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Sample records for plates root digestion

  1. Root-Contact/Pressure-Plate Assembly For Hydroponic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Carlton E.; Loretan, Philip A.; Bonsi, Conrad K.; Hill, Walter A.

    1994-01-01

    Hydroponic system includes growth channels equipped with rootcontact/pressure-plate assemblies. Pump and associated plumbing circulate nutrient liquid from reservoir, along bottom of growth channels, and back to reservoir. Root-contact/pressure-plate assembly in each growth channel stimulates growth of roots by applying mild contact pressure. Flat plate and plate connectors, together constitute pressure plate, free to move upward to accommodate growth of roots. System used for growing sweetpotatoes and possibly other tuber and root crops.

  2. Anchorage of mature conifers: resistive turning moment, root-soil plate geometry and root growth orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Tor; Jonas, Tobias; Stöckli, Veronika; Ammann, Walter

    2007-09-01

    Eighty-four mature Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst), silver fir (Abies alba Mill) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees were winched over to determine the maximum resistive turning moment (M(a)) of the root-soil system, the root-soil plate geometry, the azimuthal orientation of root growth, and the occurrence of root rot. The calculation of M(a), based on digital image tracking of stem deflection, accounted not only for the force application and its changing geometry, but also for the weight of the overhanging tree, representing up to 42% of M(a). Root rot reduced M(a) significantly and was detected in 25% of the Norway spruce and 5% of the silver fir trees. Excluding trees with root rot, differences in M(a) between species were small and insignificant. About 75% of the variance in M(a) could be explained by one of the four variables--tree mass, stem mass, stem diameter at breast height squared times tree height, and stem diameter at breast height squared. Among the seven allometric variables assessed above ground, stem diameter at breast height best described the root-soil plate dimensions, but the correlations were weak and the differences between species were insignificant. The shape of the root-soil plate was well described by a depth-dependent taper model with an elliptical cross section. Roots displayed a preferred azimuthal orientation of growth in the axis of prevailing winds, and the direction of frequent weak winds matched the orientation of growth better than that of rare strong winds. The lack of difference in anchorage parameters among species probably reflects the similar belowground growth conditions of the mature trees.

  3. A simple MALDI plate functionalization by Vmh2 hydrophobin for serial multi-enzymatic protein digestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Sara; Gravagnuolo, Alfredo Maria; Funari, Riccardo; Della Ventura, Bartolomeo; Pane, Francesca; Galano, Eugenio; Amoresano, Angela; Marino, Gennaro; Giardina, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The development of efficient and rapid methods for the identification with high sequence coverage of proteins is one of the most important goals of proteomic strategies today. The on-plate digestion of proteins is a very attractive approach, due to the possibility of coupling immobilized-enzymatic digestion with direct matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-time of flight (TOF)-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. The crucial step in the development of on-plate immobilization is however the functionalization of the solid surface. Fungal self-assembling proteins, the hydrophobins, are able to efficiently functionalize surfaces. We have recently shown that such modified plates are able to absorb either peptides or proteins and are amenable to MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. In this paper, the hydrophobin-coated MALDI sample plates were exploited as a lab-on-plate for noncovalent immobilization of enzymes commonly used in protein identification/characterization, such as trypsin, V8 protease, PNGaseF, and alkaline phosphatase. Rapid and efficient on-plate reactions were performed to achieve high sequence coverage of model proteins, particularly when performing multiple enzyme digestions. The possibility of exploiting this direct on-plate MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis has been investigated on model proteins and, as proof of concept, on entire whey milk proteome.

  4. INFLUENCE OF YEAR AND ATONIK APPLICATION ON VARIABILITY OF SUGAR BEET ROOT YIELD AND DIGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I ČERNÝ

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1998 and 1999 the effect of weather conditions and different doses of Atonik application on sugar beet root yield and digestion (cultivar Ranger were studied in the field trial. The trial results confirmed statistically high significant effect of trial year weather conditions on above mentioned parameters. Comparing received results in the year 1998 to results in 1999 we found out lower root yield (- 7,6 t.ha-1 and digestion (- 0,2 t.ha-1 comparing with year 1999. We found out a significant effect of Atonik on root yield (+6,73 t.ha-1, rel.12,56 % and digestion (+ 0,6 °S,rel. 3,71 % on the variant C (Atonik treatment comparing to values of control variant. In general we can evaluate the effect of Atonik application as high significant.

  5. INFLUENCE OF YEAR AND ATONIK APPLICATION ON VARIABILITY OF SUGAR BEET ROOT YIELD AND DIGESTION

    OpenAIRE

    I ČERNÝ; P ONDRIŠÍK

    2004-01-01

    In 1998 and 1999 the effect of weather conditions and different doses of Atonik application on sugar beet root yield and digestion (cultivar Ranger) were studied in the field trial. The trial results confirmed statistically high significant effect of trial year weather conditions on above mentioned parameters. Comparing received results in the year 1998 to results in 1999 we found out lower root yield (- 7,6 t.ha-1) and digestion (- 0,2 t.ha-1) comparing with year 1999. We found out a signifi...

  6. Extraction and DNA Digestion of 5'-Phosphodiesterase from Malt Root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Hechang; CAI Guangqi; CAI Wen; LI Hailong; GU Yi; PARK Yongdoo; MENG Fanguo

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the extraction of 5'-phosphodiesterase from malt root and the degradation of nucleic acids by this enzyme.The extraction used grade precipitation with ammonium sulfate and enzy-matic hydrolysis.Samples were assayed using the modified Bradford method and high performance liquid chromatography.The results show that 5'-phosphodiesterase is isolated by grade precipitation with 30% and 80% saturation of ammonium sulfate and can be utilized to degrade deoxydbonucleic acid.The hydrolysate has four kinds of deoxynucleotides: 5'-dCMP,5'-dTMP,5'-dAMP,and 5'-dGMP.The optimum reaction tem-perature is 70℃,and the optimum pH is 5.5-6.0 for the reaction.The percentage of deoxynucleotides indi-ceted by the China Pharmacopoeia (2000 edition) in the product is over 70%.The extraction of 5'-phosphodiesterase from malt root is shown to be possible and economical.Products from the enzymatic hydrolysate of DNA meet the pharmacopoeia.

  7. On-plate digestion of proteins using novel trypsin-immobilized magnetic nanospheres for MALDI-TOF-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Yan, Bo; Deng, Chunhui; Tang, Jia; Liu, Junyan; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2007-10-01

    In this study, a novel method of on-plate digestion using trypsin-immobilized magnetic nanospheres was developed followed by MALDI-TOF-MS for rapid and effective analysis and identification of proteins. We utilized a facile one-pot method for the direct preparation of amine-functionalized magnetic nanospheres with highly magnetic properties and the amino groups on the outer surface. Through the reaction of the aldehyde groups with amine groups, trypsin was simply and stably immobilized onto the magnetic nanospheres. The obtained trypsin-linked magnetic nanospheres were then applied for on-plate digestion of sample proteins (myoglobin and Cytochrome c). Moreover, after digestion, the trypsin-linked nanospheres could be easily removed from the plate due to their magnetic property, which would avoid causing contamination on the ion source chamber in MS. The effects of the temperature and incubation time on the digestion efficiency were characterized. Within only 5 min, proteins could be efficiently digested with the peptide sequence coverage higher than or equal to that of the traditional in-solution digestion for 12 h. Furthermore, RPLC fractions of rat liver extract were also successfully processed using this novel method. These results suggested that our improved on-plate digestion protocol for MALDI-MS may find further application in automated analysis of large sets of proteins.

  8. The use of root plates for nesting sites by Anthophora abrupta (Hymenoptera: Apidae) may be common within forested habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua W. Campbell; Cynthia C. Viguiera; Patrick Viguiera; John E. Hartgerink; Cathryn H. Greenberg

    2017-01-01

    This is the first reported use of root plates by Anthophora abrupta Say (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Previous reported nesting sites were vertical riverbanks and several man-made clay structures. Root plates in forested habitats may be the preferred nesting site for A. abrupta.

  9. Antigen digestion on the target plate of MALDI-TOF MS after isolation using an immunoaffinity membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Youji; Nishimura, Yuri; Saito, Masaki

    2013-09-01

    A combination of methods is required to achieve separation of intact proteins and subsequently perform structure analysis to examine their unstable or external structures. The aim of this study was to develop a method of structure analysis in intact proteins after purification. Transferrin from human plasma was trapped by membrane-immobilized anti-transferrin antibody, which was produced by non-denaturing two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), and transferred to a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane and stained with Ponceau S. The antigen transferrin was eluted by rinsing the membrane with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) or aspartic acid. In addition, a method was established by which the purified human transferrin was enzymatically digested on a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) target plate. Thus, after purification of the human transferrin antigen from tens of microlitres of human plasma using an immunoaffinity membrane, transferrin polypeptide fragments were obtained on the plate following digestion with pepsin in the presence of 0.1% TFA or endoproteinase Lys-C or Lys-C/trypsin with 0.001% sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). The results indicated that the combined methods of isolation using an immunoaffinity membrane and enzymatic digestion on a MALDI-TOF MS plate could be applied to the purification and microanalysis of antigens. This approach would be particularly applicable to the analysis of the primary structure and the less stable and highly accessible regions of antigens from limited sample volumes.

  10. Rapid isolation of gluten-digesting bacteria from human stool and saliva by using gliadin-containing plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarantopoulos, Christos; Ongchangco, Deryn; Sry, Jeremy; Cesario, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The number of individuals with gluten intolerance has increased dramatically over the last years. To date, the only therapy for gluten intolerance is the complete avoidance of dietary gluten. To sustain a strictly gluten-free diet, however, is very challenging. Therefore, there is need for a non-dietary therapy. Any such treatment must appreciate that the immunogenic part of gluten are gliadin peptides which are poorly degraded by the enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotic therapy and oral enzyme therapy containing gluten-degrading bacteria (GDB) and their gliadin-digesting enzymes are possible new approaches for the treatment of gluten intolerance, however effectively isolating GDB for these treatments is problematic. The goal of this study was to develop an easy technique to isolate GDB rapidly and efficiently with the hope it might lead to newer ways of developing either probiotics or traditional medicines to treat gluten intolerance. Several researchers have already isolated successfully GDB by using gluten minimal or limited agar plates. Although these plates can be used to isolate bacteria which can tolerate gluten, further assays are needed to investigate if the same bacteria can also digest gluten. The agar plates we developed can detect bacteria which cannot only tolerate gluten but are able to digest it as well. Therefore, we were able to combine two steps into one step. Using such technologies, we were able to isolate five GDB from saliva and stool, and identified three bacterial reference strains with gluten-degrading activity. The technique we developed to isolate bacteria with gluten-degrading activity is fast, effective, and easy to use. The GDB isolated by our technology could have potential as part of a probiotic or enzymatic therapy for people with gluten intolerance. PMID:25519429

  11. Rapid isolation of gluten-digesting bacteria from human stool and saliva by using gliadin-containing plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Martina; Sarantopoulos, Christos; Ongchangco, Deryn; Sry, Jeremy; Cesario, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    The number of individuals with gluten intolerance has increased dramatically over the last years. To date, the only therapy for gluten intolerance is the complete avoidance of dietary gluten. To sustain a strictly gluten-free diet, however, is very challenging. Therefore, there is need for a non-dietary therapy. Any such treatment must appreciate that the immunogenic part of gluten are gliadin peptides which are poorly degraded by the enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotic therapy and oral enzyme therapy containing gluten-degrading bacteria (GDB) and their gliadin-digesting enzymes are possible new approaches for the treatment of gluten intolerance, however effectively isolating GDB for these treatments is problematic. The goal of this study was to develop an easy technique to isolate GDB rapidly and efficiently with the hope it might lead to newer ways of developing either probiotics or traditional medicines to treat gluten intolerance. Several researchers have already isolated successfully GDB by using gluten minimal or limited agar plates. Although these plates can be used to isolate bacteria which can tolerate gluten, further assays are needed to investigate if the same bacteria can also digest gluten. The agar plates we developed can detect bacteria which cannot only tolerate gluten but are able to digest it as well. Therefore, we were able to combine two steps into one step. Using such technologies, we were able to isolate five GDB from saliva and stool, and identified three bacterial reference strains with gluten-degrading activity. The technique we developed to isolate bacteria with gluten-degrading activity is fast, effective, and easy to use. The GDB isolated by our technology could have potential as part of a probiotic or enzymatic therapy for people with gluten intolerance.

  12. Topographic relationship between root apex of mesially and horizontally impacted mandibular third molar and lingual plate: cross-sectional analysis using CBCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmiao; He, Xiaotong; Wang, Yanling; Zhou, Guangchao; Sun, Chao; Yang, Lianfeng; Bai, Jianling; Gao, Jun; Wu, Yunong; Cheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the topographic relationship between root apex of the mesially and horizontally impacted mandibular third molar and lingual plate of mandible. The original cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data of 364 teeth from 223 patients were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The topographic relationship between root apex and lingual plate on cross-sectional CBCT images was classified as non-contact (99), contact (145) and perforation (120). The cross-sectional morphology of lingual plate at the level of root apex was defined as parallel (28), undercut (38), slanted (29) and round (4). The distribution of topographic relationship between root apex and lingual plate significantly associated with gender, impaction depth, root number and lingual plate morphology. Moreover, the average bone thickness of lingual cortex and distance between root apex and the outer surface of lingual plate were 1.02 and 1.39 mm, respectively. Furthermore, multivariate regression analyses identified impaction depth and lingual plate morphology as the risk factors for the contact and perforation subtypes between root apex and lingual plate. Collectively, our findings reveal the topographic proximity of root apex of impacted mandibular third molar to the lingual plate, which might be associated with intraoperative and postoperative complications during tooth extraction. PMID:27991572

  13. Microwave digestion polarography for determining seven trace elements in Salvia Miltiorrhiza Root and compound Salvia Miltiorrhiza Root injection simultaneously

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yi; ZHANG Tai-ming; GAO Juan; LIANG Yi-zeng

    2007-01-01

    The sensitive second derivative waves of Cu(Ⅱ), Pb( Ⅱ ), Cd( Ⅱ ), Ni( Ⅱ ), Zn( Ⅱ ), Fe( Ⅱ ) and Mn( Ⅱ ), forming in the substrate solution (pH=9.26) consisting of ammonia, ammonium chlorid, gelatin and ascorbic acid were researched. The peak potentials of the polarographic waves of the seven ions are at about -0.48, -0.63, -0.79, -1.04, -1.28, -1.44 and -1.60 V respectively. Combining with microwave, technique, a new method for the simultaneous determination of the seven trace elements in Chinese traditional medicine was developed. The method is easy to operate, rapid, simple and convenient. When the signal-to-noise rate equals 3, the detection limits of Cu, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn are 4.2 × 10-3, 5.3 × 10-3, 2.1 × 10-3, 5.8 × 10-4, 3.0 × 10-3,7.7 × 10-4 and 1.1 × 10-3 μg/mL respectively. Well linear relationships exist between the concentrations and the peak currents when Cu, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn concentrations are within 8.5× 10-3-10, 9.7×10-3-10, 4.5×10 3-10, 1.2× 10-3-10, 6.4× 10-3-10,1.5 × 10-3-10 and 2.8 × 10-3-10 μg/mL, respectively. The method has been used to the simultaneous determination of the seven trace elements in Salvia Miltiorrhiza Root and compound Salvia Miltiorrhiza Root injection, the relative standard deviations(RSDs) of the Cu, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn in the two medicines are 3.9% and 5.8%, 4.0% and 4.1%, 4.3% and 5.7%, 4.9% and 5.3%, 4.4% and 4,7%, 3.5% and 4.0%, 0.51% and 2.8%, respectively; the comparisons of the determination results with the values obtained by the standard method indicate that the presented method has very well veracity.

  14. A Soil-Plate Based Pipeline for Assessing Cereal Root Growth in Response to Polyethylene Glycol (PEG-Induced Water Deficit Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven K. Nelson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a serious problem that causes losses in crop-yield every year, but the mechanisms underlying how roots respond to water deficit are difficult to study under controlled conditions. Methods for assaying root elongation and architecture, especially for seedlings, are commonly achieved on artificial media, such as agar, moistened filter paper, or in hydroponic systems. However, it has been demonstrated that measuring root characteristics under such conditions does not accurately mimic what is observed when plants are grown in soil. Morphological changes in root behavior occur because of differences in solute diffusion, mechanical impedance, exposure to light (in some designs, and gas exchange of roots grown under these conditions. To address such deficiencies, we developed a quantitative method for assaying seedling root lengths and germination in soil using a plate-based approach with wheat as a model crop. We also further developed the method to include defined water deficits stress levels using the osmotic properties of polyethylene glycol (PEG. Seeds were sown into soil-filled vertical plates and grown in the dark. Root length measurements were collected using digital photography through the transparent lid under green lighting to avoid effects of white light exposure on growth. Photographs were analyzed using the cross-platform ImageJ plugin, SmartRoot, which can detect root edges and partially automate root detection for extraction of lengths. This allowed for quick measurements and straightforward and accurate assessments of non-linear roots. Other measurements, such as root width or angle, can also be collected by this method. An R function was developed to collect exported root length data, process and reformat the data, and output plots depicting root/shoot growth dynamics. For water deficit experiments, seedlings were transplanted side-by-side into well-watered plates and plates containing PEG solutions to simulate precise

  15. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    ’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through......Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  16. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty......’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  17. Cassava root peel as a replacement for maize in diets for growing pigs: effects on energy and nutrient digestibility, performance and carcass characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Akinola, Olufemi S.; Amos O. Fanimo; J. Adeniyi Agunbiade; Andreas Susenbeth; Eva Schlecht

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate cassava root peel (CRP) as diet component for fattening pigs. In the first experiment, ten male pigs were used to investigate the nutrient digestibility and the nutritive value of CRP as replacement for maize in the diet at 0 %, 30 %, 40 %, 50 % and 60 %, while supplementing free amino acids (fAA). During two experimental periods, faeces were quantitatively collected and analysed for chemical composition. In the second experiment, 40 pigs received th...

  18. Evaluation of resazurin microtiter plate assay and HPLC- photodiode array analysis of the roots of Asparagus adscendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kashif Maqbool; Nahar, Lutfun; Mannan, Abdul; Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Ghazanfar Ali; Hobbs, Glyn; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2017-07-19

    Asparagus adscendens Roxb. (Asparagaceae), is native to the Himalayas. The present study, for the first time, was undertaken to explore the antimicrobial potential, to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the methanol extract of the roots of A. adscendens and its solid-phase extraction (SPE) fractions using resazurin microtitre assay against Gram-positive and negative bacterial-registered strains and to carry out HPLC-photodiode array analysis of the SPE fractions. The methanol extract and all SPE exhibited considerable level of antibacterial potential against Gram-positive bacteria (MIC: 2.5-0.009 mg/mL) than against Gram-negative bacteria (MIC: 1.25-2.5 mg/mL). The use of microtitre plates has the advantage of lower cost, fast and quantitative results. Like other Asparagus species, the presence of phenolic compounds in all SPE fractions was evident in the HPLC-PDA data.

  19. Dried chicory root has minor effects on the digestibility of nutrients and the composition of the microflora at the terminal ileum and in faeces of growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to study digestibility of nutrient at the terminal ileum and the total tract, and the impact on microbial composition at the two sites. Four experimental diets based on wheat with increasing amounts of dried chicory root (0, 8.6, 17.2 or 25.8%) were formulated...... of SCFA in faeces was unaffected by the dietary composition and it was only the molar proportion of the iso-acids that was influenced by diet. The proportion of iso-acids decreased with increasing amount of fructan in the diets. The composition of the microflora in ileal digesta and faeces...... was not influenced by the diets as shown by T-RFLP. In conclusion, diets containing high amount of fructan only induced minor changes in nutrient digestibility whereas no alterations of the composition of microflora could be detected. This indicates that growing pigs are well adapted for consumption of high amounts...

  20. LCD and CRT display of storage phosphor plate and limited cone beam computed tomography images for the evaluation of root canal fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksi, B Güniz; Soğur, Elif; Gröndahl, Hans-Göran

    2009-03-01

    The aim was to compare quality of liquid crystal display (LCD) and high resolution cathode ray tube (CRT) screens for the evaluation of length and homogeneity of root canal fillings in storage phosphor plate (SPP) and limited cone beam computed tomography (LCBCT) images. Endodontic treatment was performed to 17 extracted permanent lower incisor teeth. Images of each tooth positioned in a dried mandible were obtained with Digora SPP and Accu-I-Tomo LCBCT systems. Six observers scored the quality of all images on CRT and LCD screens. Results were compared using McNemar's and Cochran's Q tests (p LCD displays (p > 0.05). Agreement among observers' scores was higher with CRT display. Within the limits of this ex vivo study, differences between LCD and CRT monitors for the evaluation of root canal fillings are clinically insignificant independent on whether conventional radiographs, captured by means of image plates, or cone beam images are being displayed.

  1. Use of dried cassava root to replace corn in supplementation of Holstein cows grazing and consuming spontaneously, apparent digestibility and energy metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádler Carvalho da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of this experiment intended to evaluate the effect of replacing ground corn for dried and ground cassava roots with the levels of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% in the experimental supplements for lactating cows kept on tropical irrigated and fertilized pastures. Ten Holstein cows were divided into two 5x5 Latin squares, with an initial lactation average of 150 days, 22 kg/day of average milk production of lactation and approximate initial average body eight of 603 kg. The animals were kept in pasture constituted by elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, SCHUM cv Pioneer, associated with Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis, irrigated and fertilized with 600 kg of nitrogen per hectare/year. No significant effects on the substitution of ground corn for dried and ground cassava roots in the concentrate (P>0.05 over the spontaneous consumption of the total diet, with estimated average of 20.61 kg/DM/animal/day, apparent digestibility of DM with estimated average of 59.60% and energy balance with estimated average of +6.36 Mcal day-1. The results of this study demonstrate that the cassava root can be used as an energy source of high nutritional value for supplementation of lactating cows grazing on tropical pastures, similar to corn results.

  2. Diagnostic Accuracy of Charge-coupled Device Sensor and Photostimulable Phosphor Plate Receptor in the Detection of External Root Resorption In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Sakhdari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Early diagnosis of external root resorption is important for accurate treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of a charge-coupled device (CCD sensor and a photostimulable phosphor (PSP plate receptor in the diagnosis of artificial external root resorption. Materials and methods. In this diagnostic in-vitro study, 40 maxillary incisors were mounted in a segment of dry bone and preliminary radiographs were obtained using CCD and PSP sensors. Artificial resorption cavities were produced on the middle-third in half of the samples and on the cervical-third in the other half on the buccal root surfaces. Radiographs were repeated and images were evaluated. Data were statistically analyzed using chi-square and diagnostic tests. Results. There were no significant differences between the two sensors in the sensitivity (p=0.08 and 0.06 and specificity (p=0.13 for the diagnosis of resorption in both root areas. The overall accuracy of CCD was higher than PSP sensor; how-ever, the difference was not statistically significance (p>0.05. Conclusion. CCD and PSP sensors chosen for the present study produced similar results in diagnosing simulated external root resorption.

  3. 木薯块根的营养价值及消化性能%Nutritional Value and Digestibility of Cassava Root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁慧敏; 谢彩锋; 古碧; 丘春平

    2015-01-01

    Cassava is one of three major potatoes in the world, mainly used for feed, food and industrial raw materials, understanding the nutritional value and digestibility of cassava may be conducive to the development of cassava products, this review focuses on the nutritional content, anti-nutritional characteristics and its digestibility of cassava root. The properties described here may provide a reference for cassava processing and utilization.%木薯是世界三大薯类之一,目前主要用于饲料、粮食和工业原料,了解木薯的营养价值及其消化性能有利于木薯产品的开发和利用,本文着重介绍了木薯块根的营养成分、抗营养特性及其消化性能等,为木薯的加工利用提供参考。

  4. Assessment of in vitro digestibility and fermentation parameters of alfalfa hay-based diet following direct incorporation of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum) and asparagus root (Asparagus officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, V; Hozhabri, F; Kafilzadeh, F

    2013-08-01

    This study was completed to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum; FS) and asparagus root (Asparagus officinalis; AR) on in vitro nutrient digestibility and fermentation patterns. Different levels [0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of dry matter (DM)] of the medicinal plants were included using alfalfa hay (AH) as a basal substrate at different incubation times (12, 18, 24 and 48 h). Total phenolic components of AH, FS and AR were 5.9, 10 and 8.3 g/kg DM, whereas total tannins were 0.4, 3.8 and 1.5 g/kg DM, respectively. Corresponding values for saponins were 10.4, 27.3 and 40.3 g/kg DM. Fenugreek seed increased (pAsparagus root also increased (pproduction were decreased (p<0.05) with the addition of FS (at 10% and 15% DM levels) or AR (at 5%, 10% and 15% DM levels) at different incubation times. Results suggest that FS and AR may have potential as feed additives to increase the efficiency of nutrients' utilization, particularly of nitrogen in ruminant diets. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Conventional versus storage phosphor-plate digital images to visualize the root canal system contrasted with a radiopaque medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoum, Hani J; Chandler, Nicholas P; Love, Robert M

    2003-05-01

    The pulp tissue was removed from 20 mandibular first molar teeth using 2.5% NaOCl irrigation and hand files. The dried canals were infused with radiopaque contrast medium. Standardized conventional and Digora digital images were obtained of each tooth positioned in a dried mandible at 0- and 30-degree horizontal angulations. Three evaluators rated the image clarity of the 0- and 30-degree original, enhanced, three-dimensional, zoom, and reverse digital image modes as superior, equal, or inferior to corresponding 0- and 30-degree conventional radiographs. The ratings were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The original, three-dimensional, zoom, or reverse digital images were inferior to the conventional radiographs for clarity of canal anatomy. The enhanced digital images were not always inferior to the conventional radiographs and were the only images superior to the original digital images. Overall, evaluators rated the image clarity of root canal anatomy on conventional radiographs better than on Digora images. However, factors in the experimental design may have contributed to this result.

  6. Deep-rooted “thick skinned” model for the High Atlas Mountains (Morocco. Implications for the seismic Eurasia-Africa plate boundary region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiraud, M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous crustal models of the High Atlas suppose the existence of a mid-crustal detachment where all the surface thrusts merged and below which the lower crust was continuous. However, both seismic refraction data and gravity modeling detected a jump in crustal thickness between the High Atlas and the northern plains. Here we show that this rapid and vertical jump in the depth of Moho discontinuity suggests that a thrust fault may penetrate the lower crust and offset the Moho (deep-rooted “thick skinned” model. The distribution of Neogene and Quaternary volcanisms along and at the northern part of the High Atlas lineament can be related to the beginning of a partial continental subduction of the West African plate to the north underneath Moroccan microplate. Allowing from the complex problem of the plate boundary in the western zone of the Mediterranean, we propose to interpret the South-Atlasic fault zone as the actual northwestern boundary of the stable part of the African plate rather than the Azores-Gibraltar fault currently used.Los modelos geodinámicos existentes sobre la estructura profunda del alto Atlas suponen la existencia de un despegue medio-cortical donde convergen los cabalgamientos superficiales y bajo el cual la corteza inferior es continua. Los datos de sísmica de refracción y gravimetría, sin embargo, indican la existencia de una discontinuidad en el grosor de la corteza (profundidad del Moho bajo el Alto Atlas. En este artículo ponemos de manifiesto que este salto rápido en la profundidad del Moho puede ser causado por un cabalgamiento que penetra la corteza inferior, desplazando la base de la misma ("deeprooted thick skinned model". La distribución del volcanismo Neógeno y Cuaternario a lo largo de y al norte de la alineación del Alto Atlas pueden estar relacionados con el comienzo de una subducción continental parcial de la placa Africana occidental hacia el norte, bajo la microplaca marroquí. La expresi

  7. Digestive Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Celiac Disease Bowel Control Problems (Fecal Incontinence) Gas Lactose Intolerance Diarrhea Diverticulosis & Diverticulitis Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) More Digestive Disease Topics Children and Teens Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Infants Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Children & Teens Chronic ...

  8. Anaerobic Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebetrau, Jan; Sträuber, Heike; Kretzschmar, Jörg; Denysenko, Velina; Nelles, Michael

    2017-04-09

    The term anaerobic digestion usually refers to the microbial conversion of organic material to biogas, which mainly consists of methane and carbon dioxide. The technical application of the naturally-occurring process is used to provide a renewable energy carrier and - as the substrate is often waste material - to reduce the organic matter content of the substrate prior to disposal.Applications can be found in sewage sludge treatment, the treatment of industrial and municipal solid wastes and wastewaters (including landfill gas utilization), and the conversion of agricultural residues and energy crops.For biorefinery concepts, the anaerobic digestion (AD) process is, on the one hand, an option to treat organic residues from other production processes. Concomitant effects are the reduction of organic carbon within the treated substance, the conversion of nitrogen and sulfur components, and the production of an energy-rich gas - the biogas. On the other hand, the multistep conversion of complex organic material offers the possibility of interrupting the conversion chain and locking out intermediates for utilization as basic material within the chemical industry.

  9. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Gouseti, Ourania; Wickham, Martin S J; Bakalis, Serafim

    2016-03-01

    Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digestion processes. To provide a framework to develop these quantitative comparisons, a summary is given here between digestion processes and parallel unit operations in the food and chemical industry. Characterization parameters and phenomena are suggested for each step of digestion. In addition to the quantitative characterization of digestion processes, the multiscale aspect of digestion must also be considered. In both food systems and the gastrointestinal tract, multiple length scales are involved in food breakdown, mixing, absorption. These different length scales influence digestion processes independently as well as through interrelated mechanisms. To facilitate optimized development of functional food products, a multiscale, engineering approach may be taken to describe food digestion processes. A framework for this approach is described in this review, as well as examples that demonstrate the importance of process characterization as well as the multiple, interrelated length scales in the digestion process. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Root hairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grierson, C.; Nielsen, E.; Ketelaar, T.; Schiefelbein, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair

  11. Thermic model to predict biogas production in unheated fixed-dome digesters buried in the ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terradas-Ill, Georgina; Cuong, Pham Hung; Triolo, Jin Mi

    2014-01-01

    buried in the soil to study heat transfer between biogas digester and its surroundings. The predicted temperatures in the dome, biogas and slurry inside the digester and the resulting biogas production are presented and validated. The model was well able to estimate digester temperature (linear slope......In many developing countries, simple biogas digesters are used to produce energy for domestic purposes from anaerobic digestion of animal manure. We developed a simple, one-dimensional (1-D), thermal model with easily-available input data for unheated, unstirred, uninsulated, fixed-dome digesters...... nearly 1, R2 0.96). Model validation for methane production gave root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 54.4 L CH4 digester-1 day-1 and relative-root-mean-square errors (rRMSEP(%)) of 35.4%. The validation result was considerably improved if only using winter data (RMSE = 26.1 L CH4 digester-1 day-1; r...

  12. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Bornhorst, GM; Gouseti, O.; Wickham, MSJ; Bakalis, S.

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®. Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digest...

  13. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    Organic waste may degrade anaerobically in nature as well as in engineered systems. The latter is called anaerobic digestion or biogasification. Anaerobic digestion produces two main outputs: An energy-rich gas called biogas and an effluent. The effluent, which may be a solid as well as liquid...... with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9.......6 addresses the mass balances and environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion....

  14. Root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed.......The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed....

  15. Problems Digesting Dairy Products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Problems Digesting Dairy Products? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... the natural sugar found in milk and other dairy products. People who cannot digest lactose have a ...

  16. Digestibility of sorghum proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Axtell, J D; Kirleis, A. W.; Hassen, M M; D'Croz Mason, N; Mertz, E T; Munck, L.

    1981-01-01

    Published information indicates that rice, maize, and wheat proteins are much more digestible in children than sorghum proteins are (66-81% compared with 46%). However, this digestibility difference cannot be demonstrated with the weanling rat, which gave digestibility values of 80% for cooked and 85% for uncooked sorghum gruels. Therefore, a search was made for a laboratory system sensitive to the digestibility differences between sorghum and other cereals. We found that porcine pepsin in vi...

  17. Inactivation of Selected Bacterial Pathogens in Dairy Cattle Manure by Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion (Balloon Type Digester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy E. Manyi-Loh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%–99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days < Escherichia coli sp. (62 days < Salmonella sp. (133 days from a viable count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure, respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days.

  18. Inactivation of selected bacterial pathogens in dairy cattle manure by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (balloon type digester).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Okoh, Anthony I; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2014-07-14

    Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%-99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days) count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure), respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days.

  19. Root resorption of anterior teeth by using elastic flat bite plate during orthodontic treatment of deep overbite%深覆患者弹性颌平面导板矫治后下前牙牙根吸收情况观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常永春; 郭杰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the root resorption of the anterior teeth by using elastic flat bite plate during ortho-dontic treatment of deep overbite.Methods Sixty-one cases with deep overbite were selected and randomly divided into the observation group (21 cases for the young subgroup, 12 cases for the adult subgroup) and the control group (17 cases for the young subgroup, 11 cases for the adult subgroup) .Both groups underwent orthodontic treatment, and we used elas-tic flat bite plate in the observation and rigid flat bite plate in the control group, respectively.Periapical films were taken before and after the process of stimulating root resorption, and the root resorption of anterior teeth was measured.Results The patients in the two groups obtained satisfactory results and the effect of bite-opening was obvious.Root resorption a-mount in the observation group was (0.79 ±0.29) mm, during which the root resorption amount for the young subgroup was (0.69 ±0.29) mm and adult subgroup was (0.96 ±0.19) mm, and they were respectively(1.03 ±0.25), (0.91 ± 0.23) and (1.21 ±1.18) mm in the control group.Significant differences were found between the two groups ( all P<0.05).Conclusion The root resorption of the anterior teeth caused by elastic flat bite plate during orthodontic treatment of deep overbite is lighter than the traditional rigid plane bite plate.%目的:观察深覆患者弹性颌平面导板矫治后下前牙牙根吸收情况。方法深覆患者61例,随机分为观察组33例(青少年、成年患者各21、12例)、对照组28例(青少年、成年患者各17、11例)。两组均进行深覆矫治,其中观察组戴用弹性平面导板,对照组戴用硬性平面导板。分别于治疗前后拍摄根尖X线片,测算下前牙牙根吸收量。结果两组均取得满意疗效,打开咬合效果明显。观察组下前牙牙根吸收量为(0.79±0.29) mm,其中青少年亚组为(0.69±0.29

  20. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    Organic waste may degrade anaerobically in nature as well as in engineered systems. The latter is called anaerobic digestion or biogasification. Anaerobic digestion produces two main outputs: An energy-rich gas called biogas and an effluent. The effluent, which may be a solid as well as liquid...... with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective ... and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add ...

  2. Digestive system; Appareil digestif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moureau-Zabotto, L.; Touboul, E.; Lerouge, D.; Deniaud-Alexandre, E.; Grahek, D.; Foulquier, J.N.; Petegnief, Y.; Gres, B.; El Balaa, H.; Keraudy, K.; Servagi-Vernat, S.S.; Lorchel, F.L.; Crehange, G.C.; Miny, J.M.; Bosset, J.F.B.; Mineur, L.; Chastel, D.; Combescure, C.; Guillot, N.; Garcia, R.; Reboul, F.; Huguet, F.; Andre, T.; Hammel, P.; Artru, P.; Balosso, J.; Ruszniewski, P.; Touboul, E.; Gramont, A. de; Louvet, C.; Moretti, L.; Meert, N.; Magne, N.; Daisne, J.F.; Berben, D.; Bral, S.; Alen, R.; Van Cleef, A.; Florescu, C.; Henry-Amar, M.; Jacob, J.; Ollivier, J.M.; Gallais, M.P.; Guillois, J.M.; Vie, B.; Tournier-Rangeard, L.; Mercier, M.; Gerard, J.P.; Ducreux, M.; Lemanski, C.; Francois, E.; Giovannini, M.; Cvitkovic, F.; Mirabel, X.; Peiffert, D

    2005-11-15

    Seven articles concern the digestive system cancer, mixing of images, toxicity of the chemoradiotherapy, comparison of dosimetry tools, pancreas cancer, rectum cancer, treated by chemoradiotherapy. (N.C.)

  3. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  4. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  5. Root resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper summarizes the different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots, exemplified by trauma and orthodontic treatment. The concept of the paper is to summarize and explain symptoms and signs of importance for avoiding resorption during...... orthodontic treatment. The Hypothesis: The hypothesis in this paper is that three different tissue layers covering the root in the so-called periroot sheet can explain signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment. These different tissue layers are; outermost...... processes provoked by trauma and orthodontic pressure. Inflammatory reactions are followed by resorptive processes in the periroot sheet and along the root surface. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Different morphologies in the dentition are signs of abnormal epithelium or an abnormal mesodermal layer. It has...

  6. Metacomprehension. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standiford, Sally N.

    Intended for administrators and policymakers as well as teachers, this digest explores the nature of students' metacomprehension, or their awareness of their own understanding, and the implications of this awareness for reading instruction. After defining metacomprehension, the digest discusses why this awareness is important to the learning…

  7. Modelling grass digestibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Grass digestibility is determined by the rate of plant development, mass of plant organs (leaf blades, leaf sheaths and stem internodes) and composition of organs. The development of an integrating model for grass digestibility necessitates the quantification of developmental characteristics of plan

  8. Perspectives for anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    to the soil. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one way of achieving this goal and it will furthermore, reduce energy consumption or may even be net energy producing. This chapter aims at provide a basic understanding of the world in which anaerobic digestion is operating today. The newest process developments...

  9. Alternating current-assisted on-plate proteolysis for MALDI-TOF MS peptide mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Wei, Bangguo; Yang, Pengyuan; Chen, Gang

    2008-11-01

    In this report, alternating current-assisted on-plate proteolysis has been developed for rapid peptide mapping. Protein solutions containing trypsin were allowed to digest directly on the spots of a stainless steel MALDI plate with the assistance of low-voltage alternating current electricity. Alternating current (AC) was allowed to pass through the protein solutions via the MALDI plate and a platinum disc electrode. The feasibility and performance of the novel proteolysis approach were investigated by the digestion of BSA and cytochrome c (Cyt-c). It was demonstrated that AC substantially enhanced the efficiency of proteolysis and the digestion time was significantly reduced to 5 min. The digests were identified by MALDI-TOF MS with sequence coverages of 42% (BSA) and 77% (Cyt-c) that were comparable to those obtained by using conventional in-solution tryptic digestion. The present proteolysis strategy is simple and efficient, offering great promise for MALDI-TOF MS peptide mapping.

  10. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2013-02-01

    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes.

  11. Consumo e Digestibilidade Aparente Total e Parcial de Rações com Cana-de-açúcar, Casca e Raspa de Mandioca Ensiladas com Polpa Cítrica Intake and Total and Partial Apparent Digestibility of Rations with Sugar Cane, Cassava Hull and Cassava Root Ensiled with Citrus Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma de Freitas

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente total (DAT e parcial dos nutrientes das silagens de cana-de-açúcar (SCnPc, de raspa (SRpPc e de casca de mandioca (SCcPc ensiladas com polpa cítrica peletizada (PCP. A dieta basal foi constituída de silagem de milho com farelo de soja, participando com 60% da matéria seca (MS dos tratamentos com SRpPc e SCcPc. Foram utilizados novilhos mestiços, fistulados no rúmen e duodeno, num delineamento experimental em quadrado latino (4x4. A determinação do coeficiente de digestibilidade total e parcial dos nutrientes, a produção fecal e o fluxo duodenal de MS foram estimados a partir da fibra detergente ácido indigestível. Os consumos de MS e proteína bruta (PB (% PV foram superiores para a SMi (2,47 e 0,33, SCcPc (2,12 e 0,30 e SRpPc (1,88 e 0,27 em relação à SCnPc (1,38 e 0,19, respectivamente. As DAT da matéria seca (65,0%, matéria orgânica (66,9% e energia bruta (64,3% para a SRpPc foram superiores em relação às demais dietas, menos para a FDN (39,4%. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade ruminal (CDR e intestinal (CDI da MS, MO e PB não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as dietas, somente o CDR da FDN (% ingerido apresentou valores superiores para SMi (43,5, SRpPc (39,3 e SCnPc (37,0, sobre a SCcPc (20,0. A utilização da silagem de raspa de mandioca adicionada da PCP mostrou-se uma alternativa de boa qualidade na alimentação de bovinos.The goal of this study was to evaluate the intake of nutrients and the total and partial apparent digestibility of sugar cane + citrus pulp (ScSCp, cassava hulls + citrus pulp (ChSCp and cassava root + citrus pulp (CrSCp silages. The basal diet with corn silage (CS and soybean meal composed 60% of the total dry matter of ChSCp and CrSCp treatments. Four castrated crossbred (HxZ steers were, canulated in the rumen and in the duodenum and confined according to 4x4 Latin Square design. For total and partial

  12. Arabidopsis alcohol dehydrogenase expression in both shoots and roots is conditioned by root growth environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, H. J.; Ferl, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the Arabidopsis Adh (alcohol dehydrogenase) gene is constitutively expressed at low levels in the roots of young plants grown on agar media, and that the expression level is greatly induced by anoxic or hypoxic stresses. We questioned whether the agar medium itself created an anaerobic environment for the roots upon their growing into the gel. beta-Glucuronidase (GUS) expression driven by the Adh promoter was examined by growing transgenic Arabidopsis plants in different growing systems. Whereas roots grown on horizontal-positioned plates showed high Adh/GUS expression levels, roots from vertical-positioned plates had no Adh/GUS expression. Additional results indicate that growth on vertical plates closely mimics the Adh/GUS expression observed for soil-grown seedlings, and that growth on horizontal plates results in induction of high Adh/GUS expression that is consistent with hypoxic or anoxic conditions within the agar of the root zone. Adh/GUS expression in the shoot apex is also highly induced by root penetration of the agar medium. This induction of Adh/GUS in shoot apex and roots is due, at least in part, to mechanisms involving Ca2+ signal transduction.

