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Sample records for platform density packed

  1. Close packing density of polydisperse hard spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Robert S; Groot, Robert D

    2009-12-28

    The most efficient way to pack equally sized spheres isotropically in three dimensions is known as the random close packed state, which provides a starting point for many approximations in physics and engineering. However, the particle size distribution of a real granular material is never monodisperse. Here we present a simple but accurate approximation for the random close packing density of hard spheres of any size distribution based upon a mapping onto a one-dimensional problem. To test this theory we performed extensive simulations for mixtures of elastic spheres with hydrodynamic friction. The simulations show a general (but weak) dependence of the final (essentially hard sphere) packing density on fluid viscosity and on particle size but this can be eliminated by choosing a specific relation between mass and particle size, making the random close packed volume fraction well defined. Our theory agrees well with the simulations for bidisperse, tridisperse, and log-normal distributions and correctly reproduces the exact limits for large size ratios.

  2. Using crosslinkable diacetylene phospholipids to construct two-dimensional packed beds in supported lipid bilayer separation platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kai Hu, Sheng-Wen Hsiao, Hsun-Yen Mao, Ya-Ming Chen, Yung Chang and Ling Chao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Separating and purifying cell membrane-associated biomolecules has been a challenge owing to their amphiphilic property. Taking these species out of their native lipid membrane environment usually results in biomolecule degradation. One of the new directions is to use supported lipid bilayer (SLB platforms to separate the membrane species while they are protected in their native environment. Here we used a type of crosslinkable diacetylene phospholipids, diynePC (1,2-bis(10,12-tricosadiynoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, as a packed material to create a 'two-dimensional (2D packed bed' in a SLB platform. After the diynePC SLB is exposed to UV light, some of the diynePC lipids in the SLB can crosslink and the non-crosslinked monomer lipids can be washed away, leaving a 2D porous solid matrix. We incorporated the lipid vesicle deposition method with a microfluidic device to pattern the location of the packed-bed region and the feed region with species to be separated in a SLB platform. Our atomic force microscopy result shows that the nano-scaled structure density of the '2D packed bed' can be tuned by the UV dose applied to the diynePC membrane. When the model membrane biomolecules were forced to transport through the packed-bed region, their concentration front velocities were found to decrease linearly with the UV dose, indicating the successful creation of packed obstacles in these 2D lipid membrane separation platforms.

  3. An effective packing density of binary cubic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremin, I. E.; Eremina, V. V.; Sychev, M. S.; Moiseenko, V. G.

    2015-04-01

    The methodology of effective macroscopic calculation of numerical values of internuclear distances in binary crystals of a cubic crystal system is based on the use of coefficients of the structural packing density of the crystal lattice. The possibility of combining the reference data on the main physicochemical parameters of the substance is implemented by synthesis of the corresponding mathematical models.

  4. Effect of particle shape on the random packing density of amorphous solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyrylyuk, A.V.; Philipse, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    The packing density of a particulate solid strongly depends on the shape of the particles that are jammed at random close packing (RCP). To investigate the effect of particle shape on the RCP density of an amorphous solid, we studied jammed packings of binary mixtures of a-thermal or granular sphero

  5. Villus packing density and lacunarity: Markers of placental efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R G; Salafia, C M; Girardi, T; Merz, G S

    2016-12-01

    We evaluate, in routine H&E histology slides, villus quantity in a given area (villous packing density, VPD) and the pattern or "gappiness" of villous distribution (lacunarity), and test for correlations with a proxy for fetoplacental metabolic rate, β calculated as (ln (placental weight)/ln (birthweight)) from Kleiber's law [1]. Three ∼4.3 mm(2) images each were obtained from 88 term placentas. Ranges of VPD and lacunarity were each correlated with β (r = 0.31, p = 0.003, r = 0.23, p = 0.03 and respectively). The relationship between β and within-placenta variation in VPD and lacunarity highlights the need to study not merely the mean but the variance of villous geometries and spatial distributions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Horoball packings and their densities by generalized simplicial density function in the hyperbolic space

    CERN Document Server

    Szirmai, Jen\\Ho

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper to determine the locally densest horoball packing arrangements and their densities with respect to fully asymptotic tetrahedra with at least one plane of symmetry in hyperbolic 3-space $\\bar{\\mathbf{H}}^3$ extended with its absolute figure, where the ideal centers of horoballs give rise to vertices of a fully asymptotic tetrahedron. We allow horoballs of different types at the various vertices. Moreover, we generalize the notion of the simplicial density function in the extended hyperbolic space $\\bar{\\mathbf{H}}^n, ~(n \\ge 2)$, and prove that, in this sense, {\\it the well known B\\"or\\"oczky--Florian density upper bound for "congruent horoball" packings of $\\bar{\\mathbf{H}}^3$ does not remain valid to the fully asymptotic tetrahedra.} The density of this locally densest packing is $\\approx 0.874994$, may be surprisingly larger than the B\\"or\\"oczky--Florian density upper bound $\\approx 0.853276$ but our local ball arrangement seems not to have extension to the whole hyperbolic space.

  7. Shape effects on the random-packing density of tetrahedral particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Li, Shuixiang; Jin, Weiwei; Zhou, Xuan

    2012-09-01

    Regular tetrahedra have been demonstrated recently giving high packing density in random configurations. However, it is unknown whether the random-packing density of tetrahedral particles with other shapes can reach an even higher value. A numerical investigation on the random packing of regular and irregular tetrahedral particles is carried out. Shape effects of rounded corner, eccentricity, and height on the packing density of tetrahedral particles are studied. Results show that altering the shape of tetrahedral particles by rounding corners and edges, by altering the height of one vertex, or by lateral displacement of one vertex above its opposite face, all individually have the effect of reducing the random-packing density. In general, the random-packing densities of irregular tetrahedral particles are lower than that of regular tetrahedra. The ideal regular tetrahedron should be the shape which has the highest random-packing density in the family of tetrahedra, or even among convex bodies. An empirical formula is proposed to describe the rounded corner effect on the packing density, and well explains the density deviation of tetrahedral particles with different roundness ratios. The particles in the simulations are verified to be randomly packed by studying the pair correlation functions, which are consistent with previous results. The spherotetrahedral particle model with the relaxation algorithm is effectively applied in the simulations.

  8. Disordered strictly jammed binary sphere packings attain an anomalously large range of densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Adam B; Stillinger, Frank H; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-08-01

    Previous attempts to simulate disordered binary sphere packings have been limited in producing mechanically stable, isostatic packings across a broad spectrum of packing fractions. Here we report that disordered strictly jammed binary packings (packings that remain mechanically stable under general shear deformations and compressions) can be produced with an anomalously large range of average packing fractions 0.634≤φ≤0.829 for small to large sphere radius ratios α restricted to α≥0.100. Surprisingly, this range of average packing fractions is obtained for packings containing a subset of spheres (called the backbone) that are exactly strictly jammed, exactly isostatic, and also generated from random initial conditions. Additionally, the average packing fractions of these packings at certain α and small sphere relative number concentrations x approach those of the corresponding densest known ordered packings. These findings suggest for entropic reasons that these high-density disordered packings should be good glass formers and that they may be easy to prepare experimentally. We also identify an unusual feature of the packing fraction of jammed backbones (packings with rattlers excluded). The backbone packing fraction is about 0.624 over the majority of the α-x plane, even when large numbers of small spheres are present in the backbone. Over the (relatively small) area of the α-x plane where the backbone is not roughly constant, we find that backbone packing fractions range from about 0.606 to 0.829, with the volume of rattler spheres comprising between 1.6% and 26.9% of total sphere volume. To generate isostatic strictly jammed packings, we use an implementation of the Torquato-Jiao sequential linear programming algorithm [Phys. Rev. E 82, 061302 (2010)], which is an efficient producer of inherent structures (mechanically stable configurations at the local maxima in the density landscape). The identification and explicit construction of binary packings

  9. Dissecting the roles of local packing density and longer-range effects in protein sequence evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Shahmoradi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    What are the structural determinants of protein sequence evolution? A number of site-specific structural characteristics have been proposed, most of which are broadly related to either the density of contacts or the solvent accessibility of individual residues. Most importantly, there has been disagreement in the literature over the relative importance of solvent accessibility and local packing density for explaining site-specific sequence variability in proteins. We show here that this discussion has been confounded by the definition of local packing density. The most commonly used measures of local packing, such as the contact number and the weighted contact number, represent by definition the combined effects of local packing density and longer-range effects. As an alternative, we here propose a truly local measure of packing density around a single residue, based on the Voronoi cell volume. We show that the Voronoi cell volume, when calculated relative to the geometric center of amino-acid side chains, be...

  10. Two typical structure patterns in jammed monodisperse disk packings at high densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ye; Jin, Weiwei; Liu, Lufeng; Li, Shuixiang

    2016-11-01

    We generate a large number of monodisperse disk packings in two dimensions via geometric-based packing algorithms including the relaxation algorithm and the Torquato-Jiao algorithm. Using the geometric-structure approach, a clear boundary of the geometrical feasible region in the order map is found which quite differs from that of the jammed region. For a certain packing density higher than 0.83, the crystalline degree varies in different packing samples. We find that the local hexatic order may increase in two fairly different ways as the system densifies. Therefore, two typical non-equilibrium jammed patterns, termed polycrystal and distorted crystal, are defined at high packing densities. Furthermore, their responses to isotropic compression are investigated using a compression-relaxation molecular dynamic protocol. The distorted crystal pattern is more stable than the polycrystal one with smaller displacements despite its low occurrence frequency. The results are helpful in understanding the structure and phase transition of disk packings.

  11. TVB-EduPack-An Interactive Learning and Scripting Platform for The Virtual Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzke, Henrik; Schirner, Michael; Vollbrecht, Daniel; Rothmeier, Simon; Llarena, Adalberto; Rojas, Raúl; Triebkorn, Paul; Domide, Lia; Mersmann, Jochen; Solodkin, Ana; Jirsa, Viktor K; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Ritter, Petra

    2015-01-01

    The Virtual Brain (TVB; thevirtualbrain.org) is a neuroinformatics platform for full brain network simulation based on individual anatomical connectivity data. The framework addresses clinical and neuroscientific questions by simulating multi-scale neural dynamics that range from local population activity to large-scale brain function and related macroscopic signals like electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. TVB is equipped with a graphical and a command-line interface to create models that capture the characteristic biological variability to predict the brain activity of individual subjects. To enable researchers from various backgrounds a quick start into TVB and brain network modeling in general, we developed an educational module: TVB-EduPack. EduPack offers two educational functionalities that seamlessly integrate into TVB's graphical user interface (GUI): (i) interactive tutorials introduce GUI elements, guide through the basic mechanics of software usage and develop complex use-case scenarios; animations, videos and textual descriptions transport essential principles of computational neuroscience and brain modeling; (ii) an automatic script generator records model parameters and produces input files for TVB's Python programming interface; thereby, simulation configurations can be exported as scripts that allow flexible customization of the modeling process and self-defined batch- and post-processing applications while benefitting from the full power of the Python language and its toolboxes. This article covers the implementation of TVB-EduPack and its integration into TVB architecture. Like TVB, EduPack is an open source community project that lives from the participation and contribution of its users. TVB-EduPack can be obtained as part of TVB from thevirtualbrain.org.

  12. TVB-EduPack - An interactive learning and scripting platform for The Virtual Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik eMatzke

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Virtual Brain (TVB; www.thevirtualbrain.org is a neuroinformatics platform for full brain network simulation based on individual anatomical connectivity data. The framework addresses clinical and neuroscientific questions by simulating multi-scale neural dynamics that range from local population activity to large-scale brain function and related macroscopic signals like electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. TVB is equipped with a graphical and a command-line interface to create models that capture the characteristic biological variability to predict the brain activity of individual subjects. To enable researchers from various backgrounds a quick start into TVB and brain network modelling in general, we developed an educational module: TVB-EduPack. EduPack offers two educational functionalities that seamlessly integrate into TVB’s graphical user interface (GUI: (i interactive tutorials introduce GUI elements, guide through the basic mechanics of software usage and develop complex use-case scenarios; animations, videos and textual descriptions transport essential principles of computational neuroscience and brain modelling; (ii an automatic script generator records model parameters and produces input files for TVB’s Python programming interface; thereby, simulation configurations can be exported as scripts that allow flexible customization of the modelling process and self-defined batch- and post-processing applications while benefitting from the full power of the Python language and its toolboxes. This article covers the implementation of TVB-EduPack and its integration into TVB architecture. Like TVB, EduPack is an open source community project that lives from the participation and contribution of its users. TVB-EduPack can be obtained as part of TVB from thevirtualbrain.org.

  13. Characterization of maximally random jammed sphere packings. II. Correlation functions and density fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Michael A.; Torquato, Salvatore

    2016-08-01

    In the first paper of this series, we introduced Voronoi correlation functions to characterize the structure of maximally random jammed (MRJ) sphere packings across length scales. In the present paper, we determine a variety of different correlation functions that arise in rigorous expressions for the effective physical properties of MRJ sphere packings and compare them to the corresponding statistical descriptors for overlapping spheres and equilibrium hard-sphere systems. Such structural descriptors arise in rigorous bounds and formulas for effective transport properties, diffusion and reactions constants, elastic moduli, and electromagnetic characteristics. First, we calculate the two-point, surface-void, and surface-surface correlation functions, for which we derive explicit analytical formulas for finite hard-sphere packings. We show analytically how the contact Dirac delta function contribution to the pair correlation function g2(r ) for MRJ packings translates into distinct functional behaviors of these two-point correlation functions that do not arise in the other two models examined here. Then we show how the spectral density distinguishes the MRJ packings from the other disordered systems in that the spectral density vanishes in the limit of infinite wavelengths; i.e., these packings are hyperuniform, which means that density fluctuations on large length scales are anomalously suppressed. Moreover, for all model systems, we study and compute exclusion probabilities and pore size distributions, as well as local density fluctuations. We conjecture that for general disordered hard-sphere packings, a central limit theorem holds for the number of points within an spherical observation window. Our analysis links problems of interest in material science, chemistry, physics, and mathematics. In the third paper of this series, we will evaluate bounds and estimates of a host of different physical properties of the MRJ sphere packings that are based on the

  14. Dissecting the roles of local packing density and longer-range effects in protein sequence evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmoradi, Amir; Wilke, Claus O

    2016-06-01

    What are the structural determinants of protein sequence evolution? A number of site-specific structural characteristics have been proposed, most of which are broadly related to either the density of contacts or the solvent accessibility of individual residues. Most importantly, there has been disagreement in the literature over the relative importance of solvent accessibility and local packing density for explaining site-specific sequence variability in proteins. We show that this discussion has been confounded by the definition of local packing density. The most commonly used measures of local packing, such as contact number and the weighted contact number, represent the combined effects of local packing density and longer-range effects. As an alternative, we propose a truly local measure of packing density around a single residue, based on the Voronoi cell volume. We show that the Voronoi cell volume, when calculated relative to the geometric center of amino-acid side chains, behaves nearly identically to the relative solvent accessibility, and each individually can explain, on average, approximately 34% of the site-specific variation in evolutionary rate in a data set of 209 enzymes. An additional 10% of variation can be explained by nonlocal effects that are captured in the weighted contact number. Consequently, evolutionary variation at a site is determined by the combined effects of the immediate amino-acid neighbors of that site and effects mediated by more distant amino acids. We conclude that instead of contrasting solvent accessibility and local packing density, future research should emphasize on the relative importance of immediate contacts and longer-range effects on evolutionary variation. Proteins 2016; 84:841-854. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Carotenoid-chlorophyll coupling and fluorescence quenching correlate with protein packing density in grana-thylakoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleboom, Christoph-Peter; Yoo, Sunny; Liao, Pen-Nan; Compton, Ian; Haase, Winfried; Kirchhoff, Helmut; Walla, Peter Jomo

    2013-09-26

    The regulation of light-harvesting in photosynthesis under conditions of varying solar light irradiation is essential for the survival and fitness of plants and algae. It has been proposed that rearrangements of protein distribution in the stacked grana region of thylakoid membranes connected to changes in the electronic pigment-interaction play a key role for this regulation. In particular, carotenoid-chlorophyll interactions seem to be crucial for the down-regulation of photosynthetic light-harvesting. So far, it has been difficult to determine the influence of the dense protein packing found in native photosynthetic membrane on these interactions. We investigated the changes of the electronic couplings between carotenoids and chlorophylls and the quenching in grana thylakoids of varying protein packing density by two-photon spectroscopy, conventional chlorophyll fluorometry, low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy, and electron micrographs of freeze-fracture membranes. We observed an increasing carotenoid-chlorophyll coupling and fluorescence quenching with increasing packing density. Simultaneously, the antennas size and excitonic connectivity of Photosystem II increased with increasing quenching and carotenoid-chlorophyll coupling whereas isolated, decoupled LHCII trimers decreased. Two distinct quenching data regimes could be identified that show up at different protein packing densities. In the regime corresponding to higher protein packing densities, quenching is strongly correlated to carotenoid-chlorophyll interactions whereas in the second regime, a weak correlation is apparent with low protein packing densities. Native membranes are in the strong-coupling data regime. Consequently, PSII and LHCII in grana membranes of plants are already quenched by protein crowding. We concluded that this ensures efficient electronic connection of all pigment-protein complexes for intermolecular energy transfer to the reaction centers and allows simultaneously

  16. Analysis of geometric and electrochemical characteristics of lithium cobalt oxide electrode with different packing densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Cheolwoong; Yan, Bo; Kang, Huixiao; Song, Zhibin; Lee, Wen Chao; De Andrade, Vincent; De Carlo, Francesco; Yin, Leilei; Kim, Youngsik; Zhu, Likun

    2016-10-01

    To investigate geometric and electrochemical characteristics of Li ion battery electrode with different packing densities, lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) cathode electrodes were fabricated from a 94:3:3 (wt%) mixture of LiCoO2, polymeric binder, and super-P carbon black and calendered to different densities. A synchrotron X-ray nano-computed tomography system with a spatial resolution of 58.2 nm at the Advanced Photon Source of the Argonne National Laboratory was employed to obtain three dimensional morphology data of the electrodes. The morphology data were quantitatively analyzed to characterize their geometric properties, such as porosity, tortuosity, specific surface area, and pore size distribution. The geometric and electrochemical analysis reveal that high packing density electrodes have smaller average pore size and narrower pore size distribution, which improves the electrical contact between carbon-binder matrix and LiCoO2 particles. The better contact improves the capacity and rate capability by reducing the possibility of electrically isolated LiCoO2 particles and increasing the electrochemically active area. The results show that increase of packing density results in higher tortuosity, but electrochemically active area is more crucial to cell performance than tortuosity at up to 3.6 g/cm3 packing density and 4 C rate.

  17. Effects of packing density on the segregative behaviors of granular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windows-Yule, Kit; Weinhart, Thomas; Parker, D.J.; Thornton, Anthony Richard

    2014-01-01

    We present results concerning the important role of system packing in the processes of density- and inelasticity-induced segregation in vibrofluidized binary granular beds. Data are acquired through a combination of experimental results acquired from positron emission particle tracking and

  18. Brittleness and Packing Density Effects on Blast-hole Cuttings Yield of Selected Rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Adebayo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates brittleness and packing density to analysis their effects on blast-hole cutting yield for three selected rocks in Nigeria. Brittleness test (S20 was carried out in accordance with Norwegian Soil and Rock Engineering and the Brittleness Index (BI for the selected rocks were estimated. The packing density determined from the photomicrograph of the rock samples. The grain size of 45 blast-holes drill cuttings collected from three selected while drilling of these rocks were determined using standard method of America Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D 2487. The brittleness values are 50%, 44% and 42% for micro granite, porphyritic granite and medium biotite granite respectively. The result of BI varied from 10.32 – 11.59 and they are rated as moderately brittle rocks. The values of packing density varied from 92.20 – 94.55%, 91.00 -92.96% and 92.92 – 94.96% for all the rocks. The maximum weights of blast-hole particle size retained at 75 µm are 106.00g, 103.28 g and 99.76 g for medium biotite granite, micro granite and porhyritic granite respectively. Packing density values have correlation to some extent with (S20 values hence, this influence the yield of blast-hole cuttings as drilling progresses. The minimum weight of blast-hole cuttings particle size retained at 150 µm agrees with brittleness index classification for micro granite.

  19. Influence of particle packing density on the rheology of low cement content concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis-Huijben, S.A.A.M.; Grunewald, S.; Walraven, J.C.; Den Uijl, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing concrete mixtures with regard to cement content is one of the most important solutions in sustainable concrete design. Workability o f these low cement content or ecological mixtures is very important. Eleven mortar mixtures are presented, which show how a higher packing density can be us

  20. Influence of particle packing density on the rheology of low cement content concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis-Huijben, S.A.A.M.; Grunewald, S.; Walraven, J.C.; Den Uijl, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing concrete mixtures with regard to cement content is one of the most important solutions in sustainable concrete design. Workability o f these low cement content or ecological mixtures is very important. Eleven mortar mixtures are presented, which show how a higher packing density can be us

  1. Effects of packing density, flow and humidity on the performance of needle trap devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Juan M

    2014-11-21

    Needle trap devices (NTDs) have become a promising alternative to solid-phase microextraction (SPME) due to their robustness and exhaustive sampling while maintaining all the advantages of SPME. This study investigates the compromise required in packing NTDs starting from the hypothesis that their diameter makes perfect packing impractical. The most limiting parameter of NTDs is the small amount of sorbent that can be fitted in the trap. On evaluating packing density, it is found that the densest packing cannot practically be achieved with NTDs. This poor packing leads to oscillations in the fluid flow profiles and so sampling flows up to 10-15 mL min(-1) are recommended for this methodology. The limited amount of sorbent materials inside the needles makes breakthrough another limiting aspect of NTDs. However, one of the most significant advantages of these devices is that they have a large preconcentration factor, which results in method detection limits in the pptv range with sample volumes <100 mL. This methodology gives promising results in the analysis of water saturated samples as the limited amount of sorbents reduces water retention. Moreover, it is desirable for a small amount of water to be retained with NTDs as this improves the desorption of the retained compounds in the GC injector and allows sharper injection band-widths to be obtained.

  2. Cs diffusion in local Taiwan laterite with different solution concentration, pH and packing density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.-H. [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Li, M.-H. [Institute of Hydrological Sciences, National Central University, Jungli 320, Taiwan (China); Teng, S.-P. [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: spteng@ess.nthu.edu.tw

    2008-09-15

    In this work we used an 'in-diffusion' method to study the effects of pH, solution concentration and packing density on Cs diffusion by packing local Taiwan laterite (LTL) into modified capillary columns with 5 mm diameter. These packed columns were first pre-equilibrated with synthetic groundwater (GW) for 3 weeks. The diffusion experiments were then carried out at ambient condition for 2 weeks. Our experimental results showed that the Cs diffusion profile fits Fick's second law very well in given experimental conditions, indicating the validity of modified capillary column method. Generally speaking, Cs diffusion in LTL decreases as the pH increases and as Cs concentration decreases. The apparent diffusion coefficient (D{sub a}) increases from 5.52x10{sup -12} (10{sup -7} M) to 2.18x10{sup -11} (10{sup -3} M) m{sup 2}/s, while the effective diffusion coefficient (D{sub e}) shows slight variation as the Cs concentration changes. Both the derived D{sub a} and D{sub e} values decrease as the pH increases, implying that the diffusion mechanisms of Cs nuclide in alkaline and acid environment are different. In addition, our results show that Cs diffusion is unaffected by the given packing density, indicating the interlaminary space is not the major determinant of Cs adsorption and diffusion in LTL.

  3. Technical factors influencing cone packing density estimates in adaptive optics flood illuminated retinal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Marco; Serrao, Sebastiano; Lombardo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the influence of various technical factors on the variation of cone packing density estimates in adaptive optics flood illuminated retinal images. Adaptive optics images of the photoreceptor mosaic were obtained in fifteen healthy subjects. The cone density and Voronoi diagrams were assessed in sampling windows of 320×320 µm, 160×160 µm and 64×64 µm at 1.5 degree temporal and superior eccentricity from the preferred locus of fixation (PRL). The technical factors that have been analyzed included the sampling window size, the corrected retinal magnification factor (RMFcorr), the conversion from radial to linear distance from the PRL, the displacement between the PRL and foveal center and the manual checking of cone identification algorithm. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the agreement between cone density estimated within the different sampling window conditions. The cone density declined with decreasing sampling area and data between areas of different size showed low agreement. A high agreement was found between sampling areas of the same size when comparing density calculated with or without using individual RMFcorr. The agreement between cone density measured at radial and linear distances from the PRL and between data referred to the PRL or the foveal center was moderate. The percentage of Voronoi tiles with hexagonal packing arrangement was comparable between sampling areas of different size. The boundary effect, presence of any retinal vessels, and the manual selection of cones missed by the automated identification algorithm were identified as the factors influencing variation of cone packing arrangements in Voronoi diagrams. The sampling window size is the main technical factor that influences variation of cone density. Clear identification of each cone in the image and the use of a large buffer zone are necessary to minimize factors influencing variation of Voronoi diagrams of the cone mosaic.

  4. Technical factors influencing cone packing density estimates in adaptive optics flood illuminated retinal images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Lombardo

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of various technical factors on the variation of cone packing density estimates in adaptive optics flood illuminated retinal images. METHODS: Adaptive optics images of the photoreceptor mosaic were obtained in fifteen healthy subjects. The cone density and Voronoi diagrams were assessed in sampling windows of 320×320 µm, 160×160 µm and 64×64 µm at 1.5 degree temporal and superior eccentricity from the preferred locus of fixation (PRL. The technical factors that have been analyzed included the sampling window size, the corrected retinal magnification factor (RMFcorr, the conversion from radial to linear distance from the PRL, the displacement between the PRL and foveal center and the manual checking of cone identification algorithm. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the agreement between cone density estimated within the different sampling window conditions. RESULTS: The cone density declined with decreasing sampling area and data between areas of different size showed low agreement. A high agreement was found between sampling areas of the same size when comparing density calculated with or without using individual RMFcorr. The agreement between cone density measured at radial and linear distances from the PRL and between data referred to the PRL or the foveal center was moderate. The percentage of Voronoi tiles with hexagonal packing arrangement was comparable between sampling areas of different size. The boundary effect, presence of any retinal vessels, and the manual selection of cones missed by the automated identification algorithm were identified as the factors influencing variation of cone packing arrangements in Voronoi diagrams. CONCLUSIONS: The sampling window size is the main technical factor that influences variation of cone density. Clear identification of each cone in the image and the use of a large buffer zone are necessary to minimize factors influencing variation of Voronoi

  5. Packing density of HS(CH2)(n)COOH self-assembled monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, A W; Jernigan, G G; Ancona, M G

    2011-12-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of HS(CH(2))(n)COOH, n = 5, 10, 15 deposited from ethanol solution onto gold are prepared by five approaches, and their packing densities are evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. The five approaches are: (1) direct deposition; (2) acetic-acid-assisted deposition; (3) butyl-amine-assisted deposition; (4) displacement of a preformed HS(CH(2))(n)CH(3) (n = 5, 10, 15) SAMs; and (5) co-deposition with HS(CH(2))(n)CH(3) (n = 5, 10, 15). Packing density metrics are calculated from measurements of SAM and substrate photoemission intensities and their attenuations by two methods. In one case the attenuated photoemissions are expressed as a ratio relative to comparable measurements on an experimental HS(CH(2))(n)CH(3) model system. In the other case a new method is introduced where a calculated attenuation based on theoretical random coil and extended chain models is used as the reference to determine a packing density fraction. Packing densities are also correlated with the S2p(Au-bonded):Au4f peak area ratios and with shifts in the C1s binding energies. SAMs prepared by the direct deposition are a partial multilayer where a second molecular layer is physisorbed onto the SAM and not removable by solvent washing. The addition of acetic acid to the deposition solution disrupts dimer associations of HS(CH(2))(n)COOH in solution and at the surface of the monolayer and yields the most ordered monolayer with the highest density of -COOH groups. The addition of butyl amine results in a labile ammonium carbonate ion pair formation but results in a lower packing density in the SAM. The displacement of the preformed HS(CH(2))(n)CH(3) SAM and the co-deposition of HS(CH(2))(n)CH(3) with HS(CH(2))(n)COOH result in SAMs with little incorporation of the -COOH component.

  6. Embolization with larger-caliber coils can increase packing density: Evidence from the pilot phase of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Francis; Khoury, Naim; Ghostine, Jimmy; Farzin, Behzad; Kotowski, Marc; Weill, Alain; Roy, Daniel; Raymond, Jean

    2017-02-01

    Background and purpose Endovascular coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms is associated with suboptimal angiographic results in up to 20-30% of patients. Coil packing density has been used as an index of the success of the initial procedure. The trial sought to study the effects of using 15-caliber coils, as compared with 10-caliber coils, on packing density. Methods Does Embolization with Larger coils lead to better Treatment of Aneurysms (DELTA) is an investigator-initiated multicenter prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Patients are randomized 1:1 to embolization with either 10-caliber coils exclusively (control group) or the highest safely achievable proportion of 15-caliber coils and 10-caliber coils if necessary (intervention group) in 4-12-mm aneurysms. The endpoint of the pilot phase of the trial was the capacity to increase packing density of the initial procedure, calculated using a mathematical transformation of the dimensions entered into the case report forms. Secondary outcomes included the total number of coils used per aneurysm, total fluoroscopy time, initial angiographic outcomes and any adverse or undesirable event. Results Seventy patients were recruited between June 2014 and November 2015. Compared with 10-caliber coils, the 15-caliber coil group had a higher median packing density (44% vs 24%, p = 0.017). Results of other outcome measures were similar for the two groups. Conclusion Coiling of small and medium aneurysms randomized to 15-caliber coils achieved higher packing densities compared with coiling using 10-caliber coils.

  7. A system verification platform for high-density epiretinal prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuanfu; Lo, Yi-Kai; Yang, Zhi; Weiland, James D; Humayun, Mark S; Liu, Wentai

    2013-06-01

    Retinal prostheses have restored light perception to people worldwide who have poor or no vision as a consequence of retinal degeneration. To advance the quality of visual stimulation for retinal implant recipients, a higher number of stimulation channels is expected in the next generation retinal prostheses, which poses a great challenge to system design and verification. This paper presents a system verification platform dedicated to the development of retinal prostheses. The system includes primary processing, dual-band power and data telemetry, a high-density stimulator array, and two methods for output verification. End-to-end system validation and individual functional block characterization can be achieved with this platform through visual inspection and software analysis. Custom-built software running on the computers also provides a good way for testing new features before they are realized by the ICs. Real-time visual feedbacks through the video displays make it easy to monitor and debug the system. The characterization of the wireless telemetry and the demonstration of the visual display are reported in this paper using a 256-channel retinal prosthetic IC as an example.

  8. Wrox Cross Platform Android and iOS Mobile Development Three-Pack

    CERN Document Server

    McClure, Wallace B; Croft, John J; Dick, Jonathan; Hardy, Chris; Olson, Scott; Hunter, John; Horgen, Ben; Goers, Kenny; Blyth, Rory; Dunn, Craig; Bowling, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A bundle of 3 best-selling and respected mobile development e-books from Wrox form a complete library on the key tools and techniques for developing apps across the hottest platforms including Android and iOS.  This collection includes the full content of these three books, at a special price:Professional Android Programming with Mono for Android and .NET/C#, ISBN: 9781118026434, by Wallace B. McClure, Nathan Blevins, John J. Croft, IV, Jonathan Dick, and Chris HardyProfessional iPhone Programming with MonoTouch and .NET/C#, ISBN: 9780470637821, by Wallace B. McClure, Rory Blyth, Craig Dunn, C

  9. Protein dynamics governed by interfaces of high polarity and low packing density.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Espinosa Angarica

    Full Text Available The folding pathway, three-dimensional structure and intrinsic dynamics of proteins are governed by their amino acid sequences. Internal protein surfaces with physicochemical properties appropriate to modulate conformational fluctuations could play important roles in folding and dynamics. We show here that proteins contain buried interfaces of high polarity and low packing density, coined as LIPs: Light Interfaces of high Polarity, whose physicochemical properties make them unstable. The structures of well-characterized equilibrium and kinetic folding intermediates indicate that the LIPs of the corresponding native proteins fold late and are involved in local unfolding events. Importantly, LIPs can be identified using very fast and uncomplicated computational analysis of protein three-dimensional structures, which provides an easy way to delineate the protein segments involved in dynamics. Since LIPs can be retained while the sequences of the interacting segments diverge significantly, proteins could in principle evolve new functional features reusing pre-existing encoded dynamics. Large-scale identification of LIPS may contribute to understanding evolutionary constraints of proteins and the way protein intrinsic dynamics are encoded.

  10. Ionic Strength, Surface Charge, and Packing Density Effects on the Properties of Peptide Self-Assembled Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Norman; Liu, Juan; Archbold, Ian; Tang, Yongan; Zeng, Xiangqun

    2017-02-28

    The various environmental parameters of packing density, ionic strength, and solution charge were examined for their effects on the properties of the immobilized peptide mimotope CH19 (CGSGSGSQLGPYELWELSH) that binds with the therapeutic antibody Trastuzumab (Herceptin) on a gold substrate. The immobilization of CH19 onto gold was examined with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The QCM data showed the presence of intermolecular interactions resulting in the increase of viscoelastic properties of the peptide self-assembled monolayer (SAM). The CH19 SAM was diluted with CS7 (CGSGSGS) to decrease the packing density as CH19/CS7. The packing density and ionic strength parameters were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), ellipsometry, and QCM. AFM and ellipsometry showed a distinct conformational difference between CH19 and CH19/CS7, indicating a relationship between packing density and conformational state of the immobilized peptide. The CH19 SAM thickness was 40 Å with a rough topology, while the CH19/CS7 SAM thickness was 20 Å with a smooth topology. The affinity studies showed that the affinity of CH19 and CH19/CS7 to Trastuzumab were both on the order of 10(7) M(-1) in undiluted PBS buffer, while the dilution of the buffer by 1000× increased both SAMs affinities to Trastuzumab to the order of 10(15) M(-2) and changed the binding behavior from noncooperative to cooperative binding. This indicated that ionic strength had a more pronounced effect on binding properties of the CH19 SAM than packing density. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was conducted on the CH19/CS7 SAM, which showed an increase in impedance after each EIS measurement cycle. Cyclic voltammetry on the CH19/CS7 SAM decreased impedance to near initial values. The impact of the packing density, buffer ionic strength, and local charge perturbation of the peptide SAM properties was interpreted based on the titratable sites in CH19 that could participate in the proton transfer and

  11. Impact of Molecular Orientation and Packing Density on Electronic Polarization in the Bulk and at Surfaces of Organic Semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Ryno, Sean M.

    2016-05-16

    The polarizable environment surrounding charge carriers in organic semiconductors impacts the efficiency of the charge transport process. Here, we consider two representative organic semiconductors, tetracene and rubrene, and evaluate their polarization energies in the bulk and at the organic-vacuum interface using a polarizable force field that accounts for induced-dipole and quadrupole interactions. Though both oligoacenes pack in a herringbone motif, the tetraphenyl substituents on the tetracene backbone of rubrene alter greatly the nature of the packing. The resulting change in relative orientations of neighboring molecules is found to reduce the bulk polarization energy of holes in rubrene by some 0.3 eV when compared to tetracene. The consideration of model organic-vacuum interfaces highlights the significant variation in the electrostatic environment for a charge carrier at a surface although the net change in polarization energy is small; interestingly, the environment of a charge even just one layer removed from the surface can be viewed already as representative of the bulk. Overall, it is found that in these herringbone-type layered crystals the polarization energy has a much stronger dependence on the intralayer packing density than interlayer packing density.

  12. Impact of Molecular Orientation and Packing Density on Electronic Polarization in the Bulk and at Surfaces of Organic Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryno, Sean M; Risko, Chad; Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2016-06-08

    The polarizable environment surrounding charge carriers in organic semiconductors impacts the efficiency of the charge transport process. Here, we consider two representative organic semiconductors, tetracene and rubrene, and evaluate their polarization energies in the bulk and at the organic-vacuum interface using a polarizable force field that accounts for induced-dipole and quadrupole interactions. Though both oligoacenes pack in a herringbone motif, the tetraphenyl substituents on the tetracene backbone of rubrene alter greatly the nature of the packing. The resulting change in relative orientations of neighboring molecules is found to reduce the bulk polarization energy of holes in rubrene by some 0.3 eV when compared to tetracene. The consideration of model organic-vacuum interfaces highlights the significant variation in the electrostatic environment for a charge carrier at a surface although the net change in polarization energy is small; interestingly, the environment of a charge even just one layer removed from the surface can be viewed already as representative of the bulk. Overall, it is found that in these herringbone-type layered crystals the polarization energy has a much stronger dependence on the intralayer packing density than interlayer packing density.

  13. P-glycoprotein senses its substrates and the lateral membrane packing density: consequences for the catalytic cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aänismaa, Päivi; Gatlik-Landwojtowicz, Ewa; Seelig, Anna

    2008-09-23

    P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) prevents absorption (e.g., blood-brain barrier) or enhances excretion (e.g., kidney) by moving substrates from the cytosolic to the extracellular membrane leaflet at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. It translocates various drugs and functions in membranes exhibiting different lateral packing densities. To gain more functional insight, we measured the temperature dependence of the P-glycoprotein ATPase activity in NIH-MDR1-G185 cell membranes in the absence and presence of three drugs (promazine, verapamil, and PSC833), exhibiting significantly different transporter affinities. Activation enthalpies (Delta H(++)) and entropies ( TDelta S(++)) were derived from Eyring plots. In the absence of drugs, the activation enthalpy and the free energy of activation for P-glycoprotein ATPase activity was determined as Delta H(++) = 92.6 +/- 4.2 kJ/mol and Delta G(++) = 73.1 +/- 7.2 kJ/mol, respectively. Increasing the drug concentration reduced the activation enthalpy, whereby the drug with the highest transporter affinity had the strongest effect (DeltaDelta H(++) = -21%). The free energy of activation decreased for activating (DeltaDelta G(++) = approximately -3.8%) and increased for inhibitory compounds (DeltaDelta G(++) = approximately +0.7%). The drug-specific changes of the free energy of activation are thus barely above thermal energy. A comparison with literature data revealed that a decrease of the lateral membrane packing density reduces the enthalpic and the entropic contribution to the free energy of activation. Although the P-glycoprotein ATPase activity increases only slightly with decreasing lateral membrane packing density, the mode of action changes from strongly entropy-driven at high, to essentially enthalpy-driven at low packing densities. This suggests that the transporter and the membrane form a functional entity.

  14. Thermoelasticity of Hexagonal Close-Packed Iron from the Phonon Density of States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Caitlin A.

    This thesis explores the vibrational thermodynamic and thermoelastic properties of pure hexagonal close-packed iron (ε-Fe), in an effort to improve our understanding of the properties of a significant fraction of this remote region of the deep Earth and in turn, better constrain its composition. We determined the Debye sound velocity (vD) at each of our compression points from the low-energy region of the phonon DOS and our in situ measured volumes. In turn, vD is related to the compressional and shear sound velocities via our determined densities and the adiabatic bulk modulus. Our high-statistical quality dataset places a new tight constraint on the density dependence of ε-Fe's sound velocities to outer core pressures. Via comparison with existing data for iron alloys, we investigate how nickel and candidate light elements for the core affect the thermoelastic properties of iron. In addition, we explore the effects of temperature on ε-Fe's sound velocities by applying pressure- and temperature-dependent elastic moduli from theoretical calculations to a finite-strain model. Such models allow for direct comparisons with one-dimensional seismic models of Earth's solid inner core (e.g., the Preliminary Reference Earth Model). Next, the volume dependence of the vibrational free energy is directly related to the vibrational thermal pressure, which we combine with previously reported theoretical values for the electronic and anharmonic thermal pressures to find the total thermal pressure of ε-Fe. In addition, we found a steady increase in the Lamb-Mössbauer factor with compression, which suggests restricted thermal atomic motions at outer core pressures. This behavior is related to the high-pressure melting behavior of ε-Fe via Gilvarry's reformulation of Lindemann's melting criterion, which we used to obtain the shape of ε-Fe's melting curve up to 171 GPa. By anchoring our melting curve shape with experimentally determined melting points and considering thermal

  15. Attractive particle interaction forces and packing density of fine glass powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parteli, Eric J R; Schmidt, Jochen; Blümel, Christina; Wirth, Karl-Ernst; Peukert, Wolfgang; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2014-09-02

    We study the packing of fine glass powders of mean particle diameter in the range (4-52) μm both experimentally and by numerical DEM simulations. We obtain quantitative agreement between the experimental and numerical results, if both types of attractive forces of particle interaction, adhesion and non-bonded van der Waals forces are taken into account. Our results suggest that considering only viscoelastic and adhesive forces in DEM simulations may lead to incorrect numerical predictions of the behavior of fine powders. Based on the results from simulations and experiments, we propose a mathematical expression to estimate the packing fraction of fine polydisperse powders as a function of the average particle size.

  16. Low Density of Top Predators (Seabirds and Marine Mammals in the High Arctic Pack Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude R. Joiris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The at-sea distribution of top predators, seabirds and marine mammals, was determined in the high Arctic pack ice on board the icebreaker RV Polarstern in July to September 2014. In total, 1,620 transect counts were realised, lasting 30 min each. The five most numerous seabird species represented 74% of the total of 15,150 individuals registered: kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, fulmar Fulmarus glacialis, puffin Fratercula arctica, Ross’s gull Rhodostethia rosea, and little auk Alle alle. Eight cetacean species were tallied for a total of 330 individuals, mainly white-beaked dolphin Lagenorhynchus albirostris and fin whale Balaenoptera physalus. Five pinniped species were represented by a total of 55 individuals and the polar bear Ursus maritimus was represented by 12 individuals. Four main geographical zones were identified: from Tromsø to the outer marginal ice zone (OMIZ, the Arctic pack ice (close pack ice, CPI, the end of Lomonosov Ridge off Siberia, and the route off Siberia and northern Norway. Important differences were detected between zones, both in species composition and in individual abundance. Low numbers of species and high proportion of individuals for some of them can be considered to reflect very low biodiversity. Numbers encountered in zones 2 to 4 were very low in comparison with other European Arctic seas. The observed differences showed strong patterns.

  17. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF IMPROVING THE PACKING DENSITY OF POWDER%提高粉体堆积密度的理论与实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈延信; 吴锋; 胡亚茹

    2012-01-01

    以Andreason理论和可压缩堆积模型为基础,对水煤浆颗粒进行了调质计算和堆积效率计算,通过实验验证了计算结果的准确性,探讨了粒度范围和添加量等因素对堆积效率的影响.结果表明,通过调质可以实现煤粉粒度分布的优化,使其尽可能靠近紧密堆积理论所规定的粒度分布特征;用可压缩堆积模型可以很好地预测粉体颗粒的堆积密度,经过调质后原料的堆积效率提高了6.0%;紧密堆积条件下,增大水煤浆颗粒粒度范围有利于提高其堆积效率;随着调质料的增加,系统堆积效率增大,且逼近紧密堆积条件下的堆积效率;只添加细粉时,堆积效率与原料的粒度组成相关.%Based on the theory of Andreason and compressible packing model, the calcu lations of modifying and packing density of the coal particles have been carried out ,and the calcu lation results have been also verified by experiments. Meanwhile, the influences of the size range and adding volume on packing density has been discussed. The result indicated that the particle size distribution can be optimized by modifying, and it is close to the one of close packing; the packing density of coal particles are well predicted with compressible packing model and it is in creased by 5. 977% after modifying; under the condition of close packing, the large size range is helpful for improving the packing density of the system; with the increasing of modifying materi al, the packing density is also increasing and it is close to the packing density under close pack ing; just adding power,the packing efficiency is relevant with partile size composition of raw ma terials.

  18. Phenol degradation in an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor packed with low density support materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Sancinetti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study phenol degradation in anaerobic fluidized bed reactors (AFBR packed with polymeric particulate supports (polystyrene - PS, polyethylene terephthalate - PET, and polyvinyl chloride - PVC. The reactors were operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT of 24 h. The influent phenol concentration in the AFBR varied from 100 to 400 mg L-1, resulting in phenol removal efficiencies of ~100%. The formation of extracellular polymeric substances yielded better results with the PVC particles; however, deformations in these particles proved detrimental to reactor operation. PS was found to be the best support for biomass attachment in an AFBR for phenol removal. The AFBR loaded with PS was operated to analyze the performance and stability for phenol removal at feed concentrations ranging from 50 to 500 mg L-1. The phenol removal efficiency ranged from 90-100%.

  19. EXAMINATION OF THE SURFACE FREE ENERGY AND ACID-BASE PROPERTIES OF CELLULOSE BY THE COLUMN WICKING TECHNIQUE AND THE CRITICAL PACKING HEIGHT/DENSITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Shen; Jian-feng Hu; Qing-feng Gu

    2004-01-01

    The column wicking technique was applied to estimate the surface free energy of cellulose, the importance of which is to obtain a real effective capillary radius, Reff, initially from the plot of Washburn penetration distance versus time.Since the cellulose sample could not be packed with good reproducibility, therefore, Reff can not be obtained readily from the slope of the plot. A method was developed in this paper by uniting all apparent packing heights with a unique value to deduce a real effective capillary radius. Based on the defined critical packing height related to the critical packing density, the surface free energy and acid-base properties of cellulose Sigma C8002 were estimated.

  20. High packing density laser diode stack arrays using Al-free active region laser bars with a broad waveguide and discrete copper microchannel-cooled heatsinks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang Liu; Gaozhan Fang; Kecheng Feng

    2009-01-01

    A high packing density laser diode stack array is developed utilizing Al-free active region laser bars with a broad waveguide and discrete copper microchannel-cooled heatsinks. The microchannel cooling technology leads to a 10-bar laser diode stack array having the thermal resistance of 0.199 ℃/W, and enables the device to be operated under continuous-wave (CW) condition at an output power of 1200 W. The thickness of the discrete copper heatsink is only 1.5 mm, which results in a high packing density and a small bar pitch of 1.8 mm.

  1. Crystal-Structure Analysis with Moments of the Density-of-States: Application to Intermetallic Topologically Close-Packed Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hammerschmidt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The moments of the electronic density-of-states provide a robust and transparent means for the characterization of crystal structures. Using d-valent canonical tight-binding, we compute the moments of the crystal structures of topologically close-packed (TCP phases as obtained from density-functional theory (DFT calculations. We apply the moments to establish a measure for the difference between two crystal structures and to characterize volume changes and internal relaxations. The second moment provides access to volume variations of the unit cell and of the atomic coordination polyhedra. Higher moments reveal changes in the longer-ranged coordination shells due to internal relaxations. Normalization of the higher moments leads to constant (A15,C15 or very similar (χ, C14, C36, μ, and σ higher moments of the DFT-relaxed TCP phases across the 4d and 5d transition-metal series. The identification and analysis of internal relaxations is demonstrated for atomic-size differences in the V-Ta system and for different magnetic orderings in the C14-Fe 2 Nb Laves phase.

  2. Low-density crystal packing of human protein kinase CK2 catalytic subunit in complex with resorufin or other ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klopffleisch, Karsten; Issinger, Olaf Georg; Niefind, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    adopts a closed conformation correlating to a canonically established catalytic spine as is typical for eukaryotic protein kinases. In the corresponding crystal packing the hinge/helix αD region is nearly unaffected by crystal contacts, so that largely unbiased conformational adaptions are possible....... This is documented by published human CK2α structures with the same crystal packing but with an open hinge/helix αD region, one of which has been redetermined here with a higher symmetry. An overview of all published human CK2α crystal packings serves as the basis for a discussion of the factors that determine...

  3. A broadband proton backlighting platform to probe shock propagation in low-density systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sio, H.; Hua, R.; Ping, Y.; McGuffey, C.; Beg, F.; Heeter, R.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Collins, G. W.

    2017-01-01

    A proton backlighting platform has been developed for the study of strong shock propagation in low-density systems in planar geometry. Electric fields at the converging shock front in inertial confinement fusion implosions have been previously observed, demonstrating the presence of—and the need to understand—strong electric fields not modeled in standard radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. In this planar configuration, long-pulse ultraviolet lasers are used to drive a strong shock into a gas-cell target, while a short-pulse proton backlighter side-on radiographs the shock propagation. The capabilities of the platform are presented here. Future experiments will vary shock strength and gas fill, to probe shock conditions at different Z and Te.

  4. Use of ELVIS II platform for random process modelling and analysis of its probability density function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslennikova, Yu. S.; Nugmanov, I. S.

    2016-08-01

    The problem of probability density function estimation for a random process is one of the most common in practice. There are several methods to solve this problem. Presented laboratory work uses methods of the mathematical statistics to detect patterns in the realization of random process. On the basis of ergodic theory, we construct algorithm for estimating univariate probability density distribution function for a random process. Correlational analysis of realizations is applied to estimate the necessary size of the sample and the time of observation. Hypothesis testing for two probability distributions (normal and Cauchy) is used on the experimental data, using χ2 criterion. To facilitate understanding and clarity of the problem solved, we use ELVIS II platform and LabVIEW software package that allows us to make the necessary calculations, display results of the experiment and, most importantly, to control the experiment. At the same time students are introduced to a LabVIEW software package and its capabilities.

