;采用6次多项式的受压本构关系数学模型,反映了免蒸压免烧结粉煤灰多孔砖砌体受压应力-应变全过程,计算值与实测数据比较接近.

  8. Size separations of starch of different botanical origin studied by asymmetrical-flow field-flow fractionation and multiangle light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlund, Karl-Gustav; Leeman, Mats; Santacruz, Stalin

    2011-02-01

    Asymmetrical-flow field-flow fractionation combined with multiangle light scattering and refractive index detection has been revealed to be a powerful tool for starch characterization. It is based on size separation according to the hydrodynamic diameter of the starch components. Starch from a wide range of different botanical sources were studied, including normal starch and high-amylose and high-amylopectin starch. The starch was dissolved by heat treatment at elevated pressure in a laboratory autoclave. This gave clear solutions with no granular residues. Amylose retrogradation was prevented by using freshly dissolved samples. Programmed cross flow starting at 1.0 mL min(-1) and decreasing exponentially with a half-life of 4 min was utilised. The starches showed two size populations representing mainly amylose and mainly amylopectin with an overlapping region where amylose and amylopectin were possibly co-eluted. Most of the first population had molar masses below 10(6) g mol(-1), and most of the second size population had molar masses above 10(7) g mol(-1). Large differences were found in the relative amounts of the two populations, the molar mass, and hydrodynamic diameters, depending on the plant source and its varieties.

  9. Flow and Flow Decay of Refractory Castables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhiqiang; Bjom Myhre; Bjorn Sandberg

    2003-01-01

    Installation of refractoty castables depend not only on flow, but also on how soon the flow is lost because of setting. The loss of flow (flow decay) has always been one of the main problems of refractory castable manufacturers,a problem that has not been too well described in literature. The flow decay has been studied for a castable system based on alumina, pointing out some general trends. The flow decay was found very temperature sensitive, being strongly accelerated by termperature increases. To compensate for excessive flow loss, a retarder like citric acid may be used. Thus flow decay was measured as a function of citric acid (retarder) addition at 35 ℃ .

  10. 盾构渣土基免烧免蒸陶粒固化重金属离子研究%Study on the Solidified Heavy Metal Ion of Shield Residues-based Unburned and Non-autoclaved Ceramsite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卓; 张峰君; 谢发之; 解文杰; 丁益; 刘瑾; 刘伟

    2015-01-01

    随着城市轨道交通建设不断扩大,盾构渣土中的重金属离子浸出会造成水体污染.以盾构渣土为主要原材料,在室温下成功制得了不开裂且有一定强度的免蒸免烧陶粒.将该陶粒和纯土样进行重金属离子浸出实验,发现陶粒中5 种重金属(Zn、Cu、Pb、Hg、Cd)离子最大浸出量约为纯土样的50.0%.该方法制备的盾构渣土基陶粒较好的固化了重金属离子,可有效保障城市水质免受盾构渣土的污染.%With the continuous expansion of city rail transit construction, heavy metal ion leaching from shield residues will cause water pollution. No cracking and having certain strength of the unburned and non-autoclaved ceramsite was prepared successfully at room temperature using shield residues as the main raw material. Compared with the heavy metal ion leaching experiments of pure soil and the prepared ceramsite, the maximum leaching amount of five heavy metal ( Zn, Cu, Pb, Hg, Cd) ions for ceramsite decreased about 50.0% entirety than that of pure soil samples. This ceramsite based on shield residue had better solidified heavy metal ions and effectively guaranteed the water quality from the shield residue pollution in city.

  11. Experimental Research on Fiber Compaction of L-shaped Stiffeners in Stiffened Skins by Autoclave Process%热压罐成型加筋板L形筋条纤维密实影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪明; 谢富原; 李敏; 张佐光

    2011-01-01

    L-shaped stiffeners were fabricated by integral co-bonding technique in the autoclave. This study focused on investigating the influence of tool assembly, filler, curvature radius and bleeding process on the fiber compaction and manufacturing defects of L-shaped stiffeners, with analyzing the formation mechanism of these defects. The results indicated that non-uniform thickness, bridging and rich resin were the main defects of L-shaped stiffeners. The fiber compaction was improved significantly on the condition that the pressure in comer section was increased by applying flexible tools and rolling unidirectional prepregs as fillers into the stiffener core, and that the comer effect was remarkably caused a decrease by increasing curvature radius and applying pre-bleeding process. All these results are the vital importance for declaring the formation mechanism of defects and enhancing integral manufacturing quality of composite stiffened skins.%采用胶接共固化整体成型工艺制备了L形筋条,研究了模具配合、填充料、曲率半径、吸胶工艺等因素对L形筋条纤维密实和制造缺陷的影响规律,分析了缺陷形成机制.结果表明:厚度不均、架桥、富脂是L形筋条中存在的主要缺陷;采用软模辅助成型和加入适量填充料可改善筋条拐角区的压力分布,增大曲率半径和采用预吸胶工艺可降低拐角效应,从而可有效提高筋条纤维密实程度.

  12. Oxidative Dissolution of Nickel Metal in Hydrogenated Hydrothermal Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemniak, S. E.; Guilmette, P. A.; Turcotte, R. A.; Tunison, H. M.

    2007-03-27

    A platinum-lined, flowing autoclave facility is used to investigate the solubility behavior of metallic nickel in hydrogenated ammonia and sodium hydroxide solutions between 175 and 315 C. The solubility measurements were interpreted by means of an oxidative dissolution reaction followed by a sequence of Ni(II) ion hydrolysis reactions: Ni(s) + 2H+(aq) = Ni2+(aq) + H2(g) and Ni{sup 2+}(aq) + nH{sub 2}O = Ni(OH){sub n}{sup 2-n}(aq) + nH{sup +}(aq) where n = 1 and 2. Gibbs energies associated with these reaction equilibria were determined from a least-squares analysis of the data. The extracted thermochemical properties ({Delta}fG{sup 0}, {Delta}fH{sup 0} and S{sup 0}) for Ni2{sup +}(aq), Ni(OH){sup +}(aq) and Ni(OH){sub 2}(aq) were found to be consistent with those determined in a previous solubility study of NiO/Ni(OH){sub 2} conducted in our laboratory. The thermodynamic basis of the Ni/NiO phase boundary in aqueous solutions is examined to show that Ni(s) is stable relative to NiO(s) in solutions saturated at 25 C with 1 atm H{sub 2} for temperatures below 309 C.

  13. Zinc(II) oxide solubility and phase behavior in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemniak, S.E.; Jones, M.E.; Combs, K.E.S.

    1990-02-01

    A platinum-lined, flowing autoclave facility is used to investigate the solubility/phase behavior of zinc(II) oxide in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at temperatures between 290 and 560 K. ZnO solubilities are observed to increase continuously with temperature and phosphate concentration. At higher phosphate concentrations, a solid phase transformation to NaZnPO{sub 4} is observed. NaZnPO{sub 4} solubilities are retrograde with temperature. The measured solubility behavior is examined via a Zn(II) ion hydrolysis/complexing model and thermodynamic functions for the hydrolysis/complexing reaction equilibria are obtained from a least-squares analysis of the data. The existence of two new zinc(II) ion complexes is reported for the first time: Zn(OH){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sup 2{minus}} and Zn(OH){sub 3}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sup 2{minus}}. A summary of thermochemical properties for species in the systems ZnO-H{sub 2}O and ZnO-Na{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-H{sub 2}O is also provided. 21 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Continuous flowing micro-reactor for aqueous reaction at temperature higher than 100 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fei; Wang, Baojun; Wang, Wei; Dong, Tian; Tong, Jianhua; Xia, Shanhong; Wu, Wengang; Li, Zhihong

    2013-01-01

    Some aqueous reactions in biological or chemical fields are accomplished at a high temperature. When the reaction temperature is higher than 100 °C, an autoclave reactor is usually required to elevate the boiling point of the water by creating a high-pressure environment in a closed system. This work presented an alternative continuous flowing microfluidic solution for aqueous reaction with a reaction temperature higher than 100 °C. The pressure regulating function was successfully fulfilled by a small microchannel based on a delicate hydrodynamic design. Combined with micro heater and temperature sensor that integrated in a single chip by utilizing silicon-based microfabrication techniques, this pressure regulating microchannel generated a high-pressure/high-temperature environment in the upstream reaction zone when the reagents continuously flow through the chip. As a preliminary demonstration, thermal digestion of aqueous total phosphorus sample was achieved in this continuous flowing micro-reactor at a working pressure of 990 kPa (under the working flow rate of 20 nl/s) along with a reaction temperature of 145 °C. This continuous flowing microfluidic solution for high-temperature reaction may find applications in various micro total analysis systems.

  15. Mineral carbonation: energy costs of pretreatment options and insights gained from flow loop reaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, Larry R.; O' Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Rush, Gilbert E.

    2004-01-01

    Sequestration of carbon as a stable mineral carbonate has been proposed to mitigate environmental concerns that carbon dioxide may with time escape from its sequestered matrix using alternative sequestration technologies. A method has been developed to prepare stable carbonate products by reacting CO2 with magnesium silicate minerals in aqueous bicarbonate/chloride media at high temperature and pressure. Because this approach is inherently expensive due to slow reaction rates and high capital costs, studies were conducted to improve the reaction rates through mineral pretreatment steps and to cut expenses through improved reactor technology. An overview is given for the estimated cost of the process including sensitivity to grinding and heating as pretreatment options for several mineral feedstocks. The energy costs are evaluated for each pretreatment in terms of net carbon avoided. New studies with a high-temperature, high-pressure flow-loop reactor have yielded information on overcoming kinetic barriers experienced with processing in stirred autoclave reactors. Repeated tests with the flow-loop reactor have yielded insights on wear and failure of system components, on challenges to maintain and measure flow, and for better understanding of the reaction mechanism.

  16. 化纤仿毛面料轧光罐蒸克服“波纹痕”的探讨%Inquiring into Overcoming “Wave Marks”on the Woolen-like Cloth Being Conducted Autoclave Decatizing after Calendering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔志山; 武光信; 曹永生

    2001-01-01

    It analyzes the cause of producing“wave marks”phenomenon easily which superior quality fiber woolen-like cloth is conducted KD autoclave decatizing after calendering and conducts inquiry that overcoms the“wave marks”from the technology angle majorly.%对仿毛面料轧光后进行KD罐蒸,容易产生“纹痕”的现象进行了分析,重点从工艺角度对克服“波纹痕”进行了探讨。

  17. 陶粒赤泥粉煤灰免烧砖性能研究%Research on properties of red mud fly ash from the burn exemption autoclaved brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敦强; 徐捷; 周国栋

    2012-01-01

    Based on the requirement of national energy conservation and environmental protection, we use the waste red mud and fly ash of Shandong Xinfa Aluminum and Electricity Group as the main raw material and with lime and cement as sharpened agent to produce red mud ceramsite fly ash from burn from autoclaved brick that is pressured molding by the pressure brick machine and natural curing. In order to make the industrialization production and substitute for clay brick, we make a quantitative analysis of the ratio of raw material and production process. Then, we get the reasonable ratio of raw materials and production process parameters, and discusse the influence of the ratio of raw material and production process parameters on the performance of the products. The results show; 1. When the composition is made up of 25% red mud, 18% fly ash, 45% ceramsite and 12% cement, brick products have the highest intensity; 2. When the composition is made up of 18% red mud, 21% fly ash, 50% ceramsite and 11% cement, the strength of the brick products meets the requirements, heat insulation performance is improved greatly and other physical properties also meet the requirement.%基于国家节能环保的要求,以山东信发铝电集团的废弃物赤泥、粉煤灰为主要原料,用石灰、水泥作为激化剂,经压砖机压制成型,自然养护来生产赤泥陶粒粉煤灰免烧免蒸压砖.为了使其工业化生产并能代替粘土砖,对原材料配比和生产工艺进行了定量分析,得出了合理的试验配方和生产工艺参数,探讨了原材料配比和生产工艺参数对砖制品性能的影响.结果表明:(1)当25%赤泥、18%粉煤灰、45%陶粒、12%水泥时,砖制品的强度最高.(2)当18%赤泥,21%粉煤灰,50%陶粒和11%水泥时,强度满足要求,保温性能大大提高,吸水率、冻融性和放射性等各方面物理特性符合要求.

  18. Ultrasonic flow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lötters, Joost Conrad; Snijders, G.J.; Volker, A.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to an ultrasonic flow meter comprising a flow tube for the fluid whose flow rate is to be determined. The flow meter comprises a transmitting element for emitting ultrasonic waves, which is provided on the outer jacket of the flow tube. A receiving element, which is provided on

  19. X-33 Tank Failure During Autoclave Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Alan T.; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    During a repair cure cycle on tank #1 of the X-33 liquid hydrogen tanks, a skin to core disbond occurred. Both the inner skin and outer skin of the lobe #1 sandwich panel was noted to have been disbonded and cracked- An investigation was undertaken to determine the cause of this failure. The investigation consisted of reviewing all of the processing data and performing testing on the failed lobe #1, as well as the other lobes, which did not fail during the cure cycle. The tests consisted of residual stress measurements in one of the intact lobes and "plug-pulls" to assess skin to core strength on all of the remaining lobes. Results showed an extremely low bondline strength due to lack of proper filleting of the adhesive, in addition, tests showed a very rapid decrease in strength with increasing temperature, as well as a further decrease in strength with a larger number of cycles. Also, the honeycomb used was not vented so pressure could build up within the cells. All of these factors appeared to be contributors to the failure.

