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Sample records for platelets nanosilica spheres

  1. Intranasal exposure to amorphous nanosilica particles could activate intrinsic coagulation cascade and platelets in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Nanomaterials with particle sizes coagulation system. Methods We used nanosilica particles with diameters of 30, 70, or 100 nm (nSP30, nSP70, or nSP100 respectively), and conventional microscale silica particles with diameters of 300 or 1000 nm (mSP300 or mSP1000, respectively). BALB/c mice were intranasally exposed to nSP30, nSP70, nSP100, mSP300, or mSP1000 at concentrations of 500 μg/mouse for 7 days. After 24 hours of last administration, we performed the in vivo transmission electron microscopy analysis, hematological examination and coagulation tests. Results In vivo transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that nanosilica particles with a diameter coagulation tests showed that platelet counts decreased and that the activated partial thromboplastin time was prolonged in nSP30 or nSP70-treated groups of mice, indicating that nanosilica particles might have activated a coagulation cascade. In addition, in in vitro activation tests of human plasma, nanosilica particles had greater potential than did conventional microscale silica particles to activate coagulation factor XII. In nanosilica-particle-treated groups, the levels of soluble CD40 ligand, and von Willebrand factor which are involved in stimulating platelets tended to slightly increase with decreasing particle size. Conclusions These results suggest that intranasally administered nanosilica particles with diameters of 30 and 70 nm could induce abnormal activation of the coagulation system through the activation of an intrinsic coagulation cascade. This study provides information to advance the development of safe and effective nanosilica particles. PMID:23958113

  2. Bulk fluid phase behaviour of colloidal platelet-sphere and platelet-polymer mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de las Heras, Daniel; Schmidt, Matthias

    2013-04-13

    Using a geometry-based fundamental measure density functional theory, we calculate bulk fluid phase diagrams of colloidal mixtures of vanishingly thin hard circular platelets and hard spheres. We find isotropic-nematic phase separation, with strong broadening of the biphasic region, upon increasing the pressure. In mixtures with large size ratio of platelet and sphere diameters, there is also demixing between two nematic phases with differing platelet concentrations. We formulate a fundamental measure density functional for mixtures of colloidal platelets and freely overlapping spheres, which represent ideal polymers, and use it to obtain phase diagrams. We find that, for low platelet-polymer size ratio, in addition to isotropic-nematic and nematic-nematic phase coexistence, platelet-polymer mixtures also display isotropic-isotropic demixing. By contrast, we do not find isotropic-isotropic demixing in hard-core platelet-sphere mixtures for the size ratios considered.

  3. Depletion potential in colloidal mixtures of hard spheres and platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnau, L; Dietrich, S

    2004-05-01

    The depletion potential between two hard spheres in a solvent of thin hard disclike platelets is investigated by using either the Derjaguin approximation or density functional theory. Particular attention is paid to the density dependence of the depletion potential. A second-order virial approximation is applied, which yields nearly exact results for the bulk properties of the hard-platelet fluid at densities two times smaller than the density of the isotropic fluid at isotropic-nematic phase coexistence. As the platelet density increases, the attractive primary minimum of the depletion potential deepens and an additional small repulsive barrier at larger sphere separations develops. Upon decreasing the ratio of the radius of the spheres and the platelets, the primary minimum diminishes and the position of the small repulsive barrier shifts to smaller values of the sphere separation.

  4. Bulk and wetting phenomena in a colloidal mixture of hard spheres and platelets

    OpenAIRE

    Harnau, L.; Dietrich, S.

    2004-01-01

    Density functional theory is used to study binary colloidal fluids consisting of hard spheres and thin platelets in their bulk and near a planar hard wall. This system exhibits liquid-liquid coexistence of a phase that is rich in spheres (poor in platelets) and a phase that is poor in spheres (rich in platelets). For the mixture near a planar hard wall, we find that the phase rich in spheres wets the wall completely upon approaching the liquid demixing binodal from the sphere-poor phase, prov...

  5. Bulk and wetting phenomena in a colloidal mixture of hard spheres and platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnau, L; Dietrich, S

    2005-01-01

    Density functional theory is used to study binary colloidal fluids consisting of hard spheres and thin platelets in their bulk and near a planar hard wall. This system exhibits liquid-liquid coexistence of a phase that is rich in spheres (poor in platelets) and a phase that is poor in spheres (rich in platelets). For the mixture near a planar hard wall, we find that the phase rich in spheres wets the wall completely upon approaching the liquid demixing binodal from the sphere-poor phase, provided the concentration of the platelets is smaller than a threshold value which marks a first-order wetting transition at coexistence. No layering transitions are found, in contrast to recent studies on binary mixtures of spheres and nonadsorbing polymers or thin hard rods.

  6. Density functional theory for colloidal mixtures of hard platelets, rods, and spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esztermann, Ansgar; Reich, Hendrik; Schmidt, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    A geometry-based density-functional theory is presented for mixtures of hard spheres, hard needles, and hard platelets; both the needles and platelets are taken to be of vanishing thickness. Geometrical weight functions that are characteristic for each species are given, and it is shown how convolutions of pairs of weight functions recover each Mayer bond of the ternary mixture and hence ensure the correct second virial expansion of the excess free-energy functional. The case of sphere-platelet overlap relies on the same approximation as does Rosenfeld's functional for strictly two-dimensional hard disks. We explicitly control contributions to the excess free energy that are of third order in density. Analytic expressions relevant for the application of the theory to states with planar translational and cylindrical rotational symmetry--e.g., to describe behavior at planar smooth walls--are given. For binary sphere-platelet mixtures, in the appropriate limit of small platelet densities, the theory differs from that used in a recent treatment [L. Harnau and S. Dietrich, Phys. Rev. E 71, 011504 (2004)]. As a test case of our approach we consider the isotropic-nematic bulk transition of pure hard platelets, which we find to be weakly first order, with values for the coexistence densities and the nematic order parameter that compare well with simulation results.

  7. Nanosilica and Polyacrylate/Nanosilica: A Comparative Study of Acute Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ying-Mei; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Chang, Bing; Tong, Zhao-Hui; Cao, Wen; Qiao, Pei-Huan; Zhang, Lin-Yuan; Zhao, Jing; Song, Yu-Guo

    2016-01-01

    We compared the acute toxicity of nanosilica and polyacrylate/nanosilica instillation in Wistar rats (n = 60). Exposure to nanosilica and polyacrylate/nanosilica showed a 30% mortality rate. When compared with saline-treated rats, animals in both exposure groups exhibited a significant reduction of PO2 (P polyacrylate/nanosilica and nanosilica is likely to cause multiple organ toxicity.

  8. Staged phase separation in the I-I-N tri-phase region of platelet-sphere mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingfeng; He, Min; Lin, Pengcheng; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Zhengdong

    2017-06-28

    Mixtures of colloids with different sizes or shapes are ubiquitous in nature and extensively applied in industries. Phase transition pathways and kinetics in this model system should be investigated because of the difficulty in observing tri-phase coexistence in colloidal platelet-sphere mixtures. Similar to the polymer-sphere mixtures, the phase transition pathway has three main categories. Analytical results show a staged phase transition process in which the mixture first separates into one or two metastable phases, then further separates, and subsequently reaches tri-phase equilibrium. Unique to our system, and different from the gas-liquid-crystal coexistence in colloid-polymer mixtures, the platelet-sphere mixture reached a gas-liquid-liquid crystal (nematic) coexistence. Thus, the different phases are easy to distinguish using the birefringence of the liquid crystals. In addition, the volume fraction of the liquid crystal formation in the ZrP platelet suspensions is much lower than for the crystal formation in hard spheres.

  9. Platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tiny fraction of the blood volume. The principal function of platelets is to prevent bleeding. Red blood cells are ... forming a long string. This illustrates the basic function of platelets, to stick to any foreign surface and then ...

  10. Nanosilica and Polyacrylate/Nanosilica: A Comparative Study of Acute Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Mei Niu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared the acute toxicity of nanosilica and polyacrylate/nanosilica instillation in Wistar rats (n=60. Exposure to nanosilica and polyacrylate/nanosilica showed a 30% mortality rate. When compared with saline-treated rats, animals in both exposure groups exhibited a significant reduction of PO2 (P<0.05 at both 24 and 72 hr. after exposure. Both exposure groups exhibited a significant reduction of neutrophils in arterial blood compared to saline controls (P<0.05 24 hr. after exposure. The levels of blood ALT and LDH in exposed groups were found to be significantly increased (P<0.05 24 hr. following exposure. The exposed groups exhibited various degrees of pleural effusion and pericardial effusion. Our findings indicated respiratory exposure to polyacrylate/nanosilica and nanosilica is likely to cause multiple organ toxicity.