  5. Global transcript structure resolution of high gene density genomes through multi-platform data integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Tina; Wang, Xia; Höner Zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Baddoo, Melody; Concha, Monica; Flemington, Erik K

    2016-10-14

    Annotation of herpesvirus genomes has traditionally been undertaken through the detection of open reading frames and other genomic motifs, supplemented with sequencing of individual cDNAs. Second generation sequencing and high-density microarray studies have revealed vastly greater herpesvirus transcriptome complexity than is captured by existing annotation. The pervasive nature of overlapping transcription throughout herpesvirus genomes, however, poses substantial problems in resolving transcript structures using these methods alone. We present an approach that combines the unique attributes of Pacific Biosciences Iso-Seq long-read, Illumina short-read and deepCAGE (Cap Analysis of Gene Expression) sequencing to globally resolve polyadenylated isoform structures in replicating Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Our method, Transcriptome Resolution through Integration of Multi-platform Data (TRIMD), identifies nearly 300 novel EBV transcripts, quadrupling the size of the annotated viral transcriptome. These findings illustrate an array of mechanisms through which EBV achieves functional diversity in its relatively small, compact genome including programmed alternative splicing (e.g. across the IR1 repeats), alternative promoter usage by LMP2 and other latency-associated transcripts, intergenic splicing at the BZLF2 locus, and antisense transcription and pervasive readthrough transcription throughout the genome.

  6. Packing Superballs from Codes and Algebraic Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li LIU; Chao Ping XING

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper, we make use of codes with good parameters and algebraic curves over finite fields with many rational points to construct dense packings of superballs. It turns out that our packing density is quite reasonable. In particular, we improve some values for the best-known lower bounds on packing density.

  7. Particle passage kinetics and neutral detergent fiber degradability of silage of pineapple waste (aerial parts under different packing densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciele Araújo de Oliveira Caetano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics of in situ degradability parameters of the dry matter (DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF and the passage of materials originating from the ensilage of the waste from pineapple cultivation (aerial parts. The four treatments utilized were silage of pineapple waste compacted at 600, 700, 900 and 1000 kg/m³. After ensiling the material from the pineapple cultivation, the particle-transit and rumen-degradation kinetics were analyzed. For the analysis of particle transit, chromium was utilized as a marker to mark the fiber. Passage rates were determined by retrieving the markers in the feces of the animals. In the degradation assay, samples were incubated in nylon bags for 0, 6, 18, 48 and 96 hours. The behavior observed in the regression curves of the variables analyzed describes high correlation between them, i.e., the time during which the silage is retained in the rumen influences its digestibility and its degradation rate. Although the silage compacted at 900 kg/m³ shows a larger potentially digestible fraction, it is recommended that it be ensiled at a compaction density of approximately 750 kg/m³ due to the lower cost and shorter mean retention time in the rumen-reticulum and rumen fill, thereby increasing the ruminal degradation and passage dynamics.

  8. Haphazard Packing of Unequal Spheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶大年; 张金民

    1991-01-01

    Haphazard packing of equal and unequal spheres can be performed for the spheres of molecular sieve material with a density of 1.80.The packing of such spheres in air is equivalent to that of nat-ural grains in water.Packing concentrations of equal spheres have been obtained for different pac-king intensities.Unequal spheres can be regarded as equal ones in a wide range of diameter ratios,so far as the packing concentration is concerned.A threshold of diameter ratio exists at 0.70,be-low which the packing concentration is expected to increase.The variation curves of concentration vs.diameter ratio were established in the experiment.The result will help us to understand the process of sedimentation and the concentration of voids in sedimentary rocks.

  9. Packing Smart

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-22

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about packing a lunch that's not boring and is full of the power and energy kids need to make it through the day.  Created: 8/22/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/22/2011.

  10. Power Packing

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-16

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about how to pack a lunch safely, to help keep you from getting sick.  Created: 8/16/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/16/2011.

  11. A streaked X-ray spectroscopy platform for rapidly heated, near-solid density plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, C. R.; Nilson, P. M.; Ivancic, S. T.; Mileham, C.; Begishev, I. A.; Junquist, R. K.; Nelson, D. J.; Froula, D. H.

    2016-11-01

    A picosecond, time-resolved, x-ray spectroscopy platform was developed to study the thermal line emission from rapidly heated solid targets containing buried aluminum or iron layers. The targets were driven by high-contrast 1ω or 2ω laser pulses at focused intensities up to 1 × 1019 W/cm2. The experimental platform combines time-integrating and time-resolved x-ray spectrometers. Picosecond time resolution was achieved with a pair of ultrafast x-ray streak cameras coupled to high-throughput Hall spectrometers. Time-integrated spectra were collected on each shot to correct the streaked data for variations in x-ray photocathode spectral sensitivity. The time-integrated spectrometer uses three elliptical crystals to disperse x rays with energies between 800 and 2100 eV with moderate (E/ΔE ˜ 450) resolving power. The streaked spectrometers accept four interchangeable conical crystals with higher resolving power (E/ΔE ˜ 650) to measure the brightest thermal lines in the 1300 to 1700 eV spectral range.

  12. Method for dense packing discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallus, Yoav; Elser, Veit; Gravel, Simon

    2010-11-01

    The problem of packing a system of particles as densely as possible is foundational in the field of discrete geometry and is a powerful model in the material and biological sciences. As packing problems retreat from the reach of solution by analytic constructions, the importance of an efficient numerical method for conducting de novo (from-scratch) searches for dense packings becomes crucial. In this paper, we use the divide and concur framework to develop a general search method for the solution of periodic constraint problems, and we apply it to the discovery of dense periodic packings. An important feature of the method is the integration of the unit-cell parameters with the other packing variables in the definition of the configuration space. The method we present led to previously reported improvements in the densest-known tetrahedron packing. Here, we use the method to reproduce the densest-known lattice sphere packings and the best-known lattice kissing arrangements in up to 14 and 11 dimensions, respectively, providing numerical evidence for their optimality. For nonspherical particles, we report a dense packing of regular four-dimensional simplices with density ϕ=128/219≈0.5845 and with a similar structure to the densest-known tetrahedron packing.

  13. Abnormalities of cell packing density and dendritic complexity in the MeCP2 A140V mouse model of Rett syndrome/X-linked mental retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blue Mary

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rett syndrome (RTT, a common cause of mental retardation in girls, is associated with mutations in the MECP2 gene. Most human cases of MECP2 mutation in girls result in classical or variant forms of RTT. When these same mutations occur in males, they often present as severe neonatal encephalopathy. However, some MECP2 mutations can also lead to diseases characterized as mental retardation syndromes, particularly in boys. One of these mutations, A140V, is a common, recurring missense mutation accounting for about 0.6% of all MeCP2 mutations and ranking 21st by frequency. It has been described in familial X-linked mental retardation (XLMR, PPM- X syndrome (Parkinsonism, Pyramidal signs, Macroorchidism, X-linked mental retardation and in other neuropsychiatric syndromes. Interestingly, this mutation has been reported to preserve the methyl-CpG binding function of the MeCP2 protein while compromising its ability to bind to the mental retardation associated protein ATRX. Results We report the construction and initial characterization of a mouse model expressing the A140V MeCP2 mutation. These initial descriptive studies in male hemizygous mice have revealed brain abnormalities seen in both RTT and mental retardation. The abnormalities found include increases in cell packing density in the brain and a significant reduction in the complexity of neuronal dendritic branching. In contrast to some MeCP2 mutation mouse models, the A140V mouse has an apparently normal lifespan and normal weight gain patterns with no obvious seizures, tremors, breathing difficulties or kyphosis. Conclusion We have identified various neurological abnormalities in this mouse model of Rett syndrome/X-linked mental retardation which may help to elucidate the manner in which MECP2 mutations cause neuronal changes resulting in mental retardation without the confounding effects of seizures, chronic hypoventilation, or other Rett syndrome associated symptoms.

  14. Valve Packing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    "S Glass" yarn was originally developed by NASA for high temperature space and aeronautical applications. When John Crane, Inc. required material that would withstand temperatures higher than 1,200 degrees Fahrenheit, they contacted Owens-Corning, which had developed a number of applications for the material. John Crane combines the yarn with other components to make Style 287-I packing. The product can be used in chemical processing operations, nuclear power stations, petroleum products, etc. Advantages include increased service life and reduced maintenance costs.

  15. Note: Experimental platform for magnetized high-energy-density plasma studies at the omega laser facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiksel, G; Agliata, A; Barnak, D; Brent, G; Chang, P-Y; Folnsbee, L; Gates, G; Hasset, D; Lonobile, D; Magoon, J; Mastrosimone, D; Shoup, M J; Betti, R

    2015-01-01

    An upgrade of the pulsed magnetic field generator magneto-inertial fusion electrical discharge system [O. Gotchev et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 043504 (2009)] is described. The device is used to study magnetized high-energy-density plasma and is capable of producing a pulsed magnetic field of tens of tesla in a volume of a few cubic centimeters. The magnetic field is created by discharging a high-voltage capacitor through a small wire-wound coil. The coil current pulse has a duration of about 1 μs and a peak value of 40 kA. Compared to the original, the updated version has a larger energy storage and improved switching system. In addition, magnetic coils are fabricated using 3-D printing technology which allows for a greater variety of the magnetic field topology.

  16. Note: Experimental platform for magnetized high-energy-density plasma studies at the omega laser facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiksel, G.; Agliata, A.; Barnak, D.; Brent, G.; Chang, P.-Y.; Folnsbee, L.; Gates, G.; Hasset, D.; Lonobile, D.; Magoon, J.; Mastrosimone, D.; Shoup, M. J.; Betti, R.

    2015-01-01

    An upgrade of the pulsed magnetic field generator magneto-inertial fusion electrical discharge system [O. Gotchev et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 043504 (2009)] is described. The device is used to study magnetized high-energy-density plasma and is capable of producing a pulsed magnetic field of tens of tesla in a volume of a few cubic centimeters. The magnetic field is created by discharging a high-voltage capacitor through a small wire-wound coil. The coil current pulse has a duration of about 1 μs and a peak value of 40 kA. Compared to the original, the updated version has a larger energy storage and improved switching system. In addition, magnetic coils are fabricated using 3-D printing technology which allows for a greater variety of the magnetic field topology.

  17. Effect of previous chilling storage on quality loss in frozen (–20 °C sierra (Scomberomorus sierra muscle packed with a low-density polyethylene film containing butylated hydroxytoluene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlinda Soto-Valdez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rancidity development during frozen storage (–20 °C of sierra fish (Scomberomorus sierra was studied. Fillets were packed in low-density polyethylene films with and without butylated hydroxytoluene added (BHT-LDPE and LDPE respectively. Fillets stored with no package were used as control. Special attention was given to the effect of previous ice storage (0, 3, 6, 9 and 15 days on the quality of the frozen fish. Physical (pH and texture and chemical (peroxide value, PV and thiobarbituric acid index, TBA-i analyses were carried out. Lipid oxidation increased with ice storage time in fish muscle without film packing, being greater than the film packed muscle (with and without antioxidant. An effect of previous ice storage time was observed on the frozen product (in all treatments. However, fish muscle with film packing containing antioxidant showed less lipid deterioration. Under the conditions applied in this study, the plastic films with antioxidant prevented the lipids oxidation during the cold handling of the sierra muscle.

  18. On contact numbers in random rod packings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, A.; Luding, Stefan; Philipse, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Random packings of non-spherical granular particles are simulated by combining mechanical contraction and molecular dynamics, to determine contact numbers as a function of density. Particle shapes are varied from spheres to thin rods. The observed contact numbers (and packing densities) agree well

  19. Dense Packing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, J.; Mika, K.

    Phyllotaxis of plant organs, bacterial ordering and animal coat patterns are analyzed for homogeneity and density. The patterns are approximated by 15 tiles and characterized by the self-coordination numbers T1, T2, T3 of the nearest, next-nearest and third neighbors of the vertices of the tiles. Homogeneous structures with integer Ti values and maximum densities are obtained for distichous, whorled or spiral growth of leaves. Similar T1 values, such as T1=5 and 6 of sunflower seeds or bacteriae, give rise to maximum density. Inhomogeneous structures like the striped patterns of zebras with T1=1, 2 and 3 connections have a higher density than homogeneous stripes with T1=2. Maximum density is also obtained in icosahedral viruses.

  20. Random packing of spheres in Menger sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Michał; Barbasz, Jakub

    2013-06-07

    Random packing of spheres inside fractal collectors of dimension 2 algorithm. The paper focuses mainly on the measurement of random packing saturation limit. Additionally, scaling properties of density autocorrelations in the obtained packing are analyzed. The RSA kinetics coefficients are also measured. Obtained results allow to test phenomenological relation between random packing saturation density and collector dimension. Additionally, performed simulations together with previously obtained results confirm that, in general, the known dimensional relations are obeyed by systems having non-integer dimension, at least for d < 3.

  1. Packing defects into ordered structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechstein, R.; Kristoffersen, Henrik Høgh; Vilhelmsen, L.B.

    2012-01-01

    We have studied vicinal TiO2(110) surfaces by high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculations. On TiO2 surfaces characterized by a high density of ⟨11̅ 1⟩ steps, scanning tunneling microscopy reveals a high density of oxygen-deficient strandlike adstructur...... because building material is available at step sites. The strands on TiO2(110) represent point defects that are densely packed into ordered adstructures....

  2. Random close packing of polydisperse jammed emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brujic, Jasna

    2010-03-01

    Packing problems are everywhere, ranging from oil extraction through porous rocks to grain storage in silos and the compaction of pharmaceutical powders into tablets. At a given density, particulate systems pack into a mechanically stable and amorphous jammed state. Theoretical frameworks have proposed a connection between this jammed state and the glass transition, a thermodynamics of jamming, as well as geometric modeling of random packings. Nevertheless, a simple underlying mechanism for the random assembly of athermal particles, analogous to crystalline ordering, remains unknown. Here we use 3D measurements of polydisperse packings of emulsion droplets to build a simple statistical model in which the complexity of the global packing is distilled into a local stochastic process. From the perspective of a single particle the packing problem is reduced to the random formation of nearest neighbors, followed by a choice of contacts among them. The two key parameters in the model, the available space around a particle and the ratio of contacts to neighbors, are directly obtained from experiments. Remarkably, we demonstrate that this ``granocentric'' view captures the properties of the polydisperse emulsion packing, ranging from the microscopic distributions of nearest neighbors and contacts to local density fluctuations and all the way to the global packing density. Further applications to monodisperse and bidisperse systems quantitatively agree with previously measured trends in global density. This model therefore reveals a general principle of organization for random packing and lays the foundations for a theory of jammed matter.

  3. Self-assembled random arrays: high-performance imaging and genomics applications on a high-density microarray platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, David L.; Theriault, Greg; Che, Diping; Dickinson, Todd; Shen, Richard; Kain, Robert C.

    2003-07-01

    Illumina is developing a BeadArrayTM technology that supports SNP genotyping, mRNA expression analysis and protein expression analysis on the same platform. We use fiber-optic bundles with a density of approximately 40,000 fibers/mm2. At hte end of each fiber, a derivatized silica bead forms an array element for reading out a genotyping or expression assay data point. Each bead contains oligonucleotide probes that hybridize with high specificity to complementary sequences in a complex nucleic acid mixture. We derivatize the beads in bulk, pool them to form a quality-controlled source of microarray elements, and allow them to assemble spontaneously into pits etched into the end of each optical fiber bundle. We load our fiber bundles, containing 49,777 fibers, with up to 1520 different bead types. The presence of many beads of each type greatly improves the accuracy of each assay. As the final step in our manufacturing process, we decode the identity of each bead by a series of rapid hybridizations with fluroescent oligos. Decoding accuracy and the number of beads of each type is recorded for each array. Decoding also serves as a quality control procedure for the performance of each element in the array. To facilitate high-throughput analysis of many samples, the fiber bundles are arranged in an array matrix (SentrixTM arrays). Using a 96-bundle array matrix, up to 1520 assays can be performed on each of 96 samples simultaneously for a total of 145,920 assays. Using a 384-bundle array matrix, up to 583,680 assays can be performed simultaneously. The BeadArray platform is the highest density microarray in commercial use, requiring development of a high-performance array scanner. To meet this need, we developed the SherlockTM system, a laser-scanning confocal imaging system that automatically scans all 96 bundles of an array matrix at variable resolution down to 0.8 micron. The system scans with both 532 and 635 nm lasers simultaneously, collecting two fluorescence

  4. Random close packing revisited: ways to pack frictionless disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy; O'Hern, Corey S

    2005-06-01

    We create collectively jammed (CJ) packings of 50-50 bidisperse mixtures of smooth disks in two dimensions (2D) using an algorithm in which we successively compress or expand soft particles and minimize the total energy at each step until the particles are just at contact. We focus on small systems in 2D and thus are able to find nearly all of the collectively jammed states at each system size. We decompose the probability P(phi) for obtaining a collectively jammed state at a particular packing fraction phi into two composite functions: (1) the density of CJ packing fractions rho(phi), which only depends on geometry, and (2) the frequency distribution beta(phi), which depends on the particular algorithm used to create them. We find that the function rho(phi) is sharply peaked and that beta(phi) depends exponentially on phi. We predict that in the infinite-system-size limit the behavior of P(phi) in these systems is controlled by the density of CJ packing fractions--not the frequency distribution. These results suggest that the location of the peak in P(phi) when N --> infinity can be used as a protocol-independent definition of random close packing.

  5. Composição bromatológica de silagens de milho produzidas com diferentes densidades de compactação Chemical composition of maize silages with different packing densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pedro Velho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento completamente casualizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da densidade de compactação, 500 kg (médio e 600 kg (alto de matéria verde por metro cúbico de massa ensilada, na qualidade final da silagem em relação ao material original. A ensilagem de milho safrinha foi realizada no dia 18/05/2004 em minissilos, com quatro repetições por grau de compactação, quando os grãos de milho se encontravam no estádio ½ leitoso ½ farináceo. As densidades de compactação afetaram significativamente os teores de açúcares solúveis (1,60 ´ 2,15% da MS, matéria orgânica do resíduo insolúvel em etanol a 80% (76,02 ´ 71,53% da MS, carboidratos não-estruturais (39,21 ´ 41,70% dos carboidratos totais, fibra em detergente neutro corrigida para cinzas e proteína (52,57 ´ 50,37% da MS, lignina em detergente ácido (2,74 ´ 2,57% da MS e nitrogênio amoniacal (4,35 ´ 3,84% do nitrogênio total. A maior densidade de compactação resultou em melhor conservação dos glicídios solúveis, em menor alteração dos carboidratos estruturais e em menor proteólise na silagem de milho.The experiment in a complete randomized design aimed to test the effect of two packing densities, 500 kg (medium and 600 kg (high of silage mass per cubic meter, on silage quality as compared to the original fresh material. Silages were prepared on May 18th, 2004 from a late season harvest of a maize crop at the half milky half dough kernel stage. Chopped materials with 1.2 cm theoretical particle size were packed manually in 30 liters mini-silos, in four replicates for each packing density, immediately after harvest. The different packing densities affected significantly the concentration of soluble sugars (1.60 vs. 2.15% of DM, 80% ethanol insoluble organic matter (76.02 vs. 71.53% of DM, non-structural carbohydrates (39.21 vs. 41.70% of total carbohydrates, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (52.57 vs

  6. The Effect of Changing Packing Density on the Combustion Properties of Propellants%装填密度对发射药燃烧性能影响探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晁李金; 吕秉峰

    2016-01-01

    The research was carried out by the closed bomb test using four kinds of propellants (1#、 2#、 3#、 4#). The nitrocellulose was used as ignition composition and the ignition pressure was 9. 8 MPa. The results showed that the maximum pressure and the speed of combustion were increased with the increase of packing density. Under higher packing density, progressive burning based on the L-B curve was also strengthened. The progressive burning order based onψ-I/I'K curves of the four propellants was 2#>1#>3#>4#.%以硝化棉为点火药,点火压力为9.8 MPa,编号为1#、2#、3#、4#四种发射药为研究对象,采用密闭爆发器实验测试方法,研究装填密度的改变对发射药燃烧性能的影响。研究表明:随着装填密度的升高,最大压力和燃烧速度均增大;装填密度越大,基于L-B曲线的燃烧渐增性越好;四种发射药基于ψ-I/I'K曲线的燃烧渐增性强弱顺序为2#>1#>3#>4#。

  7. Cluster and constraint analysis in tetrahedron packings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Weiwei; Lu, Peng; Liu, Lufeng; Li, Shuixiang

    2015-04-01

    The disordered packings of tetrahedra often show no obvious macroscopic orientational or positional order for a wide range of packing densities, and it has been found that the local order in particle clusters is the main order form of tetrahedron packings. Therefore, a cluster analysis is carried out to investigate the local structures and properties of tetrahedron packings in this work. We obtain a cluster distribution of differently sized clusters, and peaks are observed at two special clusters, i.e., dimer and wagon wheel. We then calculate the amounts of dimers and wagon wheels, which are observed to have linear or approximate linear correlations with packing density. Following our previous work, the amount of particles participating in dimers is used as an order metric to evaluate the order degree of the hierarchical packing structure of tetrahedra, and an order map is consequently depicted. Furthermore, a constraint analysis is performed to determine the isostatic or hyperstatic region in the order map. We employ a Monte Carlo algorithm to test jamming and then suggest a new maximally random jammed packing of hard tetrahedra from the order map with a packing density of 0.6337.

  8. ExactPack Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Jr., Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Israel, Daniel M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Doebling, Scott William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Woods, Charles Nathan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kaul, Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Walter, Jr., John William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rogers, Michael Lloyd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-09

    For code verification, one compares the code output against known exact solutions. There are many standard test problems used in this capacity, such as the Noh and Sedov problems. ExactPack is a utility that integrates many of these exact solution codes into a common API (application program interface), and can be used as a stand-alone code or as a python package. ExactPack consists of python driver scripts that access a library of exact solutions written in Fortran or Python. The spatial profiles of the relevant physical quantities, such as the density, fluid velocity, sound speed, or internal energy, are returned at a time specified by the user. The solution profiles can be viewed and examined by a command line interface or a graphical user interface, and a number of analysis tools and unit tests are also provided. We have documented the physics of each problem in the solution library, and provided complete documentation on how to extend the library to include additional exact solutions. ExactPack’s code architecture makes it easy to extend the solution-code library to include additional exact solutions in a robust, reliable, and maintainable manner.

  9. Hard sphere packings within cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lin; Steinhardt, William; Zhao, Hao; Socolar, Joshua E S; Charbonneau, Patrick

    2016-03-07

    Arrangements of identical hard spheres confined to a cylinder with hard walls have been used to model experimental systems, such as fullerenes in nanotubes and colloidal wire assembly. Finding the densest configurations, called close packings, of hard spheres of diameter σ in a cylinder of diameter D is a purely geometric problem that grows increasingly complex as D/σ increases, and little is thus known about the regime for D > 2.873σ. In this work, we extend the identification of close packings up to D = 4.00σ by adapting Torquato-Jiao's adaptive-shrinking-cell formulation and sequential-linear-programming (SLP) technique. We identify 17 new structures, almost all of them chiral. Beyond D ≈ 2.85σ, most of the structures consist of an outer shell and an inner core that compete for being close packed. In some cases, the shell adopts its own maximum density configuration, and the stacking of core spheres within it is quasiperiodic. In other cases, an interplay between the two components is observed, which may result in simple periodic structures. In yet other cases, the very distinction between the core and shell vanishes, resulting in more exotic packing geometries, including some that are three-dimensional extensions of structures obtained from packing hard disks in a circle.

  10. Molecular packing density of a self-assembled monolayer formed from N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane by a vapor phase process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Hiroyuki; Moriguchi, Takahiro; Kanda, Masao; Sonobayashi, Yutaka; Nishimura, Hirohito M; Ichii, Takashi; Murase, Kuniaki; Kazama, Shingo

    2011-08-21

    The molecular density of an aminosilane self-assembled monolayer formed from N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (AEAPS) by a vapor phase method has been estimated to be about 3 AEAPS molecules per nm(2) based on chemical labeling, optical absorption spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  11. Molecular packing density of a self-assembled monolayer formed from N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane by a vapor phase process.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The molecular density of an aminosilane self-assembled monolayer formed from N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (AEAPS) by a vapor phase method has been estimated to be about 3 AEAPS molecules per nm(2) based on chemical labeling, optical absorption spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  12. Confined disordered strictly jammed binary sphere packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D.; Torquato, S.

    2015-12-01

    Disordered jammed packings under confinement have received considerably less attention than their bulk counterparts and yet arise in a variety of practical situations. In this work, we study binary sphere packings that are confined between two parallel hard planes and generalize the Torquato-Jiao (TJ) sequential linear programming algorithm [Phys. Rev. E 82, 061302 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevE.82.061302] to obtain putative maximally random jammed (MRJ) packings that are exactly isostatic with high fidelity over a large range of plane separation distances H , small to large sphere radius ratio α , and small sphere relative concentration x . We find that packing characteristics can be substantially different from their bulk analogs, which is due to what we term "confinement frustration." Rattlers in confined packings are generally more prevalent than those in their bulk counterparts. We observe that packing fraction, rattler fraction, and degree of disorder of MRJ packings generally increase with H , though exceptions exist. Discontinuities in the packing characteristics as H varies in the vicinity of certain values of H are due to associated discontinuous transitions between different jammed states. When the plane separation distance is on the order of two large-sphere diameters or less, the packings exhibit salient two-dimensional features; when the plane separation distance exceeds about 30 large-sphere diameters, the packings approach three-dimensional bulk packings. As the size contrast increases (as α decreases), the rattler fraction dramatically increases due to what we call "size-disparity" frustration. We find that at intermediate α and when x is about 0.5 (50-50 mixture), the disorder of packings is maximized, as measured by an order metric ψ that is based on the number density fluctuations in the direction perpendicular to the hard walls. We also apply the local volume-fraction variance στ2(R ) to characterize confined packings and find that these

  13. Effects of van der Waals density functional corrections on trends in furfural adsorption and hydrogenation on close-packed transition metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Cheng, Lei; Curtiss, Larry; Greeley, Jeffrey

    2014-04-01

    The hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol on Pd(111), Cu(111) and Pt(111) is studied with both standard Density Functional Theory (DFT)-GGA functionals and with van der Waals-corrected density functionals. VdW-DF functionals, including optPBE, optB88, optB86b, and Grimme's method, are used to optimize the adsorption configurations of furfural, furfuryl alcohol, and related intermediates resulting from hydrogenation of furfural, and the results are compared to corresponding values determined with GGA functionals, including PW91 and PBE. On Pd(111) and Pt(111), the adsorption geometries of the intermediates are not noticeably different between the two classes of functionals, while on Cu(111), modest changes are seen in both the perpendicular distance and the orientation of the aromatic ring with respect to the planar surface. In general, the binding energies increase substantially in magnitude as a result of van der Waals contributions on all metals. In contrast, however, dispersion effects on the kinetics of hydrogenation are relatively small. It is found that activation barriers are not significantly affected by the inclusion of dispersion effects, and a Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi relationship developed solely from PW91 calculations on Pd(111) is capable of describing corresponding results on Cu(111) and Pt(111), even when the dispersion effects are included. Finally, the reaction energies and barriers derived from the dispersion-corrected and pure GGA calculations are used to plot simple potential energy profiles for furfural hydrogenation to furfuryl alcohol on the three considered metals, and an approximately constant downshift of the energetics due to the dispersion corrections is observed.

  14. Effects of van der Waals Density Functional Corrections on Trends in Furfural Adsorption and Hydrogenation on Close-Packed Transition Metal Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin; Cheng, Lei; Curtiss, Larry A.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.

    2014-04-01

    The hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol on Pd(111), Cu(111) and Pt(111) is studied with both standard Density Functional Theory (DFT)-GGA functionals and with van der Waals-corrected density functionals. VdWDF functionals, including optPBE, optB88, optB86b, and Grimme's method, are used to optimize the adsorption configurations of furfural, furfuryl alcohol, and related intermediates resulting from hydrogenation of furfural, and the results are compared to corresponding values determined with GGA functionals, including PW91 and PBE. On Pd(111) and Pt(111), the adsorption geometries of the intermediates are not noticeably different between the two classes of functionals, while on Cu(111), modest changes are seen in both the erpendicular distance and the orientation of the aromatic ringwith respect to the planar surface. In general, the binding energies increase substantially in magnitude as a result of van derWaals contributions on all metals. In contrast, however, dispersion effects on the kinetics of hydrogenation are relatively small. It is found that activation barriers are not significantly affected by the inclusion of dispersion effects, and a Brønsted–Evans–Polanyi relationship developed solely fromPW91 calculations on Pd(111) is capable of describing corresponding results on Cu(111) and Pt(111), even when the dispersion effects are included. Finally, the reaction energies and barriers derived from the dispersion-corrected and pure GGA calculations are used to plot simple potential energy profiles for furfural hydrogenation to furfuryl alcohol on the three considered metals, and an approximately constant downshift of the energetics due to the dispersion corrections is observed.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Random Close Packing with Tetrahedra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shui-Xiang; ZHAO Jian; ZHOU Xuan

    2008-01-01

    The densest packing of tetrahedra is still an unsolved problem.Numerical simulations of random close packing of tetrahedra are carried out with a sphere assembly model and improved relaxation algorithm. The packing density and average contact number obtained for random close packing of regular tetrahedra is 0.6817 and 7.21respectively,while the values of spheres are 0.6435 and 5.95.The simulation demonstrates that tetrahedra can be randomly packed denser than spheres.Random close packings of tetrahedra with a range of height are simulated as well.We find that the regular tetrahedron might be the optimal shape which gives the highest packing density of tetrahedra.

  16. Electronically configured battery pack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper, D.

    1997-03-01

    Battery packs for portable equipment must sometimes accommodate conflicting requirements to meet application needs. An electronically configurable battery pack was developed to support two highly different operating modes, one requiring very low power consumption at a low voltage and the other requiring high power consumption at a higher voltage. The configurable battery pack optimizes the lifetime and performance of the system by making the best use of all available energy thus enabling the system to meet its goals of operation, volume, and lifetime. This paper describes the cell chemistry chosen, the battery pack electronics, and tradeoffs made during the evolution of its design.

  17. Substrate removal kinetics in high-rate upflow anaerobic filters packed with low-density polyethylene media treating high-strength agro-food wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Rajinikanth; Torrijos, Michel; Kumar, Pradeep; Mehrotra, Indu

    2013-02-15

    The process kinetics for two upflow anaerobic filters (UAFs) treating high strength fruit canning and cheese-dairy wastewaters as feed were investigated. The experimental unit consisted of a 10-L (effective volume) reactor filled with low-density polyethylene media. COD removal efficiencies of about 80% were recorded at the maximum OLRs of 19 and 17 g COD L(-1) d(-1) for the fruit canning and cheese-dairy wastewaters, respectively. Modified Stover-Kincannon and second-order kinetic models were applied to data obtained from the experimental studies in order to determine the substrate removal kinetics. According to Stover-Kincannon model, U(max) and K(B) values were estimated as 109.9 and 109.7 g L(-1) d(-1) for fruit canning, and 53.5 and 49.7 g L(-1) d(-1) for cheese dairy wastewaters, respectively. The second order substrate removal rate k(2(s)) was found to be 5.0 and 1.93 d(-1) respectively for fruit canning and cheese dairy wastewaters. As both these models gave high correlation coefficients (R(2) = 98-99%), they could be used in predicting the behaviour or design of the UAF.

  18. TLC Pack Unpacked

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhofer, Margret; Colpaert, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    TLC Pack stands for Teaching Languages to Caregivers and is a course designed to support migrants working or hoping to work in the caregiving sector. The TLC Pack resources range from A2 to B2 level of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR), and will be made available online in the six project languages: Dutch, English,…

  19. Too packed to change: side-chain packing and site-specific substitution rates in protein evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Marcos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In protein evolution, due to functional and biophysical constraints, the rates of amino acid substitution differ from site to site. Among the best predictors of site-specific rates are solvent accessibility and packing density. The packing density measure that best correlates with rates is the weighted contact number (WCN, the sum of inverse square distances between a site’s Cα and the Cα of the other sites. According to a mechanistic stress model proposed recently, rates are determined by packing because mutating packed sites stresses and destabilizes the protein’s active conformation. While WCN is a measure of Cα packing, mutations replace side chains. Here, we consider whether a site’s evolutionary divergence is constrained by main-chain packing or side-chain packing. To address this issue, we extended the stress theory to model side chains explicitly. The theory predicts that rates should depend solely on side-chain contact density. We tested this prediction on a data set of structurally and functionally diverse monomeric enzymes. We compared side-chain contact density with main-chain contact density measures and with relative solvent accessibility (RSA. We found that side-chain contact density is the best predictor of rate variation among sites (it explains 39.2% of the variation. Moreover, the independent contribution of main-chain contact density measures and RSA are negligible. Thus, as predicted by the stress theory, site-specific evolutionary rates are determined by side-chain packing.

  20. Too packed to change: side-chain packing and site-specific substitution rates in protein evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, María Laura; Echave, Julian

    2015-01-01

    In protein evolution, due to functional and biophysical constraints, the rates of amino acid substitution differ from site to site. Among the best predictors of site-specific rates are solvent accessibility and packing density. The packing density measure that best correlates with rates is the weighted contact number (WCN), the sum of inverse square distances between a site's C α and the C α of the other sites. According to a mechanistic stress model proposed recently, rates are determined by packing because mutating packed sites stresses and destabilizes the protein's active conformation. While WCN is a measure of C α packing, mutations replace side chains. Here, we consider whether a site's evolutionary divergence is constrained by main-chain packing or side-chain packing. To address this issue, we extended the stress theory to model side chains explicitly. The theory predicts that rates should depend solely on side-chain contact density. We tested this prediction on a data set of structurally and functionally diverse monomeric enzymes. We compared side-chain contact density with main-chain contact density measures and with relative solvent accessibility (RSA). We found that side-chain contact density is the best predictor of rate variation among sites (it explains 39.2% of the variation). Moreover, the independent contribution of main-chain contact density measures and RSA are negligible. Thus, as predicted by the stress theory, site-specific evolutionary rates are determined by side-chain packing.

  1. Voronoia: analyzing packing in protein structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rother, Kristian; Hildebrand, Peter Werner; Goede, Andrean; Gruening, Bjoern; Preissner, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The packing of protein atoms is an indicator for their stability and functionality, and applied in determining thermostability, in protein design, ligand binding and to identify flexible regions in proteins. Here, we present Voronoia, a database of atomic-scale packing data for protein 3D structures. It is based on an improved Voronoi Cell algorithm using hyperboloid interfaces to construct atomic volumes, and to resolve solvent-accessible and -inaccessible regions of atoms. The database contains atomic volumes, local packing densities and interior cavities calculated for 61 318 biological units from the PDB. A report for each structure summarizes the packing by residue and atom types, and lists the environment of interior cavities. The packing data are compared to a nonredundant set of structures from SCOP superfamilies. Both packing densities and cavities can be visualized in the 3D structures by the Jmol plugin. Additionally, PDB files can be submitted to the Voronoia server for calculation. This service performs calculations for most full-atomic protein structures within a few minutes. For batch jobs, a standalone version of the program with an optional PyMOL plugin is available for download. The database can be freely accessed at: http://bioinformatics.charite.de/voronoia.

  2. Packing in protein cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, J. C.; Clark, A. H.; Regan, L.; O'Hern, C. S.

    2017-07-01

    Proteins are biological polymers that underlie all cellular functions. The first high-resolution protein structures were determined by x-ray crystallography in the 1960s. Since then, there has been continued interest in understanding and predicting protein structure and stability. It is well-established that a large contribution to protein stability originates from the sequestration from solvent of hydrophobic residues in the protein core. How are such hydrophobic residues arranged in the core; how can one best model the packing of these residues, and are residues loosely packed with multiple allowed side chain conformations or densely packed with a single allowed side chain conformation? Here we show that to properly model the packing of residues in protein cores it is essential that amino acids are represented by appropriately calibrated atom sizes, and that hydrogen atoms are explicitly included. We show that protein cores possess a packing fraction of φ ≈ 0.56 , which is significantly less than the typically quoted value of 0.74 obtained using the extended atom representation. We also compare the results for the packing of amino acids in protein cores to results obtained for jammed packings from discrete element simulations of spheres, elongated particles, and composite particles with bumpy surfaces. We show that amino acids in protein cores pack as densely as disordered jammed packings of particles with similar values for the aspect ratio and bumpiness as found for amino acids. Knowing the structural properties of protein cores is of both fundamental and practical importance. Practically, it enables the assessment of changes in the structure and stability of proteins arising from amino acid mutations (such as those identified as a result of the massive human genome sequencing efforts) and the design of new folded, stable proteins and protein-protein interactions with tunable specificity and affinity.

  3. Vibrational Collapse of Hexapod Packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuchen; Ding, Jingqiu; Barés, Jonathan; Dierichs, Karola; Behringer, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Columns made of convex noncohesive grains like sand collapse after being released from a confining container. However, structures built from concave grains can be stable without external support. Previous research show that the stability of the columns depends on column diameter and height, by observing column stability after carefully lifting their confinement tubes. Thinner and taller columns collapse with higher probability. While the column stability weakly depends on packing density, it strongly depends on inter-particle friction. Experiments that cause the column to collapse also reveal similar trends, as more effort (such as heavier loading or shearing) is required to destabilize columns that are intrinsically more stable. In the current experiments, we invesitage the effect of vibration on destructing a column. Short columns collapse following the relaxation dynamics of disorder systems, which coincides with similar experiments on staple packings. However, tall columns collapse faster at the beginning, in addition to the relaxation process coming after. Using high-speed imaging, we analyze column collapse data from different column geometries. Ongoing work is focusing on characterizing the stability of hexapod packings to vibration. We thanks NSF-DMR-1206351 and the William M. Keck Foundation.

  4. Graphitic packing removal tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, K.E.; Kolsun, G.J.

    1996-12-31

    Graphitic packing removal tools are described for removal of the seal rings in one piece from valves and pumps. The packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal.

  5. Optimal Packed String Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany

    2011-01-01

    In the packed string matching problem, each machine word accommodates – characters, thus an n-character text occupies n/– memory words. We extend the Crochemore-Perrin constantspace O(n)-time string matching algorithm to run in optimal O(n/–) time and even in real-time, achieving a factor – speedup...... over traditional algorithms that examine each character individually. Our solution can be efficiently implemented, unlike prior theoretical packed string matching work. We adapt the standard RAM model and only use its AC0 instructions (i.e., no multiplication) plus two specialized AC0 packed string...

  6. A platform for studying the Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities in a planar geometry at high energy density at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, S. R.; Raman, K. S.; Huntington, C. M.; MacLaren, S. A.; Wang, P.; Barrios, M. A.; Baumann, T.; Bender, J. D.; Benedetti, L. R.; Doane, D. M.; Felker, S.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Flippo, K. A.; Holder, J. P.; Kaczala, D. N.; Perry, T. S.; Seugling, R. M.; Savage, L.; Zhou, Y.

    2017-07-01

    A new experimental platform has been developed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for studying the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities in a planar geometry at high-energy-densities. The platform uses 60 beams of the NIF laser to drive an initially solid shock tube containing a pre-machined interface between dense and light materials. The strong shock turns the initially solid target into a plasma and the material boundary into a fluid interface with the imprinted initial condition. The interface evolves by action of the RT and RM instabilities, and the growth is imaged with backlit x-ray radiography. We present our first data involving sinusoidal interface perturbations driven from the heavy side to the light side. Late-time radiographic images show the initial conditions reaching the deeply nonlinear regime, and an evolution of fine structure consistent with a transition to turbulence. We show preliminary comparisons with post-shot numerical simulations and discuss the implications for future campaigns.

  7. Optimized packings with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pintér, János

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents a selection of case studies that address a substantial range of optimized object packings (OOP) and their applications. The contributing authors are well-recognized researchers and practitioners. The mathematical modelling and numerical solution aspects of each application case study are presented in sufficient detail. A broad range of OOP problems are discussed: these include various specific and non-standard container loading and object packing problems, as well as the stowing of hazardous and other materials on container ships, data centre resource management, automotive engineering design, space station logistic support, cutting and packing problems with placement constraints, the optimal design of LED street lighting, robust sensor deployment strategies, spatial scheduling problems, and graph coloring models and metaheuristics for packing applications. Novel points of view related to model development and to computational nonlinear, global, mixed integer optimization and heuristic st...

  8. Nasal packing and stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber, Rainer K.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal packs are indispensable in ENT practice. This study reviews current indications, effectiveness and risks of nasal packs and stents. In endoscopic surgery, nasal packs should always have smooth surfaces to minimize mucosal damage, improve wound healing and increase patient comfort. Functional endoscopic endonasal sinus surgery allows the use of modern nasal packs, since pressure is no longer required. So called hemostatic/resorbable materials are a first step in this direction. However, they may lead to adhesions and foreign body reactions in mucosal membranes. Simple occlusion is an effective method for creating a moist milieu for improved wound healing and avoiding dryness. Stenting of the frontal sinus is recommended if surgery fails to produce a wide, physiologically shaped drainage path that is sufficiently covered by intact tissue.

  9. Layered circle packings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a bounded sequence of integers {d0,d1,d2,…}, 6≤dn≤M, there is an associated abstract triangulation created by building up layers of vertices so that vertices on the nth layer have degree dn. This triangulation can be realized via a circle packing which fills either the Euclidean or the hyperbolic plane. We give necessary and sufficient conditions to determine the type of the packing given the defining sequence {dn}.

  10. Statistical characterization of microstructure of packings of polydisperse hard cubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmir, Hessam; Sahimi, Muhammad; Rahimi Tabar, M. Reza

    2017-05-01

    Polydisperse packings of cubic particles arise in several important problems. Examples include zeolite microcubes that represent catalytic materials, fluidization of such microcubes in catalytic reactors, fabrication of new classes of porous materials with precise control of their morphology, and several others. We present the results of detailed and extensive simulation and microstructural characterization of packings of nonoverlapping polydisperse cubic particles. The packings are generated via a modified random sequential-addition algorithm. Two probability density functions (PDFs) for the particle-size distribution, the Schulz and log-normal PDFs, are used. The packings are analyzed, and their random close-packing density is computed as a function of the parameters of the two PDFs. The maximum packing fraction for the highest degree of polydispersivity is estimated to be about 0.81, much higher than 0.57 for the monodisperse packings. In addition, a variety of microstructural descriptors have been calculated and analyzed. In particular, we show that (i) an approximate analytical expression for the structure factor of Percus-Yevick fluids of polydisperse hard spheres with the Schulz PDF also predicts all the qualitative features of the structure factor of the packings that we study; (ii) as the packings become more polydisperse, their behavior resembles increasingly that of an ideal system—"ideal gas"—with little or no correlations; and (iii) the mean survival time and mean relaxation time of a diffusing species in the packings increase with increasing degrees of polydispersivity.

  11. Patchy particle packing under electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Pengcheng; Wang, Yufeng; Wang, Yu; Hollingsworth, Andrew D; Weck, Marcus; Pine, David J; Ward, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    Colloidal particles equipped with two, three, or four negatively charged patches, which endow the particles with 2-fold, 3-fold, or tetrahedral symmetries, form 1D chains, 2D layers, and 3D packings when polarized by an AC electric field. Two-patch particles, with two patches on opposite sides of the particle (2-fold symmetry) pack into the cmm plane group and 3D packings with I4mm space group symmetry, in contrast to uncharged spherical or ellipsoidal colloids that typically crystallize into a face-centered ABC layer packing. Three-patch particles (3-fold symmetry) form chains having a 21 screw axis symmetry, but these chains pair in a manner such that each individual chain has one-fold symmetry but the pair has 21 screw axis symmetry, in an arrangement that aligns the patches that would favor Coulombic interactions along the chain. Surprisingly, some chain pairs form unanticipated double-helix regions that result from mutual twisting of the chains about each other, illustrating a kind of polymorphism that may be associated with nucleation from short chain pairs. Larger 2D domains of the three-patch particles crystallize in the p6m plane group with alignment (with respect to the field) and packing densities that suggest random disorder in the domains, whereas four-patch particles form 2D domains in which close-packed rows are aligned with the field.

  12. Research and Application of Packing Density for Pebble Bed in HTR%关于 HTR 球床堆叠密度统计方法的研究及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于福江; 谢菲; 孙喜明

    2015-01-01

    T he pebble bed high temperature gas‐cooled reactor is one of the major types of reactors developed by Chinese nuclear technology .T he statistical analysis for packing density in the pebble bed is an important issue of physical‐thermal calculation and safety analysis .Aimed to this problem ,a new kind of method was set up to solve this prob‐lem .Compared with the traditional lattice‐fill method and the experiment ,its efficiency and accuracy were verified ,while helping to find out the best length of unit in the tradi‐tional lattice‐fill method . This method was used to analyze the boundary effects observed by experiments .%球床式高温气冷堆是目前中国自主研发的主要堆型,对于球床内的球体随机堆叠密度分布的统计分析是高温气冷堆物理‐热工计算和安全分析的重要问题之一。针对这一问题,提出了一种新的堆叠密度分布的统计方法。通过与传统格子填充法计算结构和实验值进行对比,验证了该方法的高效性和准确性,同时帮助传统格子填充法找出最佳的单元尺度,并尝试利用该方法对实验中多次观察到的边界效应进行分析。

  13. Dense packing properties of mineral admixtures in cementitious material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanzhou Peng; Shuguang Hu; Qingjun Ding

    2009-01-01

    The effect of ultra-fine fly ash (UFFA), steel slag (SS) and silica fume (SF) on packing density of binary, ternary and quaternary cementitious materials was studied in this paper in terms of minimum water requirement of cement. The influence of mineral admixtures on the relative density of pastes with low water/binder ratios was analyzed and the relationship between paste density and compressive strength of the corresponding hardened mortars was discussed. The results indicate that the incorporation of mineral admixtures can effectively improve the packing density of cementitious materials; the increase in packing density of a composite with incorporation of two or three kinds of mineral admixtures is even more obvious than that with only one mineral admixture. Moreover, an optimal amount of mineral admixture imparts to the mixture maximum packing density. The dense packing effect of a mineral admixture can increase the packing density of the resulting cementitious material and also the density of paste with low water/binder ratio, which evidently enhances the compressive strength of the hardened mortar.

  14. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  15. Superconducting switch pack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, V.C.; Wollan, J.J.

    1990-07-24

    This patent describes a superconducting switch pack at least one switch element. The switch element including a length of superconductive wire having a switching portion and two lead portions, the switching portion being between the lead portions; means for supporting the switching portion in a plane in a common mold; hardened resin means encapsulating the switching portion in the plane in a solid body; wherein the solid body has an exterior surface which is planar and substantially parallel with and spaced apart from the plane in which the switching portion is positioned. The exterior surface being exposed to the exterior of the switch pack and the resin means filling the space between the exterior surface and the plane of the switching portion so as to provide uninterrupted thermal communication between the plane of the switching portion and the exterior of the switch pack; and a heater element in thermal contact with the switching portion.

  16. Discrete element modelling of pebble packing in pebble bed reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suikkanen, Heikki, E-mail: heikki.suikkanen@lut.fi; Ritvanen, Jouni, E-mail: jouni.ritvanen@lut.fi; Jalali, Payman, E-mail: payman.jalali@lut.fi; Kyrki-Rajamäki, Riitta, E-mail: riitta.kyrki-rajamaki@lut.fi

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • A discrete element method code is developed for pebble bed reactor analyses. • Methods are established to extract packing information at various spatial scales. • Packing simulations inside annular core geometry are done varying input parameters. • The restitution coefficient has the strongest effect on the resulting packing density. • Detailed analyses reveal local densification especially near the walls. - Abstract: It is important to understand the packing characteristics and behaviour of the randomly packed pebble bed to further analyse the reactor physical and thermal-hydraulic behaviour and to design a safe and economically feasible pebble bed reactor. The objective of this work was to establish methods to model and analyse the pebble packing in detail to provide useful tools and data for further analyses. Discrete element method (DEM) is a well acknowledged method for analysing granular materials, such as the fuel pebbles in a pebble bed reactor. In this work, a DEM computer code was written specifically for pebble bed analyses. Analysis methods were established to extract data at various spatial scales from the pebble beds resulting from the DEM simulations. A comparison with available experimental data was performed to validate the DEM implementation. To test the code implementation in full-scale reactor calculations, DEM packing simulations were done in annular geometry with 450,000 pebbles. Effects of the initial packing configuration, friction and restitution coefficients and pebble size distribution to the resulting pebble bed were investigated. The packing simulations revealed that from the investigated parameters the restitution coefficient had the largest effect on the resulting average packing density while other parameters had smaller effects. Detailed local packing density analysis of pebble beds with different average densities revealed local variations especially strong in the regions near the walls. The implemented DEM

  17. DIY Fraction Pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Alan; Graham, Louise

    2003-01-01

    Describes a very successful attempt to teach fractions to year 5 pupils based on pupils making their own fraction pack. Children decided for themselves how to make the fractional slices used in the activity using colored cardboard sheets and templates of a paper circle consisting of 24 equal slices. (Author/NB)

  18. The Six Pack Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik; Ritter, Thomas

    Ever seen a growth strategies fail because it was not connect ed to the firm’s customer base? Or a customer relationship strategy falters just because it was the wrong thing to do with that given customer? This article presents the six pack model, a tool that makes growth profitable and predictable....... Not all customers can and should grow – thus a firm needs to classify its customers in order to implement the right customer strategy....