  13. Steam Digest 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  14. Protein digestion in ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protein nitrogen (NPN) in the rumen, the effect of digestible energy on the rate and .... Fahey, 1982) and inhibitors of amino acid deamination. (Chalupa & Scott, 1976). ... the omasum, although both urea and ammonia may be absorbed (0,9 gld.

  15. Thermotropism by primary roots of maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortin, M.-C.; Poff, K.L. (MSU-DOE Plant Research Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Sensing in the roots of higher plants has long been recognized to be restricted mainly to gravitropism and thigmotropism. However, root responses to temperature gradients have not been extensively studied. We have designed experiments under controlled conditions to test if and how root direction of maize can be altered by thermal gradients perpendicular to the gravity vector. Primary roots of maize grown on agar plates exhibit positive thermotropism (curvature toward the warmer temperature) when exposed to gradients of 0.5 to 4.2{degree}C cm{sup {minus}1}. The extent of thermotropism depends on the temperature gradient and the temperature at which the root is placed within the gradient. The curvature cannot be accounted for by differential growth as a direct effect of temperature on each side of the root.

  16. Digestive ripening of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irzhak, V. I.

    2017-08-01

    A relatively new method of regulating the size distribution function of nanoparticles—digestive ripening— was described. A hypothetical mechanism of dissolution of nanoparticles was proposed. It includes the effect of the ligand layer on the internal stability of the nanoparticle nucleus: the change in the structure of the ligand layer caused by a decrease in the nanoparticle size determines the kinetics of digestive ripening.

  17. Processless offset printing plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Mahović Poljaček

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the implementation of platesetters in the offset printing plate making process, imaging of the printing plate became more stable and ensured increase of the printing plate quality. But as the chemical processing of the printing plates still highly influences the plate making process and the graphic reproduction workflow, development of printing plates that do not require chemical processing for offset printing technique has been one of the top interests in graphic technology in the last few years. The main reason for that came from the user experience, where majority of the problems with plate making process could be connected with the chemical processing of the printing plate. Furthermore, increased environmental standards lead to reducing of the chemicals used in the industrial processes. Considering these facts, different types of offset printing plates have been introduced to the market today. This paper presents some of the processless printing plates.

  18. Root Traits and Phenotyping Strategies for Plant Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paez-Garcia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Roots are crucial for nutrient and water acquisition and can be targeted to enhance plant productivity under a broad range of growing conditions. A current challenge for plant breeding is the limited ability to phenotype and select for desirable root characteristics due to their underground location. Plant breeding efforts aimed at modifying root traits can result in novel, more stress-tolerant crops and increased yield by enhancing the capacity of the plant for soil exploration and, thus, water and nutrient acquisition. Available approaches for root phenotyping in laboratory, greenhouse and field encompass simple agar plates to labor-intensive root digging (i.e., shovelomics and soil boring methods, the construction of underground root observation stations and sophisticated computer-assisted root imaging. Here, we summarize root architectural traits relevant to crop productivity, survey root phenotyping strategies and describe their advantages, limitations and practical value for crop and forage breeding programs.

  19. Positive Root Bounds and Root Separation Bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Aaron Paul

    In this thesis, we study two classes of bounds on the roots of a polynomial (or polynomial system). A positive root bound of a polynomial is an upper bound on the largest positive root. A root separation bound of a polynomial is a lower bound on the distance between the roots. Both classes of bounds are fundamental tools in computer algebra and computational real algebraic geometry, with numerous applications. In the first part of the thesis, we study the quality of positive root bounds. Higher quality means that the relative over-estimation (the ratio of the bound and the largest positive root) is smaller. We find that all known positive root bounds can be arbitrarily bad. We then show that a particular positive root bound is tight for certain important classes of polynomials. In the remainder of the thesis, we turn to root separation bounds. We observe that known root separation bounds are usually very pessimistic. To our surprise, we also find that known root separation bounds are not compatible with the geometry of the roots (unlike positive root bounds). This motivates us to derive new root separation bounds. In the second part of this thesis, we derive a new root separation for univariate polynomials by transforming a known bound into a new improved bound. In the third part of this thesis, we use a similar strategy to derive a new improved root separation bound for polynomial systems.

  20. Spiralizations and tropisms in Arabidopsis roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, F; Piconese, S

    2001-12-01

    When Arabidopsis seedlings are grown on a hard-agar plate, their primary roots show characteristic spiralling movements, apparent as waves, coils and torsions, together with a slanting toward the right-hand side. All these movements are believed to be the result of three different processes acting on the roots: circumnutation, positive gravitropism and negative thigmotropism. The basic movement of the roots is described as that of a growing right-handed helix, which, because of the root tip hitting the agar plate, is continuously switched from the right-hand to the left-hand of the growth direction, and vice versa. This movement also produces a slanting root-growth direction toward the right-hand because of the incomplete waves made by the right-handed root to the left-hand. By contrast, the torsions seen in the coils and waves are interpreted as artefacts that form as an adaptation of the three-dimensional root helix to the flat two-dimensional agar surface.

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. ... vegetables . Now in one of the small sections, put grains and starchy foods. See this list of ...

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... 2016 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: wcie-meal-planning, In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal ...

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  4. Food guide plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chips or cookies. VEGETABLES: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Vegetables can be raw, fresh, ... as a snack. FRUITS: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Fruits can be fresh, canned, ...

  5. Growth Plate Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most widely used by doctors is the Salter-Harris system, described below. Type I Fractures These ... incidence of growth plate fractures peaks in adolescence. Salter-Harris classification of growth plate fractures. AAOS does ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger ...

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... Sleeve Custom jerseys for your Tour de Cure team benefits the cause. Ask the Experts: Learn to ...

  10. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reset Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing ... en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? Our free program will help you live well. More from diabetes. ...

  12. Obliquity along plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon, Mélody; Corti, Giacomo

    2016-12-01

    Most of the plate boundaries are activated obliquely with respect to the direction of far field stresses, as roughly only 8% of the plate boundaries total length shows a very low obliquity (ranging from 0 to 10°, sub-orthogonal to the plate displacement). The obliquity along plate boundaries is controlled by (i) lateral rheological variations within the lithosphere and (ii) consistency with the global plate circuit. Indeed, plate tectonics and magmatism drive rheological changes within the lithosphere and consequently influence strain localization. Geodynamical evolution controls large-scale mantle convection and plate formation, consumption, and re-organization, thus triggering plate kinematics variations, and the adjustment and re-orientation of far field stresses. These geological processes may thus result in plate boundaries that are not perpendicular but oblique to the direction of far field stresses. This paper reviews the global patterns of obliquity along plate boundaries. Using GPlate, we provide a statistical analysis of present-day obliquity along plate boundaries. Within this framework, by comparing natural examples and geological models, we discuss deformation patterns and kinematics recorded along oblique plate boundaries.

  13. Steam Digest Volume IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  14. Bibliotherapy. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mardziah Hayati

    This digest suggests that bibliotherapy is a potentially powerful method for school teachers and counselors to use on many levels and in every school grade. It begins with a brief review of the history of bibliotherapy; continues with a discussion of some approaches to bibliotherapy (interactive, clinical, and developmental); then addresses the…

  15. Anaerobic digestion without biogas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleerebezem, R.; Joosse, B.; Rozendaal, R.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion for the production of methane containing biogas is the classic example of a resource recovery process that combines stabilization of particulate organic matter or wastewater treatment with the production of a valuable end-product. Attractive features of the process include the pr

  16. The anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  17. Anaerobic digestion without biogas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleerebezem, R.; Joosse, B.; Rozendaal, R.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion for the production of methane containing biogas is the classic example of a resource recovery process that combines stabilization of particulate organic matter or wastewater treatment with the production of a valuable end-product. Attractive features of the process include the

  18. Anaerobic digestion without biogas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleerebezem, R.; Joosse, B.; Rozendaal, R.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion for the production of methane containing biogas is the classic example of a resource recovery process that combines stabilization of particulate organic matter or wastewater treatment with the production of a valuable end-product. Attractive features of the process include the pr

  19. Angular shear plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, Mitchell C [Tucson, AZ; Greynolds, Alan W [Tucson, AZ; Stuhlinger, Tilman W [Tucson, AZ

    2009-07-14

    One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.

  20. Food microstructure and starch digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaspreet; Kaur, Lovedeep; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-01-01

    Microstructural characteristics of starch-based natural foods such as parenchyma or cotyledon cell shape, cell size and composition, and cell wall composition play a key role in influencing the starch digestibility during gastrointestinal digestion. The stability of cell wall components and the arrangement of starch granules in the cells may affect the free access of amylolytic enzymes during digestion. Commonly used food processing techniques such as thermal processing, extrusion cooking, and post-cooking refrigerated storage alter the physical state of starch (gelatinization, retrogradation, etc.) and its digestibility. Rheological characteristics (viscosity) of food affect the water availability during starch hydrolysis and, consequently, the absorption of digested carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract. The nonstarch ingredients and other constituents present in food matrix, such as proteins and lipids interact with starch during processing, which leads to an alteration in the overall starch digestibility and physicochemical characteristics of digesta. Starch digestibility can be controlled by critically manipulating the food microstructure, processing techniques, and food composition.

  1. Reproducible hairy root transformation and spot-inoculation methods to study root symbioses of pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemow Scott R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pea has lagged behind other model legumes in the molecular study of nodulation and mycorrhizae-formation because of the difficulty to transform its roots and its poor growth on agar plates. Here we describe for pea 1 a transformation technique which permits the complementation of two known non-nodulating pea mutants, 2 a rhizobial inoculation method which allows the study of early cellular events giving rise to nodule primordia, and 3 a targeted fungal inoculation method which allows us to study short segments of mycorrhizal roots assured to be infected. These tools are certain to advance our knowledge of pea root symbioses.

  2. Anaerobic Digestion Foaming Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ganidi, Nafsika

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming has been encountered in several sewage treatment plants in the UK. Foaming has raised major concerns for the water utilities due to significant impacts on process efficiency and operational costs. Several foaming causes have been suggested over the past few years by researchers. However, the supporting experimental information is limited and in some cases site specific. The present report aimed to provide a better understanding of the anaerobic di...

  3. Exact axisymmetric solution of laminated transversely isotropic piezoelectric circular plates (Ⅱ)——Exact solution for elastic circular plates and numerical results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁皓江; 徐荣桥; 国凤林

    1999-01-01

    Emphasis is placed on purely elastic circular plates. Let the piezoelectric coefficients be equal to zero. Then two sets of uncoupled mechanical and electric equations are obtained and they can be solved independently. Two three-dimensional exact solutions of laminated transversely isotropic circular plate are derived under two boundary conditions, i.e. rigid slipping support and elastic simple support. For isotropic circular plates, the problem of multiple root is treated. At last, some numerical results of piezoelectric and purely elastic circular plates are presented and the applicability of classical plate theory is discussed.

  4. Afrokoko Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Give us a little background information about Afrokoko Roots.How long have you been performing together?It's an international Afrobeat outfit that I founded in Beijing three years ago.I founded it in order to show Chinese people that Africa is beyond what they see and hear on TV.For the purpose of cultural exchange,I hope it can help the Chinese learn about African culture,music,fashion,history and much more.Our band features two dancers,two backup singers,two percussionists,four brass players,a keyboard player,a guitar player and a drummer- and me as the lead vocal,drummer and dancer,which makes for live performances that are equally exciting sonically as they are visually.We have been traveling around,and so far,we have toured and performed in many Chinese cities such as Dalian (Liaoning Province),Hohhot (Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region) and Haikou (Hainan Province).

  5. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  6. Bacteria from Wheat and Cucurbit Plant Roots Metabolize PAHs and Aromatic Root Exudates: Implications for Rhizodegradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ely, Cairn S; Smets, Barth F.

    2017-01-01

    for growth on anthracene and chrysene on PAH-amended plates. Rhizosphere isolates metabolized 3- and 4-ring PAHs and PAH catabolic intermediates in liquid incubations. Aromatic root exudate compounds, namely flavonoids and simple phenols, were also substrates for isolated rhizobacteria. In particular...

  7. Flow structure on a rotating plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozen, C.A.; Rockwell, D. [Lehigh University, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The flow structure on a rotating plate of low aspect ratio is characterized well after the onset of motion, such that transient effects are not significant, and only centripetal and Coriolis accelerations are present. Patterns of vorticity, velocity contours, and streamline topology are determined via quantitative imaging, in order to characterize the leading-edge vortex in relation to the overall flow structure. A stable leading-edge vortex is maintained over effective angles of attack from 30 to 75 , and at each angle of attack, its sectional structure at midspan is relatively insensitive to Reynolds number over the range from 3,600 to 14,500. The streamline topology, vorticity distribution, and circulation of the leading-edge vortex are determined as a function of angle of attack, and related to the velocity field oriented toward, and extending along, the leeward surface of the plate. The structure of the leading-edge vortex is classified into basic regimes along the span of the plate. Images of these regimes are complemented by patterns on crossflow planes, which indicate the influence of root and tip swirl, and spanwise flow along the leeward surface of the plate. Comparison with the equivalent of the purely translating plate, which does not induce the foregoing flow structure, further clarifies the effects of rotation. (orig.)

  8. Capturing Arabidopsis root architecture dynamics with ROOT-FIT reveals diversity in responses to salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julkowska, Magdalena M; Hoefsloot, Huub C J; Mol, Selena; Feron, Richard; de Boer, Gert-Jan; Haring, Michel A; Testerink, Christa

    2014-11-01

    The plant root is the first organ to encounter salinity stress, but the effect of salinity on root system architecture (RSA) remains elusive. Both the reduction in main root (MR) elongation and the redistribution of the root mass between MRs and lateral roots (LRs) are likely to play crucial roles in water extraction efficiency and ion exclusion. To establish which RSA parameters are responsive to salt stress, we performed a detailed time course experiment in which Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings were grown on agar plates under different salt stress conditions. We captured RSA dynamics with quadratic growth functions (root-fit) and summarized the salt-induced differences in RSA dynamics in three growth parameters: MR elongation, average LR elongation, and increase in number of LRs. In the ecotype Columbia-0 accession of Arabidopsis, salt stress affected MR elongation more severely than LR elongation and an increase in LRs, leading to a significantly altered RSA. By quantifying RSA dynamics of 31 different Arabidopsis accessions in control and mild salt stress conditions, different strategies for regulation of MR and LR meristems and root branching were revealed. Different RSA strategies partially correlated with natural variation in abscisic acid sensitivity and different Na(+)/K(+) ratios in shoots of seedlings grown under mild salt stress. Applying root-fit to describe the dynamics of RSA allowed us to uncover the natural diversity in root morphology and cluster it into four response types that otherwise would have been overlooked.

  9. Blue Willow Story Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  12. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  13. Adaptive growth of tree root systems in response to wind action and site conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, Bruce C.; Ray, Duncan

    1996-01-01

    Soil-root plate dimensions and structural root architecture were examined on 46-year-old Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) trees that had been mechanically uprooted. Rooting depth was restricted by a water table, and root system morphology had adapted to resist the wind movement associated with shallow rooting. The spread of the root system and the ratio of root mass to shoot mass (root/shoot ratio) were both negatively related to soil-root plate depth. Root systems had more structural root mass on the leeward side than the windward side of the tree relative to the prevailing wind direction. Cross sections of structural roots were obtained at distances of 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 m from the tree center. Buttressed parts of roots had greater lateral and vertical secondary thickening above rather than below the biological center. This uneven growth, which produced a shape similar in cross section to a T-beam, was greater on the leeward side of the tree, and was greatest at 0.5 m from the tree center of shallow rooted trees. Further from the tree, particularly on the windward side, many roots developed eccentric cross-sectional shapes comparable to I-beams, which would efficiently resist vertical flexing. Roots became more ovoid in shape with increasing distance from the tree, especially on deep rooted trees where lateral roots tapered rapidly to a small diameter. We conclude that these forms of adaptive growth in response to wind movement improve the rigidity of the soil-root plate and counteract the increasing vulnerability to windthrow as the tree grows.

  14. Digestive health in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    Women experience the physiological changes of pregnancy in a variety of ways. Changes in pregnancy are associated with changing hormone levels. These hormonal changes have an impact on all body systems. Midwives need to have an understanding of the changes so that they can enable women to manage their digestive health effectively. The midwife needs to be vigilant in history taking to understand the woman's experiences and to be able to offer appropriate support and advice. There are a number of conventional and alternative treatments that can help to prevent and alleviate symptoms. This article will consider the impact on the gastro-intestinal system and how changes can be managed.

  15. ROOT Reference Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fuakye, Eric Gyabeng

    2017-01-01

    A ROOT Reference Documentation has been implemented to generate all the lists of libraries needed for each ROOT class. Doxygen has no option to generate or add the lists of libraries for each ROOT class. Therefore shell scripting and a basic C++ program was employed to import the lists of libraries needed by each ROOT class.

  16. Infrared-assisted on-plate proteolysis for MALDI-TOF-MS peptide mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Bao, Huimin; Zhang, Luyan; Yang, Pengyuan; Chen, Gang

    2008-07-15

    In this report, infrared (IR)-assisted on-plate proteolysis has been developed for rapid peptide mapping. Protein solutions containing trypsin were allowed to digest directly on the spots of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) plates under IR radiation. The feasibility and performance of the novel proteolysis approach were investigated by the digestion of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cytochrome c (Cyt-c). It was demonstrated that IR radiation substantially enhanced the efficiency of proteolysis and the digestion time was significantly reduced to 5 min. The digests were identified by MALDI time-of-flight mass spectrometry with sequence coverages of 55 (BSA) and 75% (Cyt-c) that were comparable to those obtained by using conventional in-solution tryptic digestion. The suitability of IR-assisted on-plate proteolysis to complex proteins was demonstrated by digesting human serum and casein extracted from commercially available milk sample. The present proteolysis strategy is simple and efficient, offering great promise for high-throughput protein identification.

  17. Pixelated neutron image plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapp, M.; Conrad, H.; von Seggern, H.

    2004-09-01

    Neutron image plates (NIPs) have found widespread application as neutron detectors for single-crystal and powder diffraction, small-angle scattering and tomography. After neutron exposure, the image plate can be read out by scanning with a laser. Commercially available NIPs consist of a powder mixture of BaFBr : Eu2+ and Gd2O3 dispersed in a polymer matrix and supported by a flexible polymer sheet. Since BaFBr : Eu2+ is an excellent x-ray storage phosphor, these NIPs are particularly sensitive to ggr-radiation, which is always present as a background radiation in neutron experiments. In this work we present results on NIPs consisting of KCl : Eu2+ and LiF that were fabricated into ceramic image plates in which the alkali halides act as a self-supporting matrix without the necessity for using a polymeric binder. An advantage of this type of NIP is the significantly reduced ggr-sensitivity. However, the much lower neutron absorption cross section of LiF compared with Gd2O3 demands a thicker image plate for obtaining comparable neutron absorption. The greater thickness of the NIP inevitably leads to a loss in spatial resolution of the image plate. However, this reduction in resolution can be restricted by a novel image plate concept in which a ceramic structure with square cells (referred to as a 'honeycomb') is embedded in the NIP, resulting in a pixelated image plate. In such a NIP the read-out light is confined to the particular illuminated pixel, decoupling the spatial resolution from the optical properties of the image plate material and morphology. In this work, a comparison of experimentally determined and simulated spatial resolutions of pixelated and unstructured image plates for a fixed read-out laser intensity is presented, as well as simulations of the properties of these NIPs at higher laser powers.

  18. Testing in Literature. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    Pointing out that student testing in literature should take into account each school's philosophy concerning the literature curriculum, this digest explores the broad domain of literature study and looks at specific objectives and outcomes in literature testing. The digest discusses answers to the following questions: (1) Where are the broad…

  19. Anaerobic digestion of solid material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavilin, V.A.; Lokshina, L.Y.; Flotats, X.

    2007-01-01

    A new multidimensional (3 and 2D) anaerobic digestion model for cylindrical reactor with non-uniform influent concentration distributions was developed to study the way in which mixing intensity affects the efficiency of continuous-flow anaerobic digestion. Batch experiments reported and simulate...

  20. Plate removal following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mhairi; Langford, Richard Julian; Bhanji, Adam; Farr, David

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the removal rates of orthognathic plates used during orthognathic surgery at James Cook University Hospital and describe the reasons for plate removal. 202 consecutive orthognathic cases were identified between July 2004 and July 2012. Demographics and procedure details were collected for these patients. Patients from this group who returned to theatre for plate removal between July 2004 and November 2012 were identified and their notes were analysed for data including reason for plate removal, age, smoking status, sex and time to plate removal. 3.2% of plates were removed with proportionally more plates removed from the mandible than the maxilla. 10.4% of patients required removal of one or more plate. Most plates were removed within the first post-operative year. The commonest reasons for plate removal were plate exposure and infection. The plate removal rates in our study are comparable to those seen in the literature.

  1. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  2. Plating in Top Agar

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    1. Warm plates to room temperature before use. Cold plates causes the top agar to solidify irregularly. DO not warm plates to 37° as the top agar will take forever to solidify. - Prepare top agar as the appropriate liquid medium with 0.7% agar. Keeping 100 mL bottles is convenient. For phages, use λ top agar, which is less rich and yields bigger plaques. - Melt top agar in the microwave completely. Allow the agar to boil after liquification; incompletely melted agar looks liquid, but is...

  3. Foaming in manure based digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occurred in the Danish full-scale biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. The foam is typically formatted in the main biogas reactor or in the pre-storage tank and the entrapped solids in the foam...... cause severe operational problems, such as blockage of mixing devices, and collapse of pumps. Furthermore, the foaming problem is linked with economic consequences for biogas plants, due to income losses derived from the reduced biogas production, extra labour work and additional maintenance costs....... Moreover, foaming presents adverse environmental impacts owing to the overflowing of the pre-storage or digester tanks. So far, there has never been thoroughly investigation of foaming problem in manure-based digester, which is the main anaerobic digestion applied in Denmark. The purpose of the present...

  4. 颈椎管成形微钛板固定与椎板切除内固定后C5神经根麻痹的比较%Comparison of C5 nerve root palsy after laminoplasty with mini-titanium plate fixation and laminectomy with internal fixation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯大鹏; 许卫兵; 赵智; 袁亮; 李光灿; 南丰; 李正维

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Laminoplasty and laminectomy are the most commonly used treatment methods for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy, which is more common in elderly patients. C5 nerve root palsy is the common postoprative complication after posterior cervical repair. OBJECTIVE:To compare the incidence of C5 nerve root palsy after laminoplasty with mini-titanium plate fixation and laminectomy with internal fixation in repair of multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy. METHODS:Total y 134 patients with multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy from August 2010 to December 2014 were enrol ed, and then divided into laminoplasty group (n=45) and laminectomy group (n=89) owing to different ways of repair. Patients in the laminoplasty group were treated with laminoplasty with mini-titanium plate fixation, and patients in the laminectomy group were treated with laminectomy with internal fixation. C5 nerve root palsy condition after repair was recorded and evaluated. The cervical lordosis angle (Cobb angle) and cervical curvature index were compared. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association score was used for neurological assessment. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Al patients in both groups were fol owed up for more than 6 months. There were no significant differences in cervical lordotic angle and cervical curvature index at the first week before and after the treatment between these two groups (P>0.05). The Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores of patients after 6 months of treatment were significantly improved compared with that before treatment in these two groups (P  目的:比较颈椎管成形微钛板固定与椎板切除内固定修复多节段脊髓型颈椎病后C5神经根麻痹的发生率。方法:2010年8月至2014年12月纳入多节段脊髓型颈椎病患者134例,因修复方式不同分为两组,椎管成形组45例接受颈椎管成形微钛板固定,颈板切除组89例接受椎板切除内固定。记录并评估修复后C5神经根麻痹情

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger portions of non-starchy vegetables and a ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... 4/Box) Taking the guesswork out of portion control has never been easier. It can be a ...

  7. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  8. MyPlate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our stage of life, situations, preferences, access to food, culture, traditions, and the personal decisions we make over time. All your food and beverage choices count. MyPlate offers ideas and ...

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... you have an easy portion control solution that works. Last Reviewed: October 8, 2015 Last Edited: September ...

  10. Designing Assemblies Of Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, F. W.; Kennedy, D.; Butler, R.; Aston, G.; Anderson, M. S.

    1992-01-01

    VICONOPT calculates vibrations and instabilities of assemblies of prismatic plates. Designed for efficient, accurate analysis of buckling and vibration, and for optimum design of panels of composite materials. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables ...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning ... serving of dairy or both as your meal plan allows. Choose healthy fats in small amounts. For ...

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle ... manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ...

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ... been easier. It can be a challenge to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best- ...

  15. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic ... to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ...

  17. Assessing the agricultural reuse of the digestate from microalgae anaerobic digestion and co-digestion with sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé-Bundó, Maria; Cucina, Mirko; Folch, Montserrat; Tàpias, Josefina; Gigliotti, Giovanni; Garfí, Marianna; Ferrer, Ivet

    2017-05-15

    Microalgae anaerobic digestion produces biogas along with a digestate that may be reused in agriculture. However, the properties of this digestate for agricultural reuse have yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to characterise digestates from different microalgae anaerobic digestion processes (i.e. digestion of untreated microalgae, thermally pretreated microalgae and thermally pretreated microalgae in co-digestion with primary sludge). The main parameters evaluated were organic matter, macronutrients and heavy metals content, hygenisation, potential phytotoxicity and organic matter stabilisation. According to the results, all microalgae digestates presented suitable organic matter and macronutrients, especially organic and ammonium nitrogen, for agricultural soils amendment. However, the thermally pretreated microalgae digestate was the least stabilised digestate in comparison with untreated microalgae and co-digestion digestates. In vivo bioassays demonstrated that the digestates did not show residual phytotoxicity when properly diluted, being the co-digestion digestate the one which presented less phytotoxicity. Heavy metals contents resulted far below the threshold established by the European legislation on sludge spreading. Moreover, low presence of E. coli was observed in all digestates. Therefore, agricultural reuse of thermally pretreated microalgae and primary sludge co-digestate through irrigation emerges a suitable strategy to recycle nutrients from wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Origami - Folded Plate Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Buri, Hans Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates new methods of designing folded plate structures that can be built with cross-laminated timber panels. Folded plate structures are attractive to both architects and engineers for their structural, spatial, and plastic qualities. Thin surfaces can be stiffened by a series of folds, and thus not only cover space, but also act as load bearing elements. The variation of light and shadow along the folded faces emphasizes the plas...

  19. Fractal multifiber microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Lee M.; Feller, W. B.; Kenter, Almus T.; Chappell, Jon H.

    1992-01-01

    The construction and performance of microchannel plates (MCPs) made using fractal tiling mehtods are reviewed. MCPs with 40 mm active areas having near-perfect channel ordering were produced. These plates demonstrated electrical performance characteristics equivalent to conventionally constructed MCPs. These apparently are the first MCPs which have a sufficiently high degree of order to permit single channel addressability. Potential applications for these devices and the prospects for further development are discussed.

  20. Comparing root architectural models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Javaux, Mathieu; Vanderborght, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Plant roots play an important role in several soil processes (Gregory 2006). Root architecture development determines the sites in soil where roots provide input of carbon and energy and take up water and solutes. However, root architecture is difficult to determine experimentally when grown in opaque soil. Thus, root architectural models have been widely used and been further developed into functional-structural models that are able to simulate the fate of water and solutes in the soil-root system (Dunbabin et al. 2013). Still, a systematic comparison of the different root architectural models is missing. In this work, we focus on discrete root architecture models where roots are described by connected line segments. These models differ (a) in their model concepts, such as the description of distance between branches based on a prescribed distance (inter-nodal distance) or based on a prescribed time interval. Furthermore, these models differ (b) in the implementation of the same concept, such as the time step size, the spatial discretization along the root axes or the way stochasticity of parameters such as root growth direction, growth rate, branch spacing, branching angles are treated. Based on the example of two such different root models, the root growth module of R-SWMS and RootBox, we show the impact of these differences on simulated root architecture and aggregated information computed from this detailed simulation results, taking into account the stochastic nature of those models. References Dunbabin, V.M., Postma, J.A., Schnepf, A., Pagès, L., Javaux, M., Wu, L., Leitner, D., Chen, Y.L., Rengel, Z., Diggle, A.J. Modelling root-soil interactions using three-dimensional models of root growth, architecture and function (2013) Plant and Soil, 372 (1-2), pp. 93 - 124. Gregory (2006) Roots, rhizosphere and soil: the route to a better understanding of soil science? European Journal of Soil Science 57: 2-12.

  1. Immobilization of trypsin on water-soluble dendrimer-modified carbon nanotubes for on-plate proteolysis combined with MALDI-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Cao, Weiman; Liu, Minbo; Yang, Shiping; Wu, Huixia; Lu, Haojie; Yang, Pengyuan

    2010-08-01

    A novel on-plate digestion method combined with MALDI-MS analysis is reported, using trypsin-linked dendrimer-modified carbon nanotubes (dCNTs) as the enzyme immobilization probe. Excellent digestion performance was achieved in a short time without any complicated reduction and alkylation procedures.

  2. Vibration and Buckling of Web Plate of the Plate Girder

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 和雄; 呉, 明強; 中澤, 聡志; 筑紫, 宏之

    1998-01-01

    The vibration and buckling of the web of the plate girder are studied in this paper. The small deflection theory of the thin plate is used. The finite strip method is employed to solve vibration and buckling of the plate girder. Natural frequenies of buckling properties are shown for various plate girder bridges.

  3. Analysis of digester design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashare, E.; Wilson, E. H.

    1979-01-29

    Engineering economic analyses were performed on various digester design concepts to determine the relative performance for various biomass feedstocks. A comprehensive literature survey describing the state-of-the-art of the various digestion designs is included. The digester designs included in the analyses are CSTR, plug flow, batch, CSTR in series, multi-stage digestion and biomethanation. Other process options investigated included pretreatment processes such as shredding, degritting, and chemical pretreatment, and post-digestion processes, such as dewatering and gas purification. The biomass sources considered include feedlot manure, rice straw, and bagasse. The results of the analysis indicate that the most economical (on a unit gas cost basis) digester design concept is the plug flow reactor. This conclusion results from this system providing a high gas production rate combined with a low capital hole-in-the-ground digester design concept. The costs determined in this analysis do not include any credits or penalties for feedstock or by-products, but present the costs only for conversion of biomass to methane. The batch land-fill type digester design was shown to have a unit gas cost comparable to that for a conventional stirred tank digester, with the potential of reducing the cost if a land-fill site were available for a lower cost per unit volume. The use of chemical pretreatment resulted in a higher unit gas cost, primarily due to the cost of pretreatment chemical. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the use of chemical pretreatment could improve the economics provided a process could be developed which utilized either less pretreatment chemical or a less costly chemical. The use of other process options resulted in higher unit gas costs. These options should only be used when necessary for proper process performance, or to result in production of a valuable by-product.

  4. The Root Pressure Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    Describes experiments demonstrating that root pressure in plants is probably controlled by a circadian rhythm (biological clock). Root pressure phenomenon plays significant part in water transport in contradiction with prevalent belief. (PS)

  5. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  6. Implementing Livestock Anaerobic Digestion Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page provides information to help make an informed decision about installing an anaerobic digester. Is it a good match for a farm’s organic waste, project financing, development guidelines and permit requirements?

  7. The Root Canal Biofilm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der L.W.M.; Boutsioukis, C.; Jiang, L.M.; Macedo, R.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; Chávez de Paz, E.; Sedgley, C.M.; Kishen, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  8. WHY ROOTING FAILS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ,M.

    2007-07-30

    I explore the origins of the unphysical predictions from rooted staggered fermion algorithms. Before rooting, the exact chiral symmetry of staggered fermions is a flavored symmetry among the four 'tastes.' The rooting procedure averages over tastes of different chiralities. This averaging forbids the appearance of the correct 't Hooft vertex for the target theory.

  9. Root canal irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van der Sluis; C. Boutsioukis; L.M. Jiang; R. Macedo; B. Verhaagen; M. Versluis

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  10. Rooting gene trees without outgroups: EP rooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsheimer, Janet S; Little, Roderick J A; Lake, James A

    2012-01-01

    Gene sequences are routinely used to determine the topologies of unrooted phylogenetic trees, but many of the most important questions in evolution require knowing both the topologies and the roots of trees. However, general algorithms for calculating rooted trees from gene and genomic sequences in the absence of gene paralogs are few. Using the principles of evolutionary parsimony (EP) (Lake JA. 1987a. A rate-independent technique for analysis of nucleic acid sequences: evolutionary parsimony. Mol Biol Evol. 4:167-181) and its extensions (Cavender, J. 1989. Mechanized derivation of linear invariants. Mol Biol Evol. 6:301-316; Nguyen T, Speed TP. 1992. A derivation of all linear invariants for a nonbalanced transversion model. J Mol Evol. 35:60-76), we explicitly enumerate all linear invariants that solely contain rooting information and derive algorithms for rooting gene trees directly from gene and genomic sequences. These new EP linear rooting invariants allow one to determine rooted trees, even in the complete absence of outgroups and gene paralogs. EP rooting invariants are explicitly derived for three taxon trees, and rules for their extension to four or more taxa are provided. The method is demonstrated using 18S ribosomal DNA to illustrate how the new animal phylogeny (Aguinaldo AMA et al. 1997. Evidence for a clade of nematodes, arthropods, and other moulting animals. Nature 387:489-493; Lake JA. 1990. Origin of the metazoa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:763-766) may be rooted directly from sequences, even when they are short and paralogs are unavailable. These results are consistent with the current root (Philippe H et al. 2011. Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella. Nature 470:255-260).

  11. Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1990-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the commission. This is an annual publication for the general use of the NRC Staff and is available to the public. The digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide.

  12. Anterior cervical plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonugunta V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anterior cervical instrumentation was initially used in cervical trauma, because of obvious benefits, indications for its use have been expanded over time to degenerative cases as well as tumor and infection of the cervical spine. Along with a threefold increase in incidence of cervical fusion surgery, implant designs have evolved over the last three decades. Observation of graft subsidence and phenomenon of stress shielding led to the development of the new generation dynamic anterior cervical plating systems. Anterior cervical plating does not conclusively improve clinical outcome of the patients, but certainly enhances the efficacy of autograft and allograft fusion and lessens the rate of pseudoarthrosis and kyphosis after multilevel discectomy and fusions. A review of biomechanics, surgical technique, indications, complications and results of various anterior cervical plating systems is presented here to enable clinicians to select the appropriate construct design.

  13. Starch digestion capacity of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svihus, B

    2014-09-01

    Starch is quantitatively the most important nutrient in poultry diets and will to a large extent be present as intact starch granules due to very limited extent of gelatinization during pelleting. Although native starch is difficult to digest due to a semi-crystalline structure, even fast-growing broiler chickens appears to be able to digest this starch more or less completely during passage through the jejunum. However, reduced starch digestibility has been observed, particularly in pelleted diets containing large quantities of wheat. Although properties of the starch granule such as size and components on the granule surface may affect digestibility, the entrapment of starch granules in cell walls and a protein matrix may be even more important factors impeding starch digestion. In that case, this and the fact that amylase secretion is normally very high in poultry may explain the lack of convincing effects of exogenous α-amylase added to the diet. However, few well-designed experiments assessing mechanisms of starch digestion and the effect of α-amylase supplementation have been carried out, and thus more research is needed in this important area.

  14. Comprehensive utilization of digested residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reizhi Shen [Soil and Fertilizer Inst. of Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences (China)

    2000-07-01

    The application history of biogas technology in China covers almost one century. Until the 1980's, people's attention not only focused on the benefit of biogas as people's daily fuel, but also on the comprehensive utilization of digested residues. People are more and more interested in these methods of comprehensive utilization, which has led to many research projects on, among others, ''digested effluent as feed additive for pigs'', ''digested sludge for growing mushroom'', and ''digested effluent as pesticide''. Not only are biogas fermentation, organic waste such as animal manure, crop straw, distillery wastewater and the wastewater from slaughter houses converted to biogas, but also digested residues are very useful with a lot of ''potential value'' and ''special functions'', which will bring far more benefits than biogas alone. Some progress on the comprehensive utilization of digested residues in the past ten years is summarized below. (orig.)

  15. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed.

  16. License plate detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, Michael; Klopovsky, Yuri; Silinskis, Normunds

    2013-12-01

    A novel algorithm for vehicle license plates localization is proposed. The algorithm is based on pixel intensity transition gradient analysis. Near to 2500 natural-scene gray-level vehicle images of different backgrounds and ambient illumination was tested. The best set of algorithm's parameters produces detection rate up to 0.94. Taking into account abnormal camera location during our tests and therefore geometrical distortion and troubles from trees this result could be considered as passable. Correlation between source data, such as license Plate dimensions and texture, cameras location and others, and parameters of algorithm were also defined.

  17. Casimir force between metal plate and dielectric plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中柱; 邵成刚; 罗俊

    1999-01-01

    The Casimir effect between metal plate and dielectric plate is discussed with 1+1-dimensional potential model without using cut-off method. Calculation shows that the Casimir force between metal plate and dielectric plate is determined not only by the potential V0, the dielectric thickness and the distance α between the metal plate and dielectric plate, but also by the dimension of the vessel. When α is far less than the dimension of the vessel, the Casimir force Fc∝α(-1); conversely Fc∝α-2. This result is significant for Casimir force experiment.

  18. Effects of biogas digestate on soil properties and plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyás, Miklós; Füleky, György

    2013-04-01

    Farming methods and food industries generate large amounts manure and other useful raw materials that need safe disposal. Following the international trends great numbers of biogas plants were opened during the last few years in Hungary. However this issue presents a number of new questions, including the subsequent use of anaerobic fermentation residues. So far we have only limited information about it's agricultural applications. Farmers and authorities are very skeptic because feedstocks are very different so the endproduct will be different, too. However, this endproduct can be applied as fertilizer. The aim of our work is to determine the effects of this product in plant-soil system. Digestate contains high amount of nitrogen which is present mainly ammonium form and this form can cause root depression and lower germination rates. Pot experiments were established with different rates of nitrogen content (80 kg ha-1N, 120 kg ha-1N, 170 kg ha-1N, and control). Maximum rates were determine by the Nitrate Directive. Soil moisture was 60% of maximum of water capacity. Digestate and distilled water were homogenized and added to 200g loamy soil. Rye-grass (Lolium perenne) was applied as a test plant. Treatments were randomized design and 10 replications. Three pot from each treatment were used to observe the germination and progress of plants. We investigated the effect of the digestate on nitrate- and ammonium-ion content of soil. The amount of nitrate- and ammonium-N of soil was determine with distillation. The ammonium-N levels increased with the doses on the first day but on the sixth-seventh day this amount totally falled down, because NH4-N transformed to NO3-N. Nitrate level increased continuously untill the tenth day, later decreased as the result of the plant and microbes consumption. The increasing doses inhibited the germination and root development of the plants. We experienced fewer roots, which were different form control.

  19. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R

    2014-01-28

    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  20. Anaerobic digestion and co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Castellucci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energy is becoming increasingly necessary in order to address the global warming problem and, as a consequence, has become an high priority for many countries. Biomass is a clean and renewable energy source with growing potential to replace conventional fossil fuels. Among biomass, residual and waste ones represent a great resource for energy generation since they permit both to eliminate a possible waste and to produce energy. In the present work, the case of slaughterhouse wastes (SHWs has been investigated. Anaerobic digestion is nowadays considered as one of the most important and sustainable conversion technology exploiting organic matter and biodegradable wastes. Biogas results from this bio-chemical process and mainly consists of methane and carbon dioxide, leading to produce thermal energy and/or electricity. In this paper, the European Regulations on animal by-products (ABPs are described, and some previous study on anaerobic digestion and co-digestion of ABPs - more precisely SHWs - are considered and compared in order to fix a starting point for future tests on their co-digestion in a micro-scale pilot digester. This is to define optimal feed ratio values which ensure an increasing content of methane in the outgoing biogas.

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ... year of delicious meals to help prevent and manage diabetes. Healthy Recipes: ... to your day with this guide. Ways to Give: Wear Your Cause on Your Sleeve - ...

  3. The Plate Tectonics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2011-01-01

    The Plate Tectonics Project is a multiday, inquiry-based unit that facilitates students as self-motivated learners. Reliable Web sites are offered to assist with lessons, and a summative rubric is used to facilitate the holistic nature of the project. After each topic (parts of the Earth, continental drift, etc.) is covered, the students will…

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... unsweetened tea or coffee. Featured Product Precise Portions® Go Healthy Travel Pack (4/Box) Taking the guesswork ... you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing lid is offered in ...

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing lid is offered in a 4-pack. Whether ... Research & Practice We Are Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor ...

  9. INL HIP Plate Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. H. Park; C. R. Clark; J. F. Jue

    2010-02-01

    This document outlines the process used to bond monolithic fuel plates by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). This method was developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. These foils have been used in a number of irradiation experiments in support of the United States Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program.

