WorldWideScience

Sample records for platform-independent applications written

  1. A platform independent communication library for distributed computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, D.; Rieder, S.; Grosso, P.; de Laat, C.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2010-01-01

    We present MPWide, a platform independent communication library for performing message passing between supercomputers. Our library couples several local MPI applications through a long distance network using, for example, optical links. The implementation is deliberately kept light-weight, platform

  2. Designing platform independent mobile apps and services

    CERN Document Server

    Heckman, Rocky

    2016-01-01

    This book explains how to help create an innovative and future proof architecture for mobile apps by introducing practical approaches to increase the value and flexibility of their service layers and reduce their delivery time. Designing Platform Independent Mobile Apps and Services begins by describing the mobile computing landscape and previous attempts at cross platform development. Platform independent mobile technologies and development strategies are described in chapter two and three. Communication protocols, details of a recommended five layer architecture, service layers, and the data abstraction layer are also introduced in these chapters. Cross platform languages and multi-client development tools for the User Interface (UI) layer, as well as message processing patterns and message routing of the Service Int rface (SI) layer are explained in chapter four and five. Ways to design the service layer for mobile computing, using Command Query Responsibility Segregation (CQRS) and the Data Abstraction La...

  3. A Platform-independent Programming Environment for Robot Control

    CERN Document Server

    Reckhaus, Michael; Ploeger, Paul G; Kraetzschmar, Gerhard K

    2010-01-01

    The development of robot control programs is a complex task. Many robots are different in their electrical and mechanical structure which is also reflected in the software. Specific robot software environments support the program development, but are mainly text-based and usually applied by experts in the field with profound knowledge of the target robot. This paper presents a graphical programming environment which aims to ease the development of robot control programs. In contrast to existing graphical robot programming environments, our approach focuses on the composition of parallel action sequences. The developed environment allows to schedule independent robot actions on parallel execution lines and provides mechanism to avoid side-effects of parallel actions. The developed environment is platform-independent and based on the model-driven paradigm. The feasibility of our approach is shown by the application of the sequencer to a simulated service robot and a robot for educational purpose.

  4. A Platform-Independent Plugin for Navigating Online Radiology Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkman, Jason D; Awan, Omer A

    2016-06-01

    Software methods that enable navigation of radiology cases on various digital platforms differ between handheld devices and desktop computers. This has resulted in poor compatibility of online radiology teaching files across mobile smartphones, tablets, and desktop computers. A standardized, platform-independent, or "agnostic" approach for presenting online radiology content was produced in this work by leveraging modern hypertext markup language (HTML) and JavaScript web software technology. We describe the design and evaluation of this software, demonstrate its use across multiple viewing platforms, and make it publicly available as a model for future development efforts.

  5. Development of a platform-independent receiver control system for SISIFOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Roland; Olberg, Michael

    1998-05-01

    Up to now receiver control software was a time consuming development usually written by receiver engineers who had mainly the hardware in mind. We are presenting a low-cost and very flexible system which uses a minimal interface to the real hardware, and which makes it easy to adapt to new receivers. Our system uses Tcl/Tk as a graphical user interface (GUI), SpecTcl as a GUI builder, Pgplot as plotting software, a simple query language (SQL) database for information storage and retrieval, Ethernet socket to socket communication and SCPI as a command control language. The complete system is in principal platform independent but for cost saving reasons we are using it actually on a PC486 running Linux 2.0.30, which is a copylefted Unix. The only hardware dependent part are the digital input/output boards, analog to digital and digital to analog convertors. In the case of the Linux PC we are using a device driver development kit to integrate the boards fully into the kernel of the operating system, which indeed makes them look like an ordinary device. The advantage of this system is firstly the low price and secondly the clear separation between the different software components which are available for many operating systems. If it is not possible, due to CPU performance limitations, to run all the software in a single machine,the SQL-database or the graphical user interface could be installed on separate computers.

  6. HDBStat!: A platform-independent software suite for statistical analysis of high dimensional biology data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brand Jacob PL

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many efforts in microarray data analysis are focused on providing tools and methods for the qualitative analysis of microarray data. HDBStat! (High-Dimensional Biology-Statistics is a software package designed for analysis of high dimensional biology data such as microarray data. It was initially developed for the analysis of microarray gene expression data, but it can also be used for some applications in proteomics and other aspects of genomics. HDBStat! provides statisticians and biologists a flexible and easy-to-use interface to analyze complex microarray data using a variety of methods for data preprocessing, quality control analysis and hypothesis testing. Results Results generated from data preprocessing methods, quality control analysis and hypothesis testing methods are output in the form of Excel CSV tables, graphs and an Html report summarizing data analysis. Conclusion HDBStat! is a platform-independent software that is freely available to academic institutions and non-profit organizations. It can be downloaded from our website http://www.soph.uab.edu/ssg_content.asp?id=1164.

  7. 21 CFR 1312.31 - Schedule I: Application for prior written approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... IMPORTATION AND EXPORTATION OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Transshipment and In-Transit Shipment of Controlled... documents or written statements of fact relevant to the application as he deems necessary to determine... applicant of an opportunity to present such documents or facts for consideration by the Administrator...

  8. Expanding the Media Mix in Statistics Education through Platform-Independent and Interactive Learning Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittag, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquity of mobile devices demands the exploitation of their potentials in distance and face-to-face teaching, as well for complementing textbooks in printed or electronic format. There is a strong need to develop innovative resources that open up new dimensions of learning and teaching through interactive and platform-independent content.…

  9. POLITO- A new open-source, platform independent software for generating high-quality lithostratigraphic columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipran C. Stremtan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available POLITO is a free, open-source, and platform-independent software which can automatically generate lithostratigraphic columns from field data. Its simple and easy to use interface allows users to manipulate large datasets and create high-quality graphical outputs, either in editable vector or raster format, or as PDF files. POLITO uses USGS standard lithology patterns and can be downloaded from its Sourceforge project page (http://sourceforge.net/projects/polito/.

  10. InfVis--platform-independent visual data mining of multidimensional chemical data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellien, Frank; Ihlenfeldt, Wolf-Dietrich; Gasteiger, Johann

    2005-01-01

    The tremendous increase of chemical data sets, both in size and number, and the simultaneous desire to speed up the drug discovery process has resulted in an increasing need for a new generation of computational tools that assist in the extraction of information from data and allow for rapid and in-depth data mining. During recent years, visual data mining has become an important tool within the life sciences and drug discovery area with the potential to help avoiding data analysis from turning into a bottleneck. In this paper, we present InfVis, a platform-independent visual data mining tool for chemists, who usually only have little experience with classical data mining tools, for the visualization, exploration, and analysis of multivariate data sets. InfVis represents multidimensional data sets by using intuitive 3D glyph information visualization techniques. Interactive and dynamic tools such as dynamic query devices allow real-time, interactive data set manipulations and support the user in the identification of relationships and patterns. InfVis has been implemented in Java and Java3D and can be run on a broad range of platforms and operating systems. It can also be embedded as an applet in Web-based interfaces. We will present in this paper examples detailing the analysis of a reaction database that demonstrate how InfVis assists chemists in identifying and extracting hidden information.

  11. Assessing student written problem solutions: A problem-solving rubric with application to introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Dornfeld, Jay; Frodermann, Evan; Heller, Kenneth; Hsu, Leonardo; Jackson, Koblar Alan; Mason, Andrew; Ryan, Qing X.; Yang, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Problem solving is a complex process valuable in everyday life and crucial for learning in the STEM fields. To support the development of problem-solving skills it is important for researchers and curriculum developers to have practical tools that can measure the difference between novice and expert problem-solving performance in authentic classroom work. It is also useful if such tools can be employed by instructors to guide their pedagogy. We describe the design, development, and testing of a simple rubric to assess written solutions to problems given in undergraduate introductory physics courses. In particular, we present evidence for the validity, reliability, and utility of the instrument. The rubric identifies five general problem-solving processes and defines the criteria to attain a score in each: organizing problem information into a Useful Description, selecting appropriate principles (Physics Approach), applying those principles to the specific conditions in the problem (Specific Application of Physics), using Mathematical Procedures appropriately, and displaying evidence of an organized reasoning pattern (Logical Progression).

  12. "I Like to Plan Events": A Document Analysis of Essays Written by Applicants to a Public Relations Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald E.

    2016-01-01

    A document analysis of 249 essays written during a 5-year period by applicants to a public relations program at a major state university in the southeast suggests that there are enduring reasons why students choose to major in public relations. Public relations is described as a major that allows for and encourages creative expression and that…

  13. "I Like to Plan Events": A Document Analysis of Essays Written by Applicants to a Public Relations Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald E.

    2016-01-01

    A document analysis of 249 essays written during a 5-year period by applicants to a public relations program at a major state university in the southeast suggests that there are enduring reasons why students choose to major in public relations. Public relations is described as a major that allows for and encourages creative expression and that…

  14. Effects of Verbal and Written Performance Feedback on Treatment Adherence: Practical Application of Two Delivery Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Dahlia; Codding, Robin S.; Markus, Keith A.; Tryon, Georgiana Shick; Kyse, Eden Nagler

    2013-01-01

    Verbal and written performance feedback for improving preschool and kindergarten teachers' treatment integrity of behavior plans was compared using a combined multiple-baseline and multiple-treatment design across teacher-student dyads with order counterbalanced as within-series conditions. Supplemental generalized least square regression analyses…

  15. Musrfit: A Free Platform-Independent Framework for μSR Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, A.; Wojek, B. M.

    Afree data-analysis framework forμSR has been developed. musrfit is fully written in C++, is running under GNU/Linux, MacOSX, as well as Microsoft Windows, andis distributed under the termsof the GNU GPL.Itis based on the CERN ROOT framework and is utilizing the Minuit2 optimization routines for fitting. It consists of a set of programmes allowing the user to analyze and visualize the data.The fitting process is controlled by an ASCII-input file with an extended syntax. A dedicated text editoris helping the user to createand handle these files in an efficient way, execute the fitting, show the data, get online help, and so on. Aversatile tool for the generation of new input files and the extraction of fit parameters is provided as well. musrfit facilitates a plugin mechanism allowing to invoke user-defined functions. Hence, the functionality of the framework can be extended with a minimal amount of overhead for the user. Currently, musrfit can read the followingfacility raw-data files: PSI-BIN, MDU (PSI), ROOT (LEM/PSI), WKM (outdated ASCII format), MUD (TRIUMF), NeXus (ISIS).

  16. musrfit: A free platform-independent framework for muSR data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Suter, A

    2011-01-01

    A free data-analysis framework for muSR has been developed. musrfit is fully written in C++, is running under GNU/Linux, Mac OS X, as well as Microsoft Windows, and is distributed under the terms of the GNU GPL. It is based on the CERN ROOT framework and is utilizing the Minuit optimization routines for fitting. It consists of a set of programs allowing the user to analyze and visualize the data. The fitting process is controlled by an ascii-input file with an extended syntax. A dedicated text editor is helping the user to create and handle these files in an efficient way, execute the fitting, show the data, get online help, and so on. A versatile tool for the generation of new input files and the extraction of fit parameters is provided as well. musrfit facilitates a plugin mechanism allowing to invoke user-defined functions. Hence, the functionality of the framework can be extended with a minimal amount of overhead for the user. Currently, musrfit can read the following facility raw-data files: PSI-BIN, MDU...

  17. Direct and Indirect Written Corrective Feedback in the Context of Genre-based Instruction on Job Application Letter Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mirzaii

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that a considerable proportion of today’s writing programs operate according to the principles of genre-based instruction, research has not adequately dealt with the teaching of various genres (e.g., job application letters. Nor has research, to date, attempted to address the issue of written corrective feedback in conjunction with genre-based instruction. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate the impact of written corrective feedback in the context of genre-based instruction on job application letters. To this end, 120 Iranian advanced-level EFL learners at Kish Institute of Science and Technology participated in the present study. After administering the TOEFL test, 80 students scoring within ±1 SD of the mean score were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups?namely, Direct Feedback Group or Indirect Feedback Group. Having sat a writing pretest, the participants received genre-based instruction on how to compose job application letters. Meanwhile, they were supplied with direct or indirect feedback on their writing. Following this instruction, a writing posttest was administered, the results of which showed that direct corrective feedback was more effective than indirect corrective feedback in the context of genre-based instruction on letters of job application.

  18. The design and application of effective written instructional material: a review of published work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, John F

    2007-09-01

    This review will consider the evidence base for the format of educational material drawing on academic papers and the practice of the design industry. The core issues identified from the review are drawn together in guidelines for educational posters, text and web based material. The review deals with the design of written material both for use in leaflets and books as well as the impact of factors such as font type and size as well as colour on poster design. It sets these aspects of educational material within a research framework, which looks at impact on learning and subsequent change in practice. These issues are examined through a practical example of a poster designed for a regional gastroenterology meeting.

  19. A platform-independent method to reduce CT truncation artifacts using discriminative dictionary representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Budde, Adam; Li, Ke; Li, Yinsheng; Hsieh, Jiang; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2017-01-01

    When the scan field of view (SFOV) of a CT system is not large enough to enclose the entire cross-section of the patient, or the patient needs to be positioned partially outside the SFOV for certain clinical applications, truncation artifacts often appear in the reconstructed CT images. Many truncation artifact correction methods perform extrapolations of the truncated projection data based on certain a priori assumptions. The purpose of this work was to develop a novel CT truncation artifact reduction method that directly operates on DICOM images. The blooming of pixel values associated with truncation was modeled using exponential decay functions, and based on this model, a discriminative dictionary was constructed to represent truncation artifacts and nonartifact image information in a mutually exclusive way. The discriminative dictionary consists of a truncation artifact subdictionary and a nonartifact subdictionary. The truncation artifact subdictionary contains 1000 atoms with different decay parameters, while the nonartifact subdictionary contains 1000 independent realizations of Gaussian white noise that are exclusive with the artifact features. By sparsely representing an artifact-contaminated CT image with this discriminative dictionary, the image was separated into a truncation artifact-dominated image and a complementary image with reduced truncation artifacts. The artifact-dominated image was then subtracted from the original image with an appropriate weighting coefficient to generate the final image with reduced artifacts. This proposed method was validated via physical phantom studies and retrospective human subject studies. Quantitative image evaluation metrics including the relative root-mean-square error (rRMSE) and the universal image quality index (UQI) were used to quantify the performance of the algorithm. For both phantom and human subject studies, truncation artifacts at the peripheral region of the SFOV were effectively reduced, revealing

  20. Conversion of HSPF Legacy Model to a Platform-Independent, Open-Source Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaphy, R. T.; Burke, M. P.; Love, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    good agreement and similar execution times while using the Numba compiler. Continued verification of the accuracy of the converted code against more complex legacy applications and improvement upon execution times by incorporating an intelligent network change detection tool is currently underway, and preliminary results will be presented.

  1. Biomarker discovery by CE-MS enables sequence analysis via MS/MS with platform-independent separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürbig, Petra; Renfrow, Matthew B; Schiffer, Eric; Novak, Jan; Walden, Michael; Wittke, Stefan; Just, Ingo; Pelzing, Matthias; Neusüss, Christian; Theodorescu, Dan; Root, Karen E; Ross, Mark M; Mischak, Harald

    2006-06-01

    CE-MS is a successful proteomic platform for the definition of biomarkers in different body fluids. Besides the biomarker defining experimental parameters, CE migration time and molecular weight, especially biomarker's sequence identity is an indispensable cornerstone for deeper insights into the pathophysiological pathways of diseases or for made-to-measure therapeutic drug design. Therefore, this report presents a detailed discussion of different peptide sequencing platforms consisting of high performance separation method either coupled on-line or off-line to different MS/MS devices, such as MALDI-TOF-TOF, ESI-IT, ESI-QTOF and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, for sequencing indicative peptides. This comparison demonstrates the unique feature of CE-MS technology to serve as a reliable basis for the assignment of peptide sequence data obtained using different separation MS/MS methods to the biomarker defining parameters, CE migration time and molecular weight. Discovery of potential biomarkers by CE-MS enables sequence analysis via MS/MS with platform-independent sample separation. This is due to the fact that the number of basic and neutral polar amino acids of biomarkers sequences distinctly correlates with their CE-MS migration time/molecular weight coordinates. This uniqueness facilitates the independent entry of different sequencing platforms for peptide sequencing of CE-MS-defined biomarkers from highly complex mixtures.

  2. What makes a written text written

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亦倩

    2008-01-01

    Text can be used for both written and spoken language, and different features of spoken and written texts provide us the possibility to have a general idea of the division of two main categories--spoken English and written English. In this article, an attempt will be given to a sample text in order to discuss the general features of written texts.

  3. Platform-Independent Cirrus and Spectralis Thickness Measurements in Eyes with Diabetic Macular Edema Using Fully Automated Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Alex S; Chiu, Stephanie J; Silverman, Rachel K; Farsiu, Sina; Bailey, Clare; Wiley, Henry E; Ferris, Frederick L; Jaffe, Glenn J

    2017-02-01

    We determine whether the automated segmentation software, Duke Optical Coherence Tomography Retinal Analysis Program (DOCTRAP), can measure, in a platform-independent manner, retinal thickness on Cirrus and Spectralis spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) under treatment in a clinical trial. Automatic segmentation software was used to segment the internal limiting membrane (ILM), inner retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and Bruch's membrane (BM) in SD-OCT images acquired by Cirrus and Spectralis commercial systems, from the same eye, on the same day during a clinical interventional DME trial. Mean retinal thickness differences were compared across commercial and DOCTRAP platforms using intraclass correlation (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots. The mean 1 mm central subfield thickness difference (standard error [SE]) comparing segmentation of Spectralis images with DOCTRAP versus HEYEX was 0.7 (0.3) μm (0.2 pixels). The corresponding values comparing segmentation of Cirrus images with DOCTRAP versus Cirrus software was 2.2 (0.7) μm. The mean 1 mm central subfield thickness difference (SE) comparing segmentation of Cirrus and Spectralis scan pairs with DOCTRAP using BM as the outer retinal boundary was -2.3 (0.9) μm compared to 2.8 (0.9) μm with inner RPE as the outer boundary. DOCTRAP segmentation of Cirrus and Spectralis images produces validated thickness measurements that are very similar to each other, and very similar to the values generated by the corresponding commercial software in eyes with treated DME. This software enables automatic total retinal thickness measurements across two OCT platforms, a process that is impractical to perform manually.

  4. Platform-Independent Cirrus and Spectralis Thickness Measurements in Eyes with Diabetic Macular Edema Using Fully Automated Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Alex S.; Chiu, Stephanie J.; Silverman, Rachel K.; Farsiu, Sina; Bailey, Clare; Wiley, Henry E.; Ferris, Frederick L.; Jaffe, Glenn J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We determine whether the automated segmentation software, Duke Optical Coherence Tomography Retinal Analysis Program (DOCTRAP), can measure, in a platform-independent manner, retinal thickness on Cirrus and Spectralis spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) under treatment in a clinical trial. Methods Automatic segmentation software was used to segment the internal limiting membrane (ILM), inner retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and Bruch's membrane (BM) in SD-OCT images acquired by Cirrus and Spectralis commercial systems, from the same eye, on the same day during a clinical interventional DME trial. Mean retinal thickness differences were compared across commercial and DOCTRAP platforms using intraclass correlation (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots. Results The mean 1 mm central subfield thickness difference (standard error [SE]) comparing segmentation of Spectralis images with DOCTRAP versus HEYEX was 0.7 (0.3) μm (0.2 pixels). The corresponding values comparing segmentation of Cirrus images with DOCTRAP versus Cirrus software was 2.2 (0.7) μm. The mean 1 mm central subfield thickness difference (SE) comparing segmentation of Cirrus and Spectralis scan pairs with DOCTRAP using BM as the outer retinal boundary was −2.3 (0.9) μm compared to 2.8 (0.9) μm with inner RPE as the outer boundary. Conclusions DOCTRAP segmentation of Cirrus and Spectralis images produces validated thickness measurements that are very similar to each other, and very similar to the values generated by the corresponding commercial software in eyes with treated DME. Translational Relevance This software enables automatic total retinal thickness measurements across two OCT platforms, a process that is impractical to perform manually. PMID:28180033

  5. A Comparison of the Performance of Graduate and Undergraduate School Applicants on the Test of Written English. TOEFL Research Reports Report 50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Rebecca; Thayer, Dorothy T.

    The performance of graduate and undergraduate school applicants on the Test of Written English (TWE) was compared for each of 66 data sets, dating from 1988 to 1993. The analyses compared the average TWE score for graduates and undergraduates after matching examinees on the total score on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). The main…

  6. Investigation of Turbulence Effect on Dynamic Behaviour of Aircraft Through Use of JDYNASIM: A Platform Independent Simulation Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Coiro

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The need of fast and interactive tool to simulate aircraft behaviour is a demand of modern technology. This necessity is more evident when light aircraft and sailplanes are involved.. This paper presents an attempt to give simulation possibility almost to everyone through the use of JDynaSim code, written to meet this goal. JDynaSim is an interactive graphic flight simulation code written in JAVA and VRML languages which practically allows everyone to fly the aeroplane under investigation. This is true due to the fact that JAVA is a language born to work under a generic Internet browser (such as Microsoft Explorer or Netscape and thus it is independent from the operating system under which it is running. Dynamic motion equations are solved by 12 ordinary non-linear differential equations in which the non-linear forces are input in multidimensional matrix form and are interpolated at each time instant. Advancing in time is performed using a 4th order Runge-Kutta integration scheme. Translation equations of motion are written in a flight path axis system while rotational equations are written on body axis system. An on-purpose written pre-processor has to be used to transform forces to appropriate reference system. The code can interactively read mouse and keyboard inputs as well as files with command laws assigned in function of time. There is the possibility to record the interactive session performed and then to repeat the manoeuvre. This paper presents also the code extension for simulating the effect of gusts generated according to classical theories. In particular investigation has been performed to compare results coming from classical theories on aircraft responses to gusts inputs respect to those coming from JDynSim flight simulator. JDynaSim is available to everybody through Internet at the following URL: http://www.dpa.unina.it/coiro/

  7. Modeling business object platform independent model and its completeness%业务对象平台无关模型建模方法及其完备性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯锦丹; 战德臣; 聂兰顺; 徐晓飞; 李晋; 韩毅斌

    2011-01-01

    To support the well-frame Platform Independent Model (PIM) design of the business object so as to support the model-driven enterprise software and application development, semantic domain and granularity of the business object's concept were extended. Based on studies of Interoperable Configurable Enterprise Model Driven Architecture (ICEMDA), formal definition and business object PIM were presented. From the perspectives of basic elements (data, operation, state and interrelationships), semantic completeness constratints for business object model was provided. Application results showed that the study provided basic theoretical support for platform-independent modeling based on coarse-grained business object.%为支持业务对象平台无关模型的设计,以支撑模型驱动的企业应用软件开发,扩展了业务对象概念的语义范畴和粒度,在可互操作可配置可执行的模型驱动体系结构研究的基础上,给出了业务对象形式化定义和业务对象的平台无关模型.从基本构成要素(数据集、操作集、状态集及其间关系)的角度,给出支持业务对象模型的语义完备性约束.实践表明,研究成果可为大粒度业务对象平台无关建模提供基础的理论支撑.

  8. Front-end vision and multi-scale image analysis multi-scale computer vision theory and applications, written in Mathematica

    CERN Document Server

    Romeny, Bart M Haar

    2008-01-01

    Front-End Vision and Multi-Scale Image Analysis is a tutorial in multi-scale methods for computer vision and image processing. It builds on the cross fertilization between human visual perception and multi-scale computer vision (`scale-space') theory and applications. The multi-scale strategies recognized in the first stages of the human visual system are carefully examined, and taken as inspiration for the many geometric methods discussed. All chapters are written in Mathematica, a spectacular high-level language for symbolic and numerical manipulations. The book presents a new and effective

  9. CORRECTING WRITTEN WORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Introduction During the teaching and learning process, teachers often check how much students have understood through written assignments. In this article I’d like to describe one method of correcting students’ written work by using a variety of symbols to indicate where students have gone wrong, then asking students to correct their work themselves.

  10. Platform-Independent Courseware Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Shimomura

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Courseware distribution between different platforms is the major issue of current e-Learning. SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model is one of the solutions for courseware sharing. However, to make SCORM-conformable courseware, some knowledge about HTML and JavaScript is required. This paper presents a SWF (Sharable Web Fragment-based e-Learning system, where courseware is created with sharable Web fragments such as Web pages, images and other resources, and the courseware can be distributed to another platform by export and import facilities. It also demonstrates how to export a subject that contains assignments and problems and how to import the whole subject, only the assignments, or only the problems. The exported meta-information is architecture-independent and provides a model of courseware distribution.

  11. Automatic classification of written descriptions by healthy adults: An overview of the application of natural language processing and machine learning techniques to clinical discourse analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Matsuda Toledo

    Full Text Available Discourse production is an important aspect in the evaluation of brain-injured individuals. We believe that studies comparing the performance of brain-injured subjects with that of healthy controls must use groups with compatible education. A pioneering application of machine learning methods using Brazilian Portuguese for clinical purposes is described, highlighting education as an important variable in the Brazilian scenario.OBJECTIVE: The aims were to describe how to: (i develop machine learning classifiers using features generated by natural language processing tools to distinguish descriptions produced by healthy individuals into classes based on their years of education; and (ii automatically identify the features that best distinguish the groups.METHODS: The approach proposed here extracts linguistic features automatically from the written descriptions with the aid of two Natural Language Processing tools: Coh-Metrix-Port and AIC. It also includes nine task-specific features (three new ones, two extracted manually, besides description time; type of scene described - simple or complex; presentation order - which type of picture was described first; and age. In this study, the descriptions by 144 of the subjects studied in Toledo18 were used, which included 200 healthy Brazilians of both genders.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:A Support Vector Machine (SVM with a radial basis function (RBF kernel is the most recommended approach for the binary classification of our data, classifying three of the four initial classes. CfsSubsetEval (CFS is a strong candidate to replace manual feature selection methods.

  12. Reconsidering written language

    CERN Document Server

    Sarma, Gopal

    2013-01-01

    In a previous essay, I argued that European schools of thought on memory and memorization were critical in enabling widespread adoption of the scientific method. Here, as a way of understanding the peculiar relationship the memory arts had to 17th century philosophy and intellectual culture, I propose a historical thought experiment, and examine whether these developments might have occurred several thousand years earlier when the adoption of written language accelerated. I suggest that strong cultural norms discouraging the use of written language may have precipitated a scientific revolution at a much earlier stage in human history. I close by arguing for the value of counter-factual scientific histories in attempting to separate scientific principles from the particular historical circumstances in which they arose.

  13. 28 CFR 55.19 - Written materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Minority Language Materials and Assistance § 55.19 Written... provided in a minority language. A jurisdiction required to provide minority language materials is only required to publish in the language of the applicable language minority group materials distributed to...

  14. Common Rhetorical Devices in Written English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵松

    2010-01-01

    Rhetorical devices are kinds of literal form of expressions.Their application is to make the idea more striking and effective,for they have the strength to express and illustrate.An appropriate rhetorical device appeals to the imagination,gives us vivid pictures and makes the written English impressive and interesting.For this reason,written English often uses various rhetorical devices to improve the readability and attract readers' attention and to arouse readers' interest of reading their materials.This ...

  15. Automatic classification of written descriptions by healthy adults: An overview of the application of natural language processing and machine learning techniques to clinical discourse analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toledo, Cíntia Matsuda; Cunha, Andre; Scarton, Carolina; Aluísio, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    .... A pioneering application of machine learning methods using Brazilian Portuguese for clinical purposes is described, highlighting education as an important variable in the Brazilian scenario.OBJECTIVE...

  16. Improving the quality of written feedback using written feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Maggie; Crossley, James; McKinley, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Educational feedback is amongst the most powerful of all learning interventions. (1) Can we measure the quality of written educational feedback with acceptable metrics? (2) Based on such a measure, does a quality improvement (QI) intervention improve the quality of feedback? We developed a QI instrument to measure the quality of written feedback and applied it to written feedback provided to medical students following workplace assessments. We evaluated the measurement characteristics of the QI score using generalisability theory. In an uncontrolled intervention, QI profiles were fed back to GP tutors and pre and post intervention scores compared. A single assessor scoring 6 feedback summaries can discriminate between practices with a reliability of 0.82.The quality of feedback rose for two years after the introduction of the QI instrument and stabilised in the third year. The estimated annual cost to provide this feedback is £12 per practice. Interpretation and recommendations: It is relatively straightforward and inexpensive to measure the quality of written feedback with good reliability. The QI process appears to improve the quality of written feedback. We recommend routine use of a QI process to improve the quality of educational feedback.

  17. A microarray platform-independent classification tool for cell of origin class allows comparative analysis of gene expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Care

    Full Text Available Cell of origin classification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL identifies subsets with biological and clinical significance. Despite the established nature of the classification existing studies display variability in classifier implementation, and a comparative analysis across multiple data sets is lacking. Here we describe the validation of a cell of origin classifier for DLBCL, based on balanced voting between 4 machine-learning tools: the DLBCL automatic classifier (DAC. This shows superior survival separation for assigned Activated B-cell (ABC and Germinal Center B-cell (GCB DLBCL classes relative to a range of other classifiers. DAC is effective on data derived from multiple microarray platforms and formalin fixed paraffin embedded samples and is parsimonious, using 20 classifier genes. We use DAC to perform a comparative analysis of gene expression in 10 data sets (2030 cases. We generate ranked meta-profiles of genes showing consistent class-association using ≥6 data sets as a cut-off: ABC (414 genes and GCB (415 genes. The transcription factor ZBTB32 emerges as the most consistent and differentially expressed gene in ABC-DLBCL while other transcription factors such as ARID3A, BATF, and TCF4 are also amongst the 24 genes associated with this class in all datasets. Analysis of enrichment of 12323 gene signatures against meta-profiles and all data sets individually confirms consistent associations with signatures of molecular pathways, chromosomal cytobands, and transcription factor binding sites. We provide DAC as an open access Windows application, and the accompanying meta-analyses as a resource.

  18. Safety training and safe operating procedures written for PBFA (Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator) II and applicable to other pulsed power facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, G.L.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1986-12-01

    To ensure that work in advancing pulsed power technology is performed with an acceptably low risk, pulsed power research facilities at Sandia National Laboratories must satisfy general safety guidelines established by the Department of Energy, policies and formats of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Department, and detailed procedures formulated by the Pulsed Power Sciences Directorate. The approach to safety training and to writing safe operating procedures, and the procedures presented here are specific to the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) Facility but are applicable as guidelines to other research and development facilities which have similar hazards.

  19. Platform independent software framework for smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Žemaitis, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    Šiomis dienomis labai greitai tobulėja mobilios technologijos. Į išmaniuosius įrenginius montuojamų procesorių taktinis dažnis jau pasiekė 1Ghz, ekranai tapo labai didelės raiškos, jautrūs lietimui bei pasižymintys labai kokybišku spalvų atkūrimu. Dėl daugybės į išmaniuosius telefonus montuojamų papildomų įtaisų, jų panaudojimo sritis vis plečiasi, jų populiarumas auga. Kartu su aparatūros tobulėjimu, tobulėja ir jiems skirta programinė įranga. Per paskutinius kelis metus pasirodė net trys na...

  20. Written Materials for the IYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro Gossman, Julieta

    2008-05-01

    In the poster presentation I shall describe the written materials we have edited for the IYA. The first is a book written for general public about Galileo's life and research. The rest are a series of articles for teachers so that they include hands-on astronomy activities in their classroom including a star party. All these materials are written in Spanish, that is a language spoken is large areas of the world. I believe science is better understood in the mother tong so that many of these materials will be also useful for countries where Spanish is a second language. References Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro Galileo y el telescopio, 400 anios de ciencia Uribe y Ferrari Editores, 2007 ISBN 970 756 238-2 Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro Newton, la luz y el movimiento de los cuerpos Uribe y Ferrari Editores, 2007 ISBN 970 756 238 2 Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro, Galileo para Maestros I Correo del Maestro, Núm. 133, p. 15-26, Anio 12, Junio 2007. Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro, Galileo para Maestros II Correo del Maestro, Num. 134, p. 17-26, Anio 12, 2007. Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro, Galileo para Maestros III Correo del Maestro, Num. 135, p. 10-18, Anio 12, 2007. Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro Experimentos sobre la caida de los cuerpos El Correo del Maestro, anio 12 Numero 142, p. 5-18, 2008.

  1. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  2. 47 CFR 76.936 - Written decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.936 Written decision. (a) A franchising authority... of interested parties. A franchising authority is not required to issue a written decision...

  3. Measuring Written Language Ability in Narrative Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nickola Wolf; Van Meter, Adelia M.

    2007-01-01

    A language-levels model was used to analyze written narratives. The results have implications for instruction and for documenting change in the story-writing performance of students with and without special needs in the area of written language development. This study was based on stories written at midyear by 277 students (224 typical learners…

  4. Written Language Shift among Norwegian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özerk, Kamil; Todal, Jon

    2013-01-01

    In Norway there are two written Norwegian languages, Bokmâl and Nynorsk. Of these two written languages Bokmâl is being used by the majority of the people, and Bokmâl has the highest prestige in the society. This article is about the shift of written language from Nynorsk to Bokmâl among young people in a traditional Nynorsk district in the…

  5. The Molecular Biology Toolkit (MBT: a modular platform for developing molecular visualization applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qing

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The large amount of data that are currently produced in the biological sciences can no longer be explored and visualized efficiently with traditional, specialized software. Instead, new capabilities are needed that offer flexibility, rapid application development and deployment as standalone applications or available through the Web. Results We describe a new software toolkit – the Molecular Biology Toolkit (MBT; http://mbt.sdsc.edu – that enables fast development of applications for protein analysis and visualization. The toolkit is written in Java, thus offering platform-independence and Internet delivery capabilities. Several applications of the toolkit are introduced to illustrate the functionality that can be achieved. Conclusions The MBT provides a well-organized assortment of core classes that provide a uniform data model for the description of biological structures and automate most common tasks associated with the development of applications in the molecular sciences (data loading, derivation of typical structural information, visualization of sequence and standard structural entities.

  6. Cognition and Written Language: A Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan, Ed.

    Originally presented at a symposium on cognition and written language, the 14 papers in this collection discuss research findings regarding reading and writing processes, ways that the development of effective reading and writing can be abetted by instruction, and research needs in the area of cognition and written language. The papers focus on…

  7. Cognition and Written Language: A Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan, Ed.

    Originally presented at a symposium on cognition and written language, the 14 papers in this collection discuss research findings regarding reading and writing processes, ways that the development of effective reading and writing can be abetted by instruction, and research needs in the area of cognition and written language. The papers focus on…

  8. Breaking and Fixing Origin-Based Access Control in Hybrid Web/Mobile Application Frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiev, Martin; Jana, Suman; Shmatikov, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid mobile applications (apps) combine the features of Web applications and “native” mobile apps. Like Web applications, they are implemented in portable, platform-independent languages such as HTML and JavaScript. Like native apps, they have direct access to local device resources—file system, location, camera, contacts, etc.

  9. 8. The graphemes of written English

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Greg

    2016-01-01

    8.1 Choosing a written variety to analyse To match my decision to analyse the RP accent, I have chosen British rather than US spelling as the written variety of English to analyse. In practice, this makes very little difference, since there is far less variation in the spelling of English than in its pronunciation. The differences between British and US spelling make almost no difference to the analysis of the graphemes of written English – the same graphemes are used in both systems, just wi...

  10. 情景模拟在神经病学病案书写教学中的应用%Application of Scene-Simulation Teaching Method in Medical Record Written of Neurology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱余友; 丁小灵

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价情景模拟教学方法在神经病学病案书写教学中的应用效果。方法选取60名实习生为研究对象,将其分为实验组和对照组,每组30名学生,实验组采取情景模拟教学法,对照组采取传统教学方法,通过病案书写评分和问卷调查分析两种教学方法的教学效果。结果实验组学生所书写的病案总分及病史采集、体格检查分项得分均高于对照组学生,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);对实验组学生问卷调查显示90.00%学生对模拟情景教学方法满意。结论情景模拟教学法在神经病学病史采集和病案书方面均优于传统教学方法,取得了良好的教学效果,值得进一步研究推广。%Objective To evaluate the effect of scene-simulation teaching method in medical record written of neurology.Methods 60 clinical medicine undergraduate student were random divided into 2 groups, 30 students in both experimental group and control group. Scene-simulation teaching method was adopted in experimental group, while traditional teaching method was adopted in control group. The teaching results of two different methods of teaching were valued by medical record written and questionnaire survey.ResultsThe medical record scores and the scores of history of illness, physical examination were higher in experimental group than in control group((P<0.05); General feedback obtained from the experimental group students showed that 90.00% of students satisfied with scene-simulation teaching method. Conclusions Scene-simulation teaching method was superior to traditional teaching method in teaching of history of illness and medical record written. The new teaching method achieved better results in the teaching of medical record written. Scene-simulation teaching method is worth future research and promotion.