  19. Fluid model for a partially packed dielectric barrier discharge plasma reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Siddharth; Tu, Xin; Gu, Sai

    2017-09-01

    In this work, a two-dimensional numerical fluid model is developed for a partially packed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in pure helium. Influence of packing on the discharge characteristics is studied by comparing the results of DBD with partial packing with those obtained for DBD with no packing. In the axial partial packing configuration studied in this work, the electric field strength was shown to be enhanced at the top surface of the spherical packing material and at the contact points between the packing and the dielectric layer. For each value of applied potential, DBD with partial packing showed an increase in the number of pulses in the current profile in the positive half cycle of the applied voltage, as compared to DBD with no packing. Addition of partial packing to the plasma-alone DBD also led to an increase in the electron and ion number densities at the moment of breakdown. The time averaged electron energy profiles showed that a much higher range of electron energy can be achieved with the use of partial packing as compared to no packing in a DBD, at the same applied power. The spatially and time averaged values over one voltage cycle also showed an increase in power density and electron energy on inclusion of partial packing in the DBD. For the applied voltage parameters studied in this work, the discharge was found to be consistently homogeneous and showed the characteristics of atmospheric pressure glow discharge.

  20. Heuristics for Multidimensional Packing Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Jens

    In this thesis we consider solution methods for packing problems. Packing problems occur in many different situations both directly in the industry and as sub-problems of other problems. High-quality solutions for problems in the industrial sector may be able to reduce transportation and production...... costs significantly. For packing problems in general are given a set of items and one of more containers. The items must be placed within the container such that some objective is optimized and the items do not overlap. Items and container may be rectangular or irregular (e.g. polygons and polyhedra...... methods. Two important problem variants are the knapsack packing problem and the strip-packing problem. In the knapsack packing problem, each item is given a profit value, and the problem asks for the subset with maximal profit that can be placed within one container. The strip-packing problem asks...

  1. Modified algorithm for generating high volume fraction sphere packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Roberto Roselló; Morales, Irvin Pérez; Vanmaercke, Simon; Morfa, Carlos Recarey; Cortés, Lucía Argüelles; Casañas, Harold Díaz-Guzmán

    2015-06-01

    Advancing front packing algorithms have proven to be very efficient in 2D for obtaining high density sets of particles, especially disks. However, the extension of these algorithms to 3D is not a trivial task. In the present paper, an advancing front algorithm for obtaining highly dense sphere packings is presented. It is simpler than other advancing front packing methods in 3D and can also be used with other types of particles. Comparison with respect to other packing methods have been carried out and a significant improvement in the volume fraction (VF) has been observed. Moreover, the quality of packings was evaluated with indicators other than VF. As additional advantage, the number of generated particles with the algorithm is linear with respect to time.

  2. Multilayer DNA Origami Packed on Hexagonal and Hybrid Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yonggang; Voigt, Niels V.; Gothelf, Kurt V.; Shih, William M.

    2012-01-01

    “Scaffolded DNA origami” has been proven to be a powerful and efficient approach to construct two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects with great complexity. Multilayer DNA origami has been demonstrated with helices packing along either honeycomb-lattice geometry or square-lattice geometry. Here we report successful folding of multilayer DNA origami with helices arranged on a close-packed hexagonal lattice. This arrangement yields a higher density of helical packing and therefore higher resolution of spatial addressing than has been shown previously. We also demonstrate hybrid multilayer DNA origami with honeycomb-lattice, square-lattice, and hexagonal lattice packing of helices all in one design. The availability of hexagonal close packing of helices extends our ability to build complex structures using DNA nanotechnology. PMID:22187940

  3. New bounds for multi-dimensional packing

    OpenAIRE

    Seiden, S.; Stee, van, Rob

    2001-01-01

    New upper and lower bounds are presented for a multi-dimensional generalization of bin packing called box packing. Several variants of this problem, including bounded space box packing, square packing, variable sized box packing and resource augmented box packing are also studied. The main results, stated for d=2, are as follows: A new upper bound of 2.66013 for online box packing, a new $14/9 + varepsilon$ polynomial time offline approximation algorithm for square packing, a new upper bound ...

  4. Packing anchored rectangles

    CERN Document Server

    Dumitrescu, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Let $S$ be a set of $n$ points in the unit square $[0,1]^2$, one of which is the origin. We construct $n$ pairwise interior-disjoint axis-aligned empty rectangles such that the lower left corner of each rectangle is a point in $S$, and the rectangles jointly cover at least a positive constant area (about 0.09). This is a first step towards the solution of a longstanding conjecture that the rectangles in such a packing can jointly cover an area of at least 1/2.

  5. Packing ellipsoids with overlap

    CERN Document Server

    Uhler, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The problem of packing ellipsoids of different sizes and shapes into an ellipsoidal container so as to minimize a measure of overlap between ellipsoids is considered. A bilevel optimization formulation is given, together with an algorithm for the general case and a simpler algorithm for the special case in which all ellipsoids are in fact spheres. Convergence results are proved and computational experience is described and illustrated. The motivating application - chromosome organization in the human cell nucleus - is discussed briefly, and some illustrative results are presented.

  6. New bounds for multi-dimensional packing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Seiden; R. van Stee (Rob)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractNew upper and lower bounds are presented for a multi-dimensional generalization of bin packing called box packing. Several variants of this problem, including bounded space box packing, square packing, variable sized box packing and resource augmented box packing are also studied. The

  7. New bounds for multi-dimensional packing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seiden, S.; Stee, R. van

    2001-01-01

    New upper and lower bounds are presented for a multi-dimensional generalization of bin packing called box packing. Several variants of this problem, including bounded space box packing, square packing, variable sized box packing and resource augmented box packing are also studied. The main results,

  8. Distinctive features arising in maximally random jammed packings of superballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Y; Stillinger, F H; Torquato, S

    2010-04-01

    Dense random packings of hard particles are useful models of granular media and are closely related to the structure of nonequilibrium low-temperature amorphous phases of matter. Most work has been done for random jammed packings of spheres and it is only recently that corresponding packings of nonspherical particles (e.g., ellipsoids) have received attention. Here we report a study of the maximally random jammed (MRJ) packings of binary superdisks and monodispersed superballs whose shapes are defined by |x1|2p+...+|xd|2por=0.5) particles with square symmetry (d=2), or octahedral and cubic symmetry (d=3). In particular, for p=1 the particle is a perfect sphere (circular disk) and for p-->infinity the particle is a perfect cube (square). We find that the MRJ densities of such packings increase dramatically and nonanalytically as one moves away from the circular-disk and sphere point (p=1). Moreover, the disordered packings are hypostatic, i.e., the average number of contacting neighbors is less than twice the total number of degrees of freedom per particle, and yet the packings are mechanically stable. As a result, the local arrangements of particles are necessarily nontrivially correlated to achieve jamming. We term such correlated structures "nongeneric." The degree of "nongenericity" of the packings is quantitatively characterized by determining the fraction of local coordination structures in which the central particles have fewer contacting neighbors than average. We also show that such seemingly "special" packing configurations are counterintuitively not rare. As the anisotropy of the particles increases, the fraction of rattlers decreases while the minimal orientational order as measured by the tetratic and cubatic order parameters increases. These characteristics result from the unique manner in which superballs break their rotational symmetry, which also makes the superdisk and superball packings distinctly different from other known nonspherical hard

  9. Cell packing structures

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2015-03-03

    This paper is an overview of architectural structures which are either composed of polyhedral cells or closely related to them. We introduce the concept of a support structure of such a polyhedral cell packing. It is formed by planar quads and obtained by connecting corresponding vertices in two combinatorially equivalent meshes whose corresponding edges are coplanar and thus determine planar quads. Since corresponding triangle meshes only yield trivial structures, we focus on support structures associated with quad meshes or hex-dominant meshes. For the quadrilateral case, we provide a short survey of recent research which reveals beautiful relations to discrete differential geometry. Those are essential for successfully initializing numerical optimization schemes for the computation of quad-based support structures. Hex-dominant structures may be designed via Voronoi tessellations, power diagrams, sphere packings and various extensions of these concepts. Apart from the obvious application as load-bearing structures, we illustrate here a new application to shading and indirect lighting. On a higher level, our work emphasizes the interplay between geometry, optimization, statics, and manufacturing, with the overall aim of combining form, function and fabrication into novel integrated design tools.

  10. Packing of nonoverlapping cubic particles: Computational algorithms and microstructural characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmir, Hessam; Sahimi, Muhammad; Tabar, M Reza Rahimi

    2016-12-01

    Packing of cubic particles arises in a variety of problems, ranging from biological materials to colloids and the fabrication of new types of porous materials with controlled morphology. The properties of such packings may also be relevant to problems involving suspensions of cubic zeolites, precipitation of salt crystals during CO_{2} sequestration in rock, and intrusion of fresh water in aquifers by saline water. Not much is known, however, about the structure and statistical descriptors of such packings. We present a detailed simulation and microstructural characterization of packings of nonoverlapping monodisperse cubic particles, following up on our preliminary results [H. Malmir et al., Sci. Rep. 6, 35024 (2016)2045-232210.1038/srep35024]. A modification of the random sequential addition (RSA) algorithm has been developed to generate such packings, and a variety of microstructural descriptors, including the radial distribution function, the face-normal correlation function, two-point probability and cluster functions, the lineal-path function, the pore-size distribution function, and surface-surface and surface-void correlation functions, have been computed, along with the specific surface and mean chord length of the packings. The results indicate the existence of both spatial and orientational long-range order as the the packing density increases. The maximum packing fraction achievable with the RSA method is about 0.57, which represents the limit for a structure similar to liquid crystals.

  11. Packing of nonoverlapping cubic particles: Computational algorithms and microstructural characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmir, Hessam; Sahimi, Muhammad; Tabar, M. Reza Rahimi

    2016-12-01

    Packing of cubic particles arises in a variety of problems, ranging from biological materials to colloids and the fabrication of new types of porous materials with controlled morphology. The properties of such packings may also be relevant to problems involving suspensions of cubic zeolites, precipitation of salt crystals during CO2 sequestration in rock, and intrusion of fresh water in aquifers by saline water. Not much is known, however, about the structure and statistical descriptors of such packings. We present a detailed simulation and microstructural characterization of packings of nonoverlapping monodisperse cubic particles, following up on our preliminary results [H. Malmir et al., Sci. Rep. 6, 35024 (2016), 10.1038/srep35024]. A modification of the random sequential addition (RSA) algorithm has been developed to generate such packings, and a variety of microstructural descriptors, including the radial distribution function, the face-normal correlation function, two-point probability and cluster functions, the lineal-path function, the pore-size distribution function, and surface-surface and surface-void correlation functions, have been computed, along with the specific surface and mean chord length of the packings. The results indicate the existence of both spatial and orientational long-range order as the the packing density increases. The maximum packing fraction achievable with the RSA method is about 0.57, which represents the limit for a structure similar to liquid crystals.

  12. A Geometric-Structure Theory for Maximally Random Jammed Packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jianxiang; Xu, Yaopengxiao; Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Salvatore

    2015-11-01

    Maximally random jammed (MRJ) particle packings can be viewed as prototypical glasses in that they are maximally disordered while simultaneously being mechanically rigid. The prediction of the MRJ packing density ϕMRJ, among other packing properties of frictionless particles, still poses many theoretical challenges, even for congruent spheres or disks. Using the geometric-structure approach, we derive for the first time a highly accurate formula for MRJ densities for a very wide class of two-dimensional frictionless packings, namely, binary convex superdisks, with shapes that continuously interpolate between circles and squares. By incorporating specific attributes of MRJ states and a novel organizing principle, our formula yields predictions of ϕMRJ that are in excellent agreement with corresponding computer-simulation estimates in almost the entire α-x plane with semi-axis ratio α and small-particle relative number concentration x. Importantly, in the monodisperse circle limit, the predicted ϕMRJ = 0.834 agrees very well with the very recently numerically discovered MRJ density of 0.827, which distinguishes it from high-density “random-close packing” polycrystalline states and hence provides a stringent test on the theory. Similarly, for non-circular monodisperse superdisks, we predict MRJ states with densities that are appreciably smaller than is conventionally thought to be achievable by standard packing protocols.

  13. Polarizable protein packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Albert H; Snow, Christopher D

    2011-05-01

    To incorporate protein polarization effects within a protein combinatorial optimization framework, we decompose the polarizable force field AMOEBA into low order terms. Including terms up to the third-order provides a fair approximation to the full energy while maintaining tractability. We represent the polarizable packing problem for protein G as a hypergraph and solve for optimal rotamers with the FASTER combinatorial optimization algorithm. These approximate energy models can be improved to high accuracy [root mean square deviation (rmsd) < 1 kJ mol(-1)] via ridge regression. The resulting trained approximations are used to efficiently identify new, low-energy solutions. The approach is general and should allow combinatorial optimization of other many-body problems. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Polarizable protein packing

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Albert H.

    2011-01-24

    To incorporate protein polarization effects within a protein combinatorial optimization framework, we decompose the polarizable force field AMOEBA into low order terms. Including terms up to the third-order provides a fair approximation to the full energy while maintaining tractability. We represent the polarizable packing problem for protein G as a hypergraph and solve for optimal rotamers with the FASTER combinatorial optimization algorithm. These approximate energy models can be improved to high accuracy [root mean square deviation (rmsd) < 1 kJ mol -1] via ridge regression. The resulting trained approximations are used to efficiently identify new, low-energy solutions. The approach is general and should allow combinatorial optimization of other many-body problems. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem, 2011 Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Vacuum packing: a model system for laboratory-scale silage fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H E; Merry, R J; Davies, D R; Kell, D B; Theodorou, M K; Griffith, G W

    2005-01-01

    To determine the utility of vacuum-packed polythene bags as a convenient, flexible and cost-effective alternative to fixed volume glass vessels for lab-scale silage studies. Using perennial ryegrass or red clover forage, similar fermentations (as assessed by pH measurement) occurred in glass tube and vacuum-packed silos over a 35-day period. As vacuum-packing devices allow modification of initial packing density, the effect of four different settings (initial packing densities of 0.397, 0.435, 0.492 and 0.534 g cm(-3)) on the silage fermentation over 16 days was examined. Significant differences in pH decline and lactate accumulation were observed at different vacuum settings. Gas accumulation was apparent within all bags and changes in bag volume with time was observed to vary according to initial packing density. Vacuum-packed silos do provide a realistic model system for lab-scale silage fermentations. Use of vacuum-packed silos holds potential for lab-scale evaluations of silage fermentations, allowing higher throughput of samples, more consistent packing as well as the possibility of investigating the effects of different initial packing densities and use of different wrapping materials.

  16. Packing and Disorder in Substituted Fullerenes

    KAUST Repository

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh

    2016-07-15

    Fullerenes are ubiquitous as electron-acceptor and electron-transport materials in organic solar cells. Recent synthetic strategies to improve the solubility and electronic characteristics of these molecules have translated into a tremendous increase in the variety of derivatives employed in these applications. Here, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to examine the impact of going from mono-adducts to bis- and tris-adducts on the structural, cohesive, and packing characteristics of [6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and indene-C60. The packing configurations obtained at the MD level then serve as input for density functional theory calculations that examine the solid-state energetic disorder (distribution of site energies) as a function of chemical substitution. The variations in structural and site-energy disorders reflect the fundamental materials differences among the derivatives and impact the performance of these materials in thin-film electronic devices.

  17. Platform Constellations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina Stefanova; Damsgaard, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This research paper presents an initial attempt to introduce and explain the emergence of new phenomenon, which we refer to as platform constellations. Functioning as highly modular systems, the platform constellations are collections of highly connected platforms which co-exist in parallel...... and as such allow us to study platforms not only as separate entities, but also to investigate the relationship between several platforms offered and governed by one and the same platform provider. By investigating two case studies of indigenous platform constellations formed around the hugely popular instant...... messaging apps KakaoTalk and LINE, we are able to gain valuable insights about the nature of these new constructions and to capture and synthesize their main characteristics in a framework. Our results show that platform constellations possess unique innovative capabilities, which can improve users...

  18. Random packing of regular polygons and star polygons on a flat two-dimensional surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Michał; Barbasz, Jakub

    2014-08-01

    Random packing of unoriented regular polygons and star polygons on a two-dimensional flat continuous surface is studied numerically using random sequential adsorption algorithm. Obtained results are analyzed to determine the saturated random packing ratio as well as its density autocorrelation function. Additionally, the kinetics of packing growth and available surface function are measured. In general, stars give lower packing ratios than polygons, but when the number of vertexes is large enough, both shapes approach disks and, therefore, properties of their packing reproduce already known results for disks.

  19. Evolution of Voronoi/Delaunay Characterized Micro Structure with Transition from Loose to Dense Sphere Packing

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xi-Zhong

    2007-08-01

    Micro structures of equal sphere packing (ranging from loose to dense packing) generated numerically by discrete element method under different vibration conditions are characterized using Voronoi/Delaunay tessellation, which is applied on a wide range of packing densities. The analysis on micro properties such as the total perimeter, surface area, and the face number distribution of each Voronoi polyhedron, and the pore size distribution in each Voronoi/Delaunay subunit is systematically carried out. The results show that with the increasing density of sphere packing, the Voronoi/Delaunay pore size distribution is narrowed. That indicates large pores to be gradually substituted by small uniformed ones during densification. Meanwhile, the distributions of face number, total perimeter, and surface area of Voronoi polyhedra at high packing densities tend to be narrower and higher, which is in good agreement with those in random loose packing.

  20. Evolution of Voronoi/Delaunay Characterized Micro Structure with Transition from Loose to Dense Sphere Packing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Xi-Zhong

    2007-01-01

    @@ Micro structures of equal sphere packing (ranging from loose to dense packing) generated numerically by discrete element method under different vibration conditions are characterized using Voronoi/Delaunay tessellation, which is applied on a wide range of packing densities. The analysis on micro properties such as the total perimeter,surface area, and the face number distribution of each Voronoi polyhedron, and the pore size distribution in each Voronoi/Delaunay subunit is systematically carried out. The results show that with the increasing density of sphere packing, the Voronoi/Delaunay pore size distribution is narrowed. That indicates large pores to be gradually substituted by small uniformed ones during densification. Meanwhile, the distributions of face number,total perimeter, and surface area of Voronoi polyhedra at high packing densities tend to be narrower and higher,which is in good agreement with those in random loose packing.

  1. Packing Products: Polystyrene vs. Cornstarch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Packing materials such as polystyrene take thousands of years to decompose, whereas packing peanuts made from cornstarch, which some companies are now using, can serve the same purpose, but dissolve in water. The author illustrates this point to her class one rainy day using the sculptures students made from polystyrene and with the cornstarch…

  2. A computational investigation on random packings of sphere-spherocylinder mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Random packings of binary mixtures of spheres and spherocylinders with the same volume and the same diameter were simulated by a sphere assembly model and relaxation algorithm. Simulation results show that, independently of the component volume fraction, the mixture packing density increases and then decreases with the growth of the aspect ratio of spherocylinders, and the packing density reaches its maximum at the aspect ratio of 0.35. With the same volume particles, results show that the dependence of the mixture packing density on the volume fraction of spherocylinders is approximately linear. With the same diameter particles, the relationship between the mixture packing density and component volume fraction is also roughly linear for short spherocylinders, but when the aspect ratio of spherocylinders is greater than 1.6, the curves turn convex which means the packing of the mixture can be denser than either the sphere or spherocylinder packing alone. To validate the sphere assembly model and relaxation algorithm, binary mixtures of spheres and random packings of spherocylinders were also simulated. Simulation results show the packing densities of sphere mixtures agree with previous prediction models and the results of spherocylinders correspond with the simulation results in literature.

  3. Heuristics for Multidimensional Packing Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Jens

    for a minimum height container required for the items. The main contributions of the thesis are three new heuristics for strip-packing and knapsack packing problems where items are both rectangular and irregular. In the two first papers we describe a heuristic for the multidimensional strip-packing problem...... for a three-dimensional knapsack packing problem involving furniture is presented in the fourth paper. The heuristic is based on a variety of techniques including tree-search, wall-building, and sequential placement. The solution process includes considerations regarding stability and load bearing strength...... paper. Ensuring that a loaded consignment of items are balanced throughout a container can reduce fuel consumption and prolong the life-span of vehicles. The heuristic can be used as a post-processing tool to reorganize an existing solution to a packing problem. A method for optimizing the placement...

  4. A study on parameter variation effects on battery packs for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Long; Zheng, Yuejiu; Ouyang, Minggao; Lu, Languang

    2017-10-01

    As one single cell cannot meet power and driving range requirement in an electric vehicle, the battery packs with hundreds of single cells connected in parallel and series should be constructed. The most significant difference between a single cell and a battery pack is cell variation. Not only does cell variation affect pack energy density and power density, but also it causes early degradation of battery and potential safety issues. The cell variation effects on battery packs are studied, which are of great significant to battery pack screening and management scheme. In this study, the description for the consistency characteristics of battery packs was first proposed and a pack model with 96 cells connected in series was established. A set of parameters are introduced to study the cell variation and their impacts on battery packs are analyzed through the battery pack capacity loss simulation and experiments. Meanwhile, the capacity loss composition of the battery pack is obtained and verified by the temperature variation experiment. The results from this research can demonstrate that the temperature, self-discharge rate and coulombic efficiency are the major affecting parameters of cell variation and indicate the dissipative cell equalization is sufficient for the battery pack.

  5. FROM THE PACKED TOWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi D. Leite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available About 245 thousand tones of municipal solid w aste are collected daily in Brazil. Nearly 32 thousand tones of the collected amount are treated in sanitary landfill, which generates biogas and leachate as byproduct. The leachate resulting from sanitary landfill contains high concentration of carbonaceous and nitrogenized material. The crucial question is that the biodegradation of the carbonaceous material is difficult as long as the nitrogenized material is presen t in the form of ammoniacal nitrogen (NH 4 + , which compromises performance of biological tr eatment process. Therefore, a physical and chemical treatment of the leachate should be done before its biological treatment, especially for reduction of ammoniacal nitr ogen concentration and for propitiating the realization of application of biological treatment. The treatment of leachate requires specific consideration, which is not needed fo r other types of waste. In the specific case in this study, where ammoniacal nitrogen concentration was about 2,200 mgN L -1 and the BOD 5 /COD ratio was 0.3, the study of ammonia stripping process was performed. Ammonia stripping process was studied in pack ed towers of 35 L capacity each and the parameters investigated were pH, ratio of contact area/leach volume and the aeration time. One of the parameters that influenced most in efficiency of ammonia stripping process was pH of the leachate since it contributes in conversion of ammoniacal nitrogen from NH 4 + to NH 3 .

  6. Valve stem and packing assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wordin, J.J.

    1990-12-31

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele`s pivot. The Schiele`s pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele`s pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele`s pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.

  7. Simulator for a packing and weighing system of granulated powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto Rodrigues de Oliveira, Rafael; Garcia, Claudio

    2013-09-01

    The development of a simulator for a packing and weighing system (PWS) of granulated powder is described. It employed system identification to obtain the deterministic part of the model and stochastic processes to reproduce disturbances. It reproduces the fluctuations in carton weight observed in real packing systems. Its final use is to evaluate proposed improvements in the PWS, aiming at reducing overweight and underweight. Its performance is satisfactory, as the oscillations observed in the carton weights, due to powder density variability, are close to reality as well as the monetary losses due to overweight and underweight and the power spectral density graphs of the real and simulated weights.

  8. Compactness Theorems for Geometric Packings

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Greg

    2000-01-01

    Moser asked whether the collection of rectangles of dimensions 1 x 1/2, 1/2 x 1/3, 1/3 x 1/4, ..., whose total area equals 1, can be packed into the unit square without overlap, and whether the collection of squares of side lengths 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, ... can be packed without overlap into a rectangle of area pi^2/6-1. Computational investigations have been made into packing these collections into squares of side length 1+epsilon and rectangles of area pi^2/6-1+epsilon, respectively, and one can c...

  9. Aspiration of Nasopore nasal packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jonathan; Reddy, Ekambar

    2017-10-04

    We present a case of postoperative Nasopore aspiration in an otherwise fit and well 11-year-old. An endoscopic adenoidectomy had been performed without incident and Nasopore packing placed into each nasal cavity. Immediately after extubation, there was marked hypoxia, tachypnoea and high clinical suspicion of pack aspiration. The patient returned to theatre for emergency rigid bronchoscopy and retrieval of nasal packing. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Payment Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Damsgaard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Payment transactions through the use of physical coins, bank notes or credit cards have for centuries been the standard formats of exchanging money. Recently online and mobile digital payment platforms has entered the stage as contenders to this position and possibly could penetrate societies...... thoroughly and substitute current payment standards in the decades to come. This paper portrays how digital payment platforms evolve in socio-technical niches and how various technological platforms aim for institutional attention in their attempt to challenge earlier platforms and standards. The paper...... applies a co-evolutionary multilevel perspective to model the interplay and processes between technology and society wherein digital payment platforms potentially will substitute other payment platforms just like the credit card negated the check. On this basis this paper formulate a multilevel conceptual...

  11. The mechanical behaviour of packed particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, R

    1998-01-01

    Within the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management program, the central concept is to package used fuel in containers that would be deposited in an underground vault in a plutonic rock formation. To provide internal mechanical support for the container, the reference design specifies it to be filled with a matrix of compacted particulate material (called 'packed particulate'), such as quartz sand granules. The focus of this report is on the mechanical properties of the packed-particulate material, based on information drawn from the extant literature. We first consider the packing density of particulate matrices to minimize the remnant porosity and maximize mechanical stability under conditions of external pressure. Practical methods, involving vibratory packing, are reviewed and recommendations made to select techniques to achieve optimum packing density. The behaviour of particulates under compressive loading has been of interest to the powder metallurgy industry (i.e., the manufacture of products from pressed/sintered metal and ceramic powders) since the early decades of this century. We review the evidence showing that in short timescales, stress induced compaction occurs by particle shuffling and rearrangement, elastic distortion, plastic yielding and microfracturing. Analytical expressions are available to describe these processes in a semiquantitative fashion. Time-dependent compaction, mainly via creep mechanisms, is more complex. Much of the theoretical and experimental information is confined to higher temperatures (> 500 degrees C), where deformation rates are more rapid. Thus, for the relatively low ambient temperatures of the waste container ({approx}100 degrees C), we require analytical techniques to extrapolate the collective particulate creep behaviour. This is largely accomplished by employing current theories of creep deformation, particularly in the form of Deformation Mechanism Maps, which allow estimation of creep rates over a wide

  12. Aplicação de métodos estatísticos na otimização da densidade de empacotamento de distribuições de pós de alumina Optimization of the packing density of alumina powder distributions using statistical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatores como a distribuição granulométrica e a morfologia condicionam as propriedades físicas de sistemas particulados (e.g. misturas de pós, pastas, concretos refratários, entre as quais a densidade de empacotamento. Podem ser encontrados, na literatura, vários modelos para a otimização da distribuição de tamanhos de partículas que maximiza o empacotamento, todos desenvolvidos para sistemas de esferas perfeitas (e.g. Furnas, Andreasen, Alfred. Neste trabalho, pós de alumina comercial (reativa e tabular foram separados em nove frações granulométricas e, recorrendo a dois procedimentos distintos, construíram-se seis sistemas ternários diferentes e complementares de tamanhos de partículas. Usando a metodologia das superfícies de resposta e técnicas de análise estatística afins (programa de cálculo Statistica obteve-se, em ambos os casos, a distribuição granulométrica que maximiza a densidade de empacotamento. Por comparação com as distribuições granulométricas teóricas, ficou demonstrada a validade do modelo teórico de Alfred para esferas perfeitas. Os resultados obtidos demonstram, assim, que o efeito prejudicial da não esfericidade das partículas pode ser, na realidade, compensado pela otimização da distribuição granulométrica global.Particle size distribution and morphology are among the factors that affect the physical properties of particulate systems (e.g. powder mixtures, pastes, castable refractories. One such property is packing density. There are, in the literature, models that optimise particle size distributions for maximum packing density, all of them derived for spherical particles (e.g. Furnas, Andreasen, Alfred. In this work, commercial alumina powders (reactive and tabular were divided into nine particle size classes. Following two different approaches, the latter were used to build six different ternary systems of complementary particle sizes. Using the response surface methodology and

  13. A new algorithm for dense ellipse packing and polygonal structures generation in context of FEM or DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilin Dmitrii N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new constructive ellipse packing algorithm is presented. It allows to respect the imposed area, shape and spatial orientation distribution (i.e. the inertia tensor and achieve high packing densities. The packing density decreases with increasing particles aspect ratio what is in agreement with results reported in the literature. The generated packings with complex imposed area, shape and spatial orientation distributions with densities in the range of 0.74 and 0.8 are presented. The efficiency of the algorithm is demonstrated by comparison with the Optimized Dropping and Rolling method for disk packing. Moreover, the proposed packing strategy enables to generate very easily non-equiaxed polygonal structures by using Laguerre-Voronoï tessellation of the generated disk-based ellipse packing.

  14. Domain Discretization and Circle Packings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    A circle packing is a configuration of circles which are tangent with one another in a prescribed pattern determined by a combinatorial triangulation, where the configuration fills a planar domain or a two-dimensional surface. The vertices in the triangulation correspond to centers of circles......, and edges correspond to two circles (having centers corresponding to the endpoints of the edge) being tangent to each other. This circle packing creates a rigid structure having an underlying geometric triangulation, where the centers of circles again correspond to vertices in the triangulation......, and the edges are geodesic segments (Euclidean, hyperbolic, or spherical) connecting centers of circles that are tangent to each other. Three circles that are mutually tangent form a face of the triangulation. Since circle packing is closely related to triangulation, circle packing methods can be applied...

  15. The pursuit of perfect packing

    CERN Document Server

    Weaire, Denis

    2008-01-01

    Coauthored by one of the creators of the most efficient space packing solution, the Weaire-Phelan structure, The Pursuit of Perfect Packing, Second Edition explores a problem of importance in physics, mathematics, chemistry, biology, and engineering: the packing of structures. Maintaining its mathematical core, this edition continues and revises some of the stories from its predecessor while adding several new examples and applications. The book focuses on both scientific and everyday problems ranging from atoms to honeycombs. It describes packing models, such as the Kepler conjecture, Voronoï decomposition, and Delaunay decomposition, as well as actual structure models, such as the Kelvin cell and the Weaire-Phelan structure. The authors discuss numerous historical aspects and provide biographical details on influential contributors to the field, including emails from Thomas Hales and Ken Brakke. With examples from physics, crystallography, engineering, and biology, this accessible and whimsical bo...

  16. ROSS: The Remotely-Operated Surface Sampler - A MediumEndurance, Precision-Navigated Platform Optimized for Uncontaminated Measurement of Upper-Ocean Velocity, Density and Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    ROSS : The Remotely-­‐Operated Surface Sampler A medium-­‐endurance, precision-­‐navigated  platform optimized...coas.oregonstate.edu Award N00014-­‐14-­‐1-­‐0490 http://kai.coas.oregonstate.edu/ OVERVIEW The Remotely Operated Surface   Sampler ( ROSS )  is an  open...configuration,   ROSS cruises at 4 knots,  is equipped  with  300 kHz  and 2 MHz  ADCPs,  and tows a 20-­‐m  lon thermistor/CTD  chain. Its

  17. Pattern formations and optimal packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mityushev, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Patterns of different symmetries may arise after solution to reaction-diffusion equations. Hexagonal arrays, layers and their perturbations are observed in different models after numerical solution to the corresponding initial-boundary value problems. We demonstrate an intimate connection between pattern formations and optimal random packing on the plane. The main study is based on the following two points. First, the diffusive flux in reaction-diffusion systems is approximated by piecewise linear functions in the framework of structural approximations. This leads to a discrete network approximation of the considered continuous problem. Second, the discrete energy minimization yields optimal random packing of the domains (disks) in the representative cell. Therefore, the general problem of pattern formations based on the reaction-diffusion equations is reduced to the geometric problem of random packing. It is demonstrated that all random packings can be divided onto classes associated with classes of isomorphic graphs obtained from the Delaunay triangulation. The unique optimal solution is constructed in each class of the random packings. If the number of disks per representative cell is finite, the number of classes of isomorphic graphs, hence, the number of optimal packings is also finite.

  18. Jammed lattice sphere packings

    OpenAIRE

    Kallus, Yoav; Marcotte, Étienne; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    We generate and study an ensemble of isostatic jammed hard-sphere lattices. These lattices are obtained by compression of a periodic system with an adaptive unit cell containing a single sphere until the point of mechanical stability. We present detailed numerical data about the densities, pair correlations, force distributions, and structure factors of such lattices. We show that this model retains many of the crucial structural features of the classical hard-sphere model and propose it as a...

  19. Jammed lattice sphere packings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallus, Yoav; Marcotte, Étienne; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-12-01

    We generate and study an ensemble of isostatic jammed hard-sphere lattices. These lattices are obtained by compression of a periodic system with an adaptive unit cell containing a single sphere until the point of mechanical stability. We present detailed numerical data about the densities, pair correlations, force distributions, and structure factors of such lattices. We show that this model retains many of the crucial structural features of the classical hard-sphere model and propose it as a model for the jamming and glass transitions that enables exploration of much higher dimensions than are usually accessible.

  20. Jammed lattice sphere packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallus, Yoav; Marcotte, Étienne; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-12-01

    We generate and study an ensemble of isostatic jammed hard-sphere lattices. These lattices are obtained by compression of a periodic system with an adaptive unit cell containing a single sphere until the point of mechanical stability. We present detailed numerical data about the densities, pair correlations, force distributions, and structure factors of such lattices. We show that this model retains many of the crucial structural features of the classical hard-sphere model and propose it as a model for the jamming and glass transitions that enables exploration of much higher dimensions than are usually accessible.

  1. Structural characterization of submerged granular packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakšić, Z. M.; Šćepanović, J. R.; Lončarević, I.; Budinski-Petković, Lj.; Vrhovac, S. B.; Belić, A.

    2014-12-01

    We consider the impact of the effective gravitational acceleration on microstructural properties of granular packings through experimental studies of spherical granular materials saturated within fluids of varying density. We characterize the local organization of spheres in terms of contact connectivity, distribution of the Delaunay free volumes, and the shape factor (parameter of nonsphericity) of the Voronoï polygons. The shape factor gives a clear physical picture of the competition between less and more ordered domains of particles in experimentally obtained packings. As the effective gravity increases, the probability distribution of the shape factor becomes narrower and more localized around the lowest values of the shape factor corresponding to regular hexagon. It is found that curves of the pore distributions are asymmetric with a long tail on the right-hand side, which progressively reduces while the effective gravity gets stronger for lower densities of interstitial fluid. We show that the distribution of local areas (Voronoï cells) broadens with decreasing value of the effective gravity due to the formation of lose structures such as large pores and chainlike structures (arches or bridges). Our results should be particularly helpful in testing the newly developed simulation techniques involving liquid-related forces associated with immersed granular particles.

  2. Valve stem and packing assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wordin, J.J.

    1991-09-03

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents over tightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing. 2 figures.

  3. Valve stem and packing assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wordin, John J. (Bingham County, ID)

    1991-01-01

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.

  4. Valve stem and packing assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wordin, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.

  5. Packing Bunker and Pile Silos to Minimize Porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article discusses the issue of porosity (i.e., the portion of volume filled with gas) in silages. As porosity increases, the silage is subject to greater losses. Porosity can be reduced by adequately packing the crop at ensiling. To keep porosity below 40% a minimum bulk density of 44 lbs./cu. ...

  6. 7 CFR 51.310 - Packing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packing requirements. 51.310 Section 51.310... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Packing Requirements § 51.310 Packing requirements... the contents. (e) Tolerances: In order to allow for variations incident to proper packing, not...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1270 - Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packing. 51.1270 Section 51.1270 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Standard Pack § 51.1270 Packing. (a) Each package shall be packed...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1311 - Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packing. 51.1311 Section 51.1311 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Winter Pears 1 Standard Pack § 51.1311 Packing. (a) Each package shall be packed so that...

  9. A robotics platform for automated batch fabrication of high density, microfluidics-based DNA microarrays, with applications to single cell, multiplex assays of secreted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Habib; Sutherland, Alex; Shin, Young Shik; Hwang, Kiwook; Qin, Lidong; Krom, Russell-John; Heath, James R

    2011-09-01

    Microfluidics flow-patterning has been utilized for the construction of chip-scale miniaturized DNA and protein barcode arrays. Such arrays have been used for specific clinical and fundamental investigations in which many proteins are assayed from single cells or other small sample sizes. However, flow-patterned arrays are hand-prepared, and so are impractical for broad applications. We describe an integrated robotics/microfluidics platform for the automated preparation of such arrays, and we apply it to the batch fabrication of up to eighteen chips of flow-patterned DNA barcodes. The resulting substrates are comparable in quality with hand-made arrays and exhibit excellent substrate-to-substrate consistency. We demonstrate the utility and reproducibility of robotics-patterned barcodes by utilizing two flow-patterned chips for highly parallel assays of a panel of secreted proteins from single macrophage cells.

  10. Orientation of Pterin-6-Carboxylic Acid on Gold Capped Silicon Nanopillars Platforms: Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, John J.; Rozo, Ciro E.; Bertel, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The orientation of pterin-6-carboxylic acid on gold nanopillars was investigated by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory methods. The experimentally vibrations from pterin-6-COOH free and attached to the Au surface display vibration features indicating chemical...

  11. Numerical Simulation of Random Close Packings in Particle Deformation from Spheres to Cubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jian; LI Shui-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    Variation of packing density in particle deforming from spheres to cubes is studied. A new model is presented to describe particle deformation between different particle shapes. Deformation is simulated by relative motion of component spheres in the sphere assembly model of a particle. Random close packings of particles in deformation form spheres to cubes are simulated with an improved relaxation algorithm. Packings in both 2D and 3D cases are simulated. With the simulations, we find that the packing density increases while the particle sphericity decreases in the deformation. Spheres and cubes give the minimum (0.6404) and maximum (0.7755) of packing density in the deformation respectively. In each deforming step, packings starting from a random configuration and from the final packing of last deforming step are both simulated. The packing density in the latter case is larger than the former in two dimensions, but is smaller in three dimensions. The deformation model can be applied to other particle shapes as well.

  12. Packing Optimization of Sorbent Bed Containing Dissimilar and Irregular Shaped Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Nathan; Guttromson, Jayleen; Piowaty, Hailey

    2011-01-01

    The Fire Cartridge is a packed bed air filter with two different and separate layers of media designed to provide respiratory protection from combustion products after a fire event on the International Space Station (ISS). The first layer of media is a carbon monoxide catalyst and the second layer of media is universal carbon. During development of Fire Cartridge prototypes, the two media beds were noticed to have shifted inside the cartridge. The movement of media within the cartridge can cause mixing of the bed layers, air voids, and channeling, which could cause preferential air flow and allow contaminants to pass through without removal. An optimally packed bed mitigates these risks and ensures effective removal of contaminants from the air. In order to optimally pack each layer, vertical, horizontal, and orbital agitations were investigated and a packed bulk density was calculated for each method. Packed bulk density must be calculated for each media type to accommodate variations in particle size, shape, and density. Additionally, the optimal vibration parameters must be re-evaluated for each batch of media due to variations in particle size distribution between batches. For this application it was determined that orbital vibrations achieve an optimal pack density and the two media layers can be packed by the same method. Another finding was media with a larger size distribution of particles achieve an optimal bed pack easier than media with a smaller size distribution of particles.

  13. Nature of packs used in propellant modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, F; Stafford, S; Jackson, T L; Buckmaster, J

    2008-04-01

    In recent years we have constructed closely packed spheres using the Lubachevsky-Stillinger algorithm to generate morphological models of heterogeneous solid propellants. Improvements to the algorithm now allow us to create large polydisperse packs on a laptop computer, and to create monodisperse packs with packing fractions greater than 70% which display significant crystal order. The use of these models in the physical context motivates efforts to examine in some detail the nature of the packs, including certain statistical properties. We compare packing fractions for binary packs with long-known experimental data. Also, we discuss the near-neighbor number and the radial distribution function (RDF) for monodisperse packs and make comparisons with experimental data. We also briefly discuss the RDF for bidisperse packs. We also consider bounded monodisperse packs, and pay particular attention to the near-wall structure where we identify significant order.

  14. Deterministic indexing for packed strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye

    2017-01-01

    Given a string S of length n, the classic string indexing problem is to preprocess S into a compact data structure that supports efficient subsequent pattern queries. In the deterministic variant the goal is to solve the string indexing problem without any randomization (at preprocessing time...... or query time). In the packed variant the strings are stored with several character in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. Our main result is a new string index in the deterministic and packed setting. Given a packed string S of length n over an alphabet σ......, we show how to preprocess S in O(n) (deterministic) time and space O(n) such that given a packed pattern string of length m we can support queries in (deterministic) time O (m/α + log m + log log σ), where α = w/log σ is the number of characters packed in a word of size w = θ(log n). Our query time...

  15. The generic geometry of helices and their close-packed structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kasper; Bohr, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    The formation of helices is an ubiquitous phenomenon for molecular structures whether they are biological, organic, or inorganic, in nature. Helical structures have geometrical constraints analogous to close packing of three-dimensional crystal structures. For helical packing the geometrical cons....... For double helices comparisons are made to the A,B, and Z forms of DNA. The helical geometry of the A form is nearly close-packed. The packing density for the B and Z form are found to be approximately equal to each other....

  16. The pursuit of perfect packing

    CERN Document Server

    Weaire, Denis

    2000-01-01

    In 1998 Thomas Hales dramatically announced the solution of a problem that has long teased eminent mathematicians: what is the densest possible arrangement of identical spheres? The Pursuit of Perfect Packing recounts the story of this problem and many others that have to do with packing things together. The examples are taken from mathematics, physics, biology, and engineering, including the arrangement of soap bubbles in foam, atoms in a crystal, the architecture of the bee''s honeycomb, and the structure of the Giant''s Causeway. Using an informal style and with key references, the book also includes brief accounts of the lives of many of the scientists who devoted themselves to problems of packing over many centuries, together with wry comments on their efforts. It is an entertaining introduction to the field for both specialists and the more general public.

  17. Dealing with Nonregular Shapes Packing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonfim Amaro Júnior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the irregular strip packing problem, a particular two-dimensional cutting and packing problem in which convex/nonconvex shapes (polygons have to be packed onto a single rectangular object. We propose an approach that prescribes the integration of a metaheuristic engine (i.e., genetic algorithm and a placement rule (i.e., greedy bottom-left. Moreover, a shrinking algorithm is encapsulated into the metaheuristic engine to improve good quality solutions. To accomplish this task, we propose a no-fit polygon based heuristic that shifts polygons closer to each other. Computational experiments performed on standard benchmark problems, as well as practical case studies developed in the ambit of a large textile industry, are also reported and discussed here in order to testify the potentialities of proposed approach.

  18. Planet Packing in Circumbinary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kratter, Kaitlin M

    2013-01-01

    The recent discovery of planets orbiting main sequence binaries will provide crucial constraints for theories of binary and planet formation. The formation pathway for these planets is complicated by uncertainties in the formation mechanism of the host stars. In this paper, we compare the dynamical states of single and binary star planetary systems. Specifically, we pose two questions: (1) What does it mean for a circumbinary system to be dynamically packed? (2) How many systems are required to differentiate between a population of packed or sparse planets? We determine when circumbinary systems become dynamically unstable as a function of the separation between the host-stars and the inner planet, and the first and second planets. We show that these represent unique stability constraints compared to single-star systems. We find that although the existing Kepler data is insufficient to distinguish between a population of packed or sparse circumbinary systems, a more thorough study of circumbinary TTVs combine...

  19. Heuristics for Multidimensional Packing Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Jens

    In this thesis we consider solution methods for packing problems. Packing problems occur in many different situations both directly in the industry and as sub-problems of other problems. High-quality solutions for problems in the industrial sector may be able to reduce transportation and production...... costs significantly. For packing problems in general are given a set of items and one of more containers. The items must be placed within the container such that some objective is optimized and the items do not overlap. Items and container may be rectangular or irregular (e.g. polygons and polyhedra......) and may be defined in any number of dimensions. Solution methods are based on theory from both computational geometry and operations research. The scientific contributions of this thesis are presented in the form of six papers and a section which introduces the many problem types and recent solution...

  20. [Lens platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukaszewska-Smyk, Agnieszka; Kałuzny, Józef

    2010-01-01

    The lens platform defines lens structure and lens material. Evolution of lens comprises change in their shape, angulation of haptens and transition of three-piece lens into one-piece lens. The lens fall into two categories: rigid (PMMA) and soft (siliconic, acrylic, colameric). The main lens maaterials are polymers (hydrophilic and hydrophobic). The lens platform has an effect on biocompatibility, bioadhesion, stability of lens in capsule, degree of PCO evolution and sensitiveness to laser damages.

  1. Platform contents

    OpenAIRE

    Renault, Régis

    2014-01-01

    A monopoly platform hosts advertisers who compete on a market for horizontally differentiated products. These products may be either mass market products that appeal broadly to the entire consumer population or niche products that are tailored to the tastes of some particular group. Consumers search sequentially through ads incurring a surfing cost of moving to the next ad. They may click on an ad at some cost, which provides all relevant information and the opportunity to buy. The platform c...

  2. Cylinder valve packing nut studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, S.C. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The design, manufacture, and use of cylinder valve packing nuts have been studied to improve their resistance to failure from stress corrosion cracking. Stress frozen photoelastic models have been analyzed to measure the stress concentrations at observed points of failure. The load effects induced by assembly torque and thermal expansion of stem packing were observed by strain gaging nuts. The effects of finishing operations and heat treatment were studied by the strain gage hole boring and X-ray methods. Modifications of manufacturing and operation practices are reducing the frequency of stress corrosion failures.

  3. How dense can one pack spheres of arbitrary size distribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, S. D. S.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Andrade, J. S., Jr.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first systematic algorithm to estimate the maximum packing density of spheres when the grain sizes are drawn from an arbitrary size distribution. With an Apollonian filling rule, we implement our technique for disks in 2d and spheres in 3d. As expected, the densest packing is achieved with power-law size distributions. We also test the method on homogeneous and on empirical real distributions, and we propose a scheme to obtain experimentally accessible distributions of grain sizes with low porosity. Our method should be helpful in the development of ultra-strong ceramics and high-performance concrete.

  4. Evolution of the dense packings of spherotetrahedral particles: from ideal tetrahedra to spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Weiwei; Lu, Peng; Li, Shuixiang

    2015-10-22

    Particle shape plays a crucial role in determining packing characteristics. Real particles in nature usually have rounded corners. In this work, we systematically investigate the rounded corner effect on the dense packings of spherotetrahedral particles. The evolution of dense packing structure as the particle shape continuously deforms from a regular tetrahedron to a sphere is investigated, starting both from the regular tetrahedron and the sphere packings. The dimer crystal and the quasicrystal approximant are used as initial configurations, as well as the two densest sphere packing structures. We characterize the evolution of spherotetrahedron packings from the ideal tetrahedron (s = 0) to the sphere (s = 1) via a single roundness parameter s. The evolution can be partitioned into seven regions according to the shape variation of the packing unit cell. Interestingly, a peak of the packing density Φ is first observed at s ≈ 0.16 in the Φ-s curves where the tetrahedra have small rounded corners. The maximum density of the deformed quasicrystal approximant family (Φ ≈ 0.8763) is slightly larger than that of the deformed dimer crystal family (Φ ≈ 0.8704), and both of them exceed the densest known packing of ideal tetrahedra (Φ ≈ 0.8563).

  5. Bending and elongation effects on the random packing of curved spherocylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingyi; Li, Shuixiang; Lu, Peng; Li, Teng; Jin, Weiwei

    2012-12-01

    Studies on the macroscopic and microscopic packing properties of nonconvex particles are scarce. As a common concave form, the curved spherocylinder is used in the simulations, and its bending and elongation effects on the random packings are investigated numerically with sphere assembly models and a relaxation algorithm. The aspect ratio is demonstrated to be the main factor regarding the packing density. However, at certain aspect ratios of low densities around 0.3-0.4, the density of curved spherocylinders may increase by 15% more than that of the straight ones, indicating that bending is also a contributor to the packing density. The excluded volume of the curved spherocylinder decreases with the increase of the bending angle, indicating that the excluded volume is applicable in explaining the bending effect on the packing density variation of nonconvex particles. The packings are verified to be randomly distributed in orientation with no significant layering or in-plane order. The local arrangements are further analyzed from the radial distribution function and contact results. The results show that the random packings of nonconvex particles have significant differences and richer characteristics on both the macroscopic and microscopic properties compared with convex objects.

