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Sample records for plates aluminum plates

  1. Aluminum Manganese Molten Salt Plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Dry fixture thoroughly with the air gun. Be especially careful to dry water out of crevices. Note: water is a contaminant to the plating process...easily destroyed if blown with the air. Be especially careful to dry water out of crevices. Note: water is a contaminant to the plating process and...especially careful to dry water out of crevices. 13. Carefully remove part from fixture. If residual plating solution is present at attachments points

  2. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    ’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through......Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  3. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty......’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  4. Multilayer Clad Plate of Stainless Steel/Aluminum/Aluminum Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Jiawei; PANG Yuhua; LI Ting

    2011-01-01

    The 3, 5, 20 layer clad plate from austenitic stainless steel, pure aluminum and aluminum alloy sheets were fabricated in different ways. The stretch and interface properties were measured. The result shows that 20 layer clad plate is better than the others. Well-bonded clad plate was successfully obtained in the following procedure: Basic clad sheet from 18 layer A11060/A13003sheets was firstly obtained with an initial rolling reduction of 44% at 450 ℃, followed by annealing at 300 ℃, and then with reduction of 50% at 550 ℃ from STS304 on each side. The best 20 layer clad plate was of 129 MPa bonding strength and 225 MPa stretch strength.

  5. Aluminum/steel wire composite plates exhibit high tensile strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Composite plate of fine steel wires imbedded in an aluminum alloy matrix results in a lightweight material with high tensile strength. Plates have been prepared having the strength of titanium with only 85 percent of its density.

  6. Electroless nickel plating on stainless steels and aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Procedures for applying an adherent electroless nickel plating on 303 SE, 304, and 17-7 PH stainless steels, and 7075 aluminum alloy was developed. When heat treated, the electroless nickel plating provides a hard surface coating on a high strength, corrosion resistant substrate.

  7. Brazed aluminum, Plate-fin heat exchangers for OTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, H.D.

    1980-12-01

    Brazed aluminum plate-fin heat exchangers have been available for special applications for over thirty years. The performance, compactness, versatility, and low cost of these heat exchangers has been unequaled by other heat exchanger configuration. The application of brazed aluminum has been highly limited because of necessary restrictions for clean non-corrosive atmospheres. Air and gas separation have provided ideal conditions for accepting brazed aluminum and in turn have benefited by the salient features of these plate-fin heat exchangers. In fact, brazed aluminum and cryogenic gas and air separation have become nearly synonymous. Brazed aluminum in its historic form could not be considered for a seawater atmosphere. However, technology presents a new look of significant importance to OTEC in terms of compactness and cost. The significant technological variation made was to include one-piece hollow extensions for the seawater passages. Crevice corrosion sites are thereby entirely eliminated and pitting corrosion attack will be controlled by an integral and sacrificial layer of a zinc-aluminum alloy. This paper on brazed aluminum plate-fin heat exchangers for OTEC will aquaint the reader with the state-of-art and variations suggested to qualify this form of aluminum for seawater use. In order to verify the desirable cost potential for OTEC, Trane teamed with Westinghouse to perform an OTEC system analysis with this heat exchanger. These results are very promising and reported in detail elsewhere.

  8. Residual stress in quenched 7075 aluminum alloy thick plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林高用; 张辉; 朱伟; 彭大暑; 梁轩; 周鸿章

    2003-01-01

    The influence of quenching water temperature, pre-stretching amount and aging temperature and times on residual stress in 7075 aluminum thick plate was studied by the measurement of residual stress using drilling hole method. The results indicate that residual stress decreases by 30% with increasing quenching water temperature from 40 ℃ to 80 ℃, 20% with increasing aging temperature from 100 ℃ to 180 ℃,and 20% with increasing aging times from 5 h to 25 h. Also, residual stress decreases to zero with increasing pre-stretching amount to approximately 2%. Hence, residual stress in 7075 aluminum thick plate is reduced by the control of quenching water temperature at 80 ℃ and with pre-stretching amount of about 2%. An optimal aging temperature and time should be systemically investigated to obtain combination of high mechanical performances and lower residual stress for manufacturing of 7075 aluminum alloy thick plates.

  9. Spot brazing of aluminum to copper with a cover plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Junya; Miyazawa, Yasuyuki

    2014-08-01

    It is difficult to join dissimilar metals when an intermetallic compound is formed at the joining interface. Spot brazing can be accomplished in a short time by resistance heating. Therefore, it is said that the formation of a intermetallic compound can be prevented. In this study, aluminum and copper were joined by spot brazing with a cover plate. The cover plate was used to supply heat to base metals and prevent heat dissipation from the base metals. The ability to braze Al and Cu was investigated by observation and analysis. Pure aluminum (A1050) plate and oxygen-free copper (C1020) plate were used as base metals. Cu-Ni-Sn-P brazing filler was used as the brazing filler metal. SPCC was employed as cover plate. Brazing was done with a micro spot welder under an argon gas atmosphere. Brazing ability was estimated by tensile shear strength and cross sectional microstructure observation. Al and Cu can be joined by spot brazing with Cu-Ni-Sn-P brazing filler and cover plate.

  10. Modification of the aluminum for making offset printing plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NENAD ILIC

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum as the base of offset printing plates should make good contact with wetting agents and the light sensitive layer and should be resistant to wear and cracking. In order to achieve this, the aluminum is roughened and eventually anodized. A thin, electrochemically deposited chromium layer is used as the non-printing element in bimetallic offset printing forms. Chromium shows excellent wettability and wear resistance. The possibility of chemical deposition of chromium on aluminum from an alkaline solution is examined in this paper. The presence of chromium was confirmed and measured by EDAX. A difference in the spectral reflection characteristic between chromium-treated and non-treated specimens was also detected. An influence of a chromium layer on an aluminum surface was examined by water drop spreading. Chromium-treated samples showed better wettability than non-treated samples, but they are less wettable than anodized samples.

  11. Friction stir welding of 5052 aluminum alloy plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Jai KWON; Seong-Beom SHIM; Dong-Hwan PARK

    2009-01-01

    Friction stir welding between 5052 aluminum alloy plates with a thickness of 2 mm was performed. The tool for welding was rotated at speeds ranging from 500 to 3 000 r/min under a constant traverse speed of 100 mm/min. The results show that at all tool rotation speeds, defect-free welds are successfully obtained. Especially at 1 000, 2 000 and 3 000 r/min, the welds exhibit very smooth surface morphologies. At 500, 1 000, and 2 000 r/min, onion ring structure is clearly observed in the friction-stir-welded zone (SZ). In addition, the onion ring structure region becomes wider as the tool rotation speed is increased. The gain size in the SZ is smaller than that in the base metal, and is decreased with a decrease of the tool rotation speed. In all tool rotation speeds, the SZ exhibits higher average hardness than the base metal. Especially at 500 r/min, the average hardness of the SZ reaches a level about 33% greater than that of the base metal. At 500, 1 000 and 2 000 r/min, the tensile strength of the friction stir welded (FSWed) plates is similar to that of the base metal (about 204 Mpa). The elongation of the FSWed plates is lower than that of the base metal (about 22%). However, it is noticeable that the maximum elongation of about 21% is obtained at 1 000 r/min.

  12. Impact Delamination and Fracture in Aluminum/Acrylic Sandwich Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Benjamin; Zeichner, Glenn; Liu, Yanxiong; Bowles, Kenneth J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Impact-induced delamination and fracture in 6061-T6 aluminum/cast acrylic sandwich plates adhered by epoxy were generated in an instrumented drop-weight impact machine. Although only a small dent was produced on the aluminum side when a hemispherical penetrator tup was dropped onto it from a couple of inches, a large ring of delamination at the interface was observed. The delamination damage was often accompanied by severe shattering in the acrylic substratum. Damage patterns in the acrylic layer include radial and ring cracks and, together with delamination at the interface, may cause peeling-off of acrylic material from the sandwich plate. Theory of stress-wave propagation can be used to explain these damage patterns. The impact tests were conducted at various temperatures. The results also show clearly that temperature effect is very important in impact damage. For pure cast acrylic nil-ductile transition (NDT) occurs between 185-195 F. Excessive impact energy was dissipated into fracture energy when tested at temperature below this range or through plastic deformation when tested at temperature above the NDT temperature. Results from this study will be used as baseline data for studying fiber-metal laminates, such as GLARE and ARALL for advanced aeronautical and astronautical applications.

  13. New explosive welding technique to weld aluminum alloy and stainless steel plates using a stainless steel intermediate plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokamoto, K.; Fujita, M. (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Izuma, T. (Asahi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., Siga (Japan))

    1993-10-01

    Various aluminum alloys and stainless steel were explosively welded using a thin stainless steel intermediate plate inserted between the aluminum alloy driver and stainless steel base plates. At first. the velocity change of the driver plate with flying distance is calculated using finite-difference analysis. Since the kinetic energy lost by collision affects the amount of the fused layer generated at the interface between the aluminum alloy and stainless steel, the use of a thin stainless steel intermediate plate is effective for decreasing the energy dissipated by the collision. The interfacial zone at the welded interface is composed of a fine eutectic structure of aluminum and Fe[sub 4]Al[sub 13], and the explosive welding, process of this metal combination proceeds mainly by intensive deformation of the aluminum alloy. The weldable region for various aluminum alloys is decided by the change in collision velocity and kinetic energy lost by collision, and the weldable region is decreased with the increase in the strength of the aluminum alloy.

  14. Mechanical properties of hot rolled 2519 aluminum alloy plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭大暑; 陈险峰; 林启权; 张辉

    2003-01-01

    The effects of differences of temper on mechanical properties of T6, T7 and T8 plates of aluminum alloy 2519 were studied. The stress corrosion cracking(SCC) sensitivity was evaluated with parameters such as Kσ and Kδ.Tensile tests were divided into two groups: one was performed on tensile specimens without pre-corrosion, the other was performed on tensile specimens which were pre-corroded in 3.5%NaCl+1%H2O2 solution at 25 ℃.The results show that SCC resistance of alloy 2519 ranks in the order of T8>T7>T6 and the mechanical properties rank in the order of T6>T8>T7. SEM fractographs of the failed specimen show that the SCC sensitivity can be determined by the distribution of the second phase particles and size and the shape of grains in the alloy.

  15. 78 FR 33132 - Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... COMMISSION Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test... Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test Reactors.'' This guide... plate-type uranium-aluminum fuel elements used in research and test reactors (RTRs). ADDRESSES: Please...

  16. Butt weld of aluminum alloy plates 6063 and LY12 by laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jin'an; Cheng, Zhaogu; Xu, Guoliang; Li, Xianqin

    2000-02-01

    By means of a transverse flow 5 kW CO2 laser with low- order mode laser beam output, 1 - 4 mm thick aluminum alloy plates 6063 and LY12 were successfully butt welded. The result shows that the butt weldability and the weld quality of the aluminum alloy plates are mainly dependent on incident laser power density, laser beam defocused distance and shielding gas. The relationship between the weld quality of the aluminum alloy plates and the welding parameters is discussed. The macrostructure and microstructure of the welded seams are analyzed. The mechanical properties of the welded seams are discussed.

  17. Analysis of Crystallographic Textures in Aluminum Plates Processed by Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Saiyi; Mishin, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    A modeling and experimental investigation has been conducted to explore the effect of processing route on texture evolution during equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) of aluminum plate samples. It is found that although the textures in the plates develop along orientation fibers previously...

  18. Low temperature bonding of LD31 aluminum alloys by electric brush plating Ni and Cu coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhenqing; Wang Chunqing; Du Miao

    2005-01-01

    Soldering of LD31 aluminum alloys using Sn-Pb solder paste after electric brush plating Ni and Cu coatings was nvestigated. The technology of electric brush plating Ni and Cu was studied and plating solution was developed. The microstructure of the coatings, soldered joint and fracture face were analyzed using optic microscopy, SEM and EDX. The shear strength of soldered joint could reach as high as 26. 83 MPa. The results showed that reliable soldered joint could be obtained at 230℃, the adhesion of coatings and LD31 aluminum alloy substrate was high enough to bear the thermal process in the soldering.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF 6061 T651 ALUMINUM PLATES SUBJECTED TO HIGH-VELOCITY IMPACT LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren ÖZŞAHİN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ballistic response of single or multi-layered metal armor systems subjected to kinetic energy pro-jectiles was investigated in many experimental, theoretical and numerical studies.In this study, 6061 T651 aluminum plates impacted by 9 mm bullets were investigated. Microstructural investigations have been carried out using optical microscopy. Microhardness values were used to determine the strength behavior of the plates. Influence of the plate thickness and impact velocity on the microstructure has been evaluated. It was concluded from the study that thinner plates are more prone to deformation hardening with high penetration depth values even at low impact velocities while thick plates are more susceptible to thermal softening with less penetration depths. Maximum hardness values were obtained just below the impact zone in both plate thicknesses.

  20. Beris Engineering Launching Its High Quality Aluminum Plate & Strip Project In Qinghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Pingan high quality aluminum plate and strip project has its cold rolling part fully launched, with the entire design from Beris Engineering and Research Corp.The contract for hot roll- ing and high rack warehouse has been signed. The 200,000-ton/year high quality aluminum plate and strip project is a standard hot con- tinuous rolling unit in Pingan High Quality Aluminum Ltd.in Qinghai Province.The whole project consists of 4 parts of hot rolling, cold rolling,finishing and high rack warehouse.

  1. 77 FR 16868 - Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... COMMISSION Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test...-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test Reactors,'' is temporarily identified... verifying the quality of plate-type uranium-aluminum fuel elements used in research and test reactors (RTRs...

  2. Sensitization of Naturally Aged Aluminum 5083 Armor Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-29

    darker areas indicate lighter elements and vice-versa. - 4 - Figure 4. Z -contrast image (a) and corresponding fine-probe EDS line scan (b...probably β) on the grain boundaries, but was generally not continuous. Figure 6(a) and 6(b) shows the Z -contrast image and FPEDS line scan indicating...rich phase precipitation in the specimen in the bottom half of the plate. (a) Z - contrast image and corresponding fine-probe EDS line scan (b). Images

  3. Numerical simulation on bucking distortion of aluminum alloy thin-plate weldment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun LI; Jian-guo YANG; Ha-Mong LI; De-jun YAN; Hong-yuan FANG

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the welding residual distortion of aluminum alloy thin plates is predicted using the elasticity-plasticity finite element method (FEM). The factors contributing to the welding buckling distortion of thin plates are studied by investigating the formation and evolution process of welding stresses. Results of experi-ments and numerical simulations show that the buckling appearance of thin-plate aluminum alloy weldments is asymmetrical in the welding length direction, and the maximum longitudinal deflection appears at the position a certain distance from the middle point of the side edge towards the arc-starting end. The angular deformation direction of thin-plate weldments is not fixed, and such case as the angular deformation value of the arc-starting end being higher than that of the arc-blowout end exists.

  4. A Study on Friction Stir Welding of 12mm Thick Aluminum Alloy Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deepati Anil Kumar; Pankaj Biswas; Sujoy Tikader; M. M. Mahapatra; N. R. Mandal

    2013-01-01

    Most of the investigations regarding friction stir welding (FSW) of aluminum alloy plates have been limited to about 5 to 6 mm thick plates. In prior work conducted the various aspects concerning the process parameters and the FSW tool geometry were studied utilizing friction stir welding of 12 mm thick commercial grade aluminum alloy. Two different simple-to-manufacture tool geometries were used. The effect of varying welding parameters and dwell time of FSW tool on mechanical properties and weld quality was examined. It was observed that in order to achieve a defect free welding on such thick aluminum alloy plates, tool having trapezoidal pin geometry was suitable. Adequate tensile strength and ductility can be achieved utilizing a combination of high tool rotational speed of about 2000 r/min and low speed of welding around 28 mm/min. At very low and high dwell time the ductility of welded joints are reduced significantly.

  5. Multichip on Aluminum Metal Plate Technology for High Power LED Packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Choong-mo NAM; Mi-hee JI

    2010-01-01

    Multichip on Aluminum Metal Plate(MOAMP) technology with simple structure and low thermal resistance is developed for effective heat removal of Light Emitting Diode(LED) p-n junction and LED lighting module to have high reliability. The thermal resistance of LED modules was numerical and experimental. Thermal resistance from the junction to aluminum metal plate, considering input power of LED module using MOAMP technology, is 3.02 K/W, 3.23 K/W for the measured and calculated, respectively. We expect that the reported MOAMP technology with low thermal resistance will be a promising solution for high power LED lighting modules.

  6. Cube orientation in hot rolled high purity aluminum plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨平; 毛卫民

    2003-01-01

    X-ray diffraction and orientation mapping in EBSD measurement were applied to obtain information ofdeformation and recrystallization with the emphasis on the cube orientation in hot rolled high purity aluminumplates. It is shown that cube orientations are retained to a large extent during hot rolling. Some deformed cubegrains are found to have experienced large extent of recovery according to their Kikuchi band contrasts. The de-formed cube-oriented grains in hot rolled plates are in an unfavorite growth condition with respect to their neighbor-ing grain orientations for the subsequent annealing. The reasons for the phenomena observed, as well as the influ-ence of hot rolling process on subsequent cold rolling and final annealing were discussed.

  7. Characterization of commercially pure aluminum powder for research reactor fuel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, V.D. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Wiencek, T.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Aluminum powder is used as the matrix material in the production of uranium aluminide, oxide, and silicide dispersion fuel plates for research and test reactors. variability in the characteristics of the aluminum powder, such as moisture content and particle-size distribution, influences blending and compacting of the aluminum/fuel powder. A detailed study was performed to characterize the physical properties of three aluminum powder lots. An angle-of-shear test was devised to characterize the cohesiveness of the aluminum powder. Flow-rate measurements, apparent density determination, subsieve analysis, surface area measurements, and scanning electron microscopy were also used in the study. It was found that because of the various types of commercially available powders, proper specification of powder variables will ensure the receipt of consistent raw materials. Improved control of the initial powder will reduce the variability of fuel-plate production and will improve overall plate reproducibility. It is recommended that a standard specification be written for the aluminum powder and silicide fuel.

  8. Characterization of commercially pure aluminum powder for research reactor fuel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, V.D. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States)); Wiencek, T.C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Aluminum powder is used as the matrix material in the production of uranium aluminide, oxide, and silicide dispersion fuel plates for research and test reactors. variability in the characteristics of the aluminum powder, such as moisture content and particle-size distribution, influences blending and compacting of the aluminum/fuel powder. A detailed study was performed to characterize the physical properties of three aluminum powder lots. An angle-of-shear test was devised to characterize the cohesiveness of the aluminum powder. Flow-rate measurements, apparent density determination, subsieve analysis, surface area measurements, and scanning electron microscopy were also used in the study. It was found that because of the various types of commercially available powders, proper specification of powder variables will ensure the receipt of consistent raw materials. Improved control of the initial powder will reduce the variability of fuel-plate production and will improve overall plate reproducibility. It is recommended that a standard specification be written for the aluminum powder and silicide fuel.

  9. FEM Analysis of Spring-backs in Age Forming of Aluminum Alloy Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Lin; Wan Min; Chi Cailou; Ji Xiusheng

    2007-01-01

    The age forming technology, characterized by huge spring-backs, has been developed to manufacture large integral wing-skin panel parts, which necessitates devising a method of predicting spring-backs. A 7B04-T7451 aluminum alloy creep test in tension is accomplished at 155 ℃, and the creep curves are obtained. The material constants of the mechanism-based creep constitutive equations are determined through experiments. The age forming process and the spring-backs of 7B04 aluminum alloy plates are analyzed using the commercial finite element software ABAQUS. The effects of plate thickness and formingtime on spring-backs are researched. The spring-backs decrease with the increase of plate thickness and forming time. The test results verify the reliability of the finite element method (FEM) analysis.

  10. Eulerian simulation of the perforation of aluminum plates by nondeforming projectiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silling, S.A.

    1992-03-01

    A new algorithm for the treatment of sliding interfaces between solids with or without friction in an Eulerian wavecode is described. The algorithm has been implemented in the two-dimensional version of the CTH code. The code was used to simulate penetration and perforation of aluminum plates by rigid, conical-nosed tungsten projectiles. Comparison with experimental data is provided.

  11. Structural coarsening during annealing of an aluminum plate heavily deformed using ECAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg V.; Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, A.

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure and softening behaviour have been investigated in an aluminum plate heavily deformed by equal channel angular extrusion and subsequently annealed at 170 °C. It is found that at this temperature the microstructure evolves by coarsening with no apparent signs of recrystallization...

  12. Planar gas chromatography column on aluminum plate with multi-walled carbon nanotubes as stationary phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, I. A.; Platonov, V. I.; Pavelyev, V. S.

    2016-04-01

    The high selectivity of the adsorption layer for low-boiling alkanes is shown, the separation factor (α) couple iso-butane / butane is 1.9 at a column temperature of 50 °C.The paper presents sorption and selective properties of planar gas chromatography column on aluminum plate with multi-walled carbon nanotubes as the stationary phase.

  13. Cadmium plated steel caps seal anodized aluminum fittings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padden, J.

    1971-01-01

    Cadmium prevents fracturing of hard anodic coating under torquing to system specification requirements, prevents galvanic coupling, and eliminates need for crush washers, which, though commonly used in industry, do not correct leakage problem experienced when anodized aluminum fittings and anodized aluminum cap assemblies are joined.

  14. Laser-multi-pass-narrow-gap-welding of Hot Crack Sensitive Thick Aluminum Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, D.; Schedewy, R.; Brenner, B.; Standfuß, J.

    Although the current process limitations for laser beam welding of thick aluminum plates (>10 mm) have been overcome by high brilliant multi-kilowatt laser, there are still difficulties resulting from the material physical properties, e.g. the high heat conductivity, the large heat capacity and the high thermal expansion coefficient of aluminum. Especially for very deep weld seams, insufficient dilution of filler wire material in the root of the weld seam and the danger of hot cracks increases. With a new welding technology, the Laser-Multi-Pass-Narrow-Gap-Welding, a innovative approach has been developed to weld thick aluminum plates with highest beam quality lasers and remarkably reduced laser power.

  15. The Mechanical Properties of ALCA PlusTM Cast Aluminum Amplifier Top Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biltoft, P; Gourdin, W H; Sanchez, R J; Shen, T H

    2002-06-27

    The amplifier top plates are monolithic, cast aluminum structures from which the amplifier frame assembly units (FAUs), and the line-replaceable flash lamp units (LRUs) inside them, are hung on the support rails in the laser bays. When fully assembled, each plate must support a static weight of 10,600 or 16,000 pounds, depending upon whether two or three loaded FAUs are attached. The top plates are fabricated from ''ALCA Plus{trademark}'', a zinc-containing aluminum casting alloy similar in composition to some standard alloys in the 7000-series. For electrical reasons, all of the plate with the exception of the support ''ears'', is encased in epoxy as shown in Figure 1. The nominal chemistry of the aluminum alloy is summarized in Table 1 and the nominal mechanical characteristics are summarized in Table 2. For comparison, wrought alloys of similar composition in the 7000-series have ultimate strengths of approximately 33-76 ksi and elongations of 11-17%, depending upon the temper.

  16. The Effect of the Width of an Aluminum Plate on a Bouncing Steel Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Hathaway

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the distance between clamping supports of an aluminum alloy plate on the coefficient of restitution of a bouncing steel ball was investigated. The plate was supported on two wooden blocks with a meter stick secured on either side. A steel ball was dropped from a constant height and a motion detector was used to find the coefficient of restitution. Measurements were made with the wooden blocks at a range of distances. It was found that as the distance between the wooden blocks increased, the coefficient of restitution decreased linearly.

  17. The Effect of the Width of an Aluminum Plate on a Bouncing Steel Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Hathaway

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the distance between clamping supports of an aluminum alloy plate on the coefficient of restitution of a bouncing steel ball was investigated. The plate was supported on two wooden blocks with a meter stick secured on either side. A steel ball was dropped from a constant height and a motion detector was used to find the coefficient of restitution. Measurements were made with the wooden blocks at a range of distances. It was found that as the distance between the wooden blocks increased, the coefficient of restitution decreased linearly

  18. Grain refinement of ASTM A356 aluminum alloy using sloping plate process through gravity die casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Mehmood

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sloping plate flow is used for enhancement of material properties through grain refinement in gravity die casting of Aluminum alloy ASTM A356. The castings are prepared with different slope angles of an 800 mm long, naturally cooled stainless steel plate. The specimens obtained are then tested for tensile strength and elongation. Microstructure of the cast specimens is observed and conclusions drawn on the grain size and precipitate morphology as a function of angle of sloping plate. Analysis is presented for the boundary layer created while the material flows over the plate. An indication of the boundary layer thickness is determined by measuring the thickness of the residual metal layer on the plate after casting. An analytical solution of the boundary layer thickness is also presented. It is shown that the calculated boundary layer thickness and the thickness of the layer of material left in the channel after casting are in good agreement. Moreover, microstructure examination and tensile tests show that best properties are achieved with a 60° sloping plate.

  19. The propagation characteristics of the plate modes of acoustic emission waves in thin aluminum plates and thin graphite/epoxy composite plates and tubes. Ph.D. Thesis - Johns Hopkins Univ., 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, William H.

    1991-01-01

    Acoustic emission was interpreted as modes of vibration in plates. Classical plate theory was used to predict dispersion curves for the two fundamental modes and to calculate the shapes of flexural waveforms produced by vertical step function loading. There was good agreement between theoretical and experimental results for aluminum. Composite materials required the use of a higher order plate theory (Reissner-Mindlin) to get good agreement with the measured velocities. Four composite plates with different laminate stacking sequences were studied. The dispersion curves were determined from phase spectra of the time dependent waveforms. Plate modes were shown to be useful for determining the direction of source motion. Aluminum plates were loaded by breaking a pencil lead against their surface. By machining slots at angles to the plane of a plate, the direction in which the force acted was varied. Changing the source motion direction produced regular variations in the waveforms. To demonstrate applicability beyond simple plates, waveforms produced by lead breaks on a thin walled composite tube were also shown to be interpretable as plate modes. The tube design was based on the type of struts proposed for Space Station Freedom's trussed structures.

  20. Quantitative Microstructural Characterization of Thick Aluminum Plates Heavily Deformed Using Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Segal, V.M.; Ferrasse, S.

    2012-01-01

    deg rotations about the longitudinal axis. Statistically robust data were obtained in this work using gallium enhanced microscopy and EBSD mapping of large sample areas. For the plate processed using route A, the fraction of high-angle boundaries was found to strongly depend on the inspection plane......A detailed quantitative analysis of the microstructure has been performed in three orthogonal planes of 15-mm-thick aluminum plates heavily deformed via two equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) routes. One route was a conventional route A with no rotation between passes. Another route involved...... sequential 90 deg rotations about the normal direction (ND) between passes. The microstructure in the center of these plates, and especially the extent of microstructural heterogeneity, has been characterized quantitatively and compared with that in bar samples extruded via either route A or route Bc with 90...

  1. Testing the Corrosion Behaviour of Plated Aluminum Strips for Heat Exchangers Operating in the Automotive Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Marek; Opyrchał, Mieczysław; Kłyszewski, Andrzej; Żelechowski, Janusz

    The automotive industry uses heat exchangers made of aluminum alloys. The radiators for an engine cooling system comprise elements (tubes) in which the coolant flows. These elements are made of AlMn alloys (e.g. AlMn or AlMnCu), while ribs are made from the sheet metal plated with AlSi alloys. While in service, the heat exchangers are exposed to harsh weather conditions, hence the need to ensure that the individual elements of the design are adequately protected from corrosion. One of the ways to obtain this protection is by modification of the chemical composition of aluminum alloys used in the manufacture of radiators. In this study, corrosion tests were carried out to characterise the investigated materials in terms of their corrosive behavior. The experiments included measurements of corrosion potential, testing of corrosion resistance in neutral salt spray, and electrochemical studies of selected plated AlMn alloy strips with different chemical composition.

  2. Explosive scarf welding of aluminum to copper plates and their interface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashani, J.Z.; Bagheri, S.M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran)

    2009-09-15

    Explosive welding was used to produce scarf joint between aluminum and copper plates. This process is known as explosive scarf welding (ESW). In a scarf joint, the final bond interface is oblique. In this study, chamfered end of aluminum and copper plates were joined explosively and named scarf joint, employing changes in chamfered angle at different stand-off distance and explosive loading. The geometry of scarf joint enables consideration of both flyer and base plate thickness and explosive loading and the effects on mechanical properties of interface such as bond shear strength and micro-hardness can be investigated. Mathematical models developed on the interface properties of scarf joint to make relationship between the bond shear strength and explosive loading ratio. To check the adequacy of developed models, mechanical properties of interface, such as bond shear strength was predicted and compared with actual values in explosive cladding process. The results show reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions. Consequently, mathematical model which is based on scarf joints, can predict bond shear strength of cladding metals under desired explosive loading and flyer plate thickness. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Sprengschweissen von Aluminium - Kupferplatten und ihre Grenzflaecheneigenschaften. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Comparison of SCC Thresholds and Environmentally Assisted Cracking in 7050-T7451 Aluminum Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Eric M.; Schubbe, Joel J.; Moran, Patrick J.; Bayles, Robert A.

    2012-11-01

    Aerospace alloys, often aluminums, are frequently exposed to corrosive environments resulting from naval service. These environments may produce significant changes in crack growth characteristics in these materials. An experiment was designed to characterize the effects of environment on crack growth thresholds and fracture characteristics for existing cracks in aluminum 7050-T7451 plate material. This data will be comparatively analyzed against aluminum 7075-T7631, an alloy with known susceptibility to corrosion, in order to determine a relative susceptibility of 7050-T7451, generally considered a superior aluminum alloy in terms of strength and corrosion resistance. The resulting data and subsequent analysis can in turn be used in more accurate determination of aircraft component service life in common corrosive environments experienced by aircraft in naval service.

  4. Crack Imaging and Quantification in Aluminum Plates with Guided Wave Wavenumber Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lingyu; Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Guided wavefield analysis methods for detection and quantification of crack damage in an aluminum plate are presented in this paper. New wavenumber components created by abrupt wave changes at the structural discontinuity are identified in the frequency-wavenumber spectra. It is shown that the new wavenumbers can be used to detect and characterize the crack dimensions. Two imaging based approaches, filter reconstructed imaging and spatial wavenumber imaging, are used to demonstrate how the cracks can be evaluated with wavenumber analysis. The filter reconstructed imaging is shown to be a rapid method to map the plate and any existing damage, but with less precision in estimating crack dimensions; while the spatial wavenumber imaging provides an intensity image of spatial wavenumber values with enhanced resolution of crack dimensions. These techniques are applied to simulated wavefield data, and the simulation based studies show that spatial wavenumber imaging method is able to distinguish cracks of different severities. Laboratory experimental validation is performed for a single crack case to confirm the methods' capabilities for imaging cracks in plates.

  5. Ductile Tearing of Thin Aluminum Plates Under Blast Loading. Predictions with Fully Coupled Models and Biaxial Material Response Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gullerud, Arne S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Haulenbeek, Kimberly K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reu, Phillip L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The work presented in this report concerns the response and failure of thin 2024- T3 aluminum alloy circular plates to a blast load produced by the detonation of a nearby spherical charge. The plates were fully clamped around the circumference and the explosive charge was located centrally with respect to the plate. The principal objective was to conduct a numerical model validation study by comparing the results of predictions to experimental measurements of plate deformation and failure for charges with masses in the vicinity of the threshold between no tearing and tearing of the plates. Stereo digital image correlation data was acquired for all tests to measure the deflection and strains in the plates. The size of the virtual strain gage in the measurements, however, was relatively large, so the strain measurements have to be interpreted accordingly as lower bounds of the actual strains in the plate and of the severity of the strain gradients. A fully coupled interaction model between the blast and the deflection of the structure was considered. The results of the validation exercise indicated that the model predicted the deflection of the plates reasonably accurately as well as the distribution of strain on the plate. The estimation of the threshold charge based on a critical value of equivalent plastic strain measured in a bulge test, however, was not accurate. This in spite of efforts to determine the failure strain of the aluminum sheet under biaxial stress conditions. Further work is needed to be able to predict plate tearing with some degree of confidence. Given the current technology, at least one test under the actual blast conditions where the plate tears is needed to calibrate the value of equivalent plastic strain when failure occurs in the numerical model. Once that has been determined, the question of the explosive mass value at the threshold could be addressed with more confidence.

  6. Glass-bead peen plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Peen plating of aluminum, copper, and nickel powders was investigated. Only aluminum was plated successfully within the range of peen plating conditions studied. Optimum plating conditions for aluminum were found to be: (1) bead/powder mixture containing 25 to 35% powder by weight, (2) peening intensity of 0.007A as measured by Almen strip, and (3) glass impact bead diameter of at least 297 microns (0.0117 inches) for depositing-100 mesh aluminum powder. No extensive cleaning or substrate preparation is required beyond removing loose dirt or heavy oil.

  7. MODIFIED LAYER REMOVAL METHOD FOR MEASUREMENT OF RESIDUAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN THICK PRE-STRETCHED ALUMINUM PLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGShu-hong; ZUODun-wen; WANGMin; WANGZong-rong

    2004-01-01

    The integrated structure parts are widely used in aircraft. The distortion caused by residual stresses in thick pre-stretched aluminum plates during machining integrated parts is a common and serious problem. To predict and control the machining distortion, the residual stress distribution in the thick plate must be measured firstly. The modified removal method for measuring residual stress in thick pre-stretched aluminum plates is proposed and the stress-strain relation matrix is deduced by elasticity theory. The residual stress distribution in specimen of 7050T7451 plate is measured by using the method, and measurement results are analyzed and compared with data obtained by other methods. The method is effective to measure the residual stress.

  8. Microstructure and Phase Constitution Near the Interface of Explosively Welded Aluminum/Copper Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Henryk; Lityńska-Dobrzyńska, Lidia; Prażmowski, Mariusz

    2013-08-01

    The microstructure changes and the phase constitution within the layers close to the bonding interface strongly influence the properties of bimetallic strips. In this work, the layers near the interface of explosively welded aluminum and copper plates were investigated by means of microscopic observations, mostly with the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDX). The study was focused on the identification of the intermetallic phases, the possible interdiffusion between the copper and the aluminum, and the changes in the dislocation structure of the parent plates. In macro-/mesoscale, the interfaces were outlined by a characteristic sharp transition indicating that there was no mechanical mixing between the welded metals in the solid state. In micro-/nanoscale, the layers adhering to the interface show typical deformed microstructure features, i.e., structure refinement, elongated dislocation cells, slip bands, and microtwins (in copper plate). The internal microstructure of the intermetallic inclusion is composed mostly of dendrites. The electron diffractions and TEM/EDX chemical composition measurements revealed three crystalline equilibrium phases of the γ-Al4Cu9, η-AlCu, and Θ-Al2Cu type (the last one was dominant). However, most of the observed phases of the general Cu m Al n type (also crystalline) do not appear in the equilibrium Al-Cu phase diagram. Inside the intermetallic inclusions, no significant regularity in the phase distribution with respect to the parent sheets was observed. Therefore, it was concluded that the processes occurring in the melt determined their local chemical composition.

  9. A corrosion resistant cerium oxide based coating on aluminum alloy 2024 prepared by brush plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Junlei; Han Zhongzhi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zuo Yu, E-mail: zuoy@mail.buct.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Tang Yuming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Cerium oxide based coatings were prepared on AA2024 Al alloy by brush plating. The characteristic of this technology is that hydrogen peroxide, which usually causes the plating solution to be unstable, is not necessary in the plating electrolyte. The coating showed laminated structures and good adhesive strength with the substrate. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that the coatings were composed of Ce(III) and Ce(IV) oxides. The brush plated coatings on Al alloys improved corrosion resistance. The influence of plating parameters on structure and corrosion resistance of the cerium oxide based coating was studied.

  10. An evaluation of the Johnson-Cook model to simulate puncture of 7075 aluminum plates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo; Orient, George Edgar

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the use of the Johnson-Cook strength and failure models in an adiabatic finite element model to simulate the puncture of 7075- T651 aluminum plates that were studied as part of an ASC L2 milestone by Corona et al (2012). The Johnson-Cook model parameters were determined from material test data. The results show a marked improvement, in particular in the calculated threshold velocity between no puncture and puncture, over those obtained in 2012. The threshold velocity calculated using a baseline model is just 4% higher than the mean value determined from experiment, in contrast to 60% in the 2012 predictions. Sensitivity studies showed that the threshold velocity predictions were improved by calibrating the relations between the equivalent plastic strain at failure and stress triaxiality, strain rate and temperature, as well as by the inclusion of adiabatic heating.

  11. Manufacturing of aluminum alloy ultra-thick plates by multidirectional forging and subsequent rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉; 林高用; 彭大暑; 杨立斌; 林启权

    2002-01-01

    A combinatory large deformation model of multidirectional forging and subsequent rolling was proposed for producing high performance aluminum alloy ultra-thick plates.The results show that fine-grain (2~3 μm) structures were obtained when total deformation coefficient λ =32 at 250~350 ℃ under a strain rate of about 0.1 s-1.The development of fine-grained structure can be characterized by the formation of strain-induced high energy dislocation and then transforms into new grain under large deformation at moderate temperature.The very fine secondary particles formed during large deformation play important role in retain the stability of the fine-grained structures.

  12. Friction Stir Welding of 7075-T651 Aluminum Plates and Its Fatigue Crack Growth Property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chi Ok; Sohn, Hye Jeong; Kim, Seon Jin [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Friction stir welding (FSW) method has extensively been used in manufacturing methods because of the several advantages over conventional welding methods, such as better mechanical properties, reduced occurrence of joining defects, high material saving, and low production time, etc. The aim of this paper is to review the optimal FSW conditions using the previous experimental results and is to investigate the fatigue crack growth rate in three different zones, WM, HAZ and BM for FSWed Al7075-T651 aluminum plates. As far as our experiments are concerned, the optimal conditions are obtained as rotation speed, 800rpm and travelling speed, 0.5mm/sec. The fatigue crack growth rate showed strong dependency on three different zones WM, HAZ and BM, and crack driving force.

  13. Combustion Synthesis of SiO2 on the Aluminum Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. L. Yeh; E. Zhao; H.K. Ma

    2001-01-01

    The approach of utilizing combustion synthesis to make fine particles of SiO2, A1203 and TiO2 is a quite moderntechnology. Through the chemical reaction in post-flame region, fine SiO2 particles can be formed with high purity on plate surface. Therefore, the combustion synthesis of SiO2 powders is an important area for further research and development, especially for the application of SiO2 in the semiconductor industry. This investigation proposes an experimental approach (i.e., a gas-phase combustion synthesis) using two different kinds of organic compounds, Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDSA) and Hexamethyldisioxane (HMDSO), as the silicon precursors. A premixed gas burner is chosen with C3H8 as fuel, air as oxidant and pan of the air was used as the carrying gas to entrain HMDSA/HMDSO vapor into the combustible mixture. Observations show that the C3Hs/air flame changed color from a pale-blue flame to light yellow and then orange when different amounts of precursors were introduced. Through the chemical reaction in the post-flame region, fine SiO2 particles were formed in the gas phase and then quenched and collected on an aluminum flat plate. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of HMDSO and HMDSA concentrations and flame temperatures on the synthesis of SiO2 particles.

  14. Laser irradiation effects on thin aluminum plates subjected to surface flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Houman; Zhao, Guomin; Chen, Minsun; Peng, Xin

    2016-10-01

    The irradiation effects of LD laser on thin aluminum alloy plates are studied in experiments characterized by relatively large laser spot and the presence of 0.3Ma surface airflow. A high speed profilometer is used to record the profile change along a vertical line in the rear surface of the target, and the history of the displacement along the direction of thickness of the central point at the rear surface is obtained. The results are compared with those without airflow and those by C. D. Boley. We think that it is the temperature rise difference along the direction of thickness instead of the pressure difference caused by the airflow that makes the thin target bulge into the incoming beam, no matter whether the airflow is blown or not, and that only when the thin aluminum target is heated thus softened enough by the laser irradiation, can the aerodynamic force by the surface airflow cause non-ignorable localized plastic deformation and result a burn-through without melting in the target. However, though the target isn't softened enough in terms of the pressure difference, it might have experienced notable deformation as it is heated from room temperature to several hundred degree centigrade.

  15. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective ... and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add ...

  16. Influences of processing routine on mechanical properties and structures of 7075 aluminum alloy thick-plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林高用; 张辉; 张行健; 韩冬峰; 张颖; 彭大暑

    2003-01-01

    7075 aluminum alloy thick-plates were produced by three processing routines: commercial hot-rolling followed by heat treatment of quenching and ageing (HR+QA), combination of large deformation processing of multi-directional warm forging and subsequent warm rolling followed by heat treatment of quenching and ageing (LD+QA), and that followed by annealing at moderate temperature (LD+AN). Tensile strength, yield strength and elongation were measured by tension test, and the metallographic structures were examined by optical microscopy (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), also the fracture morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is shown that higher tensile strength and yield strength are obtained from (LD+QA) processing in comparison with those from (HR+QA) and (LD+AN) processings. Tensile strength and yield strength obtained from (LD+QA) processing are 9.9% and 8.6% higher respectively than those from (HR+QA) processing, and 48.6% and 57.7% higher respectively than those from (LD+AN) processing; while the elongations of all the samples show no significant difference and keep 10%-12%. Analyses of OM and TEM reveal that the mechanical behaviors are deeply associated with the formation of refined structures with fine grains and very fine precipitates, leading to fine-grained hardening and excellent age hardening.

  17. Investigation of Interface Bonding Mechanism of an Explosively Welded Tri-Metal Titanium/Aluminum/Magnesium Plate by Nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T. T.; Wang, W. X.; Zhou, J.; Cao, X. Q.; Yan, Z. F.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, W.

    2017-08-01

    A tri-metal titanium/aluminum/magnesium (Ti/Al/Mg) cladding plate, with an aluminum alloy interlayer plate, was fabricated for the first time by explosive welding. Nanoindentation tests and associated microstructure analysis were conducted to investigate the interface bonding mechanisms of the Ti/Al/Mg cladding plate. A periodic wavy bonding interface (with an amplitude of approximately 30 μm and a wavelength of approximately 160 μm) without a molten zone was formed between the Ti and Al plates. The bonding interface between the Al and the Mg demonstrated a similar wavy shape, but the wave at this location was much larger with an amplitude of approximately 390 μm and a wavelength of approximately 1580 μm, and some localized melted zones also existed at this location. The formation of the wavy interface was found to result from a severe deformation at the interface, which was caused by the strong impact or collision. The nanoindentation tests showed that the material hardness decreased with increasing distance from the bonding interface. Material hardness at a location was found to be correlated with the degree of plastic deformation at that site. A larger plastic deformation was correlated with an increase in hardness.

  18. Micro-channel plate detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Lee, Seon W.; Wang, Hsien -Hau; Pellin, Michael J.; Byrum, Karen; Frisch, Henry J.

    2015-09-22

    A method and system for providing a micro-channel plate detector. An anodized aluminum oxide membrane is provided and includes a plurality of nanopores which have an Al coating and a thin layer of an emissive oxide material responsive to incident radiation, thereby providing a plurality of radiation sensitive channels for the micro-channel plate detector.

  19. Fabrication of electroless nickel plated aluminum freeform mirror for an infrared off-axis telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghyuk; Chang, Seunghyuk; Pak, Soojong; Lee, Kwang Jo; Jeong, Byeongjoon; Lee, Gil-jae; Kim, Geon Hee; Shin, Sang Kyo; Yoo, Song Min

    2015-12-01

    Freeform mirrors can be readily fabricated by a single point diamond turning (SPDT) machine. However, this machining process often leaves mid-frequency errors (MFEs) that generate undesirable diffraction effects and stray light. In this work, we propose a novel thin electroless nickel plating procedure to remove MFE on freeform surfaces. The proposed procedure has a distinct advantage over a typical thick plating method in that the machining process can be endlessly repeated until the designed mirror surface is obtained. This is of great importance because the sophisticated surface of a freeform mirror cannot be optimized by a typical SPDT machining process, which can be repeated only several times before the limited thickness of the nickel plating is consumed. We will also describe the baking process of a plated mirror to improve the hardness of the mirror surface, which is crucial for minimizing the degradation of that mirror surface that occurs during the polishing process. During the whole proposed process, the changes in surface figures and textures are monitored and cross checked by two different types of measurements, as well as by an interference pattern test. The experimental results indicate that the proposed thin electroless nickel plating procedure is very simple but powerful for removing MFEs on freeform mirror surfaces.