  11. Nanosilica and Polyacrylate/Nanosilica: A Comparative Study of Acute Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ying-Mei Niu; Xiao-Li Zhu; Bing Chang; Zhao-Hui Tong; Wen Cao; Pei-Huan Qiao; Lin-Yuan Zhang; Jing Zhao; Yu-Guo Song

    2016-01-01

    We compared the acute toxicity of nanosilica and polyacrylate/nanosilica instillation in Wistar rats (n = 60). Exposure to nanosilica and polyacrylate/nanosilica showed a 30% mortality rate. When compared with saline-treated rats, animals in both exposure groups exhibited a significant reduction of PO2 (P < 0.05) at both 24 and 72 hr. after exposure. Both exposure groups exhibited a significant reduction of neutrophils in arterial blood compared to saline controls (P < 0.05) 24 hr. after expo...

  12. Electroosmotic Driving Liquid Using Nanosilica Packed Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Xin CHEN; Guo An LUO; Tao WEN

    2005-01-01

    The electroosmotic pump (EOP) using nanosilica particles packed-bed column was experimentally studied. The relationship between flowrate, pressure and applied voltage of the pump, and pressure-flowrate (P-Q) characteristic were investigated.

  13. Wear properties of nanosilica filled epoxy polymers and FRP composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jumahat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to determine the wear properties of nanosilica filled epoxy polymers and FRP composites. Woven fiberglass has been deployed as the reinforcement material. The fibers were mixed with three different percentages of nanosilica-modified epoxy resin, i.e: 5wt%; 13wt%; 25wt%, in order to fabricate the desired samples of FRP composites. The effect of nanosilica on wear properties was evaluated using dry sliding wear and slurry tests. The results show that increasing the amount of nanosilica content has reduced the amount of accumulated mass loss. It was found that the FRP laminates with 25wt% of nanosilica have the highest wear resistance. The nanosilica filled fiber reinforced polymer composites have a high potential in tribological application such as ball bearing housing and snow sleds.

  14. Influence of Nanosilica Filler Content in LDPE Composites on Partial Discharge Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. Abdul-Malek; A.M. Azzin; Y.Z. Ariel; Aulia; K.Y. Lau; M. Jaafar

    2011-01-01

    Partial discharges (PDs) due to artificial void in samples of LDPE nanocomposite sheet have been investiga- ted in this work. PDs may cause the degradation of insulating materials and may affect the lifetime of high-voltage ap- paratus. An experimental work using sphere ball-plane electrode system (CIGRE Method II) and a 1.0 mm LDPE composite sheet was carried out. Different weight percentages of nanosilica (0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%) were used. PD experimental results, such as PD magnitude and PD number (both PD pulse polarities), as functions of the ap- plied stress duration at a specified applied voltage were compared. The surface morphology of specimens was also presented and this conforms to the PD findings. The experimental results show that the PD characteristics of the LDPE generally improve with the introduction of nanosilica, the composite with the highest content of filler, namely the 8% (wt) nanosilica sample has the least partial discharge activities.

  15. Experimental Investigation and Theoretical Modeling of Nanosilica Activity in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seung Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental investigations and theoretical modeling of the hydration reaction of nanosilica blended concrete with different water-to-binder ratios and different nanosilica replacement ratios. The developments of chemically bound water contents, calcium hydroxide contents, and compressive strength of Portland cement control specimens and nanosilica blended specimens were measured at different ages: 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days. Due to the pozzolanic reaction of nanosilica, the contents of calcium hydroxide in nanosilica blended pastes are considerably lower than those in the control specimens. Compared with the control specimens, the extent of compressive strength enhancement in the nanosilica blended specimens is much higher at early ages. Additionally, a blended cement hydration model that considers both the hydration reaction of cement and the pozzolanic reaction of nanosilica is proposed. The properties of nanosilica blended concrete during hardening were evaluated using the degree of hydration of cement and the reaction degree of nanosilica. The calculated chemically bound water contents, calcium hydroxide contents, and compressive strength were generally consistent with the experimental results.

  16. Ceramic Ultrafiltration Membrane from Nanosilica Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Zarina Abdul; Ramli, Rafindde; Muchtar, Andanastuti; Mohammad, Abd Wahab

    This study attempts to develop asymmetric ceramic membrane filter from nanosilica particles for ultrafiltration (UF) membrane. The alumina tube was used as a support and was coated with SiC which acted as an intermediate layer or microfiltration (MF) layer. The UF membrane was developed using the filtration technique through chemical suspension of the particles. Nanosilica was suspended in HCl acid, iso-propanol and acetone before it was deposited on the alumina tube using a special coating assembly. The membranes were characterised for pore size, thickness and microstructure. This study found that the use of nanoparticles for membrane development could easily control the pore size as well as the thickness of the membrane. The uniformity of the membrane thickness could also be achieved through this filtration technique.

  17. Nanosilica-from medicine to pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, T K; Sahu, B; Swain, V

    2008-07-01

    Nanotechnology is a broad interdisciplinary area of research, development, and industrial activity that has been growing rapidly worldwide for the past decade. More ambitious uses of nanoparticles are bioremediation of contaminated environments, controlled release of fragrances, biocides, and antifungals on textiles. Silica nanocomposites have received much attention because of its thermal degradation behavior and applications in chromatography, medicine, optics, etc. Nanobiotech takes agriculture from the battleground of genetically modified organisms to the brave new world of atomically modified organisms where rice has been modified atomically. Silica has been widely applied in various industries. Application of gold-coated silica has been used in the treatment for benign and malignant tumor. Surface-modified hydrophobic as well as lipophilic nanosilica could be effectively used as novel drugs for treatment of chicken malaria and nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV), a scourge in silkworm industry. Here, the authors attempt to provide a review to explain the impact of nanosilica on basic biology, medicine, agro-nanoproducts, and use of amorphous nanosilica as biopesticide.

  18. Dielectric properties of nanosilica filled epoxy nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M G VEENA; N M RENUKAPPA; KUNIGAL N SHIVAKUMAR; S SEETHARAMU

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the development of epoxy-silica nanocomposites and characterized for dielectric properties. The effect of nanosilica loading (0–20 wt%), frequency, temperature and sea water aging on these properties was studied. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the samples showed an excellent dispersion. However, at higher silica loading TEM showed inter-contactity of the particles. The dielectric constant (υ') increased with silica loading and reached an optimum at about 10 wt%. The υ' of the nanocomposites showed linear decrease with frequency whereas AC conductivity (σac) increases. The σac and υ' increased marginally with temperature and sea water aging.

  19. Development of monetite-nanosilica bone cement: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan; Luchini, Timothy J F; Agarwal, Anand K; Goel, Vijay K; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we reported the results of our efforts in developing DCPA/nanosilica composite orthopedic cement. It is motivated by the significances of DCPA and silicon in bone physiological activities. More specifically, this paper examined the effects of various experimental parameters on the properties of such composite cements. In this work, DCPA cement powders were synthesized using a microwave synthesis technique. Mixing colloidal nanosilica directly with synthesized DCPA cement powders can significantly reduce the washout resistance of DCPA cement. In contrast, a DCPA-nanosilica cement powder prepared by reacting Ca(OH)2 , H3 PO4 and nanosilica together showed good washout resistance. The incorporation of nanosilica in DCPA can improve compressive strength, accelerate cement solidification, and intensify surface bioactivity. In addition, it was observed that by controlling the content of NaHCO3 during cement preparation, the resulting composite cement properties could be modified. Allowing for the development of different setting times, mechanical performance and crystal features. It is suggested that DCPA-nanosilica composite cement can be a potential candidate for bone healing applications.

  20. Morphology of polyacrylate/nanosilica composites as studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szybowicz, Mirosław; Nowicka, Ariadna B.; Sądej, Mariola; Andrzejewska, Ewa; Drozdowski, Mirosław

    2014-07-01

    The Raman scattering study of the morphology of poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA)/nanosilica composites at various levels of the filler loading was performed. Two types of nanosilica were applied: unmodified (Aerosil 200) and surface and structure modified (Aerosil R7200). The composites were obtained by photocuring of monomer/silica mixtures. Using surface Raman mapping method we obtained information concerning the distribution of nanosilica particles in the composites being under study. The size and structure of nanosilica aggregates within the polymer matrix strongly depend on the amount of the nanosilica added. To check uniformity of the nanosilica dispersion in the composites the Raman depth studies were also performed for PHEA containing 20 wt.-% of nanosilica.