  10. The Plate Tectonics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2011-01-01

    The Plate Tectonics Project is a multiday, inquiry-based unit that facilitates students as self-motivated learners. Reliable Web sites are offered to assist with lessons, and a summative rubric is used to facilitate the holistic nature of the project. After each topic (parts of the Earth, continental drift, etc.) is covered, the students will…

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create ... somewhere in between, you have an easy portion control solution that works. Last Reviewed: October 8, 2015 Last Edited: ... Cost of Diabetes Advocate Toolkit Call to Congress Research & ...

  12. Immobilization of trypsin on graphene oxide for microwave-assisted on-plate proteolysis combined with MALDI-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guobin; Chen, Xiaoyi; Hu, Jianhua; Yang, Pengyuan; Yang, Dong; Wei, Liming

    2012-06-21

    With an ultra-high surface area and abundant functional groups, graphene oxide (GO) provides an ideal substrate for the immobilization of trypsin. We demonstrated that trypsin could be immobilized on GO sheets assisted by polymers as molecular spacers to maintain the activity of the enzyme. And with the trypsin-linked GO as the enzyme immobilization probe, a novel microwave-assisted on-plate digestion method has been developed with subsequent analysis by MALDI-MS. The feasibility and performance of the digestion approach were demonstrated by the proteolysis of standard proteins. The results show that this novel approach substantially accelerated proteolysis and reduced the time required for traditional procedures involving on-plate enzymatic digestion and sample preparation prior to MALDI-MS analysis. The novel digestion approach is simple and efficient, offering great promise for high throughput protein identification.

  13. The Distribution of Macro- and Micronutrients in Maize Within Separated Digestate Fertilizing (Digestate Fibre and Digestate Luquor: Field Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodymová Jana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with the current increase in the number of biogas plants, huge amounts of digestate, i.e. waste products, are being generated. The common practice in the Czech Republic is to plough the digestate into the land. In our field trial, we compared the fertilizing effects of standard fertilizers applied in the Czech Republic with digestate as the only fertilizer (e.g. digestate fibre and digestate liquor in real agricultural conditions to find out whether a comparable amount of nitrogen is used in accordance with European legislation. The impact of separated digestate fibre and separated liquor on the soil fertility and quality was observed on the basis of the distribution of macro- and micronutrients in maize. The evaluation of growth increments in maize suggests that the fertilizing effects of digestate liquor or digestate fibre do not match the standard fertilizer in agriculture, but especially digestate liquor is comparable with other mineral fertilizers. Our field trial also shows that digestate liquor is a better fertilizer than digestate fibre, which may be explained by more appropriate ratios of available nutrients in digestate liquor. Digestate fibre may be recommended mainly for the aeration of clayey soil, but is not sustainable as fertilizer.

  14. Plasticity of the Arabidopsis root system under nutrient deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Benjamin D; Giehl, Ricardo F H; Friedel, Swetlana; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2013-09-01

    Plant roots show a particularly high variation in their morphological response to different nutrient deficiencies. Although such changes often determine the nutrient efficiency or stress tolerance of plants, it is surprising that a comprehensive and comparative analysis of root morphological responses to different nutrient deficiencies has not yet been conducted. Since one reason for this is an inherent difficulty in obtaining nutrient-deficient conditions in agar culture, we first identified conditions appropriate for producing nutrient-deficient plants on agar plates. Based on a careful selection of agar specifically for each nutrient being considered, we grew Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants at four levels of deficiency for 12 nutrients and quantified seven root traits. In combination with measurements of biomass and elemental concentrations, we observed that the nutritional status and type of nutrient determined the extent and type of changes in root system architecture (RSA). The independent regulation of individual root traits further pointed to a differential sensitivity of root tissues to nutrient limitations. To capture the variation in RSA under different nutrient supplies, we used principal component analysis and developed a root plasticity chart representing the overall modulations in RSA under a given treatment. This systematic comparison of RSA responses to nutrient deficiencies provides a comprehensive view of the overall changes in root plasticity induced by the deficiency of single nutrients and provides a solid basis for the identification of nutrient-sensitive steps in the root developmental program.

  15. Apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment -- a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apajalahti, Satu; Peltola, Jaakko Sakari

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the incidence and severity of apical root resorption in patients treated with different orthodontic appliances and to evaluate the effect of treatment duration on the degree of apical root resorption. A further aim was to analyse the degree of apical root resorption in different tooth groups in patients presenting with root resorption. The sample consisted of 625 patients (269 males, 356 females) aged 8-16 years at the beginning of treatment. Active removable plates and fixed appliances were used most frequently. Following exclusion of poor quality radiographs, the final sample included 601 patients (348 females, 253 males). Root resorption in all tooth groups, except third molars, was evaluated from pre- and post-treatment panoramic radiographs. The correlation of root resorption with treatment modality and duration was studied using multinomial logistic regression analysis. Of the tooth groups, maxillary incisors showed apical root resorption most frequently, followed by the mandibular incisors. Root resorption was significantly correlated with fixed appliance treatment (P resorption. The mean duration of treatment in patients without root resorption was 1.5 years, whereas in those with severe resorption was 2.3 years. The most severe resorption was seen in the maxillary incisors and premolars. It is concluded that with a long duration of fixed appliance treatment, the risk of severe resorption increases. In patients where treatment is prolonged, a 6-month radiographic follow-up is recommended.

  16. Root canal irrigants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-10-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were 'root canal irrigants' and 'endodontic irrigants.' The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance.

  17. A simple and cost-effective method for cable root detection and extension measurement in estuary wetland forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vovides, Alejandra G.; Marín-Castro, Beatriz; Barradas, Guadalupe; Berger, Uta; López-Portillo, Jorge

    2016-12-01

    This work presents the development of a low-cost method to measure the length cable roots of black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) trees to define the boundaries of central part of the anchoring root system (CPRS) without the need to fully expose root systems. The method was tested to locate and measure the length shallow woody root systems. An ultrasonic Doppler fetal monitor (UD) and a stock of steel rods (SR) were used to probe root locations without removing sediments from the surface, measure their length and estimate root-soil plate dimensions. The method was validated by comparing measurements with root lengths taken through direct measurement of excavated cable roots and from root-soil plate radii (exposed root-soil material when a tree tips over) of five up-rooted trees with stem diameters (D130) ranging between 10 and 50 cm. The mean CPRS radius estimated with the use of the Doppler was directly correlated with tree stem diameter and was not significantly different from the root-soil plate mean radius measured from up-rooted trees or from CPRS approximated by digging trenches. Our method proved to be effective and reliable in following cable roots for large amounts of trees of both black and white mangrove trees. In a period of 40 days of work, three people were capable of measuring 648 roots belonging to 81 trees, out of which 37% were found grafted to other tree roots. This simple method can be helpful in following shallow root systems with minimal impact and help map root connection networks of grafted trees.

  18. MyPlate Food Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness MyPlate Food Guide KidsHealth > For Teens > MyPlate Food Guide Print ... other sugary drinks. Avoid oversized portions. continue Five Food Groups Different food groups meet different nutrition needs. ...

  19. What Are Growth Plate Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plate injuries are:  Falling down  Competitive sports (like football)  Recreational activities. Other reasons for growth plate injuries are:  Child abuse  Injury from extreme cold (for ...

  20. Conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atila Yılmaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are a rare group ofcongenital anatomical anomalies. Various types of anomaliesof the lumbosacral nerve roots have been documentedin the available international literature. Ttheseanomalies may consist of a bifid, conjoined structure, ofa transverse course or of a characteristic anastomizedappearance. Firstly described as an incidental findingduring autopsies or surgical procedures performed forlumbar disk herniations and often asymptomatic, lumbosacralnerve root anomalies have been more frequentlydescribed in the last years due to the advances made inradiological diagnosis.

  1. Controlling Laminate Plate Elastic Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mareš, T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to express the relation of a measure of laminate plate stiffness with respect to the fiber orientation of its plies. The inverse of the scalar product of the lateral displacement of the central plane and lateral loading of the plate is the measure of laminate plate stiffness. In the case of a simply supported rectangular laminate plate this measure of stiffness is maximized, and the optimum orientation of its plies is searched.

  2. Microchannel plate streak camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching L.

    1989-01-01

    An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (UV to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1000 KeV x-rays.

  3. Digestible lysine requirements of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEP Bernal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern broilers have been submitted to continuous genetic improvement, and therefore, their nutritional requirements must be constantly updated to ensure their performance. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate different digestible lysine levels for starter (1021 days and grower (22-35 days phases. The experiments were carried out with male and female Cobb 500 broilers, distributed according to a randomized block experimental design in a 5x2 factorial arrangement (5 increasing digestible lysine levels x 2 sexes, totaling 10 treatments, with 8 replicates of 22 and 20 birds during the starter and grower phase, respectively. Digestible lysine levels of 1.06, 1.12, 1.18, 1.24, and 1.30 were used in the starter diets (10-21 days and 0.9, 0.98, 1.04, 1.10, and 1.16% in the grower diets (22-35 days. Based on the statistical analyses of the evaluated performance parameters, digestible lysine requirements for maximum performance were determined as 1.22% for males and 1.24% for females in the starter phase, and 1.16% for both sexes in the grower phase. Carcass and performance results indicate that digestible lysine requirements vary with sex and evaluated production parameter. Considering the most relevant broiler production parameters, in 22- to 35-d-old males, digestible lysine requirement for breast meat yield (1.16% was higher than those for feed conversion ratio (1.07% and weight gain (1.05%.

  4. Electronic Equipment Cold Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    equations for such a flow regiae. For laainar flow and Moderate teaperature differwwe« between the well «nd coolant, a aodifled Sieder -Tate...con- figuration. The heat-transfer coefficients, therefore, were determined by using both the Sieder -Tate and McAdams equations and the coaputed...values used In the analytical predictions. As with th* previous cold Plates, the Sieder -Tate equation gave too low of values for the heat- transfer

  5. Elastic plate spallation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oline, L.; Medaglia, J.

    1972-01-01

    The dynamic finite element method was used to investigate elastic stress waves in a plate. Strain displacement and stress strain relations are discussed along with the stiffness and mass matrix. The results of studying point load, and distributed load over small, intermediate, and large radii are reported. The derivation of finite element matrices, and the derivation of lumped and consistent matrices for one dimensional problems with Laplace transfer solutions are included. The computer program JMMSPALL is also included.

  6. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisaton of the damage, which...

  7. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1998-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisation of the damage, which...

  8. Economic strategies of plant absorptive roots vary with root diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, D. L.; Wang, J. J.; Kardol, P.; Wu, H. F.; Zeng, H.; Deng, X. B.; Deng, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Plant roots typically vary along a dominant ecological axis, the root economics spectrum, depicting a tradeoff between resource acquisition and conservation. For absorptive roots, which are mainly responsible for resource acquisition, we hypothesized that root economic strategies differ with increasing root diameter. To test this hypothesis, we used seven plant species (a fern, a conifer, and five angiosperms from south China) for which we separated absorptive roots into two categories: thin roots (thickness of root cortex plus epidermis perspective on our understanding of the root economics spectrum.

  9. The Cell Cycle: An Activity Using Paper Plates to Represent Time Spent in Phases of the Cell Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Yvette D.

    2014-01-01

    In this activity, students are given the opportunity to combine skills in math and geometry for a biology lesson in the cell cycle. Students utilize the data they collect and analyze from an online onion-root-tip activity to create a paper-plate time clock representing a 24-hour cell cycle. By dividing the paper plate into appropriate phases of…

  10. The Cell Cycle: An Activity Using Paper Plates to Represent Time Spent in Phases of the Cell Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Yvette D.

    2014-01-01

    In this activity, students are given the opportunity to combine skills in math and geometry for a biology lesson in the cell cycle. Students utilize the data they collect and analyze from an online onion-root-tip activity to create a paper-plate time clock representing a 24-hour cell cycle. By dividing the paper plate into appropriate phases of…

  11. Gravitational removal of volcanic arc roots in Cordilleran orogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, C. A.; Ducea, M. N.; DeCelles, P. G.; Beaumont, C.

    2013-12-01

    Cordilleran orogens, such as the central Andes, form above subduction zones and their evolution depends on processes associated with oceanic plate subduction and continental plate shortening. Such orogens are characterized by abundant arc volcanism and the formation of thick (>30 km) granitoid batholiths. The magma composition is consistent with a multi-stage model, in which parental mantle-derived basaltic magmas stagnate within the continental lithosphere and then undergo differentiation. Felsic partial melts rise through the crust, leaving a high-density garnet pyroxenite root in the deep lithosphere. Here, we study the dynamics of gravitational removal of this root using regional two-dimensional thermal-mechanical models of subduction below a continent. In the models, the volcanic arc location is determined dynamically based on subduction zone thermal structure, and formation of the batholith-root complex is simulated by changing the density of the volcanic arc lithosphere over time. For the lithosphere structure used in our models, arc roots that undergo even a small density increase are readily removed through gravitational foundering for a wide range of root strengths and subduction rates. The dynamics of removal depend on the relative rates of downward gravitational growth and horizontal shearing by subduction-induced mantle flow. Gravitational growth dominates for high root densification rates, high root viscosities and low subduction rates, leading to drip-like removal of the root as a single downwelling over 1-3 Myr. At lower growth rates, the root is removed over ~6 Myr through shear entrainment, as it is carried sideways by mantle flow and then subducted on top of the oceanic plate. In all models, >80% of the root is removed, making this an effective way to thin mantle lithosphere in the volcanic arc region. This can help resolve the mass problem in the central Andes, where observations indicate a thin mantle lithosphere, despite significant crustal

  12. Your Digestive System and How It Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the GI tract, also called gut flora or microbiome, help with digestion. Parts of the nervous and circulatory systems also play roles in the digestive process. Together, a combination of nerves, hormones, bacteria, blood, and the organs ...

  13. Writing and Visualization for Teaching Plate Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S. F.

    2004-12-01

    The Theory of Plate Tectonics is probably the most important paradigm for understanding the workings of our planet. As such it is an integral part in any Introductory Geology course. Whereas geology majors usually easily embrace the Theory of Plate Tectonics, the enthusiasm for the coherence and elegance of this theory appears to be much more subdued among the majority of non-science majors. While visual and electronic media certainly support the teaching of the theory, pretty pictures and animations are not sufficient for many non-science majors to grasp the concepts of interacting lithospheric plates. It is well known that students do better in learning scientific concepts if they create their own understanding through research and inquiry-based learning, by working in the field, manipulating real earth-science data, and through writing. Writing assignments give instructors the opportunity to assess their students' learning and to clarify misconceptions yet they also have to be willing to teach students how to craft a science paper. Most electronic media and textbook-added CD-ROMs are not useful for making the structure of a science paper transparent. I found many of the necessary ingredients for effectively teaching plate tectonics in the interactive CD-ROM, "Our Dynamic Planet", developed by Wm. Prothero together with G. Kelly (University of California at Santa Barbara). It allows students to select and manipulate real earth-science data of plate-tectonically active regions, and provides an electronic interface that lets students create graphical representations of their collected data. A downloadable Teacher's Manual provides suggestions on teaching students to write a scientific argument, rooted in sound pedagogy. Originally designed for a large oceanography class, the material was modified for use in a small introductory geology class for non-science majors. Various assignments were given to instruct students in writing a scientific argument based on their

  14. Fungal root endophytes of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliam, Richard S; Jones, David L

    2010-06-01

    As carnivorous plants acquire substantial amounts of nutrients from the digestion of their prey, mycorrhizal associations are considered to be redundant; however, fungal root endophytes have rarely been examined. As endophytic fungi can have profound impacts on plant communities, we aim to determine the extent of fungal root colonisation of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia at two points in the growing season (spring and summer). We have used a culture-dependent method to isolate fungal endophytes and diagnostic polymerase chain reaction methods to determine arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonisation. All of the roots sampled contained culturable fungal root endophytes; additionally, we have provided molecular evidence that they also host arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Colonisation showed seasonal differences: Roots in the spring were colonised by Articulospora tetracladia, two isolates of uncultured ectomycorrhizal fungi, an unidentified species of fungal endophyte and Trichoderma viride, which was present in every plant sampled. In contrast, roots in the summer were colonised by Alatospora acuminata, an uncultured ectomycorrhizal fungus, Penicillium pinophilum and an uncultured fungal clone. Although the functional roles of fungal endophytes of D. rotundifolia are unknown, colonisation may (a) confer abiotic stress tolerance, (b) facilitate the acquisition of scarce nutrients particularly at the beginning of the growing season or (c) play a role in nutrient signalling between root and shoot.

  15. Magma genesis, plate tectonics, and chemical differentiation of the Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Wyllie, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Magma genesis, migration, and eruption have played prominent roles in the chemical differentiation of the Earth. Plate tectonics has provided the framework of tectonic environments for different suites of igneous rocks and the dynamic mechanisms for moving masses of rock into melting regions. Petrology is rooted in geophysics. Petrological and geophysical processes are calibrated by the phase equilibria of the materials. The geochemistry of basalts and mantle xenoliths demonstrates that the m...

  16. Plate tectonics conserves angular momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bowin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A new combined understanding of plate tectonics, Earth internal structure, and the role of impulse in deformation of the Earth's crust is presented. Plate accelerations and decelerations have been revealed by iterative filtering of the quaternion history for the Euler poles that define absolute plate motion history for the past 68 million years, and provide an unprecedented precision for plate angular rotation variations with time at 2-million year intervals. Stage poles represent the angular rotation of a plate's motion between adjacent Euler poles, and from which the maximum velocity vector for a plate can be determined. The consistent maximum velocity variations, in turn, yield consistent estimates of plate accelerations and decelerations. The fact that the Pacific plate was shown to accelerate and decelerate, implied that conservation of plate tectonic angular momentum must be globally conserved, and that is confirmed by the results shown here (total angular momentum ~1.4 E+27 kgm2s−1. Accordingly, if a plate decelerates, other plates must increase their angular momentums to compensate. In addition, the azimuth of the maximum velocity vectors yields clues as to why the "bend" in the Emperor-Hawaiian seamount trend occurred near 46 Myr. This report summarizes processing results for 12 of the 14 major tectonic plates of the Earth (except for the Juan de Fuca and Philippine plates. Plate accelerations support the contention that plate tectonics is a product of torques that most likely are sustained by the sinking of positive density anomalies due to phase changes in subducted gabbroic lithosphere at depth in the upper lower mantle (above 1200 km depth. The tectonic plates are pulled along by the sinking of these positive mass anomalies, rather than moving at near constant velocity on the crests of convection cells driven by rising heat. These results imply that spreading centers are primarily passive reactive

  17. Vehicle License Plate Recognition Syst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi,R. B. Dubey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle license plate recognition system has greater efficiency for vehicle monitoring in automatic zone access control. This Plate recognition system will avoid special tags, since all vehicles possess a unique registration number plate. A number of techniques have been used for car plate characters recognition. This system uses neural network character recognition and pattern matching of characters as two character recognition techniques. In this approach multilayer feed-forward back-propagation algorithm is used. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on several car plates and provides very satisfactory results.

  18. Screening of 18 species for digestate phytodepuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Francesca; Breschigliaro, Simone; Borin, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    This experiment assesses the aptitude of 18 species in treating the digestate liquid fraction (DLF) in a floating wetland treatment system. The pilot system was created in NE Italy in 2010 and consists of a surface-flow system with 180 floating elements (Tech-IA®) vegetated with ten halophytes and eight other wetland species. The species were transplanted in July 2011 in basins filled with different proportions of DLF/water (DLF/w); periodic increasing of the DLF/w ratio was imposed after transplanting, reaching the worst conditions for plants in summer 2012 (highest EC value 7.3 mS cm/L and NH4-N content 225 mg/L). It emerged that only Cynodon dactylon, Typha latifolia, Elytrigia atherica, Halimione portulacoides, Salicornia fruticosa, Artemisia caerulescens, Spartina maritima and Puccinellia palustris were able to survive under the system conditions. Halophytes showed higher dry matter production than other plants. The best root development (up to 40-cm depth) was recorded for Calamagrostis epigejos, Phragmites australis, T. latifolia and Juncus maritimus. The highest nitrogen (10-15 g/m(2)) and phosphorus (1-4 g/m(2)) uptakes were obtained with P. palustris, Iris pseudacorus and Aster tripolium. In conclusion, two halophytes, P. palustris and E. atherica, present the highest potential to be used to treat DLF in floating wetlands.

  19. Using plate mapping to examine portion size and plate composition for large and small divided plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, David E; Sobal, Jeffery; Wansink, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Does the size of a plate influence the serving of all items equally, or does it influence the serving of some foods - such as meat versus vegetables - differently? To examine this question, we used the new method of plate mapping, where people drew a meal on a paper plate to examine sensitivity to small versus large three-compartment divided plates in portion size and meal composition in a sample of 109 university students. The total drawn meal area was 37% bigger on large plates than small plates, which showed that the portion of plate coverage did not differ by plate size. Men and women drew bigger vegetable portions and men drew bigger meat portions on large plates when compared to small plates. These results suggest that men and women are differentially sensitive to plate size for overall meal size and for meal composition. Implications for decreasing portion size and improving meal balance are that plate size may influence portion size and change the proportions of foods served.

  20. The kinetics of proteinase K digestion of linear prion polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, J; Jansen, V A

    1999-09-22

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies such as scrapie are caused by a protein-only infectious agent, known as a prion. It is not clear how a protein can be capable of replicating itself, and the mechanism remains controversial. One influential model hypothesizes that prions are nucleated, macroscopically linear polymers. We investigated the theoretical kinetics of this model and derived predictions which could be used to test the model. In the model, the polymerization and depolymerization rates are independent polymer size. This leads to an exponential size distribution at equilibrium. In agreement with a prediction stemming from this size distribution, the average size of PrP-res polymers was proportional to the square root of the concentration of PrP-res in a published study of in vitro conversion. Prion digestion by proteinase K (PK) is predicted to be biphasic. The second phase of digestion should be virtually independent of the PK concentration and should depend on the initial size distribution of prion polymers. For initially equilibrated polymers with an exponential size distribution, phase two digestion is exponential at a predicted rate. This rate varies in a defined way with the concentration used for equilibration and with other parameters which affect the average polymer size.

  1. Digestion of carbohydrates in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drochner, W

    1993-01-01

    A review of carbohydrate digestion in the pig is given. The cascade of digestion in the mouth, stomach, small and large intestine is described. Principles of enzymatic and fermentative digestion according to new results with fistulated animals are discussed. The efficacy and quality of fermentation in the large intestine depending on level and quality of carbohydrates in the diet are demonstrated. Some aspects of energetical efficacy of hindgut digestion are discussed. Dietetic effects of carbohydrates are described.

  2. Transforming Principal Preparation. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    In the current climate of accountability, the responsibilities of principals have increased. The new role of principals requires new forms of training, and standards-based reform is generating major changes in principal-preparation programs. This digest examines some of those changes. First, it looks at the effectiveness of principal-preparation…

  3. Coaching for Tests. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemuth, Barbara

    The term "coaching" applies to a variety of types of test preparation programs which vary in length, instructional method, and content. Most research on the effectiveness of coaching has examined the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), a measure of academic abilities used to predict college performance. This ERIC Digest reviews studies of…

  4. Anaerobic Digestion of Piggery Waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velsen, van A.F.M.

    1981-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological process by which organic matter is converted to methane and carbon dioxide by microbes in the absence of air (oxygen). In nature, anaerobic conversions occur at all places where organic material accumulates and the supply of oxygen is deficient, e.g. in marshes an

  5. Single Sex Education. WEEA Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Diane S.

    Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in educational institutions that receive federal financial assistance. This digest focuses on the theme of single-sex education. Articles featured in this issue include: (1) "Single-Sex Education" (Diane S. Pollard); (2) "A Legal Framework for Single-Sex…

  6. Sludge Digestion Manual; Handboek Slibgisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    This manual offers a guideline for developing, designing, optimizing and operating sludge digestion installations based on sewage sludge. It also offers tools for solving operation problems [Dutch] Het Handboek is een leidraad voor het ontwikkelen, ontwerpen, optimaliseren en bedrijven van slibgistingsinstallaties voor zuiveringsslib. Ook geeft het handvatten voor het oplossen van operationele problemen.

  7. Smoking and Your Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the risk of H. pylori infection, slows the healing of peptic ulcers, and increases the likelihood that peptic ulcers will recur. The stomach and duodenum contain acids, enzymes, and other substances that help digest food. However, these substances may also harm the lining ...

  8. On Standardized Testing. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Vito

    This ERIC Digest was adapted from the Association for Childhood Education International's (ACEI) 1991 position paper on standardized testing. Since the publication of "A Nation at Risk" in 1983, standardized testing programs have expanded greatly. Tests may be of pencil-and-paper or performance-oriented varieties. The purposes of tests…

  9. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lier, J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2001-01-01

    The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern requireme...

  10. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, van J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, B.K.; Macarie, H.; Moletta, R.; Dohanyos, M.; Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Lens, P.N.L.; Verstraete, W.

    2001-01-01

    The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern

  11. Chromatic roots and hamiltonian paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2000-01-01

    We present a new connection between colorings and hamiltonian paths: If the chromatic polynomial of a graph has a noninteger root less than or equal to t(n) = 2/3 + 1/3 (3)root (26 + 6 root (33)) + 1/3 (3)root (26 - 6 root (33)) = 1.29559.... then the graph has no hamiltonian path. This result...

  12. Temperature field of steel plate cooling process after plate rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijun Feng, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on numerical calculation with Matlab, the study on cooling process after plate rolling is carried out, and the temperature field distribution of the plate varying with the time is obtained. The effects of the plate thickness, final rolling temperature, cooling water temperature, average flow rate of the cooling water, carbon content of the plate and cooling method on the plate surface and central temperatures as well as final cooling temperature are discussed. For the same cooling time, the plate surface and central temperatures as well as their temperature difference increase; with the decrease in rolling temperature and the increase in average flow rate of the cooling water, the plate surface and central temperatures decrease. Compared with the single water cooling process, the temperature difference between the plate centre and surface based on intermittent cooling is lower. In this case, the temperature uniformity of the plate is better, and the corresponding thermal stress is lower. The fitting equation of the final cooling temperature with respect to plate thickness, final rolling temperature, cooling water temperature and average flow rate of the cooling water is obtained.

  13. The harmonized INFOGEST in vitro digestion method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egger, Lotti; Ménard, Olivia; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Alvito, Paula; Assunção, Ricardo; Balance, Simon; Barberá, Reyes; Brodkorb, Andre; Cattenoz, Thomas; Clemente, Alfonso; Comi, Irene; Dupont, Didier; Garcia-Llatas, Guadalupe; Lagarda, María Jesús; Feunteun, Le Steven; Janssen Duijghuijsen, Lonneke; Karakaya, Sibel; Lesmes, Uri; Mackie, Alan R.; Martins, Carla; Meynier, Anne; Miralles, Beatriz; Murray, B.S.; Pihlanto, Anne; Picariello, Gianluca; Santos, C.N.; Simsek, Sebnem; Recio, Isidra; Rigby, Neil; Rioux, Laurie Eve; Stoffers, Helena; Tavares, Ana; Tavares, Lucelia; Turgeon, Sylvie; Ulleberg, E.K.; Vegarud, G.E.; Vergères, Guy; Portmann, Reto

    2016-01-01

    Within the active field of in vitro digestion in food research, the COST Action INFOGEST aimed to harmonize in vitro protocols simulating human digestion on the basis of physiologically inferred conditions. A harmonized static in vitro digestion (IVD) method was recently published as a primary

  14. Testing low cost anaerobic digestion (AD) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale (FS) digesters near the original dairy manure digester. The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid ...

  15. Real Plates and Dubious Microplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, M. G.; Steblov, G. M.

    2008-12-01

    From the onset of plate tectonics, the existence of most of the plates was never put in doubt, although the boundaries of some plates, like Africa, were later revised. There are however, two microplates in northeast Asia, the Amurian and Okhotsk, whose existence and the sense of rotation was revised several times. The rms value of plate-residual GPS velocities is 0.5-0.9 mm/a for sets of stations representing the motion of the following plates: Antarctic, Australian, Eurasian, North American, Nubian, Pacific, and South American. This value can be regarded as an upper bound on deviation of real plates from infinite stiffness. The rms value of plate-residual GPS velocities is 1.2-1.8 mm/a for the Indian, Nazca, and Somalian plates. Higher rms values for India and Nazca are attributed to the noisier data. The higher rms value for Somalia appears to arise from the distributed deformation to the east of the East African Rift; whether this statement is true can only be decided from observations of denser network in the future. From the analysis of plate-residual GPS velocities, the Canadian Arctic and northeastern Siberia belong to the North American plate. The detailed GPS survey on Sakhalin Island shows that the Sea of Okhotsk region also belongs to the North American plate while the region to the west of it belongs to the Eurasian plate. These results provide a constraint on the geometry of the North American plate and put in doubt the existence of smaller plates in northeast Asia.

  16. Scaling of plate-tectonic convection with pseudoplastic rheology

    CERN Document Server

    Korenaga, Jun

    2010-01-01

    The scaling of plate-tectonic convection is investigated by simulating thermal convection with pseudoplastic rheology and strongly temperature-dependent viscosity. The effect of mantle melting is also explored with additional depth-dependent viscosity. Heat-flow scaling can be constructed with only two parameters, the internal Rayleigh number and the lithospheric viscosity contrast, the latter of which is determined entirely by rheological properties. The critical viscosity contrast for the transition between plate-tectonic and stagnant-lid convection is found to be proportional to the square root of the internal Rayleigh number. The relation between mantle temperature and surface heat flux on Earth is discussed on the basis of these scaling laws, and the inverse relationship between them, as previously suggested from the consideration of global energy balance, is confirmed by this fully dynamic approach. In the presence of surface water to reduce the effective friction coefficient, the operation of plate tec...

  17. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  18. Dynamics of Tectonic Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Pechersky, E; Sadowski, G; Yambartsev, A

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a model that describes a mutual dynamic of tectonic plates. The dynamic is a sort of stick-slip one which is modeled by a Markov random process. The process defines a microlevel of the dynamic. A macrolevel is obtained by a scaling limit which leads to a system of integro-differential equations which determines a kind of mean field systems. Conditions when Gutenberg-Richter empirical law are presented on the mean field level. These conditions are rather universal and do not depend on features of resistant forces.

  19. Dynamics of Tectonic Plates

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a model that describes a mutual dynamic of tectonic plates. The dynamic is a sort of stick-slip one which is modeled by a Markov random process. The process defines a microlevel of the dynamic. A macrolevel is obtained by a scaling limit which leads to a system of integro-differential equations which determines a kind of mean field systems. Conditions when Gutenberg-Richter empirical law are presented on the mean field level. These conditions are rather universal and do not depend ...

  20. [Specific features of impaired intestinal digestion, absorption, and microbiocenosis in patients with cholelithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhrushev, Ya M; Lukashevich, A P

    To perform a comprehensive study of intestinal digestion, absorption, and microbiocenosis in various stages of cholelithiasis (CL). A total of 76 patients with of CL, including 44 patients with its Stage I and 32 patients with Stage II, were examined. Mono-, di - and polysaccharide load tests and a scatological study were performed to evaluate the processes of digestion and absorption in the intestine. The hydrogen breath test using lactulose was carried out to study small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). The state of colon microbiocenosis was determined by plating feces onto various selective nutrient media. All digestive process stages in the small intestine were noted to be impaired in CL. In Stage I CL, cavitary digestion was mainly impaired; in Stage II, all digestive and absorptive processes were abnormal. Scatological examination in patients with Stage I CL revealed steatorrhea in 79.5%, creatorrhea in 75%, and amylorrhea in 36.4%. In Stage II CL, digestive and absorptive disorders progressed. SIBO was detected in 68.5% whereas in 70% of cases, it was located in the distal small intestine in the presence of insufficiency of the ileocecal sphincter apparatus. A regularity was found between the severity of SIBO and impaired small intestinal cavitary digestion. SIBO was more common in the pre-gallstone stage of CL than in its gallstone stage. Dysbiosis of the colon was detected in 100% of the examined patients with CL; moreover, as the latter progressed, dysbiosis worsened. There is new information about impaired intestinal digestion and microbiocenosis in patients with CL.

  1. Digestibility of gluten proteins is reduced by baking and enhanced by starch digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frances; Pan, Xiaoyan; Bellido, Vincent; Toole, Geraldine A; Gates, Fred K; Wickham, Martin S J; Shewry, Peter R; Bakalis, Serafim; Padfield, Philip; Mills, E N Clare

    2015-10-01

    Resistance of proteins to gastrointestinal digestion may play a role in determining immune-mediated adverse reactions to foods. However, digestion studies have largely been restricted to purified proteins and the impact of food processing and food matrices on protein digestibility is poorly understood. Digestibility of a total gliadin fraction (TGF), flour (cv Hereward), and bread was assessed using in vitro batch digestion with simulated oral, gastric, and duodenal phases. Protein digestion was monitored by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting using monoclonal antibodies specific for celiac-toxic sequences (QQSF, QPFP) and starch digestion by measuring undigested starch. Whereas the TGF was rapidly digested during the gastric phase the gluten proteins in bread were virtually undigested and digested rapidly during the duodenal phase only if amylase was included. Duodenal starch digestion was also slower in the absence of duodenal proteases. The baking process reduces the digestibility of wheat gluten proteins, including those containing sequences active in celiac disease. Starch digestion affects the extent of protein digestion, probably because of gluten-starch complex formation during baking. Digestion studies using purified protein fractions alone are therefore not predictive of digestion in complex food matrices. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Digestibility of gluten proteins is reduced by baking and enhanced by starch digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoyan; Bellido, Vincent; Toole, Geraldine A.; Gates, Fred K.; Wickham, Martin S. J.; Shewry, Peter R.; Bakalis, Serafim; Padfield, Philip; Mills, E. N. Clare

    2015-01-01

    Scope Resistance of proteins to gastrointestinal digestion may play a role in determining immune‐mediated adverse reactions to foods. However, digestion studies have largely been restricted to purified proteins and the impact of food processing and food matrices on protein digestibility is poorly understood. Methods and results Digestibility of a total gliadin fraction (TGF), flour (cv Hereward), and bread was assessed using in vitro batch digestion with simulated oral, gastric, and duodenal phases. Protein digestion was monitored by SDS‐PAGE and immunoblotting using monoclonal antibodies specific for celiac‐toxic sequences (QQSF, QPFP) and starch digestion by measuring undigested starch. Whereas the TGF was rapidly digested during the gastric phase the gluten proteins in bread were virtually undigested and digested rapidly during the duodenal phase only if amylase was included. Duodenal starch digestion was also slower in the absence of duodenal proteases. Conclusion The baking process reduces the digestibility of wheat gluten proteins, including those containing sequences active in celiac disease. Starch digestion affects the extent of protein digestion, probably because of gluten‐starch complex formation during baking. Digestion studies using purified protein fractions alone are therefore not predictive of digestion in complex food matrices. PMID:26202208

  3. CMS Resistive plate Champers

    CERN Document Server

    Zainab, Karam

    2013-01-01

    There are many types of gas detectors which are used in CERN in LHC project, There is a main parts for the gas detectors which must be in all gas detectors types like Multiwire proportional chambers, such as the micromesh gaseous structure chamber (the MicroMegas), Gas-electron multiplier (GEM) detector, Resistive Plate Champers... Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment detecting muons which are powerful tool for recognizing signatures of interesting physics processes. The CMS detector uses: drift tube (DT), cathode strip chamber (CSC) and resistive plate chamber (RPC). Building RPC’s was my project in summer student program (hardware). RPC’s have advantages which are triggering detector and Excellent time resolution which reinforce the measurement of the correct beam crossing time. RPC’s Organized in stations :  RPC barrel (RB) there are 4 stations, namely RB1, RB2, RB3, and RB4  While in the RPC endcap (RE) the 3 stations are RE1, RE2, and RE3. In the endcaps a new starion will be added and this...

  4. Potato root system development and factors that determine its architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Mukul; Fogelman, Edna; Belausov, Eduard; Ginzberg, Idit

    2016-10-20

    The potato root system is often characterized as shallow and inefficient, with poor ability to extract water and minerals from the soil. Potato root system architecture (RSA) refers to its 3-dimensional structure as determined by adventitious root (AR) growth and branching through lateral roots (LR). Understanding how the root system develops holds potential to increase plant yield and optimize agricultural land use. Root system development was monitored in greenhouse-grown potato while a root-on-a-plate assay was developed to explore factors that affect AR and LR development. Expression study of LR-related genes was conducted. Transgenic plants carrying DR5:GFP and CycB1:GUS reporter genes were used to monitor auxin signaling and cell division during root primordia formation, respectively. Maximum root development occurred mainly during the 6-week post seed-tuber planting and slowed during the onset of tuberization. AR and LR development was coordinated - a positive correlation was found between the length of AR and LR and between LR length and number. The expression of LR-related genes was higher in LR than in AR. High nitrate levels reduced LR number and length, however ablation of root-cap by high temperature (33°C) or cutting resulted with enhanced formation of LR. Growth conditions affect AR and LR development in potato, determining the final architecture of its root system. The overall results indicate that LR formation in potato follows similar pattern as in model plants, facilitating study and manipulation of its RSA to improve soil exploitation and yield. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. ROOT User Workshop 2013

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Since almost two decades, ROOT has established itself as the framework for HENP data processing and analysis. The LHC upgrade program and the new experiments being designed at CERN and elsewhere will pose even more formidable challenges in terms of data complexity and size. The new parallel and heterogeneous computing architectures that are either announced or already available will call for a deep rethinking of the code and the data structures to be exploited efficiently. This workshop, following from a successful series of such events, will allow you to learn in detail about the new ROOT 6 and will help shape the future evolution of ROOT.

  6. Influence of kiwifruit on protein digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Lovedeep; Boland, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Green kiwifruit consumption has long been thought to assist in the digestion of food proteins due to the presence of the proteolytic enzyme actinidin. This chapter reviews the recent findings of both in vitro and in vivo studies on the effect of green kiwifruit (which contain the enzyme actinidin) on the gastro- and small-intestinal digestion of a range of common food proteins and protein-rich foods including milk, meat, fish, eggs, legumes, and cereal proteins. Clear evidence is provided that green kiwifruit, and the enzyme actinidin itself, can provide enhanced upper-tract digestion (particularly gastric) of a variety of food proteins, which lends support to a role for dietary kiwifruit as a digestive aid. Kiwifruit influences the digestion patterns of food proteins to varying extents. For some protein sources, digestion in the presence of green kiwifruit resulted in a substantially greater digestion of intact protein, and different peptide patterns were produced compared with those seen after digestion with mammalian digestive enzymes alone. Kiwifruit extract alone (in the absence of other digestive enzymes) has been observed to be capable of digesting some proteins present in foods, particularly those in yoghurt, cheese, fish, and raw eggs. An in vivo (pig) study including a positive control of added actinidin and a negative control where the actinidin in green kiwifruit had been inactivated showed conclusively that actinidin is responsible for the enhanced gastric hydrolysis of food proteins.

  7. Anaerobic Digestion: Mass Balances and Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Jansen, Jes la Cour

    2011-01-01

    While the basic processes involved in anaerobic digestion of waste are described in Chapter 9.4 and the main digestion technologies are presented in Chapter 9.5, this chapter focuses on mass balances, gas production and energy aspects, environmental emissions and unit process inventories. Underst......While the basic processes involved in anaerobic digestion of waste are described in Chapter 9.4 and the main digestion technologies are presented in Chapter 9.5, this chapter focuses on mass balances, gas production and energy aspects, environmental emissions and unit process inventories....... Understanding these issues and being able to account for them is a prerequisite in digestion engineering and for establishing and running a successful anaerobic digestion facility. Of specific importance is the final use of the digestate. Use in agriculture as a fertilizer is described in Chapter 9.10 and use...

  8. Localised Plate Motion on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghail, R. C.

    1996-03-01

    The volcanic and tectonic features observed in Dali Vinculum, Parga Vinculum and Imdr Regio are concentrated at long, narrow, curvilinear zones, with relatively minor volcanism and tectonism between these zones. These zones, whilst more diffuse than terrestrial plate boundaries, nevertheless define the margins of tectonic plates. In contrast to Earth, however, it appears that venusian plates are neither created nor destroyed by lateral motion. Rather, plates are thinned and intruded at vincula plate boundaries, vertically accreted by small-scale intra-plate (planitia) volcanism and perhaps destroyed by delamination of thickened crust in tesserae and montane regions such as Thetis Regio and Ishtar Terra. The diversity in age both between and within these three areas together with the evidence for infrequent, small scale resurfacing in the planitiae are difficult to reconcile with a non-uniformitarian geological process.

  9. Tectonics of the Easter plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeln, J. F.; Stein, S.

    1984-01-01

    A new model for the Easter plate is presented in which rift propagation has resulted in the formation of a rigid plate between the propagating and dying ridges. The distribution of earthquakes, eleven new focal mechanisms, and existing bathymetric and magnetic data are used to describe the tectonics of this area. Both the Easter-Nazca and Easter-Pacific Euler poles are sufficiently close to the Easter plate to cause rapid changes in rates and directions of motion along the boundaries. The east and west boundaries are propagating and dying ridges; the southwest boundary is a slow-spreading ridge and the northern boundary is a complex zone of convergent and transform motion. The Easter plate may reflect the tectonics of rift propagation on a large scale, where rigid plate tectonics requires boundary reorientation. Simple schematic models to illustrate the general features and processes which occur at plates resulting from large-scale rift propagation are used.

