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Sample records for plates aluminum plates

  1. Electroless nickel plating on stainless steels and aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Procedures for applying an adherent electroless nickel plating on 303 SE, 304, and 17-7 PH stainless steels, and 7075 aluminum alloy was developed. When heat treated, the electroless nickel plating provides a hard surface coating on a high strength, corrosion resistant substrate.

  2. Sensitization of Naturally Aged Aluminum 5083 Armor Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-29

    5 - 1 - SENSITIZATION OF NATURALLY AGED ALUMINUM 5083 ARMOR PLATE INTRODUCTION Aluminum -magnesium alloys are important for both ship...boundaries [3,4]. The magnesium-rich phase (normally β-Al3Mg2) is highly anodic with respect to the surrounding aluminum phase, thus is susceptible... alloys , and with varying amounts of debris scattered about the surface consistent with corrosion product, Figure 2b, that often forms over time within

  3. Drying studies of simulated DOE aluminum plate fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lords, R.E.; Windes, W.E.; Crepeau, J.C.; Sidwell, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to validate the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) drying procedures for preparation of corroded aluminum plate fuel for dry storage in an existing vented (and filtered) fuel storage facility. A mixture of hydrated aluminum oxide bound with a clay was used to model the aluminum corrosion product and sediment expected in these Department of Energy (DOE) owned fuel types. Previous studies demonstrated that the current drying procedures are adequate for removal of free water inside the storage canister and for transfer of this fuel to a vented dry storage facility. However, using these same drying procedures, the simulated corrosion product was found to be difficult to dry completely from between the aluminum clad plates of the fuel. Another related set of experiments was designed to ensure that the fuel would not be damaged during the drying process. Aluminum plate fuels are susceptible to pitting damage on the cladding that can result in a portion of UAl x fuel meat being disgorged. This would leave a water-filled void beneath the pit in the cladding. The question was whether bursting would occur when water in the void flashes to steam, causing separation of the cladding from the fuel, and/or possible rupture. Aluminum coupons were fabricated to model damaged fuel plates. These coupons do not rupture or sustain any visible damage during credible drying scenarios

  4. Low velocity impact of 6082-T6 aluminum plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocian, Oana Alexandra; Constantinescu, Dan Mihai; Sandu, Marin; Sorohan, Ştefan

    2018-02-01

    The low velocity domain covers vehicle impacts, ship collisions and even accidentally tool drops. Even though more and more research is needed into these fields, most of the papers concerning impact problems focus on impact at medium and high velocities. Understanding the behavior of structures subjected to low velocity impact is of major importance when referring to impact resistance and damage tolerance. The paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation on the low velocity behavior of 6082-T6 aluminum plates. Impact tests were performed using an Instron Ceast 9340 drop-weight testing machine. In the experimental procedure, square plates were mounted on a circular support, fixed with a pneumatic clamping system and impacted with a hemispherical steel projectile. Specimens were impacted at constant weight and different impact velocities. The effect of different impact energies was investigated. The impact event was then simulated using the nonlinear finite element code LS_DYNA in order to determine the effect of strain rate upon the mechanical behavior of the aluminum plates. Moreover, in order to capture the exact behavior of the material, a special attention has been given to the selection of the correct material model and its parameters, which, in large extent, depend on the observed behavior of the aluminum plate during the test and the actual response of the plate under simulation. The numerical predictions are compared with the experimental observations and the applicability of the numerical model for further researches is analyzed.

  5. Microstructure and Mechanical Property of Aluminum Alloy Plate AA 7055

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Junzhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Through-thickness microstructure and mechanical property of AA 7055-T7751 aluminum alloy plate were investigated by using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD, transmission electron microscope (TEM and small angle X-ray scattering(SAXS. The results indicate an inhomogeneous distribution of microstructure through the thickness. The degree of recrystallization decreases gradually from 69% to 19.1%, as deepening from the surface to the center of the plate. The size of subgrains decreases from 10 μm at the surface to around 2 μm at the center. Strong texture of rolling type is observed near the center but the intensity decreases gradually as nearing the surface and the shear texture becomes the dominant. High density of plate-like η' phases are observed in the alloy, indicating the sufficient precipitation. η' precipitates of this condition are around 3.7 nm in radius, 1-3 nm in thickness and are found coherent with the Al matrix with a coherent strain of 0.0133, showing a strong strengthening effect. The heterogeneity in grain scale does not influence the distribution and the morphology of precipitates. The yield strength (L direction varies linearly along the thickness direction of the plate, fitting an equation of σy=-38.7S+604.8 (0≤S≤1. The variation of yield strength is related to the heterogeneity of grain structure.

  6. Aluminum Nitride Ceramic as an Optically Stimulable Luminescence Dosimeter Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Okada

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Photostimulable storage phosphors have been used in a wide range of applications including radiation measurements in one- and two-dimensional spaces, called point dosimetry and radiography. In this work, we report that an aluminum nitride (AlN ceramic plate, which is practically used as a heat sink (SHAPAL®, Tokuyama Corp., Yamaguchi, Japan, shows good optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL properties with sufficiently large signal and capability for imaging applications, and we have characterized the AlN plate for OSL applications. Upon interaction with X-rays, the sample color turns yellowish, due to a radiation-induced photoabsorption band in the UV-blue range below ~500 nm. After irradiating the sample with X-rays, an intense OSL emission can be observed in the UV (360 nm spectral region during stimulation by red light. Although our measurement setup is not optimized, dose detection was confirmed as low as ~3 mGy to over 20 Gy. Furthermore, we have successfully demonstrated that the SHAPAL® AlN ceramic plate has great potential to be used as an imaging plate in radiography.

  7. Analysis of Crystallographic Textures in Aluminum Plates Processed by Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Saiyi; Mishin, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    A modeling and experimental investigation has been conducted to explore the effect of processing route on texture evolution during equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) of aluminum plate samples. It is found that although the textures in the plates develop along orientation fibers previously ide...... identified for ECAE-processed rods and bars, the main components and strength of these textures vary significantly with processing route, which may lead to considerable differences in the plastic anisotropy of the plates....

  8. Corrosion Resistance of 7475-T7351 Aluminum Alloy Plate for Aviation

    OpenAIRE

    LIU Ming; LI Hui-qu; CHEN Jun-zhou; LI Guo-ai; CHEN Gao-hong

    2017-01-01

    The intergranular corrosion and exfoliation corrosion properties of 7475-T7351 aluminum alloy plate for aviation were investigated, and the corrosion behaviors of the alloy were analyzed by metallographic analysis(MA) and transmission electron microscope(TEM). The results show that no obvious intergranular corrosion is observed, but exfoliation corrosion grade of 7475-T7351 aluminum alloy increases from EA on surface to EC in the core. The exfoliation corrosion of 7475 alloy plate is mainly b...

  9. Burnthrough Modeling of Marine Grade Aluminum Alloy Structural Plates Exposed to Fire

    OpenAIRE

    Rippe, Christian M

    2015-01-01

    Current fire induced burnthrough models of aluminum typically rely solely on temperature thresholds and cannot accurately capture either the occurrence or the time to burnthrough. This research experimentally explores the fire induced burnthrough phenomenon of AA6061-T651 plates under multiple sized exposures and introduces a new burnthrough model based on the near melting creep rupture properties of the material. Fire experiments to induce burnthrough on aluminum plates were conducted us...

  10. Measurement of the residual stress distribution in a thick pre-stretched aluminum plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. X.; Li, X. Q.; M, S.; Zhang, Y. C.; Gong, Y. D.

    2008-12-01

    Thick pre-stretched aluminum alloy plates are widely used in aircraft, while machining distortion caused by initial residual stress release in thick plates is a common and serious problem. To reduce the distortion, the residual stress distribution in thick plate must be measured. According to the characteristics of the thick pre-stretched aluminum alloy plate, based the elastic mechanical theory, this article deduces the modified layer-removal strain method adapting two different strain situations, which are caused by tensile and compressive stress. To validate this method, the residual stresses distribution along the thick direction of plate 2D70T351 is measured by this method, it is shown that the new method deduced in this paper is simple and accurate, and is very useful in engineering.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF 6061 T651 ALUMINUM PLATES SUBJECTED TO HIGH-VELOCITY IMPACT LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren ÖZŞAHİN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ballistic response of single or multi-layered metal armor systems subjected to kinetic energy pro-jectiles was investigated in many experimental, theoretical and numerical studies.In this study, 6061 T651 aluminum plates impacted by 9 mm bullets were investigated. Microstructural investigations have been carried out using optical microscopy. Microhardness values were used to determine the strength behavior of the plates. Influence of the plate thickness and impact velocity on the microstructure has been evaluated. It was concluded from the study that thinner plates are more prone to deformation hardening with high penetration depth values even at low impact velocities while thick plates are more susceptible to thermal softening with less penetration depths. Maximum hardness values were obtained just below the impact zone in both plate thicknesses.

  12. Aluminum cathode plates in zinc electrowinning cells: microstructural and failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buarzaiga, M.; Dreisinger, D.; Tromans, D.; Gonzalez, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The microstructure of aluminum cathode plates used in zinc electrowinning was analyzed using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Three principal phases dominated the microstructure: primary aluminum, uniformly distributed intermetallic particles, and round rosettes. The intermetallics exhibited blade shape morphology, light gray color, and were aligned in the rolling direction. The chemical composition of the intermetallic particles was consistent with FeAl 3 . Angular particles of elemental silicon were also detected. Failure characteristics of industrial cathode plates were analyzed using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, and x-ray diffraction analysis. Three distinct corrosion zones were identified on failed plates: Zone I below the electrolyte/air interface, Zone II 0-40 mm above the electrolyte/air interface, and Zone III 40-140 mm above the electrolyte/air interface. After 24 months in service, the corrosion damage in Zones I and III was equivalent to ca. 10% reduction in plate thickness. Zone II experienced the greatest corrosion damage; the reduction in plate thickness was ca. 80%. Some plates exhibited severe thinning and perforation, which occurred preferentially near the electrical contact edge. Plates often fail in service by fracture in Zone II. (author)

  13. Chromate coating of zinc-aluminum plating on mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, I.; Khan, A.; Nadeem, A.

    2005-01-01

    The chromate coating on zinc-aluminium deposits has been studied. Zinc-aluminium deposition from non-cyanide bath was carried out at current density 3-3.5 A/dm/sup 2/, plating voltage approx. equal to 1.25 V, temperature 18-20 deg. C, for 15 min. The effect of aluminium chloride on the rest potentials of golden, colorless and non-chromated zinc-aluminium alloy deposits was observed. It was found that rest potential was slightly increased with the increase in the concentration of aluminium chloride, only in the case of golden chromating. The rest potential of colorless chromated zinc-aluminium deposits on mild steel were observed to have no correlation with aluminium chloride concentration. The abrasion resistance of colorless chromating was better than golden chromating. (author)

  14. Study of ion plating parameters, coating structure, and corrosion protection for aluminum coatings on uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egert, C.M.; Scott, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    A study of ion-plating parameters (primarily deposition rate and substrate bias voltage), coating structure, and the corrosion protection provided by aluminum coatings on uranium is presented. Ion plating at low temperatures yields a variety of aluminum coating structures on uranium. For example, aluminum coatings produced at high deposition rates and low substrate bias voltages are columnar with voids between columns, as expected for high-rate vapor deposition at low temperatures. On the other hand, low deposition rate and high bias voltage produce a modified coating with a dense, noncolumnar structure. These results are not in agreement with other studies that have found no relationship between deposition rate and coating structure in ion plating. This discrepancy is probably due to the high deposition rates used in these studies. An accelerated, water vapor corrosion test indicates that the columnar aluminum coatings provide some corrosion protection despite their porous nature; however, the dense noncolumnar coatings provide significantly greater protection. These results indicate that ion-plated aluminum coatings produced at low deposition rates and high substrate bias voltages creates dense coating structures that are most effective in protecting uranium from corrosion

  15. Cadmium plated steel caps seal anodized aluminum fittings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padden, J.

    1971-01-01

    Cadmium prevents fracturing of hard anodic coating under torquing to system specification requirements, prevents galvanic coupling, and eliminates need for crush washers, which, though commonly used in industry, do not correct leakage problem experienced when anodized aluminum fittings and anodized aluminum cap assemblies are joined.

  16. Deformation Behavior of Reverse Deep Drawing of 5A06 Aluminum Alloy Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Zhi-chao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The limit drawing ratio is influenced by the bending and unbending effect during reverse deep drawing of plate. The 5A06 aluminum alloy plate widely applied in aerospace industry was used, and the reverse deep drawing of the 4.5mm thick plate was investigated experimentally and numerically. The stress and strain distributions of plate were analyzed, the deformation behaviour was discussed for three types of cross section of die during the reverse deep drawing process; moreover, the changing rule of strain paths with the die profile was also discussed. Results show that a maximum radial stress is induced by the bending effect at the transient region between the inside die radius and straight wall, where a radial stress and strain gradient along the thickness direction appears and the fracture is easy to occur. For the semi-circle profiled die structure, the limited punch stroke is 203mm which is increased by 40% than that for the die with a planar profile section. The semi-circle profiled die structure can reduce the bending effect, effectively reduce the stress gradient and the maximum stress value in the transient region, and is helpful to improve the limit drawing ratio of the 5A06 aluminum alloy plate.

  17. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong

    2018-02-13

    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  18. Expanding the Availability of Lightweight Aluminum Alloy Armor Plate Procured from Detailed Military Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Kevin; Squillacioti, Richard; Cheeseman, Bryan; Placzankis, Brian; Gallardy, Denver

    For many years, the range of aluminum alloys for armor plate applications obtainable in accordance with detailed military specifications was very limited. However, the development of improved aluminum alloys for aerospace and other applications has provided an opportunity to modernize the Army portfolio for ground vehicle armor applications. While the benefits of offering additional alloy choices to vehicle designers is obvious, the process of creating detailed military specifications for armor plate applications is not trivial. A significant amount of material and testing is required to develop the details required by an armor plate specification. Due to the vast number of material programs that require standardization and with a limited amount of manpower and funds as a result of Standardization Reform in 1995, one typically requires a need statement from a vehicle program office to justify and sponsor the work. This presentation will focus on recent aluminum alloy armor plate specifications that have added capability to vehicle designers' selection of armor materials that offer possible benefits such as lower cost, higher strength, better ballistic and corrosion resistance, improved weldability, etc.

  19. Plating laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seamster, A.G.; Weitkamp, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    The lead plating of the prototype resonator has been conducted entirely in the plating laboratory at SUNY Stony Brook. Because of the considerable cost and inconvenience in transporting personnel and materials to and from Stony Brook, it is clearly impractical to plate all the resonators there. Furthermore, the high-beta resonator cannot be accommodated at Stony Brook without modifying the set up there. Consequently the authors are constructing a plating lab in-house

  20. The Effect of the Width of an Aluminum Plate on a Bouncing Steel Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Hathaway

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the distance between clamping supports of an aluminum alloy plate on the coefficient of restitution of a bouncing steel ball was investigated. The plate was supported on two wooden blocks with a meter stick secured on either side. A steel ball was dropped from a constant height and a motion detector was used to find the coefficient of restitution. Measurements were made with the wooden blocks at a range of distances. It was found that as the distance between the wooden blocks increased, the coefficient of restitution decreased linearly

  1. Quantitative Microstructural Characterization of Thick Aluminum Plates Heavily Deformed Using Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Segal, V.M.; Ferrasse, S.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed quantitative analysis of the microstructure has been performed in three orthogonal planes of 15-mm-thick aluminum plates heavily deformed via two equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) routes. One route was a conventional route A with no rotation between passes. Another route involved...... sequential 90 deg rotations about the normal direction (ND) between passes. The microstructure in the center of these plates, and especially the extent of microstructural heterogeneity, has been characterized quantitatively and compared with that in bar samples extruded via either route A or route Bc with 90...... Bc. © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2012...

  2. Modeling and Investigation of Elongation in Free Explosive Forming of Aluminum Alloy Plate

    OpenAIRE

    R. Alipour; F.Najarian

    2011-01-01

    Because of high ductility, aluminum alloys, have been widely used as an important base of metal forming industries. But the main week point of these alloys is their low strength so in forming them with conventional methods like deep drawing, hydro forming, etc have been always faced with problems like fracture during of forming process. Because of this, recently using of explosive forming method for forming of these plates has been recommended. In this paper free explosive forming of A2024 al...

  3. Time reversed Lamb wave for damage detection in a stiffened aluminum plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijudas, C R; Mitra, M; Mujumdar, P M

    2013-01-01

    According to the concept of time reversibility of the Lamb wave, in the absence of damage, a Lamb wave signal can be reconstructed at the transmitter location if a time reversed signal is sent back from the receiver location. This property is used for baseline-free damage detection, where the presence of damage breaks down the time reversibility and the mismatch between the reconstructed and the input signal is inferred as the presence of damage. This paper presents an experimental and a simulation study of baseline-free damage detection in a stiffened aluminum plate by time reversed Lamb wave (TRLW). In this study, single Lamb wave mode (A 0 ) is generated and sensed using piezoelectric (PZT) transducers through specific transducer placement and amplitude tuning. Different stiffening configurations such as plane and T-stiffeners are considered. Damage cases of disbonding of stiffeners from the base plate, and vertical and embedded cracks in the stiffened plate, are studied. The results show that TRLW based schemes can efficiently identify the presence of damage in a stiffened plate. (paper)

  4. An Experimental Evaluation of Electron Beam Welded Thixoformed 7075 Aluminum Alloy Plate Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ava Azadi Chegeni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two plates of thixoformed 7075 aluminum alloy were joined using Electron Beam Welding (EBW. A post-welding-heat treatment (PWHT was performed within the semi-solid temperature range of this alloy at three temperatures, 610, 617 and 628 °C, for 3 min. The microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of EB welded plates, as well as the heat-treated specimens, were investigated in the Base Metal (BM, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ, and Fusion Zone (FZ, using optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis, and Vickers hardness test. Results indicated that after EBW, the grain size substantially decreased from 67 µm in both BM and HAZ to 7 µm in the FZ, and a hardness increment was observed in the FZ as compared to the BM and HAZ. Furthermore, the PWHT led to grain coarsening throughout the material, along with a further increase in hardness in the FZ.

  5. Performance of Electrocoagulation Process for Removal of Sulphate Ion from Aqueous Environments Using Plate Aluminum Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a.h Mahvi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Sulphate ion is one of the main ions available in natural and waste water. The high rate of sulphate in drinking water causes health problems such as irritation and digestive problems and makes water taste bitter. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of sulphate ion removal from drinking water through Electrocogualation process (EC using plate aluminum electrodes. Methods: This study was conducted as a pilot plant using one glass tank in the volume of 1.3liter containing 6 plate aluminum electrodes. These electrodes were attached to a power supply in a mono-polar and parallel arrangement in order to switch the alternating current to the direct one. That is, each electrode was attached to positive and negative poles directly and alternately. The tank was filled with synthetic water containing sulphate ion with the concentration of 350 & 700mg/L. Percentage of sulphate ion removal in potential range of 10, 20 and 30 V, reaction times of 40, 20 and 60min and pH 7.0, 3.0 & 11.0 were measured. Results: In this study the maximum efficiency of sulphate ion removal was in the electrical potential of 30 V, reaction time of 60min and pH 11.0. With increase of ion concentration, the time needed to achieve a suitable efficiency of removal increased, that is, it indicated the direct effect of pH and difference of electrical potential on removal of sulphate ion through EC process. Conclusion: The results of this research show that Electrocogualation technology can be introduced as a suitable and promising technique to remove sulphate ion from aqueous environments using plate aluminum electrodes.

     

  6. Performance of Electrocoagulation Process for Removal of Sulphate Ion from Aqueous Environments Using Plate Aluminum Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajabizadeh A.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Sulphate ion is one of the main ions available in natural and waste water. The high rate of sulphate in drinking water causes health problems such as irritation and digestive problems and makes water taste bitter. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of sulphate ion removal from drinking water through Electrocogualation process (EC using plate aluminum electrodes.Methods: This study was conducted as a pilot plant using one glass tank in the volume of 1.3liter containing 6 plate aluminum electrodes. These electrodes were attached to a power supply in a mono-polar and parallel arrangement in order to switch the alternating current to the direct one. That is, each electrode was attached to positive and negative poles directly and alternately. The tank was filled with synthetic water containing sulphate ion with the concentration of 350 & 700mg/L. Percentage of sulphate ion removal in potential range of 10, 20 and 30 V, reaction times of 40, 20 and 60min and pH 7.0, 3.0 & 11.0 were measured.Results: In this study the maximum efficiency of sulphate ion removal was in the electrical potential of 30 V, reaction time of 60min and pH 11.0. With increase of ion concentration, the time needed to achieve a suitable efficiency of removal increased, that is, it indicated the direct effect of pH and difference of electrical potential on removal of sulphate ion through EC process.Conclusion: The results of this research show that Electrocogualation technology can be introduced as a suitable and promising technique to remove sulphate ion from aqueous environments using plate aluminum electrodes.

  7. The NBS: Processing/Microstructure/Property Relationships in 2024 Aluminum Alloy Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, L. K.; Swartzendruber, W. J.; Boettinger, W. J.; Rosen, M.; Ridder, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    As received plates of 2024 aluminum alloy were examined. Topics covered include: solidification segregation studies; microsegregation and macrosegregation in laboratory and commercially cast ingots; C-curves and nondestructive evaluation; time-temperature precipitation diagrams and the relationships between mechanical properties and NDE measurements; transmission electron microscopy studies; the relationship between microstructure and properties; ultrasonic characterization; eddy-current conductivity characterization; the study of aging process by means of dynamic eddy current measurements; and Heat flow-property predictions, property degradations due to improve quench from the solution heat treatment temperature.

  8. Microstructure and pitting corrosion of friction stir welded joints in 2219-O aluminum alloy thick plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Weifeng; Liu Jinhe

    2009-01-01

    Effect of welding parameters on the microstructure and pitting corrosion of different positions along the thickness of weld nugget zone in friction stir welded 2219-O aluminum alloy plate was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarization experiment and electrochemical impedance tests (EIS). It was found that the material presents significant passivation and the top has best corrosion resistance compared to the bottom and base material. Corrosion resistance decreases with the increase of traverse speed from 60 to 100 mm/min at rotary speed 400 rpm. Corrosion resistance at rotary speed 600 rpm is lower than that at 500 rpm.

  9. Pitting corrosion of friction stir welded aluminum alloy thick plate in alkaline chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Weifeng; Liu Jinhe; Zhu Hongqiang

    2010-01-01

    The pitting corrosion of different positions (Top, Middle and Bottom) of weld nugget zone (WNZ) along thickness plate in friction stir welded 2219-O aluminum alloy in alkaline chloride solution was investigated by using open circuit potential, cyclic polarization, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscope. The results indicate that the material presents significant passivation, the top has highest corrosion potential, pitting potential and re-passivation potential compared with the bottom and base material. With the increase of traverse speed from 60 to 100 mm/min or rotary speed from 500 to 600 rpm, the corrosion resistance decreases.

  10. Relation between the amount of dissolved water and metals dissolved from stainless steel or aluminum plate in safflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasago, Masahisa; Takaoka, Kyo

    1986-12-01

    The amount of water dissolved in safflower oil at the frying temperature (180 deg C) was 518 -- 1012 ppM, allowing water to drop continuously (0.035 g/2 min) into the oil for 1 -- 3 h. When the oil was heated with metal plates under the same conditions, the amount of dissolved water in the oil increased more than in the absence of the metal plates. In case of stainless steel, the amount was 1.26 to 1.33 times, and with aluminum plates, 1.06 to 1.13 times the amount without plates. When these metal plates were heated with the oil under the above conditions, the water dissolved the metal of the plates into the oil. In case of stainless steel, iron dissolved from 0.17 to 0.77 ppM, nickel, 0.04 ppM and chromium, from 0.02 to 0.03 ppM. Similarly, the amount of aluminum dissolved from the aluminum plate was from 0.10 to 0.45 ppM.

  11. The relation between the amount of dissolved water and metals dissolved from stainless steel or aluminum plate in safflower oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasago, Masahisa; Takaoka, Kyo

    1986-01-01

    The amount of water dissolved in safflower oil at the frying temperature (180 deg C) was 518 ∼ 1012 ppm, allowing water to drop continuously (0.035 g/2 min) into the oil for 1 ∼ 3 h. When the oil was heated with metal plates under the same conditions, the amount of dissolved water in the oil increased more than in the absence of the metal plates. In case of stainless steel, the amount was 1.26 to 1.33 times, and with aluminum plates, 1.06 to 1.13 times the amount without plates. When these metal plates were heated with the oil under the above conditions, the water dissolved the metal of the plates into the oil. In case of stainless steel, iron dissolved from 0.17 to 0.77 ppm, nickel, 0.04 ppm and chromium, from 0.02 to 0.03 ppm. Similarly, the amount of aluminum dissolved from the aluminum plate was from 0.10 to 0.45 ppm. (author)

  12. Damage characterization and modeling of a 7075-T651 aluminum plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordon, J.B.; Horstemeyer, M.F.; Solanki, K.; Bernard, J.D.; Berry, J.T.; Williams, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the damage-induced anisotropy arising from material microstructure heterogeneities at two different length scales was characterized and modeled for a wrought aluminum alloy. Experiments were performed on a 7075-T651 aluminum alloy plate using sub-standard tensile specimens in three different orientations with respect to the rolling direction. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to characterize the stereology of the final damage state in terms of cracked and or debonded particles. A physically motivated internal state variable continuum model was used to predict fracture by incorporating material microstructural features. The continuum model showed good comparisons to the experimental data by capturing the damage-induced anisotropic material response. Estimations of the mechanical stress-strain response, material damage histories, and final failure were numerically calculated and experimentally validated thus demonstrating that the final failure state was strongly dependent on the constituent particle morphology.

  13. Different finite element techniques to predict welding residual stresses in aluminum alloy plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moein, Hadi; Sattari-Far, Iradj

    2014-01-01

    This study is a 3D thermomechanical finite element (FE) analysis of a single-pass and butt-welded work-hardened aluminum (Al) 5456 plates. It aims to validate the use of FE welding simulations to predict residual stress states in assessing the integrity of welded components. The predicted final residual stresses in the plate from the FE simulations are verified through comparison with experimental measurements. Three techniques are used to simulate the welding process. In the first two approaches, welding deposition is applied by using element birth and interaction techniques. In the third approach, the entire weld zone is simultaneously deposited. Results show a value at approximately the yield strength for longitudinal residual stresses of the welded center of the butt-welded Al alloy plates with a thickness of 2 mm. Considering the application of a comprehensive heat source, along with heat loss modeling and the temperature dependent properties of the material, the approach without deposition predicts a reasonable distribution of residual stresses. However, the element birth and interaction techniques, compared with the no-deposit technique, provide more accurate results in calculating residual stresses. Furthermore, the element interaction technique, compared with the element birth technique, exhibits higher efficiency and flexibility in modeling the deposition of welded metals as well as less modeling cost.

  14. Ductile Tearing of Thin Aluminum Plates Under Blast Loading. Predictions with Fully Coupled Models and Biaxial Material Response Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gullerud, Arne S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Haulenbeek, Kimberly K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reu, Phillip L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The work presented in this report concerns the response and failure of thin 2024- T3 aluminum alloy circular plates to a blast load produced by the detonation of a nearby spherical charge. The plates were fully clamped around the circumference and the explosive charge was located centrally with respect to the plate. The principal objective was to conduct a numerical model validation study by comparing the results of predictions to experimental measurements of plate deformation and failure for charges with masses in the vicinity of the threshold between no tearing and tearing of the plates. Stereo digital image correlation data was acquired for all tests to measure the deflection and strains in the plates. The size of the virtual strain gage in the measurements, however, was relatively large, so the strain measurements have to be interpreted accordingly as lower bounds of the actual strains in the plate and of the severity of the strain gradients. A fully coupled interaction model between the blast and the deflection of the structure was considered. The results of the validation exercise indicated that the model predicted the deflection of the plates reasonably accurately as well as the distribution of strain on the plate. The estimation of the threshold charge based on a critical value of equivalent plastic strain measured in a bulge test, however, was not accurate. This in spite of efforts to determine the failure strain of the aluminum sheet under biaxial stress conditions. Further work is needed to be able to predict plate tearing with some degree of confidence. Given the current technology, at least one test under the actual blast conditions where the plate tears is needed to calibrate the value of equivalent plastic strain when failure occurs in the numerical model. Once that has been determined, the question of the explosive mass value at the threshold could be addressed with more confidence.

  15. Perforation of Thin Aluminum Alloy Plates by Blunt Projectiles - Experimental and Numerical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Gang; Zhang, Wei

    2013-06-01

    Reducing the armor weight has become a research focus in terms of armored material with the increasing requirement of the mobility and flexibility of tanks and armored vehicles in modern local wars. Due to high strength-to-density ratio, aluminum alloy has become a potential light armored material. In this study, both lab-scale ballistic test and finite element simulation were adopted to examine the ballistic resistance of aluminum alloy targets. Blunt high strength steel projectiles with 12.7 mm diameter were launched by light gas gun against 3.3 mm thick aluminum alloy plates at velocity of 90 ~ 170 m/s. The ballistic limit velocity was obtained. Plugging failure and obvious structure deformation of targets were observed, and with the impact velocity increasing, the target structure deformation decrease gradually. Corresponding 2D finite element simulations were conducted by ABAQUS/EXPLICIT combined with material performance testing. Good agreement between the numerical simulations and the experimental results was found. National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.: 11072072).

  16. Application of anodizing as a pre-treatment for nickel plating on aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, M.; Ahmad, J.; Aslam, M.; Iqbal, M.; Akhtar, J.I.

    2003-01-01

    Effect of anodizing on subsequent electroplating of nickel on aluminum was investigated. Electroplated nickel did not exhibit any adhesion with un-anodized aluminum. Formation of a very thin anodized alumina film prior to nickel plating led to an excellent adhesion between the nickel film and the substrate. If the thickness of the alumina film increased, adhesion of electroplated nickel was significantly deteriorated and became similar to that of un-anodized bare aluminum. The study revealed that deposition proceeded through pores and defects in the insulator alumina film. These pores and defects also acted as nucleation and anchor points for nickel deposit. There was larger number of nucleation/ anchor points on thin alumina films. This provided better adhesion of nickel with the substrate as well as excellent coverage in relatively shorter times. On the other hand, very rough and poorly adherent nickel deposits formed on thick anodized films. Therefore, it may be used as precursor for producing nickel powder with controlled particle size as well as a catalyst with high specific surface area for hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions. (author)

  17. Structural coarsening during annealing of an aluminum plate heavily deformed using ECAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg V.; Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, A.

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure and softening behaviour have been investigated in an aluminum plate heavily deformed by equal channel angular extrusion and subsequently annealed at 170 °C. It is found that at this temperature the microstructure evolves by coarsening with no apparent signs of recrystallization...... even after 2 h of annealing. Both coarsening and softening are rapid within first 10 minutes of annealing followed by a slower evolution with increasing annealing duration. Evidence of triple junction (TJ) motion during coarsening is obtained by inspecting the microstructure in one region using...... the electron backscatter diffraction technique both before and after annealing for 10 minutes. The fraction of fast-migrating TJs is found to strongly depend of the type of boundaries composing a junction. The greatest fraction of fast-migrating TJs is in the group, where all boundaries forming a junction...

  18. An evaluation of the Johnson-Cook model to simulate puncture of 7075 aluminum plates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo; Orient, George Edgar

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the use of the Johnson-Cook strength and failure models in an adiabatic finite element model to simulate the puncture of 7075- T651 aluminum plates that were studied as part of an ASC L2 milestone by Corona et al (2012). The Johnson-Cook model parameters were determined from material test data. The results show a marked improvement, in particular in the calculated threshold velocity between no puncture and puncture, over those obtained in 2012. The threshold velocity calculated using a baseline model is just 4% higher than the mean value determined from experiment, in contrast to 60% in the 2012 predictions. Sensitivity studies showed that the threshold velocity predictions were improved by calibrating the relations between the equivalent plastic strain at failure and stress triaxiality, strain rate and temperature, as well as by the inclusion of adiabatic heating.

  19. Static Tensile and Transient Dynamic Response of Cracked Aluminum Plate Repaired with Composite Patch - Numerical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, S. M. R.; Shariyat, M.; Mokhtari, M.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the central cracked aluminum plates repaired with two sided composite patches are investigated numerically for their response to static tensile and transient dynamic loadings. Contour integral method is used to define and evaluate the stress intensity factors at the crack tips. The reinforcement for the composite patches is carbon fibers. The effect of adhesive thickness and patch thickness and configuration in tensile loading case and pre-tension, pre-compression and crack length effect on the evolution of the mode I stress intensity factor (SIF) (KI) of the repaired structure under transient dynamic loading case are examined. The results indicated that KI of the central cracked plate is reduced by 1/10 to 1/2 as a result of the bonded composite patch repair in tensile loading case. The crack length and the pre-loads are more effective in repaired structure in transient dynamic loading case in which, the 100 N pre-compression reduces the maximum KI for about 40 %, and the 100 N pre-tension reduces the maximum KI after loading period, by about 196 %.

  20. Processing of aluminum matrix composites by electroless plating and melt infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, C.A.; Bourassa, A.-M.; Drew, R.A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Reduction of the SiC/ Al interaction and enhancement of wetting between reinforcements and molten aluminum was obtained by modifying the ceramic surface with deposition of nickel and copper coatings. The preparation of nickel- and copper-coated ceramic particles as precursors for MMC fabrication was studied. Al 2 O 3 and SiC powders were successfully coated with Ni and Cu using electroless metal plating. Uniform and continuous metal films were deposited on both, alumina and silicon carbide powders XRD showed that the Ni-P deposit was predominantly amorphous, while the copper deposit was essentially polycrystalline. Infiltration results showed that the use of the coated powders enhances the wettability between the matrix and ceramic phase when processing particulate MMCs by a vacuum infiltration technique, giving a porosity-free composite with a homogeneously distributed reinforcing phase. The coating promoted easy metal flow through the preform, compared to the non-infiltration behavior of the uncoated counterpart samples XRD microstructural analysis of the composites indicates the formation of intermetallic phases such as CuAl 2 , in the case of copper coating, and NiAl and NiAl 3 when nickel-coated powders are infiltrated. Metallization of the ceramics minimizes the interfacial reaction of the SiC/Al composites and promotes wetting of Al 2 O 3 reinforcements with liquid aluminum. Copyright (2000) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  1. Fundamental Study of Electron Beam Welding of AA6061-T6 Aluminum Alloy for Nuclear Fuel Plate Assembly (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soosung; Lee, Haein; Lee, Donbae; Park, Jongman; Lee, Yoonsang

    2013-01-01

    Certain characteristics, such as solidification cracking, porosity, HAZ (Heat-affected Zone) degradation must be considered during welding. Because of high energy density and low heat input, especially LBW and EBW processes posses the advantage of minimizing the fusing zone and HAZ and producing deeper penetration than arc welding processes. In present study, to apply for the nuclear fuel plate fabrication and assembly, a fundamental EBW experiment using AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy specimens was conducted. Furthermore, to establish the welding process, and satisfy the requirements of the weld quality, EBW apparatus using a electron welding gun and vacuum chamber was developed, and preliminary investigations for optimizing the welding parameters of the specimens using AA6061-T6 aluminum plates were also performed. In this experiment, a feasibility test was carried out by tensile tester, bead-on-plate welding and metallographic examination to comply with the aluminum welding procedure. The EB weld quality of AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy for the fuel plate assembly has been also studied by the mechanical testing and microstructure examinations. This study was carried out to determine the suitable welding process and to investigate tensile strength of AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy. In the present experiment, satisfactory EBW of the square butt weld specimens was developed. In comparison with the rolling directions of test specimens, the tensile strengths were no difference between the longitudinal and transverse welds. Based on this fundamental study, fabrication and assembly of the nuclear fuel plates will be provided for the future Kijang research reactor project

  2. Plate tectonics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.

    's continental drift theory was later disproved, it was one of the first times that the idea of crustal movement had been introduced to the scientific community; and it has laid the groundwork for the development of modern plate tectonics. In the early... of the structure of the atom was to physical sciences and the theory of evolution was to the life sciences. Tectonics is the study of the forces within the Earth that give rise to continents, ocean basins, mountain ranges, earthquake belts and other large-scale...

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective ... foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put ...

  4. Inhomogeneity of Microstructure and Properties of 7085-T651 Aluminum Alloy Extra-thick Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Chengbo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Inhomogeneity of microstructure and properties of 7085-T651 aluminum alloy extra-thick plate were investigated by tensile properties, exfoliation corrosion, optical microscopy(OM, composition analysis, scanning electron microscopy(SEM,differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The results show that the microstructure, tensile property and exfoliation corrosion in different layers of 7085-T651 aluminum alloy of 110 mm thick are inhomogeneous. For the 1/4 thickness layer, the tensile strength is the minimum, 540 MPa, and the resistance to exfoliation corrosion of this layer is the worst, with exfoliation corrosion classification of EB. For the core layer, the tensile strength is the maximum, 580 MPa. The resistance to exfoliation corrosion of the surface layer is the best, with exfoliation corrosion classification of EA. For the 1/4 thickness layer, it has the largest recrystallized fraction up to about 47.7% and the grain size is about 105 μm; there are equilibrium phase particles precipitated on grain boundaries or within grains; the size of aging precipitates is small; and thus both mechanical properties and resistance to exfoliation corrosion are the worst. For the core layer, it has the smallest recrystallized fraction of about 14.8% and there are a large amount of sub-grains; the fraction of residual phase Al7Cu2Fe almost reaches up to about 1.43%; the size of the equilibrium phase on grain boundaries, the size of aging precipitates and the width of PFZ are large, and therefore good mechanical properties and bad resistance to exfoliation corrosion are obtained.

  5. Study on crack scattering in aluminum plates with Lamb wave frequency–wavenumber analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Lingyu; Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara A C

    2013-01-01

    The multimodal characteristic of Lamb waves makes the interpretation of Lamb wave signals difficult in either the time or frequency domain. In this work, we present our study of Lamb wave propagation characterization and crack scattering using frequency–wavenumber analysis. The aim is to investigate three dimensional (3D) Lamb wave behavior in the presence of crack damage via the application of frequency–wavenumber analysis. The analysis techniques are demonstrated using simulation examples of an aluminum plate with a through-thickness crack. Both in-plane and out-of-plane components are acquired through a 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT), while the out-of-plane component is also experimentally obtained using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer for verification purposes. The time–space wavefield is then transformed to the frequency–wavenumber domain by a two dimensional (2D) Fourier transform and the out-of-plane EFIT results are compared to experimental measurements. The experimental and simulated results are found to be in close agreement. The frequency–wavenumber representation of in-plane and out-of-plane components shows clear distinction among various Lamb wave modes that are present. However, spatial information is lost during this 2D transformation. A short space 2D Fourier transform is therefore adopted to obtain the frequency–wavenumber spectra at various spatial locations, resulting in a space–frequency–wavenumber representation of the signal. The space–frequency–wavenumber analysis has shown its potential for indicating crack presence. (paper)

  6. Surface treatment of new type aluminum lithium alloy and fatigue crack behaviors of this alloy plate bonded with Ti–6Al–4V alloy strap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhen-Qi; Huang, Ming-Hui; Hu, Guo-Huai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new generation aluminum lithium alloy which special made for Chinese commercial plane was investigated. ► Pattern of aluminum lithium alloy and Ti alloy were shown after anodization. ► Crack propagation of samples bonded with different wide Ti straps were studied in this paper. -- Abstract: Samples consisting of new aluminum lithium alloy (Al–Li alloy) plate developed by the Aluminum Company of America and Ti–6Al–4V alloy (Ti alloy) plate were investigated. Plate of 400 mm × 140 mm × 2 mm with single edge notch was anodized in phosphoric solution and Ti alloy plate of 200 mm × 20 (40) mm × 2 mm was anodized in alkali solution. Patterns of two alloys were studied at original/anodized condition. And then, aluminum alloy and Ti alloy plates were assembled into a sample with FM 94 film adhesive. Fatigue crack behaviors of the sample were investigated under condition of nominal stress σ = 36 MPa and 54 MPa, stress ratio of 0.1. Testing results show that anodization treatment modifies alloys surface topography. Ti alloy bonding to Al–Li alloy plate effectively retards crack growth than that of Al–Li alloy plate. Fatigue life of sample bonded with Ti alloy strap improves about 62.5% than that of non-strap plate.

  7. Numerical Simulation of Stationary AC Tungsten Inert Gas Welding of Aluminum Plate in Consideration of Oxide Layer Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Shinichi; Tanaka, Manabu

    An unified numerical simulation model of AC TIG welding of the aluminum plate considering energy balance among the electrode, the arc and the base metal and employing an analytical model for calculating cleaning rate of the oxide layer has been developed for investigating heat transport properties and weld pool formation process in AC TIG welding of aluminum plate. As a result of this simulation, it was shown that although the heat flux from the arc onto the base metal increases in EN (Electrode Negative) phase due to the electron condensation, that in EP (Electrode Positive) phase conversely decreases because mainly of cooling caused by the electron emission. Furthermore, the validity of the simulation model was confirmed by comparing to experimental results such as the arc voltage, the area of cleaning zone and the shape of weld pool.

  8. Numerical analysis of AC tungsten inert gas welding of aluminum plate in consideration of oxide layer cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashiro, Shinichi, E-mail: tashiro@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp; Miyata, Minoru; Tanaka, Manabu

    2011-08-01

    A unified numerical simulation model of AC TIG welding of the aluminum plate considering energy balance among the electrode, the arc and the base metal and employing an analytical model for calculating cleaning rate of the oxide layer has been developed for investigating heat transport properties and weld pool formation process in AC TIG welding of aluminum plate. As a result of this simulation, it was shown that although the heat flux from the arc onto the base metal increases in EN (Electrode Negative) phase due to the electron condensation, that in EP (Electrode Positive) phase conversely decreases because mainly of cooling caused by the electron emission. Furthermore, the validity of the simulation model was confirmed by comparing to experimental results such as the arc voltage, the area of cleaning zone and the shape of weld pool.

  9. Investigation of Interface Bonding Mechanism of an Explosively Welded Tri-Metal Titanium/Aluminum/Magnesium Plate by Nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T. T.; Wang, W. X.; Zhou, J.; Cao, X. Q.; Yan, Z. F.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, W.

    2018-04-01

    A tri-metal titanium/aluminum/magnesium (Ti/Al/Mg) cladding plate, with an aluminum alloy interlayer plate, was fabricated for the first time by explosive welding. Nanoindentation tests and associated microstructure analysis were conducted to investigate the interface bonding mechanisms of the Ti/Al/Mg cladding plate. A periodic wavy bonding interface (with an amplitude of approximately 30 μm and a wavelength of approximately 160 μm) without a molten zone was formed between the Ti and Al plates. The bonding interface between the Al and the Mg demonstrated a similar wavy shape, but the wave at this location was much larger with an amplitude of approximately 390 μm and a wavelength of approximately 1580 μm, and some localized melted zones also existed at this location. The formation of the wavy interface was found to result from a severe deformation at the interface, which was caused by the strong impact or collision. The nanoindentation tests showed that the material hardness decreased with increasing distance from the bonding interface. Material hardness at a location was found to be correlated with the degree of plastic deformation at that site. A larger plastic deformation was correlated with an increase in hardness.

  10. Characterization and Processing Behavior of Heated Aluminum-Polycarbonate Composite Build Plates for the FDM Additive Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri L. Messimer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most essential components of the fused deposition modeling (FDM additive manufacturing (AM process is the build plate, the surface upon which the part is constructed. These are typically made from aluminum or glass, but there are clear disadvantages to both and restrictions on which materials can be processed on them successfully. This study examined the suitability of heated aluminum-polycarbonate (AL-PC composite print beds for FDM, looking particularly at the mechanical properties, thermal behavior, deformation behavior, bonding strength with deposited material, printing quality, and range of material usability. Theoretical examination and physical experiments were performed for each of these areas; the results were compared to similar experiments done using heated aluminum and aluminum-glass print beds. Ten distinct materials (ABS, PLA, PET, HIPS, PC, TPU, PVA, nylon, metal PLA, and carbon-fiber PLA were tested for printing performance. The use of a heated AL-PC print bed was found to be a practical option for most of the materials, particularly ABS and TPU, which are often challenging to process using traditional print bed types. Generally, the results were found to be equivalent to or superior to tempered glass and superior to standard aluminum build plates in terms of printing capability.

  11. Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanton, Brian; Coburn, William; Pizzillo, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    ...., surface texture and coatings) that could become important at high frequency. We measure waviness and roughness of various plates to know the parameter range for smooth aluminum and rolled homogenous armor (RHA...

  12. Plating on difficult-to-plate metals: what's new

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the changes since 1970 in procedures for plating on such materials as titanium, molybdenum, silicon, aluminum, and gallium arsenide are summarized. While basic procedures for plating some of these materials were developed as many as 30 to 40 years ago, changes in the end uses of the plated products have necessitated new plating processes. In some cases, vacuum techniques - such as ion bombardment, ion implantation, and vacuum metallization - have been introduced to improve the adhesion of electrodeposits. In other cases, these techniques have been used to deposit materials upon which electrodeposits are required

  13. Cadmium plating replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  14. Embedded adhesive connection for laminated glass plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Poulsen, S.H.; Bagger, A.

    2012-01-01

    The structural behavior of a new connection design, the embedded adhesive connection, used for laminated glass plates is investigated. The connection consists of an aluminum plate encapsulated in-between two adjacent triple layered laminated glass plates. Fastening between glass and aluminum...... usage in a design situation. The embedded connection shows promising potential as a future fastening system for load-carrying laminated glass plates....