  1. Dispersion and surface characteristics of nanosilica suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ranganathan; Milanova, Denitsa

    2009-04-01

    Nanofluids consisting of nanometer-sized particles dispersed in base liquids are known to be effective in extending the saturated boiling regime and critical heat flux in pool boiling. The heat transfer characteristics of nanosilica suspensions with particle sizes of 10 and 20 nm in pool boiling with a suspended heating Nichrome wire have been analyzed. The pH value of the nanosuspensions is important from the point of view that it determines the stability of the particles and their mutual interactions toward the suspended heated wire. When silica is suspended in water with no additives, the surface potential of the nanoparticles determines their movement toward the electrodes. Particles continuously deposit on the wire and extend the burnout heat flux, influenced by the chemical composition of the nanofluids. This agglomeration allows high heat transfer through interagglomerate pores, resulting in a nearly threefold increase in burnout heat flux. Particle size, zeta potential, and the burnout heat flux values under different volume concentrations are provided. The burnout heat flux of the wire does not increase monotonically with concentration, but depends on the agglomeration characteristics, particle shape, and the hydroxylated surface of the nanoparticles.

  2. Presence and risks of nanosilica in food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, S.; Krystek, P.W.; Peters, R.J.B.; Lankveld, D.P.K.; Bokkers, B.G.H.; Hoeven-Arentzen, van P.H.; Bouwmeester, H.; Oomen, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    This study uniquely describes all steps of the risk assessment process for the use of one specific nanomaterial (nanosilica) in food products. The aim was to identify gaps in essential knowledge and the difficulties and uncertainties associated with each of these steps. Several food products with

  3. Performance of concrete incorporating colloidal nano-silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, Mohamed Sabry

    Nanotechnology, as one of the most modern fields of science, has great market potential and economic impact. The need for research in the field of nanotechnology is continuously on the rise. During the last few decades, nanotechnology was developing rapidly into many fields of applied sciences, engineering and industrial applications, especially through studies of physics, chemistry, medicine and fundamental material science. These new developments may be attributed to the fact that material properties and performance can be significantly improved and controlled through nano-scale processes and nano-structures. This research program aims at 1) further understanding the behavior of cementitious materials when amended on the nano-scale level and 2) exploring the effect of this enhancement on the microstructure of cement matrix. This study may be considered as an important step towards better understanding the use of nano-silica in concrete. The main goal of the study is to investigate the effect of using colloidal nano-silica on properties of concrete, including mechanical properties, durability, transport properties, and microstructure. The experimental program that was conducted included a laboratory investigation of concrete mixtures in which nano-silica was added to cement or to a combination of cement and Class F fly ash. Various ratios of nano-silica were used in concrete mixtures to examine the extent and types of improvements that could be imparted to concrete. The conducted experimental program assessed these improvements in terms of reactivity, mechanical properties, and durability of the mixtures under investigation. Advanced testing techniques---including mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)---were used to investigate the effect of nano-silica on the microstructure of the tested mixtures. In addition, the effect of nano-silica on the alkali-silica reaction (ASR) was examined using various techniques, including testing

  4. Effects of colloidal nanosilica on the rheological properties of epoxy resins filled with organoclay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dinh Huong; Song, Gwang Seok; Lee, Dai Soo

    2011-05-01

    The rheological properties of epoxy resins filled with organoclay and colloidal nanosilica were investigated by employing a parallel plate rheometer in flow mode at 25 degrees C. Shear thickening and shear thinning behaviors were observed in the epoxy resins filled with a mixture of organoclay and colloidal nanosilica. Minima were observed in the relaxation time of the systems consisting of epoxy resins filled with organoclay and colloidal silica as the content of colloidal nanosilica was increased. It seems that the colloidal nanosilica increased the mobility of the filled epoxy resins and reduced the interactions between the silicate layers in the systems.

  5. Preparation, characterization and luminescent properties of dense nano-silica hybrids loaded with 1,8-naphthalic anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinpeng; Sun, Jihong; Li, Yuzhen; Wang, Feng

    2014-03-01

    Novel luminescent dense nano-silica hybrid materials (DNSS) modified with different amounts of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride (NA) were successfully synthesized via two steps combined with post-grafting methods. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2-sorption analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and elemental analysis, as well as time-resolved decays were employed to characterize the resultant hybrid materials. The results revealed that luminescent organic molecules had been successfully loaded onto the amine-modified surface of nano-silica spheres. In addition, their fluorescence intensity and characteristic peak of emission spectra changed with increasing amount of APTES and NA additive. In particular, the characteristic peak showed a red shift from 390 to 450 nm, however, this was inconsistent with results calculated on the basis of the elemental analysis data, most probably because of the dispersion behaviors of NA molecules from the aggregating to the monolayer state. These observations demonstrated the existence of a quantum confinement effectiveness of NA-DNSS samples, and therefore a possible mechanism was put forward.

  6. Knowledge gaps in risk assessment of nanosilica in food: evaluation of the dissolution and toxicity of different forms of silica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, S.; Bouwmeester, H.; Bos, P.M.J.; Peters, R.J.B.; Rietveld, A.; Oomen, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript describes the follow-up study of our previous publication on the presence and risks of nanosilica in food. New information on the presence of nanosilica in the gastrointestinal tract is evaluated and information on nanosilica and synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) is compared to assess

  7. Structure formation by nanosilica particles suspended in levitated droplet

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Abhishek; Kumar, Ranganathan; Basu, Saptarshi

    2010-01-01

    Vaporization of liquid droplets containing particles has been studied extensively for its applications in combustion, thermal coating, ink-jet printing, spray cooling, drug delivery, and surface patterning. Droplets containing solid particles show a preferential solute-migration during drying process. Recently we carried out experiments with vaporizing droplet suspended in an acoustic levitator. In this work, we present detailed study of a laser irradiated droplet containing nanosilica particles. Infrared and High speed imaging of the heating process for different concentrations of nanosilica revealed an interesting solute migration pattern. Further investigation with Particle Image Velocimetry shows presence of strong recirculation within the levitated droplet. It also reveals that with increasing viscosity of the liquid the strength of this recirculation decreases. Due to the droplets rotation about the levitator axis, a centrifugal force also dominated the flow field within the droplet. High speed imaging ...

  8. Development of nanosilica bonded monetite cement from egg shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Huan, E-mail: huanzhou@cczu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Luchini, Timothy J.F.; Boroujeni, Nariman Mansouri [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Agarwal, Anand K.; Goel, Vijay K. [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Bhaduri, Sarit B. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Division of Dentistry, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This work represents further effort from our group in developing monetite based calcium phosphate cements (CPC). These cements start with a calcium phosphate powder (MW-CPC) that is manufactured using microwave irradiation. Due to the robustness of the cement production process, we report that the starting materials can be derived from egg shells, a waste product from the poultry industry. The CPC were prepared with MW-CPC and aqueous setting solution. Results showed that the CPC hardened after mixing powdered cement with water for about 12.5 ± 1 min. The compressive strength after 24 h of incubation was approximately 8.45 ± 1.29 MPa. In addition, adding colloidal nanosilica to CPC can accelerate the cement hardening (10 ± 1 min) process by about 2.5 min and improve compressive strength (20.16 ± 4.39 MPa), which is more than double the original strength. The interaction between nanosilica and CPC was monitored using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). While hardening, nanosilica can bond to the CPC crystal network for stabilization. The physical and biological studies performed on both cements suggest that they can potentially be used in orthopedics. - Highlights: • Cement raw powder is derived from egg shells. • A microwave assisted system is used for preparing monetite bone cement. • Colloidal silica is used to reinforce cement.