  20. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of MIG Welding of T-Joints of Thin Aluminum Plates for Top Class Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazzi, Enrico; Colombini, Elena; Panari, Davide; Vergnano, Alberto; Leali, Francesco; Veronesi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The integration of experiments with numerical simulations can efficiently support a quick evaluation of the welded joint. In this work, the MIG welding operation on aluminum T-joint thin plate has been studied by the integration of both simulation and experiments. The aim of the paper is to enlarge the global database, to promote the use of thin aluminum sheets in automotive body industries and to provide new data. Since the welding of aluminum thin plates is difficult to control due to high speed of the heat source and high heat flows during heating and cooling, a simulation model could be considered an effective design tool to predict the real phenomena. This integrated approach enables new evaluation possibilities on MIG-welded thin aluminum T-joints, as correspondence between the extension of the microstructural zones and the simulation parameters, material hardness, transient 3D temperature distribution on the surface and inside the material, stresses, strains, and deformations. The results of the mechanical simulations are comparable with the experimental measurements along the welding path, especially considering the variability of the process. The results could well predict the welding-induced distortion, which together with local heating during welding must be anticipated and subsequently minimized and counterbalance.

  1. Embedded adhesive connection for laminated glass plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Poulsen, S.H.; Bagger, A.

    2012-01-01

    The structural behavior of a new connection design, the embedded adhesive connection, used for laminated glass plates is investigated. The connection consists of an aluminum plate encapsulated in-between two adjacent triple layered laminated glass plates. Fastening between glass and aluminum...... usage in a design situation. The embedded connection shows promising potential as a future fastening system for load-carrying laminated glass plates....

  2. Estimation of fatigue evolution of aluminum alloy plated with electroless NI–CO–P by using electromagnetic impedance method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Katsuyuki

    2015-02-01

    We have developed a method for detecting fatigue in aluminum alloys that is based on a applying a ferromagnetic electroless Ni–Co–P plating and then using an electromagnetic impedance (EMI) method to determine its permeability properties by measuring the high-frequency AC impedance of a coil sensor in the presence of a static magnetic field. The results obtained confirmed that this method can estimate the fatigue evolution of a specimen until the point at which the cumulative strain becomes saturated by using measurements obtained by the EMI method under tensile deformation and FEM analysis results. - Highlights: • Plating aluminum alloy with Ni–Co–P film increases its fatigue strength by 13−16%. • The tensile direction is the stress induced “hard axis” of the Ni–Co–P plating. • In-plane permeability determines the coil impedance for out-of-plane excitation. • This method can measure fatigue up to saturation of the substrate's residual strain.

  3. Formation of interlayer gap and control of interlayer burr in dry drilling of stacked aluminum alloy plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In aircraft assembly, interlayer burr formation in dry drilling of stacked metal materials is a common problem. Traditional manual deburring operation seriously affects the assembly quality and assembly efficiency, is time-consuming and costly, and is not conducive to aircraft automatic assembly based on industrial robot. In this paper, the formation of drilling exit burr and the influence of interlayer gap on interlayer burr formation were studied, and the mechanism of interlayer gap formation in drilling stacked aluminum alloy plates was investigated, a simplified mathematical model of interlayer gap based on the theory of plates and shells and finite element method was established. The relationship between interlayer gap and interlayer burr, as well as the effect of feed rate and pressing force on interlayer burr height and interlayer gap was discussed. The result shows that theoretical interlayer gap has a positive correlation with interlayer burr height and preloading pressing force is an effective method to control interlayer burr formation.

  4. TiO(2) printed aluminum foil: single-use film for a laser desorption/ionization target plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Hongyan; Qiao, Liang; Busnel, Jean-Marc; Devaud, Valerie; Liu, Baohong; Girault, Hubert H

    2009-02-01

    Single-use aluminum foil-based laser desorption/ionization (LDI) target plates have been developed for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis and provide detection results comparable to those of commercial stainless steel plates while offering a convenient way to avoid the time-consuming surface cleaning process. Additionally, arrays of TiO(2) nanoparticle spots are coated on the foil either by screen-printing or rotogravure-printing followed by sintering to form a mesoporous layer spot to act as an anchor for sample deposition. These TiO(2) spots offer further functions to the Al foil, such as matrix-free laser desorption/ionization or specific affinity for in situ enrichment of phosphopeptides. The single-use TiO(2)-Al foils are cheap to produce, easy to use, and well suited for high-throughput proteomics research. They can also be of interest for protein post-translational modifications study.

  5. Numerical simulation about the effect of fixture on the welding stress and distortion of thin aluminum plate joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The effect of welding jig on the welding stress and buckling distortion of thin aluminum plate joints was simulated by finite element method (FEM). The results show that the restraint distance and the heat conduction ability of the fixture do have essential effects on the residual stress and distortion. The residual compressive stress and distortion will be increasing with the increase of the restraint distance, while the residual compressive stress and distortion will be decreasing with the increase of the heat conduction ability of the fixture.

  6. Effect of Fe- and Si-Enriched Secondary Precipitates and Surface Roughness on Pore Formation on Aluminum Plate Surfaces During Anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanzhi; Wang, Shizhi; Yang, Qingda; Zhou, Feng

    2014-09-01

    Two twin roll casts (TRCs) and one hot rolled (HR) AA 1235 aluminum alloy plates with different microstructures are prepared. The plates were electrolyzed in a 1.2 wt% HCl solution with a voltage of 21 V and a current of 1.9 mA. The shape, size, and number of pores formed on the surfaces of these plates were analyzed and correlated with the microstructures of the plates. It is found that pores are easier to form on the alloy plates containing subgrains with a lower dislocation density inside the subgrains, rather than along the grain boundaries. Furthermore, Fe- and Si-enriched particles in the AA1235 aluminum alloys lead to the formation of pores on the surface during electrolyzing; the average precipitate sizes of 4, 3.5, and 2 μm in Alloy 1#, Alloy 2# and Alloy 3# result in the average pore sizes of 3.78, 2.76, and 1.9 μm on the surfaces of the three alloys, respectively; The G.P zone in the alloy also facilitates the surface pore formation. High-surface roughness enhances the possibility of entrapping more lubricants into the plate surface, which eventually blocks the formation of the pores on the surface of the aluminum plates in the following electrolyzing process.

  7. Processless offset printing plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Mahović Poljaček

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the implementation of platesetters in the offset printing plate making process, imaging of the printing plate became more stable and ensured increase of the printing plate quality. But as the chemical processing of the printing plates still highly influences the plate making process and the graphic reproduction workflow, development of printing plates that do not require chemical processing for offset printing technique has been one of the top interests in graphic technology in the last few years. The main reason for that came from the user experience, where majority of the problems with plate making process could be connected with the chemical processing of the printing plate. Furthermore, increased environmental standards lead to reducing of the chemicals used in the industrial processes. Considering these facts, different types of offset printing plates have been introduced to the market today. This paper presents some of the processless printing plates.

  8. Charpy Impact Response of the Cracked Aluminum Plates Repaired with FML Patches using the Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Ashenai Ghasemi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Here, the effect of fiber metal laminate (FMLs patches was studied for repairing of single-sided cracked aluminum plates experimentally to see their response to Charpy impact tests. The main desired parameters were composite patch lay-up, crack length, and crack angle each one in three levels. All experimental attempts generated and followed based on the design of experiments method by using of response surface methodology. The predicted energy absorption values obtained from the model were in good agreement with the experimental results. No matter the specimens were repaired or not, as the crack length was increased the energy absorption of the structure was decreased. The experimental results also showed that for lengthen cracks, increasing of the crack angle had more effect on energy absorption. Also it was observed that the patch lay-up effective on the impact response of the specimens. The more the metal layer was departed from the aluminum plate and the FML patches interfacial surface, the less energy was absorbed in the structure.

  9. Superconducting aluminum heat switch and plated press-contacts for use at ultralow temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R M; Buchal, C; Oversluizen, T; Pobell, F

    1978-04-01

    We have measured the thermal conductivity of a 0.1-mm-thick Al foil in the normal and superconducting state down to 58 mK. At this temperature, our data give a ratio for the conductivities of k(n)/k(s)=1600 T(-2). They show that Al is a better material for a heat switch than the usually used superconductors because of its large k(n) and large Debye temperature (reducing the lattice conductivity k(s)). In addition, we describe the design of a heat switch and an excellent performing demountable press-contact between Al and Cu, both gold plated, as joint to the switch.

  10. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. ... vegetables . Now in one of the small sections, put grains and starchy foods. See this list of ...

  11. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... 2016 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: wcie-meal-planning, In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal ...

  12. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  13. Food guide plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chips or cookies. VEGETABLES: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Vegetables can be raw, fresh, ... as a snack. FRUITS: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Fruits can be fresh, canned, ...

  14. Growth Plate Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most widely used by doctors is the Salter-Harris system, described below. Type I Fractures These ... incidence of growth plate fractures peaks in adolescence. Salter-Harris classification of growth plate fractures. AAOS does ...

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger ...

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... Sleeve Custom jerseys for your Tour de Cure team benefits the cause. Ask the Experts: Learn to ...

  19. Microstructural evolution of aluminum alloy 7B04 thick plate by various thermal treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-hui; XIONG Bai-qing; ZHANG Yong-an; ZHU Bao-hong; WANG Feng; LIU Hong-wei

    2008-01-01

    The microstructure of an AA 7B04 alloy in the form of plate was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and TEM analysis technologies. Tensile properties and electrical conductivity of AA 7B04 under various heat treatment conditions were also presented. The results reveal that peak-aged microstructure contains GP zones and η' precipitates predominantly. After retrogressing and reaging(RRA), the η' and η precipitates disperse in the alloy matrix, and the η precipitates distribute coarsely and sparsely, decorating the grain boundaries, together with precipitate free zones(PFZs) around them. It is also shown that selecting of suitable heat treatments can provide optimal precipitates in matrix and at grain boundaries, which gives rise to a combination of high strength and stress corrosion cracking(SCC) resistance in such materials.

  20. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reset Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing ... en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? Our free program will help you live well. More from diabetes. ...

  2. Obliquity along plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon, Mélody; Corti, Giacomo

    2016-12-01

    Most of the plate boundaries are activated obliquely with respect to the direction of far field stresses, as roughly only 8% of the plate boundaries total length shows a very low obliquity (ranging from 0 to 10°, sub-orthogonal to the plate displacement). The obliquity along plate boundaries is controlled by (i) lateral rheological variations within the lithosphere and (ii) consistency with the global plate circuit. Indeed, plate tectonics and magmatism drive rheological changes within the lithosphere and consequently influence strain localization. Geodynamical evolution controls large-scale mantle convection and plate formation, consumption, and re-organization, thus triggering plate kinematics variations, and the adjustment and re-orientation of far field stresses. These geological processes may thus result in plate boundaries that are not perpendicular but oblique to the direction of far field stresses. This paper reviews the global patterns of obliquity along plate boundaries. Using GPlate, we provide a statistical analysis of present-day obliquity along plate boundaries. Within this framework, by comparing natural examples and geological models, we discuss deformation patterns and kinematics recorded along oblique plate boundaries.

  3. Multiple damage identification and imaging in an aluminum plate using effective Lamb wave response automatic extraction technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qinghua; Zhou, Li; Liu, Xiaotong

    2016-04-01

    In order to identify multiple damage in the structure, a method of multiple damage identification and imaging based on the effective Lamb wave response automatic extraction algorithm is proposed. In this method, the detected key area in the structure is divided into a number of subregions, and then, the effective response signals including the structural damage information are automatically extracted from the entire Lamb wave responses which are received by the piezoelectric sensors. Further, the damage index values of every subregion based on the correlation coefficient are calculated using the effective response signals. Finally, the damage identification and imaging are performed using the reconstruction algorithm for probabilistic inspection of damage (RAPID) technique. The experimental research was conducted using an aluminum plate. The experimental results show that the method proposed in this research can quickly and effectively identify the single damage or multiple damage and image the damages clearly in detected area.

  4. Formation of interlayer gap and control of interlayer burr in dry drilling of stacked aluminum alloy plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Wei; Hu Jian; Liao Wenhe; Bu Yin; Zhang Lin

    2016-01-01

    In aircraft assembly, interlayer burr formation in dry drilling of stacked metal materials is a common problem. Traditional manual deburring operation seriously affects the assembly qual-ity and assembly efficiency, is time-consuming and costly, and is not conducive to aircraft automatic assembly based on industrial robot. In this paper, the formation of drilling exit burr and the influ-ence of interlayer gap on interlayer burr formation were studied, and the mechanism of interlayer gap formation in drilling stacked aluminum alloy plates was investigated, a simplified mathematical model of interlayer gap based on the theory of plates and shells and finite element method was established. The relationship between interlayer gap and interlayer burr, as well as the effect of feed rate and pressing force on interlayer burr height and interlayer gap was discussed. The result shows that theoretical interlayer gap has a positive correlation with interlayer burr height and preloading pressing force is an effective method to control interlayer burr formation.

  5. A Visualization Method for Corrosion Damage on Aluminum Plates Using an Nd:YAG Pulsed Laser Scanning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inbok Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a non-contact nondestructive evaluation (NDE technique that uses laser-induced ultrasonic waves to visualize corrosion damage in aluminum alloy plate structures. The non-contact, pulsed-laser ultrasonic measurement system generates ultrasonic waves using a galvanometer-based Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and measures the ultrasonic waves using a piezoelectric (PZT sensor. During scanning, a wavefield can be acquired by changing the excitation location of the laser point and measuring waves using the PZT sensor. The corrosion damage can be detected in the wavefield snapshots using the scattering characteristics of the waves that encounter corrosion. The structural damage is visualized by calculating the logarithmic values of the root mean square (RMS, with a weighting parameter to compensate for the attenuation caused by geometrical spreading and dispersion of the waves. An intact specimen is used to conduct a comparison with corrosion at different depths and sizes in other specimens. Both sides of the plate are scanned with the same scanning area to observe the effect of the location where corrosion has formed. The results show that the damage can be successfully visualized for almost all cases using the RMS-based functions, whether it formed on the front or back side. Also, the system is confirmed to have distinguished corroded areas at different depths.

  6. A Visualization Method for Corrosion Damage on Aluminum Plates Using an Nd:YAG Pulsed Laser Scanning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inbok; Zhang, Aoqi; Lee, Changgil; Park, Seunghee

    2016-12-16

    This paper proposes a non-contact nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique that uses laser-induced ultrasonic waves to visualize corrosion damage in aluminum alloy plate structures. The non-contact, pulsed-laser ultrasonic measurement system generates ultrasonic waves using a galvanometer-based Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and measures the ultrasonic waves using a piezoelectric (PZT) sensor. During scanning, a wavefield can be acquired by changing the excitation location of the laser point and measuring waves using the PZT sensor. The corrosion damage can be detected in the wavefield snapshots using the scattering characteristics of the waves that encounter corrosion. The structural damage is visualized by calculating the logarithmic values of the root mean square (RMS), with a weighting parameter to compensate for the attenuation caused by geometrical spreading and dispersion of the waves. An intact specimen is used to conduct a comparison with corrosion at different depths and sizes in other specimens. Both sides of the plate are scanned with the same scanning area to observe the effect of the location where corrosion has formed. The results show that the damage can be successfully visualized for almost all cases using the RMS-based functions, whether it formed on the front or back side. Also, the system is confirmed to have distinguished corroded areas at different depths.

  7. Comparison of modal analysis results of laser vibrometry and nearfield acoustical holography measurements of an aluminum plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Jennifer L.

    2011-12-01

    Noise and vibration has long been sought to be reduced in major industries: automotive, aerospace and marine to name a few. Products must be tested and pass certain levels of federally regulated standards before entering the market. Vibration measurements are commonly acquired using accelerometers; however limitations of this method create a need for alternative solutions. Two methods for non-contact vibration measurements are compared: Laser Vibrometry, which directly measures the surface velocity of the aluminum plate, and Nearfield Acoustic Holography (NAH), which measures sound pressure in the nearfield, and using Green's Functions, reconstructs the surface velocity at the plate. The surface velocity from each method is then used in modal analysis to determine the comparability of frequency, damping and mode shapes. Frequency and mode shapes are also compared to an FEA model. Laser Vibrometry is a proven, direct method for determining surface velocity and subsequently calculating modal analysis results. NAH is an effective method in locating noise sources, especially those that are not well separated spatially. Little work has been done in incorporating NAH into modal analysis.

  8. Vacuum Die Casting Process and Simulation for Manufacturing 0.8 mm-Thick Aluminum Plate with Four Maze Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Kyu Jin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Using vacuum die casting, 0.8 mm-thick plates in complicated shapes are manufactured with the highly castable aluminum alloy Silafont-36 (AlSi9MgMn. The sizes and shapes of the cavities, made of thin plates, feature four different mazes. To investigate formability and mechanical properties by shot condition, a total of six parameters (melt temperatures of 730 °C and 710 °C; plunger speeds of 3.0 m/s and 2.5 m/s; vacuum pressure of 250 mbar and no vacuum are varied in experiments, and corresponding simulations are performed. Simulation results obtained through MAGMA software show similar tendencies to those of the experiments. When the melt pouring temperature is set to 730 °C rather than 710 °C, formability and mechanical properties are superior, and when the plunger speed is set to 3.0 m/s rather than to 2.5 m/s, a fine, even structure is obtained with better mechanical properties. The non-vacuumed sample is half unfilled. The tensile strength and elongation of the sample fabricated under a melt temperature of 730 °C, plunger speed of 3.0 m/s, and vacuum pressure of 250 mbar are 265 MPa and 8.5%, respectively.

  9. Angular shear plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, Mitchell C [Tucson, AZ; Greynolds, Alan W [Tucson, AZ; Stuhlinger, Tilman W [Tucson, AZ

    2009-07-14

    One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.

  10. Chalco’s 150,000-ton Aluminum Plate and Strip Project to Be Put into Production In the Second Half of This Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>According to Guiyang Municipal Government Office,with an investment of 712 million yuan,Chalco’s aluminum plate and strip project with an annual production capacity of 150,000 tons will be completed and put into production in the second half of this year.

  11. Flaw growth of 7075, 7475, 7050 and 7049 aluminum alloy plate in stress corrosion environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorward, R. C.; Hasse, K. R.

    1976-01-01

    Marine atmosphere and laboratory stress corrosion test results on smooth and precracked specimens from 7075, 7475, 7050, and 7049 alloy plates (1.25 and 3.0-in. thick) are presented. It is shown that for a given strength level, alloys 7050-T7X and 7049-T7X have superior short-transverse stress corrosion resistance (SCR) to 7X75-T7X. At typical strength levels above the minimum, for example, SCR of these alloys is considerably better than that of 7075-T76, and approaches that of 7075-T73. Alloy 7475 maintains an advantage in the area of fracture toughness, however, because it can be thermally processed to give particularly clean microstructures. Results from precracked specimens are in good qualitative agreement with those obtained from smooth specimens. Although both specimen types are capable of distinguishing between -T6, -T76 and -T73 tempers in relatively short time periods the precracked specimen provides more information about crack growth rates.

  12. Oxidation and corrosion behavior of titanium aluminum nitride coatings by arc ion plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ming-sheng; FENG Chang-jie; ZHANG Zhi-feng; WANG Fu-hui

    2006-01-01

    Composite metastable TiN and Ti1-xAlxN coatings with different Al content were deposited on 1Cr11Ni2W2MoV stainless steel for aero-engine compressor blades by arc ion plating. The results show that all coatings have a B1NaCl structure and the preferred orientation changes from (111) to (220) with increasing Al content; the lattice parameter of Ti1-xAlxN decreases with the increase of Al content. The oxidation-resistance of (Ti,Al)N coatings is significantly improved owing to the formation of Al-riched oxide on the surface of the coatings. The nitride coatings can significantly improve the corrosion-resistance of 1Cr11Ni2W2MoV stainless steel under the synergistic of water vapor and NaCl, and the corrosion-resistance becomes better when the Al content increases, because not only the quick formation of thin alumina layer prevents the further corrosion but also the formation of alumina seals the pinholes or defects in the coatings, which prevents the occurrence of localized nodules-like corrosion.

  13. 中厚铝板表面处理及自动垛板生产线的研发%Research and development of aluminum plate surface treatment and automatic staking-plate production line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鸿钧; 葛延; 王廣收; 胡建华; 彭兵

    2011-01-01

    介绍了中国重型机械研究院为西南铝业有限公司中厚板车间设计成套的成品板材表面处理及真空吸附自动垛板生产线.该生产线采用了喷码机喷头防碰撞保护技术,板材运行纠偏技术,高精度的长、宽方向定位技术,高精度、高可靠性吸盘搬运装置、衬纸、覆膜技术等一系列新技术,具有对铝板表面进行自动清刷、喷码、对中、堆垛、衬纸等功能.基于PLC自动控制系统,采用集中监控管理,分散控制的多层次自动化系统,适用于实际生产中多规格的板材.生产线投产以来,运行稳定,性能指标达到设计要求.%The paper describes a complete set of finished aluminum plate surface treatment and vacuum absorption automatic plate staking-plate production line designed by China Heavy Machinery Research Institute for plate workshop of Southwest Aluminum(Group) Co. , Ltd.. This production line uses a series of new technologies such as anticollision protection for printers head, correcting a deviation in plate running, high-precision positioning for length and width, high-precision and high-reliability sucker handling device, paper backing and membrane-coveting. It has the functions of automatic cleaning, centering, stacking, and lining paper for aluminum plate surface. Based on PLC automatic control system, it uses the multi-level automation system of centralized monitoring management and decentralized control, which is suitable for plates of various sizes in the practical production. Since being put into production line, its operation is stable and all performance indexes are up to the design requirements.

  14. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  15. Experimental Study and Finite Element Polycrystal Model Simulation of the Cold Rolling Textures in a Powder Metallurgy Processed Pure Aluminum Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liqing CHEN; Naoyuki Kanetake

    2005-01-01

    Ingot metallurgy (IM) aluminum has long been the subject and attracted the attention of many metallurgists and textural researchers of materials. Due to the introduction of large amounts of ex situ interfaces, however, the textures in powder metallurgy (PM) processed aluminum has been rarely reported. In this article, a pure aluminum plate was prepared via PM route. The starting billet was first produced with uni-axially cold compaction and flat hot-extrusion and then followed by cold rolling processes. The hot-extruded and cold rolling deformation textures of the pure PM aluminum at 50%, 80% and 90% cold rolling reductions were studied by orientation distribution functions (ODFs) analysis. The finite element polycrystal model (FEPM) was finally utilized to simulate the cold rolling textural evolution at various stages of cold rolling. In FEPM simulation, the initial hot-extruded textures were taken into account as inputs. The results showed that typical β-fiber texture formed in pure PM aluminum with the cold rolling reduction increased till 80%, and there was not much change after excessive cold rolling deformation.Homogeneous slip is not the only deformation mode in PM processed pure aluminum plate at over 80% cold rolling reduction. The experimental results were qualitatively in good agreement with the simulated ones.

  16. The plastic compressibility of 7075-T651 aluminum-alloy plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, A. D.; Sandor, B. I.

    1986-01-01

    The change in volume, and therefore the change in mass density, of an aluminum alloy was measured in uniaxial tension using clip-on extensometers. The experimental data do not agree with the assumption of plastic incompressibility found in the classical theories of plasticity. In fact, the elastic and plastic volume changes are of the same order of magnitude. Plastic anisotropy is thought to be the prime cause of this plastic compressibility.

  17. Blue Willow Story Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  18. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

  19. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  20. A Maximum Entropy Approach to Assess Debonding in Honeycomb aluminum Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Meruane

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Honeycomb sandwich structures are used in a wide variety of applications. Nevertheless, due to manufacturing defects or impact loads, these structures can be subject to imperfect bonding or debonding between the skin and the honeycomb core. The presence of debonding reduces the bending stiffness of the composite panel, which causes detectable changes in its vibration characteristics. This article presents a new supervised learning algorithm to identify debonded regions in aluminum honeycomb panels. The algorithm uses a linear approximation method handled by a statistical inference model based on the maximum-entropy principle. The merits of this new approach are twofold: training is avoided and data is processed in a period of time that is comparable to the one of neural networks. The honeycomb panels are modeled with finite elements using a simplified three-layer shell model. The adhesive layer between the skin and core is modeled using linear springs, the rigidities of which are reduced in debonded sectors. The algorithm is validated using experimental data of an aluminum honeycomb panel under different damage scenarios.

  1. An adaptive ARX model to estimate the RUL of aluminum plates based on its crack growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza-Barraza, Diana; Tercero-Gómez, Víctor G.; Beruvides, Mario G.; Limón-Robles, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    A wide variety of Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM) techniques deal with the problem of predicting the time for an asset fault. Most statistical approaches rely on historical failure data that might not be available in several practical situations. To address this issue, practitioners might require the use of self-starting approaches that consider only the available knowledge about the current degradation process and the asset operating context to update the prognostic model. Some authors use Autoregressive (AR) models for this purpose that are adequate when the asset operating context is constant, however, if it is variable, the accuracy of the models can be affected. In this paper, three autoregressive models with exogenous variables (ARX) were constructed, and their capability to estimate the remaining useful life (RUL) of a process was evaluated following the case of the aluminum crack growth problem. An existing stochastic model of aluminum crack growth was implemented and used to assess RUL estimation performance of the proposed ARX models through extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Point and interval estimations were made based only on individual history, behavior, operating conditions and failure thresholds. Both analytic and bootstrapping techniques were used in the estimation process. Finally, by including recursive parameter estimation and a forgetting factor, the ARX methodology adapts to changing operating conditions and maintain the focus on the current degradation level of an asset.

  2. Pixelated neutron image plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapp, M.; Conrad, H.; von Seggern, H.

    2004-09-01

    Neutron image plates (NIPs) have found widespread application as neutron detectors for single-crystal and powder diffraction, small-angle scattering and tomography. After neutron exposure, the image plate can be read out by scanning with a laser. Commercially available NIPs consist of a powder mixture of BaFBr : Eu2+ and Gd2O3 dispersed in a polymer matrix and supported by a flexible polymer sheet. Since BaFBr : Eu2+ is an excellent x-ray storage phosphor, these NIPs are particularly sensitive to ggr-radiation, which is always present as a background radiation in neutron experiments. In this work we present results on NIPs consisting of KCl : Eu2+ and LiF that were fabricated into ceramic image plates in which the alkali halides act as a self-supporting matrix without the necessity for using a polymeric binder. An advantage of this type of NIP is the significantly reduced ggr-sensitivity. However, the much lower neutron absorption cross section of LiF compared with Gd2O3 demands a thicker image plate for obtaining comparable neutron absorption. The greater thickness of the NIP inevitably leads to a loss in spatial resolution of the image plate. However, this reduction in resolution can be restricted by a novel image plate concept in which a ceramic structure with square cells (referred to as a 'honeycomb') is embedded in the NIP, resulting in a pixelated image plate. In such a NIP the read-out light is confined to the particular illuminated pixel, decoupling the spatial resolution from the optical properties of the image plate material and morphology. In this work, a comparison of experimentally determined and simulated spatial resolutions of pixelated and unstructured image plates for a fixed read-out laser intensity is presented, as well as simulations of the properties of these NIPs at higher laser powers.

  3. Plate removal following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mhairi; Langford, Richard Julian; Bhanji, Adam; Farr, David

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the removal rates of orthognathic plates used during orthognathic surgery at James Cook University Hospital and describe the reasons for plate removal. 202 consecutive orthognathic cases were identified between July 2004 and July 2012. Demographics and procedure details were collected for these patients. Patients from this group who returned to theatre for plate removal between July 2004 and November 2012 were identified and their notes were analysed for data including reason for plate removal, age, smoking status, sex and time to plate removal. 3.2% of plates were removed with proportionally more plates removed from the mandible than the maxilla. 10.4% of patients required removal of one or more plate. Most plates were removed within the first post-operative year. The commonest reasons for plate removal were plate exposure and infection. The plate removal rates in our study are comparable to those seen in the literature.

  4. Numerical modelling of thermal phenomenon in friction stir welding of aluminum plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaira Vignesh, R.; Padmanaban, R.; Arivarasu, M.; Thirumalini, S.; Gokulachandran, J.; Sai Ram, Mutyala Sesha Satya

    2016-09-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process with potential to join materials that are non weldable by conventional fusion welding techniques. The study of heat transfer in FSW aids in the identification of defects like flash, inadequate heat input, poor material flow and mixing etc. In this paper, transient temperature distribution during FSW of aluminum alloy AA6061-T6 was simulated using finite element modelling. The model was used to predict the peak temperature and analyse the thermal history during FSW. The effect of process parameters namely tool rotation speed, tool traverse speed (welding speed), shoulder diameter and pin diameter of tool on the temperature distribution was investigated using two level factorial design. The model results were validated using the experimental results from the published literature. It was found that peak temperature was directly proportional to tool rotation speed and shoulder diameter and inversely proportional to tool traverse speed. The effect of pin diameter on peak temperature was found to be trivial.

  5. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  6. Plating in Top Agar

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    1. Warm plates to room temperature before use. Cold plates causes the top agar to solidify irregularly. DO not warm plates to 37° as the top agar will take forever to solidify. - Prepare top agar as the appropriate liquid medium with 0.7% agar. Keeping 100 mL bottles is convenient. For phages, use λ top agar, which is less rich and yields bigger plaques. - Melt top agar in the microwave completely. Allow the agar to boil after liquification; incompletely melted agar looks liquid, but is...

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger portions of non-starchy vegetables and a ...

  8. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... 4/Box) Taking the guesswork out of portion control has never been easier. It can be a ...

  9. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  10. MyPlate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our stage of life, situations, preferences, access to food, culture, traditions, and the personal decisions we make over time. All your food and beverage choices count. MyPlate offers ideas and ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... you have an easy portion control solution that works. Last Reviewed: October 8, 2015 Last Edited: September ...

  12. Designing Assemblies Of Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, F. W.; Kennedy, D.; Butler, R.; Aston, G.; Anderson, M. S.

    1992-01-01

    VICONOPT calculates vibrations and instabilities of assemblies of prismatic plates. Designed for efficient, accurate analysis of buckling and vibration, and for optimum design of panels of composite materials. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables ...

  14. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning ... serving of dairy or both as your meal plan allows. Choose healthy fats in small amounts. For ...

  15. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle ... manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ...

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ... been easier. It can be a challenge to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best- ...

  17. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic ... to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ...

  19. Origami - Folded Plate Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Buri, Hans Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates new methods of designing folded plate structures that can be built with cross-laminated timber panels. Folded plate structures are attractive to both architects and engineers for their structural, spatial, and plastic qualities. Thin surfaces can be stiffened by a series of folds, and thus not only cover space, but also act as load bearing elements. The variation of light and shadow along the folded faces emphasizes the plas...

  20. Fractal multifiber microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Lee M.; Feller, W. B.; Kenter, Almus T.; Chappell, Jon H.

    1992-01-01

    The construction and performance of microchannel plates (MCPs) made using fractal tiling mehtods are reviewed. MCPs with 40 mm active areas having near-perfect channel ordering were produced. These plates demonstrated electrical performance characteristics equivalent to conventionally constructed MCPs. These apparently are the first MCPs which have a sufficiently high degree of order to permit single channel addressability. Potential applications for these devices and the prospects for further development are discussed.

  1. Vibration and Buckling of Web Plate of the Plate Girder

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 和雄; 呉, 明強; 中澤, 聡志; 筑紫, 宏之

    1998-01-01

    The vibration and buckling of the web of the plate girder are studied in this paper. The small deflection theory of the thin plate is used. The finite strip method is employed to solve vibration and buckling of the plate girder. Natural frequenies of buckling properties are shown for various plate girder bridges.

  2. Hot Isostatic Press Can Optimization for Aluminum Cladding of U-10Mo Reactor Fuel Plates: FY12 Final Report and FY13 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Kester D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Crapps, Justin M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scott, Jeffrey E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Aikin, Beverly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vargas, Victor D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dvornak, Matthew J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Duffield, Andrew N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weinberg, Richard Y. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Alexander, David J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Montalvo, Joel D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hudson, Richard W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mihaila, Bogdan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Liu, Cheng [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lovato, Manuel L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dombrowski, David E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2013-08-26

    Currently, the proposed processing path for low enriched uranium – 10 wt. pct. molybdenum alloy (LEU-10Mo) monolithic fuel plates for high power research and test reactors includes hot isostatic pressing (HIP) to bond the aluminum cladding that encapsulates the fuel foil. Initial HIP experiments were performed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) on approximately ¼ scale “mini” fuel plate samples using a HIP can design intended for these smaller experimental trials. These experiments showed that, with the addition of a co-rolled zirconium diffusion barrier on the LEU-10Mo alloy fuel foil, the HIP bonding process is a viable method for producing monolithic fuel plates. Further experimental trials at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) effectively scaled-up the “mini” can design to produce full-size fuel prototypic plates. This report summarizes current efforts at LANL to produce a HIP can design that is further optimized for higher volume production runs. The production-optimized HIP can design goals were determined by LANL and Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) to include maintaining or improving the quality of the fuel plates produced with the baseline scaled-up mini can design, while minimizing material usage, improving dimensional stability, easing assembly and disassembly, eliminating machining, and significantly reducing welding. The initial small-scale experiments described in this report show that a formed-can approach can achieve the goals described above. Future work includes scaling the formed-can approach to full-size fuel plates, and current progress toward this goal is also summarized here.

  3. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  4. Anterior cervical plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonugunta V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anterior cervical instrumentation was initially used in cervical trauma, because of obvious benefits, indications for its use have been expanded over time to degenerative cases as well as tumor and infection of the cervical spine. Along with a threefold increase in incidence of cervical fusion surgery, implant designs have evolved over the last three decades. Observation of graft subsidence and phenomenon of stress shielding led to the development of the new generation dynamic anterior cervical plating systems. Anterior cervical plating does not conclusively improve clinical outcome of the patients, but certainly enhances the efficacy of autograft and allograft fusion and lessens the rate of pseudoarthrosis and kyphosis after multilevel discectomy and fusions. A review of biomechanics, surgical technique, indications, complications and results of various anterior cervical plating systems is presented here to enable clinicians to select the appropriate construct design.

  5. High energy X-ray diffraction measurement of residual stresses in a monolithic aluminum clad uranium-10 wt% molybdenum fuel plate assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. W.; Okuniewski, M. A.; Almer, J. D.; Balogh, L.; Clausen, B.; Okasinski, J. S.; Rabin, B. H.

    2013-10-01

    Residual stresses are expected in monolithic, aluminum clad uranium 10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo) nuclear fuel plates because of the large mismatch in thermal expansion between the two bonded materials. The full residual stress tensor of the U-10Mo foil in a fuel plate assembly was mapped with 0.1 mm resolution using high-energy (86 keV) X-ray diffraction. The in-plane stresses in the U-10Mo foil are strongly compressive, roughly -250 MPa in the longitudinal direction and -140 MPa in the transverse direction near the center of the fuel foil. The normal component of the stress is weakly compressive near the center of the foil and tensile near the corner. The disparity in the residual stress between the two in-plane directions far from the edges and the tensile normal stress suggest that plastic deformation in the aluminum cladding during fabrication by hot isostatic pressing also contributes to the residual stress field. A tensile in-plane residual stress is presumed to be present in the aluminum cladding to balance the large in-plane compressive stresses in the U-10Mo fuel foil, but cannot be directly measured with the current technique due to large grain size.

  6. Effect of deposition parameters on mechanical properties of TiN films coated on 2A12 aluminum alloys by arc ion plating (AIP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AWAD Samir Hamid; QIAN Han-cheng

    2005-01-01

    TiN films were deposited on 2A12 aluminum alloy by arc ion plating (AIP). The Vickers hardness of the films deposited at different bias voltages and different nitrogen gas pressures, and that of the substrate were measured. The surface roughness of the TiN films diposited at -30 V and -80 V respectively and at different nitrogen gas pressure was measured also. The mass loss of TiN films deposited at 0 V, -30 V and -80 V respectively were analyzed in dry sand rubber wheel abrasive wear tests and wet ones in comparison with uncoated Al alloy and austenitic stainless steel (AISI 316L). It is revealed that the highest hardness of the TiN film is obtained at a bias voltage of -30 V and a N2 gas pressure of 0.5 Pa. The surface roughness of the film is larger at -80 V than that at -30 V and reduces as the increase of the N2 gas pressure. The mass loss of TiN-film coated 2A12 aluminum alloy is remarkably less than that of uncoated Al alloy and also that of AISI 316L, which indicates that the abrasive wear rate is greatly reduced by the application of TiN coating. TiN coating deposited by arc ion plating (AIP) technique on aluminum alloy can be a potential coating for machine parts requiring preciseness and lightness.

  7. License plate detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, Michael; Klopovsky, Yuri; Silinskis, Normunds

    2013-12-01

    A novel algorithm for vehicle license plates localization is proposed. The algorithm is based on pixel intensity transition gradient analysis. Near to 2500 natural-scene gray-level vehicle images of different backgrounds and ambient illumination was tested. The best set of algorithm's parameters produces detection rate up to 0.94. Taking into account abnormal camera location during our tests and therefore geometrical distortion and troubles from trees this result could be considered as passable. Correlation between source data, such as license Plate dimensions and texture, cameras location and others, and parameters of algorithm were also defined.

  8. Progress in Anodic Aluminum Oxide Microchannel Plates%阳极氧化铝微通道板研究的进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洋; 黄永刚; 刘辉; 李国恩

    2012-01-01

    微通道板(Microchannel Plates,MCP)是一种先进的电子倍增器件,在微光夜视等多个领域有着广泛的应用.传统铅硅酸盐玻璃微通道板(Lead Silicate Glass Microchannel Plates,LSG-MCP)越来越不能满足小孔径、高分辨率、环境友好等方面的要求,寻求替代产品成为研究热点.详细介绍了一种新型微通道板—阳极氧化铝微通道板(Anodic Aluminum Oxide Microchannel Plates,AAO-MCP)的研究进展,包括多孔AAO的特点、微通道的形成、功能层的制备、计算机模拟等.AAO-MCP具有孔径小、面积大、耐强磁场、工作温度范围宽等特点,应用前景广阔.最后分析了AAO-MCP存在的问题以及未来发展方向.%MicroChannel plates (MCP) are advanced electron multiplier devices, which are widely used in low-light-level night vision and other fields. The traditional lead silicate glass microchannel plates (LSG-MCP) are increasingly unable to meet the requirements of small diameter, high resolution and environment-friendness, so it is necessary to find some novel alternative materials and technology, such as anodic aluminum oxide microchannel plates (AAO-MCP). This paper describes the research progress of the AAO-MCP in details, including the characteristics of the porous AAO, the forming of microchannel, functional film preparation and computer simulation. AAO-MCP has some advantages, such as smaller channel diameter, large area, low sensitivity to strong magnetic field, and wide operating temperature range. Finally, the most difficult problems in AAO-MCP and the development in the future are presented.

  9. Casimir force between metal plate and dielectric plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中柱; 邵成刚; 罗俊

    1999-01-01

    The Casimir effect between metal plate and dielectric plate is discussed with 1+1-dimensional potential model without using cut-off method. Calculation shows that the Casimir force between metal plate and dielectric plate is determined not only by the potential V0, the dielectric thickness and the distance α between the metal plate and dielectric plate, but also by the dimension of the vessel. When α is far less than the dimension of the vessel, the Casimir force Fc∝α(-1); conversely Fc∝α-2. This result is significant for Casimir force experiment.

  10. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R

    2014-01-28

    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ... year of delicious meals to help prevent and manage diabetes. Healthy Recipes: ... to your day with this guide. Ways to Give: Wear Your Cause on Your Sleeve - ...

  13. The Plate Tectonics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2011-01-01

    The Plate Tectonics Project is a multiday, inquiry-based unit that facilitates students as self-motivated learners. Reliable Web sites are offered to assist with lessons, and a summative rubric is used to facilitate the holistic nature of the project. After each topic (parts of the Earth, continental drift, etc.) is covered, the students will…

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... unsweetened tea or coffee. Featured Product Precise Portions® Go Healthy Travel Pack (4/Box) Taking the guesswork ... you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing lid is offered in ...

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing lid is offered in a 4-pack. Whether ... Research & Practice We Are Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor ...

  19. INL HIP Plate Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. H. Park; C. R. Clark; J. F. Jue

    2010-02-01

    This document outlines the process used to bond monolithic fuel plates by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). This method was developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. These foils have been used in a number of irradiation experiments in support of the United States Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program.

  20. The Plate Tectonics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2011-01-01

    The Plate Tectonics Project is a multiday, inquiry-based unit that facilitates students as self-motivated learners. Reliable Web sites are offered to assist with lessons, and a summative rubric is used to facilitate the holistic nature of the project. After each topic (parts of the Earth, continental drift, etc.) is covered, the students will…

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create ... somewhere in between, you have an easy portion control solution that works. Last Reviewed: October 8, 2015 Last Edited: ... Cost of Diabetes Advocate Toolkit Call to Congress Research & ...

  2. Optimization Design of Thermal Conduction Enhanced PCM Plates for Simulating the Infrared Signature of Steel Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Hong; JIANG Li-feng

    2008-01-01

    Phase change material (PCM) can be used to prepare the infrared false targets for realizing all-weather passive infrared decoy, but its low thermal conductivity is a great blockage to the simulation of the infrared signature of thick metal plates. For that reason, a method of simulating the infrared signature of thick steel plates by thermal conduction enhanced PCM, including the aluminum fins, is proposed. A physical and mathematic model is set up, and the infrared signature simulation of thick steel plate is investigated numerically. The effects of the distribution density and thickness of fins and the thickness of PCM plate on the simulation results are discussed, and the reasonable construction parameters of PCM plates used to simulate the steel plates of different thickness are obtained.

  3. Preparation Method of Aluminum- plated Corrugated Cardboard and its Commercial Application%镀铝瓦楞纸板商业化应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周颐; 周威

    2011-01-01

    本着绿色设计低碳生产和经济的可持续发展理念,探讨真空镀铝磁控溅射镀膜理论及其技术方法制备镀铝瓦楞纸板。从而获得绿色环保的镀铝瓦楞纸板新材料。深入分析镀铝瓦楞纸板商业化应用,生产新颖、美观具有时代特点的镀铝瓦楞纸板家具,满足市场需要并获得重大的经济效益和社会效益。%According to the concept of low -carbon production and sustainable economic development, the mechanism of vacuum magnetron sputtering coating and its technology of preparing the aluminum - plated corrugated cardboard were explored in this paper in order to obtain the environment - friendly new material. Furthermore, the commercial application of aluminum - plated corrugated cardboard was analyzed to produce original elegant and fashionable furniture to meet the needs of the market and gain significant economic and social benefits.

  4. 铝及铝合金光亮化学镀镍的研究%Research on Bright Electroless Nickel Plating of Aluminum and Ahnninum Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵岚; 杨震

    2012-01-01

    研究了一种新的、简便的、环保的铝及铝合金化学镀镍新工艺,探讨了前处理、光亮剂添加量对镀层质量的影响。结果表明,铝及铝合金经过自制浸锌剂二次浸锌后,每升镀液中添加15mL光亮剂所获得的样品镀层均匀、结合力最佳。%This research studies a new simple environment-friendly aluminum and aluminum alloy eleetroless nickel plating process, analyses the influence ofpretreatment and bright plating additives on deposit quality as well. The experimental results show that an optimal deposit with even coating and strong binding force was achieved after two-time zinc dipping with self-made zinc dipping agent and 15ml brightener in every

  5. MyPlate Food Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness MyPlate Food Guide KidsHealth > For Teens > MyPlate Food Guide Print ... other sugary drinks. Avoid oversized portions. continue Five Food Groups Different food groups meet different nutrition needs. ...

  6. What Are Growth Plate Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plate injuries are:  Falling down  Competitive sports (like football)  Recreational activities. Other reasons for growth plate injuries are:  Child abuse  Injury from extreme cold (for ...

  7. Controlling Laminate Plate Elastic Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mareš, T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to express the relation of a measure of laminate plate stiffness with respect to the fiber orientation of its plies. The inverse of the scalar product of the lateral displacement of the central plane and lateral loading of the plate is the measure of laminate plate stiffness. In the case of a simply supported rectangular laminate plate this measure of stiffness is maximized, and the optimum orientation of its plies is searched.

  8. Microchannel plate streak camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching L.

    1989-01-01

    An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (UV to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1000 KeV x-rays.