  11. Accurate modelling of UV written waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure.......BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure....

  12. Accurate modeling of UV written waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure.......BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure....

  13. Direct UV-written integrated optical components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    2004-01-01

    Direct UV writing is an emerging method for flexible, low cost fabrication of integrated optical waveguides and components. The performance of UV written components can be similar to that achieved with more elaborate fabrication techniques.......Direct UV writing is an emerging method for flexible, low cost fabrication of integrated optical waveguides and components. The performance of UV written components can be similar to that achieved with more elaborate fabrication techniques....

  14. Written Language Shift among Norwegian Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil ÖZERK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In Norway there are two written Norwegian languages, Bokmål and Nynorsk. Of these two written languages Bokmål is being used by the majority of the people, and Bokmål has the highest prestige in the society. This article is about the shift of written language from Nynorsk to Bokmål among young people in a traditional Nynorsk district in the country. Drawing on empirical data we conclude that many adolescents are experiencing written language shift. We discuss various reasons for this phenomenon in the linguistic landscape of Norway. In our discussions we emphasize the importance of the school with regard to language maintenance and language revitalization. We call for a new language policy in the educational system that can prevent language shift. Having several dialects and two officially written forms of Norwegian in the country, creates a special linguistic landscape in Norway. Despite the fact that the Norwegian language situation is in several ways unique, it’s done very little research on how the existing policy works in practice. Our research reveals that the existing language policy and practice in the school system is not powerful enough to prevent language shift and language decay among the youngsters. The school system functions like a fabric for language shift.

  15. Interpretation of Written Contracts in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Andrews

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the leading principles governing interpretation of written contracts under English law. This is a comprehensive and incisive analysis of the current law and of the relevant doctrines, including the equitable principles of rectification, as well as the powers of appeal courts or of the High Court when hearing an appeal from an arbitral award. The topic of interpretation of written contracts is fast-moving. It is of fundamental importance because this is the most significant commercial focus for dispute and because of the number of cross-border transactions to which English law is expressly applied by businesses.

  16. Development of Kindergartners' Ideas about What Is Written in a Written Sentence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Maryann; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined strategies used by 12 kindergarten nonreaders who tried to relate spoken words to segments of written sentences. Results suggest that children may first succeed in establishing correspondences between temporal order of spoken words and spatial order of written words when a sentence contains only one functor word. Results show the complex…

  17. Some Differences Between Written and Spoken English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雁凌

    2001-01-01

    @@ Some of the main differences that will be observed regarding written and spoken English will be how the origins of English relate to the formality of writing and informality of speech. This will include how English is taught which contributes to how it is later used in practice.

  18. Classifying Written Texts Through Rhythmic Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balint, Mihaela; Dascalu, Mihai; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Rhythm analysis of written texts focuses on literary analysis and it mainly considers poetry. In this paper we investigate the relevance of rhythmic features for categorizing texts in prosaic form pertaining to different genres. Our contribution is threefold. First, we define a set of rhythmic featu

  19. Approaches to Treating Student Written Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thu H.

    2013-01-01

    Second language writing teachers face numerous challenges when providing feedback on student writing. There may be so many problems in the writing that is almost impossible for them to focus on or they may constantly seek a better method of giving feedback on student written errors. This paper attempts to provide second language writing teachers…

  20. Do Written Asthma Action Plans Improve Outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Kelso, John M.

    2016-01-01

    With appropriate management, children with asthma should expect few symptoms, no limits on activity, rare exacerbations, and normal lung function. Appropriate education of parents and other caregivers of children with asthma has clearly been shown to help achieve these goals. Although recommended in asthma guidelines, providing written asthma action plans does not improve outcomes beyond asthma education alone.

  1. Evidence in Support of Written Corrective Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John

    2008-01-01

    The extent to which ESL learners benefit from written corrective feedback has been debated at length since Truscott (1996) mounted a case for its abolition. Ten years later, the debate continues, not only because little attention has been given to testing its efficacy over time but also because studies that have investigated the issue have not…

  2. Increasing advertising power via written scent references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Breulmann, Svenja; Bialkova, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory cues in advertisements can evoke positive consumer emotions and product attitudes, yet including real scent in advertising is not always feasible. This study aimed at investigating whether written scent references could produce effects similar to real scents. Participants in online experim

  3. Written Case Analyses and Critical Reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Helen L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The study investigated the use of case-based pedagogy to develop critical reflection in prospective teachers. Analysis of students written analyses of dilemma-based cases found patterns showing evidence of students open-mindedness, sense of professional responsibility, and wholeheartedness in approach to teaching. (DB)

  4. Written mathematical traditions in Ancient Mesopotamia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Writing, as well as various mathematical techniques, were created in proto-literate Uruk in order to serve accounting, and Mesopotamian mathematics as we know it was always expressed in writing. In so far, mathematics generically regarded was always part of the generic written tradition....

  5. Do Written Asthma Action Plans Improve Outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Kelso, John M.

    2016-01-01

    With appropriate management, children with asthma should expect few symptoms, no limits on activity, rare exacerbations, and normal lung function. Appropriate education of parents and other caregivers of children with asthma has clearly been shown to help achieve these goals. Although recommended in asthma guidelines, providing written asthma action plans does not improve outcomes beyond asthma education alone.

  6. Written Reflection: Creating Better Thinkers, Better Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartzendruber-Putnam, Dawn

    2000-01-01

    Describes three types of reflective writing assignments the author uses in her high school writing classes to create better writers who are actively involved in their own learning. Draws distinctions among the three (a writer's log, a draft letter, and a portfolio letter) and discusses the methods she uses to promote quality written reflections.…

  7. Test Anxiety in Written and Oral Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Rost, Detlef H.; Baumeister, Ulrike M.; Christ, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The distinction of different test anxiety reactions (e.g., worry, emotionality) is well established. Recently, additional relevance has been given to school-subject-specific test anxiety factors. The present study explored a further aspect concerning the structure of test anxiety experiences, specifically oral versus written examination modes. A…

  8. A Typology of Written Corrective Feedback Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod

    2009-01-01

    As a basis for a systematic approach to investigating the effects of written corrective feedback, this article presents a typology of the different types available to teachers and researchers. The typology distinguishes two sets of options relating to (1) strategies for providing feedback (for example, direct, indirect, or metalinguistic feedback)…

  9. 10 CFR 835.104 - Written procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Written procedures. 835.104 Section 835.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.104... with the education, training, and skills of the individuals exposed to those hazards. ...

  10. On written expression of primary school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Normative rules of standard Serbian language are acquired during primary and secondary education through curriculum demands of Serbian language instruction, which takes place in three fields: grammar, orthography and culture of expression. Topic of interest in this paper is the quality of written expression of 6th and 7th grade pupils, in the context of all three fields specified to be mastered by the curriculum of Serbian language. Research comprised 148 primary school pupils from Belgrade. Linguistic analysis of spontaneously created written text was performed, in the conditions where it was not explicitly demanded form the pupil to write correctly. The results indicate that the majority of pupils make spelling and grammatical errors, meeting the condition for the basic level of mastering the knowledge in Serbian language according to the standards specified for the end of compulsory education. In addition to this, a considerable majority of pupils has a satisfactory level of culture of written expression. Pupils more often make spelling than grammatical errors. Seventh grade pupils are better than sixth grade pupils with respect to adhering to grammar rules and according to culture of written expression, while the mark in Serbian language and general school achievement of pupils correlate only with the degree of adhering to the orthographic rules. It was concluded that not only individual programs of support for pupils who make more errors are necessary, but also launching national projects for the development of linguistic competence of the young in Serbia.

  11. Written Communication Skills for Scientists and Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Lord Chancellor, Francis Bacon of England said: Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. Even after his death, Francis Bacon remained extremely influential through his works, especially as philosophical advocate and practitioner of the scientific method during the scientific revolution. Written communication skills are extremely important for scientists and engineers because it helps them to achieve their goals effectively and meet stipulated deadlines according to a pre-established schedule. Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa claim that American students are learning very little during their first two years of college (Arum and Roksa, 2011). Written communication involves expressing yourself clearly, using language with precision; constructing a logical argument; taking notes; editing and summarizing; and writing reports. There are three main elements to written communication. First and foremost is the structure because this in principle outlines clearly the way the entire content is laid out. Second, the style which primarily indicates the way it is written and how communication is made effective and vibrant. Third, the content which should document in complete detail, what you are writing about. Some researchers indicate that colleges and universities are failing to prepare the students to meet the demanding challenges of the present day workforce and are struggling to maintain an international status (Johnson, K. 2013). In this presentation, the author provides some guidelines to help students improve their written communication skills. References: Johnson, Kristine (2013) "Why Students Don't Write: Educating in the Era of Credentialing: Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses," Conversations on Jesuit Higher Education: Vol. 43, Article 9. Available at: http://epublications.marquette.edu/conversations/vol43/iss1/9 Arum, Richard and Roksa, Josipa (2011) Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses

  12. An Overview of Moonlight Applications Test Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Appasami Govindasamy; Suresh Joseph. K

    2010-01-01

    Now-a-days web applications are developed by new technologies like Moonlight, Silverlight, JAVAFX, FLEX, etc. Silverlight is Microsoft's cross platform runtime and development technology for running Web-based multimedia applications in windows platform. Moonlight is an open-source implementation of the Silverlight development platform for Linux and other Unix/X11-based operating systems. It is a new technology in .Net 4.0 to develop rich interactive and attractive platform independent web app...

  13. Essential components of written behavior treatment plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Don E; Vollmer, Timothy R

    2014-11-12

    For the last 25 years, the only empirically determined system to evaluate the content of written behavior analysis plans was developed by Vollmer et al. (1992). For the current study, the content of that earlier system was revised by the first author and submitted to 48 members of the editorial board of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and seven (7) other acknowledged experts on the editorial boards of Behavioral Interventions and Research in Developmental Disabilities. Of 55 recipients, 36 responded. The thirty-six (36) respondents rated each of 28 items from essential to non-essential using a five-point Likert scale. After reviewing the expert panel members' evaluations, we reduced the 28 items to 20 essential components of written behavior treatment plans. The implications of the results were discussed.

  14. Written Composition: The Introductory and Concluding Paragraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetka Sokolov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The introductory and concluding paragraphs deserve special attention in written composition classes since the effect of the whole essay depends greatly on the way in which the writer begins and ends it. Apart from stating the main idea of the composition, the introduction should attract the reader’s attention, persuading him or her that the text is worth reading. In a good conclusion the writer reminds the reader of the main idea again, and finishes in a vivid and memorable way. The article discusses problems that occur in introductions and conclusions written by secondary school pupils and students of English. They are classified into three categories: coherence breaks, inappropriate length and inappropriate style. Finally, various types of tasks designed to remedy the difficulties are suggested.

  15. The network of concepts in written texts

    CERN Document Server

    Caldeira, S M G; Andrade, R F S; Neme, A; Miranda, J G V; Caldeira, Silvia M. G.; Lobao, Thierry C. Petit; Neme, Alexis

    2005-01-01

    Complex network theory is used to investigate the structure of meaningful concepts in written texts of individual authors. Networks have been constructed after a two phase filtering, where words with less meaning contents are eliminated, and all remaining words are set to their canonical form, without any number, gender or time flexion. Each sentence in the text is added to the network as a clique. A large number of written texts have been scrutinized, and its found that texts have small-world as well as scale-free structures. The growth process of these networks has also been investigated, and a universal evolution of network quantifiers have been found among the set of texts written by distinct authors. Further analyzes, based on shufling procedures taken either on the texts or on the constructed networks, provide hints on the role played by the word frequency and sentence length distributions to the network structure. Since the meaningful words are related to concepts in the author's mind, results for text...

  16. Towards automatic behavior synthesis of a coordinator component for context-aware mobile applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniele, L.M.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    Although behavior modeling should play a central role in model-driven application development, it is still unclear how behavior modeling should be incorporated in model transformations. This paper presents an MDA-based approach that incorporates behavior modeling at the Platform-Independent Model

  17. Varied reasoning schema in students' written solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Weliweriya, Nandana; Sayre, Eleanor C; Zollman, Dean

    2016-01-01

    The Mathematization project investigates students' use of mathematical tools across the undergraduate physics curriculum. As a part of this project, we look at intermediate mechanics students' written homework solutions to understand how they use those tools in approaching traditional mechanics problems. We use a modified version of the ACER framework to analyze students' solutions and to identify patterns of mathematical skills used on traditional problems. We apply techniques borrowed from network analysis and the Resources Framework to build a "fingerprint" of students' mathematical tool use. In this paper, we present preliminary findings on patterns that we identified in students' problem solving.

  18. Written memory: authorship and cultural identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Seltzer Goldstein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a research work in progress which approaches the relationship between written from memory, discourse and cultural identity. This choice rests on the idea that memory, identity and sense of belonging are intrinsically related. The memory space is also the space of the “ressignification”: the space where we construct and reconstruct representations and identities. We build representations of the past according to the representations we make of the present, and both are contaminated by representations socially and historically constructed. Such concepts are associated with the concepts of autonomy (FREIRE, 2002, agency (BAZERMAN, 2011; KLEIMAN, 2006 and authorship (BAZERMAN, 2011.

  19. Written Composition: The Introductory and Concluding Paragraphs

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetka Sokolov

    2012-01-01

    The introductory and concluding paragraphs deserve special attention in written composition classes since the effect of the whole essay depends greatly on the way in which the writer begins and ends it. Apart from stating the main idea of the composition, the introduction should attract the reader’s attention, persuading him or her that the text is worth reading. In a good conclusion the writer reminds the reader of the main idea again, and finishes in a vivid and memorable way. The article d...

  20. Written debriefing: Evaluating the impact of the addition of a written component when debriefing simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Shelly J

    2015-11-01

    Debriefing, the reflective period following a simulation, is said to be where the bulk of simulation learning takes place. Many expert opinions regarding debriefing exist, but evidence-based best practices have yet to be identified. Written debriefing is one of these practices; experts state learning can be extended through the addition of a written component to the debriefing process, but no evidence exists to support this. This study compares three debriefing types: discussion alone, and discussion followed by journaling or blogging. Undergraduate nursing students participating in a simulation were randomized as a simulation group to one of these three debriefing types. Following completion of debriefing activities, students completed a Debriefing Experience Scale, a tool designed to evaluate the student experience during debriefing. Data obtained from completed scales were analyzed with ANOVA followed by Fisher LSD post hoc testing. The results showed the students preferred their experience with discussion debriefing over discussion debriefing with a written component added.

  1. Using Morphological Awareness Instruction to Improve Written Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Kenn; Werfel, Krystal

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Written English is a morphophonemic language. Researchers have documented that a conscious awareness of the morphological structure of English morphology is predictive of students' written language skills and that morphological awareness instruction leads to improvements in morphological awareness and in other written language…

  2. Using Morphological Awareness Instruction to Improve Written Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Kenn; Werfel, Krystal

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Written English is a morphophonemic language. Researchers have documented that a conscious awareness of the morphological structure of English morphology is predictive of students' written language skills and that morphological awareness instruction leads to improvements in morphological awareness and in other written language…

  3. 19 CFR 111.13 - Written examination for individual license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BROKERS Procedure To Obtain License or Permit § 111.13 Written examination... broker. A special written examination for an individual may also be authorized by Customs if a brokerage... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written examination for individual license....

  4. 28 CFR 55.12 - Language used for written material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... written form. Some languages, for example, Japanese, have more than one written form. A jurisdiction... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Language used for written material. 55.12... OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Determining the Exact Language §...

  5. Platform Independent Launch Vehicle Avionics with GPS Metric Tracking Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For this award, Tyvak proposes to develop a complete suite of avionics for a Nano-Launch Vehicle (NLV) based on the architecture determinations performed during...

  6. Towards Platform Independent Database Modelling in Enterprise Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, Martyn Holland; Calinescu, Radu; Paige, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    Enterprise software systems are prevalent in many organisations, typically they are data-intensive and manage customer, sales, or other important data. When an enterprise system needs to be modernised or migrated (e.g. to the cloud) it is necessary to understand the structure of this data and how it is used. We have developed a tool-supported approach to model database structure, query patterns, and growth patterns. Compared to existing work, our tool offers increased system support and exten...

  7. Progress in Written Language Bursts, Pauses, Transcription, and Written Composition across Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rui A.; Limpo, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Research on adult writers has shown that writing proceeds through bursts of transcription activity interspersed by long pauses. Yet few studies have examined how these writing behaviors unfold during early and middle childhood. This study traces the progress of bursts, pauses, transcription, and written composition in Portuguese students from…

  8. The Efficacy of Written Corrective Feedback in Improving L2 Written Accuracy: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, EunYoung; Han, Zhaohong

    2015-01-01

    Written corrective feedback has been subject to increasing attention in recent years, in part because of the conceptual controversy surrounding it and in part because of its ubiquitous practice. This study takes a meta-analytic approach to synthesizing extant empirical research, including 21 primary studies. Guiding the analysis are two questions:…

  9. Norbert Elias. A sociology of written culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Borges Leão

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with Norbert Elias’ historical sociology. In the first place, it asserts the civilizing process theory is pretty much based on objects from the written culture produced by European Courts in the 17th and 18th centuries: the articles of the Encyclopédie, the memoirs of writers and manuals of civility. In this approach I consider that separating the construction of sociological models from the corpus of specific documents from the Ancien Regime results in a dichotomic appropriation of the knowledge process, which is far away from Elias’ perspective. Finally, this paper analyzes Norbert Elias’ contributions to contemporary historiographic thinking, as well as the concepts of mentality, private life and the notion of childhood in Philippe Ariès.

  10. Conversation Analysis and Orality in Written Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antônio da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Marcuschi (1977 points out that orality is an important topic to be developed in the classroom. Lamentably, however, it has been left aside, because teachers and those responsible for education do not consider it as an important feature to be emphasized in the mother tongue teaching. The main reason is the focus given to the language teaching in Brazilian schools: the school is supposed to teach writing, and how to write well. Despite the advances of Linguistic studies on speaking and writing; despite the contributions of Sociolinguistics and Conversation Analysis; and despite the overcoming of prejudices, especially on the strict distinction between the two modes, there is still a long way to go. Thus, it is beneficial to bring up a discussion on speaking and writing. After several years of Marcuschi´s findings (1977, textbook authors, teachers, researchers and those responsible for the Portuguese language teaching have another theoretical approach. Nonetheless, in practice, there is still a lot to be accomplished since writing continues to be the focus of the Portuguese language teaching in Brazilian schools. It seems that most of the teachers know the theory, but they experience difficulties when it comes to the practices of everyday school life. This paper aims to analyze oral marks or effects of orality in written literary texts, more precisely in dialogues produced. These analyzes will aid us in giving subsidies to a Portuguese teacher, so that he/she can work consistently and productively. To illustrate our observations, we have chosen fragments of chronicles written by Brazilian writer Luís Fernando Verissimo, published in three of his works: Comédias para se ler na escola, Sexo na cabeça e Amor Veríssimo.

  11. A written assessment is an invalid test of numeracy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kerri

    Nurses need good clinical numeracy skills to aid them in their clinical practice. There is some concern, however, that the calculation skills learned during pre-registration nurse education have little practical application to nurses. This article discusses the Fitness for Practice initiatives from the Nursing and Midwifery Council which aim to ensure new registrants are numerate. The article argues that written numeracy assessment tools are not a valid test of the numeracy skills candidates will require for clinical practice and that nurse education needs to focus on researching and examining how best to support, assess and develop the numeracy skills of nursing students within their clinical practice placements to ensure that at the point of registration they are fit for practice.

  12. A New Look at the Classical Entropy of Written English

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero, Fabio G

    2009-01-01

    A simple method for finding the entropy and redundancy of a reasonable long sample of English text is presented. In fact, this method can be extended to other Latin languages. Some implications for practical applications such as plagiarism-detection software, and the minimum number of words that should be used in social Internet network messaging, are discussed. Results on the entropy of the English language have been obtained by direct computer processing and from first principles according to Shannon theory. The analysis is based on a total of 20.3 million characters of written English, including symbols from one to five hundred characters in length. Besides a more realistic value of the entropy of English, a new perspective on some classic entropy-related concepts is presented.

  13. Controlling the volatility of the written optical state in electrochromic DNA liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Kai; Varghese, Justin; Gerasimov, Jennifer Y.; Polyakov, Alexey O.; Shuai, Min; Su, Juanjuan; Chen, Dong; Zajaczkowski, Wojciech; Marcozzi, Alessio; Pisula, Wojciech; Noheda, Beatriz; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; Clark, Noel A.; Herrmann, Andreas

    Liquid crystals are widely used in displays for portable electronic information display. To broaden their scope for other applications like smart windows and tags, new material properties such as polarizer-free operation and tunable memory of a written state become important. Here, we describe an

  14. Bibliotherapy for Children with Anxiety Disorders Using Written Materials for Parents: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapee, Ronald M.; Abbott, Maree J.; Lyneham, Heidi J.

    2006-01-01

    The current trial examined the value of modifying empirically validated treatment for childhood anxiety for application via written materials for parents of anxious children. Two hundred sixty-seven clinically anxious children ages 6-12 years and their parents were randomly allocated to standard group treatment, wait list, or a bibliotherapy…

  15. Applying Dynamic Assessment Principles to Online Peer Revisions in Written English for Specific Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouësny, Sylvie; Bradley, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the extent of the applicability of dynamic assessment with respect to peer written student online revisions. More specifically, it observes how groups of Swedish computer engineering students learning English for Specific Purposes engage in cooperative interactions and negotiations with their peers as they work…

  16. Recommendations for reducing ambiguity in written procedures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Laura E.

    2009-11-01

    Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous work instructions (WIs) and operating procedures (OPs) can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. This report outlines some of the sources of ambiguity in written English and describes three recommendations for reducing ambiguity in WIs and OPs. The recommendations are based on commonly used research techniques in the fields of linguistics and cognitive psychology. The first recommendation is to gather empirical data that can be used to improve the recommended word lists that are provided to technical writers. The second recommendation is to have a review in which new WIs and OPs and checked for ambiguities and clarity. The third recommendation is to use self-paced reading time studies to identify any remaining ambiguities before the new WIs and OPs are put into use. If these three steps are followed for new WIs and OPs, the likelihood of human errors related to ambiguity could be greatly reduced.

  17. Security Loop Agents for the Enterprise Applications based on Resource Description Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Isam Khaleel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Security loop-holes can cost a fortune to a large enterprise organization providing e-commerce services. Meanwhile, the enterprise applications have been applied widely to simplify and generate better performance in managing the business tasks. Most of these applications (Enterprise Applications unable to provide a high level of security due to the new daily threats specially when malicious agents entered into agent platforms and destroyed other active agents during the agent performance for client query. Meanwhile, the security issues in these applications left in the system unintentionally but are intruded intentionally. Hence, this study aims to come out with suitable solution for the existing question on how to secure and platform independent environment for the enterprise applications? By designing architecture to provides a secure and platform independent environment for agents' communication.

  18. The challenge of giving written thesis feedback to nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvesson, Hanna; Borglin, Gunilla

    2014-11-01

    Providing effective written feedback on nursing student's assignments can be a challenging task for any assessor. Additionally, as the student groups tend to become larger, written feedback is likely to gain an overall more prominent position than verbal feedback. Lack of formal training or regular discussion in the teaching faculty about the skill set needed to provide written feedback could negatively affect the students' learning abilities. In this brief paper, we discuss written feedback practices, whilst using the Bachelor of Science in Nursing thesis as an example. Our aim is to highlight the importance of an informed understanding of the impact written feedback can have on students. Creating awareness about this can facilitate the development of more strategic and successful written feedback strategies. We end by offering examples of some relatively simple strategies for improving this practice.

  19. [Guide for the publication of written materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Campos, M G

    1987-01-01

    Tips for writing and editing population education or other materials and descriptions of the process of printing a text and of available types of print media are provided. Written materials should be brief and concise, and should avoid bombarding the reader with too many figures or references. Ideas of others must always be acknowledged. Adjectives and metaphors should be used in moderation. The first person and obscure words should both be avoided. Acronyms and abbreviations should be defined at their 1st use. Ideas should be presented in a logical sequence. Illustrations and tables may facilitate comprehension, but only if they are clearly presented and printed. Materials should be adapted to their audiences. In a country with the cultural, racial, and social diversity of Peru, it is impossible to refer to a general audience. Population communication which wishes to influence people must be based on a clear knowledge of the level of information, habits, linguistic practices, and other traits of the intended audience. Once the audience has been characterized, the objectives of the publication should be clearly defined. The technical characteristics of the publication are then selected. The format should be a standard size so that all the available paper can be used. The number of pages is often determined by the funds available although ideally it should be decided in accordance with the information to be presented. The color, type of lettering and spacing, paper, number of copies to be printed, and frequency of appearance are influenced by budgetary considerations, but the letter size and spacing should be generous enough to allow easy reading. The layout, style, and sections of the work must then be determined. A bulletin for example could have an editorial, a central article, reportage, an in-depth interview, correspondence, book reviews, and other regular features. The contents should be carefully checked for accuracy and grammaticality, and each step of

  20. Application effect of written consent of education and guidance for the prevention of asphyxia and aspiration of hospitalized patients in patients with cerebral apoplexy complicated with dysphagia%预防住院患者窒息及误吸宣教指导同意书在脑卒中吞咽障碍患者中的应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建华; 杨秀兰; 张宏; 袁莉; 王丽英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the application effect of written consent of education and guidance for the prevention of asphyxia and aspiration of hospitalized patients in patients with cerebral apoplexy complicated with dysphagia. Methods 120 patients of cerebral apoplexy complicated with dysphagia from January 2011 to January 2014 in our hos-pital were selected and randomly divided into the experiment group and the control group,60 cases in each group.The control group was given regular treatment and nursing,and the experiment group was given different diet guidance and training of swallowing function according to the levels of swallowing function on the basis of the control group.The ef-fect in two groups was compared. Results The total effective rate of the experiment group was 54.4%,which was higher than 30.4%of the control group,with significant difference(P<0.05).The incidence rate of aspiration pneumonia and mal-nutrition in the experiment group was lower than that the control group,with significant difference(P<0.05). Conclusion The application effect of written consent of education and guidance for the prevention of asphyxia and aspiration of hospitalized patients in patients with cerebral apoplexy complicated with dysphagia is significant,which can reduce the incidence rate of complication,inprove swallow dysfunction,it is worthy of clinical promotion and application.%目的:探讨预防住院患者窒息及误吸宣教指导同意书在脑卒中吞咽障碍患者中的应用效果。方法选取本院2011年1月~2014年1月收治的120例脑卒中吞咽障碍患者作为研究对象,随机分为实验组和对照组,各60例。对照组给予常规治疗和护理,实验组在对照组的基础上,根据吞咽功能级别分别依照指导同意书给予不同的饮食指导和吞咽功能训练,比较两组的效果。结果实验组的总有效率为54.4%,显著高于对照组的30.4%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。实验组的吸入性肺

  1. E-Beam Written Computer Generated Holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    Discrete Fourier Transforms," Opt. Lett. 2, 1-3 (1978). 3-7 J.W. Goodman, A.R. Dias, L.M. Woody and J. Erikson , "Application of Optical Communication...Coyote Hill Road Palo Alto, California 94304 Dr. Bernard Vatz, Radar DirectorateBMDATC P.O. Box 1500 Mr. Eric Stevens Huntsville, Alabama 35807 Code 7924S

  2. The written description rejection as a barrier to biotech patent prosecution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2011-05-01

    Biotech firms always pursue broad claims to secure new discoveries, new technologies and even as yet undiscovered results of future research. However, expansive claims without sufficient description violate the principal of granting the patentee the right to exclude others from using the technical development for a certain amount of time in return for disclosing the innovation. Based on this investigation, a written description can be a barrier to biotech patents with broad claims. To avoid a written description rejection during patent prosecution or invalidation in litigation, the patent applicant or assignee should demonstrate possession of the claimed invention by describing the claimed invention with all of its limitations using descriptive means such as words, structures, figures, diagrams, and formulas that fully set forth the claimed invention. Although the court cases analyzed in this study were not directly related to vaccines, the guideline indeed is applicable to patents of vaccine. Furthermore, a vaccine patent application is also demonstrated.

  3. Appropriating Written French: Literacy Practices in a Parisian Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Elsie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I examine French language instruction in an elementary classroom serving primarily children of Afro-French immigrants in Paris. I show that a prevalent French language ideology privileges written over oral expression and associates full mastery of written French with rational thought and full inclusion in the French polity. This…

  4. Written Corrective Feedback in Second Language Acquisition and Writing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Dana R.

    2012-01-01

    Written corrective feedback, referred to hereafter as "written CF" and also known as "grammar correction" or "error correction", has been a controversial topic in second language studies over the past fifteen years. Inspired by John Truscott's thought-provoking 1996 essay in "Language Learning", many different researchers have undertaken new…

  5. Written disclosure: a way of coping with traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johal, S S; Bennett, P

    Verbal debriefing after a traumatic incident may interrupt the natural adaptive processes that help people to deal with such incidents. This article examines the effectiveness of written interventions to help people experiencing distress after trauma experienced at work. As an alternative to critical incident debriefing, the authors recommend a staff education programme in tandem with written disclosure.

  6. Visual-Motor Skills as a Predictor of Written Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello-Cloutier, Mary

    This study investigated the relationship between the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration-Revised (VMI-R) and written expression skills of 54 students (grades 2 to 7) with learning disabilities. Data analysis compared cognitive ability; visual motor skills; achievement in reading, math, and written language; teacher rating of written…

  7. Neuropsychological Correlates of Written Expression in College Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Harder, Lana

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine written expression and the executive function skills (working memory, verbal fluency, and planning and organization) involved in written expression in college-aged students with ADHD. Method: Two groups of undergraduate students, aged 19 to 28 years, (ADHD, n = 31; control, n = 27) are evaluated on selected measures of…

  8. 49 CFR 1018.20 - Written demand for payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the circumstances of the particular case, the second and third demands may: (1) Offer or seek to... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written demand for payment. 1018.20 Section 1018... Collection of Claims § 1018.20 Written demand for payment. (a) The Board shall make appropriate...

  9. Teaching Computation in Primary School without Traditional Written Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Concerns regarding the dominance of the traditional written algorithms in schools have been raised by many mathematics educators, yet the teaching of these procedures remains a dominant focus in in primary schools. This paper reports on a project in one school where the staff agreed to put the teaching of the traditional written algorithm aside,…

  10. The Written Communication Skills That Matter Most for Accountants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Tracey J.; Simons, Kathleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of effective written communication skills to the discipline of accounting, faculty must emphasize these skills in their classroom in order to adequately prepare students for successful careers in the field. Since 2000, only two studies in the accounting literature have examined which written communication skills are needed by…

  11. Written Corrective Feedback in Second Language Acquisition and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John; Ferris, Dana R.

    2011-01-01

    What should language and writing teachers do about giving students written corrective feedback? This book surveys theory, research, and practice on the important and sometimes controversial issue of written corrective feedback, also known as "error/grammar correction," and its impact on second language acquisition and second language writing…

  12. The Written Communication Skills That Matter Most for Accountants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Tracey J.; Simons, Kathleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of effective written communication skills to the discipline of accounting, faculty must emphasize these skills in their classroom in order to adequately prepare students for successful careers in the field. Since 2000, only two studies in the accounting literature have examined which written communication skills are needed by…

  13. 19 CFR 148.111 - Written declaration for unaccompanied articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written declaration for unaccompanied articles... of the United States § 148.111 Written declaration for unaccompanied articles. The baggage... covers articles which do not accompany him and: (a) The articles are entitled to free entry under the...

  14. Written Corrective Feedback in Second Language Acquisition and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John; Ferris, Dana R.

    2011-01-01

    What should language and writing teachers do about giving students written corrective feedback? This book surveys theory, research, and practice on the important and sometimes controversial issue of written corrective feedback, also known as "error/grammar correction," and its impact on second language acquisition and second language writing…

  15. 29 CFR 18.18 - Written interrogatories to parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Written interrogatories to parties. 18.18 Section 18.18 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.18 Written interrogatories to parties....

  16. 5 CFR 179.306 - Written agreement for repayment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Written agreement for repayment. 179.306 Section 179.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 179.306 Written agreement for repayment. A debtor who...

  17. The role of written provider communication in external client participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellande, Stephanie; Taylor, Gail Ayala

    2004-01-01

    In certain classes of services, the client's role in the service delivery process often extends beyond the face-to-face exchange. With compliance dependent services (CDS), the client is expected to continue to perform for him or herself once away from the service provider in order to ensure positive outcomes and customer satisfaction (Dellande and Gilly, 1998). This study examined the effectiveness of written provider communication in influencing client motivation and role clarity in CDS. Two exploratory investigations examining written provider communication were conducted. In study 1, written material of three different types of health care related CDS (dialysis, prenatal care and weight loss) were examined; in study 2, dialysis written material was further examined. The findings suggest that, in the majority of the materials examined, written provider communication does not seem to clearly communicate the consequences of noncompliance (a source of customer motivation). However, the materials examined were effective in clarifying the client's external service roles.

  18. Written Corrective Feedback: The Practitioners’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman W. Evans

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerable attention has been given to written corrective feedback (WCF in second language writing (L2 over the past several decades. One of the central questions has focused on the appropriateness of its use in L2 writing. In these academic discussions, scholars frequently describe how WCF is utilized in the classroom. However, many of these claims of teacher practice have no research base, since few studies have actually asked teachers what place WCF has in their writing classroom (Ferris, et al., in press/2011a; Ferris, et al., in press/2011b; Hyland, 2003; Lee, 2004. This paucity of data from teachers about their WCF practices is problematic. Understanding teacher perspectives on corrective feedback is integral to our understanding the place of WCF in L2 writing pedagogy. Accordingly, this article reports on a study that asks two fundamental research questions: (a To what extent do current L2 writing teachers provide WCF? and (b What determines whether or not practitioners choose to provide WCF? These questions were answered by means of an international survey completed by 1,053 L2 writing practitioners in 69 different countries. Results suggest that WCF is commonly practiced in L2 pedagogy by experienced and well-educated L2 practitioners for sound pedagogical reasons.Durante las últimas décadas se ha prestado bastante atención a la pertinencia del empleo de feedback correctivo (FC sobre los textos producidos por los alumnos en una segunda lengua. Aunque hay bastantes descripciones sobre cómo se emplea el FC en el aula, muchas de las afirmaciones sobre la práctica docente no tienen una base científica ya que son pocos los estudios en los que se ha preguntado directamente a los profesores el lugar que el FC ocupa en sus clases (Ferris, et al., in press/2011a; Ferris, et al., in press/2011b; Hyland, 2003; Lee, 2004. Esta escasez de datos es problemática ya que las percepciones de los profesores sobre el del FC son fundamentales a la

  19. Applying the Verona coding definitions of emotional sequences (VR-CoDES) to code medical students' written responses to written case scenarios: Some methodological and practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortwein, Heiderose; Benz, Alexander; Carl, Petra; Huwendiek, Sören; Pander, Tanja; Kiessling, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    To investigate whether the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences to code health providers' responses (VR-CoDES-P) can be used for assessment of medical students' responses to patients' cues and concerns provided in written case vignettes. Student responses in direct speech to patient cues and concerns were analysed in 21 different case scenarios using VR-CoDES-P. A total of 977 student responses were available for coding, and 857 responses were codable with the VR-CoDES-P. In 74.6% of responses, the students used either a "reducing space" statement only or a "providing space" statement immediately followed by a "reducing space" statement. Overall, the most frequent response was explicit information advice (ERIa) followed by content exploring (EPCEx) and content acknowledgement (EPCAc). VR-CoDES-P were applicable to written responses of medical students when they were phrased in direct speech. The application of VR-CoDES-P is reliable and feasible when using the differentiation of "providing" and "reducing space" responses. Communication strategies described by students in non-direct speech were difficult to code and produced many missings. VR-CoDES-P are useful for analysis of medical students' written responses when focusing on emotional issues. Students need precise instructions for their response in the given test format. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Propositional idea density in women's written language over the lifespan: computerized analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alison; Spencer, Elizabeth; Craig, Hugh; Colyvas, Kim

    2014-06-01

    The informativeness of written language, as measured by Propositional Idea Density (PD), has been shown to be a sensitive predictive index of language decline with age and dementia in previous research. The present study investigated the influence of age and education on the written language of three large cohorts of women from the general community, born between 1973 and 1978, 1946-51 and 1921-26. Written texts were obtained from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health in which participants were invited to respond to an open-ended question about their health. The informativeness of written comments of 10 words or more (90% of the total number of comments) was analyzed using the Computerized Propositional Idea Density Rater 3 (CPIDR-3). Over 2.5 million words used in 37,705 written responses from 19,512 respondents were analyzed. Based on a linear mixed model approach to statistical analysis with adjustment for several factors including number of comments per respondent and number of words per comment, a small but statistically significant effect of age was identified for the older cohort with mean age 78 years. The mean PD per word for this cohort was lower than the younger and mid-aged cohorts with mean age 27 and 53 years respectively, with mean reduction in PD 95% confidence interval (CI) of .006 (.003, .008) and .009 (.008, .011) respectively. This suggests that PD for this population of women was relatively more stable over the adult lifespan than has been reported previously even in late old age. There was no statistically significant effect of education level. Computerized analyses were found to greatly facilitate the study of informativeness of this large corpus of written language. Directions for further research are discussed in relation to the need for extended investigation of the variability of the measure for potential application to the identification of acquired language pathologies.