  9. Development of nanosilica bonded monetite cement from egg shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan; Luchini, Timothy J F; Boroujeni, Nariman Mansouri; Agarwal, Anand K; Goel, Vijay K; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2015-05-01

    This work represents further effort from our group in developing monetite based calcium phosphate cements (CPC). These cements start with a calcium phosphate powder (MW-CPC) that is manufactured using microwave irradiation. Due to the robustness of the cement production process, we report that the starting materials can be derived from egg shells, a waste product from the poultry industry. The CPC were prepared with MW-CPC and aqueous setting solution. Results showed that the CPC hardened after mixing powdered cement with water for about 12.5±1 min. The compressive strength after 24h of incubation was approximately 8.45±1.29 MPa. In addition, adding colloidal nanosilica to CPC can accelerate the cement hardening (10±1 min) process by about 2.5 min and improve compressive strength (20.16±4.39 MPa), which is more than double the original strength. The interaction between nanosilica and CPC was monitored using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). While hardening, nanosilica can bond to the CPC crystal network for stabilization. The physical and biological studies performed on both cements suggest that they can potentially be used in orthopedics.

  10. Effect of Nanosilica Filled Polyurethane Composite Coating on Polypropylene Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yern Chee Ching

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic based polyurethane (PU coatings with various amounts of nanosilica contents were prepared using solution casting method. The nanosilica (SiO2 particles used are around 16 nm in diameter. The friction and wear test was conducted using the reciprocating wear testing machine. The tests were performed at rotary speed of 100 rpm and 200 rpm with load of 0.1 kg to 0.4 kg under 1 N interval. The effect of the PU/nano-SiO2 composite coating on friction and wear behavior of polypropylene substrate was investigated and compared. The worn surface of coating film layer after testing was investigated by using an optical microscope. The introduction of PU/nanosilica composite coating containing 3 wt% of nano-SiO2 content gives the lowest friction coefficient and wear rate to PP substrate. Both the friction and wear rate of PP substrate coated with >3 wt% of nano-SiO2 filled PU coating would increase with the increasing of applied load and sliding time.

  11. Modification of chitosan membranes with nanosilica particles as polymer electrolyte membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusumastuti, Ella, E-mail: ella.kusuma@gmail.com; Siniwi, Widasari Trisna, E-mail: wsiniwi@gmail.com; Mahatmanti, F. Widhi; Jumaeri [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, State University of Semarang D6 Building 2" n" d floor, Sekaran Unnes Campus, Gunungpati, Semarang (Indonesia); Atmaja, Lukman; Widiastuti, Nurul [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Tenth November Institute of Technology Keputih ITS Campus, Sukolilo, Surabaya (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    Chitosan has been widely used as polymer matrix for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) application replacing Nafion which has shortcomings in terms of high methanol permeability that degrades the performance of fuel cells. Chitosan membranes modification is performed by adding nanosilica to prevent methanol transport through the membrane. Nanosilica is synthesized by sol-gel method and the particle diameter is obtained by analysis using Breunner Emmet Teller (BET) that is 6.59 nm. Nanosilica is mixed with chitosan solution to obtain nanosilica-chitosan as polymer electrolyte membrane. The membranes are synthesized through phase inversion method with nanosilica composition including 0; 0.5; 1; 2; 3; 5; and 10% w/w of chitosan. Characterization of the membranes indicate that the results of water swelling, proton conductivity and methanol permeability of the membrane with 3% nanosilica respectively were 49.23%, 0.231 S/cm, and 5.43 x 10{sup −7} cm{sup 2}/s. Based on the results of membrane selectivity calculation, the optimum membrane is the composition of 3% nanosilica with value 5.91 x 105 S s cm{sup −3}. The results of functional groups analysis with FTIR showed that it was only physical interaction that occurred between chitosan and nanosilica since no significant changes found in peak around the wave number 1000-1250 cm{sup −-1}.

  12. The effect of synthetic nanosilica on tribological properties of graphite/epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spandern, Christian; Khunova, Viera

    2016-05-01

    Development of new advanced friction materials with improved tribological and mechanical properties is of high priority for a number of industrial applications. This paper explores the effect of synthetic spherical nanosilica Nanopox® F400 on tribological and mechanical properties of graphite/epoxy composites. The composites have been prepared by mixing in four paddle-stirrer standard mixer at 500 rpm. During the mixing nanosilica particles did not create agglomerates and are well dispersed within the epoxy matrix. The impact of the nanosilica on abrasive wear, dynamic and static coefficient of friction as well as mechanical properties (strength) has been studied. It was found that by application of 5 wt% graphite as well as 5 wt% nanosilica in epoxy resin a reduction of wear properties did not exceed 16 % in comparison to neat epoxy matrix. However, by simultaneous application of hybrid graphite and nanosilica fillers in epoxy resin reduction of wear increased up to 42 %. The highest improvement (61 %) of wear has been achieved in composites containing 5 wt % of graphite and 10 wt% of nanosilica. Contrary to wear, it was not observed a synergic effect of hybrid graphite/nanosilica fillers on static and dynamic coefficient of friction, as well as on tensile strength of studied epoxy composites.

  13. Production and Characterization of Nanosilica from Bagasse Through Biosynthesis Using Lactobacilus bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Nanda Yuli; Harisna, Azza Hanief; Khoirunnisa, Wulida; Yasvinawati, Niarisandi; Sumitro, Sutiman Bambang

    2016-06-01

    Bagasse has a potential as natural resource of nanosilica. Nanosilica biosynthetic production method is better than chemical or physical methods. The aim of this study is to determine the potential of Lactobacillus bulgaricus in nanosilica synthesis, the effect of the long incubation, and the effect of freeze drying to the nanosilica quality. The method consists of two steps. The first is performing biosynthesize using bagasse and Lactobacillus bulgaricus in dark place with temperature of 37 degress C for the period of 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours. The second is analyzing particles and chemical of nanosilica characterization using Fourier Transformer Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Particle Size Analyzer (PSA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), some microscopes namely stereo, fluorescence, polarizing, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). The results show that nanosilica has spherical shaped, amorphous, and able to fluoresce when exposed by UV. The average size of particles are 104.6 nm in the 24 hours length incubated, 67.3 nm in the 48 hours length incubation, and 30.5 nm in the 72 hours length incubation. Samples using freeze drying have more complex and smaller structure than samples using air drying. The lengths of incubation influence the size and shape of nanosilica. Samples using freeze drying enable change the soil structure, and has beneficiary effect to improve soil fertility, as nanofertilizer. Whereas, the samples using air drying may use for glass or biofilm materials.

  14. Chitosan-nanosilica hybrid materials: Preparation and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podust, T.V., E-mail: tania_list@yahoo.com [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, 17 General Naumov Street, Kyiv 03164 (Ukraine); Kulik, T.V., E-mail: tanyakulyk@i.ua [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, 17 General Naumov Street, Kyiv 03164 (Ukraine); Palyanytsya, B.B.; Gun’ko, V.M. [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, 17 General Naumov Street, Kyiv 03164 (Ukraine); Tóth, A. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Material Science, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Mikhalovska, L. [School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Menyhárd, A. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Material Science, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Institute of Materials Science and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary); László, K. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Material Science, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Hybrid chitosan-nanosilica materials were synthesized using an adsorption modification method. • The chitosan adsorption capacity is higher on the silica/titania and silica/alumina than on the fumed silica. • Nanosilicas undergo structural and textural alterations due to modification by chitosan. • The more severe chitosan thermodestruction occurs on the silica/titania and silica/alumina surfaces than on the plain silica surface. - Abstract: The research focuses on the synthesis of novel organic–inorganic hybrid materials based on polysaccharide chitosan and nanosilicas (SiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2}). The chitosan modified nanooxides were obtained by the equilibrium adsorption method. The chitosan adsorption capacities of silica/titania and silica/alumina are higher than of the plain silica due to the additional active sites present on the surfaces of the mixed oxides. The hybrid materials were characterized by low-temperature nitrogen adsorption/desorption, photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) and temperature-programmed desorption with mass spectrometry control (TPD MS) methods. The chitosan treatment only modestly influences the surface area S{sub BET} of the nanooxides but the rearrangement of the secondary and tertiary structures (aggregates and agglomerates) results in an enhancement of the mesoporosity and affects the size of the aggregates. The more severe thermodestruction of the polysaccharide desorbing from the modified mixed silicas indicates a stronger interaction between the chitosan and the mixed oxides compared to the silanol groups of the plain silica surface.

  15. Routh's sphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cushman, R.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we show that the integral map of Rouths sphere has monodromy when the sphere becomes gyroscopically unstable This uses the nonHamiltonian monodromy of Rouths sphere has center of mass not at its geometrical center and moment of inertia tensor with two equal principal moments of inerti

  16. Structural features of ZnxOy/nanosilica composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gun'ko, V. M.; Bogatyrov, V. M.; Oranska, O. I.; Borysenko, L. I.; Skubiszewska-Zięba, J.; Książek, A.; Leboda, R.