  9. Electronic Equipment Cold Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    equations for such a flow regiae. For laainar flow and Moderate teaperature differwwe« between the well «nd coolant, a aodifled Sieder -Tate...con- figuration. The heat-transfer coefficients, therefore, were determined by using both the Sieder -Tate and McAdams equations and the coaputed...values used In the analytical predictions. As with th* previous cold Plates, the Sieder -Tate equation gave too low of values for the heat- transfer

  10. Elastic plate spallation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oline, L.; Medaglia, J.

    1972-01-01

    The dynamic finite element method was used to investigate elastic stress waves in a plate. Strain displacement and stress strain relations are discussed along with the stiffness and mass matrix. The results of studying point load, and distributed load over small, intermediate, and large radii are reported. The derivation of finite element matrices, and the derivation of lumped and consistent matrices for one dimensional problems with Laplace transfer solutions are included. The computer program JMMSPALL is also included.

  11. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisaton of the damage, which...

  12. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1998-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisation of the damage, which...

  13. Flat growth of 7075, 7475, 7050 and 7049 aluminum alloy plate in stress corrosion environments: 2-year marine atmosphere results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorward, R. C.; Hasse, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    Marine atmospheric exposure of smooth and precracked specimens from 7075, 7475, 7050 and 7049 plates support the conclusion that for a given strength level, the short transverse stress corrosion resistance of 7050-T7X and 7049-T7X is superior to that of 7075-T7X. The threshold stress intensity (K sub Iscc) for these alloys is about 25 MPa square root m at a yield strength of about 460 MPa; the corresponding yield strength level for 7075-T7X at this SCR level is about 425 MPa. Additional tests on two lots of high-toughness 7475 plate indicate that this alloy is capable of achieving K sub Iscc values of about 35 MPa square root m at yield strengths of 400-450 MPa. Precracked specimens from all these 7XXX-series alloys are subject to self loading from corrosion product wedging. This effect causes stress corrosion cracks to continue growing at very low apparent stress intensities, and should therefore be considered a potential driving force for stress corrosion in design and materials selection.

  14. Plate tectonics conserves angular momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bowin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A new combined understanding of plate tectonics, Earth internal structure, and the role of impulse in deformation of the Earth's crust is presented. Plate accelerations and decelerations have been revealed by iterative filtering of the quaternion history for the Euler poles that define absolute plate motion history for the past 68 million years, and provide an unprecedented precision for plate angular rotation variations with time at 2-million year intervals. Stage poles represent the angular rotation of a plate's motion between adjacent Euler poles, and from which the maximum velocity vector for a plate can be determined. The consistent maximum velocity variations, in turn, yield consistent estimates of plate accelerations and decelerations. The fact that the Pacific plate was shown to accelerate and decelerate, implied that conservation of plate tectonic angular momentum must be globally conserved, and that is confirmed by the results shown here (total angular momentum ~1.4 E+27 kgm2s−1. Accordingly, if a plate decelerates, other plates must increase their angular momentums to compensate. In addition, the azimuth of the maximum velocity vectors yields clues as to why the "bend" in the Emperor-Hawaiian seamount trend occurred near 46 Myr. This report summarizes processing results for 12 of the 14 major tectonic plates of the Earth (except for the Juan de Fuca and Philippine plates. Plate accelerations support the contention that plate tectonics is a product of torques that most likely are sustained by the sinking of positive density anomalies due to phase changes in subducted gabbroic lithosphere at depth in the upper lower mantle (above 1200 km depth. The tectonic plates are pulled along by the sinking of these positive mass anomalies, rather than moving at near constant velocity on the crests of convection cells driven by rising heat. These results imply that spreading centers are primarily passive reactive

  15. Vehicle License Plate Recognition Syst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi,R. B. Dubey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle license plate recognition system has greater efficiency for vehicle monitoring in automatic zone access control. This Plate recognition system will avoid special tags, since all vehicles possess a unique registration number plate. A number of techniques have been used for car plate characters recognition. This system uses neural network character recognition and pattern matching of characters as two character recognition techniques. In this approach multilayer feed-forward back-propagation algorithm is used. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on several car plates and provides very satisfactory results.

  16. Using plate mapping to examine portion size and plate composition for large and small divided plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, David E; Sobal, Jeffery; Wansink, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Does the size of a plate influence the serving of all items equally, or does it influence the serving of some foods - such as meat versus vegetables - differently? To examine this question, we used the new method of plate mapping, where people drew a meal on a paper plate to examine sensitivity to small versus large three-compartment divided plates in portion size and meal composition in a sample of 109 university students. The total drawn meal area was 37% bigger on large plates than small plates, which showed that the portion of plate coverage did not differ by plate size. Men and women drew bigger vegetable portions and men drew bigger meat portions on large plates when compared to small plates. These results suggest that men and women are differentially sensitive to plate size for overall meal size and for meal composition. Implications for decreasing portion size and improving meal balance are that plate size may influence portion size and change the proportions of foods served.

  17. Temperature field of steel plate cooling process after plate rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijun Feng, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on numerical calculation with Matlab, the study on cooling process after plate rolling is carried out, and the temperature field distribution of the plate varying with the time is obtained. The effects of the plate thickness, final rolling temperature, cooling water temperature, average flow rate of the cooling water, carbon content of the plate and cooling method on the plate surface and central temperatures as well as final cooling temperature are discussed. For the same cooling time, the plate surface and central temperatures as well as their temperature difference increase; with the decrease in rolling temperature and the increase in average flow rate of the cooling water, the plate surface and central temperatures decrease. Compared with the single water cooling process, the temperature difference between the plate centre and surface based on intermittent cooling is lower. In this case, the temperature uniformity of the plate is better, and the corresponding thermal stress is lower. The fitting equation of the final cooling temperature with respect to plate thickness, final rolling temperature, cooling water temperature and average flow rate of the cooling water is obtained.

  18. Real Plates and Dubious Microplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, M. G.; Steblov, G. M.

    2008-12-01

    From the onset of plate tectonics, the existence of most of the plates was never put in doubt, although the boundaries of some plates, like Africa, were later revised. There are however, two microplates in northeast Asia, the Amurian and Okhotsk, whose existence and the sense of rotation was revised several times. The rms value of plate-residual GPS velocities is 0.5-0.9 mm/a for sets of stations representing the motion of the following plates: Antarctic, Australian, Eurasian, North American, Nubian, Pacific, and South American. This value can be regarded as an upper bound on deviation of real plates from infinite stiffness. The rms value of plate-residual GPS velocities is 1.2-1.8 mm/a for the Indian, Nazca, and Somalian plates. Higher rms values for India and Nazca are attributed to the noisier data. The higher rms value for Somalia appears to arise from the distributed deformation to the east of the East African Rift; whether this statement is true can only be decided from observations of denser network in the future. From the analysis of plate-residual GPS velocities, the Canadian Arctic and northeastern Siberia belong to the North American plate. The detailed GPS survey on Sakhalin Island shows that the Sea of Okhotsk region also belongs to the North American plate while the region to the west of it belongs to the Eurasian plate. These results provide a constraint on the geometry of the North American plate and put in doubt the existence of smaller plates in northeast Asia.

  19. Flaw growth of 7075, 7475, 7050 and 7049 aluminum alloy plate in stress corrosion environments: 4-year marine atmosphere results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasse, K. R.; Dorward, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    After nearly 53 months of exposure to marine atmosphere, crack growth in SL DCB specimens from 7075, 7475, 7050, and 7049-T7X plate has slowed to the arbitrary 10 to the -10 power m/sec used to define threshold stress intensity. Because some specimens appear to be approaching crack arrest, the importance of self-loading from corrosion product wedging as a significant driving force for crack propagation in overaged materials is questioned. Crack length-time data were analyzed using a computer curve fitting program which minimized the effects of normal data scatter, and provided a clearer picture of material performance. Precracked specimen data are supported by the results of smooth specimen tests. Transgranular stress corrosion cracking was observed in TL DCB specimens from all four alloys. This process is extremely slow and is characterized by a striated surface morphology.

  20. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  1. Dynamics of Tectonic Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Pechersky, E; Sadowski, G; Yambartsev, A

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a model that describes a mutual dynamic of tectonic plates. The dynamic is a sort of stick-slip one which is modeled by a Markov random process. The process defines a microlevel of the dynamic. A macrolevel is obtained by a scaling limit which leads to a system of integro-differential equations which determines a kind of mean field systems. Conditions when Gutenberg-Richter empirical law are presented on the mean field level. These conditions are rather universal and do not depend on features of resistant forces.

  2. Dynamics of Tectonic Plates

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a model that describes a mutual dynamic of tectonic plates. The dynamic is a sort of stick-slip one which is modeled by a Markov random process. The process defines a microlevel of the dynamic. A macrolevel is obtained by a scaling limit which leads to a system of integro-differential equations which determines a kind of mean field systems. Conditions when Gutenberg-Richter empirical law are presented on the mean field level. These conditions are rather universal and do not depend ...

  3. Thermodynamic Analysis of Electroless Plating Nickel for 5383 Aluminum Alloy%5383铝合金表面化学镀镍的热力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩滔; 罗兵辉; 柏振海; 陈和兴; 张吉阜

    2013-01-01

    Electroless nickel plating was conducted on surface of 5383 cast state aluminum alloy with one time and two times zinc dipping process.Kinds of coatings were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM),energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD) under the conditions of different pH value and temperature.According to the electrochemical corrosion experiment,the corrosion resistance of coating in 3.5wt% NaCl solution has been tested.According to thermodynamic analysis of the chemical plating nickel,the influences of the plating bath temperature and pH value to the coating were analyzed.The experimental results indicate that after two times zinc dipping process,the content of zinc became lower and the coating became well-distributed and denser,compared with 5383 aluminum alloy surface of the one time.The key reaction step of electroless nickel plating is H2→2Had.The pH value is the main factor of the thickness of electroless nickel plating.The content of P element under acidic conditions is higher than that under alkaline conditions,and the Ni-P alloy coating is amorphous phase.The corrosion resistance of nickel plating is optimal as the pH value is 4.5 and temperature is 90 ℃.%分别采用一次、二次浸锌工艺在5383铸态铝合金表面进行化学镀镍,并对不同镀液pH值和温度下形成的各种镀层进行了扫描电镜(SEM)观察、能谱分析(EDS)、X射线衍射(XRD)物相分析.通过电化学腐蚀实验对镀层在3.5%(质量分数)NaCl溶液的耐蚀性进行测试,采用热力学分析化学镀镍反应机理并研究施镀温度和镀液pH值对镀层的影响.结果表明,二次浸锌后5383铝合金表面的锌含量较一次浸锌更低而镀层更加均匀、致密;化学镀镍中的关键反应步骤为H2→ 2Had;其中pH值是影响化学镀镍层厚度的主要因素之一并且酸性条件下P的含量比碱性条件下要高许多,Ni-P镀层为非晶相;在pH=4.5、温度90℃

  4. CMS Resistive plate Champers

    CERN Document Server

    Zainab, Karam

    2013-01-01

    There are many types of gas detectors which are used in CERN in LHC project, There is a main parts for the gas detectors which must be in all gas detectors types like Multiwire proportional chambers, such as the micromesh gaseous structure chamber (the MicroMegas), Gas-electron multiplier (GEM) detector, Resistive Plate Champers... Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment detecting muons which are powerful tool for recognizing signatures of interesting physics processes. The CMS detector uses: drift tube (DT), cathode strip chamber (CSC) and resistive plate chamber (RPC). Building RPC’s was my project in summer student program (hardware). RPC’s have advantages which are triggering detector and Excellent time resolution which reinforce the measurement of the correct beam crossing time. RPC’s Organized in stations :  RPC barrel (RB) there are 4 stations, namely RB1, RB2, RB3, and RB4  While in the RPC endcap (RE) the 3 stations are RE1, RE2, and RE3. In the endcaps a new starion will be added and this...

  5. Al质蜂窝夹芯板非线性动力学分析%NONLINEAR DYNAMICS ANALYSIS OF ALUMINUM HONEYCOMB SANDWICH PLATE WITH COMPLETED CLAMPED SUPPORTED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英杰; 颜云辉; 李永强; 李锋

    2012-01-01

    Study on the dynamics of aluminum honeycomb sandwich plates of composite structure material plays a key role for the special applications of the aerospace and automotive engineering. The nonlinear dynamics of honeycomb sandwich plate is explored. According to the classical plate theory and the large deformation, the governing equations of motion are established for the honeycomb sandwich plate subjected to the transversal excitation force by using the Hamilton's law of variation principle. The transversal damping is taken into consideration. The method of normalization is utilized to transform the nonlinear vibration equations to nonlinear system with double modes of freedom. Numerical simulation is used directly to investigate the nonlinear responses of the honeycomb sandwich plate. The results indicates that the change of transversal excitation force has a significant effect on the vibration of honeycomb sandwich plate because the hexagon cell of core and the amplitude of the first modal are bigger than the second modal. In the different ranges of transversal excitation force, the honeycomb sandwich plate exists different dynamical phenomena. Single periodic motion appears when the force value is small, and periodic motion, multi-period motion, chaotic motion appears with the increase of force. Experiments are conducted to validate the numerical simulation results.%基于经典叠层板理论和几何大变形理论,研究了四边固支A1质蜂窝夹芯板的非线性动力学问题.在考虑横向阻尼的影响下,利用Hamilton变分原理建立了蜂窝夹芯板受横向激振力作用时的受迫振动微分方程,通过振型正交化将蜂窝夹芯板的受迫振动微分方程简化为双模态下的动力学控制方程,同时利用Runge-Kutta法数值模拟了系统的非线性动力学行为.结果表明:由于芯层六角形胞元结构的影响,使得蜂窝夹芯板的振动对横向激振力幅值的变化非常敏感;第一阶模态下的最大

  6. Localised Plate Motion on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghail, R. C.

    1996-03-01

    The volcanic and tectonic features observed in Dali Vinculum, Parga Vinculum and Imdr Regio are concentrated at long, narrow, curvilinear zones, with relatively minor volcanism and tectonism between these zones. These zones, whilst more diffuse than terrestrial plate boundaries, nevertheless define the margins of tectonic plates. In contrast to Earth, however, it appears that venusian plates are neither created nor destroyed by lateral motion. Rather, plates are thinned and intruded at vincula plate boundaries, vertically accreted by small-scale intra-plate (planitia) volcanism and perhaps destroyed by delamination of thickened crust in tesserae and montane regions such as Thetis Regio and Ishtar Terra. The diversity in age both between and within these three areas together with the evidence for infrequent, small scale resurfacing in the planitiae are difficult to reconcile with a non-uniformitarian geological process.

  7. Tectonics of the Easter plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeln, J. F.; Stein, S.

    1984-01-01

    A new model for the Easter plate is presented in which rift propagation has resulted in the formation of a rigid plate between the propagating and dying ridges. The distribution of earthquakes, eleven new focal mechanisms, and existing bathymetric and magnetic data are used to describe the tectonics of this area. Both the Easter-Nazca and Easter-Pacific Euler poles are sufficiently close to the Easter plate to cause rapid changes in rates and directions of motion along the boundaries. The east and west boundaries are propagating and dying ridges; the southwest boundary is a slow-spreading ridge and the northern boundary is a complex zone of convergent and transform motion. The Easter plate may reflect the tectonics of rift propagation on a large scale, where rigid plate tectonics requires boundary reorientation. Simple schematic models to illustrate the general features and processes which occur at plates resulting from large-scale rift propagation are used.

  8. Tectonics of the Easter plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeln, J. F.; Stein, S.

    1984-01-01

    A new model for the Easter plate is presented in which rift propagation has resulted in the formation of a rigid plate between the propagating and dying ridges. The distribution of earthquakes, eleven new focal mechanisms, and existing bathymetric and magnetic data are used to describe the tectonics of this area. Both the Easter-Nazca and Easter-Pacific Euler poles are sufficiently close to the Easter plate to cause rapid changes in rates and directions of motion along the boundaries. The east and west boundaries are propagating and dying ridges; the southwest boundary is a slow-spreading ridge and the northern boundary is a complex zone of convergent and transform motion. The Easter plate may reflect the tectonics of rift propagation on a large scale, where rigid plate tectonics requires boundary reorientation. Simple schematic models to illustrate the general features and processes which occur at plates resulting from large-scale rift propagation are used.

  9. Intermittent plate tectonics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Paul G; Behn, Mark D

    2008-01-04

    Although it is commonly assumed that subduction has operated continuously on Earth without interruption, subduction zones are routinely terminated by ocean closure and supercontinent assembly. Under certain circumstances, this could lead to a dramatic loss of subduction, globally. Closure of a Pacific-type basin, for example, would eliminate most subduction, unless this loss were compensated for by comparable subduction initiation elsewhere. Given the evidence for Pacific-type closure in Earth's past, the absence of a direct mechanism for termination/initiation compensation, and recent data supporting a minimum in subduction flux in the Mesoproterozoic, we hypothesize that dramatic reductions or temporary cessations of subduction have occurred in Earth's history. Such deviations in the continuity of plate tectonics have important consequences for Earth's thermal and continental evolution.

  10. VISAS AND GREEN PLATES

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    From 3 April 2000, all questions relating to visa requests for Switzerland, France, or Russia for a member of the personnel must be addressed to Ms. Agnita Querrou (telephone 72838, office 5-2-019, e-mail Agnita.Querrou@cern.ch).The Users' Office continues to deal with requests for letters of invitation and questions concerning visas for users in EP Division.Questions relating to removals, requests for green plates, to privileges of members of the personnel and to the importation of vehicles are still dealt with by Ms Zuzana Miller (telephone 79257, office 33-1-017, e-mail Zuzana.Muller@cern.ch) and Ms Joëlle Belleman (telephone 73962, office 33-1-019, e-mail Joelle.Belleman@cern.ch).

  11. Plate osteosynthesis of simple forearm fractures : LCP versus DC plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Charles Tjerk; Ten Duis, Henk Jan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the time to radiological bony union of simple A-type fractures of the forearm, treated with either a locking compression plate (LCP) or a dynamic compression plate (DCP). For each fracture, the relation between the use of compression and radiological healing time

  12. Plate osteosynthesis of simple forearm fractures : LCP versus DC plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Charles Tjerk; Ten Duis, Henk Jan

    The aim of this study was to compare the time to radiological bony union of simple A-type fractures of the forearm, treated with either a locking compression plate (LCP) or a dynamic compression plate (DCP). For each fracture, the relation between the use of compression and radiological healing time

  13. Corrosion Behavior of Top and Bottom Surfaces for Single-Side and Double-Side Friction Stir Welded 7085-T7651 Aluminum Alloy Thick Plate Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weifeng; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Xiaoli

    2017-03-01

    Thick plate joints of 7085-T7451 aluminum alloy were obtained through both single-side and double-side friction stir welding (SS or DS-FSW). The chloride ions effects on the corrosion behavior of the top and bottom surfaces of the joints were examined by cyclic potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results show that the corrosion susceptibility was suppressed significantly in the weld nugget zone, while the base material and heat-affected zone were prone to be corrosion attacked. For the SS-FSWed joint, the top surface showed a higher corrosion resistance than that of the bottom surface, but the larger corrosive heterogeneity was observed between the top and bottom surfaces compared with the two welds of DS-FSWed joint, which was confirmed by the morphology of corrosion attack. A deep insight on the microstructure of the joints indicates that the intermetallic particles played a key role in the corrosion behavior of the FSWed AA7085 aluminum alloy joints in chloride solution.

  14. Corrosion Behavior of Top and Bottom Surfaces for Single-Side and Double-Side Friction Stir Welded 7085-T7651 Aluminum Alloy Thick Plate Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weifeng; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    Thick plate joints of 7085-T7451 aluminum alloy were obtained through both single-side and double-side friction stir welding (SS or DS-FSW). The chloride ions effects on the corrosion behavior of the top and bottom surfaces of the joints were examined by cyclic potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results show that the corrosion susceptibility was suppressed significantly in the weld nugget zone, while the base material and heat-affected zone were prone to be corrosion attacked. For the SS-FSWed joint, the top surface showed a higher corrosion resistance than that of the bottom surface, but the larger corrosive heterogeneity was observed between the top and bottom surfaces compared with the two welds of DS-FSWed joint, which was confirmed by the morphology of corrosion attack. A deep insight on the microstructure of the joints indicates that the intermetallic particles played a key role in the corrosion behavior of the FSWed AA7085 aluminum alloy joints in chloride solution.

  15. Plate tectonics, damage and inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, David; Ricard, Yanick

    2014-04-24

    The initiation of plate tectonics on Earth is a critical event in our planet's history. The time lag between the first proto-subduction (about 4 billion years ago) and global tectonics (approximately 3 billion years ago) suggests that plates and plate boundaries became widespread over a period of 1 billion years. The reason for this time lag is unknown but fundamental to understanding the origin of plate tectonics. Here we suggest that when sufficient lithospheric damage (which promotes shear localization and long-lived weak zones) combines with transient mantle flow and migrating proto-subduction, it leads to the accumulation of weak plate boundaries and eventually to fully formed tectonic plates driven by subduction alone. We simulate this process using a grain evolution and damage mechanism with a composite rheology (which is compatible with field and laboratory observations of polycrystalline rocks), coupled to an idealized model of pressure-driven lithospheric flow in which a low-pressure zone is equivalent to the suction of convective downwellings. In the simplest case, for Earth-like conditions, a few successive rotations of the driving pressure field yield relic damaged weak zones that are inherited by the lithospheric flow to form a nearly perfect plate, with passive spreading and strike-slip margins that persist and localize further, even though flow is driven only by subduction. But for hotter surface conditions, such as those on Venus, accumulation and inheritance of damage is negligible; hence only subduction zones survive and plate tectonics does not spread, which corresponds to observations. After plates have developed, continued changes in driving forces, combined with inherited damage and weak zones, promote increased tectonic complexity, such as oblique subduction, strike-slip boundaries that are subparallel to plate motion, and spalling of minor plates.

  16. Casimir Effect for Dielectric Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We generalize Kupisewska method to the three-dimensional system and another derivation of the Casimir effect between two dielectric plates is presented based on the explicit quantization of the electromagnetic field in the presence of dielectrics, where the physical meaning of "evanescent mode" is discussed. The Lifshitz's formula is rederived perfect metallic plates will the evanescent modes become unimportant.

  17. Gold plating on spectacle frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, I; Mitchell, J W; Walsh, G

    1997-05-01

    An investigation was carried out into the thickness and standard of application of the plating and lacquer coatings applied to three metal spectacle frames. All conform to BS 6625 (1991) for plating thickness, but there was considerable variation in regularity and porosity.

  18. Turbulent boundary layer over flexible plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Parand; Ioppolo, Tindaro

    2016-11-01

    This research describes the structure of a turbulent boundary layer flow with a zero pressure gradient over elastic plates. The elastic plates made of a thin aluminum sheets with thickness between 50 and 500 microns were placed on the floor of a subsonic wind tunnel and exposed to a turbulent boundary layer flow with a free stream velocity between 20m/s and 100m/s. The ceiling of the test section of the wind tunnel is adjustable so that a nearly zero pressure gradient is obtained in the test section. Hot-wire anemometry was used to measure the velocity components. Mean, fluctuating velocities and Reynolds stresses will be presented and compared with the values of a rigid plate.

  19. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    . This modelling technique is used to model a plate shell structure with a span of 11.5 meters in the FE software \\textsc{Abaqus}. The structure is analyzed with six different connection details with varying stiffness characteristics, to investigate the influence of these characteristics on the structural effects...... University, a script has been developed for an automated generation of a given plate shell geometry and a corresponding finite element (FE) model. A suitable FE modelling technique is proposed, suggesting a relatively simple method of modelling the connection detail's stiffness characteristics....... Based on these investigations, and FE analysis of other plate shell models, the structural behaviour is described. Possible methods of estimating the stresses in a given plate shell structure are proposed. The non-linear behaviour of a plate shell structure is investigated for varying parameters...

  20. The moving plate capacitor paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, B. R.; Abbott, D.; Parrondo, J. M. R.

    2000-03-01

    For the first time we describe an apparent paradox concerning a moving plate capacitor driven by thermal noise from a resistor. A demon restores the plates of the capacitor to their original position, only when the voltage across the capacitor is small—hence only small forces are present for the demon to work against. The demon has to work harder than this to avoid the situation of perpetual motion, but the question is how? We explore the concept of a moving plate capacitor, driven by noise, a step further by examining the case where the restoring force on the capacitor plates is provided by a simple spring, rather than some unknown demon. We display simulation results with interesting behavior, particularly where the capacitor plates collide with each other.

  1. SAMI Automated Plug Plate Configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Lorente, Nuria P F; Goodwin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) is a prototype wide-field system at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) which uses a plug-plate to mount its 13 x 61-core imaging fibre bundles (hexabundles) in the optical path at the telescope's prime focus. In this paper we describe the process of determining the positions of the plug-plate holes, where plates contain three or more stacked observation configurations. The process, which up until now has involved several separate processes and has required significant manual configuration and checking, is now being automated to increase efficiency and reduce error. This is carried out by means of a thin Java controller layer which drives the configuration cycle. This layer controls the user interface and the C++ algorithm layer where the plate configuration and optimisation is carried out. Additionally, through the Aladin display package, it provides visualisation and facilitates user verification of the resulting plates.

  2. Thin plate neotectonic models of the Australian plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbidge, D. R.

    2004-10-01

    Thin plate finite element models of the neotectonic deformation of the Australian plate have been calculated in order to estimate the stress and strain rate within the plate, specifically concentrating on the Australian continent. The model includes plate-bounding faults, an anelastic brittle-ductile layered rheology and the option of laterally varying elevation and heat flow. The results of the models are compared to (1) the velocity of geodetic benchmarks on the Australian plate, (2) the spreading rate of the mid-oceanic ridges along the Australian plate's margins, (3) the direction of the maximum horizontal principal stress, (4) the stress regime within the plate, and (5) the crustal thickness estimated from the depth to the base of Mohorovicic discontinuity's transition zone. A variety of models are tested with a wide range of input parameters. The model with the smallest misfit with observations predicts that the strain rate for most of the Australian continent is approximately 10-17 s-1. This model has a slightly lower strain rate in the central Australia and is higher off the northern coast of Australia than for the rest of the continent. Strain rates of this magnitude would be difficult to observe from geodetic or geologic data for most parts of Australia but would be enough to generate much of the seismicity that has been observed over the last century.

  3. Underwater electrical discharge in plate to plate configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmashuk, Vitaliy

    2016-09-01

    Two main configurations of high voltage electrodes submersed in water have been used for an electrical discharge generation: pin to pin and pin to plate. An electrical breakdown between plate electrodes is generally difficult to reproduce, because there is a uniform and weak electric field. One major advantage of using plate electrodes is their greater ``wear hardness'' to high-energy discharges. The plate electrodes can withstand extremely high energy deposition at which the pin electrode is quickly destroyed. The electrical discharge between plate electrodes can be initiated by creating an inhomogeneity in the electrical field. Two methods of discharge initiation between plate electrodes are proposed for this aim: 1) focusing of a shock wave in the interelectrode region; 2) a bubble injection into the electrode gap. The shock wave creates favourable conditions for the electrical breakdown between the two plate electrodes: it causes that numerous microbubbles of dissolved air start to grow and serve as locations for streamer initiation. In the second method the gas bubble is injected from the one of the electrodes, which has a gas inlet hole on the lateral face for this purpose. A ``volcano'' like morphology of positive streamers are observed in the experiments with weak electric field. The authors are grateful to MEYS grant INGO LG 15013.

  4. Highly curved microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Cully, S.; Warren, J.; Gaines, G. A.; Priedhorsky, W.; Bloch, J.

    1990-01-01

    Several spherically curved microchannel plate (MCP) stack configurations were studied as part of an ongoing astrophysical detector development program, and as part of the development of the ALEXIS satellite payload. MCP pairs with surface radii of curvature as small as 7 cm, and diameters up to 46 mm have been evaluated. The experiments show that the gain (greater than 1.5 x 10 exp 7) and background characteristics (about 0.5 events/sq cm per sec) of highly curved MCP stacks are in general equivalent to the performance achieved with flat MCP stacks of similar configuration. However, gain variations across the curved MCP's due to variations in the channel length to diameter ratio are observed. The overall pulse height distribution of a highly curved surface MCP stack (greater than 50 percent FWHM) is thus broader than its flat counterpart (less than 30 percent). Preconditioning of curved MCP stacks gives comparable results to flat MCP stacks, but it also decreases the overall gain variations. Flat fields of curved MCP stacks have the same general characteristics as flat MCP stacks.

  5. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  6. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  7. Development of plating thickness standards. Milestone report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Standards which are unavailable from the National Bureau of Standards were developed to support the nondestructive measurement of plating thickness. Their fabrication, measurement, certification, and calibration-recall schedule are discussed. Reference standards that have been put into service include aluminum/Kapton, silver/copper, tin/steel, gold/silver, cadmium/Kovar, silver/iron, rhodium/copper, and gold/ceramic. 6 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Propagation of Flexural Mode AE Signals in GR/EP Composite Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, W. H.; Gorman, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    It has been documented that AE signals propagate in thin plates as extensional and flexural plate modes. This was demonstrated using simulated AE sources (pencil lead breaks) by Gorman on thin aluminum and gr/ep composite plates and by Gorman and Prosser on thin aluminum plates. A typical signal from a pencil lead break source which identifies these two modes is shown. AE signals from transverse matrix cracking sources in gr/ep composite plates were also shown to propagate as plate modes by Gorman and Ziola. Smith showed that crack growth events in thin aluminum plates under spectrum fatigue loading produced signals that propagated as plate modes. Additionally, Prosser et al. showed that AE signals propagated as plate modes in a thin walled composite tube.

  9. 铝板中Lamb波检测的实验研究%Experiment investigations of Lamb waves in an aluminum plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军; 李志浩; 林莉; 侯云霞; 马清杰

    2011-01-01

    Lamb波在传播过程中具有频散及多模态特性,若相关参数选择不当,会导致在实际应用中信号相互叠加而无法识别.本文基于Lamb波的频散曲线是其频散方程实数解分布的特点,采用二分法绘制了铝板中Lamb波的频散曲线、波结构曲线和入射角曲线.根据曲线选择SO模态的Lamb波对1mm厚铝板中不同类型的缺陷进行检测.实验结果表明,SO模态的Lamb波对裂纹型缺陷和贯穿型缺陷十分敏感,但对于裂纹型缺陷,其幅值变化并不与缺陷大小成线性关系,并且SO模态Lamb波的声场指向性十分集中,在偏离声束轴线时无法检测到缺陷.%Lamb waves have dispersive and multi-modal characteristics during its propagation.In actual applications, the multi-modal signals overlap and the useful modes can not be identified if relevant parameters are not properly selected.The dispersion, wave structure and incident angle curves of Lamb waves in an aluminum plate are drawn with dichotomy based on the characteristics that the Lamb wave dispersion curve is the distribution of real solutions of a Lamb wave dispersion equation.SO mode Lamb wave is selected to detect the flaws with different types in 1 mm thick aluminum plate based on the dispersion curve.The results show that SO mode Lamb wave is very sensitive to cracks and through defects;however, the amplitude of SO mode don't change linearly with the defect size.Meanwhile, the sound field directivity of SO mode Lamb wave is very concentrated, and the defects deviated from the beam axis can not be detected.

  10. The concept of locking plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronier, P; Pietu, G; Dujardin, C; Bigorre, N; Ducellier, F; Gerard, R

    2010-05-01

    After a short historical review of locking bone plates since their inception more than a century ago to the success of the concept less than 15 years ago with today's plates, the authors present the main locking mechanisms in use. In the two broad categories - plates with fixed angulation and those with variable angulation - the screw head is locked in the plate with a locknut by screwing in a threaded chamber on the plate or by screwing through an adapted ring. The authors then provide a concrete explanation, based on simple mechanical models, of the fundamental differences between conventional bone plates and locking plates and why a locking screw system presents greater resistance at disassembly, detailing the role played by the position and number of screws. The advantages of epiphyseal fixation are then discussed, including in cases of mediocre-quality bone. For teaching purposes, the authors also present assembly with an apple fixed with five locking screws withstanding a 47-kg axial load with no resulting disassembly. The principles of plate placement are detailed for both the epiphysis and diaphysis, including the number and position of screws and respect of the soft tissues, with the greatest success assured by the minimally invasive and even percutaneous techniques. The authors then present the advantages of locking plates in fixation of periprosthetic fractures where conventional osteosynthesis often encounters limited success. Based on simplified theoretical cases, the economic impact in France of this type of implant is discussed, showing that on average it accounts for less than 10% of the overall cost of this pathology to society. Finally, the possible problems of material ablation are discussed as well as the means to remediate these problems.

  11. Optical Near-Field Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-08

    color filtering and spectral imaging ,” Nat. Comm. 1, 59 (2010). 3. H.-F. Shi and L. J. Guo, “Design of Plasmonic Near Field Plate at Opitical...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0085 OPTICAL NEAR-FILED PLATES Roberto Merlin UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Final Report 04/08/2015 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution...03-2015 Final 09/01/2009-12/31/2014 Optical Near-Field Plates FA9550-09-1-0636 erlin, Roberto, D. The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109

  12. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed....

  13. Hierarchical self-organization of tectonic plates

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Earth's surface is subdivided into eight large tectonic plates and many smaller ones. We reconstruct the plate tessellation history and demonstrate that both large and small plates display two distinct hierarchical patterns, described by different power-law size-relationships. While small plates display little organisational change through time, the structure of the large plates oscillate between minimum and maximum hierarchical tessellations. The organization of large plates rapidly chan...

  14. The multigap resistive plate chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeballos, E. Cerron [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Crotty, I. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Hatzifotiadou, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Valverde, J. Lamas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Univ. Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Neupane, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Williams, M. C. S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Zichichi, A. [Univ. of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2015-02-03

    The paper describes the multigap resistive plate chamber (RPC). This is a variant of the wide gap RPC. However it has much improved time resolution, while keeping all the other advantages of the wide gap RPC design.

  15. An efficient rectangular plate element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new 12-parameter rectangular plate element is presented by useof the double set parameter method. The error in the energy norm is of order O(h2), one order higher than the commonly used Adini nonconforming element.

  16. Tectonics: Changing of the plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Alan

    2016-10-01

    The composition of Earth's crust depends on the style of plate tectonics and of the melting regimes in the mantle. Analyses of the oldest identified rocks suggest that these styles and the resulting crust have changed over Earth's history.

  17. 高压电器铝合金镀银工艺%Silver plating process for aluminum alloy of highvoltage electrical equipments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勿初

    2011-01-01

    A process for plating silver on cast aluminum alloy ZL101 was introduced. The process flow mainly includes degreasing, descaling, pickling, zinc dipping, copper electroplating, silver electroplating, activating and coating protective film. Using a solution composed of 2 volumes of concentrated nitric acid, 1 volume of water and a small amount of hydrofluoric acid, adding a home-made anti-bubbling powder to zinc bath, and removing gases from internal holes during electroplating are effective methods to eliminate the bubbling of deposits.%介绍了一种用于ZL101铝合金的镀银工艺,其主要流程包括除油、除垢、酸蚀、沉锌、镀铜、镀银、活化、打保护剂等.酸蚀时采用由2体积份浓硝酸、1体积份水及少量HF组成的溶液,沉锌时加入自制的除气粉,以及电镀时将内孔中的气体排出,都能有效避免镀层起泡.

  18. Critical assessment of precracked specimen configuration and experimental test variables for stress corrosion testing of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domack, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    A research program was conducted to critically assess the effects of precracked specimen configuration, stress intensity solutions, compliance relationships and other experimental test variables for stress corrosion testing of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy plate. Modified compact and double beam wedge-loaded specimens were tested and analyzed to determine the threshold stress intensity factor and stress corrosion crack growth rate. Stress intensity solutions and experimentally determined compliance relationships were developed and compared with other solutions available in the literature. Crack growth data suggests that more effective crack length measurement techniques are necessary to better characterize stress corrosion crack growth. Final load determined by specimen reloading and by compliance did not correlate well, and was considered a major source of interlaboratory variability. Test duration must be determined systematically, accounting for crack length measurement resolution, time for crack arrest, and experimental interferences. This work was conducted as part of a round robin program sponsored by ASTM committees G1.06 and E24.04 to develop a standard test method for stress corrosion testing using precracked specimens.

  19. Fatigue crack growth in 7475-T651 aluminum alloy plate in hard vacuum and water vapor. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicus, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    Compact specimens of 25 mm thick aluminum alloy plate were subjected to constant amplitude fatigue testing at a load ratio of 0.2. Crack growth rates were determined at frequencies of 1 Hz and 10 Hz in hard vacuum and laboratory air, and in mixtures of water vapor and nitrogen at water vapor partial pressures ranging from 94 Pa to 3.8 kPa. A significant effect of water vapor on fatigue crack growth rates was observed at the lowest water vapor pressure tested. Crack rates changed little for pressures up to 1.03 kPa, but abruptly accelerated at higher pressures. At low stress intensity factor ranges, cracking rates at the lowest and highest water vapor pressure tested were, respectively, two and five times higher than rates in vacuum. Although a frequency was observed in laboratory air, cracking rates in water vapor and vacuum are insensitive to a ten-fold change in frequency. Surfaces of specimens tested in water vapor and vacuum exhibited different amounts of residual deformation. Reduced deformation on the fracture surfaces of the specimens tested in water vapor suggests embrittlement of the plastic zone ahead of the crack tip as a result of environmental interaction.

  20. Rhodium platings – experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rudolf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern rhodium plating solutions are based on either sulphate or phosphate. Although in theory there are four possible combinations, in practice only three different rhodium electrolytes are used. These are based on dilutions of rhodium sulphate or phosphate concentrates with added sulphuric or phosphoric acid. These processes are be discussed in this paper with a demonstration of Rh platings in the Slovenian firm Zlatarna Celje d.d.

  1. Horizontal versus vertical plate motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cuffaro

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We review both present and past motions at major plate boundaries, which have the horizontal component in average 10 to 100 times faster (10–100 mm/yr than the vertical component (0.01–1 mm/yr in all geodynamic settings. The steady faster horizontal velocity of the lithosphere with respect to the upward or downward velocities at plate boundaries supports dominating tangential forces acting on plates. This suggests a passive role of plate boundaries with respect to far field forces determining the velocity of plates. The forces acting on the lithosphere can be subdivided in coupled and uncoupled, as a function of the shear at the lithosphere base. Higher the asthenosphere viscosity, more significant should be the coupled forces, i.e., the mantle drag and the trench suction. Lower the asthenosphere viscosity, more the effects of uncoupled forces might result determinant, i.e., the ridge push, the slab pull and the tidal drag. Although a combination of all forces acting on the lithosphere is likely, the decoupling between lithosphere and mantle suggests that a torque acts on the lithosphere independently of the mantle drag. Slab pull and ridge push are candidates for generating this torque, but, unlike these boundary forces, the advantage of the tidal drag is to be a volume force, acting simultaneously on the whole plates, and being the decoupling at the lithosphere base controlled by lateral variations in viscosity of the low-velocity layer.

  2. Horizontally oriented plates in clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Bréon, François-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Horizontally oriented plates in clouds generate a sharp specular reflectance signal in the glint direction, often referred to as "subsun". This signal (amplitude and width) may be used to analyze the relative area fraction of oriented plates in the cloud top layer and their characteristic tilt angle to the horizontal. We make use of spaceborne measurements from the POLDER instrument to provide a statistical analysis of these parameters. More than half of the clouds show a detectable maximum reflectance in the glint direction, although this maximum may be rather faint. The typical effective fraction (area weighted) of oriented plates in clouds lies between 10-3 and 10-2. For those oriented plates, the characteristic tilt angle is less than 1 degree in most cases. These low fractions imply that the impact of oriented plates on the cloud albedo is insignificant. The largest proportion of clouds with horizontally oriented plates is found in the range 500-700 hPa, in agreement with typical in situ observation of p...

  3. How mantle slabs drive plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Clinton P; Lithgow-Bertelloni, Carolina

    2002-10-04

    The gravitational pull of subducted slabs is thought to drive the motions of Earth's tectonic plates, but the coupling between slabs and plates is not well established. If a slab is mechanically attached to a subducting plate, it can exert a direct pull on the plate. Alternatively, a detached slab may drive a plate by exciting flow in the mantle that exerts a shear traction on the base of the plate. From the geologic history of subduction, we estimated the relative importance of "pull" versus "suction" for the present-day plates. Observed plate motions are best predicted if slabs in the upper mantle are attached to plates and generate slab pull forces that account for about half of the total driving force on plates. Slabs in the lower mantle are supported by viscous mantle forces and drive plates through slab suction.

  4. 辊底式淬火炉在铝合金中厚板生产中的应用%Application of Roller-hearth Quenching Furnace in Production of Aluminum Alloy Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志刚

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviewed the application and development of rol er-hearth quenching furnace in the production of aluminum al oy plate,and it il ustrated structural features and technical characteristics of the furnace.%介绍了辊底式淬火炉在铝合金中厚板生产中的应用情况,详细描述了辊底式淬火炉的结构特点和技术性能。

  5. Geometry of the Cocos Plate Under North American Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Campos, X.

    2015-12-01

    The Cocos plate subducts under the North American plate with a complex geometry, and previous seismicity studies revealed some of this complexity. However, details of the geometry and the depth that the plate penetrates werelargely unknown. Since 2004, temporary experiments and the expansion of the permanent network of the Servicio Sismológico Nacional (SSN, Mexican National Seismological Service) have improved resolution of the plate geometry and have helped to map its descent into the upper mantle. Going from northwest to southeast, the Cocos plate appears to be fragmenting into north and south segments. The north segment subducts with an angle of ~30º and the south with an angle of ~10-15º. The transition is smooth near the trench and progresses to a tear at depth; this coincides with the projection of the Orozco Fracture Zone to depth. Also, this transition marks the limit of the presence to the south of an ultra slow velocity layer (USL) on top of the slab.South of this transition, the Cocos plate subducts horizontally , underplating the North American plate for a distance of ~140 to ~300 km from the trench. Along this horizontal region, silent slow events (SSE) and tectonic tremor (TT) have been observed. At a distance of 300 km from the trench (beneath central Mexico), the plate dives into the mantle with an angle of 76º to a depth of 500 km. This geometry changes abruptly to the south, marking the eastern limit of the USL. This change seems to be also characterized by a tear on the slab. Finally to the south, the Cocos plate subducts with a constant angle of 26º. This presentation summarizes the work of many contributors including A. Arciniega-Ceballos, M. Brudzinski, E. Cabral-Cano, T. Chen, R. Clayton,F. Cordoba-Montiel,P. Davis,S. Dougherty,F. Green, M. Gurnis, D. V. Helmberger, A. Husker,A. Iglesias, Y. Kim, V. Manea, D. Melgar, M. Rodríguez-Domínguez,S. K. Singh, T.-R. A. Song, C. M. Valdés-González, D. Valencia-Cabrera

  6. Analytical solution for multilayer plates using general layerwise plate theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Đorđe M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with closed-form solution for static analysis of simply supported composite plate, based on generalized laminate plate theory (GLPT. The mathematical model assumes piece-wise linear variation of in-plane displacement components and a constant transverse displacement through the thickness. It also include discrete transverse shear effect into the assumed displacement field, thus providing accurate prediction of transverse shear stresses. Namely, transverse stresses satisfy Hook's law, 3D equilibrium equations and traction free boundary conditions. With assumed displacement field, linear strain-displacement relation, and constitutive equations of the lamina, equilibrium equations are derived using principle of virtual displacements. Navier-type closed form solution of GLPT, is derived for simply supported plate, made of orthotropic laminae, loaded by harmonic and uniform distribution of transverse pressure. Results are compared with 3D elasticity solutions and excellent agreement is found.

  7. Plate tectonics of the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D P

    1970-04-18

    The seismicity and fault plane solutions in the Mediterranean area show that two small rapidly moving plates exist in the Eastern Mediterranean, and such plates may be a common feature of contracting ocean basins. The results show that the concepts of plate tectonics apply to instantaneous motions across continental plate boundaries.

  8. 30 CFR 18.13 - Certification plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification plate. 18.13 Section 18.13... Certification plate. Each certified component shall be identified by a certification plate attached to the... characteristics of the component. The plate shall be of serviceable material, acceptable, to MSHA, and shall...