  20. Autoclave heat treatment for prealloyed powder products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freche, J. C.; Ashbrook, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Technique could be applied directly to loose powders as part of hot pressing process of forming them to any required shapes. This would eliminate initial extrusion step commonly applied to prealloyed powders, substantially reduce cost of forming operation, and result in optimum properties.

  1. X-33 Tank Failure During Autoclave Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Alan T.; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    During a repair cure cycle on tank #1 of the X-33 liquid hydrogen tanks, a skin to core disbond occurred. Both the inner skin and outer skin of the lobe #1 sandwich panel was noted to have been disbonded and cracked- An investigation was undertaken to determine the cause of this failure. The investigation consisted of reviewing all of the processing data and performing testing on the failed lobe #1, as well as the other lobes, which did not fail during the cure cycle. The tests consisted of residual stress measurements in one of the intact lobes and "plug-pulls" to assess skin to core strength on all of the remaining lobes. Results showed an extremely low bondline strength due to lack of proper filleting of the adhesive, in addition, tests showed a very rapid decrease in strength with increasing temperature, as well as a further decrease in strength with a larger number of cycles. Also, the honeycomb used was not vented so pressure could build up within the cells. All of these factors appeared to be contributors to the failure.

  2. Gas flow measurement using laminar flow elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigand, J. [Meriam Instrument, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    An instrument that measures gas volumetric flow rate using a capillary tube laminar-flow principle is described. Irs construction, operation, accuracy, and rangeability are presented. Discussion includes integrating the differential-pressure-producing flowmeter with appropriate temperature find pressure devices to produce a digital flowmeter system capable of measuring volumetric and mass flow rates. Typical applications are described.

  3. Flow of Aqueous Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Flow of Aqueous Humor Flow of Aqueous Humor Most, but not all, forms of glaucoma are ... remains normal when some of the fluid (aqueous humor) produced by the eye's ciliary body flows out ...

  4. Optimal Power Flow with Power Flow Routers

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Power flow routing is an emerging control paradigm for the dynamic control of electric power flows. In this paper, we propose a generic model of a power flow router (PFR) and incorporate it into the optimal power flow (OPF) problem. First, a generic PFR architecture is proposed to encapsulate the desired functions of PFRs. Then, the load flow model of PFRs is developed and incorporated into the OPF framework. To pursue global optimality of the non-convex PFR-incorporated OPF (PFR-OPF) problem...

  5. Flow Distances on Open Flow Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Liangzhu; Shi, Peiteng; Wang, Jun; Huang, Xiaohan; Zhang, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Open flow network is a weighted directed graph with a source and a sink, depicting flux distributions on networks in the steady state of an open flow system. Energetic food webs, economic input-output networks, and international trade networks, are open flow network models of energy flows between species, money or value flows between industrial sectors, and goods flows between countries, respectively. Flow distances (first-passage or total) between any given two nodes $i$ and $j$ are defined as the average number of transition steps of a random walker along the network from $i$ to $j$ under some conditions. They apparently deviate from the conventional random walk distance on a closed directed graph because they consider the openness of the flow network. Flow distances are explicitly expressed by underlying Markov matrix of a flow system in this paper. With this novel theoretical conception, we can visualize open flow networks, calculating centrality of each node, and clustering nodes into groups. We apply fl...

  6. Evolution and Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    1997-01-01

    Presents flow theory in the context of evolution. Defines the elements of "flow" and contends that flow results in an optimal state of inner harmony which improves one's chance for survival. Identifies consequences of flow for creativity, peak performance, talent development, productivity, self-esteem, and stress reduction. Examines the…

  7. Thermal flow micro sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Elwenspoek, M.

    1999-01-01

    A review is given on sensors fabricated by silicon micromachining technology using the thermal domain for the measurement of fluid flow. Attention is paid especially to performance and geometry of the sensors. Three basic types of thermal flow sensors are discussed: anemometers, calorimetric flow sensors and time of flight flow sensors. Anemometers may comprise several heaters and temperature sensors and from a geometric point of view are similar sometimes for calorimetric flow sensors. We fi...

  8. Ricci flow coupled with harmonic map flow

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Reto

    2009-01-01

    We investigate a new geometric flow which consists of a coupled system of the Ricci flow on a closed manifold M with the harmonic map flow of a map phi from M to some closed target manifold N with a (possibly time-dependent) positive coupling constant alpha. This system can be interpreted as the gradient flow of an energy functional F_alpha which is a modification of Perelman's energy F for the Ricci flow, including the Dirichlet energy for the map phi. Surprisingly, the coupled system may be less singular than the Ricci flow or the harmonic map flow alone. In particular, we can always rule out energy concentration of phi a-priori - without any assumptions on the curvature of the target manifold N - by choosing alpha large enough. Moreover, if alpha is bounded away from zero it suffices to bound the curvature of (M,g(t)) to also obtain control of phi and all its derivatives - a result which is clearly not true for alpha = 0. Besides these new phenomena, the flow shares many good properties with the Ricci flow...

  9. Continuous-flow Heck synthesis of 4-methoxybiphenyl and methyl 4-methoxycinnamate in supercritical carbon dioxide expanded solvent solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phei Li Lau

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The palladium metal catalysed Heck reaction of 4-iodoanisole with styrene or methyl acrylate has been studied in a continuous plug flow reactor (PFR using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 as the solvent, with THF and methanol as modifiers. The catalyst was 2% palladium on silica and the base was diisopropylethylamine due to its solubility in the reaction solvent. No phosphine co-catalysts were used so the work-up procedure was simplified and the green credentials of the reaction were enhanced. The reactions were studied as a function of temperature, pressure and flow rate and in the case of the reaction with styrene compared against a standard, stirred autoclave reaction. Conversion was determined and, in the case of the reaction with styrene, the isomeric product distribution was monitored by GC. In the case of the reaction with methyl acrylate the reactor was scaled from a 1.0 mm to 3.9 mm internal diameter and the conversion and turnover frequency determined. The results show that the Heck reaction can be effectively performed in scCO2 under continuous flow conditions with a palladium metal, phosphine-free catalyst, but care must be taken when selecting the reaction temperature in order to ensure the appropriate isomer distribution is achieved. Higher reaction temperatures were found to enhance formation of the branched terminal alkene isomer as opposed to the linear trans-isomer.

  10. Enteric and indicator virus removal by surface flow wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmadi, Andri T; Kitajima, Masaaki; Pepper, Ian L; Gerba, Charles P

    2016-01-15

    We investigated the occurrence and attenuation of several human enteric viruses (i.e., norovirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus 1, polyomaviruses, and enterovirus) as well as a plant virus, pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), at two surface flow wetlands in Arizona. The retention time in one of the wetlands was seven days, whereas in the other wetland it could not be defined. Water samples were collected at the inlet and outlet from the wetlands over nine months, and concentration of viral genomes was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Of the human enteric viruses tested, adenovirus and Aichi virus 1 were found in the greatest prevalence in treated wastewater (i.e., inlet of the wetlands). Reduction efficiencies of enteric viruses by the wetlands ranged from 1 to 3 log10. Polyomaviruses were generally removed to below detection limit, indicating at least 2 to 4 log10 removal. PMMoV was detected in a greater concentration in the inlet of both wetlands for all the viruses tested (10(4) to 10(7) genome copies/L), but exhibited little or no removal (1 log10 or less). To determine the factors associated with virus genome attenuation (as determined by qPCR), the persistence of PMMoV and poliovirus type 1 (an enterovirus) was studied in autoclaved and natural wetland water, and deionized water incubated under three different temperatures for 21 days. A combination of elevated water temperature and biological activities reduced poliovirus by 1 to 4 log10, while PMMoV was not significantly reduced during this time period. Overall, PMMoV showed much greater persistence than human viruses in the wetland treatment.

  11. Introduction to compressible fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Oosthuizen, Patrick H

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionThe Equations of Steady One-Dimensional Compressible FlowSome Fundamental Aspects of Compressible FlowOne-Dimensional Isentropic FlowNormal Shock WavesOblique Shock WavesExpansion Waves - Prandtl-Meyer FlowVariable Area FlowsAdiabatic Flow with FrictionFlow with Heat TransferLinearized Analysis of Two-Dimensional Compressible FlowsHypersonic and High-Temperature FlowsHigh-Temperature Gas EffectsLow-Density FlowsBibliographyAppendices

  12. Flow Element Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Air distribution in ventilated rooms is a flow process that can be divided into different elements such as supply air jets, exhaust flows, thermal plumes, boundary layer flows, infiltration and gravity currents. These flow elements are isolated volumes where the air movement is controlled...... by a restricted number of parameters, and the air movement is fairly independent of the general flow in the enclosure. In many practical situations, the most convenient· method is to design the air distribution system using flow element theory....

  13. Unsteady flow volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, B.G.; Lane, D.A.; Max, N.L.

    1995-03-01

    Flow volumes are extended for use in unsteady (time-dependent) flows. The resulting unsteady flow volumes are the 3 dimensional analog of streamlines. There are few examples where methods other than particle tracing have been used to visualize time varying flows. Since particle paths can become convoluted in time there are additional considerations to be made when extending any visualization technique to unsteady flows. We will present some solutions to the problems which occur in subdivision, rendering, and system design. We will apply the unsteady flow volumes to a variety of field types including moving multi-zoned curvilinear grids.

  14. Dynamic power flow controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Prasai, Anish

    2017-03-07

    Dynamic power flow controllers are provided. A dynamic power flow controller may comprise a transformer and a power converter. The power converter is subject to low voltage stresses and not floated at line voltage. In addition, the power converter is rated at a fraction of the total power controlled. A dynamic power flow controller controls both the real and the reactive power flow between two AC sources having the same frequency. A dynamic power flow controller inserts a voltage with controllable magnitude and phase between two AC sources; thereby effecting control of active and reactive power flows between two AC sources.

  15. A Nonideal Flow Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Velasco, Juan Ramon; Elorriaga, Javier Bilbao

    1984-01-01

    Considers the deviation from the ideal flows of both a backmix tank and a backmix tank followed by a flow vessel. Background information, apparatus used, and experimental procedures are provided. Typical results are also provided and discussed. (JN)

  16. Counting RG flows

    OpenAIRE

    Gukov, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts --- from counting RG walls to AdS/C...

  17. Thermal flow micro sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elwenspoek, M.

    1999-01-01

    A review is given on sensors fabricated by silicon micromachining technology using the thermal domain for the measurement of fluid flow. Attention is paid especially to performance and geometry of the sensors. Three basic types of thermal flow sensors are discussed: anemometers, calorimetric flow se

  18. Free surface flow focusing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, I.R.

    2012-01-01

    Reducing the area through which a fluid is allowed to flow often leads to an increase of flow velocity. A familiar example of this is a garden hose, where one can change the rather weak stream that usually flows out into a strong jet by narrowing the orifice at the end of the hose. In this example,

  19. Integer Equal Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, C A; Schulz, A S

    2009-01-07

    The integer equal flow problem is an NP-hard network flow problem, in which all arcs in given sets R{sub 1}, ..., R{sub {ell}} must carry equal flow. We show this problem is effectively inapproximable, even if the cardinality of each set R{sub k} is two. When {ell} is fixed, it is solvable in polynomial time.

  20. OpenFlow cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Smiler S, Kingston

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for network protocol developers, SDN controller application developers, and academics who would like to understand and develop their own OpenFlow switch or OpenFlow controller in any programming language. With basic understanding of OpenFlow and its components, you will be able to follow the recipes in this book.

  1. Distributed Power Flow Controller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Z.

    2010-01-01

    In modern power systems, there is a great demand to control the power flow actively. Power flow controlling devices (PFCDs) are required for such purpose, because the power flow over the lines is the nature result of the impedance of each line. Due to the control capabilities of different types of P

  2. Free surface flow focusing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, I.R.

    2012-01-01

    Reducing the area through which a fluid is allowed to flow often leads to an increase of flow velocity. A familiar example of this is a garden hose, where one can change the rather weak stream that usually flows out into a strong jet by narrowing the orifice at the end of the hose. In this example,

  3. STOCHASTIC FLOWS OF MAPPINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the stochastic flow of mappings generated by a Feller convolution semigroup on a compact metric space is studied. This kind of flow is the generalization of superprocesses of stochastic flows and stochastic diffeomorphism induced by the strong solutions of stochastic differential equations.