    2013-07-01

    Nanocomposites with nanosilica A380 (SBET = 378 m2/g) and grafted ZnO or/and zinc silicate were prepared using zinc acetate adsorbed onto nanosilica and then treated at 600-900 °C. The samples studied using a variety of methods demonstrated the dependences of the textural and structural characteristics and phase transformations on the amounts of adsorbed precursor and treatment conditions. Thermodestruction of zinc acetate Zn(ac)2 at 600 °C results in the formation of ZnO which is amorphous according to XRD data. However, HRTEM images show the presence of a small amount of ZnO crystallites of 2-5 nm in size. A portion of surface silanols interacts with adsorbed Zn-containing compounds to form Sisbnd Osbnd Zn bonds, a number of which increases with increasing Zn(ac)2 content and heating temperature. Heating at 800-900 °C leads to transformation of ZnO and other structures into crystalline zinc silicate β-Zn2SiO4 with larger particles more strongly packed in aggregates. The specific surface area of the composites decreases with increasing zinc content and heating temperature.

  17. A Simple Method of Obtaining Spherical Nanosilica from Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Noushad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the synthesis of nanosilica from rice husk. Synthesis was done by precipitation using different acids, namely, orthophosphoric acid and nitric acid which yielded nanosilica. The effect of different acids and different solvents (polar and non-polar on the size and degree of agglomeration of the silica particles were studied. When precipitation was done without the use of solvents, the silica particles  obtained were non-spherical in shape, whereas, when precipitation was done using polar solvents (ethanol or 2-propanol, the silica particles were spherical. The use of non-polar solvents (toluene and diethyl ether resulted in silica particles that were irregular in shape and in the case of orthophosphoric acid, a high degree of agglomeration was also noted. The degree of agglomeration was less when orthophosphoric acid was used with polar solvents as compared to nitric acid in conjunction with polar solvents. As regards the size, it ranged from approximately 70nm to 400nm when either acid was used in conjunction with polar solvents. When non-polar solvents were used, the silica particles were irregular in shape and the particle size was not estimated.

  18. Bond Characteristics of Macro Polypropylene Fiber in Cementitious Composites Containing Nanosilica and Styrene Butadiene Latex Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Woong Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the bond properties of polypropylene (PP fiber in plain cementitious composites (PCCs and styrene butadiene latex polymer cementitious composites (LCCs at different nanosilica contents. The bond tests were evaluated according to JCI SF-8, in which the contents of nanosilica in the cement were 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 wt%, based on cement weight. The addition of nanosilica significantly affected the bond properties between macro PP fiber and cementitious composites. For PCCs, the addition of 0–2 wt% nanosilica enhanced bond strength and interface toughness, whereas the addition of 4 wt% or more reduced bond strength and interface toughness. The bond strength and interfacial toughness of LCCs also increased with the addition of up to 6% nanosilica. The analysis of the relative bond strength showed that the addition of nanosilica affects the bond properties of both PCC and LCC. This result was confirmed via microstructural analysis of the macro PP fiber surface after the bond tests, which revealed an increase in scratches due to frictional forces and fiber tearing.

  19. Development of construction materials using nano-silica and aggregates recycled from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukharjee, Bibhuti Bhusan; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2015-06-01

    The present work addresses the development of novel construction materials utilising commercial grade nano-silica and recycled aggregates retrieved from construction and demolition waste. For this, experimental work has been carried out to examine the influence of nano-silica and recycled aggregates on compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, water absorption, density and volume of voids of concrete. Fully natural and recycled aggregate concrete mixes are designed by replacing cement with three levels (0.75%, 1.5% and 3%) of nano-silica. The results of the present investigation depict that improvement in early days compressive strength is achieved with the incorporation of nano-silica in addition to the restoration of reduction in compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete mixes caused owing to the replacement of natural aggregates by recycled aggregates. Moreover, the increase in water absorption and volume of voids with a reduction of bulk density was detected with the incorporation of recycled aggregates in place of natural aggregates. However, enhancement in density and reduction in water absorption and volume of voids of recycled aggregate concrete resulted from the addition of nano-silica. In addition, the results of the study reveal that nano-silica has no significant effect on elastic modulus of concrete.

  20. Nanosilica-Chitosan Composite Coating on Cotton Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharani, Dina Kartika; Kartini, Indriana; Aprilita, Nurul Hidayat

    2010-10-01

    Nanosilica-chitosan composite coating on cotton fabrics has been prepared by sol-gel method. The sol-gel procedure allows coating of material on nanometer scale, which several commonly used coating procedure cannot achieve. In addition, sol-gel coating technique can be applied to system without disruption of their structure functionaly. The coating were produced via hidrolysis and condensation of TEOS and GPTMS and then mixed with chitosan. The composite coating on cotton fabrics were characterized with X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) method. The result showed that the coating not changed or disrupted the cotton stucture. The coating result in a clear transparent thin layer on cotton surface. The nanocomposite coating has new applications in daily used materials, especially those with low heat resistance, such as textiles and plastics, and as an environmentally friendly water-repellent substitute for fluorine compounds.

  1. Ultradrawing and Ultimate Tenacity Properties of Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene Composite Fibers Filled with Nanosilica Particles with Varying Specific Surface Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-taut Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Original and/or functionalized nanosilica particles with a quoted specific surface area of 100, 300, and 600 m2/g, respectively, were used to investigate the influence of specific surface areas of nanosilica particles on ultradrawing and ultimate tensile properties of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE, UHMWPE/nanosilica, and UHMWPE/functionalized nanosilica fibers. The specific surface areas of well-dispersed functionalized nanosilica particles in UHMWPE/functionalized nanosilica fibers can positively affect their ultradrawing, orientation, ultimate tensile properties, and “micro-fibrils” morphologies. Excellent orientation and ultimate tensile properties of UHMWPE/nanofiller fibers can be prepared by ultradrawing the UHMWPE/functionalized nanosilica as-prepared fibers with optimal contents of the best prepared functionalized nanosilica particles well dispersing in the as-prepared fibers. The ultimate tensile strength value of the best prepared UHMWPE/functionalized nanosilica drawn fiber reaches 7.6 GPa, which is about 2.3 times of those of the best prepared UHMWPE drawn fiber without addition of any nanofiller. Specific surface area, morphological and Fourier transform infrared analyses of original and functionalized nanosilica particles, and/or investigations of thermal, orientation factor, and ultimate tensile properties of as-prepared and/or drawn UHMWPE/functionalized nanosilica fibers were performed to understand the above improved ultradrawing and ultimate tensile properties of the UHMWPE/functionalized nanosilica as-prepared and/or drawn fibers.

  2. Probabilistic modeling of the flows and environmental risks of nano-silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan; Kalinina, Anna; Sun, Tianyin; Nowack, Bernd, E-mail: nowack@empa.ch

    2016-03-01

    Nano-silica, the engineered nanomaterial with one of the largest production volumes, has a wide range of applications in consumer products and industry. This study aimed to quantify the exposure of nano-silica to the environment and to assess its risk to surface waters. Concentrations were calculated for four environmental (air, soil, surface water, sediments) and two technical compartments (wastewater, solid waste) for the EU and Switzerland using probabilistic material flow modeling. The corresponding median concentration in surface water is predicted to be 0.12 μg/l in the EU (0.053–3.3 μg/l, 15/85% quantiles). The concentrations in sediments in the complete sedimentation scenario were found to be the largest among all environmental compartments, with a median annual increase of 0.43 mg/kg·y in the EU (0.19–12 mg/kg·y, 15/85% quantiles). Moreover, probabilistic species sensitivity distributions (PSSD) were computed and the risk of nano-silica in surface waters was quantified by comparing the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) with the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) distribution, which was derived from the cumulative PSSD. This assessment suggests that nano-silica currently poses no risk to aquatic organisms in surface waters. Further investigations are needed to assess the risk of nano-silica in other environmental compartments, which is currently not possible due to a lack of ecotoxicological data. - Highlights: • We quantify the exposure of nano-silica to technical systems and the environment. • The median concentration in surface waters is predicted to be 0.12 μg/L in the EU. • Probabilistic species sensitivity distributions were computed for surface waters. • The risk assessment suggests that nano-silica poses no risk to aquatic organisms.