  15. A Microstructural Evaluation of Friction Stir Welded 7075 Aluminum Rolled Plate Heat Treated to the Semi-Solid State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ava Azadi Chegeni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two rolled plates of 7075 aluminum alloy were used as starting material. The plates were welded using a simultaneous double-sided friction stir welding (FSW process. One way of obtaining feedstock materials for Semi-solid processing or thixoforming is via deformation routes followed by partial melting in the semi-solid state. As both the base plate materials and the friction weld area have undergone extensive deformation specimens were subjected to a post welding heat-treatment in the semi-solid range at a temperature of 628 °C, for 3 min in order to observe the induced microstructural changes. A comparison between the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of friction stir welded plates was performed before and after the heat-treatment in the Base Metal (BM, the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ, the Thermomechanically Affected Zone (TMAZ and the Nugget Zone (NZ using optical microscopy, Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM and Vickers hardness tests. The results revealed that an extremely fine-grained structure, obtained in the NZ after FSW, resulted in a rise of hardness from the BM to the NZ. Furthermore, post welding heat-treatment in the semi-solid state gave rise to a consistent morphology throughout the material which was similar to microstructures obtained by the thixoforming process. Moreover, a drop of hardness was observed after heat treatment in all regions as compared to that in the welded microstructure.

  16. Formation of interlayer gap and control of interlayer burr in dry drilling of stacked aluminum alloy plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In aircraft assembly, interlayer burr formation in dry drilling of stacked metal materials is a common problem. Traditional manual deburring operation seriously affects the assembly quality and assembly efficiency, is time-consuming and costly, and is not conducive to aircraft automatic assembly based on industrial robot. In this paper, the formation of drilling exit burr and the influence of interlayer gap on interlayer burr formation were studied, and the mechanism of interlayer gap formation in drilling stacked aluminum alloy plates was investigated, a simplified mathematical model of interlayer gap based on the theory of plates and shells and finite element method was established. The relationship between interlayer gap and interlayer burr, as well as the effect of feed rate and pressing force on interlayer burr height and interlayer gap was discussed. The result shows that theoretical interlayer gap has a positive correlation with interlayer burr height and preloading pressing force is an effective method to control interlayer burr formation.

  17. Modified Johnson–Cook Model-based Numerical Simulation of Small Arms Bullets Penetration in the Aluminum Alloy Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we simulated and studied the penetration process of 7,62 x 63 mm bullets "NATO Ball" (with a soft lead core and 7.62 x 63 mm ones «APM2» (with hard steel core in three kinds of aluminum plates, namely AA5083- H116, AA6082-T4, and AA7075-T6 with three different thicknesses of 10 mm, 20 mm, and 30 mm. The impact velocity was 830 m / s in all tests. Based on the test results and numerical calculations, all plates and a bullet were modeled as the deformable ones with modified constitutive Johnson-Cook relationship and Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion. Then they were used in modeling by three-dimensional nonlinear finite element in Ansys Ls-Dyna package. The influence of the finite element size in the finite element model on the length and results of calculations has been investigated as well.The main calculation results, we have received, include the residual bullet velocity and the residual kinetic energy of the bullet after drilling a hole in the plate and plate failure mechanism for each type and thickness of the plate with two types of bullets. We have noticed that the residual velocities of the bullets for small thicknesses of aluminum alloys (up to 10 mm have relatively equal values upon penetration of the bullets "NATO Ball" and «APM2» (a bit more, as well as the calculation-obtained failure mechanisms are adequate to experimental. In addition, resistance of AA7075-T651 aluminum alloy to penetration is higher than that of AA5083-H116 and AA6082-T4 ones.It should also be noted that the accuracy of the results depends mainly on the size of the grid elements. The more is the number of elements, the higher is the accuracy of the results, but the longer is the solution time. Therefore, we advice to use the finite element size of 0.2 mm, at most, to obtain the highly accurate results that are adequate to the experimental results.

  18. Quality verification for plate-type uranium-aluminum fuel elements for use in research reactors (Revision 1) - July 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Paragraph (a) (7) of 50.34, Contents of Applications: Technical Information, of 10 CFR Part 50, Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities, requires that each applicant for a construction permit to build a production or utilization facility include in its Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) a description of the quality assurance program to be applied to the design, fabrication, construction, and testing of the structures, systems, and components of the facility. The Regulatory Guide presented describes a method acceptable to the NRC staff for establishing and executing a quality assurance program for verifying the quality of plate-type uranium-aluminum fuel elements used in research reactors

  19. Effect of Fe- and Si-Enriched Secondary Precipitates and Surface Roughness on Pore Formation on Aluminum Plate Surfaces During Anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanzhi; Wang, Shizhi; Yang, Qingda; Zhou, Feng

    2014-09-01

    Two twin roll casts (TRCs) and one hot rolled (HR) AA 1235 aluminum alloy plates with different microstructures are prepared. The plates were electrolyzed in a 1.2 wt% HCl solution with a voltage of 21 V and a current of 1.9 mA. The shape, size, and number of pores formed on the surfaces of these plates were analyzed and correlated with the microstructures of the plates. It is found that pores are easier to form on the alloy plates containing subgrains with a lower dislocation density inside the subgrains, rather than along the grain boundaries. Furthermore, Fe- and Si-enriched particles in the AA1235 aluminum alloys lead to the formation of pores on the surface during electrolyzing; the average precipitate sizes of 4, 3.5, and 2 μm in Alloy 1#, Alloy 2# and Alloy 3# result in the average pore sizes of 3.78, 2.76, and 1.9 μm on the surfaces of the three alloys, respectively; The G.P zone in the alloy also facilitates the surface pore formation. High-surface roughness enhances the possibility of entrapping more lubricants into the plate surface, which eventually blocks the formation of the pores on the surface of the aluminum plates in the following electrolyzing process.

  20. Measurement of tritium activity in the aluminum pipe of JRR-2 heavy water primary cooling system using imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoishi, Shoji; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi

    2000-12-01

    JRR-2 is the heavy water cooling type nuclear reactor, which has been operated for 36 years (1960-1976) and in the process of decommissioning at present. For this reason, evaluation of tritium quantity permeated into the pipe and apparatus of the primary coolant heavy water circulating system is important. In the Radioisotope Production Division, activity of tritium in aluminum pipe was measured with imaging plate (IP), liquid scintillation analyzer and high purity germanium detector (HPGe). After acrylic paints was applied for the region except for tritium contamination on the surface of aluminum pipe, only the oxidized contaminated part was dissolved by 1.5%(1.21M) HF for 3 minutes, and measured with IP. As a result, the tritium was found to permeate in the depth of 25 μm. Moreover, 90% of it was found to be distributed within 7 μm. (author)

  1. Passive detection and localization of fatigue cracking in aluminum plates using Green's function reconstruction from ambient noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Xiao, Li; Qu, Wenzhong; Lu, Ye

    2017-11-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental studies have demonstrated that a local Green's function can be retrieved from the cross-correlation of ambient noise field. This technique can be used to detect fatigue cracking in metallic structures, owing to the fact that the presence of crack can lead to a change in Green's function. This paper presents a method of structural fatigue cracking characterization method by measuring Green's function reconstruction from noise excitation and verifies the feasibility of crack detection in poor noise source distribution. Fatigue cracks usually generate nonlinear effects, in which different wave amplitudes and frequency compositions can cause different nonlinear responses. This study also undertakes analysis of the capacity of the proposed approach to identify fatigue cracking under different noise amplitudes and frequency ranges. Experimental investigations of an aluminum plate are conducted to assess the cross-correlations of received noise between sensor pairs and finally to detect the introduced fatigue crack. A damage index is proposed according to the variation between cross-correlations obtained from the pristine crack closed state and the crack opening-closure state when sufficient noise amplitude is used to generate nonlinearity. A probability distribution map of damage is calculated based on damage indices. The fatigue crack introduced in the aluminum plate is successfully identified and oriented, verifying that a fatigue crack can be detected by reconstructing Green's functions from an imperfect diffuse field in which ambient noise sources exist locally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation shielding plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Torakichi; Sugawara, Takeo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the weight and stabilize the configuration of a radiation shielding plate which is used in close contact with an object to be irradiated with radiation rays. Constitution: The radiation shielding plate comprises a substrate made of lead glass and a metallic lead coating on the surface of the substrate by means of plating, vapor deposition or the like. Apertures for permeating radiation rays are formed to the radiation shielding plate. Since the shielding plate is based on a lead glass plate, a sufficient mechanical strength can be obtained with a thinner structure as compared with the conventional plate made of metallic lead. Accordingly, if the shielding plate is disposed on a soft object to be irradiated with radiation rays, the object and the plate itself less deform to obtain a radiation irradiation pattern with distinct edges. (Moriyama, K.)

  3. Development of a nickel plated aluminum krypton-81m target system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrumayan, F; Okarvi, S M; Nagatsu, K; Yanbawi, S; Aljammaz, I

    2017-03-01

    A fully automated system was developed to produce rubidium-81 ( 81 Rb), based on the nat Kr (p, n) 81 Rb reaction. The energy incident on the target was 26MeV. Only 6MeV was stopped inside the gas and the remainder was stopped by a specially designed flange. The target body was characterized by its conical shape and its inner walls were chemically plated with 100±10µm of nickel (Ni). Ni is advantageous as a fairly good conductor of heat whose surface can resist solutions. Additionally, the Ni plated target allowed potassium chloride to dissolve 81 Rb, with no further effect on the target body. The system produced 81 Rb with a production yield of approximately 4.5mCi/µAh, which is close to the calculated expected yield of 5.3mCi/µAh. The system is able to deliver reliable and reproducible radioactivity for patients and can be operated up to 1500µAh before preventive maintenance is due. Key steps in designing the 81 Rb target for selected energy ranges are reported here. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Research of plating aluminum and aluminum foil on internal surface of carbon fiber composite material centrifuge rotor drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiuqi; Dong Jinping; Dai Xingjian

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the corrosion resistance, thermal conductivity and sealability of the internal surface of carbon fiber/epoxy composite material centrifuge rotor drum, magnetron sputtering aluminum and pasting an aluminum foil on the inner wall of the drum are adopted to realize the aim. By means of XRD, SEM/EDS and OM, the surface topography of aluminum coated (thickness of 5 μm and 12 μm) and aluminum foil (12 μm) are observed and analyzed; the cohesion of between aluminum coated (or aluminum foil) and substrate material (CFRP) is measured by scratching experiment, direct drawing experiment, and shear test. Besides, the ultra-high-speed rotation experiment of CFRP ring is carried out to analyze stress and strain of coated aluminum (or aluminum foil) which is adhered on the ring. The results showed aluminum foil pasted on inner surface do better performance than magnetron sputtering aluminum on CFRP centrifuge rotor drum. (authors)

  5. Create Your Plate

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  10. Vacuum Die Casting Process and Simulation for Manufacturing 0.8 mm-Thick Aluminum Plate with Four Maze Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Kyu Jin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Using vacuum die casting, 0.8 mm-thick plates in complicated shapes are manufactured with the highly castable aluminum alloy Silafont-36 (AlSi9MgMn. The sizes and shapes of the cavities, made of thin plates, feature four different mazes. To investigate formability and mechanical properties by shot condition, a total of six parameters (melt temperatures of 730 °C and 710 °C; plunger speeds of 3.0 m/s and 2.5 m/s; vacuum pressure of 250 mbar and no vacuum are varied in experiments, and corresponding simulations are performed. Simulation results obtained through MAGMA software show similar tendencies to those of the experiments. When the melt pouring temperature is set to 730 °C rather than 710 °C, formability and mechanical properties are superior, and when the plunger speed is set to 3.0 m/s rather than to 2.5 m/s, a fine, even structure is obtained with better mechanical properties. The non-vacuumed sample is half unfilled. The tensile strength and elongation of the sample fabricated under a melt temperature of 730 °C, plunger speed of 3.0 m/s, and vacuum pressure of 250 mbar are 265 MPa and 8.5%, respectively.

  11. A Visualization Method for Corrosion Damage on Aluminum Plates Using an Nd:YAG Pulsed Laser Scanning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inbok; Zhang, Aoqi; Lee, Changgil; Park, Seunghee

    2016-12-16

    This paper proposes a non-contact nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique that uses laser-induced ultrasonic waves to visualize corrosion damage in aluminum alloy plate structures. The non-contact, pulsed-laser ultrasonic measurement system generates ultrasonic waves using a galvanometer-based Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and measures the ultrasonic waves using a piezoelectric (PZT) sensor. During scanning, a wavefield can be acquired by changing the excitation location of the laser point and measuring waves using the PZT sensor. The corrosion damage can be detected in the wavefield snapshots using the scattering characteristics of the waves that encounter corrosion. The structural damage is visualized by calculating the logarithmic values of the root mean square (RMS), with a weighting parameter to compensate for the attenuation caused by geometrical spreading and dispersion of the waves. An intact specimen is used to conduct a comparison with corrosion at different depths and sizes in other specimens. Both sides of the plate are scanned with the same scanning area to observe the effect of the location where corrosion has formed. The results show that the damage can be successfully visualized for almost all cases using the RMS-based functions, whether it formed on the front or back side. Also, the system is confirmed to have distinguished corroded areas at different depths.

  12. Paper microzone plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, Emanuel; Phillips, Scott T; Vella, Sarah J; Martinez, Andres W; Whitesides, George M

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes 96- and 384-microzone plates fabricated in paper as alternatives to conventional multiwell plates fabricated in molded polymers. Paper-based plates are functionally related to plastic well plates, but they offer new capabilities. For example, paper-microzone plates are thin (approximately 180 microm), require small volumes of sample (5 microL per zone), and can be manufactured from inexpensive materials ($0.05 per plate). The paper-based plates are fabricated by patterning sheets of paper, using photolithography, into hydrophilic zones surrounded by hydrophobic polymeric barriers. This photolithography used an inexpensive formulation photoresist that allows rapid (approximately 15 min) prototyping of paper-based plates. These plates are compatible with conventional microplate readers for quantitative absorbance and fluorescence measurements. The limit of detection per zone loaded for fluorescence was 125 fmol for fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin, and this level corresponds to 0.02 the quantity of analyte per well used to achieve comparable signal-to-noise in a 96-well plastic plate (using a solution of 25 nM labeled protein). The limits of detection for absorbance on paper was approximately 50 pmol per zone for both Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Amaranth dyes; these values were 0.4 that required for the plastic plate. Demonstration of quantitative colorimetric correlations using a scanner or camera to image the zones and to measure the intensity of color, makes it possible to conduct assays without a microplate reader.

  13. Preparation of micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic film on aluminum plates using galvanic corrosion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruomei; Chao, Guang Hua; Jiang, Haiyun; Pan, Anqiang; Chen, Hong; Yuan, Zhiqing; Liu, Qilong

    2013-10-01

    A simple and novel approach has been developed to obtain a microporous film with compound nanoparticles on the surface of aluminum alloy substrate using the galvanic corrosion method. The wettability of the surface changes from hydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity after chemical modification with stearic acid (SA). The water contact angle (WCA) and sliding angle (WSA) of superhydrophobic aluminum alloy surface (SAAS) are 154 degrees and 9 degrees, respectively. The roughness of the aluminum substrate increases after the oxidation reaction. The porous aluminum matrix surface is covered with irregularly shaped holes with a mean radius of about 15 microm, similar to the surface papillae of natural Lotus leaf, with villus-like nanoparticles array on pore surfaces. The superhydrophobic property is attributed to this special surface morphology and low surface energy SA. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) pattern and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) spectrum indicate that Al2O3, Al(OH)3 and AIO(OH) has been formed on the surface of aluminum substrate after the oxidation reaction. The Raman spectra indicate that C-H bond from SA and the Al-O are formed on the SAAS. The as-formed SAAS has good stability.

  14. Create Your Plate

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  16. Analysis of steam explosions in plate-type, uranium-aluminum fuel test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    The concern over steam explosions in nuclear reactors can be traced to prompt critical nuclear excursions in aluminum-clad/fueled test reactors, as well as to explosive events in aluminum, pulp, and paper industries. The Reactor Safety Study prompted an extensive analytical and experimental effort for over a decade. This has led to significant improvements in their understanding of the steam explosion issue for commercial light water reactors. However, little progress has been made toward applying the lessons learned from this effort to the understanding and modeling of steam explosion phenomena in aluminum-clad/fueled research and test reactors. The purposes of this paper are to (a) provide a preliminary analysis of the destructive events in test reactors, based on current understandings of steam explosions; (b) provide a proposed approach for determining the likelihood of a steam explosion event under scenarios in which molten U-Al fuel drops into a water-filled cavity; and (c) present a benchmarking study conducted to estimate peak pressure pulse magnitudes

  17. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... ready, you can try new foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. Then on one side, cut it ... and starchy foods. See this list of grains and starchy foods . ...

  1. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  2. Grafting of VO x/TiO2 catalyst on anodized aluminum plates for structured catalytic reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giornelli, Thierry; Loefberg, Axel; Bordes-Richard, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    Structured reactors are promising to carry out exothermic reactions because the heat transfer is better controlled than in usual packed-bed reactors. However the coating by oxide powders which must exhibit catalytic activity/selectivity while being mechanically stable is not so straightforward. We have studied the parameters to be controlled to coat aluminum walls by V 2 O 5 /TiO 2 catalysts which are used in the mild oxidation of hydrocarbons and NO x abatement. The dip-coating technique using metallic alcoholates has been chosen for the grafting of TiO 2 on Al 2 O 3 /Al, which is controlled by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). A monolayer of TiO 2 is first grafted, and then a porous film of TiO 2 -anatase is deposited by sol-gel. Finally, VO x species are grafted on titania and their loading again determined by XPS. Techniques such as Laser Raman Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy are used to characterize the samples after each step, and the porous texture is determined. The layers are mechanically and thermally stable. The dispersion and nature of VO x species on TiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 /Al are similar to what is found in literature for TiO 2 powders, showing thereby that the shaping of anatase support on plates has not modified the chemical properties of VO x /TiO 2 -anatase system

  3. Investigation on effect of laser shock processing on fatigue crack initiation and its growth in aluminum alloy plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.Q.; Li, H.; Yu, X.L.; Zhou, Y.; Duan, S.W.; Li, S.Z.; Huang, Z.L.; Zuo, L.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • LSP can greatly delay crack formation. • The micro-crack growing processes and its fracture are showed clearly. • Surface topographies and crack initiation locations are displayed. - Abstract: A series of contrasting experiments were carried out to examine the effects of laser shock processing (LSP) on fatigue properties of slot in 7075-T6 aluminum alloy plate. Both side surfaces of slot were subjected to LSP. The surface topographies were observed and the residual stresses were tested. The treated and the un-treated specimens were pulled by the fatigue cyclic loading respectively. The fatigue crack propagating processes were recorded, and the fatigue fracture microscopic morphologies were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Experimental results and analyses show that LSP induces micro-dent on surface and squeezes the compressive residual stresses into surface layer of specimen. It can remarkably delay the micro-crack formation, and transfer the location of fatigue crack initiation from top surface to sub-surface. The spacing of fatigue striations on the treated specimen fatigue fracture obviously decreases. Therefore, the fatigue life of specimen after LSP treatment significantly increases

  4. The Feasibility of Structural Health Monitoring Using the Fundamental Shear Horizontal Guided Wave in a Thin Aluminum Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Franklin Mansur Rodrigues Filho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Structural health monitoring (SHM is emerging as an essential tool for constant monitoring of safety-critical engineering components. Ultrasonic guided waves stand out because of their ability to propagate over long distances and because they can offer good estimates of location, severity, and type of damage. The unique properties of the fundamental shear horizontal guided wave (SH0 mode have recently generated great interest among the SHM community. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of omnidirectional SH0 SHM in a thin aluminum plate using a three-transducer sparse array. Descriptions of the transducer, the finite element model, and the imaging algorithm are presented. The image localization maps show a good agreement between the simulations and experimental results. The SH0 SHM method proposed in this paper is shown to have a high resolution and to be able to locate defects within 5% of the true location. The short input signal as well the non-dispersive nature of SH0 leads to high resolution in the reconstructed images. The defect diameter estimated using the full width at half maximum was 10 mm or twice the size of the true diameter.

  5. A Maximum Entropy Approach to Assess Debonding in Honeycomb aluminum Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Meruane

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Honeycomb sandwich structures are used in a wide variety of applications. Nevertheless, due to manufacturing defects or impact loads, these structures can be subject to imperfect bonding or debonding between the skin and the honeycomb core. The presence of debonding reduces the bending stiffness of the composite panel, which causes detectable changes in its vibration characteristics. This article presents a new supervised learning algorithm to identify debonded regions in aluminum honeycomb panels. The algorithm uses a linear approximation method handled by a statistical inference model based on the maximum-entropy principle. The merits of this new approach are twofold: training is avoided and data is processed in a period of time that is comparable to the one of neural networks. The honeycomb panels are modeled with finite elements using a simplified three-layer shell model. The adhesive layer between the skin and core is modeled using linear springs, the rigidities of which are reduced in debonded sectors. The algorithm is validated using experimental data of an aluminum honeycomb panel under different damage scenarios.

  6. An adaptive ARX model to estimate the RUL of aluminum plates based on its crack growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza-Barraza, Diana; Tercero-Gómez, Víctor G.; Beruvides, Mario G.; Limón-Robles, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    A wide variety of Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM) techniques deal with the problem of predicting the time for an asset fault. Most statistical approaches rely on historical failure data that might not be available in several practical situations. To address this issue, practitioners might require the use of self-starting approaches that consider only the available knowledge about the current degradation process and the asset operating context to update the prognostic model. Some authors use Autoregressive (AR) models for this purpose that are adequate when the asset operating context is constant, however, if it is variable, the accuracy of the models can be affected. In this paper, three autoregressive models with exogenous variables (ARX) were constructed, and their capability to estimate the remaining useful life (RUL) of a process was evaluated following the case of the aluminum crack growth problem. An existing stochastic model of aluminum crack growth was implemented and used to assess RUL estimation performance of the proposed ARX models through extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Point and interval estimations were made based only on individual history, behavior, operating conditions and failure thresholds. Both analytic and bootstrapping techniques were used in the estimation process. Finally, by including recursive parameter estimation and a forgetting factor, the ARX methodology adapts to changing operating conditions and maintain the focus on the current degradation level of an asset.

  7. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  8. High loading uranium plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pari of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat hiving a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process

  9. The use of U3Si2 dispersed in aluminum in plate-type fuel elements for research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snelgrove, J.L.; Domagala, R.F.; Hofman, G.L.; Wiencek, T.C.; Copeland, G.L.; Hobbs, R.W.; Senn, R.L.

    1987-10-01

    A high-density fuel based on U 3 Si 2 dispersed in aluminum has been developed and tested for use in converting plate-type research and test reactors from the use of highly enriched uranium to the use of low-enriched uranium. Results of preirradiation testing and the irradiation and postirradiation examination of miniature fuel plates and full-sized fuel elements are summarized. Swelling of the U 3 Si 2 fuel particles is a linear function of the fission density in the particle to well beyond the fission density achievable in low-enriched fuels. U 3 Si 2 particle swelling rate is approximately the same as that of the commonly used UAl/sub x/ fuel particle. The presence of minor amounts of U 3 Si or uranium solid solution in the fuel result in greater, but still acceptable, fuel swelling. Blister threshold temperatures are at least as high as those of currently used fuels. An exothermic reaction occurs near the aluminum melting temperature, but the measured energy releases were low enough not to substantially worsen the consequences of an accident. U 3 Si 2 -aluminum dispersion fuel with uranium densities up to at least 4.8 Mg/m 3 is a suitable LEU fuel for typical plate-type research and test reactors. 42 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs

  10. Heat insulating plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, J.A.F.

    1976-10-28

    Micro-porous insulation plates are dealt with, for example, how they are used in the insulation of heat storage devices. Since one side of such plates is exposed to a temperature of over 700/sup 0/C, a shrinkage of the glass texture of the covering can occur, which can exceed the shrinkage of the inner micro-porous material, so that cracks and splits in the high temperature side of the covering can come about. The task of the invention is to design the plate in such a way as to prevent this from happening. For this purpose the plate is provided, according to invention specifications, with flutes, waves, ribs, waffle or grid patterns and the covering is set into the recesses originating from this.

  11. Create Your Plate

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  6. Humvee Armor Plate Drilling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    When drilling holes in hard steel plate used in up-armor kits for Humvee light trucks, the Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama, requested the assistance of the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM...

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  10. BAO Plate Archive Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Gigoyan, K. S.; Gyulzadyan, M. V.; Paronyan, G. M.; Abrahamyan, H. V.; Andreasyan, H. R.; Azatyan, N. M.; Kostandyan, G. R.; Samsonyan, A. L.; Mikayelyan, G. A.; Farmanyan, S. V.; Harutyunyan, V. L.

    2017-12-01

    We present the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) Plate Archive Project that is aimed at digitization, extraction and analysis of archival data and building an electronic database and interactive sky map. BAO Plate Archive consists of 37,500 photographic plates and films, obtained with 2.6m telescope, 1m and 0.5m Schmidt telescopes and other smaller ones during 1947-1991. The famous Markarian Survey (or the First Byurakan Survey, FBS) 2000 plates were digitized in 2002-2005 and the Digitized FBS (DFBS, www.aras.am/Dfbs/dfbs.html) was created. New science projects have been conducted based on this low-dispersion spectroscopic material. Several other smaller digitization projects have been carried out as well, such as part of Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) plates, photographic chain plates in Coma, where the blazar ON 231 is located and 2.6m film spectra of FBS Blue Stellar Objects. However, most of the plates and films are not digitized. In 2015, we have started a project on the whole BAO Plate Archive digitization, creation of electronic database and its scientific usage. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO, www.aras.am/Arvo/arvo.htm) database will accommodate all new data. The project runs in collaboration with the Armenian Institute of Informatics and Automation Problems (IIAP) and will continues during 4 years in 2015-2018. The final result will be an Electronic Database and online Interactive Sky map to be used for further research projects. ArVO will provide all standards and tools for efficient usage of the scientific output and its integration in international databases.

  11. Neutron imaging plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimura, Nobuo

    1995-01-01

    Imaging plates have been used in the field of medical diagnosis since long ago, but their usefulness was verified as the two-dimensional detector for analyzing the X-ray crystalline structure of high bio molecules like protein, and they have contributed to the remarkable progress in this field. The great contribution is due to the excellent features, such as the detection efficiency of about 100%, the positional resolution smaller than 0.2 mm, the dynamic range of five digits, and the area of several hundreds mm square. The neutron imaging plates have not yet obtained the sufficient results. It was planned to construct the neutron diffractometer for biological matters, and to put imaging plate neutron detectors (IP-ND) to practical use as the detector. The research on the development of IP-NDs was carried out, and the IPp-NDs having the performance comparable with that for X-ray were able to be produced. Imaging plates are the integral type two-dimensional radiation detector using photostimulated luminescence matters, and their principle is explained. As to neutron imaging plates, the converter, neutron detection efficiency and the flight of secondary particles in photo-stimulated luminescence matters are described. As for the present state of development of neutron imaging plates, the IP-NDs made for trial, the dynamic range, the positional resolution, the detection efficiency and the kinds of converters, and the application of IP-NDs are reported. (K.I.)

  12. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  13. Selected-area growth of nickel micropillars on aluminum thin films by electroless plating for applications in microbolometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Ngoc Hieu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An optimization process of electroless plating of nickel was carried out with NiCl2 as the nickel ion source, NaH2PO2 as the reduction agent, CH3COONa and Na3C6H5O7 as complexing agents. Electroless plated nickel layers on sputtered aluminum corning glass substrates with a resistivity of about 75.9 μΩ cm and a nickel concentration higher than 93% were obtained. This optimum process was successfully applied in growing nickel micropillars at selected areas with a well-controlled height. The microstructure of the masking layers was fabricated by means of optical photolithography for subsequent growth of nickel micropillars on selected areas. Micropillars size was defined by the opening size and the height was controlled by adjusting the plating time at a growth rate of 0.41 μm/min. This result shows that electroless nickel plating could be a good candidate for growing micropillars for applications in microbolometers.

  14. Finite element analysis of a solar collector plate using two plate geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Manuel Medina Carril

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal behavior of an absorber plate in a solar collector is investigated using finite element analysis. The thermal behavior and efficiency of two absorber plate geometries are studied, using a typical solar collector with a rectangular profile as reference, and a proposed absorber plate with curved geometry. An analysis of the most important parameters involved in the design of the absorber plate was carried out, indicating that the curved geometry of the absorber plate yields an average efficiency ~25% higher than the conventional rectangular geometry. The results suggest that a curved profile made of materials such as aluminum with thermal conductivity higher than 200W/m°C, plate thickness of the order of 2-3mm and with a large density of tubes per unit area of the collector´s plate greatly benefits the thermal efficiency of the solar collector.

  15. Plating on Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.; Jones, A.

    1979-03-01

    Zircaloy-2 is a difficult alloy to coat with an adherent electroplate because it easily forms a tenacious oxide film in air and aqueous solutions. Procedures reported in the literature and those developed at SLL for surmounting this problem were investigated. The best results were obtained when specimens were first etched in either an ammonium bifluoride/sulfuric acid or an ammonium bifluoride solution, plated, and then heated at 700 0 C for 1 hour in a constrained condition. Machining threads in the Zircaloy-2 for the purpose of providing sites for mechanical interlocking of the plating also proved satisfactory

  16. NICKEL PLATING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, T.B.; Zava, T.E.

    1959-05-12

    A simplified process is presented for plating nickel by the vapor decomposition of nickel carbonyl. In a preferred form of the invention a solid surface is nickel plated by subjecting the surface to contact with a mixture containing by volume approximately 20% nickel carbonyl vapor, 2% hydrogen sulfide and .l% water vapor or 1% oxygen and the remainder carbon dioxide at room temperature until the desired thickness of nickel is obtained. The advantage of this composition over others is that the normally explosive nickel carbonyl is greatly stabilized.

  17. Hydrodynamics of a flexible plate between pitching rigid plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junyoung; Kim, Daegyoum

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of a flexible plate have been studied as a model problem in swimming and flying of animals and fluid-structure interaction of plants and flags. Motivated by fish schooling and an array of sea grasses, we investigate the dynamics of a flexible plate closely placed between two pitching rigid plates. In most studies on passive deformation of the flexible plate, the plate is immersed in a uniform flow or a wavy flow. However, in this study, the flexible plate experiences periodic deformation by the oscillatory flow generated by the prescribed pitching motion of the rigid plates. In our model, the pitching axes of the rigid plates and the clamping position of the flexible plate are aligned on the same line. The flexible plate shows various responses depending on length and pitching frequency of rigid plates, thickness of a flexible plate, and free-stream velocity. To find the effect of each variable on the response of the flexible plate, amplitude of a trailing edge and modal contribution of a flapping motion are compared, and flow structure around the flexible plate is examined.

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... meal-planning, . In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future ...

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tool is not to scale because of the differences in types of vegetables. When creating your plate ... function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('.survey-form .form-group .survey-alert-wrap').remove(); if (data.submitSurveyResponse.success == ' ...

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future Without Diabetes Donate towards research today and your gift will be matched. Donate ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create ... Type 2 Education Series Hear audio clips and full recordings of past Q&A events at your ...

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  4. Microchannel plate photodetectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majka, R.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given the status of development work on photodetectors using microchannel plates (MCP) as the electron gain element. Projections are made and opinions are presented on what might be available in the next few years. Several uses for these devices at ISABELLE are mentioned

  5. Parallel plate detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, D.; Volkov, P.

    1981-01-01

    A 5x3cm 2 (timing only) and a 15x5cm 2 (timing and position) parallel plate avalanche counters (PPAC) are considered. The theory of operation and timing resolution is given. The measurement set-up and the curves of experimental results illustrate the possibilities of the two counters [fr

  6. Flat plate collector. Solarflachkollektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, N

    1979-03-29

    The invention refers to a flat solar collector with an absorber plate, which is arranged on a support and is covered by a transparent window, between which and the plate there is an air space. The previously known structures of this type had the disadvantage that the thermal expansion of the enclosed air caused considerable difficulties. The purpose of the invention is therefore to create a collector, which can be used on the modular system, retains its properties and is safe in spite of the great temperature variations. According to the invention this problem is solved by providing a compensating space in the collector, which is separated by a diaphragm from the airspace between the plate and the covering window. The airspace therefore remains sealed against the atmosphere, so that no dirt, corrosion of the inside and no condensation can reduce the efficiency of the collector. A rise in pressure due to an increase in temperature is immediately reduced by expansion of the diaphragm, which enters the compensation space. In order to increase the pressure in the airspace above the plate for increases in temperature, the compensation space is connected to the atmosphere. The diaphragm can be mirrored on the side towards the absorber, which makes the diaphragm into an insulating element, as it reflects radiated heat from the absorber.

  7. Thermally induced dispersion mechanisms for aluminum-based plate-type fuels under rapid transient energy deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgevich, V.; Taleyarkham, R.P.; Navarro-Valenti, S.; Kim, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    A thermally induced dispersion model was developed to analyze for dispersive potential and determine onset of fuel plate dispersion for Al-based research and test reactor fuels. Effect of rapid energy deposition in a fuel plate was simulated. Several data types for Al-based fuels tested in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor in Japan and in the Transient Reactor Test in Idaho were reviewed. Analyses of experiments show that onset of fuel dispersion is linked to a sharp rise in predicted strain rate, which futher coincides with onset of Al vaporization. Analysis also shows that Al oxidation and exothermal chemical reaction between the fuel and Al can significantly affect the energy deposition characteristics, and therefore dispersion onset connected with Al vaporization, and affect onset of vaporization

  8. Selenium plating of aluminium and nickel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, N.; Shams, N.; Kamal, A.; Ashraf, A.

    1993-01-01

    Selenium exhibits photovoltaic and photoconductive properties. This makes selenium useful in the production of photocells, exposure meters for photographic use, in solar cells, etc. In commerce, selenium coated surfaces are extensively used as photo receptive drums in the xerography machines for reproducing documents. Laboratory experiments were designed to obtain selenium plating on different materials. Of the various electrodes tested for cathodic deposition, anodized aluminum and nickel plated copper were found to give good results. (author)

  9. Creep analysis of fuel plates for the Advanced Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinson, W.F.; Yahr, G.T.

    1994-11-01

    The reactor for the planned Advanced Neutron Source will use closely spaced arrays of fuel plates. The plates are thin and will have a core containing enriched uranium silicide fuel clad in aluminum. The heat load caused by the nuclear reactions within the fuel plates will be removed by flowing high-velocity heavy water through narrow channels between the plates. However, the plates will still be at elevated temperatures while in service, and the potential for excessive plate deformation because of creep must be considered. An analysis to include creep for deformation and stresses because of temperature over a given time span has been performed and is reported herein

  10. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.

  11. Effect of plate shapes in orifice plate type flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.V.

    1984-01-01

    The study of unusual plate shapes in orifice plate type flowmeters is presented, with a view to providing data for the substitution of the plate with one centered circular orifice in those applications where its use is not possible. For this purpose, six pairs of plates with different forms, with and without chamfered edges, were made and tested in a closed water loop. Results show that, generally, the use of chamfers improves the results and, in the case of perforated and slotlike orificed plates, the narrow-ness of the fluid passage tends to make unnecessary its use. (Author) [pt

  12. Plate removal following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mhairi; Langford, Richard Julian; Bhanji, Adam; Farr, David

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the removal rates of orthognathic plates used during orthognathic surgery at James Cook University Hospital and describe the reasons for plate removal. 202 consecutive orthognathic cases were identified between July 2004 and July 2012. Demographics and procedure details were collected for these patients. Patients from this group who returned to theatre for plate removal between July 2004 and November 2012 were identified and their notes were analysed for data including reason for plate removal, age, smoking status, sex and time to plate removal. 3.2% of plates were removed with proportionally more plates removed from the mandible than the maxilla. 10.4% of patients required removal of one or more plate. Most plates were removed within the first post-operative year. The commonest reasons for plate removal were plate exposure and infection. The plate removal rates in our study are comparable to those seen in the literature. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisaton of the damage, which...... as for the out-of-plane reaction force....

  14. Normal and abnormal growth plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Madewell, J.E.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Skeletal growth is a dynamic process. A knowledge of the structure and function of the normal growth plate is essential in order to understand the pathophysiology of abnormal skeletal growth in various diseases. In this well-illustrated article, the authors provide a radiographic classification of abnormal growth plates and discuss mechanisms that lead to growth plate abnormalities

  15. Study of uranium plating measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jufang; Wen Zhongwei; Wang Mei; Wang Dalun; Liu Rong; Jiang Li; Lu Xinxin

    2007-06-01

    In neutron physics experiments, the measurement for plate-thickness of uranium can directly affect uncertainties of experiment results. To measure the plate-thickness of transform target (enriched uranium plating and depleted uranium plating), the back to back ionization chamber, small solid angle device and Au-Si surface barrier semi-conductor, were used in the experiment study. Also, the uncertainties in the experiment were analyzed. Because the inhomo-geneous of uranium lay of plate can quantitively affect the result, the homogeneity of uranium lay is checked, the experiment result reflects the homogeneity of uranium lay is good. (authors)

  16. Fuel cell end plate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray; Schroll, Craig R.

    1991-04-23

    The end plates (16) of a fuel cell stack (12) are formed of a thin membrane. Pressure plates (20) exert compressive load through insulation layers (22, 26) to the membrane. Electrical contact between the end plates (16) and electrodes (50, 58) is maintained without deleterious making and breaking of electrical contacts during thermal transients. The thin end plate (16) under compressive load will not distort with a temperature difference across its thickness. Pressure plate (20) experiences a low thermal transient because it is insulated from the cell. The impact on the end plate of any slight deflection created in the pressure plate by temperature difference is minimized by the resilient pressure pad, in the form of insulation, therebetween.

  17. Plate performance in liquid-liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadkins, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of perforated, nozzle, and burred plates from a capacity and extraction standpoint were studied in a pulsed liquid-liquid extraction system. The experiments were conducted in a 3.8 x 10 -2 m diameter column using a mixture of aluminum nitrate, nitric acid, and uranyl nitrate as the aqueous phase, and tributyl phosphate dissolved in AMSCO 125-90 W as the organic phase. The uranium was extracted from the aqueous phase to the organic phase. A standard cartridge was made for each type of plate and consisted of an assembly of plates spaced 5.08 x 10 -2 m apart. Each plate had 3.2 x 10 -3 m holes spaced on 6.1 x 10 -3 -m centers, and contained 23% free area. 16 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  18. [Conventional plate osteosynthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaue, K

    2010-02-01

    Consolidation of bone is an essential clinical problem when treating fractures, fixing osteotomies and fusing joints. In most cases, the means of fixation are plates and screws. The goal is functional postoperative therapy by moving the adjacent joints and thus avoiding the deleterious disadvantages of long-lasting articular immobilization. Pre-operative planning, surgical approach, a good understanding of the precise mechanics of the structure and the biological answer for the various tissues are prerequisites of successful osteosynthesis. The choice of implants and the application of their versatility, as well as their adaptation to individual cases are the key to good results.

  19. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  20. BASIC program to compute uranium density and void volume fraction in laboratory-scale uranium silicide aluminum dispersion plate-type fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugajin, Mitsuhiro

    1991-05-01

    BASIC program simple and easy to operate has been developed to compute uranium density and void volume fraction for laboratory-scale uranium silicide aluminum dispersion plate-type fuel, so called miniplate. An example of the result of calculation is given in order to demonstrate how the calculated void fraction correlates with the microstructural distribution of the void in a miniplate prepared in our laboratory. The program is also able to constitute data base on important parameters for miniplates from experimentally-determined values of density, weight of each constituent and dimensions of miniplates. Utility programs pertinent to the development of the BASIC program are also given which run in the popular MS-DOS environment. All the source lists are attached and brief description for each program is made. (author)

  1. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1998-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisation of the damage, which...... as for the out-of-plane reaction force. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. Bipolar Plates for PEM Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lædre, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Summary of thesis: The Bipolar Plate (BPP) is an important component in both Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) and Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzers (PEMWEs). Bipolar plate material and processing constitutes for a large fraction of the cost and weight of a PEM cell stack. The main tasks for the bipolar plates in both systems are to separate single cell in a stack, conduct current between single cells and remove heat from active areas. In addition, the BPPs distribu...

  3. Scintillator plate calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Calorimetry using scintillator plates or tiles alternated with sheets of (usually heavy) passive absorber has been proven over multiple generations of collider detectors. Recent detectors including UA1, CDF, and ZEUS have shown good results from such calorimeters. The advantages offered by scintillator calorimetry for the SSC environment, in particular, are speed (<10 nsec), excellent energy resolution, low noise, and ease of achieving compensation and hence linearity. On the negative side of the ledger can be placed the historical sensitivity of plastic scintillators to radiation damage, the possibility of nonuniform response because of light attenuation, and the presence of cracks for light collection via wavelength shifting plastic (traditionally in sheet form). This approach to calorimetry is being investigated for SSC use by a collaboration of Ames Laboratory/Iowa State University, Argonne National Laboratory, Bicron Corporation, Florida State University, Louisiana State University, University of Mississippi, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, and University of Wisconsin

  4. Reviewing metallic PEMFC bipolar plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.; Turner, J.A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-08-15

    A bipolar plate is one of the most important components in a polymer exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack and has multiple functions. Metallic bipolar plate candidates have advantages over composite rivals in excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, good mechanical strength, high chemical stability, very wide alloy choices, low cost and, most importantly, existing pathways for high-volume, high-speed mass production. The challenges with metallic bipolar plates are the higher contact resistance and possible corrosion products, which may contaminate the membrane electrode assembly. This review evaluates the candidate metallic and coating materials for bipolar plates and gives the perspective of the research trends. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Modeling particulate removal in plate-plate and wire-plate electrostatic precipitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramechecandane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with the modeling of electrically charged particles in a model plate-plate and a single wire-plate electrostatic precipitator (ESP. The particle concentration distributions for both a plate-plate and a wire-plate ESP are calculated using a modified drift flux model. Numerical investigations are performed using the modified drift flux model for particle number concentration, in addition to the RNG k - ε model for the mean turbulent flow field and the Poisson equation for the electric field. The proposed model and the outlined methodology for coupling the flow field, electric field, charging kinetics and particle concentration is applied to two model precipitators that are truly representative of a wide class of commercialized ESPs. The present investigation is quite different from the earlier studies as it does not make assumptions like a homogeneous electric field or an infinite turbulent diffusivity. The electric field calculated is a strong function of position and controls the migration velocity of particles. Hence, the proposed model can be implemented in a flow solver to obtain a full-fledged solution for any kind of ESP with no limitations on the particle number concentration, as encountered in a Lagrangian approach. The effect of turbulent diffusivity on particle number concentration in a plate-plate ESP is investigated in detail and the results obtained are compared with available experimental data. Similarly, the effect of particle size/diameter and applied electric potential on the accumulative collection performance in the case of a wire-plate ESP is studied and the results obtained are compared with available numerical data. The numerical results obtained using the modified drift flux model for both the plate-plate and wire-plate ESP are in close agreement with available experimental and numerical data.

  6. Laterally Loaded Nail-Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Rathkjen, Arne

    Load-displacement curves from about 200 short-term and laterally loaded nail-plate joints are analysed. The nail-plates are from Gang-Nail Systems, type GNA 20 S. The test specimens and the measuring systems are described. The tests are divided into 32 different series. The influence of the number...

  7. MyPlate Food Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español MyPlate Food Guide KidsHealth / For Teens / MyPlate Food Guide What's ... and other sugary drinks. Avoid large portions . Five Food Groups Different food groups have different nutrients and ...

  8. Scintillating plate calorimeter optical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, R.; Fazely, A.; Gunasingha, R.; Imlay, R.; Lim, J.

    1990-01-01

    A major technical challenge facing the builder of a general purpose detector for the SSC is to achieve an optimum design for the calorimeter. Because of its fast response and good energy resolution, scintillating plate sampling calorimeters should be considered as a possible technology option. The work of the Scintillating Plate Calorimeter Collaboration is focused on compensating plate calorimeters. Based on experimental and simulation studies, it is expected that a sampling calorimeter with alternating layers of high-Z absorber (Pb, W, DU, etc.) and plastic scintillator can be made compensating (e/h = 1.00) by suitable choice of the ratio of absorber/scintillator thickness. Two conceptual designs have been pursued by this subsystem collaboration. One is based on lead as the absorber, with read/out of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter fibers. The other design is based on depleted uranium as the absorber with wavelength shifter (WLS) plate readout. Progress on designs for the optical readout of a compensating scintillator plate calorimeter are presented. These designs include readout of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter plates or fiber readout. Results from radiation damage studies of the optical components are presented

  9. Fundamental processes in ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    Ion plating is a generic term applied to film deposition processes in which the substrate surface and/or the depositing film is subjected to a flux of high energy particles sufficient to cause changes in the interfacial region of film properties compared to a nonbombarded deposition. Ion plating is being accepted as an alternative coating technique to sputter deposition, vacuum evaporation and electroplating. In order to intelligently choose between the various deposition techniques, the fundamental mechanisms, relating to ion plating, must be understood. This paper reviews the effects of low energy ion bombardment on surfaces, interface formation and film development as they apply to ion plating and the implementation and applications of the ion plating process

  10. The Golosyiv plate archive digitisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeeva, T. P.; Sergeev, A. V.; Pakuliak, L. K.; Yatsenko, A. I.

    2007-08-01

    The plate archive of the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Golosyiv, Kyiv) includes about 85 000 plates which have been taken in various observational projects during 1950-2005. Among them are about 25 000 of direct northern sky area plates and more than 600 000 plates containing stellar, planetary and active solar formations spectra. Direct plates have a limiting magnitude of 14.0-16.0 mag. Since 2002 we have been organising the storage, safeguarding, cataloguing and digitization of the plate archive. The very initial task was to create the automated system for detection of astronomical objects and phenomena, search of optical counterparts in the directions of gamma-ray bursts, research of long period, flare and other variable stars, search and rediscovery of asteroids, comets and other Solar System bodies to improve the elements of their orbits, informational support of CCD observations and space projects, etc. To provide higher efficiency of this work we have prepared computer readable catalogues and database for 250 000 direct wide field plates. Now the catalogues have been adapted to Wide Field Plate Database (WFPDB) format and integrated into this world database. The next step will be adaptation of our catalogues, database and images to standards of the IVOA. Some magnitude and positional accuracy estimations for Golosyiv archive plates have been done. The photometric characteristics of the images of NGC 6913 cluster stars on two plates of the Golosyiv's double wide angle astrograph have been determined. Very good conformity of the photometric characteristics obtained with external accuracies of 0.13 and 0.15 mag. has been found. The investigation of positional accuracy have been made with A3± format fixed bed scanner (Microtek ScanMaker 9800XL TMA). It shows that the scanner has non-detectable systematic errors on the X-axis, and errors of ± 15 μm on the Y-axis. The final positional errors are about ± 2 μm (

  11. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  12. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed....