  6. DEM simulation of dendritic grain random packing: application to metal alloy solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedilla, Antonio; Založnik, Miha; Combeau, Hervé

    2017-06-01

    The random packing of equiaxed dendritic grains in metal-alloy solidification is numerically simulated and validated via an experimental model. This phenomenon is characterized by a driving force which is induced by the solid-liquid density difference. Thereby, the solid dendritic grains, nucleated in the melt, sediment and pack with a relatively low inertia-to-dissipation ratio, which is the so-called Stokes number. The characteristics of the particle packed porous structure such as solid packing fraction affect the final solidified product. A multi-sphere clumping Discrete Element Method (DEM) approach is employed to predict the solid packing fraction as function of the grain geometry under the solidification conditions. Five different monodisperse noncohesive frictionless particle collections are numerically packed by means of a vertical acceleration: a) three dendritic morphologies; b) spheres and c) one ellipsoidal geometry. In order to validate our numerical results with solidification conditions, the sedimentation and packing of two monodisperse collections (spherical and dendritic) is experimentally carried out in a viscous quiescent medium. The hydrodynamic similarity is respected between the actual phenomenon and the experimental model, that is a low Stokes number, o(10-3). In this way, the experimental average solid packing fraction is employed to validate the numerical model. Eventually, the average packing fraction is found to highly depend on the equiaxed dendritic grain sphericity, with looser packings for lower sphericity.

  7. Random-close packing limits for monodisperse and polydisperse hard spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranau, Vasili; Tallarek, Ulrich

    2014-06-07

    We investigate how the densities of inherent structures, which we refer to as the closest jammed configurations, are distributed for packings of 10(4) frictionless hard spheres. A computational algorithm is introduced to generate closest jammed configurations and determine corresponding densities. Closest jamming densities for monodisperse packings generated with high compression rates using Lubachevsky-Stillinger and force-biased algorithms are distributed in a narrow density range from φ = 0.634-0.636 to φ≈ 0.64; closest jamming densities for monodisperse packings generated with low compression rates converge to φ≈ 0.65 and grow rapidly when crystallization starts with very low compression rates. We interpret φ≈ 0.64 as the random-close packing (RCP) limit and φ≈ 0.65 as a lower bound of the glass close packing (GCP) limit, whereas φ = 0.634-0.636 is attributed to another characteristic (lowest typical, LT) density φLT. The three characteristic densities φLT, φRCP, and φGCP are determined for polydisperse packings with log-normal sphere radii distributions.

  8. Effects of grain size distribution on the packing fraction and shear strength of frictionless disk packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Nicolas

    2016-12-01

    Using discrete element methods, the effects of the grain size distribution on the density and the shear strength of frictionless disk packings are analyzed. Specifically, two recent findings on the relationship between the system's grain size distribution and its rheology are revisited, and their validity is tested across a broader range of distributions than what has been used in previous studies. First, the effects of the distribution on the solid fraction are explored. It is found that the distribution that produces the densest packing is not the uniform distribution by volume fractions as suggested in a recent publication. In fact, the maximal packing fraction is obtained when the grading curve follows a power law with an exponent close to 0.5 as suggested by Fuller and Thompson in 1907 and 1919 [Trans Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. 59, 1 (1907) and A Treatise on Concrete, Plain and Reinforced (1919), respectively] while studying mixtures of cement and stone aggregates. Second, the effects of the distribution on the shear strength are analyzed. It is confirmed that these systems exhibit a small shear strength, even if composed of frictionless particles as has been shown recently in several works. It is also found that this shear strength is independent of the grain size distribution. This counterintuitive result has previously been shown for the uniform distribution by volume fractions. In this paper, it is shown that this observation keeps true for different shapes of the grain size distribution.

  9. Silver-capped silicon nanopillar platforms for adsorption studies of folic acid using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Jaime; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Wu, Kaiyu

    2015-01-01

    The study of the interactions of folic acid (FA) with surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates is relevant for understanding its adsorption mechanismand for fabricating analytical devices for detection ofmalignant cells over-expressing folate receptors. This paper presents a study of the adso......The study of the interactions of folic acid (FA) with surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates is relevant for understanding its adsorption mechanismand for fabricating analytical devices for detection ofmalignant cells over-expressing folate receptors. This paper presents a study...... of the adsorption of FA on silver-capped silicon nanopillar substrates employing surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. The experimentally observed vibrations from free FA and FA bound to the Ag surface display different vibrational spectra indicating chemical...... interaction of the molecule with the metal surface. Density functional theory calculations show that the Ag–FA interaction is primarily through the nitrogen from the pteridine ring anchoring to the Ag metal surface. To investigate the Ag–FA binding behavior further, the adsorption isotherm of FA on the silver...

  10. Pack cementation coatings for alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yi-Rong; Zheng, Minhui; Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The halide-activated pack cementation process was modified to produce a Ge-doped silicide diffusion coating on a Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb alloy in a single processing step. The morphology and composition of the coating depended both on the composition of the pack and on the composition and microstructure of the substrate. Higher Ge content in the pack suppressed the formation of CrSi{sub 2} and reduced the growth kinetics of the coating. Ge was not homogeneously distributed in the coatings. In cyclic and isothermal oxidation in air at 700 and 1050{degrees}C, the Ge-doped silicide coating protected the Cr-Nb alloys from significant oxidation by the formation of a Ge-doped silica film. The codeposition and diffusion of aluminum and chromium into low alloy steel have been achieved using elemental Al and Cr powders and a two-step pack cementation process. Sequential process treatments at 925{degrees}C and 1150{degrees}C yield dense and uniform ferrite coatings, whose compositions are close to either Fe{sub 3}Al or else FeAl plus a lower Cr content, when processed under different conditions. The higher content of Al in the coatings was predicted by thermodynamic calculations of equilibrium in the gas phase. The effect of the particle size of the metal powders on the surface composition of the coating has been studied for various combinations of Al and Cr powders.

  11. Wire and Packing Tape Sandwiches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can combine craft wire with clear packing tape to create a two-dimensional design that can be bent and twisted to create a three-dimensional form. Students sandwich wire designs between two layers of tape. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  12. Coking technology using packed coal mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznichenko, V.M.; Shteinberg, Eh.A.; Tolstoi, A.P. (Khar' kovskii Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Uglekhimicheskii Institut, Kharkov (Ukrainian SSR))

    1991-08-01

    Discusses coking of packed coal charges in the FRG, USSR, France, India, Poland and Czechoslovakia. The following aspects are evaluated: types of weakly caking coals that are used as components of packed mixtures, energy consumption of packing, effects of coal mixture packing on coke oven design, number of coke ovens in a battery, heating temperature, coking time, coke properties, investment and operating cost. Statistical data that characterize the Saarberg packing process used in the FRG are analyzed. Packing coal mixtures for coking improves coke quality and reduces environmental pollution. 4 refs.

  13. The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find...

  14. Characterization of maximally random jammed sphere packings: Voronoi correlation functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Michael A; Torquato, Salvatore

    2014-11-01

    We characterize the structure of maximally random jammed (MRJ) sphere packings by computing the Minkowski functionals (volume, surface area, and integrated mean curvature) of their associated Voronoi cells. The probability distribution functions of these functionals of Voronoi cells in MRJ sphere packings are qualitatively similar to those of an equilibrium hard-sphere liquid and partly even to the uncorrelated Poisson point process, implying that such local statistics are relatively structurally insensitive. This is not surprising because the Minkowski functionals of a single Voronoi cell incorporate only local information and are insensitive to global structural information. To improve upon this, we introduce descriptors that incorporate nonlocal information via the correlation functions of the Minkowski functionals of two cells at a given distance as well as certain cell-cell probability density functions. We evaluate these higher-order functions for our MRJ packings as well as equilibrium hard spheres and the Poisson point process. It is shown that these Minkowski correlation and density functions contain visibly more information than the corresponding standard pair-correlation functions. We find strong anticorrelations in the Voronoi volumes for the hyperuniform MRJ packings, consistent with previous findings for other pair correlations [A. Donev et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090604 (2005)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.95.090604], indicating that large-scale volume fluctuations are suppressed by accompanying large Voronoi cells with small cells, and vice versa. In contrast to the aforementioned local Voronoi statistics, the correlation functions of the Voronoi cells qualitatively distinguish the structure of MRJ sphere packings (prototypical glasses) from that of not only the Poisson point process but also the correlated equilibrium hard-sphere liquids. Moreover, while we did not find any perfect icosahedra (the locally densest possible structure in which a

  15. Packing hyperspheres in high-dimensional Euclidean spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoge, Monica; Donev, Aleksandar; Stillinger, Frank H; Torquato, Salvatore

    2006-10-01

    We present a study of disordered jammed hard-sphere packings in four-, five-, and six-dimensional Euclidean spaces. Using a collision-driven packing generation algorithm, we obtain the first estimates for the packing fractions of the maximally random jammed (MRJ) states for space dimensions d=4, 5, and 6 to be phi(MRJ) approximately 0.46, 0.31, and 0.20, respectively. To a good approximation, the MRJ density obeys the scaling form phi(MRJ)=c1/2(d)+(c2d)/2d, where c1=-2.72 and c2=2.56, which appears to be consistent with the high-dimensional asymptotic limit, albeit with different coefficients. Calculations of the pair correlation function g2(r) and structure factor S(k) for these states show that short-range ordering appreciably decreases with increasing dimension, consistent with a recently proposed "decorrelation principle," which, among other things, states that unconstrained correlations diminish as the dimension increases and vanish entirely in the limit d-->infinity. As in three dimensions (where phi(MRJ) approximately 0.64), the packings show no signs of crystallization, are isostatic, and have a power-law divergence in g2(r) at contact with power-law exponent approximately 0.4. Across dimensions, the cumulative number of neighbors equals the kissing number of the conjectured densest packing close to where g2(r) has its first minimum. Additionally, we obtain estimates for the freezing and melting packing fractions for the equilibrium hard-sphere fluid-solid transition, phi(F) approximately 0.32 and phi(M) approximately 0.39, respectively, for d=4, and phi(F) approximately 0.20 and phi(M) approximately 0.25, respectively, for d=5. Although our results indicate the stable phase at high density is a crystalline solid, nucleation appears to be strongly suppressed with increasing dimension.

  16. ITS Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøfting, Svend; Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Aalborg University and two local companies have over the past four years developed and tested an ITS Platform, which can be used for communication with cars and for providing a number of services to the drivers. The purpose has been to perform a technological test of the possible use of a hidden ...... not have to be very intelligent. This is gradually taken over by applications on smart phones. The ITS Platform with 425 test drivers is now completely developed and can be used for technological testing of e.g. payment systems.......Aalborg University and two local companies have over the past four years developed and tested an ITS Platform, which can be used for communication with cars and for providing a number of services to the drivers. The purpose has been to perform a technological test of the possible use of a hidden...

  17. Test-bed’s Development of the Packed Bed with Both Revolution&Rotation’s High Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongpeng; Dong, Zhiqiang; He, Bianhua

    2017-06-01

    Rotating packed bed is a chemical reactor which used the effect of rotating centrifugal force to be equivalent in the gravity field. To increase the fluid flow time in bed, to extend the controlled process in bed’s reaction and to strengthen the role of influencing factor, a new type of rotating packed bed is proposed in the paper which is running on the revolution platform. Unfortunately, the bad synergy effect of revolution&rotation in packed bed has induced the serious vibration problem. Through optimizing the mass center of packed bed and disposing local weight, the stability of the operation of the bench was more improved. The stability of the operation of the bench was that more improved the bed’s vibration amplitude was analyzed by using the ANSYS. The results show that the test-bed of both the Revolution&Rotation’s Packed bed is a practical project in the Rotating packed bed’s development.

  18. ITS Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøfting, Svend; Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Aalborg University and two local companies have over the past four years developed and tested an ITS Platform, which can be used for communication with cars and for providing a number of services to the drivers. The purpose has been to perform a technological test of the possible use of a hidden ...... not have to be very intelligent. This is gradually taken over by applications on smart phones. The ITS Platform with 425 test drivers is now completely developed and can be used for technological testing of e.g. payment systems....

  19. Influence of particle size distribution on random close packing of spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Kenneth W; Weeks, Eric R

    2014-08-01

    The densest amorphous packing of rigid particles is known as random close packing. It has long been appreciated that higher densities are achieved by using collections of particles with a variety of sizes. For spheres, the variety of sizes is often quantified by the polydispersity of the particle size distribution: the standard deviation of the radius divided by the mean radius. Several prior studies quantified the increase of the packing density as a function of polydispersity. A particle size distribution is also characterized by its skewness, kurtosis, and higher moments, but the influence of these parameters has not been carefully quantified before. In this work, we numerically generate many sphere packings with different particle radii distributions, varying polydispersity and skewness independently of one another. We find that the packing density can increase significantly with increasing skewness and in some cases skewness can have a larger effect than polydispersity. However, the packing fraction is relatively insensitive to the higher moment value of the kurtosis. We present a simple empirical formula for the value of the random close packing density as a function of polydispersity and skewness.

  20. Composição química e digestibilidade 'in vitro' de silagens de milho com distintos teores de umidade e níveis de compactação Chemical composition and 'in vitro' digestibility of maize silages with different maturities and packing densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Clenio Diesel Senger

    2005-12-01

    , ocorrendo o inverso na fração B2. A fração C aumentou apenas nos tratamentos com 28 % MS. Não houve variação significativa tanto na DIVMS quanto na DIVMO das silagens em relação à forragem fresca.An experiment was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition and 'in vitro' digestibility of maize silages and their respective original materials, harvested at three maturities (20, 26 and 28 % DM, and ensiled with high or low packing density in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement with six replicates. Protein and carbohydrate fractions were determined to supply mechanistic models of intake and performance predictions. Effluent was produced (61,2 liters ton-1 only in treatment with higher moisture and higher packing density. IVDMD varied from 46,2 to 57,9 %, and increased significantly with increasing DM level. IVOMD (44,5 - 54,2 % was smaller only in 20 % DM silages. Soluble crude protein (SCP ranged between 44,8 - 54,3 % of crude protein (CP, and NPN reached 67 - 91 % of SCP. NDIP was 16,2 - 25,1 % of CP and ADIP varied between 6,7 - 12,8 % of CP. The higher values of ADIP were obtained in silages with lower DM. Fraction A of carbohydrates varied between 5,3 - 10 % DM being significantly higher in 28 % DM silage with higher packing. B1 fraction (13,1 - 25,8 % DM increased significantly with increasing DM content. B2 fraction (40,2 - 50,3 % DM and were not affected with increasing DM content. Fraction C varied from 8,8 to 11,9 % DM. When silages were compared with original forages, an increasing level of ADIP and SCP, a decreasing level of NDIP and similar values for NPN as a percentage of SCP were observed, except in high packed 20 % DM silage. Within the carbohydrates fraction a decrease in fraction A content was observed for all treatments, except for the 28 % DM high packing density silage. An increasing level in B1 fraction in 26 and 28 % DM treatments, and similar values in 20 % DM were observed. The opposite was observed in B2 fraction. Fraction C increased only

  1. Platform computing

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Platform Computing releases first grid-enabled workload management solution for IBM eServer Intel and UNIX high performance computing clusters. This Out-of-the-box solution maximizes the performance and capability of applications on IBM HPC clusters" (1/2 page) .

  2. Fast Searching in Packed Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Given strings P and Q the (exact) string matching problem is to find all positions of substrings in Q matching P. The classical Knuth-Morris-Pratt algorithm [SIAM J. Comput., 1977] solves the string matching problem in linear time which is optimal if we can only read one character at the time....... However, most strings are stored in a computer in a packed representation with several characters in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. In this paper we study the worst-case complexity of string matching on strings given in packed representation. Let m...... algorithm using time O(n/log(sigma) n + m + occ) Here occ is the number of occurrences of P in Q. For m = o(n) this improves the O(n) bound...

  3. Characteristics of fluidized-packed beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, J. D.; Mecham, W. J.

    1968-01-01

    Study of fluidized-packed bed includes investigation of heat transfer, solids-gas mixing, and elutriation characteristics. A fluidized-packed bed is a system involving the fluidization of small particles in the voids of a packed bed of larger nonfluidized particles.

  4. Complications of balloon packing in epistaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeeren, Lenka; Derks, Wynia; Fokkens, Wytske; Menger, Dirk Jan

    2015-01-01

    Although balloon packing appears to be efficient to control epistaxis, severe local complications can occur. We describe four patients with local lesions after balloon packing. Prolonged balloon packing can cause damage to nasal mucosa, septum and alar skin (nasal mucosa, the cartilaginous skeleton

  5. 7 CFR 51.1527 - Standard pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... package. The number of plums or prunes in California peach boxes or lug boxes shall not vary more than 4... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Standard Pack § 51.1527 Standard pack. (a) Packing. (1) All... plums or prunes in the top layer of any package shall be reasonably representative in quality and...

  6. Random packing of colloids and granular matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with the random packing of colloids and granular matter. A random packing is a stable disordered collection of touching particles, without long-range positional and orientational order. Experimental random packings of particles with the same shape but made of different materials sh

  7. Towards optimal packed string matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany

    2014-01-01

    In the packed string matching problem, it is assumed that each machine word can accommodate up to α characters, thus an n-character string occupies n/α memory words.(a) We extend the Crochemore–Perrin constant-space O(n)-time string-matching algorithm to run in optimal O(n/α) time and even in real......-time, achieving a factor α speedup over traditional algorithms that examine each character individually. Our macro-level algorithm only uses the standard AC0 instructions of the word-RAM model (i.e. no integer multiplication) plus two specialized micro-level AC0 word-size packed-string instructions. The main word...... matching work.(b) We also consider the complexity of the packed string matching problem in the classical word-RAM model in the absence of the specialized micro-level instructions wssm and wslm. We propose micro-level algorithms for the theoretically efficient emulation using parallel algorithms techniques...

  8. Diffusion in Jammed Particle Packs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolintineanu, Dan S; Grest, Gary S; Lechman, Jeremy B; Silbert, Leonardo E

    2015-08-21

    Using random walk simulations we explore diffusive transport through monodisperse sphere packings over a range of packing fractions ϕ in the vicinity of the jamming transition at ϕ(c). Various diffusion properties are computed over several orders of magnitude in both time and packing pressure. Two well-separated regimes of normal "Fickian" diffusion, where the mean squared displacement is linear in time, are observed. The first corresponds to diffusion inside individual spheres, while the latter is the long-time bulk diffusion. The intermediate anomalous diffusion regime and the long-time value of the diffusion coefficient are both shown to be controlled by particle contacts, which in turn depend on proximity to ϕ(c). The time required to recover normal diffusion t* scales as (ϕ-ϕ(c))(-0.5) and the long-time diffusivity D(∞)∼(ϕ-ϕ(c))0.5, or D(∞)∼1/t*. It is shown that the distribution of mean first passage times associated with the escape of random walkers between neighboring particles controls both t* and D(∞) in the limit ϕ→ϕ(c).

  9. ObsPack: a framework for the preparation, delivery, and attribution of atmospheric greenhouse gas data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masarie, K. A.; Peters, W.; Jacobson, A. R.; Tans, P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Observation Package (ObsPack) is a framework designed to bring together atmospheric greenhouse gas observations from a variety of sampling platforms, prepare them with specific applications in mind, and package and distribute them in a self-consistent and well-documented product. Data products creat

  10. ObsPack: a framework for the preparation, delivery, and attribution of atmospheric greenhouse gas measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masarie, K. A.; Peters, W.; Jacobson, A. R.; Tans, P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Observation Package (ObsPack) is a framework designed to bring together atmospheric greenhouse gas observations from a variety of sampling platforms, prepare them with specific applications in mind, and package and distribute them in a self-consistent and well-documented product. Data products creat

  11. Improved Online Square-into-Square Packing

    OpenAIRE

    Brubach, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we show an improved bound and new algorithm for the online square-into-square packing problem. This two-dimensional packing problem involves packing an online sequence of squares into a unit square container without any two squares overlapping. The goal is to find the largest area $\\alpha$ such that any set of squares with total area $\\alpha$ can be packed. We show an algorithm that can pack any set of squares with total area $\\alpha \\leq 3/8$ into a unit square in an online se...

  12. Platform Constellations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina Stefanova; Damsgaard, Jan

    2016-01-01

    messaging apps KakaoTalk and LINE, we are able to gain valuable insights about the nature of these new constructions and to capture and synthesize their main characteristics in a framework. Our results show that platform constellations possess unique innovative capabilities, which can improve users......’ acquisition and users’ engagement rates as well as unlock new sources of value creation and diversify revenue streams....

  13. Adhesive loose packings of small dry particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenwei; Li, Shuiqing; Baule, Adrian; Makse, Hernán A.

    We explore adhesive loose packings of dry small spherical particles of micrometer size using 3D discrete-element simulations with adhesive contact mechanics. A dimensionless adhesion parameter ($Ad$) successfully combines the effects of particle velocities, sizes and the work of adhesion, identifying a universal regime of adhesive packings for $Ad>1$. The structural properties of the packings in this regime are well described by an ensemble approach based on a coarse-grained volume function that includes correlations between bulk and contact spheres. Our theoretical and numerical results predict: (i) An equation of state for adhesive loose packings that appears as a continuation from the frictionless random close packing (RCP) point in the jamming phase diagram; (ii) The existence of a maximal loose packing point at the coordination number $Z=2$ and packing fraction $\\phi=1/2^{3}$. Our results highlight that adhesion leads to a universal packing regime at packing fractions much smaller than the random loose packing, which can be described within a statistical mechanical framework. We present a general phase diagram of jammed matter comprising frictionless, frictional, adhesive as well as non-spherical particles, providing a classification of packings in terms of their continuation from the spherical frictionless RCP.

  14. Equipment for removing and refitting resilient packing in a cardan joint on the sea bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuson, S.P.R.

    1983-06-08

    Equipment for removing and refitting resilient packing in a cardan joint at the base of a platform or column mounted on the sea bed, the cardan joint connected a pipe in the sea bed with a pipe leading up the column, said packing comprising a stack of rubber rings and metallic washers disposed between end plates and capable of being deformed in torsion and said packing being compressed between an abutment on the end of a hollow shaft in the cardan joint and an abutment on the adjacent end of a pipe. The equipment, comprising a casing, a carriage movable along guides on the casing, and a fork-shaped gripper mounted on the carriage, is provided with hooks adapted to secure the casing to the cardan joint, and drive means operable to move the carriage so that the gripper embraces the packing when the casing is secured to the cardan joint, said gripper including power operated pinchers having jaws arranged to engage lugs on the end plates of the packing and operable to force the end plates towards one another to compress the packing and reduce the overall length of the packing. 6 drawings.

  15. Imaging phospholipid conformational disorder and packing in giant multilamellar liposome by confocal Raman microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noothalapati, Hemanth; Iwasaki, Keita; Yoshimoto, Chikako; Yoshikiyo, Keisuke; Nishikawa, Tomoe; Ando, Masahiro; Hamaguchi, Hiro-O; Yamamoto, Tatsuyuki

    2017-12-05

    Liposomes are closed phospholipid bilayer systems that have profound applications in fundamental cell biology, pharmaceutics and medicine. Depending on the composition (pure or mixture of phospholipids, presence of cholesterol) and preparation protocol, intra- and inter-chain molecular interactions vary leading to changes in the quality (order and packing) of liposomes. So far it is not possible to image conformational disorders and packing densities within a liposome in a straightforward manner. In this study, we utilized confocal Raman microspectroscopy to visualize structural disorders and packing efficiency within a giant multilamellar liposome model by focusing mainly on three regions in the vibrational spectrum (CC stretching, CH deformation and CH stretching). We estimated properties such as trans/gauche isomers and lateral packing probability. Interestingly, our Raman imaging studies revealed gel phase rich domains and heterogeneous lateral packing within the giant multilamellar liposome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Granular packing influences the bulk density of DDGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the quantity of ethanol produced continues to increase, the amount of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), the primary coproduct of ethanol manufacturing, has become more widely available. Currently, the main consumer of DDGS is the livestock industry, but new value added uses are on th...

  17. Particle size and packing characterization by diffuse light transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henrik Ehlers; Jyrki Hein(a)m(a)ki; Jouko Yliruusi

    2012-01-01

    Particle size,packing density and blend composition of glass ballotini,microcrystalline cellulose pellets and theophylline granules were studied by diffuse light transmission.Diffuse visible light was directed to the sample and the intensity of the light transmitted to the opposite side of the sample was measured through a diffusing lens using a phototransistor.Light transmission was found to decrease with decreasing particle size and with increasing packing density.There was a correlation,though somewhat irregular,between light transmission and particle size for glass ballotini and microcrystalline cellulose pellets,and a strong near-linear correlation between light transmission and particle size for theophylline granules.The effect of packing density on light transmission was significant.Differentiating the composition of binary blends of microcrystalline cellulose pellets and glass ballotini and blends of theophylline granules was found possible on the basis of light transmission.The method proposed showed potential as a rapid,simple and inexpensive analytical tool for basic process diagnostics.

  18. Development of deployable structures for large space platform systems, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, R. L.; Nelson, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Eight deployable platform design objectives were established: autodeploy/retract; fully integrated utilities; configuration variability; versatile payload and subsystem interfaces; structural and packing efficiency; 1986 technology readiness; minimum EVA/RMS; and Shuttle operational compatibility.

  19. SOA, SoBI & EDA - Paradigms for Integration Capabilities of BI Platform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    STOICA, Marian; GHILIC-MICU, Bogdan; Marinela, MIRCEA

    2008-01-01

    A Business Intelligence (BI) provider may offer a basic solution, a packed application or a comprising BI platform which integrates components from individual technologies in a synergic system. The providersâ...

  20. Hard convex lens-shaped particles: Densest-known packings and phase behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinacchi, Giorgio, E-mail: giorgio.cinacchi@uam.es [Departamento de Física Teórica de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Física de la Materia Condensada (IFIMAC), Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales “Nicolás Cabrera,” Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Torquato, Salvatore, E-mail: torquato@princeton.edu [Department of Chemistry, Department of Physics, Institute for the Science and Technology of Materials, Program for Applied and Computational Mathematics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2015-12-14

    By using theoretical methods and Monte Carlo simulations, this work investigates dense ordered packings and equilibrium phase behavior (from the low-density isotropic fluid regime to the high-density crystalline solid regime) of monodisperse systems of hard convex lens-shaped particles as defined by the volume common to two intersecting congruent spheres. We show that, while the overall similarity of their shape to that of hard oblate ellipsoids is reflected in a qualitatively similar phase diagram, differences are more pronounced in the high-density crystal phase up to the densest-known packings determined here. In contrast to those non-(Bravais)-lattice two-particle basis crystals that are the densest-known packings of hard (oblate) ellipsoids, hard convex lens-shaped particles pack more densely in two types of degenerate crystalline structures: (i) non-(Bravais)-lattice two-particle basis body-centered-orthorhombic-like crystals and (ii) (Bravais) lattice monoclinic crystals. By stacking at will, regularly or irregularly, laminae of these two crystals, infinitely degenerate, generally non-periodic in the stacking direction, dense packings can be constructed that are consistent with recent organizing principles. While deferring the assessment of which of these dense ordered structures is thermodynamically stable in the high-density crystalline solid regime, the degeneracy of their densest-known packings strongly suggests that colloidal convex lens-shaped particles could be better glass formers than colloidal spheres because of the additional rotational degrees of freedom.

  1. Robust algorithm to generate a diverse class of dense disordered and ordered sphere packings via linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, S; Jiao, Y

    2010-12-01

    We have formulated the problem of generating dense packings of nonoverlapping, nontiling nonspherical particles within an adaptive fundamental cell subject to periodic boundary conditions as an optimization problem called the adaptive-shrinking cell (ASC) formulation [S. Torquato and Y. Jiao, Phys. Rev. E 80, 041104 (2009)]. Because the objective function and impenetrability constraints can be exactly linearized for sphere packings with a size distribution in d-dimensional Euclidean space R(d), it is most suitable and natural to solve the corresponding ASC optimization problem using sequential-linear-programming (SLP) techniques. We implement an SLP solution to produce robustly a wide spectrum of jammed sphere packings in R(d) for d=2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 with a diversity of disorder and densities up to the respective maximal densities. A novel feature of this deterministic algorithm is that it can produce a broad range of inherent structures (locally maximally dense and mechanically stable packings), besides the usual disordered ones (such as the maximally random jammed state), with very small computational cost compared to that of the best known packing algorithms by tuning the radius of the influence sphere. For example, in three dimensions, we show that it can produce with high probability a variety of strictly jammed packings with a packing density anywhere in the wide range [0.6, 0.7408...], where π/√18 = 0.7408... corresponds to the density of the densest packing. We also apply the algorithm to generate various disordered packings as well as the maximally dense packings for d=2, 4, 5, and 6. Our jammed sphere packings are characterized and compared to the corresponding packings generated by the well-known Lubachevsky-Stillinger (LS) molecular-dynamics packing algorithm. Compared to the LS procedure, our SLP protocol is able to ensure that the final packings are truly jammed, produces disordered jammed packings with anomalously low densities, and is appreciably

  2. The “Theoreticals” Pack

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The Particle Zoo is a colourful set of hand-made soft toys representing the particles in the Standard Model and beyond. It includes a “theoreticals” pack where you can find yet undiscovered particles: the best-selling Higgs boson, the graviton, the tachyon, and dark matter. Supersymmetric particle soft toys are also available on demand. But what would happen to the zoo if Nature had prepared some unexpected surprises? Julie Peasley, the zookeeper, is ready to sew new smiling faces…   The "Theoreticals" pack in the Particle Zoo. There is only one place in the world where you can buy a smiling Higgs boson and it’s not at CERN, although this is where scientists hope to observe it. The blue star-shaped particle is the best seller of Julie Peasley’s Particle Zoo – a collection of tens of soft toys representing all sorts of particles, including composite and decaying particles.  Over the years Julie’s zoo ...

  3. Fast searching in packed strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Given strings P and Q the (exact) string matching problem is to find all positions of substrings in Q matching P. The classical Knuth–Morris–Pratt algorithm [SIAM J. Comput. 6 (2) (1977) 323–350] solves the string matching problem in linear time which is optimal if we can only read one character...... at the time. However, most strings are stored in a computer in a packed representation with several characters in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. In this paper we study the worst-case complexity of string matching on strings given in packed representation....... Let m⩽n be the lengths P and Q, respectively, and let σ denote the size of the alphabet. On a standard unit-cost word-RAM with logarithmic word size we present an algorithm using timeO(nlogσn+m+occ). Here occ is the number of occurrences of P in Q. For m=o(n) this improves the O(n) bound of the Knuth...

  4. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY(INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Numerical Simulation of Random Close Packings in Particle Deformation from Spheres to Cubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Li, Shui-Xiang

    2008-11-01

    Variation of packing density in particle deforming from spheres to cubes is studied. A new model is presented to describe particle deformation between different particle shapes. Deformation is simulated by relative motion of component spheres in the sphere assembly model of a particle. Random close packings of particles in deformation form spheres to cubes are simulated with an improved relaxation algorithm. Packings in both 2D and 3D cases are simulated. With the simulations, we find that the packing density increases while the particle sphericity decreases in the deformation. Spheres and cubes give the minimum (0.6404) and maximum (0.7755) of packing density in the deformation respectively. In each deforming step, packings starting from a random configuration and from the final packing of last deforming step are both simulated. The packing density in the latter case is larger than the former in two dimensions, but is smaller in three dimensions. The deformation model can be applied to other particle shapes as well.

  5. Visual nesting system for irregular cutting-stock problem based on rubber band packing algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Liao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the packing problem of irregular items allocated into a rectangular sheet to minimize the waste. Conventional solution is not visual during the packing process. It obtains a reasonable and relatively satisfactory solution between the nesting time and nesting solution. This article adopts a physical method that uses rubber band packing algorithm to simulate a rubber band wrapping those packing irregular items. The simulation shows a visual and fast packing process. The resultant rubber band force is applied in the packing items to translate, rotate, and slide them to make the area decrease and obtain a high packing density. An improved analogy QuickHull algorithm is presented to obtain extreme points of rubber band convex hull. An adaptive module could set a variable rubber band force and a variable time step to make a proper convergence and no intersection. A quick convex decomposition method is used to solve the problem of concave polygon. A plural vector expression approach is adopted to calculate the resultant vector of the rubber band force. Several cases are compared with the benchmark problems to prove rubber band packing algorithm performance.

  6. Molecular packing in 1-hexanol-DMPC bilayers studied by molecular dynamics simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, U.R.; Peters, Günther H.j.; Westh, P.

    2007-01-01

    The structure and molecular packing density of a “mismatched” solute, 1-hexanol, in lipid membranes of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) was studied by molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the average location and orientation of the hexanol molecules matched earlier experimental data...... on comparable systems. The local density or molecular packing in DMPC–hexanol was elucidated through the average Voronoi volumes of all heavy (non-hydrogen) atoms. Analogous analysis was conducted on trajectories from simulations of pure 1-hexanol and pure (hydrated) DMPC bilayers. The results suggested...... of the alcohol upon partitioning and an even stronger loosening in the packing of the lipid. Furthermore, analysis of Voronoi volumes along the membrane normal identifies a distinctive depth dependence of the changes in molecular packing. The outer (interfacial) part of the lipid acyl chains (up to C8...

  7. High performance liquid chromatography column packings with deliberately broadened particle size distribution: relation between column performance and packing structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liekens, Anuschka; Billen, Jeroen; Sherant, Ron; Ritchie, Harald; Denayer, Joeri; Desmet, Gert

    2011-09-23

    The effect of the addition of 25%, 50% and 75% (weight percent, wt%) of larger particles (resp. 3 and 5 μm) to a commercial batch of 1.9 μm particles has been investigated as an academic exercise to study the effects of particle size distribution on the kinetic performance of packed bed columns in a magnified way. Comparing the performance of the different mixtures in a kinetic plot, it could be irrefutably shown that the addition of larger particles to a commercial batch of small particles cannot be expected to lead to an improved kinetic performance. Whereas the addition of 25 wt% of larger particles still only has a minor negative effect, a significantly deteriorated performance is obtained when 50 or 75 wt% of larger particles are added. In this case, separation impedance number increases up to 200% were observed. Studying the packing structure through computational packing simulations, together with the experimental determination of the external porosity, helped in understanding the obtained results. This showed that small particles tend to settle in the flow-through pores surrounding the larger particles, leading to very high packing densities (external porosities as low as 32% were observed) and also negatively influencing the column permeability as well as the band broadening (because of the broadened flow-through pore size range).

  8. The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find......Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... the competitive ratio of various natural algorithms. We study the general versions of the problems as well as the parameterized versions where there is an upper bound of on the item sizes, for some integer k....

  9. Protein packing quality using Delaunay complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Winter, Pawel; Karplus, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    A new method for estimating the packing quality of protein structures is presented. Atoms in high quality protein crystal structures are very uniformly distributed which is difficult to reproduce using structure prediction methods. Packing quality measures can therefore be used to assess structures...... of low quality and even to refine them. Previous methods mainly use the Voronoi cells of atoms to assess packing quality. The presented method uses only the lengths of edges in the Delaunay complex which is faster to compute since volumes of Voronoi cells are not evaluated explicitly. This is a novel...... application of the Delaunay complex that can improve the speed of packing quality computations. Doing so is an important step for, e.g., integrating packing measures into structure refinement methods. High- and low-resolution X-ray crystal structures were chosen to represent well- and poorly-packed structures...

  10. Electronic Origins of Anomalous Twin Boundary Energies in Hexagonal Close Packed Transition Metals

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, M.; Kacher, J.; Sluiter, M.H.F.; L. Qi; Olmsted, D. L.; van de Walle, A.; Morris, J. W., Jr.; Minor, A. M.; Asta, M.

    2015-01-01

    Density-functional-theory calculations of twin-boundary energies in hexagonal close packed metals reveal anomalously low values for elemental Tc and Re, which can be lowered further by alloying with solutes that reduce the electron per atom ratio. The anomalous behavior is linked to atomic geometries in the interface similar to those observed in bulk tetrahedrally close packed phases. The results establish a link between twin-boundary energetics and the theory of bulk structural stability in ...

  11. L1-norm packings from function fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongli

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we study some packings in a cube, namely, how to pack n points in a cube so as to maximize the minimal distance. The distance is induced by the L1-norm which is analogous to the Hamming distance in coding theory. Two constructions with reasonable parameters are obtained, by using some results from a function field including divisor class group, narrow ray class group, and so on. We also present some asymptotic results of the two packings.

  12. Circle Packing for Origami Design Is Hard

    CERN Document Server

    Demaine, Erik D; Lang, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    We show that deciding whether a given set of circles can be packed into a rectangle, an equilateral triangle, or a unit square are NP-hard problems, settling the complexity of these natural packing problems. On the positive side, we show that any set of circles of total area 1 can be packed into a square of size 8/pi=2.546... These results are motivated by problems arising in the context of origami design.

  13. SPECTRUM OF DIRECTED KIRKMAN PACKING DESIGNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangYan; DuBeiliang

    2003-01-01

    The problem studied in this article is the directed Kirkman packing, the resolvable directed packing which requires all blocks to be of size three except that ,each resolution class should contain either one block of size two(when v=2(mod 3)) or one block of size four (when v=l (mod 3)). A directed Kirkman packing design DKPD(v) is a resolvable directed packing of a v-set by the maximum possible number of resolution classes of this type. This article investigates the spectrum of DKPD(v) and it is found that it contains all positive integers v≥3 and v≠5,6.

  14. Minimally packed phases in holography

    CERN Document Server

    Donos, Aristomenis

    2015-01-01

    We numerically construct asymptotically AdS black brane solutions of $D=4$ Einstein-Maxwell theory coupled to a pseudoscalar. The solutions are holographically dual to $d=3$ CFTs held at constant chemical potential and magnetic field that spontaneously break translation invariance leading to the spontaneous formation of abelian and momentum magnetisation currents flowing around the plaquettes of a periodic Bravais lattice. We analyse the three-dimensional moduli space of lattice solutions, which are generically oblique, and show that the free energy is minimised by the triangular lattice, associated with minimal packing of circles in the plane. The triangular structure persists at low temperatures indicating the existence of novel crystalline ground states.

  15. Particle-size distribution and packing fraction of geometric random packings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the geometric random packing and void fraction of polydisperse particles. It is demonstrated that the bimodal packing can be transformed into a continuous particle-size distribution of the power law type. It follows that a maximum packing fraction of particles is obtained when t

  16. Effect of long-range repulsive Coulomb interactions on packing structure of adhesive particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng; Li, Shuiqing; Liu, Wenwei; Makse, Hernán A

    2016-02-14

    The packing of charged micron-sized particles is investigated using discrete element simulations based on adhesive contact dynamic model. The formation process and the final obtained structures of ballistic packings are studied to show the effect of interparticle Coulomb force. It is found that increasing the charge on particles causes a remarkable decrease of the packing volume fraction ϕ and the average coordination number 〈Z〉, indicating a looser and chainlike structure. Force-scaling analysis shows that the long-range Coulomb interaction changes packing structures through its influence on particle inertia before they are bonded into the force networks. Once contact networks are formed, the expansion effect caused by repulsive Coulomb forces are dominated by short-range adhesion. Based on abundant results from simulations, a dimensionless adhesion parameter Ad*, which combines the effects of the particle inertia, the short-range adhesion and the long-range Coulomb interaction, is proposed and successfully scales the packing results for micron-sized particles within the latest derived adhesive loose packing (ALP) regime. The structural properties of our packings follow well the recent theoretical prediction which is described by an ensemble approach based on a coarse-grained volume function, indicating some kind of universality in the low packing density regime of the phase diagram regardless of adhesion or particle charge. Based on the comprehensive consideration of the complicated inter-particle interactions, our findings provide insight into the roles of short-range adhesion and repulsive Coulomb force during packing formation and should be useful for further design of packings.

  17. Packing Optimization of an Intentionally Stratified Sorbent Bed Containing Dissimilar Media Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Jessica; Guttromson, Jayleen; Holland, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    The Fire Cartridge is a packed bed air filter with two different and separate layers of media designed to provide respiratory protection from combustion products after a fire event on the International Space Station (ISS). The first layer of media is a carbon monoxide catalyst made from gold nanoparticles dispersed on iron oxide. The second layer of media is universal carbon, commonly used in commercial respirator filters. Each layer must be optimally packed to effectively remove contaminants from the air. Optimal packing is achieved by vibratory agitations. However, if post-packing movement of the media within the cartridge occurs, mixing of the bed layers, air voids, and channeling could cause preferential air flow and allow contaminants to pass. Several iterations of prototype fire cartridges were developed to reduce post-packing movement of the media within each layer (settling), and to prevent mixing of the two media types. Both types of movement of the media contribute to decreased fire cartridge performance. Each iteration of the fire cartridge design was tested to demonstrate mechanical loads required to cause detrimental movement within the bed, and resulting level of functionality of the media beds after movement was detected. In order to optimally pack each layer, vertical, horizontal, and orbital agitations were tested and a final packed bulk density was calculated for each method. Packed bulk density must be calculated for each lot of catalyst to accommodate variations in particle size, shape, and density. In addition, a physical divider sheet between each type of media was added within the fire cartridge design to further inhibit intermixing of the bed layers.

  18. Development of an effective valve packing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, K.A.

    1996-12-01

    Current data now shows that graphite valve packing installed within the guidance of a controlled program produces not only reliable stem sealing but predictable running loads. By utilizing recent technological developments in valve performance monitoring for both MOV`s and AOV`s, valve packing performance can be enhanced while reducing maintenance costs. Once known, values are established for acceptable valve packing loads, the measurement of actual valve running loads via the current MOV/AOV diagnostic techniques can provide indication of future valve stem sealing problems, improper valve packing installation or identify the opportunity for valve packing program improvements. At times the full benefit of these advances in material and predictive technology remain under utilized due to simple past misconceptions associated with valve packing. This paper will explore the basis for these misconceptions, provide general insight into the current understanding of valve packing and demonstrate how with this new understanding and current valve diagnostic equipment the key aspects required to develop an effective, quality valve packing program fit together. The cost and operational benefits provided by this approach can be significant impact by the: elimination of periodic valve repacking, reduction of maintenance costs, benefits of leak-free valve operation, justification for reduced Post Maintenance Test Requirements, reduced radiation exposure, improved plant appearance.

  19. HEXAGONAL CLOSE-PACKED C-60

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jan; van Smaalen, Sander; Petricek, Vaclav; Dusek, Michal P.; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Meijer, G.

    1994-01-01

    C60 crystals were grown from purified powder material with a multiple sublimation technique. In addition to crystals wit a cubic close-packed (ccp) arrangement, crystals were found with a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure. Detailed crystallographic evidence is given, including complete refineme

  20. On maximum cycle packings in polyhedral graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Recht

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses upper and lower bounds for the cardinality of a maximum vertex-/edge-disjoint cycle packing in a polyhedral graph G. Bounds on the cardinality of such packings are provided, that depend on the size, the order or the number of faces of G, respectively. Polyhedral graphs are constructed, that attain these bounds.

  1. BIPP (BISMUTH IODINE PARAFFINE PASTE PACK REVISITED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This review article takes a new look at the use of BIPP pack following nasal and ear surgeries. It lists the advantages and pitfalls of using this packing material. Pubmed search revealed very little material on this topic hence I compiled existing data to bring out an article.

  2. Meromorphic Vector Fields and Circle Packings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    to structurally stable vector fields, there is an underlying dynamically defined triangulation of the plane. Circle packings are a means to realize such a given combinatorial structure. About 20 years ago, W. Thurston suggested applying circle packings to obtain approximations to Riemann mappings. This gave rise...

  3. Improved lower bound for online strip packing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harren, Rolf; Kern, Walter

    2012-01-01

    In the two-dimensional strip packing problem a number of rectangles have to be packed without rotation or overlap into a strip such that the height of the strip used is minimal. The width of the rectangles is bounded by 1 and the strip has width 1 and infinite height. We study the online version of

  4. 7 CFR 29.1048 - Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packing. 29.1048 Section 29.1048 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1048 Packing. A lot of tobacco consisting of a number of packages submitted as...

  5. 7 CFR 29.6031 - Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packing. 29.6031 Section 29.6031 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6031 Packing. A lot of tobacco consisting of a number of...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3538 - Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packing. 29.3538 Section 29.3538 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3538 Packing. A lot of tobacco consisting of a number of packages submitted as...

  7. Difference packing arrays and systematic authentication codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a type of combinatorial design (called difference packing array)is proposed and used to give a construction of systematic authentication codes. Taking advantage of this construction, some new series of systematic authentication codes are obtainable in terms of existing difference packing arrays.

  8. 7 CFR 29.2541 - Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packing. 29.2541 Section 29.2541 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2541 Packing. A lot of tobacco consisting...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3048 - Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packing. 29.3048 Section 29.3048 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Packing. A lot of tobacco consisting of a number of packages submitted as one definite unit for...

  10. 7 CFR 29.2289 - Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packing. 29.2289 Section 29.2289 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Packing. A lot of tobacco consisting of a number of packages submitted as one definite unit for...

  11. Does Post Septoplasty Nasal Packing Reduce Complications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Naghibzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main issues in nasal surgery are to stabilize the nose in the good position after surgery and preserve the cartilages and bones in the favorable situation and reduce the risk of deviation recurrence. Also it is necessary to avoid the synechia formation, nasal valve narrowing, hematoma and bleeding. Due to the above mentioned problems and in order to solve and minimize them nasal packing, nasal splint and nasal mold have been advised. Patients for whom the nasal packing used may faced to some problems like naso-pulmonary reflex, intractable pain, sleep disorder, post operation infection and very dangerous complication like toxic shock syndrome. We have two groups of patients and three surgeons (one of the surgeons used post operative nasal packing in his patients and the two others surgeons did not.Complications and morbidities were compared in these two groups. Comparing the two groups showed that the rate of complication and morbidities between these two groups were same and the differences were not valuable, except the pain and discomfort post operatively and at the time of its removal. Nasal packing has several risks for the patients while its effects are not studied. Septoplasty can be safely performed without postoperative nasal packing. Nasal packing had no main findings that compensated its usage. Septal suture is one of the procedures that can be used as alternative method to nasal packing. Therefore the nasal packing after septoplasty should be reserved for the patients with increased risk of bleeding.

  12. Pack formation in cycling and orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackland, G J; Butler, D

    2001-09-13

    In cycling and orienteering competitions, competitors can become bunched into packs, which may mask an individual's true ability. Here we model this process with a view to determining when competitors' times are determined more by others than by their own ability. Our results may prove useful in helping to stage events so that pack formation can be avoided.

  13. Monitoring three-dimensional packings in microgravity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Peidong; Frank-Richter, Stefan; Börngen, Alexander; Sperl, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    We present results from experiments with granular packings in three dimensions in microgravity as realized on parabolic flights. Two different techniques are employed to monitor the inside of the packings during compaction: (1) X-ray radiography is used to measure in transmission the integrated fluc

  14. 7 CFR 51.1217 - Standard pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... be ring faced and tightly packed with sufficient bulge to prevent any appreciable movement of the... the box. (d) Peaches packed in other type boxes such as wire-bound boxes and fiber-board boxes may be... than 10 percent of the packages in any lot may not meet these requirements. (i) “Well filled”...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2840 - Export packing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export packing requirements. 51.2840 Section 51.2840...) Export Packing Requirements § 51.2840 Export packing requirements. Onions specified as meeting Export Packing Requirements shall be packed in containers having a net capacity of 25 kilograms (approximately...

  16. Hawking Colloquium Packed CERN Auditoriums

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Stephen Hawking's week long visit to CERN included an 'exceptional CERN colloquium' which filled six auditoriums. Stephen Hawking during his visit to the ATLAS experiment. Stephen Hawking, Lucasian Professor of Cambridge University, visited the Theory Unit of the Physics Department from 24 September to 1 October 2006. As part of his visit, he gave two lectures in the main auditorium - a theoretical seminar on 'The Semi-Classical Birth of The Universe', attended by about 120 specialists; and a colloquium titled 'The Origin of The Universe'. As a key public figure in theoretical physics, his presence was eagerly awaited on both occasions. Those who wanted to attend the colloquium had to arrive early and be equipped with plenty of patience. An hour before it was due to begin, the 400 capacity of the main auditorium was already full. The lecture, simultaneously broadcast to five other fully packed CERN auditoriums, was attended by an estimated total of 850. Stephen Hawking attracted a large CERN crowd, filling ...

  17. Variable wind, pack ice, and prey dispersion affect the long-term adequacy of protected areas for an Arctic sea duck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovvorn, James R; Anderson, Eric M; Rocha, Aariel R; Larned, William W; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M; Cooper, Lee W; Kolts, Jason M; North, Christopher A

    2014-03-01

    With changing climate, delineation of protected areas for sensitive species must account for long-term variability and geographic shifts of key habitat elements. Projecting the future adequacy of protected areas requires knowing major factors that drive such changes, and how readily the animals adjust to altered resources. In the Arctic, the viability of habitats for marine birds and mammals often depends on sea ice to dissipate storm waves and provide platforms for resting. However, some wind conditions (including weak winds during extreme cold) can consolidate pack ice into cover so dense that air-breathing divers are excluded from the better feeding areas. Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri) winter among leads (openings) in pack ice in areas where densities of their bivalve prey are quite high. During winter 2009, however, prevailing winds created a large region of continuous ice with inadequate leads to allow access to areas of dense preferred prey. Stable isotope and fatty acid biomarkers indicated that, under these conditions, the eiders did not diversify their diet to include abundant non-bivalve taxa but did add a smaller, less preferred, bivalve species. Consistent with a computer model of eider energy balance, the body fat of adult eiders in 2009 was 33-35% lower than on the same date (19 March) in 2001 when ice conditions allowed access to higher bivalve densities. Ice cover data suggest that the eiders were mostly excluded from areas of high bivalve density from January to March in about 30% of 14 winters from 1998 to 2011. Thus, even without change in total extent of ice, shifts in prevailing winds can alter the areal density of ice to reduce access to important habitats. Because changes in wind-driven currents can also rearrange the dispersion of prey, the potential for altered wind patterns should be an important concern in projecting effects of climate change on the adequacy of marine protected areas for diving endotherms in the Arctic.