  9. 21 CFR 872.4760 - Bone plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone plate. 872.4760 Section 872.4760 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4760 Bone plate. (a) Identification. A bone plate is a metal device... plate with screws to prevent movement of the segments. (b) Classification. Class II. ...

  10. 30 CFR 18.11 - Approval plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval plate. 18.11 Section 18.11 Mineral... plate. (a)(1) The notice of approval will be accompanied by a photograph of an approval plate, bearing... number shall be added to the original approval number on the approval plate. (Example: Original approval...

  11. Beyond plate tectonics - Looking at plate deformation with space geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Thomas H.; Minster, J. Bernard

    1988-01-01

    The requirements that must be met by space-geodetic systems in order to constrain the horizontal secular motions associated with the geological deformation of the earth's surface are explored. It is suggested that in order to improve existing plate-motion models, the tangential components of relative velocities on interplate baselines must be resolved to an accuracy of less than 3 mm/yr. Results indicate that measuring the velocities between crustal blocks to + or - 5 mm/yr on 100-km to 1000-km scales can produce geologically significant constraints on the integrated deformation rates across continental plate-boundary zones such as the western United States.

  12. Plating on some difficult-to-plate metals and alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1980-02-01

    Electrodeposition of coatings on metals such as beryllium, beryllium-copper, Kovar, lead, magnesium, thorium, titanium, tungsten, uranium, zirconium, and their alloys can be problematic. This is due in most cases to a natural oxide surface film that readily reforms after being removed. The procedures we recommend for plating on these metals rely on replacing the oxide film with a displacement coating, or etching to allow mechanical keying between the substrate and plated deposit. The effectiveness of the procedures is demonstrated by interface bond strengths found in ring-shear and conical-head tensile tests.

  13. Beyond plate tectonics - Looking at plate deformation with space geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Thomas H.; Minster, J. Bernard

    1988-01-01

    The requirements that must be met by space-geodetic systems in order to constrain the horizontal secular motions associated with the geological deformation of the earth's surface are explored. It is suggested that in order to improve existing plate-motion models, the tangential components of relative velocities on interplate baselines must be resolved to an accuracy of less than 3 mm/yr. Results indicate that measuring the velocities between crustal blocks to + or - 5 mm/yr on 100-km to 1000-km scales can produce geologically significant constraints on the integrated deformation rates across continental plate-boundary zones such as the western United States.

  14. Process for bright nickel barrel plating on zinc and aluminum alloys in a neutral bath%锌合金、铝合金光亮中性滚镀镍工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁均强

    2012-01-01

    介绍了一种近中性(pH=5.5 ~ 6.0)滚镀镍工艺,其镀液由硫酸镍、氯化镍、硼酸、开缸剂、柔软剂、主光剂和润湿剂组成.用于锌合金滚镀时,工艺流程主要包括机械或化学除油、活化酸盐活化、预镀碱铜、硫酸活化、镀中性镍和离心机烘干;用于铝合金时,工艺流程主要包括热浸除油、酸活化、一次浸锌、硝酸退锌、二次浸锌、镀中性镍和烘干.给出了各工序的工艺条件及日常维护、故障处理的方法,对比了该中性镀镍液与普通光亮镀镍液对锌杂质的容忍度.采用该中性镀镍工艺可在锌、铝合金工件上获得有亮丽金属光泽的镀镍层,既提高了成品率和生产效率,又节省了生产成本.%A near neutral (pH 5.5-6.0) nickel barrel plating process was introduced. The bath is composed of NiSO4, NiCl2, H3BO3, makeup agent, softening agent, primary brightening agent, and wetting agent. The process flow mainly consists of mechanical or chemical degreasing, activating with active acid salt, alkaline copper pre-plating, sulfuric acid activating, neutraV nickel plating, and centrifugal drying for barrel plating of zinc alloys, and of hot-dip degreasing, acid activating, first zinc immersion, zinc stripping with nitric acid, secondary zinc immersion, neutral nickel plating, and dry for aluminum alloys. The operation conditions of individual procedure and the methods of routine maintenance and troubleshooting were presented. The tolerance of the neutral nickel plating bath and a conventional bright nickel plating bath to zinc impurity was compared. The neutral nickel plating process produces bright nickel coatings on zinc and aluminum alloys, improving the rate of eligible products as well as production efficiency and saving cost.

  15. Chladni's law for vibrating plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    1982-03-01

    The normal vibrational modes of free circular plates can be classified according to the number of nodal diameters m and the number of nodal circles n. Chladni observed that the addition of one nodal circle raised the frequency f about the same amount as adding two nodal diameters, and Rayleigh pointed out that f is proportional to (m+2n)2 for large f. Waller, however, concluded that the number of nodal diameters necessary to raise the frequency as much as a nodal circle varies from two to five. We have examined data on the vibrations of flat and non-flat circular plates and fitted their vibration frequencies to the relationship f = c(m+bn)k. By proper choice of c it is possible to satisfy Chladni's law (b = 2, k = 2) over quite a wide range of frequency in flat plates. Non-flat plates such as cymbals and bells, require different choices of b and k. A brief history of Chladni patterns, and suggestions for observing and demonstrating the vibrational modes of plates are included (AIP).

  16. Multiregional evaluation of the SimPlate heterotrophic plate count method compared to the standard plate count agar pour plate method in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R W; Osborne, K; Barnes, G; Jolliff, C; Zamani, D; Roll, B; Stillings, A; Herzog, D; Cannon, S; Loveland, S

    2000-01-01

    A new SimPlate heterotrophic plate count (HPC) method (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine) was compared with the pour plate method at 35 degrees C for 48 h. Six laboratories tested a total of 632 water samples. The SimPlate HPC method was found to be equivalent to the pour plate method by regression analysis (r = 0. 95; y = 0.99X + 0.06).

  17. Multiregional Evaluation of the SimPlate Heterotrophic Plate Count Method Compared to the Standard Plate Count Agar Pour Plate Method in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, R. Wayne; Osborne, Karen; Barnes, Gary; Jolliff, Carol; Zamani, Dianna; Roll, Bruce; Stillings, Amy; Herzog, David; Cannon, Shelly; Loveland, Scott

    2000-01-01

    A new SimPlate heterotrophic plate count (HPC) method (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine) was compared with the pour plate method at 35°C for 48 h. Six laboratories tested a total of 632 water samples. The SimPlate HPC method was found to be equivalent to the pour plate method by regression analysis (r = 0.95; y = 0.99X + 0.06).

  18. Multiple-Dynode-Layer Microchannel Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, Bruce E.

    1990-01-01

    Improved microchannel-plate electron image amplifier made of stack of discrete microchannel-plate layers. New plates easier to manufacture because no need to etch long, narrow holes, to draw and bundle thin glass tubes, or to shear plates to give microchannels curvatures necessary for reduction of undesired emission of ions. Discrete dynode layers stacked with slight offset from layer to layer to form microchannel plate with curved channels. Provides for relatively fast recharging of microchannel dynodes, with consequent enhancement of performance.

  19. Fatigue properties for FSW and MIG welded joints of thickness plate aluminum alloy%厚板铝合金FSW和MIG焊接接头疲劳性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨新岐; 吴铁; 张家龙; 秦红珊

    2012-01-01

    对厚度10 mm的6082-T6铝合金搅拌摩擦焊(FSW)和MIG焊接接头的疲劳强度进行了试验研究,并与6082-T6母材疲劳性能进行了对比分析.结果表明,6082-T6母材的疲劳S-N曲线最高、MIG焊接接头S-N曲线度最低,而FSW接头的疲劳S-N曲线近似位于两者之间;在高应力区FSW疲劳强度低于MIG焊接接头、而在低应力区高于MIG焊接接头.大部分FSW试样疲劳裂纹启始于焊缝根部的"弱连接"缺陷,采用机械加工去掉1.4 mm厚度焊缝根部材料后,FSW疲劳强度明显提高并接近母材数据.厚板6082-T6铝合金FSW焊缝根部质量控制是影响疲劳性能的关键因素.%The fatigue properties of FSW and MIG welded joints for AA6082-T6 aluminum alloy of 10 mm thickness were investigated by the fatigue S-N curves testing method,and these prperties were also compared to that of AA6082-T6 base material.It was shown that the fatigue S-N curve of AA6082-T6 base material was the highest,the S-N curve of MIG welded joints was the lowest,and the S-N curve of FSW joint was between the two curves.In high stress range,the fatigue strength of FSW was lower than that of MIG welded joints,while in low stress range,it was higher than the MIG welded joints.It indicated that most of the FSW specimens were initially fractured at the weld,caused by the "weak-bonding" defects and the fatigue strength of FSW joint increased apparently,which is close to the values of base material after removing one layer of weld root material with thickness of 1.4 mm.Thus it can be verified that the quality of the weld root sites for the single-side FSW welded joints of AA6082-T6 aluminum alloys thick plate should be the key factor to influence the fatigue properties of FSW joint.

  20. Analysis on a Damping Property Measurement Method for Aluminum Alloy Plate%铝合金板阻尼特性测试方法的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞庆庆; 郑君; 刘继承; 王长武

    2012-01-01

    To obtain the damping property of alumium alloy plate-damping ratio ξ,this paper introduced the method of cantilever beam damped free vibration for two kinds of aluminum alloy plate(normal Al-alloy and high damping Al-alloy),ξ value was obtained easily and precisely by this method.The theory fundation,implementation condition,operation process and precision verification by simulation of the method was discussed in detail.Processing and analysis of testing data show that ξ value of high damping Al-alloy is 1.8 times higher than normal Al-alloy,and the value is not constant.The results provide reference for future design of structural vibration attenuation and optimization.%为了获得铝合金板即典型结构件的阻尼特性参数——阻尼比ξ值,文中对两种铝合金板件(普通铝和高阻尼铝)采用悬臂梁自由衰减振动法,较简便、准确地测得材料的ξ值。这里详细介绍了该测试试验的理论依据、实施条件、操作步骤和其准确度的仿真验证;并通过对后续试验数据进行处理和对比分析,得出高阻尼铝ξ值为普通铝的1.8倍;且高阻尼铝本身表现出非定值阻尼特性。上述试验结论将为结构减振及优化设计提供借鉴。

  1. Ultimately Thin Metasurface Wave Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Keene, David; Durach, Maxim

    2015-01-01

    Optical properties of a metasurface which can be considered a monolayer of two classical uniaxial metamaterials, parallel-plate and nanorod arrays, are investigated. It is shown that such metasurface acts as an ultimately thin sub-50 nm wave plate. This is achieved via an interplay of epsilon-near-zero and epsilon-near-pole behavior along different axes in the plane of the metasurface allowing for extremely rapid phase difference accumulation in very thin metasurface layers. These effects are shown to not be disrupted by non-locality and can be applied to the design of ultrathin wave plates, Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements and plasmon-carrying optical torque wrench devices.

  2. Plate-like osteoma cutis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Charisse M; Hale, Christopher S; Meehan, Shane A; Long, Wendy

    2014-12-16

    Osteoma cutis is the aberrant development of bone within the skin. The bone formation may be de novo (primary) or result from an injury to the skin (secondary). Here we present a healthy 53-year-old man with no known abnormalities in calcium or phosphate metabolism with plate-like osteoma cutis of the scalp. Plate- or plaque-like osteoma cutis was initially described as a congenital condition but has now been reported several times in the literature as an idiopathic process that occurs in adults. Treatment options are limited and are only required if the lesion is bothersome to the patient.

  3. Hydroelasticity of a Floating Plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, X.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Cui, W.

    2003-01-01

    The membrane forces are included in the hydroelastic analysis of a floating plate undergoing large vertical deflections in regular monochromatic multidirectional waves. The first-order vertical displacements induced by the linear wave exciting forces are calculated by the mode expansion method...... in the frequency domain. The second-order vertical displacements induced by the membrane forces are calculated by the von Karman plate theory. The results show that the membrane contribution both in terms of the axial stresses and the effect on the bending stresses can be important...

  4. Orifice plates and venturi tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Reader-Harris, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book gives the background to differential-pressure flow measurement and goes through the requirements explaining the reason for them. For those who want to use an orifice plate or a Venturi tube the standard ISO 5167 and its associated Technical Reports give the instructions required.  However, they rarely tell the users why they should follow certain instructions.  This book helps users of the ISO standards for orifice plates and Venturi tubes to understand the reasons why the standards are as they are, to apply them effectively, and to understand the consequences of deviations from the standards.

  5. Outer rise seismicity of the subducting Nazca Plate: Plate stress distribution, fault orientation and plate hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barama, Louisa

    Subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American plate drives frequent and sometimes large magnitude earthquakes. During the past 40 years, significant numbers of outer rise earthquakes have occurred in the offshore regions of Colombia and Chile. In this study, we investigate the distribution of stress due to lithospheric bending and the extent of faults within the subducting plate. To calculate more accurate epicenters and to constrain which earthquakes occurred within the outer rise, we use hypocentroidal decomposition to relocate earthquakes with Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) solutions occurring after 1976 offshore Colombia and Chile. We determine centroid depths of outer rise earthquakes by inverting teleseismic P-, SH-, and SV- waveforms for earthquakes occurring from 1993 to 2014 with Mw ≥ 5.5. In order to further constrain the results of the waveform inversion, we estimate depths by comparing earthquake duration, amplitude, and arrival times for select stations with waveforms with good signal to noise ratios. Our results indicate that tensional earthquakes occur at depths down to 13 km and 24 km depth beneath the surface in the Colombia and Chile regions, respectively. Since faulting within the outer rise can make the plate susceptible to hydration and mantle serpentinization, we therefore infer the extent of possible hydration of the Nazca plate to extend no deeper than the extent of tensional outer rise earthquakes.

  6. Light splitting with imperfect wave plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jarom S; Archibald, James L; Durfee, Dallin S

    2017-02-01

    We discuss the use of wave plates with arbitrary retardances, in conjunction with a linear polarizer, to split linearly polarized light into two linearly polarized beams with an arbitrary splitting fraction. We show that for non-ideal wave plates, a much broader range of splitting ratios is typically possible when a pair of wave plates, rather than a single wave plate, is used. We discuss the maximum range of splitting fractions possible with one or two wave plates as a function of the wave plate retardances, and how to align the wave plates to achieve the maximum splitting range possible when simply rotating one of the wave plates while keeping the other one fixed. We also briefly discuss an alignment-free polarization rotator constructed from a pair of half-wave plates.

  7. Effects of a sliding plate on morphology of the epiphyseal plate in goat distal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Da-sheng; Lian, Ke-jian; Hong, Jia-yuan; Ding, Zhen-qi; Zhai, Wen-liang

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the effects of a sliding plate on the morphology of the epiphyseal plate in goat distal femur. Eighteen premature female goats were divided randomly into sliding plate, regular plate and control groups. Radiographic analysis and histological staining were performed to evaluate the development of epiphyseal plate at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. In the sliding plate group, the plate extended accordingly as the epiphyseal plate grows, and the epiphyseal morphology was kept essential normal. However, the phenomenon of the epiphyseal growth retardation and premature closure were very common in the regular plate group. In addition, the sliding plate group exhibited more normal histologic features and Safranin O staining compared to the regular plate group. Our results suggest that the sliding plate can provide reliable internal fixation of epiphyseal fracture without inhibiting epiphyseal growth.

  8. Effects of a Sliding Plate on Morphology of the Epiphyseal Plate in Goat Distal Femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-sheng LIN, Ke-jian LIAN, Jia-yuan HONG, Zhen-qi DING, Wen-liang ZHAI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe the effects of a sliding plate on the morphology of the epiphyseal plate in goat distal femur. Eighteen premature female goats were divided randomly into sliding plate, regular plate and control groups. Radiographic analysis and histological staining were performed to evaluate the development of epiphyseal plate at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. In the sliding plate group, the plate extended accordingly as the epiphyseal plate grows, and the epiphyseal morphology was kept essential normal. However, the phenomenon of the epiphyseal growth retardation and premature closure were very common in the regular plate group. In addition, the sliding plate group exhibited more normal histologic features and Safranin O staining compared to the regular plate group. Our results suggest that the sliding plate can provide reliable internal fixation of epiphyseal fracture without inhibiting epiphyseal growth.

  9. Under Wind Load Function the Curtain Wall Aluminum Plate Internal Force and Distortion Calculation%风荷载作用下幕墙铝板内力和变形的计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛伙南

    2012-01-01

    The survey of unit type curtain wall is researched. Using the ANSYS software, the internal force and displacement of the unit type plate structure which are composed of the trough type aluminum plate and S stiffening ribs (portal type frame) are calculated. The stiffening rib and the aluminum plate corner partial rivet loosens by the rigid joint turns the hinge point is studied. The computation model is built and its biggest internal force and displacement are obtained. Finally, the practical application is in troduced.%阐述了槽型铝板和加劲肋构成的单元式幕墙的内力及变形计算.采用ANSYS软件对单元板块由槽型铝板与5条加劲肋组成的结构的内力和变形进行计算,研究了加劲肋转角处由于局部铆钉松脱由刚结点变成铰接点后其计算模型发生改变的应力及位移计算,最后介绍实际应用.

  10. Thermal Performance Evaluation of Friction Stir Welded and Bolted Cold Plates with Al/Cu Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, A. K.; Suresh, M.; Sibi Varshan, M.

    2015-05-01

    An attempt is made to design and fabricate a cold plate with aluminum-copper dissimilar interface joined by friction stir welding. Optimum welding conditions for obtaining sound-quality corner and T joints with an aluminum-copper interface were established. Welded cross sections of the friction stir welded cold plate were analyzed to understand the bonding characteristics. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to evaluate the fluid-flow characteristics and thermal resistance of friction stir welded cold plate and the resulted are compared with the conventional bolted cold plate configuration. For CFD modeling of a cold plate with a dissimilar interface, a new methodology is proposed. From the CFD analysis and experimental results, it is observed that friction stir welded cold plate offered better thermal performance compared to the bolted cold plate and it is due to the metallurgical bonding at the aluminum-copper interface with the dispersion of copper particles.

  11. Comment on "Intermittent plate tectonics?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, Jun

    2008-06-06

    Silver and Behn (Reports, 4 January 2008, p. 85) proposed that intermittent plate tectonics may resolve a long-standing paradox in Earth's thermal evolution. However, their analysis misses one important term, which subsequently brings their main conclusion into question. In addition, the Phanerozoic eustasy record indicates that the claimed effect of intermittency is probably weak.

  12. License plate recognition using DTCNNs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Brugge, M.H; Stevens, J.H; Nijhuis, J.A G; Spaanenburg, L; Tavsanonoglu, V

    1998-01-01

    Automatic license plate recognition requires a series of complex image processing steps. For practical use, the amount of data to he processed must be minimized early on. This paper shows that the computationally most intensive steps can be realized by DTCNNs. Moreover; high-level operations like fi

  13. Corrosion resistant metallic bipolar plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P.; Schneibel, Joachim H.; Pint, Bruce A.; Maziasz, Philip J.

    2007-05-01

    A corrosion resistant, electrically conductive component such as a bipolar plate for a PEM fuel cell includes 20 55% Cr, balance base metal such as Ni, Fe, or Co, the component having thereon a substantially external, continuous layer of chromium nitride.

  14. The seismotectonics of plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, J.; Brune, J. N.; Goodkind, J.; Wyatt, F.; Agnew, D. C.; Beaumont, C.

    1981-01-01

    Research on the seismotectonics of plate boundaries is summarized. Instrumental development and an observational program designed to study various aspects of the seismotectonics of southern California and the northern Gulf of California are described. A unique superconducting gravimeter was further developed and supported under this program for deployment and operation at several sites. Work on Earth tides is also discussed.

  15. Chladni's patterns for random vibration of a plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, S. H.; Wittig, L. E.

    1972-01-01

    A typical Chladni pattern for pure tone excitation is shown. The aluminum plate used is clamped in a steel frame. The measured fundamental frequency is 13 Hz. The random vibration of a taut spring is discussed together with the random vibration of a thin plate and approximations for the modal sum. The Chladni pattern for wide band excitation applied at a certain point is shown together with the predicted distribution of mean square velocity as a function of the y coordinate of the plate and the experimentally measured distribution of mean square velocity as a function of y.

  16. Structural Analysis of Plate Based Tensegrity Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Frederik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Damkilde, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Plate tensegrity structures combine tension cables with a cross laminated timber plate and can then form e.g. a roof structure. The topology of plate tensegrity structures is investigated through a parametric investigation. Plate tensegrity structures are investigated, and a method...... for determination of the structures pre-stresses is used. A parametric investigation is performed to determine a more optimized form of the plate based tensegrity structure. Conclusions of the use of plate based tensegrity in civil engineering and further research areas are discussed....

  17. Structural Analysis of Plate Based Tensegrity Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Frederik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Damkilde, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Plate tensegrity structures combine tension cables with a cross laminated timber plate and can then form e.g. a roof structure. The topology of plate tensegrity structures is investigated through a parametric investigation. Plate tensegrity structures are investigated, and a method...... for determination of the structures pre-stresses is used. A parametric investigation is performed to determine a more optimized form of the plate based tensegrity structure. Conclusions of the use of plate based tensegrity in civil engineering and further research areas are discussed....

  18. Avionics Box Cold Plate Damage Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Larchar, Steven W.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Problem Introduction: 1. Prevent Cold Plate Damage in Space Shuttle. 1a. The number of cold plate problems had increased from an average of 16.5 per/year between 1990 through 2000, to an average of 39.6 per year between 2001through 2005. 1b. Each complete set of 80 cold plates cost approximately $29 million, an average of $362,500 per cold plate. 1c It takes four months to produce a single cold plate. 2. Prevent Cold Plate Damage in Future Space Vehicles.

  19. Optimization of Friction Welding of Tube-to-Tube Plate Using an External Tool with Filler Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, G. K.; Muthukumaran, S.; Senthilkumaran, S.; Pradeep, A.

    2012-07-01

    Friction welding of tube-to-tube plate using an external tool (FWTPET) process with filler plate was successfully applied and optimized for joining commercially pure aluminum tube and tube plate. Taguchi approach was applied to determine the most influential control factors which will yield better joint strength. L9 orthogonal array was used in this study. Through the Taguchi parametric design approach, the optimum levels of process parameters were determined. The percentage of contribution of each process parameter was determined by Analysis of variance. The predicted optimal value of joint strength was found to be 83.26 MPa. The results were confirmed by further experiments.

  20. EMPIRICAL STUDY OF CAR LICENSE PLATES RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasa Zata Dina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of vehicles on the road has increased drastically in recent years. The license plate is an identity card for a vehicle. It can map to the owner and further information about vehicle. License plate information is useful to help traffic management systems. For example, traffic management systems can check for vehicles moving at speeds not permitted by law and can also be installed in parking areas to se-cure the entrance or exit way for vehicles. License plate recognition algorithms have been proposed by many researchers. License plate recognition requires license plate detection, segmentation, and charac-ters recognition. The algorithm detects the position of a license plate and extracts the characters. Various license plate recognition algorithms have been implemented, and each algorithm has its strengths and weaknesses. In this research, I implement three algorithms for detecting license plates, three algorithms for segmenting license plates, and two algorithms for recognizing license plate characters. I evaluate each of these algorithms on the same two datasets, one from Greece and one from Thailand. For detecting li-cense plates, the best result is obtained by a Haar cascade algorithm. After the best result of license plate detection is obtained, for the segmentation part a Laplacian based method has the highest accuracy. Last, the license plate recognition experiment shows that a neural network has better accuracy than other algo-rithm. I summarize and analyze the overall performance of each method for comparison.

  1. 7075/6009铝合金层状复合板材的固溶时效热处理工艺%Heat Treatment Process for 7075/6009 Aluminum Alloy Laminated Composite Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑小平; 张卫文; 邵明; 李元元

    2012-01-01

    Different solid solution and aging treatments were performed with 7075/6009 aluminum alloy laminated composite plate to obtain the optimal heat treatment process, and the mechanical properties and tensile fracture of the composite plate after heat treatment were analyzed. The results show that the optimal heat treatment process of the composite plate was solid solution at 485℃ for 30 min followed by water quenching and aging at 175 ℃for 8 h followed by cooling in furnace. The tensile strength, yield strength and elongation of the composite plate were 404 MPa, 364 MPa and 15.3%, respectively, A lot of dimples was found on the tensile fracture of outer layer 6009 aluminum alloy and the innerlayer and outerlayer alloys had a good metallurgical bonding.%对7075/6009铝合金层状复合板材进行了不同的固溶时效处理,优化得到了该复合板最佳的热处理工艺,并对热处理后复合板的力学性能和拉伸断口进行了分析。结果表明:该复合板最佳的热处理工艺为485℃×30min水淬+175℃×8h炉冷,其抗拉强度为404MPa,屈服强度为364MPa,伸长率为15.3%;外层6009铝合金的拉伸断口上分布着大量韧窝,内外层合金间实现了良好的冶金结合。

  2. The Optimum Plate to Plate Spacing for Maximum Heat Transfer Rate from a Flat Plate Type Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, Himsar; Kishinami, Koki; Daimaruya, Mashashi; Tokura, Ikuo; Kawai, Hideki; Suzuki, Jun; Kobiyama, Mashayosi; Ginting, Armansyah

    The present paper is a study on the optimum plate to plate spacing for maximum heat transfer rate from a flat plate type heat exchanger. The heat exchanger consists of a number of parallel flat plates. The working fluids are flowed at the same operational conditions, either fixed pressure head or fixed fan power input. Parallel and counter flow directions of the working fluids were considered. While the volume of the heat exchanger is kept constant, plate number was varied. Hence, the spacing between plates as well as heat transfer rate will vary and there exists a maximum heat transfer rate. The objective of this paper is to seek the optimum plate to plate spacing for maximum heat transfer rate. In order to solve the problem, analytical and numerical solutions have been carried out. In the analytical solution, the correlations of the optimum plate to plate spacing as a function of the non-dimensional parameters were developed. Furthermore, the numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate the correlations. The results show that the optimum plate to plate spacing for a counter flow heat exchanger is smaller than parallel flow ones. On the other hand, the maximum heat transfer rate for a counter flow heat exchanger is bigger than parallel flow ones.

  3. Measurement procedure for optomechanical hole plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    Measurement procedure for optomechanical hole plate in connection with CIRP interlaboratory comparison on measuring machines.......Measurement procedure for optomechanical hole plate in connection with CIRP interlaboratory comparison on measuring machines....

  4. Food Guide Pyramid Becomes a Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... agency in charge of nutrition, created the colorful plate to help people remember to: Eat a variety ... of some foods and more of others. The plate features four sections — vegetables, fruits, grains, and protein — ...

  5. Earth's Decelerating Tectonic Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, A M; Moucha, R; Rowley, D B; Quere, S; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2008-08-22

    Space geodetic and oceanic magnetic anomaly constraints on tectonic plate motions are employed to determine a new global map of present-day rates of change of plate velocities. This map shows that Earth's largest plate, the Pacific, is presently decelerating along with several other plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres. These plate decelerations contribute to an overall, globally averaged slowdown in tectonic plate speeds. The map of plate decelerations provides new and unique constraints on the dynamics of time-dependent convection in Earth's mantle. We employ a recently developed convection model constrained by seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics data to show that time-dependent changes in mantle buoyancy forces can explain the deceleration of the major plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres.

  6. Earth's Decelerating Tectonic Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, A M; Moucha, R; Rowley, D B; Quere, S; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2008-08-22

    Space geodetic and oceanic magnetic anomaly constraints on tectonic plate motions are employed to determine a new global map of present-day rates of change of plate velocities. This map shows that Earth's largest plate, the Pacific, is presently decelerating along with several other plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres. These plate decelerations contribute to an overall, globally averaged slowdown in tectonic plate speeds. The map of plate decelerations provides new and unique constraints on the dynamics of time-dependent convection in Earth's mantle. We employ a recently developed convection model constrained by seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics data to show that time-dependent changes in mantle buoyancy forces can explain the deceleration of the major plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres.

  7. 刷镀工艺在铝合金压铸件磨损后修复中的应用研究%Application of brush plating in repair of abraded aluminum alloy die-castings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉峰; 李云彪

    2001-01-01

    In view of the defects in brush plating of aluminum alloy such as poor adhesion, easily cracked or peeled, a new brush plating proces for aluminum and its alloys was advanced. Formula and operating conditions of the procedures were described, high-packed alkaline copper deposit was adopted to act as interlayer and fast nickel brush deposit as working layer. Adhesion and wear resistance of the brush deposits were tested according to GB2933-86. Results show that the process improves the adhesion and wear resistance of brush deposits, and extends the service life of brush plated articles, which is applicable to the repair of abraded aluminum alloy die castings.%鉴于铝合金刷镀层结合力差,易产生裂纹及剥落现象。本文提出了一种新的铝及其合金刷镀工艺。阐述了各工艺步骤的配方及操作条件。过渡层采用高堆积碱铜,工作层为快速刷镀镍。根据GB2933-86测试镀层结合力及耐磨性。结果表明:该工艺可提高刷镀层的结合力和耐磨性,延长零件使用寿命。适用于铝合金压铸件磨损后的修复。

  8. Electrochemical Assay of Gold-Plating Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, R.

    1982-01-01

    Gold content of plating solution is assayed by simple method that required only ordinary electrochemical laboratory equipment and materials. Technique involves electrodeposition of gold from solution onto electrode, the weight gain of which is measured. Suitable fast assay methods are economically and practically necessary in electronics and decorative-plating industries. If gold content in plating bath is too low, poor plating may result, with consequent economic loss to user.

  9. Practical automatic Arabic license plate recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.

  10. Modeling the hydrodynamics of Phloem sieve plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Mullendore, Daniel Leroy; Holbrook, Noel Michele;

    2012-01-01

    Sieve plates have an enormous impact on the efficiency of the phloem vascular system of plants, responsible for the distribution of photosynthetic products. These thin plates, which separate neighboring phloem cells, are perforated by a large number of tiny sieve pores and are believed to play...... are investigated. We find that the sieve plate resistance is correlated to the cell lumen resistance, and that the sieve plate and the lumen contribute almost equally to the total hydraulic resistance of the phloem translocation pathway....

  11. Transfinite thin plate spline interpolation

    CERN Document Server

    Bejancu, Aurelian

    2009-01-01

    Duchon's method of thin plate splines defines a polyharmonic interpolant to scattered data values as the minimizer of a certain integral functional. For transfinite interpolation, i.e. interpolation of continuous data prescribed on curves or hypersurfaces, Kounchev has developed the method of polysplines, which are piecewise polyharmonic functions of fixed smoothness across the given hypersurfaces and satisfy some boundary conditions. Recently, Bejancu has introduced boundary conditions of Beppo Levi type to construct a semi-cardinal model for polyspline interpolation to data on an infinite set of parallel hyperplanes. The present paper proves that, for periodic data on a finite set of parallel hyperplanes, the polyspline interpolant satisfying Beppo Levi boundary conditions is in fact a thin plate spline, i.e. it minimizes a Duchon type functional.

  12. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    CERN Document Server

    Beetz, C P; Steinbeck, J; Lemieux, B; Winn, D R

    2000-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of approx 0.5 to approx 25 mu m, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposite...

  13. Vehicle License Plate Character Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Sen Pan; Jun-Biao Yan; Zheng-Hong Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle license plate (VLP) character segmentation is an important part of the vehicle license plate recognition system (VLPRS). This paper proposes a least square method (LSM) to treat horizontal tilt and vertical tilt in VLP images. Auxiliary lines are added into the image (or the tilt-corrected image) to make the separated parts of each Chinese character to be an interconnected region. The noise regions will be eliminated after two fusing images are merged according to the minimum principle of gray values.Then, the characters are segmented by projection method (PM) and the final character images are obtained. The experimental results show that this method features fast processing and good performance in segmentation.

  14. Mathematical methods for elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models of deformation of elastic plates are used by applied mathematicians and engineers in connection with a wide range of practical applications, from microchip production to the construction of skyscrapers and aircraft. This book employs two important analytic techniques to solve the fundamental boundary value problems for the theory of plates with transverse shear deformation, which offers a more complete picture of the physical process of bending than Kirchhoff’s classical one.   The first method transfers the ellipticity of the governing system to the boundary, leading to singular integral equations on the contour of the domain. These equations, established on the basis of the properties of suitable layer potentials, are then solved in spaces of smooth (Hölder continuous and Hölder continuously differentiable) functions.   The second technique rewrites the differential system in terms of complex variables and fully integrates it, expressing the solution as a combination of complex ana...

  15. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Lawrence J.

    1984-01-01

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  16. 49 CFR 236.779 - Plate, top.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plate, top. 236.779 Section 236.779 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.779 Plate, top. A metal plate secured to a locking bracket to prevent the cross locking from being forced out of the...

  17. 30 CFR 22.10 - Approval plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval plate. 22.10 Section 22.10 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS PORTABLE METHANE DETECTORS § 22.10 Approval plate. (a) Attachment to be made by manufacturers. (1) Manufacturers shall attach, stamp, or mold an approval plate on each permissible methane...

  18. 24 CFR 3280.5 - Data plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Data plate. 3280.5 Section 3280.5... MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.5 Data plate. Each manufactured home shall bear a data plate affixed in a permanent manner near the main electrical panel or other readily...

  19. 30 CFR 20.13 - Approval plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval plate. 20.13 Section 20.13 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MINE LAMPS OTHER THAN STANDARD CAP LAMPS § 20.13 Approval plate. The manufacturer shall attach, stamp, or mold an approval plate on the battery container or housing of each...

  20. Moving Divertor Plates in a Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.J. Zweben, H. Zhang

    2009-02-12

    Moving divertor plates could help solve some of the problems of the tokamak divertor through mechanical ingenuity rather than plasma physics. These plates would be passively heated on each pass through the tokamak and cooled and reprocessed outside the tokamak. There are many design options using varying plate shapes, orientations, motions, coatings, and compositions.

  1. Secure matching of Dutch car license plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunil, A.B.; Erkiny, Z.; Veugenyz, T.

    2016-01-01

    License plate matching plays an important role in applications like law enforcement, traffic management and road pricing, where the plate is first recognized and then compared to a database of authorized vehicle registration plates. Unfortunately, there are several privacy related issues that should

  2. Designing a licence plate for memorability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Dongen, C.J.G. van

    2005-01-01

    Good memorability of licence plates is important in those cases where licence plates are viewed for a brief period of time and the information is essential for police investigations. The purpose of the current study was to design a new Dutch licence plate that could be remembered well. A memory expe

  3. Episodic plate tectonics on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Donald

    1992-01-01

    Studies of impact craters on Venus from the Magellan images have placed important constraints on surface volcanism. Some 840 impact craters have been identified with diameters ranging from 2 to 280 km. Correlations of this impact flux with craters on the Moon, Earth, and Mars indicate a mean surface age of 0.5 +/- 0.3 Ga. Another important observation is that 52 percent of the craters are slightly fractured and only 4.5 percent are embayed by lava flows. These observations led researchers to hypothesize that a pervasive resurfacing event occurred about 500 m.y. ago and that relatively little surface volcanism has occurred since. Other researchers have pointed out that a global resurfacing event that ceased about 500 MYBP is consistent with the results given by a recent study. These authors carried out a series of numerical calculations of mantle convection in Venus yielding thermal evolution results. Their model considered crustal recycling and gave rapid planetary cooling. They, in fact, suggested that prior to 500 MYBP plate tectonics was active in Venus and since 500 MYBP the lithosphere has stabilized and only hot-spot volcanism has reached the surface. We propose an alternative hypothesis for the inferred cessation of surface volcanism on Venus. We hypothesize that plate tectonics on Venus is episodic. Periods of rapid plate tectonics result in high rates of subduction that cool the interior resulting in more sluggish mantle convection.

  4. Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Mane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To share our experience of doing tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with modifications. Materials and Methods: This is a single surgeon personal series from 2004 to 2009. One hundred patients of distal hypospadias were subjected for Snodgrass urethroplasty with preputioplasty. The age range was 1 to 5 year with mean age of 2.7 years. Selection criteria were good urethral plate, without chordee and torsion needing complete degloving. Main technical modification from original Snodgrass procedure was spongioplasty, preputioplasty, and dorsal slit when inability to retract prepuce during surgery. Results: Average follow-up period is 23 months. Seven (7% patients developed fistula and one patient had complete preputial dehiscence. Phimosis developed in three (3% patients and required circumcision. Dorsal slit was required in seven patients. One patient developed meatal stenosis in postoperative period. All other patients are passing single urinary stream and have cosmesis that is acceptable. Conclusions: Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with preputioplasty effectively gives cosmetically normal looking penis with low complications.

  5. Plating of proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martetschläger, Frank; Siebenlist, Sebastian; Weier, Michael; Sandmann, Gunther; Ahrens, Philipp; Braun, Karl; Elser, Florian; Stöckle, Ulrich; Freude, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    The optimal treatment for proximal humeral fractures is controversial. Few data exist concerning the influence of the surgical approach on the outcome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of proximal humeral fractures treated with locking plate fixation through a deltopectoral vs an anterolateral deltoid-splitting approach. Of 86 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 70 were available for follow-up examination. Thirty-three patients were treated through a deltopectoral approach and 37 through an anterolateral deltoid-splitting approach. In all cases, open reduction and internal fixation with a PHILOS locking plate (Synthes, Umkirch, Germany) was performed. Clinical follow-up included evaluation of pain, shoulder mobility, and strength. Constant score and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score were assessed. A clinical neurological examination of the axillary nerve was also performed. Consolidation, reduction, and appearance of head necrosis were evaluated radiographically. After a mean follow-up of 33 months, Constant scores, DASH scores, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores showed no significant differences between the groups. Clinical neurologic examination of the axillary nerve revealed no obvious damage to the nerve in either group. Deltopectoral and anterolateral detoid-splitting approaches for plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures are safe and provide similar clinical outcomes. The results of this study suggest that the approach can be chosen according to surgeon preference.

  6. Plate tectonics, habitability and life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Tilman; Breuer, Doris

    2016-04-01

    The role of plate tectonics in defining habitability of terrestrial planets is being increasingly discussed (e.g., Elkins-Tanton, 2015). Plate tectonics is a significantly evolved concept with a large variety of aspects. In the present context, cycling of material between near surface and mantle reservoirs is most important. But increased heat transport through mixing of cold lithosphere with the deep interior and formation of continental crust may also matter. An alternative mechanism of material cycling between these reservoirs is hot-spot volcanism combined with crust delamination. Hot-spot volcanism will transport volatiles to the atmosphere while delamination will mix crust, possibly altered by sedimentation and chemical reactions, with the mantle. The mechanism works as long as the stagnant lithosphere plate has not grown thicker than the crust and as long as volcanic material is added onto the crust. Thermal evolution studies suggest that the mechanism could work for the first 1-2 Ga of planetary evolution. The efficiency of the mechanism is limited by the ratio of extrusive to intrusive volcanism, which is thought to be less than 0.25. Plate tectonics would certainly have an advantage by working even for more evolved planets. A simple, most-used concept of habitability requires the thermodynamic stability of liquid water on the surface of a planet. Cycling of CO2between the atmosphere, oceans and interior through subduction and surface volcanism is an important element of the carbonate-silicate cycle, a thermostat feedback cycle that will keep the atmosphere from entering into a runaway greenhouse. Calculations for a model Earth lacking plate tectonics but degassing CO2, N, and H2O to form a surface ocean and a secondary atmosphere (Tosi et al, 2016) suggest that liquid water can be maintained on the surface for 4.5Ga. The model planet would then qualify as habitable. It is conceivable that the CO2 buffering capability of its ocean together with silicate

  7. Peridinialean dinoflagellate plate patterns, labels and homologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Tabulation patterns for peridinialean dinoflagellate thecae and cysts have been traditionally expressed using a plate labelling system described by C.A. Kofoid in the early 1900's. This system can obscure dinoflagellate plate homologies and has not always been strictly applied. The plate-labelling system presented here introduces new series labels but incorporates key features and ideas from the more recently proposed systems of G.L. Eaton and F.J.R. Taylor, as modified by W.R. Evitt. Plate-series recognition begins with the cingulum (C-series) and proceeds from the cingulum toward the apex for the three series of the epitheca/epicyst and proceeds from the cingulum toward the antapex for the two series of the hypotheca/hypocyst. The epithecal/epicystal model consists of eight plates that touch the anterior margin of the cingulum (E-series: plates E1-E7, ES), seven plates toward the apex that touch the E-series plates (M-series: R, M1-M6), and up to seven plates near the apex that do not touch E-series plates (D-series: Dp-Dv). The hypothecal/hypocystal model consists of eight plates that touch the posterior margin of the cingulum (H-series: H1-H6,HR,HS) and three plates toward the antapex (T1-T3). Epithecal/epicystal tabulation patterns come in both 8- and 7- models, corresponding to eight and seven plates, respectively, in the E-series. Hypothecal/hypocystal tabulation patterns also come in both 8- and 7-models, corresponding to eight and seven plates, respectively, in the H-series. By convention, the 7-model epitheca/epicyst has no plates E1 and M1; the 7-model hypotheca/hypocyst has no plate H6. Within an 8-model or 7-model, the system emphasizes plates that are presumed to be homologous by giving them identical labels. I introduce the adjectives "monothigmate", "dithigmate," and "trithigmate" to designate plates touching one, two, and three plates, respectively, of the adjacent series. The term "thigmation" applies to the analysis of plate contacts between

  8. 预镀铜对铝基电沉积镍层的影响%The Effect of Pre-Cu-plating on Aluminum Base for Ni Electrodeposited Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩新博; 肖跃军; 刘谦; 刘继文; 赵巍; 张文良; 宋林红; 王雪; 廖震宇

    2013-01-01

    为了改善铝基电沉积镍层的性能,在电沉积镍之前采用了预镀铜的工艺.通过SEM,EDS,划痕法和氦质谱检漏法等方法研究预镀铜层与化学浸锌层的相组成和组织形貌,以及各沉积镍层的气密性和结合力等性能.研究结果表明,预镀铜工艺的添加使电沉积镍层性能得到显著改善;镍层内表面光亮,气密性大大提高.%In order to improve the performance of aluminum electrodeposited nickel layer, pre-copper plating process was adopted before electrodeposited nickel. The testing techniques such as SEM, EDS, scarification, helium mass spectrometer leak detection method were used to study performance of the phase composition and microstructure of pre-copper plating layer compared with immersion zinc layer, to study airtightness and combination of the deposited nickel layers. The results show that electrodeposited nickel layer performance has been significantly improved as the addition of the pre-copper plating, nickel layer surface is brighter, the airtightness is greatly improved.

  9. Hierarchical self-organization of tectonic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Morra, Gabriele; Müller, R Dietmar

    2010-01-01

    The Earth's surface is subdivided into eight large tectonic plates and many smaller ones. We reconstruct the plate tessellation history and demonstrate that both large and small plates display two distinct hierarchical patterns, described by different power-law size-relationships. While small plates display little organisational change through time, the structure of the large plates oscillate between minimum and maximum hierarchical tessellations. The organization of large plates rapidly changes from a weak hierarchy at 120-100 million years ago (Ma) towards a strong hierarchy, which peaked at 65-50, Ma subsequently relaxing back towards a minimum hierarchical structure. We suggest that this fluctuation reflects an alternation between top and bottom driven plate tectonics, revealing a previously undiscovered tectonic cyclicity at a timescale of 100 million years.

  10. When Did Plate Tectonics Begin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M.

    2015-12-01

    Present-day plate tectonics on Earth is characterized by asymmetric (one-sided) subduction, but how do we recognize the imprint of subduction in the geologic record? How do we weigh global (commonly younger) vs local (commonly older) datasets or distinguish initiation from episodic from continuous subduction? How reliable are data gaps? Characteristics of the Paleozoic record of subduction include calc-alkaline magmatism, blueschist/UHP metamorphism and collisional orogenesis, and ophiolites as representatives of former ocean lithosphere. Are these characteristic rocks preserved in Proterozoic, Archean and Hadean crust? Does a hotter mantle, higher heat production and weaker lithosphere modify or eliminate these features? What preceded subduction and how do we recognize that regime? Are rock associations or geochemical fingerprints reliable? Does reworking and overprinting modify geochemical fingerprints? Proposals for the start of plate tectonics have been based on: persistence of isotope anomalies/fractionated chemical domains in the mantle; changes in chemistry of magmatic rocks, rates of crustal growth vs reworking, and sites of growth; the metamorphic record, particularly the first appearance of contrasting thermal gradients or eclogite (including evidence from mineral inclusions in diamonds) or UHP metamorphic rocks; stabilization of cratonic lithosphere and formation of supercratons, and the beginning of the Proterozoic supercontinent cycle; the end of the flat Earth, emergence of continents, development of significant topography, changes in the style of orogeny and the rise in atmospheric oxygen; and, the appearance of passive margins and changes in the style of sedimentation. Estimates of the timing have varied from the Hadean to Neoproterozoic. I will summarize evidence for a growing consensus that the late Mesoarchean to early Paleoproterozoic was a 700 Myr long period of transition to continuous (?) subduction and global (?) mobile-lid plate tectonics.