  13. Plating on stainless steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative adhesion data are presented for a variety of electroplated stainless steel type alloys. Results show that excellent adhesion can be obtained by using a Wood's nickel strike or a sulfamate nickel strike prior to final plating. Specimens plated after Wood's nickel striking failed in the deposit rather than at the interface between the substrate and the coating. Flyer plate quantitative tests showed that use of anodic treatment in sulfuric acid prior to Wood's nickel striking even further improved adhesion. In contrast activation of stainless steels by immersion or cathodic treatment in hydrochloric acid resulted in very reduced bond strengths with failure always occurring at the interface between the coating and substrate

  14. MyPlate Daily Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Price Tag Read the Food Label Kitchen Timesavers Cooking for Your Family Tasty & Low-Cost Recipes Sample 2-Week Menus Resources for Professionals MyPlate Tip Sheets Print Materials Infographics 5 Ways ...

  15. License plate recognition (phase B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    License Plate Recognition (LPR) technology has been used for off-line automobile enforcement purposes. The technology has seen mixed success with correct reading rate as high as 60 to 80% depending on the specific application and environment. This li...

  16. Ultrasonic Testing of NIF Amplifier FAU Top Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinn, D.J.; Huber, R.D.; Haskins, J.J.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Souza, P.R.; Le, T.V.

    2002-01-01

    A key component in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser optic system is the amplifier frame assembly unit (FAU). The cast aluminum top plate that supports the FAU is required to withstand loads that would occur during an earthquake with a recurrence period of 1000 years. The stringent seismic requirements placed on the FAU top plate induced a study of the cast aluminum material used in the top plate. Ultrasonic testing was used to aid in characterizing the aluminum material used in the plates. This report documents the work performed using contact ultrasonic testing to characterize the FAU top plate material. The ultrasonic work reported here had 3 objectives: (1) inspect the plate material before cyclic testing conducted at the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER); (2) determine the overall quality of individual plates; and (3) detect large defects in critical areas of individual plates. Section III, ''Pre-cyclic test inspection'', describes work performed in support of Objective 1. Section IV, ''Ultrasonic field measurements'', describes work performed in support of Objectives 2 and 3

  17. Rhodium platings – experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf, R.; Budić, B.; Stamenković, D.; Čolić, M.; Ivanič, A.; Kosec, B.

    2013-01-01

    Modern rhodium plating solutions are based on either sulphate or phosphate. Although in theory there are four possible combinations, in practice only three different rhodium electrolytes are used. These are based on dilutions of rhodium sulphate or phosphate concentrates with added sulphuric or phosphoric acid. These processes are be discussed in this paper with a demonstration of Rh platings in the Slovenian firm Zlatarna Celje d.d.

  18. Rhodium platings – experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rudolf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern rhodium plating solutions are based on either sulphate or phosphate. Although in theory there are four possible combinations, in practice only three different rhodium electrolytes are used. These are based on dilutions of rhodium sulphate or phosphate concentrates with added sulphuric or phosphoric acid. These processes are be discussed in this paper with a demonstration of Rh platings in the Slovenian firm Zlatarna Celje d.d.

  19. Preparation of U-Si/U-Me (Me = Fe, Ni, Mn) aluminum-dispersion plate-type fuel (miniplates) for capsule irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugajin, Mitsuhiro; Itoh, Akinori; Akabori, Mitsuo

    1993-06-01

    Details of equipment installed, method adopted and final products were described on the preparation of uranium silicides and other fuels for capsule irradiation. Main emphasis was placed on the preparation of laboratory-scale aluminum-dispersion plate-type fuel (miniplates) loaded to the first and second JMTR silicide capsules. Fuels contained in the capsules are as follows: (A) uranium-silicide base alloys U 3 Si 2 , Mo- added U 3 Si 2 , U 3 Si 2 +U 3 Si, U 3 Si 2 +USi, U 3 Si, U 3 (Si 0.8 Ge 0.2 ), U 3 (Si 0.6 Ge 0.4 ) (B) U 6 Me-type alloys with higher uranium density U 6 Mn, U 6 Ni, U 6 (Fe 0.4 Ni 0.6 ), U 6 (Fe 0.6 Mn 0.4 ) The powder-metallurgical picture-frame method was adopted and laboratory-scale technique was established for the preparation of miniplates. As a result of inspection for capsule irradiation, miniplates were prepared to meet the requirements of specification. (author)

  20. Critical assessment of precracked specimen configuration and experimental test variables for stress corrosion testing of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domack, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    A research program was conducted to critically assess the effects of precracked specimen configuration, stress intensity solutions, compliance relationships and other experimental test variables for stress corrosion testing of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy plate. Modified compact and double beam wedge-loaded specimens were tested and analyzed to determine the threshold stress intensity factor and stress corrosion crack growth rate. Stress intensity solutions and experimentally determined compliance relationships were developed and compared with other solutions available in the literature. Crack growth data suggests that more effective crack length measurement techniques are necessary to better characterize stress corrosion crack growth. Final load determined by specimen reloading and by compliance did not correlate well, and was considered a major source of interlaboratory variability. Test duration must be determined systematically, accounting for crack length measurement resolution, time for crack arrest, and experimental interferences. This work was conducted as part of a round robin program sponsored by ASTM committees G1.06 and E24.04 to develop a standard test method for stress corrosion testing using precracked specimens.

  1. Modeling RERTR experimental fuel plates using the PLATE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, S.L.; Meyer, M.K.; Hofman, G.L.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Brazener, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Modeling results using the PLATE dispersion fuel performance code are presented for the U-Mo/Al experimental fuel plates from the RERTR-1, -2, -3 and -5 irradiation tests. Agreement of the calculations with experimental data obtained in post-irradiation examinations of these fuels, where available, is shown to be good. Use of the code to perform a series of parametric evaluations highlights the sensitivity of U-Mo dispersion fuel performance to fabrication variables, especially fuel particle shape and size distributions. (author)

  2. Plating on some difficult-to-plate metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1980-02-01

    Electrodeposition of coatings on metals such as beryllium, beryllium-copper, Kovar, lead, magnesium, thorium, titanium, tungsten, uranium, zirconium, and their alloys can be problematic. This is due in most cases to a natural oxide surface film that readily reforms after being removed. The procedures we recommend for plating on these metals rely on replacing the oxide film with a displacement coating, or etching to allow mechanical keying between the substrate and plated deposit. The effectiveness of the procedures is demonstrated by interface bond strengths found in ring-shear and conical-head tensile tests

  3. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, L.J.

    1986-01-01

    The product of an electroless plating process is described for plating at least one main group metal directly on a surface of a polymeric substrate comprising the steps of forming a nonaqueous solution containing a metallic salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and at least one main group metal in a negative valence state, the main group metal being selected from the group consisting of Ge, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Si and Te, selecting an aromatic polymeric substrate reducible by the solublized salt and resistant to degration during the reaction, and carrying out a redox reaction between the salt in solution and the substrate by contacting the solution with the substrate for a sufficient time to oxidize and deposit the main group metal in elemental form to produce a plated substrate. The product is characterized by the plated metal being directly on the surface of the polymeric substrate and the alkali metal being retained in the plated substrate with the substrate being negatively charged with electrons transferred from the main group metal during the redox reaction

  4. Soft Plate and Impact Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikoff, Basil

    In the field of tectonics, most of our ideas are published in journals. This is not true of other fields, such as history, in which ideas are primarily published in books. Within my own field of structural geology, I can recall only one book, Strain Fades by E. Hansen (Springer-Verlag, 1971), which presents a new idea in book form. However, even this book is more useful for its philosophical approach and particular methodology of determining directions of folding, than for its overarching idea.Enter Soft Plate and Impact Tectonics, a new book with an interesting hypothesis that has been informally discussed in the geoscience community: A fundamental tenet of plate tectonics is incorrect—namely, that the plates are rigid. This assertion is evident when looking at any mountain range, and is perhaps most clearly stated in Molnar [1988].

  5. Gentilly 2 divider plate replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, J.; Klisel, E.; McClellan, G.; Schnelder, W.

    1995-01-01

    The steam generators at the Gentilly 2 Nuclear Plant in operation since 1983 were built with primary divider plates of a bolted panel configuration. During a routine outage inspection, it was noted that two bolts had dislodged from the divider and were located lying in the primary head. Subsequent inspections revealed erosion damage to a substantial number of divider plate bolts and to a lesser extent, to the divider plate itself. After further inspection and repair the units were returned to operation, however, it was determined that a permanent replacement of the primary divider plates was going to be necessary. After evaluation of various options, it was decided that the panel type dividers would be replaced with a single piece floating design. The divider itself was to be of a one piece all-welded arrangement to be constructed from individual panels to be brought in through the manways. In view of the strength limitations of the bolted attachment of the upper seat bar to the tubesheet, a new welded seat bar was provided. To counteract erosion concerns, the new divider is fitted with erosion resistant inserts or weld buildup and with improved sealing features in order to minimize leakage and erosion. At an advanced stage in the design and manufacture of the components, the issue of divider strength during LOCA conditions came into focus. Analysis was performed to determine the strength and/or failure characteristics of the divider to a variety of small and large LOCA conditions. The paper describes the diagnosis of the original divider plates and the design, manufacture, field mobilization, installation and subsequent operation of the replacement divider plates. (author)

  6. Semiclassical theory of plate vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolny, E.; Hugues, E.

    1996-11-01

    The bi-harmonic equation of flexural vibrations of elastic plates is studied by a semiclassical method which can easily be generalized for other models of wave propagation. The surface and perimeter terms of the asymptotic number of levels are derived exactly. The next constant term is also derived. A semiclassical approximation of the quantization condition is obtained. A Berry-Tabor formula and a Gutzwiller trace formula are deduced for the integrable and chaotic cases respectively. From 600 eigenvalues of a clamped stadium plate obtained by a specially developed numerical algorithm, the trace formula is assessed, looking at its Fourier transform compared with the membrane case. (author)

  7. Alternative bipolar plates design and manufacturing for PEM fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Chang Chuan; Norhamidi Muhamad; Jaafar Sahari

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plates is one of the important components in fuel cell stack, it comprise up to 80% of the stack volume. Traditionally, these plates have been fabricated from graphite, owing to its chemical nobility, and high electrical and thermal conductivity; but these plates are brittle and relatively thick. Therefore increasing the stack volume and size. Alternatives to graphite are carbon-carbon composite, carbon-polymer composite and metal (aluminum, stainless steel, titanium and nickel based alloy). The use of coated and uncoated metal bipolar plates has received attention recently due to the simplicity of plate manufacturing. The thin nature of the metal substrate allows for smaller stack design with reduced weight. Lightweight coated metals as alternative to graphite plate is being developed. Beside the traditional method of machining and slurry molding, metal foam for bipolar plates fabrication seems to be a good alternative. The plates will be produced with titanium powder by Powder Metallurgy method using space holders technique to produce the meal foam flow-field. This work intends to facilitate the materials and manufacturing process requirements to produce cost effective foamed bipolar plates for fuel cell

  8. The tectonic plates are moving!

    CERN Document Server

    Livermore, Roy

    2018-01-01

    Written in a witty and informal style, this book explains modern plate tectonics in a non-technical manner, showing not only how it accounts for phenomena such as great earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions, but also how it controls conditions at the Earth’s surface, including global geography and climate, making it suitable for life. The book presents the advances that have been made since the establishment of plate tectonics in the 1960s, highlighting, on the fiftieth anniversary of the theory, the contributions of a small number of scientists who have never been widely recognized for their discoveries. Beginning with the publication of a short article in Nature by Vine and Matthews, the book traces the development of plate tectonics through two generations of the theory. First-generation plate tectonics covers the exciting scientific revolution of the 1960s, its heroes, and its villains. The second generation includes the rapid expansions in sonar, satellite, and seismic technologies during the 1...

  9. License plate recognition using DTCNNs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Brugge, M.H; Stevens, J.H; Nijhuis, J.A G; Spaanenburg, L; Tavsanonoglu, V

    1998-01-01

    Automatic license plate recognition requires a series of complex image processing steps. For practical use, the amount of data to he processed must be minimized early on. This paper shows that the computationally most intensive steps can be realized by DTCNNs. Moreover; high-level operations like

  10. Hydroelasticity of a Floating Plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, X.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Cui, W.

    2003-01-01

    The membrane forces are included in the hydroelastic analysis of a floating plate undergoing large vertical deflections in regular monochromatic multidirectional waves. The first-order vertical displacements induced by the linear wave exciting forces are calculated by the mode expansion method in...

  11. Stress state in perforated plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visner, J.

    1977-01-01

    The method is described of photoelastic measurement of stress concentration factors (s.c.f) in plates perforated by a square, triangular and diagonal grid of circular holes and loaded by uniaxial or biaxial tensile stress. A loading equipment which was developed and its modifications are described. Stress concentration factors found are compared with theoretical and experimental results given in references. (author)

  12. Regulators of growth plate maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, Joyce Adriana Mathilde

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen is known to play an important role in longitudinal bone growth and growth plate maturation, but the mechanism by which estrogens exert their effect is not fully understood. In this thesis this role is further explored. Chapter 1 contains a general introduction to longitudinal bone growth

  13. Elastic stability of thick auxetic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Teik-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Auxetic materials and structures exhibit a negative Poisson’s ratio while thick plates encounter shear deformation, which is not accounted for in classical plate theory. This paper investigates the effect of a negative Poisson’s ratio on thick plates that are subjected to buckling loads, taking into consideration the shear deformation using Mindlin plate theory. Using a highly accurate shear correction factor that allows for the effect of Poisson’s ratio, the elastic stability of circular and square plates are evaluated in terms of dimensionless parameters, namely the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratio and Mindlin critical buckling load factors. Results for thick square plates reveal that both parameters increase as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. In the case of thick circular plates, the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratios and the Mindlin critical buckling load factors increase and decrease, respectively, as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. The results obtained herein show that thick auxetic plates behave as thin conventional plates, and therefore suggest that the classical plate theory can be used to evaluate the elastic stability of thick plates if the Poisson’s ratio of the plate material is sufficiently negative. The results also suggest that materials with highly negative Poisson’s ratios are recommended for square plates, but not circular plates, that are subjected to buckling loads. (paper)

  14. DESI focal plate mechanical integration and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, A. R.; Besuner, R. W.; Claybaugh, T. M.; Silber, J. H.

    2016-08-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is under construction to measure the expansion history of the Universe using the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation technique[1]. The spectra of 40 million galaxies over 14000 sq. deg will be measured during the life of the experiment. A new prime focus corrector for the KPNO Mayall telescope will deliver light to 5000 fiber optic positioners. The fibers in turn feed ten broad-band spectrographs. This paper describes the mechanical integration of the DESI focal plate and the thermal system design. The DESI focal plate is comprised of ten identical petal assemblies. Each petal contains 500 robotic fiber positioners. Each petal is a complete, self-contained unit, independent from the others, with integrated power supply, controllers, fiber routing, and cooling services. The major advantages of this scheme are: (1) supports installation and removal of complete petal assemblies in-situ, without disturbing the others, (2) component production, assembly stations, and test procedures are repeated and parallelizable, (3) a complete, full-scale prototype can be built and tested at an early date, (4) each production petal can be surveyed and tested as a complete unit, prior to integration, from the fiber tip at the focal surface to the fiber slit at the spectrograph. The ten petal assemblies will be installed in a single integration ring, which is mounted to the DESI corrector. The aluminum integration ring attaches to the steel corrector barrel via a flexured steel adapter, isolating the focal plate from differential thermal expansions. The plate scale will be kept stable by conductive cooling of the petal assembly. The guider and wavefront sensors (one per petal) will be convectively cooled by forced flow of air. Heat will be removed from the system at ten liquid-cooled cold plates, one per petal, operating at ambient temperature. The entire focal plate structure is enclosed in an insulating shroud, which serves as a thermal barrier

  15. Status of high-density fuel plate fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1991-01-01

    Progress has continued on the fabrication of fuel plates with equivalent fuel zone loadings approaching 9 gU/cm 3 . Through hot isostatic pressing (HIP), successful diffusion bonds have been made with 1100 Al and 6061 Al alloys. Although additional study is necessary to optimize the procedure, these bonds demonstrated the most critical processing step for proof-of-concept hardware. Two types of prototype highly loaded fuel plates have been fabricated. The first is a fuel plate in which 0.030-in. (0.76-mm) uranium compound wires are bonded within an aluminum cladding; the second, a dispersion fuel plate with uniform cladding and fuel zone thickness. The successful fabrication of these fuel plates derives from the unique ability of the HIP process to produce diffusion bonds with minimal deformation. (orig.)

  16. Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Narrow Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Oosthuizen, Patrick H

    2013-01-01

    Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Narrow Plates deals with a heat transfer situation that is of significant practical importance but which is not adequately dealt with in any existing textbooks or in any widely available review papers. The aim of the book is to introduce the reader to recent studies of natural convection from narrow plates including the effects of plate edge conditions, plate inclination, thermal conditions at the plate surface and interaction of the flows over adjacent plates. Both numerical and experimental studies are discussed and correlation equations based on the results of these studies are reviewed.

  17. Subduction Drive of Plate Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, W. B.

    2003-12-01

    Don Anderson emphasizes that plate tectonics is self-organizing and is driven by subduction, which rights the density inversion generated as oceanic lithosphere forms by cooling of asthenosphere from the top. The following synthesis owes much to many discussions with him. Hinge rollback is the key to kinematics, and, like the rest of actual plate behavior, is incompatible with bottom-up convection drive. Subduction hinges (which are under, not in front of, thin leading parts of arcs and overriding plates) roll back into subducting plates. The Pacific shrinks because bounding hinges roll back into it. Colliding arcs, increasing arc curvatures, back-arc spreading, and advance of small arcs into large plates also require rollback. Forearcs of overriding plates commonly bear basins which preclude shortening of thin plate fronts throughout periods recorded by basin strata (100 Ma for Cretaceous and Paleogene California). This requires subequal rates of advance and rollback, and control of both by subduction. Convergence rate is equal to rates of rollback and advance in many systems but is greater in others. Plate-related circulation probably is closed above 650 km. Despite the popularity of concepts of plumes from, and subduction into, lower mantle, there is no convincing evidence for, and much evidence against, penetration of the 650 in either direction. That barrier not only has a crossing-inhibiting negative Clapeyron slope but also is a compositional boundary between fractionated (not "primitive"), sluggish lower mantle and fertile, mobile upper mantle. Slabs sink more steeply than they dip. Slabs older than about 60 Ma when their subduction began sink to, and lie down on and depress, the 650-km discontinuity, and are overpassed, whereas younger slabs become neutrally buoyant in mid-upper mantle, into which they are mixed as they too are overpassed. Broadside-sinking old slabs push all upper mantle, from base of oceanic lithosphere down to the 650, back under

  18. EMPIRICAL STUDY OF CAR LICENSE PLATES RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasa Zata Dina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of vehicles on the road has increased drastically in recent years. The license plate is an identity card for a vehicle. It can map to the owner and further information about vehicle. License plate information is useful to help traffic management systems. For example, traffic management systems can check for vehicles moving at speeds not permitted by law and can also be installed in parking areas to se-cure the entrance or exit way for vehicles. License plate recognition algorithms have been proposed by many researchers. License plate recognition requires license plate detection, segmentation, and charac-ters recognition. The algorithm detects the position of a license plate and extracts the characters. Various license plate recognition algorithms have been implemented, and each algorithm has its strengths and weaknesses. In this research, I implement three algorithms for detecting license plates, three algorithms for segmenting license plates, and two algorithms for recognizing license plate characters. I evaluate each of these algorithms on the same two datasets, one from Greece and one from Thailand. For detecting li-cense plates, the best result is obtained by a Haar cascade algorithm. After the best result of license plate detection is obtained, for the segmentation part a Laplacian based method has the highest accuracy. Last, the license plate recognition experiment shows that a neural network has better accuracy than other algo-rithm. I summarize and analyze the overall performance of each method for comparison.

  19. Earth's Decelerating Tectonic Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, A M; Moucha, R; Rowley, D B; Quere, S; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2008-08-22

    Space geodetic and oceanic magnetic anomaly constraints on tectonic plate motions are employed to determine a new global map of present-day rates of change of plate velocities. This map shows that Earth's largest plate, the Pacific, is presently decelerating along with several other plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres. These plate decelerations contribute to an overall, globally averaged slowdown in tectonic plate speeds. The map of plate decelerations provides new and unique constraints on the dynamics of time-dependent convection in Earth's mantle. We employ a recently developed convection model constrained by seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics data to show that time-dependent changes in mantle buoyancy forces can explain the deceleration of the major plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres.

  20. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    CERN Document Server

    Beetz, C P; Steinbeck, J; Lemieux, B; Winn, D R

    2000-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of approx 0.5 to approx 25 mu m, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposite...

  1. Mathematical methods for elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models of deformation of elastic plates are used by applied mathematicians and engineers in connection with a wide range of practical applications, from microchip production to the construction of skyscrapers and aircraft. This book employs two important analytic techniques to solve the fundamental boundary value problems for the theory of plates with transverse shear deformation, which offers a more complete picture of the physical process of bending than Kirchhoff’s classical one.   The first method transfers the ellipticity of the governing system to the boundary, leading to singular integral equations on the contour of the domain. These equations, established on the basis of the properties of suitable layer potentials, are then solved in spaces of smooth (Hölder continuous and Hölder continuously differentiable) functions.   The second technique rewrites the differential system in terms of complex variables and fully integrates it, expressing the solution as a combination of complex ana...

  2. Thermal Effects on Vibration and Control of Piezocomposite Kirchhoff Plate Modeled by Finite Elements Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sanbi, M.; Saadani, R.; Sbai, K.; Rahmoune, M.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical results of the modeling of a smart plate are presented for optimal active vibration control. The smart plate consists of a rectangular aluminum piezocomposite plate modeled in cantilever configuration with surface bonded thermopiezoelectric patches. The patches are symmetrically bonded on top and bottom surfaces. A generic thermopiezoelastic theory for piezocomposite plate is derived, using linear thermopiezoelastic theory and Kirchhoff assumptions. Finite element eq...

  3. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty...... of academic teaching and lecturing into account....

  4. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, L.J.

    1982-09-20

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  5. A tandem parallel plate analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Y.; Fujisawa, A.; Iguchi, H.; Nishizawa, A.; Kawasumi, Y.

    1996-11-01

    By a new modification of a parallel plate analyzer the second-order focus is obtained in an arbitrary injection angle. This kind of an analyzer with a small injection angle will have an advantage of small operational voltage, compared to the Proca and Green analyzer where the injection angle is 30 degrees. Thus, the newly proposed analyzer will be very useful for the precise energy measurement of high energy particles in MeV range. (author)

  6. Curved Folded Plate Timber Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Buri, Hans Ulrich; Stotz, Ivo; Weinand, Yves

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the development of a Curved Origami Prototype made with timber panels. In the last fifteen years the timber industry has developed new, large size, timber panels. Composition and dimensions of these panels and the possibility of milling them with Computer Numerical Controlled machines shows great potential for folded plate structures. To generate the form of these structures we were inspired by Origami, the Japanese art of paper folding. Common paper tessellations are c...

  7. PRETREATING URANIUM FOR METAL PLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrmann, R.F.

    1961-05-01

    A process is given for anodically treating the surface of uranium articles, prior to metal plating. The metal is electrolyzed in an aqueous solution of about 10% polycarboxylic acid, preferably oxalic acid, from 1 to 5% by weight of glycerine and from 1 to 5% by weight of hydrochloric acid at from 20 to 75 deg C for from 30 seconds to 15 minutes. A current density of from 60 to 100 amperes per square foot is used.

  8. Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Mane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To share our experience of doing tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with modifications. Materials and Methods: This is a single surgeon personal series from 2004 to 2009. One hundred patients of distal hypospadias were subjected for Snodgrass urethroplasty with preputioplasty. The age range was 1 to 5 year with mean age of 2.7 years. Selection criteria were good urethral plate, without chordee and torsion needing complete degloving. Main technical modification from original Snodgrass procedure was spongioplasty, preputioplasty, and dorsal slit when inability to retract prepuce during surgery. Results: Average follow-up period is 23 months. Seven (7% patients developed fistula and one patient had complete preputial dehiscence. Phimosis developed in three (3% patients and required circumcision. Dorsal slit was required in seven patients. One patient developed meatal stenosis in postoperative period. All other patients are passing single urinary stream and have cosmesis that is acceptable. Conclusions: Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with preputioplasty effectively gives cosmetically normal looking penis with low complications.

  9. Divertor plate for thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Sato, Keisuke; Nishio, Satoshi.

    1993-01-01

    In a divertor plate for a thermonuclear reactor, adjacent cooling pipes are electrically insulated from each other and pipes made of a gradient functional material prepared by compositing ceramics having an insulation property and metals are metallurgically joined to at least one portion of each of the cooling pipes. Electric current caused upon occurrence of plasma disruption is interrupted by the insulation portion, so that a large circuit is not formed and electromagnetic force is decreased to such a extent that the divertor plate is not ruptured. Since a header of the cooling pipes can be installed at any optional position, the installation space can be reduced. Further, since inlet and exit collection headers can be disposed on both ends of the cooling pipes, it is possible to shorten the length of the cooling pipe of the divertor plate corresponded to high heat fluxes and reduce the pressure loss on the side of coolants to about 1/2. Further, turn back portions of small radius of curvature of the cooling pipes are eliminated to reduce the cost and extend the lifetime and, in addition, protection tiles can be attached easily. (N.H.)

  10. Secure matching of Dutch car license plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunil, A.B.; Erkiny, Z.; Veugenyz, T.

    2016-01-01

    License plate matching plays an important role in applications like law enforcement, traffic management and road pricing, where the plate is first recognized and then compared to a database of authorized vehicle registration plates. Unfortunately, there are several privacy related issues that should

  11. Moving Divertor Plates in a Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Zhang, H.

    2009-01-01

    Moving divertor plates could help solve some of the problems of the tokamak divertor through mechanical ingenuity rather than plasma physics. These plates would be passively heated on each pass through the tokamak and cooled and reprocessed outside the tokamak. There are many design options using varying plate shapes, orientations, motions, coatings, and compositions

  12. Designing a licence plate for memorability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Dongen, C.J.G. van

    2005-01-01

    Good memorability of licence plates is important in those cases where licence plates are viewed for a brief period of time and the information is essential for police investigations. The purpose of the current study was to design a new Dutch licence plate that could be remembered well. A memory

  13. Strength of Ship Plates under Combined Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, W.; Wang, Y.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2002-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role in the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified analytical methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjec...

  14. Strength of ship plates under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Weiching; Wang, Yongjun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjected to lon...

  15. Operational test of bonded magnetocaloric plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian; Navickaité, Kristina; Neves Bez, Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Bonded plates made by hot pressing La0.85Ce0.15Fe11.25Mn0.25Si1.5Hy particles and resin have been tested as active magnetic regenerators in a small scale magnetocaloric device. Firstly the plates were carefully characterised magnetically and thermally. The plates were prepared with 5 wt% resin...

  16. Moving Divertor Plates in a Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.J. Zweben, H. Zhang

    2009-02-12

    Moving divertor plates could help solve some of the problems of the tokamak divertor through mechanical ingenuity rather than plasma physics. These plates would be passively heated on each pass through the tokamak and cooled and reprocessed outside the tokamak. There are many design options using varying plate shapes, orientations, motions, coatings, and compositions.

  17. Plate tectonics, habitability and life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Tilman; Breuer, Doris

    2016-04-01

    The role of plate tectonics in defining habitability of terrestrial planets is being increasingly discussed (e.g., Elkins-Tanton, 2015). Plate tectonics is a significantly evolved concept with a large variety of aspects. In the present context, cycling of material between near surface and mantle reservoirs is most important. But increased heat transport through mixing of cold lithosphere with the deep interior and formation of continental crust may also matter. An alternative mechanism of material cycling between these reservoirs is hot-spot volcanism combined with crust delamination. Hot-spot volcanism will transport volatiles to the atmosphere while delamination will mix crust, possibly altered by sedimentation and chemical reactions, with the mantle. The mechanism works as long as the stagnant lithosphere plate has not grown thicker than the crust and as long as volcanic material is added onto the crust. Thermal evolution studies suggest that the mechanism could work for the first 1-2 Ga of planetary evolution. The efficiency of the mechanism is limited by the ratio of extrusive to intrusive volcanism, which is thought to be less than 0.25. Plate tectonics would certainly have an advantage by working even for more evolved planets. A simple, most-used concept of habitability requires the thermodynamic stability of liquid water on the surface of a planet. Cycling of CO2between the atmosphere, oceans and interior through subduction and surface volcanism is an important element of the carbonate-silicate cycle, a thermostat feedback cycle that will keep the atmosphere from entering into a runaway greenhouse. Calculations for a model Earth lacking plate tectonics but degassing CO2, N, and H2O to form a surface ocean and a secondary atmosphere (Tosi et al, 2016) suggest that liquid water can be maintained on the surface for 4.5Ga. The model planet would then qualify as habitable. It is conceivable that the CO2 buffering capability of its ocean together with silicate

  18. Free vibration analysis of corroded steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslami-Majd, Alireza; Rahbar-Ranji, Ahmad [AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Vibration analysis of unstiffened/stiffened plates has long been studied due to its importance in the design and condition assessments of ship and offshore structures. Corrosion is inevitable in steel structures and has been so far considered in strength analysis of structures. We studied the free vibration of pitted corroded plates with simply supported boundary conditions. Finite element analysis, with ABAQUS, was used to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of corroded plates. Influential parameters including plate aspect ratio, degree of pit, one-sided/both-sided corroded plate, and different corrosion patterns were investigated. By increasing the degree of corrosion, reduction of natural frequency increases. Plate aspect ratio and plate dimensions have no influence on reduction of natural frequency. Different corrosion patterns on the surface of one-sided corroded plates have little influence on reduction of natural frequency. Ratio of pit depth over plate thickness has no influence on the reduction of natural frequency. The reduction of natural frequency in both-sided corroded plates is higher than one-sided corroded plates with the same amount of total corrosion loss. Mode shapes of vibration would change due to corrosion, except square mode shapes.

  19. Bottom nozzle for nuclear reactor fuel assembly having an adaptor plate and a coupled filtration plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdier, M.; Mortgat, R.

    1992-01-01

    The bottom nozzle includes an adaptor plate with openings to allow the passage of water and a filtration plate with small holes. The openings in the adaptor plate are symmetrical with regard to medians and diagonals. Within each zone, some of the openings are rectangular and some may be circular. The small holes in the filtration plate coincide with the rectangular openings in the adaptor plate

  20. METHOD OF MAKING AND PLATE CONNECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriarca, P.; Shubert, C.E.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to a method of joining, by welding or brazing, a tube to a plate, particularly where the tube and the plate are of different thickness or have different thermal conductivities and are subject to high temperatures. In this method the tube is inserted in the core of a plate containing an annular groove in its back face concentric with the bore and in communication with the bore. One end of the tube is welded substantially flush with the front end of the plate. Brazing alloy is placed in the groove on the back face of the plate and heat is applied to the plate and tube to melt the brazing alloy to permit the alloy to flow into the bore and bond the tube to the plate. (AEC)

  1. PWR integral tie plate and locking mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flora, B.S.; Osborne, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    A locking mechanism for securing an upper tie plate to the tie rods of a nuclear fuel bundle is described. The mechanism includes an upper tie plate assembly and locking sleeves fixed to the ends of the tie rods. The tie plate is part of the upper tie plate assembly and is secured to the fuel bundle by securing the entire upper tie plate assembly to the locking sleeves fixed to the tie rods. The assembly includes, in addition to the tie plate, locking nuts for engaging the locking sleeves, retaining sleeves to operably connect the locking nuts to the assembly, a spring biased reaction plate to restrain the locking nuts in the locked position and a means to facilitate the removal of the entire assembly as a unit from the fuel bundle

  2. Vortex Dynamics around Pitching Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-29

    electrical signals are A/D converted in an ATI NetBox interface and recorded using a Java application, and are filtered in three steps. The first is a low...the plate while staying attached to the corners of the leading edge. During this process, a second vortex loop, created by the quick angular ...is a spike in CL centered around t = 0 due to non-circulatory6 effects from the angular acceleration of the wing. The amplitude of the peak is

  3. Micro plate fission chamber development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mei; Wen Zhongwei; Lin Jufang; Jiang Li; Liu Rong; Wang Dalun

    2014-01-01

    To conduct the measurement of neutron flux and the fission rate distribution at several position in assemblies, the micro plate fission chamber was designed and fabricated. Since the requirement of smaller volume and less structure material was taken into consideration, it is convinient, commercial and practical to use fission chamber to measure neutron flux in specific condition. In this paper, the structure of fission chamber and process of fabrication were introduced and performance test result was presented. The detection efficiency is 91.7%. (authors)

  4. Non-cyanide silver plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Technic, Inc. have entered into a CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) with the goal of providing industry with an environmentally benign alternative to the presently used silver cyanide plating process. This project has been in place for about six months and results are quite promising. The main objective, that of deposition of deposits as thick as 125 um (5 mils), has been met. Property data such as stress and hardness have been obtained and the structure of the deposit has been analyzed via metallography and x-ray diffraction. These results will be presented in this paper, along with plans for future work

  5. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beetz, Charles P.; Boerstler, Robert; Steinbeck, John; Lemieux, Bryan; Winn, David R.

    2000-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of ∼0.5 to ∼25 μm, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposited or nucleated in the channels or the first strike surface. Results on resistivity, secondary emission and gain are presented

  6. Buckling analysis for axially compressed flat plates, structural sections, and stiffened plates reinforced with laminated composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Soong, T.; Miller, R. E., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    A classical buckling analysis is developed for stiffened, flat plates composed of a series of linked plate and beam elements. Plates are idealized as multilayered orthotropic elements. Structural beads and lips are idealized as beams. The loaded edges of the stiffened plate are simply-supported and the conditions at the unloaded edges can be prescribed arbitrarily. The plate and beam elements are matched along their common junctions for displacement continuity and force equilibrium in an exact manner. Offsets between elements are considered in the analysis. Buckling under uniaxial compressive load for plates, sections, and stiffened plates is investigated. Buckling loads are the lowest of all possible general and local failure modes, and the mode shape is used to determine whether buckling is a local or general instability. Numerical correlations with existing analysis and test data for plates, sections, and stiffened plates including boron-reinforced structures are discussed. In general correlations are reasonably good.

  7. Fuel plate stability experiments and analysis for the Advanced Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinson, W.F.; Battiste, R.L.; Luttrell, C.R.; Yahr, G.T.

    1992-01-01

    The planned Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) and several existing reactors use closely spaced arrays of involute shaped fuel-plates which are cooled by water flowing through the channels between the plates. There is concern that at certain coolant flow velocities adjacent plates may deflect and touch, with resulting failure of the plates. Experiments have been conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to examine this potential phenomenon. Results of the experiments and comparison with analytical predictions are reported in this paper. The tests were conducted using full scale epoxy plate models of the aluminum/uranium silicide ANS involute shaped fuel plates. Use of epoxy plates and model theory allowed lower flow velocities and pressures to explore the potential failure mechanism. Plate deflections and channel pressures as function of the flow velocity are examined. Comparisons with mathematical models are noted. 12 refs

  8. Fuel plate stability experiments and analysis for the Advanced Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinson, W.F.; Battiste, R.L.; Luttrell, C.R.; Yahr, G.T.

    1993-05-01

    The planned reactor for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) will use closely spaced arrays of involute-shaped fuel plates that will be cooled by water flowing through the channels between the plates. There is concern that at certain coolant flow velocities, adjacent plates may deflect and touch, with resulting failure of the plates. Experiments have been conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to examine this potential phenomenon. Results of the experiments and comparison with analytical predictions are reported. The tests were conducted using full-scale epoxy plate models of the aluminum/uranium silicide ANS involute-shaped fuel plates. Use of epoxy plates and model theory allowed lower flow velocities and pressures to explore the potential failure mechanism. Plate deflections and channel pressures as functions of the flow velocity are examined. Comparisons with mathematical models are noted

  9. Plate-shaped non-contact ultrasonic transporter using flexural vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takahiko; Mizuno, Yosuke; Koyama, Daisuke; Nakamura, Kentaro; Harada, Kana; Uchida, Yukiyoshi

    2014-02-01

    We developed a plate-shaped non-contact transporter based on ultrasonic vibration, exploiting a phenomenon that a plate can be statically levitated at the place where its gravity and the acoustic radiation force are balanced. In the experiment, four piezoelectric zirconate titanate elements were attached to aluminum plates, on which lattice flexural vibration was excited at 22.3 kHz. The vibrating plates were connected to a loading plate via flexible posts that can minimize the influence of the flexure induced by heavy loads. The distribution of the vibration displacement on the plate was predicted through finite-element analysis to find the appropriate positions of the posts. The maximum levitation height of this transporter was 256 μm with no load. When two vibrating plates were connected to a loading plate, the maximum transportable load was 4.0 kgf. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Rapidly Moving Divertor Plates In A Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.

    2011-01-01

    It may be possible to replace conventional actively cooled tokamak divertor plates with a set of rapidly moving, passively cooled divertor plates on rails. These plates would absorb the plasma heat flux with their thermal inertia for ∼10-30 sec, and would then be removed from the vessel for processing. When outside the tokamak, these plates could be cooled, cleaned, recoated, inspected, and then returned to the vessel in an automated loop. This scheme could provide nearoptimal divertor surfaces at all times, and avoid the need to stop machine operation for repair of damaged or eroded plates. We describe various possible divertor plate designs and access geometries, and discuss an initial design for a movable and removable divertor module for NSTX-U.

  11. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhaohui, E-mail: lzhtrhos@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: lijingxbh@yahoo.com.cn [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhao, Pengfei, E-mail: zhaopengf05@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Lv, Han, E-mail: chrislvhan@126.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Dong, Cheng, E-mail: derc007@sina.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Liu, Wenjuan, E-mail: wenjuanliu@163.com [Jining No. 1 People' s Hospital, No. 6 Health Street, Jining 272100 (China); Wang, Zhenchang, E-mail: cjr.wzhch@vip.163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition.

  12. Strain resolving method of composite plane plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion FUIOREA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extension of isotropic plates problem to the case of composite plates. In order to perform it, the Kirchhoff-Love hypotheses were “softened” by some additional ones. Considering the constitutive laws for composite materials the stress functions were eliminated by using Cauchy equations. As a result a partial derivative equation in displacements was obtained. Finally the boundary condition formulation was extended for the case of complex composite plates.

  13. Empirical Study of Car License Plates Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Dina, Nasa Zata; Dailey, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The number of vehicles on the road has increased drastically in recent years. The license plate is an identity card for a vehicle. It can map to the owner and further information about vehicle. License plate information is useful to help traffic management systems. For example, traffic management systems can check for vehicles moving at speeds not permitted by law and can also be installed in parking areas to se-cure the entrance or exit way for vehicles. License plate recognition algorithms ...

  14. 431K/CD vehicle number plates

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    The Green Plates Service, which is responsible for issuing the 431K/CD vehicle number plates , wishes to apologise for the delay in processing applications over the past weeks. The delay is outside the Service’s control, as it is due to the recent introduction of new rules governing the vehicle registration process in France. Normal service will be resumed as soon as possible. Thank you for your understanding. GS-SEM-LS – Green Plates Service

  15. Replacement divider plate performance under LOCA loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynk, H.M.; MClellan, G.H.; Schneider, W.G.

    1997-01-01

    A primary divider plate in a nuclear steam generator is required to perform its partitioning function with a minimum of cross leakage, without degradation in operating performance and without loss of structural integrity resulting from normal and accident loading. The design of the replacement divider plate for normal operating conditions is discussed in some detail in reference 1 and 2. This paper describes the structural response of the replacement divider plate to the severe loading resulting from a burst primary pipe. The loads for which the divider plate structural performance must be evaluated are mild to severe differential pressure transients resulting from several postulated sizes and types of pipe break scenarios. In the unlikely event of a severe Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) the divider plate or parts thereof must not exit the steam generator nor completely block the outlet nozzle. For the milder LOCA loads, the integrity of the divider plate and seat bars must be maintained. Analysis for the milder LOCA loads was carried out employing a conservative approach which ignores the actual interaction between the structure and the primary fluid. For these load cases it was shown that the divider plate does not become disengaged from the seat bars. For the more severe pipe breaks, the thermal-hydraulic analysis was coupled iteratively with the structural analysis, thereby taking into account divider plate deformation, in order to obtain a better prediction of the behaviour of the divider plate. In this manner substantial reduction in divider plate response to the more severe LOCA loading was achieved. It has been shown that, for the case of a postulated large LOCA (100% reactor inlet header), the disengagement of the divider plate from the seat bars resulted in an opening smaller than 1% of the divider plate area. (author)

  16. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhaohui; Li, Jing; Zhao, Pengfei; Lv, Han; Dong, Cheng; Liu, Wenjuan; Wang, Zhenchang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition

  17. Evaluation of korzincalloy prepared by Hohman Plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hollingshad, A. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-17

    A commercial vendor, Hohman Plating performed contract engineering work to determine the feasibility of producing pin hole free KorZincAlloy bronze material used for zinc gettering. Samples were tested for Sn plating thickness, heat treatability, and chemistry prior to being subjected to a standardized zinc exposure. The samples absorbed zinc and were examined using visual and scanning electron microscopy. Hohman Plating successfully produced KZA that met the target composition, was pin hole free, and was an effective zinc getter.

  18. Locking screw-plate interface stability in carbon-fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone proximal humerus plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hak, David J; Fader, Ryan; Baldini, Todd; Chadayammuri, Vivek B S

    2017-09-01

    Carbon-fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) plates have recently been introduced for proximal humerus fracture treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the locking screw-plate interface stability in CFR-PEEK versus stainless steel (SS) proximal humerus plates. Locking screw mechanical stability was evaluated independently in proximal and shaft plate holes. Stiffness and load to failure were tested for three conditions: (1) on-axis locking screw insertion in CFR-PEEK versus SS plates, (2) on-axis locking screw insertion, removal, and reinsertion in CFR-PEEK plates, and (3) 10-degree off-axis locking screw insertion in CFR-PEEK plates. Cantilever bending at a rate of 1 mm/minute was produced by an Instron machine and load-displacement data recorded. Shaft locking screw load to failure was significantly greater in CFR-PEEK plates compared to SS plates (746.4 ± 89.7 N versus 596.5 ± 32.6 N, p PEEK plates (p PEEK plates. The mechanical stability of locking screws in CFR-PEEK plates is comparable or superior to locking screws in SS plates.

  19. Fuel cell cooler-humidifier plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Nicholas G.; Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A cooler-humidifier plate for use in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack assembly is provided. The cooler-humidifier plate combines functions of cooling and humidification within the fuel cell stack assembly, thereby providing a more compact structure, simpler manifolding, and reduced reject heat from the fuel cell. Coolant on the cooler side of the plate removes heat generated within the fuel cell assembly. Heat is also removed by the humidifier side of the plate for use in evaporating the humidification water. On the humidifier side of the plate, evaporating water humidifies reactant gas flowing over a moistened wick. After exiting the humidifier side of the plate, humidified reactant gas provides needed moisture to the proton exchange membranes used in the fuel cell stack assembly. The invention also provides a fuel cell plate that maximizes structural support within the fuel cell by ensuring that the ribs that form the boundaries of channels on one side of the plate have ends at locations that substantially correspond to the locations of ribs on the opposite side of the plate.

  20. Maximizing band gaps in plate structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Søren; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    periodic plate using Bloch theory, which conveniently reduces the maximization problem to that of a single base cell. Secondly, we construct a finite periodic plate using a number of the optimized base cells in a postprocessed version. The dynamic properties of the finite plate are investigated......Band gaps, i.e., frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate, can be found in elastic structures for which there is a certain periodic modulation of the material properties or structure. In this paper, we maximize the band gap size for bending waves in a Mindlin plate. We analyze an infinite...... theoretically and experimentally and the issue of finite size effects is addressed....

  1. Metallized xerographic plates and their preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Xerographic plates, particularly xeroradiographic plates, suitable for soft or hard x-ray exposure require margins or edges suitable for handling and mounting. In order to fabricate such plates, it is convenient to apply a peripheral mask over the substrate during application of at least the photoconductive layer. Use of masks, however, tend to promote peripheral plate irregularities usually because of scratches or other uneveness at or under the margin of the applied mask. Such imperfections spawn corresponding electrical field irregularities which can now be minimized or avoided altogether by grounding the margins with metal overcoats

  2. Bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelman, E.; Kout, W.; Vogelaar, B.; Lenssen, J.; de Waal, E.

    The bipolar plates are in weight and volume the major part of the PEM fuel cell stack, and are also a significant contributor to the stack costs. The bipolar plate is therefore a key component if power density has to increase and costs must come down. Three cell plate technologies are expected to reach targeted cost price levels, all having specific advantages and drawbacks. NedStack has developed a conductive composite materials and a production process for fuel cell plates (bipolar and mono-polar). The material has a high electric and thermal conductivity, and can be processed into bipolar plates by a proprietary molding process. Process cycle time has been reduced to less than 10 s, making the material and process suitable for economical mass production. Other development work to increase material efficiency resulted in thin bipolar plates with integrated cooling channels, and integrated seals, and in two-component bipolar plates. Total thickness of the bipolar plates is now less than 3 mm, and will be reduced to 2 mm in the near future. With these thin integrated plates it is possible to increase power density up to 2 kW/l and 2 kW/kg, while at the same time reducing cost by integrating other functions and less material use.