  18. Simulation of granular packing of frictional cohesive particles with Gaussian size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tao; Gao, Di

    2016-09-01

    The granular packing of frictional cohesive particles with Gaussian distribution is investigated based on distinct element method. Different sliding frictional coefficients are considered in the simulation. Due to the inelastic collision between the particles, the agglomeration of the particles occurs and the packing structure is formed finally. The range of the diameter of the particle is between 50 and 100 μm, and the distribution of the particle diameter is Gaussian. The inelastic interaction is caused by the viscoelastic force and the frictional force. The internal structure of the granular matter is quantified by the coordination number, packing density, and the force distribution. It is found that the increase in the sliding frictional coefficient looses the packing structure, and the distribution range of the contact force is larger than that of the van der Waals force.

  19. A method for dense packing discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Kallus, Yoav; Gravel, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The problem of packing a system of particles as densely as possible is foundational in the field of discrete geometry and is a powerful model in the material and biological sciences. As packing problems retreat from the reach of solution by analytic constructions, the importance of an efficient numerical method for conducting de novo (from-scratch) searches for dense packings becomes crucial. In this paper, we use the divide and concur framework to develop a general search method for the solution of periodic constraint problems, and we apply it to the discovery of dense periodic packings. An important feature of the method is the integration of the unit cell parameters with the other packing variables in the definition of the configuration space. The method we present led to improvements in the densest-known tetrahedron packing which are reported in [arXiv:0910.5226]. Here, we use the method to reproduce the densest known lattice sphere packings and the best known lattice kissing arrangements in up to 14 and ...

  20. Integral packing of trees and branchings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trubin, V.A.

    1995-09-01

    This article continues the discussion of the author`s results on strictly polynomial algorithms for network strength problems (it is assumed that the reader is familiar with the previous publications). It considers the problem of optimal integral packing of spanning trees in a graph and proposes a strictly polynomial algorithm for the solution of this problem. The spanning tree packing and network covering algorithms described produce noninteger solutions. However, the Tutte-Nash-Williams theorem provides a good characterization for the solution of the corresponding problems for trees with integral cardinalities. Interger solutions can be obtained by Cunningham`s general algorithm, which produces an integer solution for the problem of packing of bases of a polymatroid polyhedron. This algorithm, however, is characterized by high time complexity. Moreover, the number of packed bases (in our case, spanning trees) in Seriver`s modification is double the theoretical minimum. In this paper, we apply the results to propose on O(n{sup 2} mp) algorithm for the problem of integral packing of spanning trees, where n and m respectively are the number of vertices and edges in the graph G and p is the time complexity of the maximum flow problem on G. The algorithm constructs a basis solution, so that the optimal solution contains a minimum number of spanning trees of nonzero cardinalities. In other words, the number of nonzero components forming the optimal packing does not exceed n. The proposed algorithm is easily modified for the solution of problems of minimum integral packing and covering described elswhere, and its elaboration for the present case is left to the reader. The spanning tree packing problem is transformed into a similar problem for digraphs, specifically, the problem of packing branchings into a given digraph with a distinguished root. A good characterization of this problem is provided by the Edmonds theorem.

  1. Modular vaccine packaging increases packing efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Bryan A; Rajgopal, Jayant; Lim, Jung; Gorham, Katrin; Haidari, Leila; Brown, Shawn T; Lee, Bruce Y

    2015-06-17

    Within a typical vaccine supply chain, vaccines are packaged into individual cylindrical vials (each containing one or more doses) that are bundled together in rectangular "inner packs" for transport via even larger groupings such as cold boxes and vaccine carriers. The variability of vaccine inner pack and vial size may hinder efficient vaccine distribution because it constrains packing of cold boxes and vaccine carriers to quantities that are often inappropriate or suboptimal in the context of country-specific vaccination guidelines. We developed in Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) a spreadsheet model that evaluated the impact of different packing schemes for the Benin routine regimen plus the introduction of the Rotarix vaccine. Specifically, we used the model to compare the current packing scheme to that of a proposed modular packing scheme. Conventional packing of a Dometic RCW25 that aims to maximize fully-immunized children (FICs) results in 123 FICs and a packing efficiency of 81.93% compared to a maximum of 155 FICs and 94.1% efficiency for an alternative modular packaging system. Our analysis suggests that modular packaging systems could offer significant advantages over conventional vaccine packaging systems with respect to space efficiency and potential FICs, when they are stored in standard vaccine carrying devices. This allows for more vaccines to be stored within the same volume while also simplifying the procedures used by field workers to pack storage devices. Ultimately, modular packaging systems could be a simple way to help increase vaccine coverage worldwide. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Modelling of Packed Co Nanorods for Hard Magnetic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toson P.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical algorithm based on the bullet physics library to generate densely packed (39% - 41% structures of high-aspect-ratio nanorods for finite element micromagnetic simulations. The coercivities µ0Hc of the corresponding Cobalt nanorod structures vary between 0.50T and 0.67T, depending on the overall orientation of nanorods, which is in good agreement with experimental results. The simulations make it possible to estimate the coercivity loss due to incoherent reversal processes (27% as well as the gain due to shape anisotropy (59%. Our calculations show permanent magnets consisting of packed Co nanorods with an energy density product (BHmax of 83kJ/m3. We estimate that this value can be increased to 103kJ/m3 by increasing the packing density from 40% to 45%. Another way to optimize (BHmax is the usage of novel materials. By varying the anisotropy constant K1 and the saturation polarisation JS we found lower limits for these parameters to reach a certain energy density product. To increase (BHmax to 160 kJ/m3, K1 and JS have to be in the order of 450kJ/m3 and 2.25T, respectively. The thermal stability of this approach was verified by elastic band calculations. Cobalt nanorods with a diameter of 10nm and a height of 50nm are thermally stable at room temperature, but problematic at 900K. Doubling the nanorods' height to 100nm increases that limit considerably.

  3. The structure of tropical forests and sphere packings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Franziska; Jahn, Markus Wilhelm; Dobner, Hans-Jürgen; Wiegand, Thorsten; Huth, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The search for simple principles underlying the complex architecture of ecological communities such as forests still challenges ecological theorists. We use tree diameter distributions--fundamental for deriving other forest attributes--to describe the structure of tropical forests. Here we argue that tree diameter distributions of natural tropical forests can be explained by stochastic packing of tree crowns representing a forest crown packing system: a method usually used in physics or chemistry. We demonstrate that tree diameter distributions emerge accurately from a surprisingly simple set of principles that include site-specific tree allometries, random placement of trees, competition for space, and mortality. The simple static model also successfully predicted the canopy structure, revealing that most trees in our two studied forests grow up to 30-50 m in height and that the highest packing density of about 60% is reached between the 25- and 40-m height layer. Our approach is an important step toward identifying a minimal set of processes responsible for generating the spatial structure of tropical forests.

  4. Multilayer DNA Origami Packed on a Square Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yonggang; Douglas, Shawn M.; Liu, Minghui; Sharma, Jaswinder; Cheng, Anchi; Leung, Albert; Liu, Yan; Shih, William M.; Yan, Hao

    2009-01-01

    Molecular self-assembly using DNA as a structural building block has proven to be an efficient route to the construction of nanoscale objects and arrays of increasing complexity. Using the remarkable “scaffolded DNA origami” strategy, Rothemund demonstrated that a long single-stranded DNA from a viral genome (M13) can be folded into a variety of custom two-dimensional (2D) shapes using hundreds of short synthetic DNA molecules as staple strands. More recently, we generalized a strategy to build custom-shaped, three-dimensional (3D) objects formed as pleated layers of helices constrained to a honeycomb lattice, with precisely controlled dimensions ranging from 10 to 100 nm. Here we describe a more compact design for 3D origami, with layers of helices packed on a square lattice, that can be folded successfully into structures of designed dimensions in a one-step annealing process, despite the increased density of DNA helices. A square lattice provides a more natural framework for designing rectangular structures, the option for a more densely packed architecture, and the ability to create surfaces that are more flat than is possible with the honeycomb lattice. Thus enabling the design and construction of custom 3D shapes from helices packed on a square lattice provides a general foundational advance for increasing the versatility and scope of DNA nanotechnology. PMID:19807088

  5. Intelligent 3D packing using a grouping algorithm for automotive container engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Kyoung Joung

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Storing, and the loading and unloading of materials at production sites in the manufacturing sector for mass production is a critical problem that affects various aspects: the layout of the factory, line-side space, logistics, workers’ work paths and ease of work, automatic procurement of components, and transfer and supply. Traditionally, the nesting problem has been an issue to improve the efficiency of raw materials; further, research into mainly 2D optimization has progressed. Also, recently, research into the expanded usage of 3D models to implement packing optimization has been actively carried out. Nevertheless, packing algorithms using 3D models are not widely used in practice, due to the large decrease in efficiency, owing to the complexity and excessive computational time. In this paper, the problem of efficiently loading and unloading freeform 3D objects into a given container has been solved, by considering the 3D form, ease of loading and unloading, and packing density. For this reason, a Group Packing Approach for workers has been developed, by using analyzed truck packing work patterns and Group Technology, which is to enhance the efficiency of storage in the manufacturing sector. Also, an algorithm for 3D packing has been developed, and implemented in a commercial 3D CAD modeling system. The 3D packing method consists of a grouping algorithm, a sequencing algorithm, an orientating algorithm, and a loading algorithm. These algorithms concern the respective aspects: the packing order, orientation decisions of parts, collision checking among parts and processing, position decisions of parts, efficiency verification, and loading and unloading simulation. Storage optimization and examination of the ease of loading and unloading are possible, and various kinds of engineering analysis, such as work performance analysis, are facilitated through the intelligent 3D packing method developed in this paper, by using the results of the 3D

  6. Origin of Noncubic Scaling Law in Disordered Granular Packing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Chengjie; Li, Jindong; Kou, Bingquan; Cao, Yixin; Li, Zhifeng; Xiao, Xianghui; Fu, Yanan; Xiao, Tiqiao; Hong, Liang; Zhang, Jie; Kob, Walter; Wang, Yujie

    2017-06-09

    Recent diffraction experiments on metallic glasses have unveiled an unexpected non-cubic scaling law between density and average interatomic distance, which lead to the speculations on the presence of fractal glass order. Using X-ray tomography we identify here a similar non-cubic scaling law in disordered granular packing of spherical particles. We find that the scaling law is directly related to the contact neighbors within first nearest neighbor shell, and therefore is closely connected to the phenomenon of jamming. The seemingly universal scaling exponent around 2.5 arises due to the isostatic condition with contact number around 6, and we argue that the exponent should not be universal.

  7. Persistent Monitoring Platforms Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C L

    2007-02-22

    This project was inspired and motivated by the need to provide better platforms for persistent surveillance. In the years since the inception of this work, the need for persistence of surveillance platforms has become even more widely appreciated, both within the defense community and the intelligence community. One of the most demanding technical requirements for such a platform involves the power plant and energy storage system, and this project concentrated almost exclusively on the technology associated with this system for a solar powered, high altitude, unmanned aircraft. An important realization for the feasibility of such solar powered aircraft, made at the outset of this project, was that thermal energy may be stored with higher specific energy density than for any other known practical form of rechargeable energy storage. This approach has proved to be extraordinarily fruitful, and a large number of spin-off applications of this technology were developed in the course of this project.

  8. Packing circles and spheres on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Schiftner, Alexander

    2009-12-01

    Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we introduce a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces\\' incircles form a packing. As it turns out, such meshes have a rich geometry and allow us to cover surfaces with circle patterns, sphere packings, approximate circle packings, hexagonal meshes which carry a torsion-free support structure, hybrid tri-hex meshes, and others. We show how triangle meshes can be optimized so as to have the incircle packing property. We explain their relation to conformal geometry and implications on solvability of optimization. The examples we give confirm that this kind of meshes is a rich source of geometric structures relevant to architectural geometry.

  9. Crystal packing effects on protein loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Chaya S; Pollack, Rena M

    2005-07-01

    The effects of crystal packing on protein loop structures are examined by (1) a comparison of loops in proteins that have been crystallized in alternate packing arrangements, and (2) theoretical prediction of loops both with and without the inclusion of the crystal environment. Results show that in a minority of cases, loop geometries are dependent on crystal packing effects. Explicit representation of the crystal environment in a loop prediction algorithm can be used to model these effects and to reconstruct the structures, and relative energies, of a loop in alternative packing environments. By comparing prediction results with and without the inclusion of the crystal environment, the loop prediction algorithm can further be used to identify cases in which a crystal structure does not represent the most stable state of a loop in solution. We anticipate that this capability has implications for structural biology.

  10. Packing of ganglioside-phospholipid monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majewski, J.; Kuhl, T.L.; Kjær, K.

    2001-01-01

    DPPE monolayer and does not distort the hexagonal in-plane unit cell or out-of-plane two-dimensional (2-D) packing compared with a pure DPPE monolayer. The oligosaccharide headgroups were found to extend normally from the monolayer surface, and the incorporation of these glycolipids into DPPE...... monolayers did not affect hydrocarbon tail packing (fluidization or condensation of the hydrocarbon region). This is in contrast to previous investigations of lipopolymer-lipid mixtures, where the packing structure of phospholipid monolayers was greatly altered by the inclusion of lipids bearing hydrophilic...... polymer groups. Indeed, the lack of packing disruptions by the oligosaccharide groups indicates that protein-GM, interactions, including binding, insertion, chain fluidization, and domain formation (lipid rafts), can be studied in 2-D monolayers using scattering techniques....

  11. Geometrical families of mechanically stable granular packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guo-Jie; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2009-12-01

    We enumerate and classify nearly all of the possible mechanically stable (MS) packings of bidipserse mixtures of frictionless disks in small sheared systems. We find that MS packings form continuous geometrical families, where each family is defined by its particular network of particle contacts. We also monitor the dynamics of MS packings along geometrical families by applying quasistatic simple shear strain at zero pressure. For small numbers of particles (N16 , we observe an increase in the period and random splittings of the trajectories caused by bifurcations in configuration space. We argue that the ratio of the splitting and contraction rates in large systems will determine the distribution of MS-packing geometrical families visited in steady state. This work is part of our long-term research program to develop a master-equation formalism to describe macroscopic slowly driven granular systems in terms of collections of small subsystems.

  12. Electroosmotic Driving Liquid Using Nanosilica Packed Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Xin CHEN; Guo An LUO; Tao WEN

    2005-01-01

    The electroosmotic pump (EOP) using nanosilica particles packed-bed column was experimentally studied. The relationship between flowrate, pressure and applied voltage of the pump, and pressure-flowrate (P-Q) characteristic were investigated.

  13. Packing circles and spheres on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Schiftner, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we introduce a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces\\' incircles form a packing. As it turns out, such meshes have a rich geometry and allow us to cover surfaces with circle patterns, sphere packings, approximate circle packings, hexagonal meshes which carry a torsion-free support structure, hybrid tri-hex meshes, and others. We show how triangle meshes can be optimized so as to have the incircle packing property. We explain their relation to conformal geometry and implications on solvability of optimization. The examples we give confirm that this kind of meshes is a rich source of geometric structures relevant to architectural geometry. © 2009 ACM.

  14. Software For Nearly Optimal Packing Of Cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennel, Theron R.; Daughtrey, Rodney S.; Schwaab, Doug G.

    1994-01-01

    PACKMAN computer program used to find nearly optimal arrangements of cargo items in storage containers, subject to such multiple packing objectives as utilization of volumes of containers, utilization of containers up to limits on weights, and other considerations. Automatic packing algorithm employed attempts to find best positioning of cargo items in container, such that volume and weight capacity of container both utilized to maximum extent possible. Written in Common LISP.

  15. Phyllotaxis, disk packing, and Fibonacci numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, A.; Weaire, D.

    2017-02-01

    We consider the evolution of the packing of disks (representing the position of buds) that are introduced at the top of a surface which has the form of a growing stem. They migrate downwards, while conforming to three principles, applied locally: dense packing, homogeneity, and continuity. We show that spiral structures characterized by the widely observed Fibonacci sequence (1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, ...), as well as related structures, occur naturally under such rules. Typical results are presented in an animation.

  16. Pharyngeal Packing during Rhinoplasty: Advantages and Disadvantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Razavi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Controversy remains as to the advantages and disadvantages of pharyngeal packing during septorhinoplasty. Our study investigated the effect of pharyngeal packing on postoperative nausea and vomiting and sore throat following this type of surgery or septorhinoplasty.   Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 90 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA I or II patients who were candidates for septorhinoplasty. They were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the study group had received pharyngeal packing while those in the control group had not. The incidence of nausea and vomiting and sore throat based on the visual analog scale (VAS was evaluated postoperatively in the recovery room as well as at 2, 6 and 24 hours.   Results: The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV was 12.3%, with no significant difference between the study and control groups. Sore throat was reported in 50.5% of cases overall (56.8% on pack group and 44.4% on control. Although the severity of pain was higher in the study group at all times, the incidence in the two groups did not differ significantly.   Conclusion: The use of pharyngeal packing has no effect in reducing the incidence of nausea and vomiting and sore throat after surgery. Given that induced hypotension is used as the routine method of anesthesia in septorhinoplasty surgery, with a low incidence of hemorrhage and a high risk of unintended retention of pharyngeal packing, its routine use is not recommended for this procedure.

  17. Packing of elastic wires in flexible shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, R.; Wittel, F. K.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2015-11-01

    The packing problem of long thin filaments that are injected into confined spaces is of fundamental interest for physicists and biologists alike. How linear threads pack and coil is well known only for the ideal case of rigid containers, though. Here, we force long elastic rods into flexible spatial confinement borne by an elastic shell to examine under which conditions recently acquired knowledge on wire packing in rigid spheres breaks down. We find that unlike in rigid cavities, friction plays a key role by giving rise to the emergence of two distinct packing patterns. At low friction, the wire densely coils into an ordered toroidal bundle with semi-ellipsoidal cross-section, while at high friction, it packs into a highly disordered, hierarchic structure. These two morphologies are shown to be separated by a continuous phase transition. Our findings demonstrate the dramatic impact of friction and confinement elasticity on filamentous packing and might drive future research on such systems in physics, biology and even medical technology toward including these mutually interacting effects.

  18. PCR detection of psychrophilic Clostridium spp. causing 'blown pack' spoilage of vacuum-packed chilled meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broda, D M; Boerema, J A; Bell, R G

    2003-01-01

    To develop a practical molecular procedure that directly, without isolation, and specifically detects the presence of clostridia which cause 'blown pack' spoilage of vacuum-packed meat. Primer sets and PCR amplification procedures were developed that detect the presence of 16S rDNA gene and/or 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer fragments of 'blown pack' causing clostridia in meat. The specificity of the developed procedures was evaluated with DNA obtained from close phylogenetic neighbours of 'blown pack' causing clostridia, food clostridia and common meat spoilage microorganisms. The sensitivity of detection was assessed in non-enriched and low-temperature-enriched beef mince inoculated with serially diluted pure cultures of Clostridium estertheticum DSMZ 8809T and Cl. gasigenes DB1AT. The efficacy of detection procedures was evaluated for naturally contaminated vacuum-packed meat samples. Three primer sets, 16SE, 16SDB and EISR, produced amplicons of the expected size with DNA templates from target clostridia, but failed to yield PCR products with DNAs from any other microorganisms tested. With 16SE and 16SDB primers, minimum levels of detection were 104 CFU g(-1) for non-enriched, and 102 CFU g(-1) for enriched meat samples. Based on the established specificity of these primers, as well as DNA sequencing of amplicons, Cl. gasigenes was confirmed as the causative agent of 'blown pack' spoilage in two packs, and Cl. estertheticum as the causative agent in the third. The developed method can be used for rapid detection of 'blown pack' causing clostridia in commercial blown packs, or following low temperature enrichment, for detection of these microorganisms in meat containing as few as 100 clostridial cells per gram. The paper reports practical procedures that can be used for rapid confirmation of the causative agents of clostridial 'blown pack' spoilage in commercial spoiled packs, or for detection of psychrophilic clostridia in epidemiological trace back of

  19. Product Platform Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Lone

    engaging in platform-based product development. Similarly platform assessment criteria lack empirical verification regarding relevance and sufficiency. The thesis focuses on • the process of identifying and estimating internal effects, • verification of performance of product platforms, (i...... to support this understanding. Finally a categorisation of different approaches to platform-based product development is introduced, based on the companies from the industrial study.......The aim of this research is to improve understanding of platform-based product development by studying platform performance in relation to internal effects in companies. Platform-based product development makes it possible to deliver product variety and at the same time reduce the needed resources...

  20. Electronic Origins of Anomalous Twin Boundary Energies in Hexagonal Close Packed Transition Metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, M.; Kacher, J.; Sluiter, M.H.F.; Qi, L.; Olmsted, D.L.; Van de Walle, A.; Morris, J.W.; Minor, A.M.; Asta, M.

    2015-01-01

    Density-functional-theory calculations of twin-boundary energies in hexagonal close packed metals reveal anomalously low values for elemental Tc and Re, which can be lowered further by alloying with solutes that reduce the electron per atom ratio. The anomalous behavior is linked to atomic geometrie

  1. Trends in CO Oxidation Rates for Metal Nanoparticles and Close-Packed, Stepped, and Kinked Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Tao; Mowbray, Duncan; Dobrin, Sergey;

    2009-01-01

    Using density functional theory calculations, we study trends in the CO oxidation activity for different metals and surfaces. Specifically, we show how the activity of (111) close-packed surfaces, (211) stepped surfaces, (532) kinked surfaces, 55 atom cuboctahedral clusters, and 12 atom cluster...

  2. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond shall...

  3. A Harmonic Algorithm for the 3D Strip Packing Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Bansal (Nikhil); X. Han; K. Iwama; M. Sviridenko; G. Zhang (Guochuan)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the three-dimensional (3D) strip packing problem, we are given a set of 3D rectangular items and a 3D box $B$. The goal is to pack all the items in $B$ such that the height of the packing is minimized. We consider the most basic version of the problem, where the items must be packed

  4. 48 CFR 1846.672-6 - Packing list instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Packing list instructions... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Material Inspection and Receiving Reports 1846.672-6 Packing list instructions. Copies of the MIRR may be used as a packing list. The packing list copies shall...

  5. 46 CFR 160.043-6 - Marking and packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking and packing. 160.043-6 Section 160.043-6... Marking and packing. (a) General. Jackknives specified by this subpart shall be stamped or otherwise... opener. (c) Packing. Each jackknife, complete with lanyard attached, shall be packed in a heat-sealed...

  6. Packing parameters effect on injection molding of polypropylene nanostructured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, Matteo; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    having a diameter of 500 nm was employed. The tool insert surface was produced using chemical-based-batch techniques such aluminum anodization and nickel electroplating. During the injection molding process, polypropylene (PP) was employed as material and packing phase parameters (packing time, packing...... to the polymer part was mainly influenced by packing pressure level and distance from the gate....

  7. Influence of particle properties on the wall region in packed capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Stefan; Stoeckel, Daniela; Smarsly, Bernd M; Tallarek, Ulrich

    2012-12-14

    Analytical columns (4.6 mm i.d.) packed with core-shell particles have shown a significantly reduced eddy dispersion contribution to band broadening compared to conventional fully porous particles. It has been speculated if this is caused by the narrow particle size distribution (PSD) of the core-shell particles, as an intrinsic advantage, or by an improved packing structure that specifically reduces the transcolumn velocity biases caused by wall effects. A recent simulation study has pointed against the former proposition [A. Daneyko et al., Anal. Chem. 83 (2011) 3903]. It is more likely that the slurry packing process for core-shell particles results in bed morphologies with reduced wall effects compared to the fully porous particles with a wide PSD. To access the latter proposition experimentally we slurry packed capillary columns (100 μm i.d.) with different fully porous (wide PSDs) and core-shell (narrow PSDs) particles and imaged their bed structures three-dimensionally using confocal laser scanning microscopy. This allowed us to resolve and analyze the bed morphology in these columns locally on all length scales contributing to eddy dispersion. On the transcolumn scale we observed a systematic difference between core-shell and fully porous particles: In the vicinity of the column wall the core-shell particles packed denser (closer to the bulk packing densities) and with a higher regularity than the fully porous particles. The bulk regions of all packings were effectively indistinguishable. This provides experimental evidence that the reduced eddy dispersion contribution with core-shell packings should be attributed to a higher transcolumn homogeneity rather than to an improved bed morphology on smaller length scales, e.g., to a reduced short-range disorder.

  8. Product Platform Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus

    on the notion that reuse and encapsulation of platform elements are fundamental characteristics of a product platform. Reuse covers the desire to reuse and share certain assets across a family of products and/or across generations of products. Product design solutions and principles are often regarded...... as important assets in a product platform, yet activities, working patterns, processes and knowledge can also be reused in a platform approach. Encapsulation is seen as a process in which the different elements of a platform are grouped into well defined and self-contained units which are decoupled from each......This PhD thesis has the title Product Platform Modelling. The thesis is about product platforms and visual product platform modelling. Product platforms have gained an increasing attention in industry and academia in the past decade. The reasons are many, yet the increasing globalisation...

  9. Efficient linear programming algorithm to generate the densest lattice sphere packings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Étienne; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-06-01

    Finding the densest sphere packing in d-dimensional Euclidean space R(d) is an outstanding fundamental problem with relevance in many fields, including the ground states of molecular systems, colloidal crystal structures, coding theory, discrete geometry, number theory, and biological systems. Numerically generating the densest sphere packings becomes very challenging in high dimensions due to an exponentially increasing number of possible sphere contacts and sphere configurations, even for the restricted problem of finding the densest lattice sphere packings. In this paper we apply the Torquato-Jiao packing algorithm, which is a method based on solving a sequence of linear programs, to robustly reproduce the densest known lattice sphere packings for dimensions 2 through 19. We show that the TJ algorithm is appreciably more efficient at solving these problems than previously published methods. Indeed, in some dimensions, the former procedure can be as much as three orders of magnitude faster at finding the optimal solutions than earlier ones. We also study the suboptimal local density-maxima solutions (inherent structures or "extreme" lattices) to gain insight about the nature of the topography of the "density" landscape.

  10. Quasistatic packings of droplets in flat microfluidic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadivar, Erfan

    2016-02-01

    As observed in recent experiments, monodisperse droplets self-assemble spontaneously in different ordered packings. In this work, we present a numerical study of the droplet packings in the flat rectangular microfluidic channels. Employing the boundary element method, we numerically solve the Stokes equation in two-dimension and investigate the appearance of droplet packing and transition between one and two-row packings of monodisperse emulsion droplets. By calculating packing force applied on the droplet interface, we investigate the effect of flow rate, droplet size, and surface tension on the packing configurations of droplets and transition between different topological packings.

  11. Visualization of Structured Packing with Laser Induced Fluorescence Technique:Two-Dimensional Measurement of Liquid Concentration Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伯潭; 申言同; 张会书; 刘春江; 唐忠利; 袁希钢

    2016-01-01

    A method of using laser induced fluorescence(LIF)technique was applied to two-dimensional meas-urement of the liquid concentration distribution in the 250Y structured packing sheet. The experimental structured packing sheet was made of perspex so that the laser could pass through it. The visualization of the distribution of the liquid concentration in the structured packing sheet was realized. The calibration of the thickness and liquid concentration was carried out firstly and the regression formulaI=kcd was acquired, in which concentrationc and the liquid film thicknessd were both considered. Then the liquid feed of uniform tracer(rhodamine)concentration entered the perspex structured packing from the top under different spraying densities. The corresponding thickness of liquid film on the packing was calculated. Finally, tracer(rhodamine)with a high concentration was injected only at one fixed point of the structured packing under different spraying densities of the liquid. With the known liquid film thickness, the concentration distribution of the tracer can be calculated inside the structured packing sheet.

  12. Direct contact condensation in packed beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi; Klausner, James F.; Mei, Renwei; Knight, Jessica [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    A diffusion driven desalination process was recently described where a very effective direct contact condenser with a packed bed is used to condense water vapor out of an air/vapor mixture. A laboratory scale direct contact condenser has been fabricated as a twin tower structure with two stages, co-current and countercurrent. Experiments have been operated in each stage with respective saturated air inlet temperatures of 36, 40 and 43{sup o}C. The temperature and humidity data have been collected at the inlet and exit of the packed bed for different water to air mass flow ratios that vary between 0 and 2.5. A one-dimensional model based on conservation principles has been developed, which predicts the variation of temperature, humidity, and condensation rate through the condenser stages. Agreement between the model and experiments is very good. It is observed that the countercurrent flow stage condensation effectiveness is significantly higher than that for the co-current stage. The condensation heat and mass transfer rates were found to decrease when water blockages occur within the packed bed. Using high-speed digital cinematography, it was observed that this problem can occur at any operating condition, and is dependent on the packing surface wetting characteristics. This observation is used to explain the requirement for two different empirical constants, depending on packing diameter, suggested by Onda for the air side mass transfer coefficient correlation. (author)

  13. Perfect arborescence packing in preflow mincut graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabow, H.N. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In a digraph with distinguished vertex a, for any vertex v {ne} a let {lambda}(v) equal the value of a maximum flow from a to v. A perfect packing of a-arborescences contains each vertex in {lambda}(v) arborescences and contains some fixed vertex in every arborescence. Determining if an arbitrary graph has a perfect packing is NP-complete. We present the most general known condition that guarantees the existence of a perfect packing: each vertex v {ne} a is separated from a by a set that has in-degree {lambda}(v) and out-degree no greater. This result is based on other useful properties of such graphs, e.g., they always have a pair of edges that can be {open_quotes}split off{close_quotes} preserving, values. We show a perfect packing can be found in O(nm{sup 2}) time, where n (m) is the number of vertices (edges). If the graph has a capacity function the time is the same as computing O(n{sup 2}) maximum network flows. We also show a preflow mincut graph has a fractional perfect packing using only m + n - 2 distinct arborescences.

  14. Coalescence preference in dense packing of bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeseul; Gim, Bopil; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-11-01

    Coalescence preference is the tendency that a merged bubble from the contact of two original bubbles (parent) tends to be near to the bigger parent. Here, we show that the coalescence preference can be blocked by densely packing of neighbor bubbles. We use high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence phenomenon which occurs in micro scale seconds and inside dense packing of microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Previous theory and experimental evidence predict a power of -5 between the relative coalescence position and the parent size. However, our new observation for coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles shows a different power of -2. We believe that this result may be important to understand coalescence dynamics in dense packing of soft matter. This work (NRF-2013R1A22A04008115) was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant funded by the MEST and also was supported by Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (2009-0082580) and by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry and Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2012R1A6A3A04039257).

  15. Deterioration of organic packing materials commonly used in air biofiltration: effect of VOC-packing interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrero, Raquel; Estrada, José M; Muñoz, Raúl; Quijano, Guillermo

    2014-05-01

    The abiotic deterioration of three conventional organic packing materials used in biofiltration (compost, wood bark and Macadamia nutshells) caused by their interaction with toluene (used as a model volatile organic compound) was here studied. The deterioration of the materials was evaluated in terms of structural damage, release of co-substrates and increase of the packing biodegradability. After 21 days of exposure to toluene, all packing materials released co-substrates able to support microbial growth, which were not released by the control materials not exposed to toluene. Likewise, the exposure to toluene increased the packing material biodegradability by 26% in wood bark, 20% in compost and 17% in Macadamia nutshells. Finally, scanning electron microscopy analysis confirmed the deterioration in the structure of the packing materials evaluated due to the exposure to toluene, Macadamia nutshells being the material with the highest resistance to volatile organic compound attack.

  16. Safety considerations for fabricating lithium battery packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, J. J.

    1986-09-01

    Lithium cell safety is a major issue with both manufacturers and end users. Most manufacturers have taken great strides to develop the safest cells possible while still maintaining performance characteristics. The combining of lithium cells for higher voltages, currents, and capacities requires the fabricator of lithium battery packs to be knowledgable about the specific electrochemical system being used. Relatively high rate, spirally wound (large surface area) sulfur oxychloride cells systems, such as Li/Thionyl or Sulfuryl chloride are considered. Prior to the start of a design of a battery pack, a review of the characterization studies for the cells should be conducted. The approach for fabricating a battery pack might vary with cell size.

  17. Generalized network improvement and packing problems

    CERN Document Server

    Holzhauser, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Michael Holzhauser discusses generalizations of well-known network flow and packing problems by additional or modified side constraints. By exploiting the inherent connection between the two problem classes, the author investigates the complexity and approximability of several novel network flow and packing problems and presents combinatorial solution and approximation algorithms. Contents Fractional Packing and Parametric Search Frameworks Budget-Constrained Minimum Cost Flows: The Continuous Case Budget-Constrained Minimum Cost Flows: The Discrete Case Generalized Processing Networks Convex Generalized Flows Target Groups Researchers and students in the fields of mathematics, computer science, and economics Practitioners in operations research and logistics The Author Dr. Michael Holzhauser studied computer science at the University of Kaiserslautern and is now a research fellow in the Optimization Research Group at the Department of Mathematics of the University of Kaiserslautern.

  18. Wolf Pack Algorithm for Unconstrained Global Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu-Sheng Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The wolf pack unites and cooperates closely to hunt for the prey in the Tibetan Plateau, which shows wonderful skills and amazing strategies. Inspired by their prey hunting behaviors and distribution mode, we abstracted three intelligent behaviors, scouting, calling, and besieging, and two intelligent rules, winner-take-all generation rule of lead wolf and stronger-survive renewing rule of wolf pack. Then we proposed a new heuristic swarm intelligent method, named wolf pack algorithm (WPA. Experiments are conducted on a suit of benchmark functions with different characteristics, unimodal/multimodal, separable/nonseparable, and the impact of several distance measurements and parameters on WPA is discussed. What is more, the compared simulation experiments with other five typical intelligent algorithms, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization algorithm, artificial fish swarm algorithm, artificial bee colony algorithm, and firefly algorithm, show that WPA has better convergence and robustness, especially for high-dimensional functions.

  19. ITS Platform North Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Juhl, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the project entitled “ITS Platform North Denmark” which is used as a test platform for Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) solutions. The platform consists of a newly developed GNSS/GPRS On Board Unit (OBU) to be installed in 500 cars, a backend server and a specially...... designed digital road map for ITS applications. The platform is freely accessible, which means that third party applications could be run on the platform. It is estimated that using this platform enables the ITS applications to be developed for 20% of the normal cost, hence third party are invited to test...... their applications in this platform. This paper presents the platform’s potentials and explains a series of test applications which are under development on it. Moreover, a number of new projects planned for the platform are demonstrated....

  20. SPATIAL STATISTICS FOR SIMULATED PACKINGS OF SPHERES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bezrukov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on spatial-statistical analyses for simulated random packings of spheres with random diameters. The simulation methods are the force-biased algorithm and the Jodrey-Tory sedimentation algorithm. The sphere diameters are taken as constant or following a bimodal or lognormal distribution. Standard characteristics of spatial statistics are used to describe these packings statistically, namely volume fraction, pair correlation function of the system of sphere centres and spherical contact distribution function of the set-theoretic union of all spheres. Furthermore, the coordination numbers are analysed.

  1. Imaging of drug smuggling by body packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Giacomo; Guida, Franco; Bocchini, Giorgio; Iaselli, Francesco; Iadevito, Isabella; Scaglione, Mariano

    2015-02-01

    Body packing, pushing, and stuffing are hazardous practices with complex medicolegal and social implications. A radiologist plays both a social and a medicolegal role in their assessment, and it should not be limited only to the identification of the packages but must also provide accurate information about their number and their exact location so as to prevent any package remains in the body packer. Radiologists must also be able to recognize the complications associated with these risky practices. Imaging assessment of body packing is performed essentially through plain abdominal X-ray and computed tomography scans. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, although with some advantages, actually have a limited use.

  2. Packing Transitions in Nanosized Li Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Sung, M W; Weare, J H; Sung, Ming Wen; Kawai, Ryoichi; Weare, John H.

    1994-01-01

    Packing transitions in the lowest energy structures of Li clusters as a function of size have been identified via simulated annealing. For N>21, the large $p$ character of Li leads to unexpected ionic structures. At N~25, a packing pattern based on interpenetrating 13-atom icosahedra and similar to that of Na and K appears. This pattern persists until at N=55, where another transition to a structure based on a Mackay icosahedron occurs. For clusters of size 55 and 147, the optimized FCC structure representative of the bulk is still slightly higher in energy than the optimal MIC. (RK-94-03)

  3. Lattice approaches to packed column simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a review of the findings into the ability of a digitally based particle packing algorithm, called DigiPac, to predict bed structure in a variety of packed columns, for a range of generic pellet shapes frequently used in the chemical and process engineering industries.Resulting macroscopic properties are compared with experimental data derived from both invasive and non-destructive measurement techniques.Additionally, fluid velocity distributions, through samples of the resulting bed structures, are analysed using lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) simulations and are compared against experimental data from the literature.

  4. Non-Crystallographic Symmetry in Packing Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery G. Rau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the following, isomorphism of an arbitrary finite group of symmetry, non-crystallographic symmetry (quaternion groups, Pauli matrices groups, and other abstract subgroups, in addition to the permutation group, are considered. Application of finite groups of permutations to the packing space determines space tilings by policubes (polyominoes and forms a structure. Such an approach establishes the computer design of abstract groups of symmetry. Every finite discrete model of the real structure is an element of symmetry groups, including non-crystallographic ones. The set packing spaces of the same order N characterizes discrete deformation transformations of the structure.

  5. Electronic Origins of Anomalous Twin Boundary Energies in Hexagonal Close Packed Transition Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maarten; Kacher, J; Sluiter, M H F; Qi, L; Olmsted, D L; van de Walle, A; Morris, J W; Minor, A M; Asta, M

    2015-08-07

    Density-functional-theory calculations of twin-boundary energies in hexagonal close packed metals reveal anomalously low values for elemental Tc and Re, which can be lowered further by alloying with solutes that reduce the electron per atom ratio. The anomalous behavior is linked to atomic geometries in the interface similar to those observed in bulk tetrahedrally close packed phases. The results establish a link between twin-boundary energetics and the theory of bulk structural stability in transition metals that may prove useful in controlling mechanical behavior in alloy design.

  6. Effects of Spatial Variations in Packing Fraction on Reactor Physics Parameters in Pebble-Bed Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William K. Terry; A. M. Ougouag; Farzad Rahnema; Michael Scott McKinley

    2003-04-01

    The well-known spatial variation of packing fraction near the outer boundary of a pebble-bed reactor core is cited. The ramifications of this variation are explored with the MCNP computer code. It is found that the variation has negligible effects on the global reactor physics parameters extracted from the MCNP calculations for use in analysis by diffusion-theory codes, but for local reaction rates the effects of the variation are naturally important. Included is some preliminary work in using first-order perturbation theory for estimating the effect of the spatial variation of packing fraction on the core eigenvalue and the fision density distribution.

  7. A CFD model for biomass combustion in a packed bed furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karim, Md. Rezwanul [Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, VIC 3122 (Australia); Department of Mechanical & Chemical Engineering, Islamic University of Technology, Gazipur 1704 (Bangladesh); Ovi, Ifat Rabbil Qudrat [Department of Mechanical & Chemical Engineering, Islamic University of Technology, Gazipur 1704 (Bangladesh); Naser, Jamal, E-mail: jnaser@swin.edu.au [Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, VIC 3122 (Australia)

    2016-07-12

    Climate change has now become an important issue which is affecting environment and people around the world. Global warming is the main reason of climate change which is increasing day by day due to the growing demand of energy in developed countries. Use of renewable energy is now an established technique to decrease the adverse effect of global warming. Biomass is a widely accessible renewable energy source which reduces CO{sub 2} emissions for producing thermal energy or electricity. But the combustion of biomass is complex due its large variations and physical structures. Packed bed or fixed bed combustion is the most common method for the energy conversion of biomass. Experimental investigation of packed bed biomass combustion is difficult as the data collection inside the bed is challenging. CFD simulation of these combustion systems can be helpful to investigate different operational conditions and to evaluate the local values inside the investigation area. Available CFD codes can model the gas phase combustion but it can’t model the solid phase of biomass conversion. In this work, a complete three-dimensional CFD model is presented for numerical investigation of packed bed biomass combustion. The model describes the solid phase along with the interface between solid and gas phase. It also includes the bed shrinkage due to the continuous movement of the bed during solid fuel combustion. Several variables are employed to represent different parameters of solid mass. Packed bed is considered as a porous bed and User Defined Functions (UDFs) platform is used to introduce solid phase user defined variables in the CFD. Modified standard discrete transfer radiation method (DTRM) is applied to model the radiation heat transfer. Preliminary results of gas phase velocity and pressure drop over packed bed have been shown. The model can be useful for investigation of movement of the packed bed during solid fuel combustion.

  8. A CFD model for biomass combustion in a packed bed furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Md. Rezwanul; Ovi, Ifat Rabbil Qudrat; Naser, Jamal

    2016-07-01

    Climate change has now become an important issue which is affecting environment and people around the world. Global warming is the main reason of climate change which is increasing day by day due to the growing demand of energy in developed countries. Use of renewable energy is now an established technique to decrease the adverse effect of global warming. Biomass is a widely accessible renewable energy source which reduces CO2 emissions for producing thermal energy or electricity. But the combustion of biomass is complex due its large variations and physical structures. Packed bed or fixed bed combustion is the most common method for the energy conversion of biomass. Experimental investigation of packed bed biomass combustion is difficult as the data collection inside the bed is challenging. CFD simulation of these combustion systems can be helpful to investigate different operational conditions and to evaluate the local values inside the investigation area. Available CFD codes can model the gas phase combustion but it can't model the solid phase of biomass conversion. In this work, a complete three-dimensional CFD model is presented for numerical investigation of packed bed biomass combustion. The model describes the solid phase along with the interface between solid and gas phase. It also includes the bed shrinkage due to the continuous movement of the bed during solid fuel combustion. Several variables are employed to represent different parameters of solid mass. Packed bed is considered as a porous bed and User Defined Functions (UDFs) platform is used to introduce solid phase user defined variables in the CFD. Modified standard discrete transfer radiation method (DTRM) is applied to model the radiation heat transfer. Preliminary results of gas phase velocity and pressure drop over packed bed have been shown. The model can be useful for investigation of movement of the packed bed during solid fuel combustion.

  9. Mobile platform security

    CERN Document Server

    Asokan, N; Dmitrienko, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Recently, mobile security has garnered considerable interest in both the research community and industry due to the popularity of smartphones. The current smartphone platforms are open systems that allow application development, also for malicious parties. To protect the mobile device, its user, and other mobile ecosystem stakeholders such as network operators, application execution is controlled by a platform security architecture. This book explores how such mobile platform security architectures work. We present a generic model for mobile platform security architectures: the model illustrat

  10. 丝网波纹填料塔液泛水力学特征%Flooding hydraulics characteristic in column with metal gauze corrugated packing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金伟娅; 张峰; 陈冰冰; 方志明

    2012-01-01

    Flooding hydraulics characteristic of air-water two-phase flow was studied in a miniature plexiglass structured packing column with an inside diameter of 220mm. The experiment used domestic CY700 type of stainless steel gauze corrugated packing and the differential pressure signal of the metal gauze corrugated packing layer was acquired by EJA120A miniature differential pressure transmitter at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Distribution characteristics of the packing layer pressure was analyzed during different operation stages in the structured column. Fluctuation of the packing layer pressure showed normal distribution with distinctive feature in different experiment operation stages and a fluctuation degree of the pressure signal with standard deviationat was further studied at different spray densities in the packing column. There was a distinct difference between pre-flooding and post-flooding. The power spectral density characteristics of the packing layer pressure were obtained through the analysis of the pressure signals at different operation stages. The pressure signal power at the flooding stage was greater than at the loading liquid stage, and the pressure signal power at the normal operation stage was the minimum. Control of the differential pressure distribution characteristics signal at real-time monitoring could adjust the operation state of the packing columns in real time to predict and avoid the occurrence of flooding, improve operation performance and economic efficiency of the packing columns to realize energy saving and emission reduction.

  11. Chilled packing systems for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the sterile insect technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Emilio; Escobar, Arseny; Bravo, Bigail; Montoya, Pablo [Instituto Interamericano de Cooperacion para la Agricultura (IICA), Chiapas (Mexico); Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Programa Moscafrut

    2010-07-15

    We evaluated three packing systems (PARC boxes, 'GT' screen towers and 'MX' screen towers) for the emergence and sexual maturation of sterile fruit flies, at three adult fl y densities (1, 1.2 and 1.3 fly/cm 2) and three food types. At the lowest density, results showed no significant differences in the longevity and flight ability of adult Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua Macquart among the three packing systems. Higher densities resulted in a decrease in these parameters. In the evaluation of the three food types, no significant differences were found either on longevity or flight ability of A. ludens. However, the greatest longevity for both sexes A. obliqua was obtained with commercial powdered Mb and the mix of sugar, protein and corn starch on paper (SPCP) food types. The highest value for flight ability in A. obliqua males was obtained with powdered Mb and SPCP food types, and for females with Mb powdered food. Our data indicated that GT and MX screen tower packing systems are an alternative to the PARC boxes, since they were suitable for adult fl y sexual maturation without any harm to their longevity or flight ability. The tested foods were equivalent in both fruit fl y species, with the exception of the agar type for A. obliqua, which yielded the lowest biological parameters evaluated. Our results contribute to the application of new methods for the packing and release of sterile flies in large-scale programs. (author)

  12. Continuous Platform Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Fiil

    low risks and investments but also with relatively fuzzy results. When looking for new platform projects, it is important to make sure that the company and market is ready for the introduction of platforms, and to make sure that people from marketing and sales, product development, and downstream......, but continuous product family evolution challenges this strategy. The concept of continuous platform development is based on the fact that platform development should not be a one-time experience but rather an ongoing process of developing new platforms and updating existing ones, so that product family...

  13. Computational Modelling of Particle Packing in Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, H.

    2010-01-01

    Physical particle packing is becoming a hot topic in concrete technology as more and more types of granular materials are used in concrete either for ecological or for engineering purposes. Although various analytical methods have been developed for optimum mixture design, comprehensive information

  14. Improved Lower Bound for Online Strip Packing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harren, Rolf; Kern, Walter

    We study the online strip packing problem and derive an improved lower bound of Ͽ ≥ 2.589... for the competitive ratio of this problem. The construction is based on modified “Brown-Baker-Katseff sequences‿ (Brown et al. in Acta Inform. 18:207–225, 1982) using only two types of rectangles. In

  15. Indexing Volumetric Shapes with Matching and Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koes, David Ryan; Camacho, Carlos J

    2015-04-01

    We describe a novel algorithm for bulk-loading an index with high-dimensional data and apply it to the problem of volumetric shape matching. Our matching and packing algorithm is a general approach for packing data according to a similarity metric. First an approximate k-nearest neighbor graph is constructed using vantage-point initialization, an improvement to previous work that decreases construction time while improving the quality of approximation. Then graph matching is iteratively performed to pack related items closely together. The end result is a dense index with good performance. We define a new query specification for shape matching that uses minimum and maximum shape constraints to explicitly specify the spatial requirements of the desired shape. This specification provides a natural language for performing volumetric shape matching and is readily supported by the geometry-based similarity search (GSS) tree, an indexing structure that maintains explicit representations of volumetric shape. We describe our implementation of a GSS tree for volumetric shape matching and provide a comprehensive evaluation of parameter sensitivity, performance, and scalability. Compared to previous bulk-loading algorithms, we find that matching and packing can construct a GSS-tree index in the same amount of time that is denser, flatter, and better performing, with an observed average performance improvement of 2X.

  16. An approximation algorithm for square packing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Stee (Rob)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the problem of packing squares into bins which are unit squares, where the goal is to minimize the number of bins used. We present an algorithm for this problem with an absolute worst-case ratio of 2, which is optimal provided P != NP.

  17. Optimal online bounded space multidimensional packing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Epstein (Lea); R. van Stee (Rob)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe solve an open problem in the literature by providing an online algorithm for multidimensional bin packing that uses only bounded space. We show that it is optimal among bounded space algorithms for any dimension $d>1$. Its asymptotic performance ratio is $(Pi_{infty})^d$, where

  18. Computational Modelling of Particle Packing in Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, H.

    2010-01-01

    Physical particle packing is becoming a hot topic in concrete technology as more and more types of granular materials are used in concrete either for ecological or for engineering purposes. Although various analytical methods have been developed for optimum mixture design, comprehensive information

  19. Bacteriological Survey of AFD (Meat Packing Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Rawal

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the manufacturing process of freeze dried mutton from slaughtering to packing and makes an assessment of microbial build-up on equipment, hands of workers and environment in which the mutton comes in contact during processing.