  11. Septal splint with wax plates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak D

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available To pack or not to pack, has always been a debate, especially after septal and functional endoscopic sinus surgery. The authors have studied the symptoms of packing versus not packing in their series of 100 patients having undergone nasal surgery. They advocate the use of dental wax for the fashioning of septal splints, since they are easy to introduce, cheap and malleable. The patients postoperative comfort is greatly enhanced with the use of dental wax plate splints instead of nasal packing.

  12. Seismic link at plate boundary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Faical Ramdani; Omar Kettani; Benaissa Tadili

    2015-06-01

    Seismic triggering at plate boundaries has a very complex nature that includes seismic events at varying distances. The spatial orientation of triggering cannot be reduced to sequences from the main shocks. Seismic waves propagate at all times in all directions, particularly in highly active zones. No direct evidence can be obtained regarding which earthquakes trigger the shocks. The first approach is to determine the potential linked zones where triggering may occur. The second step is to determine the causality between the events and their triggered shocks. The spatial orientation of the links between events is established from pre-ordered networks and the adapted dependence of the spatio-temporal occurrence of earthquakes. Based on a coefficient of synchronous seismic activity to grid couples, we derive a network link by each threshold. The links of high thresholds are tested using the coherence of time series to determine the causality and related orientation. The resulting link orientations at the plate boundary conditions indicate that causal triggering seems to be localized along a major fault, as a stress transfer between two major faults, and parallel to the geothermal area extension.

  13. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Charles P. E-mail: NanoSystem@aol.com; Boerstler, Robert; Steinbeck, John; Lemieux, Bryan; Winn, David R. E-mail: winn@fair1.fairfield.edu

    2000-03-11

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of {approx}0.5 to {approx}25 {mu}m, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposited or nucleated in the channels or the first strike surface. Results on resistivity, secondary emission and gain are presented.

  14. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetz, Charles P.; Boerstler, Robert; Steinbeck, John; Lemieux, Bryan; Winn, David R.

    2000-03-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of ˜0.5 to ˜25 μm, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200°C, also compatible with high-temperture brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposited or nucleated in the channels or the first strike surface. Results on resistivity, secondary emission and gain are presented.

  15. Petrologic implications of plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, H S

    1971-07-30

    Petrologists can make significant contributions to the plate tectonic concept. Fixing the stability fields of the principal rock types involved will provide the limits of pressure and temperature of the various environments. Experimental determination of the partition coefficients of the trace elements will be helpful. Studies of the partial melting behavior of possible parental materials in the absence and presence of water, especially the undersaturated region, will contribute to the understanding of magma production. Experimental observations on the rheological properties of the peridotites below and just above the solidus will lead to a better evaluation of the convective mechanism. Measurement of the fundamental properties of rocks, such as the density of solids and liquids at high pressures and temperatures, would contribute to understanding the concepts of diapiric rise, magma segregation, and the low-velocity zone. Broader rock sampling of the oceanic areas of all environments will do much to define the petrologic provinces. The field petrologist specializing in the Paleozoic regions and Precambrian shields can contribute by examining those regions for old plate boundaries and devising new criteria for their recognition.

  16. Smaller plates, less food waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Schmidt, Karsten; Skov, Laurits Rhoden

    With roughly one-third of food produced for human consumption lost or wasted globally (about 1.3 billion tons per year), the impact on the environment cannot be anymore neglected. Actions at all points in the production chain are now urgent, including reductions in food waste at home, by retailer...... the hypothesis that dishware size plays an important role in the amount of food wasted among Danish adults in a self-service eating setting. This finding has PHN implications: slight changes in the foodscape can contribute to sustainable food consumption goals....... was to investigate whether the size of the dishware would non-reflectively influence the amount of foods taken from an “ad-libitum” buffet and the resulting amount of waste. Sample consisted of Danish business leaders that took part in a congress in Copenhagen, Denmark. Two buffet tables were set up on two separate....... All food waste was collected in designated trash bags (different colour in each floor) and weighted in bulk by students. Smaller plates appear to have decreased food waste by 26% compared to the standard sized plates at a single serving in a self-service eating setting. This pilot study supports...

  17. Wood zone plate fishnet metalens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orazbayev Bakhtiyar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresnel-zone plate lenses provide focusing performance while having low profile. Unfortunately, they usually display higher reflection losses than conventional dielectric lenses. Here, we demonstrate a low-profile Wood zone plate metalens based on the fishnet metamaterial working in a near-zero regime with an equivalent refractive index less than unity (nf = 0.51. The metalens is made of alternating dielectric and fishnet metamaterial concentric rings. The use of fishnet metamaterial allows reducing the reflections from the lens, while maintaining low profile, low cost and ease of manufacturing. The lens is designed to work at the W-band of the millimeter-waves range with a focal length FL = 22.8 mm (7.5 λ0 aiming at antenna or radar system applications. The focusing performance of the lens along with its radiation characteristics in a lens antenna configuration have been studied numerically and confirmed experimentally, showing a gain improvement of ~2.5 dB with respect to a fishnet Soret metalens.

  18. Effect of plate roughness on the field near RPC plates

    CERN Document Server

    Jash, Abhik; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2016-01-01

    The inner surfaces of the electrodes encompassing the gas volume of a Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) have been found to exhibit asperities with three kind of features grossly. The desired uniform electric field within the gas volume of RPC is expected to be affected due to the presence of these asperities, which will eventually affect the final response from the detector. In this work, an attempt has been made to model the highly complex roughness of the electrode surfaces and compute its effect on the electrostatic field within RPC gas chamber. The calculations have been performed numerically using Finite Element Method (FEM) and Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the two methods have been compared in this context.

  19. 预化学镀镍时间对铝基化学镀镍层性能的影响%Effect of Electroless Nickel Pre-plating Time on Properties of Electroless Nickel on Aluminum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙硕; 宋贡生; 马正华

    2016-01-01

    目的 揭示试样的显微形貌随预化学镀镍时间的变化规律,并探讨试样的显微形貌、镀层的结合强度及耐蚀性能的相关性. 方法 以预化学镀镍时间为变量,通过化学沉积方法制得化学镀镍层. 采用扫描电镜观察预镀层及化学镀镍层的表面形貌,采用热震试验、弯曲试验和划格试验测试镀层的结合力,并对化学镀镍层与铝基体之间的结合力进行评价. 采用电化学方法对镀层在模拟燃料电池腐蚀介质中的耐蚀性进行评价. 结果 随着预化学镀镍时间的延长,颗粒尺寸不断增大,预化学镀镍层形貌先逐渐变得均匀、致密,之后又变得粗糙不均匀. 化学镀镍层的耐蚀性以及与基体的结合力呈现出先增加后降低的趋势. 结论 预化学镀镍时间在5 min时,所得化学镀镍层的表面形貌最平整,结合力最好,耐蚀性最佳.%Objective To reveal the variation trend of surface morphology of the sample along with the different pre-plating time and discuss the correlations between surface morphology, adhesion of coatings with aluminum matrix, and corrosion resistance. Methods Electroless nickel coatings were prepared by chemical deposition at different pre-plating time. The surface morphology of coatings was characterized by SEM. The adhesion of coatings with aluminum matrix was determined and evaluated by bending test, thermal shock test and scribe test. And the corrosion resistance of coatings in a simulated fuel cell corrosion medium was also cha-racterized by the electrochemical workstation. Results With the electroless nickel pre-plating time increasing,the surface morphology of pre-plating nickel coating gradually became dense and uniform. And the particle size of pre-plating coating became bigger. Elec-troless nickel coating first became smooth and then rough,and its corrosion resistance and adhesion with matrix also first increased and then decreased with the electroless nickel pre-plating

  20. Excitation and Characterization of Chladni Plate Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Shannon; Behringer, Ernest

    2011-04-01

    When a thin metal plate with a small amount of sand on it is made to vibrate, aesthetically pleasing sand patterns can form along the nodal lines of the plate. These symmetric patterns are called Chladni Patterns. Students taking PHY 101 Physical Science in the Arts at Eastern Michigan University create these patterns by pulling a violin bow across the edge of a plate, or by using a mechanical oscillator to drive the center of a plate. These two methods only allow a small subset of all possible points on the plate to be excited. We designed and built an electronic device that allows its user to excite the plate at any point. We present patterns created with this electronic device and other methods, and describe ways to model the observed patterns.

  1. Rapidly Moving Divertor Plates In A Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Zweben

    2011-05-16

    It may be possible to replace conventional actively cooled tokamak divertor plates with a set of rapidly moving, passively cooled divertor plates on rails. These plates would absorb the plasma heat flux with their thermal inertia for ~10-30 sec, and would then be removed from the vessel for processing. When outside the tokamak, these plates could be cooled, cleaned, recoated, inspected, and then returned to the vessel in an automated loop. This scheme could provide nearoptimal divertor surfaces at all times, and avoid the need to stop machine operation for repair of damaged or eroded plates. We describe various possible divertor plate designs and access geometries, and discuss an initial design for a movable and removable divertor module for NSTX-U.

  2. Coupling between plate vibration and acoustic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frendi, Abdelkader; Maestrello, Lucio; Bayliss, Alvin

    1993-01-01

    A detailed numerical investigation of the coupling between the vibration of a flexible plate and the acoustic radiation is performed. The nonlinear Euler equations are used to describe the acoustic fluid while the nonlinear plate equation is used to describe the plate vibration. Linear, nonlinear, and quasi-periodic or chaotic vibrations and the resultant acoustic radiation are analyzed. We find that for the linear plate response, acoustic coupling is negligible. However, for the nonlinear and chaotic responses, acoustic coupling has a significant effect on the vibration level as the loading increases. The radiated pressure from a plate undergoing nonlinear or chaotic vibrations is found to propagate nonlinearly into the far field. However, the nonlinearity due to wave propagation is much weaker than that due to the plate vibrations. As the acoustic wave propagates into the far field, the relative difference in level between the fundamental and its harmonics and subharmonics decreases with distance.

  3. 431K/CD vehicle number plates

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    The Green Plates Service, which is responsible for issuing the 431K/CD vehicle number plates , wishes to apologise for the delay in processing applications over the past weeks. The delay is outside the Service’s control, as it is due to the recent introduction of new rules governing the vehicle registration process in France. Normal service will be resumed as soon as possible. Thank you for your understanding. GS-SEM-LS – Green Plates Service

  4. Anisotropic magnetocapacitance in ferromagnetic-plate capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, J. A.; Ciccarelli, C.; Betz, A. C.; Irvine, A.; Novák, V.; Jungwirth, T.; Wunderlich, J.

    2015-04-01

    The capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor can depend on the applied magnetic field. Previous studies have identified capacitance changes induced via classical Lorentz force or spin-dependent Zeeman effects. Here we measure a magnetization direction-dependent capacitance in parallel-plate capacitors where one plate is a ferromagnetic semiconductor, gallium manganese arsenide. This anisotropic magnetocapacitance is due to the anisotropy in the density of states dependent on the magnetization through the strong spin-orbit interaction.

  5. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhaohui, E-mail: lzhtrhos@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: lijingxbh@yahoo.com.cn [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhao, Pengfei, E-mail: zhaopengf05@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Lv, Han, E-mail: chrislvhan@126.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Dong, Cheng, E-mail: derc007@sina.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Liu, Wenjuan, E-mail: wenjuanliu@163.com [Jining No. 1 People' s Hospital, No. 6 Health Street, Jining 272100 (China); Wang, Zhenchang, E-mail: cjr.wzhch@vip.163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition.

  6. Strain resolving method of composite plane plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion FUIOREA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extension of isotropic plates problem to the case of composite plates. In order to perform it, the Kirchhoff-Love hypotheses were “softened” by some additional ones. Considering the constitutive laws for composite materials the stress functions were eliminated by using Cauchy equations. As a result a partial derivative equation in displacements was obtained. Finally the boundary condition formulation was extended for the case of complex composite plates.

  7. Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control of Plate Vibrations

    OpenAIRE

    Manu Sharma; Singh, S. P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, fuzzy logic is meshed with sliding mode control, in order to control vibrations of a cantilevered plate. Test plate is instrumented with a piezoelectric sensor patch and a piezoelectric actuator patch. Finite element method is used to obtain mathematical model of the test plate. A design approach of a sliding mode controller for linear systems with mismatched time-varying uncertainties is used in this paper. It is found that chattering around the sliding surface in the sliding ...

  8. High performance flat plate solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.; Reynolds, R.

    1976-01-01

    The potential use of porous construction is presented to achieve efficient heat removal from a power producing solid and is applied to solar air heaters. Analytical solutions are given for the temperature distribution within a gas-cooled porous flat plate having its surface exposed to the sun's energy. The extracted thermal energy is calculated for two different types of plate transparency. Results show the great improvement in performance obtained with porous flat plate collectors as compared with analogous nonporous types.

  9. Evaluation of korzincalloy prepared by Hohman Plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hollingshad, A. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-17

    A commercial vendor, Hohman Plating performed contract engineering work to determine the feasibility of producing pin hole free KorZincAlloy bronze material used for zinc gettering. Samples were tested for Sn plating thickness, heat treatability, and chemistry prior to being subjected to a standardized zinc exposure. The samples absorbed zinc and were examined using visual and scanning electron microscopy. Hohman Plating successfully produced KZA that met the target composition, was pin hole free, and was an effective zinc getter.

  10. Preparation of Ce Film on Aluminum Alloy by Brush Plating and Its Corrosion Resistance%铝合金表面电刷镀制备稀土铈转化膜及其耐蚀性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付大海; 韩忠智; 唐鋆磊; 唐聿明; 左禹

    2011-01-01

    A rare earth Ce film was prepared on LY12 aluminum alloy by brush plating. The obtained Ce film showed layered structure, adhered well on the substrate and showed obviously increased corrosion resistance in NaCl solution. The influences of plating voltage and Ce concentration on the film properties were studied and the best corrosion resistance was obtained under the condition of 7 V and 20 g/L Ce salt concentration. After 480 h of salt fog testing, corrosion resistance of the brush plated surface was estimated to be above 8 grade. The corrosion current density decreased by one order of magnitude and the impedance at low frequency increased by about 30 times in contrast to the original LY12 alloy. Particularly, the strong oxidants are not included in the plating bath, hence the bath is more stable and may be easily recycled. The method may be used to increase corrosion resistance for aluminum alloy equipments with large areas at industrial cases.%利用电刷镀技术在铝合金表面制备了稀土铈转化膜,得到的稀土膜层厚度均匀,呈层状结构,与基体结合良好,在NaCl溶液中具有良好的耐蚀性.研究了刷镀电压和铈盐浓度对膜层耐蚀性的影响,得到在7 V电压和20 g/L铈盐浓度下制备的膜层具有良好耐蚀性能,经过480 h盐雾试验后,其表面耐蚀性评价达到8级以上,镀膜试样与原始LY12铝合金试样相比,腐蚀电流密度降低一个数量级,低频阻抗值则增大约30倍.该铝合金表面稀土转化膜电刷沉积溶液中不合强氧化剂,因此溶液长时间稳定且便于循环利用,可以对铝合金表面进行现场大面积常温刷镀,提高耐蚀性.

  11. Reliability assessment of different plate theories for elastic wave propagation analysis in functionally graded plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrkash, Milad; Azhari, Mojtaba; Mirdamadi, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The importance of elastic wave propagation problem in plates arises from the application of ultrasonic elastic waves in non-destructive evaluation of plate-like structures. However, precise study and analysis of acoustic guided waves especially in non-homogeneous waveguides such as functionally graded plates are so complicated that exact elastodynamic methods are rarely employed in practical applications. Thus, the simple approximate plate theories have attracted much interest for the calculation of wave fields in FGM plates. Therefore, in the current research, the classical plate theory (CPT), first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and third-order shear deformation theory (TSDT) are used to obtain the transient responses of flexural waves in FGM plates subjected to transverse impulsive loadings. Moreover, comparing the results with those based on a well recognized hybrid numerical method (HNM), we examine the accuracy of the plate theories for several plates of various thicknesses under excitations of different frequencies. The material properties of the plate are assumed to vary across the plate thickness according to a simple power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of constituents. In all analyses, spatial Fourier transform together with modal analysis are applied to compute displacement responses of the plates. A comparison of the results demonstrates the reliability ranges of the approximate plate theories for elastic wave propagation analysis in FGM plates. Furthermore, based on various examples, it is shown that whenever the plate theories are used within the appropriate ranges of plate thickness and frequency content, solution process in wave number-time domain based on modal analysis approach is not only sufficient but also efficient for finding the transient waveforms in FGM plates.

  12. Using Character Recognition for Plate Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lama Hamandi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the “character recognition” approach to recognizing a vehicle license plate is used for localizing Saudi license plates. The proposed algorithm filters out all possible objects from the license plate image and focuses on the resulting objects. The coordinates of the center point of the bounding box for these objects is calculated and then possible alignments between these objects are checked. After finding the aligned objects, the recognition algorithms are applied to differentiate the numbers from the letters in the plate.

  13. Maximizing band gaps in plate structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Søren; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Band gaps, i.e., frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate, can be found in elastic structures for which there is a certain periodic modulation of the material properties or structure. In this paper, we maximize the band gap size for bending waves in a Mindlin plate. We analyze an infinite...... periodic plate using Bloch theory, which conveniently reduces the maximization problem to that of a single base cell. Secondly, we construct a finite periodic plate using a number of the optimized base cells in a postprocessed version. The dynamic properties of the finite plate are investigated...

  14. Plate Tectonics: A Paradigm under Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, David

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the challenges confronting plate tectonics. Presents evidence that contradicts continental drift, seafloor spreading, and subduction. Reviews problems posed by vertical tectonic movements. (Contains 242 references.) (DDR)

  15. Strength of Ship Plates under Combined Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, W.; Wang, Y.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2002-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role in the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified analytical methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates....... The obtained results indicate that the simplified analytical method is able to determine the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates with imperfections in the form of welding-induced residual stresses and geometric deflections subjected to combined loads. Comparisons with experimental results show...

  16. Line Heat-Source Guarded Hot Plate

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The 1-meter guarded hot-plate apparatus measures thermal conductivity of building insulation. This facility provides for absolute measurement of thermal...

  17. Line Heat-Source Guarded Hot Plate

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The 1-meter guarded hot-plate apparatus measures thermal conductivity of building insulation. This facility provides for absolute measurement of thermal...

  18. Strength of ship plates under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Weiching; Wang, Yongjun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjected...... that the simplified method is able to determine the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates with imperfections in the form of welding induced residual stresses and geometric deflections subjected to combined loads. Comparisons with experimental results show that the procedure has sufficient accuracy for practical...

  19. OPTIMAL DESIGN OF QUADRATIC SANDWICH PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIMAR Dr. Imre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we show the optimal design of the three-layered sandwich plates. The objective function contains the material and fabrication costs. The design constraints are the maximal stresses, the deflection of plates and damping of vibrations. The unknown is the thickness of the filling foam. By the mathematical method, we define the minima of the cost function and the optimal thickness of the filling layer of foam. The active constraint is the deflection, so we calculate of the costs of the sandwich plate with the homogeneous plate.

  20. Plate Tectonics: A Paradigm under Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, David

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the challenges confronting plate tectonics. Presents evidence that contradicts continental drift, seafloor spreading, and subduction. Reviews problems posed by vertical tectonic movements. (Contains 242 references.) (DDR)

  1. 防锈铝板/镀锌钢板异种金属冷金属过渡熔钎焊接头的组织与抗拉强度%Microstructure and Tensile Strength of Rust-Proof Aluminum Plate and Zinc-Coated Steel Plates Braze-Weld Joint Prepared by Cold Metal Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯曰海; 王克鸿; 高飞; 杜刚

    2013-01-01

    The cold metal transfer (CMT) brazing-welding process was used to weld dissimilar metals of LF21 rust-proof aluminum plate and DD51D+Z zinc-coated steel plate,and the microstructure and tensile strength of the joint were studied.The results show that the compound layer of middle interface zone of the braze-weld joint was intermetallic compound FeAla with thickness of 4-6 μm.The average transverse tensile strength of the joint was up to 77 MPa and strength coefficient was 0.6.%采用冷金属过渡(CMT)熔钎焊接工艺,对LF21防锈铝板和DD51D+Z镀锌钢板进行了异种金属的连接,对接头的显微组织和抗拉强度进行了研究.结果表明:防锈铝板和镀锌钢板的熔钎焊接头的中间界面区化合物为4~6 μm厚的FeAl3金属间化合物,接头的平均横向抗拉强度为77MPa,接头的强度系数为0.6.

  2. Composition of the continental plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilluly, J.

    1954-01-01

    The structures of continental plates and of oceanic basins suggested by several seismologists are utilized to estimate the relative volumes of sial and sima in the earth's crust. It seems that sial of the composition of the average igneous rock constitutes fully 26% and perhaps as much as 43% of the total crust. This ratio is far higher than seems likely if the sial had been entirely derived through fractional crystallization of a basaltic magma. The relative paucity of intermediate rocks as compared with granite and gabbro in the crust points in the same direction. The tentative conclusion is reached that the sial owes a large part of its volume to some process other than fractional crystallization of basalt-possibly to the emanation of low-melting constituents such as water, silica, potassa, soda, and alumina directly from the mantle to the crust. ?? 1954 Springer-Verlag.

  3. An efficient rectangular plate element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI; Zhongci

    2001-01-01

    [1]Shi Zhong-ci, On the accuracy of the quasi-conforming and generalize conforming finite elements, Chin. Ann. Math., 1990, 11B: 148.[2]Shi Zhong-ci, Chen Shao-chun, Huang Hong-ci, Plate elements with high accuracy, Collec. Geom. Anal. Math. Phys. (ed. Li Ta-Tsien), Singapore: World Scientific, 1997, 155—164.[3]Chen Shao-chun, Shi Zhong-ci, Double set parameter method for the construction of the element stiffness matrix, Mathematica Numerica Sinica (in Chinese), 1991, 13: 286.[4]Ciarlet, P., The Finite Element Method for Elliptic Problems, Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1978.

  4. Development of Catalytic Cooking Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelm, Anna-Karin; Silversand, Fredrik [CATATOR AB, Lund (Sweden); Tena, Emmanuel; Berger, Marc [Gaz de France (France)

    2004-04-01

    Gas catalytic combustion for gas stoves or cooking plates (closed catalytic burner system with ceramic plates) is a very promising technique in terms of ease of cleaning, power modulation and emissions. Previous investigations show that wire mesh catalysts, prepared and supplied by Catator AB (CAT), seem to be very well suited for such applications. Beside significantly reducing the NOx-emissions, these catalysts offer important advantages such as good design flexibility, low pressure drop and high heat transfer capacity, where the latter leads to a quick thermal response. Prior to this project, Gaz de France (GdF) made a series of measurements with CAT's wire mesh catalysts in their gas cooking plates and compared the measured performance with similar results obtained with theirs cordierite monolith catalysts. Compared to the monolith catalyst, the wire mesh catalyst was found to enable very promising results with respect to both emission levels (<10 mg NO{sub x} /kWh, <5 mg CO/kWh) and life-time (>8000 h vs. 700 h at 200 kW/m{sup 2}). It was however established that the radiation and hence, the thermal efficiency of the cooking plate, was significantly less than is usually measured in combination with the monolith (15 % vs. 32 %). It was believed that the latter could be improved by developing new burner designs based on CAT's wire mesh concept. As a consequence, a collaboration project between GdF, CAT and the Swedish Gas Technology AB was created. This study reports on the design, the construction and the evaluation of new catalytic burners, based on CAT's wire mesh catalysts, used for the combustion of natural gas in gas cooking stoves. The evaluation of the burners was performed with respect to key factors such as thermal efficiency, emission quality and pressure drop, etc, by the use of theoretical simulations and experimental tests. Impacts of parameters such as the the wire mesh number, the wire mesh structure (planar or folded), the

  5. Electroless nickel plated graphite fibers and surface behavior in Gr(Ni)/6061Al composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chun-yu; WU Gao-hui; ZHANG Qiang; ZHANG Yun-he; XIU Zi-yang; CHEN Guo-qin

    2006-01-01

    The electroless nickel plated graphite fibers reinforced aluminum matrix composites (Gr(Ni)/Al) were produced by squeeze casting, and the microstructure of Gr(Ni)/Al composite and surface behavior of Ni-P coating were studied. The optimum process of electroless Ni-P plating included: burning to get rid of glue→degreasing→neutralization→acidulating→sensitizing→activation→electroless plating. The surface analysis results show that the electroless nickel plating can diffuse into the graphite fiber surface during the squeeze casting, and the Ni-P coating and aluminum alloys can produce brittle phase NiAl3 or NiAl. The X-ray diffraction(XRD) results indicate that Al4C3 is so little that no Al4C3 peaks are found, and the harmful hl4C3 can be decreased by the electroless plating Ni-P coating. The coating improves the interfacial bonding of continuous graphite fibers reinforced aluminum matrix composites.

  6. ANALYTICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN EIGENVALUES OF CIRCULAR PLATE BASED ON VARIOUS PLATE THEORIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the mathematical similarity of the axisymmetric eigenvalue problems of a circular plate between the classical plate theory(CPT), the first-order shear deformation plate theory(FPT) and the Reddy's third-order shear deformation plate theory(RPT), analytical relations between the eigenvalues of circular plate based on various plate theories are investigated. In the present paper, the eigenvalue problem is transformed to solve an algebra equation. Analytical relationships that are expressed explicitly between various theories are presented. Therefore, from these relationships one can easily obtain the exact RPT and FPT solutions of critical buckling load and natural frequencyfor a circular plate with CPT solutions. The relationships are useful for engineering application, and can be used to check the validity, convergence and accuracy of numerical results for the eigenvalue problem of plates.

  7. 3950mm宽厚板铝板轧机工作辊的热处理%Heat Treatment for Work Roll of 3 950 mm Aluminum Heavy Plate Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈太辉; 郭峰

    2013-01-01

    The forged steel Cr5 is used as the material of work rolls .3 950 mm aluminum heavy plate mills have been researched and developed successfully by adjusting quenching and tempering processes and designing installation auxiliary tools and applying differential temperature spray way , which is ensured to meet various technical requirements of work roll and provides new idea for manufacturing work roll .%采用Cr5锻钢工作辊材质,通过调整调质方式以及设计安装辅具,采用差温喷雾的方式成功制造出3950 mm宽厚板铝板轧机工作辊,较好地保证了工作辊的各项技术要求,为工作辊的制造提供了新思路。

  8. Structural Damage Identification in Stiffened Plate Fatigue Specimens Using Piezoelectric Active Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    welded. The base plate and bulkhead material consist of 3/8 and 1/4 inch thick 5083-H116 aluminum, while the stiffeners are made of extruded 6061 - T6...and weld repair on crack propagation behaviour in aluminium alloy 5083 plates,” Materials & Design, 23(2):201-208. 8. Raghavan, A. and C. E. S

  9. 49 CFR 230.46 - Badge plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.46 Badge plates. A metal badge plate showing the allowed steam pressure shall be attached to the boiler backhead in the cab. If boiler backhead is lagged, the lagging and jacket shall be cut away...

  10. Steel plate reinforcement of orthotropic bridge decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira de Freitas, S.

    2012-01-01

    The PhD research is focused on the reinforcement of fatigue cracked orthotropic steel bridge decks (OBD) by adding a second steel plate to the existing deck. The main idea is to stiffen the existing deck plate, which will reduce the stresses at the fatigue sensitive details and extend the fatigue li

  11. UNSYMMETRICAL LARGE DEFORMATION PROBLEM OF ORTHOTROPIC PLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新志; 赵永刚; 叶开沅; 黄达文

    2002-01-01

    Based upon the theory of anisotropic plates, the unsymmetrical large deformation equations of orthotropic circular plates were derived. By using Fourier series, the partial differential equations of this problem can be transformed into sets of nonlinear differential equations. And the procedure to solve the problem using the iterative method is given.

  12. Novel Algorithms for Astronomical Plate Analyses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rene Hudec; Lukas Hudec

    2011-03-01

    Powerful computers and dedicated software allow effective data mining and scientific analyses in astronomical plate archives. We give and discuss examples of newly developed algorithms for astronomical plate analyses, e.g., searches for optical transients, as well as for major spectral and brightness changes.

  13. Crane Scheduling for a Plate Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Odense Steel Shipyard produces the worlds largest container ships. The first process of producing the steel ships is handling arrival and storage of steel plates until they are needed in production. This paper considers the problem of scheduling two cranes that carry out the movements of plates...

  14. Modelling of CMUTs with Anisotropic Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Mette Funding; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, CMUTs are modelled using the isotropic plate equation and this leads to deviations between analytical calculations and FEM simulations. In this paper, the deflection profile and material parameters are calculated using the anisotropic plate equation. It is shown that the anisotropic...

  15. Plate Tectonic Cycle. K-6 Science Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueford, J. R.; And Others

    Plate Tectonics Cycle is one of the units of a K-6 unified science curriculum program. The unit consists of four organizing sub-themes: (1) volcanoes (covering formation, distribution, and major volcanic groups); (2) earthquakes (with investigations on wave movements, seismograms and sub-suface earth currents); (3) plate tectonics (providing maps…

  16. Roll-forming tubes to header plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, K.

    1976-01-01

    Technique has been developed for attaching and sealing tubes to header plates using a unique roll-forming tool. Technique is useful for attaching small tubes which are difficult to roll into conventional grooves in header plate tube holes, and for attaching when welding, brazing, or soldering is not desirable.

  17. Micromachined silicon plates for sensing molecular interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlen, E.T.; Weinberg, M.S.; Dube, C.E.; Zapata, A.M.; Borenstein, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    A micromachined surface stress sensor based on a thin suspended crystalline silicon circular plate measures differential surface stress changes associated with vapor phase chemisorption of an alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer. The isolated face of the suspended silicon plate serves as the sensing

  18. Quality Assurance of Process Free Thermal Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hoffmann-Walbeck

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method for manual processing of process free printing plates is defined which ensures reproducible results. This decoating procedure can help print service providers with certain quality checks (like linearization that are otherwise more expensive or even not feasible altogether for such plates. This method holds for quality assurance only and is not suitable for the actual production.

  19. Laser shockwave technique for characterization of nuclear fuel plate interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perton, M.; Lévesque, D.; Monchalin, J.-P.; Lord, M.; Smith, J. A.; Rabin, B. H.

    2013-01-01

    The US National Nuclear Security Agency is tasked with minimizing the worldwide use of high-enriched uranium. One aspect of that effort is the conversion of research reactors to monolithic fuel plates of low-enriched uranium. The manufacturing process includes hot isostatic press bonding of an aluminum cladding to the fuel foil. The Laser Shockwave Technique (LST) is here evaluated for characterizing the interface strength of fuel plates using depleted Uranium/Mo foils. LST is a non-contact method that uses lasers for the generation and detection of large amplitude acoustic waves and is therefore well adapted to the quality assurance of this process. Preliminary results show a clear signature of well-bonded and debonded interfaces and the method is able to classify/rank the bond strength of fuel plates prepared under different HIP conditions.

  20. Plate shell structures - statics and stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the basic structural system, statics and spatial stability of plate shells. The structural system can be considered as a single layer of planar elements, where each element only transfers in-plane (membrane) forces to its neighbouring elements. External out-of-plane loads...... are carried into the structure as in-plane forces by plate action in each element. These in-plane forces are then carried through the plate structure to the supports as in-plane forces by membrane action. The consequence is that the spatial stability of the structure can be simply analysed by considering...... the plate system as only subject to in-plane loads. The stability of such systems is based on the fact that each plane element is held fixed in space by three fixed support lines and that these support lines can be provided by three plane neighbour elements. This means that the spatial stability of a plate...

  1. Continuum Mechanics of Beam and Plate Flexure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    This text has been written and used during the spring of 1995 for a course on flexural mechanics of beams and plates at Aalborg University. The idea has been to concentrate on basic principles of the theories, which are of importance to the modern structural engineer. Today's structural engineer...... must be acquainted with the classic beam and plate theories, when reading manuals and using modern software tools such as the finite element method. Each chapter includes supplementary theory and derivations enabling consultation of the notes also at a later stage of study. A preliminary chapter...... analysis of beam structures is presented and includes both upper and lower-bound solution techniques. The remaining chapters are devoted to plates. The classic elastic plate theories are presented. The plastic yield line theory for plates is presented including both upper and lower-bound techniques...

  2. Well-plate freeze-drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trnka, Hjalte; Rantanen, Jukka; Grohganz, Holger

    2015-01-01

    due to increasing amount of amorphous matter in the samples was observed in both vials and well plates. Cake collapse was found to be representative in well plates and could be effectively quantified using image analysis. Reconstitution time was also found to be equal in all three platforms. Finally......Abstract Context: Freeze-drying in presence of excipients is a common practice to stabilize biomacromolecular formulations. The composition of this formulation is known to affect the quality of the final product. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate freeze-drying in well-plates...... as a high throughput platform for formulation screening of freeze-dried products. Methods: Model formulations consisting of mannitol, sucrose and bovine serum albumin were freeze-dried in brass well plates, plastic well plates and vials. Physical properties investigated were solid form, residual moisture...

  3. Plain carbon steel bipolar plates for PEMFC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianli; SUN Juncai; TIAN Rujin; XU Jing

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plates are a multifunctional component of PEMFC. Comparing with the machined graphite and stainless steels, the plain carbon steel is a very cheap commercial metal material. In this paper, the possibility of applying the plain carbon steels in the bipolar plate for PEMFC was exploited. In order to improve the corrosion resistance of the low carbon steel in the PEMFCs' environments,two surface modification processes was developed and then the electrochemical performances and interfacial contact resistance (ICR) of the surface modified plate of plain carbon steel were investigated. The results show that the surface modified steel plates have good corrosion resistance and relatively low contact resistance, and it may be a candidate material as bipolar plate of PEMFC.

  4. Mixed boundary conditions for piezoelectric plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    For plate bending and stretching problems in piezoelectric materials,the reciprocal theorem and the general solution of piezoelasticity are applied in a novel way to obtain the appropriate mixed boundary conditions accurate to all order.A decay analysis technique is used to establish necessary conditions that the prescribed data on the edge of the plate must satisfy in order that it should generate a decaying state within the plate.For the case of axisymmetric bending and stretching of a circular plate,these decaying state conditions are obtained explicitly for the first time when the mixed conditions are imposed on the plate edge.They are then used for the correct formulation of boundary conditions for the interior solution.

  5. Chaotic Motion of Corrugated Circular Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Large deflection theory of thin anisotropic circular plates was used to analyze the bifurcation behavior and chaotic phenomena of a corrugated thin circular plate with combined transverse periodic excitation and an in-plane static boundary load. The nonlinear dynamic equation for the corrugated plate was derived by employing Galerkin's technique. The critical conditions for occurrence of the homoclinic and subharmonic bifurcations as well as chaos were studied theoretically using the Melnikov function method. The chaotic motion was also simulated numerically using Maple, with the Poincaré map and phase curve used to evaluate when chaotic motion appears. The results indicate some chaotic motion in the corrugated plate. The method is directly applicable to chaotic analysis of an isotropic circular plate.

  6. Precision Plate Plan View Pattern Predictive Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yang; YANG Quan; HE An-rui; WANG Xiao-chen; ZHANG Yun

    2011-01-01

    According to the rolling features of plate mill, a 3D elastic-plastic FEM (finite element model) based on full restart method of ANSYS/LS-DYNA was established to study the inhomogeneous plastic deformation of multipass plate rolling. By analyzing the simulation results, the difference of head and tail ends predictive models was found and modified. According to the numerical simulation results of 120 different kinds of conditions, precision plate plan view pattern predictive model was established. Based on these models, the sizing MAS (mizushima automatic plan view pattern control system) method was designed and used on a 2 800 mm plate mill. Comparing the rolled plates with and without PVPP (plan view pattern predictive) model, the reduced width deviation indicates that the olate !olan view Dattern predictive model is preeise.

  7. Is There Really A North American Plate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krill, A.

    2011-12-01

    Lithospheric plates are typically identified from earthquake epicenters and evidence such as GPS movements. But no evidence indicates a plate boundary between the North American and South American Plates. Some plate maps show them separated by a transform boundary, but it is only a fracture zone. Other maps show an "undefined plate boundary" or put no boundary between these two plates (check Google images). Early plate maps showed a single large American Plate, quite narrow east of the Caribbean Plate (Le Pichon 1968, Morgan 1968). The North and South American Plates became established by the leading textbook Earth (Press & Siever 1974). On their map, from a Scientific American article by John Dewey (1972), these new plates were separated by an "uncertain plate boundary." The reasons for postulating a North American Plate were probably more psychological than geological. Each of the other continents of the world had its own plate, and North American geologists naturally wanted theirs. Similarly, European geographers used to view Europe as its own continent. A single large plate should again be hypothesized. But the term American Plate would now be ambiguous ("Which plate, North or South?") Perhaps future textbook authors could call it the "Two-American Plate." Textbook authors ultimately decide such global-tectonic matters. I became aware of textbook authors' opinions and influence from my research into the history of Alfred Wegener's continental drift (see Fixists vs. Mobilists by Krill 2011). Leading textbook author Charles Schuchert realized that continental drift would abolish his cherished paleogeographic models of large east-west continents (Eria, Gondwana) and small oceans (Poseiden, Nereis). He and his junior coauthors conspired to keep drift evidence out of their textbooks, from the 1934-editions until the 1969-editions (Physical Geology by Longwell et al. 1969, Historical Geology by Dunbar & Waage 1969). Their textbooks ruled in America. Textbooks

  8. Tectonic Evolution of the Jurassic Pacific Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, M.; Ishihara, T.

    2015-12-01

    We present the tectonic evolution of the Jurassic Pacific plate based on magnetic anomly lineations and abyssal hills. The Pacific plate is the largest oceanic plate on Earth. It was born as a microplate aroud the Izanagi-Farallon-Phoenix triple junction about 192 Ma, Early Jurassic [Nakanishi et al., 1992]. The size of the Pacific plate at 190 Ma was nearly half that of the present Easter or Juan Fernandez microplates in the East Pacific Rise [Martinez et at, 1991; Larson et al., 1992]. The plate boundary surrounding the Pacific plate from Early Jurassic to Early Cretaceous involved the four triple junctions among Pacific, Izanagi, Farallon, and Phoenix plates. The major tectonic events as the formation of oceanic plateaus and microplates during the period occurred in the vicinity of the triple junctions [e.g., Nakanishi and Winterer, 1998; Nakanishi et al., 1999], implying that the study of the triple junctions is indispensable for understanding the tectonic evolution of the Pacific plate. Previous studies indicate instability of the configuration of the triple junctions from Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (155-125 Ma). On the other hand, the age of the birth of the Pacific plate was determined assuming that all triple junctions had kept their configurations for about 30 m.y. [Nakanishi et al., 1992] because of insufficient information of the tectonic history of the Pacific plate before Late Jurassic.Increase in the bathymetric and geomagnetic data over the past two decades enables us to reveal the tectonic evolution of the Pacific-Izanagi-Farallon triple junction before Late Jurassic. Our detailed identication of magnetic anomaly lineations exposes magnetic bights before anomaly M25. We found the curved abyssal hills originated near the triple junction, which trend is parallel to magnetic anomaly lineations. These results imply that the configuration of the Pacific-Izanagi-Farallon triple junction had been RRR before Late Jurassic.

  9. A Study of the Efficiency of High-strength, Steel, Cellular-core Sandwich Plates in Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aldie E , Jr; Semonian, Joseph W

    1956-01-01

    Structural efficiency curves are presented for high-strength, stainless-steel, cellular-core sandwich plates of various proportions subjected to compressive end loads for temperatures of 80 F and 600 F. Optimum proportions of sandwich plates for any value of the compressive loading intensity can be determined from the curves. The efficiency of steel sandwich plates of optimum proportions is compared with the efficiency of solid plates of high-strength steel and aluminum and titanium alloys at the two temperatures.

  10. Effects of stainless steel copper plating on YAG laser welding of aluminum/steel%不锈钢表面镀铜对铝/钢 YAG 激光焊接的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉龙; 李鹤; 王裕波; 余啸; 温昌金; 崔庆波

    2016-01-01

    对0.3 mm 厚的316L 不锈钢/6061铝合金进行了脉冲激光(YAG)封边焊接试验。为了改善铝钢的冶金结合,对不锈钢表面进行了镀 Cu 处理,对比了镀铜前后的焊接情况;利用光学显微镜、扫描电镜及能谱分析等方法研究了接头界面区显微组织特征、熔合情况、元素分布和断口形貌。结果表明:对于铝/钢直接焊接,焊接电流 I =130 A,激光脉宽 D =4 ms,激光频率 f=13 Hz,焊接速度 V =150 mm /min,气体流量25 L/min,零离焦时,焊缝平整、成型美观。镀铜层形成了铝钢焊接的过渡层,减缓了界面处液态金属传递,抑制了铁铝之间的熔合,铝钢熔合线向钢一侧偏移。不锈钢未镀铜情况下,焊接接头组织主要由靠近铝一侧的针状或粗大板条状 Fe2 Al5及靠近钢一侧的 FeAl 组成;镀铜后 Cu 主要固溶到 Fe 中,接头界面组织主要由(Fe,Cu)2 Al5、(Fe,Cu)3 Al 组成。镀铜前后接头拉伸断口形貌未发生明显变化,然而,接头强度明显提高,提高约40.32%,达到15.63 N /mm。%31 6L stainless steel and 6061 aluminum alloy with the thickness of 0.3 mm were jointed by using YAG la-ser welding method.In order to improve the metallurgical bonding characteristics of aluminum and steel,stainless steel was plated with a Cu coating.Welding effects of aluminum/steel were compared before and after copper plating.Microstructure,fusion effect,element distribution and fracture morphology of welding joints were studied by optical microscope,scanning electron microscope,energy dispersive spectrometer.The results show that when the weld-ing conditions were welding current of 1 30 A,laser pulse width of 4 ms,laser frequency of 1 3 Hz,welding speed of 1 50 mm/min,the gas flow rate of 25 L/min and defocusing amount of 0mm,the appearance and quality of the welding joint were good.The Cu-coating layer as transition layer of aluminum and

  11. Collaborative study comparing the spiral plate and aerobic plate count methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, J E; Donnelly, C B; Peeler, J T; Campbell, J E

    1977-07-01

    The spiral plate count method is a semiautomated plating technique that greatly reduces manpower and material costs normally associated with the pour plating technique. In this collaborative study, 8 laboratories compared the spiral and pour plating techniques, using 4 samples each of 3 products: frozen pumpkin pie, frozen chicken pot pie, and shampoo. The results show that 10 of the 12 comparisons of means of the pour and spiral methods were not significantly different; 2 values were significant at alpha = 0.01. Overall, the components of variance were less than that of the current milk standard, and the replicate per cent coefficient of variation was satisfactory. This study indicates that the spiral plate method is an acceptable alternative to the pour plate method; the spiral plate method has been adopted as official first action.

  12. Surface modified stainless steels for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Wang, Heli [Littleton, CO; Turner, John A [Littleton, CO

    2007-07-24

    A nitridation treated stainless steel article (such as a bipolar plate for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell) having lower interfacial contact electrical resistance and better corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel article is disclosed. The treated stainless steel article has a surface layer including nitrogen-modified chromium-base oxide and precipitates of chromium nitride formed during nitridation wherein oxygen is present in the surface layer at a greater concentration than nitrogen. The surface layer may further include precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide. The surface layer in the treated article is chemically heterogeneous surface rather than a uniform or semi-uniform surface layer exclusively rich in chromium, titanium or aluminum. The precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide are formed by the nitriding treatment wherein titanium and/or aluminum in the stainless steel are segregated to the surface layer in forms that exhibit a low contact resistance and good corrosion resistance.

  13. Relations between plate kinematics, slab geometry and overriding plate deformation in subduction zones: insights from statistical observations and laboratory modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuret, A.; Funiciello, F.; Faccenna, C.; Lallemand, S.