  10. Tectonics of the Easter plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeln, J. F.; Stein, S.

    1984-01-01

    A new model for the Easter plate is presented in which rift propagation has resulted in the formation of a rigid plate between the propagating and dying ridges. The distribution of earthquakes, eleven new focal mechanisms, and existing bathymetric and magnetic data are used to describe the tectonics of this area. Both the Easter-Nazca and Easter-Pacific Euler poles are sufficiently close to the Easter plate to cause rapid changes in rates and directions of motion along the boundaries. The east and west boundaries are propagating and dying ridges; the southwest boundary is a slow-spreading ridge and the northern boundary is a complex zone of convergent and transform motion. The Easter plate may reflect the tectonics of rift propagation on a large scale, where rigid plate tectonics requires boundary reorientation. Simple schematic models to illustrate the general features and processes which occur at plates resulting from large-scale rift propagation are used.

  11. Genetic association among root morphology, root quality and root yield in ashwagandha (Withania somnifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ramesh R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera is a dryland medicinal crop and roots are used as valuable drug in traditional systems of medicine. Morphological variants (morphotypes and the parental populations were evaluated for root - morphometric, quality and yield traits to study genetic association among them. Root morphometric traits (root length, root diameter, number of secondary roots/ plant and crude fiber content exhibited strong association among them and showed significant positive genotypic correlation with yield. Starch-fiber ratio (SFR, determinant of brittle root texture showed strong negative association with root yield. The total alkaloid content had positive genotypic correlation with root yield. So genetic upgradation should aim at optimum balance between two divergent groups of traits i.e. root yield traits (root morphometric traits and crude fiber content and root textural quality traits (starch content and SFR to develop superior genotypes with better yield and quality.

  12. GHG emissions from slurry and digestates during storage and after field application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Nguyen, Quan Van; Petersen, Søren O.

    are determined in a pilot-scale study with digested materials from Maabjerg Bioenergy and Fredericia Wastewater Treatment Facility, using untreated cattle and pig slurry as reference. These and other results will be used to model the effect of temperature and pre-treatment on CH4 emissions. The composition...... slurry/digestates when incubated in soil under aerobic conditions. The experimental treatments included untreated pig slurry, sugarbeet root pulp, or pig slurry co-digested with 0%, 12.5%, 25% or 90% sugarbeet pulp. Proportions of VSd ranged from 25 to 67%. Methane emissions during storage...... of volatile solids (VS) is critical for predicting GHG emissions and the effect of biogas treatment. Volatile solids may be considered to have an easily degradable VS (VSd) and a slowly degradable VS (VSnd) fraction. A new approach to estimate VSd was investigated using the short-term evolution of CO2-C from...

  13. GHG emissions from slurry and digestates during storage and after field application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Nguyen, Quan Van; Petersen, Søren O.;

    , but environmental impacts, such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, during storage and after field application should take into account. Mainly, methane (CH4) is produced during storage and nitrous oxide (N2O) after field application. Currently, direct (CH4, N2O) and indirect (NH3) GHG emissions during storage...... are determined in a pilot-scale study with digested materials from Maabjerg Bioenergy and Fredericia Wastewater Treatment Facility, using untreated cattle and pig slurry as reference. These and other results will be used to model the effect of temperature and pre-treatment on CH4 emissions. The composition...... slurry/digestates when incubated in soil under aerobic conditions. The experimental treatments included untreated pig slurry, sugarbeet root pulp, or pig slurry co-digested with 0%, 12.5%, 25% or 90% sugarbeet pulp. Proportions of VSd ranged from 25 to 67%. Methane emissions during storage...

  14. Aluminum Manganese Molten Salt Plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Dry fixture thoroughly with the air gun. Be especially careful to dry water out of crevices. Note: water is a contaminant to the plating process...easily destroyed if blown with the air. Be especially careful to dry water out of crevices. Note: water is a contaminant to the plating process and...especially careful to dry water out of crevices. 13. Carefully remove part from fixture. If residual plating solution is present at attachments points

  15. Digestive manifestations of parathyroid disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bassam Abboud; Ronald Daher; Joe Boujaoude

    2011-01-01

    The parathyroid glands are the main regulator of plasma calcium and have a direct influence on the digestive tract. Parathyroid disturbances often result in unknown long-standing symptoms. The main manifestation of hypoparathyroidism is steatorrhea due to a deficit in exocrine pancreas secretion. The association with celiac sprue may contribute to malabsorption. Hyperparathyroidism causes smooth-muscle atony, with upper and lower gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, heartburn and constipation. Hyperparathyroidism and peptic ulcer were strongly linked before the advent of proton pump inhibitors. Nowadays, this association remains likely only in the particular context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1/Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. In contrast to chronic pancreatitis, acute pancreatitis due to primary hyperparathyroidism is one of the most studied topics. The causative effect of high calcium level is confirmed and the distinction from secondary hyperparathyroidism is mandatory. The digestive manifestations of parathyroid malfunction are often overlooked and serum calcium level must be included in the routine workup for abdominal symptoms.

  16. DIGESTER GAS - FUEL CELL - PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr.-Eng. Dirk Adolph; Dipl.-Eng. Thomas Saure

    2002-03-01

    GEW has been operating the first fuel cell in Europe producing heat and electricity from digester gas in an environmentally friendly way. The first 9,000 hours in operation were successfully concluded in August 2001. The fuel cell powered by digester gas was one of the 25 registered ''Worldwide projects'' which NRW presented at the EXPO 2000. In addition to this, it is a key project of the NRW State Initiative on Future Energies. All of the activities planned for the first year of operation were successfully completed: installing and putting the plant into operation, the transition to permanent operation as well as extended monitoring till May 2001.

  17. Isotopic Changes During Digestion: Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuross, N.

    2013-12-01

    Nutrient and hydrological inputs traverse a complicated route of pH, enzymatic and cellular processes in digestion in higher animals. The end products of digestion are the starting products for biosynthesis that are often used to interpret past life-ways. Using an artificial gut system, the isotopic changes (dD, d18O, d13C and d15N) of protein are documented. Three separate protein sources are subjected to the conditions, chemical and enzymatic, found in the stomach and upper small intestine with only a small shift in the oxygen isotopic composition of the proteins observed. Middle to lower small intestine parameters produced both greater isotopic effects and significantly lower molecular weight products. The role of the gastric enterocyte and the likely involvement of the internal milieu of this cell in the isotopic composition of amino acids that are transported to the liver are reported.

  18. Root lattices and quasicrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baake, M.; Joseph, D.; Kramer, P.; Schlottmann, M.

    1990-10-01

    It is shown that root lattices and their reciprocals might serve as the right pool for the construction of quasicrystalline structure models. All noncrystallographic symmetries observed so far are covered in minimal embedding with maximal symmetry.

  19. An analytical fiber bundle model for pullout mechanics of root bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D.; Schwarz, M.; Or, D.

    2011-09-01

    Roots in soil contribute to the mechanical stability of slopes. Estimation of root reinforcement is challenging because roots form complex biological networks whose geometrical and mechanical characteristics are difficult to characterize. Here we describe an analytical model that builds on simple root descriptors to estimate root reinforcement. Root bundles are modeled as bundles of heterogeneous fibers pulled along their long axes neglecting root-soil friction. Analytical expressions for the pullout force as a function of displacement are derived. The maximum pullout force and corresponding critical displacement are either derived analytically or computed numerically. Key model inputs are a root diameter distribution (uniform, Weibull, or lognormal) and three empirical power law relations describing tensile strength, elastic modulus, and length of roots as functions of root diameter. When a root bundle with root tips anchored in the soil matrix is pulled by a rigid plate, a unique parameter, ?, that depends only on the exponents of the power law relations, dictates the order in which roots of different diameters break. If ? 1, large roots break first. When ? = 1, all fibers break simultaneously, and the maximum tensile force is simply the roots' mean force times the number of roots in the bundle. Based on measurements of root geometry and mechanical properties, the value of ? is less than 1, usually ranging between 0 and 0.7. Thus, small roots always fail first. The model shows how geometrical and mechanical characteristics of roots and root diameter distribution affect the pullout force, its maximum and corresponding displacement. Comparing bundles of roots that have similar mean diameters, a bundle with a narrow variance in root diameter will result in a larger maximum force and a smaller displacement at maximum force than a bundle with a wide diameter distribution. Increasing the mean root diameter of a bundle without changing the distribution's shape increases

  20. Glass-bead peen plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Peen plating of aluminum, copper, and nickel powders was investigated. Only aluminum was plated successfully within the range of peen plating conditions studied. Optimum plating conditions for aluminum were found to be: (1) bead/powder mixture containing 25 to 35% powder by weight, (2) peening intensity of 0.007A as measured by Almen strip, and (3) glass impact bead diameter of at least 297 microns (0.0117 inches) for depositing-100 mesh aluminum powder. No extensive cleaning or substrate preparation is required beyond removing loose dirt or heavy oil.

  1. [Iron deficiency and digestive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozon, G J N

    2014-11-01

    Iron deficiency anemia still remains problematic worldwide. Iron deficiency without anemia is often undiagnosed. We reviewed, in this study, symptoms and syndromes associated with iron deficiency with or without anemia: fatigue, cognitive functions, restless legs syndrome, hair loss, and chronic heart failure. Iron is absorbed through the digestive tract. Hepcidin and ferroportin are the main proteins of iron regulation. Pathogenic micro-organisms or intestinal dysbiosis are suspected to influence iron absorption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel titanium dioxide-polydimethylsiloxane plate for phosphopeptide enrichment and mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Jung; Lai, Chien-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Chun; Liu, Yu-Ching; Liu, Yu-Huei; Chiou, Liang-Wei; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2014-02-17

    The phosphorylation of proteins is a major post-translational modification that is required for the regulation of many cellular processes and activities. Mass spectrometry signals of low-abundance phosphorylated peptides are commonly suppressed by the presence of abundant non-phosphorylated peptides. Therefore, one of the major challenges in the detection of low-abundance phosphopeptides is their enrichment from complex peptide mixtures. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been proven to be a highly efficient approach for phosphopeptide enrichment and is widely applied. In this study, a novel TiO2 plate was developed by coating TiO2 particles onto polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated MALDI plates, glass, or plastic substrates. The TiO2-PDMS plate (TP plate) could be used for on-target MALDI-TOF analysis, or as a purification plate on which phosphopeptides were eluted out and subjected to MALDI-TOF or nanoLC-MS/MS analysis. The detection limit of the TP plate was ∼10-folds lower than that of a TiO2-packed tip approach. The capacity of the ∼2.5 mm diameter TiO2 spots was estimated to be ∼10 μg of β-casein. Following TiO2 plate enrichment of SCC4 cell lysate digests and nanoLC-MS/MS analysis, ∼82% of the detected proteins were phosphorylated, illustrating the sensitivity and effectiveness of the TP plate for phosphoproteomic study.

  3. Intermittent plate tectonics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Paul G; Behn, Mark D

    2008-01-04

    Although it is commonly assumed that subduction has operated continuously on Earth without interruption, subduction zones are routinely terminated by ocean closure and supercontinent assembly. Under certain circumstances, this could lead to a dramatic loss of subduction, globally. Closure of a Pacific-type basin, for example, would eliminate most subduction, unless this loss were compensated for by comparable subduction initiation elsewhere. Given the evidence for Pacific-type closure in Earth's past, the absence of a direct mechanism for termination/initiation compensation, and recent data supporting a minimum in subduction flux in the Mesoproterozoic, we hypothesize that dramatic reductions or temporary cessations of subduction have occurred in Earth's history. Such deviations in the continuity of plate tectonics have important consequences for Earth's thermal and continental evolution.

  4. VISAS AND GREEN PLATES

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    From 3 April 2000, all questions relating to visa requests for Switzerland, France, or Russia for a member of the personnel must be addressed to Ms. Agnita Querrou (telephone 72838, office 5-2-019, e-mail Agnita.Querrou@cern.ch).The Users' Office continues to deal with requests for letters of invitation and questions concerning visas for users in EP Division.Questions relating to removals, requests for green plates, to privileges of members of the personnel and to the importation of vehicles are still dealt with by Ms Zuzana Miller (telephone 79257, office 33-1-017, e-mail Zuzana.Muller@cern.ch) and Ms Joëlle Belleman (telephone 73962, office 33-1-019, e-mail Joelle.Belleman@cern.ch).

  5. Aflatoxins in ginseng roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ovidio, Kathleen; Trucksess, Mary; Weaver, Carol; Horn, Erin; McIntosh, Marla; Bean, George

    2006-02-01

    Ginseng roots can be infected by molds during growth, harvest and storage and result in contamination with mycotoxins. In this study, an analytical method for the determination of aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2), a group of structurally similar mycotoxins, in ginseng root was developed. Test samples were extracted with methanol-water (8?+?2), diluted and passed through an immunoaffinity column packed with antibodies specific for aflatoxins. The purified extract was then derivatized with a mixture of water, trifluoroacetic acid and acetic acid. Aflatoxins were then separated and quantified by reverse phase liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection. Recoveries of total aflatoxins at 2, 4, 8 and 16 ng/g added to toxin-free 4 to 5-year old dried sliced Wisconsin ginseng were 92, 77, 91 and 83% respectively; and relative standard deviations were 3.6, 8.0, 6.9 and 2.0% respectively. A total of 11 wild simulated and 12 cultivated ginseng root samples were analysed for aflatoxins. All cultivated roots were found to be free of aflatoxin contamination. Two of the wild simulated roots contained total aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2) at 15.1 and 15.2 ng/g. One moldy ginseng root purchased from a grocery store was found to be contaminated with aflatoxins at 16 ng/g.

  6. Modeling root reinforcement using root-failure Weibull survival function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schwarz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Root networks contribute to slope stability through complicated interactions that include mechanical compression and tension. Due to the spatial heterogeneity of root distribution and the dynamic of root turnover, the quantification of root reinforcement on steep slope is challenging and consequently the calculation of slope stability as well. Although the considerable advances in root reinforcement modeling, some important aspect remain neglected. In this study we address in particular to the role of root strength variability on the mechanical behaviors of a root bundle. Many factors may contribute to the variability of root mechanical properties even considering a single class of diameter. This work presents a new approach for quantifying root reinforcement that considers the variability of mechanical properties of each root diameter class. Using the data of laboratory tensile tests and field pullout tests, we calibrate the parameters of the Weibull survival function to implement the variability of root strength in a numerical model for the calculation of root reinforcement (RBMw. The results show that, for both laboratory and field datasets, the parameters of the Weibull distribution may be considered constant with the exponent equal to 2 and the normalized failure displacement equal to 1. Moreover, the results show that the variability of root strength in each root diameter class has a major influence on the behavior of a root bundle with important implications when considering different approaches in slope stability calculation. Sensitivity analysis shows that the calibration of the tensile force and the elasticity of the roots are the most important equations, as well as the root distribution. The new model allows the characterization of root reinforcement in terms of maximum pullout force, stiffness, and energy. Moreover, it simplifies the implementation of root reinforcement in slope stability models. The realistic quantification of root

  7. Plate osteosynthesis of simple forearm fractures : LCP versus DC plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Charles Tjerk; Ten Duis, Henk Jan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the time to radiological bony union of simple A-type fractures of the forearm, treated with either a locking compression plate (LCP) or a dynamic compression plate (DCP). For each fracture, the relation between the use of compression and radiological healing time

  8. Plate osteosynthesis of simple forearm fractures : LCP versus DC plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Charles Tjerk; Ten Duis, Henk Jan

    The aim of this study was to compare the time to radiological bony union of simple A-type fractures of the forearm, treated with either a locking compression plate (LCP) or a dynamic compression plate (DCP). For each fracture, the relation between the use of compression and radiological healing time

  9. Wave Propagation In Plates Studied By Pulsed Hologram Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlin, Anders; Fallstrom, Karl-Evert; Gustavsson, H.; Molin, Nils-Erik

    1989-07-01

    Isotropic and non-isotropic plates are impacted by a ballistic pendulum. The bending waves that are generated are studied with holographic interferometry using a double pulsed ruby laser as light source. The pulse shape changes with time because of the dispersivity of the waves. Initially the fringe pattern in the isotropic case is cylindrically symmetric and determined from an initial value problem. Later, when the waves have reached the plate rim, in-and outgoing waves gradually develop fringe patterns which in the end will be a combination of eigenmodes of the plate. A solution to the corresponding Kirchhoff plate equation is presented, which in the special case when the impact is modelled as a Dirac-pulse in space and time, is shown to depend only of the distance to the impact point divided by the square root of the time after impact and a parameter containing plate parameters. From the slope of the central deflection material parameters can be determined. Another solution, assuming a finite inpact time, is shown to agree better with experiments. Results from investigations of non-isotropic materials are also presented.

  10. Plate tectonics, damage and inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, David; Ricard, Yanick

    2014-04-24

    The initiation of plate tectonics on Earth is a critical event in our planet's history. The time lag between the first proto-subduction (about 4 billion years ago) and global tectonics (approximately 3 billion years ago) suggests that plates and plate boundaries became widespread over a period of 1 billion years. The reason for this time lag is unknown but fundamental to understanding the origin of plate tectonics. Here we suggest that when sufficient lithospheric damage (which promotes shear localization and long-lived weak zones) combines with transient mantle flow and migrating proto-subduction, it leads to the accumulation of weak plate boundaries and eventually to fully formed tectonic plates driven by subduction alone. We simulate this process using a grain evolution and damage mechanism with a composite rheology (which is compatible with field and laboratory observations of polycrystalline rocks), coupled to an idealized model of pressure-driven lithospheric flow in which a low-pressure zone is equivalent to the suction of convective downwellings. In the simplest case, for Earth-like conditions, a few successive rotations of the driving pressure field yield relic damaged weak zones that are inherited by the lithospheric flow to form a nearly perfect plate, with passive spreading and strike-slip margins that persist and localize further, even though flow is driven only by subduction. But for hotter surface conditions, such as those on Venus, accumulation and inheritance of damage is negligible; hence only subduction zones survive and plate tectonics does not spread, which corresponds to observations. After plates have developed, continued changes in driving forces, combined with inherited damage and weak zones, promote increased tectonic complexity, such as oblique subduction, strike-slip boundaries that are subparallel to plate motion, and spalling of minor plates.

  11. Root architecture simulation improves the inference from seedling root phenotyping towards mature root systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiangsan; Bodner, Gernot; Rewald, Boris; Leitner, Daniel; Nagel, Kerstin A; Nakhforoosh, Alireza

    2017-02-01

    Root phenotyping provides trait information for plant breeding. A shortcoming of high-throughput root phenotyping is the limitation to seedling plants and failure to make inferences on mature root systems. We suggest root system architecture (RSA) models to predict mature root traits and overcome the inference problem. Sixteen pea genotypes were phenotyped in (i) seedling (Petri dishes) and (ii) mature (sand-filled columns) root phenotyping platforms. The RSA model RootBox was parameterized with seedling traits to simulate the fully developed root systems. Measured and modelled root length, first-order lateral number, and root distribution were compared to determine key traits for model-based prediction. No direct relationship in root traits (tap, lateral length, interbranch distance) was evident between phenotyping systems. RootBox significantly improved the inference over phenotyping platforms. Seedling plant tap and lateral root elongation rates and interbranch distance were sufficient model parameters to predict genotype ranking in total root length with an RSpearman of 0.83. Parameterization including uneven lateral spacing via a scaling function substantially improved the prediction of architectures underlying the differently sized root systems. We conclude that RSA models can solve the inference problem of seedling root phenotyping. RSA models should be included in the phenotyping pipeline to provide reliable information on mature root systems to breeding research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  13. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  14. Casimir Effect for Dielectric Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We generalize Kupisewska method to the three-dimensional system and another derivation of the Casimir effect between two dielectric plates is presented based on the explicit quantization of the electromagnetic field in the presence of dielectrics, where the physical meaning of "evanescent mode" is discussed. The Lifshitz's formula is rederived perfect metallic plates will the evanescent modes become unimportant.

  15. Micro-channel plate detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Lee, Seon W.; Wang, Hsien -Hau; Pellin, Michael J.; Byrum, Karen; Frisch, Henry J.

    2015-09-22

    A method and system for providing a micro-channel plate detector. An anodized aluminum oxide membrane is provided and includes a plurality of nanopores which have an Al coating and a thin layer of an emissive oxide material responsive to incident radiation, thereby providing a plurality of radiation sensitive channels for the micro-channel plate detector.

  16. Gold plating on spectacle frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, I; Mitchell, J W; Walsh, G

    1997-05-01

    An investigation was carried out into the thickness and standard of application of the plating and lacquer coatings applied to three metal spectacle frames. All conform to BS 6625 (1991) for plating thickness, but there was considerable variation in regularity and porosity.

  17. Evaluation of the pepsin digestibility assay for predicting amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T M; Parsons, C M; Utterback, P L; Kirstein, D

    2015-05-01

    Sixteen meat and bone meal (MBM) samples were obtained and selected from various company plants to provide a wide range in pepsin nitrogen digestibility values. Pepsin digestibility was determined using either 0.02 or 0.002% pepsin. Amino acid (AA) digestibility of the 16 MBM samples was then determined using a precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. The 0.02% pepsin digestibility values were numerically higher than the 0.002% pepsin values. The values varied from 77 to 93% for 0.02% pepsin and from 67 to 91% for 0.002% pepsin. The rooster AA digestibility results showed a wide range of values among MBM samples mostly due to the 4 samples having lowest and highest AA digestibility. A precision-fed broiler chick ileal AA digestibility assay confirmed that there were large differences in AA digestibility among the MBM samples having the lowest and highest rooster digestibility values. Correlation analyses between pepsin and AA digestibility values showed that the correlation values (r) were highly significant (P MBM samples were included in the analysis. However, when the MBM samples with the 2 lowest and the 2 highest rooster digestibility values were not included in the correlation analyses, the correlation coefficient values (r) were generally very low and not significant (P > 0.05). The results indicated that the pepsin nitrogen digestibility assay is only useful for detecting large differences in AA digestibility among MBM. There also was no advantage for using 0.02 versus 0.002% pepsin.

  18. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    . This modelling technique is used to model a plate shell structure with a span of 11.5 meters in the FE software \\textsc{Abaqus}. The structure is analyzed with six different connection details with varying stiffness characteristics, to investigate the influence of these characteristics on the structural effects...... University, a script has been developed for an automated generation of a given plate shell geometry and a corresponding finite element (FE) model. A suitable FE modelling technique is proposed, suggesting a relatively simple method of modelling the connection detail's stiffness characteristics....... Based on these investigations, and FE analysis of other plate shell models, the structural behaviour is described. Possible methods of estimating the stresses in a given plate shell structure are proposed. The non-linear behaviour of a plate shell structure is investigated for varying parameters...

  19. The moving plate capacitor paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, B. R.; Abbott, D.; Parrondo, J. M. R.

    2000-03-01

    For the first time we describe an apparent paradox concerning a moving plate capacitor driven by thermal noise from a resistor. A demon restores the plates of the capacitor to their original position, only when the voltage across the capacitor is small—hence only small forces are present for the demon to work against. The demon has to work harder than this to avoid the situation of perpetual motion, but the question is how? We explore the concept of a moving plate capacitor, driven by noise, a step further by examining the case where the restoring force on the capacitor plates is provided by a simple spring, rather than some unknown demon. We display simulation results with interesting behavior, particularly where the capacitor plates collide with each other.

  20. SAMI Automated Plug Plate Configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Lorente, Nuria P F; Goodwin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) is a prototype wide-field system at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) which uses a plug-plate to mount its 13 x 61-core imaging fibre bundles (hexabundles) in the optical path at the telescope's prime focus. In this paper we describe the process of determining the positions of the plug-plate holes, where plates contain three or more stacked observation configurations. The process, which up until now has involved several separate processes and has required significant manual configuration and checking, is now being automated to increase efficiency and reduce error. This is carried out by means of a thin Java controller layer which drives the configuration cycle. This layer controls the user interface and the C++ algorithm layer where the plate configuration and optimisation is carried out. Additionally, through the Aladin display package, it provides visualisation and facilitates user verification of the resulting plates.

  1. Stress concentration analysis in functionally graded plates with elliptic holes under biaxial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawakol A. Enab

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Stress concentration factors (SCFs at the root of an elliptic hole in unidirectional functionally graded material (UDFGM plates under uniaxial and biaxial loads are predicted. ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL was used to build the finite element models for the plates and to run the analysis. A parametric study is performed for several geometric and material parameters such as the elliptic hole major axis to plate width ratio, the elliptical shape factor, the gradation direction of UDFGM. It is shown that, SCF in the finite plate can be significantly reduced by choosing the proper distribution of the functionally graded materials. The present study may provide designers an efficient way to estimate the hole effect on plate structures made of functionally graded materials.

  2. Studies on the antimicrobial potential of Mahonia leschenaultii Takeda root and root bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraiswamy B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extracts of Mahonia leschenaultii takeda (Berberidaceae root and root bark were tested for antibacterial potential against Escherichia coli (NCIM 2068, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCIM 2053, Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM 2492, and Staphylococcus epidermitis (NCIM 2493 on nutrient agar medium and nutrient broth using ampicillin trihydrate as standard drug. For antifungal study, stains used were Trichophytons lignorum (NCIM 1195 and Candida crusei (NCIM 3129 on Sabourauds dextrose agar (SDA and Sabourauds dextrose broth (SDB by cup plate method using amphotericin B as standard drug. The results showed that all extracts exhibited significant activity against all the selected strains of bacteria and relatively more against Staphylococcus epidermitis . The antifugal activity was less significant when compared with antibacterial activity.

  3. Thin plate neotectonic models of the Australian plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbidge, D. R.

    2004-10-01

    Thin plate finite element models of the neotectonic deformation of the Australian plate have been calculated in order to estimate the stress and strain rate within the plate, specifically concentrating on the Australian continent. The model includes plate-bounding faults, an anelastic brittle-ductile layered rheology and the option of laterally varying elevation and heat flow. The results of the models are compared to (1) the velocity of geodetic benchmarks on the Australian plate, (2) the spreading rate of the mid-oceanic ridges along the Australian plate's margins, (3) the direction of the maximum horizontal principal stress, (4) the stress regime within the plate, and (5) the crustal thickness estimated from the depth to the base of Mohorovicic discontinuity's transition zone. A variety of models are tested with a wide range of input parameters. The model with the smallest misfit with observations predicts that the strain rate for most of the Australian continent is approximately 10-17 s-1. This model has a slightly lower strain rate in the central Australia and is higher off the northern coast of Australia than for the rest of the continent. Strain rates of this magnitude would be difficult to observe from geodetic or geologic data for most parts of Australia but would be enough to generate much of the seismicity that has been observed over the last century.

  4. Underwater electrical discharge in plate to plate configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmashuk, Vitaliy

    2016-09-01

    Two main configurations of high voltage electrodes submersed in water have been used for an electrical discharge generation: pin to pin and pin to plate. An electrical breakdown between plate electrodes is generally difficult to reproduce, because there is a uniform and weak electric field. One major advantage of using plate electrodes is their greater ``wear hardness'' to high-energy discharges. The plate electrodes can withstand extremely high energy deposition at which the pin electrode is quickly destroyed. The electrical discharge between plate electrodes can be initiated by creating an inhomogeneity in the electrical field. Two methods of discharge initiation between plate electrodes are proposed for this aim: 1) focusing of a shock wave in the interelectrode region; 2) a bubble injection into the electrode gap. The shock wave creates favourable conditions for the electrical breakdown between the two plate electrodes: it causes that numerous microbubbles of dissolved air start to grow and serve as locations for streamer initiation. In the second method the gas bubble is injected from the one of the electrodes, which has a gas inlet hole on the lateral face for this purpose. A ``volcano'' like morphology of positive streamers are observed in the experiments with weak electric field. The authors are grateful to MEYS grant INGO LG 15013.

  5. Birth of the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Ivan T.

    2004-01-01

    The Canadian Digestive Disease Foundation, renamed the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation -- Fondation canadienne pour la promotion de la santé digestive -- in December 2001, is the culmination of ongoing efforts by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology to establish an independent charitable organization. In February 2001, it was officially endorsed as the Foundation for the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology. The initial efforts to establish this Foundation, led by Dr Richa...

  6. Global plate boundary evolution and kinematics since the late Paleozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kara J.; Maloney, Kayla T.; Zahirovic, Sabin; Williams, Simon E.; Seton, Maria; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2016-11-01

    Many aspects of deep-time Earth System models, including mantle convection, paleoclimatology, paleobiogeography and the deep Earth carbon cycle, require high-resolution plate motion models that include the evolution of the mosaic of plate boundaries through time. We present the first continuous late Paleozoic to present-day global plate model with evolving plate boundaries, building on and extending two previously published models for the late Paleozoic (410-250 Ma) and Mesozoic-Cenozoic (230-0 Ma). We ensure continuity during the 250-230 Ma transition period between the two models, update the absolute reference frame of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic model and add a new Paleozoic reconstruction for the Baltica-derived Alexander Terrane, now accreted to western North America. This 410-0 Ma open access model provides a framework for deep-time whole Earth modelling and acts as a base for future extensions and refinement. We analyse the model in terms of the number of plates, predicted plate size distribution, plate and continental root mean square (RMS) speeds, plate velocities and trench migration through time. Overall model trends share many similarities to those for recent times, which we use as a first order benchmark against which to compare the model and identify targets for future model refinement. Except for during the period 260-160 Ma, the number of plates (16-46) and ratio of "large" plates (≥ 107.5 km2) to smaller plates ( 2.7-6.6) are fairly similar to present-day values (46 and 6.6, respectively), with lower values occurring during late Paleozoic assembly and growth of Pangea. This temporal pattern may also reflect difficulties in reconstructing small, now subducted oceanic plates further back in time, as well as whether a supercontinent is assembling or breaking up. During the 260-160 Ma timeframe the model reaches a minima in the number of plates, in contrast to what we would expect during initial Pangea breakup and thus highlighting the need for refinement

  7. Highly curved microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Cully, S.; Warren, J.; Gaines, G. A.; Priedhorsky, W.; Bloch, J.

    1990-01-01

    Several spherically curved microchannel plate (MCP) stack configurations were studied as part of an ongoing astrophysical detector development program, and as part of the development of the ALEXIS satellite payload. MCP pairs with surface radii of curvature as small as 7 cm, and diameters up to 46 mm have been evaluated. The experiments show that the gain (greater than 1.5 x 10 exp 7) and background characteristics (about 0.5 events/sq cm per sec) of highly curved MCP stacks are in general equivalent to the performance achieved with flat MCP stacks of similar configuration. However, gain variations across the curved MCP's due to variations in the channel length to diameter ratio are observed. The overall pulse height distribution of a highly curved surface MCP stack (greater than 50 percent FWHM) is thus broader than its flat counterpart (less than 30 percent). Preconditioning of curved MCP stacks gives comparable results to flat MCP stacks, but it also decreases the overall gain variations. Flat fields of curved MCP stacks have the same general characteristics as flat MCP stacks.

  8. Digestive oncologist in the gastroenterology training curriculum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chris Jacob Johan Mulder; Marc Peeters; Annemieke Cats; Anna Dahele; Jochim Terhaar sive Droste

    2011-01-01

    Until the late 1980s, gastroenterology (GE) was consid-ered a subspecialty of Internal Medicine. Today, GE also incorporates Hepatology. However, Digestive Oncology training is poorly defined in the Hepatogastroenterology (HGE)-curriculum. Therefore, a Digestive Oncology cur-riculum should be developed and this document might be a starting point for such a curriculum. HGE-specialists are increasingly resisting the paradigm in which they play only a diagnostic and technical role in the manage-ment of digestive tumors. We suggest minimum end-points in the standard HGE-curriculum for oncology, and recommend a focus year in the Netherlands for Diges-tive Oncology in the HGE-curriculum. To produce well-trained digestive oncologists, an advanced Digestive Oncology training program with specific qualifications in Digestive Oncology (2 years) has been developed. The schedule in Belgium includes a period of at least 6 mo to be spent in a medical oncology department. The goal of these programs remains the production of well-trained digestive oncologists. HGE specialists are part of the multidisciplinary oncological teams, and some have been administering chemotherapy in their countries for years. In this article, we provide a road map for the organiza-tion of a proper training in Digestive Oncology. We hope that the World Gastroenterology Organisation and other (inter)national societies will support the necessary certi-fications for this specific training in the HGE-curriculum.

  9. Sophisticated digestive systems in early arthropods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vannier, Jean; Liu, Jianni; Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Vinther, Jakob; Daley, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    .... Here we describe exceptionally well-preserved complex digestive organs in early arthropods from the early Cambrian of China and Greenland with functional similarities to certain modern crustaceans...

  10. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  11. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  12. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  13. On plate graphite supported sample processing for simultaneous lipid and protein identification by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvano, Cosima Damiana; van der Werf, Inez Dorothé; Sabbatini, Luigia; Palmisano, Francesco

    2015-05-01

    The simultaneous identification of lipids and proteins by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) after direct on-plate processing of micro-samples supported on colloidal graphite is demonstrated. Taking advantages of large surface area and thermal conductivity, graphite provided an ideal substrate for on-plate proteolysis and lipid extraction. Indeed proteins could be efficiently digested on-plate within 15 min, providing sequence coverages comparable to those obtained by conventional in-solution overnight digestion. Interestingly, detection of hydrophilic phosphorylated peptides could be easily achieved without any further enrichment step. Furthermore, lipids could be simultaneously extracted/identified without any additional treatment/processing step as demonstrated for model complex samples such as milk and egg. The present approach is simple, efficient, of large applicability and offers great promise for protein and lipid identification in very small samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Digestive tract, obesity and cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis, Andrea; Outomuro, Delia

    2010-01-01

    Current statistics show that overweight and obesity are seriously increasing, mainly in occidental countries with high industrialization rate. Simultaneously sedentarism has increased as a consequence of technological comforts that the dominant market economy offers. Obesity, sedentarism, excessive adiposity, especially if centrally distributed, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia interact for cancer development. Visceral adipose tissue is considerate as an endocrine organ which produces and liberates cytokines and inflammatory peptides with hormonal and metabolic signals. Although there are several obesity-related types of cancer, in this paper we focus on digestive system tumors.

  15. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lier, J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2001-01-01

    The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern...... requirements. In fact, most advances were achieved during the last three decades, when high-rate reactor systems were developed and a profound insight was obtained in the microbiology of the anaerobic communities. This insight led to a better understanding of anaerobic treatment and, subsequently, to a broader...

  16. Root-feeding insects and their interactions with organisms in the rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Scott N; Rasmann, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Root-feeding insects are an increasingly studied group of herbivores whose impacts on plant productivity and ecosystem processes are widely recognized. Their belowground habitat has hitherto hindered our understanding of how they interact with other organisms that share the rhizosphere. A surge in research in this area has now shed light on these interactions. We review key interactions between root-feeding insects and other rhizospheric organisms, including beneficial plant microbes (mycorrhizal fungi, nitrogen-fixing bacteria), antagonists/pathogens of root herbivores (arthropod predators, entomopathogenic nematodes/fungi, and bacterial pathogens), competitors, symbiotic microbes, and detritivores. Patterns for these interactions are emerging. The negative impacts of mycorrhizal fungi on root herbivores, for instance, raise the intriguing prospect that these fungi could be used for pest management. Moreover, a better understanding of symbiotic microbes in root herbivores, especially those underpinning digestion, could prove useful in industries such as biofuel production.

  17. Digest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    To Welcome the Age of Shale Oil When shale oil with its huge reserves and successful development and utilization became the focus of attention, after the amazing joy lit the human desire to unconventional energy. Some experts predicted that shale oil would most likely be to replace oil and gas products. More people shouted that shale oil's presence would make the world back to the age of lower oil prices. In fact, since the shale oil went into people's vision, disputes about the development and utilization of shale oil were never stopped. The optimistic was expected, the pessimistic was doubtful. However, with the successful developments of shale oil and gas in Europe, America and China, some unconventional energy were rapidly changing the world energy pattern such as shale oil and gas, the dominant position of conventional oil and gas would be faced with great challenges. Authoritative experts predicted that the world reserves of shale oil and gas could reach several times of oil. The optimistic forecast made some people suffered fromenergy shortage catch sight of the dawn - the age of shale oil was coming.

  18. Lab-on-a-plate: extending the functionality of MALDI-MS and LDI-MS targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Pawel L; Amantonico, Andrea; Zenobi, Renato

    2011-01-01

    We review the literature that describes how (matrix-assisted) laser desorption/ionization (MA)LDI target plates can be used not only as sample supports, but beyond that: as functional parts of analytical protocols that incorporate detection by MALDI-MS or matrix-free LDI-MS. Numerous steps of analytical procedures can be performed directly on the (MA)LDI target plates prior to the ionization of analytes in the ion source of a mass spectrometer. These include homogenization, preconcentration, amplification, purification, extraction, digestion, derivatization, synthesis, separation, detection with complementary techniques, data storage, or other steps. Therefore, we consider it helpful to define the "lab-on-a-plate" as a format for carrying out extensive sample treatment as well as bioassays directly on (MA)LDI target plates. This review introduces the lab-on-plate approach and illustrates it with the aid of relevant examples from the scientific and patent literature.

  19. Effect of Backing Plate Thermal Property on Friction Stir Welding of 25-mm-Thick AA6061

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Piyush; Reynolds, Anthony

    2014-04-01

    By using backing plates made out of materials with widely varying thermal diffusivity this work seeks to elucidate the effects of the root side thermal boundary condition on weld process variables and resulting joint properties. Welds were made in 25.4-mm-thick AA6061 using ceramic, titanium, steel, and aluminum as backing plate (BP) material. Welds were also made using a "composite backing plate" consisting of longitudinal narrow strip of low diffusivity material at the center and two side plates of high diffusivity aluminum. Stir zone temperature during the welding was measured using two thermocouples spot welded at the core of the probe: one at the midplane height and another near the tip of the probe corresponding to the root of the weld. Steady state midplane probe temperatures for all the BPs used were found to be very similar. Near root peak temperature, however, varied significantly among weld made with different BPs all other things being equal. Whereas the near root and midplane temperature were the same in the case of ceramic backing plate, the root peak temperature was 318 K (45 °C) less than the midplane temperature in the case of aluminum BP. The trends of nugget hardness and grain size in through thickness direction were in agreement with the measured probe temperatures. Hardness and tensile test results show that the use of composite BP results in stronger joint compared to monolithic steel BP.

  20. The concept of locking plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronier, P; Pietu, G; Dujardin, C; Bigorre, N; Ducellier, F; Gerard, R

    2010-05-01

    After a short historical review of locking bone plates since their inception more than a century ago to the success of the concept less than 15 years ago with today's plates, the authors present the main locking mechanisms in use. In the two broad categories - plates with fixed angulation and those with variable angulation - the screw head is locked in the plate with a locknut by screwing in a threaded chamber on the plate or by screwing through an adapted ring. The authors then provide a concrete explanation, based on simple mechanical models, of the fundamental differences between conventional bone plates and locking plates and why a locking screw system presents greater resistance at disassembly, detailing the role played by the position and number of screws. The advantages of epiphyseal fixation are then discussed, including in cases of mediocre-quality bone. For teaching purposes, the authors also present assembly with an apple fixed with five locking screws withstanding a 47-kg axial load with no resulting disassembly. The principles of plate placement are detailed for both the epiphysis and diaphysis, including the number and position of screws and respect of the soft tissues, with the greatest success assured by the minimally invasive and even percutaneous techniques. The authors then present the advantages of locking plates in fixation of periprosthetic fractures where conventional osteosynthesis often encounters limited success. Based on simplified theoretical cases, the economic impact in France of this type of implant is discussed, showing that on average it accounts for less than 10% of the overall cost of this pathology to society. Finally, the possible problems of material ablation are discussed as well as the means to remediate these problems.

  1. Effect of Acylglycerol Composition and Fatty Acyl Chain Length on Lipid Digestion in pH-Stat Digestion Model and Simulated In Vitro Digestion Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jin F; Jia, Cai H; Shin, Jung A; Woo, Jeong M; Wang, Xiang Y; Park, Jong T; Hong, Soon T; Lee, K-T

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a pH-stat digestion model and a simulated in vitro digestion model were employed to evaluate the digestion degree of lipids depending on different acylglycerols and acyl chain length (that is, diacylglycerol [DAG] compared with soybean oil representing long-chain triacylglycerol compared with medium-chain triacylglycerol [MCT]). In the pH-stat digestion model, differences were observed among the digestion degrees of 3 oils using digestion rate (k), digestion half-time (t1/2 ), and digestion extent (Φmax). The results showed the digestion rate order was MCT > soybean oil > DAG. Accordingly, the order of digestion half-times was MCT digestion model, digestion rates (k') and digestion half-times (t'1/2 ) were also obtained and the results showed a digestion rate order of MCT (k' = 0.068 min(-1) ) > soybean oil (k' = 0.037 min(-1) ) > DAG (k' = 0.024 min(-1) ). Consequently, the order of digestion half-times was MCT (t'1/2 = 10.20 min) digested faster than soybean oil, and that soybean oil was digested faster than DAG.

  2. Optical Near-Field Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-08

    color filtering and spectral imaging ,” Nat. Comm. 1, 59 (2010). 3. H.-F. Shi and L. J. Guo, “Design of Plasmonic Near Field Plate at Opitical...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0085 OPTICAL NEAR-FILED PLATES Roberto Merlin UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Final Report 04/08/2015 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution...03-2015 Final 09/01/2009-12/31/2014 Optical Near-Field Plates FA9550-09-1-0636 erlin, Roberto, D. The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109

  3. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed....