  20. Bin Packing via Discrepancy of Permutations

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenbrand, Friedrich; Rothvoß, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    A well studied special case of bin packing is the 3-partition problem, where n items of size >1/4 have to be packed in a minimum number of bins of capacity one. The famous Karmarkar-Karp algorithm transforms a fractional solution of a suitable LP relaxation for this problem into an integral solution that requires at most O(log n) additional bins. The three-permutations-conjecture of Beck is the following. Given any 3 permutations on n symbols, one can color the symbols red and blue, such that in any interval of any of those permutations, the number of red and blue symbols differs only by a constant. Beck's conjecture is well known in the field of discrepancy theory. We establish a surprising connection between bin packing and Beck's conjecture: If the latter holds true, then the additive integrality gap of the 3-partition linear programming relaxation is bounded by a constant. This result indicates that improving approximability results for bin packing requires a better understanding of discrepancy theory.

  1. Simple Cloud Chambers Using Gel Ice Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Kubota, Miki

    2012-01-01

    Although cloud chambers are highly regarded as teaching aids for radiation education, school teachers have difficulty in using cloud chambers because they have to prepare dry ice or liquid nitrogen before the experiment. We developed a very simple and inexpensive cloud chamber that uses the contents of gel ice packs which can substitute for dry…

  2. 7 CFR 920.13 - Pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pack. 920.13 Section 920.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  3. Hardness of approximation for strip packing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamaszek, Anna Maria; Kociumaka, Tomasz; Pilipczuk, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    [SODA 2016] have recently proposed a (1.4 + ϵ)-approximation algorithm for this variant, thus showing that strip packing with polynomially bounded data can be approximated better than when exponentially large values are allowed in the input. Their result has subsequently been improved to a (4/3 + ϵ...

  4. The "sugar pack" health marketing campaign in Los Angeles County, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragan, Noel C; Noller, Ali J; Robles, Brenda; Gase, Lauren N; Leighs, Michael S; Bogert, Suzanne; Simon, Paul A; Kuo, Tony

    2014-03-01

    As part of a comprehensive approach to combating the obesity epidemic, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health launched the "Sugar Pack" health marketing campaign in fall 2011. Carried out in three stages, the campaign sought to educate and motivate the public to reduce excess calorie intake from sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. The primary Sugar Pack creative concepts provided consumers with information about the number of sugar packs contained in sugary drinks. Data from formative market research as well as lessons from previous campaigns in other U.S. jurisdictions informed the development of the materials. These materials were disseminated through a multipronged platform that included paid outdoor media on transit and billboards and messaging using social media (i.e., Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and sendable e-cards). Initial findings from a postcampaign assessment indicate that the Sugar Pack campaign reached broadly into targeted communities, resulting in more than 515 million impressions. Lessons learned from the campaign suggest that employing health marketing to engage the public can lead to increased knowledge, favorable recognition of health messages, and self-reported intention to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, potentially complementing other obesity prevention strategies in the field.

  5. Packing materials selection for a biofilter to bio-oxidize methane in coal mine gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Hai-xia; Min Hang; Lu Zhen-mei; Li Zi-mu [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). College of Life Sciences

    2008-02-15

    For bio-oxidizing methane (with the concentration 0 to 20%) in coal mine gas with a biofilter, three kinds of packing materials - small ceramic balls, vermiculite and larger sized porcelain balls - were studied. The results indicate that the small ceramic balls have the lowest capacity for biomass growth and the lowest capacity for methane removal. The biofilter with vermiculite as packing material cannot withstand the pressure of the inlet gas. The biofilter with large porcelain balls has the biggest capability to oxidise methane and to withstand the inlet gas, having a suitable specific surface area, grain diameter and density. This is the best packing material for a biofilter to oxidise methane in coal mines. 16 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Analysis of Cohesive Microsized Particle Packing Structure Using History-Dependent Contact Models

    CERN Document Server

    Tayeb, Raihan; Mao, Yijin; Zhang, Yuwen

    2016-01-01

    Granular packing structures of cohesive micro-sized particles with different sizes and size distributions, including mono-sized, uniform and Gaussian distribution, are investigated by using two different history dependent contact models with Discrete Element Method (DEM). The simulation is carried out in the framework of LIGGGHTS which is a DEM simulation package extended based on branch of granular package of widely used open-source code LAMMPS. Contact force caused by translation and rotation, frictional and damping forces due to collision with other particles or container boundaries, cohesive force, van der Waals force, and gravity are considered. The radial distribution functions (RDFs), force distributions, porosities, and coordination numbers under cohesive and non-cohesive conditions are reported. The results indicate that particle size and size distributions have great influences on the packing density for particle packing under cohesive effect: particles with Gaussian distribution have the lowest pac...

  7. Minimal $N$-Point Diameters and $f$-Best-Packing Constants in $R^d$

    CERN Document Server

    Bondarenko, A V; Saff, E B

    2012-01-01

    In terms of the minimal $N$-point diameter $D_d(N)$ for $R^d,$ we determine, for a class of continuous real-valued functions $f$ on $[0,+\\infty],$ the $N$-point $f$-best-packing constant $\\min\\{f(\\|x-y\\|)\\, :\\, x,y\\in \\R^d\\}$, where the minimum is taken over point sets of cardinality $N.$ We also show that $$ N^{1/d}\\Delta_d^{-1/d}-2\\le D_d(N)\\le N^{1/d}\\Delta_d^{-1/d}, \\quad N\\ge 2,$$ where $\\Delta_d$ is the maximal sphere packing density in $\\R^d$. Further, we provide asymptotic estimates for the $f$-best-packing constants as $N\\to\\infty$.

  8. Surface-Induced Optimal Packing of Two-Dimensional Molecular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copie, Guillaume; Cleri, Fabrizio; Makoudi, Younes; Krzeminski, Christophe; Berthe, Maxime; Cherioux, Frédéric; Palmino, Frank; Grandidier, Bruno

    2015-02-01

    High-density packing in organic crystals is usually associated with an increase of the coordination between molecules. Such a concept is not necessarily extended to two-dimensional molecular networks self-assembled on a solid surface, for which we demonstrate the key role of the surface in inducing the optimal packing. By a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy experiments and multiscale computer simulations, we study the phase transition between two polymorphs. We find that, contrary to intuition, the structure with the lowest packing fraction corresponds to the highest molecular coordination number, due to the competition between surface and intermolecular forces. Having the lowest free energy, this structure spreads out as the most stable polymorph over a wide range of molecular concentrations.

  9. Percolation behavior of tritiated water into a soil packed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, T.; Katayama, K.; Uehara, K.; Fukada, S. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Takeishi, T. [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka Nishi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    A large amount of cooling water is used in a D-T fusion reactor. The cooling water will contain tritium with high concentration because tritium can permeate metal walls at high temperature easily. A development of tritium handling technology for confining tritiated water in the fusion facility is an important issue. In addition, it is also important to understand tritium behavior in environment assuming severe accidents. In this study, percolation experiments of tritiated water in soil packed bed were carried out and tritium behavior in soil was discussed. Six soil samples were collected in Hakozaki campus of Kyushu University. These particle densities were of the same degree as that of general soils and moisture contents were related to BET surface area. For two soil samples used in the percolation experiment of tritiated water, saturated hydraulic conductivity agreed well with the estimating value by Creager. Tritium retention ratio in the soil packed bed was larger than water retention. This is considered to be due to an effect of tritium sorption on the surface of soil particles. The isotope exchange capacity estimated by assuming that H/T ratio of supplied tritiated water and H/T ratio of surface water of soil particle was equal was comparable to that on cement paste and mortar which were obtained by exposure of tritiated water vapor. (authors)

  10. Structure and rigidity in maximally random jammed packings of hard particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Steven Donald

    Packings of hard particles have served as a powerful, yet simple model for a wide variety of physical systems. One particularly interesting subset of these packings are so-called maximally random jammed (MRJ) packings, which constitute the most disordered packings that exist subject to the constraint of jamming (mechanical stability). In this dissertation, we first investigate the consequences of recently-discovered sequential linear programming (SLP) techniques to present previously-unknown possibilities for MRJ packings of two- and three-dimensional hard disks and spheres, respectively. We then turn our focus away from the limit of jamming and identify some structural signatures accompanying various compression processes towards jammed states that are indicative of an incipient rigid structure. In Chapter 2, we utilize the Torquato-Jiao SLP algorithm to construct MRJ packings of equal-sized spheres in three dimensions that possess substantial qualitative differences from previous putative MRJ states. We turn towards two dimensions in Chapter 3 and establish the existence of highly disordered, jammed packings of equal-sized disks that were previously thought not to exist. We discuss the implications that these findings have for our understanding of disorder in packing problems. In Chapter 4, we utilize a novel SLP algorithm we call the "pop test" to scrutinize the conjectured link between jamming and hyperuniformity. We uncover deficiencies in standard protocols' abilities to construct truly-jammed states accompanied by a correlated deficiency in exact hyperuniform behavior, suggesting that precise jamming is a particularly subtle matter in probing this connection. In Chapter 5, we consider the direct correlation function as a means of identifying various static signatures of jamming as we compress packings towards both ordered and disordered jammed states with particular attention paid to the growing suppression of long-ranged density fluctuations

  11. Cross-Platform Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina ENACHE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cross-platform - a concept becoming increasingly used in recent years especially in the development of mobile apps, but this consistently over time and in the development of conventional desktop applications. The notion of cross-platform software (multi-platform or platform-independent refers to a software application that can run on more than one operating system or computing architecture. Thus, a cross-platform application can operate independent of software or hardware platform on which it is execute. As a generic definition presents a wide range of meanings for purposes of this paper we individualize this definition as follows: we will reduce the horizon of meaning and we use functionally following definition: a cross-platform application is a software application that can run on more than one operating system (desktop or mobile identical or in a similar way.

  12. Barrier properties of k-mer packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebovka, N.; Khrapatiy, S.; Vygornitskyi; Pivovarova, N.

    2014-08-01

    This work discusses numerical studies of the barrier properties of k-mer packings by the Monte Carlo method. The studied variants of regular and non-regular arrangements on a square lattice included models of random sequential adsorption (RSA) and random deposition (RD). The discrete problem of diffusion through the bonds of a square lattice was considered. The k-mers were perfectly oriented perpendicular to the diffusion direction and blocked certain fraction of bonds fb against diffusion. The barrier efficiency was estimated by calculation of the ratio D/Do where D is diffusion coefficient in direction perpendicular to the orientation of k-mers and Do is the same value for diffusion on the square lattice without blocked bonds, i.e., at fb=0. The value of k varied from 1 to 512 and different lattice sizes up to L=8192 lattice units were used. For dense packings (p=1), the obtained D/Do versus fb dependences deviated from the theoretical prediction of effective medium (EM) theory and deviation was the most obvious for the regular non-staggered arrangement. For loose RSA and RD packings, the percolation like-behavior of D/Do with threshold at fb=p∞ was observed and the data evidenced that their barrier properties at large values of k may be more effective than those of some dense packings. Such anomalous behavior can reflect the details of k-mer spatial organization (aggregation) and structure of pores in RD and RSA packings. The contradictions between simulation data and predictions of EM theory were also discussed.

  13. Photovoltaic System Test Platform with Integrated Battery Energy Storage Emulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present a hybrid simulation and a real-time test platform for developing control systems for photovoltaic (PV) inverters with integrated battery energy storage (BES). The platform consists of a dual-stage single-phase PV inverter system, DC coupled with a full-bridge grid connected...... inverter, which emulates the charge regulator and battery bank. The real-time control of the two power electronic converters is implemented in a Simulink/dSpace platform, together with the real-time simulation model of the battery pack, whereas the PV array input can be connected to a PV emulator...... or directly to a physical PV array. The platform enables real-time testing of PV+BES control systems, including battery (BMS) and energy management systems (EMS), for a variety of battery technologies, which can be modelled in detail and emulated by the full-bridge grid connected inverter. Such flexibility...

  14. Two Dimensional Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis for a Packed Bed Regenerator Used in a Reheating Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Nan Lin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Packed bed is widely used for different industries and technologies, such as heat exchangers, heat recovery, thermal energy storage and chemical reactors. In modern steel industry, packed bed regenerator is widely utilized in the reheating furnace to increase the furnace efficiency. This study established a two dimensional numerical model to simulate a packed bed used in regenerative furnaces. The physical properties of fluids and packed stuffing (such as density, thermal conductivity, and specific heat are considered as functions of temperature to adapt the large temperature variation in operation. The transient temperature profiles of the flue gas, packed bed, and air during the heating and regeneration period are examined for various switching time (30, 60, 120, and 240 s. The results reveal that, during the heating period, the spanwise averaged heat transfer coefficient is decreased along the longitudinal downstream direction, while during the regeneration period, the opposite trend is true. Moreover, the regenerator thermal effectiveness is decreased by increasing the switching time.

  15. Charging studies of heat packs using parabolic dish solar energy concentrator for extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohitash; Vyas, Sumita; Kumar, Ravindra; Dixit, Ambesh

    2016-05-01

    Parabolic dish solar energy concentrator with aperture diameter 1.4 m and focal length 0.32 m is designed and fabricated to charge and store solar thermal energy in phase change material (PCM) based heat packs. Overall heat loss factor, heat duty, over all thermal efficiency, and optical efficiency factor are calculated using water sensible heating and cooling tests and values are 16.11 W m-2 K-1, 546.9 W, 49.2% and 0.62 respectively. The performance characteristic curve is generated using these parameters to understand its performance at different ambient temperatures and solar insolation. The fabricated concentrator has been used to charge 16 PCM heat packs with 150 g PCM in each heat pack, which took about 35 minutes for complete charging of PCM heat packs at average ambient temperature 39 °C and solar radiation flux density 715 W m-2 K-1. The charged heat packs are subjected to discharge studies at average ambient temperature about - 7 °C and observed heat release in the temperature range of 48 to 40 °C for 50 minutes, suggesting its applications for comfort and therapeutic applications in high altitude areas.

  16. Modified strip packing heuristics for the rectangular variable-sized bin packing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG Ortmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two packing problems are considered in this paper, namely the well-known strip packing problem (SPP and the variable-sized bin packing problem (VSBPP. A total of 252 strip packing heuristics (and variations thereof from the literature, as well as novel heuristics proposed by the authors, are compared statistically by means of 1170 SPP benchmark instances in order to identify the best heuristics in various classes. A combination of new heuristics with a new sorting method yields the best results. These heuristics are combined with a previous heuristic for the VSBPP by the authors to find good feasible solutions to 1357 VSBPP benchmark instances. This is the largest statistical comparison of algorithms for the SPP and the VSBPP to the best knowledge of the authors.

  17. Features of liquid mixtures separation in large-scale distillation columns with structured packing. New ideas and approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, A. N.; Zhukov, V. E.; Pecherkin, N. I.; Li, X.; Sui, H.

    2016-10-01

    Negative vapor stratification along the height of distillation column caused by different density of vapor mixture components and higher temperature at the column bottom, leads to formation of large-scale maldistribution of temperature and mixture composition over the column cross-section even at uniform irrigation of the structured packing. Experimental results concerning the dynamic effect of packing irrigation on separation efficiency of the two-component mixture of R-21 and R-114 are presented in this paper. The structured packing Zulser 350Y was installed in the distillation column with the diameter of 0.9 m. Experiments were carried out on the 10- and 19-layer packing with an overall height of 2.1 and 4 m, respectively. The liquid distributor with independently controlled 126 valves for each irrigation point, developed by the authors, was used for packing irrigation. The experiments showed that the periodic impact of the irrigation system on the large-scale non-uniformity of mixture composition, formed in the packing, could significantly affect the distribution of flow parameters over the cross-section and height of the mass transfer unit. Essentially nonuniform periodic irrigation of the packing can improve the separation efficiency of the column within 20%, if the switching periods are comparable with the times of formation of large-scale non-uniformity.

  18. Mass transfer characteristics in a rotating packed bed with split packing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youzhi Liu; Deyin Gu; Chengcheng Xu; Guisheng Qi; Weizhou Jiao

    2015-01-01

    The rotating packed bed (RPB) with split packing is a novel gas–liquid contactor, which intensifies the mass transfer processes controlled by gas-side resistance. To assess its efficacy, the mass transfer characteristics with adjacent rings in counter-rotation and co-rotation modes in a split packing RPB were studied experimentally. The physical absorption system NH3–H2O was used for characterizing the gas volumetric mass transfer coeffi-cient (kyae) and the effective interfacial area (ae) was determined by chemical absorption in the CO2–NaOH sys-tem. The variation in kyae and ae with the operating conditions is also investigated. The experimental results indicated that kyae and ae for counter-rotation of the adjacent packing rings in the split packing RPB were higher than those for co-rotation, and both counter-rotation and co-rotation of the split packing RPB were superior over conventional RPBs under the similar operating conditions.

  19. AxonPacking: An Open-Source Software to Simulate Arrangements of Axons in White Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingasson, Tom; Duval, Tanguy; Stikov, Nikola; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS AxonPacking: Open-source software for simulating white matter microstructure.Validation on a theoretical disk packing problem.Reproducible and stable for various densities and diameter distributions.Can be used to study interplay between myelin/fiber density and restricted fraction. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can provide parameters that describe white matter microstructure, such as the fiber volume fraction (FVF), the myelin volume fraction (MVF) or the axon volume fraction (AVF) via the fraction of restricted water (fr). While already being used for clinical application, the complex interplay between these parameters requires thorough validation via simulations. These simulations required a realistic, controlled and adaptable model of the white matter axons with the surrounding myelin sheath. While there already exist useful algorithms to perform this task, none of them combine optimisation of axon packing, presence of myelin sheath and availability as free and open source software. Here, we introduce a novel disk packing algorithm that addresses these issues. The performance of the algorithm is tested in term of reproducibility over 50 runs, resulting density, and stability over iterations. This tool was then used to derive multiple values of FVF and to study the impact of this parameter on fr and MVF in light of the known microstructure based on histology sample. The standard deviation of the axon density over runs was lower than 10−3 and the expected hexagonal packing for monodisperse disks was obtained with a density close to the optimal density (obtained: 0.892, theoretical: 0.907). Using an FVF ranging within [0.58, 0.82] and a mean inter-axon gap ranging within [0.1, 1.1] μm, MVF ranged within [0.32, 0.44] and fr ranged within [0.39, 0.71], which is consistent with the histology. The proposed algorithm is implemented in the open-source software AxonPacking (https://github.com/neuropoly/axonpacking) and can be useful for

  20. AxonPacking: An Open-Source Software to Simulate Arrangements of Axons in White Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingasson, Tom; Duval, Tanguy; Stikov, Nikola; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS AxonPacking: Open-source software for simulating white matter microstructure.Validation on a theoretical disk packing problem.Reproducible and stable for various densities and diameter distributions.Can be used to study interplay between myelin/fiber density and restricted fraction. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can provide parameters that describe white matter microstructure, such as the fiber volume fraction (FVF), the myelin volume fraction (MVF) or the axon volume fraction (AVF) via the fraction of restricted water (fr). While already being used for clinical application, the complex interplay between these parameters requires thorough validation via simulations. These simulations required a realistic, controlled and adaptable model of the white matter axons with the surrounding myelin sheath. While there already exist useful algorithms to perform this task, none of them combine optimisation of axon packing, presence of myelin sheath and availability as free and open source software. Here, we introduce a novel disk packing algorithm that addresses these issues. The performance of the algorithm is tested in term of reproducibility over 50 runs, resulting density, and stability over iterations. This tool was then used to derive multiple values of FVF and to study the impact of this parameter on fr and MVF in light of the known microstructure based on histology sample. The standard deviation of the axon density over runs was lower than 10(-3) and the expected hexagonal packing for monodisperse disks was obtained with a density close to the optimal density (obtained: 0.892, theoretical: 0.907). Using an FVF ranging within [0.58, 0.82] and a mean inter-axon gap ranging within [0.1, 1.1] μm, MVF ranged within [0.32, 0.44] and fr ranged within [0.39, 0.71], which is consistent with the histology. The proposed algorithm is implemented in the open-source software AxonPacking (https://github.com/neuropoly/axonpacking) and can be useful for

  1. Dynamics and collisional evolution of closely packed planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jason A.; Steffen, Jason H.; Lombardi, J. C., Jr.; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2017-10-01

    High-multiplicity Kepler systems (referred to as Kepler multis) are often tightly packed and may be on the verge of instability. Many systems of this type could have experienced past instabilities, where the compact orbits and often low densities make physical collisions likely outcomes. We use numerical simulations to study the dynamical instabilities and planet-planet interactions in a synthetically generated sample of closely packed, high-multiplicity systems. We focus specifically on systems resembling Kepler-11, a Kepler multi with six planets, and run a suite of dynamical integrations, sampling the initial orbital parameters around the nominal values reported in Lissauer et al. (2011a), finding that most of the realizations are unstable, resulting in orbit crossings and, eventually, collisions and mergers. We study in detail the dependence of stability on the orbital parameters of the planets and planet-pair characteristics to identify possible precursors to instability, compare the systems that emerge from dynamical instabilities to the observed Kepler sample (after applying observational corrections), and propose possible observable signatures of these instabilities. We examine the characteristics of each planet-planet collision, categorizing collisions by the degree of contact and collision energy, and find that grazing collisions are more common than direct impacts. Since the structure of many planets found in Kepler multis is such that the mass is dominated by a rocky core, but the volume is dominated by a low-density gaseous envelope, the sticky-sphere approximation may not be valid, and we present hydrodynamic calculations of planet-planet collisions clearly deviating from this approximation. Finally, we rerun a subset of our dynamical calculations using instead a modified prescription to handle collisions, finding, in general, higher multiplicity remnant systems.

  2. Platform switching and bone platform switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinci, Francesco; Brunelli, Giorgio; Danza, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    Bone platform switching involves an inward bone ring in the coronal part of the implant that is in continuity with the alveolar bone crest. Bone platform switching is obtained by using a dental fixture with a reverse conical neck. A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of conventional vs reverse conical neck implants. In the period between May 2004 and November 2007, 86 patients (55 females and 31 males; median age, 53 years) were operated and 234 implants were inserted: 40 and 194 were conventional vs reverse conical neck implants, respectively. Kaplan-Meier algorithm and Cox regression were used to detect those variables associated with the clinical outcome. No differences in survival and success rates were detected between conventional vs reverse conical neck implants alone or in combination with any of the studied variables. Although bone platform switching leads to several advantages, no statistical difference in alveolar crest resorption is detected in comparison with reverse conical neck implants. We suppose that the proximity of the implant abutment junction to the alveolar crestal bone gives no protection against the microflora contained in the micrograph. Additional studies on larger series and a combination of platform switching and bone platform switching could lead to improved clinical outcomes.

  3. Oxygen supply for CHO cells immobilized on a packed-bed of Fibra-Cel disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwly, F; Loviat, F; Ruffieux, P-A; Bernard, A R; Kadouri, A; von Stockar, U

    2006-03-05

    Packed-bed bioreactors (PBR) have proven to be efficient systems to culture mammalian cells at very high cell density in perfusion mode, thus leading to very high volumetric productivity. However, the immobilized cells must be continuously supplied with all nutrients in sufficient quantities to remain viable and productive over the full duration of the perfusion culture. Among all nutrients, oxygen is the most critical since it is present at very low concentration due to its low solubility in cell culture medium. This work presents the development of a model for oxygenation in a packed-bed bioreactor system. The experimental system used to develop the model was a packed-bed of Fibra-Cel disk carriers used to cultivate Chinese Hamster Ovary cells at high density ( approximately 6.1 x 10(7) cell/mL) in perfusion mode. With the help of this model, it was possible to identify if a PBR system is operated in optimal or sub-optimal conditions. Using the model, two options were proposed, which could improve the performance of the basal system by about twofold, that is, by increasing the density of immobilized cells per carrier volume from 6.1 x 10(7) to 1.2 x 10(8) cell/mL, or by increasing the packed-bed height from 0.2 to 0.4 m. Both strategies would be rather simple to test and implement in the packed-bed bioreactor system used for this study. As a result, it would be possible to achieve a substantial improvement of about twofold higher productivity as compared with the basal conditions.

  4. 29 CFR 784.135 - “Packing.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPacking.â 784.135 Section 784.135 Labor Regulations... First Processing, Canning, Or Packing of Marine Products Under Section 13(a)(5) § 784.135 “Packing.” The packing of the various named marine products at sea as an incident to, or in conjunction with, the...

  5. Platform development supportedby gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård

    2007-01-01

    The challenge of implementing industrial platforms in practice can be described as a configuration problem caused by high number of variables, which often have contradictory influences on the total performance of the firm. Consequently, the specific platform decisions become extremely complex......, possibly increasing the strategic risks for the firm. This paper reports preliminary findings on platform management process at LEGO, a Danish toy company.  Specifically, we report the process of applying games combined with simulations and workshops in the platform development. We also propose a framework......, based on the portfolio management thinking, to measure the degree of modularity embedded in a given platform and to what extent it is aligned with other platforms....

  6. DFH-3 Satellite Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenShufang

    2005-01-01

    The DFH-3 satellite platform is designed and developed by China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). It is a medium capability communications satellite platform. The platform adopts threeaxis attitude stabilization control system, having solar array output power of 1.7kW by the end of its design lifetime of 8 years. Its mass is 2100kg with payload capacity of 220kg.

  7. Product Platform Replacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld, Martin; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – It is argued in this article that too little is known about product platforms and how to deal with them from a manager's point of view. Specifically, little information exists regarding when old established platforms are replaced by new generations in R&D and production environments...... originality and value is achieved by focusing on product platform replacements believed to represent a growing management challenge....

  8. Body Packing: From Seizures to Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M. Janczak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Body packing is a common method for illegal drug trafficking. Complications associated with body packing can be severe and even lead to rapid death. Thus, a timely diagnosis is warranted. As most body packers initially do not show any symptoms, making a correct diagnosis can be rather challenging. We describe a case of a 41-year-old male, who was admitted with an epileptic seizure and who turned out to be a cocaine intoxicated body packer. Due to neurological and cardiovascular deterioration an emergency surgery was performed. Four bags of cocaine could be removed. We discuss the current management regimen in symptomatic and asymptomatic body packers and highlight pearls and pitfalls with diagnosis and treatment.

  9. On Approximating Four Covering and Packing Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ashley, Mary; Berman, Piotr; Chaovalitwongse, Wanpracha; DasGupta, Bhaskar; Kao, Ming-Yang; 10.1016/j.jcss.2009.01.002

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider approximability issues of the following four problems: triangle packing, full sibling reconstruction, maximum profit coverage and 2-coverage. All of them are generalized or specialized versions of set-cover and have applications in biology ranging from full-sibling reconstructions in wild populations to biomolecular clusterings; however, as this paper shows, their approximability properties differ considerably. Our inapproximability constant for the triangle packing problem improves upon the previous results; this is done by directly transforming the inapproximability gap of Haastad for the problem of maximizing the number of satisfied equations for a set of equations over GF(2) and is interesting in its own right. Our approximability results on the full siblings reconstruction problems answers questions originally posed by Berger-Wolf et al. and our results on the maximum profit coverage problem provides almost matching upper and lower bounds on the approximation ratio, answering a...

  10. Is incest common in gray wolf packs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.; Meier, T.; Geffen, E.; Mech, L.D.; Burch, J.W.; Adams, L.G.; Wayne, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    Wolf packs generally consist of a breeding pair and their maturing offspring that help provision and protect pack young. Because the reproductive tenure in wolves often is short, reproductively mature offspring might replace their parents, resulting in sibling or parent-offspring matings. To determine the extent of incestuous pairings, we measure relatedness based on variability in 20 microsatellite loci of mated pairs, parent-offspring pairs and siblings in two populations of gray wolves. Our 16 sampled mated pairs had values of relatedness not overlapping those of known parent-offspring or sibling dyads, which is consistent with their being unrelated or distantly related. These results suggest that full siblings or a parent and their offspring rarely mate and that incest avoidance is an important constraint on gray wolf behavioral ecology.

  11. Pattern Generation by Bubble Packing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel V.K.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new computational method forornamental Pattern design. The work is a concerted effort ofevaluation of various methods and the comparatively betterprocess is used for designing keeping in mind the accuracyrequirement for such Indian traditional ethnic designs. The firststep in the process to apply the CAD tools to design the patterns.Small semantics (profile are made using the mathematicalmodelling to make different pattern. Geometric constraints suchas scaling, rotation, transformation etc. are applied to make andmodify the profiles. To create patterns, obtains node locationsthrough a physically based particle simulation, which we call'bubble packing. Bubbles are closely packed on the corners,edges and on the surface domain, and nodes are placed at thecenters of the bubbles. Experimental results show that ourmethod can create high quality ornamental patterns. Thefabrication of the ornaments is on rapid prototype machine.

  12. Helix-packing motifs in membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, R F S; DeGrado, W F

    2006-09-12

    The fold of a helical membrane protein is largely determined by interactions between membrane-imbedded helices. To elucidate recurring helix-helix interaction motifs, we dissected the crystallographic structures of membrane proteins into a library of interacting helical pairs. The pairs were clustered according to their three-dimensional similarity (rmsd universe of common transmembrane helix-pairing motifs is relatively simple. The largest cluster, which comprises 29% of the library members, consists of an antiparallel motif with left-handed packing angles, and it is frequently stabilized by packing of small side chains occurring every seven residues in the sequence. Right-handed parallel and antiparallel structures show a similar tendency to segregate small residues to the helix-helix interface but spaced at four-residue intervals. Position-specific sequence propensities were derived for the most populated motifs. These structural and sequential motifs should be quite useful for the design and structural prediction of membrane proteins.

  13. 27 CFR 24.255 - Bottling or packing wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling or packing wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.255 Bottling or packing wine. (a) General. Proprietors of a bonded wine premises and...

  14. 48 CFR 552.211-87 - Export packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Export packing. 552.211-87... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 552.211-87 Export packing. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(7), insert the following clause: Export Packing (JAN 2010) (a...

  15. 48 CFR 552.211-75 - Preservation, Packaging and Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Packing. 552.211-75 Section 552.211-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES....211-75 Preservation, Packaging and Packing. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(2), insert the following clause: Preservation, Packaging, and Packing (FEB 1996) Unless otherwise specified, all items shall...

  16. 7 CFR 319.37-9 - Approved packing material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approved packing material. 319.37-9 Section 319.37-9..., and Other Plant Products 1,2 § 319.37-9 Approved packing material. Any restricted article at the time of importation or offer for importation into the United States shall not be packed in a...

  17. 48 CFR 211.272 - Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., packaging, and packing. 211.272 Section 211.272 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Requirements Documents 211.272 Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. Use the provision at 252.211-7004, Alternate Preservation, Packaging, and Packing, in solicitations which include...

  18. 75 FR 31283 - Clarification of Parachute Packing Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 65 RIN 2120-AJ08 Clarification of Parachute Packing...) was expressly limited to packing a main parachute of a dual-parachute system for personal use...'' situations, parachute packing must be accomplished by or overseen by an appropriate current...

  19. 48 CFR 452.247-73 - Packing for Overseas Shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packing for Overseas Shipment. 452.247-73 Section 452.247-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Packing for Overseas Shipment. As prescribed in 447.305-10(c), insert the following clause: Packing...

  20. 48 CFR 452.247-72 - Packing for Domestic Shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packing for Domestic Shipment. 452.247-72 Section 452.247-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Packing for Domestic Shipment. As prescribed in 447.305-10(b), insert the following clause: Packing...

  1. 7 CFR 51.2927 - Marking and packing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking and packing requirements. 51.2927 Section 51... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apricots Marking and Packing Requirements § 51.2927 Marking and packing requirements. The minimum size or numerical count of the apricots in any package shall...

  2. 48 CFR 852.214-73 - Alternate packaging and packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... packing. 852.214-73 Section 852.214-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS....214-73 Alternate packaging and packing. As prescribed in 814.201-6(b)(3), insert the following provision: Alternate Packaging and Packing (JAN 2008) The bidder's offer must clearly indicate the...

  3. 48 CFR 552.211-77 - Packing List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packing List. 552.211-77... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 552.211-77 Packing List. As prescribed in 511.204(c), insert the following clause: Packing List (FEB 1996) (a) A...

  4. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting equipment. (b) The use...

  5. 36 CFR 34.10 - Saddle and pack animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Saddle and pack animals. 34... INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.10 Saddle and pack animals. The use of saddle and pack animals is prohibited without a permit from the Superintendent....

  6. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of...

  7. CoolPack – Simulation tools for refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.; Andersen, Simon Engedal

    1999-01-01

    CoolPack is a collection of programs used for energy analysis and optimisation of refrigeration systems. CoolPack is developed at the Department of Energy Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark. The Danish Energy Agency finances the project. CoolPack is freeware and can be downloaded...

  8. The Creative Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrge, Christian; Hansen, Søren

    This book is about introducing more creativity into general educational courses and cross-disciplinary activities. It is directed toward teachers at all levels in the educational system, but the Creative Platform is a general model, and thus the creative process will fundamentally be the same...... whether you consider thirdgrade teaching, human-resource development, or radical new thinking in product development in a company. The Creative Platform was developed at Aalborg University through a series of research-and-development activities in collaboration with educational institutions and private...... you can use in your work with the Creative Platform. This book is intended as an introduction on how to use the Creative Platform....

  9. Omnidirectional holonomic platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pin, F.G.; Killough, S.M.

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents the concepts for a new family of wheeled platforms which feature full omnidirectionality with simultaneous and independently controlled rotational and translational motion capabilities. The authors first present the orthogonal-wheels concept and the two major wheel assemblies on which these platforms are based. They then describe how a combination of these assemblies with appropriate control can be used to generate an omnidirectional capability for mobile robot platforms. The design and control of two prototype platforms are then presented and their respective characteristics with respect to rotational and translational motion control are discussed.

  10. Partitioning And Packing Equations For Parallel Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpasi, Dale J.; Milner, Edward J.

    1989-01-01

    Algorithm developed to identify parallelism in set of coupled ordinary differential equations that describe physical system and to divide set into parallel computational paths, along with parts of solution proceeds independently of others during at least part of time. Path-identifying algorithm creates number of paths consisting of equations that must be computed serially and table that gives dependent and independent arguments and "can start," "can end," and "must end" times of each equation. "Must end" time used subsequently by packing algorithm.

  11. Flaming Pear Creative Pack1.0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kane

    2003-01-01

    Flaming Pear是个一直给我留下深刻印象的软件开发公司。我以前评论过很多这个公司的插件,每一次都是不错的经历。同样的优良传统同样体现在Flaming Pear的新品Creative Pack1.0

  12. Sensory Analysis of Stored Tray Pack Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Milk chocolate brown. ODOR: Sweet, typical of heat processed milk cocoa . FLAVOR: Sweet, full milk cocoa flavor. TEXTURE: Smooth, medium thick...7B DEGREES 100 DEGREES 6. DESSERTS Chocolate Pudding There was no significant finding with this Tray Pack item. Marble Cake At 70°F, the effect...and 6 months. The main effect of temperature on acceptability of this item was not significant. Chocolate Cake At 70°F, there was a significant

  13. Effects of Nasopore Packing on Dacryocystorhinostomy

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Sun Young; Lee, Kyou Ho; Lee, Sang Yeul; Yoon, Jin Sook

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of placement of the absorbable packing material Nasopore at the anastomosis site of newly formed mucosal flaps on postoperative re-bleeding, discomfort, and on the success rate of dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). Methods A review of the medical records of patients with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction that underwent external or endonasal DCR by a single surgeon was performed. The degree of re-bleeding, discomfort, and postoperative results, includi...

  14. A Controlled New Process of Pack Aluminization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhi-rong; MA Liu-bao; LI Pei-ning; XU Hong

    2004-01-01

    Aluminum diffusion coatings are often prepared by a pack aluminization technique, which is a specific variety of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The coating process takes place in a bed containing a mixed powder that serves as a source of the coatings forming element. The phase composition of the diffusion layer obtained depends on the activity of the Al during the pack aluminization processing. In this work, the proportion of Al to special additive powder in the pack and the treatment temperature are adjusted to achieve the desired surface composition of aluminized layer. The aluminized 20 plain carbon steel and HK40 austenitic steel were investigated by optical microscopy (OM) , X-ray diffraction (XRD)and microsclerometer. The results showed that the desired FeAl, Fe3Al and NiAl were respectively formed on the 20 plain carbon steel and HK40 austenitic steel, and the aluminides FeAl3, Fe2Al5 or Ni2Al3, NiAl3 could be inhibited.

  15. A Controlled New Process of Pack Aluminization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGZhi-rong; MALiu-bao; LIPei-ning; XUHong

    2004-01-01

    Aluminum diffusion coatings are often prepared by a pack aluminization technique, which is a specific variety of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The coating process takes place in a bed containing a mixed powder that serves as a source of the coatings forming element. The phase composition of the diffusion layer obtained depends on the activity of the Al during the pack aluminization processing. In this work, the proportion of Al to special additive powder in the pack and the treatment temperature are adjusted to achieve the desired surface composition of aluminized layer. The aluminized 20 plain carbon steel and HK40 austenitic steel were investigated by optical microscopy (OM) , X-ray diffraction (XRD) and microsclerometer. The results showed that the desired FeAl, Fe3Al and NiAl were respectively formed on the 20 plain carbon steel and HK40 austenitic steel, and the aluminides FeAl3, Fe2Al5 or Ni2Al3, NiAl3 could be inhibited.

  16. The Brookhaven National Laboratory filter pack system for collection and determination of air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leahy, D.F.; Klotz, P.J.; Springston, S.R.; Daum, P.H.

    1995-04-01

    A filter pack system for sampling trace constituents in the atmosphere from aircraft and ground-based measurement platforms has been developed. The system simultaneously and quantitatively collects atmospheric aerosol, nitric acid, and sulfur dioxide using three sequential filter stages. The quartz aerosol filter is routinely analyzed for sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and hydrogen ions, and specifically for sulfuric acid. The sodium chloride filter is analyzed for nitrate ion (from collected nitric acid), and the carbonate-glycerine filter for sulfate ion (from collected sulfur dioxide). Details of the procedures used for filter preparation, sampling, extraction and analysis are given.

  17. Research data supporting "Emergence of homeostatic epithelial packing and stress dissipation through divisions oriented along the long cell axis"

    OpenAIRE

    Wyatt, Tom P. J.; Harris, Andrew R.; Lam, Maxine; CHENG*, Qian; Bellis, Julien; Dimitracopoulos, Andrea; Kabla, Alexandre J.; Charras, Guillaume T.; Baum, Buzz

    2015-01-01

    Data supporting publication 'Emergence of homeostatic epithelial packing and stress dissipation through divisions oriented along the cell long axis', PNAS. The tif files are image stacks. ImageJ (or Fiji) should be able to open them on any platform supporting the software. (http://imagej.nih.gov/ij/ or http://fiji.sc/Fiji ) "This work was supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Research Council [grant number BB/K013521], Engineering and Physical Research Council and the Wellcome Tr...

  18. Advanced offshore oil platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellers, F.S.

    1982-04-01

    Four innovative offshore platforms that are designed to withstand 100-foot waves in waters 600-feet deep are described. These platforms are: (1) Stratfjord B Concrete Gravity-Base Platform; (2) Magnus Steel-Template-Jacket Platform; (3) Hutton Tension-Leg Platform; and (4) Block 280 Guyed Tower. The Statfjord B platform, designed in Norway, rests on four massive concrete columns with storage tanks at the base. It depends solely on its own mass for stability. The Magnus platform, designed by the British, is the heaviest offshore platform yet fabricated, weighing 41,000 tons. Two of the platform's four legs will incorporate flotation chambers so that the structure can be floated to its site in the North Sea. The Hutton structure, also designed in England, will consist of a buoyant hull tethered to the sea floor by slender steel tubes at its four corners. The first platform of its type, the Hutton structure is also destined for the North Sea. The US designed Block 280 guyed tower is designed for service in the Gulf of Mexico in water 1000 feet deep. It will be pinned to the sea floor by a spokelike array of 20 steel cables, each one more than 3000 feet long. The tower and its guys will weigh 43,000 tons, slightly more than the Magnus steel-template jacket and more than four time as much as the Eiffel Tower. At a cost of approximately $2.6 billion, the Magnus is the most expensive offshore platform to date. The Statfjord B was put into production in 1982. The Magnus is scheduled for oil production in 1983. The Hutton and the Block 280 will both be producing in 1984. (JMT)

  19. Highly efficient capillary columns packed with superficially porous particles via sequential column packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadway, James W; Wyndham, Kevin D; Jorgenson, James W

    2015-11-27

    Highly efficient capillary columns packed with superficially porous particles were created for use in ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography. Superficially porous particles around 1.5μm in diameter were packed into fused silica capillary columns with 30, 50, and 75μm internal diameters. To create the columns, several capillary columns were serially packed from the same slurry, with packing progress plots being generated to follow the packing of each column. Characterization of these columns using hydroquinone yielded calculated minimum reduced plate heights as low as 1.24 for the most efficient 30μm internal diameter column, corresponding to over 500,000plates/m. At least one highly efficient column (minimum reduced plate height less than 2) was created for all three of the investigated column inner diameters, with the smallest diameter columns having the highest efficiency. This study proves that highly efficient capillary columns can be created using superficially porous particles and shows the efficiency potential of these particles.

  20. A HARMONIC ALGORITHM FOR THE 3D STRIP PACKING PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Nikhil; Han, X.; Iwama, K.; Sviridenko, M.; Zhang, Guochuan

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the three-dimensional (3D) strip packing problem, we are given a set of 3D rectangular items and a 3D box $B$. The goal is to pack all the items in $B$ such that the height of the packing is minimized. We consider the most basic version of the problem, where the items must be packed with their edges parallel to the edges of $B$ and cannot be rotated. Building upon Caprara's work for the two-dimensional (2D) bin packing problem, we obtain an algorithm that, given any $\\epsilon>0...

  1. A numerical study on the discharging performance of a packing module in a thermal storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Tae; Chung, Jae Dong [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park Hyoung Joon [Dept of.evelopment Center, Janghan Engineers. INC., Dangjin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    In this study, a numerical analysis on the discharging performance of a thermal storage tank completely filled with packing modules is investigated. The enthalpy-porosity method is adopted to analyze phase change phenomenon. Using this method, the melting process of a packing module in the thermal storage tank was studied as the HTF (heat transfer fluid) flows down from the top of the tank at the discharging mode. There are some design factors such as the module arrangement and the number of modules, but this study focuses on the effects of varying the flow rate of the HTF on the outlet temperature of the HTF, molten fraction, and thermal storage density. As the flow rate increases, the outlet temperature of the HTF gets higher and the total melting time of the PCM decreases. Additionally, the thermal storage density is increased so that it reaches about 93% for the desired value.

  2. Electrochemical removal of copper ions from dilute solutions using packed bed electrode. Part І

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Khattab

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Removal of some hazardous waste like copper from effluent streams has an industrial importance. In this field, this paper is directed towards electrochemical removal of copper ions from sulfate solution using packed bed electrode. The cathode packing is in static mode, consisted of graphite particles, with mean particle size equal to 0.125 cm. The high surface area of this cell is expected to give high current efficiency and removal percent. The effect of current density and liquid flow rate were tested. Experimental results obtained indicate that the efficiencies are in direct proportional with current density while inversely proportional with liquid flow rate. It was observed that, using this cell was effective in reducing copper concentration to less than 4 mg/l with R.E of 96.2% during 30 min electrolysis time.

  3. EURESCOM Services Platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, Lambertus Johannes Maria; van Halteren, Aart

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the EURESCOM Project 715. In February 1999, a large team of researchers from six European public network operators completed a two year period of cooperative experiments on a TINA-based environment, called the EURESCOM Services Platform (ESP). This platform

  4. Mapping the distribution of packing topologies within protein interiors shows predominant preference for specific packing motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Rahul

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mapping protein primary sequences to their three dimensional folds referred to as the 'second genetic code' remains an unsolved scientific problem. A crucial part of the problem concerns the geometrical specificity in side chain association leading to densely packed protein cores, a hallmark of correctly folded native structures. Thus, any model of packing within proteins should constitute an indispensable component of protein folding and design. Results In this study an attempt has been made to find, characterize and classify recurring patterns in the packing of side chain atoms within a protein which sustains its native fold. The interaction of side chain atoms within the protein core has been represented as a contact network based on the surface complementarity and overlap between associating side chain surfaces. Some network topologies definitely appear to be preferred and they have been termed 'packing motifs', analogous to super secondary structures in proteins. Study of the distribution of these motifs reveals the ubiquitous presence of typical smaller graphs, which appear to get linked or coalesce to give larger graphs, reminiscent of the nucleation-condensation model in protein folding. One such frequently occurring motif, also envisaged as the unit of clustering, the three residue clique was invariably found in regions of dense packing. Finally, topological measures based on surface contact networks appeared to be effective in discriminating sequences native to a specific fold amongst a set of decoys. Conclusions Out of innumerable topological possibilities, only a finite number of specific packing motifs are actually realized in proteins. This small number of motifs could serve as a basis set in the construction of larger networks. Of these, the triplet clique exhibits distinct preference both in terms of composition and geometry.

  5. Mapping the distribution of packing topologies within protein interiors shows predominant preference for specific packing motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sankar; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay; Banerjee, Rahul

    2011-05-24

    Mapping protein primary sequences to their three dimensional folds referred to as the 'second genetic code' remains an unsolved scientific problem. A crucial part of the problem concerns the geometrical specificity in side chain association leading to densely packed protein cores, a hallmark of correctly folded native structures. Thus, any model of packing within proteins should constitute an indispensable component of protein folding and design. In this study an attempt has been made to find, characterize and classify recurring patterns in the packing of side chain atoms within a protein which sustains its native fold. The interaction of side chain atoms within the protein core has been represented as a contact network based on the surface complementarity and overlap between associating side chain surfaces. Some network topologies definitely appear to be preferred and they have been termed 'packing motifs', analogous to super secondary structures in proteins. Study of the distribution of these motifs reveals the ubiquitous presence of typical smaller graphs, which appear to get linked or coalesce to give larger graphs, reminiscent of the nucleation-condensation model in protein folding. One such frequently occurring motif, also envisaged as the unit of clustering, the three residue clique was invariably found in regions of dense packing. Finally, topological measures based on surface contact networks appeared to be effective in discriminating sequences native to a specific fold amongst a set of decoys. Out of innumerable topological possibilities, only a finite number of specific packing motifs are actually realized in proteins. This small number of motifs could serve as a basis set in the construction of larger networks. Of these, the triplet clique exhibits distinct preference both in terms of composition and geometry.

  6. Experimental insights of liquid impacts onto granular beds of various packings : The packing influence over the excavated volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyser, Emmanuel; Carrea, Dario; Jaboyeodff, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Most of the past studies focused on solid impacts onto granular beds addressing key questions such as the crater dimensions or the impactor deceleration. Recent investigations were oriented toward the more complex case of liquid-to-granular impacts. However, the influence of the packing over the impact process and the bed response is not clearly understood. Moreover, we may assume the general scaling law which relates the average crater volume to the kinetic energy is invariant regarding the impact type (solid-to-granular, liquid-to-granular). Hence, we address the influence of the granular bed packing over both the excavated & deposited volumes. We propose to study liquid-to-granular impacts via an experimental protocol, which is described in the following. A device releases 2.34±0.14 mm radii water droplets, which vertically fall from different heights (50, 100, 200 & 290 mm) onto fine granular samples (d50 = 0.0357 mm) of diameter 400 mm. Each granular sample was previously compacted using a heavy circular plate and a shaking device. Pre and post-impacts geometries are acquired using a 3D scanner, which is the KONICA MINOLTA VIVID 9i fitted with a TELE lens 25 mm with a focal distance of 25 mm and a theoretical vertical precision of 0.008 mm with a standard deviation of 0.024 mm. High density 3D point clouds result from this experimental procedure. Spatial changes are then characterized and provide a quantification of excavated & deposited volumes or local granular bed uplifts. We observe a common pattern for every impacts: the local granular bed uplift at the periphery of the impact center. This shows the difficulty to distinguish deposited materials from uplifted materials. Achieving distinction between deposition and uplift process leads to an average uplift-induced volume proportion of 0.94-0.97 (i.e. the ratio between deposited volume and uplift-induced volume), which illustrates the high dissipation of energy The granular bed packing influence is clearly

  7. Elastic moduli and vibrational modes in jammed particulate packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Hideyuki; Saitoh, Kuniyasu; Silbert, Leonardo E.

    2016-06-01

    When we elastically impose a homogeneous, affine deformation on amorphous solids, they also undergo an inhomogeneous, nonaffine deformation, which can have a crucial impact on the overall elastic response. To correctly understand the elastic modulus M , it is therefore necessary to take into account not only the affine modulus MA, but also the nonaffine modulus MN that arises from the nonaffine deformation. In the present work, we study the bulk (M =K ) and shear (M =G ) moduli in static jammed particulate packings over a range of packing fractions φ . The affine MA is determined essentially by the static structural arrangement of particles, whereas the nonaffine MN is related to the vibrational eigenmodes. We elucidate the contribution of each vibrational mode to the nonaffine MN through a modal decomposition of the displacement and force fields. In the vicinity of the (un)jamming transition φc, the vibrational density of states g (ω ) shows a plateau in the intermediate-frequency regime above a characteristic frequency ω*. We illustrate that this unusual feature apparent in g (ω ) is reflected in the behavior of MN: As φ →φc , where ω*→0 , those modes for ω ω* approach a constant value which results in MN to approach a critical value MN c, as MN-MN c˜ω* . At φc itself, the bulk modulus attains a finite value Kc=KA c-KN c>0 , such that KN c has a value that remains below KA c. In contrast, for the critical shear modulus Gc, GN c and GA c approach the same value so that the total value becomes exactly zero, Gc=GA c-GN c=0 . We explore what features of the configurational and vibrational properties cause such a distinction between K and G , allowing us to validate analytical expressions for their critical values.