  4. Distributed Power Flow Controller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Z.

    2010-01-01

    In modern power systems, there is a great demand to control the power flow actively. Power flow controlling devices (PFCDs) are required for such purpose, because the power flow over the lines is the nature result of the impedance of each line. Due to the control capabilities of different types of P

  5. Flow lab.: flow visualization and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chung Kyun; Cho, Won Jin; Hahn, Pil Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-11-15

    The experimental setups for flow visualization and processes identification in laboratory scale (so called Flow Lab.) has developed to get ideas and answer fundamental questions of flow and migration in geologic media. The setup was made of a granite block of 50x50cm scale and a transparent acrylate plate. The tracers used in this experiments were tritiated water, anions, and sorbing cations as well as an organic dye, eosine, to visualize migration paths. The migration plumes were taken with a digital camera as a function of time and stored as digital images. A migration model was also developed to describe and identify the transport processes. Computer simulation was carried out not only for the hydraulic behavior such as distributions of pressure and flow vectors in the fracture but also for the migration plume and the elution curves.

  6. Stable Flows over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannik Matuschke

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the notion of stability is extended to network flows over time. As a useful device in our proofs, we present an elegant preflow-push variant of the Gale-Shapley algorithm that operates directly on the given network and computes stable flows in pseudo-polynomial time, both in the static flow and the flow over time case. We show periodical properties of stable flows over time on networks with an infinite time horizon. Finally, we discuss the influence of storage at vertices, with different results depending on the priority of the corresponding holdover edges.

  7. Signal flow analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Abrahams, J R; Hiller, N

    1965-01-01

    Signal Flow Analysis provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of signal flow analysis. This book discusses the basic theory of signal flow graphs and shows their relation to the usual algebraic equations.Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of properties of a flow graph. This text then demonstrates how flow graphs can be applied to a wide range of electrical circuits that do not involve amplification. Other chapters deal with the parameters as well as circuit applications of transistors. This book discusses as well the variety of circuits using ther

  8. Separation of flow

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary and Advanced Topics in Science and Engineering, Volume 3: Separation of Flow presents the problem of the separation of fluid flow. This book provides information covering the fields of basic physical processes, analyses, and experiments concerning flow separation.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the flow separation on the body surface as discusses in various classical examples. This text then examines the analytical and experimental results of the laminar boundary layer of steady, two-dimensional flows in the subsonic speed range. Other chapt

  9. Group flow, complex flow, unit vector flow, and the (2+ϵ)-flow conjecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    If F is a (possibly infinite) subset of an abelian group Γ, then we define f(F,Γ) as the smallest natural number such that every f(F,Γ)-edge-connected (finite) graph G has a flow where all flow values are elements in F. We prove that f(F,Γ) exists if and only if some odd sum of elements in F equals...... some even sum. We discuss various instances of this problem. We prove that every 6-edge-connected graph has a flow whose flow values are the three roots of unity in the complex plane. If the edge-connectivity 6 can be reduced, then it can be reduced to 4, and the 3-flow conjecture follows. We prove...... that every 14-edge-connected graph has a flow whose flow values are the five roots of unity in the complex plane. Any such flow is balanced modulo 5. So, if the edge-connectivity 14 can be reduced to 9, then the 5-flow conjecture follows, as observed by F. Jaeger. We use vector flow to prove that, for each...

  10. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  11. TRANSIMS traffic flow characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Nagel, K; Pieck, M; Donnelly, R; Barrett, C L; Nagel, Kai; Stretz, Paula; Pieck, Martin; Donnelly, Rick; Barrett, Christopher L.

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge of fundamental traffic flow characteristics of traffic simulation models is an essential requirement when using these models for the planning, design, and operation of transportation systems. In this paper we discuss the following: a description of how features relevant to traffic flow are currently under implementation in the TRANSIMS microsimulation, a proposition for standardized traffic flow tests for traffic simulation models, and the results of these tests for two different versions of the TRANSIMS microsimulation.

  12. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  13. A neural flow estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bogason, Gudmundur; Bruun, Erik

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes a new way to estimate the flow in a micromechanical flow channel. A neural network is used to estimate the delay of random temperature fluctuations induced in a fluid. The design and implementation of a hardware efficient neural flow estimator is described. The system...... is implemented using switched-current technique and is capable of estimating flow in the μl/s range. The neural estimator is built around a multiplierless neural network, containing 96 synaptic weights which are updated using the LMS1-algorithm. An experimental chip has been designed that operates at 5 V...

  14. Supersonic flows over cavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianwen FANG; Meng DING; Jin ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics of supersonic cold flows over cavities were investigated experimentally and numer-ically, and the effects of cavities of different sizes on super-sonic flow field were analyzed. The results indicate that the ratio of length to depth L/D within the range of 5-9 has little relevance to integral structures of cavity flow. The bevel angle of the rear wall does not alter the overall structure of the cavity flow within the range of 30°-60°, but it can exert obvious effect on the evolvement of shear layer and vortexes in cavities.

  15. Retinal flow cytometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, C; Veilleux, I; Lee, H; Pitsillides, C M; Côté, D; Lin, C P

    2007-12-01

    The in vivo flow cytometer is an instrument capable of continuous, real-time monitoring of fluorescently labeled cells in the circulation without the need to draw blood samples. However, the original system probes a single vessel in the mouse ear; the small sample volume limits the sensitivity of the technique. We describe an in vivo retinal flow cytometer that simultaneously probes five artery-vein pairs in the mouse eye by circularly scanning a small laser spot rapidly around the optic nerve head. We demonstrate that the retinal flow cytometer detects about five times more cells per minute than the original in vivo flow cytometer does in the ear.

  16. Excess flow shutoff valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiffer, Micah S.; Tentarelli, Stephen Clyde

    2016-02-09

    Excess flow shutoff valve comprising a valve body, a valve plug, a partition, and an activation component where the valve plug, the partition, and activation component are disposed within the valve body. A suitable flow restriction is provided to create a pressure difference between the upstream end of the valve plug and the downstream end of the valve plug when fluid flows through the valve body. The pressure difference exceeds a target pressure difference needed to activate the activation component when fluid flow through the valve body is higher than a desired rate, and thereby closes the valve.

  17. Asymmetric flow networks

    OpenAIRE

    Olaizola Ortega, María Norma; Valenciano Llovera, Federico

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a new model of network formation that bridges the gap between the two benchmark models by Bala and Goyal, the one-way flow model, and the two-way flow model, and includes both as particular extreme cases. As in both benchmark models, in what we call an "asymmetric flow" network a link can be initiated unilaterally by any player with any other, and the flow through a link towards the player who supports it is perfect. Unlike those models, in the opposite direction there is ...

  18. The other spectral flow

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz; Gato-Rivera, Beatriz; Rosado, Jose Ignacio

    1995-01-01

    Recently we showed that the spectral flow acting on the N=2 twisted topological theories gives rise to a topological algebra automorphism. Here we point out that the untwisting of that automorphism leads to a spectral flow on the untwisted N=2 superconformal algebra which is different from the usual one. This "other" spectral flow does not interpolate between the chiral ring and the antichiral ring. In particular, it maps the chiral ring into the chiral ring and the antichiral ring into the antichiral ring. We discuss the similarities and differences between both spectral flows. We also analyze their action on null states.

  19. Flow chemistry is starting to flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duisterwinkel, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    One good thing about this symposium on flow chemistry is that at least half of the papers was on actual applications: summarized one member of the audience of the IPIT symposium in Rotterdam, 25 May 2012. This remark can be viewed as a compliment to the organizer, TNO, a Dutch contract research orga

  20. Biomimetic Flow Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casas, J.; Liu, Chang; Krijnen, G.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Biomimetic flow sensors are biologically inspired devices that measure the speed and direction of fluids. This survey starts by describing the role and functioning of airflow-sensing hairs in arthropods and in fishes, carries on with the biomimetic MEMS implementations, both for air and water flow s

  1. RG Flows and Bifurcations

    CERN Document Server

    Gukov, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting RG flows as dynamical systems in the space of couplings we produce a variety of constraints, global (topological) as well as local. These constraints, in turn, rule out some of the proposed RG flows and also predict new phases and fixed points, surprisingly, even in familiar theories such as O(N) model, QED-3, or QCD-4.

  2. Reversed extension flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2008-01-01

    Afilament stretching rheometer (FSR) was used for measuring the start-up of uni-axial elongational flow followed by reversed bi-axial flow, both with a constant elongational rate. A narrow molecular mass distribution linear polystyrene with a molecular weight of 145 kg / mole wis subjected to the...

  3. AUTO-EXPANSIVE FLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics suggests that the interplay of momentum, continuity, and geometry in outward radial flow must produce density and concomitant pressure reductions. In other words, this flow is intrinsically auto-expansive. It has been proposed that this process is the key to understanding...

  4. Secondary Flows in Turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    flow angle boundary layer velocity defect parameter 0 tangential flow angle a chord 0’ blade angle f wake profile model (Pohlhausen polynomial ) Y stagger...dconmpuser ce dernier en un 6coulement lUngitUdinial skd ant tutte direktkofl et kin 6&oulement, tranbversal directement hi6 A la vortikitt secondaire

  5. Forecasting freight flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie

    2011-01-01

    Trade patterns and transport markets are changing as a result of the growth and globalization of international trade, and forecasting future freight flow has to rely on trade forecasts. Forecasting freight flows is critical for matching infrastructure supply to demand and for assessing investment...

  6. Vortex flow hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, A. M., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to quantify the hysteresis associated with various vortex flow transition points and to determine the effect of planform geometry. The transition points observed consisted of the appearance (or disappearance) of trailing edge vortex burst and the transition to (or from) flat plate or totally separated flows. Flow visualization with smoke injected into the vortices was used to identify the transitions on a series of semi-span models tested in a low speed tunnel. The planforms tested included simple deltas (55 deg to 80 deg sweep), cranked wings with varying tip panel sweep and dihedral, and a straked wing. High speed movies at 1000 frames per second were made of the vortex flow visualization in order to better understand the dynamics of vortex flow, burst and transition.

  7. Data flow modeling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavi, K. M.

    1984-01-01

    There have been a number of simulation packages developed for the purpose of designing, testing and validating computer systems, digital systems and software systems. Complex analytical tools based on Markov and semi-Markov processes have been designed to estimate the reliability and performance of simulated systems. Petri nets have received wide acceptance for modeling complex and highly parallel computers. In this research data flow models for computer systems are investigated. Data flow models can be used to simulate both software and hardware in a uniform manner. Data flow simulation techniques provide the computer systems designer with a CAD environment which enables highly parallel complex systems to be defined, evaluated at all levels and finally implemented in either hardware or software. Inherent in data flow concept is the hierarchical handling of complex systems. In this paper we will describe how data flow can be used to model computer system.

  8. Flows around bacterial swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauparas, Justas; Lauga, Eric

    2015-11-01

    Flagellated bacteria on nutrient-rich substrates can differentiate into a swarming state and move in dense swarms across surfaces. A recent experiment (HC Berg, Harvard University) measured the flow in the fluid around the swarm. A systematic chiral flow was observed in the clockwise direction (when viewed from above) ahead of a E.coli swarm with flow speeds of about 10 μm/s, about 3 times greater than the radial velocity at the edge of the swarm. The working hypothesis is that this flow is due to the flagella of cells stalled at the edge of a colony which extend their flagellar filaments outwards, moving fluid over the virgin agar. In this talk we quantitatively test his hypothesis. We first build an analytical model of the flow induced by a single flagellum in a thin film and then use the model, and its extension to multiple flagella, to compare with experimental measurements.

  9. Vega flow assurance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Marit; Munaweera, Sampath

    2010-07-01

    Vega is a gas condensate field located at the west coast of Norway and developed as a tie-in to the Gjoea platform. Operator is Statoil, production startup is estimated to the end of 2010. Flow assurance challenges are high reservoir pressure and temperature, hydrate and wax control, liquid accumulation and monitoring the well/template production rates. The Vega Flow Assurance System (FAS) is a software that supports monitoring and operation of the field. The FAS is based FlowManagerTM designed for real time systems. This is a flexible tool with its own steady state multiphase- and flow assurance models. Due to the long flowlines lines and the dynamic behavior, the multiphase flow simulator OLGA is also integrated in the system. Vega FAS will be used as: - An online monitoring tool - An offline what-if simulation and validation tool - An advisory control system for well production allocation. (Author)

  10. Flow in bedrock canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Jeremy G; Rennie, Colin D; Bomhof, James; Bradley, Ryan W; Little, Malcolm; Church, Michael

    2014-09-25

    Bedrock erosion in rivers sets the pace of landscape evolution, influences the evolution of orogens and determines the size, shape and relief of mountains. A variety of models link fluid flow and sediment transport processes to bedrock incision in canyons. The model components that represent sediment transport processes are increasingly well developed. In contrast, the model components being used to represent fluid flow are largely untested because there are no observations of the flow structure in bedrock canyons. Here we present a 524-kilometre, continuous centreline, acoustic Doppler current profiler survey of the Fraser Canyon in western Canada, which includes 42 individual bedrock canyons. Our observations of three-dimensional flow structure reveal that, as water enters the canyons, a high-velocity core follows the bed surface, causing a velocity inversion (high velocities near the bed and low velocities at the surface). The plunging water then upwells along the canyon walls, resulting in counter-rotating, along-stream coherent flow structures that diverge near the bed. The resulting flow structure promotes deep scour in the bedrock channel floor and undercutting of the canyon walls. This provides a mechanism for channel widening and ensures that the base of the walls is swept clear of the debris that is often deposited there, keeping the walls nearly vertical. These observations reveal that the flow structure in bedrock canyons is more complex than assumed in the models presently used. Fluid flow models that capture the essence of the three-dimensional flow field, using simple phenomenological rules that are computationally tractable, are required to capture the dynamic coupling between flow, bedrock erosion and solid-Earth dynamics.