  4. [Autoimmune Diseases of Digestive System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashkinl, V T; Sheptulina, A F; Raĭkhelson, K L; Losik, E A; Ivashkin, K V; Okhlobystin, A V; Baranskaia, E K; Polouvektova, E A; Shifrin, O S

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases of digestive system refer to pathological conditions, caused by autoimmune mechanisms, and their etiology remains unknown. This is a group of relatively rare diseases, however, during the last years a marked tendency towards the raise in incidence andprevalence is observed, which led to an increase in number of clinical investigations on etiology, pathogenesis, and, accordingly, development of new diagnostic methods and therapies. Results of such trials shown, for example, that the pathogenesis of chronic cholestatic liver diseases is associated with nuclear receptors function, while the main etiological and pathogenic factor of inflammatory bowel diseases represents gut microbiota. Despite new achievements in autoinmune diseases of digestive system research, therapies are low effective and are accompanied by a huge number of adverse events. The fact that these diseases may lead to malignant tumors is also worth noting. For example, patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis have a 160 times higher risk of cholangiocellular carcinoma, while 10-14% ofpatients with celiac disease may develop malignancies of esophagus, small and large intestine. Thus, these diseases require further investigation with a purpose of more accurate diagnostic methods for the detection of disease at early stages and new effective and safe therapies development.

  5. Hierarchical self-organization of tectonic plates

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Earth's surface is subdivided into eight large tectonic plates and many smaller ones. We reconstruct the plate tessellation history and demonstrate that both large and small plates display two distinct hierarchical patterns, described by different power-law size-relationships. While small plates display little organisational change through time, the structure of the large plates oscillate between minimum and maximum hierarchical tessellations. The organization of large plates rapidly chan...

  6. Digestate as nutrient source for biomass production of sida, lucerne and maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno Piaz Barbosa, Daniela; Nabel, Moritz; Horsch, David; Tsay, Gabriela; Jablonowski, Nicolai

    2014-05-01

    Biogas as a renewable energy source is supported in many countries driven by climate and energy policies. Nowadays, Germany is the largest biogas producer in the European Union. A sustainable resource management has to be considered within this growing scenario of biogas production systems and its environmental impacts. In this respect, studies aiming to enhance the management of biogas residues, which represents a valuable source of nutrients and organic fertilization, are needed. Our objective was to evaluate the digestate (biogas residue after fermentation process) application as nutrient source for biomass production of three different plants: sida (Sida hermaphrodita - Malvaceae), lucerne (Medicago sativa - Fabaceae) and maize (Zea mays - Poaceae). The digestate was collected from an operating biogas facility (fermenter volume 2500m³, ADRW Natur Power GmbH & Co.KG Titz/Ameln, Germany) composed of maize silage as the major feedstock, and minor amounts of chicken manure, with a composition of 3,29% N; 1,07% P; 3,42% K; and 41,2% C. An arable field soil (Endogleyic Stagnosol) was collected from 0-30 cm depth and 5 mm sieved. The fertilizer treatments of the plants were established in five replicates including digestate (application amount equivalent to 40 t ha-1) and NPK fertilizer (application amount equivalent to 200:100:300 kg ha-1) applications, according to the recommended agricultural doses, and a control (no fertilizer application). The digestate and the NPK fertilizer were thoroughly mixed with the soil in a rotatory shaker for 30 min. The 1L pots were filled with the fertilized soil and the seedlings were transplanted and grown for 30 days under greenhouse conditions (16 h day/8 h night: 24ºC/18ºC; 60% air humidity). After harvesting, the leaf area was immediately measured, and the roots were washed to allow above and below-ground biomass determination. Subsequently, shoots and roots were dried at 60ºC for 48 hours. The biomass and leaf area of sida

  7. Auxin, ethylene and the regulation of root growth under mechanical impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rameshwar; Santisree, Parankusam; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju

    2012-07-01

    Among the multitude functions performed by plant roots, little information is available about the mechanisms that allow roots to overcome the soil resistance, in order to grow in the soil to obtain water and nutrient. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedlings grown on horizontally placed agar plates showed a progressive decline in the root length with the increasing impedance of agar media. The incubation with 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP), an inhibitor of ethylene perception, led to aerial growth of roots. In contrast, in absence of 1-MCP control roots grew horizontally anchored to the agar surface. Though 1-MCP-treated and control seedlings showed differential ability to penetrate in the agar, the inhibition of root elongation was nearly similar for both treatments. While increased mechanical impedance also progressively impaired hypocotyl elongation in 1-MCP treated seedlings, it did not affect the hypocotyl length of control seedlings. The decline in root elongation was also associated with increased expression of DR5::GUS activity in the root tip signifying accumulation of auxin at the root tip. The increased expression of DR5::GUS activity in the root tip was also observed in 1-MCP treated seedlings, indicating independence of this response from ethylene signaling. Our results indicate operation of a sensing mechanism in root that likely operates independently of ethylene but involves auxin to determine the degree of impedance of the substratum.

  8. The Roots Of Alienation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1973-01-01

    Alienation in our society takes several forms--withdrawal, hostility, or efforts to reform. The author traces the roots of alienation to our neglect of many of the needs of children, particularly their need for interaction with adults. Among his many recommendations are: modified work schedules to permit more time with children and systems for…

  9. Multiple external root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, W Z; Ghazali, M N

    1989-04-01

    Presented is an unusual case of multiple external root resorption. Although the cause of this resorption was not determined, several possibilities are presented. Trauma from occlusion, periodontal and pulpal inflammation, and resorption of idiopathic origin are all discussed as possible causes.

  10. Low cost digester monitoring under realistic conditions: Rural use of biogas and digestate quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, L; Escalante, H; Jaimes-Estévez, J; Díaz, L J; Vecino, K; Rojas, G; Mantilla, L

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the behaviour of anaerobic digestion of cattle manure in a rural digester under realistic conditions, and estimate the quality and properties of the digestate. The data obtained during monitoring indicated that the digester operation was stable without risk of inhibition. It produced an average of 0.85Nm(3)biogas/d at 65.6% methane, providing an energy savings of 76%. In addition, the digestate contained high nutrient concentrations, which is an important feature of fertilizers. However, this method requires post-treatment due to the presence of pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The multigap resistive plate chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeballos, E. Cerron [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Crotty, I. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Hatzifotiadou, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Valverde, J. Lamas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Univ. Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Neupane, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Williams, M. C. S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Zichichi, A. [Univ. of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2015-02-03

    The paper describes the multigap resistive plate chamber (RPC). This is a variant of the wide gap RPC. However it has much improved time resolution, while keeping all the other advantages of the wide gap RPC design.

  12. An efficient rectangular plate element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new 12-parameter rectangular plate element is presented by useof the double set parameter method. The error in the energy norm is of order O(h2), one order higher than the commonly used Adini nonconforming element.

  13. Tectonics: Changing of the plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Alan

    2016-10-01

    The composition of Earth's crust depends on the style of plate tectonics and of the melting regimes in the mantle. Analyses of the oldest identified rocks suggest that these styles and the resulting crust have changed over Earth's history.

  14. Mesophylic and psychrophilic digestion of liquid manure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.

    1991-01-01

    IN GENERALIn this thesis the possibilities for digestion of cow and pig manure are described for a completely stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and an accumulation system (AC-system).For this purpose were researched:1. Anaerobic digestion of cow manure. Optimization of the digestio

  15. 12.DIGESTIVE TRACT 12.1.Esophagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920110 The clinical study on gastroeso-phageal reflux.LUO Jinyan (罗金燕),et al.Digest Funct Lab,2nd Affil Hosp,Xian Med Univ.Chin J Digest 1991; 11(3): 137-140.Fifty-two patients with symptomatic gas-troesophageal reflux (GER) were studied withprolonged intraesopnageal pH monitoring,scin-

  16. Mesophilic and psychrophilic digestion of liquid manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.

    1991-01-01

    IN GENERAL

    In this thesis the possibilities for digestion of cow and pig manure are described for a completely stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and an accumulation system (AC-system).
    For this purpose were researched:
    1. Anaerobic digestion

  17. Digestive strategies in two sympatrically occurring lagomorphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, D.P.J.; Wieren, van S.E.; Bakker, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Separation of low digestible fibres and fermentation of the digestible part of the food in the caecum is an adaptation of some small herbivores to cope with low-quality forage. The caecum content is later re-ingested as soft faeces so that the herbivore can benefit from this protein-rich material.

  18. La Disciplina Positiva (Positive Discipline). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This ERIC Digest suggests methods and language that can be used in handling difficult, but common, situations involving young children. The digest explains 12 methods of disciplining children that promote children's self-worth. These methods are: (1) showing children that the reasons for their actions are understood; (2) stating reasons; (3)…

  19. Kinetics and modeling of anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion modeling started in the early 1970s when the need for design and efficient operation of anaerobic systems became evident. At that time not only was the knowledge about the complex process of anaerobic digestion inadequate but also there were computational limitations. Thus...

  20. Hairy roots are more sensitive to auxin than normal roots

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Wen Hui; Petit, Annik; Guern, Jean; Tempé, Jacques

    1988-01-01

    Responses to auxin of Lotus corniculatus root tips or protoplasts transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains 15834 and 8196 were compared to those of their normal counterparts. Three different types of experiments were performed, involving long-term, medium-term, or short-term responses to a synthetic auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. Root tip elongation, proton excretion by root tips, and transmembrane electrical potential difference of root protoplasts were measured as a function of exo...

  1. Analgesic effects of glycoproteins from Panax ginseng root in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Yinghong; Xu, Hong; Luo, Haoming; Jiang, Ruizhi

    2013-07-30

    The root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey has various beneficial pharmacological effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the analgesic activities of glycoproteins from the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey in mice. Glycoproteins were isolated and purified from the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey. Physicochemical properties and molecular mass were determined by chemical assay and HPLC. Acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests were employed to study the analgesic effect of glycoproteins and compared with that of aspirin or morphine. The locomotor activity was tested in mice by using actophometer. Four glycoproteins were obtained. The glycoproteins which protein content was the highest (73.04%) displayed dose-dependent analgesic effect. In writhing test, the glycoproteins significantly inhibited writhes (PPanax ginseng C.A. Mey exhibited significant analgesic activities and the proteins were the active site, providing evidence for its pharmacal use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rhodium platings – experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rudolf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern rhodium plating solutions are based on either sulphate or phosphate. Although in theory there are four possible combinations, in practice only three different rhodium electrolytes are used. These are based on dilutions of rhodium sulphate or phosphate concentrates with added sulphuric or phosphoric acid. These processes are be discussed in this paper with a demonstration of Rh platings in the Slovenian firm Zlatarna Celje d.d.

  3. Effect of digestion time on anaerobic digestion with high ammonia concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktavitri, Nur Indradewi; Purnobasuki, Hery; Kuncoro, Eko Prasetyo; Purnamasari, Indah; Semma Hadinnata, P.

    2016-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion was developed to treat high concentration organic compound efficiently in certain Digestion Time (DT). High ammonia concentration could influenced removal organic compound in digestion. This bench scale study investigated the effect of digestion time on anaerobic batch reactor with high ammonia concentration. Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN) concentration was adjusted 4000 and 5000 mg/1, Digestion time was ranged from 0-26 d, operation temperature was ranged from 28-29°C, inoculum was collected from slaughter house sludge. The degradation of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) correlated with digestion time. The concentration of TAN from synthetic wastewater contain 5000 mg/1 of TAN more fluctuated than those use 4000 mg/1 of TAN. However, the biogas production from wastewater contained 4000 mg/1 of TAN gradually increased until 24 d of DT. The reactor contain 5000 mg/1 of TAN only growth until 12 d and steady state at over 12 d of digestion time.

  4. Prospects of Anaerobic Digestion Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As the world's largest developing country, China must face the problem of managing municipal solid waste, and the challenge of organic waste disposal is even more serious. Considering the characteristics of traditional waste disposal technologies and the subsequent secondary pollution, anaerobic digestion has various advantages such as reduction in the land needed for disposal and preservation of environmental quality. In light of the energy crisis, this paper focuses on the potential production of biogas from biowaste through anaerobic digestion processes, the problems incurred by the waste collection system, and the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process. Use of biogas in a combined heat and power cogeneration system is also discussed. Finally, the advantages of anaerobic digestion technology for the Chinese market are summarized. The anaerobic digestion is suggested to be a promising treating technology for the organic wastes in China.

  5. Could plate tectonics on Venus be concealed by volcanic deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaula, W. M.; Muradian, L. M.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation is supplementary to a study reported by Kaula and Phillips (1981). From an analysis of Pioneer Venus altimetry, Kaula and Phillips had inferred that any heat loss from the planet by plate tectonics must be small compared to that from the earth. However, it has been suggested by others that plate tectonic may exist on Venus, but that the expected 'square root of s' dependence of the topographic drop off is not observed because it is concealed by lava flows. The present investigation has the objective to conduct an examination whether this suggestion of concealment by lava flow is correct. On the basis of the performed analysis, it is concluded that the results obtained by Kaula and Phillips appear to be well justified.

  6. Could plate tectonics on Venus be concealed by volcanic deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaula, W. M.; Muradian, L. M.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation is supplementary to a study reported by Kaula and Phillips (1981). From an analysis of Pioneer Venus altimetry, Kaula and Phillips had inferred that any heat loss from the planet by plate tectonics must be small compared to that from the earth. However, it has been suggested by others that plate tectonic may exist on Venus, but that the expected 'square root of s' dependence of the topographic drop off is not observed because it is concealed by lava flows. The present investigation has the objective to conduct an examination whether this suggestion of concealment by lava flow is correct. On the basis of the performed analysis, it is concluded that the results obtained by Kaula and Phillips appear to be well justified.

  7. Horizontal versus vertical plate motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cuffaro

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We review both present and past motions at major plate boundaries, which have the horizontal component in average 10 to 100 times faster (10–100 mm/yr than the vertical component (0.01–1 mm/yr in all geodynamic settings. The steady faster horizontal velocity of the lithosphere with respect to the upward or downward velocities at plate boundaries supports dominating tangential forces acting on plates. This suggests a passive role of plate boundaries with respect to far field forces determining the velocity of plates. The forces acting on the lithosphere can be subdivided in coupled and uncoupled, as a function of the shear at the lithosphere base. Higher the asthenosphere viscosity, more significant should be the coupled forces, i.e., the mantle drag and the trench suction. Lower the asthenosphere viscosity, more the effects of uncoupled forces might result determinant, i.e., the ridge push, the slab pull and the tidal drag. Although a combination of all forces acting on the lithosphere is likely, the decoupling between lithosphere and mantle suggests that a torque acts on the lithosphere independently of the mantle drag. Slab pull and ridge push are candidates for generating this torque, but, unlike these boundary forces, the advantage of the tidal drag is to be a volume force, acting simultaneously on the whole plates, and being the decoupling at the lithosphere base controlled by lateral variations in viscosity of the low-velocity layer.

  8. Horizontally oriented plates in clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Bréon, François-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Horizontally oriented plates in clouds generate a sharp specular reflectance signal in the glint direction, often referred to as "subsun". This signal (amplitude and width) may be used to analyze the relative area fraction of oriented plates in the cloud top layer and their characteristic tilt angle to the horizontal. We make use of spaceborne measurements from the POLDER instrument to provide a statistical analysis of these parameters. More than half of the clouds show a detectable maximum reflectance in the glint direction, although this maximum may be rather faint. The typical effective fraction (area weighted) of oriented plates in clouds lies between 10-3 and 10-2. For those oriented plates, the characteristic tilt angle is less than 1 degree in most cases. These low fractions imply that the impact of oriented plates on the cloud albedo is insignificant. The largest proportion of clouds with horizontally oriented plates is found in the range 500-700 hPa, in agreement with typical in situ observation of p...

  9. How mantle slabs drive plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Clinton P; Lithgow-Bertelloni, Carolina

    2002-10-04

    The gravitational pull of subducted slabs is thought to drive the motions of Earth's tectonic plates, but the coupling between slabs and plates is not well established. If a slab is mechanically attached to a subducting plate, it can exert a direct pull on the plate. Alternatively, a detached slab may drive a plate by exciting flow in the mantle that exerts a shear traction on the base of the plate. From the geologic history of subduction, we estimated the relative importance of "pull" versus "suction" for the present-day plates. Observed plate motions are best predicted if slabs in the upper mantle are attached to plates and generate slab pull forces that account for about half of the total driving force on plates. Slabs in the lower mantle are supported by viscous mantle forces and drive plates through slab suction.

  10. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  11. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  12. The rapid drift of the Indian tectonic plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prakash; Yuan, Xiaohui; Kumar, M Ravi; Kind, Rainer; Li, Xueqing; Chadha, R K

    2007-10-18

    The breakup of the supercontinent Gondwanaland into Africa, Antarctica, Australia and India about 140 million years ago, and consequently the opening of the Indian Ocean, is thought to have been caused by heating of the lithosphere from below by a large plume whose relicts are now the Marion, Kerguelen and Réunion plumes. Plate reconstructions based on palaeomagnetic data suggest that the Indian plate attained a very high speed (18-20 cm yr(-1) during the late Cretaceous period) subsequent to its breakup from Gondwanaland, and then slowed to approximately 5 cm yr(-1) after the continental collision with Asia approximately 50 Myr ago. The Australian and African plates moved comparatively less distance and at much lower speeds of 2-4 cm yr(-1) (refs 3-5). Antarctica remained almost stationary. This mobility makes India unique among the fragments of Gondwanaland. Here we propose that when the fragments of Gondwanaland were separated by the plume, the penetration of their lithospheric roots into the asthenosphere were important in determining their speed. We estimated the thickness of the lithospheric plates of the different fragments of Gondwanaland around the Indian Ocean by using the shear-wave receiver function technique. We found that the fragment of Gondwanaland with clearly the thinnest lithosphere is India. The lithospheric roots in South Africa, Australia and Antarctica are between 180 and 300 km deep, whereas the Indian lithosphere extends only about 100 km deep. We infer that the plume that partitioned Gondwanaland may have also melted the lower half of the Indian lithosphere, thus permitting faster motion due to ridge push or slab pull.

  13. A Digest of Nonproliferation Literature.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth A

    2006-04-01

    In preparation for the 2005 US/Russian Weapons Laboratories Directors Meeting, the six laboratories participating in the meeting endeavored to develop a strategy for nonproliferation technology research and development. A literature review was conducted to identify possible areas of technical collaboration and technology opportunities associated with improving nonproliferation associated with the civilian nuclear fuel cycle. The issue of multinationalization of the nuclear fuel cycle was also researched. This digest is the compilation of one-page summaries used by management of the three US nuclear weapons laboratories in preparation for strategy development. Where possible, the Web site address of the complete paper is referenced.3 AcknowledgementsThe author wishes to thank Jessica Ruyle, Nancy Orlando-Gay, and Barbara Dry for their research assistance and contributions.4

  14. The digestion of dietary triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    structure and the species composition are of importance when considering the nutritional effects of a dietary fat. There is good evidence that in addition to its short-term effects in the intestine on absorption of fatty acids the TAG structure also has long-term effects resulting from differences......Dietary triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major lipid components in the human diet and they are carriers of energy as well as important fatty acids. Many factors affect the digestion and absorption of TAGs. Evidence is accumulating that, in addition to the overall fatty acid profile, the TAG...... in the profile of absorbed fatty acids. Observations on the different atherogenic potential of dietary fats have given us a clear indication of the importance of the TAG structure for absorption of saturated fatty acids. In this context, one may focus on the effects of the structure of dietary fats as such...

  15. Geometry of the Cocos Plate Under North American Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Campos, X.

    2015-12-01

    The Cocos plate subducts under the North American plate with a complex geometry, and previous seismicity studies revealed some of this complexity. However, details of the geometry and the depth that the plate penetrates werelargely unknown. Since 2004, temporary experiments and the expansion of the permanent network of the Servicio Sismológico Nacional (SSN, Mexican National Seismological Service) have improved resolution of the plate geometry and have helped to map its descent into the upper mantle. Going from northwest to southeast, the Cocos plate appears to be fragmenting into north and south segments. The north segment subducts with an angle of ~30º and the south with an angle of ~10-15º. The transition is smooth near the trench and progresses to a tear at depth; this coincides with the projection of the Orozco Fracture Zone to depth. Also, this transition marks the limit of the presence to the south of an ultra slow velocity layer (USL) on top of the slab.South of this transition, the Cocos plate subducts horizontally , underplating the North American plate for a distance of ~140 to ~300 km from the trench. Along this horizontal region, silent slow events (SSE) and tectonic tremor (TT) have been observed. At a distance of 300 km from the trench (beneath central Mexico), the plate dives into the mantle with an angle of 76º to a depth of 500 km. This geometry changes abruptly to the south, marking the eastern limit of the USL. This change seems to be also characterized by a tear on the slab. Finally to the south, the Cocos plate subducts with a constant angle of 26º. This presentation summarizes the work of many contributors including A. Arciniega-Ceballos, M. Brudzinski, E. Cabral-Cano, T. Chen, R. Clayton,F. Cordoba-Montiel,P. Davis,S. Dougherty,F. Green, M. Gurnis, D. V. Helmberger, A. Husker,A. Iglesias, Y. Kim, V. Manea, D. Melgar, M. Rodríguez-Domínguez,S. K. Singh, T.-R. A. Song, C. M. Valdés-González, D. Valencia-Cabrera

  16. Function of root apical meristem

    OpenAIRE

    Benešová, Šárka

    2013-01-01

    A root apical meristem is the only source of cells for all tissues in the root. The root growth relies on its function. Regulation of a cell division frequency and cell differentiation affects organization and function of the differentiated tissues and the proper meristem function. If the cell differentiation overbalances the cell proliferation, the meristem exhaustion occurs and the root growth irreversibly terminates. This thesis describes existing knowledge about regulation of the primary ...

  17. Effect of bile acids on digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Stremoukhov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying the effects of different bile acids in the body in recent years significantly increased the understanding of their physiological functions. The role of bile acids is to transfer to Striated border of enterocytes lipids in high micellar concentration and subsequent return them to the water layer in the molecular form. The rate of diffusion of molecules or particles is inversely proportional to the square root of the magnitude of their molecular weight. Main components of the glycoprotein complex (GPC allows to preserve the natural structure of mucosa. Previous physicochemical experiments on GPC established presence of bile acids (3,5 to 10 mg/ml, enzymes (amylase and lipase, amino acids (from 10150 to 29500 ug/ml in the complex. Objective. The aim was to study the influence of bile on fat filtration on the model of GPC. Method and Materials. Soaked filters were put on the tubes: with bile - the first, water - the second group, GPC bile at a dose of 25 mg/kg - the third group. Then on each filter was poured 2 ml of liquid fat. 30 minutes after the start of the experiment the amount of liquid fat that passes through the filter was measured. Results and Discussion. As established in the first group (bile medical, the amount of liquid fat, which passed through the filter amounted to 1,85±0,02 ml. In the second group (water - 0,30 ± 0,03 ml. In the third group (GPC 25 mg/kg - 1,75±0,02 ml. After that the impact of GPC bile in emulsification of fats was studied. 1 ml of vegetable oil and 1,5 ml of purified water were contributed in three series of tubes. The first series of test tubes left unchanged. In the other two 2 ml in 2 series - medical bile in 3 series - GPC bile were added. Tubes were shaken in all series. In the first (control series observed the formation of turbid fluid - emulsion. However, in a few seconds instability of the emulsion was detected. In the second and third series of tubes formation of stable emulsions which are

  18. Hairy roots are more sensitive to auxin than normal roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen Hui; Petit, Annik; Guern, Jean; Tempé, Jacques

    1988-01-01

    Responses to auxin of Lotus corniculatus root tips or protoplasts transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains 15834 and 8196 were compared to those of their normal counterparts. Three different types of experiments were performed, involving long-term, medium-term, or short-term responses to a synthetic auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. Root tip elongation, proton excretion by root tips, and transmembrane electrical potential difference of root protoplasts were measured as a function of exogenous auxin concentration. The sensitivity of hairy root tips or protoplasts to exogenous auxin was found to be 100-1000 times higher than that of untransformed material. PMID:16593928

  19. Adventitious root formation in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massoumi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation is indispensable in vegetative propagation and is widely used. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms is needed to improve rooting treatments. We first established a system to study rooting in Arabidopsis, the model organism in plant biology but only occ

  20. Negative phototropism of rice root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@It is often believed that the stem of higher plants has characteristics of positive phototropism, and the root shows no phototropism or no sensitivity to light though the root of Arabdopsis was reported possessing characteristics of negative phototropism. In this study, a distinct negative phototropism of the root system of rice seedlings was observed.

  1. Metagenomics at Grass Roots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sudeshna Mazumdar-Leighton; Vivek K Choudhary

    2017-03-01

    Metagenomics is a robust, interdisciplinary approach for studyingmicrobial community composition, function, and dynamics.It typically involves a core of molecular biology, microbiology,ecology, statistics, and computational biology. Excitingoutcomes anticipated from these studies include unravelingof complex interactions that characterize the ecologicalmilieu of microbial communities. Diverse habitats fromwhich metagenomes have been reported include human guts,caterpillar guts, thermal vents in oceans, ore deposits, polarcaps, and even soils that adhere to plant roots. Knowledgegenerated from metagenomic projects has tremendous potentialto benefit human health, agriculture, and ecosystemfunctions. This article provides a brief history of technicaladvances in metagenomics, including DNA sequencing methods,and some case studies. A specific example is providedof microbial metagenomes found at the roots of native grassspecies (family Poaceae) that can grow on degraded lands undergoingrevegetation.

  2. Rooting an Android Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    tools that grant root privileges for both Windows and Linux . For the Linux system, open a shell window and use “cd” command to change the directory...defined as a process of gaining administrative commands and functions of an operating system (OS). In order to monitor live network traffic on any... Linux -based or, in this case, Android system, it is necessary to have administrative rights to gain access to any of the hardware devices, such as the

  3. Analytical solution for multilayer plates using general layerwise plate theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Đorđe M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with closed-form solution for static analysis of simply supported composite plate, based on generalized laminate plate theory (GLPT. The mathematical model assumes piece-wise linear variation of in-plane displacement components and a constant transverse displacement through the thickness. It also include discrete transverse shear effect into the assumed displacement field, thus providing accurate prediction of transverse shear stresses. Namely, transverse stresses satisfy Hook's law, 3D equilibrium equations and traction free boundary conditions. With assumed displacement field, linear strain-displacement relation, and constitutive equations of the lamina, equilibrium equations are derived using principle of virtual displacements. Navier-type closed form solution of GLPT, is derived for simply supported plate, made of orthotropic laminae, loaded by harmonic and uniform distribution of transverse pressure. Results are compared with 3D elasticity solutions and excellent agreement is found.

  4. Plate tectonics of the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D P

    1970-04-18

    The seismicity and fault plane solutions in the Mediterranean area show that two small rapidly moving plates exist in the Eastern Mediterranean, and such plates may be a common feature of contracting ocean basins. The results show that the concepts of plate tectonics apply to instantaneous motions across continental plate boundaries.

  5. 30 CFR 18.13 - Certification plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification plate. 18.13 Section 18.13... Certification plate. Each certified component shall be identified by a certification plate attached to the... characteristics of the component. The plate shall be of serviceable material, acceptable, to MSHA, and shall...

  6. 21 CFR 872.4760 - Bone plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone plate. 872.4760 Section 872.4760 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4760 Bone plate. (a) Identification. A bone plate is a metal device... plate with screws to prevent movement of the segments. (b) Classification. Class II. ...

  7. 30 CFR 18.11 - Approval plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval plate. 18.11 Section 18.11 Mineral... plate. (a)(1) The notice of approval will be accompanied by a photograph of an approval plate, bearing... number shall be added to the original approval number on the approval plate. (Example: Original approval...

  8. Digestive Physiology of Octopus maya and O. mimus: Temporality of Digestion and Assimilation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Pedro; Olivares, Alberto; Martínez-Yáñez, Rosario; Caamal-Monsreal, Claudia; Domingues, Pedro M; Mascaró, Maite; Sánchez, Ariadna; Pascual, Cristina; Rosas, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Digestive physiology is one of the bottlenecks of octopus aquaculture. Although, there are successful experimentally formulated feeds, knowledge of the digestive physiology of cephalopods is fragmented, and focused mainly on Octopus vulgaris. Considering that the digestive physiology could vary in tropical and sub-tropical species through temperature modulations of the digestive dynamics and nutritional requirements of different organisms, the present review was focused on the digestive physiology timing of Octopus maya and Octopus mimus, two promising aquaculture species living in tropical (22-30°C) and sub-tropical (15-24°C) ecosystems, respectively. We provide a detailed description of how soluble and complex nutrients are digested, absorbed, and assimilated in these species, describing the digestive process and providing insight into how the environment can modulate the digestion and final use of nutrients for these and presumably other octopus species. To date, research on these octopus species has demonstrated that soluble protein and other nutrients flow through the digestive tract to the digestive gland in a similar manner in both species. However, differences in the use of nutrients were noted: in O. mimus, lipids were mobilized faster than protein, while in O. maya, the inverse process was observed, suggesting that lipid mobilization in species that live in relatively colder environments occurs differently to those in tropical ecosystems. Those differences are related to the particular adaptations of animals to their habitat, and indicate that this knowledge is important when formulating feed for octopus species.

  9. Root Growth Patterns and Morphometric Change Based on the Growth Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Eric R.; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Ferl, Robert J.

    2016-12-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana roots skew with minimal waving in the microgravity environment of the International Space Station. Root skewing and root waving have been studied on the ground as well as in spaceflight, but often using different media types. In this study, Arabidopsis seedlings were grown on nutrient media plates that were comprised of various gelling agents with varied hardness in order to better assess these media for spaceflight research experiments. ImageJ was used to quantify the root morphology of 8-dayold seedlings, while R was used to perform statistical analyses. Root growth was drastically different between Difco agar, agarose, and Phytagel. Additionally, root waving masked skewing in certain media. Regression analysis revealed overall patterns when organized by hardness but also revealed that differences in media type had more of an impact on root growth than hardness itself. Different arrangements of media around the root tip revealed that roots grown on the media surface were longer and had fewer waves per millimeter than roots grown embedded in media. The implications for spaceflight research are discussed.

  10. Oxygen Effects in Anaerobic Digestion - II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshai Botheju

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Standard models describing bio-gasification using anaerobic digestion do not include necessary processes to describe digester dynamics under the conditions of oxygen presence. Limited oxygenation in anaerobic digestion can sometimes be beneficial. The oxygen effects included anaerobic digestion model, ADM 1-Ox, was simulated against experimental data obtained from laboratory scale anaerobic digesters operated under different oxygenation conditions. ADM 1-Ox predictions are generally in good agreement with the trends of the experimental data. ADM 1-Ox simulations suggest the existence of an optimum oxygenation level corresponding to a peak methane yield. The positive impact of oxygenation on methane yield is more pronounced at conditions characterized by low hydrolysis rate coefficients (slowly degradable feed and low biomass concentrations. The optimum oxygenation point moves towards zero when the hydrolysis rate coefficient and the biomass concentration increase. Accordingly, the impact of oxygenation on methane yield can either be positive or negative depending on the digestion system characteristics. The developed ADM 1-Ox model can therefore be a valuable tool for recognizing suitable operating conditions for achieving the maximum benefits from partial aeration in anaerobic digestion.

  11. INCREASING ANAEROBIC DIGESTION PERFORMANCE OF WASTEWATER WITH CO-DIGESTION USING DECANTER CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaniya Kaosol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low biogas production in the frozen seafood wastewater anaerobic digestion is observed due to the low organic and Total Solids (TS contents in the wastewater. In this research the decanter cake will be used in the anaerobic co-digestion process to improve the biogas production rate. The effect of co-digestion and Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT will be investigated using the continuously stirred tank reactors under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, the study determines the biogas production potential of different HRTs and that of wastewater digestion alone. The anaerobic co-digestion is operated in continuous with continuously stirred reactors at HRT of 10, 20 and 30 days. The mechanical stirring units of all reactors are operated automatically. The stirring action occurred continuously during the experiments. The anaerobic co-digestion results show that the anaerobic co-digestion provides higher biogas production rate and higher methane yield than that of the wastewater digestion alone. The optimum HRT of the anaerobic co-digestion is 20 days. This reactor produces 2.88 L day-1, with 64.5% of methane and the maximum methane production rate of 1.87 L day-1 and the methane yield of 0.321 l CH4/g CODremoved. The anaerobic co-digestion of wastewater with decanter cake provides the higher methane yield potential production than that provided by the wastewater digestion alone at the ambient temperature. The best HRT is 20 days for anaerobic co-digestion between the wastewater and decanter cake. The experimental results reveal that HRT and co-digestion are the parameters that can affect the biogas production and methane yield.

  12. Titanium dioxide coated MALDI plate for on target analysis of phosphopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torta, Federico; Fusi, Matteo; Casari, Carlo S; Bottani, Carlo E; Bachi, Angela

    2009-04-01

    Protein phosphorylation controls many cellular processes and activities. One of the major challenges in the proteomic study of phosphorylation is the enrichment of substoichiometric phosphorylated peptides from complex mixtures. Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based chromatography is now widely applied to isolate phosphopeptides because of its efficiency and flexibility. In this study, a novel TiO2 coated matrix assisted laser desorption ionization plate is presented and tested for the purification of phosphopeptides from complex mixtures. The novel feature of this approach is the deposition of a nanostructured TiO2 film on stainless steel plates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). By using tryptic digests of alpha-casein, beta-casein, and other nonphosphorylated proteins, the successful enrichment of phosphopeptides was possible with this novel device, called T-plate, even when working in the low fmol range, making the sample ready for mass spectrometric analysis in few minutes.

  13. Beyond plate tectonics - Looking at plate deformation with space geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Thomas H.; Minster, J. Bernard

    1988-01-01

    The requirements that must be met by space-geodetic systems in order to constrain the horizontal secular motions associated with the geological deformation of the earth's surface are explored. It is suggested that in order to improve existing plate-motion models, the tangential components of relative velocities on interplate baselines must be resolved to an accuracy of less than 3 mm/yr. Results indicate that measuring the velocities between crustal blocks to + or - 5 mm/yr on 100-km to 1000-km scales can produce geologically significant constraints on the integrated deformation rates across continental plate-boundary zones such as the western United States.

  14. Plating on some difficult-to-plate metals and alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1980-02-01

    Electrodeposition of coatings on metals such as beryllium, beryllium-copper, Kovar, lead, magnesium, thorium, titanium, tungsten, uranium, zirconium, and their alloys can be problematic. This is due in most cases to a natural oxide surface film that readily reforms after being removed. The procedures we recommend for plating on these metals rely on replacing the oxide film with a displacement coating, or etching to allow mechanical keying between the substrate and plated deposit. The effectiveness of the procedures is demonstrated by interface bond strengths found in ring-shear and conical-head tensile tests.

  15. Beyond plate tectonics - Looking at plate deformation with space geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Thomas H.; Minster, J. Bernard

    1988-01-01

    The requirements that must be met by space-geodetic systems in order to constrain the horizontal secular motions associated with the geological deformation of the earth's surface are explored. It is suggested that in order to improve existing plate-motion models, the tangential components of relative velocities on interplate baselines must be resolved to an accuracy of less than 3 mm/yr. Results indicate that measuring the velocities between crustal blocks to + or - 5 mm/yr on 100-km to 1000-km scales can produce geologically significant constraints on the integrated deformation rates across continental plate-boundary zones such as the western United States.

  16. Effect of soluble and insoluble fibers within the in vitro fermentation of chicory root pulp by human gut bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramasamy, U.S.; Venema, K.; Schols, H.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the in vitro fermentation of chicory root pulp (CRP) and ensiled CRP (ECRP) using human fecal inoculum. Analysis of carbohydrate levels in fermentation digests showed that 51% of all CRP carbohydrates were utilized after 24 h of fermentation. For ECRP, having th

  17. Effect of Soluble and Insoluble Fibers within the in Vitro Fermentation of Chicory Root Pulp by Human Gut Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramasamy, U.; Venema, K.; Schols, H.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the in vitro fermentation of chicory root pulp (CRP) and ensiled CRP (ECRP) using human fecal inoculum. Analysis of carbohydrate levels in fermentation digests showed that 51% of all CRP carbohydrates were utilized after 24 h of fermentation. For ECRP, having th

  18. Chladni's law for vibrating plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    1982-03-01

    The normal vibrational modes of free circular plates can be classified according to the number of nodal diameters m and the number of nodal circles n. Chladni observed that the addition of one nodal circle raised the frequency f about the same amount as adding two nodal diameters, and Rayleigh pointed out that f is proportional to (m+2n)2 for large f. Waller, however, concluded that the number of nodal diameters necessary to raise the frequency as much as a nodal circle varies from two to five. We have examined data on the vibrations of flat and non-flat circular plates and fitted their vibration frequencies to the relationship f = c(m+bn)k. By proper choice of c it is possible to satisfy Chladni's law (b = 2, k = 2) over quite a wide range of frequency in flat plates. Non-flat plates such as cymbals and bells, require different choices of b and k. A brief history of Chladni patterns, and suggestions for observing and demonstrating the vibrational modes of plates are included (AIP).

  19. Root systems and soil microbial biomass under no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venzke Filho Solismar de Paiva

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Some root parameters such as distribution, length, diameter and dry matter are inherent to plant species. Roots can influence microbial population during vegetative cycle through the rhizodeposits and, after senescence, integrating the soil organic matter pool. Since they represent labile substrates, especially regarding nitrogen, they can determine the rate of nutrient availability to the next crop cultivated under no-tillage (NT. The root systems of two crop species: maize (Zea mays L. cultivar Cargill 909 and soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] cultivar Embrapa 59, were compared in the field, and their influence on spatial distribution of the microbial C and N in a clayey-textured Typic Hapludox cultivated for 22 years under NT, at Tibagi, State of Paraná (PR, Brazil, was determined. Digital image processing and nail-plate techniques were used to evaluate 40 plots of a 80 ´ 50 ´ 3 cm soil profile. It was observed that 36% and 30% of the maize and soybeans roots, respectively, are concentrated in the 0 to 10 cm soil layer. The percent distribution of root dry matter was similar for both crops. The maize roots presented a total of 1,324 kg C ha-1 and 58 kg N ha-1, with higher root dry matter density and more roots in decomposition in the upper soil layer, decreasing with depth. The soybean roots (392 kg C ha-1 and 21 kg N ha-1 showed higher number of thinner roots and higher density per length unity compared to the maize. The maize roots enhanced microbial-C down to deeper soil layers than did the soybean roots. The microbial N presented a better correlation with the concentration of thin active roots and with roots in decomposition or in indefinite shape, possibly because of higher concentration of C and N easily assimilated by soil microorganisms.

  20. Fate of Trace Metals in Anaerobic Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermoso, F G; van Hullebusch, E D; Guibaud, G; Collins, G; Svensson, B H; Carliell-Marquet, C; Vink, J P M; Esposito, G; Frunzo, L

    2015-01-01

    A challenging, and largely uncharted, area of research in the field of anaerobic digestion science and technology is in understanding the roles of trace metals in enabling biogas production. This is a major knowledge gap and a multifaceted problem involving metal chemistry; physical interactions of metal and solids; microbiology; and technology optimization. Moreover, the fate of trace metals, and the chemical speciation and transport of trace metals in environments--often agricultural lands receiving discharge waters from anaerobic digestion processes--simultaneously represents challenges for environmental protection and opportunities to close process loops in anaerobic digestion.

  1. Robust regulation of anaerobic digestion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailleret, L; Bernard, O; Steyer, J P

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of controlling anaerobic digestion processes. A two-step (i.e. acidogenesis-methanization) mass balance model is considered for a 1 m3 fixed bed digester treating industrial wine distillery wastewater. The control law aims at regulating the organic pollution level while avoiding washout of biomass. To this end, a simple output feedback controller is considered which regulates a variable strongly related to the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Numerical simulations assuming noisy measurements first illustrate the robustness of this control procedure. Then, the regulating procedure is implemented on the considered anaerobic digestion process in order to validate and demonstrate its efficiency in real life experiments.

  2. Multiregional evaluation of the SimPlate heterotrophic plate count method compared to the standard plate count agar pour plate method in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R W; Osborne, K; Barnes, G; Jolliff, C; Zamani, D; Roll, B; Stillings, A; Herzog, D; Cannon, S; Loveland, S

    2000-01-01

    A new SimPlate heterotrophic plate count (HPC) method (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine) was compared with the pour plate method at 35 degrees C for 48 h. Six laboratories tested a total of 632 water samples. The SimPlate HPC method was found to be equivalent to the pour plate method by regression analysis (r = 0. 95; y = 0.99X + 0.06).

  3. Multiregional Evaluation of the SimPlate Heterotrophic Plate Count Method Compared to the Standard Plate Count Agar Pour Plate Method in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, R. Wayne; Osborne, Karen; Barnes, Gary; Jolliff, Carol; Zamani, Dianna; Roll, Bruce; Stillings, Amy; Herzog, David; Cannon, Shelly; Loveland, Scott

    2000-01-01

    A new SimPlate heterotrophic plate count (HPC) method (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine) was compared with the pour plate method at 35°C for 48 h. Six laboratories tested a total of 632 water samples. The SimPlate HPC method was found to be equivalent to the pour plate method by regression analysis (r = 0.95; y = 0.99X + 0.06).

  4. Multiple-Dynode-Layer Microchannel Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, Bruce E.

    1990-01-01

    Improved microchannel-plate electron image amplifier made of stack of discrete microchannel-plate layers. New plates easier to manufacture because no need to etch long, narrow holes, to draw and bundle thin glass tubes, or to shear plates to give microchannels curvatures necessary for reduction of undesired emission of ions. Discrete dynode layers stacked with slight offset from layer to layer to form microchannel plate with curved channels. Provides for relatively fast recharging of microchannel dynodes, with consequent enhancement of performance.