  3. Line Heat-Source Guarded Hot Plate

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The 1-meter guarded hot-plate apparatus measures thermal conductivity of building insulation. This facility provides for absolute measurement of thermal...

  4. No quantum friction between uniformly moving plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philbin, T G; Leonhardt, U [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: tgp3@st-andrews.ac.uk

    2009-03-15

    The Casimir forces between two plates moving parallel to each other at arbitrary constant speed are found by calculating the vacuum electromagnetic stress tensor. The perpendicular force between the plates is modified by the motion but there is no lateral force on the plates. Electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations do not therefore give rise to 'quantum friction' in this case, contrary to previous assertions. The result shows that the Casimir-Polder force on a particle moving at constant speed parallel to a plate also has no lateral component.

  5. No quantum friction between uniformly moving plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philbin, T G; Leonhardt, U

    2009-01-01

    The Casimir forces between two plates moving parallel to each other at arbitrary constant speed are found by calculating the vacuum electromagnetic stress tensor. The perpendicular force between the plates is modified by the motion but there is no lateral force on the plates. Electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations do not therefore give rise to 'quantum friction' in this case, contrary to previous assertions. The result shows that the Casimir-Polder force on a particle moving at constant speed parallel to a plate also has no lateral component.

  6. Imaging plates for nuclear radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Ken; Takebe, Masahiro

    1997-01-01

    Full text. The imaging plate (IP, hereafter) is a new opto-electronic X-ray film developed by Fuji Photo Film Co. Ltd., formed with a large area of thin flexible plastic plate coated with photo-estimulable storage phosphor (e.g. Ba F Br: Eu 2+ ). Recently, it has been found highly sensitive to soft X-ray (SR), soft electrons, and also usual alpha, beta, gamma rays and others, e.g. cosmic rays, energy heavy ions, and moreover neutrons through suitable converters inside or outside of the IP. Many types of IP are now used in various fields, such as medical examinations, auto-radiography in vivo/ in situ/ in vitro, X-ray/neutron diffraction/ radiography, electron microscopy. RI contamination, assay of ore. The IP has other striking performances, e.e. extremely low intrinsic noises, a high position resolution, high detection efficiency (100-1000 times) as high as an X-ray film), extremely wide dynamic range of dose (more than 10 5 ). Besides the thermal fading yet left unresolved materially, the only feature lacking and that one has ben longing for is the radiation identification by itself. We found out that the IP has a full potential ability of radiation identification in itself. One evidence found is that the ratio of the twin peaks of the PSL (photo-stimulated luminescence) excitation spectra indicates simply the particle energies, studied and now established. Another is that the photo-beaching provides the fluorescent responses different enough to discriminate the radiations, yet in progress with cyclotron experiments, into the usage of double labeled bio tracers

  7. Application of a Brittle Damage Model to Normal Plate-on-Plate Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raftenberg, Martin N

    2005-01-01

    A brittle damage model presented by Grinfeld and Wright of the U.S. Army Research Laboratory was implemented in the LS-DYNA finite element code and applied to the simulation of normal plate-on-plate impact...

  8. Steel plate reinforcement of orthotropic bridge decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira de Freitas, S.

    2012-01-01

    The PhD research is focused on the reinforcement of fatigue cracked orthotropic steel bridge decks (OBD) by adding a second steel plate to the existing deck. The main idea is to stiffen the existing deck plate, which will reduce the stresses at the fatigue sensitive details and extend the fatigue

  9. Plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Corroded steel plate; plastic collapse; FEM; rough surface. ... The main aim of present work is to study plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates with irregular surfaces under tension. Non-linear finite element method ... Department of Ocean Engineering, AmirKabir University of Technology, 15914 Tehran, Iran ...

  10. DOES TUBULARIZED INCISED PLATE URETHROPLASTY FIT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    posterior or proximal hypospadias. Patient age ranged from 22 months to 9 years (mean 5.4 years). Twenty-two cases were primary, while. 10 cases were repeat cases after failed onlay procedures with preserved urethral plate. Cases with severe chordee necessitating ex- cision of the urethral plate or with a very thin.

  11. Method of nickel-plating large components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbuer, K.

    1997-01-01

    The invention concerns a method of nickel-plating components, according to which even large components can be provided with an adequate layer of nickel which is pore- and stress-free and such that water is not lost. According to the invention, the component is heated and, after heating, is pickled, rinsed, scoured, plated in an electrolysis process, and rinsed again. (author)

  12. Improved nickel plating of Inconel X-750

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, M. E.; Feeney, J. E.; Kuster, C. A.

    1969-01-01

    Electroplating technique with acid pickling provides a method of applying nickel plating on Inconel X-750 tubing to serve as a wetting agent during brazing. Low-stress nickel-plating bath contains no organic wetting agents that cause the nickel to blister at high temperatures.

  13. Is There Really A North American Plate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krill, A.

    2011-12-01

    Lithospheric plates are typically identified from earthquake epicenters and evidence such as GPS movements. But no evidence indicates a plate boundary between the North American and South American Plates. Some plate maps show them separated by a transform boundary, but it is only a fracture zone. Other maps show an "undefined plate boundary" or put no boundary between these two plates (check Google images). Early plate maps showed a single large American Plate, quite narrow east of the Caribbean Plate (Le Pichon 1968, Morgan 1968). The North and South American Plates became established by the leading textbook Earth (Press & Siever 1974). On their map, from a Scientific American article by John Dewey (1972), these new plates were separated by an "uncertain plate boundary." The reasons for postulating a North American Plate were probably more psychological than geological. Each of the other continents of the world had its own plate, and North American geologists naturally wanted theirs. Similarly, European geographers used to view Europe as its own continent. A single large plate should again be hypothesized. But the term American Plate would now be ambiguous ("Which plate, North or South?") Perhaps future textbook authors could call it the "Two-American Plate." Textbook authors ultimately decide such global-tectonic matters. I became aware of textbook authors' opinions and influence from my research into the history of Alfred Wegener's continental drift (see Fixists vs. Mobilists by Krill 2011). Leading textbook author Charles Schuchert realized that continental drift would abolish his cherished paleogeographic models of large east-west continents (Eria, Gondwana) and small oceans (Poseiden, Nereis). He and his junior coauthors conspired to keep drift evidence out of their textbooks, from the 1934-editions until the 1969-editions (Physical Geology by Longwell et al. 1969, Historical Geology by Dunbar & Waage 1969). Their textbooks ruled in America. Textbooks

  14. Blast response of corroded steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslamimajd, Alireza; RahbarRanji, Ahmad [AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Numerical results for one- and both-sided corroded steel plates subjected to blast loading are presented. Finite element analysis, with ABAQUS software, is employed to determine the deformation and stress distributions. The results for the case of triangular pulse pressure on un-corroded plates are validated against literature-based data and then, detailed parametric studies are carried-out. The effects of influential parameters including, plate aspect ratio, degree of pit and different ratio of pit depth at each sides of the plate are investigated. The results show that position of pitted surface in respect to applied pressure is the most influential parameter on reduction of dynamic load carrying capacity of pitted plates. By increasing degree of pitting, reduction of dynamic load carrying capacity decrease more.

  15. Heat receiving plates in thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Kazunori.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a heat receiving plate structure capable of withstanding sputtering wear and retaining the thermal deformation and residual stress low upon junction and available at a reduced cost. Constitution: Junction structures between heat sinks and armours are the same as usual, whereas high melting armour (for example, made of tungsten) are used at the portion on a heat receiving plate where the thermal load and particle load are higher while materials having a heat expansion coefficient similar to that of the heat sink (stainless steel) are used at the portion where the thermal load and particle load are lower on a heat receiving plate depending on the thermal load and particle load distribution. This can reduce the thermal deformation for the entire divertor heat receiving plate to obtain a heat receiving plate of a good surface dimensional accuracy. (Takahashi, M.)

  16. High thermal load receiving heat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibutani, Jun-ichi; Shibayama, Kazuhito; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Uchida, Takaho.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention concerns a high thermal load heat receiving plate such as a divertor plate of a thermonuclear device. The high thermal load heat receiving plate of the present invention has a cooling performance capable of suppressing the temperature of an armour tile to less than a threshold value of the material against high thermal loads applied from plasmas. Spiral polygonal pipes are inserted in cooling pipes at a portion receiving high thermal loads in the high temperature load heat receiving plate of the present invention. Both ends of the polygonal pipes are sealed by lids. An area of the flow channel in the cooling pipes is thus reduced. Heat conductivity on the cooling surface of the cooling pipes is increased in the high thermal load heat receiving plate having such a structure. Accordingly, temperature elevation of the armour tile can be suppressed. (I.S.)

  17. 2017 Bipolar Plate Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopasz, John P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Benjamin, Thomas G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schenck, Deanna [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-17

    The Bipolar Plate (BP) Workshop was held at USCAR1 in Southfield, Michigan on February 14, 2017 and included 63 participants from industry, government agencies, universities, and national laboratories with expertise in the relevant fields. The objective of the workshop was to identify research and development (R&D) needs, in particular early-stage R&D, for bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells for transportation applications. The focus of the workshop was on materials, manufacturing, and design aspects of bipolar plates with the goal of meeting DOE’s 2020 bipolar plate targets. Of special interest was the cost target of ≤$3/kW for the bipolar plate.

  18. Pyramidal approach to license plate segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postolache, Alexandru; Trecat, Jacques C.

    1996-07-01

    Car identification is a goal in traffic control, transport planning, travel time measurement, managing parking lot traffic and so on. Most car identification algorithms contain a standalone plate segmentation process followed by a plate contents reading. A pyramidal algorithm for license plate segmentation, looking for textured regions, has been developed on a PC based system running Unix. It can be used directly in applications not requiring real time. When input images are relatively small, real-time performance is in fact accomplished by the algorithm. When using large images, porting the algorithm to special digital signal processors can easily lead to preserving real-time performance. Experimental results, for stationary and moving cars in outdoor scenes, showed high accuracy and high scores in detecting the plate. The algorithm also deals with cases where many character strings are present in the image, and not only the one corresponding to the plate. This is done by the means of a constrained texture regions classification.

  19. New technique for number-plate recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Shi, Peng-Fei

    2001-09-01

    This paper presents an alternative algorithm for number plate recognition. The algorithm consists of three modules. Respectively, they are number plate location module, character segmentation module and character recognition module. Number plate location module extracts the number plate from the detected car image by analyzing the color and the texture properties. Different from most license plate location methods, the algorithm has fewer limits to the car size, the car position in the image and the image background. Character segmentation module applies connected region algorithm both to eliminate noise points and to segment characters. Touching characters and broken characters can be processed correctly. Character recognition module recognizes characters with HHIC (Hierarchical Hybrid Integrated Classifier). The system has been tested with 100 images obtained from crossroad and parking lot, etc, where the cars have different size, position, background and illumination. Successful recognition rate is about 92%. The average processing time is 1.2 second.

  20. Neutron radiography using neutron imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chankow, Nares; Wonglee, Sarinrat

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The aims of this research are to study properties of neutron imaging plate, to obtain a suitable condition for neutron radiography and to use the neutron imaging plate for testing of materials nondestructively. The experiments were carried out by using a neutron beam from the Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1 at a power of 1.2 MW. A BAS-ND 2040 FUJI neutron imaging plate and a MX125 Kodak X-ray film/Gadolinium neutron converter screen combination were tested for comparison. It was found that the photostimulated light (PSL) read out of the imaging plate was directly proportional to the exposure time. It was also found that radiography with neutron using the imaging plate was approximately 40 times faster than the conventional neutron radiography using x-ray film/Gd converter screen combination. The sensitivity of the imaging plate to gamma-rays was investigated by using gamma-rays from an 192 Ir and a 60 Co radiographic sources. The imaging plate was found to be 5-6 times less sensitive to gamma-rays than a FUJI BAS-MS 2040 gamma-ray imaging plate. Finally, some specimens were selected to be radiographed with neutrons using the imaging plate and the x-ray film/Gd converter screen combination in comparison to x-rays. Parts containing light elements could be clearly observed by the two neutron radiographic techniques. It could be concluded that the image quality from the neutron imaging plate was comparable to the conventional x-ray film/Gd converter screen combination but the exposure time could be approximately reduced by a factor of 40

  1. Voltage-current characteristics of a pin-plate system with different plate configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Zhuangbo; Long, Zhengwei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the voltage-current (V-I) characteristics of a pin-plate system with four types of collection plate configurations are studied experimentally. The collection plates consider a single metal plate, a metal plate with a fly ash cake layer, a metal plate with a clean filter media and a metal plate with a dirty filter media. The results show that the clean filter media has no obvious effect on the V-I characteristics. But the dirty filter media reduces the current density because of its high resistance. The thick fly ash cake layer increase current density because of the anti-corona effect but the increment is not very obvious.

  2. Vortex Dynamics of Asymmetric Heave Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Curtis; Maurer, Benjamin; Polagye, Brian

    2017-11-01

    Heave plates can be used to provide reaction forces for wave energy converters, which harness the power in ocean surface waves to produce electricity. Heave plate inertia includes both the static mass of the heave plate, as well as the ``added mass'' of surrounding water accelerated with the object. Heave plate geometries may be symmetric or asymmetric, with interest in asymmetric designs driven by the resulting hydrodynamic asymmetry. Limited flow visualization has been previously conducted on symmetric heave plates, but flow visualization of asymmetric designs is needed to understand the origin of observed hydrodynamic asymmetries and their dependence on the Keulegan-Carpenter number. For example, it is hypothesized that the time-varying added mass of asymmetric heave plates is caused by vortex shedding, which is related to oscillation amplitude. Here, using direct flow visualization, we explore the relationship between vortex dynamics and time-varying added mass and drag. These results suggest potential pathways for more advanced heave plate designs that can exploit vortex formation and shedding to achieve more favorable hydrodynamic properties for wave energy converters.

  3. Optimization of geometrical characteristics of perforated plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radisavljevic, Igor; Balos, Sebastian; Nikacevic, Milutin; Sidjanin, Leposava

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Perforated plate are tested against 12.7 mm API projectile. ► Perforations similar to the projectile diameter offer more efficient core fracture. ► Larger perforations gave a more efficient core fragmentation. ► SEM microscopy analysis has shown a ductile fracture mode at impact point. - Abstract: In this paper, an attempt was made to design effective non-homogenous armor in form of perforated plate mounted at close distance from basic armor plate. Perforated plate with three perforation diameters: 9, 10 and 11 mm, two ligaments length: 3.5 and 4.5 mm ligaments, set at 0° and 28° angles, were combined to 13 mm basic plate and tested against 12.7 mm API ammunition. It has been shown that larger perforations gave a more efficient core fragmentation, while angled specimens were the only ones that offer full protection against five API shots when the perforated plate was placed at 100 mm from the basic plate. Perforations that are similar in size to the penetrating core diameter offer a more efficient core fracture, leading to a faster fragment separation. This may enable a smaller distance between the add-on perforated and basic plate to be used. Scanning electron microscopy analysis has shown a ductile fracture mode at impact point, with hardness values on plate basic level. On the other hand, a brittle fracture mode with a rise in local hardness measured near impact point is a result of intensive high speed plastic deformation produced by bending stresses. A drop in local hardness measured near impact point, may be the result of intensive cracking that occur due to repeated projectile impact

  4. Automated ultrasonic scanning of flat plate nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barna, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems in Non-Destructive Testing lies in making the inspection as rapid, precise, cost effective and operator independent as possible. Only by optimizing these four factors can a technology take full advantage of the quality control possible with NDT. This paper describes a highly complex application of high frequency ultrasonics to image extremely small and difficult to detect flaws in a production line environment. The objects of interest are flat plate nuclear fuel used in the Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The plates are fabricated by hot rolling a sandwich of alloyed uranium fuel and aluminum cladding. After rolling, the block is flattened to a long thin plate approximately 1.27 m (55 inches) long, 102 mm (4 inches) wide and 1.25 mm (0.050 inches) thick. The core, or fuel area is nominally 0.75 mm (0.030 inches) thick with 0.25 mm (0.010 inches) of aluminum bonded to both sides. As might be expected the fabrication is a sensitive process which can introduce several flaws detrimental to the reactor operation if they are undetected. Two of the characteristics that must be examined are the cladding thickness of the aluminum left over the fuel and the quality of bond between the cladding and the fuel. If either the cladding is too thin or the bonding inadequate thermal and/or corrosive activity can crack the protective cladding

  5. Buckling Analysis of Edge Cracked Sandwich Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Mohammed Hussein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents mainly the buckling load of sandwich plates with or without crack for different cases. The buckling loads are analyzed experimentally and numerically by using ANSYS 15. The experimental investigation was to fabricate the cracked sandwich plate from stainless steel and PVC to find mechanical properties of stainless steel and PVC such as young modulus. The buckling load for different aspect ratio, crack length, cracked location and plate without crack found. The experimental results were compared with that found from ANSYS program. Present of crack is decreased the buckling load and that depends on crack size, crack location and aspect ratio.

  6. Applications of ion plating in metals fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, R.T.; Thompson, J.C.

    1974-01-01

    Use of ion plating at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to solve problems encountered in metals fabrication and processing are discussed. Three typical areas are covered. The first is the use of strike coats on various substrates for subsequent electrodeposition. The second area in which ion plating is shown to contribute to a process is in cold welding or room temperature bonding of metals. The third application involves plating U to promote safe handling, fission-product retention, and corrosion protection in nuclear reactors

  7. Effusion plate using additive manufacturing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Wegerif, Daniel Gerritt

    2016-04-12

    Additive manufacturing techniques may be utilized to construct effusion plates. Such additive manufacturing techniques may include defining a configuration for an effusion plate having one or more internal cooling channels. The manufacturing techniques may further include depositing a powder into a chamber, applying an energy source to the deposited powder, and consolidating the powder into a cross-sectional shape corresponding to the defined configuration. Such methods may be implemented to construct an effusion plate having one or more channels with a curved cross-sectional geometry.

  8. Fabrication of resistive plate chamber using bakelite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neog, Himangshu; Bhuyan, M.R.; Biswas, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mohanty, Rudranarayan; Rudra, Sharmili; Sahu, P.K.; Sahu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Now a days Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) is one of the most important detectors in the High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. RPC is a gas filled detector utilizing a constant and uniform electric field produced between two parallel electrode plates made of a material with high bulk resistivity e.g. glass or bakelite. RPC has good time resolution (1-2 ns) and spatial resolution (∼ cm). The high resistance of RPC plate limits the spark size produced after the ionization of gas due to the passing charged particle. This contribution discusses building of a RPC using bakelite (local sources) and the measurement of the surface resistivity of the detector

  9. Nondestructive diagnosis of multilayer electronic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matvienko, A.N.; Savin, D.O.; Yas'ko, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    Methods of non-destructive tomographic investigation into multilayer printed plates using x radiation are described. Mathematic problem setting is given, experimental facility and methods for source data ecquisition are described. A special attention is paid to the consideration of the main factors differing the actual problem setting from the idealized one. Methods for accounting and correction of these factors are described. The efficiency of the approach proposed is demonstrated using the actual problems of reducing separate layers of multilayer printed plate metallization. The method developed is useful when exersizing control over multilayer printed plate production

  10. Reducing risk where tectonic plates collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Ludwig, Kristin A.

    2017-06-19

    Most of the world’s earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, and volcanic eruptions are caused by the continuous motions of the many tectonic plates that make up the Earth’s outer shell. The most powerful of these natural hazards occur in subduction zones, where two plates collide and one is thrust beneath another. The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) “Reducing Risk Where Tectonic Plates Collide—A USGS Plan to Advance Subduction Zone Science” is a blueprint for building the crucial scientific foundation needed to inform the policies and practices that can make our Nation more resilient to subduction zone-related hazards.

  11. Joining by plating: optimization of occluded angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.; Kan, Y.R.

    1978-11-01

    An empirical method has been developed for predicting the minimum angle required for maximum joint strength for materials joined by plating. This is done through a proposed power law failure function, whose coefficients are taken from ring shear and conical head tensile data for plating/substrate combinations and whose exponent is determined from one set of plated-joint data. Experimental results are presented for Al-Ni-Al (7075-T6) and AM363-Ni-AM363 joints, and the failure function is used to predict joint strengths for Al-Ni-Al (2024-T6), UTi-Ni-UTi, and Be-Ti-Be

  12. Diffusion zinc plating of structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakovskaya, Tatiana; Goncharov, Ivan; Tukmakov, Victor; Shapovalov, Vyacheslav

    2004-01-01

    The report deals with the research on diffusion zinc plating of structural steels when replacing their cyanide cadmium plating. The results of the experiments in the open air, in vacuum, in the inert atmosphere, under various temperatures (300 - 500 deg.C) for different steel brands are presented. It is shown that diffusion zinc plating in argon or nitrogen atmosphere ensures obtaining the qualitative anticorrosion coating with insignificant change of mechanical properties of steels. The process is simple, reliable, ecology pure and cost-effective. (authors)

  13. History of internal fixation with plates (part 2): new developments after World War II; compressing plates and locked plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe; Pariat, Jacques

    2017-07-01

    The first techniques of operative fracture with plates were developed in the 19th century. In fact, at the beginning these methods consisted of an open reduction of the fracture usually followed by a very unstable fixation. As a consequence, the fracture had to be opened with a real risk of (sometimes lethal) infection, and due to unstable fixation, protection with a cast was often necessary. During the period between World Wars I and II, plates for fracture fixation developed with great variety. It became increasingly recognised that, because a fracture of a long bone normally heals with minimal resorption at the bone ends, this may result in slight shortening and collapse, so a very rigid plate might prevent such collapse. However, as a consequence, delayed healing was observed unless the patient was lucky enough to have the plate break. One way of dealing with this was to use a slotted plate in which the screws could move axially, but the really important advance was recognition of the role of compression. After the first description of compression by Danis with a "coapteur", Bagby and Müller with the AO improved the technique of compression. The classic dynamic compression plates from the 1970s were the key to a very rigid fixation, leading to primary bone healing. Nevertheless, the use of strong plates resulted in delayed union and the osteoporosis, cancellous bone, comminution, and/or pathological bone resulted in some failures due to insufficient stability. Finally, new devices represented by locking plates increased the stability, contributing to the principles of a more biological osteosynthesis while giving enough stability to allow immediate full weight bearing in some patients.

  14. Crack Detection in Armor Plates Using Ultrasonic Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meitzler, Thomas J; Smith, Gregory; Charbeneau, Michelle; Sohn, Euijung; Bienkowski, mary; Wong, Ivan; Meitzler, Allen H

    2008-01-01

    ...) plates for the purpose of crack detection is presented. The amplitudes of the vibrational modes undamaged plates are compared to the vibrational mode amplitudes of damaged plates and are shown to be clearly different...

  15. Catalysts characteristics of Ni/YSZ core-shell according to plating conditions using electroless plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Wook; Jang, Jae-Won; Lee, Young-Jin; Kim, Jin-Ho; Jeon, Dae-Woo; Lee, Jong-Heun; Hwang, Hae-jin; Lee, Mi-Jai

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to develop an anode catalyst for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using electroless nickel plating. We have proposed a new method for electroless plating of Ni metal on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) particles. We examine the uniformity of the Ni layer on the plated core-shell powder, in addition to the content of Ni and the reproducibility of the plating. We have also evaluated the carbon deposition rate and characteristics of the SOFC anode catalyst. To synthesize Ni-plated YSZ particles, the plated powder is heat-treated at 1200 °C. The resultant particles, which have an average size of 50 μm, were subsequently used in the experiment. The size of the Ni particles and the Ni content both increase with increasing plating temperature and plating time. The X-ray diffraction pattern reveals the growth of Ni particles. After heat-treatment, Ni is oxidized to NiO, leading to the co-existence of Ni and NiO; Ni3P is also observed due to the presence of phosphorous in the plating solution. Following heat treatment for 1 h at 1200 °C, Ni is mostly oxidized to NiO. The carbon deposition rate of the reference YSZ powder is 135%, while that of the Ni-plated YSZ is 1%-6%.

  16. A novel solar hot plate for cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon Mejia, Eduardo A; Osorio Jaramillo, Fidel A [Facultad de Ingenieria, UAEMex, Toluca, Edo. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In Mexico and other developing countries, the use of firewood as combustible for cooking has contributed to deforestation and desertification of large zones. This is due to the lack of alternative combustibles for the poor inhabitants of the countryside and remote areas. In this paper, a new solar hot plate, intended for contributing to solve this problem, is presented. It can be used for cooking not only a great variety of prehispanic and traditional meals, like tortillas, fried meat and vegetables, but also hot cakes, bacon, eggs, steaks and fries. The hot plate solar cooker, called Tolocatzin, consists of a horizontal metallic plate, which is heated from both of its top and bottom surfaces by concentrated sun light from multicompound concentrator based on nonimaging optics, and built with nine ordinary plane glass-silvered, and two curved aluminum mirrors, so it can be manufactured easily in a small factory or at home. For an acceptance angle of 15 Celsius degrees, which allows the concentration of sun light without sun-tracking for about one hour, it can reach temperatures up to 240 Celsius degrees in a few minutes. This temperature is high enough for cooking almost all fried or grilled meals. The design was optimized using ray-trace procedures. The operational experience with early prototypes has shown that the Tolocatzin solar hot plate does an excellent cooking job and could really be massively used in sunny countries. [Spanish] En Mexico y otros paises en desarrollo, el uso de la madera como combustible para cocinar ha contribuido a la deforestacion y desertificacion de grandes zonas. Esto es debido a la falta de combustibles alternativos por parte de los habitantes pobres del campo y de areas remotas. En este articulo se presenta una nueva placa solar que tiene el proposito de contribuir a resolver este problema. Puede ser usada para cocinar no solamente una gran variedad de comidas prehispanicas y tradicionales, como tortillas, carne frita y verduras sino

  17. Flaw behavior in mechanically loaded clad plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, S.K.; Robinson, G.C.; Oland, C.B.

    1989-01-01

    A small crack near the inner surface of clad nuclear reactor pressure vessels is an important consideration in the safety assessment of the structural integrity of the vessel. Four-point bend tests on large plate specimens, conforming to ASTM specification for pressure vessel plates, alloy steels, quenched and tempered, Mn-Mo and Mn-Mo-Ni (A533) grade B six clad and two unclad with stainless steels 308, 309 and 312 weld wires, were performed to determine the effect of cladding upon the propagation of small surface cracks subjected to stress states. Results indicated that the tough surface layer composed of cladding and/or heat-affected zone has enhanced the load-bearing capacity of plates under conditions where unclad plates have ruptured. The results are interpreted in terms of fracture mechanics. The behavior of flaws in clad reactor pressure vessels is examined in the light of the test results. 11 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Introduction to Plate Boundaries and Natural Hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, João C.; Schellart, Wouter P.

    2016-01-01

    A great variety of natural hazards occur on Earth, including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, landslides, floods, fires, tornadoes, hurricanes, and avalanches. The most destructive of these hazards, earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions, are mostly associated with tectonic plate

  19. Vibro-acoustic analysis of composite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarigül, A S; Karagözlü, E

    2014-01-01

    Vibro-acoustic analysis plays a vital role on the design of aircrafts, spacecrafts, land vehicles and ships produced from thin plates backed by closed cavities, with regard to human health and living comfort. For this type of structures, it is required a coupled solution that takes into account structural-acoustic interaction which is crucial for sensitive solutions. In this study, coupled vibro-acoustic analyses of plates produced from composite materials have been performed by using finite element analysis software. The study has been carried out for E-glass/Epoxy, Kevlar/Epoxy and Carbon/Epoxy plates with different ply angles and numbers of ply. The effects of composite material, ply orientation and number of layer on coupled vibro-acoustic characteristics of plates have been analysed for various combinations. The analysis results have been statistically examined and assessed

  20. Vibro-acoustic analysis of composite plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigül, A. S.; Karagözlü, E.

    2014-03-01

    Vibro-acoustic analysis plays a vital role on the design of aircrafts, spacecrafts, land vehicles and ships produced from thin plates backed by closed cavities, with regard to human health and living comfort. For this type of structures, it is required a coupled solution that takes into account structural-acoustic interaction which is crucial for sensitive solutions. In this study, coupled vibro-acoustic analyses of plates produced from composite materials have been performed by using finite element analysis software. The study has been carried out for E-glass/Epoxy, Kevlar/Epoxy and Carbon/Epoxy plates with different ply angles and numbers of ply. The effects of composite material, ply orientation and number of layer on coupled vibro-acoustic characteristics of plates have been analysed for various combinations. The analysis results have been statistically examined and assessed.

  1. Modeling the hydrodynamics of Phloem sieve plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Mullendore, Daniel Leroy; Holbrook, Noel Michele

    2012-01-01

    Sieve plates have an enormous impact on the efficiency of the phloem vascular system of plants, responsible for the distribution of photosynthetic products. These thin plates, which separate neighboring phloem cells, are perforated by a large number of tiny sieve pores and are believed to play...... understood. We propose a theoretical model for quantifying the effect of sieve plates on the phloem in the plant, thus unifying and improving previous work in the field. Numerical simulations of the flow in real and idealized phloem channels verify our model, and anatomical data from 19 plant species...... a crucial role in protecting the phloem sap from intruding animals by blocking flow when the phloem cell is damaged. The resistance to the flow of viscous sap in the phloem vascular system is strongly affected by the presence of the sieve plates, but the hydrodynamics of the flow through them remains poorly...

  2. New high voltage parallel plate analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Y.; Kawasumi, Y.; Masai, K.; Iguchi, H.; Fujisawa, A.; Abe, Y.

    1992-01-01

    A new modification on the parallel plate analyzer for 500 keV heavy ions to eliminate the effect of the intense UV and visible radiations, is successfully conducted. Its principle and results are discussed. (author)

  3. Heavy gauge plates for nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheviet, A.; Roux, J.-H.

    1977-01-01

    The production of energy from nuclear sources leads to the building of very large vessels working under pressure at elevated temperatures, requiring very thick steel plate (from 50 mm to 300 mm). The plates necessary for the production of these vessels have to be as large as possible in order to reduce the length of welds on the vessels. Those two requirements lead to the manufacture of heavy products from 10 to 80 tons unit weight. These products are special, because their fabrication requires very big facilities and also extremely high quality of the steel. The main points are: high cleanliness; properties as homogeneous as possible. The tests carried out on industrially produced plates (especially on a plate of 200 mm thick show the level of quality that can be reached [fr

  4. Microchannel plate assembly parameters with micron gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demchenkova, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    Performance of chevron microchannel plate assembly with 5 and 15 μm gaps between them has been investigated. The assembly is placed into a vacuum chamber under pressure -6 Torr and irradiated by neutral He and Ar atom beams with 1.5 and 3 keV energies as well as by ultraviolet photons with 147 nm wave length. Dependence of the gain and amplitude resolution on power voltage in plates are measured. The results obtained have shown that microchannel plates permit to obtain the gain up to 3x10 7 and amplitude resolution up to 30% when detecting both atomic particles and ultraviolet photons. The assembly can be effectively used in those cases when it is necessary to use microchannel plates with curved channels

  5. White Light Photorefractive Phase Zone Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan-Mei, Gao; Si-Min, Liu

    2008-01-01

    Incoherent white light from an incandescent source is employed to fabricate volume phase zone plates in LiNbO 3 : Fe, for the first time to our knowledge, which can guide and modulate the input white light or laser light. The diffractive efficiency of the white light volume phase zone plates fabricated can reach as high as 12%. In addition, we test the volume phase zone plates by a probe beam and find that the volume phase zone plate is present in the direction perpendicular to the c-axis and absent in the direction parallel to the c-axis. This directly proves the existence of photovoltaic photorefractive anisotropy of white light

  6. Buckling Response of Thick Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOUAZZA MOKHTAR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the buckling of a functionally graded plate is studied by using first order shear deformation theory (FSDT. The material properties of the plate are assumed to be graded continuously in the direction of thickness. The variation of the material properties follows a simple power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of constituents. The von Karman strains are used to construct the equilibrium equations of the plates subjected to two types of thermal loading, linear temperature rise and gradient through the thickness are considered. The governing equations are reduced to linear differential equation with boundary conditions yielding a simple solution procedure. In addition, the effects of temperature field, volume fraction distributions, and system geometric parameters are investigated. The results are compared with the results of the no shear deformation theory (classic plate theory, CPT.

  7. 21 CFR 866.4800 - Radial immunodiffusion plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4800 Radial immunodiffusion plate. (a) Identification. A radial immunodiffusion plate for clinical use...

  8. Inert gas handling in ion plating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goode, A.R.; Burden, M.St.J.

    1979-01-01

    The results of an investigation into the best methods for production and monitoring of the inert gas environment for ion plating systems are reported. Work carried out on Pirani gauges and high pressure ion gauges for the measurement of pressures in the ion plating region (1 - 50mtorr) and the use of furnaces for cleaning argon is outlined. A schematic of a gas handling system is shown and discussed. (UK)

  9. Investigation of vertebral ''end plate sclerosis''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.W.; Mathie, A.G.; Jackson, J.E.; Hughes, S.P.F.

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the association between vertebral ''end plate sclerosis'' and neck pain. A retrospective study was carried out of lateral cervical spine radiographs with a Picture Archive and Communication System (PACS). Two hundred patients' files were randomly assessed, comprising four equal groups, A to D. The mean ages of the patients were 62±7.4 years, 61±7.5 years, 40±5.6 years and 23±5.6 years respectively. In group A, all patients had symptoms of neck pain and a radiographic diagnosis of ''end plate sclerosis'' of the cervical spine. In groups B to D, asymptomatic patients were recruited and their age groups were 50-69, 30-49 and 10-29 years respectively. Using the PACS, the radiographic density and the sagittal diameter, thickness and area of the end plates at the C5 level were measured. Results and conclusions: No significant differences were found in the radiographic density of the end plates either between the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups (groups A and B), or between different age groups (groups B, C and D). A significant increase in end plate area and thickness was found, however, in both group B (P<0.005) and group C (P<0.01) in comparison with group D. This indicates that the extent of end plate sclerosis increases with age. Our results suggest that the radiographic density of cervical vertebral end plates correlates neither with neck pain nor with increasing age. The radiological sign of ''end plate sclerosis'' may be over-reported, further limiting its value in the assessment of patients with cervical spondylosis. (orig.)

  10. [Experimental study on carbon fiber reinforced plastic plate--analysis of stabilizing force required for plate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, H

    1990-11-01

    Plates currently in use for the management of bone fracture made of metal present with various problems. We manufactured carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) plates from Pyrofil T/530 puriplegs overlaid at cross angles of +/- 10 degrees, +/- 20 degrees, and +/- 30 degrees for trial and carried out an experimental study on rabbit tibiofibular bones using 316L stainless steel plates of comparable shape and size as controls. The results indicate the influence of CFRP plate upon cortical bone was milder than that of stainless steel plate, with an adequate stabilizing force for the repair of fractured rabbit tibiofibular bones. CFRP has the advantages over metals of being virtually free from corrosion and fatigue, reasonably radiolucent and able to meet a wide range of mechanical requirements. This would make CFRP plate quite promising as a new devices of treating fracture of bones.

  11. Modeling the hydrodynamics of phloem sieve plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare Hartvig Jensen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sieve plates have an enormous impact on the efficiency of the phloem vascular system of plants, responsible for the distribution of photosynthetic products. These thin plates, which separate neighboring phloem cells, are perforated by a large number of tiny sieve pores and are believed to play a crucial role in protecting the phloem sap from intruding animals by blocking flow when the phloem cell is damaged. The resistance to the flow of viscous sap in the phloem vascular system is strongly affected by the presence of the sieve plates, but the hydrodynamics of the flow through them remains poorly understood. We propose a theoretical model for quantifying the effect of sieve plates on the phloem in the plant, thus unifying and improving previous work in the field. Numerical simulations of the flow in real and idealized phloem channels verify our model, and anatomical data from 19 plant species are investigated. We find that the sieve plate resistance is correlated to the cell lumen resistance, and that the sieve plate and the lumen contribute almost equally to the total hydraulic resistance of the phloem translocation pathway.

  12. Image simulation for automatic license plate recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Raja; Zhao, Yonghui; Burry, Aaron; Kozitsky, Vladimir; Fillion, Claude; Saunders, Craig; Rodríguez-Serrano, José

    2012-01-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) is an important capability for traffic surveillance applications, including toll monitoring and detection of different types of traffic violations. ALPR is a multi-stage process comprising plate localization, character segmentation, optical character recognition (OCR), and identification of originating jurisdiction (i.e. state or province). Training of an ALPR system for a new jurisdiction typically involves gathering vast amounts of license plate images and associated ground truth data, followed by iterative tuning and optimization of the ALPR algorithms. The substantial time and effort required to train and optimize the ALPR system can result in excessive operational cost and overhead. In this paper we propose a framework to create an artificial set of license plate images for accelerated training and optimization of ALPR algorithms. The framework comprises two steps: the synthesis of license plate images according to the design and layout for a jurisdiction of interest; and the modeling of imaging transformations and distortions typically encountered in the image capture process. Distortion parameters are estimated by measurements of real plate images. The simulation methodology is successfully demonstrated for training of OCR.

  13. Benchmark for license plate character segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gabriel Resende; da Silva, Sirlene Pio Gomes; Menotti, David; Shwartz, William Robson

    2016-09-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) has been the focus of many researches in the past years. In general, ALPR is divided into the following problems: detection of on-track vehicles, license plate detection, segmentation of license plate characters, and optical character recognition (OCR). Even though commercial solutions are available for controlled acquisition conditions, e.g., the entrance of a parking lot, ALPR is still an open problem when dealing with data acquired from uncontrolled environments, such as roads and highways when relying only on imaging sensors. Due to the multiple orientations and scales of the license plates captured by the camera, a very challenging task of the ALPR is the license plate character segmentation (LPCS) step, because its effectiveness is required to be (near) optimal to achieve a high recognition rate by the OCR. To tackle the LPCS problem, this work proposes a benchmark composed of a dataset designed to focus specifically on the character segmentation step of the ALPR within an evaluation protocol. Furthermore, we propose the Jaccard-centroid coefficient, an evaluation measure more suitable than the Jaccard coefficient regarding the location of the bounding box within the ground-truth annotation. The dataset is composed of 2000 Brazilian license plates consisting of 14000 alphanumeric symbols and their corresponding bounding box annotations. We also present a straightforward approach to perform LPCS efficiently. Finally, we provide an experimental evaluation for the dataset based on five LPCS approaches and demonstrate the importance of character segmentation for achieving an accurate OCR.

  14. Waveguiding in supported phononic crystal plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, J; Hladky-Hennion, A-C; Deymier, P; Djafari-Rouhani, B; Duval, F; Dubus, B; Pennec, Y

    2007-01-01

    We investigate, with the help of the finite element method, the existence of absolute band gaps in the band structure of a free-standing phononic crystal plate and of a phononic crystal slab deposited on a substrate. The two-dimensional phononic crystal is constituted by a square array of holes drilled in an active piezoelectric (PZT5A or AlN) matrix. For both matrix materials, an absolute band gap occurs in the band structure of the free-standing plate provided the thickness of the plate is on the order of magnitude of the lattice parameter. When the plate is deposited on a Si substrate, the absolute band gap still remains when the matrix of the phononic crystal is made of PZT5A. The AlN phononic crystal plate losses its gap when supported by the Si substrate. In the case of the PZT5A matrix, we also study the possibility of localized modes associated with a linear defect created by removing one row of air holes in the deposited phononic crystal plate

  15. Quantitative assessment of growth plate activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harcke, H.T.; Macy, N.J.; Mandell, G.A.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    In the immature skeleton the physis or growth plate is the area of bone least able to withstand external forces and is therefore prone to trauma. Such trauma often leads to premature closure of the plate and results in limb shortening and/or angular deformity (varus or valgus). Active localization of bone seeking tracers in the physis makes bone scintigraphy an excellent method for assessing growth plate physiology. To be most effective, however, physeal activity should be quantified so that serial evaluations are accurate and comparable. The authors have developed a quantitative method for assessing physeal activity and have applied it ot the hip and knee. Using computer acquired pinhole images of the abnormal and contralateral normal joints, ten regions of interest are placed at key locations around each joint and comparative ratios are generated to form a growth plate profile. The ratios compare segmental physeal activity to total growth plate activity on both ipsilateral and contralateral sides and to adjacent bone. In 25 patients, ages 2 to 15 years, with angular deformities of the legs secondary to trauma, Blount's disease, and Perthes disease, this technique is able to differentiate abnormal segmental physeal activity. This is important since plate closure does not usually occur uniformly across the physis. The technique may permit the use of scintigraphy in the prediction of early closure through the quantitative analysis of serial studies

  16. Fragmentation of Millimeter-Size Hypervelocity Projectiles on Combined Mesh-Plate Bumpers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Cherniaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This numerical study evaluates the concept of a combined mesh-plate bumper as a shielding system protecting unmanned spacecraft from small (1 mm orbital debris impacts. Two-component bumpers consisting of an external layer of woven mesh (aluminum or steel directly applied to a surface of the aluminum plate are considered. Results of numerical modeling with a projectile velocity of 7 km/s indicate that, in comparison to the steel mesh-combined bumper, the combination of aluminum mesh and aluminum plate provides better fragmentation of small hypervelocity projectiles. At the same time, none of the combined mesh/plate bumpers provide a significant increase of ballistic properties as compared to an aluminum plate bumper. This indicates that the positive results reported in the literature for bumpers with metallic meshes and large projectiles are not scalable down to millimeter-sized particles. Based on this investigation’s results, a possible modification of the combined mesh/plate bumper is proposed for the future study.

  17. A Possible Differentially Shortened Strike-slip Plate Boundary: the Okhotsk Plate Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, D.; Egorov, V.; Mackey, K. G.; Fujita, K.

    2004-12-01

    The Okhotsk plate has been postulated based on a combination of GPS geodetic inversions (REVEL1), seimsicity, geologic and lineament data. Lying between the North American and Eurasian plates, its northwestern corner would appear to be undergoing compression in a scissors motion between the two bounding plates. Extrusion tectonics along multiple, large strike-slip faults within the Okhotsk plate itself have been suggested to allow the escape of material away from the apex of Eurasia-North America. The plate boundary between Okhotsk and North America has been suggested to be diffuse, based on widely scattered minor seismicity. However, the large, left lateral, Ulakhan fault has also been suggested as a candidate plate boundary. We present field geological and geomorphological evidence of the partitioning of deformation between the Ulakhan fault, and several parallel and oblique, linked faults. The Ulakhan fault strand appears to have a maximum displacement of 24 km based on river valley offsets and closing large pull apart basins. Some of the displacement from the Ulakhan fault appears relayed into the plate margin along oblique trending, thrust/oblique slip faults. Estimated shortening over these faults is equivalent to the amount of shortening relayed into the plate margin from the plate boundary. There may be several thrust/oblique slip faults along the Ulakhan fault, which leads to the interesting situation of a segmented, strike-slip plate boundary being actively shortened in a margin parallel direction. This may be the result of postulated extrusion of the Okhotsk plate due to North America/Eurasia convergence. Such a situation would have important consequences for the interpretation of GPS data in a plate tectonic context.