  3. Effects of Nanosilica on Compressive Strength and Durability Properties of Concrete with Different Water to Binder Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forood Torabian Isfahani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the addition of different nanosilica dosages (0.5%, 1%, and 1.5% with respect to cement on compressive strength and durability properties of concrete with water/binder ratios 0.65, 0.55, and 0.5 were investigated. Water sorptivity, apparent chloride diffusion coefficient, electrical resistivity, and carbonation coefficient of concrete were measured. The results showed that compressive strength significantly improved in case of water/binder = 0.65, while for water/binder = 0.5 no change was found. Increasing nanosilica content, the water sorptivity decreased only for water/binder = 0.55. The addition of 0.5% nanosilica decreased the apparent chloride diffusion coefficient for water/binder = 0.65 and 0.55; however, higher nanosilica dosages did not decrease it with respect to reference value. The resistivity was elevated by 0.5% nanosilica for all water/binder ratios and by 1.5% nanosilica only for water/binder = 0.5. The carbonation coefficient was not notably affected by increasing nanosilica dosages and even adverse effect was observed for water/binder = 0.65. Further information of microstructure was also provided through characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, mercury intrusion porosimetry, and scanning electron microscopy. The effectiveness of a certain nanosilica dosage addition into lower strength mixes was more noticeable, while, for the higher strength mix, the effectiveness was less.

  4. Synthesis of nanosilica from silica fume using an acid-base precipitation technique and PVA as a nonionic surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihe Jafari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to synthesize and characterize nanosilica from alkali-extraction of silica fume under controlled conditions using poly (vinyl alcohol (PVA as a dispersing agent. The dissolution efficiency of silica fume was affected by various factors such as concentration of the reagent, reaction time and temperature. A maximum dissolution efficiency of 91% was achieved at the sodium hydroxide solution concentration of 2.5 M, after areaction time of 30 minutes and at areaction temperature of 80°C. The microstructure and morphology of the obtained nanosilica powder at the optimum conditions were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. SEM images confirmed the formation of smaller and less agglomerated nanosilica particles due to the existence of the surfactant. Further, the synthesized nanosilica was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRF and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The results show that the synthesized nanosilica consisted of pure silica particles.

  5. Probabilistic modeling of the flows and environmental risks of nano-silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Kalinina, Anna; Sun, Tianyin; Nowack, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    Nano-silica, the engineered nanomaterial with one of the largest production volumes, has a wide range of applications in consumer products and industry. This study aimed to quantify the exposure of nano-silica to the environment and to assess its risk to surface waters. Concentrations were calculated for four environmental (air, soil, surface water, sediments) and two technical compartments (wastewater, solid waste) for the EU and Switzerland using probabilistic material flow modeling. The corresponding median concentration in surface water is predicted to be 0.12 μg/l in the EU (0.053-3.3 μg/l, 15/85% quantiles). The concentrations in sediments in the complete sedimentation scenario were found to be the largest among all environmental compartments, with a median annual increase of 0.43 mg/kg · y in the EU (0.19-12 mg/kg · y, 15/85% quantiles). Moreover, probabilistic species sensitivity distributions (PSSD) were computed and the risk of nano-silica in surface waters was quantified by comparing the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) with the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) distribution, which was derived from the cumulative PSSD. This assessment suggests that nano-silica currently poses no risk to aquatic organisms in surface waters. Further investigations are needed to assess the risk of nano-silica in other environmental compartments, which is currently not possible due to a lack of ecotoxicological data.

  6. Synthesis of a nanosilica supported CO2 sorbent in a fluidized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Hoyo, C.; Valverde, J. M.; van Ommen, J. R.; Sánchez-Jiménez, P. E.; Pérez-Maqueda, L. A.; Sayagués, M. J.

    2015-02-01

    CaO has been deposited on a nanosilica powder matrix by a procedure based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a fluidized bed reactor at atmospheric pressure following a potentially scalable process. In previous works ALD in gas fluidized bed has been mostly performed under reduced pressure, which hampers scaling-up the production technology. The material synthesized in the present work is tested as CO2 solid sorbent at calcium looping conditions. Multicyclic thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows that the nanosilica support stabilizes the capture capacity of CaO. EDX-STEM analysis illustrates the presence of Ca well distributed on the surface of the SiO2 nanoparticles.

  7. Surface modification of amorphous nanosilica particles suppresses nanosilica-induced cytotoxicity, ROS generation, and DNA damage in various mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Tokuyuki [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yoshioka, Yasuo, E-mail: yasuo@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Matsuyama, Keigo; Nakazato, Yasutaro; Tochigi, Saeko; Hirai, Toshiro; Kondoh, Sayuri [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nagano, Kazuya [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saitoasagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Abe, Yasuhiro [Cancer Biology Research Center, Sanford Research/USD, 2301 E. 60th Street N, Sioux Falls, SD 57104 (United States); Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saitoasagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); The Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nabeshi, Hiromi [Division of Foods, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1, Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Tomoaki [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tsutsumi, Yasuo, E-mail: ytsutsumi@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saitoasagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); The Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is increasing concern regarding the potential health risks of nanomaterials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluated the effect of surface properties of nanomaterials on cellular responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We showed that the surface properties play an important in determining its safety. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These data provide useful information for producing safer nanomaterials. -- Abstract: Recently, nanomaterials have been utilized in various fields. In particular, amorphous nanosilica particles are increasingly being used in a range of applications, including cosmetics, food technology, and medical diagnostics. However, there is concern that the unique characteristics of nanomaterials might induce undesirable effects. The roles played by the physical characteristics of nanomaterials in cellular responses have not yet been elucidated precisely. Here, by using nanosilica particles (nSPs) with a diameter of 70 nm whose surface was either unmodified (nSP70) or modified with amine (nSP70-N) or carboxyl groups (nSP70-C), we examined the relationship between the surface properties of nSPs and cellular responses such as cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and DNA damage. To compare the cytotoxicity of nSP70, nSP70-N, or nSP70-C, we examined in vitro cell viability after nSP treatment. Although the susceptibility of each cell line to the nSPs was different, nSP70-C and nSP70-N showed lower cytotoxicity than nSP70 in all cell lines. Furthermore, the generation of ROS and induction of DNA damage in nSP70-C- and nSP70-N-treated cells were lower than those in nSP70-treated cells. These results suggest that the surface properties of nSP70 play an important role in determining its safety, and surface modification of nSP70 with amine or carboxyl groups may be useful for the development of safer nSPs. We hope that our results will contribute to the development of safer nanomaterials.

  8. Preparation and Characterization of K-Carrageenan/Nanosilica Biocomposite Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh R. Rane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to improve the performance properties of K-carrageenan (K-CRG by utilizing nanosilica (NSI as the reinforcing agent. The composite films were prepared by solution casting method. NSI was added up to 1.5% in the K-CRG matrix. The prepared films were characterized for mechanical (tensile strength, tensile modulus, and elongation at break, thermal (differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, barrier (water vapour transmission rate, morphological (scanning electron microscopy, contact angle, and crystallinity properties. Tensile strength, tensile modulus, and crystallinity were found to have increased by 13.8, 15, and 48% whereas water vapour transmission rate was found to have decreased by 48% for 0.5% NSI loaded K-CRG composite films. NSI was found to have formed aggregates for concentrations above 0.5% as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Melting temperature, enthalpy of melting, and degradation temperature of K-CRG increased with increase in concentration of NSI in K-CRG. Contact angle also increased with increase in concentration of NSI in K-CRG, indicating the decrease in hydrophilicity of the films improving its water resistance properties. This knowledge of the composite film could make beneficial contributions to the food and pharmaceutical packaging applications.

  9. Chitosan-nanosilica hybrid materials: Preparation and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podust, T. V.; Kulik, T. V.; Palyanytsya, B. B.; Gun'ko, V. M.; Tóth, A.; Mikhalovska, L.; Menyhárd, A.; László, K.

    2014-11-01

    The research focuses on the synthesis of novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on polysaccharide chitosan and nanosilicas (SiO2, TiO2/SiO2 and Al2O3/SiO2). The chitosan modified nanooxides were obtained by the equilibrium adsorption method. The chitosan adsorption capacities of silica/titania and silica/alumina are higher than of the plain silica due to the additional active sites present on the surfaces of the mixed oxides. The hybrid materials were characterized by low-temperature nitrogen adsorption/desorption, photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) and temperature-programmed desorption with mass spectrometry control (TPD MS) methods. The chitosan treatment only modestly influences the surface area SBET of the nanooxides but the rearrangement of the secondary and tertiary structures (aggregates and agglomerates) results in an enhancement of the mesoporosity and affects the size of the aggregates. The more severe thermodestruction of the polysaccharide desorbing from the modified mixed silicas indicates a stronger interaction between the chitosan and the mixed oxides compared to the silanol groups of the plain silica surface.