  11. Gas Flow Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Thomas; Ihlefeld, Curtis; Slack, Barry

    2010-01-01

    This system provides a portable means to detect gas flow through a thin-walled tube without breaking into the tubing system. The flow detection system was specifically designed to detect flow through two parallel branches of a manifold with only one inlet and outlet, and is a means for verifying a space shuttle program requirement that saves time and reduces the risk of flight hardware damage compared to the current means of requirement verification. The prototype Purge Vent and Drain Window Cavity Conditioning System (PVD WCCS) Flow Detection System consists of a heater and a temperature-sensing thermistor attached to a piece of Velcro to be attached to each branch of a WCCS manifold for the duration of the requirement verification test. The heaters and thermistors are connected to a shielded cable and then to an electronics enclosure, which contains the power supplies, relays, and circuit board to provide power, signal conditioning, and control. The electronics enclosure is then connected to a commercial data acquisition box to provide analog to digital conversion as well as digital control. This data acquisition box is then connected to a commercial laptop running a custom application created using National Instruments LabVIEW. The operation of the PVD WCCS Flow Detection System consists of first attaching a heater/thermistor assembly to each of the two branches of one manifold while there is no flow through the manifold. Next, the software application running on the laptop is used to turn on the heaters and to monitor the manifold branch temperatures. When the system has reached thermal equilibrium, the software application s graphical user interface (GUI) will indicate that the branch temperatures are stable. The operator can then physically open the flow control valve to initiate the test flow of gaseous nitrogen (GN2) through the manifold. Next, the software user interface will be monitored for stable temperature indications when the system is again at

  12. Control of Unstable Flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘曾荣; 茅坚民

    2003-01-01

    Without introducing a discrete model, unstable continuous flows in a neighbourhood of an unstable stationary point can be stabilized. The linear part of the vector field of disturbing the flow can be managed to become the state variable multiplied by a negative constant. The nonlinear part of the vector field keeps to be unchanged,therefore flows far away from the stationary point are almost unaffected by the disturbance. The control method is easy to be used, even for practical problems for which a priori analytical knowledge of system dynamics is unavailable.

  13. Validated dynamic flow model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    The purpose with this deliverable 2.5 is to use fresh experimental data for validation and selection of a flow model to be used for control design in WP3-4. Initially the idea was to investigate the models developed in WP2. However, in the project it was agreed to include and focus on a additive...... model turns out not to be useful for prediction of the flow. Moreover, standard Box Jenkins model structures and multiple output auto regressive models proves to be superior as they can give useful predictions of the flow....

  14. Cash flow statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A cash flow is "bloodstream" of business and without constant cash flow a company would not be able to function. The cash flow statement is statutory financial report that provides information to the interested parties on cash inflows and outflows from operating, investing and financing activities during the accounting period. This paper will discuss the origin and significance of the cash slow statement; in addition, we will define the main categories of this statement and present the methodology of its composition in accordance with IAS 7.

  15. Geophysical fluid flow experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, B. G.; Fichtl, G.; Fowlis, W.

    1979-01-01

    The essential fluid flow processes associated with the solar and Jovian atmospheres will be examined in a laboratory experiment scheduled for performance on Spacelab Missions One and Three. The experimental instrumentation required to generate and to record convective fluid flow is described. Details of the optical system configuration, the lens design, and the optical coatings are described. Measurement of thermal gradient fields by schlieren techniques and measurement of fluid flow velocity fields by photochromic dye tracers is achieved with a common optical system which utilizes photographic film for data recording. Generation of the photochromic dye tracers is described, and data annotation of experimental parameters on the film record is discussed.

  16. Micro flows in foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Stephan; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Stone, Howard; Weeks, Eric

    2002-11-01

    Foam drainage, the flow of liquid through foams, has been extensively studied macroscopically, on the scale of many bubbles. We use a confocal microscope to determine the flow-field in a single channel, and find good agreement with a model based upon surface rheology (R. A. Leonard and R. Lemlich, AIChE J. 11, p. 25-29 (1965)). The microscopic measurements show different types of flows depending on the type of surfactant used to stabilize the foam, which has also been observed on the macroscopic level. Surprisingly we find very little mixing in the nodes, the regions where four different channels intersect.

  17. Small-Gap Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    34’OF CALIFORNIA# BERKELEY, CA 5.1720 ft (45 642-141 SMALL- GAP FLOWS BY E. 0. TUCK REPORT No. NAUE 84-1 CONTRACT N00014-84-K-OU26 APRIL i984...Mechanics, 41 (1970) 769-792. 11 3. Shallow-Water Waves at Discontinuities Shallow-water waves represent perhaps the prototype small- gap flow , the...solving (4.4) we need "initial" conditions at the starting station z = 0, and "exit" conditions at the station z = L where the gap flow merges with the

  18. Bypass Flow Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Schultz

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the fluid dynamics experiments in the MIR (Matched Index of-Refraction) flow system at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is to develop benchmark databases for the assessment of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions of the momentum equations, scalar mixing, and turbulence models for the flow ratios between coolant channels and bypass gaps in the interstitial regions of typical prismatic standard fuel element (SFE) or upper reflector block geometries of typical Modular High-temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (MHTGR) in the limiting case of negligible buoyancy and constant fluid properties. The experiments use Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to measure the velocity fields that will populate the bypass flow study database.

  19. Initiation of slug flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanratty, T.J.; Woods, B.D. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The initiation of slug flow in a horizontal pipe can be predicted either by considering the stability of a slug or by considering the stability of a stratified flow. Measurements of the shedding rate of slugs are used to define necessary conditions for the existence of a slug. Recent results show that slugs develop from an unstable stratified flow through the evolution of small wavelength waves into large wavelength waves that have the possibility of growing to form a slug. The mechanism appears to be quite different for fluids with viscosities close to water than for fluids with large viscosities (20 centipoise).

  20. Pulsatile prosthetic valve flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W M; Snyder, A; Alchas, P; Rosenberg, G; Pierce, W S

    1980-01-01

    The laser Doppler system has been established as a useful tool for eliciting the properties of simulated cardiovascular flows, and thus for comparative studies of flow properties of prosthetic valves. Significant differences among valve types and between models of one type have been documented. The complex variations of velocity profiles with time show that comparisons must be made for unsteady pulsatile rather than steady flow, despite the volume and complexity of the data required. Future studies will include methods of compacting the data presentation and improving the details of the experimental stimulation.

  1. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-05-01

    This report documents findings from a workshop on the impacts of complex wind flows in and out of wind turbine environments, the research needs, and the challenges of meteorological and engineering modeling at regional, wind plant, and wind turbine scales.

  2. Hovering in Oscillatory Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yangyang; Kanso, Eva

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the hovering dynamics of rigid bodies with up-down asymmetry placed in oscillating background flows. Recent experiments on inanimate pyramid-shaped objects in oscillating flows with zero mean component demonstrate that the resulting aerodynamic forces are sufficient to keep the object aloft. The mechanisms responsible for this lift production are fundamentally unsteady and depend on the shed vorticity. Here, we consider a model system of a two-dimensional flyer and compute the unsteady, two-way coupling between the flyer and the surrounding fluid in the context of the vortex sheet model. We examine in detail the flow properties (frequency and speed) required for hovering and their dependence on the flyer's characteristics (mass and geometry). We find that the aerodynamic effort required to hover is an intrinsic property of the flyer itself: a given flyer requires a constant amount of effort to hover, irrespective of the frequency and speed of the oscillating flow. This physical insight will pot...

  3. Visualising patient flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Andrew; Boyle, Justin; Khanna, Sankalp

    2012-01-01

    We describe the development of a method to distil routinely collected clinical data into patient flow information to aid hospital bed management. Using data from state-wide emergency department and inpatient clinical information systems, a user-friendly interface was developed to visualise patient flow conditions for a particular hospital. The historical snapshots employ a variable time scale, allowing flow to be visualised across a day, week, month or year. Flow information includes occupancy, arrival and departure rates, length-of-stay and access block observations, which can be filtered by age, departure status, diagnosis, elective status, triage category, and admission unit. The tool may be helpful in supporting hospital bed managers in their daily decision making.

  4. Cash Flow Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, George W., III

    1979-01-01

    Proper cash flow planning allows a school business administrator to determine the availability of cash for operating expenses, the need for bank loans to cover these expenses, and the availability of idle cash for investment. (Author)

  5. Multicomponent flow modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GIOVANGIGLI; Vincent

    2012-01-01

    We present multicomponent flow models derived from the kinetic theory of gases and investigate the symmetric hyperbolic-parabolic structure of the resulting system of partial differential equations.We address the Cauchy problem for smooth solutions as well as the existence of deflagration waves,also termed anchored waves.We further discuss related models which have a similar hyperbolic-parabolic structure,notably the SaintVenant system with a temperature equation as well as the equations governing chemical equilibrium flows.We next investigate multicomponent ionized and magnetized flow models with anisotropic transport fluxes which have a different mathematical structure.We finally discuss numerical algorithms specifically devoted to complex chemistry flows,in particular the evaluation of multicomponent transport properties,as well as the impact of multicomponent transport.

  6. Martian Lava Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    19 October 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows lava flows at the southeast base of the giant volcano, Olympus Mons. The flat plain in the south-southeast (bottom/lower right) portion of the image is younger than and cuts off the ends of many of the lava flows that came from the northwest (upper left). Many of the lava flows in this image exhibit channels with levees bounding their margins. As each lava flow was advancing, its outer margins cooled and hardened, forming a channel or tube through which the molten rock continued to advance. Location near: 17.2oN, 129.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  7. Cash flow statement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pavlović Miloš; Bogdanović Jovan

    2013-01-01

    .... The cash flow statement is statutory financial report that provides information to the interested parties on cash inflows and outflows from operating, investing and financing activities during the accounting period...

  8. Shocklets in compressible flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁湘江; 男俊武; 沈清; 李筠

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of shocklets is studied theoretically and numerically for the stationary fluid, uniform compressible flow, and boundary layer flow. The conditions that trigger shock waves for sound wave, weak discontinuity, and Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) wave in compressible flows are investigated. The relations between the three types of waves and shocklets are further analyzed and discussed. Different stages of the shocklet formation process are simulated. The results show that the three waves in compressible flows will transfer to shocklets only when the initial disturbance amplitudes are greater than the certain threshold values. In compressible boundary layers, the shocklets evolved from T-S wave exist only in a finite region near the surface instead of the whole wavefront.

  9. The disappearance of flow

    CERN Document Server

    Soff, S; Hartnack, C; Stöcker, H; Greiner, W; Soff, S; Bass, S A; Hartnack, C; Stöcker, H; Greiner, W

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the disappearance of collective flow in the reaction plane in heavy-ion collisions within a microscopic model (QMD). A systematic study of the impact parameter dependence is performed for the system Ca+Ca. The balance energy strongly increases with impact parameter. Momentum dependent interactions reduce the balance energies for intermediate impact parameters b\\approx4.5 fm. Dynamical negative flow is not visible in the laboratory frame but does exist in the contact frame for the heavy system Au+Au. For semi-peripheral collisions of Ca+Ca with b\\approx6.5 fm a new two-component flow is discussed. Azimuthal distributions exhibit strong collectiv flow signals, even at the balance energy.

  10. Web life: Ice Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Computer and video gamers of a certain vintage will have fond memories of Lemmings, a game in which players must shepherd pixelated, suicidal rodents around a series of obstacles to reach safety. At first glance, Ice Flows is strikingly similar.

  11. Flow Cytometry Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The primary goal of the Flow Cytometry Section is to provide the services of state-of-the-art multi-parameter cellular analysis and cell sorting for researchers and...