  18. Resorbable versus titanium plates for orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotry, Anirudha; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Nasser, Mona; Gill, Karanjot S

    2017-10-04

    Recognition of some of the limitations of titanium plates and screws used for the fixation of bones has led to the development of plates manufactured from bioresorbable materials. Whilst resorbable plates appear to offer clinical advantages over metal plates in orthognathic surgery, concerns remain about the stability of fixation and the length of time required for their degradation and the possibility of foreign body reactions. This review compares the use of titanium versus bioresorbable plates in orthognathic surgery and is an update of the Cochrane Review first published in 2007. To compare the effects of bioresorbable fixation systems with titanium systems used during orthognathic surgery. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 20 January 2017); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 11) in the Cochrane Library (searched 20 January 2017); MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 20 January 2017); and Embase Ovid (1980 to 20 January 2017). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register ClinicalTrials.gov (clinicaltrials.gov; searched 20 January 2017), and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (searched 20 January 2017) for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials comparing bioresorbable versus titanium fixation systems used for orthognathic surgery in adults. Two review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. We resolved disagreement by discussion. Clinical heterogeneity between the included trials precluded pooling of data, and only a descriptive summary is presented. This review included two trials, involving 103 participants, one comparing titanium with resorbable plates and screws and

  19. Theroretical modelling of the plate-tubes coupling in the hydroelasticity of the perforated plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhupanov, V.A.; Manoach, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    In the previous investigations on the perforated plate hydroelasticity the problem of the plates-tubes-liquid interaction in the process of the general structural vibration is stated. But the interaction of the vibrating plates with the tubes, passing through them, is taken into account considering the tubes only as absolutely rigid supports. This is one of the possible technical realizations. In the present article the case when the tubes are taking part in the plate motion (vibration) is studied. Two circular perforated plates are supported by the absolutely rigid wall of the modelled roundcircular reactor barrel. The distance between the plates is given. They are connected by tubes, passing through, and clamped into the perforation holes. The plates and the tubes are made by any elastic HOOKIAN material. The volume between the two plates and outwardly to the tubes, but intrinsically of the barrel is filled by ideal, compressible and heavy liquid. Evidently the liquid volume is multiconnected one. The free vibration of the whole system is considered with the purposes: i) to give a theoretical model of the plates-tubes-liquid interaction including governing equations and boundary conditions; ii) to trace the solution of the eigen-value problem for the modelled structure; iii) to underline the engineering sides of the modelling process. (orig./GL)

  20. A Prediction Study on Oxidation of Aluminum Alloy Cladding of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al Fuel Plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahk, Y.W.; Lee, B.H.; Oh, J.Y.; Park, J.H.; Yim, J.S. [Research Reactor Design and Engineering Div., Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion fuel with aluminum alloy cladding will be used for the Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR). Aluminum alloy cladding undergoes corrosion at slow rates under operational status. This causes thinning of the cladding walls and impairs heat transfer to the coolant. Predictions of the aluminum oxide thickness of the fuel cladding and the maximum temperature difference across the oxide film are needed for reliability evaluation based on the design criteria and limits which prohibit spallation of oxide film. In this work, several oxide thickness prediction models were compared with the measured data of in-pile test results from RERTR program. Moreover, specific parametric studies and a preliminary prediction of the aluminum alloy oxidation using the latest model were performed for JRTR fuel. According to the current JRTR fuel management scheme and operation strategy for 5 MW power, fresh fuel is discharged after 900 effective full power days (EFPD), which is too long a span to predict oxidation properly without an elaborate model. The latest model developed by Kim et al. is in good agreement with the recent in-pile test data as well as with the out-of-pile test data available in the literature, and is one of the best predictors for the oxidation of aluminum alloy cladding in various operating condition. Accordingly, this model was chosen for estimating the oxide film thickness. Through the preliminarily evaluation, water pH level is to be controlled lower than 6.2 for the conservativeness in the case of including the effect of anticipated operational occurrences and the spent fuel residence time in the storage rack after discharging. (author)

  1. Irradiation behavior of experimental miniature uranium silicide fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, Gerard L.; Neimark, L.A.; Mattas, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    Uranium silicides, because of their relatively high uranium density, were selected as candidate dispersion fuels for the higher fuel densities required in the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program. Irradiation experience with this type of fuel, however, was limited to relatively modest fission densities in the bulk form, on the order of 7 x 10 20 cm -3 , far short of he approximately 20 x 10 20 cm -3 goal established for the RERTR Program. The purpose of the irradiation experiments on silicide fuels in the ORR, therefore, was to investigate the intrinsic irradiation behavior of uranium silicide as a dispersion fuel. Of particular interest was the interaction between the silicide particles and the aluminum matrix, the swelling behavior of the silicide particles, and the maximum volume fraction of silicide particles that could be contained in the aluminum matrix. The first group of experimental 'mini' fuel plates have recently reached the program's goal burnup and are in various stages of examination. Although the results to date indicate some limitations, it appears that within the range of parameters examined thus far the uranium silicide dispersion holds promise for satisfying most of the needs of the RERTR Program. The twelve experimental silicide dispersion fuel plates that were irradiated to approximately their goal exposure show the 30-vol % U 3 Si-Al plates to be in a stage of relatively rapid fission-gas-driven swelling at a fission density of 2 x 10 20 cm -3 . This fuel swelling will likely result in unacceptably large plate-thickness increases. The U 3 Si plates appear to be superior in this respect; however, they, too, are starting to move into the rapid fuel-swelling stage. Analysis of the currently available post irradiation data indicates that a 40-vol % dispersed fuel may offer an acceptable margin to the onset of unstable thickness changes at exposures of 2 x 10 21 fission/cm 3 . The interdiffusion between fuel and matrix

  2. Plate tectonics in the late Paleozoic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Domeier

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As the chronicle of plate motions through time, paleogeography is fundamental to our understanding of plate tectonics and its role in shaping the geology of the present-day. To properly appreciate the history of tectonics—and its influence on the deep Earth and climate—it is imperative to seek an accurate and global model of paleogeography. However, owing to the incessant loss of oceanic lithosphere through subduction, the paleogeographic reconstruction of ‘full-plates’ (including oceanic lithosphere becomes increasingly challenging with age. Prior to 150 Ma ∼60% of the lithosphere is missing and reconstructions are developed without explicit regard for oceanic lithosphere or plate tectonic principles; in effect, reflecting the earlier mobilistic paradigm of continental drift. Although these ‘continental’ reconstructions have been immensely useful, the next-generation of mantle models requires global plate kinematic descriptions with full-plate reconstructions. Moreover, in disregarding (or only loosely applying plate tectonic rules, continental reconstructions fail to take advantage of a wealth of additional information in the form of practical constraints. Following a series of new developments, both in geodynamic theory and analytical tools, it is now feasible to construct full-plate models that lend themselves to testing by the wider Earth-science community. Such a model is presented here for the late Paleozoic (410–250 Ma together with a review of the underlying data. Although we expect this model to be particularly useful for numerical mantle modeling, we hope that it will also serve as a general framework for understanding late Paleozoic tectonics, one on which future improvements can be built and further tested.

  3. Effect of Plate Curvature on Blast Response of Structural Steel Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeredhi, Lakshmi Shireen Banu; Ramana Rao, N. V.; Veeredhi, Vasudeva Rao

    2018-04-01

    In the present work an attempt is made, through simulation studies, to determine the effect of plate curvature on the blast response of a door structure made of ASTM A515 grade 50 steel plates. A door structure with dimensions of 5.142 m × 2.56 m × 10 mm having six different radii of curvatures is analyzed which is subjected to blast load. The radii of curvature investigated are infinity (flat plate), 16.63, 10.81, 8.26, 6.61 and 5.56 m. In the present study, a stand-off distance of 11 m is considered for all the cases. Results showed that the door structure with smallest radius of curvature experienced least plastic deformation and yielding when compared to a door with larger radius of curvature with same projected area. From the present Investigation, it is observed that, as the radius of curvature of the plate increases, the deformation mode gradually shifts from indentation mode to flexural mode. The plates with infinity and 16.63 m radius of curvature have undergone flexural mode of deformation and plates with 6.61 and 5.56 m radius of curvature undergo indentation mode of deformation. Whereas, mixed mode of deformation that consists of both flexural and indentation mode of deformations are seen in the plates with radius of curvature 10.81 and 8.26 m. As the radius of curvature of the plate decreases the ability of the plate to mitigate the effect the blast loads increased. It is observed that the plate with smaller radius of curvature deflects most of the blast energy and results in least indentation mode of deformation. The most significant observation made in the present investigation is that the strain energy absorbed by the steel plate gets reduced to 1/3 rd when the radius of curvature is approximately equal to the stand-off distance which could be the critical radius of curvature.

  4. Characterization and testing of monolithic RERTR fuel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, D.D.; Jue, J.F.; Burkes, D.E. [Idaho National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Monolithic fuel plates are being developed as a LEU (low enrichment uranium) fuel for application in research reactors throughout the world. These fuel plates are comprised of a U-Mo alloy foil encased in aluminum alloy cladding. Three different fabrication techniques have been looked at for producing monolithic fuel plates: hot isostatic pressing (HIP), transient liquid phase bonding (TLPB), and friction stir welding (FSW). Of these three techniques, HIP and FSW are currently being emphasized. As part of the development of these fabrication techniques, fuel plates are characterized and tested to determine properties like hardness and the bond strength at the interface between the fuel and cladding. Testing of HIP-made samples indicates that the foil/cladding interaction behavior depends on the Mo content in the UMo foil, the measured hardness values are quite different for the fuel, cladding, and interaction zone phase and Ti, Zr and Nb are the most effective diffusion barriers. For FSW samples, there is a dependence of the bond strength at the foil/cladding interface on the type of tool that is employed for performing the actual FSW process. (authors)

  5. LOWLID FORMATION AND PLATE TECTONICS ON EXOPLANETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenkovic, V.; Noack, L.; Breuer, D.

    2009-12-01

    The last years of astronomical observation have opened the doors to a universe filled with extrasolar planets. Detection techniques still only offer the possibility to detect mainly Super-Earths above five Earth masses. But detection techniques do steadily improve and are offering the possibility to detect even smaller planets. The observations show that planets seem to exist in many possible sizes just as the planets and moons of our own solar system do. It is only a natural question to ask if planetary mass has an influence on some key habitability factors such as on plate tectonics, allowing us to test which exoplanets might be more likely habitable than others, and allowing us to understand if plate tectonics on Earth is a stable or a critical, instable process that could easily be perturbed. Here we present results derived from 1D parameterized thermal evolution and 2D/3D computer models, showing how planetary mass influences the propensity of plate tectonics for planets with masses ranging from 0.1 to 10 Earth masses. Lately [2, 3] studied the effect of planetary mass on the ability to break plates and hence initiate plate tectonics - but both derived results contradictory to the other. We think that one of the reasons why both studies [2, 3] are not acceptable in their current form is partly due to an oversimplification. Both treated viscosity only temperature-dependent but neglected the effect pressure has on enlarging the viscosity in the deep mantle. More massive planets have therefore a stronger pressure-viscosity-coupling making convection at high pressures sluggish or even impossible. For planets larger than two Earth masses we observe that a conductive lid (termed low-lid) forms above the core-mantle boundary and thus reduces the effective convective part of the mantle when including a pressure-dependent term into the viscosity laws as shown in [1]. Moreover [2, 3] use time independent steady state models neglecting the fact that plate tectonics is a

  6. From Plate Tectonic to Continental Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, P. H.

    2017-12-01

    By the early 1970s, the basics of plate tectonics were known. Although much understanding remained to be gained, as a topic of research, plate tectonics no longer defined the forefront of earth science. Not only had it become a foundation on which to build, but also the methods used to reveal it became tools to take in new directions. For me as a seismologist studying earthquakes and active processes, the deformation of continents offered an obvious topic to pursue. Obviously examining the deformation of continents and ignoring the widespread geologic evidence of both ongoing and finite deformation of crust would be stupid. I was blessed with the opportunity to learn from and collaborate with two of the best, Paul Tapponnier and Clark Burchfiel. Continental deformation differed from plate tectonics both because deformation was widespread but more importantly because crust shortens (extends) horizontally and thickens (thins), processes that can be ignored where plate tectonics - the relative motion of rigid plates - occurs. Where a plate boundary passes into a continent, not only must the forces that move plates do work against friction or other dissipative processes, but where high terrain is created, they must also do work against gravity, to create gravitational potential energy in high terrain. Peter Bird and Kenneth Piper and Philip England and Dan McKenzie showed that a two-dimensional thin viscous sheet with vertically averaged properties enabled both sources of resistance to be included without introducing excessive complexity and to be scaled by one dimensionless number, what the latter pair called the Argand number. Increasingly over the past thirty years, emphasis has shifted toward the role played by the mantle lithosphere, because of both its likely strength and its negative buoyancy, which makes it gravitationally unstable. Despite progress since realizing that rigid plates (the essence of plate tectonics) provides a poor description of continental

  7. Octanol reduces end-plate channel lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Peter W.; McBurney, Robert N.; Van Helden, Dirk

    1978-01-01

    1. Post-synaptic effects of n-octanol at concentrations of 0·1-1 mM were examined in toad sartorius muscles by use of extracellular and voltage-clamp techniques. 2. Octanol depressed the amplitude and duration of miniature end-plate currents and hence depressed neuromuscular transmission. 3. The decay of miniature end-plate currents remained exponential in octanol solutions even when the time constant of decay (τD) was decreased by 80-90%. 4. The lifetime of end-plate channels, obtained by analysis of acetylcholine noise, was also decreased by octanol. The average lifetime measured from noise spectra agreed reasonably well with the time constant of decay of miniature end-plate currents, both in control solution and in octanol solutions. 5. Octanol caused a reduction in the conductance of end-plate channels. Single channel conductance was on average about 25 pS in control solution and 20 pS in octanol. 6. In most cells the normal voltage sensitivity of the decay of miniature end-plate currents was retained in octanol solutions. The lifetime of end-plate channels measured from acetylcholine noise also remained voltage-sensitive in octanol solutions. In some experiments in which channel lifetime was exceptionally reduced the voltage sensitivity was less than normal. 7. In octanol solutions, τD was still very sensitive to temperature changes in most cells although in some the temperature sensitivity of τD was clearly reduced. Changes in τD with temperature could generally be fitted by the Arrhenius equation suggesting that a single step reaction controlled the decay of currents both in control and in octanol solutions. In some cells in which τD became less than 0·3 ms, the relationship between τD and temperature became inconsistent with the Arrhenius equation. 8. As the decay of end-plate currents in octanol solutions remains exponential, and the voltage and temperature sensitivity can be unchanged even when τD is significantly reduced, it seems likely that

  8. 21 CFR 882.4030 - Skull plate anvil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skull plate anvil. 882.4030 Section 882.4030 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4030 Skull plate anvil. (a) Identification. A skull plate anvil is a device used to form alterable skull plates in the proper shape to fit...

  9. Preserving and Archiving Astronomical Photographic Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelaz, M. W.; Cline, J. D.

    2005-05-01

    Astronomical objects change with time. New observations complement past observations recorded on photographic plates. Analyses of changes provide essential routes to information about an object's formation, constitution and evolution. Preserving a century of photographic plate observations is thus of paramount importance. Plate collections are presently widely dispersed; plates may be stored in poor conditions, and are effectively inaccessible to both researchers and historians. We describe a planned project at Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute to preserve the collections of astronomical plates in the United States by gathering them into a single storage location. Collections will be sorted, cleaned, and cataloged on-line so as to provide access to researchers. Full scientific and historic use of the material then requires the observations themselves to be accessible digitally. The project's goal will be the availability of these data as a unique, fully-maintained scientific and educational resource. The new archive will support trans-disciplinary research such as the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere, library information science, trends in local weather patterns, and impacts of urbanization on telescope use, while the hand-written observatory logs will be a valuable resource for science historians and biographers.

  10. Spirit Begins Drive Around Home Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The hazard avoidance camera on the front of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image after a drive by Spirit on the 1,829th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (Feb. 24, 2009). On Sol 1829, Spirit drove 6.29 meters (21 feet) northwestward, away from the northern edge of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The track dug by the dragged right-front wheel as the rover drove backward is visible in this image, receding toward the southeast. Rock layers of the northern slope of Home Plate are visible in the upper right portion of the image. In sols prior to 1829, the rover team had been trying to maneuver Spirit to climb onto the northern edge of Home Plate, ready to drive southward across the top of the plateau toward science destinations south of Home Plate. The Sol 1829 drive was the first move of a revised strategy to circle at least partway around Home Plate on the trek toward the sites south of the plateau.

  11. Well-plate freeze-drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trnka, Hjalte; Rantanen, Jukka; Grohganz, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context: Freeze-drying in presence of excipients is a common practice to stabilize biomacromolecular formulations. The composition of this formulation is known to affect the quality of the final product. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate freeze-drying in well-plates as a h......Abstract Context: Freeze-drying in presence of excipients is a common practice to stabilize biomacromolecular formulations. The composition of this formulation is known to affect the quality of the final product. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate freeze-drying in well......-plates as a high throughput platform for formulation screening of freeze-dried products. Methods: Model formulations consisting of mannitol, sucrose and bovine serum albumin were freeze-dried in brass well plates, plastic well plates and vials. Physical properties investigated were solid form, residual moisture......, cake collapse and reconstitution time. Results: Samples freeze-dried in well-plates had an acceptable visual cake appearance. Solid form analysis by high throughput X-ray powder diffraction indicated comparable polymorphic outcome independent of the container. The expected increase in moisture level...

  12. Structure of colloidal sphere-plate mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, N; Cinacchi, G; Van Duijneveldt, J S; Cosgrove, T; Prescott, S W; Grillo, I; Phipps, J; Gittins, D I

    2011-01-01

    In addition to containing spherical pigment particles, coatings usually contain plate-like clay particles. It is thought that these improve the opacity of the paint film by providing an efficient spacing of the pigment particles. This observation is counterintuitive, as suspensions of particles of different shapes and sizes tend to phase separate on increase of concentration. In order to clarify this matter a model colloidal system is studied here, with a sphere-plate diameter ratio similar to that found in paints. For dilute suspensions, small angle neutron scattering revealed that the addition of plates leads to enhanced density fluctuations of the spheres, in agreement with new theoretical predictions. On increasing the total colloid concentration the plates and spheres phase separate due to the disparity in their shape. This is in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental work on colloidal sphere-plate mixtures, where one particle acts as a depleting agent. The fact that no large scale phase separation is observed in coatings is ascribed to dynamic arrest in intimately mixed, or possibly micro-phase separated structures, at elevated concentration.

  13. Structure of colloidal sphere-plate mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doshi, N; Cinacchi, G; Van Duijneveldt, J S; Cosgrove, T; Prescott, S W [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Grillo, I [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Phipps, J [Imerys Minerals Ltd, Par Moor Centre, Par Moor Road, Par, Cornwall PL24 2SQ (United Kingdom); Gittins, D I, E-mail: Giorgio.Cinacchi@bristol.ac.uk, E-mail: J.S.van-Duijneveldt@bristol.ac.uk [Imerys Performance and Filtration Minerals Ltd, 130 Castilian Drive, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)

    2011-05-18

    In addition to containing spherical pigment particles, coatings usually contain plate-like clay particles. It is thought that these improve the opacity of the paint film by providing an efficient spacing of the pigment particles. This observation is counterintuitive, as suspensions of particles of different shapes and sizes tend to phase separate on increase of concentration. In order to clarify this matter a model colloidal system is studied here, with a sphere-plate diameter ratio similar to that found in paints. For dilute suspensions, small angle neutron scattering revealed that the addition of plates leads to enhanced density fluctuations of the spheres, in agreement with new theoretical predictions. On increasing the total colloid concentration the plates and spheres phase separate due to the disparity in their shape. This is in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental work on colloidal sphere-plate mixtures, where one particle acts as a depleting agent. The fact that no large scale phase separation is observed in coatings is ascribed to dynamic arrest in intimately mixed, or possibly micro-phase separated structures, at elevated concentration.

  14. Flow of nanofluid past a Riga plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Adeel, E-mail: adeelahmed@comsats.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Laboratoire J.A. Dieudonné, Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice (France); Asghar, Saleem [Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Mathematics, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Afzal, Sumaira [Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2016-03-15

    This paper studies the mixed convection boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a vertical Riga plate in the presence of strong suction. The mathematical model incorporates the Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects due to nanofluid and the Grinberg-term for the wall parallel Lorentz force due to Riga plate. The analytical solution of the problem is presented using the perturbation method for small Brownian and thermophoresis diffusion parameters. The numerical solution is also presented to ensure the reliability of the asymptotic method. The comparison of the two solutions shows an excellent agreement. The correlation expressions for skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are developed by performing linear regression on the obtained numerical data. The effects of nanofluid and the Lorentz force due to Riga plate, on the skin friction are discussed. - Highlights: • Mixed convection flow of a nanofluid past a vertical Riga plate. • The Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects due to nanofluid are incorporated. • Grinberg-term represents the wall parallel Lorentz force due to Riga plate. • The correlation expressions for skin friction, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are developed. • The effects of nanofluid and the Lorentz force on the skin friction are discussed.

  15. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Roger W.; Neff, Wayne A.

    1992-01-01

    A process for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO.sub.3. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths.

  16. Lead plating of the low beta resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, J.M.; Corcoran, D.; Coughlin, R.; Goliak, T.; Hodgkins, D.; James, P.; Seamster, A.G.; Secora, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Plating operations were performed at the lead plating facility at SUNY, Stony Brook. Initial procedures were based on the previous experience of prototype development by Ben-Zvi and Brennan. Several attempts were made to produce satisfactory results, however the lead surfaces were consistently stained and lacked the bright metallic finish routinely achieved with the split loop resonator at SUNY. The development of a new set of procedures was initiated, aided by reports of plating success from Ben-Zvi. Controlled tests were conducted which suggested several changes in the plating parameters. Based on these results and suggestions from the staff at SUNY a new process was defined which was successful in producing the smooth reflective metallic surface known to be necessary forla optimum resonator performance. Following a successful repair of the the crack, the prototype was plated and chemically polished with the new techniques. The resultant surface was highly reflective and free of stains and particulates. The subsequent prototype cold test was successful

  17. Modeling of parallel-plate regenerators with non-uniform plate distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Buch; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    plate spacing distributions are presented in order to understand the impact of spacing non-uniformity. Simulations of more realistic distributions where the plate spacings follow normal distributions are then discussed in order to describe the deviation of the performance of a regenerator relative...

  18. Finite element analysis of advanced neutron source fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luttrell, C.R.

    1995-08-01

    The proposed design for the Advanced Neutron Source reactor core consists of closely spaced involute fuel plates. Coolant flows between the plates at high velocities. It is vital that adjacent plates do not come in contact and that the coolant channels between the plates remain open. Several scenarios that could result in problems with the fuel plates are studied. Finite element analyses are performed on fuel plates under pressure from the coolant flowing between the plates at a high velocity, under pressure because of a partial flow blockage in one of the channels, and with different temperature profiles

  19. Highly conductive composites for fuel cell flow field plates and bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bor Z; Zhamu, Aruna; Song, Lulu

    2014-10-21

    This invention provides a fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate having flow channels on faces of the plate, comprising an electrically conductive polymer composite. The composite is composed of (A) at least 50% by weight of a conductive filler, comprising at least 5% by weight reinforcement fibers, expanded graphite platelets, graphitic nano-fibers, and/or carbon nano-tubes; (B) polymer matrix material at 1 to 49.9% by weight; and (C) a polymer binder at 0.1 to 10% by weight; wherein the sum of the conductive filler weight %, polymer matrix weight % and polymer binder weight % equals 100% and the bulk electrical conductivity of the flow field or bipolar plate is at least 100 S/cm. The invention also provides a continuous process for cost-effective mass production of the conductive composite-based flow field or bipolar plate.

  20. The Okhotsk Plate and the Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, David; Mackey, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    The Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone transitions from spreading at rates of ~ 25mm/yr in the North Atlantic, to compression at rates of ~ 5mm/yr in the region of the Okhotsk plate. Because the pole of rotation between Eurasia and North America lies more or less on their mutual boundary, there is a linear change in rate along the boundary, and regions near the euler pole are subject to extremely low deformation rates. The Okhotsk - Eurasia - North America triple junction lies slightly south of the rotation pole, placing the Okhotsk plate entirely in a weakly contractional setting. Regions near the triple junction absorb 1mm/yr contraction. Further south, towards the shoreline of the Okhotsk sea, up to 5 mm/yr contraction may be absorbed within the plate. How shortening is accommodated across the boundary remains an open question. One possibility is wholesale extrusion of the entire Okhotsk plate (or possibly its northwestern corner) along two plate boundary strike slip faults (Eurasia-Okhostk and North America Okhotsk). The problem with this model is that the seismic record does not presently clearly support it, with the largest events distributed both within the plate interior and on its boundaries. This may suggest that instead, the Okhotsk plate, and particularly its north-western end, consists of a series of smaller blocks which shuffle against each other, partially accommodating extrusion, but also permitting some internal deformation and change of shape of the Okhotsk plate itself. We present analyses of the very sparse seismic record from the region, as well as geometric-kinematic, tectonic models of the possible deformation of northwest Okhotsk to try to better understand the different probabilities of how this slowly deforming plate boundary zone is behaving.

  1. Dual fuel gradients in uranium silicide plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, B.W. [Babock and Wilcox, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Babcock & Wilcox has been able to achieve dual gradient plates with good repeatability in small lots of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} plates. Improvements in homogeneity and other processing parameters and techniques have allowed the development of contoured fuel within the cladding. The most difficult obstacles to overcome have been the ability to evaluate the bidirectional fuel loadings in comparison to the perfect loading model and the different methods of instilling the gradients in the early compact stage. The overriding conclusion is that to control the contour of the fuel, a known relationship between the compact, the frames and final core gradient must exist. Therefore, further development in the creation and control of dual gradients in fuel plates will involve arriving at a plausible gradient requirement and building the correct model between the compact configuration and the final contoured loading requirements.

  2. Astrometric properties of the Tautenburg Plate Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunzendorf, Jens; Meusinger, Helmut

    The Tautenburg Plate Scanner (TPS) is an advanced plate-measuring machine run by the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg (Karl Schwarzschild Observatory), where the machine is housed. It is capable of digitising photographic plates up to 30 cm × 30 cm in size. In our poster, we reported on tests and preliminary results of its astrometric properties. The essential components of the TPS consist of an x-y table movable between an illumination system and a direct imaging system. A telecentric lens images the light transmitted through the photographic emulsion onto a CCD line of 6000 pixels of 10 µm square size each. All components are mounted on a massive air-bearing table. Scanning is performed in lanes of up to 55 mm width by moving the x-y table in a continuous drift-scan mode perpendicular to the CCD line. The analogue output from the CCD is digitised to 12 bit with a total signal/noise ratio of 1000 : 1, corresponding to a photographic density range of three. The pixel map is produced as a series of optionally overlapping lane scans. The pixel data are stored onto CD-ROM or DAT. A Tautenburg Schmidt plate 24 cm × 24 cm in size is digitised within 2.5 hours resulting in 1.3 GB of data. Subsequent high-level data processing is performed off-line on other computers. During the scanning process, the geometry of the optical components is kept fixed. The optimal focussing of the optics is performed prior to the scan. Due to the telecentric lens refocussing is not required. Therefore, the main source of astrometric errors (beside the emulsion itself) are mechanical imperfections in the drive system, which have to be divided into random and systematic ones. The r.m.s. repeatability over the whole plate as measured by repeated scans of the same plate is about 0.5 µm for each axis. The mean plate-to-plate accuracy of the object positions on two plates with the same epoch and the same plate centre has been determined to be about 1 µm. This accuracy is comparable to

  3. Migration of phthalates on culture plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frohnert Hansen, Juliana; Boas, Malene; Møller Brorson, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    -well culture plates are typically used to study phthalates in cell cultures. In a pilot study, we observed evidence of phthalate migration in 24-well culture plates. As this has not previously been described, we investigated the phenomenon in more detail. Primary human thyroid epithelial cell cultures (n = 8...... cultures) were exposed to either di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) or di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Measurement of phthalate metabolites by mass spectrometry demonstrated that the short-branched DEP was able to migrate to adjacent wells when added...... to cell culture plates. DnBP also seemed to be able to migrate, unlike the long-branched DEHP or the monoester MnBP which did not seem to have this ability. High background levels of phthalate metabolites were also observed, which might compromise results from low dose phthalate studies. In conclusion...

  4. Aerodynamic drag reduction by vertical splitter plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliéron, Patrick; Kourta, Azeddine

    2010-01-01

    The capacity of vertical splitter plates placed at the front or the rear of a simplified car geometry to reduce drag, with and without skew angle, is investigated for Reynolds numbers between 1.0 × 106 and 1.6 × 106. The geometry used is a simplified geometry to represent estate-type vehicles, for the rear section, and MPV-type vehicle. Drag reductions of nearly 28% were obtained for a zero skew angle with splitter plates placed at the front of models of MPV or utility vehicles. The results demonstrate the advantage of adapting the position and orientation of the splitter plates in the presence of a lateral wind. All these results confirm the advantage of this type of solution, and suggest that this expertise should be used in the automotive field to reduce consumption and improve dynamic stability of road vehicles.

  5. Aerodynamic drag reduction by vertical splitter plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillieron, Patrick [Renault Group, Research Division, Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics, Guyancourt (France); Kourta, Azeddine [Polytech' Orleans, Institut PRISME, ESA, Orleans (France)

    2010-01-15

    The capacity of vertical splitter plates placed at the front or the rear of a simplified car geometry to reduce drag, with and without skew angle, is investigated for Reynolds numbers between 1.0 x 10{sup 6} and 1.6 x 10{sup 6}. The geometry used is a simplified geometry to represent estate-type vehicles, for the rear section, and MPV-type vehicle. Drag reductions of nearly 28% were obtained for a zero skew angle with splitter plates placed at the front of models of MPV or utility vehicles. The results demonstrate the advantage of adapting the position and orientation of the splitter plates in the presence of a lateral wind. All these results confirm the advantage of this type of solution, and suggest that this expertise should be used in the automotive field to reduce consumption and improve dynamic stability of road vehicles. (orig.)

  6. Dynamic coupled piezothermoelasticity of pyroelectric composite plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidary, F.; Reza Eslami, M.

    2005-01-01

    The equations governing the linear response of coupled piezothermolelastic composite plate, considering the pyroelectric effect, are outlined in this paper. The finite element method with linear shape functions for a first-order shear deformation theory of laminated plates is used to obtain the defections and temperature. The finite element equations are developed for piezothermoelectric sensor and actuator. The governing equations are solved using the time marching method. Numerical results are presented for the conventional active direct proportional control of the plate. Controlled and uncontrolled displacements and temperature responses are graphically illustrated. the corresponding temperature response with consideration of the pyroelectric effects is also presented. Dynamic case studies are carried out to observe the pyroelectric effects in the piezothermoelastic control systems. (authors)

  7. Condensation heat transfer in plate heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchal, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    An Alfa-Laval plate heat exchanger, previously tested as an evaporator, was retested as a condenser. Two series of tests with different chevron-angle plates were carried out using ammonia as a working fluid. The overall heat-transfer coefficient and pressure drop were measured, and the effects of operating parameters were determined. The experimental data were compared with theoretical predictions. In the analysis, a gravity-controlled condensation process was modeled theoretically, and the overall performance was calculated. The analysis shows that the overall heat-transfer coefficient can be predicted with an average uncertainty of about 10%. It is, however, important to consider the interfacial shear stress, because the effective friction factor is high for flow in plate heat exchangers

  8. Radon daughter plate-out onto Teflon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, E. S.; Frels, T.; Miller, E. H.; Schnee, R. W.; Street, J.

    2018-01-01

    Radiopure materials for detector components in rare event searches may be contaminated after manufacturing with long-lived 210Pb produced by the decay of atmospheric radon. Charged radon daughters deposited on the surface or implanted in the bulk of detector materials have the potential to cause noticeable backgrounds within dark matter regions of interest. Understanding the mechanics governing these background signals is therefore a paramount concern in dark matter experiments in order to distinguish a real signal from internal detector backgrounds. Teflon (i.e. PTFE) is a specific material of interest because it makes up the walls of the inner detector of many liquid noble detectors such as the LUX-ZEPLIN experiment. The rate of radon daughter plate-out onto Teflon can be orders of magnitude larger than the plate-out rate onto other materials. Mitigation of plate-out onto Teflon and steel by proximity to other materials is demonstrated.

  9. Thermo-mechanical analysis of the pressure plate of clutch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V.N. Venkata Mallikarjuna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High Temperature appears in the contact surfaces of a clutch system (friction surface and pressure plate due to the relative motion between these parts during the sliding period. These high temperatures are responsible for several failures such as pressure plate crack, pressure plate warpage etc. With the help of Finite element analysis, the sliding friction process of the pressure plate and friction during clutch engagement is simulated to get temperature field characteristics and contact pressure of pressure plate.

  10. Deformation of the Northwestern Okhotsk Plate: How is it happening?

    OpenAIRE

    Hindle, D.; Fujita, K.; Mackey, K.

    2009-01-01

    The Eurasia (EU) – North America (NA) plate boundary zone across Northeast Asia still presents many open questions within the plate tectonic paradigm. Constraining the geometry and number of plates or microplates present in the plate boundary zone is especially difficult because of the location of the EU-NA euler pole close to or even upon the EU-NA boundary. One of the major challenges remains the geometry of the Okhotsk plate (OK). whose northwestern portion terminates on ...

  11. Root-Contact/Pressure-Plate Assembly For Hydroponic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Carlton E.; Loretan, Philip A.; Bonsi, Conrad K.; Hill, Walter A.

    1994-01-01

    Hydroponic system includes growth channels equipped with rootcontact/pressure-plate assemblies. Pump and associated plumbing circulate nutrient liquid from reservoir, along bottom of growth channels, and back to reservoir. Root-contact/pressure-plate assembly in each growth channel stimulates growth of roots by applying mild contact pressure. Flat plate and plate connectors, together constitute pressure plate, free to move upward to accommodate growth of roots. System used for growing sweetpotatoes and possibly other tuber and root crops.

  12. Buckling and postbuckling behavior of square compression-loaded graphite-epoxy plates with circular cutouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented for unidirectional (0, 10)(sub s) and (90,10)(sub s) plates, ((0/90)(sub 5)(sub s)) plates, and for aluminum plates. Results are also presented for ((+/- theta)(sub 6)(sub s)) angle-ply plates for values of theta = 30, 45, and 60 degrees. The results indicate that the change in axial stiffness of a plate at buckling is strongly dependent upon cutout size and plate orthotropy. The presence of a cutout gives rise to an internal load distribution that changes, sometimes dramatically, as a function of cutout size coupled with the plate orthotropy. In the buckled state, the role of orthotropy becomes more significant since bending in addition to membrane orthotropy is present. Most of the plates with cutouts exhibited less postbuckling stiffness than the corresponding plate without a cutout, and the postbuckling stiffness decreased with increasing cutout size. However, some of the highly orthotropic plates with cutouts exhibited more postbuckling stiffness than the corresponding plate without a cutout. These results suggest the possibility of tailoring the cutout size and the stacking sequence of a composite plate to optimize postbuckling stiffness. It was found that plates with large radius cutouts do exhibit some postbuckling strength. The results also indicate that a cutout can influence modal interaction in a plate. Specifically, results are presented that show a plate with a relatively small cutout buckling at a higher load than the corresponding plate without a cutout, due to modal interaction. Other results are presented that indicate the presence of nonlinear prebuckling deformations, due to material nonlinearity, in the angle-ply plates with theta = 45 and 60 degrees. The nonlinear prebuckling deformations are more pronounced in the plates with theta = 45 degrees and become even more pronounced as the cutout size increases. Results are also presented that show how load-path eccentricity due to improper machining of the test specimens

  13. Crane Scheduling for a Plate Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Odense Steel Shipyard produces the worlds largest container ships. The first process of producing the steel ships is handling arrival and storage of steel plates until they are needed in production. This paper considers the problem of scheduling two cranes that carry out the movements of plates...... into, around and out of the storage. The system is required to create a daily schedule for the cranes, but also handle possible disruptions during the execution of the plan. The problem is solved with a Simulated Annealing algorithm....

  14. Spirit Beside 'Home Plate,' Sol 1809

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images assembled into this 120-degree view southward after a short drive during the 1,809th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (February 3, 2009). Spirit had driven about 2.6 meters (8.5 feet) that sol, continuing a clockwise route around a low plateau called 'Home Plate.' In this image, the rocks visible above the rovers' solar panels are on the slope at the northern edge of Home Plate. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  15. PC-based car license plate reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chung-Mu; Shu, Shyh-Yeong; Chen, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yie-Wern; Wen, Kuang-Pu

    1992-11-01

    A car license plate reader (CLPR) using fuzzy inference and neural network algorithm has been developed in Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and installed in highway toll stations to identify stolen cars. It takes an average of 0.7 seconds to recognize a car license plate by using a PC with 80486-50 CPU. The recognition rate of the system is about 97%. The techniques of CLPR include vehicle sensing, image grab control, optic pre- processing, lighting, and optic character recognition (OCR). The CLPR can be used in vehicle flow statistics, the checking of stolen vehicles, automatic charging systems in parking lots or garage management, and so on.

  16. Instrumentation of fuel elements and fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, J.P.; Fanjas, Y.

    1993-01-01

    When controlling the behaviour of a reactor or developing a new fuel concept, it is of utmost interest to have the possibility to confirm the thermohydraulic calculations by actual measurements in the fuel elements or in the fuel plates. For years, CERCA has developed the technology and supplied its customers with fuel elements equipped with pressure or temperature measuring devices according to the requirements. Recent customer projects have led to the development of a new method to introduce thermocouples directly into the fuel plate meat instead of the cladding. The purpose of this paper is to review the various instrumentation possibilities available at CERCA. (author)

  17. Instrumentation of fuel elements and fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, J.P.; Fanjas, Y.

    1994-01-01

    When controlling the behaviour of a reactor or developing a new fuel concept, it is of utmost interest to have the possibility to confirm the thermohydraulic calculations by actual measurements in the fuel elements or in the fuel plates. For years, CERCA has developed the technology and supplied its customers with fuel elements equipped with pressure or temperature measuring devices according to the requirements. Recent customer projects have lead to the development of a new method to introduce thermocouples directly into the fuel plate meat instead of the cladding. The purpose of this paper is to review the various instrumentation possibilities available at CERCA. (author)

  18. A Geometrically—Nonlinear Plate Theory 12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AlbertC.J.LUO

    1999-01-01

    An approximate plate theory developed in this paper is based on an assumed displacement field,the strains described by a Taylor series in the normal distance from the middle surface,the exact strains of the middle surface and the equations of equilibrium governing the exact configuration of the deformed middle surface,In this theory the exact geometry of the deformed middle surface is used to derive the strains and equilibrium of the plate.Application of this theory does not depend on the constitutive law.THis theory can reduce to some existing nonlinear theories through imposition of constraints.

  19. Ponderomotive phase plate for transmission electron microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Bryan W [Livermore, CA

    2012-07-10

    A ponderomotive phase plate system and method for controllably producing highly tunable phase contrast transfer functions in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) for high resolution and biological phase contrast imaging. The system and method includes a laser source and a beam transport system to produce a focused laser crossover as a phase plate, so that a ponderomotive potential of the focused laser crossover produces a scattering-angle-dependent phase shift in the electrons of the post-sample electron beam corresponding to a desired phase contrast transfer function.

  20. An aluminium evaporation source for ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walley, P.A.; Cross, K.B.

    1977-01-01

    Ion plating with aluminium is becoming increasingly accepted as a method of anti-corrosion surface passivation, the usual requirements being for a layer between 12 and 50 microns in thickness, (0.0005 to 0.002). The evaporation system described here offers a number of advantages over high power electron beam sources when used for aluminium ion plating. The source consists of a resistively heated, specially shaped, boron nitride-titanium diboride boat and a metering feed system. Its main features are small physical size, soft vacuum compatibility, low power consumption and metered evaporation output. (author)

  1. Irradiation of full size UMo plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacelet, H.; Lavastre, Y.; Grasse, M.; Sacristan, P.; Languille, A.

    1999-01-01

    An important development program for a UMo MTR fuel has been launched in France. The goal of the French working group is to develop a high performing and reprocessable fuel before the end of the US return policy. This paper is focussed on the fabrication of full-sized UMo plates with LEU (Low Enriched Enrichment) and their irradiation in OSIRIS reactor which was started on the 22nd of September. The results of the plates inspection are presented here as well as the irradiation conditions. (author)

  2. Thermoelastic wave propagation in laminated composites plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma K. L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dispersion of thermoelastic waves propagation in an arbitrary direction in laminated composites plates is studied in the framework of generalized thermoelasticity in this article. Three dimensional field equations of thermoelasticity with relaxation times are considered. Characteristic equation is obtained on employing the continuity of displacements, temperature, stresses and thermal gradient at the layers’ interfaces. Some important particular cases such as of free waves on reducing plates to single layer and the surface waves when thickness tends to infinity are also discussed. Uncoupled and coupled thermoelasticity are the particular cases of the obtained results. Numerical results are also obtained and represented graphically.

  3. Modelling of CMUTs with Anisotropic Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Mette Funding; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, CMUTs are modelled using the isotropic plate equation and this leads to deviations between analytical calculations and FEM simulations. In this paper, the deflection profile and material parameters are calculated using the anisotropic plate equation. It is shown that the anisotropic...... calculations match perfectly with FEM while an isotropic approach causes up to 10% deviations in deflection profile. Furthermore, we show how commonly used analytic modelling methods such as static calculations of the pull-in voltage and dynamic modelling through an equivalent circuit representation can...

  4. Novel Algorithms for Astronomical Plate Analyses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René; Hudec, L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, 1-2 (2011), s. 121-123 ISSN 0250-6335. [Conference on Multiwavelength Variability of Blazars. Guangzhou, 22,09,2010-24,09,2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA102/09/0997; MŠMT(CZ) ME09027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : astronomical plates * plate archives archives * astronomical algorithms Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.400, year: 2011

  5. Astronomical Plate Archives and Binary Blazars Studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, 1-2 (2011), s. 91-95 ISSN 0250-6335. [Conference on Multiwavelength Variability of Blazars. Guangzhou, 22,09,2010-24,09,2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA102/09/0997; MŠMT(CZ) ME09027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : astronomical plates * plate archives archives * binary blazars Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.400, year: 2011

  6. Mandibular reconstruction using a titanium plate: the impact of radiation therapy on plate preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Janice K; Stern, Robin L; Robinson, Marilyn G; Bowers, Michael K; Kubo, Hideo D; Donald, Paul J; Rosenthal, Seth A; Fu, Karen K

    1995-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the soft tissue and bone tolerance of radiation therapy (RT) in patients undergoing radical composite resection and mandibular reconstruction using a bridging titanium plate with myocutaneous flap closure. Methods and Materials: From 1990 to 1994, 47 patients with primary or recurrent oral cavity or oropharyngeal carcinomas were treated with radical composite resection and mandibular reconstruction using a bridging titanium plate with myocutaneous flap closure. Eleven patients received no RT (no RT), 10 patients received RT greater than 10 months from the time of surgery (remote RT), and 26 patients received RT within 12 weeks of surgery (perioperative RT). The radiation dose to the reconstructed mandible ranged from 45 to 75 Gy (median 63 Gy). The effect of the titanium plate on the radiation dose was measured using film dosimetry and soft tissue and bone-equivalent materials. The median follow-up was 17 months (range: 3-50 months). Results: Late complications included four patients with osteomyelitis or necrosis, two plate exposures requiring flap revision, one chronic infection, two cases of chronic pain, two fistulae, and one case of trismus and malocclusion. The crude incidence of late complications by treatment was: (a) no RT: 3 of 11 patients (27%); (b) remote RT: 2 of 10 patients (20%); and (c) perioperative RT: 9 of 26 patients (35%). One patient in the no-RT group lost the plate due to chronic pain. Five patients in the perioperative RT group also had plate loss, four due to osteomyelitis and/or necrosis, and one due to pain related to a recurrent tumor. No patients in the remote RT group had plate loss. The actuarial prosthesis preservation rate at 2 years was 88% for the no RT, 100% for the remote RT, and 57% for the perioperative RT groups (p = 0.05). Phantom dose measurements showed that for parallel opposed 6 MV photon beams, there was no significant increase in the dose proximal or distal to the plate in either a soft tissue- or

  7. Sound insulation and energy harvesting based on acoustic metamaterial plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouar, Badreddine; Oudich, Mourad; Zhou, Xiaoming

    2015-03-01

    The emergence of artificially designed sub-wavelength acoustic materials, denoted acoustic metamaterials (AMM), has significantly broadened the range of materials responses found in nature. These engineered materials can indeed manipulate sound/vibration in surprising ways, which include vibration/sound insulation, focusing, cloaking, acoustic energy harvesting …. In this work, we report both on the analysis of the airborne sound transmission loss (STL) through a thin metamaterial plate and on the possibility of acoustic energy harvesting. We first provide a theoretical study of the airborne STL and confronted them to the structure-borne dispersion of a metamaterial plate. Second, we propose to investigate the acoustic energy harvesting capability of the plate-type AMM. We have developed semi-analytical and numerical methods to investigate the STL performances of a plate-type AMM with an airborne sound excitation having different incident angles. The AMM is made of silicone rubber stubs squarely arranged in a thin aluminum plate, and the STL is calculated at low-frequency range [100Hz to 3kHz] for an incoming incident sound pressure wave. The obtained analytical and numerical STL present a very good agreement confirming the reliability of developed approaches. A comparison between computed STL and the band structure of the considered AMM shows an excellent agreement and gives a physical understanding of the observed behavior. On another hand, the acoustic energy confinement in AMM with created defects with suitable geometry was investigated. The first results give a general view for assessing the acoustic energy harvesting performances making use of AMM.

  8. Comparison of Thermal Performances between Low Porosity Perforate Plate and Flat Plate Solar Air Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hoy-Yen; Vinson, A. A.; Baljit, S. S. S.; Ruslan, M. H.

    2018-04-01

    Flat plate solar air collector is the most common collector design, which is relatively simpler to fabricate and lower cost. In the present study, perforated plate solar collector was developed to improve the system thermal performance. A glazed perforated plate of 6mm holes diameter with square geometry was designed and installed as the absorber of the collector. The influences of solar radiation intensity and mass flow rate on the thermal performance were investigated. The perforated collector was compared with the flat plate solar collector under the same operating conditions. The highest values of thermal efficiency in this study for the perforated plate (PP) and the flat plate (FP) solar collectors were 59% and 36% respectively, at solar radiation intensity of 846 Wm-2 and mass flow rate of 0.02 kgs-1. Furthermore, PP collector gave better thermal performance compared to FP collector; and compared to previous studies, the present perforated design was compatible with the flat plate with double pass designs.

  9. Some tooling for manufacturing research reactor fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    This paper will discuss some of the tooling necessary to manufacture aluminum-based research reactor fuel plates. Most of this tooling is intended for use in a high-production facility. Some of the tools shown have manufactured more than 150,000 pieces. The only maintenance has been sharpening. With careful design, tools can be made to accommodate the manufacture of several different fuel elements, thus, reducing tooling costs and maintaining tools that the operators are trained to use. An important feature is to design the tools using materials with good lasting quality. Good tools can increase return on investment. (author)

  10. Some Tooling for Manufacturing Research Reactor Fuel Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    This paper will discuss some of the tooling necessary to manufacture aluminum-based research reactor fuel plates. Most of this tooling is intended for use in a high-production facility. Some of the tools shown have manufactured more than 150,000 pieces. The only maintenance has been sharpening. With careful design, tools can be made to accommodate the manufacture of several different fuel elements, thus, reducing tooling costs and maintaining tools that the operators are trained to use. An important feature is to design the tools using materials with good lasting quality. Good tools can increase return on investment

  11. Crane Scheduling on a Plate Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    OSS produces the worlds largest container ships. The first process of producing the steel ships is handling arrival and storage of steel plates until they are needed in production. Two gantry cranes carry out this task. The planning task is now to create a schedule of movements for the 2 cranes...

  12. Analysis of Biaxially Stressed Bridge Deck Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Bondum, Tommi Højer

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate state analysis of bridge deck plates at the intersection zone between main girders and transverse beams is complicated by biaxial membrane stresses, which may be in compression or tension in either direction depending on the bridge configuration and the specific location. This paper...

  13. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

  14. Micro-channel plates and vacuum detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gys, T., E-mail: Thierry.Gys@cern.ch

    2015-07-01

    A micro-channel plate is an array of miniature electron multipliers that are each acting as a continuous dynode chain. The compact channel structure results in high spatial and time resolutions and robustness to magnetic fields. Micro-channel plates have been originally developed for night vision applications and integrated as an amplification element in image intensifiers. These devices show single-photon sensitivity with very low noise and have been used as such for scintillating fiber tracker readout in high-energy physics experiments. Given their very short transit time spread, micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes are also being used in time-of-flight and particle identification detectors. The present paper will cover the history of the micro-channel plate development, basic features, and some of their applications. Emphasis will be put on various new manufacturing processes that have been developed over the last few years, and that result in a significant improvement in terms of efficiency, noise, and lifetime performance.