  1. Focus of Teachers' Direct Written Feedback on English Majors' Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊

    2010-01-01

    This present study explored what English teachers focused on EFL students' writing with their direct written feedback. Eight hundred and sixty-four pieces of writing drafts were written by one hundred and fifty second year English major students. These drafts were provided with teachers' written feedback by five teaching assistants. Concerning the Direct Correction category, the findings showed that Word Choice, Word Appropriation, Sentence Appropriation and Spelling were most focused by the teachers. Several implications for English writing instruction in the similar context were emerged.

  2. 10 CFR 55.41 - Written examination: Operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES Written Examinations and Operating Tests... and contained in its training program and from information in the Final Safety Analysis Report, system... process, neutron multiplication, source effects, control rod effects, criticality indications,...

  3. The written language in the final stage of preschool education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Martins da Cruz Horta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this qualitative study, which adopted a multiple case study approach, is to learn about the process of methodology of the written language in the final stage of preschool education, in kindergartens located in Eastern Algarve and belonging to the public network of the Ministry of Education. The study shows that the way in which the approach to written language in preschool education takes place is the result of a set of variables of diverse nature: the management curriculum developed; the perspective that each protagonist has of the written language (a form of expression and communication; their attitude vis-à-vis early conceptions about the written language of children (an attitude of support and stimulation; the assurance offered to children so that they can feel confident about their knowledge and learning in the transition to the next educational level, making them believe that they are capable of achieving it.

  4. A Comparison of Oral and Written Code Elaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Millicent; Field, T. W.

    1976-01-01

    Indicates that, in relation to oral systems, written systems are more complex in structure, reveal more adjectival but less adverbial elaboration, show more complex verbal structures, and contain fewer indices of personal reference. (RL)

  5. Nonlinear light propagation in fs laser-written waveguide arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szameit A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on recent achievements in the field of nonlinear light propagation in fs laser-written waveguide lattices. Particular emphasis is thereby given on discrete solitons in such systems.

  6. Alcohol advertising in written mass media in Spain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montes-Santiago, J; Alvarez Muñiz, M L; Baz Lomba, A

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol advertising is a powerful factor of incitation to consumption. We analyzed the alcohol advertising, especially that youth-focused, in written mass media in Spain during the period 2002-2006...

  7. Developed Opinions and Inclinations of Teachers Regarding to Written Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacı Ömer BEYDOĞAN

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to determine teachers’ developed opinions and inclinations regarding to written expression skills. For this purpose, “Opinions and Inclinations Scale Regarding Written Expression Skills” was developed by the researcher. Work group of the study comprised 326 teachers from central Kırşehir and its district elementary schools. Internal reliability coefficient of the scale was 0,94. Data obtained were subjected to frequency, percentage, arithmetic mean, t-test, variance analyzes a significance level of 0,05 and findings were evaluated. Teachers’ developed opinions and inclinations regarding written expression skills were analyzed in accordance with their seniority, field of study and the class level they were teaching. There were some significant differentiations observed in opinions and inclinations developed by teachers regarding students’ written expression skills, in respect to certain variables. Some suggestions were brought forward in accordance with obtained findings.

  8. Developing an In-house Training Curriculum in Written Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, William J.

    1983-01-01

    Stresses the fact that on-the-job training in written communication is a continuous process. Presents a writing curriculum, developed by the Illinois Office of the Auditor General, that offers a planned sequence of learning activities. (PD)

  9. UV-written Integrated Optical 1xN Splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivero, Massimo; Svalgaard, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    The first demonstration of UV-written, silica-on-silicon integrated optical 1×N power splitters with up to 32 outputs ports is presented. The fabricated components exhibit 450 nm bandwidth, low excess loss and good channel uniformity.......The first demonstration of UV-written, silica-on-silicon integrated optical 1×N power splitters with up to 32 outputs ports is presented. The fabricated components exhibit 450 nm bandwidth, low excess loss and good channel uniformity....

  10. Selective and invariant neural responses to spoken and written narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Mor; Honey, Christopher J; Simony, Erez; Hasson, Uri

    2013-10-02

    Linguistic content can be conveyed both in speech and in writing. But how similar is the neural processing when the same real-life information is presented in spoken and written form? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we recorded neural responses from human subjects who either listened to a 7 min spoken narrative or read a time-locked presentation of its transcript. Next, within each brain area, we directly compared the response time courses elicited by the written and spoken narrative. Early visual areas responded selectively to the written version, and early auditory areas to the spoken version of the narrative. In addition, many higher-order parietal and frontal areas demonstrated strong selectivity, responding far more reliably to either the spoken or written form of the narrative. By contrast, the response time courses along the superior temporal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus were remarkably similar for spoken and written narratives, indicating strong modality-invariance of linguistic processing in these circuits. These results suggest that our ability to extract the same information from spoken and written forms arises from a mixture of selective neural processes in early (perceptual) and high-order (control) areas, and modality-invariant responses in linguistic and extra-linguistic areas.

  11. Written Cultural Heritage in the Context of Adopted Legal Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kodrič-Dačić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: Libraries collect written cultural heritage which is not only the most valuable part of their collections but also a part of library materials which is, due to digitalization projects in the last decade, becoming more and more interesting to librarians and library users. The main goal of the study is a theoretical research of library materials acknowledged as Slovenian heritage. By defining the basic terms it highlights the attributes which are immanent to library materials, derived from the context of their origin or later destiny. Slovenian library legislation concerning protection of written cultural heritage is also critically analysed.Methodology/approach: Comparative analyses of European and Slovenian legislation concerning librarianship and written cultural heritage. Research limitation: Research was mainly limited to professional literature and resources dealing with written cultural heritage. Originality/practical implications: Results of the research serve as formal criteria for definition of library materials as written heritage and suggest how to improve legislation in the field of protection of written heritage in libraries. 

  12. The Effect of Strategic and Online Planning on Accuracy of L1 Learners' Written Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Salimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the application of writing tasks has effectively shed lights on promoting learners' written production. Research on SLA stresses the importance of tasks in the case of complexity, fluency and accuracy (Foster, 1997, 2001; Givon, 1985; Robinson, 2001; Skehan, 1998, since they have had fluctuating impact on L2 learning. However, what is neglected in the literature is the impact of writing task on learners' first language written production that in most cases has paved the way for transmitting ideas in L2. Therefore, the essential aim in the present study is to investigate the effect of strategic planning time and on – line planning time on accuracy of first language learners' written production.  To attain the goal, two classes of 6th grade school students (n = 32, n = 24 were selected. The students did the writing task in the first session which was considered as a pretest in the study. Following a weekly "time out", in the class A (n = 32 strategic planning time was presented to the students and in the class B (n = 24, on – line planning time was conducted for ten minutes proceeding writing task. Time limit to complete the writing production was 30 minutes in both classes. The collected written data was quantified in terms of accuracy measure. Paired sample T-tests and independent sample T-test were conducted to statistically analyze data. The obtained results revealed that strategic planning led to much accuracy in post task in terms of L1 written production compared to pre task. However, the result of statistical analysis in on – line planning time was not significant, since it didn't result in students' L1 writing progress.

  13. Authentication based on feature of hand-written signature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shu-ren

    2007-01-01

    The typical features of the coordinate and the curvature as well as the recorded time information were analyzed in the hand-written signatures. In the hand-written signature process 10 biometric features were summarized: the amount of zero speed in direction x and direction y, the amount of zero acceleration in direction x and direction y, the total time of the hand-written signatures,the total distance of the pen traveling in the hand-written process, the frequency for lifting the pen, the time for lifting the pen, the amount of the pressure higher or lower than the threshold values. The formulae of biometric features extraction were summarized.The Gauss function was used to draw the typical information from the above-mentioned biometric features, with which to establish the hidden Markov mode and to train it. The frame of double authentication was proposed by combing the signature with the digital signature. Web service technology was applied in the system to ensure the security of data transmission. The training practice indicates that the hand-written signature verification can satisfy the needs from the office automation systems.

  14. [The evaluation of nursing graduates' scientific reasoning and oral and written communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demandes, Ingrid; Latrach, Cecilia A; Febre, Naldy Pamela; Muñoz, Claudia; Torres, Pamela; Retamal, Jessica

    2012-08-01

    This descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed in Santiago de Chile, with the objective to evaluate the scientific reasoning and the oral and written communication of nursing graduates. The sample consisted of 37 nursing graduates who participated in the three stages of the study: I) creation and validation of the instrument; II) training the faculty participating in the study to apply the instrument uniformly; and III) application of the instrument and data analysis. The data show different percentages regarding this competency, with the predominance of scientific reasoning (83.16%), followed by oral and written communication (78.37%). In conclusion, this study demonstrates the value for nursing schools to implement a formal evaluation that allows for determining the profile of nursing graduates, guaranteeing the quality of their training and education.

  15. Analyzing graduate student trends in written paper evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddens, Jean Foret; Lobo, Marie

    2008-10-01

    Writing is valued as an essential skill in nursing education. However, the evaluation of written scholarly work is challenging. Limited nursing literature addressing issues or strategies associated with evaluation exists. The purpose of this study was to describe and evaluate differences that exist in the evaluation of a standardized written paper. The study included a sample of 47 graduate nursing students enrolled in a nursing education course. Participants were asked to grade a mock paper as part of a course assignment; their work was retained for data analysis. Wide variability in scoring and comments on the paper were noted; significantly lower scores were assigned by participants who had experience teaching in academic settings. The majority of written comments made by participants were related to grammar and American Psychological Association formatting or citation problems. Further research is needed to better understand paper evaluation practices of nursing faculty.

  16. Creation of a graduate oral/written communication skills course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surratt, Christopher K

    2006-02-15

    To convert a traditional graduate seminar course into a class that emphasizes written as well as oral communication skills. Graduate pharmacology/toxicology students presented formal and informal seminars on their research progress and on recent peer-reviewed literature from the field. Students in the audience wrote critiques of the research project or article, as well as of the presentations themselves. Students were evaluated based on oral presentations, class participation, and a scientific writing component. All faculty members provided constructive written comments and a grade. The course master provided the presenter with a formal written review and returned a "red pen" revision of each student critique. This novel seminar/writing course introduces intensive focus on writing skills, which are especially essential today given the large number of graduate students for whom English is not a first language.

  17. Forensic physicians and written evidence: witness statements v. expert reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Kartina A; Barrett, Martin

    2014-02-01

    When assisting the courts in criminal proceedings, the work of forensic physicians are leaning more towards the preparation of written evidence rather than the giving of oral evidence in person. For this, they may be asked to serve either as professional witnesses or expert witnesses. These 2 roles have nevertheless been a constant source of confusion among forensic physicians. In view of this, the article aims to highlight the similarities and differences between these 2 roles particularly in relation to the preparation of written evidence. It will take a close look at the forms of written evidence which forensic physicians are expected to produce in those distinct capacities and the attending duties, evidentiary rules and legal liabilities. Through this, the work aspires to assist forensic physicians undertake those responsibilities on a more informed footing.

  18. How Does Word Length Evolve in Written Chinese?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heng; Liang, Junying; Liu, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a substantial evidence that the word length can be an essential lexical structural feature for word evolution in written Chinese. The data used in this study are diachronic Chinese short narrative texts with a time span of over 2000-years. We show that the increase of word length is an essential regularity in word evolution. On the one hand, word frequency is found to depend on word length, and their relation is in line with the Power law function y = ax-b. On the other hand, our deeper analyses show that the increase of word length results in the simplification in characters for balance in written Chinese. Moreover, the correspondence between written and spoken Chinese is discussed. We conclude that the disyllabic trend may account for the increase of word length, and its impacts can be explained in "the principle of least effort". PMID:26384237

  19. Unusual suicide note written on the body: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Serafettin; Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Erkol, Zerrin; Gunaydin, Gursel

    2009-09-01

    Suicide notes are commonly written on some materials, such as notebooks, papers, and mirrors. Additionally, suicide plans have been communicated in face-to-face conversations, by speaking on the telephone, recording on CDs or video cassettes, and sending messages through text messaging. In this article, 2 suicide death cases are presented in which suicide notes were written on the bodies of the victims. The first case, a 32-year-old man, was a university graduate and had been unemployed for years; he committed suicide in his house by hanging. On the external examination, it was seen that there were some words on the body written with a pen; specifically "DONKEY" was written on the forehead; coursing up-and-down along the chest, "HODJA" was on the right, "DO NOT" was on the sternal region, and "WASH" was on the left; and undecipherable handwritings were on both zygomatic regions. The second case, a 39-year-old woman, was a housewife who was being physically abused by her husband and committed suicide by ingesting an insecticide. It was observed that on the left leg, a note was written with a pen saying that she could not stand being beaten by her husband on account of the inheritance dispute between him and her elder brother; there was purple ecchymoses in the periphery of the right eye and in the right gluteal area. Since we have not found any reports of suicide notes written on the body in the literature, we present and discuss our cases herein.

  20. Types of Teacher Written Feedback on English Majors' Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊; SIRILUCK USAHA

    2010-01-01

    This present study focused on what major types of written feedback were often given by EFL writing teachers at Guizhou University. Eight hundred and sixty-four pieces of writing drafts by one hundred and fifty second year English major students provided with teacher written feedback by five teaching assistants, were analyzed and categorized in order to fred out the main types of feedback. It was found that Direct Correction was used most by the teachers, followed by Error Location, Verbal Cue, Marginal Commentary and End Commentary, respectively. The study raised several implications for English writing instruction in the similar context.

  1. Development of the Knowledge-Based Standard for the Written Certification Examination of the American Board of Anesthesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slogoff, Stephen; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Application of a knowledge-based standard in evaluating a written certification examination developed by the American Board of Anesthesiology established a standard of 57 percent correct over two years' examinations. This process is recommended for developing mastery-based (rather than normative-based) success criteria for evaluation of medical…

  2. Written Feedback in Intercultural Doctoral Supervision: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Linlin

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the feedback interactions in an intercultural supervision context between a white New Zealand supervisor and a Chinese international doctoral student, who is also the author (and researcher) of this study. Using mixed methods, it examines the supervisor's written feedback on a draft PhD proposal and the student's feedback…

  3. Written Formative Assessment and Silence in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Hang, Desmond Mene; Bell, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, we build on Xinying Yin and Gayle Buck's discussion by exploring the cultural practices which are integral to formative assessment, when it is viewed as a sociocultural practice. First we discuss the role of assessment and in particular oral and written formative assessments in both western and Samoan cultures, building on the…

  4. Equitable Written Assessments for English Language Learners: How Scaffolding Helps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Marcelle A.; Menon, Deepika; Sinha, Somnath; Promyod, Nattida; Wissehr, Cathy; Halverson, Kristy L.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the use of scaffolds in written classroom assessments through the voices of both native English speakers and English language learners from two middle schools. Students responded to assessment tasks in writing, by speaking aloud using think aloud protocols, and by reflecting in a post-assessment interview.…

  5. Language Characteristics and Written Requirements of the Maritime English Correspondence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiang; Zhao, Zhenhua

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the requirements of the maritime English correspondence, the language characteristics of the maritime English correspondence are analyzed in this article, and the factors influencing the written skills of the maritime English correspondence are discussed, and the principles of "7C" including the courtesy, the consideration, the…

  6. Written Languaging, Direct Correction, and Second Language Writing Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Wataru

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that languaging plays a crucial role in learning a second language (L2). The effects of languaging, especially oral languaging (e.g., collaborative dialogue, private speech), have been tested on the learning of L2 knowledge domains. This study explored the effects of written languaging by asking 24 Japanese learners of English…

  7. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin-Fortin, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French…

  8. Timed written picture naming in 14 European languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Mark; Nottbusch, Guido; Alves, Rui A; Arfé, Barbara; Chanquoy, Lucile; Chukharev-Hudilainen, Evgeny; Dimakos, Ioannis; Fidalgo, Raquel; Hyönä, Jukka; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Madjarov, George; Pauly, Dennis N; Uppstad, Per Henning; van Waes, Luuk; Vernon, Michael; Wengelin, Åsa

    2017-05-24

    We describe the Multilanguage Written Picture Naming Dataset. This gives trial-level data and time and agreement norms for written naming of the 260 pictures of everyday objects that compose the colorized Snodgrass and Vanderwart picture set (Rossion & Pourtois in Perception, 33, 217-236, 2004). Adult participants gave keyboarded responses in their first language under controlled experimental conditions (N = 1,274, with subsamples responding in Bulgarian, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Icelandic, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, and Swedish). We measured the time to initiate a response (RT) and interkeypress intervals, and calculated measures of name and spelling agreement. There was a tendency across all languages for quicker RTs to pictures with higher familiarity, image agreement, and name frequency, and with higher name agreement. Effects of spelling agreement and effects on output rates after writing onset were present in some, but not all, languages. Written naming therefore shows name retrieval effects that are similar to those found in speech, but our findings suggest the need for cross-language comparisons as we seek to understand the orthographic retrieval and/or assembly processes that are specific to written output.

  9. Written informed consent in health research is outdated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekstra, R.; Maeckelberghe, E. L. M.; Stolk, R. P.

    2017-01-01

    Reference to the Declaration of Helsinki as assurance for ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects has become a meaningless mantra. The participants’ relationship with researchers has been distrusted-based with Written Informed Consent (WIC) hereinafter referred to as WIC)

  10. Written Language Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gareth J.; Larkin, Rebecca F.; Blaggan, Samarita

    2013-01-01

    Background: Young children are often required to carry out writing tasks in an educational context. However, little is known about the patterns of writing skills that children with specific language impairment (CwSLI) have relative to their typically developing peers. Aims: To assess the written language skills of CwSLI and compare these with…

  11. Characterization of UV written waveguides with luminescence microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael; Harpøth, Anders; Rosbirk, Tue

    2005-01-01

    Luminescence microscopy is used to measure the refractive index profile and molecular defect distribution of UV written waveguides with a spatial resolution of ~0.4 mm and high signal-to-noise ratio. The measurements reveal comlex waveguide formation dynamics with significant topological changes...

  12. The Value of a Focused Approach to Written Corrective Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John; Knoch, Ute

    2009-01-01

    Investigations into the most effective ways to provide ESL learners with written corrective feedback have often been overly comprehensive in the range of error categories examined. As a result, clear conclusions about the efficacy of such feedback have not been possible. On the other hand, oral corrective feedback studies have produced clear,…

  13. A Reflection on "The Language Learning Potential" of Written CF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John

    2012-01-01

    For more than 30 years, different opinions about whether written corrective feedback (CF) is a worthwhile pedagogical practice for L2 learning and acquisition have been voiced. Despite the arguments for and against its potential to help L2 learners acquire the target language and the inconclusive findings across studies that have sought answers to…

  14. Psychological Type and Asynchronous Written Dialogue in Adult Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Cranton, Patricia; Bridglall, Beatrice

    2005-01-01

    This study explores how adults learn from asynchronous written dialogue through the lens of psychological type preferences. We asked participants to discover their dominant and auxiliary psychological preferences using the Personal Empowerment through Type inventory. Participants then completed an open-ended survey in which they described their…

  15. 31 CFR 10.37 - Requirements for other written advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... give written advice (including electronic communications) concerning one or more Federal tax issues if... or should know, or, in evaluating a Federal tax issue, takes into account the possibility that a tax return will not be audited, that an issue will not be raised on audit, or that an issue will be...

  16. Written Language Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gareth J.; Larkin, Rebecca F.; Blaggan, Samarita

    2013-01-01

    Background: Young children are often required to carry out writing tasks in an educational context. However, little is known about the patterns of writing skills that children with specific language impairment (CwSLI) have relative to their typically developing peers. Aims: To assess the written language skills of CwSLI and compare these with…

  17. 19 CFR 210.4 - Written submissions; representations; sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written submissions; representations; sanctions. 210.4 Section 210.4 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF... agreement; (3) A consent order agreement; or (4) An arbitration agreement. (iv) Monetary sanctions imposed...

  18. Students' Written Arguments in General Chemistry Laboratory Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Aeran; Hand, Brian; Greenbowe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the written arguments developed by college freshman students using the Science Writing Heuristic approach in inquiry-based general chemistry laboratory classrooms and its relationships with students' achievement in chemistry courses. Fourteen freshman students participated in the first year of the study while 19…

  19. Effect of Written Presentation on Performance in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John; Ballard, Shawn

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the written work of students in the introductory calculus-based electricity and magnetism course at the University of Arkansas. The students' solutions to hourly exams were divided into a small set of countable features organized into three major categories, mathematics, language, and graphics. Each category was further divided…

  20. RECOGNITION METHOD FOR CURSIVE JAPANESE WORD WRITTEN IN LATIN CHARACTERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maruyama, K.; Nakano, Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a recognition method for cursive Japanese words written in Latin characters. The method integrates multiple classifiers using duplicated can­ didates in multiple classifiers and orders of classifiers to improve the word recog­ nition rate combining their results. In experiments u

  1. Assessment of Clinical Competence: Written and Computer-Based Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Literature concerning the validity and reliability of both written and computer-based simulations in assessing clinical competence in the health professions is reviewed, and suggestions are given for the improvement of the psychometric qualities of simulation-based tests. (MSE)

  2. 5 CFR 575.308 - Approval criteria and written determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... retention incentive for an individual employee or group or category of employees using the approval criteria... REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Retention Incentives § 575.308 Approval criteria and written determination. (a) An...

  3. Enhancing Presentation Narratives through Written and Visual Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentz, Brian S.

    2006-01-01

    Educators increasingly recognize that students need a more contemporary, multimodal literacy that requires them to examine how their written, oral, visual, and electronic modes of communication inform one another to generate meaning. Helping students hone their multimodal literacies will enable them to develop PowerPoint presentations in ways that…

  4. 42 CFR 456.380 - Individual written plan of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) The plan of care must include— (1) Diagnoses, symptoms, complaints, and complications indicating the... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual written plan of care. 456.380 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Intermediate...

  5. Perceptions of the Qualities of Written Arguments by Japanese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shinobu

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how Japanese students perceive the qualities of written arguments that were constructed to have different forms. Based on the theoretical dimensions of verbal communication styles that Gudykunst and Ting-Toomey (1988) proposed, the research questions asked whether the respondents would perceive direct arguments to be of higher…

  6. Effect of Written Presentation on Performance in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John; Ballard, Shawn

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the written work of students in the introductory calculus-based electricity and magnetism course at the University of Arkansas. The students' solutions to hourly exams were divided into a small set of countable features organized into three major categories, mathematics, language, and graphics. Each category was further divided…

  7. Written Emotional Expression as an Intervention for Asthma: A Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Peck, Heather L.; Margiano, Suzanne G.; Dobson, Robin; Peczynski, Kate; Gardner, Kate; Theodore, Lea A.; Alric, Jolie M.

    2006-01-01

    There is a great deal of research revealing how asthma is influenced by psychological variables such as symptom perception and negative emotions. Psychologically based treatments including biofeedback, yoga, hypnosis, stress management, relaxation and guided imagery, and written-emotional expression have all been effective in improving pulmonary…

  8. Written Formative Assessment and Silence in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Hang, Desmond Mene; Bell, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, we build on Xinying Yin and Gayle Buck's discussion by exploring the cultural practices which are integral to formative assessment, when it is viewed as a sociocultural practice. First we discuss the role of assessment and in particular oral and written formative assessments in both western and Samoan cultures, building on the…

  9. Grading Written Work: An Integral Part of Writing Workshop Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    This article chronicles how the process of reviewing and grading student written work became an integral part of a middle school teacher's writing workshop practice. In addition to discussing how reading student work can bring educators back to the heart of the profession (including the belief that spending time with drafts can reap more rewards…

  10. RECOGNITION METHOD FOR CURSIVE JAPANESE WORD WRITTEN IN LATIN CHARACTERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maruyama, K.; Nakano, Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a recognition method for cursive Japanese words written in Latin characters. The method integrates multiple classifiers using duplicated can­ didates in multiple classifiers and orders of classifiers to improve the word recog­ nition rate combining their results. In experiments u

  11. Students' Written Arguments in General Chemistry Laboratory Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Aeran; Hand, Brian; Greenbowe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the written arguments developed by college freshman students using the Science Writing Heuristic approach in inquiry-based general chemistry laboratory classrooms and its relationships with students' achievement in chemistry courses. Fourteen freshman students participated in the first year of the study while 19…

  12. Grammatical Planning, Execution, and Control in Written Sentence Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottbusch, Guido

    2010-01-01

    In this study participants were asked to describe pictured events in one type-written sentence, containing one of two different syntactic structures (subordinated vs. coordinated subject noun phrases). According to the hypothesis, the larger subordinated structure (one noun phrase including a second, subordinated, one) should be cognitively more…

  13. Written Discourse Development in CLIL at Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Rachel; Llinares, Ana; McCabe, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a study of written development in English as a foreign language produced in a content and language integrated learning (CLIL) environment. The texts analysed, from history classes, were collected annually over the four-year obligatory junior secondary education program from the same students (aged 12 to 16), in two state…

  14. Validating a Written Instrument for Assessing Students' Fractions Schemes and

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this study,…

  15. Written Corrective Feedback: The Perception of Korean EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Bohyon

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the perception of Korean EFL learners toward feedback types on their written errors. The survey was administered using an adopted questionnaire from previous studies (Ishii 2011; Leki, 1991). This further allows a comparison of Korean EFL learners' attitudes with the responses to an identical questionnaire by Japanese EFL…

  16. Monitoring Cataract Surgical Outcomes: 'Hand Written' Registration Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Cook

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this hand written method of monitoring cataract surgery outcomes is to provide a practical method, assisting cataract surgeons and programme managers to monitor qualitatively the results of their cataract surgery. Such monitoring is the key to improving the quality and results of our cataract surgery.The hand registered method is quick, simple, and friendly to use!

  17. Distribution of Articles in Written Composition among Malaysian ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Mia Emily Abdul; Rahim, Emma Marini Abdul; Ning, Chia Han

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the distribution patterns of the English grammar articles (a, an, and the) as well as the distributions of their colligation patterns in written compositions of English among Malaysian ESL learners. This paper reports the results of a corpus-based study on articles used by these learners. The method used in this…

  18. Pinning of written bits in perpendicular recording media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaves, S.J.; Muraoka, H. E-mail: muraoka@riec.tohoku.ac.jp; Sonobe, Y.; Schabes, M.; Nakamura, Y

    2001-10-01

    A perpendicular medium comprising two distinct magnetic layers is described. One layer has a granular structure with isolated, exchange-decoupled grains and the other is a continuous, exchange-coupled layer. In the combined structure domain wall movement is restricted and reversed grains within written bits are eliminated. The S/N ratio is improved compared with single layers of either type alone.

  19. Toward a Taxonomy of Written Errors: Investigation into the Written Errors of Hong Kong Cantonese ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alice Y. W.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines common lexicogrammatical problems found in Cantonese English as a second language (ESL) learners' written English output. A study was conducted with 387 student participants, who were asked to do two untutored and unaided free-writing tasks of about 200-300 words each. A range of lexicogrammatical error types commonly found…

  20. THE WRITTEN DISCOURSE OF INTERVIEWING STYLE FOR A MAGAZINE INTERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Barrot

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper examines the written discourse of interviewing style for the purpose of print publication. Specifically, this paper sought to describe and explain the phases of interviewing procedures, the typology of the questions, and the transitional strategies executed by Oprah Winfrey during her interviews for O Magazine. One hundred and ten (110 response-soliciting statements were subjected to discourse analytic procedure to determine the features of such utterances. The results showed that her interview procedure follows a certain pattern that contributes to her ability to maintain the intimacy, familiarity, and dynamics of conversation. Further, results revealed that the interviewer employs a variety of response-soliciting strategies and transitional strategies that unconsciously put the control and authority in the conversation to the interviewees. Finally, some pedagogical implications were also presented for classroom use. Keywords: discourse analysis, interviewing style, interview questions, written discourse

  1. Oral and written instruction of oral hygiene: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnacke, Daniela; Beldoch, Magdalena; Bohn, Gertrude-Heidi; Seghaoui, Ouarda; Hegel, Nicole; Deinzer, Renate

    2012-10-01

    This randomized, evaluator-masked, controlled study evaluates the effectiveness of oral in contrast to written instruction of oral hygiene. Eighty-three students without clinical signs of periodontitis were randomly assigned to either a control group or one of three experimental conditions: 1) written instruction, 2) standardized oral instruction, or 3) individualized oral instruction. Plaque and bleeding indices were assessed to analyze intervention effects on oral health and oral hygiene skills. Measurements took place at baseline and 4 weeks after intervention. Groups differed significantly with respect to gingival bleeding and were tentatively significant with respect to oral hygiene skills. Participants who had received oral individualized instructions showed the best results. A gradient of effectiveness of the instruction methods was observed with most favorable results for the individualized instruction.

  2. Student Views of Technology-Mediated Written Corrective Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher

    2017-01-01

    and practices concerning the specific – and time-consuming – language-teacher activity of providing WCF and 2) potential changes in student attitudes when technology is used to mediate the feedback. At the core of the study is an eight-month intervention which was carried out with three teachers of English...... as a foreign language and their lower-secondary classes, requiring the teachers to make use of a specific program supportive of effective written corrective feedback in their provision of feedback to their students. The article will report on results pertaining to student attitudes to the changes brought about...... by the intervention, which changed both teacher and student practices. Data was collected through student questionnaires concerning their views of the roles of written corrective feedback for foreign language acquisition, and also their views of and attitudes to their teacher’s normal practice were addressed...

  3. Hidden scaling patterns and universality in written communication

    CERN Document Server

    Formentin, M; Zanzotto, G; Maritan, A

    2013-01-01

    The temporal statistics exhibited by written correspondence appear to be media dependent, with features which have so far proven difficult to characterize. We explain the origin of these difficulties by disentangling the role of spontaneous activity from decision-based prioritizing processes in human dynamics, clocking all waiting times through each agent's `proper time' measured by activity. This unveils the same fundamental patterns in written communication across all media (letters, email, sms), with response times displaying truncated power-law behavior and average exponents near -3/2. When standard time is used, the response time probabilities are theoretically predicted to exhibit a bi-modal character, which is empirically borne out by our new years-long data on email. These novel perspectives on the temporal dynamics of human correspondence should aid in the analysis of interaction phenomena in general, including resource management, optimal pricing and routing, information sharing, emergency handling.

  4. Hidden scaling patterns and universality in written communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formentin, M; Lovison, A; Maritan, A; Zanzotto, G

    2014-07-01

    The temporal statistics exhibited by written correspondence appear to be media dependent, with features which have so far proven difficult to characterize. We explain the origin of these difficulties by disentangling the role of spontaneous activity from decision-based prioritizing processes in human dynamics, clocking all waiting times through each agent's "proper time" measured by activity. This unveils the same fundamental patterns in written communication across all media (letters, email, sms), with response times displaying truncated power-law behavior and average exponents near -3/2. When standard time is used, the response time probabilities are theoretically predicted to exhibit a bimodal character, which is empirically borne out by our newly collected years-long data on email. These perspectives on the temporal dynamics of human correspondence should aid in the analysis of interaction phenomena in general, including resource management, optimal pricing and routing, information sharing, and emergency handling.

  5. Written expression in boys with attention deficit disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resta, S P; Eliot, J

    1994-12-01

    32 boys, between the ages of 8 and 13 years, were identified on four teachers' and parents' rating scales (including the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-III for ADD) as showing attention deficits and hyperactivity (ADD + H; n = 10), attention deficits without hyperactivity (ADD-H; n = 11), or without ADD (attention deficits controls; n = 11). All subjects were administered Bender's Visual-motor Gestalt test and the Written Language Assessment. The ADD + H children produced significantly more errors on the Bender-Gestalt test, and both groups with attention deficits had lower (poorer) scores on most of the written language subtests. Results were interpreted as providing evidence that these children possessed significant limitations in their writing, copying, and composition.

  6. Synergistic relationships between Analytical Chemistry and written standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcárcel, Miguel, E-mail: qa1vacam@uco.es; Lucena, Rafael

    2013-07-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analytical Chemistry is influenced by international written standards. •Different relationships can be established between them. •Synergies can be generated when these standards are conveniently managed. -- Abstract: This paper describes the mutual impact of Analytical Chemistry and several international written standards (norms and guides) related to knowledge management (CEN-CWA 14924:2004), social responsibility (ISO 26000:2010), management of occupational health and safety (OHSAS 18001/2), environmental management (ISO 14001:2004), quality management systems (ISO 9001:2008) and requirements of the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (ISO 17025:2004). The intensity of this impact, based on a two-way influence, is quite different depending on the standard considered. In any case, a new and fruitful approach to Analytical Chemistry based on these relationships can be derived.

  7. An Integrated Optical Memory based on Laser Written Waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Corrielli, Giacomo; Mazzera, Margherita; Osellame, Roberto; de Riedmatten, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first realization of an integrated optical memory for light based on a laser written waveguide in a doped crystal. Using femto-second laser micromachining, we fabricate waveguides in Pr$^{3+}$:Y$_2$SiO$_5$ crystal. We demonstrate that the waveguide inscription does not affect the coherence properties of the material and that the light confinement in the waveguide increases the interaction with the active ions by a factor 6. We also demonstrate that, analogously to the bulk crystals, we can operate the optical pumping protocols necessary to prepare the population in atomic frequency combs, that we use to demonstrate light storage in excited and spin states of the Praseodymium ions. Our results represent the first realization of laser written waveguides in a Pr$^{3+}$:Y$_2$SiO$_5$ crystal and the first implementation of an integrated on-demand spin wave optical memory. They open new perspectives for integrated quantum memories.

  8. [Dissociated preservation of written expression in aphasia with recurrent utterances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, J; Masson, C; Robine, B

    1993-01-01

    In a female patient, aphasia with recurrent utterances resulted from a double lesion of the left hemisphere, located in the base of the third frontal gyrus and the upper temporal gyri. Predominant in the fluent oral expression was a repeated neologism of which the patient was unaware. The written expression, efficient for lexical entities, was devoid of syntax and had the features of phonological agraphia. Both orally and in written words comprehension was satisfactory but syntactic comprehension was deficient. The stereotyped verbal behaviour could be due to dysfunction of the phonemic programmer. Rupture of the audi-phonatory loop, confirmed by degradation of the verbal working, memory, made this dysfunction worse and accounted for the anosognosia. The participation of the right hemisphere and of the preserved left hemispheric structures in the persistence of various language activities are discussed.

  9. Usability of tablet computers to facilitate instant written feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Prigmore, Martyn; Gledhill, Duke

    2014-01-01

    We undertake a usability evaluation of tablet computers and handwriting capture and recognition software for use in the classroom. The aim is to assess whether the current crop of tablets and available software offer a viable platform for the immediate capture and dissemination of formative or summative written feedback. If so, then these devices could offer an effective and efficient approach to sharing feedback with our students. \\ud We examine a range of tablet devices, covering the major ...

  10. The Significance of Self-built Learners’ Written English Corpus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Researchers have reached an agreement that corpus exerts an important role in the English teaching and learning,and several learners’ corpus have been established.This paper aims to discuss the necessity and significance of establishing self-built learners’ written English corpus in the hope that teachers and learners will get to know it and use it effectively in their practice.

  11. Sarcasm in written communication: emoticons are efficient markers of intention

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Dominic; Filik, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Here we present two studies that investigate the use of emoticons in clarifying message intent. We look at sarcasm in particular, which can be especially hard to interpret correctly in written communication. In both studies, participants were required to make the intentions of their messages clear. In the first, they clarified the meaning of existing sentences without altering the wording; in the second, they produced their own sentences. Results provided clear evidence that tongue and wink e...

  12. Moiré Fibre Bragg Grating Written on Strained Fibres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙磊; 冯新焕; 刘艳格; 张伟刚; 袁树忠; 开桂云; 董孝义

    2004-01-01

    Moiré fibre Bragg gratings are made in a single mode fibre and a polarization-maintaining fibre respectively, using an excimer KrF laser and a phase mask. Two gratings are written at the same location of the optical fibre. The wavelength spacing can be finely tuned from 0 to 1.86nm by straining the optical fibre during UV illumination.

  13. Polish Phoneme Statistics Obtained On Large Set Of Written Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Ziółko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The phonetical statistics were collected from several Polish corpora. The paper is a summaryof the data which are phoneme n-grams and some phenomena in the statistics. Triphonestatistics apply context-dependent speech units which have an important role in speech recognitionsystems and were never calculated for a large set of Polish written texts. The standardphonetic alphabet for Polish, SAMPA, and methods of providing phonetic transcriptions are described.