  12. Flow cytometry bioinformatics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran O'Neill

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry bioinformatics is the application of bioinformatics to flow cytometry data, which involves storing, retrieving, organizing, and analyzing flow cytometry data using extensive computational resources and tools. Flow cytometry bioinformatics requires extensive use of and contributes to the development of techniques from computational statistics and machine learning. Flow cytometry and related methods allow the quantification of multiple independent biomarkers on large numbers of single cells. The rapid growth in the multidimensionality and throughput of flow cytometry data, particularly in the 2000s, has led to the creation of a variety of computational analysis methods, data standards, and public databases for the sharing of results. Computational methods exist to assist in the preprocessing of flow cytometry data, identifying cell populations within it, matching those cell populations across samples, and performing diagnosis and discovery using the results of previous steps. For preprocessing, this includes compensating for spectral overlap, transforming data onto scales conducive to visualization and analysis, assessing data for quality, and normalizing data across samples and experiments. For population identification, tools are available to aid traditional manual identification of populations in two-dimensional scatter plots (gating, to use dimensionality reduction to aid gating, and to find populations automatically in higher dimensional space in a variety of ways. It is also possible to characterize data in more comprehensive ways, such as the density-guided binary space partitioning technique known as probability binning, or by combinatorial gating. Finally, diagnosis using flow cytometry data can be aided by supervised learning techniques, and discovery of new cell types of biological importance by high-throughput statistical methods, as part of pipelines incorporating all of the aforementioned methods. Open standards, data

  13. Yamabe flow on Berwald manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami, Shahroud; Razavi, Asadollah

    2015-12-01

    Studying the geometric flow plays a powerful role in mathematics and physics. We introduce the Yamabe flow on Finsler manifolds and we will prove the existence and uniqueness for solution of Yamabe flow on Berwald manifolds.

  14. Retinal flow cytometer

    OpenAIRE

    Alt, C.; Veilleux, I.; H. Lee; Pitsillides, C. M.; Côté, D.; Lin, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    The in vivo flow cytometer is an instrument capable of continuous, real-time monitoring of fluorescently labeled cells in the circulation without the need to draw blood samples. However, the original system probes a single vessel in the mouse ear; the small sample volume limits the sensitivity of the technique. We describe an in vivo retinal flow cytometer that simultaneously probes five artery–vein pairs in the mouse eye by circularly scanning a small laser spot rapidly around the optic nerv...

  15. Stability of parallel flows

    CERN Document Server

    Betchov, R

    2012-01-01

    Stability of Parallel Flows provides information pertinent to hydrodynamical stability. This book explores the stability problems that occur in various fields, including electronics, mechanics, oceanography, administration, economics, as well as naval and aeronautical engineering. Organized into two parts encompassing 10 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the general equations of a two-dimensional incompressible flow. This text then explores the stability of a laminar boundary layer and presents the equation of the inviscid approximation. Other chapters present the general equation

  16. Fanno Flow in Microchannels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Al-Nimr

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Fanno flow problem has been theoretically investigated using both, first order and second order velocity-slip boundary conditions models and then compared to the no-slip boundary conditions solution. The objective is to study the behavior of the flow predicted by the two slip models. Then, an attempt will be made to establish criteria for using the no-slip and the two velocity-slip models. The Fanno flow is an ideal gas adiabatic flow in constant area duct with friction. It is found that the velocity profile for the two velocity-slip models has the same shape as the no-slip model velocity profile but with an amount of slip at the wall which increases as the Knudsen number, Kn, increases. Also the effect of the slip has on the compressible flow characteristics have been examined. It shows that as the Kn increases, the skin friction coefficient Cf and the Darcy friction coefficient f decrease. Overall, it is concluded that for an adiabatic compressible flow in circular microchannel, for Kn≤0.01 there is no need to apply any velocity-slip model as the no-slip model gives sufficiently accurate predictions. As for the range 0.01≤Kn≤0.1, the first order velocity slip model should be applied and so for this range, there is no necessity to use the second order velocity-slip model.

  17. Sperm Motility in Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasto, Jeffrey; Juarez, Gabriel; Stocker, Roman

    2012-11-01

    A wide variety of plants and animals reproduce sexually by releasing motile sperm that seek out a conspecific egg, for example in the reproductive tract for mammals or in the water column for externally fertilizing organisms. Sperm are aided in their quest by chemical cues, but must also contend with hydrodynamic forces, resulting from laminar flows in reproductive tracts or turbulence in aquatic habitats. To understand how velocity gradients affect motility, we subjected swimming sperm to a range of highly-controlled straining flows using a cross-flow microfluidic device. The motion of the cell body and flagellum were captured through high-speed video microscopy. The effects of flow on swimming are twofold. For moderate velocity gradients, flow simply advects and reorients cells, quenching their ability to cross streamlines. For high velocity gradients, fluid stresses hinder the internal bending of the flagellum, directly inhibiting motility. The transition between the two regimes is governed by the Sperm number, which compares the external viscous stresses with the internal elastic stresses. Ultimately, unraveling the role of flow in sperm motility will lead to a better understanding of population dynamics among aquatic organisms and infertility problems in humans.

  18. Jamming in Hopper Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadighpour, Sepehr; Mort, Paul; Behringer, R. P.

    2007-11-01

    It known that the flow rate, m, of sand from a hopper is independent of the amount of material in the hopper due to stress screening. This is the basis for the Beverloo equation which relates m to an effective fluidized region near the outlet. We use the screening idea to characterize the probability of jamming for flow from a hopper. We focus on the probability Ps(t) = 1 - Pj(t) that flow has continued without a jam, a `survival' probability. Screening suggests that in time dt, the jamming probability is dPj= dt/T, where T is a constant characteristic time. Simple analysis gives Ps(t) = (-t/T) where t is the time since the start of flow. We can also write Ps(M) = [-M/(mT)], where M is the mass that has flowed out. We have carried out experiments in a quasi-2D hopper to test this idea. Our sand grains are photoelastic disks confined between two Plexiglas sheets. We obtain two types of data, first, data for s(t) and second, photoelastic images showing the force structures within the hopper during flow. We find that Ps is well described by an exponential. Ongoing work seeks to relate T to the properties of the material near the outlet.

  19. A Cryogenic Flow Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Technologies Group, Inc. proposes the development of a Cryogenic Flow Sensor (CFS) for determining mass flow of cryogens in spacecraft propellant...

  20. Oscillatory flow chemical reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavnić Danijela S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global market competition, increase in energy and other production costs, demands for high quality products and reduction of waste are forcing pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and biochemical industries, to search for radical solutions. One of the most effective ways to improve the overall production (cost reduction and better control of reactions is a transition from batch to continuous processes. However, the reactions of interests for the mentioned industry sectors are often slow, thus continuous tubular reactors would be impractically long for flow regimes which provide sufficient heat and mass transfer and narrow residence time distribution. The oscillatory flow reactors (OFR are newer type of tube reactors which can offer solution by providing continuous operation with approximately plug flow pattern, low shear stress rates and enhanced mass and heat transfer. These benefits are the result of very good mixing in OFR achieved by vortex generation. OFR consists of cylindrical tube containing equally spaced orifice baffles. Fluid oscillations are superimposed on a net (laminar flow. Eddies are generated when oscillating fluid collides with baffles and passes through orifices. Generation and propagation of vortices create uniform mixing in each reactor cavity (between baffles, providing an overall flow pattern which is close to plug flow. Oscillations can be created by direct action of a piston or a diaphragm on fluid (or alternatively on baffles. This article provides an overview of oscillatory flow reactor technology, its operating principles and basic design and scale - up characteristics. Further, the article reviews the key research findings in heat and mass transfer, shear stress, residence time distribution in OFR, presenting their advantages over the conventional reactors. Finally, relevant process intensification examples from pharmaceutical, polymer and biofuels industries are presented.

  1. Through flow analysis within axial flow turbomachinery blade rows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girigoswami, H.

    1986-09-01

    Using Katsanis' Through Flow Code, inviscid flow through an axial flow compressor rotor blade as well as flow through inlet guide vanes are analyzed and the computed parameters such as meridional velocity distribution, axial velocity distribution along radial lines, and velocity distribution over blade surfaces are presented.

  2. Flow: Statistics, visualization and informatics for flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kepler Thomas B

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Flow is an open source software application for clinical and experimental researchers to perform exploratory data analysis, clustering and annotation of flow cytometric data. Flow is an extensible system that offers the ease of use commonly found in commercial flow cytometry software packages and the statistical power of academic packages like the R BioConductor project.

  3. Unraveling ultrafiltration of polysaccharides with flow field flow fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de Wilbert; Pünt, Ineke; Kemperman, Antoine; Wessling, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    We used flow field flow fractionation (flow-FFF) coupled with multi-angle-light scattering (MALS) to study the conformation of alginate molecules in ultrapure water and in a 10 mM salt solution. In particular, we investigated the behavior of alginates under filtration conditions. The flow-FFF result

  4. Rokhlin Dimension for Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshberg, Ilan; Szabó, Gábor; Winter, Wilhelm; Wu, Jianchao

    2017-07-01

    We introduce a notion of Rokhlin dimension for one parameter automorphism groups of {C^*}-algebras. This generalizes Kishimoto's Rokhlin property for flows, and is analogous to the notion of Rokhlin dimension for actions of the integers and other discrete groups introduced by the authors and Zacharias in previous papers. We show that finite nuclear dimension and absorption of a strongly self-absorbing {C^*}-algebra are preserved under forming crossed products by flows with finite Rokhlin dimension, and that these crossed products are stable. Furthermore, we show that a flow on a commutative {C^*}-algebra arising from a free topological flow has finite Rokhlin dimension, whenever the spectrum is a locally compact metrizable space with finite covering dimension. For flows that are both free and minimal, this has strong consequences for the associated crossed product {C^{*}}-algebras: Those containing a non-zero projection are classified by the Elliott invariant (for compact manifolds this consists of topological {K}-theory together with the space of invariant probability measures and a natural pairing given by the Ruelle-Sullivan map).

  5. Upscaling of Forchheimer flows

    KAUST Repository

    Aulisa, Eugenio

    2014-08-01

    In this work we propose upscaling method for nonlinear Forchheimer flow in heterogeneous porous media. The generalized Forchheimer law is considered for incompressible and slightly-compressible single-phase flows. We use recently developed analytical results (Aulisa et al., 2009) [1] and formulate the resulting system in terms of a degenerate nonlinear flow equation for the pressure with the nonlinearity depending on the pressure gradient. The coarse scale parameters for the steady state problem are determined so that the volumetric average of velocity of the flow in the domain on fine scale and on coarse scale are close. A flow-based coarsening approach is used, where the equivalent permeability tensor is first evaluated following streamline methods for linear cases, and modified in order to take into account the nonlinear effects. Compared to previous works (Garibotti and Peszynska, 2009) [2], (Durlofsky and Karimi-Fard) [3], this approach can be combined with rigorous mathematical upscaling theory for monotone operators, (Efendiev et al., 2004) [4], using our recent theoretical results (Aulisa et al., 2009) [1]. The developed upscaling algorithm for nonlinear steady state problems is effectively used for variety of heterogeneities in the domain of computation. Direct numerical computations for average velocity and productivity index justify the usage of the coarse scale parameters obtained for the special steady state case in the fully transient problem. For nonlinear case analytical upscaling formulas in stratified domain are obtained. Numerical results were compared to these analytical formulas and proved to be highly accurate. © 2014.

  6. Shaped Recess Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Vikram (Inventor); Poinsatte, Philip (Inventor); Thurman, Douglas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    One or more embodiments of techniques or systems for shaped recess flow control are provided herein. A shaped recess or cavity can be formed on a surface associated with fluid flow. The shaped recess can be configured to create or induce fluid effects, temperature effects, or shedding effects that interact with a free stream or other structures. The shaped recess can be formed at an angle to a free stream flow and may be substantially "V" shaped. The shaped recess can be coupled with a cooling channel, for example. The shaped recess can be upstream or downstream from a cooling channel and aligned in a variety of manners. Due to the fluid effects, shedding effects, and temperature effects created by a shaped recess, lift-off or separation of cooling jets of cooling channels can be mitigated, thereby enhancing film cooling effectiveness.

  7. Flow Based Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karpagam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Network topology design problems find application in several real life scenario. Approach: Most designs in the past either optimize for a single criterion like shortest or cost minimization or maximum flow. Results: This study discussed about solving a multi objective network topology design problem for a realistic traffic model specifically in the pipeline transportation. Here flow based algorithm focusing to transport liquid goods with maximum capacity with shortest distance, this algorithm developed with the sense of basic pert and critical path method. Conclusion/Recommendations: This flow based algorithm helps to give optimal result for transporting maximum capacity with minimum cost. It could be used in the juice factory, milk industry and its best alternate for the vehicle routing problem.

  8. Particles in flows

    CERN Document Server

    Galdi, Giovanni; Nečasová, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to face particles in flows from many different, but essentially interconnected sides and points of view. Thus the selection of authors and topics represented in the chapters, ranges from deep mathematical analysis of the associated models, through the techniques of their numerical solution, towards real applications and physical implications. The scope and structure of the book as well as the selection of authors was motivated by the very successful summer course and workshop "Particles in Flows'' that was held in Prague in the August of 2014. This meeting revealed the need for a book dealing with this specific and challenging multidisciplinary subject, i.e. particles in industrial, environmental and biomedical flows and the combination of fluid mechanics, solid body mechanics with various aspects of specific applications.