  15. Light fireproof insulating plate-formed material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plum, B.A.; Juhl, L.F.

    1981-02-23

    Light fireproof insulating plates were produced by pressure processing of a mixture of rice-husk ashes with pearlite aluminium phosphate and glass wool. The corn size of pearlite is 0-5 mm., of rice-husk ashes 0-5 mm. and the fiber length of fibrous additive is about 25 mm.

  16. Baking process of thin plate carbonaceous compact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Shimada, Toyokazu

    1987-06-27

    As a production process of a thin plate carbonaceous compact for separator of phosphoric acid fuel cell, there is a process to knead carbonaceous powder and thermosetting resin solution, to form and harden the kneaded material and then to bake, carbonize and graphitize it. However in this baking and carbonization treatment, many thin plate compacts are set in a compiled manner within a heating furnace and receive a heat treatment from their circumference. Since the above compacts to be heated tend generally to be heated from their peripheries, their baked conditions are not homogeneous easily causing the formation of cracks, etc.. As a process to heat and bake homogeneously by removing the above problematical points, this invention offers a process to set in a heating furnace a laminate consisting of the lamination of thin plate carbonaceous compacts and the heat resistant soaking plates which hold the upper and lower ends of the above lamination, to fill the upper and under peripheries of the laminate above with high heat conductive packing material and its side periphery with low heat conductive packing material respectively and to heat and sinter it. In addition, the invention specifies the high and low heat conductive packing materials respectively. (1 fig, 2 tabs)

  17. Fatigue accumulation in an oscillating plate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eleuteri, M.; Kopfová, J.; Krejčí, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2013), s. 909-923 ISSN 1937-1632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/2315 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : elastoplastic plate * Prandtl-Ishlinskii operator * material fatigue Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticlesnew.jsp?paperID=8092

  18. Advances and Trends in Plate Buckling Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Hydrostatic State of In- Plane Stress. Instituto de Mecanica Aplicada No. 79-21 (Puerto Belgrano, Argentina), June 1979, 10 pp. (to be published). 38. Leissa...and Elastic Stability of Circular Plates With Thickness Varying in a Bilinear Fashion. Instituto de Mecanica Aplicada No. 81-23 (Puerto Belgrano

  19. MTR fuel plate qualification in OSIRIS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacristan, P.; Boulcourt, P.; Naury, S.; Marchard, L.; Carcreff, H.; Noirot, J.

    2005-01-01

    Qualification of new MTR fuel needs the irradiation in research reactors under representative neutronic, heat flux and thermohydraulic conditions. The experiments are performed in France in the OSIRIS reactor by irradiating MTR full size fuel plates in the IRIS device located in the reactor core. The fuel plates are easily removed from the device during the shutdown of the reactor for performing thickness measurements along the plates by means of a swelling measurement device. Beside the calculation capabilities, the experimental platform includes: the ISIS neutron mock-up for the measurement of neutron flux distribution along the plates; the γ spectrometry for the purpose of measuring the activities of the radionuclides representative of the power and the burnup and to compare with the neutronic calculation. Owing to the experience feedback, a good agreement is observed between calculation and measurement; destructive post irradiation examinations in the LECA facility (Cadarache). New irradiations with the IRIS device and at higher heat flux are under preparation for qualification of MTR fuels. (author)

  20. Photon counting with small pore microchannel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martindale, A.; Lapington, J.S.; Fraser, G.W.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the operation of microchannel plates (MCPs) with 3.2μm diameter channels as photon counting detectors of soft X-rays. Gain and temporal resolution measurements are compared with theoretical scaling laws for channel diameter. A minimum pulse width of 264ps is observed for a two stage multiplier at a total bias voltage of ∼1930V

  1. BEPLATE emdash simulation of electrochemical plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, G.E. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA)); Gray, L.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Bullock, J.S. IV (Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (USA))

    1990-09-01

    BEPLATE is a FORTRAN code that uses the boundary element method to simulate the electrochemical plating of material on parts, primarily rotating axisymmetric parts. A boundary element technique is used to solve for the local current density and thus the plating rate on the part, which is used to calculate the growth in the plated layer over a user-specified time step. The surface is moved to reflect this growth, and the new surface is used to generate the local current density. This cycle is repeated until the final time specified by the analyst, producing the final plated thickness. BEPLATE includes models for the polarization effects at both the part (cathode) and anode and allows the use of symmetry planes and nonconducting shields. For electroplating simulations, the part shape is normally assumed to be axisymmetric with a centerline along the z-axis. More general part shapes can be analyzed by BEPLATE if the surface growth simulation is not needed. In either case, the shield, anode, and tank geometries are not restricted to specific shapes. This report includes the information required to run BEPLATE, specifically, a brief description of the BEPLATE system including hardware and software requirements, a description of the complete simulation process, discussion of rules for generating models, and additional reference material. This system of codes consists of model generators (PIGS or PATRAN), input processor (BEPIN), the simulation code (BEPLATE) and postprocessing codes (PATRAN or CONPLOT).

  2. Fabrication procedures for HFIR control plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, G.A.; Hicks, G.R.; Knight, R.W.

    1984-10-01

    The HFIR control system uses Alclad cylindrically shaped components, which have regions containing 31 vol % Eu/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and 38 vol % Ta, respectively. Exacting control of the water passage between these components and adjacent reactor parts is mandatory, and precise dimensional control of the finished products is required. This report describes the procedures developed for manufacturing outer control plates and inner control cylinders. Results are cited which demonstrate that circular-shaped outer control plates can be produced with less than 0.025-in. variation from the specified 9.300-in. radius in any region of the plate. Other results show that, by the exercise of careful control, inner control, inner control plates can be welded into cylindrical geometry with diametrical variations held to less than +- 0.010 in. of the intended 17.846-in. average diam. The cylinders can then be explosively sized, while under compression, with diametric variations of less than 0.005 in. while controlling roundness variations to less than 0.030 in. from the specified 17.842-in. finished diam.

  3. Pretinning Nickel-Plated Wire Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel-plated copper shielding for wires pretinned for subsequent soldering with help of activated rosin flux. Shield cut at point 0.25 to 0.375 in. (6 to 10 mm) from cut end of outer jacket. Loosened end of shield straightened and pulled toward cut end. Insulation of inner wires kept intact during pretinning.

  4. Scour Protection for Monopile by Concrete Plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Skúlason, Magnús

    A test programme has been performed to determine the scour around a monopile for an offshore wind turbine. The foundation is protected against scour with a concrete plate with various designs. The tests should be regarded as pilot tests previous to a detailed investigation. The tests has been...

  5. Extended plate and beam demonstration home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Gunderson; Vladimir Kochkin; Xiping Wang

    2018-01-01

    An extended plate and beam (EP&B) design was developed at Home Innovation Research Labs (Upper Marlboro, Maryland) in an effort to provide traditional light-frame wall construction details that are compatible with continuous insulating sheathing. This would encourage wide-spread adoption of high-R walls and promote greater energy efficiency in new houses. The...

  6. A finite element for plates and shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, A.; Feijoo, R.A.; Bevilacqua, L.

    1981-08-01

    A simple triangular finite element for plates and shells, is presented. Since the rotation fields are assumed independent of the displacement fields, the element allows one to solve thick shells problems. In the limit for thin shell, the Kirchoff-Love hypothesis is automatically satisfied, thus enlarging its range of application. (Author) [pt

  7. Fabrication procedures for HFIR control plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, G.A.; Hicks, G.R.; Knight, R.W.

    1984-10-01

    The HFIR control system uses Alclad cylindrically shaped components, which have regions containing 31 vol % Eu 2 O 3 and 38 vol % Ta, respectively. Exacting control of the water passage between these components and adjacent reactor parts is mandatory, and precise dimensional control of the finished products is required. This report describes the procedures developed for manufacturing outer control plates and inner control cylinders. Results are cited which demonstrate that circular-shaped outer control plates can be produced with less than 0.025-in. variation from the specified 9.300-in. radius in any region of the plate. Other results show that, by the exercise of careful control, inner control, inner control plates can be welded into cylindrical geometry with diametrical variations held to less than +- 0.010 in. of the intended 17.846-in. average diam. The cylinders can then be explosively sized, while under compression, with diametric variations of less than 0.005 in. while controlling roundness variations to less than 0.030 in. from the specified 17.842-in. finished diam

  8. Characterisation of a Zn / Ni Plating Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-03

    accelerated corrosion in the first stages which is then slowed down by its own product of corrosion, Zn(OH)212. Zinc hydroxide dehydrates in time to form ZnO ... Electrochemistry , 1991, 21, 642 [5] – Alfantasi, A.M., A study on the synthesis, characterization ans properties of pulse-plated ultrafine- grained Zn-Ni alloy

  9. Crustal thickness controlled by plate tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina M.; Meissner, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    /gabbro–eclogite phase transition in crustal evolution and the links between lithosphere recycling, mafic magmatism, and crustal underplating. We advocate that plate tectonics processes, togetherwith basalt/gabbro–eclogite transition, limit crustal thickness worldwide by providing effective mechanisms of crustal...

  10. Plate forming and break down pizza box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantisano, Frank; Devine, Scott M.

    1992-01-01

    A standard corrugated paper pizza box is provided with slit cuts cut through the top panel of the pizza box in a shape to form four circular serving plates with a beveled raised edge and cross slit cuts through the bottom panel of the pizza box separating the box into four essentially equal portions for easy disposal.

  11. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G

    2012-02-01

    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  12. Designing Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Report presents overview of state of art in design techniques for flat-plate solar photovoltaic modules and arrays. Paper discusses design requirements, design analyses, and test methods identified and developed for this technology over past several years in effort to reduce cost and improve utility and reliability for broad spectrum of terrestrial applications.

  13. Shocked plate metal atom oxidation laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Koker, J.G.; Rice, W.W. Jr.; Jensen, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    A method and apparatus for producing metal atom oxidation lasing wherein an explosively shocked grooved metal plate produces metal vapor jets directed through an appropriate gaseous oxidizer are described. Reaction of the metal vapor with the oxidizer produces molecular species having a population inversion therein. (U.S.)

  14. Interaction of Vortex Ring with Cutting Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musta, Mustafa

    2015-11-01

    The interaction of a vortex ring impinging on a thin cutting plate was made experimentally using Volumetric 3-component Velocitmetry (v3v) technique. The vortex rings were generated with piston-cylinder vortex ring generator using piston stroke-to-diameter ratios and Re at 2-3 and 1500 - 3000, respectively. The cutting of vortex rings below center line leads to the formation of secondary vortices on each side of the plate which is look like two vortex rings, and a third vortex ring propagates further downstream in the direction of the initial vortex ring, which is previously showed by flow visualization study of Weigand (1993) and called ``trifurcation''. Trifurcation is very sensitive to the initial Reynolds number and the position of the plate with respect to the vortex ring generator pipe. The present work seeks more detailed investigation on the trifurcation using V3V technique. Conditions for the formation of trifurcation is analyzed and compared with Weigand (1993). The formed secondary vortex rings and the propagation of initial vortex ring in the downstream of the plate are analyzed by calculating their circulation, energy and trajectories.

  15. Application of generalized function to dynamic analysis of thick plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, D.; Weng, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The structures with thick plates have been used extensively in national defence, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, nuclear engineering, civil engineering, etc.. Various theories have been established to deal with the problems of elastic plates, which include the classical theory of thin plates, the improved theory of thick plates, three-dimensional elastical theory. In this paper, the derivative of δ-function is handled by using the generalized function. The dynamic analysis of thick plates subjected the concentrated load is presented. The improved Donnell's equation of thick plates is deduced and employed as the basic equation. The generalized coordinates are solved by using the method of MWR. The general expressions for the dynamic response of elastic thick plates subjected the concentrated load are given. The numerical results for rectangular plates are given herein. The results are compared with those obtained from the improved theory and the classical theory of plates. (orig./GL)

  16. Introduction to Analysis and Design of Plate Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Lützen, Marie

    , composite materials as glass-fibre-reinforced plates, sandwich plates and reinforced concrete plates are not included as they are topics for other courses. The present notes are mainly based on Pedersen and Jensen (1983), written in Danish. The first version of the notes was prepared by Marie L......The present notes cover plate theory dealing with bending, vibrations, elastic buckling and ultimate strength. The plate structures considered are isotropic, orthotropic and stiffened plates made of metallic materials. The main objective of the notes is to give an introduction to plates and plate...... panels and to present some fairly easy methods and results to be used in the design phase to judge, whether a plate panel can be considered safe from a structural point of view or requires a more detailed numerical analysis, typically using the Finite Element Method. Furthermore, a short introduction...

  17. MTR fuel plate qualification capabilities at SCK-CEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koonen, E.; Jacquet, P.

    2002-01-01

    In order to enhance the capabilities of BR2 in the field of MTR fuel plate testing, a dedicated irradiation device has been designed. In its basic version this device allows the irradiation of 3 fuel plates. The central fuel plate may be replaced by a dummy plate or a plate carrying dosimeters. A first FUTURE device has been built. A benchmark irradiation has been executed with standard BR2 fuel plates in order to qualify this device. Detailed neutronic calculations were performed and the results compared to the results of the post-irradiation examinations of the plates. These comparisons demonstrate the capability to conduct a fuel plate irradiation program under requested and well-known irradiation conditions. Further improvements are presently being designed in order to extend the ranges of heat flux and surface temperature of the fuel plates that can be handled with the FUTURE device. (author)

  18. Light transmission aggregometry using pre-coated microtiter plates and a Victor X5 plate reader

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinholt, Pernille Just; Nybo, Mads; Nielsen, Camilla Brødsgaard

    2017-01-01

    Background Light transmission aggregometry (LTA) can be performed with microtiter plates (96-well LTA). When conducting LTA, an agonist is added to platelet-rich plasma and the sample is shaken for minutes after which absorbance readings are done. Platelet aggregation is detected as decrease...... in absorbance. However, the classical method is cumbersome and therefore microtiter plates can be used for concomitant testing of multiple samples. Furthermore, it would be convenient to prepare the plate in advance of platelet aggregation testing. Aim: The aim of the present study was to establish a simplified...

  19. Gain stabilized microchannel plates and a treatment method for microchannel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Microchannel plates having increased gain and significantly improved aging characteristics are provided by forming a thin film of a cesium compound on the channel walls. In an exemplary embodiment, a suface film of cesium hydroxide is applied to the interior wall surfaces of an MCP by saturating the plate with a solution of the compound, then allowing the solvent to evaporate. The cesium hydroxide residue on the walls subsequently is converted to cesium oxide by a high temperature bake. Microchannel plates are used in image amplifiers, radiation detectors and such like equipment. (Auth.)

  20. Irradiation testing of miniature fuel plates for the RERTR program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senn, R L; Martin, M M [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    1983-08-01

    An irradiation test facility, which provides a test bed for irradiating a variety of miniature fuel plates miniplates) for the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program, has been placed into operation. The objective of these tests is to screen various candidate fuel materials as to their suitability for replacing the highly enriched uranium fuel materials currently used by the world's test and research reactors with a lower enrichment fuel material, without significantly degrading reactor operating characteristics and power levels. The use of low uranium enrichment of about 20% {sup 235}U in place of highly enriched fuel for these reactors would reduce the potential for {sup 235}U diversion. Fuel materials currently being evaluated in this first phase of these screening tests include aluminum-base dispersion-type fuel plates with fuel cores of 1) high uranium content U{sup 3}){sup 8}-Al being developed by ORNL, 2) high uranium content UAI{sub x}-Al being developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., and 3) very high uranium content U{sub 3}Si-Al- being developed by ANL. The miniplates are 115-mm long by 50-mm wide with overall plate thicknesses of 1.27 or 1.52 mm. The fuel core dimensions vary according to overall plate thicknesses with a minimal clad thickness requirement of 0.20 mm. Sixty such miniplates (thirty of each thickness) can be irradiated in one test facility. The irradiation test facility, designated as HFED-1 is operating in core position E-7 in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR), a 30-MW water-moderated reactor. The peak neutron flux measured for this experiment is 1.96 x 10{sup 18} neutrons m{sub -2} s{sub -1}. The various types of miniplates will achieve burnups of up to approximately 2.2x10{sup 27} fissions/m{sup 3} of fuel, which will require approximately eight full power months of irradiation. During reactor shutdown periods, the experiment is removed from the reactor, moved to a special poolside station, disassembled, and inspected

  1. Anatomically contoured plates for fixation of rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottlang, Michael; Helzel, Inga; Long, William B; Madey, Steven

    2010-03-01

    : Intraoperative contouring of long bridging plates for stabilization of flail chest injuries is difficult and time consuming. This study implemented for the first time biometric parameters to derive anatomically contoured rib plates. These plates were tested on a range of cadaveric ribs to quantify plate fit and to extract a best-fit plating configuration. : Three left and three right rib plates were designed, which accounted for anatomic parameters required when conforming a plate to the rib surface. The length lP over which each plate could trace the rib surface was evaluated on 109 cadaveric ribs. For each rib level 3-9, the plate design with the highest lP value was extracted to determine a best-fit plating configuration. Furthermore, the characteristic twist of rib surfaces was measured on 49 ribs to determine the surface congruency of anatomic plates with a constant twist. : The tracing length lP of the best-fit plating configuration ranged from 12.5 cm to 14.7 cm for ribs 3-9. The corresponding range for standard plates was 7.1-13.7 cm. The average twist of ribs over 8-cm, 12-cm, and 16-cm segments was 8.3 degrees, 20.6 degrees, and 32.7 degrees, respectively. The constant twist of anatomic rib plates was not significantly different from the average rib twist. : A small set of anatomic rib plates can minimize the need for intraoperative plate contouring for fixation of ribs 3-9. Anatomic rib plates can therefore reduce the time and complexity of flail chest stabilization and facilitate spanning of flail segments with long plates.

  2. African Plate Seismicity and Gravity Field Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhii, B. P.; Nachapkin, N. I.; Milanovsky, Svet

    The analysis of connection plate of earthquakes of the African continent with Bouguer gravity anomalies is carried out. As input dataSs were used the catalog of earthquakes and numeral map of Bouguer gravity field. The catalog contains geographical coor- dinates of epicenters and magnitudes of 8027 earthquakes recorded on continent and adjacent oceanic areas for the period from 1904 to 1988 years. The values of a gravity field preset in knots of a grid with a step 1 grade. For the analysis of plate seismicity from the catalog the parameters of 6408 earthquakes were chosen, which one have taken place in the field of restricted shore line. The earthquakes fixed in a band of a concatenation of continent with the Arabian plate were excluded from the analysis. On the basis of a numeral gravity map for everyone epicenter the value of Bouguer anomaly was calculated. The allocation of epicenters of earthquakes with magnitude M is obtained depending on value of a gravity Bouguer field. The outcomes of a sta- tistical analysis testify that practically all earthquakes are associated with the areas with negative values of Bouguer gravity field. Thus in areas with values of a field -160 mgal to -100 mgal there was 80 % of all earthquakes. It is necessary to note, that the mean value of the field for the African continent is -70 mgal. Obtained result gives us the possibility to make a conclusion about connection of plate earthquakes of Africa predominantly with structural complexes of earth crust with lower density. These out- comes are in the consent with a hypothesis of one of the authors (Ryzhii B.P.) about connection of plate earthquakes hypocenters on the territory of Russia with negative values of a gravity field and heightened silica content in the Earth crust. This work was supported with RFFI grant N 00-05-65067

  3. Metallic glass coating on metals plate by adjusted explosive welding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.D.; Liu, K.X.; Chen, Q.Y.; Wang, J.T.; Yan, H.H.; Li, X.J.

    2009-01-01

    Using an adjusted explosive welding technique, an aluminum plate has been coated by a Fe-based metallic glass foil in this work. Scanning electronic micrographs reveal a defect-free metallurgical bonding between the Fe-based metallic glass foil and the aluminum plate. Experimental evidence indicates that the Fe-based metallic glass foil almost retains its amorphous state and mechanical properties after the explosive welding process. Additionally, the detailed explosive welding process has been simulated by a self-developed hydro-code and the bonding mechanism has been investigated by numerical analysis. The successful welding between the Fe-based metallic glass foil and the aluminum plate provides a new way to obtain amorphous coating on general metal substrates.

  4. The Importance of Lower Mantle Structure to Plate Stresses and Plate Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, W. E.; Wang, X.; Ghosh, A.

    2016-12-01

    Plate motions and plate stresses are widely assumed as the surface expression of mantle convection. The generation of plate tectonics from mantle convection has been studied for many years. Lithospheric thickening (or ridge push) and slab pull forces are commonly accepted as the major driving forces for the plate motions. However, the importance of the lower mantle to plate stresses and plate motions remains less clear. Here, we use the joint modeling of lithosphere and mantle dynamics approach of Wang et al. (2015) to compute the tractions originating from deeper mantle convection and follow the method of Ghosh et al. (2013) to calculate gravitational potential energy per unit area (GPE) based on Crust 1.0 (Laske et al., 2013). Absolute values of deviatoric stresses are determined by the body force distributions (GPE gradients and traction magnitudes applied at the base of the lithosphere). We use the same relative viscosity model that Ghosh et al. (2013) used, and we solve for one single adjustable scaling factor that multiplies the entire relative viscosity field to provide absolute values of viscosity throughout the lithosphere. This distribution of absolute values of lithosphere viscosities defines the magnitudes of surface motions. In this procedure, the dynamic model first satisfies the internal constraint of no-net-rotation of motions. The model viscosity field is then scaled by the single factor until we achieve a root mean square (RMS) minimum between computed surface motions and the kinematic no-net-rotation (NNR) model of Kreemer et al. (2006). We compute plate stresses and plate motions from recently published global tomography models (over 70 based on Wang et al., 2015). We find that RMS misfits are significantly reduced when details of lower mantle structure from the latest tomography models are added to models that contain only upper and mid-mantle density distributions. One of the key reasons is that active upwelling from the Large Low Shear

  5. Lamb Wave Technique for Ultrasonic Nonlinear Characterization in Elastic Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Hun; Kim, Chung Seok; Jhang, Kyung Young

    2010-01-01

    Since the acoustic nonlinearity is sensitive to the minute variation of material properties, the nonlinear ultrasonic technique(NUT) has been considered as a promising method to evaluate the material degradation or fatigue. However, there are certain limitations to apply the conventional NUT using the bulk wave to thin plates. In case of plates, the use of Lamb wave can be considered, however, the propagation characteristics of Lamb wave are completely different with the bulk wave, and thus the separate study for the nonlinearity of Lamb wave is required. For this work, this paper analyzed first the conditions of mode pair suitable for the practical application as well as for the cumulative propagation of quadratic harmonic frequency and summarized the result in for conditions: phase matching, non-zero power flux, group velocity matching, and non-zero out-of-plane displacement. Experimental results in aluminum plates showed that the amplitude of the secondary Lamb wave and nonlinear parameter grew up with increasing propagation distance at the mode pair satisfying the above all conditions and that the ration of nonlinear parameters measured in Al6061-T6 and Al1100-H15 was closed to the ratio of the absolute nonlinear parameters

  6. History and Evolution of Precambrian plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ria; Gerya, Taras

    2014-05-01

    Plate tectonics is a global self-organising process driven by negative buoyancy at thermal boundary layers. Phanerozoic plate tectonics with its typical subduction and orogeny is relatively well understood and can be traced back in the geological records of the continents. Interpretations of geological, petrological and geochemical observations from Proterozoic and Archean orogenic belts however (e.g., Brown, 2006), suggest a different tectonic regime in the Precambrian. Due to higher radioactive heat production the Precambrian lithosphere shows lower internal strength and is strongly weakened by percolating melts. The fundamental difference between Precambrian and Phanerozoic tectonics is therefore the upper-mantle temperature, which determines the strength of the upper mantle (Brun, 2002) and the further tectonic history. 3D petrological-thermomechanical numerical modelling experiments of oceanic subduction at an active plate at different upper-mantle temperatures show these different subduction regimes. For upper-mantle temperatures 250 K above the present day value no subduction occurs any more. The whole lithosphere is delaminating and due to strong volcanism and formation of a thicker crust subduction is inhibited. This stage of 200-250 K higher upper mantle temperature which corresponds roughly to the early Archean (Abbott, 1994) is marked by strong volcanism due to sublithospheric decompression melting which leads to an equal thickness for both oceanic and continental plates. As a consequence subduction is inhibited, but a compressional setup instead will lead to orogeny between a continental or felsic terrain and an oceanic or mafic terrain as well as internal crustal convection. Small-scale convection with plume shaped cold downwellings also in the upper mantle is of increased importance compared to the large-scale subduction cycle observed for present temperature conditions. It is also observed that lithospheric downwellings may initiate subduction by

  7. Fringe Capacitance of a Parallel-Plate Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to measure the forces between charged parallel plates, and determines the relationship among the effective electrode area, the measured capacitance values, and the electrode spacing of a parallel plate capacitor. (GA)

  8. 21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a) Identification. An ouchterlony agar plate for clinical use is a device...

  9. Dynamic Response of Three-Layered Annular Plate with Imperfections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawlus Dorota

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the imperfection sensitivity of annular plate with three-layered structure. The plate composed of thin elastic facings and a thicker elastic core is loaded in facing plane. The classical issue of a three-layered plate was solved for dynamic deflection problem using the approximation methods: orthogonalization and finite difference. The solution includes the axisymmetric and asymmetric plate modes of the dynamic stability loss. The evaluation of the rate of plate sensitivity to imperfection of plate preliminary geometry has been enriched by the analysis of plate models built of finite elements. The ABAQUS program has been used. The numerous calculation results in the form of deflection characteristics, buckling modes, values of critical parameters create the view of response of dynamic plate structure with different rate of imperfection and linear in time loading growth, too.

  10. The baffle influence on sound radiation characteristics of a plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic radiation characteristics of the baffle plates and unbaffle plates are calculated and compared by single-layer potential and double-layer potential. Based on the boundary integral equation, the sound pressure integral equation of the baffle and the baffle are deduced respectively. According to the boundary compatibility condition, the sound pressure and the vibration velocity of the plates are obtained. Further, the dynamic equation of the structure is substituted into the vibration equation in the form of the baffle plate and the baffle plate. The sound pressure difference and the displacement of a plate surface are in the form of the vibration mode superposition and the acoustic radiation impedance of the double integral form is obtained, which determines vibration mode coefficient and sound radiation parameters. The effect of the baffle on the acoustic radiation characteristics of the thin plate is analyzed by comparing the acoustic radiation parameters with the simple and simple rectangular plate in water.

  11. Optics for People Stuck in Traffic: License Plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagnon, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Explains the theory behind the working of Scotchlite, a retrodirective material used for coating automotive license plates, and the Ensure Imaging System that allows law enforcement officers to verify the authenticity of the plate. (JRH)

  12. analytical bending solution of all clamped isotropic rectangular plate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    PLATE ON WINKLER'S FOUNDATION USING CHARACTERISTIC. ORTHOGONAL ... foundations, storage tanks, swimming pools, floor system of buildings, highways ..... “Energy Methods in Theory of Rectangular Plates. (use of Polynomial ...

  13. Electric alignment of plate shaped clay aggregates in oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castberg, Rene; Rozynek, Zbigniew; Måløy, Knut Jørgen; Flekkøy, Eirik

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the rotation of plate shaped aggregates of clay mineral particles immersed in silicone oil. The rotation is induced by an external electric field. The rotation time is measured as a function of the following parameters: electric field strength, the plate geometry (length and width) and the dielectric properties of the plates. We find that the plates always align with their longest axis parallel to the direction of the electric field (E), independently of the arrangement of individual clay -2 mineral particles within the plate. The rotation time is found to scale as E and is proportional to the viscosity (μ), which coincides well with a model that describes orientation of dipoles in electric fields. As the length of the plate is increased we quantify a difference between the longitudinal and transverse polarisability. Finally, we show that moist plates align faster. We attribute this to the change of the dielectric properties of the plate due to the presence of water.

  14. Fast microchannel plate detector for particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurz, P.; Gubler, L.

    1996-01-01

    In this article we report on the timing capabilities of a new microchannel plate detector we designed and built. The detector assembly has an impedance-matched transition line (50 Ω line resistance) from anode to cable connector which is considerably smaller than other, commercially available solutions and at the same time has about four times the active area. The detector was tested with an alpha particle source and excellent time response was achieved. Using 10 μm pore size channel plates, a rise time of 300 ps and a pulse width of 520 ps are obtained. The details of the signal analysis are also given in the article. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  15. A heat exchanger provided with plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaix, J.E.; Fajeau, Maurice; Chlique, Bernard.

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a heat exchanger of the plate type, in which two fluids exchange calories through parallel metal plates, delimiting spaces separated from each other in which two fluids respectively flow without direct contact between them. The invention particularly applies in the case where one of the two fluids is water under pressure or else a circulating liquid metal, specially sodium, used in the system of a pressurised water or fast neutron reactor, the second fluid being water to be vaporised in the exchanger by the calories supplied by the first fluid. The arrangement is designed to give minimum bulk, particularly enabling the exchanger to be housed in the area between the core of a nuclear reactor and a casing or outer vessel, or else in an external sealed containment, with a view to recovering with the best efficiency the heat acquired by a coolant flowing through the core [fr

  16. A nonlinear plate control without linearization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildirim Kenan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an optimal vibration control problem for a nonlinear plate is considered. In order to obtain the optimal control function, wellposedness and controllability of the nonlinear system is investigated. The performance index functional of the system, to be minimized by minimum level of control, is chosen as the sum of the quadratic 10 functional of the displacement. The velocity of the plate and quadratic functional of the control function is added to the performance index functional as a penalty term. By using a maximum principle, the nonlinear control problem is transformed to solving a system of partial differential equations including state and adjoint variables linked by initial-boundary-terminal conditions. Hence, it is shown that optimal control of the nonlinear systems can be obtained without linearization of the nonlinear term and optimal control function can be obtained analytically for nonlinear systems without linearization.

  17. Acoustic excitation of containment insulation cover plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenech, H.; Rao, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical program has been implemented by NRC-BNL since 1975 at the University of California, Santa Barbara to assess the reliability of the PCRV thermal insulation cover plate and the possible safety problem caused by the failure of this plate. A typical large HTGR PCRV unit [1160 MW(e)] and thermal insulation class A were selected. The upper core cavity is estimated to be the most critical volume where the noise pressure levels are expected to reach 110 to 130 dB (rel. to 2 x 10 -4 dynes/cm 2 ). The noise spectrum in that cavity is a composite of circulator noise, vortex shedding boundary layer turbulence, and flow impingement. Some anticipated safety related problems associated with the thermal insulation failure are examined

  18. Rough horizontal plates: heat transfer and hysteresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisserand, J-C; Gasteuil, Y; Pabiou, H; Castaing, B; Chilla, F [Universite de Lyon, ENS Lyon, CNRS, 46 Allee d' ltalie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 7 (France); Creyssels, M [LMFA, CNRS, Ecole Centrale Lyon, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France); Gibert, M, E-mail: mathieu.creyssels@ec-lyon.fr [Also at MPI-DS (LFPN) Gottingen (Germany)

    2011-12-22

    To investigate the influence of a rough-wall boundary layer on turbulent heat transport, an experiment of high-Rayleigh convection in water is carried out in a Rayleigh-Benard cell with a rough lower plate and a smooth upper plate. A transition in the heat transport is observed when the thermal boundary layer thickness becomes comparable to or smaller than the roughness height. Besides, at larger Rayleigh numbers than the threshold value, heat transport is found to be increased up to 60%. This enhancement cannot be explained simply by an increase in the contact area of the rough surface since the contact area is increased only by a factor of 40%. Finally, a simple model is proposed to explain the enhanced heat transport.

  19. Continuum Mechanics of Beam and Plate Flexure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    This text has been written and used during the spring of 1995 for a course on flexural mechanics of beams and plates at Aalborg University. The idea has been to concentrate on basic principles of the theories, which are of importance to the modern structural engineer. Today's structural engineer...... must be acquainted with the classic beam and plate theories, when reading manuals and using modern software tools such as the finite element method. Each chapter includes supplementary theory and derivations enabling consultation of the notes also at a later stage of study. A preliminary chapter...... introduces the modern notation used in textbooks and in research today. It further gives an introduction to three-dimensional continuum mechanics of elastic bodies and the related principles of virtual work. The ideas to give the students a basic understanding of the stresses and strains, the equilibrium...

  20. Theories for Elastic Plates via Orthogonal Polynomials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    1981-01-01

    A complementary energy functional is used to derive an infinite system of two-dimensional differential equations and appropriate boundary conditions for stresses and displacements in homogeneous anisotropic elastic plates. Stress boundary conditions are imposed on the faces a priori......, and this introduces a weight function in the variations of the transverse normal and shear stresses. As a result the coupling between the two-dimensional differential equations is described in terms of a single difference operator. Special attention is given to a truncated system of equations for bending...... of transversely isotropic plates. This theory has three boundary conditions, like Reissner's, but includes the effect of transverse normal strain, essentially through a reinterpretation of the transverse displacement function. Full agreement with general integrals to the homogeneous three-dimensional equations...

  1. Ultrabroadband elastic cloaking in thin plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Mohamed; Guenneau, Sebastien; Enoch, Stefan

    2009-07-10

    Control of waves with metamaterials is of great topical interest, and is fueled by rapid progress in broadband acoustic and electromagnetic cloaks. We propose a design for a cloak to control bending waves propagating in isotropic heterogeneous thin plates. This is achieved through homogenization of a multilayered concentric coating filled with piecewise constant isotropic elastic material. Significantly, our cloak displays no phase shift for both backward and forward scattering. To foster experimental efforts, we provide a simplified design of the cloak which is shown to work in a more than two-octave frequency range (30 Hz to 150 Hz) when it consists of 10 layers using only 6 different materials overall. This metamaterial should be easy to manufacture, with potential applications ranging from car industry to anti-earthquake passive systems for smart buildings, depending upon the plate dimensions and wavelengths.

  2. Thermal shock problems in a plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuti, Y.; Furukawa, T.

    1981-01-01

    The problems considered are coupled dynamic thermoelastic analysis in a plate. First we try to examine a problem of the coupled dynamic thermal stress problem with small time approximation for the finite region. Next, we treatise both effects individually by pursuing rigorous anaylsis without small time approximation. Finally we consider thermal shock problems in a plate against different values of heat transfer coefficient (Biot's number) for the time. In conclusion, for usual materials, the inertia effect may be disregarded in the pure thermal problems in contrast to the coupling effect which brings small lags in the temperature and thermal stress distributions. For the consideration of the maximum thermal stress problems, Manson's uncoupled quasi-static results give enough approximation to the thermal shock problems without significant error from our numerical results. The analysis is developed by the use of Laplace transforms and several useful graphical illustrations are given. (orig./HP)

  3. Coordinate sensitive detectors based on microchannel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruntman, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Coordinate-sensitive detectors (CSD) on the basis of microchannel plates permit to determine in a digital form the coordinates of every recorded particle and they are used in different fields of physical experiment. The sensitive surface diameter of such detectors can reach 10 cm, and spatial resolution - 10 μm. In the review provided CSD with microchannel plates are classified according to the ways of coordinate determination, different types of the detectors, pecUliarities of their design and electron flowsheet are described. It is pointed out that there are reasons for introduction of CSD into practice of laboratory physical investigations in various fields, where the particle recorded is electron or is able to form a secondary electron. It is attributed to nuclear physics, physics of electron and atom collisions, optics, mass-spectrometry, electron microscopy, X-ray analysis, investigation of surfaces

  4. On liquid films on an inclined plate

    KAUST Repository

    BENILOV, E. S.

    2010-08-18

    This paper examines two related problems from liquid-film theory. Firstly, a steady-state flow of a liquid film down a pre-wetted plate is considered, in which there is a precursor film in front of the main film. Assuming the former to be thin, a full asymptotic description of the problem is developed and simple analytical estimates for the extent and depth of the precursor film\\'s influence on the main film are provided. Secondly, the so-called drag-out problem is considered, where an inclined plate is withdrawn from a pool of liquid. Using a combination of numerical and asymptotic means, the parameter range where the classical Landau-Levich-Wilson solution is not unique is determined. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

  5. Evaluation of Using Triangular Plates as Continuity Plates in Box Column Section in Prequalified Welded Connections under Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Kafi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Welding of Continuity plates in box columns are not easily possible, therefore some researches has been done for substitution of external continuity plates.In this study first discussed about effects of continuity plate in I beam to Box column with top and bottom plate (WFP and welded unreinforced flange-welded web connection (WUF-W and reduced beam section connection (RBS. Then, triangular plates use to in connection beam to box column as continuity plates and to consider under cyclic loading. Studies have shown that existence of continuity plates in connections mentioned above have averagely increased loading capacity, rigidity and energy absorption 63, 86 and 75 percent respectively. The results also showed that using of triangular plates as continuity plates of box columns causing plastic strain in column flange in the area that concentration of materials is not much in triangular plates and increased the probability of failure in weld of plates to the column flange. Also using of triangular plates as continuity plates have not affected on plastic hinge location.

  6. Evaluation of Electron Beam Welding Performance of AA6061-T6 Plate-type Fuel Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soo-Sung; Seo, Kyoung-Seok; Lee, Don-Bae; Park, Jong-Man; Lee, Yoon-Sang; Lee, Chong-Tak

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most commonly used heat-treatable aluminum alloys, AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy is available in a wide range of structural materials. Typically, it is used in structural members, auto-body sheet and many other applications. Generally, this alloy is easily welded by conventional GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding), LBW (Laser Beam Welding) and EBW(Electron Beam Welding). However, certain characteristics, such as solidification cracking, porosity, HAZ (Heat-affected Zone) degradation must be considered during welding. Because of high energy density and low heat input, especially LBW and EBW processes possess the advantage of minimizing the fusing zone and HAZ and producing deeper penetration than arc welding processes. In present study, to apply for the plate-type nuclear fuel fabrication and assembly, a fundamental electron beam welding experiment using AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy specimens was conducted. Furthermore, to establish the suitable welding process, and satisfy the requirements of the weld quality, EBW apparatus using an electron welding gun and vacuum chamber was developed, and preliminary investigations for optimizing the welding parameters of the specimens using AA6061-T6 aluminum plates were also performed. The EB weld quality of AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy for the plate-type fuel assembly has been also studied by the weld penetrations of side plate to end fitting and fixing bar and weld inspections using computed tomography

  7. Fabrication of AA6061-T6 Plate Type Fuel Assembly Using Electron Beam Welding Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soosung; Seo, Kyoungseok; Lee, Donbae; Park, Jongman; Lee, Yoonsang; Lee, Chongtak

    2014-01-01

    AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy is easily welded by conventional GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding), LBW (Laser Beam Welding) and EBW. However, certain characteristics, such as solidification cracking, porosity, HAZ (Heat-affected Zone) degradation must be considered during welding. Because of high energy density and low heat input, especially LBW and EBW processes possess the advantage of minimizing the fusing zone and HAZ and producing deeper penetration than arc welding processes. In present study, to apply for the nuclear fuel plate fabrication and assembly, a fundamental EBW experiment using AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy specimens was conducted. Furthermore, to establish the welding process, and satisfy the requirements of the weld quality, EBW apparatus using an electron welding gun and vacuum chamber was developed, and preliminary investigations for optimizing the welding parameters of the specimens using AA6061-T6 aluminum plates were also performed. The EB weld quality of AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy for the fuel plate assembly has been also studied by the shrinkage measurement and weld inspection using computed tomography. This study was carried out to determine the suitable welding parameters and to evaluate tensile strength of AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy. In the present experiment, satisfactory electron beam welding process of the full-sized sample was being developed. Based on this fundamental study, fabrication of the plate-type fuel assembly will be provided for the future Ki-Jang research reactor project

  8. Highly conductive thermoplastic composite blends suitable for injection molding of bipolar plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mighri, F.; Huneault, M.A.; Champagne, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed at developing highly conductive, lightweight, and low-cost bipolar plates for use in proton exchange membranes (PEM) fuel cells. Injection and compression molding of highly filled polypropylene, PP, and polyphenylene sulfide, PPS, based blends were used as a mean for mass production of bipolar plates. Loadings up to 60-wt% in the form of graphite, conductive carbon black and carbon fibers were investigated. The developed formulations have a combination of properties and processability suitable for bipolar plate manufacturing, such as good chemical resistance, sufficient fluidity, and good electrical and thermal conductivity. Electrical resistivities around 0.15 and 0.09 Ohm-cm were respectively achieved for the PP and PPS-based blends, respectively. Two bipolar plate designs were successfully fabricated by molding the gas flow channels over aluminum plates to form a metallic/polymer composite plate, or simply by direct injection molding of the conductive polymer composite. For the first design, overall plate resistivities of 0.2 and 0.1 Ohm-cm were respectively attained using PP and PPS based blends as conductive skin. A lower volume resistivity of around 0.06 Ohm-cm was attained for the second injected plate design with PPS based blend. (author)

  9. A position sensitive parallel plate avalanche counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, M.; Tan Jilian; Potenza, R.; D'amico, V.

    1986-01-01

    A position sensitive parallel plate avalanche counter with a distributed constant delay-line-cathode (PSAC) is described. The strips formed on the printed board were served as the cathode and the delay line for readout of signals. The detector (PSAC) was operated in isobutane gas at the pressure range from 10 to 20 torr. The position resolution is better than 1 mm and the time resolution is about 350 ps, for 252 Cf fission-spectrum source

  10. Polar plate theory for orthogonal anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Michelle D.

    1998-11-01

    The following paper discusses the derivation and evaluation of the plate equations for a circular composite disk with orthogonal anisotropy. The work will be on a macromechanical level and include buckling, static and dynamic load applications. Necessary to a complete examination of the circular disk is the conversion of the stiffness matrix to cylindrical coordinates. In the transformed state, these coefficients are no longer constant, adding to the complexity of the proposed differential equations. Laminated fiber-reinforced (or filamentary) composites are used today for their high strength-to weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios. However, because of the typical anisotropic behavior of composites, determining the material properties on a microscopic level and the mechanics on a macroscopic level is much more difficult. This difficulty manifests itself particularly well in the evaluation of material properties and governing differential equations of a circular disk with the fibers of the lamina oriented orthogonally. One could encounter such a situation in space structures that require a circular geometry. For example, determining fastener pull through in a circular composite plate would best be performed in a polar coordinate system. In order to calculate the strain (which is a function of the angle, θ) from the displacements, the stiffness matrix and boundary conditions would need to be expressed in cylindrical coordinates. Naturally the composite would be constructed with fibers in orthogonal directions, then the necessary geometry would be cut out, thus the required lengthy transformation of coordinate systems. To bypass this derivation, numerical methods have been used and finite element models have been attempted. FEM over predicts plate stiffness by 20% and underpredicts failure by 70%. Obviously there is a need to transform classical plate theory to a cylindrical coordinate system.

  11. A very large multigap resistive plate chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Cerron-Zeballos, E; Hatzifotiadou, D; Kim, D W; Lamas-Valverde, J; Lee, S C; Platner, E D; Roberts, J; Williams, M C S; Zichichi, A

    1999-01-01

    We have built and tested a very large multigap resistive plate chamber (MRPC). We discuss the suitability of the multigap RPC for the construction of large area modules. We give details of the construction technique and results from a scan across the surface of the chamber. We also report on the implementation of `half-strip resolution', where we improve the spatial resolution by a factor 2 without increasing the number of read-out channels. (9 refs).

  12. The micro-gap resistive plate chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Cerron-Zeballos, E; Lamas-Valverde, J; Platner, E D; Roberts, J; Williams, M C S; Zichichi, A

    1999-01-01

    Previously we have found that the freon C/sub 2/F/sub 5/H has very good properties when used in a resistive plate chamber (RPC) with a single gap of 2 mm. In this paper we report on the performance of a multigap RPC consisting of 4 gaps of 0.8 mm filled with a gas mixture containing this freon. (7 refs).

  13. The Casimir Effect Upon A Single Plate

    OpenAIRE

    Hoodbhoy, Pervez

    2004-01-01

    In the presence of an external field, the imposition of specific boundary conditions can lead to interesting new manifestations of the Casimir effect. In particular, it is shown here that even a single conducting plate may experience a non-zero force due to vacuum fluctuations. The origins of this force lie in the change induced by the external potential in the density of available quantum states.

  14. Composite Bipolar Plate for Unitized Fuel Cell/Electrolyzer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K.; Braff, William

    2009-01-01

    In a substantial improvement over present alkaline systems, an advanced hybrid bipolar plate for a unitized fuel cell/electrolyzer has been developed. This design, which operates on pure feed streams (H2/O2 and water, respectively) consists of a porous metallic foil filled with a polymer that has very high water transport properties. Combined with a second metallic plate, the pore-filled metallic plates form a bipolar plate with an empty cavity in the center.

  15. Analysis of hydraulic instability of ANS involute fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartory, W.K.

    1991-11-01

    Curved shell equations for the involute Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) fuel plates are coupled to two-dimensional hydraulic channel flow equations that include fluid friction. A complete set of fluid and plate boundary conditions is applied at the entrance and exit and along the sides of the plate and the channel. The coupled system is linearized and solved to assess the hydraulic instability of the plates

  16. New technique for fixing rib fracture with bioabsorbable plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyamatsu, Hironori; Ohata, Norihisa; Narita, Kunio

    2016-09-01

    Fixation of a bone fracture with a bioabsorbable plate made of poly-L-lactide and hydroxyapatite has received attention. We adopted this technique for a rib fracture by bending the plate into a U-shape and fixing it with suture through the holes in the mesh of the plate and holes that are drilled in the edge of the fractured rib. The suture is also wound around the plate. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Spontaneous emission between an unusual pair of plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, D.T.; Farina, C.; Tort, A.C.