  5. Extracellular DNA is required for root tip resistance to fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fushi; White, Gerard J; VanEtten, Hans D; Xiong, Zhongguo; Hawes, Martha C

    2009-10-01

    Plant defense involves a complex array of biochemical interactions, many of which occur in the extracellular environment. The apical 1- to 2-mm root tip housing apical and root cap meristems is resistant to infection by most pathogens, so growth and gravity sensing often proceed normally even when other sites on the root are invaded. The mechanism of this resistance is unknown but appears to involve a mucilaginous matrix or "slime" composed of proteins, polysaccharides, and detached living cells called "border cells." Here, we report that extracellular DNA (exDNA) is a component of root cap slime and that exDNA degradation during inoculation by a fungal pathogen results in loss of root tip resistance to infection. Most root tips (>95%) escape infection even when immersed in inoculum from the root-rotting pathogen Nectria haematococca. By contrast, 100% of inoculated root tips treated with DNase I developed necrosis. Treatment with BAL31, an exonuclease that digests DNA more slowly than DNase I, also resulted in increased root tip infection, but the onset of infection was delayed. Control root tips or fungal spores treated with nuclease alone exhibited normal morphology and growth. Pea (Pisum sativum) root tips incubated with [(32)P]dCTP during a 1-h period when no cell death occurs yielded root cap slime containing (32)P-labeled exDNA. Our results suggest that exDNA is a previously unrecognized component of plant defense, an observation that is in accordance with the recent discovery that exDNA from white blood cells plays a key role in the vertebrate immune response against microbial pathogens.

  6. Ultimately Thin Metasurface Wave Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Keene, David; Durach, Maxim

    2015-01-01

    Optical properties of a metasurface which can be considered a monolayer of two classical uniaxial metamaterials, parallel-plate and nanorod arrays, are investigated. It is shown that such metasurface acts as an ultimately thin sub-50 nm wave plate. This is achieved via an interplay of epsilon-near-zero and epsilon-near-pole behavior along different axes in the plane of the metasurface allowing for extremely rapid phase difference accumulation in very thin metasurface layers. These effects are shown to not be disrupted by non-locality and can be applied to the design of ultrathin wave plates, Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements and plasmon-carrying optical torque wrench devices.

  7. Plate-like osteoma cutis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Charisse M; Hale, Christopher S; Meehan, Shane A; Long, Wendy

    2014-12-16

    Osteoma cutis is the aberrant development of bone within the skin. The bone formation may be de novo (primary) or result from an injury to the skin (secondary). Here we present a healthy 53-year-old man with no known abnormalities in calcium or phosphate metabolism with plate-like osteoma cutis of the scalp. Plate- or plaque-like osteoma cutis was initially described as a congenital condition but has now been reported several times in the literature as an idiopathic process that occurs in adults. Treatment options are limited and are only required if the lesion is bothersome to the patient.

  8. Hydroelasticity of a Floating Plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, X.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Cui, W.

    2003-01-01

    The membrane forces are included in the hydroelastic analysis of a floating plate undergoing large vertical deflections in regular monochromatic multidirectional waves. The first-order vertical displacements induced by the linear wave exciting forces are calculated by the mode expansion method...... in the frequency domain. The second-order vertical displacements induced by the membrane forces are calculated by the von Karman plate theory. The results show that the membrane contribution both in terms of the axial stresses and the effect on the bending stresses can be important...

  9. Orifice plates and venturi tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Reader-Harris, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book gives the background to differential-pressure flow measurement and goes through the requirements explaining the reason for them. For those who want to use an orifice plate or a Venturi tube the standard ISO 5167 and its associated Technical Reports give the instructions required.  However, they rarely tell the users why they should follow certain instructions.  This book helps users of the ISO standards for orifice plates and Venturi tubes to understand the reasons why the standards are as they are, to apply them effectively, and to understand the consequences of deviations from the standards.

  10. Improved and Reproducible Flow Cytometry Methodology for Nuclei Isolation from Single Root Meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Cristina Ribeiro Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Root meristems have increasingly been target of cell cycle studies by flow cytometric DNA content quantification. Moreover, roots can be an alternative source of nuclear suspension when leaves become unfeasible and for chromosome analysis and sorting. In the present paper, a protocol for intact nuclei isolation from a single root meristem was developed. This proceeding was based on excision of the meristematic region using a prototypical slide, followed by short enzymatic digestion and mechanical isolation of nuclei during homogenization with a hand mixer. Such parameters were optimized for reaching better results. Satisfactory nuclei amounts were extracted and analyzed by flow cytometry, producing histograms with reduced background noise and CVs between 3.2 and 4.1%. This improved and reproducible technique was shown to be rapid, inexpensive, and simple for nuclear extraction from a single root tip, and can be adapted for other plants and purposes.

  11. INCREASING ANAEROBIC DIGESTION PERFORMANCE OF WASTEWATER WITH CO-DIGESTION USING DECANTER CAKE

    OpenAIRE

    Thaniya Kaosol; Narumol Sohgrathok

    2014-01-01

    Low biogas production in the frozen seafood wastewater anaerobic digestion is observed due to the low organic and Total Solids (TS) contents in the wastewater. In this research the decanter cake will be used in the anaerobic co-digestion process to improve the biogas production rate. The effect of co-digestion and Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) will be investigated using the continuously stirred tank reactors under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, the study determines the biogas production pot...

  12. Thermophilic co-digestion of pig manure and crude glycerol: process performance and digestate stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astals, S; Nolla-Ardèvol, V; Mata-Alvarez, J

    2013-07-10

    Anaerobic co-digestion has been widely used to enhance biogas production of digesters and, therefore, to improve the anaerobic plants economic feasibility. In the present study, glycerol, a by-product of the biodiesel industry, was used as a co-substrate for pig manure. The results showed that the thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure supplemented with 3% of glycerol, on weight basis, was satisfactory. The specific biogas production of the co-digester was 180% higher than the one obtained by the reference digester, which was only fed with pig manure. The improvement was related to the double of the organic loading rate, the high biodegradability of the crude glycerol, the slight reduction of the free ammonia concentration and the optimisation of the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. Moreover, the analysis of the organic matter (protein, lipids, carbohydrates and fibers) of the influent and the effluent of both digesters together with their biogas flow rates indicated that the microorganisms in the co-digester obtained large amounts of nutrients from the glycerol, whereas the microorganisms of the reference digester mainly produced biogas from the particulate matter. However, the digestate obtained from the co-digester cannot be directly applied as soil fertiliser or conditioner due to the presence of high levels of biodegradable matter, which may exert negative impacts on the plant-soil system. Thus, a longer hydraulic retention time, a reduction of the glycerol concentration and/or a post-treatment is required if the digestate is to be used as soil fertiliser or conditioner. In contrast, pig manure digestate can be directly applied on land.

  13. Outer rise seismicity of the subducting Nazca Plate: Plate stress distribution, fault orientation and plate hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barama, Louisa

    Subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American plate drives frequent and sometimes large magnitude earthquakes. During the past 40 years, significant numbers of outer rise earthquakes have occurred in the offshore regions of Colombia and Chile. In this study, we investigate the distribution of stress due to lithospheric bending and the extent of faults within the subducting plate. To calculate more accurate epicenters and to constrain which earthquakes occurred within the outer rise, we use hypocentroidal decomposition to relocate earthquakes with Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) solutions occurring after 1976 offshore Colombia and Chile. We determine centroid depths of outer rise earthquakes by inverting teleseismic P-, SH-, and SV- waveforms for earthquakes occurring from 1993 to 2014 with Mw ≥ 5.5. In order to further constrain the results of the waveform inversion, we estimate depths by comparing earthquake duration, amplitude, and arrival times for select stations with waveforms with good signal to noise ratios. Our results indicate that tensional earthquakes occur at depths down to 13 km and 24 km depth beneath the surface in the Colombia and Chile regions, respectively. Since faulting within the outer rise can make the plate susceptible to hydration and mantle serpentinization, we therefore infer the extent of possible hydration of the Nazca plate to extend no deeper than the extent of tensional outer rise earthquakes.

  14. Digestion of protein and protein gels in simulated gastric environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Q.; Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing attention to food digestion research, food scientists still need to better understand the underlying mechanisms of digestion. Most in vitro studies on protein digestion are based on experiments with protein solutions. In this study, the digestion of egg white protein and whey

  15. Steam Digest 2001: Office of Industrial Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles Best Practices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  16. Non-Coop Station History Forms Digest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Single 71-page document entitled 'Station history non-COOP Keying Rules & Forms Digest,' dated December 12, 2003. Contractors with NCDC Climate Database...

  17. Food allergen digestibility: The influence on allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    existing data from digestibility studies on known food allergens, it becomes evident that food allergens do not necessarily resist digestion. However, the choice of assay conditions, the method used for detection of residual intact protein as well as fragments hereof greatly influences the outcome. Studies......Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. What makes a dietary protein a food allergen has not yet been established, though several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by the food allergens. One of the features believed...... potential exist. Resistance to digestion is therefore a test parameter included in the safety assessment of the allergenic potential of novel proteins in genetically modified foods. In recent years, the association between resistance to digestion and allergenic potential has been challenged. When reviewing...

  18. Small-scale household biogas digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Sander; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Khanh Vu, Van Thi

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of advantages to small-scale biogas production on farms, including savings on firewood or fossil fuels and reductions in odour and greenhouse gas emissions. For these reasons, governments and development aid agencies have supported the installation of biogas digesters. However......, biogas digesters are often poorly managed and there is a lack of proper distribution systems for biogas. This results in methane being released inadvertently through leaks in digesters and tubing, and intentionally when production exceeds demand. As methane has a global warming potential 25 times greater......% of the produced biogas is released, depending on the type of fuel that has been replaced. The limited information available as regards methane leaking from small-scale biogas digesters in developing countries indicates that emissions may be as high as 40%. With the best estimates of global numbers of small...

  19. Toxicants inhibiting anaerobic digestion: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian Lin; Ortiz, Raphael; Steele, Terry W J; Stuckey, David C

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion is increasingly being used to treat wastes from many sources because of its manifold advantages over aerobic treatment, e.g. low sludge production and low energy requirements. However, anaerobic digestion is sensitive to toxicants, and a wide range of compounds can inhibit the process and cause upset or failure. Substantial research has been carried out over the years to identify specific inhibitors/toxicants, and their mechanism of toxicity in anaerobic digestion. In this review we present a detailed and critical summary of research on the inhibition of anaerobic processes by specific organic toxicants (e.g., chlorophenols, halogenated aliphatics and long chain fatty acids), inorganic toxicants (e.g., ammonia, sulfide and heavy metals) and in particular, nanomaterials, focusing on the mechanism of their inhibition/toxicity. A better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms behind inhibition/toxicity will enhance the wider application of anaerobic digestion.

  20. Aqueous Ammonia soaking of digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Due to the animal production intensification, manure is being used as the primary feedstock for most of the biogas plants. Thus......-scale anaerobic digester to enhance their methane productivity. Soaking in six different reagent concentrations in ammonia (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 32%) was applied for 3 days at 22°C. An overall methane yield increase from 85% to 110% was achieved compared to controls (digested manure fibers where AAS...... in methane yield as the highest concentrations tested; it is anticipated that this will result to an even lower cost for recovery and recycling of ammonia in full-scale. Moreover, the effect of 1, 3, and 5 days AAS treatment on methane production from digested fibers was investigated with 5 and 25% w...

  1. Behavioral differences of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita infective juveniles exposed to root extracts in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    The in vitro behaviors of infective juveniles (J2) of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita were compared in the presence and absence of plant root extracts. In an agar plate attraction-retention assay, H. glycines was 15-fold more responsive to a chemical attractant (CaCl2; P < 0.05) than w...

  2. Tomography images of the Alpine roots and surrounding upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomerova, Jaroslava; Babuska, Vladislav

    2017-04-01

    Teleseismic body-wave tomography represents powerful tool to study regional velocity structure of the upper mantle and to image velocity anomalies, such as subducted lithosphere plates in collisional zones. In this contribution, we recapitulate 3D models of the upper mantle beneath the Alps, which developed at a collision zone of the Eurasian and African plates. Seismic tomography studies indicate a leading role of the rigid mantle lithosphere that functioned as a major stress guide during the plate collisions. Interactions of the European lithosphere with several micro-plates in the south resulted in an arcuate shape of this mountain range on the surface and in a complicated geometry of the Alpine subductions in the mantle. Early models with one bended lithosphere root have been replaced with more advanced models showing two separate lithosphere roots beneath the Western and Eastern Alps (Babuska et al., Tectonophysics 1990; Lippitsch et al., JGR 2003). The standard isotropic velocity tomography, based on pre-AlpArray data (the currently performed passive seismic experiment in the Alps and surroundings) images the south-eastward dipping curved slab of the Eurasian lithosphere in the Western Alps. On the contrary, beneath the Eastern Alps the results indicate a very steep northward dipping root that resulted from the collision of the European plate with the Adriatic microplate. Dando et al. (2011) interpret high-velocity heterogeneities at the bottom of their regional tomographic model as a graveyard of old subducted lithospheres. High density of stations, large amount of rays and dense ray-coverage of the volume studied are not the only essential pre-requisites for reliable tomography results. A compromise between the amount of pre-processed data and the high-quality of the tomography input (travel-time residuals) is of the high importance as well. For the first time, the existence of two separate roots beneath the Alps has been revealed from carefully pre

  3. Quantification of root gravitropic response using a constant stimulus feedback system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Numerous software packages now exist for quantifying root growth responses, most of which analyze a time resolved sequence of images ex post facto. However, few allow for the real-time analysis of growth responses. The system in routine use in our lab allows for real-time growth analysis and couples this to positional feedback to control the stimulus experienced by the responding root. This combination allows us to overcome one of the confounding variables in studies of root gravity response. Seedlings are grown on standard petri plates attached to a vertical rotating stage and imaged using infrared illumination. The angle of a particular region of the root is determined by image analysis, compared to the prescribed angle, and any corrections in positioning are made by controlling a stepper motor. The system allows for the long-term stimulation of a root at a constant angle and yields insights into the gravity perception and transduction machinery not possible with other approaches.

  4. Back to the roots!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woermann, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that one can revive the critical edge that postmodernist theory has brought to marketing, thinking without subscribing to any particular school of (critical) theory by following the principle of methodological situationalism. The roots of postmodernist critique lie in careful...... of social order into account, hence fail to provide sensible insight. I propose the principle of methodological situationalism as a litmus test to the analytical strength of a theory or piece of research. The principle states that theoretically adequate accounts of social phenomena must be grounded...

  5. The Roots of Beowulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The first Beowulf Linux commodity cluster was constructed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in 1994 and its origins are a part of the folklore of high-end computing. In fact, the conditions within Goddard that brought the idea into being were shaped by rich historical roots, strategic pressures brought on by the ramp up of the Federal High-Performance Computing and Communications Program, growth of the open software movement, microprocessor performance trends, and the vision of key technologists. This multifaceted story is told here for the first time from the point of view of NASA project management.

  6. Abdomen, digestive system; Abdomen, appareil digestif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradel, J. [Hopital Saint-Eloi, 34 - Montpellier (France); Siauve, N. [Hopital Laennec, 75 - Paris (France); Alexandre, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 06 - Nice (France); Lorenzetti, J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 63 - Clermont Ferrand (France)

    1997-03-01

    The Radiological Society of North America (RNSA) ` 96 has devoted a broad part to abdomen and digestive imaging. we find hepatic pathology and comparative evaluation between computed tomography and NMR imaging. The question of contrast products and their advance in hepatic pathology are studied. The biliary tracts and MRI do not present any surprise. The pancreas with the computerized tomography and finally the digestive system, always with computerized tomography are exposed. (N.C.).

  7. Anaerobic digestion foaming causes – A review

    OpenAIRE

    Ganidi, Nafsika; Tyrrel, Sean F.; Cartmell, Elise

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming has been encountered in several sewage treatment plants in the UK. Foaming has raised major concerns for the water companies due to significant impacts on process efficiency and operational costs. Several foaming causes have been identified over the past few years by researchers. However, the supporting experimental information is limited and in some cases absent. The present report aims to provide a detailed review of the current anaerobic digestion foaming proble...

  8. Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1989 Information Digest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1989-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1989 Information Digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the Commission. This is the first of an annual publication for the general use of the NRC staff and is available to the public. The Digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide.

  9. Anaerobic digestion of cassava starch factory effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manilal, V B; Narayanan, C S; Balagopalan, C

    1990-06-01

    Biomethanation of cassava starch factory effluent in a batch digester produced 130 l biogas/kg dry matter with an average melthane content of 59%. About 63% COD was removed during 60 days. In semicontinuous digesters, gas production was 3251/kg dry matter with a retention time of 33,3 days giving a COD reduction of 50%. Size of starter inoculum was important for good biogasification of the effluent.

  10. Matching roots to their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J; George, Timothy S; Gregory, Peter J; Bengough, A Glyn; Hallett, Paul D; McKenzie, Blair M

    2013-07-01

    Plants form the base of the terrestrial food chain and provide medicines, fuel, fibre and industrial materials to humans. Vascular land plants rely on their roots to acquire the water and mineral elements necessary for their survival in nature or their yield and nutritional quality in agriculture. Major biogeochemical fluxes of all elements occur through plant roots, and the roots of agricultural crops have a significant role to play in soil sustainability, carbon sequestration, reducing emissions of greenhouse gasses, and in preventing the eutrophication of water bodies associated with the application of mineral fertilizers. This article provides the context for a Special Issue of Annals of Botany on 'Matching Roots to Their Environment'. It first examines how land plants and their roots evolved, describes how the ecology of roots and their rhizospheres contributes to the acquisition of soil resources, and discusses the influence of plant roots on biogeochemical cycles. It then describes the role of roots in overcoming the constraints to crop production imposed by hostile or infertile soils, illustrates root phenotypes that improve the acquisition of mineral elements and water, and discusses high-throughput methods to screen for these traits in the laboratory, glasshouse and field. Finally, it considers whether knowledge of adaptations improving the acquisition of resources in natural environments can be used to develop root systems for sustainable agriculture in the future.

  11. Proximity of maxillary posterior teeth roots to maxillary sinus and adjacent structures using Denta scan(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Ramesh Ram; Patidar, Dinesh Chand; Goyal, Samta; Malhotra, Aayush

    2016-09-01

    The study aimed to investigate the proximity of maxillary posterior teeth roots to maxillary sinus and measure the distance of maxillary posterior teeth roots and the sinus floor as well as the thickness of bone between the roots and alveolar cortical bone using Denta scan(®). The study samples include Denta scan(®) images of fifty patients with normally erupted bilateral maxillary first premolar to maxillary second molar. The vertical relationship of each tooth root with maxillary sinus is classified into four types of Denta scan(®) images (based on the classification by Jung in 2009). The distance between the sinus floor and root, and the bone thickness between the root and alveolar cortical plate will be measured and analyzed. The buccal root of the maxillary molars was more commonly protruded into the maxillary sinus. Among the roots of maxillary posterior teeth, mesiobuccal root of first molar and palatal root of second premolar were found in close proximity to the floor of maxillary sinus. The bone thickness on the buccal aspect to the root was significantly thinner in the maxillary first premolar and maxillary first molar as compared to other maxillary posterior teeth roots. Knowledge of anatomical relationship between the maxillary posterior teeth and maxillary sinus guides us not only in proper preoperative treatment planning but also avoids the possible complications encounter while performing the minor oral surgical procedures involving maxillary posterior teeth, which are close to the maxillary sinus.

  12. Light splitting with imperfect wave plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jarom S; Archibald, James L; Durfee, Dallin S

    2017-02-01

    We discuss the use of wave plates with arbitrary retardances, in conjunction with a linear polarizer, to split linearly polarized light into two linearly polarized beams with an arbitrary splitting fraction. We show that for non-ideal wave plates, a much broader range of splitting ratios is typically possible when a pair of wave plates, rather than a single wave plate, is used. We discuss the maximum range of splitting fractions possible with one or two wave plates as a function of the wave plate retardances, and how to align the wave plates to achieve the maximum splitting range possible when simply rotating one of the wave plates while keeping the other one fixed. We also briefly discuss an alignment-free polarization rotator constructed from a pair of half-wave plates.

  13. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of a lactobacillus additive an anaerobic sludge digestion under normal, variable, and overload operating conditions. The additive was a whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus fortified with CaCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid. The lactobacillus additive is multifunctional in nature and provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. The experimental work consisted of several pairs of parallel mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) digestion runs (control and test) conducted in five experimental phases. Baseline runs without the additive showed that the two experimental digesters had the same methane content, gas production rate (GPR), and ethane yield. The effect of the additive was to increase methane yield and GPR by about 5% (which was statistically significant) during digester operation at a loading rate (LR) of 3.2 kg VS/m/sup 3/-day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. Data collected from the various experimental phases showed that the biochemical additive increased methane yield, gas production rate, and VS reduction, and decreased volatile acids accumulation. In addition, it enhanced digester buffer capacity and improved the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue.

  14. Ammonium inhibits primary root growth by reducing the length of meristem and elongation zone and decreasing elemental expansion rate in the root apex in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    Full Text Available The inhibitory effect of ammonium on primary root growth has been well documented; however the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms are still controversial. To avoid ammonium toxicity to shoot growth, we used a vertical two-layer split plate system, in which the upper layer contained nitrate and the lower layer contained ammonium. In this way, nitrogen status was maintained and only the apical part of the root system was exposed to ammonium. Using a kinematic approach, we show here that 1 mM ammonium reduces primary root growth, decreasing both elemental expansion and cell production. Ammonium inhibits the length of elongation zone and the maximum elemental expansion rate. Ammonium also decreases the apparent length of the meristem as well as the number of dividing cells without affecting cell division rate. Moreover, ammonium reduces the number of root cap cells but appears to affect neither the status of root stem cell niche nor the distal auxin maximum at the quiescent center. Ammonium also inhibits root gravitropism and concomitantly down-regulates the expression of two pivotal auxin transporters, AUX1 and PIN2. Insofar as ammonium inhibits root growth rate in AUX1 and PIN2 loss-of-function mutants almost as strongly as in wild type, we conclude that ammonium inhibits root growth and gravitropism by largely distinct pathways.

  15. Anatomical investigations on root, stem, and leaf of Gentiana olivieri Griseb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Yagci Tüzün

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gentiana olivieri Griseb. (Afat (Gentianaceae, which has many bioactive compounds is used as antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, digestive aid, antidepressant, and antianemic in traditional medicine. Materials and Methods: Root, stem, and leaf sections of G. olivieri were taken free hand or by sliding microtome and examined on light microscope. Results: Anatomical characters of the species were observed to be similar to the usual features of Gentianaceae anatomy. Conclusion: Intraxylary phloem, which was primarily the distinguishing feature between Gentianoideae and Menyanthoideae sub-families was observed in G. olivieri roots.

  16. Effects of a sliding plate on morphology of the epiphyseal plate in goat distal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Da-sheng; Lian, Ke-jian; Hong, Jia-yuan; Ding, Zhen-qi; Zhai, Wen-liang

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the effects of a sliding plate on the morphology of the epiphyseal plate in goat distal femur. Eighteen premature female goats were divided randomly into sliding plate, regular plate and control groups. Radiographic analysis and histological staining were performed to evaluate the development of epiphyseal plate at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. In the sliding plate group, the plate extended accordingly as the epiphyseal plate grows, and the epiphyseal morphology was kept essential normal. However, the phenomenon of the epiphyseal growth retardation and premature closure were very common in the regular plate group. In addition, the sliding plate group exhibited more normal histologic features and Safranin O staining compared to the regular plate group. Our results suggest that the sliding plate can provide reliable internal fixation of epiphyseal fracture without inhibiting epiphyseal growth.

  17. Effects of a Sliding Plate on Morphology of the Epiphyseal Plate in Goat Distal Femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-sheng LIN, Ke-jian LIAN, Jia-yuan HONG, Zhen-qi DING, Wen-liang ZHAI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe the effects of a sliding plate on the morphology of the epiphyseal plate in goat distal femur. Eighteen premature female goats were divided randomly into sliding plate, regular plate and control groups. Radiographic analysis and histological staining were performed to evaluate the development of epiphyseal plate at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. In the sliding plate group, the plate extended accordingly as the epiphyseal plate grows, and the epiphyseal morphology was kept essential normal. However, the phenomenon of the epiphyseal growth retardation and premature closure were very common in the regular plate group. In addition, the sliding plate group exhibited more normal histologic features and Safranin O staining compared to the regular plate group. Our results suggest that the sliding plate can provide reliable internal fixation of epiphyseal fracture without inhibiting epiphyseal growth.

  18. RootNav: navigating images of complex root architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Michael P; French, Andrew P; Atkinson, Jonathan A; Wells, Darren M; Bennett, Malcolm J; Pridmore, Tony

    2013-08-01

    We present a novel image analysis tool that allows the semiautomated quantification of complex root system architectures in a range of plant species grown and imaged in a variety of ways. The automatic component of RootNav takes a top-down approach, utilizing the powerful expectation maximization classification algorithm to examine regions of the input image, calculating the likelihood that given pixels correspond to roots. This information is used as the basis for an optimization approach to root detection and quantification, which effectively fits a root model to the image data. The resulting user experience is akin to defining routes on a motorist's satellite navigation system: RootNav makes an initial optimized estimate of paths from the seed point to root apices, and the user is able to easily and intuitively refine the results using a visual approach. The proposed method is evaluated on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) images (and demonstrated on Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana], Brassica napus, and rice [Oryza sativa]), and results are compared with manual analysis. Four exemplar traits are calculated and show clear illustrative differences between some of the wheat accessions. RootNav, however, provides the structural information needed to support extraction of a wider variety of biologically relevant measures. A separate viewer tool is provided to recover a rich set of architectural traits from RootNav's core representation.

  19. Geophysical Imaging of Root Architecture and Root-soil Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Dafflon, B.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Roots play a critical role in controlling water and nutrient uptake, soil biogeochemical processes, as well as the physical anchorage for plants. While important processes, such as root hydraulic redistribution for optimal growth and survival have been recognized, representation of roots in climate models, e.g. its carbon storage, carbon resilience, root biomass, and role in regulating water and carbon fluxes across the rhizosphere and atmosphere interface is still challenging. Such a challenge is exacerbated because of the large variations of root architecture and function across species and locations due to both genetic and environmental controls and the lack of methods for quantifying root mass, distribution, dynamics and interaction with soils at field scales. The scale, complexity and the dynamic nature of plant roots call for minimally invasive methods capable of providing quantitative estimation of root architecture, dynamics over time and interactions with the soils. We present a study on root architecture and root-soil interactions using geophysical methods. Parameters and processes of interests include (1) moisture dynamics around root zone and its interaction with plant transpiration and environmental controls and (2) estimation of root structure and properties based on geophysical signals. Both pot and field scale studies were conducted. The pot scale experiments were conducted under controlled conditions and were monitored with cross-well electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), TDR moisture sensors and temperature probes. Pots with and without a tree were compared and the moisture conditions were controlled via a self regulated pumping system. Geophysical monitoring revealed interactions between roots and soils under dynamic soil moisture conditions and the role of roots in regulating the response of the soil system to changes of environmental conditions, e.g. drought and precipitation events. Field scale studies were conducted on natural trees using

  20. Comment on "Intermittent plate tectonics?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, Jun

    2008-06-06

    Silver and Behn (Reports, 4 January 2008, p. 85) proposed that intermittent plate tectonics may resolve a long-standing paradox in Earth's thermal evolution. However, their analysis misses one important term, which subsequently brings their main conclusion into question. In addition, the Phanerozoic eustasy record indicates that the claimed effect of intermittency is probably weak.

  1. License plate recognition using DTCNNs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Brugge, M.H; Stevens, J.H; Nijhuis, J.A G; Spaanenburg, L; Tavsanonoglu, V

    1998-01-01

    Automatic license plate recognition requires a series of complex image processing steps. For practical use, the amount of data to he processed must be minimized early on. This paper shows that the computationally most intensive steps can be realized by DTCNNs. Moreover; high-level operations like fi

  2. Corrosion resistant metallic bipolar plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P.; Schneibel, Joachim H.; Pint, Bruce A.; Maziasz, Philip J.

    2007-05-01

    A corrosion resistant, electrically conductive component such as a bipolar plate for a PEM fuel cell includes 20 55% Cr, balance base metal such as Ni, Fe, or Co, the component having thereon a substantially external, continuous layer of chromium nitride.

  3. The seismotectonics of plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, J.; Brune, J. N.; Goodkind, J.; Wyatt, F.; Agnew, D. C.; Beaumont, C.

    1981-01-01

    Research on the seismotectonics of plate boundaries is summarized. Instrumental development and an observational program designed to study various aspects of the seismotectonics of southern California and the northern Gulf of California are described. A unique superconducting gravimeter was further developed and supported under this program for deployment and operation at several sites. Work on Earth tides is also discussed.

  4. Perennial roots to immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-10-01

    Maximum lifespan greatly varies among species, and it is not strictly determined; it can change with species evolution. Clonal growth is a major factor governing maximum lifespan. In the plant kingdom, the maximum lifespans described for clonal and nonclonal plants vary by an order of magnitude, with 43,600 and 5,062 years for Lomatia tasmanica and Pinus longaeva, respectively. Nonclonal perennial plants (those plants exclusively using sexual reproduction) also present a huge diversity in maximum lifespans (from a few to thousands of years) and even more interestingly, contrasting differences in aging patterns. Some plants show a clear physiological deterioration with aging, whereas others do not. Indeed, some plants can even improve their physiological performance as they age (a phenomenon called negative senescence). This diversity in aging patterns responds to species-specific life history traits and mechanisms evolved by each species to adapt to its habitat. Particularities of roots in perennial plants, such as meristem indeterminacy, modular growth, stress resistance, and patterns of senescence, are crucial in establishing perenniality and understanding adaptation of perennial plants to their habitats. Here, the key role of roots for perennial plant longevity will be discussed, taking into account current knowledge and highlighting additional aspects that still require investigation. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  5. [Flexible root posts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadachkoriia, N R; Mandzhavidze, N A; Gumberidze, N Sh

    2009-02-01

    The article discusses the current state of restoration techniques of root canal treatment. Nowadays, technical progress allows manufacturers to develop flexible fiberglass posts, aspiring not only to an excellent aesthetics and mechanical properties (first of all, in comparison with metal and cast posts), but also to maintenance of their radio density and a wide range of forms. Growth of fiberglass posts popularity testifies to their clinical efficiency that also is confirmed by results of long-term researches. Introduction of fiberglass posts in a dental practice has rendered huge influence on restoration techniques of root canal treatment. Convincing factors of fiberglass posts superiority provide restoration the appearance similar with the natural dentition; possess close to dentine elasticity; creation of monolithic structure with hard tooth tissues and composite cement, posts, in case of need, can be easily adjusted on length, adhesive linkage of posts gives them additional stability. Modern researches have confirmed that only elastic, namely carbon fiber and the fiberglass posts made of modern technologies possess similar physical properties, as tooth structure. They can create reliable biomimetic design; solve a complex of aesthetic and functional restoration problems.

  6. Multivariate ultrametric root counting

    CERN Document Server

    Avendano, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Let $K$ be a field, complete with respect to a discrete non-archimedian valuation and let $k$ be the residue field. Consider a system $F$ of $n$ polynomial equations in $K\\vars$. Our first result is a reformulation of the classical Hensel's Lemma in the language of tropical geometry: we show sufficient conditions (semiregularity at $w$) that guarantee that the first digit map $\\delta:(K^\\ast)^n\\to(k^\\ast)^n$ is a one to one correspondence between the solutions of $F$ in $(K^\\ast)^n$ with valuation $w$ and the solutions in $(k^\\ast)^n$ of the initial form system ${\\rm in}_w(F)$. Using this result, we provide an explicit formula for the number of solutions in $(K^\\ast)^n$ of a certain class of systems of polynomial equations (called regular), characterized by having finite tropical prevariety, by having initial forms consisting only of binomials, and by being semiregular at any point in the tropical prevariety. Finally, as a consequence of the root counting formula, we obtain the expected number of roots in $(K...

  7. An Investigation of Cellulose Digesting Bacteria in the Camel Feces Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, V.; Leung, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    Research Question: Is there a bacteria in camel feces that digests cellulose material and can be used for waste to energy projects? Fossil fuels are the current main resource of energy in the modern world. However, as the demand for fuel increases, biofuels have been proposed as an alternative energy source that is a more sustainable form of liquid fuel generation from living things or waste, commonly known as biofuels and ethanol. The Camelus dromedarius', also known as Arabian camel, diet consist of grass, grains, wheat and oats as well desert vegetation in their natural habitat. However, as the Arabian camel lacks the enzymes to degrade cellulose, it is hypothesized that cellulose digestion is performed by microbial symbionts in camel microbiota. Fecal samples were collected from the Camelus dromedarius in United Arab Emirates and diluted 10-7 times. The diluted sample was then streaked onto a Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose plate, and inoculated onto CMC and Azure-B plates. Afterwards, Congo Red was used for staining in order to identify clearance zones of single colonies that may potentially be used as a qualitative assays for cellulose digestion. Then the colonies undergo polymerase chain reaction amplification to produce amplified RNA fragments. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene is identified based on BLAST result using Sanger Sequencing. Amongst the three identified microbes: Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Escherichia coli, both Bacillus and Staphylococcus are cellulose-digesting microbes, and through the fermentation of lignocellulosic, biomasses can be converted into cellulosic ethanol (Biofuel). According to the Improvements in Life Cycle Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Corn-Ethanol by Adam J. Liska, ""Ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emissions by 40-50% when compared directly to gasoline." The determination of bacterial communities that are capable of efficiently and effectively digesting cellulose materials requires that the bacteria be first

  8. Plasticity of the Arabidopsis Root System under Nutrient Deficiencies1[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Benjamin D.; Giehl, Ricardo F.H.; Friedel, Swetlana; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2013-01-01

    Plant roots show a particularly high variation in their morphological response to different nutrient deficiencies. Although such changes often determine the nutrient efficiency or stress tolerance of plants, it is surprising that a comprehensive and comparative analysis of root morphological responses to different nutrient deficiencies has not yet been conducted. Since one reason for this is an inherent difficulty in obtaining nutrient-deficient conditions in agar culture, we first identified conditions appropriate for producing nutrient-deficient plants on agar plates. Based on a careful selection of agar specifically for each nutrient being considered, we grew Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants at four levels of deficiency for 12 nutrients and quantified seven root traits. In combination with measurements of biomass and elemental concentrations, we observed that the nutritional status and type of nutrient determined the extent and type of changes in root system architecture (RSA). The independent regulation of individual root traits further pointed to a differential sensitivity of root tissues to nutrient limitations. To capture the variation in RSA under different nutrient supplies, we used principal component analysis and developed a root plasticity chart representing the overall modulations in RSA under a given treatment. This systematic comparison of RSA responses to nutrient deficiencies provides a comprehensive view of the overall changes in root plasticity induced by the deficiency of single nutrients and provides a solid basis for the identification of nutrient-sensitive steps in the root developmental program. PMID:23852440

  9. ROOT Tutorial for Summer Students

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Piparo, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    ROOT is a "batteries-included" tool kit for data analysis, storage and visualization. It is widely used in High Energy Physics and other disciplines such as Biology, Finance and Astrophysics. This event is an introductory tutorial to ROOT and comprises a front lecture and hands on exercises. IMPORTANT NOTE: The tutorial is based on ROOT 6.04 and NOT on the ROOT5 series.  IMPORTANT NOTE: if you have ROOT 6.04 installed on your laptop, you will not need to install any virtual machine. The instructions showing how to install the virtual machine on which you can find ROOT 6.04 can be found under "Material" on this page.

  10. Auxin control of root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overvoorde, Paul; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Beeckman, Tom

    2010-06-01

    A plant's roots system determines both the capacity of a sessile organism to acquire nutrients and water, as well as providing a means to monitor the soil for a range of environmental conditions. Since auxins were first described, there has been a tight connection between this class of hormones and root development. Here we review some of the latest genetic, molecular, and cellular experiments that demonstrate the importance of generating and maintaining auxin gradients during root development. Refinements in the ability to monitor and measure auxin levels in root cells coupled with advances in our understanding of the sources of auxin that contribute to these pools represent important contributions to our understanding of how this class of hormones participates in the control of root development. In addition, we review the role of identified molecular components that convert auxin gradients into local differentiation events, which ultimately defines the root architecture.

  11. Removal of root filling materials.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, H.F. Chong, B.S.

    2011-05-01

    Safe, successful and effective removal of root filling materials is an integral component of non-surgical root canal re-treatment. Access to the root canal system must be achieved in order to negotiate to the canal terminus so that deficiencies in the original treatment can be rectified. Since a range of materials have been advocated for filling root canals, different techniques are required for their removal. The management of commonly encountered root filling materials during non-surgical re-treatment, including the clinical procedures necessary for removal and the associated risks, are reviewed. As gutta-percha is the most widely used and accepted root filling material, there is a greater emphasis on its removal in this review.

  12. Properties of Estimated Characteristic Roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bent; Nielsen, Heino Bohn

    Estimated characteristic roots in stationary autoregressions are shown to give rather noisy information about their population equivalents. This is remarkable given the central role of the characteristic roots in the theory of autoregressive processes. In the asymptotic analysis the problems appear...... when multiple roots are present as this imply a non-differentiability so the d-method does not apply, convergence rates are slow, and the asymptotic distribution is non-normal. In finite samples this has a considerable influence on the finite sample distribution unless the roots are far apart....... With increasing order of the autoregressions it becomes increasingly difficult to place the roots far apart giving a very noisy signal from the characteristic roots....

  13. Structural Analysis of Plate Based Tensegrity Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Frederik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Damkilde, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Plate tensegrity structures combine tension cables with a cross laminated timber plate and can then form e.g. a roof structure. The topology of plate tensegrity structures is investigated through a parametric investigation. Plate tensegrity structures are investigated, and a method...... for determination of the structures pre-stresses is used. A parametric investigation is performed to determine a more optimized form of the plate based tensegrity structure. Conclusions of the use of plate based tensegrity in civil engineering and further research areas are discussed....

  14. Structural Analysis of Plate Based Tensegrity Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Frederik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Damkilde, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Plate tensegrity structures combine tension cables with a cross laminated timber plate and can then form e.g. a roof structure. The topology of plate tensegrity structures is investigated through a parametric investigation. Plate tensegrity structures are investigated, and a method...... for determination of the structures pre-stresses is used. A parametric investigation is performed to determine a more optimized form of the plate based tensegrity structure. Conclusions of the use of plate based tensegrity in civil engineering and further research areas are discussed....

  15. Avionics Box Cold Plate Damage Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Larchar, Steven W.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Problem Introduction: 1. Prevent Cold Plate Damage in Space Shuttle. 1a. The number of cold plate problems had increased from an average of 16.5 per/year between 1990 through 2000, to an average of 39.6 per year between 2001through 2005. 1b. Each complete set of 80 cold plates cost approximately $29 million, an average of $362,500 per cold plate. 1c It takes four months to produce a single cold plate. 2. Prevent Cold Plate Damage in Future Space Vehicles.

  16. Isolation and Characterization of a Boron-Polysaccharide Complex from Radish Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Toru, MATOH; Ken-ichi, Ishigaki; Kaori, Ohno; Jun-ichi, Azuma; Plant Nutrition Laboratory, Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyoto University:(Present)International Research Institute, Ciba Geigy Japan Ltd.; Chemical Processing of Wood Laboratory, Department of Wood Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyoto University

    1993-01-01

    A boron-polysaccharide complex was purified from a Driselase digest of cell walls of radish roots. The complex had a molecular weight of 7.5 KDa and contained boron (0.232%, w/w), uronic acid (52.3%, w/w) and neutral sugars (32.4%). ^B-NMR spectroscopic analysis suggested that the boron was present as a tetravalent 1 : 2 borate-diol complex.

  17. Comparing Leaf and Root Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Geldenhuys

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider two ways of inserting a key into a binary search tree: leaf insertion which is the standard method, and root insertion which involves additional rotations. Although the respective cost of constructing leaf and root insertion binary search trees trees, in terms of comparisons, are the same in the average case, we show that in the worst case the construction of a root insertion binary search tree needs approximately 50% of the number of comparisons required by leaf insertion.

  18. Transforaminal Endoscopic Decompression for Displaced End Plate Fracture After Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ralf; Telfeian, Albert E; Krzok, Guntram; Iprenburg, Menno

    2017-10-01

    Lateral lumbar interbody fusion is a minimally invasive approach to anterior spinal column fusion, deformity correction, and indirect decompression of the lumbar spine. A rarely reported possible complication of the procedure is end plate fracture, which has the potential for nerve root compression. Here we present a case of end plate fracture and nerve compression after stand-alone lateral lumbar interbody fusion, its diagnosis, and its subsequent successful treatment with transforaminal endoscopic spine surgery. The case highlights the possible role for minimally invasive endoscopic surgery as a rescue procedure after fusion complication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Roots of the Chromatic Polynomial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrett, Thomas

    a tight lower bound on the smallest non-trivial chromatic root of a graph admitting a spanning tree with at most three leaves. Here, non-trivial means different from 0 or 1. This extends a theorem of Thomassen on graphs with Hamiltonian paths. We also prove similar lower bounds on the chromatic roots...... of several graph families. In particular, we show that the chromatic roots of planar graphs are dense in the interval (3; 4), except for a small interval around _ + 2 _ 3:618, where _ denotes the golden ratio. We also investigate the chromatic roots of related minor-closed classes of graphs and bipartite...