  9. Robust Optical Flow Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez Pérez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available n this work, we describe an implementation of the variational method proposed by Brox etal. in 2004, which yields accurate optical flows with low running times. It has several benefitswith respect to the method of Horn and Schunck: it is more robust to the presence of outliers,produces piecewise-smooth flow fields and can cope with constant brightness changes. Thismethod relies on the brightness and gradient constancy assumptions, using the information ofthe image intensities and the image gradients to find correspondences. It also generalizes theuse of continuous L1 functionals, which help mitigate the effect of outliers and create a TotalVariation (TV regularization. Additionally, it introduces a simple temporal regularizationscheme that enforces a continuous temporal coherence of the flow fields.

  10. Interactive Flow in Exercise Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Rebecca; Smith, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    A phenomenology of the bodily experience of interactive flow adds to Csikszentmihalyi's flow theory. Whereas Csikszentmihalyi attended to teachers' and students' experiences of flow separately, this inquiry explores flow through three water-inspired layers of physical interaction between fitness professionals and their clients. Teaching fitness is…

  11. Multiscale Image Based Flow Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Strzodka, Robert

    2006-01-01

    We present MIBFV, a method to produce real-time, multiscale animations of flow datasets. MIBFV extends the attractive features of the Image-Based Flow Visualization (IBFV) method, i.e. dense flow domain coverage with flow-aligned noise, real-time animation, implementation simplicity, and few (or no)

  12. Mechanics of fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Basniev, Kaplan S; Chilingar, George V 0

    2012-01-01

    The mechanics of fluid flow is a fundamental engineering discipline explaining both natural phenomena and human-induced processes, and a thorough understanding of it is central to the operations of the oil and gas industry.  This book, written by some of the world's best-known and respected petroleum engineers, covers the concepts, theories, and applications of the mechanics of fluid flow for the veteran engineer working in the field and the student, alike.  It is a must-have for any engineer working in the oil and gas industry.

  13. Transport hub flow modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Despagne, Wilfried; Frenod, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the road freight haulage activity. Using the physical and data flow information from a freight forwarder, we intend to model the flow of inbound and outbound goods in a freight transport hub. Approach: This paper presents the operation of a road haulage group. To deliver goods within two days to any location in France, a haulage contractor needs to be part of a network. This network handles the processing of both physical goods and data. We...

  14. Gas speed flow transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godovaniouk V. N.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The design of a gas speed flow transducer using the coupling of gas speed and heat streams within the transducer itself is proposed. To maintain the heat balance between two thermoresistors under gas stream at different temperatures, it provides energy consumption monitoring. The detailed combined planar technology for the transducer production is presented. The worked-out measurement procedure allows to make measurements in the temperature range. Information enough to organize production of cheap, reliable and precise gas speed flow transducers is given.

  15. Effect of Medium Flow Velocity on Corrosion Performance of X60 Pipeline Steel under High CO2 Pressure%介质流速对X60管线钢高压C02腐蚀行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴华; 黄黎明; 谷坛

    2012-01-01

    Using an autoclave with stirring equipment, the effect of flow velocity on the corrosion performance of X60 pipeline steel in rotating corrosion media under the condition of 60℃, 5 MPa CO2 was investigated. The results reveal that the flow of corrosion media can accelerate the corrosion rate, and the corrosion rate was nonlinear with the flow velocity. The flow of corrosion media made the corrosion mode changed from uniform corrosion to localized corrosion, and then to uniform corrosion agairn. The surface and cross-section morphology of corrosion product films also changed with the change of flow velocity.%在60℃、5MPaCO2条件下,采用高压釜试验研究了腐蚀介质的流动对X60管线钢腐蚀行为的影响。结果表明,腐蚀介质的流动导致腐蚀速率增大,但流速与腐蚀速率之间不存在线性关系;随着流速的增加,腐蚀形态呈现均匀腐蚀一局部腐蚀一均匀腐蚀的特点,腐蚀产物膜的表面和截面形貌也随之发生变化。

  16. Flow on noisy terrains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsirogiannis, Konstantinos; Haverkort, Herman

    2011-01-01

    Computing watersheds on triangulated terrain models in a robust manner is a difficult task as it is sensitive to noise that appears in the elevation values of the input. This is amplified by the existence of many very small watersheds (corresponding to spurious minima) that obscure the overall hy...... to use a robust flow model together with exact arithmetic....

  17. Bottleneck flows in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Punnen, Abraham P

    2007-01-01

    The bottleneck network flow problem (BNFP) is a generalization of several well-studied bottleneck problems such as the bottleneck transportation problem (BTP), bottleneck assignment problem (BAP), bottleneck path problem (BPP), and so on. In this paper we provide a review of important results on this topic and its various special cases. We observe that the BNFP can be solved as a sequence of $O(\\log n)$ maximum flow problems. However, special augmenting path based algorithms for the maximum flow problem can be modified to obtain algorithms for the BNFP with the property that these variations and the corresponding maximum flow algorithms have identical worst case time complexity. On unit capacity network we show that BNFP can be solved in $O(\\min \\{{m(n\\log n)}^{{2/3}}, m^{{3/2}}\\sqrt{\\log n}\\})$. This improves the best available algorithm by a factor of $\\sqrt{\\log n}$. On unit capacity simple graphs, we show that BNFP can be solved in $O(m \\sqrt {n \\log n})$ time. As a consequence we have an $O(m \\sqrt {n \\l...

  18. Infinitesimal Conical Supersonic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busemann, Adolf

    1947-01-01

    The calculation of infinitesimal conical supersonic flow has been applied first to the simplest examples that have also been calculated in another way. Except for the discovery of a miscalculation in an older report, there was found the expected conformity. The new method of calculation is limited more definitely to the conical case.

  19. Flow Injection Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1998-01-01

    Learning objectives:* To provide an introduction to automated assays* To describe the basic principles of FIA * To demonstrate the capabilities of FIA in relation to batch assays and conventional continuous flow systems* To show that FIA allows one to augment existing analytical techniques* To sh...

  20. Probabilistic Load Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of the probabilistic load flow (PLF) techniques. Applications of the PLF techniques in different areas of power system steady-state analysis are also discussed. The purpose of the review is to identify different available PLF techniques and their corresponding...

  1. Power flow controller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, J.A.; Yuan, Z.; De Haan, S.W.H.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a power flow controller, comprising at least one first converter coupled with a power transmission line, and at least one second converter coupled with a power source, wherein said power source operates at a predeter-mined first frequency and connects to the power transmissi

  2. Epiglottal Flow Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Andrew; Shinneeb, Abdul-Monsif

    2011-11-01

    PIV measurements have been made at three locations in the pharynx/larynx region in the ETA model, one along the central sagittal plane and two cross-sectional planes. The measurements were made at a flow rate of 9.04 l/min which corresponds approximately to 10 l/min in the prototype. The corresponding Reynolds number Re based on the inlet condition is 716. Two thousand images were acquired at each location at a framing rate of 2 Hz. The mean velocity fields were then calculated. In addition,the data was analysed by the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) technique to expose vortical structures. Only few modes were used for the POD reconstruction which recovered about 60% of the turbulent kinetic energy. The results showed that the flow is characterised by regions of re-circulation, jet-like, and sink-like flows. In addition, the POD-reconstructed fields revealed some interesting features that occur in the human pharynx/larynx region near the epiglottis such as tearing and pairing processes, as well as the interaction between the flows induced by the structures. Funded by NSERC.

  3. Delta Flow Modulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamhuis, Eize; Lengkeek, W

    2015-01-01

    A support structure (2) is installed in or near a water (50). The support structure is holding a deltalike-wing (3) under an angle of incidence relative to an incoming flow (54), caused by at least a prevailing current in the water, thus generating a vortex (77). The action of the vortex is

  4. Quaternions and ideal flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshraghi, H [Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), School of Physics, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gibbon, J D [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-29

    After a review of some of the recent works by Holm and Gibbon on quaternions and their application to Lagrangian flows, particularly the incompressible Euler equations and the equations of ideal MHD, this paper investigates the compressible and relativistic Euler equations using these methods.

  5. Let It Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alphonce Shiundu

    2011-01-01

    @@ AFRICA'S Gold Coast, otherwise known as the Republic of Ghana, marked the first 100 days since its oil taps began running, on March 25, 2011.The oil in question flows from the country s offshore Iubilee oilfield, recognized by the stakeholders to be the largest oil discovery in West Africa in the last 10 to 15 years.

  6. Experimental Investigation of Stator Flow in Diagonal Flow Fan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wang; Yoichi Kinoue; Norimasa Shiomi; Toshiaki Setoguchi; Kenji Kaneko; Yingzi Jin

    2008-01-01

    perimental investigations were conducted for the internal flow of the stator of the diagonal flow fan. Comer separation near the hub surface and the suction surface of the stator blade are focused on. At the design flow rate, the values of the axial velocity and the total pressure at stator outlet decrease near the suction surface at around the hub surface by the influence of the comer wall. At low flow rate of 80-90 % of the design flow rate, the comer separation between the suction surface and the hub surface can be found, which become widely spread at 80 % of the design flow rate.

  7. Experimental investigation of stator flow in diagonal flow fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Kinoue, Yoichi; Shiomi, Norimasa; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kaneko, Kenji; Jin, Yingzi

    2008-12-01

    Experimental investigations were conducted for the internal flow of the stator of the diagonal flow fan. Corner separation near the hub surface and the suction surface of the stator blade are focused on. At the design flow rate, the values of the axial velocity and the total pressure at stator outlet decrease near the suction surface at around the hub surface by the influence of the corner wall. At low flow rate of 80-90 % of the design flow rate, the corner separation between the suction surface and the hub surface can be found, which become widely spread at 80 % of the design flow rate.

  8. Numerical Analysis for the Air Flow of Cross Flow Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hirokazu; Tokushge, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Masatoshi; Ishihara, Takuya

    There are many factors for designing the cross flow fan. Therefore, the performance of cross flow fan is not clear yet. We can analyze the transient flow of a cross flow fan using sliding mesh approach. One of the tasks using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a way of modeling for analysis heat exchangers with cross flow fan. These tasks are very important for design. The paper has a modeling of heat exchangers and meshing the fan blades. The next tasks, we focus the ability of cross flow fan when we change the geometry of fan blades.

  9. How to use your peak flow meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peak flow meter - how to use; Asthma - peak flow meter; Reactive airway disease - peak flow meter; Bronchial asthma - peak flow meter ... If your airways are narrowed and blocked due to asthma, your peak flow values drop. You can ...

  10. 压热法结合反复冻融制备小麦抗性淀粉及其理化性质研究%Physicochemical Properties of Wheat Resistant Starch by Autoclave Method Combined with Repeated Freezing and Melting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雪娟; 刘丽斌; 黄继红; 王娟

    2013-01-01

    The autoclave method combined with repeated freezing and melting for preparation of wheat resistant starch was studied. And the physicochemical and structure properties of wheat resistant starch were investigated. The results showed that after freezing and melting treatment for 6 times, the content of wheat resistant starch reached the highest (18.31%). The water-holding ability, solubility and swelling capacity were influenced by the times of freezing and melting treatment.%以小麦淀粉为原料,利用压热法制备抗性淀粉,再经过反复冻融,以期提高产品的抗性淀粉含量.对产品的颗粒形貌、碘吸收曲线、持水力、膨胀度、溶解度等理化性质进行了测定.结果表明,反复冻融次数为6次时得到的小麦抗性淀粉含量最高,为18.31%,经过反复冻融处理的小麦抗性淀粉,颗粒呈不规则形,且在碘吸收曲线中稍微偏向直链淀粉吸收峰,表明其可能含有较多的直链淀粉.与小麦原淀粉相比,经反复冻融处理的小麦抗性淀粉的持水力与膨胀度显著增加,而溶解度显著降低.

  11. Flow networks analysis and optimization of repairable flow networks, networks with disturbed flows, static flow networks and reliability networks

    CERN Document Server

    Todinov, Michael T

    2013-01-01

    Repairable flow networks are a new area of research, which analyzes the repair and flow disruption caused by failures of components in static flow networks. This book addresses a gap in current network research by developing the theory, algorithms and applications related to repairable flow networks and networks with disturbed flows. The theoretical results presented in the book lay the foundations of a new generation of ultra-fast algorithms for optimizing the flow in networks after failures or congestion, and the high computational speed creates the powerful possibility of optimal control

  12. Self-Organized Network Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, D; Lämmer, S; Helbing, Dirk; Siegmeier, Jan; L\\"{a}mmer, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    A model for traffic flow in street networks or material flows in supply networks is presented, that takes into account the conservation of cars or materials and other significant features of traffic flows such as jam formation, spillovers, and load-dependent transportation times. Furthermore, conflicts or coordination problems of intersecting or merging flows are considered as well. Making assumptions regarding the permeability of the intersection as a function of the conflicting flows and the queue lengths, we find self-organized oscillations in the flows similar to the operation of traffic lights.