    2005-12-01

    3-D laboratory models have been performed in order to investigate the way plates kinematics (subducting and overriding plate absolute motions and the resulting plate convergence rate) influences the geometry of the slab and the overriding plate deformation in subduction zones. In the experiments a viscous plate of silicone (subducting plate) is pushed beneath another plate, which is itself pushed toward or pulled away from the trench (overriding plate), and sinks into a viscous layer of glucose syrup (upper mantle). The subducting and overriding plate velocities explored the variability field of natural subduction plates kinematics. The overriding plate motion exerts a primary role in the control of slab geometries and overriding plate deformation rates. The experiments have revealed two different subduction behaviours: (Style I) the overriding plate moves toward the trench and shortens at high rates, the slab is flat and deflected when reaching the bottom of the box in a forward direction; (Style II) the overriding plates moves away from the trench and shortens at low rates the slab is steep and deflected on the box bottom in a backward direction. To a lesser extent, increasing subducting plate motion is associated to increasing slab dips and overriding plate shortening. Slab geometry and overriding plate deformation are less sensitive to the overall plate convergence rate. These laboratory models behaviours are consistent with statistical analysis performed on natural subduction zones, and enlighten the first order control exerted by the overriding plate absolute motion, on the geometry adopted by the slab and the way the overriding plate deforms.

  14. Global Plate Driving Forces at 50Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, N. P.; Quevedo, L. E.; Müller, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    We apply a novel workflow utilising the BEM-Earth geodynamic software to analyse the global coupled plate-mantle dynamics at 50 Ma. A subduction history model based on kinematic data going as far back as 80 Ma was developed using the GPlates software. Advection of the plates into the mantle takes into account the absolute plate motions and lithospheric thickness derived from its age to produce an estimated density heterogeneity initial model condition in the upper mantle. The resulting global model consists of regions of a mantle viscosity and density structure that is post-processed to ensure smooth non-overlapping 3D surfaces. BEM-Earth is then free to evolve the model toward the 50 Ma solution. The evolution of the model is driven by self-consistent buoyancy driven mantle dynamics. We use the model velocity output to quantify changes in forces driving the plates before and after 50 Ma. We analyse the rapid change in plate motion of India, Africa and plates in the Pacific Ocean basin by considering slab-pull, ridge-push and mantle drag/suction forces that naturally result from such top-down driven mantle flow. We compare the results with plate kinematic reconstructions and other geological observations.

  15. Fractal zone plates with variable lacunarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsoriu, Juan; Saavedra, Genaro; Furlan, Walter

    2004-09-06

    Fractal zone plates (FZPs), i.e., zone plates with fractal structure, have been recently introduced in optics. These zone plates are distinguished by the fractal focusing structure they provide along the optical axis. In this paper we study the effects on this axial response of an important descriptor of fractals: the lacunarity. It is shown that this parameter drastically affects the profile of the irradiance response along the optical axis. In spite of this fact, the axial behavior always has the self-similarity characteristics of the FZP itself.

  16. Effusion plate using additive manufacturing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Wegerif, Daniel Gerritt

    2016-04-12

    Additive manufacturing techniques may be utilized to construct effusion plates. Such additive manufacturing techniques may include defining a configuration for an effusion plate having one or more internal cooling channels. The manufacturing techniques may further include depositing a powder into a chamber, applying an energy source to the deposited powder, and consolidating the powder into a cross-sectional shape corresponding to the defined configuration. Such methods may be implemented to construct an effusion plate having one or more channels with a curved cross-sectional geometry.

  17. Problem of Electromagnetoviscoelasticity for Multiply Connected Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloerov, S. A.; Samodurov, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    A method for solving the problem of electromagnetoviscoelasticity for multiply connected plates is proposed. The small-parameter method is used to reduce this problem to a recursive sequence of problems of electromagnetoelasticity, which are solved by using complex potentials. A procedure is developed to determine, using complex potentials, approximations of the basic characteristics (stresses, electromagnetic-field strength, electromagnetic-flux density) of the electromagnetoelastic state at any time after application of a load. A plate with an elliptic hole is considered as an example. The variation in the electromagnetoelastic state of the multiply connected plate with time is studied

  18. Numerical analysis of cross shear plate rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    1997-01-01

    The rolling process is widely applied for industrial production of metal plates. In conventional plate rolling the two work rolls are rotating at the same peripheral speed. By introducing a specific difference in the speed of the two work rolls, cross shear rolling is introduced forming a central...... are in the roll gap, the position and the size of the shear zone and the rolling load are calculated. Experimental results are presented verifying the calculations. The numerical analysis facilitates a better understanding of the mechanics in cross shear plate rolling....

  19. Modeling the hydrodynamics of Phloem sieve plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Mullendore, Daniel Leroy; Holbrook, Noel Michele

    2012-01-01

    understood. We propose a theoretical model for quantifying the effect of sieve plates on the phloem in the plant, thus unifying and improving previous work in the field. Numerical simulations of the flow in real and idealized phloem channels verify our model, and anatomical data from 19 plant species...... are investigated. We find that the sieve plate resistance is correlated to the cell lumen resistance, and that the sieve plate and the lumen contribute almost equally to the total hydraulic resistance of the phloem translocation pathway....

  20. Buckling analysis of a laminate plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamuzić, I.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a modeling of laminate plates and with their buckling analysis. To predict the inception of buckling for plates in plane resultant forces must be included. The buckling analysis is made by the help of finite element method in program COSMOS/M. For rectangular laminate plate consisting of 4 layers with symmetric and antisymmetric stacking sequence a buckling analysis is carried out. In the illustrative example there are depicted buckling modes for symmetric laminates [30/-30]s, [45/-45]s, [60/-60]s, [90/-90]s and results of the buckling analysis for the symmetric and antisymmetric laminates.

  1. Enhanced-transmission metamaterials as anisotropic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baida, F. I.; Boutria, M.; Oussaid, R.; van Labeke, D.

    2011-07-01

    We present an original design of anisotropic metamaterial plates exhibiting extraordinary transmission through perfectly conductor metallic screens perforated by a subwavelength double-pattern rectangular aperture array. The polarization properties of the fundamental guided mode inside the apertures are at the origin of the anisotropy. The metal thickness is a key parameter that is adjusted in order to get the desired value of the phase difference between the two transversal electromagnetic field components. As an example, we treat the case of a half-wave plate having 92% transmission coefficient. Such a study can be easily extended to design anisotropic plates operating in terahertz or microwave domains.

  2. Ion plating with an induction heating source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.; Brainard, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    Induction heating is introduced as an evaporation heat source in ion plating. A bare induction coil without shielding can be directly used in the glow discharge region with no arcing. The only requirement is to utilize an rf inductive generator with low operating frequency of 75 kHz. Mechanical simplicity of the ion plating apparatus and ease of operation is a great asset for industrial applications; practically any metal such as nickel, iron, and the high temperature refractories can be evaporated and ion plated.

  3. Reducing risk where tectonic plates collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Ludwig, Kristin A.

    2017-06-19

    Most of the world’s earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, and volcanic eruptions are caused by the continuous motions of the many tectonic plates that make up the Earth’s outer shell. The most powerful of these natural hazards occur in subduction zones, where two plates collide and one is thrust beneath another. The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) “Reducing Risk Where Tectonic Plates Collide—A USGS Plan to Advance Subduction Zone Science” is a blueprint for building the crucial scientific foundation needed to inform the policies and practices that can make our Nation more resilient to subduction zone-related hazards.

  4. FLEXURAL WAVE PROPAGATION IN NARROW MINDLIN'S PLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Chao; HAN Gang; FANG Xue-qian; HUANG Wen-hu

    2006-01-01

    Appling Mindlin's theory of thick plates and Hamilton system to propagation of elastic waves under free boundary condition, a solution of the problem was given.Dispersion equations of propagation mode of strip plates were deduced from eigenfunction expansion method. It was compared with the dispersion relation that was gained through solution of thick plate theory proposed by Mindlin. Based on the two kinds of theories,the dispersion curves show great difference in the region of short waves, and the cutoff frequencies are higher in Hamiltonian systems. However, the dispersion curves are almost the same in the region of long waves.

  5. Improvements in Cold-Plate Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffetti, Mark A.; Taddey, Edmund P.; Laurin, Michael B.; Chabebe, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Five improvements are reported in cold-plate fabrication. This cold plate is part of a thermal control system designed to serve on space missions. The first improvement is the merging of the end sheets of the cold plate with the face sheets of the structural honeycomb panel. The cold plate, which can be a brazed assembly, uses the honeycomb face sheet as its end sheet. Thus, when the honeycomb panel is fabricated, the face sheet that is used is already part of the cold plate. In addition to reducing weight, costs, and steps, the main benefit of this invention is that it creates a more structurally sound assembly. The second improvement involves incorporation of the header into the closure bar to pass the fluid to a lower layer. Conventional designs have used a separate header, which increases the geometry of the system. The improvement reduces the geometry, thus allowing the cold plate to fit into smaller area. The third improvement eliminates the need of hose, tube, or manifold to supply the cooling fluid externally. The external arrangement can be easily damaged and is vulnerable to leakage. The new arrangement incorporates an internal fluid transfer tube. This allows the fluid to pass from one cold plate to the other without any exposed external features. The fourth improvement eliminates separate fabrication of cold plate(s) and structural members followed by a process of attaching them to each other. Here, the structural member is made of material that can be brazed just as that of the cold plate. Now the structural member and the cold plate can be brazed at the same time, creating a monolithic unit, and thus a more structurally sound assembly. Finally, the fifth improvement is the elimination of an additional welding step that can damage the braze joints. A tube section, which is usually welded on after the braze process, is replaced with a more structurally sound configuration that can be brazed at the same time as the rest of the cold plate.

  6. Effusion plate using additive manufacturing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Wegerif, Daniel Gerritt

    2016-04-12

    Additive manufacturing techniques may be utilized to construct effusion plates. Such additive manufacturing techniques may include defining a configuration for an effusion plate having one or more internal cooling channels. The manufacturing techniques may further include depositing a powder into a chamber, applying an energy source to the deposited powder, and consolidating the powder into a cross-sectional shape corresponding to the defined configuration. Such methods may be implemented to construct an effusion plate having one or more channels with a curved cross-sectional geometry.

  7. Influence of plate-bone contact on cyclically loaded conically coupled locking plate failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotne, Randi; Bertollo, Nicky; Walsh, William; Dhand, Navneet K; Voss, Katja; Johnson, Kenneth A

    2014-03-01

    The maintenance of friction between locking plates and bone is not essential, so that they can be applied with a gap between the plate and underlying bone. We hypothesised that the presence of a gap under a locking plate with a conical coupling mechanism would reduce fixation stability or allow uncoupling of the locking screws from the plate. Locking plates with two conically coupled locking screws were applied to 6 pairs of adult canine femora. One of each pair had plate to bone contact and the contralateral construct had a 2 mm plate to bone gap. Constructs were cyclically loaded in cantilever bending with 10 percent incremental increases every 1000 cycles at 2 Hz, starting at 250 N. The constructs were fatigued to failure. To evaluate fatigue life of the conical coupling, testing was repeated with aluminium tubing replacing the bone, to eliminate screw-bone cutout failure. The mean sustained loads and cycles to failure in the contact group (420.80, standard error [SE] 14.97 N; 7612.00, SE 574.70 cycles) were significantly greater than in the gap group (337.50, SE 14.97 N; 4252.00, SE 574.70 cycles), (pplate fatigue and breaking, with one construct having elevation of the plate over the screw head. Elevation of locking plates with a conical coupling system by 2 mm from the bone reduced construct fatigue life but did not result in screw head uncoupling from the plate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The dynamics of Cenozoic and Mesozoic plate motions

    OpenAIRE

    Lithgow-Bertelloni, C.; Richards, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    Our understanding of the dynamics of plate motions is based almost entirely upon modeling of present-day plate motions. A fuller understanding, however, can be derived from consideration of the history of plate motions. Here we investigate the kinematics of the last 120 Myr of plate motions and the dynamics of Cenozoic motions, paying special attention to changes in the character of plate motions and plate-driving forces. We analyze the partitioning of the observed surface velocity field into...

  9. Fragmentation of Millimeter-Size Hypervelocity Projectiles on Combined Mesh-Plate Bumpers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Cherniaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This numerical study evaluates the concept of a combined mesh-plate bumper as a shielding system protecting unmanned spacecraft from small (1 mm orbital debris impacts. Two-component bumpers consisting of an external layer of woven mesh (aluminum or steel directly applied to a surface of the aluminum plate are considered. Results of numerical modeling with a projectile velocity of 7 km/s indicate that, in comparison to the steel mesh-combined bumper, the combination of aluminum mesh and aluminum plate provides better fragmentation of small hypervelocity projectiles. At the same time, none of the combined mesh/plate bumpers provide a significant increase of ballistic properties as compared to an aluminum plate bumper. This indicates that the positive results reported in the literature for bumpers with metallic meshes and large projectiles are not scalable down to millimeter-sized particles. Based on this investigation’s results, a possible modification of the combined mesh/plate bumper is proposed for the future study.

  10. A Study of the Effect of Gold Thickness Distribution in the Jet Plating Process to Optimize Gold Usage and Plating Voltage Using Design of Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Aramphongphun Chuckaphun; Nampanya Chalermpol

    2016-01-01

    A gold plating process in the electronics industry can be classified as (i) all surface plating or (ii) selective plating. Selective plating is more widely used than all surface plating because it can save more gold used in the plating process and takes less plating time. In this research, the selective plating process called jet plating was studied. Factors that possibly affected the gold usage and plating voltage were also studied to reduce the production cost. These factors included (a) pl...

  11. A novel solar hot plate for cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon Mejia, Eduardo A; Osorio Jaramillo, Fidel A [Facultad de Ingenieria, UAEMex, Toluca, Edo. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In Mexico and other developing countries, the use of firewood as combustible for cooking has contributed to deforestation and desertification of large zones. This is due to the lack of alternative combustibles for the poor inhabitants of the countryside and remote areas. In this paper, a new solar hot plate, intended for contributing to solve this problem, is presented. It can be used for cooking not only a great variety of prehispanic and traditional meals, like tortillas, fried meat and vegetables, but also hot cakes, bacon, eggs, steaks and fries. The hot plate solar cooker, called Tolocatzin, consists of a horizontal metallic plate, which is heated from both of its top and bottom surfaces by concentrated sun light from multicompound concentrator based on nonimaging optics, and built with nine ordinary plane glass-silvered, and two curved aluminum mirrors, so it can be manufactured easily in a small factory or at home. For an acceptance angle of 15 Celsius degrees, which allows the concentration of sun light without sun-tracking for about one hour, it can reach temperatures up to 240 Celsius degrees in a few minutes. This temperature is high enough for cooking almost all fried or grilled meals. The design was optimized using ray-trace procedures. The operational experience with early prototypes has shown that the Tolocatzin solar hot plate does an excellent cooking job and could really be massively used in sunny countries. [Spanish] En Mexico y otros paises en desarrollo, el uso de la madera como combustible para cocinar ha contribuido a la deforestacion y desertificacion de grandes zonas. Esto es debido a la falta de combustibles alternativos por parte de los habitantes pobres del campo y de areas remotas. En este articulo se presenta una nueva placa solar que tiene el proposito de contribuir a resolver este problema. Puede ser usada para cocinar no solamente una gran variedad de comidas prehispanicas y tradicionales, como tortillas, carne frita y verduras sino

  12. Aeroheating model advancements featuring electroless metallic plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalmach, C. J., Jr.; Goodrich, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    Discussed are advancements in wind tunnel model construction methods and hypersonic test data demonstrating the methods. The general objective was to develop model fabrication methods for improved heat transfer measuring capability at less model cost. A plated slab model approach was evaluated with cast models containing constantan wires that formed single-wire-to-plate surface thermocouple junctions with a seamless skin of electroless nickel alloy. The surface of a space shuttle orbiter model was selectively plated with scaled tiles to simulate, with high fidelity, the probable misalignments of the heatshield tiles on a flight vehicle. Initial, Mach 8 heating results indicated a minor effect of tile misalignment roughness on boundary layer transition, implying a possible relaxation of heatshield manufacturing tolerances. Some loss of the plated tiles was experienced when the model was tested at high heating rates.

  13. 46 CFR 169.665 - Name plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of Less Than 50 Volts on Vessels of Less Than 100 Gross Tons § 169.665 Name plates. Each generator, motor and other major item f power equipment must...

  14. Origin of the Caribbean Plate Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keith H. James; Maria Antonieta Lorente

    2006-01-01

    @@ An international research conference, entitled "Geology of the area between North and South America, with focus on the origin of the Caribbean Plate", took place in Siguenza, Spain, from May 29-June 2, 2006.

  15. Theories for Elastic Plates via Orthogonal Polynomials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    1981-01-01

    A complementary energy functional is used to derive an infinite system of two-dimensional differential equations and appropriate boundary conditions for stresses and displacements in homogeneous anisotropic elastic plates. Stress boundary conditions are imposed on the faces a priori...

  16. Resistive plate chambers for tomography and radiography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    C. Thomay; P. Baesso; D. Cussans; J. Davies; P. Glaysher; S. Quillin; S. Robertson; C. Steer; C. Vassallo; J. Velthuis

    2012-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are widely used in high energy physics for both tracking and triggering purposes, due to their excellent time resolution, rate capability, and good spatial resolution...

  17. White Light Photorefractive Phase Zone Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yuan-Mei; LIU Si-Min

    2008-01-01

    Incoherent white light from an incandescent source is employed to Fabricate volume phase zone plates in LiNbO3:Fe,for the first time to our knowledge,which can guide and modulate the input white light or laser light.The diffractive efficiency of the white light volume phase zone plates fabricated can reach as high as 12%.In addition,we test the volume phase zone plates by a probe beam and find that the volume phase zone plate is present in the direction perpendicular to the c-axis and absent in the direction parallel to the c-axis.This directly proves the existence of photovoltalc photorefractive anisotropy of white light.

  18. Characterization of Tri-lab Tantalum Plate.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchheit, Thomas E.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Deibler, Lisa Anne; Chen, Shu-Rong; Michael, Joseph R.

    2014-09-01

    This report provides a detailed characterization Tri-lab Tantalum (Ta) plate jointly purchased from HCStark Inc. by Sandia, Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. Data in this report was compiled from series of material and properties characterization experiments carried out at Sandia (SNL) and Los Alamos (LANL) Laboratories through a leveraged effort funded by the C2 campaign. Results include microstructure characterization detailing the crystallographic texture of the material and an increase in grain size near the end of the rolled plate. Mechanical properties evaluations include, compression cylinder, sub-scale tension specimen, micohardness and instrumented indentation testing. The plate was found to have vastly superior uniformity when compare with previously characterized wrought Ta material. Small but measurable variations in microstructure and properties were noted at the end, and at the top and bottom edges of the plate.

  19. Energy transfer in double plate system dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katica (Stevanovic) Hedrih

    2008-01-01

    The study of energy transfer between coupled subsystems in a hybrid system is very important for applications. This paper presents an analytical analysis of energy transfer between plates of a visco-elastically connected double-plate system in free transversal vibrations. The analytical analysis shows that the visco-elastic connection between plates is responsible for the appearance of two-frequency regime in the time function, which corresponds to one eigen amplitude function of one mode, and also that time functions of different vibration modes are uncoupled, but energy transfer between plates in one eigen mode appears. It was shown for each shape of vibrations. Series of the two Lyapunov exponents corresponding to the one eigen amplitude mode are expressed by using the energy of the corresponding eigen amplitude time component.

  20. Liquid repellency by a moving plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillant, Ambre; Anais Gauthier Team; David Quere Team; Christophe Clanet Team

    2016-11-01

    Moving solids can repel impacting drops, owing to their motion. Provided the solid velocity is larger than a threshold value, air entrained at the vicinity of the moving plate prevents the drop from wetting, and makes it bounce. In addition, the rebound is oblique, which enhances the evacuation of liquid. We discuss experiments and models on this theme, and extend them to case of small droplets (such as formed in a spray) found to be even more efficiently repelled by the moving plate.

  1. Astronomical Plate Archives and Binary Blazars Studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rene Hudec

    2011-03-01

    There are about 3 million astronomical photographic plates around the globe, representing an important data source for various aspects of astrophysics. The main advantage is the large time coverage of 100 years or even more. Recent digitization efforts, together with the development of dedicated software, enables for the first time, effective data mining and data analyses by powerful computers with these archives. Examples of blazars proposed and/or investigated on the astronomical plates are presented and discussed.

  2. Crane Scheduling on a Plate Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    OSS produces the worlds largest container ships. The first process of producing the steel ships is handling arrival and storage of steel plates until they are needed in production. Two gantry cranes carry out this task. The planning task is now to create a schedule of movements for the 2 cranes...... without collision, that delivers the plates needed for the given day and minimizes costs....

  3. Microchannel Plate Imaging Detectors for the Ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Gummin, M. A.; Stock, J.; Marsh, D.

    1992-01-01

    There has been significant progress over the last few years in the development of technologies for microchannel plate imaging detectors in the Ultraviolet (UV). Areas where significant developments have occurred include enhancements of quantum detection efficiency through improved photocathodes, advances in microchannel plate performance characteristics, and development of high performance image readout techniques. The current developments in these areas are summarized, with their applications in astrophysical instrumentation.

  4. Impact behaviour of stiffened steel plates

    OpenAIRE

    Sølvernes, Sindre Hellem

    2015-01-01

    The impact behavior of stiffened steel plates subjected to impact loading from concentrated loads was studied experimentally and numerically. Both dynamic and quasi-static tests of stiffened steel plates with geometry adopted from a typical external deck area on an offshore platform were conducted. The quasi-static tests were performed to study the relationship between dynamic impact behavior and the corresponding static ones. All tests were carried out in scale 1:4. To allow the executio...

  5. Pulse reversal plating of nickel alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben

    2007-01-01

    ), internal stress and material distribution are even more important. With baths based upon nickel chloride, and nickel and cobalt chlorides, pulse reversal plating of both pure nickel and nickel-cobalt alloys has been used to fabricate tools for microinjection moulding. Pulse reversal plating of ternary soft...... magnetic alloys, comprising 45-65%Co, 15-35%Fe and 15-35%Ni, is also reported....

  6. Plate tectonic raster reconstruction in GPlates

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We describe a novel method implemented in the GPlates plate tectonic reconstruction software to interactively reconstruct arbitrarily high-resolution raster data to past geological times using a rotation model. The approach is based on the projection of geo-referenced raster data into a cube map followed by a reverse projection onto rotated tectonic plates on the surface of the globe. This decouples the rendering of a geo-referenced raster from its reconstruction, providing ...

  7. Finite Temperature Casimir Effect for Corrugated Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yan; SHAO Cheng-Gang; LUO Jun

    2006-01-01

    @@ Using the path-integral method, the corrections to the Casimir energy due to the combined effect of surface roughness and the finite temperature are calculated. For the specific case of two sinusoidally corrugated plates,the lateral Casimir force at finite temperature is obtained. The amplitude of the lateral Casimir force has a maximum at an optimal wavelength of λ≈ 2H with the mean plate distance H. This optimal parameter relation is almost independent of temperature.

  8. Tomography, the geoid and plate motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Carl W.; O'Connell, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamics of the earth's mantle and its relationship to mantle structure as revealed by seismic tomography, the geoid, and plate motions are discussed in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Sections are devoted to plates and mantle convection; seismic anomalies, flow, and the geoid; subducted slabs and the 670-km discontinuity; the physical properties of the mantle; plumes; and computational and experimental modeling efforts. Also included is a comprehensive bibliography for the period.

  9. Optimizing Casimir torque between corrugated metallic plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Robson B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Maia Neto, Paulo A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The Casimir effect plays a major role in micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS). Besides the normal Casimir force between metallic or dielectric plates, the observation of the lateral Casimir force between corrugated plates opens novel possibilities of micro-mechanical control. The lateral force results from breaking the translational symmetry along directions parallel to the plates by imprinting periodic corrugations on both metallic plates. As the rotational symmetry is broken by this geometry, a Casimir torque arises when the corrugations are not aligned. We calculate the Casimir torque between two parallel metallic plates with surface profiles in the form of 'fans' with arbitrary relative spatial orientation. As compared to the case of anisotropic dielectric plates, the torque per unit area is increased by up to three orders of magnitude for a given separation distance. The experiment proposed here can be performed with torsion pendulum techniques for separation distances as large as 1 μm. From the point of view of fundamental physics, this torque makes possible a precise experimental investigation of the non-trivial geometry dependence of the Casimir effect. We follow the scattering approach and calculate the Casimir energy up to second order in the corrugation amplitudes, taking into account nonspecular reflections, polarization mixing and the finite conductivity of the metals. We investigate the experimental conditions that optimize the effect. (author)

  10. Elastic buckling strength of corroded steel plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ahmad Rahbar-Ranji

    2013-02-01

    Corrosion makes structures more vulnerable to buckling and yielding failures. It is common practice to assume a uniform thickness reduction for general corrosion. To estimate the remaining strength of corroded structures, typically a much higher level of accuracy is required, since the actual corroded structures have irregular surfaces. Elastic buckling of simply supported rectangular corroded plates are studied with one- and both-sided irregular surfaces. Eigenvalue analysis by using finite element method (FEM) is employed for computing Euler stress. The influence of various geometric and corrosion characteristics are investigated and it is found that the aspect ratio of the plate, the average thickness diminution, the standard deviation of thickness diminution and the amount of corrosion loss have influence on the reduction of buckling strength of the corroded plates. Buckling strength of one- and both-sided corroded plates are the same. In plates with low value of aspect ratio, reduction of buckling strength is negligible. Reduction of buckling strength is more prominent in plates with higher aspect ratio. Reduction of buckling strength is very sensitive to the amount of corrosion loss; the higher the amount of corrosion loss, the more reduction of buckling strength. Reduction of buckling strength is less sensitive to the standard deviation of thickness diminution.

  11. Abrupt plate accelerations shape rifted continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Sascha; Williams, Simon E.; Butterworth, Nathaniel P.; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2016-08-01

    Rifted margins are formed by persistent stretching of continental lithosphere until breakup is achieved. It is well known that strain-rate-dependent processes control rift evolution, yet quantified extension histories of Earth’s major passive margins have become available only recently. Here we investigate rift kinematics globally by applying a new geotectonic analysis technique to revised global plate reconstructions. We find that rifted margins feature an initial, slow rift phase (less than ten millimetres per year, full rate) and that an abrupt increase of plate divergence introduces a fast rift phase. Plate acceleration takes place before continental rupture and considerable margin area is created during each phase. We reproduce the rapid transition from slow to fast extension using analytical and numerical modelling with constant force boundary conditions. The extension models suggest that the two-phase velocity behaviour is caused by a rift-intrinsic strength-velocity feedback, which can be robustly inferred for diverse lithosphere configurations and rheologies. Our results explain differences between proximal and distal margin areas and demonstrate that abrupt plate acceleration during continental rifting is controlled by the nonlinear decay of the resistive rift strength force. This mechanism provides an explanation for several previously unexplained rapid absolute plate motion changes, offering new insights into the balance of plate driving forces through time.

  12. Benchmark for license plate character segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gabriel Resende; da Silva, Sirlene Pio Gomes; Menotti, David; Shwartz, William Robson

    2016-09-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) has been the focus of many researches in the past years. In general, ALPR is divided into the following problems: detection of on-track vehicles, license plate detection, segmentation of license plate characters, and optical character recognition (OCR). Even though commercial solutions are available for controlled acquisition conditions, e.g., the entrance of a parking lot, ALPR is still an open problem when dealing with data acquired from uncontrolled environments, such as roads and highways when relying only on imaging sensors. Due to the multiple orientations and scales of the license plates captured by the camera, a very challenging task of the ALPR is the license plate character segmentation (LPCS) step, because its effectiveness is required to be (near) optimal to achieve a high recognition rate by the OCR. To tackle the LPCS problem, this work proposes a benchmark composed of a dataset designed to focus specifically on the character segmentation step of the ALPR within an evaluation protocol. Furthermore, we propose the Jaccard-centroid coefficient, an evaluation measure more suitable than the Jaccard coefficient regarding the location of the bounding box within the ground-truth annotation. The dataset is composed of 2000 Brazilian license plates consisting of 14000 alphanumeric symbols and their corresponding bounding box annotations. We also present a straightforward approach to perform LPCS efficiently. Finally, we provide an experimental evaluation for the dataset based on five LPCS approaches and demonstrate the importance of character segmentation for achieving an accurate OCR.

  13. Accuracy of MRI in Growth Plate Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiguetomi Medina, Juan Manuel; Rahbek, Ole; Ringgaard, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Analysis of the accuracy of growth plate thickness measurements detected on 1.5T and 7T MR images using histology sections as gold standard. Materials and Methods. Four defrosted pig tibiae were 1.5T MR scanned and one fresh tibia was 7T MR scanned. The height of the growth plate...... was measured and compared to histology. Results. Histology measurements showed a mean growth plate thickness of 467 μm (SD = 82.2). The mean growth plate thickness measured in the 7T MR images was 465 μm (SD = 62.2) and 1325 μm (SD=183.5) on 1.5 MRI measurements. We found a better correlation between...... the growth plate thickness measured on the 7T MRI and histology samples compared to 1.5T, where the accuracy was poor. Conclusion. The growth plate can be identified and measured with high accuracy using 7T MRI. 1.5T MRI can only describe some morphological characteristics; its poor resolution impedes to do...

  14. Accuracy of MRI in Growth Plate Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiguetomi Medina, Juan Manuel; Rahbek, Ole; Ringgaard, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Analysis of the accuracy of growth plate thickness measurements detected on 1.5T and 7T MR images using histology sections as gold standard. Materials and Methods. Four defrosted pig tibiae were 1.5T MR scanned and one fresh tibia was 7T MR scanned. The height of the growth plate...... was measured and compared to histology. Results. Histology measurements showed a mean growth plate thickness of 467 μm (SD = 82.2). The mean growth plate thickness measured in the 7T MR images was 465 μm (SD = 62.2) and 1325 μm (SD=183.5) on 1.5 MRI measurements. We found a better correlation between...... the growth plate thickness measured on the 7T MRI and histology samples compared to 1.5T, where the accuracy was poor. Conclusion. The growth plate can be identified and measured with high accuracy using 7T MRI. 1.5T MRI can only describe some morphological characteristics; its poor resolution impedes to do...

  15. Image simulation for automatic license plate recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Raja; Zhao, Yonghui; Burry, Aaron; Kozitsky, Vladimir; Fillion, Claude; Saunders, Craig; Rodríguez-Serrano, José

    2012-01-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) is an important capability for traffic surveillance applications, including toll monitoring and detection of different types of traffic violations. ALPR is a multi-stage process comprising plate localization, character segmentation, optical character recognition (OCR), and identification of originating jurisdiction (i.e. state or province). Training of an ALPR system for a new jurisdiction typically involves gathering vast amounts of license plate images and associated ground truth data, followed by iterative tuning and optimization of the ALPR algorithms. The substantial time and effort required to train and optimize the ALPR system can result in excessive operational cost and overhead. In this paper we propose a framework to create an artificial set of license plate images for accelerated training and optimization of ALPR algorithms. The framework comprises two steps: the synthesis of license plate images according to the design and layout for a jurisdiction of interest; and the modeling of imaging transformations and distortions typically encountered in the image capture process. Distortion parameters are estimated by measurements of real plate images. The simulation methodology is successfully demonstrated for training of OCR.

  16. Accuracy of MR in growth plate measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiguetomi-Medina, Juan Manuel [Aarhus University, Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Aarhus University Hospital NBG, Aarhus C (Denmark); Rahbek, Ole [Aarhus University Hospital NBG, Department of Children' s Orthopaedics, Aarhus C (Denmark); Ringgaard, Steffen; Kristiansen, Maja Sofie; Stoedkilde-Joergensen, Hans [Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, The MR Research Center, Aarhus N (Denmark); Moeller-Madsen, Bjarne [Aarhus University, Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Aarhus University Hospital NBG, Aarhus C (Denmark); Aarhus University Hospital NBG, Department of Children' s Orthopaedics, Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2014-09-15

    To analyze the accuracy of growth-plate thickness measurements detected on 1.5-T and 7-T MR images using histology sections as a standard of reference. Four defrosted pig tibiae were 1.5-T MR scanned and one fresh tibia was 7-T MR scanned. The height of the growth plate was measured and compared to histology. Histology measurements showed a mean growth plate thickness of 467 μm (SD = 82.2). The mean growth plate thickness measured in the 7-T MR images was 465 μm (SD = 62.2) and 1,325 μm (SD = 183.5) on 1.5-T MR measurements. We found a better correspondence between the growth plate thickness measured on the 7-T MR and histology samples compared to 1.5 T. The growth plate can be identified and measured with high accuracy using 7-T MR. 1.5-T MR can only describe some morphological characteristics. (orig.)

  17. Optimization of a clamped plate silencer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunqi; Han, Jun; Huang, Lixi

    2007-02-01

    A previous theoretical study [L. Huang, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119, 2628-2638 (2006)] shows that, in a duct, a simply supported plate covering a side-branch rigid cavity can function effectively as a wave reflector over a broad range of low to medium frequencies. In this study, analytical formulation is extended to the boundary condition of clamped plate, which is easier to implement in practice. The theoretical model is tested experimentally using balsawood, which has a very high stiffness to mass ratio. The spectral peaks and shapes of the measured TL are in agreement with those calculated theoretically, attempts are also made to account for the considerable sound absorption in the rig. Further numerical studies based on the validated model show that, for a uniform plate, the optimal stopband is narrower and the lower band limit is worse than that of the simply supported configuration. However, a wave reflector using nonuniform, clamped plates with thinner ends out-performs the simply supported configuration in every aspect. Analyses show that the improvement is attributed to the increased acoustic radiation efficiency over the bulk length of the nonuniform plate, which behaves more like a rigid plate.

  18. Injection molding of micro patterned PMMA plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yeong-Eun YOO; Tae-Hoon KIM; Tae-Jin JE; Doo-Sun CHOI; Chang-Wan KIM; Sun-Kyung KIM

    2011-01-01

    A plastic plate with surface micro features was injection molded to investigate the effect of pressure rise of melt on the replication of the micro structures. Prism pattern, which is used in many optical applications, was selected as a model pattern. The prism pattern is 50 μm in pitch and 108° in the vertical angle. The overall size of the plate was 335 mm×213 mm and the thickness of the plate varied linearly from 2.6 mm to 0.7 mm. The prism pattern was firstly machined on the nickel plated core block using micro diamond tool and this machined pattern core was installed in a mold for injection molding of prism patterned plate. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was used as a molding material. The pressure and temperature of the melt in the cavity were measured at different positions in the cavity and the replication of the pattern was also measured at the same positions. The results show that the pressure or temperature profile through the process depends on the shape and the size of the plate. The replication is affected by the temperature and pressure profiles at the early stage of filling, which is right after the melt reaches the position to be measured.

  19. Abrupt plate accelerations shape rifted continental margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Sascha; Williams, Simon E; Butterworth, Nathaniel P; Müller, R Dietmar

    2016-08-11

    Rifted margins are formed by persistent stretching of continental lithosphere until breakup is achieved. It is well known that strain-rate-dependent processes control rift evolution, yet quantified extension histories of Earth's major passive margins have become available only recently. Here we investigate rift kinematics globally by applying a new geotectonic analysis technique to revised global plate reconstructions. We find that rifted margins feature an initial, slow rift phase (less than ten millimetres per year, full rate) and that an abrupt increase of plate divergence introduces a fast rift phase. Plate acceleration takes place before continental rupture and considerable margin area is created during each phase. We reproduce the rapid transition from slow to fast extension using analytical and numerical modelling with constant force boundary conditions. The extension models suggest that the two-phase velocity behaviour is caused by a rift-intrinsic strength--velocity feedback, which can be robustly inferred for diverse lithosphere configurations and rheologies. Our results explain differences between proximal and distal margin areas and demonstrate that abrupt plate acceleration during continental rifting is controlled by the nonlinear decay of the resistive rift strength force. This mechanism provides an explanation for several previously unexplained rapid absolute plate motion changes, offering new insights into the balance of plate driving forces through time.

  20. Modeling the hydrodynamics of phloem sieve plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare Hartvig Jensen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sieve plates have an enormous impact on the efficiency of the phloem vascular system of plants, responsible for the distribution of photosynthetic products. These thin plates, which separate neighboring phloem cells, are perforated by a large number of tiny sieve pores and are believed to play a crucial role in protecting the phloem sap from intruding animals by blocking flow when the phloem cell is damaged. The resistance to the flow of viscous sap in the phloem vascular system is strongly affected by the presence of the sieve plates, but the hydrodynamics of the flow through them remains poorly understood. We propose a theoretical model for quantifying the effect of sieve plates on the phloem in the plant, thus unifying and improving previous work in the field. Numerical simulations of the flow in real and idealized phloem channels verify our model, and anatomical data from 19 plant species are investigated. We find that the sieve plate resistance is correlated to the cell lumen resistance, and that the sieve plate and the lumen contribute almost equally to the total hydraulic resistance of the phloem translocation pathway.

  1. Intra Plate Stresses Using Finite Element Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayalakshmi S.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging problems in the estimation of seismic hazard is the ability to quantify seismic activity. Empirical models based on the available earthquake catalogue are often used to obtain activity of source regions. The major limitation with this approach is the lack of sufficient data near a specified source. The non-availability of data poses difficulties in obtaining distribution of earthquakes with large return periods. Such events recur over geological time scales during which tectonic processes, including mantle convection, formation of faults and new plate boundaries, are likely to take place. The availability of geometries of plate boundaries, plate driving forces, lithospheric stress field and GPS measurements has provided numerous insights on the mechanics of tectonic plates. In this article, a 2D finite element model of Indo-Australian plate is developed with the focus of representing seismic activity in India. The effect of large scale geological features including sedimentary basins, fold belts and cratons on the stress field in India is explored in this study. In order to address long term behaviour, the orientation of stress field and tectonic faults of the present Indo-Australian plate are compared with a reconstructed stress field from the early Miocene (20 Ma.

  2. Corrosion test cell for bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrod, Kirk R.

    2002-01-01

    A corrosion test cell for evaluating corrosion resistance in fuel cell bipolar plates is described. The cell has a transparent or translucent cell body having a pair of identical cell body members that seal against opposite sides of a bipolar plate. The cell includes an anode chamber and an cathode chamber, each on opposite sides of the plate. Each chamber contains a pair of mesh platinum current collectors and a catalyst layer pressed between current collectors and the plate. Each chamber is filled with an electrolyte solution that is replenished with fluid from a much larger electrolyte reservoir. The cell includes gas inlets to each chamber for hydrogen gas and air. As the gases flow into a chamber, they pass along the platinum mesh, through the catalyst layer, and to the bipolar plate. The gas exits the chamber through passageways that provide fluid communication between the anode and cathode chambers and the reservoir, and exits the test cell through an exit port in the reservoir. The flow of gas into the cell produces a constant flow of fresh electrolyte into each chamber. Openings in each cell body is member allow electrodes to enter the cell body and contact the electrolyte in the reservoir therein. During operation, while hydrogen gas is passed into one chamber and air into the other chamber, the cell resistance is measured, which is used to evaluate the corrosion properties of the bipolar plate.

  3. Diffuse oceanic plate boundaries: Strain rates, vertically averaged rheology, and comparisons with narrow plate boundaries and stable plate interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Richard G.

    Diffuse plate boundaries occur in both oceanic and continental lithosphere and cover ≈ 15% of Earth's solid surface. The fastest plate speeds accommodated across diffuse oceanic plate boundaries are ≈ 15 mm/yr. The smallest strain rates averaged across narrow plate boundaries are at least 102 times larger than the largest strain rates across diffuse oceanic plate boundaries and at least 102 times larger than those across stable plate interiors. The effective viscosity (ηeff) of the lithosphere is estimated from the ratio of vertically averaged shear stresses to strain rates for three tectonic settings: (i) oceanic transform fault zones, for which ηeff = 3 ×1016 to 5×1019 Pa s, comparable to estimates for the asthenosphere, (ii) diffuse oceanic plate boundaries, for which ηeff = 1×1023 to 6×l023 Pa s, ≈ 10 times larger than for diffuse continental plate boundaries, and (iii) stable plate interiors, for which ηeff = 1x1024 to 2×1027 Pa s. The rheology of oceanic lithosphere over times longer than earthquake cycles is modeled as a plastic layer overlying a layer that deforms by creeping flow [Martinod and Davy, 1992]. Oceanic lithosphere deforms when the yield strength of the upper lithosphere is exceeded. The vertically averaged rheology of deforming oceanic lithosphere can be approximated by a power-law fluid for which ɛ. ∝ (τs)n where ɛ. is the rate of shear strain and τs is the shear stress. If the ratio of the yield strength of the upper lithosphere to the force required to deform the lower lithosphere at a strain rate of 10-16 s-1 is varied from 10-2 to 102 , the calculated value of n varies from ≈3 to ≈300. The map-view aspect ratio of a deforming zone in a thin sheet of power-law fluid is proportional to n-½ [England et al., 1985]. A profile of displacement versus distance inferred from a seismic profile across the Central Indian Basin (India-Capricorn diffuse oceanic plate boundary), where the lithosphere is about 60-Myr old

  4. A REVIEW PAPER ON RECOGNIZE AUTOMATIC NUMBER PLATE AND BLURRED NUMBER PLATES

    OpenAIRE

    Aarti Soni*, Dr.Raman Chadha, Sukhmeet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    This review paper provides a brief survey on various recognition techniques for automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) in image processing. ANPR is real –time embedded system which uses number plate to identify the vehicle. This expertise is in advance popularity in security and traffic installations. License plate recognition system is an application of computer vision. Computer vision is a method of using a computer to take out high level information from a digital image. The usele...

  5. Evaluation of tin plating systems for a high-noble alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbery, T A; Davis, R D

    1993-01-01

    The tensile bond strength of Panavia EX to a high-noble alloy prepared by abrasive spraying and tin plating was measured. Two different intraoperatory tin plating systems were compared. Disk-shaped specimens were cast in type III gold, abrasive sprayed with aluminum oxide, and divided into three groups of 30 specimens each. Specimens in one group were tin plated by using a Kura Ace Mini unit, those in the second group were tin plated by using a Micro Tin unit, and those in the third group were not tin plated and served as the control group. Disks within each group were luted to each other with Panavia EX. The specimens were thermocycled and tested in tension. There was no significant difference between the two tin plated groups; however, the luting bond of both experimental groups was significantly stronger than was that of the control (P < .05).

  6. A new refined theory of plates with transverse shear deformation for moderately thick and thick plates

    CERN Document Server

    Valle, Jose Miguel Martinez

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new refined shear deformation plate theory which possesses a series of desirable features, the most salient of which are as follows: (i) The loads, which are generally considered to be applied on the middle surface of the plate, act on the upper surface of the plate; (ii) The equations are applicable to the calculation of the stresses in isotropic plates and provide the same order of accuracy as several theories with second order shear deformation effects; (iii) It constitutes a theory, in the sense defined by Love, since it gives easy expressions for application to problems in different fields in architecture and civil engineering

  7. Electromagnetic semitransparent $\\delta$-function plate: Casimir interaction energy between parallel infinitesimally thin plates

    CERN Document Server

    Parashar, Prachi; Shajesh, K V; Schaden, M

    2012-01-01

    We derive boundary conditions for electromagnetic fields on a $\\delta$-function plate. The optical properties of such a plate are shown to necessarily be anisotropic in that they only depend on the transverse properties of the plate. We unambiguously obtain the boundary conditions for a perfectly conducting $\\delta$-function plate in the limit of infinite dielectric response. We show that a material does not "optically vanish" in the thin-plate limit. The thin-plate limit of a plasma slab of thickness $d$ with plasma frequency $\\omega_p^2=\\zeta_p/d$ reduces to a $\\delta$-function plate for frequencies ($\\omega=i\\zeta$) satisfying $\\zeta d \\ll \\sqrt{\\zeta_p d} \\ll 1$. We show that the Casimir interaction energy between two parallel perfectly conducting $\\delta$-function plates is the same as that for parallel perfectly conducting slabs. Similarly, we show that the interaction energy between an atom and a perfect electrically conducting $\\delta$-function plate is the usual Casimir-Polder energy, which is verifi...