  8. Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, John W. H.

    1984-01-01

    A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

  9. Comparing Online Algorithms for Bin Packing Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, Leah; Favrholdt, Lene Monrad; Kohrt, Jens Svalgaard

    2012-01-01

    -order ratio to online algorithms for several common variants of the bin packing problem. We mainly consider pairs of algorithms that are not distinguished by the competitive ratio and show that the relative worst-order ratio prefers the intuitively better algorithm of each pair.......The relative worst-order ratio is a measure of the quality of online algorithms. In contrast to the competitive ratio, this measure compares two online algorithms directly instead of using an intermediate comparison with an optimal offline algorithm. In this paper, we apply the relative worst...

  10. Comparing Online Algorithms for Bin Packing Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, Leah; Favrholdt, Lene Monrad; Kohrt, Jens Svalgaard

    2012-01-01

    The relative worst-order ratio is a measure of the quality of online algorithms. In contrast to the competitive ratio, this measure compares two online algorithms directly instead of using an intermediate comparison with an optimal offline algorithm. In this paper, we apply the relative worst-ord......-order ratio to online algorithms for several common variants of the bin packing problem. We mainly consider pairs of algorithms that are not distinguished by the competitive ratio and show that the relative worst-order ratio prefers the intuitively better algorithm of each pair....

  11. Molecular Packing in Network-Forming Collagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Knupp

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Collagen is the most abundant protein among vertebrates and occurs in virtually all multicellular animals. Collagen molecules are classified into 21 different types and differ in their sequence, weight, structure, and function, but they can be broadly subdivided into families. Type IV, VI, VIII, X, and dogfish egg case collagens belong to the network-forming family. Here, we summarise what is known about the way these collagen molecules pack to form networks. In addition the main structural characteristics of the network-forming collagens are compared and discussed.

  12. Radiative transfer in closely packed realistic regoliths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vahidinia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a regolith radiative transfer model (RRT based on a first-principles approach to regolith modeling that is essential for near-to-far infrared observations of grainy surfaces, and is readily configured to answer fundamental questions about popular models with which all remote observations of all airless solar system bodies with granular surfaces are currently interpreted. Our model accounts for wavelength-size regolith particles which are closely packed and can be heterogeneous in composition and arbitrarily shaped. Here we present preliminary results showing the role of porosity on layer reflectivity.

  13. Importance of packing in spiral defect chaos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kapilanjan Krishna

    2008-04-01

    We develop two measures to characterize the geometry of patterns exhibited by the state of spiral defect chaos, a weakly turbulent regime of Rayleigh-Bénard convection. These describe the packing of contiguous stripes within the pattern by quantifying their length and nearest-neighbor distributions. The distributions evolve towards unique distribution with increasing Rayleigh number that suggests power-law scaling for the dynamics in the limit of infinite system size. The techniques are generally applicable to patterns that are reducible to a binary representation.

  14. Sugar exported: sugar packed in containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Yemal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study in the port sector specialized in handling of bagged sugar. Sugar has always been exported in bags of 50 kg, placed directly in the holds of ships for general cargo. It appears that this form of transport has become obsolete now, the market for the direct form of transport of sugar packed in containers. Companies involved in this type of port handling need understand the reasons that are influencing this new mode of transportation as a way to fit and remain active and competitive in the industry.

  15. The Common HOL Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The Common HOL project aims to facilitate porting source code and proofs between members of the HOL family of theorem provers. At the heart of the project is the Common HOL Platform, which defines a standard HOL theory and API that aims to be compatible with all HOL systems. So far, HOL Light and hol90 have been adapted for conformance, and HOL Zero was originally developed to conform. In this paper we provide motivation for a platform, give an overview of the Common HOL Platform's theory and...

  16. Ladder attachment platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swygert,; Richard, W [Springfield, SC

    2012-08-28

    A ladder attachment platform is provided that includes a base for attachment to a ladder that has first and second side rails and a plurality of rungs that extend between in a lateral direction. Also included is a user platform for having a user stand thereon that is carried by the base. The user platform may be positioned with respect to the ladder so that it is not located between a first plane that extends through the first side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction and a second plane that extends through the second side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction.

  17. The effect of nanoparticle packing on capacitive electrode performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Younghee; Noh, Seonmyeong; Kim, Min-Sik; Kong, Hye Jeong; Im, Kyungun; Kwon, Oh Seok; Kim, Sungmin; Yoon, Hyeonseok

    2016-06-09

    Nanoparticles pack together to form macro-scale electrodes in various types of devices, and thus, optimization of the nanoparticle packing is a prerequisite for the realization of a desirable device performance. In this work, we provide in-depth insight into the effect of nanoparticle packing on the performance of nanoparticle-based electrodes by combining experimental and computational findings. As a model system, polypyrrole nanospheres of three different diameters were used to construct pseudocapacitive electrodes, and the performance of the electrodes was examined at various nanosphere diameter ratios and mixed weight fractions. Two numerical algorithms are proposed to simulate the random packing of the nanospheres on the electrode. The binary nanospheres exhibited diverse, complicated packing behaviors compared with the monophasic packing of each nanosphere species. The packing of the two nanosphere species with lower diameter ratios at an optimized composition could lead to more dense packing of the nanospheres, which in turn could contribute to better device performance. The dense packing of the nanospheres would provide more efficient transport pathways for ions because of the reduced inter-nanosphere pore size and enlarged surface area for charge storage. Ultimately, it is anticipated that our approach can be widely used to define the concept of "the best nanoparticle packing" for desirable device performance.

  18. An efficient block-discriminant identification of packed malware

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Smita Naval; Vijay Laxmi; Manoj Singh Gaur; P Vinod

    2015-08-01

    Advanced persistent attacks, incorporated by sophisticated malware, are on the rise against hosts, user applications and utility software. Modern malware hide their malicious payload by applying packing mechanism. Packing tools instigate code encryption to protect the original malicious payload. Packing is employed in tandem with code obfuscation/encryption/compression to create malware variants. Despite being just a variant of known malware, the packed malware invalidates the traditional signature based malware detection as packing tools create an envelope of packer code around the original base malware. Therefore, unpacking becomes a mandatory phase prior to anti-virus scanning for identifying the known malware hidden behind packing layers. Existing techniques of unpacking solutions increase execution overhead of AV scanners in terms of time. This paper illustrates an easy to use approach which works in two phases to reduce this overhead. The first phase (ESCAPE) discriminates the packed code from the native code (non-packed) by using random block entropy. The second phase (PEAL) validates inferences of ESCAPE by employing bi-classification (packed vs native) model using relevant hex byte features extracted blockwise. The proposed approach is able to shrink the overall execution time of AV scanners by filtering out native samples and avoiding excessive unpacking overhead. Our method has been evaluated against a set consisting of real packed instances of malware and benign programs.

  19. First-principles structures for the close-packed and the 7/2 motif of collagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalkanen, Karl J.; Olsen, Kasper; Knapp-Mohammady, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    The newly proposed close-packed motif for collagen and the more established 7/2 structure are investigated and compared. First-principles semi-empirical wave function theory and Kohn-Sham density functional theory are applied in the study of these relatively large and complex structures...... function for molecular hydrogen....

  20. Standing out in the crowd: The effect of information clutter on consumer attention for front-of-pack nutrition labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, S.E.; Grunert, K.G.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Whether and how information density on front-of-pack design affects consumers’ attention for nutrition labels is explored. The main manipulation concerned the number and type of nutrition labels (directive-, semi-, and non-directive), chromaticity (monochrome vs. traffic light color-coded scheme);

  1. Standing out in the crowd: The effect of information clutter on consumer attention for front-of-pack nutrition labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, Svetlana; Bialkova, S.E.; Grunert, Klaus G.; van Trijp, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Whether and how information density on front-of-pack design affects consumers’ attention for nutrition labels is explored. The main manipulation concerned the number and type of nutrition labels (directive-, semi-, and non-directive), chromaticity (monochrome vs. traffic light color-coded scheme); n

  2. Platform-based production development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Jacob; Brunoe, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Platforms as a means for applying modular thinking in product development is relatively well studied, but platforms in the production system has until now not been given much attention. With the emerging concept of platform-based co-development the importance of production platforms is though...... indisputable. This paper presents state-of-the-art literature on platform research related to production platforms and investigates gaps in the literature. The paper concludes on findings by proposing future research directions....

  3. Effective Thermal Conductivity of Adsorbent Packed Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hideo; Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Suguru

    The effective thermal conductivity of adsorbent packed beds of granular zeolite 13X and granular silica gel A in the presence of stagnant steam or air was measured under different conditions of the adsorbent bed temperature, particle size and filler-gas pressure. The measured effective thermal conductivity showed to become smaller with decreasing particle size or decreasing pressure, but it was nearly independent of the bed temperature. When steam was the filler-gas, the rise in the thermal conductivity of the adsorbent particles due to steam adsorption led to the increase in the effective thermal conductivity of the bed, and this effect was not negligible at high steam pressure for the bed of large particle size. It was found that both the predictions of the effective thermal conductivity by the Hayashi et al.'s model and the Bauer-Schlünder model generally agreed well with the measurements, by considering the particle thermal conductivity rise due to steam adsorption. The thermal conductivity of a consolidated bed of granular zeolite 13X was also measured, and it was found to be much larger than that of the packed bed especially at lower pressure. The above prediction models underestimated the effective thermal conductivity of the consolidated bed.

  4. Protein packing defects "heat up" interfacial water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, María Belén; Accordino, Sebastián R; Rodriguez-Fris, J Ariel; Morini, Marcela A; Appignanesi, Gustavo A; Fernández Stigliano, Ariel

    2013-06-01

    Ligands must displace water molecules from their corresponding protein surface binding site during association. Thus, protein binding sites are expected to be surrounded by non-tightly-bound, easily removable water molecules. In turn, the existence of packing defects at protein binding sites has been also established. At such structural motifs, named dehydrons, the protein backbone is exposed to the solvent since the intramolecular interactions are incompletely wrapped by non-polar groups. Hence, dehydrons are sticky since they depend on additional intermolecular wrapping in order to properly protect the structure from water attack. Thus, a picture of protein binding is emerging wherein binding sites should be both dehydrons rich and surrounded by easily removable water. In this work we shall indeed confirm such a link between structure and dynamics by showing the existence of a firm correlation between the degree of underwrapping of the protein chain and the mobility of the corresponding hydration water molecules. In other words, we shall show that protein packing defects promote their local dehydration, thus producing a region of "hot" interfacial water which might be easily removed by a ligand upon association.

  5. Structured packing in revamping a topping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spekuljak, Zvonko; Monella, Horacio [SIT Ingenieria S.R.L., Santa Fe (Argentina); Carosio, Eduardo [REPSOL Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales S.A. (Argentina); Lara, Cesar Javier

    2000-07-01

    The Topping column had conventional gas-liquid plates, and live steam was no possible to inject, because of the substantial black colour in the distillates. The target was to increase the distillates ratio, in order to reduce the light components in the bottom stream and the asphalt content in the middle distillates. Revamping involves the Flash, the Slop-wash and the Bottom zones. In the Flash zone was arranged a flow distributor to segregate liquid-vapor phases and predistributed the vapor phase. In the Slop-wash bed a combination of Structured Packing and inertial drop capture proprietary Structured Geometry was installed. The column Bottom was filled with a proprietary Structured Grid. A chimneys tray is the actual liquid distributor on the grid bed. The main results of the revamping are: The light hydrocarbon in bottom stream reduction was 40%. The expected value in the project was 20%. Incrementation of medium distillates was 126 m{sup 3}. The expected value was 100 m{sup 3}. Colour reduction in G.O.V. from >8 to <3 ASTM 1500. Temperature reduction in Transfer Line 10 deg C. Structured packings and the appropriate auxiliaries devices allow to obtain significant improvements in Topping columns. The repayment time of the revamp is very satisfactory. (author)

  6. USA Hire Testing Platform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The USA Hire Testing Platform delivers tests used in hiring for positions in the Federal Government. To safeguard the integrity of the hiring processes and ensure...

  7. MULTIFUNCTIONAL PLATFORMS AND

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solar service centres and multifunctional platforms are innovative concepts for providing energy services in ... same time generate income. obeng ..... communities the driving force behind the ... operator(s) had to contact repairers outside their.

  8. The Common HOL Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Adams

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Common HOL project aims to facilitate porting source code and proofs between members of the HOL family of theorem provers. At the heart of the project is the Common HOL Platform, which defines a standard HOL theory and API that aims to be compatible with all HOL systems. So far, HOL Light and hol90 have been adapted for conformance, and HOL Zero was originally developed to conform. In this paper we provide motivation for a platform, give an overview of the Common HOL Platform's theory and API components, and show how to adapt legacy systems. We also report on the platform's successful application in the hand-translation of a few thousand lines of source code from HOL Light to HOL Zero.

  9. The Creative Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrge, Christian; Hansen, Søren

    whether you consider thirdgrade teaching, human-resource development, or radical new thinking in product development in a company. The Creative Platform was developed at Aalborg University through a series of research-and-development activities in collaboration with educational institutions and private......This book is about introducing more creativity into general educational courses and cross-disciplinary activities. It is directed toward teachers at all levels in the educational system, but the Creative Platform is a general model, and thus the creative process will fundamentally be the same...... companies. It is a project in which the goal is to make a hands-on approach to a knowledge perspective on enhancing creativity. The underlying ambition of the Creative Platform is to make it easier to promote creativity. At www.uka.aau.dk/The+Creative+Platform, you can find extra materials and instructions...

  10. National Community Solar Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupert, Bart [Clean Energy Collective, Louisville, CO (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This project was created to provide a National Community Solar Platform (NCSP) portal known as Community Solar Hub, that is available to any entity or individual who wants to develop community solar. This has been done by providing a comprehensive portal to make CEC’s solutions, and other proven community solar solutions, externally available for everyone to access – making the process easy through proven platforms to protect subscribers, developers and utilities. The successful completion of this project provides these tools via a web platform and integration APIs, a wide spectrum of community solar projects included in the platform, multiple groups of customers (utilities, EPCs, and advocates) using the platform to develop community solar, and open access to anyone interested in community solar. CEC’s Incubator project includes web-based informational resources, integrated systems for project information and billing systems, and engagement with customers and users by community solar experts. The combined effort externalizes much of Clean Energy Collective’s industry-leading expertise, allowing third parties to develop community solar without duplicating expensive start-up efforts. The availability of this platform creates community solar projects that are cheaper to build and cheaper to participate in, furthering the goals of DOE’s SunShot Initiative. Final SF 425 Final SF 428 Final DOE F 2050.11 Final Report Narrative

  11. Simulation of abuse tolerance of lithium-ion battery packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotnitz, Robert M.; Weaver, James; Yeduvaka, Gowri; Doughty, D. H.; Roth, E. P.

    A simple approach for using accelerating rate calorimetry data to simulate the thermal abuse resistance of battery packs is described. The thermal abuse tolerance of battery packs is estimated based on the exothermic behavior of a single cell and an energy balance than accounts for radiative, conductive, and convective heat transfer modes of the pack. For the specific example of a notebook computer pack containing eight 18650-size cells, the effects of cell position, heat of reaction, and heat-transfer coefficient are explored. Thermal runaway of the pack is more likely to be induced by thermal runaway of a single cell when that cell is in good contact with other cells and is close to the pack wall.

  12. Cavity approach to sphere packing in Hamming space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezanpour, A; Zecchina, R

    2012-02-01

    In this paper we study the hard sphere packing problem in the Hamming space by the cavity method. We show that both the replica symmetric and the replica symmetry breaking approximations give maximum rates of packing that are asymptotically the same as the lower bound of Gilbert and Varshamov. Consistently with known numerical results, the replica symmetric equations also suggest a crystalline solution, where for even diameters the spheres are more likely to be found in one of the subspaces (even or odd) of the Hamming space. These crystalline packings can be generated by a recursive algorithm which finds maximum packings in an ultrametric space. Finally, we design a message passing algorithm based on the cavity equations to find dense packings of hard spheres. Known maximum packings are reproduced efficiently in nontrivial ranges of dimensions and number of spheres. © 2012 American Physical Society

  13. Comfort care packs: a little bit of hospice in hospital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Mark A; Hillock, Sharon; Moore, Carol; Goble, Hannah; Asbury, Nicky

    2010-10-01

    The Comfort Care Pack initiative is an innovation designed to enhance the inpatient experience of end-of-life patients and their carers. The carer is given a pleasantly decorated box containing a variety of items for use by the patient or the carer themselves: snacks, toiletries and items to promote comfort. This project set out to evaluate the impact of these packs by reviewing the returns of the feedback questionnaires included with the packs. From the first 220 packs, 58 questionnaires were returned, giving quantitative and qualitative data. The response to the packs was overwhelmingly positive and they were much valued by the carers. This was the case despite the fact that relatively few of the items were actually used by the recipients. It is suggested that the value of the packs to recipients lies in the gesture of being thought about during what is a difficult time for them. The implications of this are discussed.

  14. Structural models of randomly packed Tobermorite-like spherical particles: A simple computational approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Teresa, R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, and in order to bring together the atomistic and colloidal viewpoints, we will present a Monte Carlo computational scheme which reproduces the colloidal packing of nano-spherical crystalline tobermorite-like particles. Different Low Density (LD CS- H and High Density (HD C-S-H structures will be developed just by varying the computational packing parameters. Finally, the structures resulting from our computational experiments will be analyzed in terms of their densities, surface areas and their mechanical properties.

    En este trabajo y con el objetivo de conjugar el punto de vista atomístico y coloidal, presentamos un método computacional Monte Carlo que reproduce el empaquetamiento coloidal de nano-partículas esféricas cristalinas de tipo Tobermorita. Variando los parámetros computacionales de empaquetamiento diferentes estructuras tipo Low Density (LD C-S-H y High Density (HD C-S-H han sido creadas. Posteriormente, las estructuras resultantes de nuestros experimentos computacionales han sido analizadas en términos de sus densidades, áreas específicas y propiedades mecánicas.

  15. An amino acid code for β-sheet packing structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hyun; Tsai, Jerry

    2014-09-01

    To understand the relationship between protein sequence and structure, this work extends the knob-socket model in an investigation of β-sheet packing. Over a comprehensive set of β-sheet folds, the contacts between residues were used to identify packing cliques: sets of residues that all contact each other. These packing cliques were then classified based on size and contact order. From this analysis, the two types of four-residue packing cliques necessary to describe β-sheet packing were characterized. Both occur between two adjacent hydrogen bonded β-strands. First, defining the secondary structure packing within β-sheets, the combined socket or XY:HG pocket consists of four residues i, i+2 on one strand and j, j+2 on the other. Second, characterizing the tertiary packing between β-sheets, the knob-socket XY:H+B consists of a three-residue XY:H socket (i, i+2 on one strand and j on the other) packed against a knob B residue (residue k distant in sequence). Depending on the packing depth of the knob B residue, two types of knob-sockets are found: side-chain and main-chain sockets. The amino acid composition of the pockets and knob-sockets reveal the sequence specificity of β-sheet packing. For β-sheet formation, the XY:HG pocket clearly shows sequence specificity of amino acids. For tertiary packing, the XY:H+B side-chain and main-chain sockets exhibit distinct amino acid preferences at each position. These relationships define an amino acid code for β-sheet structure and provide an intuitive topological mapping of β-sheet packing.

  16. Tray Pack Improved Durability Packaging Rough Handling Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    extra vacuum void volume space makes these underfilled Tray Packs much more susceptible to damage. It is the vacuum that causes the damage not the under...filled to 6 lb. 10 oz. The result of underfilling is that the vacuum level in the peas is much higher making it more susceptible to paneling damage...impact. (3) That the vacuum induced by underfilling and vacuum pack- ing Tray Packs filled with peas makes them highly suscep- tible to damage. (4) That

  17. The Platformization of the Web: Making Web Data Platform Ready

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Helmond

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I inquire into Facebook’s development as a platform by situating it within the transformation of social network sites into social media platforms. I explore this shift with a historical perspective on, what I refer to as, platformization, or the rise of the platform as the dominant

  18. Serial Symmetrical Relocation Algorithm for the Equal Sphere Packing Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, WenQi

    2012-01-01

    For dealing with the equal sphere packing problem, we propose a serial symmetrical relocation algorithm, which is effective in terms of the quality of the numerical results. We have densely packed up to 200 equal spheres in spherical container and up to 150 equal spheres in cube container. All results are rigorous because of a fake sphere trick. It was conjectured impossible to pack 68 equal spheres of radius 1 into a sphere of radius 5. The serial symmetrical relocation algorithm has proven wrong this conjecture by finding one such packing.

  19. Bottom-Left Placement Theorem for Rectangle Packing

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Wenqi; Chen, Duanbing

    2011-01-01

    This paper proves a bottom-left placement theorem for the rectangle packing problem, stating that if it is possible to orthogonally place n arbitrarily given rectangles into a rectangular container without overlapping, then we can achieve a feasible packing by successively placing a rectangle onto a bottom-left corner in the container. This theorem shows that even for the real-parameter rectangle packing problem, we can solve it after finite times of bottom-left placement actions. Based on this theorem, we might develop efficient heuristic algorithms for solving the rectangle packing problem.

  20. Packed bed carburization of tantalum and tantalum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Peter C.; Rodriguez, Patrick J.; Pereyra, Ramiro A.

    1999-01-01

    Packed bed carburization of a tantalum or tantalum alloy object. A method for producing corrosion-resistant tantalum or tantalum alloy objects is described. The method includes the steps of placing the object in contact with a carburizing pack, heating the packed object in vacuum furnace to a temperature whereby carbon from the pack diffuses into the object forming grains with tantalum carbide along the grain boundaries, and etching the surface of the carburized object. This latter step removes tantalum carbides from the surface of the carburized tantalum object while leaving the tantalum carbide along the grain boundaries.

  1. Platform Performance and Challenges - using Platforms in Lego Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Lone; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2009-01-01

    by the product defining users (product developers) and platform erosion. When the platforms are not used it is due to: unsuitable calculation models, lack of goals, rewards or benefits from management, unattractive tradeoffs and difficulties in understanding the platform. This indicates that platform design...... needs focus on the incentive of using the platform. This problem lacks attention in literature, as well as industry, where assessment criteria do not cover this aspect. Therefore, we recommend including user incentive in platform assessment criteria to these challenges. Concrete solution elements...... ensuring user incentive in platforms is an object for future research...

  2. Influence of polydispersity on the microstructure of frictionless disc packings under simple shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Nicolas; Oquendo, William-Fernando

    2017-06-01

    By means of 2D Contact Dynamics simulations, we explored the effects of the shape and size span of the grain size distribution (GSD) on the microstructure of a sheared granular packing, in terms of its packing fraction and the connectivity of its contact network. We focused on GSDs that can be represented by a power law, which are widely used in several engineering and industrial contexts. The interest in power law GSDs originates in the works of Fuller and Thompson in 1907 and 1919, in which it was found that a maximum density is obtained for a power law GSD with an exponent of 0.5. This disagrees with recent DEM results where the densest packing is obtained for linear cumulative volume distributions. In order to explore this discrepancy, we performed systematic simulations in which we varied both the size span (the ratio between the largest and the smallest diameter) and the exponent (shape) of the distribution. We find that the exponent equal to 0.5 produces the highest density for all size spans. Furthermore, the proportion of rattlers and coordination were also analyzed, showing that the system's connectivity is strongly affected by both the size span and the shape of the distribution.

  3. Microstructured multi-well plate for three-dimensional packed cell seeding and hepatocyte cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goral, Vasiliy N; Au, Sam H; Faris, Ronald A; Yuen, Po Ki

    2014-07-01

    In this article, we present a microstructured multi-well plate for enabling three-dimensional (3D) high density seeding and culture of cells through the use of a standard laboratory centrifuge to promote and maintain 3D tissue-like cellular morphology and cell-specific functionality in vitro without the addition of animal derived or synthetic matrices or coagulants. Each well has microfeatures on the bottom that are comprised of a series of ditches/open microchannels. The dimensions of the microchannels promote and maintain 3D tissue-like cellular morphology and cell-specific functionality in vitro. After cell seeding with a standard pipette, the microstructured multi-well plates were centrifuged to tightly pack cells inside the ditches in order to enhance cell-cell interactions and induce formation of 3D cellular structures during cell culture. Cell-cell interactions were optimized based on cell packing by considering dimensions of the ditches/open microchannels, orientation of the microstructured multi-well plate during centrifugation, cell seeding density, and the centrifugal force and time. With the optimized cell packing conditions, we demonstrated that after 7 days of cell culture, primary human hepatocytes adhered tightly together to form cord-like structures that resembled 3D tissue-like cellular architecture. Importantly, cell membrane polarity was restored without the addition of animal derived or synthetic matrices or coagulants.

  4. Wolves adapt territory size, not pack size to local habitat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittle, Andrew M; Anderson, Morgan; Avgar, Tal; Baker, James A; Brown, Glen S; Hagens, Jevon; Iwachewski, Ed; Moffatt, Scott; Mosser, Anna; Patterson, Brent R; Reid, Douglas E B; Rodgers, Arthur R; Shuter, Jen; Street, Garrett M; Thompson, Ian D; Vander Vennen, Lucas M; Fryxell, John M

    2015-09-01

    1. Although local variation in territorial predator density is often correlated with habitat quality, the causal mechanism underlying this frequently observed association is poorly understood and could stem from facultative adjustment in either group size or territory size. 2. To test between these alternative hypotheses, we used a novel statistical framework to construct a winter population-level utilization distribution for wolves (Canis lupus) in northern Ontario, which we then linked to a suite of environmental variables to determine factors influencing wolf space use. Next, we compared habitat quality metrics emerging from this analysis as well as an independent measure of prey abundance, with pack size and territory size to investigate which hypothesis was most supported by the data. 3. We show that wolf space use patterns were concentrated near deciduous, mixed deciduous/coniferous and disturbed forest stands favoured by moose (Alces alces), the predominant prey species in the diet of wolves in northern Ontario, and in proximity to linear corridors, including shorelines and road networks remaining from commercial forestry activities. 4. We then demonstrate that landscape metrics of wolf habitat quality - projected wolf use, probability of moose occupancy and proportion of preferred land cover classes - were inversely related to territory size but unrelated to pack size. 5. These results suggest that wolves in boreal ecosystems alter territory size, but not pack size, in response to local variation in habitat quality. This could be an adaptive strategy to balance trade-offs between territorial defence costs and energetic gains due to resource acquisition. That pack size was not responsive to habitat quality suggests that variation in group size is influenced by other factors such as intraspecific competition between wolf packs. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  5. Hyperstaticity and loops in frictional granular packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordesillas, Antoinette; Lam, Edward; Metzger, Philip T.

    2009-06-01

    The hyperstatic nature of granular packings of perfectly rigid disks is analyzed algebraically and through numerical simulation. The elementary loops of grains emerge as a fundamental element in addressing hyperstaticity. Loops consisting of an odd number of grains behave differently than those with an even number. For odd loops, the latent stresses are exterior and are characterized by the sum of frictional forces around each loop. For even loops, the latent stresses are interior and are characterized by the alternating sum of frictional forces around each loop. The statistics of these two types of loop sums are found to be Gibbsian with a "temperature" that is linear with the friction coefficient μ when μ<1.

  6. School meal sociality or lunch pack individualism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The present article specifies and broadens our understanding of the concept of commensality by investigating what it means to ‘share a meal’. The study utilizes a school meal intervention carried out in Denmark in 2011/2012. It shows how different types of school meal arrangement influence...... to school. The study discusses commensality by examining and comparing lunchtime interactions within the same group of children in the two contrasting meal situations. The results fail to confirm the conventional view that shared meals have greater social impacts and benefits than eating individualized...... foods. The article argues that the social entrepreneurship involved in sharing individual lunch packs might even outweigh some of the benefits of shared meals where everyone is served the same food....

  7. Compaction dynamics of wet granular packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewalle, Nicolas; Ludewig, Francois; Fiscina, Jorge E.; Lumay, Geoffroy

    2013-03-01

    The extremely slow compaction dynamics of wet granular assemblies has been studied experimentally. The cohesion, due to capillary bridges between neighboring grains, has been tuned using different liquids having specific surface tension values. The characteristic relaxation time for compaction τ grows strongly with cohesion. A kinetic model, based on a free volume kinetic equations and the presence of a capillary energy barrier (due to liquid bridges), is able to reproduce quantitatively the experimental curves. This model allows one to describe the cohesion in wet granular packing. The influence of relative humidity (RH) on the extremely slow compaction dynamics of a granular assembly has also been investigated in the range 20 % - 80 % . Triboelectric and capillary condensation effects have been introduced in the kinetic model. Results confirm the existence of an optimal condition at RH ~ 45 % for minimizing cohesive interactions between glass beads.

  8. Packing of charged chains on toroidal geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhenwei; de la Cruz, Monica Olvera

    2013-01-01

    We study a strongly adsorbed flexible polyelectrolyte chain on tori. In this generalized Thomson problem, the patterns of the adsorbed chain are analyzed in the space of the toroidal coordinates and in terms of the orientation of each chain segment. Various patterns are found, including double spirals, disclination-like structures, Janus tori, and uniform wrappings, arising from the long-range electrostatic interaction and the toroidal geometry. Their broken mirror symmetry is quantitatively characterized by introducing an order parameter, an integral of the torsion. The uniform packing, which breaks the mirror symmetry the least, has the lowest value of the order parameter. In addition, it is found that the electrostatic energy of confined chains on tori conforms to a power law regardless of the screening effect in some typical cases studied. Furthermore, we study random walks on tori that generate chain configurations in the large screening limit or at large thermal fluctuation; some features associated with the toroidal geometry are discussed.

  9. Regulation relative to the packing and packing wastes; Reglementation relative aux emballages et dechets d'emballages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    The objectives of the european directive 94/62/CE of the 20 december 1994, relative to the packing and the packing wastes, are the harmonization between the States members, the environment protection and a management of the internal market in agreement with the Treaty. This text recalls the regulations in the french domain. Industrial and municipal packings wastes are concerned. (A.L.B.)

  10. Particle Size Estimation Based on Edge Density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-xing

    2005-01-01

    Given image sequences of closely packed particles, the underlying aim is to estimate diameters without explicit segmentation. In a way, this is similar to the task of counting objects without directly counting them. Such calculations may, for example, be useful fast estimation of particle size in different application areas. The topic is that of estimating average size (=average diameter) of packed particles, from formulas involving edge density, and the edges from moment-based thresholding are used. An average shape factor is involved in the calculations, obtained for some frames from crude partial segmentation. Measurement results from about 80 frames have been analyzed.

  11. Platform for controlled supramolecular nanoassembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czolkos, Ilja; Hannestad, Jonas K; Jesorka, Aldo; Kumar, Ravindra; Brown, Tom; Albinsson, Bo; Orwar, Owe

    2009-06-01

    We here present a two-dimensional (2D) micro/nano-fluidic technique where reactant-doped liquid-crystal films spread and mix on micro- and nanopatterned substrates. Surface-supported phospholipid monolayers are individually doped with complementary DNA molecules which hybridize when these lipid films mix. Using lipid films to convey reactants reduces the dimensionality of traditional 3D chemistry to 2D, and possibly to 1D by confining the lipid film to nanometer-sized lanes. The hybridization event was observed by FRET using single-molecule-sensitive confocal fluorescence detection. We could successfully detect hybridization in lipid streams on 250 nm wide lanes. Our results show that the number and density of reactants as well as sequence of reactant addition can be controlled within confined liquid crystal films, providing a platform for nanochemistry with potential for kinetic control.

  12. Transactional Network Platform: Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Lutes, Robert G.; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2013-10-31

    In FY13, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) designed, prototyped and tested a transactional network platform to support energy, operational and financial transactions between any networked entities (equipment, organizations, buildings, grid, etc.). Initially, in FY13, the concept demonstrated transactions between packaged rooftop air conditioners and heat pump units (RTUs) and the electric grid using applications or "agents" that reside on the platform, on the equipment, on a local building controller or in the Cloud. The transactional network project is a multi-lab effort with Oakridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) also contributing to the effort. PNNL coordinated the project and also was responsible for the development of the transactional network (TN) platform and three different applications associated with RTUs. This document describes two applications or "agents" in details, and also summarizes the platform. The TN platform details are described in another companion document.

  13. Future perspectives of using hollow fibers as structured packings in light hydrocarbon distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dali [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Orler, Bruce [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tornga, Stephanie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Welch, Cindy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-26

    suggests that polypropylene hollow fibers are stable after a long time exposure to C{sub 2} - C{sub 4} mixtures. The effects of packing density on the separation efficiency will be discussed.

  14. Thermodynamics of the hexagonal close-packed iron-nitrogen system from first-principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakkedal, Morten Bjørn

    is assumed fixed.The models are developed entirely from first-principles calculations based on fundamen-tal quantum mechanical calculation through the density functional theory approach with the atomic numbers and crystal structures as the only input parameters. A complete thermody-namic description should......First-principles thermodynamic models are developed for the hexagonal close-packed ε-Fe-N system. The system can be considered as a hexagonal close-packed host lattice of iron atoms and with the nitrogen atoms residing on a sublattice formed by the octahedral interstices. The iron host lattice......, at least in principle, include vibrational as well as configurational contributions. As both contributions are computationally very demanding in first-principles calculations, the present work is divided in two parts, with a detailed accounts of each of these contributions.Vibrational degrees of freedom...

  15. Modeling of Li-Ion Battery Packs as Basis for Design of Battery Thermal Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu

    Li-ion batteries are one of the most popular battery types on the market, due to their prime properties such as high capacity, low self-discharge rate, zero-maintenance, high energy density and long lifetime. However, safety still remains a major drawback, due to overheating and thermal runaway...... conservation equations, and the results were compared against experimental data from the open literature; 2. A simplified thermal runaway model for investigating the propagation of thermal runaway in a battery pack designed by NASA for astronaut spacesuits. A simplified model was initially built for single...... battery cells with an internal short circuit device (ISCD) implanted inside, used for triggering thermal runaway at low temperatures. The simplified lumped model was then coupled with a 2D thermal FEM for investigating the pack design. The simplification consists of implementing an efficiency factor term...

  16. Road density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  17. SAR imagery of the Grand Banks (Newfoundland) pack ice pack and its relationship to surface features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, S. D.; Carsey, F. D.

    1988-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data and aerial photographs were obtained over pack ice off the East Coast of Canada in March 1987 as part of the Labrador Ice Margin Experiment (LIMEX) pilot project. Examination of this data shows that although the pack ice off the Canadian East Coast appears essentially homogeneous to visible light imagery, two clearly defined zones of ice are apparent on C-band SAR imagery. To identify factors that create the zones seen on the radar image, aerial photographs were compared to the SAR imagery. Floe size data from the aerial photographs was compared to digital number values taken from SAR imagery of the same ice. The SAR data of the inner zone acquired three days apart over the melt period was also examined. The studies indicate that the radar response is governed by floe size and meltwater distribution.

  18. Optical anisotropy in packed isotropic spherical particles: indication of nanometer scale anisotropy in packing structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kohei; Inasawa, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Yukio

    2013-02-28

    We investigated the origin of birefringence in colloidal films of spherical silica particles. Although each particle is optically isotropic in shape, colloidal films formed by drop drying demonstrated birefringence. While periodic particle structures were observed in silica colloidal films, no regular pattern was found in blended films of silica and latex particles. However, since both films showed birefringence, regular film structure patterns were not required to exhibit birefringence. Instead, we propose that nanometer-scale film structure anisotropy causes birefringence. Due to capillary flow from the center to the edge of a cast suspension, particles are more tightly packed in the radial direction. Directional packing results in nanometer-scale anisotropy. The difference in the interparticle distance between radial and circumferential axes was estimated to be 10 nm at most. Nanometer-scale anisotropy in colloidal films and the subsequent optical properties are discussed.

  19. An Inexpensive, Implantable Electronic Sensor for Autonomous Measurement of Snow Pack Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roo, R. D.; Haengel, E.; Rogacki, S.

    2015-12-01

    Snow accumulations on the ground are an important source of water in many parts of the world. Mapping the accumulation, usually represented as the snow water equivalent (SWE), is valuable for water resource management. The longest record of regional and global maps of SWE are from orbiting microwave radiometers, which do not directly measure SWE but rather measure the scatter darkening from the snow pack. Robustly linking the scatter darkening to SWE eludes us to this day, in part because the snow pack is highly variable in both time and space. The data needed is currently collected by hand in "snow pits," and the labor-intensive process limits the size of the data sets that can be obtained. In particular, time series measurements are only a one or two samples per day at best, and come at the expense of spatial sampling. We report on the development of a low-power wireless device that can be embedded within a snow pack to report on some of the critical parameters needed to understand scatter darkening. The device autonomously logs temperature, the microwave dielectric constant and infrared backscatter local to the device. The microwave dielectric constant reveals the snow density and the presence of liquid water, while the infrared backscatter measurement, together with the density measurement, reveals a characteristic grain size of the snow pack. The devices are made to be inexpensive (less than $200 in parts each) and easily replicated, so that many can be deployed to monitor variations vertically and horizontally in the snow pack. The low-power operation is important both for longevity of observations as well as insuring minimal anomalous metamorphism of the snow pack. The hardware required for the microwave measurement is intended for wireless communications, and this feature will soon be implemented for near real-time monitoring of snow conditions. We will report on the design, construction and initial deployment of about 30 of these devices in northern lower

  20. Identification of platform levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2005-01-01

    reduction, ability to launch a wider product portfolio without increasing resources and reduction of complexity within the whole company. To support the multiple product development process, platform based product development has in many companies such as Philips, VW, Ford etc. proven to be a very effective...... because the nature of developing platforms and applications are very different. In single product development reuse is often determined by individual designers, in multiple product development reuse is to a large degree a management issue. It is difficult for a company to switch from single to multiple...... development will be examined. Based on the identification of the above characteristics five platform levels are described. The research presented in this paper is a result of MSc, Ph.D projects at the Technical University of Denmark and consultancy projects within the organisation of Institute of Product...

  1. Universal visualization platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Alexander G.; Li, Hongli; Yu, Min; Smrtic, Mary Beth; Cvek, Urska; Goodell, Howie; Gupta, Vivek; Lawrence, Christine; Zhou, Jainping; Chiang, Chih-Hung; Grinstein, Georges G.

    2005-03-01

    Although there are a number of visualization systems to choose from when analyzing data, only a few of these allow for the integration of other visualization and analysis techniques. There are even fewer visualization toolkits and frameworks from which one can develop ones own visualization applications. Even within the research community, scientists either use what they can from the available tools or start from scratch to define a program in which they are able to develop new or modified visualization techniques and analysis algorithms. Presented here is a new general-purpose platform for constructing numerous visualization and analysis applications. The focus of this system is the design and experimentation of new techniques, and where the sharing of and integration with other tools becomes second nature. Moreover, this platform supports multiple large data sets, and the recording and visualizing of user sessions. Here we introduce the Universal Visualization Platform (UVP) as a modern data visualization and analysis system.

  2. Geostationary multipurpose platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekey, I.; Bowman, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    In addition to the advantages generally associated with orbital platforms, such as improved reliability, economies of scale, simple connectivity of elements, reduced tracking demands and the restraint of orbital object population growth, geostationary platforms yield: (1) continuous access by fixed ground antennas for communications services; (2) continuous monitoring of phenomena over chosen regions of the earth's surface; (3) a preferred location for many solar-terrestrial physics experiments. The geostationary platform also offers a low-risk and economical solution to the impending saturation of the orbital arc/frequency spectrum, maximizing the capacity of individual slots and increasing the utility of the entire arc. It also allows the use of many small, simple and inexpensive earth stations through complexity inversion and high power per beam. Block diagram and operational flowcharts are provided.

  3. Platforms for antibiotic discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kim

    2013-05-01

    The spread of resistant bacteria, leading to untreatable infections, is a major public health threat but the pace of antibiotic discovery to combat these pathogens has slowed down. Most antibiotics were originally isolated by screening soil-derived actinomycetes during the golden era of antibiotic discovery in the 1940s to 1960s. However, diminishing returns from this discovery platform led to its collapse, and efforts to create a new platform based on target-focused screening of large libraries of synthetic compounds failed, in part owing to the lack of penetration of such compounds through the bacterial envelope. This article considers strategies to re-establish viable platforms for antibiotic discovery. These include investigating untapped natural product sources such as uncultured bacteria, establishing rules of compound penetration to enable the development of synthetic antibiotics, developing species-specific antibiotics and identifying prodrugs that have the potential to eradicate dormant persisters, which are often responsible for hard-to-treat infections.

  4. Fermentative hydrogen production in packed-bed and packing-free upflow reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Zhang, T; Fang, H H P

    2006-01-01

    Fermentative hydrogen production from a synthetic wastewater containing 10 g/L of sucrose was studied in two upflow reactors at 26 degrees C for 400 days. One reactor was filled with packing rings (RP) and the other was packing free (RF). The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 2 h to 24 h was investigated. Results showed that, under steady state, the hydrogen production rate significantly increased from 0.63 L/L/d to 5.35 L/L/d in the RF when HRT decreased from 24 h to 2 h; the corresponding rates were 0.56 L/L/d to 6.17 L/L/d for the RP. In the RF, the hydrogen yield increased from 0.96 mol/mol-sucrose at 24 h of HRT to the maximum of 1.10 mol/mol-sucrose at 8 h of HRT, and then decreased to 0.68 mol/mol-sucrose at 2 h. In the RP, the yield increased from 0.86 mol/mol-sucrose at 24 h of HRT to the maximum of 1.22 mol/mol-sucrose at 14 h of HRT, and then decreased to 0.78 mol/mol-sucrose at 2 h. Overall, the reactor with packing was more effective than the one free of packing. In both reactors, sludge agglutinated into granules. The microbial community of granular sludge in RP was investigated using 16S rDNA based techniques. The distribution of bacterial cells and extracellular polysaccharides in hydrogen-producing granules was investigated by fluorescence-based techniques. Results indicated that most of the N-acetyl-galactosamine/galactose-containing extracellular polysaccharides were distributed on the outer layer of the granules with a filamentous structure.

  5. Properties Influencing Plasma Discharges in Packed Bed Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruszelnicki, Juliusz; Engeling, Kenneth W.; Foster, John E.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) sustained in packed bed reactors (PBRs) are being investigated for CO2 removal and conversion of waste gases into higher value compounds. We report on results of a computational investigation of PBR-DBD properties using the plasma hydrodynamics simulator nonPDPSIM with a comparison to experiments. Dielectric beads (rods in 2D) were inserted between two coplanar electrodes, 1 cm apart filled by humid air. A step-pulse of -30 kV was applied to the top electrode. Material properties of the beads (dielectric constant, secondary emission coefficient) and gas properties (photoionization and photo-absorption cross-sections, temperature) were varied. We found that photoionization plays a critical role in the propagation of the discharge through the PBR, as it serves to seed charges in regions of high electric field. Increasing rates of photo-ionization enable increases in the discharge propagation velocity, ionization rates and production of radicals. A transition between DBD-like and arc-like discharges occurs as the radiation mean free path decreases. Increasing the dielectric constant of the beads increased electric fields in the gas, which translated to increased discharge propagation velocity and charge density until ɛ/ɛ0 100. Secondary electron emission coefficient and gas temperature have minimal impacts on the discharge propagation though the latter did affect the production of reactive species. Work supported by US DOE Office of Fusion Energy Science and the National Science Foundation.

  6. Centrifugal compression of soft particle packings: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, K N; Verneuil, E; Ellenbroek, W G; Lubensky, T C; Gollub, J P; Durian, D J

    2010-10-01

    An exact method is developed for computing the height of an elastic medium subjected to centrifugal compression, for arbitrary constitutive relation between stress and strain. Example solutions are obtained for power-law media and for cases where the stress diverges at a critical strain--for example as required by packings composed of deformable but incompressible particles. Experimental data are presented for the centrifugal compression of thermo-responsive N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) microgel beads in water. For small radial acceleration, the results are consistent with Hertzian elasticity, and are analyzed in terms of the Young elastic modulus of the bead material. For large radial acceleration, the sample compression asymptotes to a value corresponding to a space-filling particle volume fraction of unity. Therefore we conclude that the gel beads are incompressible, and deform without deswelling. In addition, we find that the Young elastic modulus of the particulate gel material scales with cross-link density raised to the power 3.3±0.8, somewhat larger than the Flory expectation.

  7. Decomposition treatment of SO2F2 using packed bed DBD plasma followed by chemical absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yong; Zheng, Qifeng; Liang, Xiaojiang; Gu, Dayong; Lu, Meizhen; Min, Min; Ji, Jianbing

    2013-07-16

    The technology of packed bed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma followed by a chemical absorption has been developed and was found to be an efficient way for decomposition treatment of sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) in simulated residual fumigant. The effects of energy density, initial SO2F2 concentration, and residence time on the removal efficiency of SO2F2 for the DBD plasma treatment alone were investigated. It was found that the SO2F2 could be removed completely when initial volume concentration, energy density, and residence time were 0.5%, 33.9 kJ/L, and 5.1 s, respectively. The removal mechanism of SO2F2 in the packed bed DBD reactor was discussed. Based on the detailed analysis of SO2F2 molecular stability and its exhaust products in the DBD plasma reactor, it was concluded that the energetic electrons generated in the packed bed DBD reactor played a key role on the removal of SO2F2, and the major decomposition products of SO2F2 detected were SO2, SiF4, and S (Sulfur). Among these products, SiF4 was formed by the F atom reacted with the filler-quartz glass beads (SiO2) in the packed bed DBD reactor. Aqueous NaOH solution was used as the chemical absorbent for the gaseous products of SO2F2 after plasma pretreatment. It was found that the gaseous products in the plasma exhaust could be absorbed and fixed by the subsequent aqueous NaOH solution.

  8. New series of paper pack vending machines; Paper pack jido hanbaiki no shin series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, M. [Fuji Denki Reiki Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Umino, S. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-10

    This paper presents series of paper pack vending machines. These machines may be broadly classified into those of cold drinks and of hot and cold drinks depending on the storage temperature of products. The former is the machine for cooling dairy products at 10{degree}C with a combined stacking by direct-stacked racks and chain-multiracks. The latter is provided with divided storing chambers with each chamber selectively cooled or heated. Products in the hot chamber are canned coffee and the like set at 55{degree}C. The temperature control is performed by a microcomputer. The chain-multiracks are provided with advantages such as capability of handling various kinds of container shapes, storing drinks and foods vertically, replacing products by the change of a shelf attachment with one operation, and storing one liter packs by setting pair columns. The direct-stacked racks are provided with advantages such as versatility of handling various kinds of containers and miniaturization of the mechanism other than the storage part. The installation space was reduced by devising the opening and closing of the door. The control part is capable of setting temperatures differently for cans and paper packs. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Measured black carbon deposition on the Sierra Nevada snow pack and implication for snow pack retreat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Hadley

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling studies show that the darkening of snow and ice by black carbon (BC deposition is a major factor for the rapid disappearance of arctic sea ice, mountain glaciers and snow packs. This study provides one of the first direct measurements for the efficient removal of black carbon from the atmosphere by snow and its subsequent deposition on the snow packs of California. The early melting of the snow packs in the Sierras is one of the contributing factors to the severe water problems in California. BC concentrations in falling snow were measured at two mountain locations and in rain at a coastal site. All three stations reveal large BC concentrations in precipitation, ranging from 1.7 ng/g to 12.9 ng/g. The BC concentrations in the air after the snow fall were negligible suggesting an extremely efficient removal of BC by snow. The data suggest that below cloud scavenging, rather than ice nuclei, was the dominant source of BC in the snow. A five-year comparison of BC, dust, and total fine aerosol mass concentrations at multiple sites reveals that the measurements made at the sampling sites were representative of large scale deposition in the Sierra Nevada. The relative concentration of iron and calcium in the mountain aerosol indicates that one-quarter to one-third of the BC may have been transported from Asia.

  10. Measured black carbon deposition on the Sierra Nevada snow pack and implication for snow pack retreat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Hadley

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Modeling studies show that the darkening of snow and ice by black carbon deposition is a major factor for the rapid disappearance of arctic sea ice, mountain glaciers and snow packs. This study provides one of the first direct measurements for the efficient removal of black carbon from the atmosphere by snow and its subsequent deposition to the snow packs of California. The early melting of the snow packs in the Sierras is one of the contributing factors to the severe water problems in California. BC concentrations in falling snow were measured at two mountain locations and in rain at a coastal site. All three stations reveal large BC concentrations in precipitation, ranging from 1.7 ng/g to 12.9 ng/g. The BC concentrations in the air after the snow fall were negligible suggesting an extremely efficient removal of BC by snow. The data suggest that below cloud scavenging, rather than ice nuclei, was the dominant source of BC in the snow. A five-year comparison of BC, dust, and total fine aerosol mass concentrations at multiple sites reveals that the measurements made at the sampling sites were representative of large scale deposition in the Sierra Nevada. The relative concentration of iron and calcium in the mountain aerosol indicates that one-quarter to one-third of the BC may have been transported from Asia.