  14. Effect of written presentation on performance in introductory physics

    OpenAIRE

    Shawn Ballard; John Stewart

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the written work of students in the introductory calculus-based electricity and magnetism course at the University of Arkansas. The students’ solutions to hourly exams were divided into a small set of countable features organized into three major categories, mathematics, language, and graphics. Each category was further divided into subfeatures. The total number of features alone explained more than 30% of the variance in exam scores and from 9% to 15% of the variance in c...

  15. STRATEGIES OF EXPRESSING WRITTEN APOLOGIES IN THE ONLINE NEWSPAPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipto Wardoyo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Expressing apology is a universal activity although people have different strategies or ways to express the apology based on the culture, situation, and context. An apology has played a vital role in verbal politeness; it is certainly impolite when someone does not express an apology when he or she has commited an offence to the others. Apologies in the Pragmatic study is classified under speech act theory. An apology based on Searle (1969 is classified as expressive speech acts because it expresses speaker’s physiological attitude. An apology expresses speaker’s sorrow and regret because he/she has offended hearers or readers.  This paper tries to discuss strategies of editors in expressing written apologies in the online newspaper. The objective of this paper is to explain what the strategies of written apologies are in the online newspaper. This study uses qualitative method; the writer chooses descriptive interpretative technique for analyzing data. There are four written apologies in the online neswpapers as data sources in this paper, the data are taken from The Jakarta Post, The Daily Express, The Sun, and Brisbane Times. The writer tries to describe and analyzes utterances in the data sources based on Olshtain & Cohen theory (1986. There are five main strategies in expressing apologies according to Olshtain & Cohen (1986; they are Illocutionary Force Indicating Device (IFID, expression responsibility, explanation/justification, offer repairs, and promise forbearance. The writer found that all of the written apologies used combination strategies, they used IFID by using performative verb: apologize and be sorry then followed by expression resposbility, explanation, offer repairs, and promise forbearance. Keywords: apologies, speech acts, politeness, pragmatics

  16. Effect of written presentation on performance in introductory physics

    OpenAIRE

    Shawn Ballard; John Stewart

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the written work of students in the introductory calculus-based electricity and magnetism course at the University of Arkansas. The students’ solutions to hourly exams were divided into a small set of countable features organized into three major categories, mathematics, language, and graphics. Each category was further divided into subfeatures. The total number of features alone explained more than 30% of the variance in exam scores and from 9% to 15% of the variance in c...

  17. THE COMPETITION TER, HAVER AND EXISTIR IN THE SCHOLAR WRITTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyne Giselle de Santana Lima Aguiar VITÓRIO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that, in Brazilian Portuguese, “ter” is the existential verb selected by the speech, but in the written, “haver” is the canonical existential verb and “existir”, due its character of noun existential verb and hence trend to present a low and constant percentual use, we describe and analyze the existential constructions build with the verbs “ter”, “haver” and “existir” in the written of Elementary, High School and College students in the city of Maceió/AL. In order to do that, we follow the theoretical and methodological basis of the Theory of Variation and Change (WEINREICH; LABOV; HERZOG, 2006; LABOV 2008, joint with linguistic studies in the Brazilian Portuguese (AVELAR, 2006a; MARINS, 2013; VITÓRIO, 2014 and we use, for the statistical analysis of data, the software GOLDVARB X. According with the results, we verify that there is a tight competition between “ter” and “haver” and a low frequency of “existir”, and this variation is conditioned by the groups of factors semantic trace of the internal argument, scholarity and the textual production theme, with the verb “ter” being more often used when the internal argument presents the trace [+ concrete], in the written of less educated and when the textual production theme is related with the personal experience of the students.

  18. Prosodic Parallelism—Comparing Spoken and Written Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis claims adjacent prosodic categories to prefer identical branching of internal adjacent constituents. According to Wiese and Speyer (2015), this preference implies feet contained in the same phonological phrase to display either binary or unary branching, but not different types of branching. The seemingly free schwa-zero alternations at the end of some words in German make it possible to test this hypothesis. The hypothesis was successfully tested by conducting a corpus study which used large-scale bodies of written German. As some open questions remain, and as it is unclear whether Prosodic Parallelism is valid for the spoken modality as well, the present study extends this inquiry to spoken German. As in the previous study, the results of a corpus analysis recruiting a variety of linguistic constructions are presented. The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis can be demonstrated to be valid for spoken German as well as for written German. The paper thus contributes to the question whether prosodic preferences are similar between the spoken and written modes of a language. Some consequences of the results for the production of language are discussed.

  19. Prosodic Parallelism – comparing spoken and written language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Wiese

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis claims adjacent prosodic categories to prefer identical branching of internal adjacent constituents. According to Wiese and Speyer (2015, this preference implies feet contained in the same phonological phrase to display either binary or unary branching, but not different types of branching. The seemingly free schwa-zero alternations at the end of some words in German make it possible to test this hypothesis. The hypothesis was successfully tested by conducting a corpus study which used large-scale bodies of written German. As some open questions remain, and as it is unclear whether Prosodic Parallelism is valid for the spoken modality as well, the present study extends this inquiry to spoken German. As in the previous study, the results of a corpus analysis recruiting a variety of linguistic constructions are presented. The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis can be demonstrated to be valid for spoken German as well as for written German. The paper thus contributes to the question whether prosodic preferences are similar between the spoken and written modes of a language. Some consequences of the results for the production of language are discussed.

  20. [Alcohol advertising in written mass media in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Santiago, J; Alvarez Muñiz, M L; Baz Lomba, A

    2007-03-01

    Alcohol advertising is a powerful factor of incitation to consumption. We analyzed the alcohol advertising, especially that youth-focused, in written mass media in Spain during the period 2002-2006. Annual cross-sectional study of advertisements in 41 widely difused written mass media (average readers: 10,1 millions). Media admitting alcohol publicity were 29% in the whole. (2,9 millions of readers on average, 29% of total readers). Alcohol advertising constituted the 3,8% of global publicity and the 8,6% of the publicity in media admitting alcohol publicity. In this period only 4% of the media (2,4% of total readers) inserted antidrug campaigns. In brief, three out of 10 total readers and one out of 12 people older than 15 years suffered the impact of tobacco advertising. Young people were included in 33% of alcohol advertisements and 3 out of 6 of youth-oriented magazines permitted a such publicity. Alcohol publicity remains high in written mass media in Spain. By contrast few people received informative antidrug campaigns. Advertising was preferentially directed to young people.

  1. Instrument Remote Control Application Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Troy; Hostetter, Carl F.

    2006-01-01

    The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) architecture is a flexible, platform-independent application framework that is well suited for the control and monitoring of remote devices and sensors. IRC enables significant savings in development costs by utilizing extensible Markup Language (XML) descriptions to configure the framework for a specific application. The Instrument Markup Language (IML) is used to describe the commands used by an instrument, the data streams produced, the rules for formatting commands and parsing the data, and the method of communication. Often no custom code is needed to communicate with a new instrument or device. An IRC instance can advertise and publish a description about a device or subscribe to another device's description on a network. This simple capability of dynamically publishing and subscribing to interfaces enables a very flexible, self-adapting architecture for monitoring and control of complex instruments in diverse environments.

  2. Marginalia as the beginning of written culture: The Glosas Emilianensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Šabec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Glosas emilianenses are notes in Latin and in a Romance language dating from the eleventh century, written by an anonymous monk between the lines and in the margins of a Latin manuscript known as Codex Aemilianensis 60 to explicate syntactic, morphological, and semantic difficulties in understanding the original. The document was named after its place of origin, a monastery in the village of San Millán de la Cogolla, known as “the cradle of Castilian.” The non-Latin Romance glosses are believed to be the first written accounts of the language that later evolved into present-day Castilian or Spanish; they are therefore invaluable historical, linguistic, literary, and cultural material. The place and time of the origin of the glosses are not a coincidence, but a consequence of particular historical circumstances in the Iberian Peninsula. The Moorish invasion in 711 AD destroyed the Visigothic Kingdom and constrained the development of Christian culture, confining it to two independent cores in the north. The ninth century therefore saw the establishment of the County of Castile emerging from the two cores as the predecessor of the Kingdom of Castile (1065. Due to turbulent historical events, the place was populated by people from various adjacent and rather distant countries, thus making the spoken language a mixture of several varieties of Vulgar Latin, Mozarabic, and Navarrian (Basque elements. All of these features are reflected in the glosses in the San Millán manuscript. Therefore, it is difficult for linguists to name the variant of the Romance language the glosses were written in: “the Riojan dialect,” “a vernacular Castilian-Riojan dialect of the second half of the eleventh century displaying tendencies towards learned Latin,” or “a Riojan dialect with elements more common to neighboring dialects (Aragon, Navarrian, Léon, and Mozarabic than to Castilian.” However, because the San Millán glosses also include elements

  3. CURRICULUM LEADERSIHP: STRATEGIES FOR LINKING THE WRITTEN AND DELIVERED CURRICULIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Damovska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus will be put on teachers as curriculum leaders, being challenged on a daily basis by how to attend to the delivered curriculum(the practice without neglecting the written curriculum(the theory, and vice versa, all the while analyzing strategies that will link both curricula and implement these conclusions in their further teaching practice.Curricula present written guides identifying the content and material that should be covered, and are given to teachers (sometimes as a detailed guide to follow religiously. However, as opposed to theory, practice is a different and delicate matter, as the teachers tries not to overstep the boundaries of the curriculum already include as much of their own creative energy as possible.These points will be expanded through analysis of the results of a qualitative research on the understanding of the content of leadership, done on pre-school and primary school teachers, whose everyday contact with their pupils will illustrate the reality of leadership in schools in the local context of R. Macedonia.Furthermore, the “how” of overcoming the challenges on the path of successful school leadership, however tricky they might be will be analyzed from firsthand experiences and compared through the matrix of what is considered able to “correct”. As educators, we successfully bridge the gap between theory and practice, to apply the theoretical know-how in a realistic classroom setting, and to convert the written paradigms into practice, thus only through educational leadership can we overcome the pedagogical challenges and  effectively transfer the knowledge to the students, bringing about positive outcomes.

  4. Learning Written English: The Perspective of Chinese ESL Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wailan Ng; Grace Zhang

    2007-01-01

    This study intends to identify the perceived difficulties of Chinese ESL students writing in English and their possible solutions. In particular, it aims to study the similarities and differences between the perceptions of Chinese ESL students and their ESL teachers. A total of 20 informants,consisting of ten Chinese ESL students and ten ESL teachers, evaluated three compositions written by Chinese ESL students. Both Student Evaluators and Teacher Evaluators were interviewed in order to have an in-depth understanding of their perceptions.

  5. The beginnings of the written culture in Antiquity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Isabel Panosa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of writing as a system for communication, since its origins, in terms of its uses and socio-cultural context. We shall also look to review and comment on the way in which it has evolved in time and space and its primordial domains for expression. Likewise, we shall look at the current state of affairs with respect to graphic communication, which includes the alphabet, logographic systems and symbols. From a more global point of view, the relationship between the concept of writing and the concept of civilisation is studied and two dimensions are set out: the oral culture and the written culture.

  6. Initial teaching of written language. From theory to practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María CLEMENTE LINUESA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For decades the matter of teaching writing focused on a methodological issue, the assessment of the phonetic and global methods. Both approaches were based on the intuitions and practices of teachers and focused mainly on learning the writing system. Today we have available an important body of research-based theory that has contributed essential keys for positing a didactics of the written language with a sturdier foundation. Using contributions from different lines of theory, in this paper we present an integrated proposal for teaching writing.

  7. Three-dimensional imaging of direct-written photonic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Graham D; Thayil, Anisha; Withford, Michael J; Booth, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Third harmonic generation microscopy has been used to analyze the morphology of photonic structures created using the femtosecond laser direct-write technique. Three dimensional waveguide arrays and waveguide-Bragg gratings written in fused-silica and doped phosphate glass were investigated. A sensorless adaptive optical system was used to correct the optical aberrations occurring in the sample and microscope system, which had a lateral resolution of less than 500 nm. This non-destructive testing method creates volume reconstructions of photonic devices and reveals details invisible to other linear microscopy and index profilometry techniques.

  8. Machine Recognition of Hand Written Characters using Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Perwej, Yusuf; 10.5120/1819-2380

    2012-01-01

    Even today in Twenty First Century Handwritten communication has its own stand and most of the times, in daily life it is globally using as means of communication and recording the information like to be shared with others. Challenges in handwritten characters recognition wholly lie in the variation and distortion of handwritten characters, since different people may use different style of handwriting, and direction to draw the same shape of the characters of their known script. This paper demonstrates the nature of handwritten characters, conversion of handwritten data into electronic data, and the neural network approach to make machine capable of recognizing hand written characters.

  9. Some Thoughts on a Report Written 70 Years Ago

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard; Frey

    2015-01-01

    This is a report my father,Dr.Richard Frey,wrote to the China Aid Council in the United States in March 1945 to seek international assistance for the military and civilians of the border area.It was written after he started to work in Yan’an after leaving the Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei antiJapanese front,a place he would never forget all his life.In this report,he gave a personal account of the conditions and

  10. Clarity Versus Accuracy and Objectivity in Written Legal English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Janulevičienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to analyse the most important grammatical and, specifically, syntactic features and to point out some prominent lexical ones, which aim at accuracy and objectivity of a written legal document, and to discuss how these features influence clarity and transparency of the legal documents. The study covers the analysis of some EU, UK, US legislative acts alongside with some extracts from contract samples. The analysis reveals that written legal English is distinguished by long compound sentences, often with inverted word order and numerous embeddings, passive constructions and nominalisations, specific use of personal pronouns and collocations of synonyms (doublets and triplets, etc. These means allow to achieve the most possible accuracy and objectivity in legal texts but make them complicated and difficult to comprehend at once. Formality, achieved by the mentioned means, makes legal English distant from everyday language and often becomes a reason for criticism. Plain English supporters encourage simplifying legal language; however, long traditions of legal English make changes slow and difficult. Therefore, comprehension and usage of legal English still requires special knowledge of its lexical and grammatical features.

  11. Uses of the word "macula" in written English, 1400-present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Leffler, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    We compiled uses of the word "macula" in written English by searching multiple databases, including the Early English Books Online Text Creation Partnership, America's Historical Newspapers, the Gale Cengage Collections, and others. "Macula" has been used: as a non-medical "spot" or "stain", literal or figurative, including in astronomy and in Shakespeare; as a medical skin lesion, occasionally with a following descriptive adjective, such as a color (macula alba); as a corneal lesion, including the earliest identified use in English, circa 1400; and to describe the center of the retina. Francesco Buzzi described a yellow color in the posterior pole ("retina tinta di un color giallo") in 1782, but did not use the word "macula". "Macula lutea" was published by Samuel Thomas von Sömmering by 1799, and subsequently used in 1818 by James Wardrop, which appears to be the first known use in English. The Google n-gram database shows a marked increase in the frequencies of both "macula" and "macula lutea" following the introduction of the ophthalmoscope in 1850. "Macula" has been used in multiple contexts in written English. Modern databases provide powerful tools to explore historical uses of this word, which may be underappreciated by contemporary ophthalmologists.

  12. Oral and Written Expression in Children With Reading Comprehension Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretti, Barbara; Motta, Eleonora; Re, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have highlighted that children with reading comprehension difficulties also have problems in tasks that involve telling a story, in writing or verbally. The main differences identified regard poor comprehenders' lower level of coherence in their productions by comparison with good comprehenders. Only one study has compared poor and good comprehenders' performance in both modalities (oral and written), however, to see whether these modalities differently influence poor comprehenders' performance. We qualitatively and quantitatively compared the performance of good and poor comprehenders in oral and written narrative tasks with the aim of shedding light on this issue. Regression analyses were also used to explore the role of working memory and vocabulary in explaining individual differences. Our results showed that the two groups produced narratives of comparable length, with similar percentages of spelling mistakes, whereas they differed in terms of the quality of their narratives, regardless of the modality. These differences were qualified by analyzing the children's use of connective devices, and poor comprehenders were found to use a higher proportion of additive devices than good comprehenders. Regression analyses showed that working memory (particularly the intrusion errors measure) explained a modest part of the qualitative differences in narrative production. Implications for our theoretical understanding of poor comprehenders' profiles and education are discussed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  13. Interference microscopy of femtosecond laser written waveguides in phosphate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, D.; Mahlmann, D.; Wortmann, D.; Gottmann, J.

    2009-08-01

    By focusing fs-laser radiation in the volume of a transparent material the refractive index can be changed locally, leading to 3-dimensional waveguiding structures. Waveguides are written in phosphate glass (IOG from Schott) at a depth of 100 μm below the surface. The pulse energy and the scan velocity are varied. For the first time the optical path difference caused by the waveguides and therefore the refractive index distribution of the waveguides and their cross sections are determined using interference microscopy. The optical path difference measured in the written structures and their cross sections is analyzed by a phase-shift algorithm. Thus, the refractive index distribution both along a line perpendicular to the waveguide and in the plane of a cross section is determined. The results are visualized as 2-dimensional graphics. Several regions of opposite sign of the refractive index change are observed in the cross sections of waveguides generated by femtosecond laser pulses. The number and the size of these regions are increasing with increasing pulse energy and decreasing scan velocity.

  14. Aphasia friendly written health information: content and design characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Tanya A; Worrall, Linda E; Hickson, Louise M; Hoffmann, Tammy C

    2011-08-01

    People with aphasia need communicatively accessible written health information. Healthcare providers require knowledge of how to develop printed education materials (PEMs) in formats that people with aphasia prefer and can read. This study aimed to explore formatting characteristics considered to be barriers and facilitators to reading PEMs. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 40 adults with aphasia who were selected using maximum variation sampling across aphasia severity, reading ability, and time post-stroke. Participants were shown stroke and aphasia PEMs obtained from the recruiting stroke services, asked to rank them from most liked to least liked, and comment on factors that made the PEMs easier and harder to read. The majority of participants ranked the aphasia friendly stroke (56.4%, n = 22) and aphasia (87.2%, n = 34) PEMs as most liked. Forty-five facilitator and 46 barrier codes were identified using qualitative content analysis and grouped into two categories; (1) content characteristics and (2) design characteristics. Findings support many of the recommendations found within the literature for developing best practice PEMs and accessible information for other patient groups. Routine consideration of the facilitators and barriers identified will contribute to making written information more accessible to people with aphasia.

  15. [A workshop to improve written communication skills of medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitran, Marcela; Zúñiga, Denisse; Flotts, Paulina; Padilla, Oslando; Moreno, Rodrigo

    2009-05-01

    Despite being among the best academically prepared of the country, many medical students have difficulties to communicate in writing. In 2005, the School of Medicine at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile introduced a writing workshop in the undergraduate curriculum, to enhance the students' writing skills. To describe the workshop and its impact on the writing skills of 3 cohorts of students. This 30-h workshop used a participative methodology with emphasis on deliberate practice and feedback. Students worked in small groups with a faculty member specially trained in writing. The qualities of the essays written before and after the workshop were compared. Essays were rated by a professional team that used an analytic rubric to measure formal aspects of text writing as well as more complex thinking processes. There was a significant improvement in the quality of the texts written after the workshop; the main changes occurred in argumentation, and in paragraph and text structure. This improvement was inversely proportional to the initial level of performance, and independent of gender. A writing workshop based on deliberate practice and personalized feedback is effective to enhance the writing proficiency of medical students. Due to its design, this workshop could be useful for students of other careers and universities.

  16. Research on cognitive, social and cultural processes of written communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo González, Rosario; Salvador Mata, Francisco

    2009-08-01

    This article compiles the investigations carried out by a Research Group of the University of Granada, Spain. Its different projects on writing's cognitive social and cultural processes have been supported by the Spanish Government. This line of research joined together linguistic, psychological, social and cultural contributions to the development of writing from the 1970s. Currently, this line of research develops in collaboration with other European Universities: (a) Interuniversity Centre for Research On Cognitive Processing in Natural and Artificial Systems (ECONA), "La Sapienza" University of Rome (Italy); (b) Anadolu University, (Eskisehir, Turkey); (c) Coimbra University (Portugal); (d) University of Zaragoza (Spain); (e) the Institute of Education of the University of London (United Kingdom). The aforementioned collaboration is materializing into projects like the International Master on Multilingual Writing: Cognitive, Intercultural and Technological Processes of Written Communication ( http://www.multilingualwriting.com ) and the International Congress: Writing in the twenty-first Century: Cognition, Multilinguisim and Technologies, held in Granada ( http://www.asprogrades.org ). This research line is focussed on the development of strategies in writing development, basic to train twenty-first century societies' citizens. In these societies, participation in production media, social exchange and the development of multilingual written communication skills through new computer technologies spread multicultural values. In order to fulfil the social exigencies, it is needed to have the collaboration of research groups for designing and applying international research projects.

  17. Self-evaluation of rater bias in written composition assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetka Sokolov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available No assessment is entirely free of bias. This paper presents findings concerning the way raters in the research group evaluate the extent to which they are influenced by various types of rater bias when grading their students’ written compositions. The sources of bias covered in the article include the teacher’s knowing the student writer and his or her proficiency in English, the difficulty of the writing task, distressful content likely to trigger the rater’s emotional reaction, the test taker’s views clashing with those of the rater, students’ progress, and the like. The data were gathered by the participants in the study via a questionnaire. In addition, the researcher’s interpretation of the respondents’ answers was verified through interviews. Although the two research methods and self-evaluation have their drawbacks, the results reveal interesting, relevant and important information on aspects which make written composition assessment less reliable and valid. The findings confirm the need to raise raters’ awareness of the causes of bias to which they are most susceptible, bringing them closer to effectively addressing the problem of assessment bias. The research involving eleven lecturers teaching Language in Use at the Department of English and American Studies at the Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, is a part of a much larger project based on the author’s PhD thesis.

  18. Sports metaphors in Polish written commentaries on politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Wiliński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate what sports metaphors are used in Polish written commentaries on politics and what special purpose they serve. In particular, the paper examines structural metaphors that come from the lexicon of popular sports, such as boxing, racing, track and field athletics, sailing, etc. The language data, derived from English Internet websites, has been grouped and discussed according to source domains. Applying George Lakoff and Mark Johnson’s approach to metaphor, the paper attempts to determine both the kind of source domains from which common metaphors are drawn and to what degree structural metaphors are used. The data suggests that many structural metaphors can be found in the language of politics. They are drawn from a wide variety of sports source domains, although the domains of boxing, racing, sailing, and soccer are of particular prominence. It seems that the primary function of structural metaphors in written commentaries is to facilitate the interpretation of facts in a way that is enormously appealing to the reader.

  19. Applying Computerized-Scoring Models of Written Biological Explanations across Courses and Colleges: Prospects and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Minsu; Nehm, Ross H.; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Our study explored the prospects and limitations of using machine-learning software to score introductory biology students’ written explanations of evolutionary change. We investigated three research questions: 1) Do scoring models built using student responses at one university function effectively at another university? 2) How many human-scored student responses are needed to build scoring models suitable for cross-institutional application? 3) What factors limit computer-scoring efficacy, and how can these factors be mitigated? To answer these questions, two biology experts scored a corpus of 2556 short-answer explanations (from biology majors and nonmajors) at two universities for the presence or absence of five key concepts of evolution. Human- and computer-generated scores were compared using kappa agreement statistics. We found that machine-learning software was capable in most cases of accurately evaluating the degree of scientific sophistication in undergraduate majors’ and nonmajors’ written explanations of evolutionary change. In cases in which the software did not perform at the benchmark of “near-perfect” agreement (kappa > 0.80), we located the causes of poor performance and identified a series of strategies for their mitigation. Machine-learning software holds promise as an assessment tool for use in undergraduate biology education, but like most assessment tools, it is also characterized by limitations. PMID:22135372

  20. 14 CFR 11.43 - What information must I put in my written comments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What information must I put in my written comments? 11.43 Section 11.43 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... information must I put in my written comments? (a) Your written comments must be in English and must...

  1. Teaching Job Search Written and Oral Communication Skills through an Integrated Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addams, Lon; Woodbury, Denise

    2009-01-01

    Business educators understand the value of improving students' written and oral communication skills. However, too often assignments used to develop these important skills are taught in isolation. The purpose of this article is to enhance a student's written and oral skills by integrating all aspects of the job search written documents and…

  2. Mapping out the Details: Supporting Struggling Writers' Written Expression with Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sara M.; Bouck, Emily C.

    2015-01-01

    Written expression is a key component of the secondary curriculum, but many students struggle to produce effective written expression passages. However, written expression can be supported through prewriting strategies such as concept mapping. Using a counterbalanced group design, 19 secondary students alternated between using paper- or…

  3. A Study of Oral and Written Expression Abilities of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaon, Felicia

    This study investigated the oral and written expression of 16 learning disabled students in a special education alternative high school. Students were offered two prompts: one written, one verbal. Written and oral responses were scored according to a rubric similar to that used for the New York State High School English Regents Examination.…

  4. The Reliability of the OWLS Written Expression Scale with ESL Kindergarten Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gina L.; Ogle, Keira C.; Keilty, Megan

    2011-01-01

    A reliability analysis was conducted on the Written Expression Scale from the Oral and Written Language Scales, (OWLS, Carrow-Woolfolk, 1996), with 68 ESL and 56 non-ESL kindergarten students. Interrater and internal consistency estimates for the Written Expression Scale were examined separately for each language group. Despite lower oral English…

  5. Chinese Secondary EFL Learners' and Teachers' Preferences for Types of Written Corrective Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haishan; He, Qingshun

    2017-01-01

    How learners perceive written corrective feedback (CF) associates with its effectiveness in language learning. This research investigates students' preferences for three types of written CF, i.e., direct, indirect and metalinguistic written CF, and explores the factors that encourage the teachers to employ these CFs in teaching practice. The…

  6. Optical Music Recognition for Scores Written in White Mensural Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An Optical Music Recognition (OMR system especially adapted for handwritten musical scores of the XVII-th and the early XVIII-th centuries written in white mensural notation is presented. The system performs a complete sequence of analysis stages: the input is the RGB image of the score to be analyzed and, after a preprocessing that returns a black and white image with corrected rotation, the staves are processed to return a score without staff lines; then, a music symbol processing stage isolates the music symbols contained in the score and, finally, the classification process starts to obtain the transcription in a suitable electronic format so that it can be stored or played. This work will help to preserve our cultural heritage keeping the musical information of the scores in a digital format that also gives the possibility to perform and distribute the original music contained in those scores.

  7. Scienceography: the study of how science is written

    CERN Document Server

    Cormode, Graham; Yun, Jinyun

    2012-01-01

    Scientific literature has itself been the subject of much scientific study, for a variety of reasons: understanding how results are communicated, how ideas spread, and assessing the influence of areas or individuals. However, most prior work has focused on extracting and analyzing citation and stylistic patterns. In this work, we introduce the notion of 'scienceography', which focuses on the writing of science. We provide a first large scale study using data derived from the arXiv e-print repository. Crucially, our data includes the "source code" of scientific papers-the LTEX source-which enables us to study features not present in the "final product", such as the tools used and private comments between authors. Our study identifies broad patterns and trends in two example areas-computer science and mathematics-as well as highlighting key differences in the way that science is written in these fields. Finally, we outline future directions to extend the new topic of scienceography.

  8. Written culture: learning how to read and write in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Pires Vargas Bolzan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the formal aspects of writing and reading within the classroom context, emphasizing the importance of the students’ role, favoring their authorship as writers and readers from written culture. We understand that it is indispensable that the school beholds a prospective view in relation to the students’ learning, taking their ideas and constructions into consideration; that is, bearing in mind the culture of which they are carriers. We highlight the literacy teacher’s role in the process of organizing the pedagogical work that is aimed at teaching and learning reading and writing for the students that are in the early years of elementary school. In this way, we point out that the organization of the teaching requires teaching investment towards the improvement of activities and knowledge that focus on the organization of the pedagogical work, marking a long path to go to allow the assumption of pedagogical protagonism.

  9. Optimizing the efficiency of femtosecond-laser-written holograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wædegaard, Kristian Juncher; Hansen, Henrik Dueholm; Balling, Peter

    2013-01-01

    for different laser-structuring parameters. Theoretical diffraction grating efficiencies for a binary amplitude grating show good agreement with the experimental measurements for diameters of the laser-formed holes below the pitch. Modelling based on straightforward geometrical arguments is used to find......Computer-generated binary holograms are written on a polished copper surface using single 800-nm, 120-fs pulses from a 1-kHz-repetition-rate laser system. The hologram efficiency (i.e. the power in the holographic reconstructed image relative to the incoming laser power) is investigated...... the optimal hole size. For a coverage (i.e. relative laser-structured area) of ∼43 %, the efficiency reaches ∼10 %, which corresponds to a relative power transferred to one reconstructed image of ∼20 %. The efficiency as a function of pitch (for fixed coverage) is fairly constant from 2 to 6 μm....

  10. Preposition use in oral and written learner language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Nacey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns preposition use in oral language produced by advanced Norwegian learners of English, using primary data from an oral learner corpus (LINDSEI-NO. We investigate the frequency of inappropriate preposition use in approximately 13 hours of transcribed informal interviews, as well as the possible extent to which L1 transfer may play a role in production. The contextually inappropriate prepositions were categorized in terms of factors that may influence preposition use, with particular focus on the congruence between L1 and L2 with respect to syntactic structure and basic meaning. These results about spoken preposition use are then contrasted with results from a corresponding investigation into preposition use in a written learner corpus (NICLE, allowing for comparison of preposition usage across modes.

  11. Effect of written presentation on performance in introductory physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Ballard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the written work of students in the introductory calculus-based electricity and magnetism course at the University of Arkansas. The students’ solutions to hourly exams were divided into a small set of countable features organized into three major categories, mathematics, language, and graphics. Each category was further divided into subfeatures. The total number of features alone explained more than 30% of the variance in exam scores and from 9% to 15% of the variance in conceptual posttest scores. If all features and subfeatures are used, between 44% and 49% of the variance in exam scores is explained and between 22% and 28% of the variance in conceptual posttest scores. The use of language is consistently positively correlated with both exam performance and conceptual understanding.

  12. Equitable Written Assessments for English Language Learners: How Scaffolding Helps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Marcelle A.; Menon, Deepika; Sinha, Somnath; Promyod, Nattida; Wissehr, Cathy; Halverson, Kristy L.

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of the use of scaffolds in written classroom assessments through the voices of both native English speakers and English language learners from two middle schools. Students responded to assessment tasks in writing, by speaking aloud using think aloud protocols, and by reflecting in a post-assessment interview. The classroom assessment tasks were designed to engage students in scientific sense making and multifaceted language use, as recommended by the Next Generation Science Standards. Data analyses showed that both groups benefitted from the use of scaffolds. The findings revealed specific ways that modifications were supportive in helping students to comprehend, visualize and organize thinking, and elicit responses. This study offers a model for both sensitizing teachers and strengthening their strategies for scaffolding assessments equitably.

  13. Optical Music Recognition for Scores Written in White Mensural Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tardón LorenzoJ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An Optical Music Recognition (OMR system especially adapted for handwritten musical scores of the XVII-th and the early XVIII-th centuries written in white mensural notation is presented. The system performs a complete sequence of analysis stages: the input is the RGB image of the score to be analyzed and, after a preprocessing that returns a black and white image with corrected rotation, the staves are processed to return a score without staff lines; then, a music symbol processing stage isolates the music symbols contained in the score and, finally, the classification process starts to obtain the transcription in a suitable electronic format so that it can be stored or played. This work will help to preserve our cultural heritage keeping the musical information of the scores in a digital format that also gives the possibility to perform and distribute the original music contained in those scores.

  14. German Alliance for the Protection of the Written Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Leskien

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In March 2001, the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in collaboration with the Bayerische Versicherungsbank (a corporate subsidiary of the well-known insurance company „Allianz” organized a congress on „Strategies of Preservation and Conservation”. During the meeting it was proposed not to wait for comprehensive solutions offered by the governmental authorities responsible for the maintenance of libraries and archives, but to tackle the problem by initiatives started within the respective organizations. As early as in June, a steering committee of representatives from libraries and archives met to establish a study group called „Deutsche Allianz zum Schutz des schriftlichen Kulturguts” (German Alliance for the Protection of the Written Heritage. At present, the committee is about to define its status and functions, its main objectives and its organizational form, but there are some clear indications of future activities which will be analyzed below.

  15. Synergistic relationships between Analytical Chemistry and written standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel; Lucena, Rafael

    2013-07-25

    This paper describes the mutual impact of Analytical Chemistry and several international written standards (norms and guides) related to knowledge management (CEN-CWA 14924:2004), social responsibility (ISO 26000:2010), management of occupational health and safety (OHSAS 18001/2), environmental management (ISO 14001:2004), quality management systems (ISO 9001:2008) and requirements of the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (ISO 17025:2004). The intensity of this impact, based on a two-way influence, is quite different depending on the standard considered. In any case, a new and fruitful approach to Analytical Chemistry based on these relationships can be derived. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Written and Auditory Language-Processing Skills on Written Passage Comprehension in Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria; Bertram, Julia; Ostrowski, Adam; Michaud, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The authors assessed 4,865 middle and high school students for the ability to recognize and understand written and spoken morphologically simple words, morphologically complex words, and the syntactic structure of sentences and for the ability to answer questions about facts presented in a written passage and to make inferences based on those…

  17. Tailored silver grid as transparent electrodes directly written by femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Dong, Xian-Zi; Jin, Feng; Liu, Jie; Ren, Xue-Liang; Duan, Xuan-Ming; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    We present the design and realization of silver grid transparent electrodes (SGTEs) easily fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of silver aqueous solution. The fabricated SGTEs with a sheet resistance down to 47 Ω/□ and optical transmittance up to 93% are demonstrated. These sheet resistance and transmittance values are comparable to commercially available indium tin oxide. High uniform morphology of the directly written SGTEs results in the ultra-stable tailored performance parameter at electronic and optical fields. The sheet resistance and transmittance can be tailored precisely by manipulating the filling fraction of the uniform SGTEs. This study provides an approach for creating SGTEs in a controllable fashion, and the SGTEs exhibit high transmittance and low sheet resistance, which could open up new avenues towards widespread application in electronics, photovoltaics, and optoelectronics.

  18. The Role of Written Corrective Feedback in Developing Writing in L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrijela Petra Nagode

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Feedback plays an important role in developing L2 writing in young learners. The article provides a brief overview of the history of giving feedback and of some contemporary views within this field. Special attention is paid to cognitive perspectives, such as the influence of written corrective feedback on shortterm memory, the influence of focused and unfocused written corrective feedback on error correction, the influence of written corrective feedback on a particular category of error, the influence of direct and indirect written corrective feedback and combinations of various types of written corrective feedback, and the influence of educational background and L2 learning background on the effectiveness of written corrective feedback in terms of sociocultural perspectives. The main aim of the article is to present readers (especially teachers with the variety of aspects of giving written corrective feedback in developing L2 writing and thus in enabling young learners to develop their L2 writing skills more effectively.

  19. Opiate written behavioral agreements: a case for abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helft, Paul R; Williams, Jessica R; Bandy, Robin J

    2014-01-01

    Written behavioral agreements (WBAs) are gaining popularity as part of the effort to manage the alarming increase in prescription drug abuse. The rationale for increased use of WBAs in managing patients with chronic pain is that they are believed to increase adherence to agreed-upon behaviors, reduce addiction to or diversion of prescription drugs, and satisfy informed consent requirements. However, there are no high-quality data to support their widespread use in any of these areas. The evidence used to support the use of WBAs is insufficient to justify their unfairness and the high risk of harm they pose to the doctor-patient relationship. Instead, we contend that WBAs are being used to provide leverage for severing relationships with some of our most challenging patients. We propose that physicians treating patients for chronic pain abandon the use of WBAs. Alternatives include open communication, detailed informed consent processes, carefully documented discussions, and most important, commitment to ongoing relationships even with difficult patients.

  20. Versatile fs laser-written glass chip lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, D. G.; Gross, S.; Fuerbach, A.; Ebendorff Heidepriem, H.; Monro, T. M.; Withford, M. J.

    2013-03-01

    We report laser-written chip lasers with potential to be a platform planar technology versatile enough to cover the visible through to the mid-infrared spectral region. By femtosecond laser direct-writing a thulium doped fluoride based glass host (ZBLAN), we have demonstrated a 151% quantum efficiency λ=1.9 μm laser with a close to diffraction limited beam quality (M2~ 1.12 +/- 0.08) with 225 nm of continuous tunability in a device that can be rapidly fabricated by singlestep optical processing. The 9 mm long planar chip developed for concept demonstration contains fifteen large modearea waveguides that can operate in semi-monolithic or external cavity laser configurations. This chip laser has achieved the highest quantum efficiency from a planar glass waveguide laser. The depressed cladding geometry supports the largest fundamental modes reported for a rare-earth doped waveguide laser thereby favouring high peak-power operation which is demonstrated by achieving 1.9 kW peak-power pulses when Q-switched.