  8. A NEW QUADRILATERAL THIN PLATE ELEMENT BASED ON THE MEMBRANE-PLATE SIMILARITY THEORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄若煜; 郑长良; 钟万勰; 姚伟岸

    2002-01-01

    A new effective path has been proposed to formulate thin plate element by using the similarity theory between plane elasticity and plate bending. Because of avoiding the difficulty of c1 continuity , the construction of thin plate elements becomes easier. The similarity theory and its applications were discussed more deeply, and a new four nodes, sixteen D. O. F. ( degree of fieedom) thin plate element was presented on the base of the similarity theory. Numerical results for typical problems show that this new element can pass the patch test and has a very good convergence and a high precision.

  9. Finite element analysis of elasto-plastic plate bending problems using transition rectangular plate elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahattin Kanber; O.Yavuz Bozkurt

    2006-01-01

    In this work,the finite element analysis of the elasto-plastic plate bending problems is carried out using transition rectangular plate elements.The shape functions of the transition plate elements are derived based on a practical rule.The transition plate elements are all quadrilateral and can be used to obtain efficient finite element models using minimum number of elements.The mesh convergence rates of the models including the transition elements are compared with the regular element models.To verify the developed elements,simple tests are demonstrated and various elasto-plastic problems are solved.Their results are compared with ANSYS results.

  10. Creation of the Cocos and Nazca plates by fission of the Farallon plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Peter

    2005-08-01

    Throughout the Early Tertiary the area of the Farallon oceanic plate was episodically diminished by detachment of large and small northern regions, which became independently moving plates and microplates. The nature and history of Farallon plate fragmentation has been inferred mainly from structural patterns on the western, Pacific-plate flank of the East Pacific Rise, because the fragmented eastern flank has been subducted. The final episode of plate fragmentation occurred at the beginning of the Miocene, when the Cocos plate was split off, leaving the much reduced Farallon plate to be renamed the Nazca plate, and initiating Cocos-Nazca spreading. Some Oligocene Farallon plate with rifted margins that are a direct record of this plate-splitting event has survived in the eastern tropical Pacific, most extensively off northern Peru and Ecuador. Small remnants of the conjugate northern rifted margin are exposed off Costa Rica, and perhaps south of Panama. Marine geophysical profiles (bathymetric, magnetic and seismic reflection) and multibeam sonar swaths across these rifted oceanic margins, combined with surveys of 30-20 Ma crust on the western rise-flank, indicate that (i) Localized lithospheric rupture to create a new plate boundary was preceded by plate stretching and fracturing in a belt several hundred km wide. Fissural volcanism along some of these fractures built volcanic ridges (e.g., Alvarado and Sarmiento Ridges) that are 1-2 km high and parallel to "absolute" Farallon plate motion; they closely resemble fissural ridges described from the young western flank of the present Pacific-Nazca rise. (ii) For 1-2 m.y. prior to final rupture of the Farallon plate, perhaps coinciding with the period of lithospheric stretching, the entire plate changed direction to a more easterly ("Nazca-like") course; after the split the northern (Cocos) part reverted to a northeasterly absolute motion. (iii) The plate-splitting fracture that became the site of initial Cocos

  11. The present-day number of tectonic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Christopher G. A.

    2016-03-01

    The number of tectonic plates on Earth described in the literature has expanded greatly since the start of the plate tectonic era, when only about a dozen plates were considered in global models of present-day plate motions. With new techniques of more accurate earthquake epicenter locations, modern ways of measuring ocean bathymetry using swath mapping, and the use of space based geodetic techniques, there has been a huge growth in the number of plates thought to exist. The study by Bird (2003) proposed 52 plates, many of which were delineated on the basis of earthquake locations. Because of the pattern of areas of these plates, he suggested that there should be more small plates than he could identify. In this paper, I gather together publications that have proposed a total of 107 new plates, giving 159 plates in all. The largest plate (Pacific) is about 20 % of the Earth's area or 104 Mm2, and the smallest of which (Plate number 5 from Hammond et al. 2011) is only 273 km2 in area. Sorting the plates by size allows us to investigate how size varies as a function of order. There are several changes of slope in the plots of plate number organized by size against plate size order which are discussed. The sizes of the largest seven plates is constrained by the area of the Earth. A middle set of 73 plates down to an area of 97,563 km2 (the Danakil plate at number 80, is the plate of median size) follows a fairly regular pattern of plate size as a function of plate number. For smaller plates, there is a break in the slope of the plate size/plate number plot and the next 32 plates follow a pattern of plate size proposed by the models of Koehn et al. (2008) down to an area of 11,638 km2 (West Mojave plate # 112). Smaller plates do not follow any regular pattern of area as a function of plate number, probably because we have not sampled enough of these very small plates to reveal any clear pattern.

  12. An electromechanical finite element model for piezoelectric energy harvester plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marqui Junior, Carlos; Erturk, Alper; Inman, Daniel J.

    2009-10-01

    Vibration-based energy harvesting has been investigated by several researchers over the last decade. The goal in this research field is to power small electronic components by converting the waste vibration energy available in their environment into electrical energy. Recent literature shows that piezoelectric transduction has received the most attention for vibration-to-electricity conversion. In practice, cantilevered beams and plates with piezoceramic layers are employed as piezoelectric energy harvesters. The existing piezoelectric energy harvester models are beam-type lumped parameter, approximate distributed parameter and analytical distributed parameter solutions. However, aspect ratios of piezoelectric energy harvesters in several cases are plate-like and predicting the power output to general (symmetric and asymmetric) excitations requires a plate-type formulation which has not been covered in the energy harvesting literature. In this paper, an electromechanically coupled finite element (FE) plate model is presented for predicting the electrical power output of piezoelectric energy harvester plates. Generalized Hamilton's principle for electroelastic bodies is reviewed and the FE model is derived based on the Kirchhoff plate assumptions as typical piezoelectric energy harvesters are thin structures. Presence of conductive electrodes is taken into account in the FE model. The predictions of the FE model are verified against the analytical solution for a unimorph cantilever and then against the experimental and analytical results of a bimorph cantilever with a tip mass reported in the literature. Finally, an optimization problem is solved where the aluminum wing spar of an unmanned air vehicle (UAV) is modified to obtain a generator spar by embedding piezoceramics for the maximum electrical power without exceeding a prescribed mass addition limit.

  13. Study of Local Cold Working and Tensile Test for 7050 High Strength Aluminum Alloy Hole Plate%7050高强铝合金孔板的挤压强化与拉伸试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范娟; 李付国; 李江; 王少刚

    2012-01-01

    This paper mainly aims at 7050 aluminum alloy to study the tensile mechanical performance of the plate with hole through testing and finite-element simulation. Then the cold working effects of different interferences (ranging from 0% to 11.11%) were compared and analyzed. Results show that compared with the standard specimens of 7050 aluminum alloy, for the plates with holes, their apparent strength, coefficient of elongation and modulus of elasticity are reduced, but the strains at plastic instability points are improved to a large extent. Cold working enhances the yield strength of the material around hole wall and improves the stress state of hole surface which make for peak stress weakened and enlarge the plane strain range along thickness direction of the hole. Meanwhile, the change of the tensile fracture with the cold working deformation degree present a regularity. Residual stress increases with interference increasing, and the position of peak stress transfers far from the wall of the hole along radial direction with interference increasing.%针对航空用7050高强铝合金的孔板件拉伸性能进行试验研究与模拟分析,并对不同过盈量(0%~11.11%)的孔挤压强化效果进行了对比分析.研究表明:孔板的表观强度、延伸率和弹性模量均降低,但塑性失稳点应变却有很大程度的提高;孔挤压强化提高了孔壁处材料的屈服强度,改善了孔表面的受力状态,使得应力峰值得到钝化,并扩大了孔壁沿厚度方向的平面应变范围,因此拉伸断口随孔挤压量的变化呈规律性的变化;孔挤压强化后残余拉、压应力峰值随挤压量的增加而增加,且其峰值出现的部位随挤压量的增加而向远离于孔壁的深处转移.

  14. Motion of the Scotia sea plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C.; Livermore, R.; Pollitz, F.

    2003-01-01

    Earthquake data from the Scotia Arc to early 2002 are reviewed in the light of satellite gravity and other data in order to derive a model for the motion of plates in the Scotia Sea region. Events with magnitude ???5, which occurred on or near the boundaries of the Scotia and Sandwich plates, and for which Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) solutions are available, are examined. The newer data fill some of the previous sampling gaps along the boundaries of the Scotia and Sandwich plates, and provide tighter constraints on relative motions. Variations in the width of the Brunhes anomaly on evenly spaced marine magnetic profiles over the East Scotia Ridge provide new estimates of Scotia-Sandwich plate spreading rates. Since there are no stable fracture zones in the east Scotia Sea, the mean azimuth of sea floor fabric mapped by sidescan is used to constrain the direction of spreading. 18 new rate estimates and four azimuths from the East Scotia Ridge are combined with 68 selected earthquake slip vectors from the boundaries of the Scotia Sea in a least-squares inversion for the best-fitting set of Euler poles and angular rotation rates describing the 'present-day' motions of the Scotia and Sandwich plates relative to South America and Antarctica. Our preferred model (TLP2003) gives poles that are similar to previous estimates, except for Scotia Plate motion with respect to South America, which is significantly different from earlier estimates; predicted rates of motion also differ slightly. Our results are much more robust than earlier work. We examine the implications of the model for motion and deformation along the various plate boundaries, with particular reference to the North and South Scotia Ridges, where rates are obtained by closure.

  15. Plate tectonics in the late Paleozoic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Domeier

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As the chronicle of plate motions through time, paleogeography is fundamental to our understanding of plate tectonics and its role in shaping the geology of the present-day. To properly appreciate the history of tectonics—and its influence on the deep Earth and climate—it is imperative to seek an accurate and global model of paleogeography. However, owing to the incessant loss of oceanic lithosphere through subduction, the paleogeographic reconstruction of ‘full-plates’ (including oceanic lithosphere becomes increasingly challenging with age. Prior to 150 Ma ∼60% of the lithosphere is missing and reconstructions are developed without explicit regard for oceanic lithosphere or plate tectonic principles; in effect, reflecting the earlier mobilistic paradigm of continental drift. Although these ‘continental’ reconstructions have been immensely useful, the next-generation of mantle models requires global plate kinematic descriptions with full-plate reconstructions. Moreover, in disregarding (or only loosely applying plate tectonic rules, continental reconstructions fail to take advantage of a wealth of additional information in the form of practical constraints. Following a series of new developments, both in geodynamic theory and analytical tools, it is now feasible to construct full-plate models that lend themselves to testing by the wider Earth-science community. Such a model is presented here for the late Paleozoic (410–250 Ma together with a review of the underlying data. Although we expect this model to be particularly useful for numerical mantle modeling, we hope that it will also serve as a general framework for understanding late Paleozoic tectonics, one on which future improvements can be built and further tested.

  16. Plate tectonics in the late Paleozoic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mathew Domeier; Trond H. Torsvik

    2014-01-01

    As the chronicle of plate motions through time, paleogeography is fundamental to our understanding of plate tectonics and its role in shaping the geology of the present-day. To properly appreciate the history of tectonicsdand its influence on the deep Earth and climatedit is imperative to seek an accurate and global model of paleogeography. However, owing to the incessant loss of oceanic lithosphere through subduction, the paleogeographic reconstruction of‘full-plates’ (including oceanic lithosphere) becomes increasingly challenging with age. Prior to 150 Ma w60% of the lithosphere is missing and re-constructions are developed without explicit regard for oceanic lithosphere or plate tectonic principles;in effect, reflecting the earlier mobilistic paradigm of continental drift. Although these ‘continental’ re-constructions have been immensely useful, the next-generation of mantle models requires global plate kinematic descriptions with full-plate reconstructions. Moreover, in disregarding (or only loosely applying) plate tectonic rules, continental reconstructions fail to take advantage of a wealth of additional information in the form of practical constraints. Following a series of new developments, both in geo-dynamic theory and analytical tools, it is now feasible to construct full-plate models that lend themselves to testing by the wider Earth-science community. Such a model is presented here for the late Paleozoic (410e250 Ma) together with a review of the underlying data. Although we expect this model to be particularly useful for numerical mantle modeling, we hope that it will also serve as a general framework for understanding late Paleozoic tectonics, one on which future improvements can be built and further tested.

  17. Large Deflections of Elastic Rectangular Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdolsky, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    It is known that elastic large deflections of thin plates are governed by von Karman nonlinear equations. The analytical solution of these equations in the general case is unfeasible. Samuel Levy, in 1942, showed that large deflections of the rectangular plate can be expressed as a double series of sine-shaped harmonics (deflection harmonics). However, this method gave no way of creating the computer algorithm of solving the problem. The stress function expression taken in the Levy's method must be revised to find the approach that takes into account of all possible products of deflection coefficients. The algorithm of solving the problem for the rectangular plate with an arbitrary aspect ratio under the action of the lateral distributed load is reported in this paper. The approximation of the plate deflection is taken in the form of double series proposed by Samuel Levy. However, the expression for the stress function is presented in the form that incorporates products of deflection coefficients in the explicit form in distinction to the Levy's expression. The number of harmonics in the deflection expression may be arbitrary. The algorithm provides composing the system of governing cubic equations, which includes the deflection coefficients in the explicit form. Solving the equation system is based on using the principle of minimum potential energy. A method of the gradient descent is applied to find the equilibrium state of the plate as the minimum point of the potential energy. A computer program is developed on the basis of the present algorithm. Numerical examples carried out for the plate model with 16 deflection harmonics illustrate the potentialities of the program. The results of solving the examples are presented in the graphical form for the plates with a different aspect ratio and may be used under designing thin-walled elements of airplane and ship structures.

  18. 46 CFR 195.11-20 - Marking and label plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking and label plate. 195.11-20 Section 195.11-20... plate. (a) All vans shall be provided with a label plate stating light weight, gross weight, and power requirements where applicable. (b) For vans subject to inspection label plates shall provide space for the date...

  19. 21 CFR 866.4800 - Radial immunodiffusion plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radial immunodiffusion plate. 866.4800 Section 866....4800 Radial immunodiffusion plate. (a) Identification. A radial immunodiffusion plate for clinical use is a device that consists of a plastic plate to which agar gel containing antiserum is added. In...

  20. LOWLID FORMATION AND PLATE TECTONICS ON EXOPLANETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenkovic, V.; Noack, L.; Breuer, D.

    2009-12-01

    The last years of astronomical observation have opened the doors to a universe filled with extrasolar planets. Detection techniques still only offer the possibility to detect mainly Super-Earths above five Earth masses. But detection techniques do steadily improve and are offering the possibility to detect even smaller planets. The observations show that planets seem to exist in many possible sizes just as the planets and moons of our own solar system do. It is only a natural question to ask if planetary mass has an influence on some key habitability factors such as on plate tectonics, allowing us to test which exoplanets might be more likely habitable than others, and allowing us to understand if plate tectonics on Earth is a stable or a critical, instable process that could easily be perturbed. Here we present results derived from 1D parameterized thermal evolution and 2D/3D computer models, showing how planetary mass influences the propensity of plate tectonics for planets with masses ranging from 0.1 to 10 Earth masses. Lately [2, 3] studied the effect of planetary mass on the ability to break plates and hence initiate plate tectonics - but both derived results contradictory to the other. We think that one of the reasons why both studies [2, 3] are not acceptable in their current form is partly due to an oversimplification. Both treated viscosity only temperature-dependent but neglected the effect pressure has on enlarging the viscosity in the deep mantle. More massive planets have therefore a stronger pressure-viscosity-coupling making convection at high pressures sluggish or even impossible. For planets larger than two Earth masses we observe that a conductive lid (termed low-lid) forms above the core-mantle boundary and thus reduces the effective convective part of the mantle when including a pressure-dependent term into the viscosity laws as shown in [1]. Moreover [2, 3] use time independent steady state models neglecting the fact that plate tectonics is a

  1. Pre-Stressing Timber-Based Plate Tensegrity Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Andreas; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    Tensile structures occur in numerous varieties utilising combinations of tension and compression. Introducing structural plates in the basic tensegrity unit and tensegric assemblies varies the range of feasible topologies and provides the structural system with an integrated surface. The present...... paper considers the concept of plate tensegrity based on CLT plates (cross-laminated timber). It combines the principles of tensegrity with the principles of plate shells and is characterised by a plate shell stabilised by struts and cables. The paper deals with material aspects and robustness of timber......-based plate shells and outlines needs, methods and effects of controlling cable stresses for secured capacity, form and function of plate tensegrity....

  2. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Roger W.; Neff, Wayne A.

    1992-01-01

    A process for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO.sub.3. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths.

  3. Flow structure on a rotating plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozen, C.A.; Rockwell, D. [Lehigh University, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The flow structure on a rotating plate of low aspect ratio is characterized well after the onset of motion, such that transient effects are not significant, and only centripetal and Coriolis accelerations are present. Patterns of vorticity, velocity contours, and streamline topology are determined via quantitative imaging, in order to characterize the leading-edge vortex in relation to the overall flow structure. A stable leading-edge vortex is maintained over effective angles of attack from 30 to 75 , and at each angle of attack, its sectional structure at midspan is relatively insensitive to Reynolds number over the range from 3,600 to 14,500. The streamline topology, vorticity distribution, and circulation of the leading-edge vortex are determined as a function of angle of attack, and related to the velocity field oriented toward, and extending along, the leeward surface of the plate. The structure of the leading-edge vortex is classified into basic regimes along the span of the plate. Images of these regimes are complemented by patterns on crossflow planes, which indicate the influence of root and tip swirl, and spanwise flow along the leeward surface of the plate. Comparison with the equivalent of the purely translating plate, which does not induce the foregoing flow structure, further clarifies the effects of rotation. (orig.)

  4. Structure of colloidal sphere-plate mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, N.; Cinacchi, G.; van Duijneveldt, J. S.; Cosgrove, T.; Prescott, S. W.; Grillo, I.; Phipps, J.; Gittins, D. I.

    2011-05-01

    In addition to containing spherical pigment particles, coatings usually contain plate-like clay particles. It is thought that these improve the opacity of the paint film by providing an efficient spacing of the pigment particles. This observation is counterintuitive, as suspensions of particles of different shapes and sizes tend to phase separate on increase of concentration. In order to clarify this matter a model colloidal system is studied here, with a sphere-plate diameter ratio similar to that found in paints. For dilute suspensions, small angle neutron scattering revealed that the addition of plates leads to enhanced density fluctuations of the spheres, in agreement with new theoretical predictions. On increasing the total colloid concentration the plates and spheres phase separate due to the disparity in their shape. This is in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental work on colloidal sphere-plate mixtures, where one particle acts as a depleting agent. The fact that no large scale phase separation is observed in coatings is ascribed to dynamic arrest in intimately mixed, or possibly micro-phase separated structures, at elevated concentration.

  5. The correct mechanism of lithospheric plates movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrihansky, L.

    2016-12-01

    Imagination that lithospheric plates move above low-viscous seismic low-velocity zone contradicts to reality but alternating movement of variations of the Earth's rotation deform plastic mantle. Because these deformations never return to original position and solidified ascending magma in mid-ocean ridge prevents return, the lithospheric plates move plunging to mantle by their own weight and move westward pushed by force of tidal friction enlarged by alternating movement of heavy and large-volume mantle. This imagination has been proven by calculating azimuths of Moon and opposite tidal bulging in a moment of earthquake. They resulted occurring on local eastern horizon when earthquake was triggered and also calculated tidal torques in their maximums coincided with earthquakes. To distinguish these tidal properties the earthquakes in Hindu Kush in westward moving Eurasian plate were examined and also in northward moving Indian plate. LOD graph has shown that in Hindu Kush tidal friction triggers earthquake almost every day and large earthquakes are triggered in large positive LOD anomalies corresponding to deceleration. In the Indian plate the calculated maximum tidal torques corresponding to accelerations (LOD minimums) coincided with the greatest earthquakes: with the Great Sumatra 2004, largest Nepal earthquake 1934, large earthquake Nepal 2015 evoked by resonance effect and others.

  6. Computer animation of Phanerozoic plate motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotese, C.R. (Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Since 1985, the PALEOMAP Project, in collaboration with research groups both in the US and abroad, has assembled a digital model that describes global plate motions during the last 600 million years. In this paper the authors present a series of computer animations that dynamically illustrates the movement of continents and terranes, and the evolution of the ocean basins since the breakup of the late Precambrian supercontinent. These animations depict the motion of the plates from both equatorial and polar perspectives. Mesozoic and Cenozoic plate tectonic reconstructions are based on a synthesis of linear magnetic anomalies, fracture zone locations, intracontinental rifts, collision and thrust belts, and zones of strike-slip. Paleozoic plate reconstructions, though more speculative, are based on evidence of past subduction, continental collision, and inferred sea floor spreading. The relative longitudinal positions of the continents during the Paleozoic and the width of intervening oceans have been adjusted to best explain changing biogeographic and paleoclimatic patterns. A new paleomagnetic/hot spot reference frame has been constructed that combines paleomagnetic data compiled by Rob Van der Voo (1992) with inferred motion relative to a fixed frame of hot spots. Using probable Early Mesozoic and Paleozoic hot spot tracks on the major continents, the authors have extended plate motions relative to the hot spot reference frame back to 400 million years.

  7. Geometrically nonlinear behavior of piezoelectric laminated plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovitch, Oded

    2005-08-01

    The geometrically nonlinear behavior of piezo-laminated plates actuated with isotropic or anisotropic piezoelectric layers is analytically investigated. The analytical model is derived using the variational principle of virtual work along with the lamination and plate theories, the von Karman large displacement and moderate rotation kinematic relations, and the anisotropic piezoelectric constitutive laws. A solution strategy that combines the approach of the method of lines, the advantages of the finite element concept, and the variational formulation is developed. This approach yields a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations with nonlinear boundary conditions, which are solved using the multiple-shooting method. Convergence and verification of the model are examined through comparison with linear and nonlinear results of other approximation methods. The nonlinear response of two active plate structures is investigated numerically. The first plate is actuated in bending using monolithic piezoceramic layers and the second one is actuated in twist using macro-fiber composites. The results quantitatively reveal the complicated in-plane stress state associated with the piezoelectric actuation and the geometrically nonlinear coupling of the in-plane and out-of-plane responses of the plate. The influence of the nonlinear effects ranges from significant stiffening in certain combinations of electrical loads and boundary conditions to amplifications of the induced deflections in others. The paper closes with a summary and conclusions.

  8. The role of viscoelasticity in subducting plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, R. J.; Moresi, L.-N.; Capitanio, F. A.

    2014-11-01

    of tectonic plates into Earth's mantle occurs when one plate bends beneath another at convergent plate boundaries. The characteristic time of deformation at these convergent boundaries approximates the Maxwell relaxation time for olivine at lithospheric temperatures and pressures, it is therefore by definition a viscoelastic process. While this is widely acknowledged, the large-scale features of subduction can, and have been, successfully reproduced assuming the plate deforms by a viscous mechanism alone. However, the energy rates and stress profile within convergent margins are influenced by viscoelastic deformation. In this study, viscoelastic stresses have been systematically introduced into numerical models of free subduction, using both the viscosity and shear modulus to control the Maxwell relaxation time. The introduction of an elastic deformation mechanism into subduction models produces deviations in both the stress profile and energy rates within the subduction hinge when compared to viscous only models. These variations result in an apparent viscosity that is variable throughout the length of the plate, decreasing upon approach and increasing upon leaving the hinge. At realistic Earth parameters, we show that viscoelastic stresses have a minor effect on morphology yet are less dissipative at depth and result in an energy transfer between the energy stored during bending and the energy released during unbending. We conclude that elasticity is important during both bending and unbending within the slab hinge with the resulting stress loading and energy profile indicating that slabs maintain larger deformation rates at smaller stresses during bending and retain their strength during unbending at depth.

  9. Structure of colloidal sphere-plate mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doshi, N; Cinacchi, G; Van Duijneveldt, J S; Cosgrove, T; Prescott, S W [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Grillo, I [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Phipps, J [Imerys Minerals Ltd, Par Moor Centre, Par Moor Road, Par, Cornwall PL24 2SQ (United Kingdom); Gittins, D I, E-mail: Giorgio.Cinacchi@bristol.ac.uk, E-mail: J.S.van-Duijneveldt@bristol.ac.uk [Imerys Performance and Filtration Minerals Ltd, 130 Castilian Drive, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)

    2011-05-18

    In addition to containing spherical pigment particles, coatings usually contain plate-like clay particles. It is thought that these improve the opacity of the paint film by providing an efficient spacing of the pigment particles. This observation is counterintuitive, as suspensions of particles of different shapes and sizes tend to phase separate on increase of concentration. In order to clarify this matter a model colloidal system is studied here, with a sphere-plate diameter ratio similar to that found in paints. For dilute suspensions, small angle neutron scattering revealed that the addition of plates leads to enhanced density fluctuations of the spheres, in agreement with new theoretical predictions. On increasing the total colloid concentration the plates and spheres phase separate due to the disparity in their shape. This is in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental work on colloidal sphere-plate mixtures, where one particle acts as a depleting agent. The fact that no large scale phase separation is observed in coatings is ascribed to dynamic arrest in intimately mixed, or possibly micro-phase separated structures, at elevated concentration.

  10. Automatic Digital Plate Reading for Surveillance Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirn, Thomas J

    2016-10-01

    The automation of specimen processing and culture workup has rapidly emerged in clinical microbiology laboratories throughout the world and more recently in the United States. While many U.S. laboratories have implemented some form of automated specimen processing and some have begun performing digital plate reading, automated colony analysis is just beginning to be utilized clinically. In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology, M. L. Faron et al. (J Clin Microbiol 54:2470-2475, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01040-16) report the results of their evaluation of the performance of the WASPLab Chromogenic Detection Module (CDM) for categorizing chromogenic agar plates as negative or "nonnegative" for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Their major finding was 100% sensitivity for detection of "nonnegative" specimens using CDM compared to manual methods for specimens plated on two different types of VRE chromogenic agar plates. Additionally, utilization of digital plate reading in conjunction with automated colony analysis was predicted to result in significant savings based on greatly reduced labor costs. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Flow of nanofluid past a Riga plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Adeel, E-mail: adeelahmed@comsats.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Laboratoire J.A. Dieudonné, Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice (France); Asghar, Saleem [Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Mathematics, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Afzal, Sumaira [Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2016-03-15

    This paper studies the mixed convection boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a vertical Riga plate in the presence of strong suction. The mathematical model incorporates the Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects due to nanofluid and the Grinberg-term for the wall parallel Lorentz force due to Riga plate. The analytical solution of the problem is presented using the perturbation method for small Brownian and thermophoresis diffusion parameters. The numerical solution is also presented to ensure the reliability of the asymptotic method. The comparison of the two solutions shows an excellent agreement. The correlation expressions for skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are developed by performing linear regression on the obtained numerical data. The effects of nanofluid and the Lorentz force due to Riga plate, on the skin friction are discussed. - Highlights: • Mixed convection flow of a nanofluid past a vertical Riga plate. • The Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects due to nanofluid are incorporated. • Grinberg-term represents the wall parallel Lorentz force due to Riga plate. • The correlation expressions for skin friction, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are developed. • The effects of nanofluid and the Lorentz force on the skin friction are discussed.

  12. Lasting mantle scars lead to perennial plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Philip J; Pysklywec, Russell N; Stephenson, Randell

    2016-06-10

    Mid-ocean ridges, transform faults, subduction and continental collisions form the conventional theory of plate tectonics to explain non-rigid behaviour at plate boundaries. However, the theory does not explain directly the processes involved in intraplate deformation and seismicity. Recently, damage structures in the lithosphere have been linked to the origin of plate tectonics. Despite seismological imaging suggesting that inherited mantle lithosphere heterogeneities are ubiquitous, their plate tectonic role is rarely considered. Here we show that deep lithospheric anomalies can dominate shallow geological features in activating tectonics in plate interiors. In numerical experiments, we found that structures frozen into the mantle lithosphere through plate tectonic processes can behave as quasi-plate boundaries reactivated under far-field compressional forcing. Intraplate locations where proto-lithospheric plates have been scarred by earlier suturing could be regions where latent plate boundaries remain, and where plate tectonics processes are expressed as a 'perennial' phenomenon.

  13. Lasting mantle scars lead to perennial plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Philip J.; Pysklywec, Russell N.; Stephenson, Randell

    2016-06-01

    Mid-ocean ridges, transform faults, subduction and continental collisions form the conventional theory of plate tectonics to explain non-rigid behaviour at plate boundaries. However, the theory does not explain directly the processes involved in intraplate deformation and seismicity. Recently, damage structures in the lithosphere have been linked to the origin of plate tectonics. Despite seismological imaging suggesting that inherited mantle lithosphere heterogeneities are ubiquitous, their plate tectonic role is rarely considered. Here we show that deep lithospheric anomalies can dominate shallow geological features in activating tectonics in plate interiors. In numerical experiments, we found that structures frozen into the mantle lithosphere through plate tectonic processes can behave as quasi-plate boundaries reactivated under far-field compressional forcing. Intraplate locations where proto-lithospheric plates have been scarred by earlier suturing could be regions where latent plate boundaries remain, and where plate tectonics processes are expressed as a `perennial' phenomenon.

  14. 铝件镀银出现“黑斑”的原因及其消除%Cause of black spots appeared on surface of silver plated aluminum parts and its elimination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴城关

    2011-01-01

    某批次铝零件在镀银后喷漆加工过程中出现了黑斑.从原材料、电镀和喷漆加工工艺等方面对黑斑产生的原因进行了讨论,通过表面和截面形貌观察、电镜分析、能谱分析等方法对黑斑与正常镀银层进行了对比,确定了黑斑为镀银层被硫元素污染所致,并找出了镀银层变色的原因,排除了故障.%Black spots appeared on the surface of a batch of aluminum parts during paint spraying after silver plating. The cause producing such black spots was discussed from the aspects of raw materials as well as processes of electroplating and spraying. A comparison between black spot and normal silver deposit was made by surface and section morphologies observation, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. It is ascertained that sulfur contamination of silver deposit results in the formation of black spots. The cause leading to silver deposits tarnishing is found out and the trouble is eliminated.

  15. 铝板带材冷轧机压力 AGC 仿真对比与实验分析%Simulating Comparison and Experimental Analysis of Pressure AGC on Cold Rolling Mill for Aluminum Plate Strip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安俊静; 白磊; 赵春江; 郝琳璐; 石建辉

    2014-01-01

    The automatic gauge control(AGC) effect of the cold rolling mill for aluminum plate strip was studied in three modes of BISRA-AGC ,GM-AGC and DAGC .The mathematical models of the system were built ,and these pressure AGC were simulated by MATLAB/Simulink software .The simulation data and the experimental results show that DAGC control model could effectively improve the thickness control accuracy of cold rolling mill at the low cost .%采用BISRA-AGC , GM-AGC和DAGC三种压力AGC控制方式,研究铝板带材冷轧机的自动厚度控制效果。建立系统的数学模型,使用MATLAB/Simulink软件进行仿真模拟,通过对比三种压力AGC控制下系统的模拟数据及实验结果得出, DAGC模型控制系统能够以较低成本投入有效改善冷轧机厚度控制精度。

  16. Influence of Different Combinations of Explosively Welded Plates with the Same Areal Density on Their Antipenetration Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Zhou, N.; Peng, C.

    2014-11-01

    In order to analyze the influence of different thickness distributions on the antipenetration performance of layered plates with a good surface-to-surface combination, five types of two-layer steel/aluminum and three-layer steel/aluminum/steel plates with the same areal density were manufactured by the method of explosive welding. Ballistic experiments and numerical simulation were performed to study the antipenetration performance of the plates impacted by a spherical steel projectile of diameter 8 mm. A 14.5-mm riffled gun was used to launch the projectile, and the numerical simulation were carried out by using the LS-DYNA 3D explicit finite-element code. Effects of the number of layers, their thickness distribution, and total thickness on the antipenetration performance of the layered plates were investigated. Results showed that the antipenetration performance of the multilayer plates was better than that of a monolithic plate with the same areal density — the ballistic limit speed of the two-layer and three-layer plates, on the average, increased by 9.6 and 19.9% compared with that of the monolithic one. In addition, the antipenetration performance of the three-layer plates was better than that of the two-layer ones if the thickness of the steel and aluminum plates was same. The influence of layer thickness distribution on the antipenetration performance was more pronounced for the two-layer plates.

  17. Highly conductive composites for fuel cell flow field plates and bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bor Z; Zhamu, Aruna; Song, Lulu

    2014-10-21

    This invention provides a fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate having flow channels on faces of the plate, comprising an electrically conductive polymer composite. The composite is composed of (A) at least 50% by weight of a conductive filler, comprising at least 5% by weight reinforcement fibers, expanded graphite platelets, graphitic nano-fibers, and/or carbon nano-tubes; (B) polymer matrix material at 1 to 49.9% by weight; and (C) a polymer binder at 0.1 to 10% by weight; wherein the sum of the conductive filler weight %, polymer matrix weight % and polymer binder weight % equals 100% and the bulk electrical conductivity of the flow field or bipolar plate is at least 100 S/cm. The invention also provides a continuous process for cost-effective mass production of the conductive composite-based flow field or bipolar plate.

  18. Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis with Conventional Compression Plate for Diaphyseal Tibia Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IM Anuar-Ramdhan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The diaphyseal tibia fracture is best treated with intramedullary nail but in some cases where the nail is not applicable, plate fixation will be the next option of fixation. The extensile anterior approach is normally used for conventional compression plate fixation in tibia shaft fractures. The extensive surgical dissection may devitalizes the bony fragments and interfere with the fracture union as well as soft tissue healing. Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis (MIPO provides good preservation of blood supply and fracture hematoma at the fracture site thus promotes biological bone healing. The use of indirect reduction techniques and small skin incisions to introduce the plate is technically demanding and requires fluoroscopy exposures throughout the surgery, being some of its drawbacks. We recommend MIPO for conventional compression plate fixation in tibial shaft fractures in view of the reduced surgical trauma to the surrounding soft tissue and good functional outcome.

  19. Microporous microchannel plates and method of manufacturing same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, C.P. Jr.; Boerstler, R.W.; Steinbeck, J.; Winn, D.R.

    2000-04-04

    A microchannel plate and method of manufacturing same is provided. The microchannel plate includes a plate consisting of an anodized material and a plurality of channels which are formed during the anodization of the material and extend between the two sides of the plate. Electrodes are also disposed on each side of the plate for generating an electrical field within the channels. Preferably, the material is alumina and the channels are activated such that the channel walls are conductive and highly secondary emissive.

  20. Microporous microchannel plates and method of manufacturing same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Jr., Charles P. (New Milford, CT); Boerstler, Robert W. (Woodbury, CT); Steinbeck, John (Fitzwilliam, NH); Winn, David R. (Wilton, CT)

    2000-01-01

    A microchannel plate and method of manufacturing same is provided. The microchannel plate includes a plate consisting of an anodized material and a plurality of channels which are formed during the anodization of the material and extend between the two sides of the plate. Electrodes are also disposed on each side of the plate for generating an electrical field within the channels. Preferably, the material is alumina and the channels are activated such that the channel walls are conductive and highly secondary emissive.

  1. Saudi License Plate Recognition Algorithm Based on Support Vector Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khaled Suwais; Rana Al-Otaibi; Ali Alshahrani

    2013-01-01

    License plate recognition (LPR) is an image processing technology that is used to identify vehicles by their license plates. This paper presents a license plate recognition algorithm for Saudi car plates based on the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. The new algorithm is efficient in recognizing the vehicles from the Arabic part of the plate. The performance of the system has been investigated and analyzed. The recognition accuracy of the algorithm is about 93.3%.

  2. Deformation of the Northwestern Okhotsk Plate: How is it happening?

    OpenAIRE

    Hindle, D; Fujita, K.; Mackey, K

    2009-01-01

    The Eurasia (EU) – North America (NA) plate boundary zone across Northeast Asia still presents many open questions within the plate tectonic paradigm. Constraining the geometry and number of plates or microplates present in the plate boundary zone is especially difficult because of the location of the EU-NA euler pole close to or even upon the EU-NA boundary. One of the major challenges remains the geometry of the Okhotsk plate (OK). whose northwestern portion terminates on ...

  3. Root-Contact/Pressure-Plate Assembly For Hydroponic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Carlton E.; Loretan, Philip A.; Bonsi, Conrad K.; Hill, Walter A.

    1994-01-01

    Hydroponic system includes growth channels equipped with rootcontact/pressure-plate assemblies. Pump and associated plumbing circulate nutrient liquid from reservoir, along bottom of growth channels, and back to reservoir. Root-contact/pressure-plate assembly in each growth channel stimulates growth of roots by applying mild contact pressure. Flat plate and plate connectors, together constitute pressure plate, free to move upward to accommodate growth of roots. System used for growing sweetpotatoes and possibly other tuber and root crops.

  4. Microporous microchannel plates and method of manufacturing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetz, Jr., Charles P.; Boerstler, Robert W.; Steinbeck, John; Winn, David R.

    2000-01-01

    A microchannel plate and method of manufacturing same is provided. The microchannel plate includes a plate consisting of an anodized material and a plurality of channels which are formed during the anodization of the material and extend between the two sides of the plate. Electrodes are also disposed on each side of the plate for generating an electrical field within the channels. Preferably, the material is alumina and the channels are activated such that the channel walls are conductive and highly secondary emissive.

  5. Next-generation plate-tectonic reconstructions using GPlates

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Plate tectonics is the kinematic theory that describes the large-scale motions and events of the outermost shell of the solid Earth in terms of the relative motions and interactions of large, rigid, interlocking fragments of lithosphere called tectonic plates. Plates form and disappear incrementally over time as a result of tectonic processes. There are currently about a dozen major plates on the surface of the Earth, and many minor ones. The present-day configuration of tectonic plates is il...

  6. The Okhotsk Plate and the Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, David; Mackey, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    The Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone transitions from spreading at rates of ~ 25mm/yr in the North Atlantic, to compression at rates of ~ 5mm/yr in the region of the Okhotsk plate. Because the pole of rotation between Eurasia and North America lies more or less on their mutual boundary, there is a linear change in rate along the boundary, and regions near the euler pole are subject to extremely low deformation rates. The Okhotsk - Eurasia - North America triple junction lies slightly south of the rotation pole, placing the Okhotsk plate entirely in a weakly contractional setting. Regions near the triple junction absorb 1mm/yr contraction. Further south, towards the shoreline of the Okhotsk sea, up to 5 mm/yr contraction may be absorbed within the plate. How shortening is accommodated across the boundary remains an open question. One possibility is wholesale extrusion of the entire Okhotsk plate (or possibly its northwestern corner) along two plate boundary strike slip faults (Eurasia-Okhostk and North America Okhotsk). The problem with this model is that the seismic record does not presently clearly support it, with the largest events distributed both within the plate interior and on its boundaries. This may suggest that instead, the Okhotsk plate, and particularly its north-western end, consists of a series of smaller blocks which shuffle against each other, partially accommodating extrusion, but also permitting some internal deformation and change of shape of the Okhotsk plate itself. We present analyses of the very sparse seismic record from the region, as well as geometric-kinematic, tectonic models of the possible deformation of northwest Okhotsk to try to better understand the different probabilities of how this slowly deforming plate boundary zone is behaving.

  7. Dual fuel gradients in uranium silicide plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, B.W. [Babock and Wilcox, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Babcock & Wilcox has been able to achieve dual gradient plates with good repeatability in small lots of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} plates. Improvements in homogeneity and other processing parameters and techniques have allowed the development of contoured fuel within the cladding. The most difficult obstacles to overcome have been the ability to evaluate the bidirectional fuel loadings in comparison to the perfect loading model and the different methods of instilling the gradients in the early compact stage. The overriding conclusion is that to control the contour of the fuel, a known relationship between the compact, the frames and final core gradient must exist. Therefore, further development in the creation and control of dual gradients in fuel plates will involve arriving at a plausible gradient requirement and building the correct model between the compact configuration and the final contoured loading requirements.

  8. Numerical modelling of instantaneous plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minster, J. B.; Haines, E.; Jordan, T. H.; Molnar, P.

    1974-01-01

    Assuming lithospheric plates to be rigid, 68 spreading rates, 62 fracture zones trends, and 106 earthquake slip vectors are systematically inverted to obtain a self-consistent model of instantaneous relative motions for eleven major plates. The inverse problem is linearized and solved iteratively by a maximum-likelihood procedure. Because the uncertainties in the data are small, Gaussian statistics are shown to be adequate. The use of a linear theory permits (1) the calculation of the uncertainties in the various angular velocity vectors caused by uncertainties in the data, and (2) quantitative examination of the distribution of information within the data set. The existence of a self-consistent model satisfying all the data is strong justification of the rigid plate assumption. Slow movement between North and South America is shown to be resolvable.

  9. Caribbean tectonics and relative plate motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, K.; Dewey, J. F.; Cooper, C.; Mann, P.; Pindell, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    During the last century, three different ways of interpreting the tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean have been proposed, taking into account the Bailey Willis School of a permanent pre-Jurassic deep sea basin, the Edward Suess School of a subsided continental terrain, and the Alfred Wegener School of continental separation. The present investigation is concerned with an outline of an interpretation which follows that of Pindell and Dewey (1982). An attempt is made to point out ways in which the advanced hypotheses can be tested. The fit of Africa, North America, and South America is considered along with aspects of relative motion between North and South America since the early Jurasic. Attention is given to a framework for reconstructing Caribbean plate evolution, the evolution of the Caribbean, the plate boundary zones of the northern and southern Caribbean, and the active deformation of the Caribbean plate.

  10. Plate tectonics drive tropical reef biodiversity dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprieur, Fabien; Descombes, Patrice; Gaboriau, Théo; Cowman, Peter F; Parravicini, Valeriano; Kulbicki, Michel; Melián, Carlos J; de Santana, Charles N; Heine, Christian; Mouillot, David; Bellwood, David R; Pellissier, Loïc

    2016-05-06

    The Cretaceous breakup of Gondwana strongly modified the global distribution of shallow tropical seas reshaping the geographic configuration of marine basins. However, the links between tropical reef availability, plate tectonic processes and marine biodiversity distribution patterns are still unknown. Here, we show that a spatial diversification model constrained by absolute plate motions for the past 140 million years predicts the emergence and movement of diversity hotspots on tropical reefs. The spatial dynamics of tropical reefs explains marine fauna diversification in the Tethyan Ocean during the Cretaceous and early Cenozoic, and identifies an eastward movement of ancestral marine lineages towards the Indo-Australian Archipelago in the Miocene. A mechanistic model based only on habitat-driven diversification and dispersal yields realistic predictions of current biodiversity patterns for both corals and fishes. As in terrestrial systems, we demonstrate that plate tectonics played a major role in driving tropical marine shallow reef biodiversity dynamics.

  11. Flow of nanofluid past a Riga plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Adeel; Asghar, Saleem; Afzal, Sumaira

    2016-03-01

    This paper studies the mixed convection boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a vertical Riga plate in the presence of strong suction. The mathematical model incorporates the Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects due to nanofluid and the Grinberg-term for the wall parallel Lorentz force due to Riga plate. The analytical solution of the problem is presented using the perturbation method for small Brownian and thermophoresis diffusion parameters. The numerical solution is also presented to ensure the reliability of the asymptotic method. The comparison of the two solutions shows an excellent agreement. The correlation expressions for skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are developed by performing linear regression on the obtained numerical data. The effects of nanofluid and the Lorentz force due to Riga plate, on the skin friction are discussed.

  12. Plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahbar Ranji Ahmad

    2012-06-01

    Corrosion is one of the detrimental phenomena which reduces strength of structures. It is common practice to assume a uniform thickness reduction for general corrosion. Since the actual corroded plate has rough surfaces, to estimate the remaining strength of corroded structures, typically a much higher level of accuracy is required. The main aim of present work is to study plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates with irregular surfaces under tension. Non-linear finite element method by using computer code ANSYS was employed to determine plastic collapse load. By comparing the results with uniform thickness assumption, a reduction factor was proposed. It is found that by uniform thickness assumption, plastic collapse load of corroded plates are overestimated.