    1999-08-01

    We compute the modification in the spontaneous emission rate for a two-level atom when it is located between two parallel plates of different nature: a perfectly conducting plate (ε->∞) and infinitely permeable one (μ->∞). We also discuss the case of two infinity permeable plates. We compare our results with those found in the literature for the case of two perfectly conducting plates. (author)

  18. Failure analysis of stainless steel femur fixation plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, P B; Mohammad, M

    2004-05-01

    Failure analysis was performed to investigate the failure of the femur fixation plate which was previously fixed on the femur of a girl. Radiography, metallography, fractography and mechanical testing were conducted in this study. The results show that the failure was due to the formation of notches on the femur plate. These notches act as stress raisers from where the cracks start to propagate. Finally fracture occurred on the femur plate and subsequently, the plate failed.

  19. Automatic system for localization and recognition of vehicle plate numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez, N.; Nakano, M.; Pérez-Meana, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a vehicle numbers plate identification system, which extracts the characters features of a plate from a captured image by a digital camera. Then identify the symbols of the number plate using a multilayer neural network. The proposed recognition system consists of two processes: The training process and the recognition process. During the training process, a database is created using 310 vehicular plate images. Then using this database a multilayer neural network is traine...

  20. LICENSE PLATE LOCALIZATION USING GABOR FILTERS AND NEURAL NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Sami Ktata; Faouzi Benzarti; Hamid Amiri

    2013-01-01

    Vehicle License Plate Detection (LPD) is an important step for the vehicle plate recognition which can be used in the intelligent transport systems. Many methods have been proposed for the detection of license plates based on: Mathematical morphology, Discrete Wavelet Transform, Hough Transform and others. In general, an LPR system includes four main parts: Vehicle image acquisition, license plate detection, character segmentation and character recognition. In this study, we present a robust ...

  1. High counting rate resistive-plate chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskov, V.; Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S.

    1993-05-01

    Parallel-plate avalanche chambers (PPAC) are widely used in physics experiments because they are fast ( 5 counts/mm 2 . A resistive-plate chamber (RPC) is similar to the PPAC in construction except that one or both of the electrodes are made from high resistivity (≥10 10 Ω·cm) materials. In practice RPCs are usually used in the spark mode. Resistive electrodes are charged by sparks, locally reducing the actual electric field in the gap. The size of the charged surface is about 10 mm 2 , leaving the rest of the detector unaffected. Therefore, the rate capability of such detectors in the spark mode is considerably higher than conventional spark counters. Among the different glasses tested the best results were obtained with electron type conductive glasses, which obey Ohm's law. Most of the work with such glasses was done with high pressure parallel-plate chambers (10 atm) for time-of-flight measurements. Resistive glasses have been expensive and produced only in small quantities. Now resistive glasses are commercially available, although they are still expensive in small scale production. From the positive experience of different groups working with the resistive glasses, it was decided to review the old idea to use this glass for the RPC. This work has investigated the possibility of using the RPC at 1 atm and in the avalanche mode. This has several advantages: simplicity of construction, high rate capability, low voltage operation, and the ability to work with non-flammable gases

  2. Microscopic Holography for flow over rough plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talapatra, Siddharth; Hong, Jiarong; Lu, Yuan; Katz, Joseph

    2008-11-01

    Our objective is to measure the near wall flow structures in a turbulent channel flow over a rough wall. In-line microscopic holographic PIV can resolve the 3-D flow field in a small sample volume, but recording holograms through a rough surface is a challenge. To solve this problem, we match the refractive indices of the fluid with that of the wall. Proof of concept tests involve an acrylic plate containing uniformly distributed, closely packed 0.45mm high pyramids with slope angle of 22^^o located within a concentrated sodium iodide solution. Holograms recorded by a 4864 x 3248 pixel digital camera at 10X magnification provide a field of view of 3.47mm x 2.32mm and pixel resolution of 0.714 μm. Due to index matching, reconstructed seed particles can be clearly seen over the entire volume, with only faint traces with the rough wall that can be removed. Planned experiments will be performed in a 20 x 5 cm rectangular channel with the top and bottom plates having the same roughness as the sample plate.

  3. Multipactor saturation in parallel-plate waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorolla, E.; Mattes, M.

    2012-01-01

    The saturation stage of a multipactor discharge is considered of interest, since it can guide towards a criterion to assess the multipactor onset. The electron cloud under multipactor regime within a parallel-plate waveguide is modeled by a thin continuous distribution of charge and the equations of motion are calculated taking into account the space charge effects. The saturation is identified by the interaction of the electron cloud with its image charge. The stability of the electron population growth is analyzed and two mechanisms of saturation to explain the steady-state multipactor for voltages near above the threshold onset are identified. The impact energy in the collision against the metal plates decreases during the electron population growth due to the attraction of the electron sheet on the image through the initial plate. When this growth remains stable till the impact energy reaches the first cross-over point, the electron surface density tends to a constant value. When the stability is broken before reaching the first cross-over point the surface charge density oscillates chaotically bounded within a certain range. In this case, an expression to calculate the maximum electron surface charge density is found whose predictions agree with the simulations when the voltage is not too high.

  4. Rate effects in resistive plate chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippmann, C.; Riegler, W.; Kalweit, A.

    2006-01-01

    The resistive plates in RPCs cause a drop of the electric field in the gas gap at high particle rates or large gas gain, which affects efficiency and time resolution. This effect is typically estimated by assuming the particle flux to be a DC current that causes a voltage drop when it passes through the resistive plate. In an improved model by Abbrescia (Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 533 (2004) 7), the fluctuation of the field in the gas gap is modelled by assuming that the avalanche partially discharges a small capacitor which gets recharged with a time constant characteristic for the given RPC. In our approach, the effect is calculated by using the exact analytic solution for the time dependent electric field of a point charge sitting on the surface of a resistive plate in an RPC. This is, by definition, the best possible approximation to reality. The solution is obtained using the quasi-static approximation of Maxwell's equations. The formulas are presented as integral representations with 'cured' integrands, which allow easy numerical evaluation for Monte Carlo simulations. The solutions show that the charges in RPCs are 'destroyed' with a continuous distribution of time constants which are related in a very intuitive way to some limiting cases. Using these formulas we present a Monte Carlo simulation of rate effects, proving the applicability of this approach. Finally, we compare the Monte Carlo results to analytical calculations, similar to the ones proposed by Gonzalez-Diaz et al. (see proceedings of this conference)

  5. [Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis using a humeral locking plate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Méndez, M P; Gamba, C; Hernández, E; Molano, J; Andrade, J C

    2016-01-01

    To describe the results of tibiotalocalcáneal arthrodesis (TTC) using a humeral locking plate. A retrospective, observational study was conducted between January 2007 and December 2013 in the Hospital Militar Central de Bogotá. The study included patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis diagnosed clinically and radiologically, and who underwent TTC arthrodesis using a humeral locking plate with a minimum follow up of 6 months. The total number patients was 35, of whom 7 (20%) were women and 28 (80%) men, with a mean age 36.3 years (19.77). 74% with post-traumatic arthritis, most of them secondary to gunshot wounds and fragmentation weapons, and neuropathic in 20%. An autogenous graft was used in 13 cases, and 14 cases using both, with a mean consolidation time of 4.37 months. Complications include, delayed union in 3 cases, and surgical site infection in 4. The postoperative functionality (AOFAS) mean was 66.7/100 points, with a score of 2.35 on a visual analogue pain scale. TTC arthrodesis using a humeral locking plate is a suitable option for fixing this type of arthrodesis, with a low rate of complications, and postoperative results that revealed satisfactory improvement in pain and consolidation. Copyright © 2015 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Methods for identifying lipoxygenase producing microorganisms on agar plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyyssola, A.; Heshof, R.; Haarmann, T.; Eidner, J.; Westerholm-Parvinen, A.; Langfelder, K.; Kruus, K.; Graaff, de L.H.; Buchert, J.

    2012-01-01

    Plate assays for lipoxygenase producing microorganisms on agar plates have been developed. Both potassium iodide-starch and indamine dye formation methods were effective for detecting soybean lipoxygenase activity on agar plates. A positive result was also achieved using the beta-carotene bleaching

  7. Aerodynamic sound from a sawtooth plate with different thickness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acoustic performance of an airfoil can be improved with the serrated leading or trailing edge. A sawtooth plate is one of the serration shapes. In this study, the effect of sawtooth plate thickness on the aerodynamically generated noise in wake-sawtooth plate interaction at a Reynolds number of 150 is numerically investigated ...

  8. Thermal and mechanical modelling of convergent plate margins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Beukel, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    In this thesis, the thermal and mechanical structure of convergent plate margins will be investigated by means of numerical modelling. In addition, we will discuss the implications of modelling results for geological processes such as metamorphism or the break-up of a plate at a convergent plate

  9. Statistical test for the distribution of galaxies on plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Lambas, D.

    1985-01-01

    A statistical test for the distribution of galaxies on plates is presented. We apply the test to synthetic astronomical plates obtained by means of numerical simulation (Garcia Lambas and Sersic 1983) with three different models for the 3-dimensional distribution, comparison with an observational plate, suggest the presence of filamentary structure. (author)

  10. direct method of analysis of an isotropic rectangular plate direct

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    This work evaluates the static analysis of an isotropic rectangular plate with various the static analysis ... method according to Ritz is used to obtain the total potential energy of the plate by employing the used to ..... for rectangular plates analysis, as the behavior of the ... results obtained by previous research work that used.

  11. Motion of the Rivera plate since 10 Ma relative to the Pacific and North American plates and the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMets, Charles; Traylen, Stephen

    2000-03-01

    To better understand the influence of Rivera plate kinematics on the geodynamic evolution of western Mexico, we use more than 1400 crossings of seafloor spreading magnetic lineations along the Pacific-Rivera rise and northern Mathematician ridge to solve for rotations of the Rivera plate relative to the underlying mantle and the Pacific and North American plates at 14 times since 9.9 Ma. Our comparison of magnetic anomaly crossings from the undeformed Pacific plate to their counterparts on the Rivera plate indicates that significant areas of the Rivera plate have deformed since 9.9 Ma. Dextral shear along the southern edge of the plate from 3.3-2.2 Ma during a regional plate boundary reorganization deformed the Rivera plate farther into its interior than previously recognized. In addition, seafloor located north of two rupture zones within the Rivera plate sutured to North America after 1.5 Ma. Anomaly crossings from these two deformed regions thus cannot be used to reconstruct motion of the Rivera plate. Finite rotations that best reconstruct Pacific plate anomaly crossings onto their undeformed counterparts on the Rivera plate yield stage spreading rates that decrease gradually by 10% between 10 and 3.6 Ma, decrease rapidly by 20% after ˜3.6 Ma, and recover after 1 Ma. The slowdown in Pacific-Rivera seafloor spreading at 3.6 Ma coincided with the onset of dextral shear across the then-incipient southern boundary of the Rivera plate with the Pacific plate. The available evidence indicates that the Rivera plate has been an independent microplate since at least 10 Ma, contrary to published assertions that it fragmented from the Cocos plate at ˜5 Ma. Motion of the Rivera plate relative to North America has changed significantly since 10 Ma, in concert with significant changes in Pacific-Rivera motion. A significant and robust feature of Rivera-North America motion not previously recognized is the cessation of margin-normal convergence and thus subduction from 2

  12. Effects of Volar Tilt, Wrist Extension, and Plate Position on Contact Between Flexor Pollicis Longus Tendon and Volar Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtzel, Caroline N Wolfe; Burns, Geoffrey T; Zhu, Andy F; Ozer, Kagan

    2017-12-01

    Volar plates positioned at, or distal to, the watershed line have been shown to have a higher incidence of attritional rupture of the flexor pollicis longus (FPL). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of wrist extension and volar tilt on the contact between the plate and the FPL tendon in a cadaver model. We hypothesized that, following volar plate application, loss of native volar tilt increases the contact between the FPL and the plate at lower degrees of wrist extension. A volar locking plate was applied on 6 fresh-frozen cadavers. To determine the contact between the plate and the FPL tendon, both structures were wrapped with copper wire and circuit conductivity was monitored throughout wrist motion. A lateral wrist radiograph was obtained at each circuit closure, indicating tendon-plate contact. Baseline measurements were obtained with plate positioned at Soong grades 0, 1, and 2. An extra-articular osteotomy was made and contact was recorded at various volar tilt angles (+5°, 0°, -5°, -10°, -15°, and -20°) in 3 different plate positions. A blinded observer measured the degree of wrist extension on all lateral radiographs. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects regression model. Plates placed distal to the watershed line had the most contact throughout wrist range of motion. Significantly, less wrist extension was required for contact in wrists with neutral or dorsal tilt and in distally placed volar plates. Volar tilt, wrist extension, and plate position were 3 independent risk factors determining contact between plate and tendon. Loss of volar tilt, increased wrist extension, and higher Soong grade plate position result in greater contact between wire-wrapped FPL tendon and plate. The FPL/plate contact chart generated in this study may be used to assess the risk of rupture in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of skeletal stability after sagittal split ramus osteotomy among mono-cortical plate fixation, bi-cortical plate fixation, and hybrid fixation using absorbable plates and screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Koichiro; Moroi, Akinori; Yoshizawa, Kunio; Hotta, Asami; Tsutsui, Takamitsu; Fukaya, Kenichi; Hiraide, Ryota; Takayama, Akihiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuta; Saito, Yuki

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine skeletal stability and plate breakage after sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) with the mono-cortical plate fixation, bi-cortical plate fixation, and hybrid fixation techniques using absorbable plates and screws. A total of 76 Japanese patients diagnosed with mandibular prognathism with and without maxillary deformity were divided into 3 groups randomly. A total of 28 patients underwent SSRO with mono-cortical plate fixation, 23 underwent SSRO with bi-cortical plate fixation, and 25 underwent SSRO with hybrid fixation. Skeletal stability and horizontal condylar angle were analyzed by axial, frontal, and lateral cephalograms from before the operation to 1 year postoperatively. Breakage of the plate and screws was observed by 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) immediately after surgery and after 1 year. Although there was a significant difference between the mono-cortical plate fixation group and hybrid fixation group regarding right MeAg in T1 (P = 0.0488) and occlusal plane in T1 (P = 0.0346), there were no significant differences between the groups for the other measurements in each time interval. In 2 cases, namely, 6 sides in the mono-cortical plate fixation group, breakage of the absorbable plate was found by 3DCT. However, there was no breakage in the bi-cortical plate fixation group and hybrid fixation group. This study results suggested that there were no significant differences in the postoperative skeletal stability among the 3 groups, and bi-cortical fixation as well as hybrid fixation was a reliable and useful method to prevent plate breakage even if an absorbable material was used. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Postirradiation analysis of experimental uranium-silicide dispersion fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, G.L.; Neimark, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Low-enriched uranium silicide dispersion fuel plates were irradiated to maximum burnups of 96% of 235 U. Fuel plates containing 33 v/o U 3 Si and U 3 Si 2 behaved very well up to this burnup. Plates containing 33 v/o U 3 Si-Al pillowed between 90 and 96% burnup of the fissile atoms. More highly loaded U 3 Si-Al plates, up to 50 v/o were found to pillow at lower burnups. Plates containing 40 v/o U 3 Si showed an increase swelling rate around 85% burnup. 5 refs., 10 figs

  15. Pre-Stressing Timber-Based Plate Tensegrity Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Andreas; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    Tensile structures occur in numerous varieties utilising combinations of tension and compression. Introducing structural plates in the basic tensegrity unit and tensegric assemblies varies the range of feasible topologies and provides the structural system with an integrated surface. The present...... paper considers the concept of plate tensegrity based on CLT plates (cross-laminated timber). It combines the principles of tensegrity with the principles of plate shells and is characterised by a plate shell stabilised by struts and cables. The paper deals with material aspects and robustness of timber...

  16. The study on corrosion resistance of decorative satin nickel plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Wenya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the corrosion resistance of satin nickel plating on conductive plastic.The electrochemical tests were to analyze the corrosion behavior of satin nickel plating with different processes in 3.5% NaCl solution.The results show that,because the satin nickel plating has an organic film on its surface due to process characteristics,the film results in different corrosion resistance.By increasing satin additive dosage,the nickel plating chroma decreases,the microsurface of the plating becomes rough,and the corrosion resistance is followed by decrease.

  17. Nuclear reactor fuel structure containing uranium alloy wires embedded in a metallic matrix plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travelli, Armando

    1988-01-01

    A flat or curved plate structure, to be used as fuel in a nuclear reactor, comprises elongated fissionable wires or strips embedded in a metallic continuous non-fissionable matrix plate. The wires or strips are made predominantly of a malleable uranium alloy, such as uranium silicide, uranium gallide or uranium germanide. The matrix plate is made predominantly of aluminum or an aluminum alloy. The wires or strips are located in a single row at the midsurface of the plate, parallel with one another and with the length dimension of the plate. The wires or strips are separated from each other, and from the surface of the plate, by sufficient thicknesses of matrix material, to provide structural integrity and effective fission product retention, under neutron irradiation. This construction makes it safely feasible to provide a high uranium density, so that the uranium enrichment with uranium 235 may be reduced below about 20%, to deter the reprocessing of the uranium for use in nuclear weapons.

  18. Anterior cervical fusion: the role of anterior plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffner, Scott D; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of cervical pathology requires a clear understanding of the biomechanical benefits and limitations of cervical plates, their indications, and their associated complications. The use of anterior cervical plates has evolved significantly since their early application in cervical trauma. They have become widely used for anterior cervical decompression and fusion for cervical spondylosis. Plate design has undergone significant refinement and innovation, from the initial unlocked plates requiring bicortical purchase to the latest rotationally and translationally semiconstrained dynamic plates. Excellent clinical results have been reported for single-level anterior cervical decompression and fusion with or without plate fixation; however, the addition of an anterior cervical plate clearly leads to earlier fusion and better clinical results in longer fusions. Longer fusions should ideally consist of corpectomies and strut grafting because the decreased number of fusion surfaces tends to lead to higher fusion rates. Although anterior plate fixation leads to higher fusion rates in fusions of three or more levels, the associated pseudarthrosis rate is still high. The use of dynamic plates, through increased load sharing across the graft and decreased stress shielding, may improve fusion rates, particularly in long fusions. Nevertheless, adjuvant posterior fixation is recommended for fusions of more than three vertebral levels. Anterior plate fixation may be of particular benefit in the management of traumatic injuries, in revision settings, and in the treatment of smokers. Complications unique to plate fixation include hardware breakage and migration as well as ossification of the adjacent disk levels.

  19. Iberian plate kinematics: A jumping plate boundary between Eurasia and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S.P.; Schouten, Hans; Roest, W.R.; Klitgord, Kim D.; Kovacs, L.C.; Verhoef, J.; Macnab, R.

    1990-01-01

    THE rotation of Iberia and its relation to the formation of the Pyrenees has been difficult to decipher because of the lack of detailed sea-floor spreading data, although several models have been proposed1-7. Here we use detailed aeromagnetic measurements from the sea floor offshore of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland to show that Iberia moved as part of the African plate from late Cretaceous to mid-Eocene time, with a plate boundary extending westward from the Bay of Biscay. When motion along this boundary ceased, a boundary linking extension in the King's Trough to compression along the Pyrenees came into existence. Finally, since the late Oligocene, Iberia has been part of the Eurasian plate, with the boundary between Eurasia and Africa situated along the Azores-Gibraltar fracture zone.

  20. Actively controlling coolant-cooled cold plate configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2015-07-28

    A method is provided to facilitate active control of thermal and fluid dynamic performance of a coolant-cooled cold plate. The method includes: monitoring a variable associated with at least one of the coolant-cooled cold plate or one or more electronic components being cooled by the cold plate; and dynamically varying, based on the monitored variable, a physical configuration of the cold plate. By dynamically varying the physical configuration, the thermal and fluid dynamic performance of the cold plate are adjusted to, for example, optimally cool the one or more electronic components, and at the same time, reduce cooling power consumption used in cooling the electronic component(s). The physical configuration can be adjusted by providing one or more adjustable plates within the coolant-cooled cold plate, the positioning of which may be adjusted based on the monitored variable.

  1. Disk generator with nearly shockless accelerated driver plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, C.M.; Hoeberling, R.F.; Marsh, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    The disk generator, shown in this paper, was first conceived as a useful magnetic field source for a class of in situ plasma experiments. Initial current is supplied (from a capacitor bank) to the generator through radial coaxial cables. It enters the top plate, passes through the central post, and exists through the top of the outer cylindrical glide surface, which is insulated from the top plate. The explosive over the top plate is initiated simultaneously over its upper surface at such a time that the top plate starts its downward motion at about peak initial current. Several conditions were required for the experiments under consideration: the top or driver plate should contact the bottom plate nearly parallel to it; the generator interior should be evacuated; microjetting debris (fluff) arising from the driver plate should be held to a minimum; currents developed should be several tens of megamperes, with values of dI/dt exceeding 10 13 A/s

  2. Robot Arm with Tendon Connector Plate and Linear Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Nguyen, Vienny (Inventor); Millerman, Alexander (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic system includes a tendon-driven end effector, a linear actuator, a flexible tendon, and a plate assembly. The linear actuator assembly has a servo motor and a drive mechanism, the latter of which translates linearly with respect to a drive axis of the servo motor in response to output torque from the servo motor. The tendon connects to the end effector and drive mechanism. The plate assembly is disposed between the linear actuator assembly and the tendon-driven end effector and includes first and second plates. The first plate has a first side that defines a boss with a center opening. The second plate defines an accurate through-slot having tendon guide channels. The first plate defines a through passage for the tendon between the center opening and a second side of the first plate. A looped end of the flexible tendon is received within the tendon guide channels.

  3. Sound Radiation of Aerodynamically Excited Flat Plates into Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Osterziel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Flow-induced vibrations and the sound radiation of flexible plate structures of different thickness mounted in a rigid plate are experimentally investigated. Therefore, flow properties and turbulent boundary layer parameters are determined through measurements with a hot-wire anemometer in an aeroacoustic wind tunnel. Furthermore, the excitation of the vibrating plate is examined by laser scanning vibrometry. To describe the sound radiation and the sound transmission of the flexible aluminium plates into cavities, a cuboid-shaped room with adjustable volume and 34 flush-mounted microphones is installed at the non flow-excited side of the aluminium plates. Results showed that the sound field inside the cavity is on the one hand dependent on the flow parameters and the plate thickness and on the other hand on the cavity volume which indirectly influences the level and the distribution of the sound pressure behind the flexible plate through different excited modes.

  4. Mechanical design and analysis of focal plate for gravity deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianping; Chu, Jiaru; Hu, Hongzhuan; Li, Kexuan; Zhou, Zengxiang

    2014-07-01

    The surface accuracy of astronomical telescope focal plate is a key indicator to precision stellar observation. To conduct accurate deformation measurement for focal plate in different status, a 6-DOF hexapod platform was used for attitude adjustment. For the small adjustment range of a classic 6-DOF hexapod platform, an improved structural arrangement method was proposed in the paper to achieve ultimate adjustment of the focal plate in horizontal and vertical direction. To validate the feasibility of this method, an angle change model which used ball hinge was set up for the movement and base plate. Simulation results in MATLAB suggested that the ball hinge angle change of movement and base plate is within the range of the limiting angle in the process of the platform plate adjusting to ultimate attitude. The proposed method has some guiding significance for accurate surface measurement of focal plate.

  5. Structural Damage Identification in Stiffened Plate Fatigue Specimens Using Piezoelectric Active Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    isolated AO mode first arrival, recorded at PZT 2, is shown at 3 different fatigue levels. Figure 5. The area under the PSD curve, calculated twice...Structural Damage Identification in Stiffened Plate Fatigue Specimens Using Piezoelectric Active Sensing B. L. GRISSO, G. PARK, L. W. SALVINO...with several challenges including limited performance knowledge of the materials, aluminum sensitization, structural fatigue performance, and

  6. Random matrix theory and acoustic resonances in plates with an approximate symmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Ellegaard, C.; Jackson, A.D.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a random matrix model of systems with an approximate symmetry and present the spectral fluctuation statistics and eigenvector characteristics for the model. An acoustic resonator like, e.g., an aluminum plate may have an approximate symmetry. We have measured the frequency spectrum and...

  7. Swelling of U-7Mo/Al-Si dispersion fuel plates under irradiation – Non-destructive analysis of the AFIP-1 fuel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachs, D.M., E-mail: daniel.wachs@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Robinson, A.B.; Rice, F.J. [Idaho National Laboratory, Characterization and Advanced PIE Division, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Kraft, N.C.; Taylor, S.C. [Idaho National Laboratory, Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Lillo, M. [Idaho National Laboratory, Nuclear Systems Design and Analysis Division, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Woolstenhulme, N.; Roth, G.A. [Idaho National Laboratory, Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Extensive fuel-matrix interactions leading to plate pillowing have proven to be a significant impediment to the development of a suitable high density low-enriched uranium molybdenum alloy (U-Mo) based dispersion fuel for high power applications in research reactors. The addition of silicon to the aluminum matrix was previously demonstrated to reduce interaction layer growth in mini-plate experiments. The AFIP-1 project involved the irradiation, in-canal examination, and post-irradiation examination of two fuel plates. The irradiation of two distinct full size, flat fuel plates (one using an Al-2wt%Si matrix and the other an Al-4043 (∼4.8 wt% Si) matrix) was performed in the INL ATR reactor in 2008–2009. The irradiation conditions were: ∼250 W/cm{sup 2} peak Beginning Of Life (BOL) power, with a ∼3.5e21 f/cm{sup 3} peak burnup. The plates were successfully irradiated and did not show any pillowing at the end of the irradiation. This paper reports the results and interpretation of the in-canal and post-irradiation non-destructive examinations that were performed on these fuel plates. It further compares additional PIE results obtained on fuel plates irradiated in contemporary campaigns in order to allow a complete comparison with all results obtained under similar conditions. Except for a brief indication of accelerated swelling early in the irradiation of the Al-2Si plate, the fuel swelling is shown to evolve linearly with the fission density through the maximum burnup.

  8. [Web-based analysis of Stilling's color plates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchenbecker, J

    2014-12-01

    Color vision tests with pseudoisochromatic plates currently represent the most common procedure for the screening of congenital color vision deficiencies. By means of a web-based color vision test, new and old color plates can be tested for diagnostic quality without major effort. A total of 16 digitized Stilling's color plates of the 11th edition from 1907 were included in a web-based color vision test (http://www.farbsehtest.de). The χ(2)-test was used to check whether the Stilling color plates showed similar results to the nine previously evaluated Ishihara color plates. A total of 518 subjects including101 (19.5 %) female subjects with a mean age of 34.6 ± 17 years, took the web-based test with the 25 plates. For all participants the range for the correctly recognized plates was between 5.2 % (n = 27) and 97.7 % (n = 506) for the Stilling color plates and between 64.9 % (n = 336) and 100 % (n = 518) for the Ishihara color plates. For participants with more than 5 errors (n = 247), the range for correctly recognized plates was between 2.0 % (n = 5) and 98.0 % (n = 242) for the Stilling plates and between 42.5 % (n = 105) and 100 % (n = 247) for the Ishihara plates. Taking all color plates and all participants into account there was a significantly higher incidence of erroneous recognition of the Stilling color plates (3038 false and 5250 true answers) compared to the Ishihara color plates (1511 false and 3151 true answers) (p plates could be used for the test edition of the Velhagen/Broschmann/Kuchenbecker color plates from 2014. Overall, the Stilling color plates were recognized with a higher incidence of error by all participants in the web-based test compared to the utilized Ishihara color plates, which in most cases was attributable to ambiguity of some symbols.

  9. [Comparison of novel infrared heating plates and conventional warm water plates for piglets' creep areas in farrowing pens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch-Sürken, L; Wendt, M

    2015-01-01

    On a conventionally managed piglet-producing farm, novel infrared (IR) heating plates for piglets in the farrowing pens were tested for their suitability and compared with common warm-water (WW) heating plates. In total, 134 litters (summer n = 82, winter n = 52) were investigated, which were housed on IR or WW heating plates, respectively, with or without an extra cover plate (groups 1-4). To determine the influence of the different heat sources, the wound healing after castration and tail docking, the umbilical regression and the weight gain of the piglets were investigated. Additionally, the lying behavior of the piglets and the position of the sows' udder at the time of farrowing were examined with regard to the heating plates. Furthermore, the energy consumption and costs were compared. The piglets housed on IR heating plates displayed better wound healing after castration and tail docking than the piglets housed on WW plates. The best results were obtained in piglets kept on IR heating plates with an extra cover plate. In addition, significant benefits were demonstrated for the usage of IR heating plates regarding umbilical regression. The piglets kept on IR heating plates had a slightly better weight gain in summer, whereas there were no differences between groups during winter. The lying behavior in the creep areas was similar in all groups. In general, with increasing age the percentage of time piglets spent in the lying position on the plates decreased. The percentage of time lying on the plates was higher in winter than in summer. At farrowing, 74.6% of all investigated sows directed their udder towards the heating plates. With the IR heating plates, this behavior occurred significantly more often. The energy consumption (kWh) per litter was significantly lower for the IR heating plates (electric power) both in winter and summer in comparison with the WW plates (gas). The energy costs were comparable in summer, but were higher for the IR heating plates

  10. Calibration of a laboratory spectrophotometer for specular light by means of stacked glass plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, W. A.; Richardson, A. J.

    1971-01-01

    Stacked glass plates have been used to calibrate a laboratory spectrophotometer, over the spectral range 0.5-2.5 microns, for specular light. The uncalibrated instrument was characterized by systematic errors when used to measure the reflectance and transmittance of stacked glass plates. Calibration included first, a determination of the reflectance of a standard composed of barium sulfate paint deposited on an aluminum plate; second, the approximation of the reflectance and transmittance residuals between observed and computed values by means of cubic equations; and, finally, the removal of the systematic errors by a computer. The instrument, after calibration, was accurate to 1% when used to measure the reflectance and transmittance of stacked glass plates.

  11. Design of reinforced concrete plates and shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, M.

    1984-01-01

    Nowadays, the internal forces of reinforced concrete laminar structures can be easily evaluated by the finite element procedures. The longitudinal design in each direction is not adequate, since the whole set of internal forces in each point must be concomitantly considered. The classic formulation for the design and new design charts which bring reduction of the amount of necessary reinforcement are presented. A rational reinforced concrete mathematical theory which makes possible the limit state design of plates and shells is discussed. This model can also be applied to define the constitutive relationships of laminar finite elements of reinforced concrete. (Author) [pt

  12. Transient vibration of thin viscoelastic orthotropic plates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, J.; Valeš, František; Volek, J.; Skočilas, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2011), s. 98-107 ISSN 0567-7718. [International Conference on Dynamical Systems - Theory and Applications /10./. Lodz, 07.12.2009-10.12.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/07/0946 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : transient vibration thin plate * orthotropic * general viscoelastic standard solid Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.860, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/hn67324178846n4r/

  13. On topology optimization of plates with prestress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2001-01-01

    of the sensitivities is complicated because of the initial stress stiffness matrix, but the computational cost can be kept low by using the adjoint method. The topology optimization problem is solved using the solid isotropic material with penalization (SIMP) method in combination with method of moving asymptotes (MMA......In this work, topology optimization is used to optimize the compliance or eigenvalues of prestressed plates. The prestress is accounted for by including the force equivalent to the prestressing and adding the initial stress stiffness matrix to the original stiffness matrix. The calculation...

  14. Deconvolution using thin-plate splines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, Udo v.; Gori, Silvio

    2007-01-01

    The ubiquitous problem of estimating 2-dimensional profile information from a set of line integrated measurements is tackled with Bayesian probability theory by exploiting prior information about local smoothness. For this purpose thin-plate-splines (the 2-D minimal curvature analogue of cubic-splines in 1-D) are employed. The optimal number of support points required for inversion of 2-D tomographic problems is determined using model comparison. Properties of this approach are discussed and the question of suitable priors is addressed. Finally, we illustrated the properties of this approach with 2-D inversion results using data from line-integrated measurements from fusion experiments

  15. Simulation of the CMS Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Hadjiiska, R; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Dimitrov, A; Beernaert, K; Cimmino, A; Costantini, S; Garcia, G; Lellouch, J; Marinov, A; Ocampo, A; Strobbe, N; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Verwilligen, P; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Aleksandrov, A; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Shopova, M; Sultanov, G; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Xue, Z; Ge, Y; Li, Q; Qian, S; Avila, C; Chaparro, L F; Gomez, J P; Moreno, B Gomez; Oliveros, A F Osorio; Sanabria, J C; Assran, Y; Sharma, A; Abbrescia, M; Colaleo, A; Pugliese, G; Loddo, F; Calabria, C; Maggi, M; Benussi, L; Bianco, S; Colafranceschi, S; Piccolo, D; Carrillo, C; Iorio, O; Buontempo, S; Paolucci, P; Vitulo, P; Berzano, U; Gabusi, M; Kang, M; Lee, K S; Park, S K; Shin, S; Kim, M S; Seo, H; Goh, J; Choi, Y; Shoaib, M

    2013-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) muon subsystem contributes significantly to the formation of the trigger decision and reconstruction of the muon trajectory parameters. Simulation of the RPC response is a crucial part of the entire CMS Monte Carlo software and directly influences the final physical results. An algorithm based on the parametrization of RPC efficiency, noise, cluster size and timing for every strip has been developed. Experimental data obtained from cosmic and proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV have been used for determination of the parameters. A dedicated validation procedure has been developed. A good agreement between the simulated and experimental data has been achieved.

  16. Automatic measurement of images on astrometric plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Gil, A.; Lopez Garcia, A.; Martinez Gonzalez, J. M.; Yershov, V.

    1994-04-01

    We present some results on the process of automatic detection and measurement of objects in overlapped fields of astrometric plates. The main steps of our algorithm are the following: determination of the Scale and Tilt between charge coupled devices (CCD) and microscope coordinate systems and estimation of signal-to-noise ratio in each field;--image identification and improvement of its position and size;--image final centering;--image selection and storage. Several parameters allow the use of variable criteria for image identification, characterization and selection. Problems related with faint images and crowded fields will be approached by special techniques (morphological filters, histogram properties and fitting models).

  17. Available: lead plate from COMPASS experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    The COMPASS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The COMPASS collaboration would like to offer the possibility to take over a large and thick lead plate, since it is not required anymore in the spectrometer.   It has the following dimensions: thickness 100 mm, width 4.4 m and height 2.0 m, with a square hole in the middle with dimensions of 40 cm x 40 cm. The measured weight including the metal frame it is housed in is 10,180 kg. The CERN stores reference is 44.13.30.100.9. Please contact Erwin Bielert (erwin.bielert@cern.ch or 160539) for further information and details.

  18. Visual illusions and plate design: the effects of plate rim widths and rim coloring on perceived food portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, A D; van den Bos, W; Matheson, D; Desai, M; McClure, S M; Robinson, T N

    2014-05-01

    The Delboeuf Illusion affects perceptions of the relative sizes of concentric shapes. This study was designed to extend research on the application of the Delboeuf illusion to food on a plate by testing whether a plate's rim width and coloring influence perceptual bias to affect perceived food portion size. Within-subjects experimental design. Experiment 1 tested the effect of rim width on perceived food portion size. Experiment 2 tested the effect of rim coloring on perceived food portion size. In both experiments, participants observed a series of photographic images of paired, side-by-side plates varying in designs and amounts of food. From each pair, participants were asked to select the plate that contained more food. Multilevel logistic regression examined the effects of rim width and coloring on perceived food portion size. Experiment 1: participants overestimated the diameter of food portions by 5% and the visual area of food portions by 10% on plates with wider rims compared with plates with very thin rims (Pfood portion sizes. Experiment 2: participants overestimated the diameter of food portions by 1.5% and the visual area of food portions by 3% on plates with rim coloring compared with plates with no coloring (P=0.01). The effect of rim coloring was greater with smaller food portion sizes. The Delboeuf illusion applies to food on a plate. Participants overestimated food portion size on plates with wider and colored rims. These findings may help design plates to influence perceptions of food portion sizes.

  19. Spirit Beside 'Home Plate,' Sol 1809 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11803 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11803 NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images assembled into this stereo, 120-degree view southward after a short drive during the 1,809th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (February 3, 2009). By combining images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera, the view appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. Spirit had driven about 2.6 meters (8.5 feet) that sol, continuing a clockwise route around a low plateau called 'Home Plate.' In this image, the rocks visible above the rovers' solar panels are on the slope at the northern edge of Home Plate. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  20. Detector Physics of Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Lippmann, Christian; Riegler, W

    2003-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are gaseous parallel plate avalanche detectors that implement electrodes made from a material with a high volume resistivity between 10^7 and 10^12 Ohm cm. Large area RPCs with 2mm single gaps operated in avalanche mode provide above 98% efficiency and a time resolution of around 1ns up to a flux of several kHz/cm2. These Trigger RPCs will, as an example, equip the muon detector system of the ATLAS experiment at CERN on an area of 3650m2 and with 355.000 independent read out channels. Timing RPCs with a gas gap of 0.2 to 0.3mm are widely used in multi gap configurations and provide 99% efficiency and time resolution down to 50ps. While their performance is comparable to existing scintillator-based Time-Of-Flight (TOF) technology, Timing RPCs feature a significantly, up to an order of magnitude, lower price per channel. They will for example equip the 176m2 TOF barrel of the ALICE experiment at CERN with 160.000 independent read out cells. RPCs were originally operated in stream...

  1. C6 plate puncture testing report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangoethem, Douglas J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cordova, Theresa Elena [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reu, Phillip L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-04-01

    There are numerous scenarios where critical systems could be subject to penetration by projectiles or fixed objects (e.g., collision, natural disaster, act of terrorism, etc.). It is desired to use computational models to examine these scenarios and make risk-informed decisions; however, modeling of material failure is an active area of research, and new models must be validated with experimental data. The purpose of this report is to document the experimental work performed from FY07 through FY08 on the Campaign Six Plate Puncture project. The goal of this project was to acquire experimental data on the puncture and penetration of metal plates for use in model validation. Of particular interest is the PLH failure model also known as the multilinear line segment model. A significant amount of data that will be useful for the verification and validation of computational models of ductile failure were collected during this project were collected and documented herein; however, much more work remains to be performed, collecting additional experimental data that will further the task of model verification.

  2. Ion-plated metal/ceramic interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigsbee, J.M.; Scott, P.A.; Knipe, R.K.; Ju, C.P.; Hock, V.F.

    1986-01-01

    Elemental Cu and Ti films have been deposited onto magnesia-alumina-silica ceramic substrates with a plasma-aided physical vapour deposition (ion-plating) process. Modifications in the structure and chemistry of the film, interface and substrate regions were investigated as a function of deposition process parameters (eg applied bias, voltage and current). The strength of the Cu/ceramic interface was found to be strongly influenced by both applied substrate bias voltage and substrate roughness. Films deposited with an applied substrate bias showed increasing adhesive strength with increasing bias. Microchemical analysis indicated that this enhanced adhesion is directly correlated with the development of a chemically graded interface region. The adhesive strength of the ion plated Cu films was also found to be improved with increasing substrate smoothness. The behaviour of Ti was found to be quite different from that of Cu. Ti generally has superior adhesion. This adhesion decreased for films deposited with a high bias voltage/current. From interfacial TEM it is shown that this is due to the formation of a compound at the Ti/ceramic interface. The thickness of this compound is important in adhesion. (UK)

  3. Effect of isolator plates on telecom shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drid, M. Mebrouk; Dokkar, Boubekeur; Dokkar, Abdelghani; Settou, Noureddine; Chennouf, Nasreddine

    2018-05-01

    Passive ventilation systems are being increasingly proposed as an alternate to mechanical ventilation systems. This tendency is due to their potential benefits in terms of operational cost, energy requirement and carbon dioxide emission. In the present work, fresh flow is introduced under external isolator plates in order to reduce indoor temperature of telecom shelter located at neighboring of Ouargla city (south of Algeria). The metallic plates play two roles; the first one is to protect shelter from sun rays and the second is to operate as solar chimney. This chimney creates upward airflow which operates as passive cooling for the microwave relay. During the whole year, Shelter audit energy has been examined using Trnsys 16 software. Then, CFD code (Fluent 6.3) is used to predict thermal performance and fluid flow in two-dimensional computational domain for solar chimneys. The obtained results show that flow increase at shelter inlet causes a marked improvement in shelter cooling. This improvement indicates that shelter can be designed with small conventional air conditioning which leads to significant energy consumption fall. Indeed, with this technique, indoor temperature reduction can reach about 30°K without any electrical energy dispenses.

  4. The wide gap resistive plate chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crotty, I.; Lamas Valverde, J.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Williams, M.C.S.; Zichichi, A.

    1995-01-01

    The resistive plate chamber (RPC) has good time and position resolution; these factors (coupled to its simple construction) make it an attractive candidate for muon trigger systems at future colliders. However, operated in spark mode, the RPC has severe rate problems that make it unusable above 10 Hz/cm 2 . We have previously published our results concerning the operation of the RPC in spark and in avalanche mode; we have shown that the rate limit can be increased to 150 Hz/cm 2 if the RPC is operated in avalanche mode. Here, we discuss the performance of chambers with 6 and 8 mm gas gaps (compared to the more usual 2 mm gap). We outline the reasons for this choice, and also discuss anode versus cathode strip readout. We have measured the efficiency versus flux, and also show that an enhanced rate limit can be obtained if only a small region of the chamber is exposed to the beam (spot illumination). Finally we have tested the performance of chambers constructed with other materials for the resistiv e plate and compare it to chambers constructed with our preferred plastic, melamine laminate. (orig.)

  5. Stresses in Circular Plates with Rigid Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikanov, N. L.; Koryagin, S. I.; Sharkov, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    Calculations of residual stress fields are carried out by numerical and static methods, using the flat cross-section hypothesis. The failure of metal when exposed to residual stresses is, in most cases, brittle. The presence in the engineering structures of rigid elements often leads to the crack initiation and structure failure. This is due to the fact that rigid elements under the influence of external stresses are stress concentrators. In addition, if these elements are fixed by welding, the residual welding stresses can lead to an increase in stress concentration and, ultimately, to failure. The development of design schemes for such structures is a very urgent task for complex technical systems. To determine the stresses in a circular plate with a welded circular rigid insert under the influence of an external load, one can use the solution of the plane stress problem for annular plates in polar coordinates. The polar coordinates of the points are the polar radius and the polar angle, and the stress state is determined by normal radial stresses, tangential and shearing stresses. The use of the above mentioned design schemes, formulas, will allow more accurate determination of residual stresses in annular welded structures. This will help to establish the most likely directions of failure and take measures at the stages of designing, manufacturing and repairing engineering structures to prevent these failures. However, it must be taken into account that the external load, the presence of insulation can lead to a change in the residual stress field.

  6. Pc-based car license plate reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Katsuyoshi; Marubayashi, Eisaku; Kawashima, Harumi; Nakanishi, Tadashi; Shio, Akio

    1994-03-01

    A PC-based car license plate recognition system has been developed. The system recognizes Chinese characters and Japanese phonetic hiragana characters as well as six digits on Japanese license plates. The system consists of a CCD camera, vehicle sensors, a strobe unit, a monitoring center, and an i486-based PC. The PC includes in its extension slots: a vehicle detector board, a strobe emitter board, and an image grabber board. When a passing vehicle is detected by the vehicle sensors, the strobe emits a pulse of light. The light pulse is synchronized with the time the vehicle image is frozen on an image grabber board. The recognition process is composed of three steps: image thresholding, character region extraction, and matching-based character recognition. The recognition software can handle obscured characters. Experimental results for hundreds of outdoor images showed high recognition performance within relatively short performance times. The results confirmed that the system is applicable to a wide variety of applications such as automatic vehicle identification and travel time measurement.

  7. High precision refractometry based on Fresnel diffraction from phase plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoly, M Taghi; Naraghi, Roxana Rezvani; Nahal, Arashmid; Hassani, Khosrow

    2012-05-01

    When a transparent plane-parallel plate is illuminated at a boundary region by a monochromatic parallel beam of light, Fresnel diffraction occurs because of the abrupt change in phase imposed by the finite change in refractive index at the plate boundary. The visibility of the diffraction fringes varies periodically with changes in incident angle. The visibility period depends on the plate thickness and the refractive indices of the plate and the surrounding medium. Plotting the phase change versus incident angle or counting the visibility repetition in an incident-angle interval provides, for a given plate thickness, the refractive index of the plate very accurately. It is shown here that the refractive index of a plate can be determined without knowing the plate thickness. Therefore, the technique can be utilized for measuring plate thickness with high precision. In addition, by installing a plate with known refractive index in a rectangular cell filled with a liquid and following the described procedures, the refractive index of the liquid is obtained. The technique is applied to measure the refractive indices of a glass slide, distilled water, and ethanol. The potential and merits of the technique are also discussed.

  8. Development of stress correction formulae for heat formed steel plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Kyun Lim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The heating process such as line heating, triangular heating and so on is widely used in plate forming of shell plates found in bow and stern area of outer shell in a ship. Local shrinkage during heating process is main physical phenomenon used in plate forming process. As it is well appreciated, the heated plate undergoes the change in material and mechanical properties around heated area due to the harsh thermal process. It is, therefore, important to investigate the changes of physical and mechanical properties due to heating process in order to use them plate the design stage of shell plates. This study is concerned with the development of formula of plastic hardening constitutive equation for steel plate on which line heating is applied. In this study the stress correction formula for the heated plate has been developed based on the numerical simulation of tension test with varying plate thickness and heating speed through the regression analysis of multiple variable case. It has been seen the developed formula shows very good agreement with results of numerical simulation. This paper ends with usefulness of the present formula in examining the structural characteristic of ship's hull. Keywords: Heat input, Heat transfer analysis, Line heating, Shell plate, Stress correction, Thermo-elasto-plastic analysis

  9. Gentilly-2 and Point Lepreau divider plate replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.; McClellan, G.; Weston, S.