  1. Dorothea and the Written Word: Feminism and Heroism in Middlemarch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla Lee Weitzman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In her novel Middlemarch, George Eliot challenges assumptions about gender and genre by associating Dorothea Brooke with both masculine authority and feminine emotion. Eliot does so by connecting Dorothea both to the act of writing and to the artistic production itself. Unlike Rosamond Vincy, who is associated with the romance and with popular poetry in order to devalue her, Dorothea is connected to a number of more elevated genres, which are also associated with male authority. By driving the plot, Dorothea assumes the role of the writer in several ways: she ensures Celia’s marriage with Sir James by choosing Casaubon, she reunites Lydgate and Rosamond, and helps restore Lydgate’s good name. The letter she writes to accept Casaubon’s offer of marriage is written “three times, not because she wished to change the wording, but because her hand was unusually uncertain” (Eliot, 1968, p. 33. Her ardor gets in the way of her handwriting, but not of her “wording.” Eliot endows Dorothea’s writing with characteristics that are stereotypically feminine (motivated by love and intimacy and stereotypically masculine (growing out of ardor, and expressing vigor, force and energy. By infusing the intimate with the powerful, and associating both with the act of writing, Eliot conflates the typical province of woman with the typical province of men thus disrupting conventions of both gender and genre.

  2. A written test as an alternative to performance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Vleuten, C P; Van Luyk, S J; Beckers, H J

    1989-01-01

    Performance tests are logistically complex and time consuming. To reach adequate reliability long tests are imperative. Additionally, they are very difficult to adapt to the individual learning paths of students, which is necessary in problem-based learning. This study investigates a written alternative to performance-based tests. A Knowledge Test of Skills (KTS) was developed and administered to 380 subjects of various educational levels, including both first-year students and recently graduated doctors. By comparing KTS scores with scores on performance tests strong convergent validity was demonstrated. The KTS failed discriminant validity when compared with a general medical knowledge test. Also the identification of sub-tests discriminating between behavioural and cognitive aspects was not successful. This was due to the interdependence of the constructs measured. The KTS was able to demonstrate differences in ability level and showed subtle changes in response patterns over items, indicating construct validity. It was concluded that the KTS is a valid instrument for predicting performance scores and could very well be applied as supplementary information to performance testing. The relative ease of construction and efficiency makes the KTS a suitable substitute instrument for research purposes. The study also showed that in higher ability levels the concepts which were meant to be measured were highly related, giving evidence to the general factor theory of competence. However, it appeared that this general factor was originally non-existent in first-year students and that these competencies integrate as the educational process develops.

  3. Stylistic Analysis on Oliver Twist Written by Charles Dickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文风

    2015-01-01

    《雾都孤儿》是一部批判现实主义小说,是狄更斯主要代表作之一.研究它的作品有很多,但很少有人文体学角度研究它,然而这部作品用了大量的文体学手法.在论文中,作者以小说的第十章为例,从文体学角度评析这篇小说.%Oliver Twist belongs to realistic social critical novel.It is one of the very famous novels written by Dickens. Many books and works have been made to study it.However,few of them study it style,and in this novel,many stylistic means are used.Therefore,in this paper,the author chooses chapter ten as an example to analyses the style of the novel from stylistic view.

  4. Correlations of clinical assessment tools with written examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Jeong; Sunwoo, Sung

    2009-03-01

    Despite the goal of medical education, which is 'training to be a primary care physician,' only written examinations (WEs) generally have been used to assess medical student ability. We assessed clinical competence using the CPX (clinical performance examination), PA (portfolio assessment), VMA (video-monitoring assessment), CGD (case group discussion), and PCP (primary clinical practice) during students' clerkships in family medicine and correlated these clinical assessment tools with WEs. Also, we correlated these tools with each other to determine the feasibility of each as a replacement of the other tools. Thirty-nine fourth year students at University of Ulsan College of Medicine took part in their clerkship in family medicine for 2 weeks during the first session of 2005. They took 1 CPX, 2 VMAs, 6 CGDs, and 2 PCPs and were required to submit their portfolios at the end of the clerkship. We evaluated the correlations of these tools and WEs by the overall scores of each class year and in each subject. The CPX, VMA, and PCP showed no significant correlation,while PA showed strong correlation with 4th year students' overall WEs. The CGD showed strong correlation with all overall scores and with almost all subjects. In addition, the PA correlated significantly with CGD. New clinical assessment tools, such as CPX, PA, and VMA, have no significant correlation with WE, even though these tools closely correspond with real clinical practice. Therefore, these tools should be considered as complementary instruments to better assess clinical competence.

  5. Acropolis: A Fast Protoyping Robotic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Zalzal

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Acropolis is an open source middleware robotic framework for fast software prototyping and reuse of program codes. It is made up of a core software and a collection of several extension modules called plugins. Each plugin encapsulates a specific functionality needed for robotic applications. To design a robot behavior, a circuit of the involved plugins is built with a graphical user interface. A high degree of decoupling between components and a graph-based representation allow the user to build complex robot behaviors with minimal need for code writing. In addition, the Acropolis core is hardware platform independent. Well-known design patterns and layered software architecture are its key features. Through the description of three applications, we illustrate some of its usability.

  6. Development of a written assessment for a national interprofessional cardiotocography education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thellesen, Line; Bergholt, Thomas; Hedegaard, Morten; Colov, Nina Palmgren; Christensen, Karl Bang; Andersen, Kristine Sylvan; Sorensen, Jette Led

    2017-05-18

    To reduce the incidence of hypoxic brain injuries among newborns a national cardiotocography (CTG) education program was implemented in Denmark. A multiple-choice question test was integrated as part of the program. The aim of this article was to describe and discuss the test development process and to introduce a feasible method for written test development in general. The test development was based on the unitary approach to validity. The process involved national consensus on learning objectives, standardized item writing, pilot testing, sensitivity analyses, standard setting and evaluation of psychometric properties using Item Response Theory models. Test responses and feedback from midwives, specialists and residents in obstetrics and gynecology, and medical and midwifery students were used in the process (proofreaders n = 6, pilot test participants n = 118, CTG course participants n = 1679). The final test included 30 items and the passing score was established at 25 correct answers. All items fitted a loglinear Rasch model and the test was able to discriminate levels of competence. Seven items revealed differential item functioning in relation to profession and geographical regions, which means the test is not suitable for measuring differences between midwives and physicians or differences across regions. In the setting of pilot testing Cronbach's alpha equaled 0.79, whereas Cronbach's alpha equaled 0.63 in the setting of the CTG education program. This indicates a need for more items and items with a higher degree of difficulty in the test, and illuminates the importance of context when discussing validity. Test development is a complex and time-consuming process. The unitary approach to validity was a useful and applicable tool for development of a CTG written assessment. The process and findings supported our proposed interpretation of the assessment as measuring CTG knowledge and interpretive skills. However, for the test to function as a

  7. Development of a CD-ROM on written language for the continuing education of elementary school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís dos Santos Gonçalves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Distance education has emerged to minimize the anxiety of many professionals who need to update their knowledge, but do not have the time and opportunity to travel to educational centers. Objectives: To describe the development of a CD-ROM to provide distance continuing education to basic school teachers that addresses issues related to written language. Material and Methods: Previously, a script was developed with themes related to the acquisition and development of written language. Subsequently, a technical team transformed the texts in multimedia language. Results: The titles of each content area addressed are available on buttons and links. The files can be viewed in a linear sequence, allowing the teacher to start learning at the desired moment and go straight to the file that he or she wants to access. Videos that show practical applications of the concepts available in text are included. Conclusions: Brazil is a developing country. The use of technologies for education reduces cultural isolation among education professionals. It is necessary to focus on making teaching materials for distance education. In order to provide an effective learning environment, the learners reality should be considered. A multidisciplinary team should prepare the materials. The development of educational material for distance education on the acquisition and development of written language seems not only appropriate, but also warranted to provide professional growth opportunity for teachers who need time flexibility and/or live far away from academic centers.

  8. Development of a CD-ROM on written language for the continuing education of elementary school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Thaís Dos Santos; Crenitte, Patrícia Abreu Pinheiro

    2011-01-01

    Distance education has emerged to minimize the anxiety of many professionals who need to update their knowledge, but do not have the time and opportunity to travel to educational centers. To describe the development of a CD-ROM to provide distance continuing education to basic school teachers that addresses issues related to written language. Previously, a script was developed with themes related to the acquisition and development of written language. Subsequently, a technical team transformed the texts in multimedia language. The titles of each content area addressed are available on buttons and links. The files can be viewed in a linear sequence, allowing the teacher to start learning at the desired moment and go straight to the file that he or she wants to access. Videos that show practical applications of the concepts available in text are included. Brazil is a developing country. The use of technologies for education reduces cultural isolation among education professionals. It is necessary to focus on making teaching materials for distance education. In order to provide an effective learning environment, the learners reality should be considered. A multidisciplinary team should prepare the materials. The development of educational material for distance education on the acquisition and development of written language seems not only appropriate, but also warranted to provide professional growth opportunity for teachers who need time flexibility and/or live far away from academic centers.

  9. Developing and Evaluating Clinical Written Assignment in Clinical Teaching for the Senior B.S. Nursing Students: An action research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Valizadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In a four-year undergraduate level , the nursing students have to get prepared in the patients education, designing care plans, applying nursing processes and exercise the clinical decisions, in addition to learning practical skills. Therefore, multiple clinical teaching strategies in nursing must be applied. In this study the sheets for the mentioned fields were designed and used. Methods: In this action research in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, 64 nursing senior students and related instructors participated. Clinical written assignment included the patient’s health condition sheet, tables showing the used medicines and the precautions, the clinical and paraclinical tests and the results, identifying the patient problems, designing and implementing care plan and writing nursing reports with SOAPIE method. The instructors’ viewpoints were achieved through the group discussions and their notes taken. The perceived competency of the students was obtained through a questionnaire. The qualitative data was analyzed by the content analysis and quantitative using SPSS. Results: Both the students and the instructors agreed with the clinical written assignment. The desired care competency of the students before and after assignment was statistically significant (p<0.05. According to the instructors, intervention was useful for the senior students who have passed the courses needed for completing and using the different parts of these forms. Conclusion: Since a need is always felt in the trends of the nursing clinical teaching, the researchers recommend the clinical written assignment and their application along with other strategies for senior nursing students in clinical teaching.

  10. Future Directions in Studies on Student Perception of Teacher Written Feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Rui

    2015-01-01

    Teacher feedback plays a key role in teaching second language writing. Though teachers have devoted a great deal of time to giving written feedback to L2 students, some students complained that they benefit little from written feedback. This study reviews research on the effectiveness of teacher written feedback in ESL context or EFL context in United States, and tries to sug⁃gest future direction in further research.

  11. 28 CFR 42.304 - Written equal employment opportunity program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... location should be identified. When relevant, the recipient should indicate the racial/ethnic mix of the... employees in each job category by race, sex and national origin who made application for promotion...

  12. 45 CFR 1636.3 - Access to written statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... party other than those listed in paragraph (a) of this section any right of access to the plaintiff's... of facts by such other persons or parties is governed by applicable law and the discovery rules...

  13. Platform for the analysis of written texts in terms of conceptual graphs: study case, Cybernetics of Cybernetics course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Contreras

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to observe and analyze the conceptual-relation structures in texts written in Spanish, from the perspective of second-order cybernetics. Texts are shaped by the syntactic structure of the sentences they contain. Conceptual-relationships emerge by transforming the text, using a text analysis platform named PAST. The transformation is guided by a set of established rules, permitting to observe a system. PAST can be defined as a powerful operator to transform texts written by the students in a Master's Program class. The platform is introduced as a tool enabling a graph representation of relationships among the concepts in the text. The internal procedure of the platform and the graph construction concerns the linguistic analysis. Although the resulting graphic representation does not follow a formal definition, it reflects an iterative construction to define a topology to create a semantic network. This network only makes sense to the author of the text. In other words, the author (observer, based on the cybernetics of the observing systems, uses a tool that enables him to make a second-order observation of a document that he/she has linearly written. The main epistemological concepts mentioned throughout the development of the proposal are discourse and distinction. The contribution of this work is the application of a methodology that conducts a recursive observation of both the direct and indirect relationships established by the words the author puts together in his/her written discourse. In the discussion of results the next phases of this work are presented.

  14. Speech-language therapy for adolescents with written-language difficulties: the South African context

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D Erasmus; L Schutte; M van der Merwe; S Geertsema

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo investigate whether privately practising speech-language therapists in South Africa are fulfilling their role of identification, assessment and intervention for adolescents with written...

  15. Word frequencies in written and spoken English based on the British National Corpus

    CERN Document Server

    Leech, Geoffrey; Wilson, Andrew (All Of Lancaster University)

    2014-01-01

    Word Frequencies in Written and Spoken English is a landmark volume in the development of vocabulary frequency studies. Whereas previous books have in general given frequency information about the written language only, this book provides information on both speech and writing. It not only gives information about the language as a whole, but also about the differences between spoken and written English, and between different spoken and written varieties of the language. The frequencies are derived from a wide ranging and up-to-date corpus of English: the British Na

  16. Managing Written Directives: A Software Solution to Streamline Workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert H; Savir-Baruch, Bital; Gabriel, Medhat Sam; Halama, James; Bova, Davide

    2017-03-09

    A written directive (WD) is a requirement of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) regulations and is required for all uses of I-131 above 1.11 MBq (30 microcuries) and for patients receiving therapy with radiopharmaceuticals. These regulations have also been adopted and are required to be enforced by the agreement states. A paper trail method of WD management is inefficient and prone to error, loss, and duplication. As the options for therapy in Nuclear Medicine increase with the introduction of new radiopharmaceuticals, the time spent on the regulatory burden and paperwork has also increased. The management of regulatory requirements has a significant impact on physician and technologist time utilization and these pressures may increase the potential for inaccurate or incomplete WD data and subsequent regulatory violations. A software tool for the management of WDs using a HIPAA compliant database has been created. This WD software allows for the secure sharing of data among physicians, technologists and managers while saving time, reducing errors and eliminating the possibility of loss and duplication. Methods: Software development was performed using Microsoft Visual Basic® (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA) which is part of the Microsoft Visual Studio® development environment for the Microsoft Windows® platform. The database repository for patient data is Microsoft Access® and stored locally on a HIPAA secure server or hard disk. Once a working version was developed, it was installed and used at our institution for the management of WDs. Updates and modifications were released regularly until no significant problems were found with the operation of the software. Results: The software has been in use at our institution for over two years and has reliably kept track of all directives during that time. All physicians and technologists use the software as part of their daily workflow and find it superior to paper directives. We are able to

  17. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Lappin-Fortin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French and French immersion graduates was compared based on total output and several measures of grammatical and syntactical accuracy. Few statistically significant differences emerge. However, a subgroup of core French learners who had benefitted from an authentic immersion experience appears to outperform both regular core French and French immersion groups. The purpose of this quantitative study is primarily diagnostic; the results should help universities better serve the needs of first-year students. Résumé Les études comparant la compétence écrite des étudiants de programmes d’immersion française et de français cadre sont peu nombreuses—particulièrement au niveau postsecondaire. Mon corpus consiste en des échantillons du français écrit de 255 étudiants issus de ces deux formations qui commencent un cours de français à l’université. J’ai comparé leur production globale et leur précision sur le plan morphosyntaxique. Peu de différences statistiquement significatives en émergent. Toutefois, un sous-groupe d’étudiants cadre ayant bénéficié d’une expérience d’immersion authentique se révèle comme le plus compétent selon plusieurs des mesures utilisées. Les résultats de cette étude quantitative devraient aider les universités à mieux répondre aux besoins des étudiants de première année.

  18. Interdisciplinary Care Planning and the Written Care Plan in Nursing Homes: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellefield, Mary Ellen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article is a critical review of the history, research evidence, and state-of-the-art technology in interdisciplinary care planning and the written plan of care in American nursing homes. Design and Methods: We reviewed educational and empirical literature. Results: Interdisciplinary care planning and the written care plan are…

  19. A Structure Analysis of English Argumentative Writings Written by Chinese and Korean EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cui

    2013-01-01

    This study employed Kamimura and Oi (1996)'s classification of the organizational patterns of the argumentative essay structure: Thesis Statement (TS), Background Information (BI), Reservation (R), Hesitation (H), Rational Appeals (RA), Affective Appeals (AA) and Conclusion (C). 178 essays, 84 written by Chinese EFL learners, 84 written by Korean…

  20. A Developmental Study of Prepositional Phrases in Hebrew Written Text Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, Gilad; Ravid, Dorit

    2017-01-01

    Prepositional phrases (PPs) are considered an important feature of mature written expression. However, little is known about the development of PPs during the school years. The study examined the use of PPs in 160 narrative and expository texts, written by Hebrew-users in grades 4, 7, and 11, and adults. PPs were identified, counted, and…

  1. Form and Meaning in the Written Language of Hearing-Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Snyder, Lynn

    1985-01-01

    Semantic discourse features of written narratives of 49 hearing impaired children (10-15 years old) were examined in an analysis of the relationship between form and meaning in the writing of both hearing and hearing impaired Ss. Syntactic and semantic written language growth appear to be qualitatively and quantitatively different in the groups.…

  2. Visual feedback in written imaginal exposure for posttraumatic stress: a preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truijens, F.L.; van Emmerik, A.A.P.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the visual feedback hypothesis, which states that visual feedback from written trauma narratives contributes to the efficacy of written imaginal exposure in reducing posttraumatic stress, as visual feedback allows for the reuptake of traumatic content during the production of

  3. Evidence for a Limited-Cascading Account of Written Word Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Roux, Sebastien; Barry, Christopher; Canell, Laura

    2012-01-01

    We address the issue of how information flows within the written word production system by examining written object-naming latencies. We report 4 experiments in which we manipulate variables assumed to have their primary impact at the level of object recognition (e.g., quality of visual presentation of pictured objects), at the level of semantic…

  4. One Teacher's Dilemma in Mediating Translation from Written to Symbolic Form in a Multilingual Algebra Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essien, Anthony A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how a teacher in a multilingual classroom attempted to support learners who are struggling to translate written/verbal mathematics into a symbolic form. Thirty-six Grade ten learners in one multilingual classroom in South Africa were given a written test involving one algebraic question and then a discussion on the solution…

  5. The Development of Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in the Written Production of L2 French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The present longitudinal case study investigated the development of fluency, complexity and accuracy--and the possible relationships between them--in the written production of L2 French. We assessed fluency and complexity in five intermediate learners by means of conventional indicators for written L2 (cf. Wolfe-Quintero et al. 1998), while…

  6. Written Narratives as an Index of L2 Competence in Korean EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jennifer Yusun

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated how linguistically determined Korean discourse strategies for establishing textual cohesion and marking written register in the Korean language may help explain the differences between the native English speakers' and the Korean English learners' written narratives in English. It employed quantitative methods of analysis to…

  7. Written Language Disorders: Speech-Language Pathologists' Training, Knowledge, and Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Gordon W.; Mamett, Callie; Gordon, Rebecca; Blood, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') perceptions of their (a) educational and clinical training in evaluating and treating written language disorders, (b) knowledge bases in this area, (c) sources of knowledge about written language disorders, (d) confidence levels, and (e) predictors of confidence in working with…

  8. Hearing Impaired Adolescents' Signed and Written Expression of Locative State Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempt, Donna; Maxwell, Madeline M.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of hearing-impaired adolescents' signed and written sentences expressing simple locative state relations found noun reversal and pragmatic focus errors in 7 percent of signed and 15 percent of written responses. Most errors were produced by profoundly hearing-impaired signers attending public day school. (Author/CB)

  9. Language and Ageing--Exploring Propositional Density in Written Language--Stability over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Elizabeth; Craig, Hugh; Ferguson, Alison; Colyvas, Kim

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the stability of propositional density (PD) in written texts, as this aspect of language shows promise as an indicator and as a predictor of language decline with ageing. This descriptive longitudinal study analysed written texts obtained from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health in which participants were…

  10. Transforming Biology Assessment with Machine Learning: Automated Scoring of Written Evolutionary Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Ha, Minsu; Mayfield, Elijah

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the use of machine learning to automatically evaluate the accuracy of students' written explanations of evolutionary change. Performance of the Summarization Integrated Development Environment (SIDE) program was compared to human expert scoring using a corpus of 2,260 evolutionary explanations written by 565 undergraduate…

  11. The Relevance of Second Language Acquisition Theory to the Written Error Correction Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polio, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    The controversies surrounding written error correction can be traced to Truscott (1996) in his polemic against written error correction. He claimed that empirical studies showed that error correction was ineffective and that this was to be expected "given the nature of the correction process and "the nature of language learning" (p. 328, emphasis…

  12. Written Language Skills of Entry-Level Accountants as Assessed by Experienced CPAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Sandra J.; Moncada, Susan; Smith, Douglas C.

    1996-01-01

    Surveys experienced Certified Public Accountants to examine their perceptions of the written language skills of entry-level accountants. Finds that written language fundamentals in word selection and usage, sentence and paragraph construction, and grammar and mechanics remain a problem for entry-level accountants. Notes the value of these findings…

  13. Differences between Spoken Language and Written Language and Their Influence in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫晓云

    2014-01-01

    Spoken language and written language serve different functions in communication. It ’s necessary for English teachers to know the differences between them in order to teach effectively. This thesis analyzes the differences between spoken language and written language in four respects and their influence in English teaching.

  14. Oral versus Written Assessments: A Test of Student Performance and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxham, Mark; Campbell, Fiona; Westwood, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    Student performance in and attitudes towards oral and written assessments were compared using quantitative and qualitative methods. Two separate cohorts of students were examined. The first larger cohort of students (n = 99) was randomly divided into "oral" and "written" groups, and the marks that they achieved in the same biology questions were…

  15. Teacher-Written Feedback: Student Perceptions, Teacher Self-Assessment, and Actual Teacher Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Julie L.; Baker, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Most research in second language (L2) writing has focused on students' perceptions more than teachers' self-assessment of teacher-written feedback. This study's purpose was to investigate: (1) how much local and global written feedback teachers give, (2) how their self-assessments and students' perceptions of this feedback coordinate, and (3) how…

  16. 7 CFR 900.40 - Written testimony and USDA data request requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Nut Marketing Agreements and Marketing Orders § 900.40 Written testimony and USDA data request... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Written testimony and USDA data request requirements...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT...

  17. Transforming Biology Assessment with Machine Learning: Automated Scoring of Written Evolutionary Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Ha, Minsu; Mayfield, Elijah

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the use of machine learning to automatically evaluate the accuracy of students' written explanations of evolutionary change. Performance of the Summarization Integrated Development Environment (SIDE) program was compared to human expert scoring using a corpus of 2,260 evolutionary explanations written by 565 undergraduate…

  18. Relations between scripted online peer feedback processes and quality of written argumentative essay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noroozi, Omid; Biemans, Harm; Mulder, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Teachers often complain about the quality of students' written essays in higher education. This study explores the relations between scripted online peer feedback processes and quality of written argumentative essay as they occur in an authentic learning situation with direct practical relevance.

  19. The Effectiveness of Written Corrective Feedback and the Impact Lao Learners' Beliefs Have on Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Stephanie; Bitchener, John

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study examining the effectiveness of written corrective feedback (CF) on the simple past tense and the impact beliefs may have on students' uptake of the feedback they receive. A seven-week study was carried out with 42 advanced EFL learners in Vientiane, Laos. Students' beliefs about written CF were first…

  20. The Effect of Teacher Attitudes to Individual Students on the Written Feedback Given

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYinghong; LiuYingzhe; ZhangXiaoyan

    2004-01-01

    Providing written feedback to students is one of EFL writing teachers' most important tasks. As teachers, we know experientially that our students grapple not only with a writtencode but also with a linguistic code that is still being acquired,thus they place value on teacher written feedback; also we hope that our students could benefit from our feedback in their

  1. Dynamic Generation and Editing System for Wrongly Written Chinese Characters Font

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsheng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The uniqueness of Chinese makes Chinese language a hotspot in language learning. In view of the problem of wrongly written character teaching in Chinese language teaching, it provides a simple, convenient, and efficient input method of wrongly written characters and realizes a dynamic generation and editing system for wrongly written Chinese character font, which solves the problems of real-time edit, coding, and input of wrongly written character in editing process using dynamic editing technology, and provides a convenient input method of wrongly written character in editing, printing, typesetting, and the research of digital Chinese language teaching. This method can also be used in dynamic editing, generation and processing of ancient variants, Oracle bone inscriptions, Bronze inscription, folk combined characters, and other fonts.

  2. A Platform Independent Game Technology Model for Model Driven Serious Games Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Stephen; Hanneghan, Martin; Carter, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Game-based learning (GBL) combines pedagogy and interactive entertainment to create a virtual learning environment in an effort to motivate and regain the interest of a new generation of "digital native" learners. However, this approach is impeded by the limited availability of suitable "serious" games and high-level design…

  3. Platform Independent Source Code Transformations for Task Concurrency Management (Platformonafhankelijke broncodetransformaties voor het beheer van taakparallellisme)

    OpenAIRE

    Himpe, Stefaan

    2006-01-01

    De applicaties die tegenwoordig op ingebedde systemen gebruikt worden,vertonen steeds vaker dynamisch gedrag. Neem bijvoorbeeld een GSM.GSM gebruikers verwachten dat ze kunnen telefoneren en ondertusseniets opzoeken in hun ingebouwde agenda. Dit leidt tot applicatieswaarin verschillende taken tegelijk actief moeten kunnen zijn.Het starten en stoppen van die taken leidt tot een variërende behoefte aangeheugen en rekenkracht.De meeste GSM's bieden tegenwoordig ook spelletjes aan. Spelletjesvere...

  4. Operating Methods for a Computer System Providing Platform Independent Universal Client Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-30

    errorDisplay = makeErrorTex tArea (rows, cols); if (errorDisplay = null) // it’s already been created return; addComponent(parent, errorDisplay, key...GUISCRIPT (in bytes). // // NOTE: We are planning to expand the size of the header to 32 bytes // and give it a different format. The new header

  5. Poly (dimethyl siloxane) micro/nanostructure replication using proton beam written masters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, P. G.; van Kan, J. A.; Ansari, K.; Bettiol, A. A.; Watt, F.

    2007-07-01

    Proton beam writing (PBW) has been proven to be a powerful tool for fabricating micro and nanostructures with high aspect ratio. However, being a direct-write technique, and therefore, a serial process, PBW is not economic for low cost multiple component production. Techniques for replicating PBW structures with low cost are necessary for applications in for example nanofluidics, tissue engineering and optical devices. We have investigated casting poly (dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS Sylgard 184, Dow Corning Corp.) with PBW structures as masters. First, a 2 MeV focused H2+ beam was written into a 2 μm thick PMMA layer spin coated onto 50 μm thick Kapton film substrate. Next, these PMMA structures, with details down to 700 nm, were replicated with PDMS. Without any release coating treatment, PDMS circular pillars, 700 nm in diameter were successfully replicated. We also fabricated a nickel master with nanofeature dimensions and 2 μm depth using proton beam writing and sulfamate electroplating. The nickel master was used to successfully replicate a prototype DNA separation chip using PDMS.

  6. SPICE modelling of magnetic tunnel junctions written by spin-transfer torque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, W; Prenat, G; De Mestier, N; Baraduc, C; Dieny, B [SPINTEC, UMR(8191), INAC, CEA/CNRS/UJF, 17 Av. des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Javerliac, V; El Baraji, M, E-mail: guillaume.prenat@cea.f [CROCUS Technology, 5 Place Robert Schuman, 38025 Grenoble (France)

    2010-06-02

    Spintronics aims at extending the possibility of conventional electronics by using not only the charge of the electron but also its spin. The resulting spintronic devices, combining the front-end complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology of electronics with a magnetic back-end technology, employ magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) as core elements. With the intent of simulating a circuit without fabricating it first, a reliable MTJ electrical model which is applicable to the standard SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) simulator is required. Since such a model was lacking so far, we present a MTJ SPICE model whose magnetic state is written by using the spin-transfer torque effect. This model has been developed in the C language and validated on the Cadence Virtuoso Platform with a Spectre simulator. Its operation is similar to that of the standard BSIM (Berkeley Short-channel IGFET Model) SPICE model of the MOS transistor and fully compatible with the SPICE electrical simulator. The simulation results obtained using this model have been found in good accord with those theoretical macrospin calculations and results.

  7. Improving written and verbal communication skills for international medical graduates: a linguistic and medical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Duncan; Smalldridge, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Adapting to UK communication styles can be difficult for International Medical Graduates (IMGs). Reache Northwest provides education, training and support for internationally trained refugee and asylum seeking health professionals who are looking to return to work in the UK. A Safe and Effective Communication Skills course was designed by a team of language teachers and clinicians to provide IMGs with an understanding of the written, verbal and summarisation skills required in the UK work environment. A series of language exercises adapted to clinical situations was developed. These increased in complexity to the practical application of language skills in clinical settings using simulated patients. The combination of language and clinical tutors meant that feedback could be given from a language teacher's perspective, the clinical perspective and the cultural context. The combination of language and clinical tutors meant that analysis of communication difficulties could be made from different perspectives and detailed, specific feedback could be given to each student in these areas. Using a combined linguistic and clinical approach can provide solutions to clinical communication problems that may otherwise be missed. This strategy could be extended to cover communication areas in other contexts.

  8. [Language performance of deaf children and adolescents in verbal and written retelling of a picture story].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R; Schildhammer, A; Ruoss, M

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation of the spoken and written language skills of prelingually deaf pupils is necessary to improve existing language curricula. Research on written language shows notable delays and substantial differences in the development of written language in comparison to hearing peers. It is difficult to investigate the spontaneous speech because of methodological problems (no control of speech parameters, language becomes a confounding variable). The written language is therefore a good indicator of language development. Nevertheless, oral communication ability can only be studied through spoken utterances. The present study deals with oral and writing performance of 23 prelingually deaf pupils from 9 to 15 years of age whose hearing losses range from 85 to 117 dB. Tape-recorded short picture sequences described by the children and adolescents were examined by experienced listeners. Furthermore, the written narratives of these picture sequences were also analyzed. Parameters included frequency of occurrence of content and function words, type-token ratio, mean length of sentence, and speech fluency. Speech intelligibility was rated by a panel of naive listeners. The results demonstrate the enormous retardation of oral and written language development and specific qualitative differences compared to hearing children. Language skills improve with age, especially in writing. However, oral and written narrative abilities are positively correlated. The loss of sound requires substitutional media for the acquisition of a formal language system. This should be taken into account in the teaching of language to the deaf in order to build up a language competence which is adequate for their age.

  9. [Quality of the anesthesiologist written record during the transfer of postoperative patients: Influence of implementing a structured communication tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, M J; Fernández-Guerrero, C; López-Toribio, P; Bueno-Cavanillas, A; Prieto-Cuéllar, M; Guzmán-Malpica, E M; Cuevas-Valenzuela, P; Moreno-Abril, E; Lara-Ramos, P

    2014-01-01

    The lack of communication is a major cause of health care errors, especially during patient transfer between practitioners and/or healthcare units, when standardization of communication is a recommended practice. In our study we wanted to assess whether the application of the structured communication SBAR tool could influence the quality of the information written on the progress sheet by the anesthesiologist involved in the transfer of the patient after surgery. This is an observational, retrospective, randomized, quality review of the written record made by the anesthesiologist during the transfer of patients from the surgical area to the postoperative recovery unit, by applying a validated list. We evaluated three observation periods: a control period of two months in 2011 (preSBAR) and a second period of two months in 2012 (postSBAR); in the latter two groups of patients were transferred (postSBAR +) or without SBAR (postSBAR-). The strength of agreement between raters obtained an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.8459 (p <0.001). There were significant differences in the study group, with highest average score in the group with SBAR (postSBAR + group: mean ± SD 7.56 ± 1.20 versus postSBAR-group: 5.41 ± 2.98, p <0.001) and depending on the anesthesiologist responsible for the intervention participated in the study (mean ± SD: 7.00 ± 1.99, compared to 4.81 ± 3.24 in the non-participants, p <0.001). There was an improvement in the quality of written records made in 2012 during the implementation of the SBAR, without the actual application of this instrument appearing to influence it. The anesthesiologists that were involved in new forms of patient safety were also those who made written records of highest quality. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Written pain neuroscience education in fibromyalgia: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ittersum, Miriam W; van Wilgen, C Paul; van der Schans, Cees P; Lambrecht, Luc; Groothoff, Johan W; Nijs, Jo

    2014-11-01

    Mounting evidence supports the use of face-to-face pain neuroscience education for the treatment of chronic pain patients. This study aimed at examining whether written education about pain neuroscience improves illness perceptions, catastrophizing, and health status in patients with fibromyalgia. A double-blind, multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial with 6-month follow-up was conducted. Patients with FM (n = 114) that consented to participate were randomly allocated to receive either written pain neuroscience education or written relaxation training. Written pain neuroscience education comprised of a booklet with pain neuroscience education plus a telephone call to clarify any difficulties; the relaxation group received a booklet with relaxation education and a telephone call. The revised illness perception questionnaire, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and fibromyalgia impact questionnaire were used as outcome measures. Both patients and assessors were blinded. Repeated-measures analyses with last observation carried forward principle were performed. Cohen's d effect sizes (ES) were calculated for all within-group changes and between-group differences. The results reveal that written pain neuroscience education does not change the impact of FM on daily life, catastrophizing, or perceived symptoms of patients with FM. Compared with written relaxation training, written pain neuroscience education improved beliefs in a chronic timeline of FM (P = 0.03; ES = 0.50), but it does not impact upon other domains of illness perceptions. Compared with written relaxation training, written pain neuroscience education slightly improved illness perceptions of patients with FM, but it did not impart clinically meaningful effects on pain, catastrophizing, or the impact of FM on daily life. Face-to-face sessions of pain neuroscience education are required to change inappropriate cognitions and perceived health in patients with FM. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  11. Scientific language versus common language in written answers of university applicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fleury Mortimer

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the role of language in the process of elaborating chemistry concepts in the classroom. We analyse a teaching episode showing the relationship between scientific language and common language and the contradiction, present in the constructivist classroom, between the convenience of giving voice to the students and the need of following a previous instructional plan. We try to show how this approach fits in a change of perspective in science education research, from an analysis centered towards an analysis of classroom as a socio-cultural space.

  12. UV Written 2x8 Optical Power Splitter for FTTH Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivero, Massimo; Svalgaard, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    Silica based integrated optical 2x8 power splitters are reported for the first time using UV-writing waveguide fabrication technology. High performance, compactness and low production costs make these components well suited for deployment in FTTH networks.......Silica based integrated optical 2x8 power splitters are reported for the first time using UV-writing waveguide fabrication technology. High performance, compactness and low production costs make these components well suited for deployment in FTTH networks....

  13. Fiber design and realization of point-by-point written fiber Bragg gratings in polymer optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Alessio; Stecher, Matthias; Town, Graham E.; Bang, Ole

    2012-04-01

    An increasing interest in making sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) written in polymer optical fibers (POFs) has been seen recently. Mostly microstructured POFs (mPOFs) have been chosen for this purpose because they are easier to fabricate compared, for example, to step index fibers and because they allow to tune the guiding parameters by modifying the microstructure. Now a days the only technique used to write gratings in such fibers is the phase mask technique with UV light illumination. Despite the good results that have been obtained, a limited flexibility on the grating design and the very long times required for the writing of FBGs raise some questions about the possibility of exporting POF FBGs and the sensors based on them from the laboratory bench to the mass production market. The possibility of arbitrary design of fiber Bragg gratings and the very short time required to write the gratings make the point-by-point grating writing technique very interesting and would appear to be able to fill this technological gap. On the other end this technique is hardly applicable for microstructured fibers because of the writing beam being scattered by the air-holes. We report on the design and realization of a microstructured polymer optical fiber made of PMMA for direct writing of FBGs. The fiber was designed specifically to avoid obstruction of the writing beam by air-holes. The realized fiber has been used to point-by-point write a 5 mm long fourth order FBG with a Bragg wavelength of 1518 nm. The grating was inspected under Differential Interferometric Contrast microscope and the reflection spectrum was measured. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first FBGs written into a mPOF with the point-by-point technique and also the fastest ever written into a polymer optical fiber, with less than 2.5 seconds needed.

  14. Characteristic Oral and Written Business Communication Problems of Selected Managerial Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Barry E.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a study to determine characteristic oral and written business communication problems of selected managerial trainees and to assess whether the problems defined by these trainees were those recognized by their immediate supervisors and secretaries. (JMF)

  15. A Comparison of Written and Oral Methods of Testing in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, G. M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discussed in this study is whether there are differences in the assessment of student understanding as measured by written tests versus oral tests. Age and sex differences as well as the impact of different languages and cultures were investigated. (KR)

  16. Which characteristics of written feedback are perceived as stimulating students' reflective competence : an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Hanke; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Snoek, Jos W.; van der Molen, Thys; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Background: Teacher feedback on student reflective writing is recommended to improve learners' reflective competence. To be able to improve teacher feedback on reflective writing, it is essential to gain insight into which characteristics of written feedback stimulate students' reflection processes.