  20. The roots of human destructiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sabby Sagall

    2014-01-01

    .... I emphasise the contributions of the Frankfurt School, particularly Erich Fromm, and Wilhelm Reich, to our understanding of individual and class consciousness, and of the roots of destructiveness...

  1. EMPIRICAL STUDY OF CAR LICENSE PLATES RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasa Zata Dina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of vehicles on the road has increased drastically in recent years. The license plate is an identity card for a vehicle. It can map to the owner and further information about vehicle. License plate information is useful to help traffic management systems. For example, traffic management systems can check for vehicles moving at speeds not permitted by law and can also be installed in parking areas to se-cure the entrance or exit way for vehicles. License plate recognition algorithms have been proposed by many researchers. License plate recognition requires license plate detection, segmentation, and charac-ters recognition. The algorithm detects the position of a license plate and extracts the characters. Various license plate recognition algorithms have been implemented, and each algorithm has its strengths and weaknesses. In this research, I implement three algorithms for detecting license plates, three algorithms for segmenting license plates, and two algorithms for recognizing license plate characters. I evaluate each of these algorithms on the same two datasets, one from Greece and one from Thailand. For detecting li-cense plates, the best result is obtained by a Haar cascade algorithm. After the best result of license plate detection is obtained, for the segmentation part a Laplacian based method has the highest accuracy. Last, the license plate recognition experiment shows that a neural network has better accuracy than other algo-rithm. I summarize and analyze the overall performance of each method for comparison.

  2. Anaerobic digestion and digestate use: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of source-separated municipal solid waste (MSW) and use of the digestate is presented from a global warming (GW) point of view by providing ranges of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are useful for calculation of global warming factors (GWFs), i.e. the contribution to GW...

  3. Digestion proteomics: tracking lactoferrin truncation and peptide release during simulated gastric digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosvenor, Anita J; Haigh, Brendan J; Dyer, Jolon M

    2014-11-01

    The extent to which nutritional and functional benefit is derived from proteins in food is related to its breakdown and digestion in the body after consumption. Further, detailed information about food protein truncation during digestion is critical to understanding and optimising the availability of bioactives, in controlling and limiting allergen release, and in minimising or monitoring the effects of processing and food preparation. However, tracking the complex array of products formed during the digestion of proteins is not easily accomplished using classical proteomics. We here present and develop a novel proteomic approach using isobaric labelling to mapping and tracking protein truncation and peptide release during simulated gastric digestion, using bovine lactoferrin as a model food protein. The relative abundance of related peptides was tracked throughout a digestion time course, and the effect of pasteurisation on peptide release assessed. The new approach to food digestion proteomics developed here therefore appears to be highly suitable not only for tracking the truncation and relative abundance of released peptides during gastric digestion, but also for determining the effects of protein modification on digestibility and potential bioavailability.

  4. The challenges of anaerobic digestion and the role of biochar in optimizing anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagbohungbe, Michael O; Herbert, Ben M J; Hurst, Lois; Ibeto, Cynthia N; Li, Hong; Usmani, Shams Q; Semple, Kirk T

    2017-03-01

    Biochar, like most other adsorbents, is a carbonaceous material, which is formed from the combustion of plant materials, in low-zero oxygen conditions and results in a material, which has the capacity to sorb chemicals onto its surfaces. Currently, research is being carried out to investigate the relevance of biochar in improving the soil ecosystem, digestate quality and most recently the anaerobic digestion process. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic substrates provides both a sustainable source of energy and a digestate with the potential to enhance plant growth and soil health. In order to ensure that these benefits are realised, the anaerobic digestion system must be optimized for process stability and high nutrient retention capacity in the digestate produced. Substrate-induced inhibition is a major issue, which can disrupt the stable functioning of the AD system reducing microbial breakdown of the organic waste and formation of methane, which in turn reduces energy output. Likewise, the spreading of digestate on land can often result in nutrient loss, surface runoff and leaching. This review will examine substrate inhibition and their impact on anaerobic digestion, nutrient leaching and their environmental implications, the properties and functionality of biochar material in counteracting these challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible.

  6. The Optimum Plate to Plate Spacing for Maximum Heat Transfer Rate from a Flat Plate Type Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, Himsar; Kishinami, Koki; Daimaruya, Mashashi; Tokura, Ikuo; Kawai, Hideki; Suzuki, Jun; Kobiyama, Mashayosi; Ginting, Armansyah

    The present paper is a study on the optimum plate to plate spacing for maximum heat transfer rate from a flat plate type heat exchanger. The heat exchanger consists of a number of parallel flat plates. The working fluids are flowed at the same operational conditions, either fixed pressure head or fixed fan power input. Parallel and counter flow directions of the working fluids were considered. While the volume of the heat exchanger is kept constant, plate number was varied. Hence, the spacing between plates as well as heat transfer rate will vary and there exists a maximum heat transfer rate. The objective of this paper is to seek the optimum plate to plate spacing for maximum heat transfer rate. In order to solve the problem, analytical and numerical solutions have been carried out. In the analytical solution, the correlations of the optimum plate to plate spacing as a function of the non-dimensional parameters were developed. Furthermore, the numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate the correlations. The results show that the optimum plate to plate spacing for a counter flow heat exchanger is smaller than parallel flow ones. On the other hand, the maximum heat transfer rate for a counter flow heat exchanger is bigger than parallel flow ones.

  7. Root Scaling Study ; Description of the DNS Root Scaling Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsen, B.; Jamakovic, A.; Roijers, F.

    2009-01-01

    In opdracht van de Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), de organisatie verantwoordelijk voor het beheren van de Root zone, heeft TNO onderzoek gedaan naar de schaalbaarheid van de Root zone. Welke impact kunnen de invoering van secure DNS (DNSSEC) en IPv6 en de uitbreiding

  8. Measurement procedure for optomechanical hole plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    Measurement procedure for optomechanical hole plate in connection with CIRP interlaboratory comparison on measuring machines.......Measurement procedure for optomechanical hole plate in connection with CIRP interlaboratory comparison on measuring machines....

  9. Food Guide Pyramid Becomes a Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... agency in charge of nutrition, created the colorful plate to help people remember to: Eat a variety ... of some foods and more of others. The plate features four sections — vegetables, fruits, grains, and protein — ...

  10. Earth's Decelerating Tectonic Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, A M; Moucha, R; Rowley, D B; Quere, S; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2008-08-22

    Space geodetic and oceanic magnetic anomaly constraints on tectonic plate motions are employed to determine a new global map of present-day rates of change of plate velocities. This map shows that Earth's largest plate, the Pacific, is presently decelerating along with several other plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres. These plate decelerations contribute to an overall, globally averaged slowdown in tectonic plate speeds. The map of plate decelerations provides new and unique constraints on the dynamics of time-dependent convection in Earth's mantle. We employ a recently developed convection model constrained by seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics data to show that time-dependent changes in mantle buoyancy forces can explain the deceleration of the major plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres.

  11. Earth's Decelerating Tectonic Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, A M; Moucha, R; Rowley, D B; Quere, S; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2008-08-22

    Space geodetic and oceanic magnetic anomaly constraints on tectonic plate motions are employed to determine a new global map of present-day rates of change of plate velocities. This map shows that Earth's largest plate, the Pacific, is presently decelerating along with several other plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres. These plate decelerations contribute to an overall, globally averaged slowdown in tectonic plate speeds. The map of plate decelerations provides new and unique constraints on the dynamics of time-dependent convection in Earth's mantle. We employ a recently developed convection model constrained by seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics data to show that time-dependent changes in mantle buoyancy forces can explain the deceleration of the major plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres.

  12. Early Arabidopsis root hair growth stimulation by pathogenic strains of Pseudomonas syringae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecenková, Tamara; Janda, Martin; Ortmannová, Jitka; Hajná, Vladimíra; Stehlíková, Zuzana; Žárský, Viktor

    2017-09-01

    Selected beneficial Pseudomonas spp. strains have the ability to influence root architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana by inhibiting primary root elongation and promoting lateral root and root hair formation. A crucial role for auxin in this long-term (1week), long-distance plant-microbe interaction has been demonstrated. Arabidopsis seedlings were cultivated in vitro on vertical plates and inoculated with pathogenic strains Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm) and P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst), as well as Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Atu) and Escherichia coli (Eco). Root hair lengths were measured after 24 and 48h of direct exposure to each bacterial strain. Several Arabidopsis mutants with impaired responses to pathogens, impaired ethylene perception and defects in the exocyst vesicle tethering complex that is involved in secretion were also analysed. Arabidopsis seedling roots infected with Psm or Pst responded similarly to when infected with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria; root hair growth was stimulated and primary root growth was inhibited. Other plant- and soil-adapted bacteria induced similar root hair responses. The most compromised root hair growth stimulation response was found for the knockout mutants exo70A1 and ein2. The single immune pathways dependent on salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and PAD4 are not directly involved in root hair growth stimulation; however, in the mutual cross-talk with ethylene, they indirectly modify the extent of the stimulation of root hair growth. The Flg22 peptide does not initiate root hair stimulation as intact bacteria do, but pretreatment with Flg22 prior to Psm inoculation abolished root hair growth stimulation in an FLS2 receptor kinase-dependent manner. These early response phenomena are not associated with changes in auxin levels, as monitored with the pDR5::GUS auxin reporter. Early stimulation of root hair growth is an effect of an unidentified component of living plant pathogenic bacteria. The root

  13. Embedded adhesive connection for laminated glass plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Poulsen, S.H.; Bagger, A.

    2012-01-01

    The structural behavior of a new connection design, the embedded adhesive connection, used for laminated glass plates is investigated. The connection consists of an aluminum plate encapsulated in-between two adjacent triple layered laminated glass plates. Fastening between glass and aluminum...... usage in a design situation. The embedded connection shows promising potential as a future fastening system for load-carrying laminated glass plates....

  14. Electrochemical Assay of Gold-Plating Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, R.

    1982-01-01

    Gold content of plating solution is assayed by simple method that required only ordinary electrochemical laboratory equipment and materials. Technique involves electrodeposition of gold from solution onto electrode, the weight gain of which is measured. Suitable fast assay methods are economically and practically necessary in electronics and decorative-plating industries. If gold content in plating bath is too low, poor plating may result, with consequent economic loss to user.

  15. Practical automatic Arabic license plate recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.

  16. Modeling the hydrodynamics of Phloem sieve plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Mullendore, Daniel Leroy; Holbrook, Noel Michele;

    2012-01-01

    Sieve plates have an enormous impact on the efficiency of the phloem vascular system of plants, responsible for the distribution of photosynthetic products. These thin plates, which separate neighboring phloem cells, are perforated by a large number of tiny sieve pores and are believed to play...... are investigated. We find that the sieve plate resistance is correlated to the cell lumen resistance, and that the sieve plate and the lumen contribute almost equally to the total hydraulic resistance of the phloem translocation pathway....

  17. FEATURES DIGESTION OF STURGEON SPECIES (ACIPENSERIDAE (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources are about the anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics of the digestive system and proper digestion process in the sturgeon species (Acipenseridae. Outline the common anatomical and morphological characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract. Consider the activity of digestive enzymes and the influence of various factors. Findings. Review of scientific papers reveals that although the digestion of sturgeon are broadly similar to those of the cartilaginous and bony fish, there are a number of species specificity. In particular, sturgeon enzymes have a wider temperature and hydrogen ranges. It is confirmed that temperature adaptations of digestive system poikilothermic organ-isms are realised mainly thanks to reorganisations of fermental systems. It is shown that enzymes in sturgeons are adjustable, as their activity level significantly changes under the influence of divalent metal ions (Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+. The assumption that evolutionary adaptation of hydrolytic function of intestines of fishes to temperature conditions of an inhabitancy takes place, apparently, is made. The paper describes the effect of sex and age factors on the level of activity of enzymes of sturgeons. Set out the regularities of circadian rhythms of the fish of this family. Showed specific features of the liver and its involvement in lipid metabolism and antioxidant defense system. Practical value. The knowledge of hydrolysis characteristics of a diet of sturgeon species is important for the efficiency estimation of feeding and understanding of evolutionary and ecological aspects of digestion physiology. Systematized data on the digestive system of fish sturgeon species are of interest a wide range of research in two main areas. Firstly, although the sturgeon are relict species, but the adaptation of their digestive system is still going on, allowing you to analyze the evolutionary development of the

  18. Transfinite thin plate spline interpolation

    CERN Document Server

    Bejancu, Aurelian

    2009-01-01

    Duchon's method of thin plate splines defines a polyharmonic interpolant to scattered data values as the minimizer of a certain integral functional. For transfinite interpolation, i.e. interpolation of continuous data prescribed on curves or hypersurfaces, Kounchev has developed the method of polysplines, which are piecewise polyharmonic functions of fixed smoothness across the given hypersurfaces and satisfy some boundary conditions. Recently, Bejancu has introduced boundary conditions of Beppo Levi type to construct a semi-cardinal model for polyspline interpolation to data on an infinite set of parallel hyperplanes. The present paper proves that, for periodic data on a finite set of parallel hyperplanes, the polyspline interpolant satisfying Beppo Levi boundary conditions is in fact a thin plate spline, i.e. it minimizes a Duchon type functional.

  19. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    CERN Document Server

    Beetz, C P; Steinbeck, J; Lemieux, B; Winn, D R

    2000-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of approx 0.5 to approx 25 mu m, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposite...

  20. Vehicle License Plate Character Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Sen Pan; Jun-Biao Yan; Zheng-Hong Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle license plate (VLP) character segmentation is an important part of the vehicle license plate recognition system (VLPRS). This paper proposes a least square method (LSM) to treat horizontal tilt and vertical tilt in VLP images. Auxiliary lines are added into the image (or the tilt-corrected image) to make the separated parts of each Chinese character to be an interconnected region. The noise regions will be eliminated after two fusing images are merged according to the minimum principle of gray values.Then, the characters are segmented by projection method (PM) and the final character images are obtained. The experimental results show that this method features fast processing and good performance in segmentation.

  1. Mathematical methods for elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models of deformation of elastic plates are used by applied mathematicians and engineers in connection with a wide range of practical applications, from microchip production to the construction of skyscrapers and aircraft. This book employs two important analytic techniques to solve the fundamental boundary value problems for the theory of plates with transverse shear deformation, which offers a more complete picture of the physical process of bending than Kirchhoff’s classical one.   The first method transfers the ellipticity of the governing system to the boundary, leading to singular integral equations on the contour of the domain. These equations, established on the basis of the properties of suitable layer potentials, are then solved in spaces of smooth (Hölder continuous and Hölder continuously differentiable) functions.   The second technique rewrites the differential system in terms of complex variables and fully integrates it, expressing the solution as a combination of complex ana...

  2. Mechanical touch responses of Arabidopsis TCH1-3 mutant roots on inclined hard-agar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Guodong; Wang, Bochu; Liu, Junyu; Yan, Jie; Zhu, Liqing; Yang, Xingyan

    2016-01-01

    The gravity-induced mechanical touch stimulus can affect plant root architecture. Mechanical touch responses of plant roots are an important aspect of plant root growth and development. Previous studies have reported that Arabidopsis TCH1-3 genes are involved in mechano-related events, how-ever, the physiological functions of TCH1-3 genes in Arabidopsis root mechanoresponses remain unclear. In the present study, we applied an inclined hard agar plate method to produce mechanical touch stimulus, and provided evidence that altered mechanical environment could influence root growth. Furthermore, tch1-3 Arabidopsis mutants were investigated on inclined agar surfaces to explore the functions of TCH1-3 genes on Arabidopsis root mechanoresponses. The results showed that two tch2 mutants, cml24-2 and cml24-4, exhibited significantly reduced root length, biased skewing, and decreased density of lateral root. In addition, primary root length and density of lateral root of tch3 (cml12-2) was significantly decreased on inclined agar surfaces. This study indicates that the tch2 and tch3 mutants are hypersensitive to mechanical touch stimulus, and TCH2 (CML24-2 and CML24-4) and TCH3 (CML12-2) genes may participate in the mechanical touch response of Arabidopsis roots.

  3. Restriction endonucleases digesting DNA in PCR buffer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xue-dong; ZHENG Dong; ZHOU Yan-na; MAO Wei-wei; MA Jian-zhang

    2005-01-01

    Six commonly used restriction endonucleases (Res) (Acc I, Ban II, EcoR I, Hind III, Sac I, Sca I) were tested for their ability to directly digest DNA completely in the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) buffers. The results showed that: with the requirement for additional magnesium supplemented as activator, Res, except EcoR I appeared star activity, completely digested unmethylated lambda DNA after overnight incubation in PCR buffer and functioned as equally well as in recommended Restriction Enzyme Buffer provided with each enzyme; all Res tested completely digested PCR products in PCR buffer, it implied digestion of PCR products may often be performed directly in the PCR tube without the requirement for any precipitation or purification steps; and the concentration of MgCl2 from 2.5 mmol·L-1 to 10 mmol·L-1 did not significantly affect activity of Res in PCR buffer. This simplified method for RE digestion of PCR products could have applications in restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of large PCR products. However, usage of this procedure for cloning applications needs further data.

  4. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-08-15

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 C and for some experiments also at 37 C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm{sup 3} kg{sup -1} respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm{sup -3} and 7 g N dm{sup -3} respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 C, sterilization: 133 C), and alkali hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 C showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone. (author)

  5. The usability of digestate in organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, L J; Salter, A M; Banks, C J; Poppy, G M

    2012-01-01

    As organic farming prohibits the use of synthetic fertilisers, animal slurries and manures must be used. Digestate offers an alternative to these and this study reports on three experiments conducted to determine its usability in terms of: (1) the effect on earthworm populations, (2) its fertilising effects on Italian Ryegrass and wild Creeping Thistle, and (3) the suppression effects digestate has on weed emergence. The results for digestate application to field plots were intermediate between slurry and no treatment for earthworm attraction and wild thistle suppression. In glasshouse trials it led to increased ryegrass growth compared with undigested slurry. Analysis showed that the digestate had improved nitrogen availability, leading to increased plant growth, but a reduced organic matter content compared with the slurry, leading to a positive though less beneficial impact on the earthworms. Digestate therefore provides a suitable fertiliser for organic farming. This suitability could be improved by drying or separation to increase the OM content making its properties closer to those of slurry whilst still retaining the higher content of plant available nitrogen.

  6. Lactose digestion from yogurt: mechanism and relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaiano, Dennis A

    2014-05-01

    Yogurt is traditionally consumed throughout the world among populations who are seemingly unable to digest lactose. This review provides a historical overview of the studies that show lactose digestion and tolerance from yogurt by lactose-intolerant people. The lactose in yogurt is digested more efficiently than other dairy sources of lactose because the bacteria inherent in yogurt assist with its digestion. The bacterial lactase survives the acidic conditions of the stomach, apparently being physically protected within the bacterial cells and facilitated by the buffering capacity of yogurt. The increasing pH as the yogurt enters the small intestine and a slower gastrointestinal transit time allow the bacterial lactase to be active, digesting lactose from yogurt sufficiently to prevent symptoms in lactose-intolerant people. There is little difference in the lactase capability of different commercial yogurts, because they apparently contain Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in sufficient quantities (10(8) bacteria/mL). However, Lactobacillus acidophilus appears to require cell membrane disruption to physically release the lactase. Compared with unflavored yogurts, flavored yogurts appear to exhibit somewhat reduced lactase activity but are still well tolerated.

  7. [Functional and motor digestive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Rey, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2013-10-01

    This article discusses the most interesting studies on functional and motility gastrointestinal disorders presented in Digestive Diseases Week (DDW) in 2013. New data were reported on the clinical importance of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) and on how they can produce numerous disturbances such as inflammatory bowel disease. These disturbances are associated with somatic functional disease and particularly with fatigue. In addition, new data have emerged on the physiopathology of these disorders, with some studies reporting that environmental factors and events in early infancy can favor their development. Data were also presented on how bile acids can increase susceptibility to diarrhea in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and on how the type of food intake can favor the development of symptoms. More data are available on the presence of underlying celiac disease in patients with IBS, which should prompt us to investigate this disease in our patients. Likewise, indiscriminate application of a gluten-free diet in patients with IBS has been shown not to produce a clear improvement. Regarding the physiopathology of functional dyspepsia (FD), results have been presented on how psychological factors can modify gastric accommodation and how this is in turn related to visceral hypersensitivity and gastric emptying. Regarding therapy, mirtazapine can improve symptoms and lead to weight gain in patients with severe FD and substantial weight loss. Results were presented on new drugs for IBS such as ibodutant and on old drugs with new applications such as mesalazine and ebastine. The antinociceptive effect of linaclotide is now better understood and a meta-analysis has shown its effectiveness in IBS with constipation as the main symptom. In patients with constipation, pelvic floor dysynergy can be diagnosed by a simple clinical interview and rectal touch. More data are available on the efficacy of prucalopride (which has been shown to accelerate

  8. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Lawrence J.

    1984-01-01

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  9. 49 CFR 236.779 - Plate, top.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plate, top. 236.779 Section 236.779 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.779 Plate, top. A metal plate secured to a locking bracket to prevent the cross locking from being forced out of the...

  10. 30 CFR 22.10 - Approval plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval plate. 22.10 Section 22.10 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS PORTABLE METHANE DETECTORS § 22.10 Approval plate. (a) Attachment to be made by manufacturers. (1) Manufacturers shall attach, stamp, or mold an approval plate on each permissible methane...

  11. 24 CFR 3280.5 - Data plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Data plate. 3280.5 Section 3280.5... MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.5 Data plate. Each manufactured home shall bear a data plate affixed in a permanent manner near the main electrical panel or other readily...

  12. 30 CFR 20.13 - Approval plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval plate. 20.13 Section 20.13 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MINE LAMPS OTHER THAN STANDARD CAP LAMPS § 20.13 Approval plate. The manufacturer shall attach, stamp, or mold an approval plate on the battery container or housing of each...

  13. Moving Divertor Plates in a Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.J. Zweben, H. Zhang

    2009-02-12

    Moving divertor plates could help solve some of the problems of the tokamak divertor through mechanical ingenuity rather than plasma physics. These plates would be passively heated on each pass through the tokamak and cooled and reprocessed outside the tokamak. There are many design options using varying plate shapes, orientations, motions, coatings, and compositions.

  14. Secure matching of Dutch car license plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunil, A.B.; Erkiny, Z.; Veugenyz, T.

    2016-01-01

    License plate matching plays an important role in applications like law enforcement, traffic management and road pricing, where the plate is first recognized and then compared to a database of authorized vehicle registration plates. Unfortunately, there are several privacy related issues that should

  15. Designing a licence plate for memorability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Dongen, C.J.G. van

    2005-01-01

    Good memorability of licence plates is important in those cases where licence plates are viewed for a brief period of time and the information is essential for police investigations. The purpose of the current study was to design a new Dutch licence plate that could be remembered well. A memory expe

  16. Searching for Roots / Pierre Gervasoni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gervasoni, Pierre

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Searching for Roots. Eduard Tubin: Symphonie no 11; Arvo Pärt: Nekrolog-Symphonie no 1; Erkki-Sven Tüür: Searching for Roots - Insula deserta - Zeitraum; Orchestre philharmonique royal de Stockholm, Paavo Järvi (direction)" Virgin Classics 5 45212 2 (distribue par EMI)

  17. Properties of Estimated Characteristic Roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bent; Nielsen, Heino Bohn

    Estimated characteristic roots in stationary autoregressions are shown to give rather noisy information about their population equivalents. This is remarkable given the central role of the characteristic roots in the theory of autoregressive processes. In the asymptotic analysis the problems appear...

  18. Determinants and Polynomial Root Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pillis, L. G.

    2005-01-01

    A little known property of determinants is developed in a manner accessible to beginning undergraduates in linear algebra. Using the language of matrix theory, a classical result by Sylvester that describes when two polynomials have a common root is recaptured. Among results concerning the structure of polynomial roots, polynomials with pairs of…

  19. Project Work on Plant Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devonald, V. G.

    1986-01-01

    Methods of investigating plant root growth developed for research purposes can be adopted for student use. Investigations of the effect of water table level and of ethylene concentration are described, and techniques of measuring root growth are explained. (Author/ML)

  20. Episodic plate tectonics on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Donald

    1992-01-01

    Studies of impact craters on Venus from the Magellan images have placed important constraints on surface volcanism. Some 840 impact craters have been identified with diameters ranging from 2 to 280 km. Correlations of this impact flux with craters on the Moon, Earth, and Mars indicate a mean surface age of 0.5 +/- 0.3 Ga. Another important observation is that 52 percent of the craters are slightly fractured and only 4.5 percent are embayed by lava flows. These observations led researchers to hypothesize that a pervasive resurfacing event occurred about 500 m.y. ago and that relatively little surface volcanism has occurred since. Other researchers have pointed out that a global resurfacing event that ceased about 500 MYBP is consistent with the results given by a recent study. These authors carried out a series of numerical calculations of mantle convection in Venus yielding thermal evolution results. Their model considered crustal recycling and gave rapid planetary cooling. They, in fact, suggested that prior to 500 MYBP plate tectonics was active in Venus and since 500 MYBP the lithosphere has stabilized and only hot-spot volcanism has reached the surface. We propose an alternative hypothesis for the inferred cessation of surface volcanism on Venus. We hypothesize that plate tectonics on Venus is episodic. Periods of rapid plate tectonics result in high rates of subduction that cool the interior resulting in more sluggish mantle convection.

  1. Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Mane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To share our experience of doing tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with modifications. Materials and Methods: This is a single surgeon personal series from 2004 to 2009. One hundred patients of distal hypospadias were subjected for Snodgrass urethroplasty with preputioplasty. The age range was 1 to 5 year with mean age of 2.7 years. Selection criteria were good urethral plate, without chordee and torsion needing complete degloving. Main technical modification from original Snodgrass procedure was spongioplasty, preputioplasty, and dorsal slit when inability to retract prepuce during surgery. Results: Average follow-up period is 23 months. Seven (7% patients developed fistula and one patient had complete preputial dehiscence. Phimosis developed in three (3% patients and required circumcision. Dorsal slit was required in seven patients. One patient developed meatal stenosis in postoperative period. All other patients are passing single urinary stream and have cosmesis that is acceptable. Conclusions: Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with preputioplasty effectively gives cosmetically normal looking penis with low complications.

  2. Plating of proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martetschläger, Frank; Siebenlist, Sebastian; Weier, Michael; Sandmann, Gunther; Ahrens, Philipp; Braun, Karl; Elser, Florian; Stöckle, Ulrich; Freude, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    The optimal treatment for proximal humeral fractures is controversial. Few data exist concerning the influence of the surgical approach on the outcome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of proximal humeral fractures treated with locking plate fixation through a deltopectoral vs an anterolateral deltoid-splitting approach. Of 86 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 70 were available for follow-up examination. Thirty-three patients were treated through a deltopectoral approach and 37 through an anterolateral deltoid-splitting approach. In all cases, open reduction and internal fixation with a PHILOS locking plate (Synthes, Umkirch, Germany) was performed. Clinical follow-up included evaluation of pain, shoulder mobility, and strength. Constant score and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score were assessed. A clinical neurological examination of the axillary nerve was also performed. Consolidation, reduction, and appearance of head necrosis were evaluated radiographically. After a mean follow-up of 33 months, Constant scores, DASH scores, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores showed no significant differences between the groups. Clinical neurologic examination of the axillary nerve revealed no obvious damage to the nerve in either group. Deltopectoral and anterolateral detoid-splitting approaches for plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures are safe and provide similar clinical outcomes. The results of this study suggest that the approach can be chosen according to surgeon preference.

  3. Microalgal Cultivation in Treating Liquid Digestate from Biogas Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-04-01

    Biogas production via anaerobic digestion (AD) has rapidly developed in recent years. In addition to biogas, digestate is an important byproduct. Liquid digestate is the major fraction of digestate and may contain high levels of ammonia nitrogen. Traditional processing technologies (such as land application) require significant energy inputs and raise environmental risks (such as eutrophication). Alternatively, microalgae can efficiently remove the nutrients from digestate while producing high-value biomass that can be used for the production of biochemicals and biofuels. Both inorganic and organic carbon sources derived from biogas production can significantly improve microalgal production. Land requirement for microalgal cultivation is estimated as 3% of traditional direct land application of digestate.

  4. Advantages of MAG-STT Welding Process for Root Pass Welding in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandzic Adi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describesthe basics of modern MAG-STT welding process and its advantages for root pass welding of construction steels in oil and gas industry. MAG-STT welding process was compared with competitive arc welding processes (SMAW and TIG, which are also used for root pass welding on pipes and plates. After experimental tests, the obtained results are analyzed and presented in this paper

  5. Cassava root membrane proteome reveals activities during storage root maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naconsie, Maliwan; Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Viboonjun, Unchera; Netrphan, Supatcharee; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Ogasawara, Naotake; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important crops of Thailand. Its storage roots are used as food, feed, starch production, and be the important source for biofuel and biodegradable plastic production. Despite the importance of cassava storage roots, little is known about the mechanisms involved in their formation. This present study has focused on comparison of the expression profiles of cassava root proteome at various developmental stages using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS. Based on an anatomical study using Toluidine Blue, the secondary growth was confirmed to be essential during the development of cassava storage root. To investigate biochemical processes occurring during storage root maturation, soluble and membrane proteins were isolated from storage roots harvested from 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-old cassava plants. The proteins with differential expression pattern were analysed and identified to be associated with 8 functional groups: protein folding and degradation, energy, metabolism, secondary metabolism, stress response, transport facilitation, cytoskeleton, and unclassified function. The expression profiling of membrane proteins revealed the proteins involved in protein folding and degradation, energy, and cell structure were highly expressed during early stages of development. Integration of these data along with the information available in genome and transcriptome databases is critical to expand knowledge obtained solely from the field of proteomics. Possible role of identified proteins were discussed in relation with the activities during storage root maturation in cassava.

  6. Aqueous Ammonia soaking of digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    , their economical profitable operation relies on increasing the methane yield from manure, and especially of its solid fraction which is not so easily degradable. In the present study, Aqueous Ammonia Soaking was successfully applied on digested fibers separated from the effluent of a manure-fed, full......-scale anaerobic digester to enhance their methane productivity. Soaking in six different reagent concentrations in ammonia (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 32%) was applied for 3 days at 22°C. An overall methane yield increase from 85% to 110% was achieved compared to controls (digested manure fibers where AAS...... was not applied). The difference in reagent concentration at the range of 5-25% w/w in ammonia did not affect that much the overall methane yield resulting to an increase of 104-110% compared to the non AAS-treated fibers. Thus, an ammonia concentration as low as 5% is adequate for achieving the same increase...

  7. Mathematical tool to size rural digesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentino Helenice de Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digesters have been highlighted due to the current energy crisis and its consequent search for alternative energy sources, allied to the intense process of livestock farming and agriculture modernization, which besides demanding a lot of energy, produces a great amount of crop and animal residues, most of the times generating sanitary problems. The aim of this work is to provide a mathematical tool to establish parameters for projects of construction of rural digesters, considering the response to energy demand, the suitability of the dimensions of the systems, yield factors and the guarantee of functionality. Non-linear optimization models, of easy resolution, for the three main types of rural digesters were formulated in this way. With the resolution of these models one can determine the height and the diameter that lead to a minimum volume for each type, so reducing the necessary amount of masonry and, consequently, diminishing the cost.

  8. Sophisticated digestive systems in early arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Jean; Liu, Jianni; Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Vinther, Jakob; Daley, Allison C

    2014-05-02

    Understanding the way in which animals diversified and radiated during their early evolutionary history remains one of the most captivating of scientific challenges. Integral to this is the 'Cambrian explosion', which records the rapid emergence of most animal phyla, and for which the triggering and accelerating factors, whether environmental or biological, are still unclear. Here we describe exceptionally well-preserved complex digestive organs in early arthropods from the early Cambrian of China and Greenland with functional similarities to certain modern crustaceans and trace these structures through the early evolutionary lineage of fossil arthropods. These digestive structures are assumed to have allowed for more efficient digestion and metabolism, promoting carnivory and macrophagy in early arthropods via predation or scavenging. This key innovation may have been of critical importance in the radiation and ecological success of Arthropoda, which has been the most diverse and abundant invertebrate phylum since the Cambrian.

  9. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion versus mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sludges from WTP; Digestion anaerobic termofilica versus digestion anaerobia mesofilica de lodos del EDAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubia de la Romero, M. A.; Perez Garcia, M.; Romero Garcia, L. I.; Sales Marquez, D.

    2001-07-01

    A literature search revealed that successful thermophilic digestion operation was achieved at several Sewage Treatment Plant: Hyperon Treatment Plant of the city of Los Angeles, operations at 49 degree centigree resulted in significant improvements in sludge handling characteristics; West-Southwest Sewage Treatment Works, Chicago, Illinois a stable thermophilic digester was established at a 8 day detention time; Lions Gate Wastewater Treatment Plant of Vancouver pathogen destruction was the primary goal of this evaluation. Several other investigators have also conducted laboratory as well as pilot scale studied and reported several potential advantages of operating anaerobic digesters in the thermophilic range, rather than the conventional mesophilic range. Increased destruction of pathogenic organisms, increased rate of volatile solids destruction and improved destruction of organics are some advantages reported by all authors. (Author) 16 refs.

  10. Instrumentation and Control in Anaerobic Digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anaerobic digestion is a multistep process, and is most applied to solids destruction and wastewater treatment for energy production. Despite wide application, and long-term industrial proof of application, some industries are still reluctant to apply this technology. One of the classical reasons...... benchmark. There has therefore been, overall, a quantum advance in application and sophistication of instrumentation and control in anaerobic digestion, and it is an effective option for improved process loading rate and conversion efficiency....... are still a limitation, but this is being partly addressed by the increased complexity of digestion processes. Methods for control benchmarking have also been improved, as there is now an industry standard model (the IWA ADM1), and this is being applied in an improved whole wastewater treatment plant...

  11. Multivariate monitoring of anaerobic co-digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    fertiliser and renewable energy. Meanwhile, in order for the biogas sector to become a significant player in the energy supply chain, the anaerobic digestion process has to be controlled to a greater extent than what is implemented as state-of-the-art today. Through application of the philosophy behind......Anaerobic digestion processes for production of renewable energy in the form of biogas, and in the future hydrogen, are becoming increasingly important worldwide. Sustainable solutions for renewable energy production systems are given high political priority, amongst other things due to global...... warming and environmental concerns. Anaerobic digestion applied in agriculture can simultaneously convert heterogeneous biomasses and wastes from the primary agricultural sector and from the bio processing industries, for instance food processing, pharma, and biofuel production, into valuable organic...

  12. Plate tectonics, habitability and life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Tilman; Breuer, Doris

    2016-04-01

    The role of plate tectonics in defining habitability of terrestrial planets is being increasingly discussed (e.g., Elkins-Tanton, 2015). Plate tectonics is a significantly evolved concept with a large variety of aspects. In the present context, cycling of material between near surface and mantle reservoirs is most important. But increased heat transport through mixing of cold lithosphere with the deep interior and formation of continental crust may also matter. An alternative mechanism of material cycling between these reservoirs is hot-spot volcanism combined with crust delamination. Hot-spot volcanism will transport volatiles to the atmosphere while delamination will mix crust, possibly altered by sedimentation and chemical reactions, with the mantle. The mechanism works as long as the stagnant lithosphere plate has not grown thicker than the crust and as long as volcanic material is added onto the crust. Thermal evolution studies suggest that the mechanism could work for the first 1-2 Ga of planetary evolution. The efficiency of the mechanism is limited by the ratio of extrusive to intrusive volcanism, which is thought to be less than 0.25. Plate tectonics would certainly have an advantage by working even for more evolved planets. A simple, most-used concept of habitability requires the thermodynamic stability of liquid water on the surface of a planet. Cycling of CO2between the atmosphere, oceans and interior through subduction and surface volcanism is an important element of the carbonate-silicate cycle, a thermostat feedback cycle that will keep the atmosphere from entering into a runaway greenhouse. Calculations for a model Earth lacking plate tectonics but degassing CO2, N, and H2O to form a surface ocean and a secondary atmosphere (Tosi et al, 2016) suggest that liquid water can be maintained on the surface for 4.5Ga. The model planet would then qualify as habitable. It is conceivable that the CO2 buffering capability of its ocean together with silicate

  13. Medico-legal aspects of vertical root fractures in root filled teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosen, E; Tsesis, I; Tamse, A

    2012-01-01

    To analyse the medico-legal aspects of vertical root fracture (VRF) following root canal treatment (RCT).......To analyse the medico-legal aspects of vertical root fracture (VRF) following root canal treatment (RCT)....

  14. Peridinialean dinoflagellate plate patterns, labels and homologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Tabulation patterns for peridinialean dinoflagellate thecae and cysts have been traditionally expressed using a plate labelling system described by C.A. Kofoid in the early 1900's. This system can obscure dinoflagellate plate homologies and has not always been strictly applied. The plate-labelling system presented here introduces new series labels but incorporates key features and ideas from the more recently proposed systems of G.L. Eaton and F.J.R. Taylor, as modified by W.R. Evitt. Plate-series recognition begins with the cingulum (C-series) and proceeds from the cingulum toward the apex for the three series of the epitheca/epicyst and proceeds from the cingulum toward the antapex for the two series of the hypotheca/hypocyst. The epithecal/epicystal model consists of eight plates that touch the anterior margin of the cingulum (E-series: plates E1-E7, ES), seven plates toward the apex that touch the E-series plates (M-series: R, M1-M6), and up to seven plates near the apex that do not touch E-series plates (D-series: Dp-Dv). The hypothecal/hypocystal model consists of eight plates that touch the posterior margin of the cingulum (H-series: H1-H6,HR,HS) and three plates toward the antapex (T1-T3). Epithecal/epicystal tabulation patterns come in both 8- and 7- models, corresponding to eight and seven plates, respectively, in the E-series. Hypothecal/hypocystal tabulation patterns also come in both 8- and 7-models, corresponding to eight and seven plates, respectively, in the H-series. By convention, the 7-model epitheca/epicyst has no plates E1 and M1; the 7-model hypotheca/hypocyst has no plate H6. Within an 8-model or 7-model, the system emphasizes plates that are presumed to be homologous by giving them identical labels. I introduce the adjectives "monothigmate", "dithigmate," and "trithigmate" to designate plates touching one, two, and three plates, respectively, of the adjacent series. The term "thigmation" applies to the analysis of plate contacts between

  15. Digestive Physiological Characteristics of the Gobiidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sang-Woo; Kim, Shin-Kwon; Kim, Dae-Jung; Lee, Bae-Ik; Park, Su-Jin; Hwang, Hyung-Gyu; Jun, Je-Cheon; Myeong, Jeong-In; Lee, Chi-Hoon; Lee, Young-Don

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the characteristics of CCK-producing cells and mucus-secreting goblet cells with respect to stomach fish and stomachless fish of the Gobiidae in order to provide a basis for understanding the digestive physiology. Hairychin goby (Sagamia geneionema), which is stomachless fish, the numbers of mucus-secreting goblet cells is highest in the posterior intestine portion (P<0.05), while CCK-producing cells are scattered throughout the intestine. Gluttonous goby (Chasmichthys gulosus), which is stomach fish, mucus-secreting goblet cells are most abundant in the mid intestine portion (P<0.05), whereas CCK-producing cells are observed only in the anterior and mid intestine portion. Trident goby (Tridentiger obscurus) which is stomach fish, mucus-secreting goblet cells were most abundant in the mid intestine portion (P<0.05). CCK-producing cells are found in the anterior and mid intestine portion. Giurine goby, Rhinogobius giurinus which is also stomach fish, the largest number of mucus-secreting goblet cells showed in anterior intestine portion except for esophagus (P<0.05). CCK-producing cells are present only in the anterior and mid intestine portion. In S. geneionema, digestive action occurs in the posterior intestine portion to protect and functions to activate digestion. In contrast, in C. gulosus, T. obscurus and R. giurinus, their digestive action occurs in the anterior and mid intestine portion to protect and functions to activate digestion. Further studies of the modes of food ingestion by these fish, the contents of their digestive tracts, and the staining characteristics of the goblet cells need to be carried out. PMID:27796002

  16. Increased root hair density by loss of WRKY6 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus G. Stetter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Root hairs are unicellular elongations of certain rhizodermal cells that improve the uptake of sparingly soluble and immobile soil nutrients. Among different Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, root hair density, length and the local acclimation to low inorganic phosphate (Pi differs considerably, when analyzed on split agar plates. Here, genome-wide association fine mapping identified significant single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the increased root hair density in the absence of local phosphate on chromosome 1. A loss-of-functionmutant of the candidate transcription factor gene WRKY6, which is involved in the acclimation of plants to low phosphorus, had increased root hair density. This is partially explained by a reduced cortical cell diameter in wrky6-3, reducing the rhizodermal cell numbers adjacent to the cortical cells. As a consequence, rhizodermal cells in positions that are in contact with two cortical cells are found more often, leading to higher hair density. Distinct cortical cell diameters and epidermal cell lengths distinguish other Arabidopsis accessions with distinct root hair density and −Pi response from diploid Col-0, while tetraploid Col-0 had generally larger root cell sizes, which explain longer hairs. A distinct radial root morphology within Arabidopsis accessions and wrky6-3explains some, but not all, differences in the root hair acclimation to –Pi.