  13. FLOW-Methode - Methodenbeschreibung zur Anwendung von FLOW

    CERN Document Server

    Stapel, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Information of many kinds is flowing in software projects and organizations. Requirements have to flow from the customer to the developers. Testers need to know the requirements as well. Boundary conditions and design decisions have to be at the right place at the right time. Information flow analysis with FLOW facilitates modeling of mode and route of the flow of information and experience independent of the development methodology. Experience often acts as a control factor, because experienced developers can process and route information more efficiently. Therefore, experience needs to be at the right place at the right time, too. However, most valuable experiences never get documented. Since information and experience is flowing in agile as well as in traditional environments, the FLOW method does not distinguish between agile and traditional, but only between how the flows are shaped. ---- In Softwareprojekten flie{\\ss}en vielerlei Informationen. Anforderungen m\\"ussen vom Kunden zu den Entwicklern gelang...

  14. Load flow analysis using decoupled fuzzy load flow under critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    of power system, reliable fuzzy load flow is developed to overcome the limitations of the ... of power mismatches are taken as two inputs for fuzzy logic controller. ..... Programming Based Load Flow Algorithm For Systems Containing Unified ...

  15. Discrete Morse flow for Ricci flow and Porous Media equation

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Li

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the discrete Morse flow for the Ricci flow on football, which is the 2-sphere with removed north and south poles and with the metric $g_0$ of constant scalar curvature, and and for Porous media equation on a bounded regular domain in the plane. We show that with a suitable assumption about $g(0)$ we have a weak approximated discrete Morse flow for the approximated Ricci flow and Porous media equation on any time intervals.

  16. Slow viscous flow

    CERN Document Server

    Langlois, William E

    2014-01-01

    Leonardo wrote, 'Mechanics is the paradise of the mathematical sciences, because by means of it one comes to the fruits of mathematics' ; replace 'Mechanics' by 'Fluid mechanics' and here we are." -    from the Preface to the Second Edition Although the exponential growth of computer power has advanced the importance of simulations and visualization tools for elaborating new models, designs and technologies, the discipline of fluid mechanics is still large, and turbulence in flows remains a challenging problem in classical physics. Like its predecessor, the revised and expanded Second Edition of this book addresses the basic principles of fluid mechanics and solves fluid flow problems where viscous effects are the dominant physical phenomena. Much progress has occurred in the nearly half a century that has passed since the edition of 1964. As predicted, aspects of hydrodynamics once considered offbeat have risen to importance. For example, the authors have worked on problems where variations in viscosity a...

  17. Wet solids flow enhancemant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caram, H.S.; Foster, N.; Wildman, D.J. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    WE used glass beads of different sizes as.a model system to study the flow enhancing properties of Octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS). 0TS provides Si(CH{sub 2}){sub 17}CH{sub 3} groups that bind with the surface hydrox groups to make it hydrophobic. Experimental data showed, indeed, that surface hydrophobicity promotes the flow of wet granular materials. Mixtures of different percentage of silanized/unsilanized particles were prepared for tensile strength measurements. The tensile strength decreased as more silanized particles were added to the samples. The relationship between dimensionless tensile strength and void fraction followed the correlation found by Pierrat (1994). Contact angles were larger for the silanized particles, as compared with unsilanized ones.

  18. Structural power flow measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  19. Bondi flow revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, Satadal

    2016-01-01

    Newtonian spherically symmetric transonic accretion has been studied by including the mass of the accreting matter, while considering the growth of the accretor itself to be negligibly small. A novel iterative method has been introduced to accomplish that task. It has been demonstrated that the inclusion of the mass of the fluid changes the critical properties of the flow as well as the topological phase portraits of the stationary integral solution.

  20. Leukocytes in capillary flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid-Schönbein, G W; Lee, J

    1995-01-01

    During disease, the flow of blood cells through the capillary network is one of the most perilous events in the microcirculation. Capillary distensibility, cytoplasmic activity of endothelial cells, red cells and leukocytes play an important role in capillary perfusion. Occlusion of capillaries is one of the early signs of vascular failure and is encountered in many different conditions and organs. Adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium via expression of membrane adhesion molecules leads to microvascular entrapment with capillary occlusion.

  1. Flow Encountering Abrupt Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    deeper depths near 350 m at Helen Reef, northward flow of relatively salty water is seen. This salty water may serve as a tracer and may indicate...need further scrutiny since this system is intended for deep waters . Doppler sonars included the Hydrographic Doppler Sonar System (HDSS) with 50 and...each were done for bathymetry mapping. During the cross-shore surveys, additional deep water bathymetry was obtained with a majority of the area around

  2. Flow og fordybelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Frans Ørsted

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen handler om flow og fordybelse i et nyt tværfagligt / naturfagligt undervisningskoncept, "Overvågningens dilemma", til brug i folkeskolens 7.-9.kl. og på gymnasiale uddannelser. Konceptet sætter fokus på den overvågning der foregår og er mulig i nutidens IT og hi-tec samfund og der arbejd...

  3. TEP process flow diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, R Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlson, Bryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coons, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kubic, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

  4. Studies in transonic flow

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis is divided into, two distinct parts. Part I describes the design and development of an intermittent cryogenic wind-tunnel, in which the cold conditions are generated by the expansion of high pressure gas. The device uses a light piston moving in a tube and conditions during the running time are maintained constant by 'tuning' the piston motion, i. e. by Imatchingt the volumetric flow rate entering and leaving the tube. The results of the pilot tunnel (running tim...

  5. Projectile Base Flow Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    S) AND ADDRESS(ES) DCW Industries, Inc. 5354 Palm Drive La Canada, CA 91011 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...REPORT NUMBER DCW -38-R-05 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U. S. Army Research Office...Turbulence Modeling for CFD, Second Edition, DCW Industries, Inc., La Cañada, CA. Wilcox, D. C. (2001), “Projectile Base Flow Analysis,” DCW

  6. Flow Control Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    downstream of the propeller system. Figure 16 and Figure 17 show the ADV used by Huxley and Hartman [5] as well as a flow diagram for their...Max 17° Figure 23: Power Coefficient of Asymmetric Test Trials vs. Sinusoid pitch schedule. The aim of the work by Huxley and Hartman [5] was...Fagley, Ph.D. candidate, worked with Cadets Thiago Huxley and Christopher Hartman on a feedback controlled cycloidal wave energy converter in

  7. Transonic swirling nozzle flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Pawlas, Gary E.

    1991-06-01

    A numerical model of viscous transonic swirling flow in axisymmetric nozzles is developed. MacCormack's implicit Gauss-Seidel method is applied to the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations in transformed coordinates. Numerical results are compared with experimental data to validate the method. The effect of swirl and viscosity on nozzle performance are demonstrated by examining wall pressures, Mach contours, and integral parameters.

  8. Flow pattern in reverse-flow centrifugal separators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, W; Hoffmann, AC; Boot, PJAJ; Udding, A; Dries, HWA; Ekker, A; Kater, J

    2002-01-01

    Experimental flow patterns, determined by Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) for two types of reverse-flow centrifugal separators, are presented. The flow patterns in (a) a conventional cylinder-on-cone cyclone with tangential inlet and (b) a swirl tube with vane-generated swirl and a cylindrical body a

  9. Arterial secondary blood flow patterns visualized with vector flow ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Hansen, Jens Munk

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the first quantification and visualisation of secondary flow patterns with vector flow ultrasound. The first commercial implementation of the vector flow method Transverse Oscillation was used to obtain in-vivo, 2D vector fields in real-time. The hypothesis of this study...

  10. Flow Injection Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    2004-01-01

    This chapter provides an introduction to automated chemical analysis, which essentially can be divided into two groups: batch assays, where the solution is stationary while the container is moved through a number of stations where various unit operations performed; and continuous-flow procedures,......, but it permits thr execution of novel and unique analytical procedures which are difficult or even impossible by conventional means. The performance and applicability of FIA, SI and LOV are illustrated by a series of practical examples.......This chapter provides an introduction to automated chemical analysis, which essentially can be divided into two groups: batch assays, where the solution is stationary while the container is moved through a number of stations where various unit operations performed; and continuous-flow procedures......, where the system is stationary while the solution moves through a set of conduits in which all required manipulations are performed. Emphasis is placed on flow injection analysis (FIA) and its further developments, that is, sequential injection analysis (SIA) and the Lab-on-Valve (LOV) approach. Since...

  11. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H

    2013-01-01

    Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here). The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay). Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition) increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  12. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namkje Koudenburg

    Full Text Available Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here. The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay. Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  13. Magnetohydrodynamics of blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltner, J R; Roos, M S; Brakeman, P R; Budinger, T F

    1990-10-01

    The changes in hydrostatic pressure and electrical potentials across vessels in the human vasculature in the presence of a large static magnetic field are estimated to determine the feasibility of in vivo NMR spectroscopy at fields as high as 10 T.A 10-T magnetic field changes the vascular pressure in a model of the human vasculature by less than 0.2%. An exact solution to the magnetohydrodynamic equations describing a conducting fluid flowing transverse to a static magnetic field in a nonconducting, straight, circular tube is used. This solution is compared to an approximate solution that assumes that no magnetic fields are induced in the fluid and that has led previous investigators to predict significant biological effects from static magnetic fields. Experimental results show that the exact solution accurately predicts the magnetohydrodynamic slowing of 15% NaCl flowing transverse to 2.3- and 4.7-T magnetic fields for fluxes below 0.5 liter/min while the approximate solution predicts a much more retarded flow.

  14. Numerical Investigation on the Separated Flow of Axial Flow Stator in Diagonal Flow Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoue, Yoichi; Shiomi, Norimasa; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kaneko, Kenji; Jin, Yingzi

    2010-06-01

    Experimental and numerical investigations were conducted for the internal flow of the stator of the diagonal flow fan. Corner separation near the hub surface and the suction surface of the stator blade are focused on. At low flow rate of 80% of the design flow rate, the corner separation between the suction surface and the hub surface can be found in both experimental and numerical results. Separation vortices are found in the computed oil flow on both suction and hub surfaces at 80% of the design flow rate in the three-dimensional numerical simulation.

  15. Optical diagnostics of intermittent flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, V.L.; Naumov, I.V.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of combined use of different optical techniques for flow diagnostics is demonstrated with the practically important case of intense swirling flows. It is shown that, when applied separately, commonly used optical measuring techniques, such as laser Doppler anemometry and particle...... image velocimetry, frequently give erroneous results, especially for the transition flow and developed nonstationary flow. However, their combined use in diagnostics of unsteady (intermittent) flows significantly improves both the temporal and spatial resolution of measurements. Such a complex approach...... is for the first time applied for diagnostics of the flow pattern in a closed cylinder with a rotating end face with the aim of studying the changeover from the steady axisymmetric to unsteady asymmetric flow over a wide range of flow parameters. It is found that such a transition is notable for azimuthal...

  16. A Cryogenic Flow Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Based on the success of the phase I effort, Advanced Technologies Group, Inc. proposes the development of a Cryogenic Flow Sensor (CFS) for determining mass flow of...

  17. Flow list and test results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data accompany the manuscript 'Critical Review of Elementary Flows in LCA Data'. Each file presents a subgroup of the elementary flows (data used for analysis)...

  18. Asymmetric reactions in continuous flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yin Mak

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available An overview of asymmetric synthesis in continuous flow and microreactors is presented in this review. Applications of homogeneous and heterogeneous asymmetric catalysis as well as biocatalysis in flow are discussed.