  17. The emotional importance of key: do Beatles songs written in different keys convey different emotional tones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissel, R; Whissel, C

    2000-12-01

    Lyrics from 155 songs written by the Lennon-McCartney team were scored using the Dictionary of Affect in Language. Resultant scores (pleasantness, activation, and imagery of words) were compared across key signatures using one way analyses of variance. Words from songs written in minor keys were less pleasant and less active than those from songs written in major keys. Words from songs written in the key of F scored extremely low on all three measures. Lyrics from the keys of C, D, and G were relatively active in tone. Results from Dictionary scoring were compared with assignments of character to keys made more than one century ago and with current musicians' opinions.

  18. 22 CFR 92.58 - Examination on basis of written interrogatories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RELATED SERVICES Depositions and Letters Rogatory § 92.58 Examination on basis of written interrogatories... interrogatories must be put to the witness, even though at some point during the examination the witness...

  19. Which characteristics of written feedback are perceived as stimulating students' reflective competence : an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Hanke; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Snoek, Jos W.; van der Molen, Thys; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Background: Teacher feedback on student reflective writing is recommended to improve learners' reflective competence. To be able to improve teacher feedback on reflective writing, it is essential to gain insight into which characteristics of written feedback stimulate students' reflection processes.

  20. How to Verify Plagiarism of the Paper Written in Macedonian and Translated in Foreign Language?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Spiroski

    2016-02-01

    CONCLUSION: Plagiarism of the original papers written in Macedonian and translated in other languages can be verified after computerised translation in other languages. Later on, original and translated documents can be compared with available software for plagiarism detection.

  1. Lorentz microscopy on dynamically written domains in GdTbFe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greidanus, F.J.A.M.; Jacobs, B.A.J.; den Broeder, F.J.A.; Spruit, J.H.M.; Rosenkranz, M.

    1989-03-06

    In this letter a new method for the observation of thermomagnetically written domains using Lorentz electron microscopy is discussed. Domains are written in a GdTbFe layer deposited on a specially prepared silicon wafer disk, provided with Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ windows. This allows direct observation by Lorentz microscopy of the magnetization patterns dynamically written under recording conditions. It is shown that by locally heating the GdTbFe layer with a continuous laser beam, combined with high-frequency switching of the magnetic field, very high storage densities can be achieved. Domains with a length of 0.25 ..mu..m in the direction of disk rotation could be written.

  2. Lorentz microscopy on dynamically written domains in GdTbFe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greidanus, F. J. A. M.; Jacobs, B. A. J.; den Broeder, F. J. A.; Spruit, J. H. M.; Rosenkranz, M.

    1989-03-01

    In this letter a new method for the observation of thermomagnetically written domains using Lorentz electron microscopy is discussed. Domains are written in a GdTbFe layer deposited on a specially prepared silicon wafer disk, provided with Si3N4 windows. This allows direct observation by Lorentz microscopy of the magnetization patterns dynamically written under recording conditions. It is shown that by locally heating the GdTbFe layer with a continuous laser beam, combined with high-frequency switching of the magnetic field, very high storage densities can be achieved. Domains with a length of 0.25 μm in the direction of disk rotation could be written.

  3. Written Forms of Signed languages: A Route to Literacy for Deaf Learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Connie

    2017-01-01

    While there have been attempts to develop written systems for signed languages, none have been widely used or adopted. In his article in an American Annals of the Deaf special issue that also includes the present article, Grushkin makes a case not only for why, but how efforts should be renewed to develop a written signed language, suggesting that increased written-English competence will be a consequence of increased competence in written and signed American Sign Language, with literacy-related skills transferring across languages. The present author responds in terms of what is known about linguistic interdependence in spoken-language contexts and in light of the evidence base from hearing bilinguals. She argues that, given the field's current context, no compelling rationale exists for pursuing this route to literacy for deaf learners, and that other routes are more workable from pragmatic, theoretical, and evidence-based perspectives.

  4. An initiative to improve oral and written skills of Engineering Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baeza-Romero, Maria Teresa; Andrés Abellán, Fuensanta

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe some activities that have been developed to written and oral skills in students of Degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering in the School of Industrial Engineering in Toledo...

  5. Written object naming, spelling to dictation, and immediate copying: Different tasks, different pathways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Méot, Alain; Lagarrigue, Aurélie; Roux, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    We report an investigation of cross-task comparisons of handwritten latencies in written object naming, spelling to dictation, and immediate copying. In three separate sessions, adults had to write down a list of concrete nouns from their corresponding pictures (written naming), from their spoken (spelling to dictation) and from their visual presentation (immediate copying). Linear mixed models without random slopes were performed on the latencies in order to study and compare within-task fixed effects. By-participants random slopes were then included to investigate individual differences within and across tasks. Overall, the findings suggest that written naming, spelling to dictation, and copying all involve a lexical pathway, but that written naming relies on this pathway more than the other two tasks do. Only spelling to dictation strongly involves a nonlexical pathway. Finally, the analyses performed at the level of participants indicate that, depending on the type of task, the slower participants are more or less influenced by certain psycholinguistic variables.

  6. An initiative to improve oral and written skills of Engineering Students

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Teresa Baeza-Romero; Fuensanta Andrés Abellán

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe some activities that have been developed to written and oral skills in students of Degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering in the School of Industrial Engineering in Toledo. Among these activities, we have designed a workshop, included in welcome activities of the school for first year students and two learning activities included in chemistry module. In the workshop, we explained the key points to consider when an oral or written presentation is prepared. ...

  7. Argumentative and narrative written task performance: Differential effects of critical thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Azizollah DABAGHI; Zabihi, Reza; Rezazadeh, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the differential role of critical thinking in learners’ performance on argumentative and narrative written tasks. The study involved the measurement of 70 upper-intermediate learners’ critical thinking using the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) as well as the elicitation of their performance on the written narrative and argumentative tasks. While the argumentative task required that learners write an argumentative essay giving their opinions concerning the...

  8. Mushu, a free- and open source BCI signal acquisition, written in Python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venthur, Bastian; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The following paper describes Mushu, a signal acquisition software for retrieval and online streaming of Electroencephalography (EEG) data. It is written, but not limited, to the needs of Brain Computer Interfacing (BCI). It's main goal is to provide a unified interface to EEG data regardless of the amplifiers used. It runs under all major operating systems, like Windows, Mac OS and Linux, is written in Python and is free- and open source software licensed under the terms of the GNU General Public License.

  9. A Descriptive Study of Registers Found in Spoken and Written Communication (A Semantic Analysis)

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Hidayah

    2016-01-01

    This research is descriptive study of registers found in spoken and written communication. The type of this research is Descriptive Qualitative Research. In this research, the data of the study is register in spoken and written communication that are found in a book entitled "Communicating! Theory and Practice" and from internet. The data can be in the forms of words, phrases and abbreviation. In relation with method of collection data, the writer uses the library method as her instrument. Th...

  10. 8 CFR 212.4 - Applications for the exercise of discretion under section 212(d)(1) and 212(d)(3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DOCUMENTARY REQUIREMENTS: NONIMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS; ADMISSION OF CERTAIN... application a written statement of the history of the applicant's membership or affiliation, including...

  11. DISCOURSE AND PARTICIPATION IN ESL FACE-TO-FACE AND WRITTEN ELECTRONIC CONFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fitze

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was a comparative investigation of face-to-face and written electronic conferences. The participants were advanced English as a second language (hereafter: ESL students. The two types of conferences were compared in terms of textual features and participation. There was no statistically significant difference in the total number of words that students produced in an equivalent amount of time in the two types of conferences. The discourse in written electronic conferences displayed greater lexical range, and students in these conferences produced more discourse demonstrating interactive competence. The statistically significant finding of increased lexical range in written electronic conferences persisted even when the interactive discourse was eliminated from the conference transcripts and the transcripts were reanalyzed. This finding suggests that, during written electronic conferences, students were better able to use and practice a wider range of vocabulary related to the topics. For one of the groups, participation in written electronic conferences was more balanced among students, while for the other group participation was about equally balanced regardless of the conference setting. This last finding came as a surprise and points to a need for further research into variables that might mediate balanced participation in face-to-face and written electronic conferences.

  12. Compliance amongst contact lens wearers: comprehension skills and reinforcement with written instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Genís; Llovet, Ingrid

    2004-06-01

    Patient non-compliance is one of the key issues when considering contact lens failures and related ocular complications. Patient education is believed to be of paramount importance to improve compliance, especially when this education consists of written as well as oral instructions. Patients received oral or oral plus written information depending on their score from a previously validated oral and written comprehension test. A survey containing theoretical and practical questions was given to the patient at the end of the study in order to establish compliance with the given instructions. No statistically significant difference was encountered between the group of patients receiving oral instructions only and the group receiving oral plus written information. A correlation was discovered between non-compliance and ocular complications and between ocular complications and the physical appearance of contact lenses and cases. The oral and written comprehension test served to establish the comprehension skills typology of the patients, thus allowing for the appropriate type of instructions (oral or written) to be given to each patient in accordance with their particular abilities. This methodology could lead to a relevant increase in compliance.

  13. 16 CFR 303.40 - Use of terms in written advertisements that imply presence of a fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of terms in written advertisements that... IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.40 Use of terms in written advertisements that imply presence of a fiber. The use of terms in written advertisements, including advertisements disseminated through the Internet and...

  14. Written evaluation is not a predictor for skills performance in an Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, David L; Bhanji, Farhan; McKee, Barbara R

    2010-04-01

    Both a written cognitive knowledge evaluation and a practical evaluation that tests psychomotor skills, cognitive knowledge, and affective behaviors such as leadership and team skills are required for successful completion of American Heart Association (AHA) Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support (ACLS) course. The 2005 International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) Consensus on Science and Treatment Recommendations noted that in Basic Life Support (BLS) there is little to no correlation between written and practical skills. The current study was conducted to determine if there is a correlation between written and practical evaluations in an ACLS course. 34 senior nursing students from four nursing programs participated in two separate ACLS classes, completing both the written and practical evaluations. Immediately following the courses, all participants served as team leader for a video recorded simulated cardiac arrest event. A panel of expert ACLS instructors who did not participate as instructors in the courses reviewed each video and independently scored team leaders' performances. Spearman's rho correlation coefficient between the written test scores and practical skills performance was 0.194 (2-tailed significance=0.272). The ACLS written evaluation was not a predictor of participant skills in managing a simulated cardiac arrest event immediately following an ACLS course. The single case simulations used in ACLS skills evaluation test a narrow portion of ACLS content while written evaluation tests can more practically test a broader spectrum of content. Both work in concert to define participant knowledge and neither should be used exclusively to determine participant competence. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. It Works Both Ways: Transfer Difficulties between Manipulatives and Written Subtraction Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Uttal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments compared performance and transfer among children aged 83–94 months after written or manipulatives instruction on two-digit subtraction. In Experiment 1a, children learned with manipulatives or with traditional written numerals. All children then completed a written posttest. Experiment 1b investigated whether salient or perceptually attractive manipulatives affected transfer. Experiment 2 investigated whether instruction with writing would transfer to a manipulatives-based posttest. Children demonstrated performance gains when the posttest format was identical to the instructed format but failed to demonstrate transfer from the instructed format to an incongruent posttest. The results indicate that the problem in transferring from manipulatives instruction to written assessments stems from a general difficulty in using knowledge gained in one format (e.g., manipulatives in another format (e.g., writing. Taken together, the results have important implications for research and teaching in early mathematics. Teachers should consider making specific links and alignments between written and manipulatives-based representations of the same problems.

  16. A Case Study of EFL Teachers’ Perceptions and Practices in Written Corrective Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussam Rajab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a mixed-method approach, this interpretive exploratory case study aimed to identify English as Foreign Language (EFL teachers’ perceptions and practices in Written Corrective Feedback (WCF in the Saudi context. The study analysed quantitative data gathered from an anonymous custom designed 15-question online survey and qualitative data from an open-ended question (at the end of the online survey and semi-structured interviews. Participants were one hundred and eighty-four English as a Foreign Language (EFL teachers (n =184 who responded to the online survey (113 females and 71 males and 7 participants who responded to the semi-structured interview (5 males and 2 females. The study findings indicated no significant differences between male and female teachers in considering “time” as the main factor in following a particular strategy for written corrective feedback (93%. The results from the semi-structured interviews highlighted the need for further research in written corrective feedback in the Saudi context to address serious issues related to the teachers’ work-load. Some recommendations were identified for further research in written corrective feedback. Keywords: Saudi, Mixed methods, Survey, Written corrective feedback

  17. A web based cross-platform application for teleconsultation in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Ferdinand J; Hammon, Matthias; Schlechtweg, Philipp M; Uder, Michael; Schwab, Siegfried A

    2015-09-01

    The growing complexity of radiologic examinations and interventional procedures requires frequent exchange of knowledge. Consequently a simple way to share and discuss patient images between radiology experts and with colleagues from other medical disciplines is needed. Aims of this work were the development and initial performance evaluation of a fast and user friendly, platform independent teleconsultation system for medical imaging. A local back end system receives DICOM images and generates anonymized JPEG files that are uploaded to an internet webserver. The front end running on that webserver comprises an image viewer with a specially developed pointer element for indicating findings to collaborative partners. The front end that uses only standard web technologies works on a variety of different platforms, mobile devices and desktop computers. Images can be accessed by simply calling up a special internet address in a web browser that may be exchanged between users (e.g. via email). A speed evaluation of the system showed good results: For example the preparation and upload of a standard head CT took less than 21 seconds. The data volume of the same series and the viewer application could be transferred to a mobile phone in less than 42 seconds via a UMTS network or in less than 3 seconds via a HSPA network. The presented system with its minimal hard- and software requirements, its simplicity and platform independence might be a promising tool in the increasingly important area of teleconsultation.

  18. A gender-based analysis of Iranian EFL learners' types of written errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Boroomand

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Committing errors is inevitable in process of language acquisition and learning. Analysis of learners' errors from different perspectives, contributes to the improvement of language learning and teaching. Although the issue of gender differences has received considerable attention in the context of second or foreign language learning and teaching, few studies on the relationship between gender and EFL learners' written errors have been carried out. The present study conducted on 100 Iranian advanced EFL learners' written errors (50 male learners and 50 female learners, presents different classifications and subdivisions of errors, and carries out an analysis on these errors. Detecting the most committed errors in each classification, findings reveal significant differences between error frequencies of the two male and female groups (more error frequency in female written productions.

  19. THE EVENT OF SEPTEMBER 11TH IN AMERICAN AND SYRIAN WRITTEN MEDIA DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biook Benham

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aiming at highlighting the important role of written media discourse in implicit transfer of  the dominant ideology of discourse context, the present data-driven paper demonstrates how the lexical features of repetition and synonymy as well as  the structural and thematic features of passivisation, nominalization and predicated theme were utilized by the discourse producers of the data to mediate between their own underlying ideology and the target readers' understanding of the event of September 11th 2001. Through a comparative statistical analysis of the written media discourse of the data for the study written in two ideologically opposing contexts of Syria and America, we have tried to explicate how the discourse producers utilized various lexical and thematic strategies to produce different impressions of the event and implicitly force the underlying ideology on the readers.   Keywords: September 11th 2001, thematization, passivisation, nominalization, synonymy, CDA

  20. Balance and predominant perspectives in the history of written culture: an approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Daniel Moncada Patiño

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects about the authors that are and will be paradigms in the historical studies about written culture. However, this article doesn't pretend to do an extensive analysis about them or their works. Therefore, the interest is to emphasize on the theorical and methodological perspectives of some of them, which are predominant in the new studies about written culture. Studies that show the complexity of the written culture as research matter are a mandatory and necessary homework to historians, literates, sociologists, anthropologists, librarians, among others, which initiated the study about this topic in Latin American context and whose monographic works have started a new historical stream in the region.

  1. An initiative to improve oral and written skills of Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Baeza-Romero

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe some activities that have been developed to written and oral skills in students of Degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering in the School of Industrial Engineering in Toledo. Among these activities, we have designed a workshop, included in welcome activities of the school for first year students and two learning activities included in chemistry module. In the workshop, we explained the key points to consider when an oral or written presentation is prepared. Moreover, we tried to make conscious to our students of the importance of the development of written and oral skills. In addition, we have designed an assessment method for oral skills and other skills like critical thinking in the chemistry module, though an exercise that combines conventional evaluation with peer evaluation. As part of this work, an assessment rubric has been developed to mark oral presentations.

  2. Core vocabulary in written personal narratives of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Carla; Appleget, Allyssa; Hart, Sara

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to describe core words of written personal narratives to inform the implementation of AAC supports for literacy instruction. Investigators analyzed lexical diversity, frequency of specific word use and types of words that made up 70% of the total words used in 211 written narrative samples from children in first grade (n = 94) and fourth grade (n = 117). Across grades, 191 different words made up 70% of the total words used in the 211 written narrative samples. The top 50 words were comprised of content words (64%) and function words (36%). Grade differences were noted in diversity and types of words, including differences in the number of words comprising the core (132 words for children in first grade and 207 for fourth grade) and a higher proportion of abstract nouns for children in fourth grade based on the 200 most frequently occurring words for each grade.

  3. A Descriptive Study of Registers Found in Spoken and Written Communication (A Semantic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hidayah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is descriptive study of registers found in spoken and written communication. The type of this research is Descriptive Qualitative Research. In this research, the data of the study is register in spoken and written communication that are found in a book entitled "Communicating! Theory and Practice" and from internet. The data can be in the forms of words, phrases and abbreviation. In relation with method of collection data, the writer uses the library method as her instrument. The writer relates it to the study of register in spoken and written communication. The technique of analyzing the data using descriptive method. The types of register in this term will be separated into formal register and informal register, and identify the meaning of register.

  4. Consumer Preferences for Written and Oral Information about Allergens When Eating Out.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona M Begen

    Full Text Available Avoiding food allergens when eating outside the home presents particular difficulties for food allergic (FA and intolerant (FI consumers and a lack of allergen information in restaurants and takeaways causes unnecessary restrictions. Across Europe, legislation effective from December 2014, aims to improve allergen information by requiring providers of non-prepacked foods to supply information related to allergen content within their foods.Using in-depth interviews with 60 FA/FI adults and 15 parents/carers of FA/FI children, we aimed to identify FA/FI consumers' preferences for written and/or verbal allergen information when eating out or ordering takeaway food.A complex and dynamic set of preferences and practices for written and verbal allergen information was identified. Overwhelmingly, written information was favoured in the first instance, but credible personal/verbal communication was highly valued and essential to a good eating out experience. Adequate written information facilitated implicit trust in subsequent verbal information. Where written information was limited, FA/FIs depended on social cues to assess the reliability of verbal information resources, and defaulted to tried and tested allergen avoidance strategies when these were deemed unreliable.Understanding the subtle negotiations and difficulties encountered by FA/FIs when eating out can serve as a guide for legislators and food providers; by encouraging provision of clear written and verbal allergen information, and training of proactive, allergen-aware staff. This, in tandem with legal requirements for allergen information provision, paves the way for FA/FIs to feel more confident in eating out choices; and to experience improved eating out experiences.

  5. The "SignOn"-Model for Teaching Written Language to Deaf People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Hilzensauer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a method of teaching written language to deaf people using sign language as the language of instruction. Written texts in the target language are combined with sign language videos which provide the users with various modes of translation (words/phrases/sentences. As examples, two EU projects for English for the Deaf are presented which feature English texts and translations into the national sign languages of all the partner countries plus signed grammar explanations and interactive exercises. Both courses are web-based; the programs may be accessed free of charge via the respective homepages (without any download or log-in.

  6. Directly UV-written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low insertion loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zauner, Dan; Kulstad, K.; Rathje, Jacob;

    1998-01-01

    The coupling loss between directly W-written planar waveguides and standard telecom fibre has been reduced by index matching the three layer structure used for UV writing. Insertion losses down to 0.1 dB for 3 cm long waveguides have been achieved.......The coupling loss between directly W-written planar waveguides and standard telecom fibre has been reduced by index matching the three layer structure used for UV writing. Insertion losses down to 0.1 dB for 3 cm long waveguides have been achieved....

  7. A Form Evaluation System and Its Data Structure for Brosh—Written Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾建超; HidehikoSanada; 等

    1995-01-01

    A form evaluation system for brush-written Chinese characters is developed.Calligraphic knowledge used in the system is represented in the form of rules with the help of a data structure proposed in this paper.Reflecting the specific hierarchical relations among radicals and strokes of Chinese characters,the proposed data structure is based upon a character model that can generate brush-written Chinese characters on a computer.Through evaluation experiments using the developed system,it is shown that representation of calligraphic knowledge and form evaluation of Chinese characters can be smoothly realized if the data structure is utilized.

  8. Development of a written assessment for a national interprofessional cardiotocography education program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellesen, Line; Bergholt, Thomas; Hedegaard, Morten

    2017-01-01

    development process and to introduce a feasible method for written test development in general. METHODS: The test development was based on the unitary approach to validity. The process involved national consensus on learning objectives, standardized item writing, pilot testing, sensitivity analyses, standard...... for development of a CTG written assessment. The process and findings supported our proposed interpretation of the assessment as measuring CTG knowledge and interpretive skills. However, for the test to function as a high-stake assessment a higher reliability is required....

  9. The Effect of a Written and Pictorial Home Exercise Prescription on Adherence for People with Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Kara

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The addition of a written and pictorial home exercise prescription does not lead to better adherence to a home exercise programme compared to having no written and pictorial instructions. Possible reasons may be that patients had caregivers as a support system, and the exercise logbook served as a reminder and motivational track record for patients. There also does not appear to be a relationship between functional ability and level of adherence, which may be due to most of the study participants being within the optimal time frame for spontaneous functional recovery. Further study at different time frames in stroke rehabilitation in different contexts is recommended.

  10. Education, Sociability and Written Culture : the case of the Society of Jesus in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Van Damme

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In a special Issue of the journal Annales, the historian Roger Chartier could draw up a review of the written culture history and underlined the role played by certain social groups in the diffusion of written culture in the cities. He distinguished two major elements in this evolution  : one hand “ The use of writing as an instrument of self-government and administration ” and on the other hand “ the link between religious experience and use of writting ”. In this tension, it has been intere...

  11. A modular software system for computer-aided surgery and its first application in oral implantology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkfellner, W; Huber, K; Larson, A; Hanson, D; Diemling, M; Homolka, P; Bergmann, H

    2000-06-01

    Development of complex software applications in image guided therapy (IGT) is often complicated by the fact that providing basic functionality for image processing and user interaction from a graphical user interfaces (GUI) requires considerable manpower for software development. We present a programming environment that combines the high-level image processing library AVW, in-house developed patient-to-image registration procedures, and an interface to position measurement hardware. A specific application can be developed by using Tcl/Tk, a simple platform-independent scripting language, for GUI development. This environment was applied to developing VISIT, a navigation system for computer-aided implant dentistry. VISIT is presented as a result of this paper. Parts of the development environment were made accessible to the public. Future work includes the implementation of video input for connecting ultrasound or fluoroscopy units. We conclude that our approach is well suited to accelerate the development of exploratory new applications of IGT.

  12. Open source software engineering for geoscientific modeling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilke, L.; Rink, K.; Fischer, T.; Kolditz, O.

    2012-12-01

    OpenGeoSys (OGS) is a scientific open source project for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in porous and fractured media. The OGS software development community is distributed all over the world and people with different backgrounds are contributing code to a complex software system. The following points have to be addressed for successful software development: - Platform independent code - A unified build system - A version control system - A collaborative project web site - Continuous builds and testing - Providing binaries and documentation for end users OGS should run on a PC as well as on a computing cluster regardless of the operating system. Therefore the code should not include any platform specific feature or library. Instead open source and platform independent libraries like Qt for the graphical user interface or VTK for visualization algorithms are used. A source code management and version control system is a definite requirement for distributed software development. For this purpose Git is used, which enables developers to work on separate versions (branches) of the software and to merge those versions at some point to the official one. The version control system is integrated into an information and collaboration website based on a wiki system. The wiki is used for collecting information such as tutorials, application examples and case studies. Discussions take place in the OGS mailing list. To improve code stability and to verify code correctness a continuous build and testing system, based on the Jenkins Continuous Integration Server, has been established. This server is connected to the version control system and does the following on every code change: - Compiles (builds) the code on every supported platform (Linux, Windows, MacOS) - Runs a comprehensive test suite of over 120 benchmarks and verifies the results Runs software development related metrics on the code (like compiler warnings, code complexity

  13. Microcomputer interfacing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafa, M A

    1990-01-01

    This is the applications guide to interfacing microcomputers. It offers practical non-mathematical solutions to interfacing problems in many applications including data acquisition and control. Emphasis is given to the definition of the objectives of the interface, then comparing possible solutions and producing the best interface for every situation. Dr Mustafa A Mustafa is a senior designer of control equipment and has written many technical articles and papers on the subject of computers and their application to control engineering.

  14. Spelling in Written Stories by School-Age Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straley, Sara G.; Werfel, Krystal L.; Hendricks, Alison Eisel

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the spelling of 3rd to 6th grade children with cochlear implants in written stories. Spelling was analysed using traditional correct/incorrect scoring as well as the Spelling Sensitivity Score, which provides linguistic information about spelling attempts. Children with cochlear implants spelled 86 per cent of words in stories…

  15. Feedback on Feedback: Eliciting Learners' Responses to Written Feedback through Student-Generated Screencasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Toro, María; Furnborough, Concha

    2014-01-01

    Despite the potential benefits of assignment feedback, learners often fail to use it effectively. This study examines the ways in which adult distance learners engage with written feedback on one of their assignments. Participants were 10 undergraduates studying Spanish at the Open University, UK. Their responses to feedback were elicited by means…

  16. STUDENTS’ RESPONSE TO TEACHER’S FEEDBACK ON THEIR WRITTEN COMPOSITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between what teachers provide as feedback on students’ written compositions and what their students think of and do with this feedback. Teachers’ feedback patterns, students’ strategies for handling teacher’s feedback, and students’ preferences for teacher’s feedback are analyzed, and finally some suggestions for both the learning and teaching of writing are offered.

  17. Effects of a Summarizing Strategy on Written Summaries of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddler, Bruce; Asaro-Saddler, Kristie; Moeyaert, Mariola; Ellis-Robinson, Tammy

    2017-01-01

    In this single-subject study, we examined the effects of a summarizing strategy on the written summaries of children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBDs). Six students with EBDs in fifth and sixth grades learned a mnemonic-based strategy for summarizing taught through the self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) approach. Visual…

  18. Using Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Written Expression with Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Robert; Hagaman, Jessica L.; Graham, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This review assessed the use of self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) for teaching written composition strategies to students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. We examined the participants and the settings in which SRSD has been used, the writing strategies tested, genres addressed, and the effects of SRSD on outcome measures.…

  19. The Investigation of Power in Written Texts through the Use of Multiple Textual Analytic Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Corrine M.

    2011-01-01

    Although often used as secondary sources, written texts are powerful sources of data for qualitative researchers to explore power networks and broad ideological perspectives. As such, I present in this paper an analytic process that draws upon multiple analytic frameworks--constant comparative analysis, discursive textual analysis, and traditional…

  20. Effects of the Design of Written Music on the Readability for Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Nanke; Timmermans, Anneke; Korpershoek, Hanke

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the design of written music and the number of mistakes dyslexic and non-dyslexic children make in reading music is investigated in this study. Previous research shows that children with dyslexia experience difficulties with reading music, especially discerning pitch. Common mistakes of dyslexic…

  1. Clay Modeling versus Written Modules as Effective Interventions in Understanding Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareither, Mary Lou; Arbel, Vered; Growe, Meghan; Muszczynski, Emily; Rudd, Adam; Marone, Jane R.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of clay modeling to written modules is examined to determine the degree of improvement in learning and retention of anatomical 3D relationships among students with different learning preferences. Thirty-nine undergraduate students enrolled in a cadaver dissection course completed a pre-assessment examination and the VARK…

  2. Bilingual Children's Writing: Self-Correction and Revision of Written Narratives in Spanish and Nahuatl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Norbert

    2005-01-01

    The article reports on findings from a replication of a study of bilingual children's editing and correction strategies. The earlier study analyzed revisions that 2nd, 4th, and 6th graders made to their own compositions, written in Spanish. The present study applied the same procedure and assessment rubric to the first draft of compositions…

  3. On the Identification of Critical Variables in Written Composition Instruction. SCO Cahier No. 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesdorp, Hildo

    One objective of the International Study of Achievement in Written Composition was to develop an instrument that could explore the relationships between instructional variables and educational results. Three levels of specificity were aimed at: (1) broad and general characteristics of the instructional process; (2) specific dimensions of native…

  4. Corporate Culture and the Use of Written English Within British Subsidiaries in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated communication patterns in written English and the prevalent corporate culture, the relationship between a British corporate office and its subsidiary in the Netherlands. Survey respondents were senior-level employees at 107 companies. Results indicate corporate culture plays an important role in the level of English skills…

  5. Written Feedback, Student Writing, and Institutional Policies: Implications for Novice Teacher Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerherm, Emily

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the methods that teachers employ in written feedback to student writing and how the policies of the program and the teachers' embodied histories influence the strategies used. Data were gathered from 2 novice teachers as they taught their first graduate-level ESL writing course and consist of the teachers' feedback in addition…

  6. Graduate Students' Perceptions of Written Feedback at a Private University in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal, Lubna; Gul, Raisa; Hanzala, Mehnaz; Jessop, Tansy; Tharani, Ambreen

    2014-01-01

    Excellence in academic performance at the graduate level requires good command of writing skills. Teachers' written feedback can help students to develop their writing skills. However, several personal and contextual factors may influence feedback processes and its utilization by students. Therefore, understanding these factors is essential to…

  7. What about Metaphors in "The Snows of Kilimanjaro and Other Stories" Written by Ernest Hemingway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na'imah

    2015-01-01

    It is discovered plenty of various interesting metaphors in the book of "The Snows of Kilimanjaro and Other Stories" which were written by Ernest Hemingway. By the metaphorical expressions, one can describe everything much more expressively, imaginatively, effectively, and poetically. Each of the metaphors has always a specific style and…

  8. A Comparison of Written Chinese Achievement among Heritage Learners in Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Helen H.

    2003-01-01

    Examines effects of grouping practice on written Chinese achievement among heritage learners in college Chinese classes. Subjects were two groups of heritage students, a homogeneous group and a heterogeneous group. Results suggest in college level Chinese language classes, tracking based on linguistic background can improve heritage students'…

  9. Home Literacy Environment and Its Influence on Singaporean Children's Chinese Oral and Written Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Tan, Chee Lay

    2016-01-01

    In a bilingual environment such as Singaporean Chinese community, the challenge of maintaining Chinese language and sustaining Chinese culture lies in promoting the daily use of Chinese language in oral and written forms among children. Ample evidence showed the effect of the home language and literacy environment (HLE), on children's language and…

  10. The Efficacy of Dynamic Written Corrective Feedback for University-Matriculated ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Norman W.; Hartshorn, K. James; Strong-Krause, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Truscott's (1996) indictment on error correction in second-language (L2) writing has ignited much discussion and research on the appropriateness of written corrective feedback (WCF) in L2 contexts. Out of this has emerged a body of research that suggests that WCF can positively impact the linguistic accuracy of student writing. However, these…

  11. Studies on Written Corrective Feedback: Theoretical Perspectives, Empirical Evidence, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Jiang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    The role of written corrective feedback (WCF) in the process of acquiring a second language (L2) has been an issue of considerable controversies over past decades. This article intends to provide a critical review of the increasing number of WCF studies thus far and to inspire new perspectives for future research. It starts by briefly tracing the…

  12. Effect of Explicit and Implicit Instruction on Free Written Response Task Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, Sible; de Glopper, C.M.; Hacquebord, Hilde

    A classroom study was designed to test the hypothesis that explicit knowledge is used by second-language (L2) learners in a free written response task if that knowledge is present. Eighty-one 12-18-year-old learners of Dutch as an L2 took part in a computer-assisted language learning experiment

  13. Impact of the introduction of the modular written-theoretical examination in the training internship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Rocha Vázquez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The formative process of teachers has always been a challenge due transformations undergone by educative institution's functions. Objective: To compare the results of modular examinations of two editions of the Professional Course. Methods: A analytic study was carried out to compare theoretical modular examinations results of Professional Course during 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 in which two different kind of test were used: oral and written, in that order. Universe and sample coincided and were represented by the totality of examined students. Data was collected from examination records and results were presented in tables of frequency expressed in percentage. Results: In a general way, quality index of 100% were obtained in every module during 2003-2004, contrary to 2004-2005 were any of the modules achieved 100%. The percentage of excellent marks was considerably higher using oral rather that written examination. The results distribution's curve is closer to the expected results using written examination; the results in municipalities and health areas are similar. Conclusion: The modular written examination allows a better selection of students being more effective in present conditions, with a young staff needing to be prepared.

  14. The Focus of Supervisor Written Feedback to Thesis/Dissertation Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John; Basturkmen, Helen; East, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Written feedback on drafts of a thesis or dissertation is arguably the most important source of input on what is required or expected of thesis-writing students by the academic community. Despite its importance, relatively little is known about what type of information supervisors focus on when giving feedback. This article presents the findings…

  15. Graduate Students' Needs and Preferences for Written Feedback on Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine graduate students' needs and preferences for written feedback on academic writing from their lecturers and thesis supervisors. Quantitative method via survey questionnaire was used to collect data from 21 respondents. The data collection involved Master and Doctorate students at a tertiary level institution…

  16. Written plans: an overlooked mechanism to develop recovery-oriented primary care for depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Victoria J; Johnson, Caroline L; Furler, John S; Densley, Konstancja; Potiriadis, Maria; Gunn, Jane M

    2014-01-01

    There is a global shift to foster patient-centred and recovery-oriented mental health services. This has resulted from the expansion of how the concept of recovery is understood in mental health literature and practice. Recovery is now more than a return to function or reduction in symptoms; it is a subjective, individualised and multi-faceted experience. To date there has not been investigation of how recovery-oriented services can be translated and implemented into the primary mental health care system. This paper presents the results of a survey from a prospective cohort of primary care patients with probable depression about the importance of written plans to recover. The benefits of having a written plan to recover from depression, as outlined by the participants, were analysed using Leximancer software. The findings provide insights into how written plans may be an important mechanism for implementing a recovery-oriented primary mental health care system. We conclude that the benefits of a written plan provide insight into how patients conceptualise recovery.

  17. Structuring a written examination to assess ASBH health care ethics consultation core knowledge competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Bruce D; Jankowski, Jane B; Shelton, Wayne N

    2014-01-01

    As clinical ethics consultants move toward professionalization, the process of certifying individual consultants or accrediting programs will be discussed and debated. With certification, some entity must be established or ordained to oversee the standards and procedures. If the process evolves like other professions, it seems plausible that it will eventually include a written examination to evaluate the core knowledge competencies that individual practitioners should possess to meet peer practice standards. The American Society for Bioethics and Humanities (ASBH) has published core knowledge competencies for many years that are accepted by experts as the prevailing standard. Probably any written examination will be based upon the ASBH core knowledge competencies. However, much remains to be done before any examination may be offered. In particular, it seems likely that a recognized examining board must create and validate examination questions and structure the examination so as to establish meaningful, defensible parameters after dealing with such challenging questions as: Should the certifying examination be multiple choice or short-answer essay? How should the test be graded? What should the pass rate be? How may the examination be best administered? To advance the field of health care ethics consultation, thought leaders should start to focus on the written examination possibilities, to date unaddressed carefully in the literature. Examination models-both objective and written-must be explored as a viable strategy about how the field of health care ethics consultations can grow toward professionalization.