  10. Platelet mimicry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Hunter, Alan Christy; Peer, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Here we critically examine whether coating of nanoparticles with platelet membranes can truly disguise them against recognition by elements of the innate immune system. We further assess whether the "cloaking technology" can sufficiently equip nanoparticles with platelet-mimicking functionalities...

  11. Platelet Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their spleen removed surgically Use of birth control pills (oral contraceptives) Some conditions may cause a temporary (transitory) increased ... increased platelet counts include estrogen and birth control pills (oral contraceptives). Mildly decreased platelet counts may be seen in ...

  12. Mechanical and thermal studies of unsaturated polyester-toughened epoxy composites filled with amine-functionalized nanosilica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya Vinse Ruban, Y.; Ginil Mon, S.; Vetha Roy, D.

    2013-02-01

    The inter-crosslinking networks of unsaturated polyester (UP)-toughened epoxy-nanosilica hybrid nanocomposites have been developed. Epoxy resin was toughened with 5 and 10% (by wt) of unsaturated polyester using benzoyl peroxide as radical initiator and 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane (DDM) as a curing agent at appropriate condition, and the resulting product was identified by FT-IR spectra. Unsaturated polyester-toughened epoxy system (10%) was further filled with 1, 3, 5 and 7% (by wt) of amine-functionalized nanosilica particles prepared by sol-gel method. Modified nanosilica-filled hybrid UP-epoxy matrices developed in the form of casting were characterized for their thermal, mechanical properties and water absorption capacity according to ASTM standards. The degree of dispersion of nanosilica in the matrices was investigated by SEM technique. Mechanical testing data indicate that the introduction of UP into epoxy resin has improved the impact strength. Significant improvement in the flexural properties, tensile properties and impact strength were observed in the UP-epoxy blends with increase in the percentage of amine-modified nanosilica particles. The T g value decreases with UP toughening and increases with concentration of modified nanosilica on the UP-epoxy matrix. The water absorption behavior is found to decrease with UP toughening and concentration of modified nanosilica on the UP-epoxy matrix.

  13. Assessment of nanoparticle exposure in nanosilica handling process: including characteristics of nanoparticles leaking from a vacuum cleaner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boowook; Kim, Hyunwook; Yu, Il Je

    2014-01-01

    Nanosilica is one of the most widely used nanomaterials across the world. However, their assessment data on the occupational exposure to nanoparticles is insufficient. The present study performed an exposure monitoring in workplace environments where synthetic powders are prepared using fumed nanosilica. Furthermore, after it was observed during exposure monitoring that nanoparticles were emitted through leakage in a vacuum cleaner (even with a HEPA-filter installed in it), the properties of the leaked nanoparticles were also investigated. Workers were exposed to high-concentration nanosilica emitted into the air while pouring it into a container or transferring the container. The use of a vacuum cleaner with a leak (caused by an inadequate sealing) was found to be the origin of nanosilica dispersion in the indoor air. While the particle size of the nanosilica that emitted into the air (during the handling of nanosilica by a worker) was mostly over 100 nm or several microns (µm) due to the coagulation of particles, the size of nanosilica that leaked out of vacuum cleaner was almost similar to the primary size (mode diameter 11.5 nm). Analysis of area samples resulted in 20% (60% in terms of peak concentration) less than the analysis of the personals sample.

  14. Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenz, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    of the collective will of the people in the act of democratic self-government. The concept of the public sphere is used across the fields of media and communication research, cultural studies and the humanities, the history of ideas, legal and constitutional studies as well as democracy studies. Historically......In modern societies, the public sphere represents the intermediary realm that supports the communication of opinions, the discovery of problems that need to be dealt with collectively, the channeling of these problems through the filter of the media and political institutions, and the realization......, public spheres have undergone structural transformations that were closely connected to the emergence of different mass media. More recently, they are subject to trends of transnationalization and digitalization in politics and society....

  15. Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenz, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    In modern societies, the public sphere represents the intermediary realm that supports the communication of opinions, the discovery of problems that need to be dealt with collectively, the channeling of these problems through the filter of the media and political institutions, and the realization......, public spheres have undergone structural transformations that were closely connected to the emergence of different mass media. More recently, they are subject to trends of transnationalization and digitalization in politics and society....... of the collective will of the people in the act of democratic self-government. The concept of the public sphere is used across the fields of media and communication research, cultural studies and the humanities, the history of ideas, legal and constitutional studies as well as democracy studies. Historically...

  16. A new nanocomposite polymer electrolyte based on poly(vinyl alcohol) incorporating hypergrafted nano-silica

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Xian-Lei

    2012-01-01

    Solid-state nanocomposite polymer electrolytes based on poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA) incorporating hyperbranched poly(amine-ester) (HBPAE) grafted nano-silica (denoted as SiO2-g-HBPAE) have been prepared and investigated. Through surface pretreatment of nanoparticles, followed by Michael-addition and a self-condensation process, hyperbranched poly(amine-ester) was directly polymerized from the surface of nano-silica. Then the hypergrafted nanoparticles were added to PVA matrix, and blended with lithium perchlorate via mold casting method to fabricate nanocomposite polymer electrolytes. By introducing hypergrafted nanoparticles, ionic conductivity of solid composite is improved significantly at the testing temperature. Hypergrafted nano-silica may act as solid plasticizer, promoting lithium salt dissociation in the matrix as well as improving segmental motion of matrix. In addition, tensile testing shows that such materials are soft and tough even at room temperature. From the dielectric spectra of nanocomposite polymer electrolyte as the function of temperature, it can be deduced that Arrhenius behavior appears depending on the content of hypergrafted nano-silica and concentration of lithium perchlorate. At a loading of 15 wt% hypergrafted nano-silica and 54 wt% lithium perchlorate, promising ionic conductivities of PVA nanocomposite polymer electrolyte are achieved, about 1.51 × 10 -4 S cm-1 at 25 °C and 1.36 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 100 °C. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Platelet proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zufferey, Anne; Fontana, Pierre; Reny, Jean-Luc; Nolli, Severine; Sanchez, Jean-Charles

    2012-01-01

    Platelets are small cell fragments, produced by megakaryocytes, in the bone marrow. They play an important role in hemostasis and diverse thrombotic disorders. They are therefore primary targets of antithrombotic therapies. They are implicated in several pathophysiological pathways, such as inflammation or wound repair. In blood circulation, platelets are activated by several pathways including subendothelial matrix and thrombin, triggering the formation of the platelet plug. Studying their proteome is a powerful approach to understand their biology and function. However, particular attention must be paid to different experimental parameters, such as platelet quality and purity. Several technologies are involved during the platelet proteome processing, yielding information on protein identification, characterization, localization, and quantification. Recent technical improvements in proteomics combined with inter-disciplinary strategies, such as metabolomic, transcriptomics, and bioinformatics, will help to understand platelets biological mechanisms. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of the platelet proteome under different environmental conditions may contribute to elucidate complex processes relevant to platelet function regarding bleeding disorders or platelet hyperreactivity and identify new targets for antiplatelet therapy.

  18. Platelet lipidomic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolegowska, B; Lubkowska, A; De Girolamo, L

    2012-01-01

    Lipids account for 16-19 percent dry platelet matter and includes 65 percent phospholipids, 25 percent neutral lipids and about 8 percent glycosphingolipids. The cell membrane that surrounds platelets is a bilayer that contains different types phospholipids symmetrically distributed in resting platelets, such as phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine, and sphingomyelin. The collapse of lipid asymmetry is exposure of phosphatidylserine in the external leaflet of the plasma bilayer, where it is known to serve at least two major functions: providing a platform for development of the blood coagulation cascade and presenting the signal that induces phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. During activation, this asymmetrical distribution becomes disrupted, and PS and PE become exposed on the cell surface. The transbilayer movement of phosphatidylserine is responsible for the platelet procoagulant activity. Exposure of phosphatidylserine is a flag for macrophage recognition and clearance from the circulation. Platelets, stored at room temperature for transfusion for more than 5 days, undergo changes collectively known as platelet storage lesions. Thus, the platelet lipid composition and its possible modifications over time are crucial for efficacy of platelet rich plasma therapy. Moreover, a number of substances derived from lipids are contained into platelets. Eicosanoids are lipid signaling mediators generated by the action of lipoxygenase and include prostaglandins, thromboxane A2, 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. Isoprostanes have a chemical structure similar to this of prostanoids, but are differently produced into the particle, and are ligands for prostaglandins receptors, exhibiting biological activity like thromboxane A2. Endocannabinoids are derivatives from arachidonic acid which could reduce local pain. Phospholipids growth factors (sphingolipids, lysophosphatidic acid, platelet-activating factor) are involved in tissue

  19. Quasisymmetric Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellis Vyron

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Let Ω be a planar Jordan domain and α > 0. We consider double-dome-like surfaces Σ(Ω, tα over Ω where the height of the surface over any point x ∈ Ωequals dist(x, ∂Ωα. We identify the necessary and sufficient conditions in terms of and α so that these surfaces are quasisymmetric to S2 and we show that Σ(Ω, tα is quasisymmetric to the unit sphere S2 if and only if it is linearly locally connected and Ahlfors 2-regular.