    1996-01-01

    The steam generators at Hydro Quebec's Gentilly-2 and New Brunswick Power's Point Lepreau Nuclear Plants have been in operation since 1983, and were built with primary divider plates of a bolted panel configuration. During a routine outage inspection at Gentilly-2, it was noted that two bolts had dislodged from the divider plate and were located lying in the primary head. Subsequent inspections revealed erosion damage to a a substantial number of divider plate bolts and to a lesser extent, to the divider plate itself. After further inspection and repair the units were returned to operation, however, it was determined that a permanent replacement of the primary divider plates was going to be necessary. Upon evaluation of various options, it was decided that the panel type divider plates would be replaced with a single piece floating design. The divider plate itself was to be of one piece all-welded arrangement to be constructed from individual panels to be brought in through the manways. In view of the strength limitations of the bolted attachment of the upper seat bar to the tubesheet, a new welded seat was was provided. To counteract erosion concerns, the new divider plate is fitted with erosion resistant inserts of weld buildup and with improved sealing features in order to minimize leakage and erosion. At an advanced stage in the design and manufacture of the components, the issue of divider plate strength during loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions came into focus. Analysis was performed to determine the strength and/or failure characteristics of the divider plate to a variety of small and large LOCA conditions. Subsequently, Point Lepreau decided to replace their divider plates to address LOCA concerns. The paper describes the diagnosis of the original divider plates and the design. manufacture, field mobilization, installation and subsequent operation of the replacement divider plates. (author)

  10. Dynamic plate osteosynthesis for fracture stabilization: how to do it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg Sonderegger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plate osteosynthesis is one treatment option for the stabilization of long bones. It is widely accepted to achieve bone healing with a dynamic and biological fixation where the perfusion of the bone is left intact and micromotion at the fracture gap is allowed. The indications for a dynamic plate osteosynthesis include distal tibial and femoral fractures, some midshaft fractures, and adolescent tibial and femoral fractures with not fully closed growth plates. Although many lower limb shaft fractures are managed successfully with intramedullary nails, there are some important advantages of open-reduction-and-plate fixation: the risk of malalignment, anterior knee pain, or nonunion seems to be lower. The surgeon performing a plate osteosynthesis has the possibility to influence fixation strength and micromotion at the fracture gap. Long plates and oblique screws at the plate ends increase fixation strength. However, the number of screws does influence stiffness and stability. Lag screws and screws close to the fracture site reduce micromotion dramatically. Dynamic plate osteosynthesis can be achieved by applying some simple rules: long plates with only a few screws should be used. Oblique screws at the plate ends increase the pullout strength. Two or three holes at the fracture site should be omitted. Lag screws, especially through the plate, must be avoided whenever possible. Compression is not required. Locking plates are recommended only in fractures close to the joint. When respecting these basic concepts, dynamic plate osteosynthesis is a safe procedure with a high healing and a low complication rate. 

  11. Microsecond Electrical Discharge in Water in Plate-to-Plate Configuration With Nitrogen Bubble Injection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stelmashuk, Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 4 (2016), s. 702-707 ISSN 0093-3813 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Electric breakdown * plate electrodes * underwater discharge Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.052, year: 2016 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/tocresult.jsp?isnumber=7450213

  12. The Biggest Plates on Earth. Submarine Ring of Fire--Grades 5-6. Plate Tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

    This activity is designed to teach how tectonic plates move, what some consequences of this motion are, and how magnetic anomalies document the motion at spreading centers do. The activity provides learning objectives, a list of needed materials, key vocabulary words, background information, day-to-day procedures, internet connections, career…

  13. Active Deformation in the Overriding Plate Associated with Temporal Changes of the Philippine Sea Plate Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, T.; Sato, H.; Van Horne, A.

    2015-12-01

    We present detailed geologic evidence linking changes over time in Philippine Sea plate (PHS) motion and intracontinental deformation in central and southwest (SW) Japan during the Pliocene and after. In the early Pliocene, subduction of the PHS plate under SW Japan restarted in a northerly direction after period of deceleration or cessation. Later, motion changed to a more westerly direction. Corresponding geological changes found in the overriding plate include unconformities in the forearc basins, changes in slip sense on faults, depocenter migration, re-organization of drainage systems and volcanism. Quaternary intraplate deformation is prominent north of the Median Tectonic Line (MTL) inactive segment, above a shallow flat slab. In contrast, less Quaternary tectonic activity is found north of the MTL active segment which lies over a steadily-slipping portion of the subducting slab that behaves as a less-deformed rigid block. Depocenters and active thrusting have migrated north/northwestward over the past 5 My above the shallow flat slab segment of the PHS. We reconstructed the Plio-Pleistocene migration history using Neogene stratigraphy and shallow seismic reflection profiles. We see shallow PHS slab contact with the lower continental crust in our deep seismic reflection profiles, which may explain its enhanced downward drag of the overriding plate and synchronous strong compression in the crust. We find evidence of more westerly PHS plate subduction since the middle Pleistocene in (1) unconformities in the Kumano forearc basin deposits in SW Japan, (2) drastic stream captures in Shikoku, and (3) concordant changes in fault slip sense from thrust to dextral slip along the MTL. Oblique subduction could have induced stronger horizontal stress in the overriding plate above the shallow flat slab which could account for the increasing geologic slip rate observed on active structures. During four repetitions of megathrust earthquake sequences since the 17th century

  14. Stress analysis of perforated plates and plates with single and clustered nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulbert, L.E.; Hopper, A.T.; Rybicki, E.F.

    1976-01-01

    It is well known that stress distributions around a hole in a plate are drastically increased if there are other holes in the plate sufficiently near. Such stress interaction effects must be analyzed and accounted for in the design of a plate containing multiple perforations. Computer programs have been developed for the accurate analysis of the in-plane stresses of arbitrary multiholed plates. Stress interactions also occur between closely spaced nozzles attached to pressure vessels such as nuclear reactor vessels. Results of the investigations carried out during the second year of the research program are summarized. The first section of the report describes the structures analyzed, the loadings on these structures, and the mathematical statements of these problems. The second section explains the analysis techniques employed. The third section deals with the numerical results obtained for all of the problems solved. This section also gives a complete statement of each problem and the series of trial functions used to solve each nozzle-plate problem. Several appendices are also included. These appendices are intended to be users' manuals for the computer codes used in this research effort but which are not explained in the literature. Appendix A treats program TABLES while Appendix B explains the use of PEBBLES. Appendix C is the users' manual for program INTRTIE which is a large program actually consisting of six individual programs. Appendix D discusses the changes in the input data to program NONLIN to obtain certain input data for INTRTIE. Finally, Appendix E treats a small program called CONVERT which also generates input data for INTRTIE

  15. Analysis of a complex shape chain plate using Transmission Photoelasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasari N.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Most chains are an assembly [1] of five parts namely, outer plate, inner plate, bush, pin and roller. Two inner plates are press fitted with two bushes to form an inner block assembly. The outer plates are press fitted with pins after keeping the pins through the assembled bushes of the inner block. Roller is a rotating member and placed over the bush during inner block assembly. Inner block assembly is the load transfer member from sprocket tooth. The outer block assembly helps in holding and also to pull the inner block over the sprocket teeth. If a chain length is in odd number of pitches, it requires an offset plate as shown in Figure 1 to connect two ends of the chain together to make chain endless. When the chain is assembled with an offset plate, the chain fatigue life was observed only 20 to 25% of the total life of a chain, assembled without an offset plate. The holes in the offset plate are of the same size as in the outer and inner plates respectively and it is a complex in shape chain plate. A inbuilt thinning zone at the centre of the chain plate as shown in Figure 1 is unavoidable. The stresses and its distribution in this complex shape chain plate geometry play a critical role in the fatigue life performance of a chain assembly. However, it is difficult identify the stress distribution and stress concentration zones precisely using only the conventional industrial friendly tools such as routine quality control test, breaking load test and numerical computations. In this context the transmission photoelastic technique has made it possible to identify the stress distribution, its concentration and also to quantify the stress and strain [2-3] at any point in the chain plate. This paper explains how transmission photoelastic technique is used to estimate the stress distribution and its concentration zones in a complex chain plate when it isloaded. An epoxy chain plate model was made through the casting method using a Perspex mould [2

  16. CAD-CAM plates versus conventional fixation plates for primary mandibular reconstruction: A biomechanical in vitro analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendenbach, Carsten; Sellenschloh, Kay; Gerbig, Lucca; Morlock, Michael M; Beck-Broichsitter, Benedicta; Smeets, Ralf; Heiland, Max; Huber, Gerd; Hanken, Henning

    2017-11-01

    CAD/CAM reconstruction plates have become a viable option for mandible reconstruction. The aim of this study was to determine whether CAD/CAM plates provide higher fatigue strength compared with conventional fixation systems. 1.0 mm miniplates, 2.0 mm conventional locking plates (DePuy Synthes, Umkirch, Germany), and 2.0 mm CAD/CAM plates (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium/DePuy Synthes) were used to reconstruct a polyurethane mandible model (Synbone, Malans, CH) with cortical and cancellous bone equivalents. Mastication was simulated via cyclic dynamic testing using a universal testing machine (MTS, Bionix, Eden Prairie, MN, USA) until material failure reached a rate of 1 Hz with increasing loads on the left side. No significant difference was found between the groups until a load of 300 N. At higher loads, vertical displacement differed increasingly, with a poorer performance of miniplates (p = 0.04). Plate breakage occurred in miniplates and conventional locking plates. Screw breakage was recorded as the primary failure mechanism in CAD/CAM plates. Stiffness was significantly higher with the CAD/CAM plates (p = 0.04). CAD/CAM plates and reconstruction plates provide higher fatigue strength than miniplates, and stiffness is highest in CAD/CAM systems. All tested fixation methods seem sufficiently stable for mandible reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of an alternative process for recovery of uranium from rejected plates in the manufacture of MTR type fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores Gonzalez, Jocelyn Natalia

    2011-01-01

    This work discusses the recovery of enriched uranium in U 235 , from fuel plates rejected during the fuel elements manufacturing process for the La Reina Nuclear Studies Center, RECH-1, CCHEN. The plates have an aluminum based alloy coating, AISI-SAE 6061, with U 3 Si 2 powder distributed evenly inside and dispersed in an aluminum matrix. The high cost of enriched uranium means that it must be recovered from plates rejected in the production process because of non-compliance with the plate specifications, and also because some of them undergo destructive testing, to measure the aluminum coating's thickness on each side of the plate. The thickness of the uranium nucleus is measured as well and the size of the defects on the ends of the plate such as 'dog bone' and 'fish tail', that is, for the purposes of quality control. The first step in the process is carried out by dissolving the aluminum in a hot solution of NaOH in order to release the uranium silicide powder that is insoluble in the soda. A second step involves dissolving the uranium silicide in a hot HNO 3 solution, followed by washing and filtering, and then extracting the SX and analyzing its behavior during this stage. During the process 98.9% of the uranium is recovered together with a solution that is enough for the SX process given the experiences that were carried out in the extraction stage

  18. A unidirectional subwavelength focusing near-field plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Grbic, Anthony [Radiation Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Near-field plates consist of non-periodically patterned surfaces that can overcome the diffraction limit and confine electromagnetic fields to subwavelength dimensions. Previous near-field plates experimentally demonstrated extreme field tailoring capabilities. However, their performance suffered from radiation/reflection in undesired directions, those other than the subwavelength focus. This issue can limit the practical use of near-field plates. In this paper, we address this issue by designing a unidirectional near-field plate that can form a subwavelength focal pattern, while suppressing the field radiated/reflected in other directions. The design and operation of the proposed unidirectional near-field plate are verified through full-wave simulation. The unidirectional near-field plate may find application in high resolution imaging and probing, high density data storage, and wireless power transfer systems. As an example, its utility as a high resolution probe is demonstrated through full-wave electromagnetic simulation.

  19. Interplay between geometry and temperature for inclined Casimir plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Alexej; Gies, Holger

    2009-01-01

    We provide further evidence for the nontrivial interplay between geometry and temperature in the Casimir effect. We investigate the temperature dependence of the Casimir force between an inclined semi-infinite plate above an infinite plate in D dimensions using the worldline formalism. Whereas the high-temperature behavior is always found to be linear in T in accordance with dimensional-reduction arguments, different power-law behaviors at small temperatures emerge. Unlike the case of infinite parallel plates, which shows the well-known T D behavior of the force, we find a T D-1 behavior for inclined plates, and a ∼T D-0.3 behavior for the edge effect in the limit where the plates become parallel. The strongest temperature dependence ∼T D-2 occurs for the Casimir torque of inclined plates. Numerical as well as analytical worldline results are presented.

  20. Hydroelastic Oscillations of a Circular Plate, Resting on Winkler Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratov, D. V.; Mogilevich, L. I.; Popov, V. S.; Popova, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The forced hydroelastic oscillations of a circular plate resting on elastic foundation are investigated. The oscillations are caused by a stamp vibration under interaction with a plate through a thin layer of viscous incompressible liquid. The axis-symmetric problem for the regime of the steady-state harmonic oscillations is considered. On the basis of hydroelasticity problem solution the laws of plate deflection and pressure in the liquid are found. The functions of the amplitudes deflection distribution and liquid pressure along the plate are constructed. The presented mathematical model provides for investigating viscous liquid layer interaction dynamics with a circular plate resting on an elastic foundation. The above-mentioned model makes it possible to define the plate oscillations resonance frequencies and the corresponding amplitudes of deflection and liquid pressure, as well.

  1. Free vibration analysis of rectangular plates with central cutout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanak Kalita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A nine-node isoparametric plate element in conjunction with first-order shear deformation theory is used for free vibration analysis of rectangular plates with central cutouts. Both thick and thin plate problems are solved for various aspect ratios and boundary conditions. In this article, primary focus is given to the effect of rotary inertia on natural frequencies of perforated rectangular plates. It is found that rotary inertia has significant effect on thick plates, while for thin plates the rotary inertia term can be ignored. It is seen that the numerical convergence is very rapid and based on comparison with experimental and analytical data from literature, it is proposed that the present formulation is capable of yielding highly accurate results. Finally, some new numerical solutions are provided here, which may serve as benchmark for future research on similar problems.

  2. Free Vibration of Rectangular Plates with Attached Discrete Sprung Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A direct approach is used to derive the exact solution for the free vibration of thin rectangular plates with discrete sprung masses attached. The plate is simply supported along two opposite edges and elastically supported along the two other edges. The elastic support can represent a range of boundary conditions from free to clamped supports. Considering only the compatibility of the internal forces between the plate and the sprung masses, the equations of the coupled vibration of the plate-spring-mass system are derived. The exact expressions for mode and frequency equations of the coupled vibration of the plate and sprung masses are determined. The solutions converge steadily and monotonically to exact values. The correctness and accuracy of the solutions are demonstrated through comparison with published results. A parametric study is undertaken focusing on the plate with one or two sprung masses. The results can be used as a benchmark for further investigation.

  3. Modeling of plates with multiple anisotropic layers and residual stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Mathias; Pedersen, Thomas; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2016-01-01

    Usually the analytical approach for modeling of plates uses the single layer plate equation to obtain the deflection and does not take anisotropy and residual stress into account. Based on the stress–strain relation of each layer and balancing stress resultants and bending moments, a general...... multilayered anisotropic plate equation is developed for plates with an arbitrary number of layers. The exact deflection profile is calculated for a circular clamped plate of anisotropic materials with residual bi-axial stress.From the deflection shape the critical stress for buckling is calculated......, and an excellent agreement between the two models is seen with a relative difference of less than 2% for all calculations. The model was also used to extract the cell capacitance, the parasitic capacitance and the residual stress of a pressure sensor composed of a multilayered plate of silicon and silicon oxide...

  4. Electromagnetic Acoustic Test of the Artificial Defects for a Plate-type Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hyun Kyu; Kim, Dong Min; Lee, Yoon Sang; Cheong, Yong Moo

    2011-01-01

    Most research and test reactors use the nuclear fuel plates which are consisted of a fuel meat in aluminum alloy. Last year, KAERI signed a deal with the Jordan Atomic Energy Commission to build the research reactor and have to supply the plate-type nuclear fuels. For the demands of world market, KAERI started the research and development of the plate-type fuel elements and endeavored to achieve a localization of the plate-type fuel fabrication. For the inspection of plate-type fuel elements to be used in Research Reactors, an immersion pulse-echo ultrasonic technique was applied. This inspection was done under immersion condition, so a nuclear fuel was immersed to be prone to corrosion and needed to have time and cost due to an additional process. The sample that will be examined is a non-ferromagnetic material such as aluminum with a good acousto-elastic property, which requires an effective inspection of a bond quality for a nuclear fuel under a manufacturing environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of an Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) technology for an automated inspection of a nuclear fuel without water

  5. Fixation of zygomatic and mandibular fractures with biodegradable plates

    OpenAIRE

    Degala, Saikrishna; Shetty, Sujeeth; Ramya, S

    2013-01-01

    Context: In this prospective study, 13 randomly selected patients underwent treatment for zygomatic?complex fractures (2 site fractures) and mandibular fractures using 1.5 / 2 / 2.5-mm INION CPS biodegradable plates and screws. Aims: To assess the fixation of zygomatic-complex and mandibular fractures with biodegradable copolymer osteosynthesis system. Materials and Methods: In randomly selected 13 patients, zygomatic-complex and mandibular fractures were plated using resorbable plates and sc...

  6. Petroleum and natural gas geology and plate tectonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebel, B.

    1984-01-01

    Several processes of oil and gas geology are studied in connection with plate-tectonical processes. Thus it becomes clear, that there is a distinct difference between the Paleozoic development of the European plate and the Mesozoic development. One can state, that the Paleozoic development is essentially influenced by the positions of the mobile belts and the cratonized parts of the plates. The development during Meso-Caenozoic is mainly characterized by crustal processes in the result of the disintegration of Pangaea.

  7. Structure and properties of GMA surfaced armour plates

    OpenAIRE

    A. Klimpel; K. Luksa; M. Burda

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In the combat vehicles many materials can be used for the armour. Application of the monolithic armour plates in light combat vehicles is limited by the high armour weigh. Introduction of the layered armour plates is a way to limit the vehicle weight. In the paper test results of graded and nanostructural GMA surfaced armour plates are presented.Design/methodology/approach: Metallographic structure, chemical composition and hardness of surfaced layers were investigated in order to ex...

  8. Growth plate closure: Apex view on bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giles, P.H.; Trochei, M.; Yeates, K.

    1984-01-01

    Angular deformities of the extremities in children following premature closure of the growth plate are well known. The deformities depend on the position of an osseus bridge which forms between the epiphysis and metaphysis. Several surgical procedures including resection of the osseus bridge have been described, however, delineation of the site of fusion is difficult to define. The commonest site of growth plate arrest is the distal femoral or proximal tibial growth plate. A new technique using the bone scan has been developed which accurately defines the area and position of these osseus bridges. Two hours after injection of technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate apex views of the affected distal femoral growth plate were performed. The knee was flexed into its smallest angle. Using a pinhole collimator the gamma camera was angled to face the affected growth plate end on. The image was collected onto computer and analysed by: (I) regions of interest over segments of the growth plate to calculate the relative area of total growth plate affected: (II) generating histograms: (III) thresholding or performing isocontours to accentuate abnormal areas. The growth plate is normally uniformly increased when compared to the normal shaft of the bone. Fusion across the plate appears as an area of diminished uptake. The apex view gives a unique functional map of the growth plate such that abnormal areas are displayed, and the site, size and position of osseus fusion obtained. The technique has the potential for determining the metabolic activity of the growth plate before and after surgery. Serial studies will allow assessment of regneration of the plate and reformation of new osseus bridges

  9. Curing pasted plates for lead/acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napoleon, E.S.

    1987-02-15

    This paper covers various aspects of the hydroset process and final drying of battery plates in a controlled chamber. Through the use of such chambers, battery makers are obtaining finished plates of consistent quality in 48 h or less, including final drying. Added benefits include: (i) reduced free-lead in plates; (ii) reduced floor space requirements; (iii) better knitting of paste to grid; (iv) reduced inventories; (v) reduced battery rejects.

  10. Analyzing the effects of size of hole on Plate failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behzad, Mohammadzadeh; Noh, Hyukchun [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The load at critical point in which an infinitesimal increase in load can make the plate to buckle, is buckling load. When a plate element is subjected to direct compression, bending, shear, or a combination of these stresses in its plane, the plate may buckle locally before the member as a whole becomes unstable or before the yield stress of the material is reached. Holes can either increase or decrease critical load of a plate depending on its position and geometry. The presence of holes in plates will change the strength and stiffness, so the amounts of stress and its distribution which induce strain and buckling will be changed. This study deals with studying the buckling of plate with holes using finite element method(FEM). Buckling is one of the main reasons for steel members to fail during service life time. As plates are frequently used in the structures of nuclear power plants and in some cases making holes in plates is necessary, it is necessary to assay the capacity of the plates especially in terms of buckling. FEM is a useful approach which makes the plate analysis be performed with ease. This study relates the buckling load of plates with through-thickness holes to a dimensionless parameter (D/a). By increasing D/a ratio, the amount of plate strength is observed to be decreased. After D/a=0.5, the rate of decreasing is observed to be increased drastically. Therefore, it is better to use ratio D/a less than or equal to 0.5. As a further study, it is possible to investigate other aspects such as different thickness, different positions and so on.

  11. Analyzing the effects of size of hole on Plate failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behzad, Mohammadzadeh; Noh, Hyukchun

    2013-01-01

    The load at critical point in which an infinitesimal increase in load can make the plate to buckle, is buckling load. When a plate element is subjected to direct compression, bending, shear, or a combination of these stresses in its plane, the plate may buckle locally before the member as a whole becomes unstable or before the yield stress of the material is reached. Holes can either increase or decrease critical load of a plate depending on its position and geometry. The presence of holes in plates will change the strength and stiffness, so the amounts of stress and its distribution which induce strain and buckling will be changed. This study deals with studying the buckling of plate with holes using finite element method(FEM). Buckling is one of the main reasons for steel members to fail during service life time. As plates are frequently used in the structures of nuclear power plants and in some cases making holes in plates is necessary, it is necessary to assay the capacity of the plates especially in terms of buckling. FEM is a useful approach which makes the plate analysis be performed with ease. This study relates the buckling load of plates with through-thickness holes to a dimensionless parameter (D/a). By increasing D/a ratio, the amount of plate strength is observed to be decreased. After D/a=0.5, the rate of decreasing is observed to be increased drastically. Therefore, it is better to use ratio D/a less than or equal to 0.5. As a further study, it is possible to investigate other aspects such as different thickness, different positions and so on

  12. Dynamic Analysis of Plate in Water Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Soo; Jeong, Kyeng Hoon; Koo, Gyeong Hoi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A pool door (Plate) is installed at the chase of the pool gate by means of an overhead crane in the building of a research reactor. The principal function of the pool door, which is located between the reactor pool and service pool, is to separate the reactor pool from the service pool for the maintenance and/or the removal of the equipment either in the reactor pool or service pool. A stress analysis for each component of the pool door was conducted against the given loads including the seismic load. Because the stresses for the analysis results were lower than the design limits for the given material, the structural integrity for the given dimension of the pool door was confirmed.

  13. The physics of Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Riegler, Werner

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 3 years we investigated theoretical aspects of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) in order to clarify some of the outstanding questions on space charge effects, high efficiency of small gap RPCs, charge spectra, signal shape and time resolution. In a series of reports we analyzed RPC performance including all detector aspects covering primary ionization, avalanche multiplication, space charge effects, signal induction in presence of resistive materials, crosstalk along detectors with long strips and front-end electronics. Using detector gas parameters entirely based on theoretical predictions and physical models for avalanche development and space charge effects we are able to reproduce measurements for 2 and 0.3 mm RPCs to very high accuracy without any additional assumptions. This fact gives a profound insight into the workings of RPCs and also underlines the striking difference in operation regime when compared to wire chambers. A summary of this work as well as recent results on three-dimensiona...

  14. Mixed convection flow past a horizontal plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Lj.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixed convection flow past a horizontal plate being aligned through a small angle of attack to a uniform free stream will be considered in the limit of large Reynolds number and small Richardson number. Even a small angle of inclination of the wake is sufficient for the buoyancy force to accelerate the flow in the wake which causes a velocity overshoot in the wake. Moreover a hydrostatic pressure difference across the wake induces a correction to the potential flow which influences the inclination of the wake. Thus the wake and the correction of the potential flow have to be determined simultaneously. However, it turns out that solutions exist only if the angle of attack is sufficiently large. Solutions are computed numerically and the influence of the buoyancy on the lift coefficient is determined.

  15. Tokamak fusion test reactor FELIX plate experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, T.O.; Nygren, R.E.; Turner, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    For a conducting material exposed to both a time-varying and a static magnetic field, such as a limiter blade in a tokamak, the induced eddy currents and the deflection arising from those eddy currents can be strongly coupled. The coupling effects reduce the currents and deflections markedly, sometimes an order of magnitude, from the values predicted if coupling is neglected. A series of experiments to study current-deflection coupling were performed using the Fusion Electromagnetic Inductance Experiment (FELIX) facility at Argonne National Laboratory. Magnetic damping and magnetic stiffness resulting from the coupling are discussed, and analytical expressions for induced eddy current and rigid body rotation in the FELIX plate experiment are compared with the experimental results. Predictions for the degree of coupling based on various parameters are made using the analytical model

  16. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF FLAT PLATE SOLAR COLLECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TABET I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a theoretical and experimental studyof flat platesolar water collector with reflectors.A mathematical model based on energy balance equations saw the thermal behavior of the collector is investigated. The experimental test was made at the unit research applies in renewable energy (URAER located in southern Algeria.An increase of 23% for solar radiation incident on the collector surface with the addition of the planers reflectors in the day of May, this increase causes an improvement of the performance of the collector,the fluid temperature increases with an average of 5%. Thetests conducted on the flat plate solar water collector in open circuit enabled the determination of thermal performance of the collector by estimating the daily output The thermal efficiency of the collector ranges from 1% -63% during the day, a mean value of 36%obtained.

  17. Amorphous silicon-based microchannel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Andrea; Riesen, Yannick; Wyrsch, Nicolas; Dunand, Sylvain; Powolny, François; Jarron, Pierre; Ballif, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) were recently introduced to overcome some of the limitations of crystalline silicon and glass MCP. The typical thickness of a-Si:H based MCPs (AMCP) ranges between 80 and 100 μm and the micromachining of the channels is realized by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). Advantages and issues regarding the fabrication process are presented and discussed. Electron amplification is demonstrated and analyzed using Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) technique. The gain increases as a function of the bias voltage, limited to −340 V on account of high leakage currents across the structure. EBIC maps on 10° tilted samples confirm that the device active area extend to the entire channel opening. AMCP characterization with the electron beam shows gain saturation and signal quenching which depends on the effectiveness of the charge replenishment in the channel walls.

  18. Dilemma in pediatric mandible fractures: resorbable or metallic plates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylan Filinte, Gaye; Akan, İsmail Mithat; Ayçiçek Çardak, Gülçin Nujen; Özkaya Mutlu, Özay; Aköz, Tayfun

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of resorbable and metallic plates in open reduction and internal fixation of mandible fractures in children. Thirty-one patients (mean age, 8.05 years; range 20 months-14 years) were operated on various fractures of the mandible (26 [60.4%] symphysis- parasymphysis, 12 [27.9%] condylar-subcondylar fractures, 5 [11.6%] angulus and ramus fractures). Twelve patients were treated with resorbable plates and 19 patients with metallic plates. Mean follow-up time was 41 months (11-74 months) in the metallic hardware group and was 22 months (8-35 months) in the resorbable plate group. Both groups were investigated for primary bone healing, complications, number of operations, and mandibular growth. The results were discussed below. Both groups demonstrated primary bone healing. Minor complications were similar in both groups. The metallic group involved secondary operations for plate removal. Mandibular growth was satisfactory in both groups. Resorbable plates cost more than the metallic ones; however, when the secondary operations are included in the total cost, resorbable plates were favourable. As mandibular growth and complication parameters are similar in both groups, resorbable plates are favored due to avoidance of potential odontogenic injury, elimination of long-term foreign body retention and provision of adequate stability for rapid bone healing. However, learning curve and concerns for decreased stability against heavy forces of mastication accompanied with the resorbable plates when compared to the metallic ones should be kept in mind.

  19. Usefulness of the pterion plate in frontotemporal craniotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Akiko; Aoki, Yoshinori; Kano, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the pterion plate in preventing depression of the lateral side of the orbita after frontotemporal craniotomy. Forty patients who underwent frontotemporal craniotomy at our facility were studied: 20 received pterion plates during surgery (pterion plate group) and 20 did not (non-pterion plate group). In all patients, postoperative bone window CT was used to confirm the presence or absence of a depression (≥5 mm) on the lateral side of the orbita. Patient satisfaction was assessed by a questionnaire. Depression of the lateral side of the orbita on postoperative bone window CT was noted in none of the subjects in the pterion plate group and in 12 (60%) of the subjects in the non-pterion plate group (p<0.01). Patient satisfaction was higher in the pterion plate than in the non-pterion plate group (p<0.01). Findings from bone window CT and the questionnaire indicate that the pterion plate is effective in preventing postoperative depression of the lateral side of the orbita during frontotemporal craniotomy. (author)

  20. Fabrication techniques of X-ray spiral zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Nan; Zhu Xiaoli; Li Hailiang; Xie Changqing

    2010-01-01

    The techniques to make X-ray spiral zone plates using electron beam and X-ray lithography were studied. A master mask was fabricated on polyimide membrane by E-beam lithography and micro-electroplating. Spiral zone plates were efficiently replicated by X-ray lithography and micro-electroplating. By combining the techniques, spiral zone plates at 1 keV were successfully fabricate. With an outermost zone width of the 200 nm, and the gold absorbers thickness of 700 nm, the high quality zone plates can be used for X-ray phase contrast microscopy.(authors)

  1. Laboratory Automatic Titration of Chromium Plating and Electropolishing Solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sopok, Samuel

    2001-01-01

    .... The analytical chemistry literature lacks an adequate automatic titration method for the monitoring of chromic acid in chromium plating solutions and the monitoring of phosphoric and sulfuric acids...

  2. Analysis of BY-106 pump pit cover plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1994-01-01

    A new cover for the pump pit of Tank 241-BY-106 has been designed to allow the rotary core exhauster to be hooked up without requiring pit entry, riser modification, or equipment removal. The new pit cover is necessary to allow installation of two risers for reducing exposure, contamination, and waste. Computer analysis indicates that the safety margin of the pit cover plate with two risers is adequate. The computer stress model and input files are attached. The pit cover plate is a replacement for an existing plate; therefore seismic and wind loads were considered for the plate only

  3. The centre of mass of a triangular plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sluesarenko, Viktor; Rojas, Roberto; Fuster, Gonzalo

    2008-01-01

    We present a derivation for the coordinates of the centre of mass-or centre of gravity-of a homogeneous triangular plate by using scaling and symmetry. We scale the triangular plate by a factor of 2 and divide its area into four plates identical to the original. By symmetry, we assert that the centre of mass of two identical masses lies at the midpoint of the line joining their centres of mass. By relating the centres of mass of the original to those of the scaled plates, we find the coordinates of the centre of mass as the solution of an algebraic equation

  4. Evaluating Picture Quality of Image Plates in Digital CR Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Byung Joon [Dept. of Radiological Tecnology, Choonhae College of Health Science, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Ji Tae Jeong [Dept. of Radiological Science, Kaya University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Lab effectively supplemented the effects of outside radiation on image plates in the process of image acquisition of CR (computed radiography) systems and conducted for effective utilization in the case of clinical application. For this, Lab classified the storage places and time periods of image plates and compared and analyzed the differences between small dark spots. Lab also assessed the concentration distribution within the boundaries of images. Lab compared and measured the number of dark spots in a light room and a dark room depending on the storage places of image plates and found that dark spots slightly increased in an image plate when stored in a light room on the first and second days. Dark spots increased in proportion to the length of time stored. In the case of the image plate stored in a dark room, the number of dark spots remarkably decreased. With regard to picture quality as related to the location of image plates, the damage to picture quality could be reduced by locating regions of interest in the center. With regard to differences in sharpness following changes in the thickness of subjects, fewer scatter rays occurred and sharpness improved by reducing the thickness of subjects as much as possible. To get medical images of excellent quality, image plates should be managed effectively and it is desirable to keep images plates in dark iron plate boxes and not to expose them to outside radiation for a long time.

  5. Evaluating Picture Quality of Image Plates in Digital CR Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Byung Joon; Ji Tae Jeong

    2011-01-01

    Lab effectively supplemented the effects of outside radiation on image plates in the process of image acquisition of CR (computed radiography) systems and conducted for effective utilization in the case of clinical application. For this, Lab classified the storage places and time periods of image plates and compared and analyzed the differences between small dark spots. Lab also assessed the concentration distribution within the boundaries of images. Lab compared and measured the number of dark spots in a light room and a dark room depending on the storage places of image plates and found that dark spots slightly increased in an image plate when stored in a light room on the first and second days. Dark spots increased in proportion to the length of time stored. In the case of the image plate stored in a dark room, the number of dark spots remarkably decreased. With regard to picture quality as related to the location of image plates, the damage to picture quality could be reduced by locating regions of interest in the center. With regard to differences in sharpness following changes in the thickness of subjects, fewer scatter rays occurred and sharpness improved by reducing the thickness of subjects as much as possible. To get medical images of excellent quality, image plates should be managed effectively and it is desirable to keep images plates in dark iron plate boxes and not to expose them to outside radiation for a long time.

  6. Nonlinear analysis of flexible plates lying on elastic foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trushin Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes numerical procedures for analysis of flexible rectangular plates lying on elastic foundation. Computing models are based on the theory of plates with account of transverse shear deformations. The finite difference energy method of discretization is used for reducing the initial continuum problem to finite dimensional problem. Solution procedures for nonlinear problem are based on Newton-Raphson method. This theory of plates and numerical methods have been used for investigation of nonlinear behavior of flexible plates on elastic foundation with different properties.

  7. On the lamb wave propagation in anisotropic laminated composite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Keun; Jeong, Hyun Jo; Kim, Moon Saeng

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the propagation of Lamb (or plate) waves in anisotropic laminated composite plates. The dispersion relations are explicitly derived using the classical plate theory (CLT), the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and the exact solution (ES), Attention is paid to the lowest antisymmetric (flexural) and lowest symmetric(extensional) modes in the low frequency, long wavelength limit. Different values of shear correction factor were tested in FSDT and comparisons between flexural wave dispersion curves were made with exact results to asses the range of validity of approximate plate theories in the frequency domain.

  8. Performance of the PBX-M passive plate stabilization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Bell, R.; Bernabei, S.

    1994-02-01

    The PBX-M passive plate stabilization system provides significant stabilization of long-wavelength external kink modes, the slowing of vertical instability growth rates, and the amelioration of disruption characteristics. The passive plate stabilization system has allowed the use of LHCD and IBW to induce current density and pressure profile modifications, and m = 1 divertor biasing for modifying edge plasma transport. Improvements in the passive plate system insulators and support structures have provided reliable operation. Impurity influxes with the close-fitting passive plates are low. Solid target boronization is applied routinely to reduce conditioning time and maintain clean conditions

  9. The study on corrosion resistance of decorative satin nickel plating

    OpenAIRE

    LU Wenya; CHENG Xianhua

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the corrosion resistance of satin nickel plating on conductive plastic.The electrochemical tests were to analyze the corrosion behavior of satin nickel plating with different processes in 3.5% NaCl solution.The results show that,because the satin nickel plating has an organic film on its surface due to process characteristics,the film results in different corrosion resistance.By increasing satin additive dosage,the nickel plating chroma decreases,the microsurface of the p...

  10. Modeling and Simulation of Nonlinear Micro-electromechanical Circular Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chia Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the hybrid differential transformation and finite difference method is applied to analyze the dynamic behavior of the nonlinear micro-electromechanical circular plate actuated by combined DC / AC loading schemes. The analysis takes account of the axial residual stress and hydrostatic pressure acting on micro circular plate upper surface. The dynamic response of the plate as a function of the magnitude of the AC driving voltage is explored. Moreover, the effect of the initial gap height on the pull-in voltage of the plate is systematically explored.

  11. Mechanical obstacles to the movement of continent-bearing plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, P. D., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Selected geophysical problems associated with the concept of continental drift as an incidental corollary of plate movement are discussed. The problems include the absence of a suitable plate-driving mechanism for plates with continental leading edges, the absence of the low-velocity zone under shields, and continental roots of 400 to 700 km depths. It is shown that if continental drift occurs, it must use mechanisms not now understood, or that it may not occur at all, plate movement being confined to ocean basins.

  12. Bioinspired plate-based fog collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Xin; Luo, Cheng

    2014-09-24

    In a recent work, we explored the feeding mechanism of a shorebird to transport liquid drops by repeatedly opening and closing its beak. In this work, we apply the corresponding results to develop a new artificial fog collector. The collector includes two nonparallel plates. It has three advantages in comparison with existing artificial collectors: (i) easy fabrication, (ii) simple design to scale up, and (iii) active transport of condensed water drops. Two collectors have been built. A small one with dimensions of 4.2 × 2.1 × 0.05 cm(3) (length × width × thickness) was first built and tested to examine (i) the time evolution of condensed drop sizes and (ii) the collection processes and efficiencies on the glass, SiO2, and SU-8 plates. Under similar experimental conditions, the amount of water collected per unit area on the small collector is about 9.0, 4.7, and 3.7 times, respectively, as much as the ones reported for beetles, grasses, and metal wires, and the total amount of water collected is around 33, 18, and 15 times. On the basis of the understanding gained from the tests on the small collector, a large collector with dimensions of 26 × 10 × 0.2 cm(3) was further built and tested, which was capable of collecting 15.8 mL of water during a period of 36 min. The amount of water collected, when it is scaled from 36 to 120 min, is about 878, 479, or 405 times more than what was collected by individual beetles, grasses, or metal wires.

  13. A Plate Tectonic Model for the Neoproterozoic with Evolving Plate Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdith, Andrew; Collins, Alan; Williams, Simon; Pisarevsky, Sergei; Müller, Dietmar

    2017-04-01

    The Neoproterozoic was dominated by the formation of the supercontinent Rodinia, its break-up and the subsequent amalgamation of Gondwana, during which, the planet experienced large climatic variations and the emergence of complex life. Here we present a topological plate model of the Neoproterozoic based on a synthesis of available geological and palaeomagnetic data. Subduction zones, which are well preserved in the geological record, are used as a proxy for convergent margins; evidence for mid-ocean ridges and transform motion is less clearly preserved, though passive margins are used as a proxy for spreading centres, and evidence for strike-slip motions are used to model transform boundaries. We find that the model presented here only predicts 70% of the total length of subduction active today, though it models similar lengths of both transform and divergent boundaries, suggesting that we have produced a conservative model and are probably underestimating the amount of subduction. Where evidence for convergent, divergent or transform motion is not preserved, we interpret the locations of plate boundaries based on the relative motions of cratonic crust as suggested through either palaeomagnetic data or the geological record. Using GPlates, we tie these boundaries together to generate a plate model that depicts the motion of tectonic plates through the Neoproterozoic. We omit India and South China from Rodinia completely, due to long-lived subduction preserved on margins of India and conflicting palaeomagnetic data for the Cryogenian, but tie them together due to similar Tonian aged accretionary patterns along their respective (present-day) north-western and northern margins, such that these two cratons act as a "lonely wanderer" for much of the Neoproterozoic, and form their own tectonic plate. We also introduce a Tonian-Cryogenian aged rotation of the Congo-São Francisco Craton relative to Rodinia to better fit palaeomagnetic data and account for thick passive

  14. Experimental investigation of critical velocity in a parallel plate research reactor fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Alfredo J.A.; Scuro, Nikolas L.; Andrade, Delvonei A., E-mail: ajcastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The fuel elements of a MTR (Material Testing Reactor) type nuclear reactor are mostly composed of aluminum coated fuel plates containing the core of uranium silica (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) dispersed in an aluminum matrix. These plates have a thickness of the order of millimeters and are much longer in relation to their thickness. They are arranged in parallel in the assembly of the fuel element to form channels between them a few millimeters in thickness, through which there is a flow of the coolant. This configuration, combined with the need for a flow at high flow rates to ensure the cooling of the fuel element in operation, may create problems of mechanical failure of fuel plate due to the vibration induced by the flow in the channels. In the case of critical velocity excessive permanent deflections of the plates can cause blockage of the flow channel in the reactor core and lead to overheating in the plates. For this study an experimental bench capable of high volume flows and a test section that simulates a plate-like fuel element with three cooling channels were developed. The dimensions of the test section were based on the dimensions of the Fuel Element of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB), whose project is being coordinated by the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN). The experiments performed attained the objective of reaching Miller's critical velocity condition. The critical velocity was reached with 14.5 m/s leading to the consequent plastic deformation of the flow channel plates. (author)

  15. Modeling of high-density U-MO dispersion fuel plate performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, S.L.; Meyer, M.K.; Hofman, G.L.; Rest, J.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Results from postirradiation examinations (PIE) of highly loaded U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel plates over the past several years have shown that the interaction between the metallic fuel particles and the matrix aluminum can be extensive, reducing the volume of the high-conductivity matrix phase and producing a significant volume of low-conductivity reaction-product phase. This phenomenon results in a significant decrease in fuel meat thermal conductivity during irradiation. PIE has further shown that the fuel-matrix interaction rate is a sensitive function of irradiation temperature. The interplay between fuel temperature and fuel-matrix interaction makes the development of a simple empirical correlation between the two difficult. For this reason a comprehensive thermal model has been developed to calculate temperatures throughout the fuel plate over its lifetime, taking into account the changing volume fractions of fuel, matrix and reaction-product phases within the fuel meat owing to fuel-matrix interaction; this thermal model has been incorporated into the dispersion fuel performance code designated PLATE. Other phenomena important to fuel thermal performance that are also treated in PLATE include: gas generation and swelling in the fuel and reaction-product phases, incorporation of matrix aluminum into solid solution with the unreacted metallic fuel particles, matrix extrusion resulting from fuel swelling, and cladding corrosion. The phenomena modeled also make possible a prediction of fuel plate swelling. This paper presents a description of the models and empirical correlations employed within PLATE as well as validation of code predictions against fuel performance data for U-Mo experimental fuel plates from the RERTR-3 irradiation test. (author)

  16. Natural convective magneto-nanofluid flow and radiative heat transfer past a moving vertical plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Das

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the hydromagnetic boundary layer flow past a moving vertical plate in nanofluids in the presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field and thermal radiation has been carried out. Three different types of water-based nanofluids containing copper, aluminum oxide and titanium dioxide are taken into consideration. The governing equations are solved using Laplace transform technique and the solutions are presented in closed form. The numerical values of nanofluid temperature, velocity, the rate of heat transfer and the shear stress at the plate are presented graphically for several values of the pertinent parameters. The present study finds applications in engineering devices.

  17. Static Analysis of Laminated Composite Plate using New Higher Order Shear Deformation Plate Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtehal Abbas Sadiq

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a theoretical analysis depending on the new higher order . element in shear deformation theory for simply supported cross-ply laminated plate is developed. The new displacement field of the middle surface expanded as a combination of exponential and trigonometric function of thickness coordinate with the transverse displacement taken to be constant through the thickness. The governing equations are derived using Hamilton’s principle and solved using Navier solution method to obtain the deflection and stresses under uniform sinusoidal load. The effect of many design parameters such as number of laminates, aspect ratio and thickness ratio on static behavior of the laminated composite plate has been studied. The modal of the present work has been verified by comparing the results of shape functions with that were obtained by other workers. Result shows the good agreement with 3D elasticity solution and that published by other researchers.

  18. Alumina plate containing photosystem I reaction center complex oriented inside plate-penetrating silica nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamidaki, Chihiro; Kondo, Toru; Noji, Tomoyasu; Itoh, Tetsuji; Yamaguchi, Akira; Itoh, Shigeru

    2013-08-22

    The photosynthetic photosystem I reaction center complex (PSI-RC), which has a molecular diameter of 21 nm with 100 pigments, was incorporated into silica nanopores with a 100-nm diameter that penetrates an alumina plate of 60-μm thickness to make up an inorganic-biological hybrid photocell. PSI-RCs, purified from a thermophilic cyanobacterium, were stable inside the nanopores and rapidly photoreduced a mediator dye methyl viologen. The reduced dye was more stable inside nanopores suggesting the decrease of dissolved oxygen. The analysis by a cryogenic electron spin paramagnetic resonance indicated the oriented arrangement of RCs inside the 100-nm nanopores, with their surface parallel to the silica wall and perpendicular to the plane of the alumina plate. PSI RC complex in the semicrystalline orientation inside silica nanopores can be a new type of light energy conversion unit to supply strong reducing power selectively to other molecules inside or outside nanopores.

  19. Ni-based amorphous alloy-coating for bipolar plate of PEM fuel cell by electrochemical plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaura, S; Kim, S C; Inoue, A

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the Ni-Cr-P amorphous alloy-coated bipolar plates were produced by electro-plating on the Cu base plates with a flow field. The power generation tests of a single fuel cell with those Ni-Cr-P bipolar plates were conducted at 353 K. It was found that the single fuel cell with those Ni-Cr-P bipolar plates showed excellent I-V performance as well as that with the carbon graphite bipolar plates. It was also found that the single cell with those Ni-Cr-P bipolar plates showed better I-V performance than that with the Ni-P amorphous alloy-coated bipolar plates. Furthermore, the long-time operation test was conducted for 440 h with those Ni-Cr-P bipolar plates at the constant current density of 200 mA·cm −2 . As a result, it was found that the cell voltage gradually decreased at the beginning of the measurement before 300 h and then the voltage was kept constant after 300 h.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH-DENSITY U/AL DISPERSION PLATES FOR MO-99 PRODUCTION USING ATOMIZED URANIUM POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HO JIN RYU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Uranium metal particle dispersion plates have been proposed as targets for Molybdenum-99 (Mo-99 production to improve the radioisotope production efficiency of conventional low enriched uranium targets. In this study, uranium powder was produced by centrifugal atomization, and miniature target plates containing uranium particles in an aluminum matrix with uranium densities up to 9 g-U/cm3 were fabricated. Additional heat treatment was applied to convert the uranium particles into UAlx compounds by a chemical reaction of the uranium particles and aluminum matrix. Thus, these target plates can be treated with the same alkaline dissolution process that is used for conventional UAlx dispersion targets, while increasing the uranium density in the target plates