  18. Challenging students to formulate written questions: a randomized controlled trial to assess learning effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Bekkink, M.; Donders, A.R.T.; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Waal, R.M.W. de; Ruiter, D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Underutilization of dialogue among students during small-group work is a threat to active meaningful learning. To encourage small-group learning, we challenged students to generate written questions during a small-group work session. As gender differences have been shown to affect

  19. A Comparison of Students' Explanations Derived from Spoken and Written Methods of Questioning and Answering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, G. M.; Pedrosa, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Examined whether and how the quality of students' explanations of chemical phenomena was affected by changing the method of giving the question and answer between the spoken and written formats. Concluded that there was no difference between the performance of students using any of these combinations of formats. (Author/YP)

  20. The Contribution of Written Corrective Feedback to Language Development: A Ten Month Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John; Knoch, Ute

    2010-01-01

    The call for longitudinal evidence on the efficacy of written corrective feedback (WCF) for ESL (English as a second language) writers has been made repeatedly since Truscott (1996) claimed that it is ineffective, harmful, and should therefore be abandoned. This article discusses some of the theoretical issues raised against the practice, outlines…

  1. The Value of Written Corrective Feedback for Migrant and International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John; Knoch, Ute

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of research that has investigated the effectiveness of written corrective feedback (WCF) on ESL student writing. In doing so, it highlights a number of shortcomings in the design of some studies and explains what needs to be done in future research so that answers to the issues that have been raised can be…

  2. Raising the Linguistic Accuracy Level of Advanced L2 Writers with Written Corrective Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John; Knoch, Ute

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a study that investigated (1) the extent to which written corrective feedback (CF) can help advanced L2 learners, who already demonstrate a high level of accuracy in two functional uses of the English article system (the use of "a" for first mention and "the" for subsequent or anaphoric mentions), further…

  3. The Relative Effectiveness of Different Types of Direct Written Corrective Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John; Knoch, Ute

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of different types of written corrective feedback has been investigated over the last twenty years but it is still not possible to make firm conclusions about which options are the most beneficial to ESL learners. This article first provides an overview of the currently available research findings and then presents the results of…

  4. An Investigation of Spelling in the Written Compositions of Students Who Read Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Bischke, Christine; Stoner, Julia B.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the spelling skills in the written compositions of 20 students who read braille and offers further evidence that the skills of these students are similar to those of sighted students. The assessment of writing samples focused on the number of words spelled correctly and used an error analysis to describe patterns of spelling…

  5. La Lengua Escrita como Norma Fonetica (The Written Language as Phonetic Norm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Plaja, Guillermo

    1977-01-01

    A collectivity can be defined by the verbal instrument which binds it together. By extension of this thought of Marshall MacLuhan, the importance of the written language as normative for the uniformity, universality and preservation of the phonetic system of the language is discussed. (Text is in Spanish.) (AMH)

  6. The Present in Flemish Secondary History Education through the Lens of Written History Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nieuwenhuyse, Karel; Wils, Kaat; Clarebout, Geraldine; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    The present plays an important part in history education, in particular in efforts to make the study of the past relevant for today. This contribution examines how the relationship between past and present is dealt with in current Flemish secondary history education by analyzing 190 written history exams for the 11th and 12th grade. Ten percent of…

  7. How Do Finnish Children Express Care and Justice in Comic Strips and Written Narratives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Juha; Hannula, Markku S.

    2014-01-01

    This case study explored how children's moral expressions like love and violence differ according to the mode of narrative, comic strips or written narratives. Sixteen third-grade children from a primary school in Finland took part in the study. Children's moral expressions were divided into justice and care. Reading frequency of fairy tales and…

  8. Assessing and developing the written reflective practice skills of speech-language pathology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kate; Tillard, Gina; Wyles, Christine; Gerhard, Daniel; Ormond, Tika; McAuliffe, Megan

    2017-09-19

    Written reflective practice aims to support critical thinking and problem solving skills in speech-language pathology (SLP) clinical education programmes. Yet, there has been limited investigation of students' development of written reflective practice skills over time and during a real-time clinical experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate students' development of breadth and depth of written reflective practice across a six-week clinical experience. Participants were 59 undergraduate and 14 postgraduate SLP students. Participants wrote critical reflections describing an interaction with a client/s at the conclusion of weeks two, four and six of their clinical experience. Formative feedback was provided after each submission. Breadth and depth of reflection were coded using a modification of Plack et al.'s coding schema. There was a statistically significant association between time and likelihood of development of breadth of reflection for the elements process and content. Depth of reflection improved significantly across time. The majority of participants were classified as "reflectors" or critical reflector at the conclusion of the study. SLP students can make significant improvements in both breadth and depth of written reflective practice over a six-week period. Implications for clinical teaching are discussed.

  9. Video instruction is more effective than written instruction in improving inhaler technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Romil F; Gupta, Rakesh M

    2017-08-07

    Many patients with asthma use inhalers incorrectly. Better inhaler technique is associated with better asthma control. We tested the effectiveness of a computer-based video training solution versus traditional written instructions, both which may be used in a resource-limited setting, for teaching inhaler technique. We hypothesized that computer based training will provide a higher quality of instruction which will improve technique more effectively than written training. 50 asthma patients were recruited from pulmonary clinic at the Junta De Beneficencia Hospital, Ecuador (average age 48.2 years, 58% female). Inhaler technique was taught using written instructions in 20 and video in 30 patients. Inhaler technique was analyzed by video recording pre and post training inhaler use. Inhaler technique score was calculated for each video recording. Baseline performance was equivalent in each group, achieving an average of around 5 of 11 of the inhaler steps. Video training was significantly more effective than written instructions (change of 3.6 points vs. change of 0.4 points, p instruction appears to be inadequate to achieve safe and effective administration of inhaled medicine. In contrast, video-based education can effectively create adequate inhaler technique without additional provider time. REGISTRATION NUMBER (CLINICALTRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIER): NCT02660879. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Effects of Lexico-Syntactic Errors on Teaching Materials: A Study of Textbooks Written by Nigerians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Peace Chinwendu

    2014-01-01

    This study examined lexico-syntactic errors in selected textbooks written by Nigerians. Our focus was on the educated bilinguals (acrolect) who acquired their primary, secondary and tertiary education in Nigeria and the selected textbooks were textbooks published by Vanity Publishers/Press. The participants (authors) cut across the three major…

  11. Bilingual Children's Writing: Self-Correction and Revision of Written Narratives in Spanish and Nahuatl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Norbert

    2005-01-01

    The article reports on findings from a replication of a study of bilingual children's editing and correction strategies. The earlier study analyzed revisions that 2nd, 4th, and 6th graders made to their own compositions, written in Spanish. The present study applied the same procedure and assessment rubric to the first draft of compositions…

  12. Students' Engagement with a Collaborative Wiki Tool Predicts Enhanced Written Exam Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Tom; Elgueta, Herman; Cameron, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    We introduced voluntary wiki-based exercises to a long-running cognitive psychology course, part of the core curriculum for an undergraduate degree in psychology. Over 2 yearly cohorts, students who used the wiki more also scored higher on the final written exam. Using regression analysis, it is possible to account for students' tendency to score…

  13. Managing the Written Text: The Beginning of Punctuation in Children's Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Emilia; Pontecorvo, Clotilde

    1999-01-01

    Studied the use of punctuation in children's early writings in connection with organization of the text. Collected 134 stories of second graders written in Spanish, Portuguese, or Italian. Children tried to make sense of writing conventions, including the use of punctuation, and some tried to distinguish the functions of punctuation marks. (SLD)

  14. 28 CFR 68.3 - Service of complaint, notice of hearing, written orders, and decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DOCUMENT FRAUD § 68.3 Service of complaint, notice of hearing, written orders, and decisions. (a) Service...: (1) By delivering a copy to the individual party, partner of a party, officer of a corporate party, registered agent for service of process of a corporate party, or attorney or representative of record of...

  15. 20 CFR 655.1015 - Written notice and service of Administrator's determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Process for Attestations Filed by Employers Utilizing F-1 Students in Off-Campus Work § 655.1015 Written... service or by certified mail at the address of the employer or the employer's agent shown on the... absence of a timely request for a hearing, received by the Chief Administrative Law Judge within 15...

  16. Mass Communications in Israel: A Bibliography of Articles, Pamphlets, and Books Written in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotliffe, Harvey

    This bibliography on mass communications in Israel contains articles, pamphlets, and books written in English covering the areas of advertising, Arab mass communications, broadcast authority, censorship, culture and communication, film, press and propaganda, publishing writers, radio, commercial and educational television, and the theatre arts.…

  17. The Effect of Computer-Generated Spoken Feedback on Kindergarten Students' Written Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ithel

    1998-01-01

    Examined the extent to which kindergartners used computer speech during narrative writing and the relationship between this use and the linguistic properties of their written products. Found that length of text, grammatical cohesion, and lexical density were strongly associated with use of computer-generated spoken feedback. Narrative types and…

  18. Cross-modal representation of spoken and written word meaning in left pars triangularis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liuzzi, Antonietta Gabriella; Bruffaerts, Rose; Peeters, Ronald; Adamczuk, Katarzyna; Keuleers, Emmanuel; De Deyne, Simon; Storms, Gerrit; Dupont, Patrick; Vandenberghe, Rik

    2017-01-01

    The correspondence in meaning extracted from written versus spoken input remains to be fully understood neurobiologically. Here, in a total of 38 subjects, the functional anatomy of cross-modal semantic similarity for concrete words was determined based on a dual criterion: First, a voxelwise

  19. A Compilation of Postgraduate Theses Written in Turkey on Computer Assisted Instruction in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre; Demirbas, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study conducted is to present in-depth information about the postgraduate theses written within the context of Computer Assisted Instruction in Chemistry Education in Turkey. The theses collected in National Thesis Centre of Turkish Council of Higher Education were examined. As a result of an examination, it was found that about…

  20. 47 CFR 76.939 - Truthful written statements and responses to requests of franchising authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requests of franchising authority. 76.939 Section 76.939 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Regulation § 76.939 Truthful written statements and responses to requests of franchising authority. Cable operators shall comply with franchising authorities' and the Commission's requests for information,...

  1. How Do Finnish Children Express Care and Justice in Comic Strips and Written Narratives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Juha; Hannula, Markku S.

    2014-01-01

    This case study explored how children's moral expressions like love and violence differ according to the mode of narrative, comic strips or written narratives. Sixteen third-grade children from a primary school in Finland took part in the study. Children's moral expressions were divided into justice and care. Reading frequency of fairy tales and…

  2. Spoken and Written Language Features and Markers of 'Speaker' Identity in an Internet Discussion Board Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珣

    2008-01-01

    This essay analyses the spoken and written language features in a text taken from an internet discussion board from two perspec- tives: the medium, and the mode, comments on language use in the text that may assign the 'speaker' to different speech communities, and discuss the implications of the analysis for English teaching.

  3. How Deaf and Normally Hearing Students Convey Meaning within and between Written Sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The compositions of 49 students (ages 10-14) with deafness or hearing impairments and 49 typical students were compared to investigate the frequency and proportional distribution of written-language variables. Differences were found between the strategies chosen by the students with deafness or hearing impairments in both syntax and semantics and…

  4. Development of School-Aged Deaf, Hard-of-Hearing, and Normally Hearing Students' Written Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Downey, Doris M.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of the written language of students who are deaf or hard-of-hearing addressed, among other topics, level of reading skills, development of language skills after age 12, and evidence of a critical age for language learning. Data collection methods, research outcomes, and an overview of other articles in the theme issue are discussed. (CR)

  5. Error Analysis of Support Verb Constructions in Written Spanish Learner Corpora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salido, Marcos Garcia

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the use of support verb constructions (SVCs) in the written production of learners of Spanish. SVCs are lexical combinations whose content is similar to verbal predicates but is distributed between a verb and a noun, the noun being the carrier of the core lexical meaning of the predicate. Although there is considerable…

  6. Special Education in Saudi Arabia: A Synthesis of Literature Written in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamimi, Ahmed A.; Lee, Lay Wah; Sayed-Ahmed, Al-sayed A.; Kassem, Mostafa M.

    2015-01-01

    Special education in Saudi Arabia was formally established in 1962. The earliest cited literature on special education written in English was a 1970 government report. This article presents results from the first synthesis of internationally published Saudi special education literature over a 44-year period. This synthesis yielded information…

  7. A Quantitative Analysis of Uncertainty in the Grading of Written Exams in Mathematics and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Hugo Lewi; Habib, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The most common way to grade students in courses at university and university college level is to use final written exams. The aim of final exams is generally to provide a reliable and a valid measurement of the extent to which a student has achieved the learning outcomes for the course. A source of uncertainty in grading students based on an exam…

  8. Correcting students’ written grammatical errors: The effects of negotiated versus nonnegotiated feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Nassaji

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A substantial number of studies have examined the effects of grammar correction on second language (L2 written errors. However, most of the existing research has involved unidirectional written feedback. This classroom-based study examined the effects of oral negotiation in addressing L2 written errors. Data were collected in two intermediate adult English as a second language classes. Three types of feedback were compared: nonnegotiated direct reformulation, feedback with limited negotiation (i.e., prompt + reformulation and feedback with negotiation. The linguistic targets chosen were the two most common grammatical errors in English: articles and prepositions. The effects of feedback were measured by means of learner-specific error identification/correction tasks administered three days, and again ten days, after the treatment. The results showed an overall advantage for feedback that involved negotiation. However, a comparison of data per error types showed that the differential effects of feedback types were mainly apparent for article errors rather than preposition errors. These results suggest that while negotiated feedback may play an important role in addressing L2 written errors, the degree of its effects may differ for different linguistic targets.

  9. Prose Checklist: Strategies for Improving School-to-Home Written Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagro, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Effective communication enhances school-family partnerships. Written communication is a common, efficient way of communicating with families, but potential barriers to effective communication include readability level, clarity of presentation, complexity of format, and structural components. The PROSE Checklist presented in this article can…

  10. Narrative Skills in Written Texts by Deaf and Hearing Bilingual Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teruggi, Lilia A.; Gutiérrez-Cáceres, Rafaela

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on narrative competence have focused on monolingual subjects, and there are very few studies which address this issue in bilingual subjects dealing with two language systems. In the present case study we analyzed and compared the textual and narrative written skills of three deaf and three hearing adolescents attending eighth grade at…

  11. A Model for Teaching Written Language to Hearing-Impaired Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Stephen L.; Luckner, John L.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a model of written language that can guide the instruction of hearing-impaired students, and strategies and techniques for improving writing skills, using research and theory from such areas as fluency, syntax, vocabulary, content, conventions, student motivation, guided practice, student interaction, and selective feedback. (CB) (Adjunct…

  12. Using Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Written Expression with Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Robert; Hagaman, Jessica L.; Graham, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This review assessed the use of self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) for teaching written composition strategies to students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. We examined the participants and the settings in which SRSD has been used, the writing strategies tested, genres addressed, and the effects of SRSD on outcome measures.…

  13. The Role of Task Type in Foreign Language Written Production: Focusing on Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezazadeh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mansoor; Rasekh, Abbas Eslami

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two task types on foreign language written production. Particularly it addressed the issue of how three aspects of language production (i.e. fluency, complexity, and accuracy) vary among two different task types (i.e. argumentative writing task and instruction writing task). One hundred sixty…

  14. 49 CFR 1114.28 - Depositions, requests for admission, written interrogatories, and responses thereto: inclusion in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Depositions, requests for admission, written interrogatories, and responses thereto: inclusion in record. 1114.28 Section 1114.28 Transportation Other... interrogatories, and responses thereto: inclusion in record. At the oral hearing, or upon the submission of...

  15. Cognitive Levels and Approaches Taken by Students Failing Written Examinations in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roegner, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted at the Technical University Berlin involving students who twice failed the written examination in the first semester course Linear Algebra for Engineers in order to better understand the reasons behind their failure. The study considered student understanding in terms of Bloom's taxonomy and the ways in which students…

  16. Investigating Expectations and Experiences of Audio and Written Assignment Feedback in First-Year Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Hannah; Oldfield, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that audio feedback may be an important mechanism for facilitating effective and timely assignment feedback. The present study examined expectations and experiences of audio and written feedback provided through "turnitin for iPad®" from students within the same cohort and assignment. The results showed that…

  17. Investigating Expectations and Experiences of Audio and Written Assignment Feedback in First-Year Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Hannah; Oldfield, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that audio feedback may be an important mechanism for facilitating effective and timely assignment feedback. The present study examined expectations and experiences of audio and written feedback provided through "turnitin for iPad®" from students within the same cohort and assignment. The results showed that…

  18. Referencing in a Second Language: Korean EFL Learners' Cohesive Use of References in Written Narrative Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jennifer Yusun

    2009-01-01

    This study examined Korean English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' ability to establish textual cohesion in English through appropriate selection of reference forms and reference management strategies in their written narrative discourse. It employed both quantitative and qualitative analysis to explore how the language-specific reference…

  19. Pragmatic Features in Original Narratives Written by African American Students at Three Grade Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, Jessica M.; Anderson, Michele A.; Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Nelson, Nickola W.

    2015-01-01

    African American English has a rich oral tradition, with identifiable features across all 5 systems of language--phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. This is an investigation of the extent to which pragmatic features of African American oral storytelling traditions are apparent in the written stories of African American…

  20. Prose Checklist: Strategies for Improving School-to-Home Written Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagro, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Effective communication enhances school-family partnerships. Written communication is a common, efficient way of communicating with families, but potential barriers to effective communication include readability level, clarity of presentation, complexity of format, and structural components. The PROSE Checklist presented in this article can…

  1. Computer-Assisted Learning for the Hearing Impaired: An Interactive Written Language Enviroment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R. D.; Rostron, A. B.

    1983-01-01

    To help hearing-impaired children develop their linguistic competence, a computer system that can process sentences and give feedback about their acceptability was developed. Suggestions are made of ways to use the system as an environment for interactive written communication. (Author/CL)

  2. A Corpus-Based View of Lexical Gender in Written Business English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A.

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates lexical gender in specialized communication. The key method of analysis is that of forms of address, professional titles, and "generic man" in a 10 million word corpus of written Business English. After a brief introduction and literature review on both gender in specialized communication and similar corpus-based views of…

  3. A Curriculum in Written Composition, K-3: A Guide for Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. English Curriculum Study Center.

    This teaching guide for written composition in grades K-3 contains (1) a statement of objectives for a curriculum in composition, (2) sequence charts which relate subject content for each grade to basic understandings about composition, (3) illustrations of ways in which the ordinary experiences of children can become the bases for compositions,…

  4. A Curriculum in Written Composition, 4-6: A Guide for Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. English Curriculum Study Center.

    This guide for teaching composition in grades 4-6 (1) objectives for a curriculum in written composition, (2) sequence charts which relate subject content for each grade to basic understandings about composition, (3) illustrative learning experiences, and (4) units for teaching specific skills. The units for each grade are "Structuring a…

  5. Batch processing images in Adobe Photoshop using a script written in JavaScript

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Сергеевна Дидык

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to consider the possibility of automating the processing of a series of photographs. Particular attention is paid to the use of scripts written in the programming language Java Script for Adobe Photoshop. Java Script scenarios are dynamic and have significant advantages over a simple-to-use Action.

  6. Effect of Explicit and Implicit Instruction on Free Written Response Task Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, Sible; de Glopper, C.M.; Hacquebord, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    A classroom study was designed to test the hypothesis that explicit knowledge is used by second-language (L2) learners in a free written response task if that knowledge is present. Eighty-one 12-18-year-old learners of Dutch as an L2 took part in a computer-assisted language learning experiment rece

  7. 14 CFR 250.9 - Written explanation of denied boarding compensation and boarding priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS OVERSALES § 250.9 Written... of air carrier), you are probably entitled to monetary compensation. This notice explains the airline... boarding against his or her will until airline personnel first ask for volunteers who will give up their...

  8. Short Message Service (SMS) Language and Written Language Skills: Educators' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertsema, Salomé; Hyman, Charene; van Deventer, Chantelle

    2011-01-01

    SMS language is English language slang, used as a means of mobile phone text messaging. This practice may impact on the written language skills of learners at school. The main aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of Grade 8 and 9 English (as Home Language) educators in Gauteng regarding the possible influence of SMS language on…

  9. Narrative Skills in Written Texts by Deaf and Hearing Bilingual Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teruggi, Lilia A.; Gutiérrez-Cáceres, Rafaela

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on narrative competence have focused on monolingual subjects, and there are very few studies which address this issue in bilingual subjects dealing with two language systems. In the present case study we analyzed and compared the textual and narrative written skills of three deaf and three hearing adolescents attending eighth grade at…

  10. Analysis of Written Expression Revision Skills of the Students in Faculty of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Remzi

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to analyze written expression revision skills of students in Turkish Education Department, Education Faculty. This study was done using qualitative research method. The study group of the research consisted of 3rd grade students. The research data were collected by means of document review, a qualitative research technique. The…

  11. Integrating Written Communication Skills: Working towards a Whole of Course Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Australian universities, through their graduate attributes, claim that graduates have the ability to communicate, an attribute encompassing, at the least, written and oral literacies. Despite this claim, Australian universities have been criticised over the past decade for their lack of rigour in assessing this attribute; a criticism generally…

  12. Meeting the Demands of the Workplace: Science Students and Written Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, F. Elizabeth; Emerson, Lisa; MacKay, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, surveys in a range of English-speaking countries, from North America and the United Kingdom, to New Zealand and Australia, have consistently shown that employers rank oral and written communication skills as highly as or more highly than any technical or quantitative skills. However, in New Zealand there has been very…

  13. Written and Oral Narratives of Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay-Raining Bird, Elizabeth; Cleave, Patricia L.; White, Denise; Pike, Heather; Helmkay, April

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes written and spoken narrative skills of school-age individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Method: Twenty-one students with DS (age 6;6 [years;months]-19;10) and 17 reading-matched, typically developing (TD) controls (age 4;9-10;9) were matched using Word Identification subtest raw scores (Woodcock Reading Mastery…

  14. Mapping phonological information from auditory to written modality during foreign vocabulary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Marian, Viorica

    2008-12-01

    Learning to read in a foreign language often entails recognizing the printed form of words learned by sound. In the current study, the ability to map novel phonological information from the auditory modality onto the written modality was examined at different levels of overlap between the native language and an artificially constructed foreign language. In this study, monolingual English-speaking adults learned novel foreign words in the auditory modality. Recognition testing was first conducted in the auditory modality and then in the written modality. Participants who learned foreign words that matched English phonology showed similar accuracy rates when tested in either modality. Participants who learned foreign words that mismatched English phonology showed decreased recognition accuracy when tested in the written modality. Results indicate that cross-linguistic matching in phonology facilitated mapping of phonological information to the written modality. In addition, at different levels of cross-linguistic overlap, specific cognitive skills were found to correlate with the ability to map phonological information across modalities. This finding suggests that the cognitive skills required for acquisition of a foreign language may vary depending upon degree of cross-linguistic similarity.

  15. Self-Assessment of Topic Development in Written Production among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Yoko Suganuma

    2014-01-01

    The present study mainly focuses on the topic development in student written production through the consistency between student self-assessment and teacher assessment. In the present study, topic development means "cohesion", "overall organization", and "coherence". It proposes the next hypotheses: (i) Students could…

  16. Early Perception of Written Syllables in French: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doignon-Camus, Nadege; Bonnefond, Anne; Touzalin-Chretien, Pascale; Dufour, Andre

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined whether written syllable units are perceived in first steps of letter string processing. An illusory conjunction experiment was conducted while event-related potentials were recorded. Colored pseudowords were presented such that there was a match or mismatch between the syllable boundaries and the color boundaries. The…

  17. But Is It Fair? Developing Students' Understanding of Grading Complex Written Work through Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConlogue, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Peer assessment of long written tasks poses particular problems as these tasks typically involve complex learning and solving ill-structured problems which require divergent responses. Marking reliability of this kind of writing task is difficult to achieve. The author illustrates this through an evaluation of two implementations of peer…

  18. Pragmatic Features in Original Narratives Written by African American Students at Three Grade Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, Jessica M.; Anderson, Michele A.; Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Nelson, Nickola W.

    2015-01-01

    African American English has a rich oral tradition, with identifiable features across all 5 systems of language--phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. This is an investigation of the extent to which pragmatic features of African American oral storytelling traditions are apparent in the written stories of African American…

  19. Effects of the Design of Written Music on the Readability for Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Nanke; Timmermans, Anneke; Korpershoek, Hanke

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the design of written music and the number of mistakes dyslexic and non-dyslexic children make in reading music is investigated in this study. Previous research shows that children with dyslexia experience difficulties with reading music, especially discerning pitch. Common mistakes of dyslexic…

  20. Differences between oral and written calculation: evidence from cognitive neuropsychology from six brain-damaged patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María P. Salguero-Alcañiz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study of patients with acquired brain injury shows the existence of several double dissociations in the calculation system. In this paper, we focus on the double dissociation observed between oral and written calculation. Method: Instrument: Battery of Evaluation and Numerical Processing and Calculation. Participants: Six patients with acquired brain injury who have different alterations in the processing of numbers and calculations. Data analysis: Difference of proportions. Results: MC and BET have impaired the written calculation but they preserve oral calculation (addition, subtraction and multiplication. The same is observed in MNL for addition and multiplication and in PP for subtraction. The reverse pattern is observed in IRS and ACH who have alterations in written calculation but preserve oral calculation (in multiplication and subtraction, respectively. Conclusions: The results demonstrate the functional independence of oral and written calculation. This could indicate that the calculation system is not unitary and responsible for any calculation task, but a multicomponential system involving different processes and of a different nature.

  1. Written Composition Performance of Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Ana Miranda; Ferrer, Manuel Soriano; Fortea, Inmaculada Baixauli

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with learning disabilities. The present study examined the written composition of children with ADHD, which depends to a large degree on continuous self-regulation and attentional control skills for organizing information and maintaining the level of effort. Fifty children…

  2. Learners' Uses of Two Types of Written Feedback on a L2 Writing Revision Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Rebecca; Polio, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of written error corrections versus reformulations of second language learners' writing as two means of improving learners' grammatical accuracy on a three-stage composition-comparison-revision task. Concurrent verbal protocols were employed during the comparison stage in order to study the learners' reported…

  3. How EFL Students Can Use Google to Correct Their "Untreatable" Written Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiller, Luc

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of an experiment in which a group of 17 French post-secondary EFL learners used Google to self-correct several "untreatable" written errors. Whether or not error correction leads to improved writing has been much debated, some researchers dismissing it is as useless and others arguing that error feedback…

  4. Young Children's Metacognition in the Context of Telling a Written Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wu-Ying; Ku, Yu-Min; Chen, Yi-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    This study examines young children's metacognition in the context of telling a written story. The participants were 36 children: 12 preschoolers, 12 kindergarteners, and 12 first graders in a kindergarten and a nearby elementary school in a northwestern city in Taiwan. Each child was asked to "read" a 13-page wordless picture book and…

  5. Acquisition of the Concept "Biodegradable" Through Written Instruction: Pretest and Age Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arganian, Mourad P.; And Others

    The primary purpose of this study/experiment was to determine whether children in the middle elementary grades would be able to learn the concepts "biodegradable agent,""biodegradable material," and "biodegradable process" from a short written lesson. Secondary purposes were to examine the degree to which a pretest, grade level, and sex of the…

  6. The Three Bears and Other Plays: Six Easy Plays Especially Written for Educationally Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassie, Dhyan

    This booklet contains six easy plays written for educationally handicapped children. The plays are brief, use few characters and simple language and plots, and are based on fairy tales. Titles are: (1) "The Three Bears'" (2) "The Gingerbread Boy'" (3) "Little Red Riding Hood'" (4) "The Three Billy Goats Gruff'" (5) "Hansel and Gretel'" and (6)…

  7. Students' Engagement with a Collaborative Wiki Tool Predicts Enhanced Written Exam Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Tom; Elgueta, Herman; Cameron, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    We introduced voluntary wiki-based exercises to a long-running cognitive psychology course, part of the core curriculum for an undergraduate degree in psychology. Over 2 yearly cohorts, students who used the wiki more also scored higher on the final written exam. Using regression analysis, it is possible to account for students' tendency to…

  8. Integration of Partial Information within and across Modalities: Contributions to Spoken and Written Sentence Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly G.; Fogerty, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the extent to which partial spoken or written information facilitates sentence recognition under degraded unimodal and multimodal conditions. Method: Twenty young adults with typical hearing completed sentence recognition tasks in unimodal and multimodal conditions across 3 proportions of preservation. In the unimodal…

  9. Long period gratings written in large-mode area photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nodop, D.; Linke, S.; Jansen, F.

    2008-01-01

    We report for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, on the fabrication and characterization of CO2-laser written long-period gratings in a large-mode area photonic crystal fiber with a core diameter of 25 mu m. The gratings have low insertion losses ( 10 d...

  10. Metanotes (Written Languaging) in a Translation Task: Do L2 Proficiency and Task Outcome Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masako

    2015-01-01

    Languaging has been identified as a contributor to language learning. Yet, compared to oral languaging, such as collaborative dialogs in contextualized settings, little seems to be known about written languaging. In order to fill this gap, this study investigates languaging in the form of "metanotes," that is, metatalk in a written…

  11. 30 CFR 250.1508 - What must I do when MMS administers written or oral tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do when MMS administers written or oral tests? 250.1508 Section 250.1508 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Well Control...

  12. A Written, Reflective and Dialogic Strategy for Assessment Feedback That Can Enhance Student/Teacher Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Gail; Nash, Gregory; Oprescu, Florin; Liebergreen, Marama; Turley, Janet; Bond, Richard; Dayton, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    In response to the shortcomings of current assessment feedback practice, this paper presents the results of a study designed to examine students' and teachers' experience of engaging in a written, reflective and dialogic feedback (WRDF) strategy. The strategy was designed to enhance the learning experience of students undertaking a large…

  13. The Use of Orally Recorded Exam Feedback as a Supplement to Written Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Joy

    2004-01-01

    While written comments are a popular and potentially effective method of student exam feedback, these comments are often overshadowed by students' focus on their grades. In this paper I discuss the additional use of orally recorded exam feedback in introductory statistics classes of 40 or fewer students. While grading and writing comments on a…

  14. Hedging to save face: a linguistic analysis of written comments on in-training evaluation reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Shiphra; van der Vleuten, Cees; Eva, Kevin W; Lingard, Lorelei

    2016-03-01

    Written comments on residents' evaluations can be useful, yet the literature suggests that the language used by assessors is often vague and indirect. The branch of linguistics called pragmatics argues that much of our day to day language is not meant to be interpreted literally. Within pragmatics, the theory of 'politeness' suggests that non-literal language and other strategies are employed in order to 'save face'. We conducted a rigorous, in-depth analysis of a set of written in-training evaluation report (ITER) comments using Brown and Levinson's influential theory of 'politeness' to shed light on the phenomenon of vague language use in assessment. We coded text from 637 comment boxes from first year residents in internal medicine at one institution according to politeness theory. Non-literal language use was common and 'hedging', a key politeness strategy, was pervasive in comments about both high and low rated residents, suggesting that faculty may be working to 'save face' for themselves and their residents. Hedging and other politeness strategies are considered essential to smooth social functioning; their prevalence in our ITERs may reflect the difficult social context in which written assessments occur. This research raises questions regarding the 'optimal' construction of written comments by faculty.

  15. 24 CFR 92.504 - Participating jurisdiction responsibilities; written agreements; on-site inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and written agreements, and taking appropriate action when performance problems arise. The use of... process in § 92.357 does not apply to the State recipient. (vii) Affirmative marketing. The agreement must specify the State recipient's affirmative marketing responsibilities in accordance with § 92.351, if...

  16. 34 CFR 222.154 - How must written submissions under this subpart be filed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must written submissions under this subpart be filed? 222.154 Section 222.154 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS Impact...

  17. Feedback on Feedback: Eliciting Learners' Responses to Written Feedback through Student-Generated Screencasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Toro, María; Furnborough, Concha

    2014-01-01

    Despite the potential benefits of assignment feedback, learners often fail to use it effectively. This study examines the ways in which adult distance learners engage with written feedback on one of their assignments. Participants were 10 undergraduates studying Spanish at the Open University, UK. Their responses to feedback were elicited by means…

  18. How Do Finnish Children Express Care and Justice in Comic Strips and Written Narratives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Juha; Hannula, Markku S.

    2014-01-01

    This case study explored how children's moral expressions like love and violence differ according to the mode of narrative, comic strips or written narratives. Sixteen third-grade children from a primary school in Finland took part in the study. Children's moral expressions were divided into justice and care. Reading frequency of fairy…

  19. Young Children's Metacognition in the Context of Telling a Written Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wu-Ying; Ku, Yu-Min; Chen, Yi-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    This study examines young children's metacognition in the context of telling a written story. The participants were 36 children: 12 preschoolers, 12 kindergarteners, and 12 first graders in a kindergarten and a nearby elementary school in a northwestern city in Taiwan. Each child was asked to "read" a 13-page wordless picture book…

  20. Written Pain Neuroscience Education in Fibromyalgia : A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ittersum, Miriam W.; van Wilgen, C. Paul; van der Schans, Cees P.; Lambrecht, Luc; Groothoff, Johan W.; Nijs, Jo

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports the use of face-to-face pain neuroscience education for the treatment of chronic pain patients. This study aimed at examining whether written education about pain neuroscience improves illness perceptions, catastrophizing, and health status in patients with fibromyalgia. A

  1. Written pain neuroscience education in fibromyalgia: a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittersum, Miriam W. van; Wilgen, Paul van; Schans, Cees van der; Lambrecht, Luc; Groothoff, Johan W.; Nijs, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Mounting evidence supports the use of face-to-face pain neuroscience education for the treatment of chronic pain patients. This study aimed at examining whether written education about pain neuroscience improves illness perceptions, catastrophizing, and health status in patients with fibrom

  2. Speech-language therapy for adolescents with written-language difficulties: the South African context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, D; Schutte, L; van der Merwe, M; Geertsema, S

    2013-12-01

    To investigate whether privately practising speech-language therapists in South Africa are fulfilling their role of identification, assessment and intervention for adolescents with written-language and reading difficulties. Further needs concerning training with regard to this population group were also determined. A survey study was conducted, using a self-administered questionnaire. Twenty-two currently practising speech-language therapists who are registered members of the South African Speech-Language-Hearing Association (SASLHA) participated in the study. The respondents indicated that they are aware of their role regarding adolescents with written-language difficulties. However, they feel that South-African speech-language therapists are not fulfilling this role. Existing assessment tools and interventions for written-language difficulties are described as inadequate, and culturally and age inappropriate. Yet, the majority of the respondents feel that they are adequately equipped to work with adolescents with written-language difficulties, based on their own experience, self-study and secondary training. The respondents feel that training regarding effective collaboration with teachers is necessary to establish specific roles, and to promote speech-language therapy for adolescents among teachers. Further research is needed in developing appropriate assessment and intervention tools as well as improvement of training at an undergraduate level.

  3. 26 CFR 301.6110-1 - Public inspection of written determinations and background file documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section, relating to technical advice memoranda involving civil fraud and criminal investigations, and... determinations relating to accounting or funding periods and methods, the text of any written determination (as... section 6110(d)(3) and (f)(4). (2) Technical advice memoranda involving civil fraud and...

  4. Representations of the Moon in Children's Literature: An Analysis of Written and Visual Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Troland, Thomas H.; Pritchard, T. Gail

    2008-01-01

    This review focused on the written and visual representation of the moon in 80 children's books, including Caldecott Medal and Honor books over the past 20 years. Results revealed that many of these books misrepresent the moon and even reinforce misconceptions about lunar phases. Teachers who use children's literature that misrepresents the moon…

  5. Written and Computer-Mediated Accounting Communication Skills: An Employer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    Communication skills are a fundamental personal competency for a successful career in accounting. What is not so obvious is the specific written communication skill set employers look for and the extent those skills are computer mediated. Using survey research, this article explores the particular skills employers desire and their satisfaction…

  6. Reflecting on Scientists' Activity Based on Science Fiction Stories Written by Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Pedro; Galvao, Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    In this article the authors resort to a qualitative analysis of the plot of science fiction stories about a group of scientists, written by two 11th-grade Earth and Life Science students (aged 17), and to semi-structured interviews, with the double purpose of diagnosing their conceptions of the nature of science (namely, as regards scientists'…

  7. Are Written Instructions Enough? Efficacy of Male Condom Packaging Leaflets among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Dana F.; Harbke, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether or not written condom use instructions successfully inform correct condom use skills. Design: Between-subjects, two-group design. Setting: Public university located in rural Midwestern region of the United States. Method: Participants were randomly assigned to either a control condition (read physical exercise…

  8. The Functions of the Nontarget "Be" in the Written Interlanguage of Chinese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Suying

    2014-01-01

    Through examining all instances of the nontarget "be" before verbs in the written interlanguage of Chinese learners at different proficiency levels, the present study reveals that nontarget "be" performs different functions, and there is a function shift from low to high proficiency levels. At the lowest levels, "be"…

  9. Interlanguage in Undergraduates' Academic English: Preliminary Results from Written Script Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Rosa Munoz

    2010-01-01

    The following article aims to revisit Selinker's theory of Interlanguage by analysing a group of undergraduates' written scripts in L2. The initial outcomes of the study establish a linguistic parallelism between students' Interlingua and English as a lingua franca in the academic world. In the light of this comparison, certain theoretical…

  10. Starting Small in Assessment Change: Short In-Class Written Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carless, David; Zhou, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on an innovation which involved students being assessed on short written responses to an issue to be addressed in the following classroom session. The innovation was evaluated through a student survey, individual and focus-group interviews with participants, and the analysis of a critical friend. Positive findings included…

  11. Toward Audience Involvement: Extending Audiences of Written Physician Notes in a Hospital Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuch, Lee-Ann Kastman; Bakke, Abigail; Thomas-Pollei, Kimberly; Mackey, L. Elizabeth; Weinert, Craig

    2016-01-01

    This article explores rhetorical implications of extending the audience of written physician notes in hospital settings to include patients and/or family members (the OpenNotes program). Interviews of participating hospital patients and family members (n = 16) underscored the need for more complex understandings of audience beyond…

  12. First and Second Language Pragmatics in Third Language Oral and Written Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Dale A.; Palmiere, Denise T. L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the transfer of first language (L1) and second language (L2) pragmatic expression--realized in the request speech act--in oral and written modalities by Spanish-speaking third language (L3) Portuguese learners (bilingual Spanish heritage speakers, native English speakers who are proficient in L2 Spanish, and native Spanish…

  13. Evolution of oral and written confrontation naming errors in aphasia. A retrospective study on vascular patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, A; Corno, M; Marangolo, P

    1996-02-01

    Impaired naming is a common finding in aphasia but while it is known that naming errors diminish over time, longitudinal studies are rare. In this retrospective study, naming errors of 84 vascular aphasic patients are studied. Errors in oral and written confrontation naming tasks in two successive evaluations are tabulated and coded into one of 10 error types. No Response, Word-Finding Difficulty, Semantic Paraphasia, Unrelated Paraphasia, Phonemic/Orthographic Paraphasia, Neologism, Paraphasic Jargon, Phonemic/Neologistic Jargon, Stereotypy, and Other. All analyses were carried out on the difference scores, that is, the score in the second examination minus the score in the first examination. Results indicate that there is a significant decrease of No Responses (in oral and written naming) and Neologisms (in oral naming), and a significant increase of Orthographic Paraphasias in written naming. Moreover, the difference score for Phonemic/Orthographic Paraphasias was higher in written than oral naming. The difference scores for the other types of error were not statistically significant.