  13. Optimum annular focusing by a phase plate

    CERN Document Server

    Arrizón, Victor; Aguirre-Olivas, Dilia; Mellado-Villaseñor, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Conventional light focusing, i. e. concentration of an extended optical field within a small area around a point, is a frequently used process in Optics. An important extension to conventional focusing is the generation of the annular focal field of an optical beam. We discuss a simple optical setup that achieves this kind of focusing employing a phase plate as unique optical component. We first establish the class of beams that being transmitted through the phase plate can be focused into an annular field with topological charge of arbitrary integer order q. Then, for each beam in this class we determine the plate transmittance that generates the focal field with the maximum possible peak intensity. In particular, we discuss and implement experimentally the optimum annular focusing of a Gaussian beam. The attributes of optimum annular focal fields, namely the high peak intensity, intensity gradient and narrow annular section, are advantageous for different applications of such structured fields.

  14. Dynamic response of visco-elastic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadıoǧlu, Fethi; Tekin, Gülçin

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a comprehensive analysis about the dynamic response characteristics of visco-elastic plates is given. To construct the functional in the Laplace-Carson domain for the analysis of visco-elastic plates based on the Kirchhoff hypothesis, functional analysis method is employed. By using this new energy functional in the Laplace-Carson domain, moment values that are important for engineers can be obtained directly with excellent accuracy and element equations can be written explicitly. Three-element model is considered for modelling the visco-elastic material behavior. The solutions obtained in the Laplace-Carson domain by utilizing mixed finite element formulation are transformed to the time domain using the Durbin's inverse Laplace transform technique. The proposed mixed finite element formulation is shown to be simple to implement and gives satisfactory results for dynamic response of visco-elastic plates.

  15. Plate tectonics drive tropical reef biodiversity dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprieur, Fabien; Descombes, Patrice; Gaboriau, Théo; Cowman, Peter F.; Parravicini, Valeriano; Kulbicki, Michel; Melián, Carlos J.; de Santana, Charles N.; Heine, Christian; Mouillot, David; Bellwood, David R.; Pellissier, Loïc

    2016-01-01

    The Cretaceous breakup of Gondwana strongly modified the global distribution of shallow tropical seas reshaping the geographic configuration of marine basins. However, the links between tropical reef availability, plate tectonic processes and marine biodiversity distribution patterns are still unknown. Here, we show that a spatial diversification model constrained by absolute plate motions for the past 140 million years predicts the emergence and movement of diversity hotspots on tropical reefs. The spatial dynamics of tropical reefs explains marine fauna diversification in the Tethyan Ocean during the Cretaceous and early Cenozoic, and identifies an eastward movement of ancestral marine lineages towards the Indo-Australian Archipelago in the Miocene. A mechanistic model based only on habitat-driven diversification and dispersal yields realistic predictions of current biodiversity patterns for both corals and fishes. As in terrestrial systems, we demonstrate that plate tectonics played a major role in driving tropical marine shallow reef biodiversity dynamics. PMID:27151103

  16. Numerical Investigation on Submerged Horizontal Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康海贵; 王科

    2001-01-01

    Hydrodynamic characters on a horizontal, thin, rigid plate located beneath the free surface are numerically investigated. Assuming a linear, time-harmonic potential flow and utilizing Green identity, the governing Laplace equation can be simplified into Fredholm integral equation ofthe second kind. Supposing linear-order discontinuous elements along intersecting vertical boundaries, and by use of the boundary element method, numerical solution about source strength distribution on the plate can be changed into a series of algebraic equations. The 3D Green function is introduced to set up the integral equations, and the GMRES solver is performed for solving the large dense linear system of equations. The added-mass, damping force and exciting force are evaluated directly from the equations. It is found that the added-mass coefficient becomes negative for a range of frequencies when the plate is sufficiently close to the free surface.

  17. Plate tectonics drive tropical reef biodiversity dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprieur, Fabien; Descombes, Patrice; Gaboriau, Théo; Cowman, Peter F.; Parravicini, Valeriano; Kulbicki, Michel; Melián, Carlos J.; de Santana, Charles N.; Heine, Christian; Mouillot, David; Bellwood, David R.; Pellissier, Loïc

    2016-05-01

    The Cretaceous breakup of Gondwana strongly modified the global distribution of shallow tropical seas reshaping the geographic configuration of marine basins. However, the links between tropical reef availability, plate tectonic processes and marine biodiversity distribution patterns are still unknown. Here, we show that a spatial diversification model constrained by absolute plate motions for the past 140 million years predicts the emergence and movement of diversity hotspots on tropical reefs. The spatial dynamics of tropical reefs explains marine fauna diversification in the Tethyan Ocean during the Cretaceous and early Cenozoic, and identifies an eastward movement of ancestral marine lineages towards the Indo-Australian Archipelago in the Miocene. A mechanistic model based only on habitat-driven diversification and dispersal yields realistic predictions of current biodiversity patterns for both corals and fishes. As in terrestrial systems, we demonstrate that plate tectonics played a major role in driving tropical marine shallow reef biodiversity dynamics.

  18. Locking plate osteosynthesis of clavicle fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridberg, Marie; Ban, Ilija; Issa, Zaid

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Locking plate osteosynthesis has become the preferred method for operative treatment of clavicle fractures. The method offers stable fixation, and would theoretically be associated with a low rate of fracture-related complications and reoperations. However, this remains to be explored...... in a large cohort, and our purpose was to assess the overall rates of complications and reoperations following locking plate osteosynthesis of mid-shaft clavicle fractures. METHODS: We identified all locking plate osteosynthesis of mid-shaft clavicle fractures operated upon in our department from January...... 2008 to November 2010 (n = 114). Nine patients did not attend the follow-up at our institution. The study group of 105 fractures (104 patients, 86 males) had a median age of 36 years (14-75 years). Follow-up ranged from 0.5 to 3.5 years. No patients were allowed to load the upper extremity for six...

  19. Migration of phthalates on culture plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frohnert Hansen, Juliana; Boas, Malene; Møller Brorson, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    -well culture plates are typically used to study phthalates in cell cultures. In a pilot study, we observed evidence of phthalate migration in 24-well culture plates. As this has not previously been described, we investigated the phenomenon in more detail. Primary human thyroid epithelial cell cultures (n = 8...... cultures) were exposed to either di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) or di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Measurement of phthalate metabolites by mass spectrometry demonstrated that the short-branched DEP was able to migrate to adjacent wells when added...... to cell culture plates. DnBP also seemed to be able to migrate, unlike the long-branched DEHP or the monoester MnBP which did not seem to have this ability. High background levels of phthalate metabolites were also observed, which might compromise results from low dose phthalate studies. In conclusion...

  20. Guided-mode resonant wave plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Robert; Shokooh-Saremi, Mehrdad; Johnson, Eric G

    2010-07-15

    We introduce half-wave and quarter-wave retarders based on the dispersion properties of guided-mode resonance elements. We design the wave plates using numerical electromagnetic models joined with the particle swarm optimization method. The wave plates operate in reflection. We provide computed results for reflectance and phase in the telecommunication spectral region near 1.55 microm wavelength. A surface-relief grating etched in glass and overcoated with silicon yields a half-wave plate with nearly equal amplitudes of the TE and TM polarization components and pi phase difference across a bandwidth exceeding 50 nm. Wider operational bandwidths are obtainable with more complex designs involving glass substrates and mixed silicon/hafnium dioxide resonant gratings. The results indicate a potential new approach to fashion optical retarders.

  1. A MEMS square Chladni plate resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Sedat; Azgın, Kıvanç

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and tests of a micro-fabricated MEMS ‘Chladni’ plate resonator. The proposed MEMS resonator has a square plate geometry having a side length of 1400 µm and a height of 35 µm. Its geometry and electrode layout are designed to analyze and test as many modes as possible. The MEMS plate is fabricated using a silicon-on-insulator process with a 35 µm thick silicon layer on a glass substrate. Transverse vibration of the plate is investigated to obtain closed form natural frequencies and mode shapes, which are derived using the Rayleigh-Ritz energy method, with an electrostatic softening effect included. Closed form equations for the calculation of effective stiffness’, masses and natural frequencies of the two modes (mode (1,1) and mode (2,0)-(0,2)) are presented, with and without electrostatic softening. The analytical model is verified for those modes by finite-element simulations, frequency response tests in vacuum and laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) experiments. The derived model deviates from the finite-element analysis by 3.35% for mode (1,1) and 6.15% for mode (2,0)-(0,2). For verification, the frequency responses of the plates are measured with both electrostatic excitation-detection at around 20 mTorr vacuum ambient and LDV at around 0.364 mTorr vacuum ambient. The resonance frequency and Q-factor of mode (1,1) are measured to be 104.2 kHz and 14 300, respectively. For mode (2,0)-(0,2), the measured resonance frequency and Q-factor are 156.68 kHz and 10 700, respectively. The presented LDV results also support both natural frequencies of interest and corresponding mode shapes of the plate structure.

  2. Parameter Estimation in Active Plate Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araujo, A. L.; Lopes, H. M. R.; Vaz, M. A. P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper two non-destructive methods for elastic and piezoelectric parameter estimation in active plate structures with surface bonded piezoelectric patches are presented. These methods rely on experimental undamped natural frequencies of free vibration. The first solves the inverse problem...... through gradient based optimization techniques, while the second is based on a metamodel of the inverse problem, using artificial neural networks. A numerical higher order finite element laminated plate model is used in both methods and results are compared and discussed through a simulated...

  3. Fuzzy Vibration Control of a Smart Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradova, Aliki D.; Stavroulakis, Georgios E.

    2013-04-01

    Vibration suppression of a smart thin elastic rectangular plate is considered. The plate is subjected to external disturbances and generalized control forces, produced, for instance, by electromechanical feedback. A nonlinear controller is designed, based on fuzzy inference. The initial-boundary value problem is spatially discretized by means of the time spectral method. The implicit Newmark-beta method is employed for time integration. Two numerical algorithms are proposed. The techniques have been implemented within MATLAB with the use of the Fuzzy Logic Toolbox. Representative numerical results are given.

  4. Thermoelastic wave propagation in laminated composites plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma K. L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dispersion of thermoelastic waves propagation in an arbitrary direction in laminated composites plates is studied in the framework of generalized thermoelasticity in this article. Three dimensional field equations of thermoelasticity with relaxation times are considered. Characteristic equation is obtained on employing the continuity of displacements, temperature, stresses and thermal gradient at the layers’ interfaces. Some important particular cases such as of free waves on reducing plates to single layer and the surface waves when thickness tends to infinity are also discussed. Uncoupled and coupled thermoelasticity are the particular cases of the obtained results. Numerical results are also obtained and represented graphically.

  5. ANFIS Modelling of Flexible Plate Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. M. Al-Khafaji

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented an investigation into the performance of system identification using an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS technique for the dynamic modelling of a twodimensional flexible plate structure. It is confirmed experimentally, using National Instrumentation (NI Data Acquisition System (DAQ and flexible plate test rig that ANFIS can be effectively used for modelling the system with highly accurate results. The accuracy of the modelling results is demonstrated through validation tests including training and test validation and correlation tests.

  6. Analysis of Biaxially Stressed Bridge Deck Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Bondum, Tommi Højer

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate state analysis of bridge deck plates at the intersection zone between main girders and transverse beams is complicated by biaxial membrane stresses, which may be in compression or tension in either direction depending on the bridge configuration and the specific location. This paper...... presents a detailed investigation of the ultimate capacity of simply supported plates subjected to biaxial loads. The full interaction domain of combinations of compressive and tensile loads has been investigated including a large number of imperfections. It was found that non-standard imperfection modes...

  7. A Geometrically—Nonlinear Plate Theory 12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AlbertC.J.LUO

    1999-01-01

    An approximate plate theory developed in this paper is based on an assumed displacement field,the strains described by a Taylor series in the normal distance from the middle surface,the exact strains of the middle surface and the equations of equilibrium governing the exact configuration of the deformed middle surface,In this theory the exact geometry of the deformed middle surface is used to derive the strains and equilibrium of the plate.Application of this theory does not depend on the constitutive law.THis theory can reduce to some existing nonlinear theories through imposition of constraints.

  8. Imaging plates calibration to X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, A.; Andreoli, P.; Cipriani, M.; Claps, G.; Consoli, F.; Cristofari, G.; De Angelis, R.; Giulietti, D.; Ingenito, F.; Pacella, D.

    2016-05-01

    The growing interest for the Imaging Plates, due to their high sensitivity range and versatility, has induced, in the last years, to detailed characterizations of their response function in different energy ranges and kind of radiation/particles. A calibration of the Imaging Plates BAS-MS, BAS-SR, BAS-TR has been performed at the ENEA-Frascati labs by exploiting the X-ray fluorescence of different targets (Ca, Cu, Pb, Mo, I, Ta) and the radioactivity of a BaCs source, in order to cover the X-ray range between few keV to 80 keV.

  9. Cascade impactor and jet plate for same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, Robert S.; Farthing, William E.; Landham Jr., Edward C.

    2004-02-03

    A sampling system and method for sampling particulate matter from a high-temperature, high-pressure gas stream. A cyclone sampler for use at high temperatures and pressures, and having threadless sacrificial connectors is disclosed. Also disclosed is an improved cascade impactor including jet plates with integral spacers, and alignment features provided for aligning the jet plates with their associated collection substrates. An activated bauxite alkali collector is disclosed, and includes an alumina liner. The sampling system can be operated remotely or locally, and can be permanently installed or configured as a portable system.

  10. PC-based car license plate reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chung-Mu; Shu, Shyh-Yeong; Chen, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yie-Wern; Wen, Kuang-Pu

    1992-11-01

    A car license plate reader (CLPR) using fuzzy inference and neural network algorithm has been developed in Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and installed in highway toll stations to identify stolen cars. It takes an average of 0.7 seconds to recognize a car license plate by using a PC with 80486-50 CPU. The recognition rate of the system is about 97%. The techniques of CLPR include vehicle sensing, image grab control, optic pre- processing, lighting, and optic character recognition (OCR). The CLPR can be used in vehicle flow statistics, the checking of stolen vehicles, automatic charging systems in parking lots or garage management, and so on.

  11. Energy of plate tectonics calculation and projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Swedan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics and observations suggest that the energy of the geological activities resulting from plate tectonics is equal to the latent heat of melting, calculated at mantle's pressure, of the new ocean crust created at midocean ridges following sea floor spreading. This energy varies with the temperature of ocean floor, which is correlated with surface temperature. The objective of this manuscript is to calculate the force that drives plate tectonics, estimate the energy released, verify the calculations based on experiments and observations, and project the increase of geological activities with surface temperature rise caused by climate change.

  12. Relationship between plume and plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchkov, V. N.

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between plate- and plume-tectonics is considered in view of the growth and breakdown of supercontinents, active rifting, the formation of passive volcanic-type continental margins, and the origin of time-progressive volcanic chains on oceanic and continental plates. The mantle wind phenomenon is described, as well as its effect on plume morphology and anisotropy of the ambient mantle. The interaction of plumes and mid-ocean ridges is discussed. The principles and problems of plume activity analysis in subduction- and collision-related foldbelts are considered and illustrated with examples.

  13. Finite stretching of an annular plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biricikoglu, V.; Kalnins, A.

    1971-01-01

    The problem of the finite stretching of an annular plate which is bonded to a rigid inclusion at its inner edge is considered. The material is assumed to be isotropic and incompressible with a Mooney-type constitutive law. It is shown that the inclusion of the effect of the transverse normal strain leads to a rapid variation in thickness which is confined to a narrow edge zone. The explicit solutions to the boundary layer equations, which govern the behavior of the plate near the edges, are presented.

  14. Consensus on melanonychia nail plate dermoscopy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiacchio, Nilton Di; de Farias, Débora Cadore; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Hirata, Sergio Henrique; Richert, Bertrand; Zaiac, Martin; Daniel, Ralph; Fanti, Pier Alessandro; Andre, Josette; Ruben, Beth S; Fleckman, Philip; Rich, Phoebe; Haneke, Eckart; Chang, Patricia; Cherit, Judith Dominguez; Scher, Richard; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    This statement, focused on melanonychia and nail plate dermoscopy, is intended to guide medical professionals working with melanonychia and to assist choosing appropriate management for melanonychia patients. The International Study Group on Melanonychia was founded in 2007 and currently has 30 members, including nail experts and dermatopathologists with special expertise in nails. The need for common definitions of nail plate dermoscopy was addressed during the Second Meeting of this Group held in February 2008. Prior to this meeting and to date (2010) there have been no evidence-based guidelines on the use of dermoscopy in the management of nail pigmentation. PMID:23739699

  15. Transient vibration of thin viscoelastic orthotropic plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Soukup; F. Vale(s); J. Volek; J. Sko(c)ilas

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with solutions of transient vibration of a rectangular viscoelastic orthotropic thin 2D plate for particular deformation models according to Flügge and Timoshenko-Mindlin. The linear model, a general standard viscoelastic body, of the rheologic properties of a viscoelastic material was applied. The time and coordinate curves of the basic quantities displacement, rotation, velocity, stress and deformation are compared. The results obtained by an approximate analytic method are compared with numerical results for 3D plate generated by FEM application and with experimental investigation.

  16. Numerical analysis of cross shear plate rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    1997-01-01

    The rolling process is widely applied for industrial production of metal plates. In conventional plate rolling the two work rolls are rotating at the same peripheral speed. By introducing a specific difference in the speed of the two work rolls, cross shear rolling is introduced forming a central...... shear zone between the forward and backward slip zones in the deformation zone thus lowering the rolling load. A numerical analysis of the cross shear rolling process is carried out based on the slab method adopting Wanheim and Bay's general friction model. The pressure distribution along the contact...

  17. Giant epidermal cyst of the tarsal plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohana Majumdar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old male patient presented with a right upper eyelid mass with mechanical ptosis. The patient gave no history of trauma or surgery. On examination, there was a huge cystic mass fixed to the tarsal plate. Excisional biopsy with tarsectomy was done. Histopathology sections demonstrated a keratin-filled cyst arising from the tarsus. A thorough Pubmed search did not reveal an epidermal cyst of the tarsal plate of this size which was successfully managed. The incision was made in such a way that postoperative ptosis would be avoided. Excess skin was removed during the surgery.

  18. Seismology: tectonic strain in plate interiors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calais, E; Mattioli, G; DeMets, C; Nocquet, J-M; Stein, S; Newman, A; Rydelek, P

    2005-12-15

    It is not fully understood how or why the inner areas of tectonic plates deform, leading to large, although infrequent, earthquakes. Smalley et al. offer a potential breakthrough by suggesting that surface deformation in the central United States accumulates at rates comparable to those across plate boundaries. However, we find no statistically significant deformation in three independent analyses of the data set used by Smalley et al., and conclude therefore that only the upper bounds of magnitude and repeat time for large earthquakes can be inferred at present.

  19. Moire interferometry for vibration analysis of plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asundi, A.; Cheung, M. T.

    1987-12-01

    Moire interferometry is used to locate nodal regions and measure vibration amplitudes of sinusoidally vibrating square plates. The high sensitivity afforded by this technique makes possible the study of plate vibrations at high frequencies and low amplitudes. The initial pattern is modulated by the zero-order Bessel function representing the vibratory motion. The fringe (or fringes) with best contrast indicate the nodal regions, while the higher order fringes, describing loci of points vibrating with the same amplitude, have decreasing contrast which is improved by spatial filtering.

  20. Acquired plate-like osteoma cutis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashi, Neelam; Chu, Julie; Patel, Rishi

    2011-10-15

    Plate-like osteoma cutis is a rare disorder that has been historically classified as a congenital syndrome. It has a possible relationship to a mutation in the gene (GNAS1) that encodes the α-subunit of the stimulatory G protein, which regulates adenyl cyclase activity. We report a case of extensive plaque-like masses on the scalp and face with no abnormalities in calcium or phosphate metabolism and no preceding inflammatory cutaneous conditions. With less than ten reported cases, to our knowledge, this is one the few cases of acquired plate-like osteoma cutis described in the literature.

  1. Using plate mapping to examine sensitivity to plate size in food portions and meal composition among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, David; Sobal, Jeffery

    2012-12-01

    People eat meals rather than nutrients or food groups. Plate size may influence meal size, meal composition, and food type. To examine effects of plate size on meals, we developed a method we label plate mapping. A quasi-experimental study asked university students to accurately draw what they would like to eat for dinner on either a 9″ or 11″ paper plate. Coding plate drawings for total meal size revealed that students drew an average of 26% more food on larger plates. When plates were coded for meal composition we found that the biggest three food portions drawn by students were bigger on 11″ plates, with 70% of the overall difference in food area occurring in the biggest food. Participants drew bigger portions of vegetables on larger plates, while other food types showed little change in mean size. Gender moderated plate sensitivity for food types: women drew 36% bigger vegetable portions than men on larger plates. Smaller plates may lead to smaller meal sizes, but plate size may differentially influence composition of meals for men and women. These findings suggest plate mapping can be used to reflect meal conceptualizations and assess sensitivity to plate size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fabrication of simulated plate fuel elements: Defining role of out-of-plane residual shear stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh, R.; Kohli, D.; Sinha, V. P.; Prasad, G. J.; Samajdar, I.

    2014-02-01

    Bond strength and microstructural developments were investigated during fabrication of simulated plate fuel elements. The study involved roll bonding of aluminum-aluminum (case A) and aluminum-aluminum + yttria (Y2O3) dispersion (case B). Case B approximated aluminum-uranium silicide (U3Si2) 'fuel-meat' in an actual plate fuel. Samples after different stages of fabrication, hot and cold rolling, were investigated through peel and pull tests, micro-hardness, residual stresses, electron and micro-focus X-ray diffraction. Measurements revealed a clear drop in bond strength during cold rolling: an observation unique to case B. This was related to significant increase in 'out-of-plane' residual shear stresses near the clad/dispersion interface, and not from visible signatures of microstructural heterogeneities.

  3. Actively controlling coolant-cooled cold plate configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2016-04-26

    Cooling apparatuses are provided to facilitate active control of thermal and fluid dynamic performance of a coolant-cooled cold plate. The cooling apparatus includes the cold plate and a controller. The cold plate couples to one or more electronic components to be cooled, and includes an adjustable physical configuration. The controller dynamically varies the adjustable physical configuration of the cold plate based on a monitored variable associated with the cold plate or the electronic component(s) being cooled by the cold plate. By dynamically varying the physical configuration, the thermal and fluid dynamic performance of the cold plate are adjusted to, for example, optimally cool the electronic component(s), and at the same time, reduce cooling power consumption used in cooling the electronic component(s). The physical configuration can be adjusted by providing one or more adjustable plates within the cold plate, the positioning of which may be adjusted based on the monitored variable.

  4. Stability of Three-Layered Annular Plate with Composite Facings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlus, D.

    2017-02-01

    Paper presents the behaviour of three-layered annular plates subjected to loads acting in plate plane. Plates are composed of laminated fibre-reinforced composite facings and foam core. The static and dynamic parameters of plate critical state were evaluated. The sensitivity of composite structure of plate to the acting of quickly increasing in time loads is shown. The problem has been solved numerically using the finite element method. Results have been compared with ones obtained for plate models with isotropic layers. These plate models have also been calculated solving formulated task analytically and numerically by means of the finite difference method. Solutions to the problem concern the axisymmetrical and asymmetrical plate buckling modes. Numerous presented tables and figures create the image of the stability behaviour of examined composite plates.

  5. Frequency Response of an Aircraft Wing with Discrete Source Damage Using Equivalent Plate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, T.; Eldred, Lloyd B.

    2007-01-01

    An equivalent plate procedure is developed to provide a computationally efficient means of matching the stiffness and frequencies of flight vehicle wing structures for prescribed loading conditions. Several new approaches are proposed and studied to match the stiffness and first five natural frequencies of the two reference models with and without damage. One approach divides the candidate reference plate into multiple zones in which stiffness and mass can be varied using a variety of materials including aluminum, graphite-epoxy, and foam-core graphite-epoxy sandwiches. Another approach places point masses along the edge of the stiffness-matched plate to tune the natural frequencies. Both approaches are successful at matching the stiffness and natural frequencies of the reference plates and provide useful insight into determination of crucial features in equivalent plate models of aircraft wing structures.

  6. Influence of adhesive layer properties on laser-generated ultrasonic waves in thin bonded plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Hong-Xiang; Xu Bai-Qiang; Zhang Hua; Gao Qian; Zhang Shu-Yi

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies quantitatively the generation of Lamb waves in thin bonded plates subjected to laser illumination, after considering the viscoelasticity of the adhesive layer. The displacements of such plates have been calculated in the frequency domain by using the finite element method, and the time domain response has been reconstructed by applying an inverse fast Fourier transform. Numerical results are presented showing the normal surface displacement for several configurations: a single aluminum plate, a three-layer bonded plate, and a two-layer plate. The characteristics of the laser-generated Lamb waves for each particular case have been investigated. In addition, the sensitivity of the transient responses to variations of material properties (elastic modulus, viscoelastic modulus, and thickness) of the adhesive layer has been studied in detail.

  7. How to optimize the drop plate method for enumerating bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herigstad, B; Hamilton, M; Heersink, J

    2001-03-01

    The drop plate (DP) method can be used to determine the number of viable suspended bacteria in a known beaker volume. The drop plate method has some advantages over the spread plate (SP) method. Less time and effort are required to dispense the drops onto an agar plate than to spread an equivalent total sample volume into the agar. By distributing the sample in drops, colony counting can be done faster and perhaps more accurately. Even though it has been present in the laboratory for many years, the drop plate method has not been standardized. Some technicians use 10-fold dilutions, others use twofold. Some technicians plate a total volume of 0.1 ml, others plate 0.2 ml. The optimal combination of such factors would be useful to know when performing the drop plate method. This investigation was conducted to determine (i) the standard deviation of the bacterial density estimate, (ii) the cost of performing the drop plate procedure, (iii) the optimal drop plate design, and (iv) the advantages of the drop plate method in comparison to the standard spread plate method. The optimal design is the combination of factor settings that achieves the smallest standard deviation for a fixed cost. Computer simulation techniques and regression analysis were used to express the standard deviation as a function of the beaker volume, dilution factor, and volume plated. The standard deviation expression is also applicable to the spread plate method.

  8. Mechanical properties of Indonesian-made narrow dynamic compression plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewo, P; van der Houwen, E B; Sharma, P K; Magetsari, R; Bor, T C; Vargas-Llona, L D; van Horn, J R; Busscher, H J; Verkerke, G J

    2012-09-01

    Osteosynthesis plates are clinically used to fixate and position a fractured bone. They should have the ability to withstand cyclic loads produced by muscle contractions and total body weight. The very high demand for osteosynthesis plates in developing countries in general and in Indonesia in particular necessitates the utilisation of local products. In this paper, we investigated the mechanical properties, i.e. proportional limit and fatigue strength of Indonesian-made Narrow Dynamic Compression Plates (Narrow DCP) as one of the most frequently used osteosynthesis plates, in comparison to the European AO standard plate, and its relationship to geometry, micro structural features and surface defects of the plates. All Indonesian-made plates appeared to be weaker than the standard Narrow DCP because they consistently failed at lower stresses. Surface defects did not play a major role in this, although the polishing of the Indonesian Narrow DCP was found to be poor. The standard plate showed indications of cold deformation from the production process in contrast to the Indonesian plates, which might be the first reason for the differences in strength. This is confirmed by hardness measurements. A second reason could be the use of an inferior version of stainless steel. The Indonesian plates showed lower mechanical behaviour compared to the AO-plates. These findings could initiate the development of improved Indonesian manufactured DCP-plates with properties comparable to commonly used plates, such as the standard European AO-plates.

  9. Metallic glass coating on metals plate by adjusted explosive welding technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.D. [LTCS and Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, K.X., E-mail: kliu@pku.edu.cn [LTCS and Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Chen, Q.Y.; Wang, J.T. [LTCS and Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yan, H.H.; Li, X.J. [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2009-09-15

    Using an adjusted explosive welding technique, an aluminum plate has been coated by a Fe-based metallic glass foil in this work. Scanning electronic micrographs reveal a defect-free metallurgical bonding between the Fe-based metallic glass foil and the aluminum plate. Experimental evidence indicates that the Fe-based metallic glass foil almost retains its amorphous state and mechanical properties after the explosive welding process. Additionally, the detailed explosive welding process has been simulated by a self-developed hydro-code and the bonding mechanism has been investigated by numerical analysis. The successful welding between the Fe-based metallic glass foil and the aluminum plate provides a new way to obtain amorphous coating on general metal substrates.

  10. Metallic glass coating on metals plate by adjusted explosive welding technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. D.; Liu, K. X.; Chen, Q. Y.; Wang, J. T.; Yan, H. H.; Li, X. J.

    2009-09-01

    Using an adjusted explosive welding technique, an aluminum plate has been coated by a Fe-based metallic glass foil in this work. Scanning electronic micrographs reveal a defect-free metallurgical bonding between the Fe-based metallic glass foil and the aluminum plate. Experimental evidence indicates that the Fe-based metallic glass foil almost retains its amorphous state and mechanical properties after the explosive welding process. Additionally, the detailed explosive welding process has been simulated by a self-developed hydro-code and the bonding mechanism has been investigated by numerical analysis. The successful welding between the Fe-based metallic glass foil and the aluminum plate provides a new way to obtain amorphous coating on general metal substrates.

  11. Lithographic plate setting device for printing machines; Insatsuki no inban toritsuke sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-20

    A lithographic plate is set on a plate trunk by clamping a plate with a hook for setting the lithographic plate on a clamp plate and hanging a standard hole of the lithographic plate on the hook. However, the plate hanged on a hook may be off the hook during the hanging work, taking much time for setting a lithographic plate. This invention provides a standard pin for plate positioning and a plate for holding a lithographic plate on the upper side of a clamp plate, the latter covering the former, and inserts the lithographic plate end having the standard hole between the plate for holding the lithographic plate and clamp plate, to fit the standard hole into the standard pin. This allows the lithographic plate to be easily set on the plate trunk, and prevents the lithographic plate from being off the standard pin, once it is inserted. (translated by NEDO)

  12. Improved Zone Plate Coded Imaging Technique by Using Four Special Designed Gabor Zone Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Lei-Feng; SHEN Yu-Ji; ZHENG Zhi-Jian; DING Yong-Kun

    2005-01-01

    @@ Direct-current component, high-order artifacts, and side lobe distortion provide serious drawbacks in the application of Fresnel zone plate coded imaging (ZPCI).The presentation provided here proposes a novel way to resolve all the above-mentioned problems.Four different Gabor zone plates are suggested to substitute the one Fresnel zone plate used in the conventional ZPCI.Perfect reconstruction will be obtained when integrally analysing the four coded images.Primary numerical simulation provided here shows good result.

  13. Plate on Plate Osteosynthesis for the Treatment of Nonhealed Periplate Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios Arealis; Nikolaou, Vassilios S.; Andrew Lacon; Neil Ashwood; Mark Hamlet

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to present our technique for the treatment of periplate fractures. Methods. From 2009 to 2012 we treated three patients. In all cases the existing plate was left and the new one placed over the existing. Locking screws were placed through both plates. The other screws in the new plate were used as best suited the fracture. Results. In all cases less than 6 months had passed between fractures. None of the original fractures had healed. Mean followup was 2 ...

  14. Treatment of middle-third clavicle fractures using anterior plating with a dynamic compression plate (DCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Padmanabhan; Joshi, Meera; Shilston, Sophie; Wallace, Donald; Pearce, Oliver J

    2013-03-01

    Significantly displaced midshaft clavicle fractures can be managed operatively to restore anatomy and allow early mobilization. Several techniques have described using precontoured anatomically designed plates placed on the superior surface of the bone or reconstruction plates contoured by the surgeon placed either superiorly or anteriorly. We describe the use of the dynamic compression plate placed anteriorly on the clavicle in treating these fractures and discuss the relative advantages of this technique. We have a case series of 8 patients over a 2-year period, who were followed up and all went on to successful fracture union.

  15. Waste minimization in chromium plating industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenzel, Ines

    2005-01-01

    Chromic acid is a strong oxidizing agent and plays an important role in metal finishing and plating industry. Chromate containing waste effluents are toxic and carcinogen and their treatment is chemical, energy and cost intensive. Therefore, waste prevention and waste treatment are in the focus of a

  16. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G

    2012-02-01

    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  17. MyPlate, Children, and Formative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Roofe

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Beginning at the critical preschool level, preventing childhood obesity is a multifaceted challenge with health, economic, ethical, and social implications. In particular, increasing emphasis will be placed upon educating children and their caregivers about the USDA’s MyPlate model of good nutrition. To date, evidence-based efforts to teach preschool children nutrition facts and appropriate behaviors are limited, and developers of evidence-based practices do not appear to use formative-evaluation to an adequate extent. Crucial among these evaluations is assessing what the preschool child already knows about the MyPlate components (fruits, vegetables, grains, protein, and dairy. University researchers along with graduate students in nutrition and psychology conducted a review of current research regarding the use of MyPlate in early childhood education settings. Minimal empirical studies were found, indicating a need to expand the literature in the areas of MyPlate, early childhood nutrition education, and formative evaluation. In the current article, authors present the systematic review process of the scant knowledge that exists regarding formative evaluation research to document what preschool-age children already know about nutrition, suggest ways that this research base might be expanded, and advocate for the increased use of formative evaluation in both research and curriculum development.

  18. Titanium Carbide Bipolar Plate for Electrochemical Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaConti, Anthony B.; Griffith, Arthur E.; Cropley, Cecelia C.; Kosek, John A.

    1998-05-08

    Titanium carbide comprises a corrosion resistant, electrically conductive, non-porous bipolar plate for use in an electrochemical device. The process involves blending titanium carbide powder with a suitable binder material, and molding the mixture, at an elevated temperature and pressure.

  19. Plate Tearing Under Mixed Mode Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rasmus Grau; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Felter, Christian Lotz

    2016-01-01

    Cohesive-zone finite element modeling is often the technique of choice when dealing with extensive crack growth in large-scale ductile sheet metal structures. Shell elements with in-plane dimensions much larger than the plate thickness are typically employed to discretize the structure, and thus...

  20. Repair & Reinforcing Pallet Stringers With Metal Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Clarke; Thomas E. McLain; Marshall S. White; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    Notches significantly reduce the bending strength and life expectancy of stringer-class pallets with partial 4-way entry. Common failures include cracking between the notches (BN), bending failures in the region above the notch (AN) and splitting of end feet. In recent years, several suppliers and manufacturers of metal connector plates (MCPs) have developed equipment...

  1. Scour Protection for Monopile by Concrete Plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Skúlason, Magnús

    A test programme has been performed to determine the scour around a monopile for an offshore wind turbine. The foundation is protected against scour with a concrete plate with various designs. The tests should be regarded as pilot tests previous to a detailed investigation. The tests has been...

  2. Outer Rail for Wall Plate Covering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The outer rail retains two lateral screw webs of an intermediate rail to construct a base for wall plate covering. Two retention devices are disposed oppositely on respective inner sides of each retention web for retaining a respective screw web of the intermediate rail. Each retention device...

  3. Spring-forward in composite plate elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijskamp, Sebastiaan; Lamers, E.A.D.; Akkerman, Remko; Banabic, D.

    2005-01-01

    Spring-forward is a distortion of corner sections in continuous fibre reinforced composite products. The linear thermoelastic prediction for the spring-forward of single curved geometries is incorporated in a FE formulation for plate elements in order to simulate the spring-forward of doubly curved

  4. Theoretical Modelling of Sound Radiation from Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, I.; Rozlan, S. A. M.; Yusoff, A.; Madlan, M. A.; Chan, S. W.

    2017-01-01

    Recently the development of aerospace, automotive and building industries demands the use of lightweight materials such as thin plates. However, the plates can possibly add to significant vibration and sound radiation, which eventually lead to increased noise in the community. So, in this study, the fundamental concept of sound pressure radiated from a simply-supported thin plate (SSP) was analyzed using the derivation of mathematical equations and numerical simulation of ANSYS®. The solution to mathematical equations of sound radiated from a SSP was visualized using MATLAB®. The responses of sound pressure level were measured at far field as well as near field in the frequency range of 0-200 Hz. Result shows that there are four resonance frequencies; 12 Hz, 60 Hz, 106 Hz and 158 Hz were identified which represented by the total number of the peaks in the frequency response function graph. The outcome also indicates that the mathematical derivation correlated well with the simulation model of ANSYS® in which the error found is less than 10%. It can be concluded that the obtained model is reliable and can be applied for further analysis such as to reduce noise emitted from a vibrating thin plate.

  5. Resistive Plate Chamber Efficiency & Rate Capability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candocia, Max

    2012-10-01

    Bakelite-based resistive plate chambers (RPCs) are particle detectors commonly used in muon trigger systems for high-energy physics experiments. Bakelite RPCs combine fast response, sufficient position resolution and low cost, and they can be operated at instantaneous background rates up to approximately 1.5 kHz/cm^2. Current and future collider experiments will demand operation of trigger RPCs under background rates higher than what is currently achieved. The rate capability is related to the bulk and surface conductivities of the Bakelite material used for the plates bordering the active gas volume in the RPCs. At the LHC and RHIC, these surfaces are coated with linseed oil, which lowers the surface resistivity of the Bakelite, which, to a point, improves the rate capability of the detectors. We have doped our own plates with various concentrations of carbon black. Over the past year we have tested RPCs with Bakelite plates of different resistivity using cosmic ray muons and radioactive Fe55 sources to emulate different levels of background in the detector. Results on the RPC efficiencies at different background rates and for different Bakelite coatings will be presented.

  6. Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift: Classroom Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Prentice K.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests various classroom studies related to plate tectonics and continental drift, including comments on and sources of resource materials useful in teaching the topics. A complete list of magazine articles on the topics from the Sawyer Marine Resource Collection may be obtained by contacting the author. (JN)

  7. Laboratory plate tectonics: a new experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, R F

    1976-03-26

    A "continent" made of a layer of hexagonally packed black polyethylene spheres floating in clear silicon oil breaks into subcontinents when illuminated by an ordinary incandescent light bulb. This experiment may be a useful model of plate tectonics driven by horizontal temperature gradients. Measurements of the spreading rate are made to establish the feasibility of this model.

  8. Quantitative tests for plate tectonics on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaula, W. M.; Phillips, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative comparisons are made between the characteristics of plate tectonics on the earth and those which are possible on Venus. Considerations of the factors influencing rise height and relating the decrease in rise height to plate velocity indicate that the rate of topographic dropoff from spreading centers should be about half that on earth due to greater rock-fluid density contrast and lower temperature differential between the surface and interior. Statistical analyses of Pioneer Venus radar altimetry data and global earth elevation data is used to identify 21,000 km of ridge on Venus and 33,000 km on earth, and reveal Venus ridges to have a less well-defined mode in crest heights and a greater concavity than earth ridges. Comparison of the Venus results with the spreading rates and associated heat flow on earth reveals plate creation rates on Venus to be 0.7 sq km/year or less and indicates that not more than 15% of Venus's energy is delivered to the surface by plate tectonics, in contrast to values of 2.9 sq km a year and 70% for earth.

  9. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

  10. Ultralight shape-recovering plate mechanical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davami, Keivan; Zhao, Lin; Lu, Eric; Cortes, John; Lin, Chen; Lilley, Drew E; Purohit, Prashant K; Bargatin, Igor

    2015-12-03

    Unusual mechanical properties of mechanical metamaterials are determined by their carefully designed and tightly controlled geometry at the macro- or nanoscale. We introduce a class of nanoscale mechanical metamaterials created by forming continuous corrugated plates out of ultrathin films. Using a periodic three-dimensional architecture characteristic of mechanical metamaterials, we fabricate free-standing plates up to 2 cm in size out of aluminium oxide films as thin as 25 nm. The plates are formed by atomic layer deposition of ultrathin alumina films on a lithographically patterned silicon wafer, followed by complete removal of the silicon substrate. Unlike unpatterned ultrathin films, which tend to warp or even roll up because of residual stress gradients, our plate metamaterials can be engineered to be extremely flat. They weigh as little as 0.1 g cm(-2) and have the ability to 'pop-back' to their original shape without damage even after undergoing multiple sharp bends of more than 90°.

  11. Pure plate bending in couple stress theories

    CERN Document Server

    Hadjesfandiari, Ali R; Dargush, Gary F

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the pure bending of plates within the framework of modified couple stress theory (M-CST) and consistent couple stress theory (C-CST). In this development, it is demonstrated that M-CST does not describe pure bending of a plate properly. Particularly, M-CST predicts no couple-stresses and no size effect for the pure bending of the plate into a spherical shell. This contradicts our expectation that couple stress theory should predict some size effect for such a deformation pattern. Therefore, this result clearly demonstrates another inconsistency of indeterminate symmetric modified couple stress theory (M-CST), which is based on considering the symmetric torsion tensor as the curvature tensor. On the other hand, the fully determinate skew-symmetric consistent couple stress theory (C-CST) predicts results for pure plate bending that tend to agree with mechanics intuition and experimental evidence. Particularly, C-CST predicts couple-stresses and size effects for the pure bending of the ...

  12. Residual stresses of thin, short rectangular plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andonian, A. T.; Danyluk, S.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of the residual stresses in thin, short rectangular plates is presented. The analysis is used in conjunction with a shadow moire interferometry technique by which residual stresses are obtained over a large spatial area from a strain measurement. The technique and analysis are applied to a residual stress measurement of polycrystalline silicon sheet grown by the edge-defined film growth technique.

  13. A Novel Offset Fresnel Zone Plate Antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A novel offset Fresnel Zone Plate reflector Antenna (FZPA) is proposed, the phase correcting zone of this FZPA is elliptic. Based on Physical Optics Method, the focusing characteristics of the reflector are analyzed. The comparison of this new FZPA with the circular FZPA and Mawzones FZPA is made.

  14. Null controllability of a thermoelastic plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assia Benabdallah

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelastic plate model with a control term in the thermal equation is considered. The main result in this paper is that with thermal control, locally distributed within the interior and square integrable in time and space, any finite energy solution can be driven to zero at the control time T.

  15. Dynamics of a reinforced viscoelastic plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Andrianov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Oscillations and static bending deformation of a viscoelastic reinforced plate are considered. Analytical solutions are derived. An asymptotic technique, based on the homogenization method, is used for this purpose. In addition, a special perturbation approach is employed. An example is given for the purpose of illustration. The approximate analytical expressions are shown to adequately meet the requirements of optimal structural design.

  16. Biomolecular sensing using surface micromachined silicon plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zapata, A.M.; Carlen, E.T.; Kim, E.S.; Hsiao, J.; Traviglia, D.; Weinberg, M.S.; Delapierre, G.; Puers, R.

    2007-01-01

    Micromachined sensors to detect surface stress changes associated with interactions between an immobilized chemically selective receptor and a target analyte are presented. The top isolated sensing surface of a free-standing silicon plate is prepared with a thin Au layer, followed by a covalent atta

  17. Wave Interaction with Dual Circular Porous Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arpita Mondal; R.Gayen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we have investigated the reflection and the transmission of a system of two symmetric circular-arc-shaped thin porous plates submerged in deep water within the context of linear theory. The hypersingular integral equation technique has been used to analyze the problem mathematically. The integral equations are formulated by applying Green’s integral theorem to the fundamental potential function and the scattered potential function into a suitable fluid region, and then using the boundary condition on the porous plate surface. These are solved approximately using an expansion-cum-collocation method where the behaviour of the potential functions at the tips of the plates have been used. This method ultimately produces a very good numerical approximation for the reflection and the transmission coefficients and hydrodynamic force components. The numerical results are depicted graphically against the wave number for a variety of layouts of the arc. Some results are compared with known results for similar configurations of dual rigid plate systems available in the literature with good agreement.

  18. Korn Inequalities for a Reinforced Plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazarov, S.A.; Slutskij, A.S.; Sweers, G.H.

    2012-01-01

    Asymptotically optimal Korn inequalities are derived for a composite material that consists of two families of stiff rods surrounded by a homogeneous soft material. The composite plate is fixed through the protruding stiff rods only. The asymptotic behaviour is shown to be crucially different for fa

  19. 'Sabbath' electric plate burn: a ritual hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmeir, P; Sagi, A; Rosenberg, L; Picard, E; Ben Yakar, Y

    1989-02-01

    This report describes the burns caused by an electric hot plate which is used by orthodox Jews for keeping food and liquids warm during the Sabbath (Saturday). An illustrative case is presented and the preventable aspects of this particular burn are discussed.

  20. Plate tectonics: Delayed response to mantle pull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedimović, Mladen R.

    2016-08-01

    At mid-ocean ridges, the directions in which plates spread and the underlying mantle flows were thought to broadly align. A synthesis of results from ridges that spread at a variety of rates reveals that instead there may be a systematic skew.