  19. Virtual Flow Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-10-05

    Virtual Flow Simulator (VFS) is a state-of-the-art computational fluid mechanics (CFD) package that is capable of simulating multi-physics/multi-phase flows with the most advanced turbulence models (RANS, LES) over complex terrains. The flow solver is based on the Curvilinear Immersed Boundary (CURVIB) method to handle geometrically complex and moving domains. Different modules of the VFS package can provide different simulation capabilities for specific applications ranging from the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) of solid and deformable bodies, the two-phase free surface flow solver based on the level set method for ocean waves, sediment transport models in rivers and the large-scale models of wind farms based on actuator lines and surfaces. All numerical features of VFS package have been validated with known analytical and experimental data as reported in the related journal articles. VFS package is suitable for a broad range of engineering applications within different industries. VFS has been used in different projects with applications in wind and hydrokinetic energy, offshore and near-shore ocean studies, cardiovascular and biological flows, and natural streams and river morphodynamics. Over the last decade, the development of VFS has been supported and assisted with the help of various United States companies and federal agencies that are listed in the sponsor lists. In this version, VFS-Wind contains all the necessary modeling tools for wind energy applications, including land-based and offshore wind farms. VFS is highly scalable to run on either desktop computers or high performance clusters (up to 16,000 CPUs). This released version comes with a detailed user’s manual and a set of case studies designed to facilitate the learning of the various aspects of the code in a comprehensive manner. The included documentation and support material has been elaborated in a collaboration effort with Sandia National Labs under the contract DE-EE0005482. The VFS

  20. Property fund flows and returns

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen L. Lee

    2000-01-01

    This study is concerned with the impacts on property returns from property fund flows, and with the possibility of a reverse transmission from property fund flows to property returns. In other words this study investigates whether property returns “cause” fund flow changes, or whether fund flow changes “cause” property returns, or causality works in both directions.\\ud \\ud \\ud \\ud

  1. SPECIFIC SOLUTIONS GROUNDWATER FLOW EQUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Syahruddin, Muhammad Hamzah

    2014-01-01

    Geophysic publication Groundwater flow under surface, its usually slow moving, so that in laminer flow condition can find analisys using the Darcy???s law. The combination between Darcy law and continuity equation can find differential Laplace equation as general equation groundwater flow in sub surface. Based on Differential Laplace Equation is the equation that can be used to describe hydraulic head and velocity flow distribution in porous media as groundwater. In the modeling Laplace e...

  2. Wilsonian flows and background fields

    CERN Document Server

    Litim, Daniel F; Litim, Daniel F.; Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2002-01-01

    We study exact renormalisation group flows for background field dependent regularisations. It is shown that proper-time flows are approximations to exact background field flows for a specific class of regulators. We clarify the role of the implicit scale dependence introduced by the background field. Its impact on the flow is evaluated numerically for scalar theories at criticality for different approximations and regularisations. Implications for gauge theories are discussed.

  3. Property fund flows and returns

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Stephen L.

    2000-01-01

    This study is concerned with the impacts on property returns from property fund flows, and with the possibility of a reverse transmission from property fund flows to property returns. In other words this study investigates whether property returns “cause” fund flow changes, or whether fund flow changes “cause” property returns, or causality works in both directions.\\ud \\ud \\ud \\ud

  4. Bulk flow scaling for turbulent channel and pipe flows

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xi; She, Zhen-Su

    2016-01-01

    We report a theory deriving bulk flow scaling for canonical wall-bounded flows. The theory accounts for the symmetries of boundary geometry (flat plate channel versus circular pipe) by a variational calculation for a large-scale energy length, which characterizes its bulk flow scaling by a simple exponent, i.e. $m=4$ for channel and 5 for pipe. The predicted mean velocity shows excellent agreement with several dozen sets of quality empirical data for a wide range of the Reynolds number (Re), with a universal bulk flow constant $\\kappa\\approx0.45$. Predictions for dissipation and turbulent transport in the bulk flow are also given, awaiting data verification.

  5. Electroosmotic shear flow in microchannels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mampallil, Dileep; Ende, van den Dirk

    2013-01-01

    We generate and study electroosmotic shear flow in microchannels. By chemically or electrically modifying the surface potential of the channel walls a shear flow component with controllable velocity gradient can be added to the electroosmotic flow caused by double layer effects at the channel walls.

  6. Large amplitude oscillatory elongation flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Laillé, Philippe; Yu, Kaijia

    2008-01-01

    A filament stretching rheometer (FSR) was used for measuring the elongation flow with a large amplitude oscillative elongation imposed upon the flow. The large amplitude oscillation imposed upon the elongational flow as a function of the time t was defined as epsilon(t) =(epsilon) over dot(0)t + ...

  7. Localized turbulence in pipe flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuik, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis the transition to turbulence in pipe flow is investigated. At low Reynolds numbers, the flow returns to the laminar state spontaneously. At high Reynolds number a small perturbation causes the flow to suddenly become turbulent. In the intermediate regime localized turbulence is observ

  8. Decorrelation-based blood flow velocity estimation: effect of spread of flow velocity, linear flow velocity gradients, and parabolic flow.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupotti, F.A.; Steen, A.F.W. van der; Mastik, F.; Korte, C.L. de

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, a new method to measure transverse blood flow, based on the decorrelation of the radio frequency (RF) signals has been developed. In this paper, we investigated the influence of nonuniform flow on the velocity estimation. The decorrelation characteristics of transverse blood flow us

  9. Risk assessment future cash flows

    OpenAIRE

    Chachina H. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article is about risk assessment in planning future cash flows. Discount rate in DCF-model must include four factors: risk cash flow, inflation, value of investments, turnover assets. This has an influence net present value cash flow and make his incomparable.

  10. Flow around a line obstacle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.F.G.

    1983-01-01

    Shear layer flows which are strongly disturbed, often occur in nature as well as in engineering practice. Up to now little is known about this class of flows. This is Partly explained by the complexity of these flows and partly by a lack of experimental data. The objective of this study is: first, t

  11. EMBEDDING FLOWS AND SMOOTH CONJUGACY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGMEIRONG; LIWEIGU

    1997-01-01

    The authors use the functional equation for embedding vector fields to study smooth embedding flows of one-dimensional diffeomorphisms. The existence and uniqueness for smooth embedding flows and vector fields are proved. As an application of embedding flows, some classification results about local and giobal diffeomorphisms under smooth conjugacy are given.

  12. Risk assessment future cash flows

    OpenAIRE

    Chachina H. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article is about risk assessment in planning future cash flows. Discount rate in DCF-model must include four factors: risk cash flow, inflation, value of investments, turnover assets. This has an influence net present value cash flow and make his incomparable.

  13. Online traffic flow model applying dynamic flow-density relation

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation describes a new approach of the online traffic flow modelling based on the hydrodynamic traffic flow model and an online process to adapt the flow-density relation dynamically. The new modelling approach was tested based on the real traffic situations in various homogeneous motorway sections and a motorway section with ramps and gave encouraging simulation results. This work is composed of two parts: first the analysis of traffic flow characteristics and second the development of a new online traffic flow model applying these characteristics. For homogeneous motorway sections traffic flow is classified into six different traffic states with different characteristics. Delimitation criteria were developed to separate these states. The hysteresis phenomena were analysed during the transitions between these traffic states. The traffic states and the transitions are represented on a states diagram with the flow axis and the density axis. For motorway sections with ramps the complicated traffic fl...

  14. Let It Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alphonce; Shiundu

    2011-01-01

    Ghana’s Jubilee oilfield output projected to more than double by year-end AFRICA’S Gold Coast,otherwise known as the Republic of Ghana,marked the first 100 days since its oil taps began running,on March 25,2011.The oil in question flows from the country’s offshore Jubilee oilfield, recognized by the stakeholders to be the largest oil discovery in West Africa in the last 10 to 15 years. This discovery has injected an air of optimism amongst Ghana-

  15. Providing Compassion through Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Royeen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Meg Kral, MS, OTR/L, CLT, is the cover artist for the Summer 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. Her untitled piece of art is an oil painting and is a re-creation of a photograph taken while on vacation. Meg is currently supervisor of outpatient services at Rush University Medical Center. She is lymphedema certified and has a specific interest in breast cancer lymphedema. Art and occupational therapy serve similar purposes for Meg: both provide a sense of flow. She values the outcomes, whether it is a piece of art or improved functional status

  16. Continuous information flow fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinberg, Martin Luc; Horowitz, Jordan M.

    2016-10-01

    Information plays a pivotal role in the thermodynamics of nonequilibrium processes with feedback. However, much remains to be learned about the nature of information fluctuations in small-scale devices and their relation with fluctuations in other thermodynamics quantities, like heat and work. Here we derive a series of fluctuation theorems for information flow and partial entropy production in a Brownian particle model of feedback cooling and extend them to arbitrary driven diffusion processes. We then analyze the long-time behavior of the feedback-cooling model in detail. Our results provide insights into the structure and origin of large deviations of information and thermodynamic quantities in autonomous Maxwell's demons.

  17. Disorders of lymph flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, C L; Witte, M H

    1995-04-01

    Disturbances in blood capillary exchange of fluid, macromolecules, and cells across intact and abnormal microvessels and deranged lymphatic transport are integral, interacting components in disorders of tissue swelling. Lymphedema or low-output failure of the lymph circulation is often indolent for many years before lymphatic insufficiency (failure) and tissue swelling emerge and persist. Superimposed occult or overt infection (lymphangitis) are probably major contributors to progressive limb deformity (elephantiasis). Long-standing lymphedema is characterized by trapping in the skin and subcutaneous tissue of fluid, extravasated plasma proteins, and other macromolecules: impaired immune cell trafficking; abnormal processing of autologous and foreign antigens; heightened susceptibility to superimposed infection; local immunodysregulation; defective lymphatic (lymphangion) propulsion from an imbalance of mediators regulating vasomotion; soft-tissue overgrowth; scarring and hypertrophy; and exuberant angiogenesis occasionally culminating in vascular tumors (Fig. 8). In contrast to the blood circulation, where flow depends primarily on the propulsive force of the myocardium, lymph propulsion depends predominately on intrinsic truncal contraction, a phylogenetic vestige of amphibian lymph hearts. Whereas venous "plasma" flows rapidly (2-3 l/min) against low vascular resistance, lymph flows slowly (1-2 ml/min) against high vascular resistance. On occasion, impaired transport of intestinal lymph may be associated with reflux and accumulation and leakage of intestinal chyle in a swollen leg. Although the term "lymphedema" is usually reserved for extremity swelling, the pathogenesis of a wide variety of visceral disorders also may be traceable to defective tissue fluid and macromolecular circulation and impaired cell trafficking of lymphocytes and macrophages. Thus, lymph stasis, with impaired tissue fluid flow, underlies or complicates an indolent subclinical course with

  18. Cash flow management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenetzky, S A

    1993-06-01

    In the face of decreasing reimbursement and increasing expenses, careful cash flow management has assumed an increasingly important role in developing and maintaining a successful ophthalmology practice. Funds must be collected as promptly and efficiently as possible, and retained and invested until needed by the practice to pay expenses. Office collection techniques and suggestions for dealing with third-party payers are presented. Managed care contracting and the inherent risks involved are discussed. Advice on accounts payable management is provided, and suggestions for investment of idle funds are outlined. This information should allow the formulation of a practical plan to maximize profitability in each ophthalmology practice.

  19. Resting cerebral blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ances, B M.; Sisti, D; Vaida, F; Liang, C L.; Leontiev, O; Perthen, J E.; Buxton, R B.; Benson, D; Smith, D M.; Little, S J.; Richman, D D.; Moore, D J.; Ellis, R J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: HIV enters the brain soon after infection causing neuronal damage and microglial/astrocyte dysfunction leading to neuropsychological impairment. We examined the impact of HIV on resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) within the lenticular nuclei (LN) and visual cortex (VC). Methods: This cross-sectional study used arterial spin labeling MRI (ASL-MRI) to measure rCBF within 33 HIV+ and 26 HIV− subjects. Nonparametric Wilcoxon rank sum test assessed rCBF differences due to HIV serostatus. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis determined optimal rCBF cutoffs for differentiating HIV serostatus. The effects of neuropsychological impairment and infection duration on rCBF were evaluated. Results: rCBF within the LN and VC were significantly reduced for HIV+ compared to HIV− subjects. A 2-tiered CART approach using either LN rCBF ≤50.09 mL/100 mL/min or LN rCBF >50.09 mL/100 mL/min but VC rCBF ≤37.05 mL/100 mL/min yielded an 88% (29/33) sensitivity and an 88% (23/26) specificity for differentiating by HIV serostatus. HIV+ subjects, including neuropsychologically unimpaired, had reduced rCBF within the LN (p = 0.02) and VC (p = 0.001) compared to HIV− controls. A temporal progression of brain involvement occurred with LN rCBF significantly reduced for both acute/early (<1 year of seroconversion) and chronic HIV-infected subjects, whereas rCBF in the VC was diminished for only chronic HIV-infected subjects. Conclusion: Resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using arterial spin labeling MRI has the potential to be a noninvasive neuroimaging biomarker for assessing HIV in the brain. rCBF reductions that occur soon after seroconversion possibly reflect neuronal or vascular injury among HIV+ individuals not yet expressing neuropsychological impairment. GLOSSARY AEH = acute/early HIV infection; ANOVA = analysis of variance; ASL-MRI = arterial spin labeling MRI; CART = classification and regression tree; CBF = cerebral blood flow; CH = chronic HIV

  20. Flow in air conditioned rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    1974-01-01

    Flow in air conditioned r ooms is examined by means of model experiments . The different gearnetries giving unsteady, steady three- dimensional and steady twodimensional flow are determined . Velacity profiles and temperature profiles are measured in some of the geometries. A numerical solution...... of the flow equations is demonstrated and the flow in air conditioned rooms in case of steady two dimensional flow is predi cted. Compari son with measured results is shown i n the case of small Archimedes numbers, and predictions are shown at high Archimedes numbers. A numerical prediction of f low and heat...