  17. Increased root hair density by loss of WRKY6 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Root hairs are unicellular elongations of certain rhizodermal cells that improve the uptake of sparingly soluble and immobile soil nutrients. Among different Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, root hair density, length and the local acclimation to low inorganic phosphate (Pi) differs considerably, when analyzed on split agar plates. Here, genome-wide association fine mapping identified significant single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the increased root hair density in the absence of local phosphate on chromosome 1. A loss-of-functionmutant of the candidate transcription factor gene WRKY6, which is involved in the acclimation of plants to low phosphorus, had increased root hair density. This is partially explained by a reduced cortical cell diameter in wrky6-3, reducing the rhizodermal cell numbers adjacent to the cortical cells. As a consequence, rhizodermal cells in positions that are in contact with two cortical cells are found more often, leading to higher hair density. Distinct cortical cell diameters and epidermal cell lengths distinguish other Arabidopsis accessions with distinct root hair density and −Pi response from diploid Col-0, while tetraploid Col-0 had generally larger root cell sizes, which explain longer hairs. A distinct radial root morphology within Arabidopsis accessions and wrky6-3explains some, but not all, differences in the root hair acclimation to –Pi. PMID:28149680

  18. Regulation of length and density of Arabidopsis root hairs by ammonium and nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatter, Thomas; Neuhäuser, Benjamin; Stetter, Markus; Ludewig, Uwe

    2015-09-01

    Root hairs expand the effective root surface to increase the uptake of nutrients and water from the soil. Here the local effects of the two major nitrogen sources, ammonium and nitrate, on root hairs were investigated using split plates. In three contrasting accessions of A. thaliana, namely Col-0, Tsu-0 and Sha, root hairs were differentially affected by the nitrogen forms and their concentration. Root hairs in Sha were short in the absence of nitrate. In Col-0, hair length was moderately decreased with increasing nitrate or ammonium. In all accessions, the root hair density was insensitive to 1,000-fold changes in the ammonium concentrations, when supplied locally as the exclusive nitrogen form. In contrast, the root hair density generally increased with nitrate as the exclusive local nitrogen source. The nitrate sensitivity was reduced at mM concentrations in a loss-of-function mutant of the nitrate transporter and sensor gene NRT1;1 (NPF6.3). Little differences with respect to ammonium were found in a mutant lacking four high affinity AMT-type ammonium transporters, but interestingly, the response to high nitrate was reduced and may indicate a general defect in nitrogen signaling in that mutant. Genetic diversity and the presence of the nitrogen transceptor NRT1;1 explain heterogeneity in the responses of root hairs to different nitrogen forms in Arabidopsis accessions.

  19. Arsenic rich iron plaque on macrophyte roots - an ecotoxicological risk?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taggart, M.A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Bld, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen, AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain)], E-mail: mark.taggart@uclm.es; Mateo, R. [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain); Charnock, J.M.; Bahrami, F. [Synchrotron Radiation Department, CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Green, A.J. [Department of Wetland Ecology, Estacion Biologica de Donana, CSIC, Pabellon del Peru, Avenida Maria Luisa s/n, 41013 Seville (Spain); Meharg, A.A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Bld, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen, AB24 3UU (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    Arsenic is known to accumulate with iron plaque on macrophyte roots. Three to four years after the Aznalcollar mine spill (Spain), residual arsenic contamination left in seasonal wetland habitats has been identified in this form by scanning electron microscopy. Total digestion has determined arsenic concentrations in thoroughly washed 'root + plaque' material in excess of 1000 mg kg{sup -1}, and further analysis using X-ray absorption spectroscopy suggests arsenic exists as both arsenate and arsenite. Certain herbivorous species feed on rhizomes and bulbs of macrophytes in a wide range of global environments, and the ecotoxicological impact of consuming arsenic rich iron plaque associated with such food items remains to be quantified. Here, greylag geese which feed on Scirpus maritimus rhizome and bulb material in areas affected by the Aznalcollar spill are shown to have elevated levels of arsenic in their feces, which may originate from arsenic rich iron plaque. - Accumulation of metals with iron plaque on macrophyte roots in wetlands poses an ecotoxicological risk to certain herbivores.

  20. Anaerobic digestion in mesophilic and room temperature conditions: Digestion performance and soil-borne pathogen survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Le; Jian, Shanshan; Bi, Jinhua; Li, Yunlong; Chang, Zhizhou; He, Jian; Ye, Xiaomei

    2016-05-01

    Tomato plant waste (TPW) was used as the feedstock of a batch anaerobic reactor to evaluate the effect of anaerobic digestion on Ralstonia solanacearum and Phytophthora capsici survival. Batch experiments were carried out for TS (total solid) concentrations of 2%, 4% and 6% respectively, at mesophilic (37±1°C) and room (20-25°C) temperatures. Results showed that higher digestion performance was achieved under mesophilic digestion temperature and lower TS concentration conditions. The biogas production ranged from 71 to 416L/kg VS (volatile solids). The inactivation of anaerobic digestion tended to increase as digestion performance improved. The maximum log copies reduction of R. solanacearum and P. capsici detected by quantitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction) were 3.80 and 4.08 respectively in reactors with 4% TS concentration at mesophilic temperatures. However, both in mesophilic and room temperature conditions, the lowest reduction of R. solanacearum was found in the reactors with 6% TS concentration, which possessed the highest VFA (volatile fatty acid) concentration. These findings indicated that simple accumulation of VFAs failed to restrain R. solanacearum effectively, although the VFAs were considered poisonous. P. capsici was nearly completely dead under all conditions. Based on the digestion performance and the pathogen survival rate, a model was established to evaluate the digestate biosafety.

  1. Digestive Secretion of Dionaea muscipula (Venus's Flytrap).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, J; Iott, K; Schwab, D W; Semersky, F E

    1969-03-01

    The digestive fluid of Dionaea muscipula has been studied with respect to its protein content as a function of time after entrapment of protein material and some enzymes of the secretion. Maximum secretion of enzyme occurs within the first 3 days of the digestive cycle and protein reaches its maximum at 4 days. Phosphatase, proteinase, nuclease and amylase have been observed in the secretion. The enzymes have acid pH optima and the proteinase has a molecular weight of about 40,000.

  2. Digestive Secretion of Dionaea muscipula (Venus's Flytrap)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, J.; Iott, K.; Schwab, D. W.; Semersky, F. E.

    1969-01-01

    The digestive fluid of Dionaea muscipula has been studied with respect to its protein content as a function of time after entrapment of protein material and some enzymes of the secretion. Maximum secretion of enzyme occurs within the first 3 days of the digestive cycle and protein reaches its maximum at 4 days. Phosphatase, proteinase, nuclease and amylase have been observed in the secretion. The enzymes have acid pH optima and the proteinase has a molecular weight of about 40,000. PMID:16657071

  3. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohanyos, Michael; Zabranska, Jana; Kutil, Josef; Jenicek, Pavel

    2003-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion improvement can be accomplished by different methods. Besides optimization of process conditions is frequently used pretreatment of input sludge and increase of process temperature. Thermophilic process brings a higher solids reduction and biogas production, the high resistance to foaming, no problems with odour, the higher effect of destroying pathogens and the improvement of the energy balance of the whole treatment plant. Disintegration of excess activated sludge in lysate centrifuge was proved in full-scale conditions causing increase of biogas production. The rapid thermal conditioning of digested sludge is acceptable method of particulate matter disintegration and solubilization. (author)

  4. Low temperature vapor phase digestion of graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Robert A.

    2017-04-18

    A method for digestion and gasification of graphite for removal from an underlying surface is described. The method can be utilized to remove graphite remnants of a formation process from the formed metal piece in a cleaning process. The method can be particularly beneficial in cleaning castings formed with graphite molding materials. The method can utilize vaporous nitric acid (HNO.sub.3) or vaporous HNO.sub.3 with air/oxygen to digest the graphite at conditions that can avoid damage to the underlying surface.

  5. Biogas Digester with Simple Solar Heater

    OpenAIRE

    Kh S Karimov; Muhammad Abid

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In this research work, the design, fabrication and investigation of a biogas digester with simple solar heater are presented. For the solar heater, a built-in reverse absorber type heater was used. The maximum temperature (50°C) inside the methane tank was taken as a main parameter for the design of the digester. Then, the energy balance equation for the case of a static mass of fluid being heated was used to model the process. The parameters of thermal insulation of the methane tan...

  6. An Aerobic Digestion of Lime Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    AD-AL1B 502 AllMy MEDICAL BIOENGINEERING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT -- ETC F/6 13/2 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF LIME SLUDGE.U) JUL 82 EA KBYLINSKI, B A BELL...Applied for Digesters 1 and 3, Run 1 9262- 9313 .................................... 55 32. Volatile Solids Destroyed vs. Volatile Solids Applied for...CONCENTRATIONS Feed Effluent NH-N NH -N Reactor Run Julian Date mgfL mg/L 1 1 9261- 9313 100 203 1 1 9314-0008 58 243 2 1 9261-0008 72 147 3 1 9261

  7. Electrochemical monitoring of ammonia during anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Nannan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    Ammonia is known as key inhibitor to methanogens in anaerobic digestion (AD) process. It’s of importance to develop efficient tool for ammonia monitoring. In this study, an electrolysis cell (EC) coupled with a complete nitrification reactor was developed as sensor for real time and online......-rich digesters. It was observed that the initial transient currents (0 min) were linearly corresponding to the ammonia levels (from 0 to 95.75 mg/L NH4+-N, R2 = 0.9673). Finally, this new sensor was tested with real AD effluent and the results showed no significant difference with that measured by conventional...

  8. Optimization of solid state anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW by digestate recirculation: A new approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michele, Pognani, E-mail: michele.pognani@unimi.it [Gruppo Ricicla – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Soil and Env. Lab, Via Celoria, 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Giuliana, D’Imporzano, E-mail: giuliana.dimporzano@unimi.it [Gruppo Ricicla – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Soil and Env. Lab, Via Celoria, 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gruppo Ricicla - DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Biomass and Bioenergy Lab., Parco Tecnologico Padano, Via Einstein, Loc. C.na Codazza, 26900 Lodi (Italy); Carlo, Minetti, E-mail: carlo.minetti@a2a.eu [Ecodeco, a2a Group, Cascina Darsena 1, 27010 Giussago, Pavia (Italy); Sergio, Scotti, E-mail: sergio.scotti@a2a.eu [Ecodeco, a2a Group, Cascina Darsena 1, 27010 Giussago, Pavia (Italy); Fabrizio, Adani, E-mail: farbrizio.adani@unimi.it [Gruppo Ricicla – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Soil and Env. Lab, Via Celoria, 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gruppo Ricicla - DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Biomass and Bioenergy Lab., Parco Tecnologico Padano, Via Einstein, Loc. C.na Codazza, 26900 Lodi (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SSAD) of OFMSW can be optimized by irrigation with digestate. • Digestate spreading allows keeping optimal process parameters and high hydrolysis rate. • The 18.4% of CH{sub 4} was produced in the reactor, leaving the 49.7% in the percolate. • Successive CSTR feed with percolate shows a biogas enriched in methane (more than 80%). • The proposed process allow producing the 68% of OFMSW potential CH{sub 4}, getting high quality organic amendment. - Abstract: Dry anaerobic digestion (AD) of OFMSW was optimized in order to produce biogas avoiding the use of solid inoculum. Doing so the dry AD was performed irrigating the solid waste with liquid digestate (flow rate of 1:1.18–1:0.9 w/w waste/digestate; 21 d of hydraulic retention time – HRT) in order to remove fermentation products inhibiting AD process. Results indicated that a high hydrolysis rate of organic matter (OM) and partial biogas production were obtained directly during the dry AD. Hydrolysate OM was removed from digester by the percolate flow and it was subsequently used to feed a liquid anaerobic digester. During dry AD a total loss of 36.9% of total solids was recorded. Methane balance indicated that 18.4% of potential methane can be produced during dry AD and 49.7% by the percolate. Nevertheless results obtained for liquid AD digestion indicated that only 20.4% and 25.7% of potential producible methane was generated by adopting 15 and 20 days of HRT, probably due to the AD inhibition due to high presence of toxic ammonia forms in the liquid medium.

  9. Building Halos by Digesting Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    We think galactic halos are built through the addition of material from the smaller subhalos of satellites digested by their hosts. Though most of the stars in Milky-Way-mass halos were probably formed in situ, many were instead accumulated over time, as orbiting dwarf galaxies were torn apart and their stars flung throughout the host galaxy. A recent set of simulations has examined this brutal formation process.In the authors simulations, a subhalo first falls into the host halo. At this point, it can either survive to present day as a satellite galaxy, or it can be destroyed, its stars scattering throughout the host halo. [Deason et al. 2016]Subhalo FateThere are many open questions about the growth of Milky-Way-mass halos from the accretion of subhalos. Which subhalos are torn apart and accreted, and which ones survive intact? Are more small or large subhalos accreted? Does subhalo accretion affect the host galaxys metallicity? And what can we learn from all of this about the Milky Ways formation history?In a recently published study, a team of scientists from Stanford University and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory set out to answer these questions using a suite of 45 zoom-in simulations of Milky-Way-mass halos. Led by Alis Deason, the team tracked the accretion history of these 45 test galaxies to determine how their halos were built.Piecing Together HistoryDeason and collaborators reach several new and interesting conclusions based on the outcomes of their simulations.Average accreted stellar mass from destroyed dwarfs for each host halo, as a function of the time of the last major accretion event. More stellar mass is accreted in more recent accretion events. [Deason et al. 2016]Most of the stellar mass accreted by the Milky-Way-mass halos typically comes from only one or two destroyed dwarfs. The accreted dwarfs are usually low-mass if they were accreted early on in the simulation (i.e., in the early universe), and high-mass if they were accreted

  10. Rooted in Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The result of the synergy between four doctoral projects and an advanced MA-level course on Bronze Age Europe, this integrated assemblage of articles represents a variety of different subjects united by a single theme: movement. Ranging from theoretical discussion of the various responses to and ...... period of European prehistory. In so doing, the text not only addresses transmission and reception, but also the conceptualization of mobility within a world which was literally Rooted in Movement.......The result of the synergy between four doctoral projects and an advanced MA-level course on Bronze Age Europe, this integrated assemblage of articles represents a variety of different subjects united by a single theme: movement. Ranging from theoretical discussion of the various responses...... to and reactions from the circulation of people, objects and ideas to the transmission of the spiral and the ‚trade’ in crafting expertise, this volume takes a fresh look at old questions. Each article within this monograph represents a different approach to mobility framed within a highly mobile and dynamic...

  11. Hierarchical self-organization of tectonic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Morra, Gabriele; Müller, R Dietmar

    2010-01-01

    The Earth's surface is subdivided into eight large tectonic plates and many smaller ones. We reconstruct the plate tessellation history and demonstrate that both large and small plates display two distinct hierarchical patterns, described by different power-law size-relationships. While small plates display little organisational change through time, the structure of the large plates oscillate between minimum and maximum hierarchical tessellations. The organization of large plates rapidly changes from a weak hierarchy at 120-100 million years ago (Ma) towards a strong hierarchy, which peaked at 65-50, Ma subsequently relaxing back towards a minimum hierarchical structure. We suggest that this fluctuation reflects an alternation between top and bottom driven plate tectonics, revealing a previously undiscovered tectonic cyclicity at a timescale of 100 million years.

  12. Root development during soil genesis: effects of root-root interactions, mycorrhizae, and substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, A.; Zaharescu, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    A major driver of soil formation is the colonization and transformation of rock by plants and associated microbiota. In turn, substrate chemical composition can also influence the capacity for plant colonization and development. In order to better define these relationships, a mesocosm study was set up to analyze the effect mycorrhizal fungi, plant density and rock have on root development, and to determine the effect of root morphology on weathering and soil formation. We hypothesized that plant-plant and plant-fungi interactions have a stronger influence on root architecture and rock weathering than the substrate composition alone. Buffalo grass (Bouteloua dactyloides) was grown in a controlled environment in columns filled with either granular granite, schist, rhyolite or basalt. Each substrate was given two different treatments, including grass-microbes and grass-microbes-mycorrhizae and incubated for 120, 240, and 480 days. Columns were then extracted and analyzed for root morphology, fine fraction, and pore water major element content. Preliminary results showed that plants produced more biomass in rhyolite, followed by schist, basalt, and granite, indicating that substrate composition is an important driver of root development. In support of our hypothesis, mycorrhizae was a strong driver of root development by stimulating length growth, biomass production, and branching. However, average root length and branching also appeared to decrease in response to high plant density, though this trend was only present among roots with mycorrhizal fungi. Interestingly, fine fraction production was negatively correlated with average root thickness and volume. There is also slight evidence indicating that fine fraction production is more related to substrate composition than root morphology, though this data needs to be further analyzed. Our hope is that the results of this study can one day be applied to agricultural research in order to promote the production of crops

  13. Non-canonical WOX11-mediated root branching contributes to plasticity in arabidopsis root system architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheng, Lihong; Hu, Xiaomei; Du, Yujuan; Zhang, Guifang; Huang, Hai; Scheres, Ben; Xu, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Lateral roots (LRs), which originate from the growing root, and adventitious roots (ARs), which are formed from non-root organs, are the main contributors to the post-embryonic root system in Arabidopsis. However, our knowledge of how formation of the root system is altered in response to diverse

  14. Recovery of nutrients from biogas digestate with biochar and clinoptilolite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocaturk, N.P.

    2016-01-01

    The liquid fraction of digestate contains nutrients which makes it a valuable fertiliser in agricultural crop production systems. However, direct application of digestate may raise practical and environmental problems. Therefore, processes to concentrate nutrients have been proposed aiming not only

  15. Digestion of Nucleic Acids Starts in the Stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yanfang; Dong, Ping; An, Ran; Xue, Changhu; Ge, Yinlin; Wei, Liangzhou; Liang, Xingguo

    2015-07-14

    The ingestion of nucleic acids (NAs) as a nutritional supplement or in genetically modified food has attracted the attention of researchers in recent years. Discussions over the fate of NAs led us to study their digestion in the stomach. Interestingly, we found that NAs are digested efficiently by human gastric juice. By performing digests with commercial, recombinant and mutant pepsin, a protein-specific enzyme, we learned that the digestion of NAs could be attributed to pepsin rather than to the acidity of the stomach. Further study showed that pepsin cleaved NAs in a moderately site-specific manner to yield 3'-phosphorylated fragments and the active site to digest NAs is probably the same as that used to digest protein. Our results rectify the misunderstandings that the digestion of NAs in the gastric tract begins in the intestine and that pepsin can only digest protein, shedding new light on NA metabolism and pepsin enzymology.

  16. In vitro digestion testing of lipid-based delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devraj, Ravi; Williams, Hywel D; Warren, Dallas B

    2012-01-01

    In vitro digestion testing is of practical importance to predict the fate of drugs administered in lipid-based delivery systems. Calcium ions are often added to digestion media to increase the extent of digestion of long-chain triglycerides (LCTs), but the effects they have on phase behaviour...... of the products of digestion, and consequent drug solubilization, are not well understood. This study investigates the effect of calcium and bile salt concentrations on the rate and extent of in vitro digestion of soybean oil, as well as the solubilizing capacity of the digestion products for two poorly water......-soluble drugs, fenofibrate and danazol. In the presence of higher concentrations of calcium ions, the solubilization capacities of the digests were reduced for both drugs. This effect is attributed to the formation of insoluble calcium soaps, visible as precipitates during the digestions. This reduces...

  17. The effects of gastric digestion on codfish allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Untersmayr, Eva; Poulsen, Lars K.; Platzer, Michael H;

    2005-01-01

    In a recent murine study, we showed that impaired gastric digestion supports the induction of fish allergy by protecting the digestion-sensitive major allergen parvalbumin and thus enhancing its sensitizing properties....

  18. Rapid determination of total Kjeldahl nitrogen using microwave digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, K V; Wong, W T; Liao, P H

    2005-01-01

    A closed-vessel microwave digestion process for the determination of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) has been developed for sewage and wastewater. TKN values obtained from the microwave digestion method were in excellent agreement with those of the thermal digestion method. The accuracy of both analytical methods is comparable. In comparison to the conventional thermal digestion, the microwave method shortened the time required for complete digestion from 4 h to 25 min, and also decreased the maximum digestion temperature from 380 degrees C to 200 degrees C. This developed method may contribute to a significant reduction in sample digestion time, resulting in an increase in analytical throughput. The microwave digestion method developed in this study could be a rapid and efficient means for TKN determination for sewage wastewater and sludge.

  19. Impact of structural characteristics on starch digestibility of cooked rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Masatsugu; Singh, Jaspreet; Kaur, Lovedeep; Ogawa, Yukiharu

    2016-01-15

    To examine the impact of structural characteristics of cooked rice grains on their starch digestibility, a simulated in vitro gastro-small intestinal digestion technique was applied to intact and homogenised cooked rice samples. The starch hydrolysis percentage increased during simulated small intestinal digestion, in which approximately 65% and 24% of the starch was hydrolysed within the first 5min, for homogenised and intact cooked rice, respectively. The kinetic constant of homogenised cooked rice, which was regarded as an estimated digestion rate, was ∼8 times higher than the intact cooked rice. The homogenised and intact samples were also examined for any microstructural changes occurring during the in vitro digestion process using fluorescent and scanning electron microscopy. In the intact samples, the aleurone layers of the endosperm remained as thin-film like layers during in vitro digestion and thus may be regarded as less digestible materials that influence cooked rice digestibility.

  20. Recovery of nutrients from biogas digestate with biochar and clinoptilolite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocaturk, N.P.

    2016-01-01

    The liquid fraction of digestate contains nutrients which makes it a valuable fertiliser in agricultural crop production systems. However, direct application of digestate may raise practical and environmental problems. Therefore, processes to concentrate nutrients have been proposed aiming not only

  1. Improving Project Outcomes and Growing the Anaerobic Digestion Industy Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion ombudsmen assist with project development, ensure the long-term sustainability of projects, and help advance the industry. This report explores the benefits of anaerobic digestion ombudsmen and provides guidance for implementing them.

  2. Digestible tryptophan:digestible lysine ratio in diets for laying hens from 24 to 40 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arele Arlindo Calderano

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the ideal digestible tryptophan:digestible lysine ratio in diets for laying hens from 24 to 40 weeks of age. Two hundred and forty Hy-Line W-36 laying hens at 24 weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments, eight replicates and six birds per experimental unit. The digestible tryptophan levels in the experimental diets were 1.57; 1.68; 1.79; 1.90 and 2.01 g/kg, providing ratios of digestible tryptophan:digestible lysine of 0.215; 0.230; 0.245; 0.260 and 0.275. The increase in the levels of digestible tryptophan in the diet linearly improved the feed intake, digestible tryptophan intake, digestible lysine intake, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion per egg mass and utilization efficiency of digestible lysine for eggs mass. There were quadratic effects from the digestible tryptophan levels on egg weight. For the efficiency of utilization of digestible lysine for egg mass, there was better adjustment of the data to the LRP model. The level of digestible tryptophan in the diet from which the plateau occurred was 0.184%. This level corresponded to the intake of 142 mg/bird/day of digestible tryptophan and digestible tryptophan:digestible lysine ratio of 0.252. The ideal digestible tryptophan:digestible lysine ratio recommended in diets for laying hens from 24 to 40 weeks of age is 0.252 (25.2%.

  3. Industrial Test of High Strength Steel Plates Free Boron Q890D Used for Engineering Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ruifeng; Liu, Zetian; Gao, Jun

    The chemistry composition, process parameters and the test results of Q890D free boron high strength steel plate used for engineering machinery was studied. The 16 40 mm thickness steel plates with good mechanical properties that was yield strength of 930 970 MPa, tensile strength of 978 1017 MPa, elongation of 13.5 15%, the average impact energy value of more than 100 J were developed by improving steel purity, adopting the reasonable controlled rolling and cooling process, using reasonable off-line quenching and tempering process. The test plates have good crack resistance in 60 °C preheat temperature condition because of that there are no any cracks in the surfaces, cross-section and roots of welding joints.

  4. Stability of MHD jet flows between nonconducting plates in a transverse field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, V.B.; Shtern, V.N.

    1985-06-01

    The linear stability of jet flows of a conducting fluid between parallel nonconducting plates in a transverse field is examined. It is assumed that the flow is caused by the current between linear electrodes situated on one of the plates, and that the velocity profile for the initial flow and for perturbations is a Hartmann profile across the plates. Hartmann boundary layers are modeled with respect to the friction force. Neutral curves and dependences of the critical Reynolds number on the Hartmann number are obtained; the dependence is found to be linear for finite-width electrodes, and proportional to the square root of Ha for infinitely thin electrodes. A comparison with experimental data is carried out. 13 references.

  5. When Did Plate Tectonics Begin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M.

    2015-12-01

    Present-day plate tectonics on Earth is characterized by asymmetric (one-sided) subduction, but how do we recognize the imprint of subduction in the geologic record? How do we weigh global (commonly younger) vs local (commonly older) datasets or distinguish initiation from episodic from continuous subduction? How reliable are data gaps? Characteristics of the Paleozoic record of subduction include calc-alkaline magmatism, blueschist/UHP metamorphism and collisional orogenesis, and ophiolites as representatives of former ocean lithosphere. Are these characteristic rocks preserved in Proterozoic, Archean and Hadean crust? Does a hotter mantle, higher heat production and weaker lithosphere modify or eliminate these features? What preceded subduction and how do we recognize that regime? Are rock associations or geochemical fingerprints reliable? Does reworking and overprinting modify geochemical fingerprints? Proposals for the start of plate tectonics have been based on: persistence of isotope anomalies/fractionated chemical domains in the mantle; changes in chemistry of magmatic rocks, rates of crustal growth vs reworking, and sites of growth; the metamorphic record, particularly the first appearance of contrasting thermal gradients or eclogite (including evidence from mineral inclusions in diamonds) or UHP metamorphic rocks; stabilization of cratonic lithosphere and formation of supercratons, and the beginning of the Proterozoic supercontinent cycle; the end of the flat Earth, emergence of continents, development of significant topography, changes in the style of orogeny and the rise in atmospheric oxygen; and, the appearance of passive margins and changes in the style of sedimentation. Estimates of the timing have varied from the Hadean to Neoproterozoic. I will summarize evidence for a growing consensus that the late Mesoarchean to early Paleoproterozoic was a 700 Myr long period of transition to continuous (?) subduction and global (?) mobile-lid plate tectonics.

  6. Septal splint with wax plates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak D

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available To pack or not to pack, has always been a debate, especially after septal and functional endoscopic sinus surgery. The authors have studied the symptoms of packing versus not packing in their series of 100 patients having undergone nasal surgery. They advocate the use of dental wax for the fashioning of septal splints, since they are easy to introduce, cheap and malleable. The patients postoperative comfort is greatly enhanced with the use of dental wax plate splints instead of nasal packing.

  7. Digestive Endoscopy in Morocco: What Future Perspectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Professor Adil Ibrahimi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Interventional endoscopy has evolved in parallel with diagnostic endoscopy and throughout the years, the performance of interventional endoscopy has proved to be efficient in improving morbidity and mortality in many diseases: biliopancreatic catheterism, dilatations of most stenosis in different parts of the digestive tube, haemostatic treatment, prosthetic fitting and installation, as well as benign and malignant tumors removal (polypectomy, mucosectomy....

  8. Working with Working Families. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Margaret

    This ERIC Digest offers tips for understanding the needs, concerns, and feelings of employed parents, and discusses ways child caregivers can involve working parents in their children's lives while the children are enrolled in child care facilities. Competition with the caregiver, guilt over leaving children in the care of others, and little time…

  9. Migrant Farmworkers and Their Children. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Philip

    This digest reviews the population characteristics of migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their children. Since the 1960s, federal programs for migrant workers and their families have multiplied. However, these programs have differing definitions for "migrant and seasonal farmworker," and no current data system provides a reliable count…

  10. Student Mobility and Academic Achievement. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumberger, Russell W.

    Student mobility--students moving from one school to another for reasons other than being promoted to the next school level-is widespread in the United States. This digest examines the research on the academic consequences of mobility for elementary school students and discusses what schools and parents can do to mitigate the possible negative…

  11. Effective Teaching in Distance Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Dan

    Distance education is an alternative method for delivering academic course work to students unable to attend traditional campus-based classes. This Digest presents information on the many forms of distance education and keys to successful teaching with distance education. Distance education is a method of education in which the learner is…

  12. The Adult ESL Teaching Profession. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, MaryAnn Cunningham

    This digest examines the emerging profession of teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) to adults who live and work in the United States, offering suggestions for beginning a career in this field and continuing to grow professionally. The fundamental duty of an ESL teacher is to facilitate development of communication skills in English, in…

  13. Clinical Application of Stents in Digestive Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Yongsong

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate clinical application of therapeutic stenting of digestive diseases as a new approach from conventional management. Methods 115 cases of disorders in digestive system were managed with stents clinically, 148 procedures of intervention in all. The cases were suffering from portal hypertension of cirrhosis, post - operative esophageal stricture, Stricture resulted from esophageal carcinoma, Buddi - Chari syndrome, narrowing of superior mesentery arteries and biliary tract, etc. All had had the strictured or obliterated original natural tube lumen been dilated or recanalized under the guidance of monitoring of the fluoroscope before the stent placement except those receiving TIPS needing the creation of an artificial passage within the liver to place the stent. Results Therapeutic stenting achieves clinical effects completely different from conventional internal medicine and surgery such as portal hypertension by cirrhosis with esophageal varices, megalospleen, ascites improved; jaundis relived then resided and liver function improved and appetite better in postoperative stricture of bile duct; ascites and edema of lower limbs resided in Buddi - Chari syndrom; intestininal distention disappeared, appetite and digestive function improved in stricture in superior mesentery artery; and no dysphagia and easy food intake, appetite improved in patients of stricture of postoperative esophagus and stricture resulted from esophageal carcinoma. Conclusion Therapeutic stenting is clinically unique, dramatically effective, with minor risks and worthy promoting in the management of certain digestive disorders.

  14. Manejo de riesgo (Risk Management). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaustad, Joan

    The ordinary conduct of school business is accompanied today by risks that were rare or unknown a few decades ago. This ERIC Digest in Spanish discusses how risk management, a concept long used by corporate decision makers, can help school boards and administrators conserve their districts' assets. Risk management is a coordinated effort to…

  15. Violence and Young Children's Development. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Lorraine B.

    This digest examines the developmental consequences for children who are the victims of or witnesses to family and community violence. A baby's ability to trust depends upon the family's ability to provide consistent caregiving, which is compromised when the infant's family lives in a community racked by violence. When they reach toddlerhood,…

  16. Cable Television in the Classroom. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Glen A.; Branch, Robert C.

    Using cable television in the classroom allows teachers to include the latest news and current events in class discussions. However, many educational practitioners are uninformed about the concept and lack the knowledge to implement the technology in the classroom. This digest describes how cable television can be integrated into elementary and…

  17. Mechanically processed corn silage digestibility and intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Franco da Silveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dry matter content increase due to the extension of the harversted period beginning and the kind of hybrid used can affect the starch digestibility and voluntary intake of ruminants. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the best corn hybrid and processing type of silage corn, and evaluate the possible effects on starch digestibility and voluntary intake of lambs. It was used 24 Santa Inês lambs with average age of three months and average initial weight of 25.0 kg. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2x2 factorial design (dent and flint hybrids; crushed and not crushed. The processing of the dent hybrid resulted in less dry matter intake (0.583 kg/day associated to higher total digestibility of dry matter and starch, 68.21 and 95.33% respectively. Thus, the processing of corn plants used for silage should be performed on hybrids with the dent grain texture to provide the best digestibility of silage to lambs.

  18. Liderazgo etico (Ethical Leadership). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    Until very recently, ethical issues were given little attention in administrator-preparation programs. This digest in Spanish outlines the ethical responsibilities of school leaders and the dilemmas that they face. It offers the following suggestions for resolving ethical dilemmas: (1) Leaders should have and be willing to act on a definite sense…

  19. Liderazgo visionario (Visionary Leadership). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    "Vision" is one of the most frequently used buzzwords in the education literature of the 1990s. This digest in Spanish presents an overview of visionary leadership, which many education experts consider to be a make-or-break task for the school leader. It discusses various definitions of vision, the significance of vision for…

  20. Risk Management. ERIC Digest, Number 86.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaustad, Joan

    The ordinary conduct of school business is accompanied today by risks that were rare or unknown a few decades ago. This ERIC Digest discusses how risk management, a concept long used by corporate decision makers, can help school boards and administrators conserve their districts' assets. Risk management is a coordinated effort to protect an…

  1. Comparison of digestate from solid anaerobic digesters and dewatered effluent from liquid anaerobic digesters as inocula for solid state anaerobic digestion of yard trimmings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fuqing; Wang, Feng; Lin, Long; Li, Yebo

    2016-01-01

    To select a proper inoculum for the solid state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of yard trimmings, digestate from solid anaerobic digesters and dewatered effluent from liquid anaerobic digesters were compared at substrate-to-inoculum (S/I) ratios from 0.2 to 2 (dry basis), and total solids (TS) contents from 20% to 35%. The highest methane yield of around 244L/kg VSfeed was obtained at an S/I ratio of 0.2 and TS content of 20% for both types of inoculum. The highest volumetric methane productivity was obtained with dewatered effluent at an S/I ratio of 0.6 and TS content of 24%. The two types of inoculum were found comparable regarding methane yields and volumetric methane productivities at each S/I ratio, while using dewatered effluent as inoculum reduced the startup time. An S/I ratio of 1 was determined to be a critical level and should be set as the upper limit for mesophilic SS-AD of yard trimmings.

  2. Issues in Media Ethics. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that over the past decade incidents have occurred and new technologies have appeared which together have raised questions about the ethical values of American journalists, this Digest seeks to identify some of those ethical issues and to point to the work of those who have studied these issues. It addresses issues of plagiarism and…

  3. Diversity Digest. Volume 9, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, Caryn McTighe, Ed.; Hovland, Kevin, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This issue of "Diversity Digest" grows out of one recent effort to raise the visibility of science in diversity and global learning initiatives. Articles in this issue include: (1) Science, Diversity, and Global Learning: Untangling Complex Problems (Kevin Hovland); (2) Breaking the Pyramid: Putting Science in the Core (Darcy Kelley);…

  4. Diversity Digest. Volume 9, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, Caryn McTighe, Ed.; Hovland, Kevin, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Published by the Association of American Colleges and Universities, this issue of "Diversity Digest" focuses on institutional leadership and how it advances diversity in higher education. Articles presented in this issue include: (1) Intercultural Learning for Inclusive Excellence (Edgar Beckham); (2) Demanding, Attracting, and Developing…

  5. A Science Fair Companion. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Wendy Sherman

    This digest comments on various aspects of school science fairs. General expectations for science fair projects and participants are discussed, and tips for choosing a topic and completing a project are given. Organizational strategies for teachers charged with conducting science fairs are presented. Guidelines for parents in helping children with…

  6. Nutrient Digestion and Utilization in Farm Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebreab, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; France, J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present current research in modelling nutrient digestion and utilization in cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry and fish. The book is organised into six sections that cover a range of topics and modelling approaches; these are (i) absorption and passage; (ii) growth and devel

  7. Political Communication via the Media. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that critics charge that news reporting focuses on the superficial, personal characteristics of candidates and ignores the issues underlying elections, this Digest examines the relationship between the political process and political communication through the media. It addresses the power of advertising, cyberspace political communication,…

  8. Anaerobic digestion in sustainable biomass chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pabon Pereira, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the potential contribution of anaerobic digestion (AD) to the sustainability of biomass chains. Results provide insights in the technological potential to recover energy and valuable by-products from energy crops and residues, and evaluate biomass cascades involving AD technolo

  9. Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Estes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available “Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome” is a hands-on activity designed to demonstrate the dynamics of microbiome ecology using dried pasta and beans to model disturbance events in the human digestive system microbiome. This exercise demonstrates how microbiome diversity is influenced by: 1 niche availability and habitat space and 2 a major disturbance event, such as antibiotic use. Students use a pictorial key to examine prepared models of digestive system microbiomes to determine what the person with the microbiome “ate.” Students then model the effect of taking antibiotics by removing certain “antibiotic sensitive” pasta. Finally, they add in “environmental microbes” or “native microbes” to recolonize the digestive system, determine how resilient their model microbome community is to disturbance, and discuss the implications. Throughout the exercise, students discuss differences in the habitat space available and microbiome community diversity. This exercise can be modified to discuss changes in the microbiome due to diet shifts and the emergence of antibiotic resistance in more depth.

  10. Children's Nutrition and Learning. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This digest reviews research on the link between children's nutrition and their ability to learn from the prenatal through school years. It also discusses the importance of nutrition education for children. The need for adequate nutrition during pregnancy and the preschool years is highlighted by research that indicates that low birthweight…

  11. Matrix Sampling of Test Items. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Ruth A.; Jaciw, Andrew P.

    This Digest describes matrix sampling of test items as an approach to achieving broad coverage while minimizing testing time per student. Matrix sampling involves developing a complete set of items judged to cover the curriculum, then dividing the items into subsets and administering one subset to each student. Matrix sampling, by limiting the…

  12. Indicadores educacionales (Educational Indicators). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    Educators use informal theories and assumptions to guide their actions, yet often fail to evaluate these beliefs. This ERIC Digest in Spanish examines the nature and purpose of educational-indicator systems and discusses the design of report cards by which schools can inform the public of their performance. An indicator is any statistic that casts…

  13. Swine manure digestate treatment using electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Mores

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anaerobic biodigestion is an appropriate alternative for the treatment of swine wastewater due to its biogas generation properties and the possibility of its application as a source of energy for heating or electricity. However, digestate can still contain high levels of turbidity, organic carbon and nutrients and must be correctly managed as a biofertilizer, or treated to avoid any impact on the environment. Considering this, electrocoagulation (EC shows promise as a technology because of its ease of handling and high efficiency in effluent remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of EC in a batch system in the treatment of swine wastewater digestate. The wastewater used in the treatment was sampled from a 10 m3 biodigestor effluent (digestate located at Concórdia, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A batch-scale experiment was carried out to evaluate the following two variables: electrode distance (ED and voltage applied (V. The removal efficiency levels (% for the best operational condition (2 cm, 5 V after 30 min were: 97 %, 98 %, 77 % and 10 % for color, turbidity, total organic carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN, respectively. The EC batch system produced efficient results, underlining its promise as an alternative to be applied in the treatment of digestate.

  14. Anaerobic Digestion in a Flooded Densified Leachbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, David P.; Teixeira, Arthur A.; Owens, John M.; Haley, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    A document discusses the adaptation of a patented biomass-digesting process, denoted sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC), to recycling of wastes aboard a spacecraft. In SEBAC, high-solids-content biomass wastes are converted into methane, carbon dioxide, and compost.

  15. Diversity Digest. Volume 8, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Mark, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This issue of "Diversity Digest" contains articles and resources focused on the lasting lessons, legacies, and spirit of the 1954 "Brown v. Board of Education" decision. This year of the fiftieth anniversary, filled with ceremonies, celebrations, and commemorations of that decision has highlighted many well known and lesser…

  16. Diversity Digest. Volume 8, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Mark, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Sponsored by the Pathways to College Network, this issue of "Diversity Digest" highlights some of the research that informs Pathways. Several of the articles identify factors that affect underserved students' ability to attend and succeed at postsecondary institutions. In the first article, "The Right to Learn and the Pathways to College Network"…

  17. Anaerobic hydrolysis during digestion of complex substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, W.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    Complex waste(water) such as, raw sewage, dairy wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, fish processing wastewater, primary sludge and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste have been proven to be degradable under anaerobic conditions. However, during the digestion process the conversion of th

  18. Advertising in the Schools. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidman, Amy

    This digest reviews the recent history of advertising to children, spotlights controversial marketing efforts, and examines the nature of commercial messages directed toward children in public schools. Because of the increase in children's spending power in recent decades, advertisers have closely targeted children as consumers. Advertising…

  19. Involving Migrant Families in Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Yolanda G.; Velazquez, Jose A.

    This digest describes parent involvement in their children's education from the perspective of migrant parents and educators and offers strategies to enhance the experience of schooling for migrant students and their families. Teachers often perceive parent involvement as preparing children for school, attending school events, and fulfilling…

  20. Foaming phenomenon in bench-scale anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebels, Amanda M; Long, Sharon C

    2013-04-01

    The Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District (The District) in Madison, Wisconsin has been experiencing seasonal foaming in their anaerobic biosolids digesters, which has occurred from mid-November to late June for the past few years. The exact cause(s) of foaming is unknown. Previous research findings are unclear as to whether applications of advanced anaerobic digestion processes reduce the foaming potential of digesters. The object of this study was to investigate how configurations of thermophilic and acid phase-thermophilic anaerobic digestion would affect foaming at the bench-scale level compared to single stage mesophilic digestion for The District. Bench-scale anaerobic digesters were fed with a 4 to 4.5% by dry weight of solids content blend of waste activated sludge (WAS) and primary sludge from The District. Foaming potential was monitored using Alka-Seltzer and aeration foaming tests. The bench-scale acid phase-thermophilic digester had a higher foaming potential than the bench-scale mesophilic digester. These results indicate that higher temperatures increase the foaming potential of the bench-scale anaerobic digesters. The bench-scale acid phase-thermophilic digesters had a greater percent (approximately 5 to 10%) volatile solids destruction and a greater percent (approximately 5 to 10%) total solids destruction when compared to the bench-scale mesophilic digester. Overall, for the full-scale foaming experienced by The District, it appears that adding an acid phase or switching to thermophilic digestion would not alleviate The District's foaming issues.