  14. Written nutrition communication in midwifery practice: What purpose does it serve?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szwajcer, E.M.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective to obtain an in-depth understanding of verbal and written nutrition communication in Dutch midwifery practice. Design, setting and participants data were collected by recording 12 initial antenatal consultations (12 weeks into the pregnancy) with primiparous women from four Dutch midwifery

  15. Home Literacy Environment and Its Influence on Singaporean Children's Chinese Oral and Written Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Tan, Chee Lay

    2016-01-01

    In a bilingual environment such as Singaporean Chinese community, the challenge of maintaining Chinese language and sustaining Chinese culture lies in promoting the daily use of Chinese language in oral and written forms among children. Ample evidence showed the effect of the home language and literacy environment (HLE), on children's language and…

  16. Webster's word power better English grammar improve your written and spoken English

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, Betty

    2014-01-01

    With questions and answer sections throughout, this book helps you to improve your written and spoken English through understanding the structure of the English language. This is a thorough and useful book with all parts of speech and grammar explained. Used by ELT self-study students.

  17. Written pain neuroscience education in fibromyalgia: a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jo Nijs; Paul van Wilgen; Dr. M.W. van Ittersum; Johan W. Groothoff; Luc Lambrecht; Dr. C.P. van der Schans

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Mounting evidence supports the use of face-to-face pain neuroscience education for the treatment of chronic pain patients. This study aimed at examining whether written education about pain neuroscience improves illness perceptions, catastrophizing, and health status in patients with

  18. Written Pain Neuroscience Education in Fibromyalgia : A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ittersum, Miriam W.; van Wilgen, C. Paul; van der Schans, Cees P.; Lambrecht, Luc; Groothoff, Johan W.; Nijs, Jo

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports the use of face-to-face pain neuroscience education for the treatment of chronic pain patients. This study aimed at examining whether written education about pain neuroscience improves illness perceptions, catastrophizing, and health status in patients with fibromyalgia. A

  19. From Monologue to Dialogue: Improving Written Feedback Processes in Mass Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, David

    2010-01-01

    Student surveys across the world have highlighted that students are dissatisfied with the feedback they receive on their assignments and many institutions have been putting plans in place to address this issue. Much of this work has focused on improving the quality of written comments. This paper takes a different perspective. It argues that the…

  20. 5 CFR 2638.706 - Agency's written plan for annual ethics training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency's written plan for annual ethics training. 2638.706 Section 2638.706 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS AND EXECUTIVE AGENCY ETHICS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES Executive Agency...

  1. An Exploration of Private Language Institute Teachers' Perceptions of Written Grammar Feedback in EFL Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodaie, Mina; Farrokhi, Farahman

    2012-01-01

    This study set out to explore private language institute EFL teachers' perceptions of written grammar feedback and also to specify their reasons for choosing comprehensive or selective feedback and some feedback strategies over some others. Data were collected from 30 EFL teachers by means of a questionnaire. The results indicated that the…

  2. The Effect of Teachers' Written Corrective Feedback (WCF) Types on Intermediate EFL Learners' Writing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanloo, Khadijeh; Mobini, Fariba; Khosravi, Robab

    2016-01-01

    Written Corrective Feedback (WCF) is a controversial topic among theorists and researchers in L2 studies. Ellis, Sheen, Murakami, and Takashima (2008) identify two dominant dichotomies in this regard, that is focused vs. unfocused WCF and direct vs. indirect WCF. This study considered both dichotomies in a matrix format, resulted in the…

  3. The Impact of Oral and Written Feedback on EFL Writers with the Use of Screencasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvira, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This article, based on an action research study performed at a Colombian middle-sized private university, proposes specific strategies to provide feedback to English as a foreign language learners and uses a Web 2.0 tool called "screencasting." The findings of the study suggest that the use of coded, written, and oral feedback is widely…

  4. Factors affecting written distance-learning feedback: the tutor’s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Calfoglou

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Launching the distance-learning student-tutor interaction process, tutors of the first module of the M.Ed in English course at the HOU lay the foundations of academic student autonomy by means of providing – inter alia -- the appropriate written feedback on written assignments. In doing so, they need to gauge the content and form of their written comments systematically with regard to both output- and student-, that is human factor-related issues (cf. Goldstein, 2004, the latter being particularly relevant to the distance-learning context. In this article we discuss tutor policy as well as tutor perceptions (cf. Lee, 2004, 2009 among others regarding written feedback on students’ academic assignments in terms of aspects of deviance treated and the relative gravity of ‘global’ and ‘local’ errors (e.g. Ferris, 2002, the directness of the correction, the punitive or facilitative nature of the comments provided as well as the relative balance of student strengths and weaknesses on the tutor’s comment agenda (cf. Hyland & Hyland, 2006. The role of the tutor as an assessor and/or counsellor is explored and the importance of striking a delicate balance between the two, especially in a context where face-to-face feedback opportunities are severely restricted, is underscored. We suggest that distance-learning feedback practices may need to be at least partially individualized to maximize student response and meet the goal of ‘informed autonomy’.

  5. Written Teacher Feedback: Student Perceptions, Teacher Perceptions, and Actual Teacher Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Li

    2016-01-01

    This study sets out to investigate a teacher's and her students' perceptions of written teacher feedback in a college English as a foreign language (EFL) writing class in China. Essays, questionnaires, and interviews were employed to identify the types of feedback given by the teacher, the perceptions and preferences of students and the…

  6. Electronic Mail, a New Written-Language Register: A Study with French-Speaking Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volckaert-Legrier, Olga; Bernicot, Josie; Bert-Erboul, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the linguistic forms used by adolescents in electronic mail (e-mail) differ from those used in standard written language. The study was conducted in French, a language with a deep orthography that has strict, addressee-dependent rules for using second person personal pronouns (unfamiliar…

  7. Studies of Verbal Behavior in Oral and in Written Language. Professional Paper 68-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovici, Serge; Humbert, Claudine

    The oral and written language of 10 students expressing themselves on the same subject was observed to determine (1) whether an "oral style" could be identified and (2) what relationship existed between cognitive processes and methods of expression. Six girls and four boys were placed in two situations: an "oral" situation in which the student…

  8. Written and Computer-Mediated Accounting Communication Skills: An Employer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    Communication skills are a fundamental personal competency for a successful career in accounting. What is not so obvious is the specific written communication skill set employers look for and the extent those skills are computer mediated. Using survey research, this article explores the particular skills employers desire and their satisfaction…

  9. Speech-language therapy for adolescents with written-language difficulties: The South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danel Erasmus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate whether privately practising speech-language therapists in South Africa are fulfilling their role of identification, assessment and intervention for adolescents with written-language and reading difficulties. Further needs concerning training with regard to this population group were also determined.Method: A survey study was conducted, using a self-administered questionnaire. Twenty-two currently practising speech-language therapists who are registered members of the South African Speech-Language-Hearing Association (SASLHA participated in the study.Results: The respondents indicated that they are aware of their role regarding adolescents with written-language difficulties. However, they feel that South-African speech-language therapists are not fulfilling this role. Existing assessment tools and interventions for written-language difficulties are described as inadequate, and culturally and age inappropriate. Yet, the majority of the respondents feel that they are adequately equipped to work with adolescents with written-language difficulties, based on their own experience, self-study and secondary training. The respondents feel that training regarding effective collaboration with teachers is necessary to establish specific roles, and to promote speech-language therapy for adolescents among teachers.Conclusion: Further research is needed in developing appropriate assessment and intervention tools as well as improvement of training at an undergraduate level.

  10. Launching Ceremony of Chinese Edition of Our History Is Still Being Written Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our Staff Reporter

    2009-01-01

    <正>On March 13, the CPAFFC held a launching ceremony of the Chinese edition of Our History Is Still Being Written-tthe Story of Three Chinese-Cuban Generals in the Cuban Revolution at the Friendship Museum. Li Xiaolin, vice president of the

  11. Spelling in Written Stories by School-Age Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straley, Sara G.; Werfel, Krystal L.; Hendricks, Alison Eisel

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the spelling of 3rd to 6th grade children with cochlear implants in written stories. Spelling was analysed using traditional correct/incorrect scoring as well as the Spelling Sensitivity Score, which provides linguistic information about spelling attempts. Children with cochlear implants spelled 86 per cent of words in stories…

  12. Metanotes (Written Languaging) in a Translation Task: Do L2 Proficiency and Task Outcome Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masako

    2015-01-01

    Languaging has been identified as a contributor to language learning. Yet, compared to oral languaging, such as collaborative dialogs in contextualized settings, little seems to be known about written languaging. In order to fill this gap, this study investigates languaging in the form of "metanotes," that is, metatalk in a written…

  13. Cognitive Levels and Approaches Taken by Students Failing Written Examinations in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roegner, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted at the Technical University Berlin involving students who twice failed the written examination in the first semester course Linear Algebra for Engineers in order to better understand the reasons behind their failure. The study considered student understanding in terms of Bloom's taxonomy and the ways in which students…

  14. Information Extraction to Generate Visual Simulations of Car Accidents from Written Descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugues, P.; Dupuy, S.; Egges, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a system to create animated 3D scenes of car accidents from written reports. The text-to-scene conversion process consists of two stages. An information extraction module creates a tabular description of the accident and a visual simulator generates and animates the scene. We

  15. Heuristic modelling of laser written mid-infrared LiNbO3 stressed-cladding waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huu-Dat; Ródenas, Airán; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Martínez, Javier; Chen, Feng; Aguiló, Magdalena; Pujol, Maria Cinta; Díaz, Francesc

    2016-04-04

    Mid-infrared lithium niobate cladding waveguides have great potential in low-loss on-chip non-linear optical instruments such as mid-infrared spectrometers and frequency converters, but their three-dimensional femtosecond-laser fabrication is currently not well understood due to the complex interplay between achievable depressed index values and the stress-optic refractive index changes arising as a function of both laser fabrication parameters, and cladding arrangement. Moreover, both the stress-field anisotropy and the asymmetric shape of low-index tracks yield highly birefringent waveguides not useful for most applications where controlling and manipulating the polarization state of a light beam is crucial. To achieve true high performance devices a fundamental understanding on how these waveguides behave and how they can be ultimately optimized is required. In this work we employ a heuristic modelling approach based on the use of standard optical characterization data along with standard computational numerical methods to obtain a satisfactory approximate solution to the problem of designing realistic laser-written circuit building-blocks, such as straight waveguides, bends and evanescent splitters. We infer basic waveguide design parameters such as the complex index of refraction of laser-written tracks at 3.68 µm mid-infrared wavelengths, as well as the cross-sectional stress-optic index maps, obtaining an overall waveguide simulation that closely matches the measured mid-infrared waveguide properties in terms of anisotropy, mode field distributions and propagation losses. We then explore experimentally feasible waveguide designs in the search of a single-mode low-loss behaviour for both ordinary and extraordinary polarizations. We evaluate the overall losses of s-bend components unveiling the expected radiation bend losses of this type of waveguides, and finally showcase a prototype design of a low-loss evanescent splitter. Developing a realistic waveguide

  16. When he can also be she: An ERP study of reflexive pronoun resolution in written Mandarin Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Ju eSu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The gender information in written Chinese third person pronouns is not symmetrically encoded: the character for he (他, with semantic radical 人, meaning human is used as a default referring to every individual, while the character for she (她, with semantic radical 女, meaning woman indicates females only. This critical feature could result in different patterns of processing of gender information in text, but this is an issue that has seldom been addressed in psycholinguistics. In Chinese, the written forms of the reflexive pronouns are composed of a pronoun plus the reflexive 自己/self (他自己/himself and 她自己/herself. The present study focuses on how such gender specificity interacts with the gender type of an antecedent, whether definitional (proper name or stereotypical (stereotypical role noun during reflexive pronoun resolution. In this event-related potential (ERP study, gender congruity between a reflexive pronoun and its antecedent was studied by manipulating the gender type of antecedents and the gender specificity of reflexive pronouns (default: 他自己/himself vs. specific: 她自己/herself. Results included a P200 attention related congruity effect for 他自己/himself and a P600 integration difficulty congruity effect for 她自己/herself. Reflexive pronoun specificity independently affected the P200 and N400 components. These results highlight the role of 他自己/himself as a default applicable to both genders and indicate that only the processing of 她自己/herself supports a two-stage model for anaphor resolution. While both reflexive pronouns are evaluated at the bonding stage, the processing of the gender-specific reflexive pronoun is completed in the resolution stage.

  17. Written language skills in children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavasiliou, A; Mattheou, D; Bazigou, H; Kotsalis, C; Paraskevoulakos, E

    2005-02-01

    The goal of this work was to study written language skills in children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS) in the absence of atypical clinical or electroencephalographic (EEG) features (n = 32), as compared with controls (n = 36). BCECTS patients (7-16 years), attending regular school, without cognitive or behavioral regression, or atypical EEG patterns, completed four tests assessing written language skills and one nonverbal cognitive test. School performance information was recorded. Seizure types, duration, and frequency; awake and sleep interictal EEG findings; and medication status were documented. Epilepsy and educational outcome was recorded for a period of 1-5 years after diagnosis. As a group, BCECTS patients performed significantly worse than controls in spelling, reading aloud, and reading comprehension; presented dyslexic-type errors; and frequently had below-average school performance. Among 11 with poor written language performance, 4 had developmental dysfunctions before school and seizure onset and, as a group, demonstrated low performance on a nonverbal cognitive test. Even though 65.6% were on anticonvulsants due to frequent seizures and/or seizures while awake, none belonged to the atypical BCECTS spectrum with respect to clinical or EEG findings. Increased epilepsy duration and seizure frequency were less represented in patients with no or mild written language problems than in those with poor performance. Otherwise, clinical course and EEG findings in this group were no different than those for the 11 children with severe written language problems. Clinical follow-up indicated that learning problems appear persistent and several children require remedial classes and/or tutoring after the epilepsy has resolved. Children with severe but not atypical BCECTS performed, as a group, significantly worse than controls in written language skills, specifically in spelling, reading, aloud and reading comprehension; they also

  18. Correlation of a written test of skills and a performance based test: a study in two traditional medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmen, Roy; Scherpbier, Albert; Denekens, Joke; Derese, Anselm; Hermann, Ingeborg; Hoogenboom, Ron; van Der Vleuten, Cees; van Royen, Paul; Bossaert, Leo

    2001-01-01

    Studies in innovative curricula have shown that a written test of skills is potentially able to predict OSCE scores. In this study we verified the potential of a written test of skills as an alternative to an OSCE in two traditional medical schools. A 12 station OSCE was scored using detailed checklists and global rating scales. The written test of skills consisted of 132 true-false questions. Students were assessed immediately before graduation in 1997. The size of the reported correlations confirms that the written test of skills can be used to predict performance-based test scores in traditional medical schools to some extent. For research purposes, particularly for outcome research to compare curricula of medical schools, a written test of skills is a viable alternative to performance-based testing. A written test of skills is unable to replace the OSCE for assessment of individual students.

  19. Improving medical students' written communication skills: design and evaluation of an educational curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, L; Connolly, K; Pitre, L; Dore, K L; Wasi, P

    2015-06-01

    Written and verbal communication skills are important skills for all physicians. While verbal skills are taught and assessed in medical school, medical students report limited instruction in written communication skills. This study examined the impact of a curriculum delivered during a 6-week clinical rotation in Internal Medicine on the objective assessment of medical students' written communication skills. The curriculum consisted of two educational programmes: a medical student communication tutorial and a resident feedback workshop. The study was conducted from March 2012 to January 2013 at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The study featured three arms: (1) control, (2) medical student communication tutorial alone and (3) student tutorial and resident feedback workshop. Data were collected on 126 students during 6-week Internal Medicine clerkship rotations. Students' written consultation notes were collected prior to the educational programmes and at 6 weeks. Blinded faculty assessors used an independently validated Assessment Checklist to evaluate consultation notes. Consultation note scores improved from week 1 to week 6 across all study arms. However, the change was statistically significant only in arm 3, featuring both the medical student tutorial and the resident feedback workshop, with mean scores improving from 4.75 (SD=1.496) to 5.56 (SD=0.984) out of 7. The mean difference between week 1 and week 6 was significantly different (0.806, p=0.002, 95% CI 0.306 to 1.058). The combination of a resident feedback workshop with medical student written communication tutorial improves objective evaluations of consultation note scores over student tutorial alone. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Which characteristics of written feedback are perceived as stimulating students’ reflective competence: an exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Teacher feedback on student reflective writing is recommended to improve learners’ reflective competence. To be able to improve teacher feedback on reflective writing, it is essential to gain insight into which characteristics of written feedback stimulate students’ reflection processes. Therefore, we investigated (1) which characteristics can be distinguished in written feedback comments on reflective writing and (2) which of these characteristics are perceived to stimulate students’ reflection processes. Methods We investigated written feedback comments from forty-three teachers on their students’ reflective essays. In Study 1, twenty-three medical educators grouped the comments into distinct categories. We used Multiple Correspondence Analysis to determine dimensions in the set of comments. In Study 2, another group of twenty-one medical educators individually judged whether the comments stimulated reflection by rating them on a five-point scale. We used t-tests to investigate whether comments classified as stimulating and not stimulating reflection differed in their scores on the dimensions. Results Our results showed that characteristics of written feedback comments can be described in three dimensions: format of the feedback (phrased as statement versus question), focus of the feedback (related to the levels of students’ reflections) and tone of the feedback (positive versus negative). Furthermore, comments phrased as a question and in a positive tone were judged as stimulating reflection more than comments at the opposite side of those dimensions (t = (14.5) = 6.48; p = reflective essays should be formulated as a question, positive in tone and tailored to the individual student’s reflective level in order to stimulate students to reflect on a slightly higher level. Further research is needed to examine whether incorporating these characteristics into teacher training helps to improve the quality of written feedback comments

  1. Which characteristics of written feedback are perceived as stimulating students' reflective competence: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Hanke; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Snoek, Jos W; van der Molen, Thys; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-07-08

    Teacher feedback on student reflective writing is recommended to improve learners' reflective competence. To be able to improve teacher feedback on reflective writing, it is essential to gain insight into which characteristics of written feedback stimulate students' reflection processes. Therefore, we investigated (1) which characteristics can be distinguished in written feedback comments on reflective writing and (2) which of these characteristics are perceived to stimulate students' reflection processes. We investigated written feedback comments from forty-three teachers on their students' reflective essays. In Study 1, twenty-three medical educators grouped the comments into distinct categories. We used Multiple Correspondence Analysis to determine dimensions in the set of comments. In Study 2, another group of twenty-one medical educators individually judged whether the comments stimulated reflection by rating them on a five-point scale. We used t-tests to investigate whether comments classified as stimulating and not stimulating reflection differed in their scores on the dimensions. Our results showed that characteristics of written feedback comments can be described in three dimensions: format of the feedback (phrased as statement versus question), focus of the feedback (related to the levels of students' reflections) and tone of the feedback (positive versus negative). Furthermore, comments phrased as a question and in a positive tone were judged as stimulating reflection more than comments at the opposite side of those dimensions (t = (14.5) = 6.48; p = reflective essays should be formulated as a question, positive in tone and tailored to the individual student's reflective level in order to stimulate students to reflect on a slightly higher level. Further research is needed to examine whether incorporating these characteristics into teacher training helps to improve the quality of written feedback comments on reflective writing.

  2. Modality differences between written and spoken story retelling in healthy older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ann Obermeyer

    2015-04-01

    Methods: Ten native English speaking healthy elderly participants between the ages of 50 and 80 were recruited. Exclusionary criteria included neurological disease/injury, history of learning disability, uncorrected hearing or vision impairment, history of drug/alcohol abuse and presence of cognitive decline (based on Cognitive Linguistic Quick Test. Spoken and written discourse was analyzed for micro linguistic measures including total words, percent correct information units (CIUs; Nicholas & Brookshire, 1993 and percent complete utterances (CUs; Edmonds, et al. 2009. CIUs measure relevant and informative words while CUs focus at the sentence level and measure whether a relevant subject and verb and object (if appropriate are present. Results: Analysis was completed using Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test due to small sample size. Preliminary results revealed that healthy elderly people produced significantly more words in spoken retellings than written retellings (p=.000; however, this measure contrasted with %CIUs and %CUs with participants producing significantly higher %CIUs (p=.000 and %CUs (p=.000 in written story retellings than in spoken story retellings. Conclusion: These findings indicate that written retellings, while shorter, contained higher accuracy at both a word (CIU and sentence (CU level. This observation could be related to the ability to revise written text and therefore make it more concise, whereas the nature of speech results in more embellishment and “thinking out loud,” such as comments about the task, associated observations about the story, etc. We plan to run more participants and conduct a main concepts analysis (before conference time to gain more insight into modality differences and implications.

  3. Examining Elementary Students' Development of Oral and Written Argumentation Practices Through Argument-Based Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chih; Hand, Brian; Park, Soonhye

    2016-05-01

    Argumentation, and the production of scientific arguments are critical elements of inquiry that are necessary for helping students become scientifically literate through engaging them in constructing and critiquing ideas. This case study employed a mixed methods research design to examine the development in 5th grade students' practices of oral and written argumentation from one unit to another over 16 weeks utilizing the science writing heuristic approach. Data sources included five rounds of whole-class discussion focused on group presentations of arguments that occurred over eleven class periods; students' group writings; interviews with six target students and the teacher; and the researcher's field notes. The results revealed five salient trends in students' development of oral and written argumentative practices over time: (1) Students came to use more critique components as they participated in more rounds of whole-class discussion focused on group presentations of arguments; (2) by challenging each other's arguments, students came to focus on the coherence of the argument and the quality of evidence; (3) students came to use evidence to defend, support, and reject arguments; (4) the quality of students' writing continuously improved over time; and (5) students connected oral argument skills to written argument skills as they had opportunities to revise their writing after debating and developed awareness of the usefulness of critique from peers. Given the development in oral argumentative practices and the quality of written arguments over time, this study indicates that students' development of oral and written argumentative practices is positively related to each other. This study suggests that argumentative practices should be framed through both a social and epistemic understanding of argument-utilizing talk and writing as vehicles to create norms of these complex practices.

  4. Thinking aloud during idea generating and planning before written translation: Developmental changes from ages 10 to 12 in expressing and defending opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Matt; Berninger, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    This interdisciplinary research, drawing on cognitive psychology and linguistics, extended to middle childhood past research during early childhood or adulthood on thinking aloud prior to written composing. In year 5 of a longitudinal study of typical writing, when cohort 1 was in grade 5 (n = 110 ten year-olds) and cohort 2 in grade 7 (n = 97 twelve year-olds), a cross-sectional study was conducted. Children were first asked to think aloud while they generated ideas and second while they planned their essays to express and defend their opinions on a controversial topic in the region of the United States where they lived. Third, they wrote their essays. Their think-aloud protocols were audio-recorded and later transcribed into writing for analysis. The authors developed and applied rating scales for quality of idea generating and planning in the written transcriptions and quality of opinion expression, opinion defense, organization, and content in the essays children wrote after thinking aloud; total number of words in essays was also counted. Seventh graders scored significantly higher than fifth graders on quality of idea generation but not planning, and higher on all variables rated for quality in the written essays including length. Quality of expressing opinions and defending opinions were uncorrelated in grade 5, but moderately correlated in grade 7. Whether idea generating or planning quality explained unique variance in essays varied with coded written essay variables and grade. Educational applications of results for assessment, assessment-instruction links, instruction in social studies, and theory of mind in persuasive essay writing are discussed. PMID:28203613

  5. Phase change materials science and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Raoux, Simone

    2009-01-01

    ""Phase Change Materials: Science and Applications"" provides a unique introduction of this rapidly developing field. This clearly written volume describes the material science of these fascinating materials from a theoretical and experimental perspective.

  6. 77 FR 74278 - Proposed Information Collection (Internet Student CPR Web Registration Application); Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Internet Student CPR Web Registration Application); Comment... solicits comments on information needed to establish an online web registration application. DATES: Written... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Internet Student CPR Web Registration Application...

  7. MAX UnMix: A web application for unmixing magnetic coercivity distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxbauer, Daniel P.; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Fox, David L.

    2016-10-01

    It is common in the fields of rock and environmental magnetism to unmix magnetic mineral components using statistical methods that decompose various types of magnetization curves (e.g., acquisition, demagnetization, or backfield). A number of programs have been developed over the past decade that are frequently used by the rock magnetic community, however many of these programs are either outdated or have obstacles inhibiting their usability. MAX UnMix is a web application (available online at http://www.irm.umn.edu/maxunmix), built using the shiny package for R studio, that can be used for unmixing coercivity distributions derived from magnetization curves. Here, we describe in detail the statistical model underpinning the MAX UnMix web application and discuss the programs functionality. MAX UnMix is an improvement over previous unmixing programs in that it is designed to be user friendly, runs as an independent website, and is platform independent.

  8. Laser Drilling Practical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces laser drilling processes including modelling, quality assessment of drilled holes, and laser drilling applications. It provides insights into the laser drilling process and the relation among the drilling parameters pertinent to improved end product quality. This book is written for engineers and scientists working on laser machining, particularly laser drilling.

  9. Font Size Matters—Emotion and Attention in Cortical Responses to Written Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Mareike; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2012-01-01

    For emotional pictures with fear-, disgust-, or sex-related contents, stimulus size has been shown to increase emotion effects in attention-related event-related potentials (ERPs), presumably reflecting the enhanced biological impact of larger emotion-inducing pictures. If this is true, size should not enhance emotion effects for written words with symbolic and acquired meaning. Here, we investigated ERP effects of font size for emotional and neutral words. While P1 and N1 amplitudes were not affected by emotion, the early posterior negativity started earlier and lasted longer for large relative to small words. These results suggest that emotion-driven facilitation of attention is not necessarily based on biological relevance, but might generalize to stimuli with arbitrary perceptual features. This finding points to the high relevance of written language in today's society as an important source of emotional meaning. PMID:22590518

  10. Font size matters--emotion and attention in cortical responses to written words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Bayer

    Full Text Available For emotional pictures with fear-, disgust-, or sex-related contents, stimulus size has been shown to increase emotion effects in attention-related event-related potentials (ERPs, presumably reflecting the enhanced biological impact of larger emotion-inducing pictures. If this is true, size should not enhance emotion effects for written words with symbolic and acquired meaning. Here, we investigated ERP effects of font size for emotional and neutral words. While P1 and N1 amplitudes were not affected by emotion, the early posterior negativity started earlier and lasted longer for large relative to small words. These results suggest that emotion-driven facilitation of attention is not necessarily based on biological relevance, but might generalize to stimuli with arbitrary perceptual features. This finding points to the high relevance of written language in today's society as an important source of emotional meaning.

  11. MAPPING OF TERMS ATTRIBUTED TO NURSING PHENOMENA IN THE WRITTEN DATA OF THE NURSING STAFF COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Josefa Fernandes Beserra

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available work aimed to identify the terms used by components of the nursing staff of the of the schoolhospital, in written patient clinical records, to designate phenomena of nursing; and to compare the terms identifiedwith those included in the Classification of Nursing Phenomena of the ICNP - Beta version. As the population ofstudy, it was considered all clinical records of the patients admitted in this service during the period of August/2001to January/2002; 167 clinical records that contained written data of components of the nursing staff constituted thesample. In the process, it was identification of 586 nursing phenomena. After the cross-mapping phase, it wasidentified 340 terms already included in the Classification of Nursing Phenomena of the ICNP - Beta version; and246 new possible terms to be included in the future.

  12. Spanish heritage language learners vs. L2 learners: What CAF reveals about written proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Camus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, great interest has emerged in identifying the learning needs of heritage language (HL learners. In comparing HL and second language (L2 learners, research suggests that L2 learners outperform HL learners when examining writing abilities (Montrul, 2010; Potowski, 2013. However, complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF have been overlooked when examining HL learners’ writing proficiency, and it could provide a better picture of their writing skills in a spontaneous untimed assignment. To address this issue, 28 L2 learners and 18 HL learners completed an untimed written production task on a non-academic subject and their written proficiency was assessed through CAF measures (Norris & Ortega, 2009. Results showed HL learners significantly outperformed L2 learners on two complexity measures: accuracy and fluency. A possible explanation for these findings could be the type of task used (more spontaneous, less-controlled, which taps into a more implicit type of knowledge, favoring HL learners (Bowles, 2011.

  13. From graphemes to abstract letter shapes: levels of representation in written spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, B; Caramazza, A

    1997-08-01

    The letter substitution errors of 2 dysgraphic subjects who, despite relatively intact oral spelling, made well-formed letter substitution errors in written spelling, were studied. Many of these errors bear a general physical similarity to the intended target. Analyses revealed that this similarity apparently was based on the features of the component strokes of letters rather than on visuospatial characteristics. A comparison of these subjects' letter substitution errors with those of 2 other individuals with brain damage, whose damage was at a different level of processing, revealed that the latter subjects' errors are not explicable in terms of stroke-feature similarity. Strong support was found for the computation of multiple representational types in the course of written spelling. This system includes a relatively abstract, effector-independent representational level that specifies the features of the component strokes of letters.

  14. Centering Theory, transitions and referent marking in the corpus of the written Serbian language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trnavac Radoslava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to map various types of anaphor to the centering transitions in the corpus of Serbian newspaper articles. Centering Theory (WALKER, JOSHI ET AL. 1998 is a theory of local coherence in which four types of transitions are used as parameters of coherence. As is hypothesized in the previous literature based on various languages, the CONTINUE transition is mostly characterized by a minimal form (a zero form of the topic, while the SMOOTH and ROUGH shifts are found with a full noun phrase topic. The analysis shows that the “Ordering Rule” of Centering Theory is not fully followed in the written corpus of the Serbian language since SMOOTH SHIFT has been identified as a prevalent type of transition in the corpus. The following two reasons were identified for that: (1 the genre of the newspaper articles, and (2 the way clauses are combined within a complex sentence in the Serbian written corpus.

  15. Syntax PAL: a system to improve the written syntax of language-impaired users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C; Newell, A; Booth, L; Ricketts, I; Arnott, J

    1992-01-01

    In our work with children who have difficulty with spelling or with the physical action of writing, we have found a number of children who also have difficulty with written grammar. As an extension of PAL, an existing predictive spelling and typing aid, we have developed a writing aid to help these children with sentence construction. The enhanced system uses the syntax of the initial part of a sentence to enhance the position in the prediction list of syntactically correct words. It was postulated that this would discourage the use of incorrect syntax and encourage the use of correct syntax. In two case studies, the use of Syntax PAL significantly improved the quality and quantity of one child's written output, but had little effect on the other child's work.

  16. Language and ageing - exploring propositional density in written language - stability over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Elizabeth; Craig, Hugh; Ferguson, Alison; Colyvas, Kim

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the stability of propositional density (PD) in written texts, as this aspect of language shows promise as an indicator and as a predictor of language decline with ageing. This descriptive longitudinal study analysed written texts obtained from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health in which participants were invited to respond to an open-ended question about their health. The 635 texts used for this study were taken from 127 middle-aged women who responded to this question on each of the five surveys conducted at 3-year intervals over a 16-year period. The study made use of an automated PD rater (CPIDR-3) for the analysis. PD was found to be a stable measure over time when comparing the grouped data, but there was between- and within-subject variation over time. Further research is needed to explore the valid use of this measure in research into language and ageing.

  17. Meeting the Demands of the Workplace: Science Students and Written Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, F. Elizabeth; Emerson, Lisa; Mackay, Bruce

    2005-12-01

    Over the last 15 years, surveys in a range of English-speaking countries, from North America and the United Kingdom, to New Zealand and Australia, have consistently shown that employers rank oral and written communication skills as highly as or more highly than any technical or quantitative skills. However, in New Zealand there has been very little research into determining exactly what is meant by the "written communication skills" employers state they desire. A further issue in this research to date has been a lack of differentiation between employers—no study has specifically targeted the requirements of employers of science graduates. This article reports the findings of ongoing research into the expectations of science students and of employers of science graduates, and centers around several key questions: What do New Zealand employers of science graduates specifically want in terms of their new hires' writing skills?

  18. Assessing written communication during interhospital transfers of emergency general surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harl, Felicity N R; Saucke, Megan C; Greenberg, Caprice C; Ingraham, Angela M

    2017-06-15

    Poor communication causes fragmented care. Studies of transitions of care within a hospital and on discharge suggest significant communication deficits. Communication during transfers between hospitals has not been well studied. We assessed the written communication provided during interhospital transfers of emergency general surgery patients. We hypothesized that patients are transferred with incomplete documentation from referring facilities. We performed a retrospective review of written communication provided during interhospital transfers to our emergency department (ED) from referring EDs for emergency general surgical evaluation between January 1, 2014 and January 1, 2016. Elements of written communication were abstracted from referring facility documents scanned into the medical record using a standardized abstraction protocol. Descriptive statistics summarized the information communicated. A total of 129 patients met inclusion criteria. 87.6% (n = 113) of charts contained referring hospital documents. 42.5% (n = 48) were missing history and physicals. Diagnoses were missing in 9.7% (n = 11). Ninety-one computed tomography scans were performed; among 70 with reads, final reads were absent for 70.0% (n = 49). 45 ultrasounds and x-rays were performed; among 27 with reads, final reads were missing for 80.0% (n = 36). Reasons for transfer were missing in 18.6% (n = 21). Referring hospital physicians outside the ED were consulted in 32.7% (n = 37); consultants' notes were absent in 89.2% (n = 33). In 12.4% (n = 14), referring documents arrived after the patient's ED arrival and were not part of the original documentation provided. This study documents that information important to patient care is often missing in the written communication provided during interhospital transfers. This gap affords a foundation for standardizing provider communication during interhospital transfers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Teaching And Learning Writing Using Teacher’s Written Feedback And Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iisrohli Irawati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to find out whether there is a significant difference in terms of writing skills improvements between the 8th grade students of SMP N 1 Prambanan Sleman who are given teacher’s written feedback and conference and those who are not in the academic year of 2011/2012. This study involved 71 students from two groups, Class VIII B (35 students as the experimental group and Class VIII A (36 students as the control group. The experimental group was given teacher’s written feedback and conference in the writing learning process, whereas the control group was given peer’s feedback. The data were obtained by using two essay writing tests. They were administered to the two groups as the pre-test and post-test. The pre-test was given to both groups before the treatment was given and the post-test was given after the treatment finished. The data of the pre-test and post-test of both groups were analyzed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics. After the data were tested and found to be homogeneous and normal, the hypothesis was tested using the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA. The results show that there is a significant difference in the writing ability between the students who are given teacher’s written feedback and conference and those who were not. It can be seen in the result of the hypothesis testing using ANCOVA. The significant value of 0.001 is less than the significance level of 0.05 (0.001 < 0.05, which means that the data of this study are considered to have a significant difference. Therefore, the hypothesis of this study is accepted. It means that the technique of giving teacher’s written feedback and conference significantly improves the students’ writing ability in the English teaching and learning process in SMP N 1 Prambanan Sleman.

  20. Start-phase control of distributed systems written in Erlang/OTP

    CERN Document Server

    Burcsi, Peter; Tátrai, Antal

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a realization for the reliable and fast startup of distributed systems written in Erlang. The traditional startup provided by the Erlang/OTP library is sequential, parallelization usually requires unsafe and ad-hoc solutions. The proposed method calls only for slight modifications in the Erlang/OTP stdlib by applying a system dependency graph. It makes the startup safe, quick, and it is equally easy to use in newly developed and legacy systems.