  11. AmbiPack: a systematic algorithm for packing of macromolecular structures with ambiguous distance constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C S; Lozano-Pérez, T; Tidor, B

    1998-07-01

    The determination of structures of multimers presents interesting new challenges. The structure(s) of the individual monomers must be found and the transformations to produce the packing interfaces must be described. A substantial difficulty results from ambiguities in assigning intermolecular distance measurements (from nuclear magnetic resonance, for example) to particular intermolecular interfaces in the structure. Here we present a rapid and efficient method to solve the packing and the assignment problems simultaneously given rigid monomer structures and (potentially ambiguous) intermolecular distance measurements. A promising application of this algorithm is to couple it with a monomer searching protocol such that each monomer structure consistent with intramolecular constraints can be subsequently input to the current algorithm to check whether it is consistent with (potentially ambiguous) intermolecular constraints. The algorithm AmbiPack uses a hierarchical division of the search space and the branch-and-bound algorithm to eliminate infeasible regions of the space. Local search methods are then focused on the remaining space. The algorithm generally runs faster as more constraints are included because more regions of the search space can be eliminated. This is not the case for other methods, for which additional constraints increase the complexity of the search space. The algorithm presented is guaranteed to find all solutions to a predetermined resolution. This resolution can be chosen arbitrarily to produce outputs at various level of detail. Illustrative applications are presented for the P22 tailspike protein (a trimer) and portions of beta-amyloid (an ordered aggregate).

  12. Measured Black Carbon Deposition on the Sierra Nevada Snow Pack and Implication for Snow Pack Retreat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, O.L.; Corrigan, C.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Cliff, S.S.; Ramanathan, V.

    2010-01-12

    Modeling studies show that the darkening of snow and ice by black carbon deposition is a major factor for the rapid disappearance of arctic sea ice, mountain glaciers and snow packs. This study provides one of the first direct measurements for the efficient removal of black carbon from the atmosphere by snow and its subsequent deposition to the snow packs of California. The early melting of the snow packs in the Sierras is one of the contributing factors to the severe water problems in California. BC concentrations in falling snow were measured at two mountain locations and in rain at a coastal site. All three stations reveal large BC concentrations in precipitation, ranging from 1.7 ng/g to 12.9 ng/g. The BC concentrations in the air after the snow fall were negligible suggesting an extremely efficient removal of BC by snow. The data suggest that below cloud scavenging, rather than ice nuclei, was the dominant source of BC in the snow. A five-year comparison of BC, dust, and total fine aerosol mass concentrations at multiple sites reveals that the measurements made at the sampling sites were representative of large scale deposition in the Sierra Nevada. The relative concentration of iron and calcium in the mountain aerosol indicates that one-quarter to one-third of the BC may have been transported from Asia.

  13. Direct in situ butanol recovery inside the packed bed during continuous acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin-Rong; Chiang, Yu-Sheng; Chuang, Po-Jen; Chao, Yun-Peng; Li, Si-Yu

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the integrated in situ extraction-gas stripping process was coupled with continuous ABE fermentation using immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum. At the same time, oleyl alcohol was cocurrently flowed into the packed bed reactor with the fresh medium and then recycled back to the packed bed reactor after removing butanol in the stripper. A high glucose consumption of 52 g/L and a high butanol productivity of 11 g/L/h were achieved, resulting in a high butanol yield of 0.21 g-butanol/g-glucose. This can be attributed to both the high bacterial activity for solvent production as well as a threefold increase in the bacterial density inside the packed bed reactor. Also reported is that 64 % of the butanol produced can be recovered by the integrated in situ extraction-gas stripping process. A high butanol productivity and a high glucose consumption were simultaneously achieved.

  14. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2011-01-01

    The Windows Azure Platform has rapidly established itself as one of the most sophisticated cloud computing platforms available. With Microsoft working to continually update their product and keep it at the cutting edge, the future looks bright - if you have the skills to harness it. In particular, new features such as remote desktop access, dynamic content caching and secure content delivery using SSL make the latest version of Azure a more powerful solution than ever before. It's widely agreed that cloud computing has produced a paradigm shift in traditional architectural concepts by providin

  15. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2010-01-01

    The Azure Services Platform is a brand-new cloud-computing technology from Microsoft. It is composed of four core components-Windows Azure, .NET Services, SQL Services, and Live Services-each with a unique role in the functioning of your cloud service. It is the goal of this book to show you how to use these components, both separately and together, to build flawless cloud services. At its heart Windows Azure Platform is a down-to-earth, code-centric book. This book aims to show you precisely how the components are employed and to demonstrate the techniques and best practices you need to know

  16. Wireless sensor platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Pooran C.; Killough, Stephen M.; Kuruganti, Phani Teja

    2017-08-08

    A wireless sensor platform and methods of manufacture are provided. The platform involves providing a plurality of wireless sensors, where each of the sensors is fabricated on flexible substrates using printing techniques and low temperature curing. Each of the sensors can include planar sensor elements and planar antennas defined using the printing and curing. Further, each of the sensors can include a communications system configured to encode the data from the sensors into a spread spectrum code sequence that is transmitted to a central computer(s) for use in monitoring an area associated with the sensors.

  17. Mobile4D platform

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adèle

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available . It is a communication platform that has architecture for creating, deploying and managing services and applications by integrating voice, video and data across a range of IP and telecom communication networks. In 2007, Red Hat made a firm commitment... based on the Mobicents muni ations Platform brand. 2.1.5  Telco specific User‐Generated Services   A variety of communication network operators have started initiatives to address User- Generated Services for the Telecom domain. Some...

  18. SOA, SoBI & EDA - Paradigms for Integration Capabilities of BI Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan GHILIC-MICU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A Business Intelligence (BI provider may offer a basic solution, a packed application or a comprising BI platform which integrates components from individual technologies in a synergic system. The providers’ tendency is to standardize the instruments offered on a single server platform. The article analyzes the integration capabilities and problems of BI platforms, emphasizes the differences between emergent technologies and suggests integration solutions. The analysis is useful both to the providers of BI solutions - in order to develop some agile platforms, as well as to their users - representing an important factor in selecting the solution. In addition, the conclusions to be drawn will emphasize the tendencies from the BI market and will represent the support in creating some agile platforms.

  19. Horoball packings to the totally asymptotic regular simplex in the hyperbolic $n$-space

    CERN Document Server

    Szirmai, Jenő

    2011-01-01

    In \\cite{Sz11} we have generalized the notion of the simplicial density function for horoballs in the extended hyperbolic space $\\bar{\\mathbf{H}}^n, ~(n \\ge 2)$, where we have allowed {\\it congruent horoballs in different types} centered at the various vertices of a totally asymptotic tetrahedron. By this new aspect, in this paper we study the locally densest horoball packing arrangements and their densities with respect to totally asymptotic regular tetrahedra in hyperbolic $n$-space $\\bar{\\mathbf{H}}^n$ extended with its absolute figure, where the ideal centers of horoballs give rise to vertices of a totally asymptotic regular tetrahedron. We will prove that, in this sense, {\\it the well known B\\"or\\"oczky density upper bound for "congruent horoball" packings of $\\bar{\\mathbf{H}}^n$ does not remain valid for $n\\ge4$,} but these locally optimal ball arrangements do not have extensions to the whole $n$-dimensional hyperbolic space. Moreover, we determine an explicit formula for the density of the above locall...

  20. A heterogeneous model for heat transfer in packed beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, R.J.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    If transient heat transfer occurs in a packed bed or a reaction is carried out on the pellets, the heterogeneity of the bed is essential because of the heat flow between pellets and gas. Global heat parameters for the packed bed, such as λeff and αw, are usually derived from homogeneous models. Ther

  1. Colonic perforation: a lethal consequence of cannabis body packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawich, Shamir O; Downes, Ross; Martin, Allie C; Evans, Necia R; Mitchell, Derek I G; Williams, Eric

    2010-07-01

    Body packing is one method of smuggling cannabis across international borders. The practice is prevalent in Jamaica. There has been one reported death from this practice in medical literature. We report a second fatal case of cannabis body packing, reinforcing the dangerous nature of this practice.

  2. The sintering behavior of close-packed spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Tikare, V.; Frandsen, Henrik Lund

    2012-01-01

    The sintering behavior of close-packed spheres is investigated using a numerical model. The investigated systems are the body-centered cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc) and hexagonal close-packed spheres (hcp). The sintering behavior is found to be ideal, with no grain growth until full dens...

  3. Predicting the Liquid Phase Mass Transfer Resistance of Structured Packings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olujic, Z.; Seibert, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    Published correlations for estimating the liquid phase mass transfer coefficients of structured packings are compared using experimental evidence on the efficiency of Montz-Pak B1–250MN and B1–500MN structured packings as measured in total reflux distillation tests using the chlorobenzene/ethylbenze

  4. Bedded pack barns for dairy cattle in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, P.J.; Boer, de H.C.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Ouweltjes, W.; Poelarends, J.J.; Driehuis, F.

    2014-01-01

    The bedded pack barn offers good perspective on animal welfare, animal health and public perception, but has disadvantages in terms of mineral management (nitrogen losses and fertilising value) and the presence of TAS (Thermophilic Aerobic Spore formers). Bedded packs with compost have a too high am

  5. Hydrodynamics of multi-phase packed bed micro-reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Márquez Luzardo, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Why to use packed bed micro-reactors for catalyst testing? Miniaturized packed bed reactors have a large surface-to-volume ratio at the reactor and particle level that favors the heat- and mass-transfer processes at all scales (intra-particle, inter-phase and inter-particle or reactor level). If the

  6. 14 CFR 1214.605 - Preflight packing and storing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preflight packing and storing. 1214.605 Section 1214.605 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Mementos Aboard Space Shuttle Flights § 1214.605 Preflight packing and storing. (a) Items intended for...

  7. Online Variable-Sized Bin Packing with Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, Leah; Favrholdt, Lene Monrad; Levin, Asaf

    2011-01-01

    We study a new kind of on-line bin packing with conflicts, motivated by a problem arising when scheduling jobs on the Grid. In this bin packing problem, the set of items is given at the beginning, together with a set of conflicts on pairs of items. A conflict on a pair of items implies...

  8. Packed bed reactor for photochemical .sup.196 Hg isotope separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; Speer, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Straight tubes and randomly oriented pieces of tubing having been employed in a photochemical mercury enrichment reactor and have been found to improve the enrichment factor (E) and utilization (U) compared to a non-packed reactor. One preferred embodiment of this system uses a moving bed (via gravity) for random packing.

  9. A relationship between maximum packing of particles and particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedors, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental data indicate that the volume fraction of particles in a packed bed (i.e. maximum packing) depends on particle size. One explanation for this is based on the idea that particle adhesion is the primary factor. In this paper, however, it is shown that entrainment and immobilization of liquid by the particles can also account for the facts.

  10. A selection-quotient process for packed word Hopf algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Duchamp, G H E; Tanasa, A

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we define a Hopf algebra structure on the vector space spanned by packed words using a selection-quotient coproduct. We show that this algebra is free on its irreducible packed words. Finally, we give some brief explanations on the Maple codes we have used.

  11. The performance of structured packings in trickle-bed reactors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, M.J.W.; Frank, M.J.W.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1999-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate whether the use of structured packings might improve the mass transfer characteristics and the catalyst effectiveness of a trickle-bed reactor. Therefore, the performances of a structured packing, consisting of KATAPAK elements, and a dumped

  12. The performance of structured packings in trickle-bed reactors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, M.J.W.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate whether the use of structured packings might improve the mass transfer characteristics and the catalyst effectiveness of a trickle-bed reactor. Therefore, the performances of a structured packing, consisting of KATAPAK elements, and a dumped packi

  13. The Performance of Structured Packings in Trickle-Bed Reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, M.J.W.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1999-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate whether the use of structured packings might improve the mass transfer characteristics and the catalyst effectiveness of a trickle-bed reactor. Therefore, the performances of a structured packing, consisting of KATAPAK elements, and a dumped packi

  14. Hydrodynamics of multi-phase packed bed micro-reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Márquez Luzardo, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Why to use packed bed micro-reactors for catalyst testing? Miniaturized packed bed reactors have a large surface-to-volume ratio at the reactor and particle level that favors the heat- and mass-transfer processes at all scales (intra-particle, inter-phase and inter-particle or reactor level). If the

  15. Formation and liquid permeability of dense colloidal cube packings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castillo, Sonja I R; Thies-Weesie, Dominique M E; Philipse, Albert P.

    2015-01-01

    The liquid permeability of dense random packings of cubic colloids with rounded corners is studied for solid hematite cubes and hollow microporous silica cubes. The permeabilities of these two types of packings are similar, confirming that the micropores in the silica shell of the hollow cubes do

  16. Does the fluid elasticity influence the dispersion in packed beds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K. Roel; Wijngaarden, Ruud J.; Nijhuis, Niek B.G.

    1996-01-01

    Reasons are given why the axial dispersion in a gas flowing through a packed bed may be influenced by the elasticity - or compressibility - of the fluid. To support this hypothesis, experiments have been done in a packed column at pressures from 0.13 to 2.0 MPa. The elasticity E of a gas is proporti

  17. Packing fraction of particles with lognormal size distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, H J H

    2014-05-01

    This paper addresses the packing and void fraction of polydisperse particles with a lognormal size distribution. It is demonstrated that a binomial particle size distribution can be transformed into a continuous particle-size distribution of the lognormal type. Furthermore, an original and exact expression is derived that predicts the packing fraction of mixtures of particles with a lognormal distribution, which is governed by the standard deviation, mode of packing, and particle shape only. For a number of particle shapes and their packing modes (close, loose) the applicable values are given. This closed-form analytical expression governing the packing fraction is thoroughly compared with empirical and computational data reported in the literature, and good agreement is found.

  18. Packing fraction of particles with lognormal size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, H. J. H.

    2014-05-01

    This paper addresses the packing and void fraction of polydisperse particles with a lognormal size distribution. It is demonstrated that a binomial particle size distribution can be transformed into a continuous particle-size distribution of the lognormal type. Furthermore, an original and exact expression is derived that predicts the packing fraction of mixtures of particles with a lognormal distribution, which is governed by the standard deviation, mode of packing, and particle shape only. For a number of particle shapes and their packing modes (close, loose) the applicable values are given. This closed-form analytical expression governing the packing fraction is thoroughly compared with empirical and computational data reported in the literature, and good agreement is found.

  19. High Volumetric Energy Density Hybrid Supercapacitors Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide Scrolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Janardhanan R; Thangavel, Ranjith; Oh, Se-I; Woo, Jeong Min; Chandra Das, Nayan; Kim, So-Yeon; Lee, Yun-Sung; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2017-07-12

    The low volumetric energy density of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based electrodes limits its application in commercial electrochemical energy storage devices that require high-performance energy storage capacities in small volumes. The volumetric energy density of rGO-based electrode materials is very low due to their low packing density. A supercapacitor with enhanced packing density and high volumetric energy density is fabricated using doped rGO scrolls (GFNSs) as the electrode material. The restacking of rGO sheets is successfully controlled through synthesizing the doped scroll structures while increasing the packing density. The fabricated cell exhibits an ultrahigh volumetric energy density of 49.66 Wh/L with excellent cycling stability (>10 000 cycles). This unique design strategy for the electrode material has significant potential for the future supercapacitors with high volumetric energy densities.

  20. Modeling and Simulation of the Hydrogenation of α-Methylstyrene on Catalytically Active Metal Foams as Tubular Reactor Packing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Lali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a one-dimensional reactor model for a tubular reactor packed with a catalytically active foam packing with a pore density of 30 PPI in cocurrent upward flow in the example of hydrogenation reaction of α-methylstyrene to cumene. This model includes material, enthalpy, and momentum balances as well as continuity equations. The model was solved within the parameter space applied for experimental studies under assumption of a bubbly flow. The method of orthogonal collocation on finite elements was applied. For isothermal and polytropic processes and steady state conditions, axial profiles for concentration, temperature, fluid velocities, pressure, and liquid holdup were computed and the conversions for various gas and liquid flow rates were validated with experimental results. The obtained results were also compared in terms of space time yield and catalytic activity with experimental results and stirred tank and also with random packed bed reactor. The comparison shows that the application of solid foams as reactor packing is advantageous compared to the monolithic honeycombs and random packed beds.

  1. An Amino Acid Code for Irregular and Mixed Protein Packing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hyun; Chavan, Archana; Fraga, Keith; Tsai, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    To advance our understanding of protein tertiary structure, the development of the knob-socket model is completed in an analysis of the packing in irregular coil and turn secondary structure packing as well as between mixed secondary structure. The knob-socket model simplifies packing based on repeated patterns of 2 motifs: a 3 residue socket for packing within 2° structure and a 4 residue knob-socket for 3° packing. For coil and turn secondary structure, knob-sockets allow identification of a correlation between amino acid composition and tertiary arrangements in space. Coil contributes almost as much as α-helices to tertiary packing. Irregular secondary structure involves 3 residue cliques of consecutive contacting residues or XYZ sockets. In irregular sockets, Gly, Pro, Asp and Ser are favored, while Cys, His, Met and Trp are not. For irregular knobs, the preference order is Arg, Asp, Pro, Asn, Thr, Leu, and Gly, while Cys, His, Met and Trp are not. In mixed packing, the knob amino acid preferences are a function of the socket that they are packing into, whereas the amino acid composition of the sockets does not depend on the secondary structure of the knob. A unique motif of a coil knob with an XYZ β-sheet socket may potentially function to inhibit β-sheet extension. In addition, analysis of the preferred crossing angles for strands within a β-sheet and mixed α-helices/β-sheets identifies canonical packing patterns useful in protein design. Lastly, the knob-socket model abstracts the complexity of protein tertiary structure into an intuitive packing surface topology map. PMID:26370334

  2. SEPTOPLASTY WITH AND WITHOUT NASAL PACKING: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Septoplasty is one of the most commonly performed surgeries in rhinology to relieve nasal obstruction of patients with distortion in the midline cartilage or septum of the nose to relieve nasal obstruction of patient and findings consistent with nasal endoscopy. The anterior nasal packing routinely done following septoplasty is usually conventional and not evidence based. The purpose of nasal packing is to obtain haemostasis, enhance opposition of septal flaps, avoid septal haematoma formation, close the dead space, avoid synechiae formation, provide support to septal cartilage and prevent its displacement. OBJECTIVE This study intends to evaluate the effects of nasal packing on surgical success and related complications in septoplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present clinical prospective and randomised study was carried out on patients attending Otorhinolaryngology Department of Santhiram Medical College & General Hospital between March 2012 and March 2015. Patients undergoing septoplasty were randomised either to receive anterior nasal packing or to not receive nasal packing postoperatively. RESULTS Levels of pain experienced by patients with nasal packing postoperatively during the initial 24 hours postoperatively and during the removal of the pack were significantly more. Post-operative headache, epiphora, swallowing discomfort and sleep disturbance were more in patients with nasal packing and statistically (p.05. Septal haematoma, adhesions and local infections in both groups were statistically insignificant (p>.05. CONCLUSION Septoplasty enhances the standard of living of patients with septal deviation and nasal obstruction. Our study results suggest that nasal packing after septoplasty is not obligatory. Nasal packing causes considerably more pain and complications, and it should be reserved only for those who have bleeding predisposition.

  3. Games and Platform Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2007-01-01

    is the application of on-line games in order to provide training for decision makers and in order to generate overview over the implications of platform decisions. However, games have to be placed in a context with other methods and we argue that a mixture of games, workshops, and simulations can provide improved...

  4. Creative Platform Learning (CPL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jonna Langeland; Hansen, Søren

    Creative Platform Learning (CPL) er en pædagogisk metode, der skaber foretagsomme og innovative elever, der kan anvende deres kreativitet til at lære nyt. Ifølge den nye skolereform skal Innovation og entreprenørskab tydeliggøres i alle fag. I CPL er det en integreret del af undervisningen...

  5. Games and Platform Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2007-01-01

    is the application of on-line games in order to provide training for decision makers and in order to generate overview over the implications of platform decisions. However, games have to be placed in a context with other methods and we argue that a mixture of games, workshops, and simulations can provide improved...

  6. Packing schemes of cavities in selected clathrasils and zeolites and the analogous packings of atoms in crystal structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hem, Caroline Piper; Makovicky, Emil; Balic Zunic, Tonci

    2010-01-01

    Sizes of cavities and their packing schemes in selected zeolites and clathrasils were studied by means of least squares fitting of circumscribed spheres to them. Resulting packing of spheres of different diameters was analyzed by the coordinates of their centers, their volumes and sphericity...

  7. Packing schemes of cavities in selected clathrasils and zeolites and the analogous packings of atoms in crystal structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hem, Caroline Piper; Makovicky, Emil; Balic Zunic, Tonci

    2010-01-01

    Sizes of cavities and their packing schemes in selected zeolites and clathrasils were studied by means of least squares fitting of circumscribed spheres to them. Resulting packing of spheres of different diameters was analyzed by the coordinates of their centers, their volumes and sphericity, and...

  8. WITHDRAWN: Commercial hospital discharge packs for breastfeeding women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, A; Snowden, H M; Renfrew, M J; Woolridge, M W

    2007-07-18

    Exclusive breastfeeding until around six months of age, followed by the introduction of solids with continued breastfeeding, is considered to be the optimal nutritional start for newborn infants. To determine whether the exclusivity and duration of breastfeeding is affected by giving mothers commercial discharge packs in hospital which contain artificial formula or promotional material for artificial formula. These packs are those which are commonly given to mothers on leaving hospital after giving birth (thus discharge packs). Comprehensive electronic search of the register of clinical trials maintained and updated by the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group and CINAHL and MEDLINE. All randomised controlled trials with or without blinding to examine the effects of commercial discharge packs on breastfeeding. Consenting postpartum women who initiate breastfeeding while in hospital or immediately upon discharge. Commercial discharge packs which contain free samples of infant formula or promotional material versus non commercial discharge packs (specifically those from which free samples of infant formula have been removed or have been replaced with e.g. breast pads) or no pack. The proportion of women breastfeeding at six weeks and 3 months (13 weeks) postpartum.Other outcomes: Rates of breastfeeding at other fixed time points between 0 and 6 months postpartum. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer. Nine randomised controlled trials involving a total of 3730 women were analysed. The studies only included women from North America. The meta-analysis showed that when comparing commercial discharge packs with any of the controls (no intervention, non-commercial pack and combinations of these), exclusive breastfeeding was reduced at all time points in the presence of commercial hospital discharge packs. There was no evidence to support the conjecture that use of hospital discharge packs causes the early termination of non

  9. Compressed Subsequence Matching and Packed Tree Coloring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2017-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for subsequence matching in grammar compressed strings. Given a grammar of size n compressing a string of size N and a pattern string of size m over an alphabet of size \\(\\sigma \\), our algorithm uses \\(O(n+\\frac{n\\sigma }{w})\\) space and \\(O(n+\\frac{n\\sigma }{w}+m\\log N......\\log w\\cdot occ)\\) or \\(O(n+\\frac{n\\sigma }{w}\\log w+m\\log N\\cdot occ)\\) time. Here w is the word size and occ is the number of minimal occurrences of the pattern. Our algorithm uses less space than previous algorithms and is also faster for \\(occ=o(\\frac{n}{\\log N})\\) occurrences. The algorithm uses...... a new data structure that allows us to efficiently find the next occurrence of a given character after a given position in a compressed string. This data structure in turn is based on a new data structure for the tree color problem, where the node colors are packed in bit strings....

  10. Preperitoneal pelvic packing: Technique and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiberto, Dina M; Fox, Adam D

    2016-09-01

    Significant pelvic ring fractures are usually secondary to high-energy trauma, and when associated with other life-threatening injuries and hemodynamic instability, result in high mortality rates ranging from 40 to 60%. The major cause of death during the first 24 h after pelvic trauma is attributed to acute blood loss, with later mortality secondary to multisystem organ failure. In a majority of patients, the source of pelvic bleeding is from disruption of the presacral venous plexus and bony fracture sites, while arterial injury is present in only 10-15%. The optimal management algorithm for hemodynamically unstable patients with pelvic fractures remains controversial. The principles of care center on resuscitation, external stabilization of the pelvis, and hemorrhage control with angiography and embolization (AE) and/or preperitoneal pelvic packing (PPP). AE is effective in controlling arterial bleeding and its role in the management of hemodynamically unstable patients with pelvic fractures is supported by the EAST guidelines. However, since most patients suffer from venous bleeding, PPP can be an alternate life saving technique to control hemorrhage, especially if AE is not immediately available. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Percolation of disordered jammed sphere packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziff, Robert M.; Torquato, Salvatore

    2017-02-01

    We determine the site and bond percolation thresholds for a system of disordered jammed sphere packings in the maximally random jammed state, generated by the Torquato–Jiao algorithm. For the site threshold, which gives the fraction of conducting versus non-conducting spheres necessary for percolation, we find {{p}\\text{c}}=0.3116(3) , consistent with the 1979 value of Powell 0.310(5) and identical within errors to the threshold for the simple-cubic lattice, 0.311 608, which shares the same average coordination number of 6. In terms of the volume fraction ϕ, the threshold corresponds to a critical value {φ\\text{c}}=0.199 . For the bond threshold, which apparently was not measured before, we find {{p}\\text{c}}=0.2424(3) . To find these thresholds, we considered two shape-dependent universal ratios involving the size of the largest cluster, fluctuations in that size, and the second moment of the size distribution; we confirmed the ratios’ universality by also studying the simple-cubic lattice with a similar cubic boundary. The results are applicable to many problems including conductivity in random mixtures, glass formation, and drug loading in pharmaceutical tablets.

  12. Mobile Platforms and Development Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Helal, Sumi; Li, Wengdong

    2012-01-01

    Mobile platform development has lately become a technological war zone with extremely dynamic and fluid movement, especially in the smart phone and tablet market space. This Synthesis lecture is a guide to the latest developments of the key mobile platforms that are shaping the mobile platform industry. The book covers the three currently dominant native platforms -- iOS, Android and Windows Phone -- along with the device-agnostic HTML5 mobile web platform. The lecture also covers location-based services (LBS) which can be considered as a platform in its own right. The lecture utilizes a sampl

  13. Lung density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnett, E S; Webber, C E; Coates, G

    1977-01-01

    The density of a defined volume of the human lung can be measured in vivo by a new noninvasive technique. A beam of gamma-rays is directed at the lung and, by measuring the scattered gamma-rays, lung density is calculated. The density in the lower lobe of the right lung in normal man during quiet...... breathing in the sitting position ranged from 0.25 to 0.37 g.cm-3. Subnormal values were found in patients with emphsema. In patients with pulmonary congestion and edema, lung density values ranged from 0.33 to 0.93 g.cm-3. The lung density measurement correlated well with the findings in chest radiographs...... but the lung density values were more sensitive indices. This was particularly evident in serial observations of individual patients....

  14. High-throughput Image Analysis of Fibrillar Materials: A Case Study on Polymer Nanofiber Packing, Alignment, and Defects in OFETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Nils; Rafshoon, Joshua; Naghshpour, Kaylie; Fast, Tony; Chu, Ping-Hsun; McBride, Michael; Risteen, Bailey; Grover, Martha A; Reichmanis, Elsa

    2017-09-27

    High-throughput discovery of process-structure-property relationships in materials through an informatics-enabled empirical approach is an increasingly utilized technique in materials research due to the rapidly expanding availability of data. Here, process-structure-property relationships are extracted for the nucleation, growth and deposition of semiconducting poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) nanofibers used in organic field effect transistors, via high-throughput image analysis. This study is performed using an automated image analysis pipeline combining existing open-source software and new algorithms, enabling the rapid evaluation of structural metrics for images of fibrillar materials, including local orientational order, fiber length density, and fiber length distributions. We observe that microfluidic processing leads to fibers that pack with unusually high density, while sonication yields fibers that pack sparsely with low alignment. The is attributed to differences in their crystallization mechanisms. P3HT nanofiber packing during thin film deposition exhibits behavior suggesting that fibers are confined to packing in two-dimensional layers. We find that fiber alignment, a feature correlated with charge carrier mobility, is driven by increasing fiber length, and that shorter fibers tend to segregate to the buried dielectric interface during deposition, creating potentially performance-limiting defects in alignment. Another barrier to perfect alignment is the curvature of P3HT fibers; we propose a mechanistic simulation of fiber growth that reconciles both this curvature and the log-normal distribution of fiber lengths inherent to the fiber populations under consideration.

  15. Two-phase modelling of equiaxed crystal sedimentation and thermomechanic stress development in the sedimented packed bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, A.; Vakhrushev, A.; Holzmann, T.; Wu, M.; Kharicha, A.

    2015-06-01

    During many industrial solidification processes equiaxed crystals form, grow and move. When those crystals are small they are carried by the melt, whereas when getting larger they sediment. As long as the volume fraction of crystals is below the packing limit, they are able to move relatively free. Crystals being backed in a so called packed bed form a semi-solid slurry, which may behave like a visco-plastic material. In addition, cooling-induced density increase of both, liquid and solid phases might lead to shrinkage of the whole casting domain. So deformation happens and gaps between casting and mold occur. In the present work, a two-phase Eulerian-Eulerian volume averaging model for describing the motion of equiaxed crystals in the melt is combined with a similar two-phase model for describing the dynamic of the packed bed. As constitutive equation for the solid skeleton in the packed bed Norton-Hoff law is applied. Shrinkage induced by density changes in the liquid or the solid phase is explicitly taken into account and handled by remeshing the calculation domain accordantly.

  16. CORRELATION BETWEEN POLYMER PACKING AND GAS TRANSPORT PROPERTIES FOR CO2/N2 SEPARATION IN GLASSY FLUORINATED POLYIMIDE MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. TAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gas separation performance of a membrane highly hinges on its physical properties. In this study, the interplay between polymer packing of a membrane and its gas transport behaviours (permeability and selectivity was investigated through a series of 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2 polyimide membranes with different polymer compactness. The chemical structure and the polymer packing of the resulting membrane were characterized using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and packing density measurement, respectively. CO2/N2 separation efficiency of the membrane was evaluated at 25oC with feed pressure up to 6 bar. N2 permeability was found to rely on the membrane’s packing density, which signified its greater dependence on molecular sieving. In contrast, sorption showed a more vital role in determining the CO2 permeability. In this work, the membrane with a final thickness of 97±2 µm had successfully surpassed the Robeson’s 2008 upper bound plot with a CO2 permeability of 83 Barrer and CO2/N2 selectivity of 97 at 3 bar permeation.

  17. Identifying counterfeit cigarette packs using ultraviolet irradiation and light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurti, Marin; He, Yi; von Lampe, Klaus; Li, Yanlei

    2017-01-01

    Develop a method that yields high rates of sensitivity and specificity for determination of counterfeit cigarette packs for three popular brands: Newport, Marlboro ('Red') and Marlboro Gold. Using systematic keyword searches, we identified industry documents from the University of California, San Francisco's Legacy Tobacco Documents Library that describe the use of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and close examination of printing quality to distinguish between counterfeit and genuine cigarette packs. Guided by these documents, we identified six markers for counterfeit cigarettes across three popular brands using counterfeit cigarette packs (N=68) seized by law enforcement agencies in the USA. We assessed the diagnostic test accuracy of these markers and tested it against genuine packs (N=22) using receiver operating characteristic curves analysis. We find that counterfeit cigarette packs fluoresce to long-wave UV irradiation and display poor printing quality. The optimal cut-off value varies among the three brands. For example, counterfeit Newport and Marlboro packaging can be reliably classified with two of six characteristics, while Marlboro Gold requires four. Researchers who conduct littered pack and pack swap studies are urged to include this method to assess the share of counterfeit cigarettes, and compare the result against tobacco industry figures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. 75 FR 1788 - General Services Administration Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Packing List Clause

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION General Services Administration Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Packing List Clause AGENCY... approved information collection requirement regarding the packing list clause. A request for public..., Packing List Clause, in all correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael O....

  19. 77 FR 66466 - General Services Administration Regulation; Information Collection; Packing List Clause

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION General Services Administration Regulation; Information Collection; Packing List Clause AGENCY... packing list clause. Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether this collection of information..., Packing List Clause, by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov :...

  20. Optimization of heterogeneous Bin packing using adaptive genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, R.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Sriramya, C.; Page, Tom

    2017-03-01

    This research is concentrates on a very interesting work, the bin packing using hybrid genetic approach. The optimal and feasible packing of goods for transportation and distribution to various locations by satisfying the practical constraints are the key points in this project work. As the number of boxes for packing can not be predicted in advance and the boxes may not be of same category always. It also involves many practical constraints that are why the optimal packing makes much importance to the industries. This work presents a combinational of heuristic Genetic Algorithm (HGA) for solving Three Dimensional (3D) Single container arbitrary sized rectangular prismatic bin packing optimization problem by considering most of the practical constraints facing in logistic industries. This goal was achieved in this research by optimizing the empty volume inside the container using genetic approach. Feasible packing pattern was achieved by satisfying various practical constraints like box orientation, stack priority, container stability, weight constraint, overlapping constraint, shipment placement constraint. 3D bin packing problem consists of ‘n’ number of boxes being to be packed in to a container of standard dimension in such a way to maximize the volume utilization and in-turn profit. Furthermore, Boxes to be packed may be of arbitrary sizes. The user input data are the number of bins, its size, shape, weight, and constraints if any along with standard container dimension. This user input were stored in the database and encoded to string (chromosomes) format which were normally acceptable by GA. GA operators were allowed to act over these encoded strings for finding the best solution.

  1. Survey of descriptors on cigarette packs: still misleading consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace, Jo; Wilson, Nick; Hoek, Janet; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2009-09-25

    In September 2008, the New Zealand (NZ) Commerce Commission issued a warning to the major tobacco companies to remove "light" and "mild" descriptors from cigarette packaging. Despite published evidence that suggested tobacco companies had started colour-coding their packs in anticipation of the Commission's decision, the investigation did not consider more general misleading packaging. This study explored changes in tobacco packaging that had been introduced to the New Zealand market, by surveying descriptors used on cigarette packs after the Commerce Commission's warning. A convenience sample of discarded cigarette packs were collected in four cities and six towns/rural areas between November 2008 and January 2009. The majority of packs (93%) were collected in the capital city (Wellington). Information on the descriptors and pack colours was analysed. Four percent of the 1208 packs collected still included the terms "light" and "mild". Almost half the packs (42%) used a colour word (e.g. red, blue, gold) as a descriptor to indicate mildness or strength. A further 18% used other words that suggested mildness/strength (e.g. "subtle", "mellow"). A quarter of packs used a descriptor that did not connote either mildness or strength; however, the majority of these packs still appeared to be colour-coded. Although the words "light" and "mild" have been largely removed from tobacco packaging in the New Zealand market, these words have been replaced with associated colours or other words that may continue to communicate "reduced harm" messages to consumers. Further research to test how smokers interpret the new words and colours, and how these influence their behaviour, is desirable. However, government-mandated generic (plain) packaging would remove the opportunity to communicate misleading claims and so would afford the highest level of consumer protection.

  2. Enabling Microliquid Chromatography by Microbead Packing of Microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balvin, Manuel; Zheng, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The microbead packing is the critical element required in the success of on-chip microfabrication of critical microfluidic components for in-situ analysis and detection of chiral amino acids. In order for microliquid chromatography to occur, there must be a stationary phase medium within the microchannel that interacts with the analytes present within flowing fluid. The stationary phase media are the microbeads packed by the process discussed in this work. The purpose of the microliquid chromatography is to provide a lightweight, low-volume, and low-power element to separate amino acids and their chiral partners efficiently to understand better the origin of life. In order to densely pack microbeads into the microchannels, a liquid slurry of microbeads was created. Microbeads were extracted from a commercially available high-performance liquid chromatography column. The silica beads extracted were 5 microns in diameter, and had surface coating of phenyl-hexyl. These microbeads were mixed with a 200- proof ethanol solution to create a microbead slurry with the right viscosity for packing. A microfilter is placed at the outlet via of the microchannel and the slurry is injected, then withdrawn across a filter using modified syringes. After each injection, the channel is flushed with ethanol to enhance packing. This cycle is repeated numerous times to allow for a tightly packed channel of microbeads. Typical microbead packing occurs in the macroscale into tubes or channels by using highly pressurized systems. Moreover, these channels are typically long and straight without any turns or curves. On the other hand, this method of microbead packing is completed within a microchannel 75 micrometers in diameter. Moreover, the microbead packing is completed into a serpentine type microchannel, such that it maximizes microchannel length within a microchip. Doing so enhances the interactions of the analytes with the microbeads to separate efficiently amino acids and amino acid

  3. A direct mixed-body boundary element method for packed silencers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T W; Cheng, C Y R; Zhang, P

    2002-06-01

    Bulk-reacting sound absorbing materials are often used in packed silencers to reduce broadband noise. A bulk-reacting material is characterized by a complex mean density and a complex speed of sound. These two material properties can be measured by the two-cavity method or calculated by empirical formulas. Modeling the entire silencer domain with a bulk-reacting lining will involve two different acoustic media, air and the bulk-reacting material. Traditionally, the interior silencer domain is divided into different zones and a multi-domain boundary element method (BEM) may be applied to solve the problem. However, defining different zones and matching the elements along each interface is tedious, especially when the zones are intricately connected. In this paper, a direct mixed-body boundary element method is used to model a packed silencer without subdividing it into different zones. This is achieved by summing up all the integral equations in different zones and then adding the hypersingular integral equations at interfaces. Several test cases, including a packed expansion chamber with and without an absorbing center bullet, and a parallel baffle silencer, are studied. Numerical results for the prediction of transmission loss (TL) are compared to experimental data.

  4. Control of polymer-packing orientation in thin films through synthetic tailoring of backbone coplanarity

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Mark S.

    2013-10-22

    Controlling solid-state order of π-conjugated polymers through macromolecular design is essential for achieving high electronic device performance; yet, it remains a challenge, especially with respect to polymer-packing orientation. Our work investigates the influence of backbone coplanarity on a polymer\\'s preference to pack face-on or edge-on relative to the substrate. Isoindigo-based polymers were synthesized with increasing planarity by systematically substituting thiophenes for phenyl rings in the acceptor comonomer. This increasing backbone coplanarity, supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations of representative trimers, leads to the narrowing of polymer band gaps as characterized by ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Among the polymers studied, regiosymmetric II and TII polymers exhibited the highest hole mobilities in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), while in organic photovoltaics (OPVs), TBII polymers that display intermediate levels of planarity provided the highest power conversion efficiencies. Upon thin-film analysis by atomic force microscropy (AFM) and grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD), we discovered that polymer-packing orientation could be controlled by tuning polymer planarity and solubility. Highly soluble, planar polymers favor face-on orientation in thin films while the less soluble, nonplanar polymers favor an edge-on orientation. This study advances our fundamental understanding of how polymer structure influences nanostructural order and reveals a new synthetic strategy for the design of semiconducting materials with rationally engineered solid-state properties. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  5. Interaction of antimicrobial preservatives with blow-fill-seal packs: correlating sorption with solubility parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Aeshna; Dare, Manish; Sangamwar, Abhay; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the interaction of four commonly used ophthalmic antimicrobial preservatives [benzyl alcohol (BA), chlorbutol (CBL), benzalkonium chloride (BKC), and chlorhexidine gluconate (CG)] with Blow-Fill-Seal (BFS) packs. Effect of packaging material [low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP)], humidity (25% RH, 75% RH) and concentration (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mM BA/CBL in LDPE) was studied. BKC and CG gave negligible loss (preservative. Loss of BA switched from Case II to anomalous behavior with increasing initial concentration. A two-stage sorption behavior was inherent at all concentrations. Loss of CBL followed anomalous behavior with biphasic kinetics of loss. It was concluded that all the four preservatives were appropriate for use in PP BFS packs. However, only BKC and CG were amenable to be used in LDPE BFS packs. Lastly, an empirical expression consisting of the "solubility parameter distance" and "molar volume" of preservatives was developed to correlate the preservative loss in LDPE with the physicochemical properties of the preservatives.

  6. UNIFORM PACKING DIMENSION RESULTS FOR MULTIPARAMETER STABLE PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this article, authors discuss the problem of uniform packing dimension of the image set of multiparameter stochastic processes without random uniform H(o)lder condition, and obtain the uniform packing dimension of multiparameter stable processes.If Z is a stable (N, d, α)-process and αN ≤ d, then the following holds with probability 1 Dim Z(E) = α DimE for any Borel setE ∈ B(R+N),where Z(E) = {x: (E) t ∈ E, Z(t) = x}. Dim(E) denotes the packing dimension of E.

  7. Scaling, crumpled wires, and genome packing in virions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Holanda, V. H.; Gomes, M. A. F.

    2016-12-01

    The packing of a genome in virions is a topic of intense current interest in biology and biological physics. The area is dominated by allometric scaling relations that connect, e.g., the length of the encapsulated genome and the size of the corresponding virion capsid. Here we report scaling laws obtained from extensive experiments of packing of a macroscopic wire within rigid three-dimensional spherical and nonspherical cavities that can shed light on the details of the genome packing in virions. We show that these results obtained with crumpled wires are comparable to those from a large compilation of biological data from several classes of virions.

  8. Multi-dimensional Bin Packing Problems with Guillotine Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amossen, Rasmus Resen; Pisinger, David

    2010-01-01

    parallel straight cuts that can recursively cut the bin into pieces so that each piece contains a box and no box has been intersected by a cut. The unrestricted problem is known to be NP-hard. In this paper we present a generalization of a constructive algorithm for the multi-dimensional bin packing......The problem addressed in this paper is the decision problem of determining if a set of multi-dimensional rectangular boxes can be orthogonally packed into a rectangular bin while satisfying the requirement that the packing should be guillotine cuttable. That is, there should exist a series of face...

  9. The exact packing measure of L\\'evy trees

    CERN Document Server

    Duquesne, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We study fine properties of L\\'evy trees that are random compact metric spaces introduced by Le Gall and Le Jan in 1998 as the genealogy of continuous state branching processes. L\\'evy trees are the scaling limits of Galton-Watson trees and they generalize Aldous's continuum random tree which corresponds to the Brownian case. In this paper we prove that L\\'evy trees have always an exact packing measure: We explicitely compute the packing gauge function and we prove that the corresponding packing measure coincides with the mass measure up to a multiplicative constant.

  10. Multi-dimensional Bin Packing Problems with Guillotine Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amossen, Rasmus Resen; Pisinger, David

    2010-01-01

    The problem addressed in this paper is the decision problem of determining if a set of multi-dimensional rectangular boxes can be orthogonally packed into a rectangular bin while satisfying the requirement that the packing should be guillotine cuttable. That is, there should exist a series of face...... parallel straight cuts that can recursively cut the bin into pieces so that each piece contains a box and no box has been intersected by a cut. The unrestricted problem is known to be NP-hard. In this paper we present a generalization of a constructive algorithm for the multi-dimensional bin packing...

  11. Theory of amorphous packings of binary mixtures of hard spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biazzo, Indaco; Caltagirone, Francesco; Parisi, Giorgio; Zamponi, Francesco

    2009-05-15

    We extend our theory of amorphous packings of hard spheres to binary mixtures and more generally to multicomponent systems. The theory is based on the assumption that amorphous packings produced by typical experimental or numerical protocols can be identified with the infinite pressure limit of long-lived metastable glassy states. We test this assumption against numerical and experimental data and show that the theory correctly reproduces the variation with mixture composition of structural observables, such as the total packing fraction and the partial coordination numbers.

  12. Mechanical stability of ordered droplet packings in microfluidic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Jean-Baptiste; Claussen, Ohle; Herminghaus, Stephan; Brinkmann, Martin; Seemann, Ralf

    2011-12-01

    The mechanical response and stability of one and two-row packing of monodisperse emulsion droplets are studied in quasi 2d microchannels under longitudinal compression. Depending on the choice of parameter, a considered droplet arrangement is either transformed continuously into another packing under longitudinal compression or becomes mechanically unstable and segregates into domains of higher and lower packing fraction. Our experimental results are compared to analytical calculations for 2d-droplet arrangements with good quantitative agreement. This study also predicts important consequences for the stability of droplet arrangements in flowing systems.

  13. Online stock trading platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion LUNGU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is the perfect tool that can assure the market’s transparency for any user who wants to trade on the stock market. The investor can have access to the market news, financial calendar or the press releases of the issuers. A good online trading platform also provides real-time intraday quotes, trading history and technical analysis giving the investor a clearer view of the supply and demand in the market. All this information provides the investor a good image of the market and encourages him to trade. This paper wishes to draft the pieces of an online trading platform and to analyze the impact of developing and implementing one in a brokerage firm.

  14. Available: motorised platform

    CERN Document Server

    The COMPASS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The COMPASS collaboration would like to offer to a new owner the following useful and fully operational piece of equipment, which is due to be replaced with better adapted equipment.   Please contact Erwin Bielert (erwin.bielert@cern.ch or 160539) for further information.  Motorized platform (FOR FREE):   Fabricated by ACL (Alfredo Cardoso & Cia Ltd) in Portugal. The model number is MeXs 5-­‐30.  Specifications: 5 m wide, 1 m deep, adjustable height (1.5 m if folded). Maximum working floor height: 4 m. conforms to CERN regulations, number LV158. Type LD500, capacity 500 kg and weight 2000 kg.  If no interested party is found before December 2014, the platform will be thrown away.

  15. Common tester platform concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  16. OGC Collaborative Platform undercover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, G.; Arctur, D. K.; Bermudez, L. E.

    2012-12-01

    The mission of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is to serve as a global forum for the collaboration of developers and users of spatial data products and services, and to advance the development of international standards for geospatial interoperability. The OGC coordinates with over 400 institutions in the development of geospatial standards. OGC has a dedicated staff supported by a Collaborative Web Platform to enable sophisticated and successful coordination among its members. Since its origins in the early 1990s, the OGC Collaborative Web Platform has evolved organically to be the collaboration hub for standards development in the exchange of geospatial and related types of information, among a global network of thousands of technical, scientific and management professionals spanning numerous disparate application domains. This presentation describes the structure of this collaboration hub, the relationships enabled (both among and beyond OGC members), and how this network fits in a broader ecosystem of technology development and information standards organizations.

  17. Larger voids in mechanically stable, loose packings of 1.3μm frictional, cohesive particles: Their reconstruction, statistical analysis, and impact on separation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reising, Arved E; Godinho, Justin M; Hormann, Kristof; Jorgenson, James W; Tallarek, Ulrich

    2016-03-01

    Lateral transcolumn heterogeneities and the presence of larger voids in a packing (comparable to the particle size) can limit the preparation of efficient chromatographic columns. Optimizing and understanding the packing process provides keys to better packing structures and column performance. Here, we investigate the slurry-packing process for a set of capillary columns packed with C18-modified, 1.3μm bridged-ethyl hybrid porous silica particles. The slurry concentration used for packing 75μm i.d. fused-silica capillaries was increased gradually from 5 to 50mg/mL. An intermediate concentration (20mg/mL) resulted in the best separation efficiency. Three capillaries from the set representing low, intermediate, and high slurry concentrations were further used for three-dimensional bed reconstruction by confocal laser scanning microscopy and morphological analysis of the bed structure. Previous studies suggest increased slurry concentrations will result in higher column efficiency due to the suppression of transcolumn bed heterogeneities, but only up to a critical concentration. Too concentrated slurries favour the formation of larger packing voids (reaching the size of the average particle diameter). Especially large voids, which can accommodate particles from>90% of the particle size distribution, are responsible for a decrease in column efficiency at high slurry concentrations. Our work illuminates the increasing difficulty of achieving high bed densities with small, frictional, cohesive particles. As particle size decreases interparticle forces become increasingly important and hinder the ease of particle sliding during column packing. While an optimal slurry concentration is identified with respect to bed morphology and separation efficiency under conditions in this work, our results suggest adjustments of this concentration are required with regard to particle size, surface roughness, column dimensions, slurry liquid, and external effects utilized during the

  18. Video analysis platform

    OpenAIRE

    FLORES, Pablo; Arias, Pablo; Lecumberry, Federico; Pardo, Álvaro

    2006-01-01

    In this article we present the Video Analysis Platform (VAP) which is an open source software framework for video analysis, processing and description. The main goals of VAP are: to provide a multiplatform system which allows the easy implementation of video algorithms, provide structures and algorithms for the segmentation of video data in its different levels of abstraction: shots, frames, objects, regions, etc, permit the generation and comparison of MPEG7-like descriptors, and develop tes...

  19. Cloud Robotics Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busra Koken

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud robotics is a rapidly evolving field that allows robots to offload computation-intensive and storage-intensive jobs into the cloud. Robots are limited in terms of computational capacity, memory and storage. Cloud provides unlimited computation power, memory, storage and especially collaboration opportunity. Cloud-enabled robots are divided into two categories as standalone and networked robots. This article surveys cloud robotic platforms, standalone and networked robotic works such as grasping, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM and monitoring.

  20. HPC - Platforms Penta Chart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo, Angelina Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-08

    Strategy, Planning, Acquiring- very large scale computing platforms come and go and planning for immensely scalable machines often precedes actual procurement by 3 years. Procurement can be another year or more. Integration- After Acquisition, machines must be integrated into the computing environments at LANL. Connection to scalable storage via large scale storage networking, assuring correct and secure operations. Management and Utilization – Ongoing operations, maintenance, and trouble shooting of the hardware and systems software at massive scale is required.