  20. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE OF PORTLAND CEMENT BLENDED WITH NANOSILICA AND SILICA FUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I TOBÓN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper some physical properties of Colombian Portland cement type III replaced with nanosilica in percentages of 1, 3, 5 and 10% were evaluated. Main determined properties were fluidity, normal consistency, setting times, heat of hydration and compressive strength on pastes and mortars. It was made also a comparative analysis with samples substituted with commercial silica fume in percentages of 5, 10 and 15%. Results showed that the nanosilica from 5% beginning to have a major positive influence on the mechanical strength of mortars and with a 10% of substitution improvements in compressive strength up to 120% with respect to the control sample for one day of curing can be achieved. For longer curing time the improvement is decreased slightly, with near 80%, remaining this improvement in strength after 28 days of curing.

  1. Nonuniformity of starch/nanosilica composites and interfacial behaviour of water and organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gun' ko, V.M., E-mail: vlad_gunko@ukr.net [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, 17 General Naumov Str., Kiev 03164 (Ukraine); Turov, V.V.; Barvinchenko, V.N.; Turova, A.A.; Rugal, A.A.; Zarko, V.I. [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, 17 General Naumov Str., Kiev 03164 (Ukraine); Leboda, R. [Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 20031 Lublin (Poland)

    2010-06-15

    Hydrated starch alone and in composition with nanosilica A-300 and quercetin (natural antioxidant) was studied in the form of powders (mechanical mixture) and gels using {sup 1}H NMR (at 200-280 K), FTIR (293 K), TG (293-573 K), TSDC (90-265 K) and quantum chemistry methods. Influence of weakly polar (chloroform-d, CDCl{sub 3}) and polar ((CD{sub 3}){sub 2}SO, DMSO) deuterated solvents on bound water structure in these systems was also analysed at 200-280 K. The energetic and structural boundaries between weakly (unfrozen at 250-260 < T < 273 K) and strongly (unfrozen at 200 < T < 250-260 K) bound waters become nonabrupt after the addition of these solvents to quercetin/starch/nanosilica composites because of the differences in water interaction with these substances differently affecting its freezing point depression.

  2. Electrodeposition of macroporous nickel coating by employing nano-silica as template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijian; Chen, Baizhen; Du, Jingjing

    2012-09-01

    A novel method of preparing the macrporous nickel coating was described. The macrporous nickel coating was fabricated by employing nano-silica as the template. The effects of technological conditions and the concentration of the additives on the surface quality of coating were investigated, the nano-silica was characterized transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser particle size analyzer, and the macrporous nickel coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results showed that nano-silica particles were about 100 nm, the optimal technological conditions of electrodepositing nickel were that the cathode current density was 12 A/dm2, the temperature was 30 degrees C and the pH value was 2.0, the concentration of lauryl sodium sulfate was 0.15 g/L and the concentration of glucide was 3 g/L, the macrporous nickel coating was obtained when the adding nano-SiO2 content in the electroplating bath was 6 g/L and its structure was crystalline.

  3. Tennis core strings of polyamide-6 modified by surface-capped nano-silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Yi, Hongling; Lin, Heng; Zheng, Baicun

    2013-01-01

    A new method that modified silica nanoparticles were infused into PA6 is to produce tennis core string through a melt-extrusion process. The idea was to produce a highly strong and elastic tennis core string of PA6, utilizing the interactions between modified silica and polymer. The effects of surface-capped nano-silica on the strength and elongation of tennis core string were studied. It has been observed that with the infusion of silica nanoparticles modified by γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPS), the stress at breaking and E-modulus of tennis core string is enhanced by 46.24% and 15.17% comparing with neat PA6 with changeless elongation at breaking at a critical concentration. The source of this improvement has been traced to the produced strong covalent bond and hydrogen bond between epoxy groups and-COOH and-NH2 in polyamide. Besides, compared with kinds of others strings of previous research results, tennis core string added nano-silica modified by γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPS) has a strength at breaking at 352.43 MPa exceeding the natural gut string, the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), Monofil string and integrated nylon string by 42.05%, 4.49% and 9.38%, respectively. Meanwhile, tennis core string of polyamide modified by surface-capped nanosilica (PGMNS) has a higher elastic ratio at 0.15 than the other four strings.

  4. Acquired platelet function defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquired qualitative platelet disorders; Acquired disorders of platelet function ... blood clotting. Disorders that can cause problems in platelet function include: Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura Chronic myelogenous leukemia Multiple ...

  5. Platelet Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of gratitude that washed over me when I saw those platelets going into my husband’s body. I ... Needles LGBTQ+ Donors Blood Donor Community SleevesUp Games Facebook Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Red Cross Information ...

  6. Nanosilica induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity and cell type-dependent multinucleation in HepG2 and L-02 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongbo; Duan, Junchao; Li, Yang; Yu, Yang; Hu, Hejing; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Yannan; Li, Yanbo; CaixiaGuo; Zhou, Xianqing; Sun, Zhiwei

    2016-11-01

    The prevalent exposure to nanosilica gained concerns about health effects of these particles on human beings. Although nanosilica-induced multinucleation has been confirmed previously, the underlying mechanism was still not clear; this study was to investigate the origination of multinucleated cells caused by nanosilica (62 nm) in both HepG2 and L-02 cells. Cell viability and cellular uptake was determined by MTT assay and transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. Giemsa staining was applied to detect multinucleation. To clarify the origination of multinucleated cells, fluorescent probes, PKH26 and PKH67, time-lapse observation were further conducted by confocal microscopy. Results indicated that nanosilica particles were internalized into cells and induced cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Quantification analysis showed that nanosilica significantly increased the rates of binucleated and multinucleated cells, which suggested mitotic catastrophe induction. Moreover, dynamic visualization verified that multinucleation resulted from cell fusion in HepG2 cells not in L-02 cells after nanosilica exposure, suggesting cell type-dependent multinucleation formation. Both multinucleation and cell fusion were involved in genetic instability, which emphasized the significance to explore the multinucleation induced by nanosilica via environmental, occupational and consumer product exposure.

  7. Fibrous nano-silica (KCC-1)-supported palladium catalyst: Suzuki coupling reactions under sustainable conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Fihri, Aziz

    2011-11-15

    Noble amines recycled: Fibrous high-surface-area nano-silica functionalized with aminopropyl groups and loaded with well-dispersed Pd nanoparticles is evaluated for the Suzuki coupling of aromatic halides. It is active for the reaction of a range of aryl bromides and iodides as well as chlorides with aryl boronic acids in good to excellent yields. The catalyst can be recovered and reused for a number of cycles with negligible loss in activity. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. In-situ polymerized nanosilica/acrylic/epoxy hybrid coating:Preparation,microstructure and properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    An in-situ polymerization method was employed to synthesize the nanosilica/acrylic/epoxy (SAE) hybrid coating on AISI 430 stainless steel (430SS), as compared with a traditional blending method. Mi- crostructures of the blending SAE hybrid coating (BC) and in-situ SAE hybrid coating (ISC) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Corrosion resistance of BC and ISC on 430SS was evaluated by the neutral salt spray test and potentiodynamic polarization technique. Failure mechanism of the BC on 430SS was suggested by the microstructures and corrosion behaviors. Serious aggregation of nanosilica particles in the BC impairs its structural uniformity and induces the flaws formation. These flaws in the BC initiates the failures of pitting, filiform corrosion and peeling which are accelerated by the O2 concentration cell and H+ self-catalysis in chlorine-containing moist environments. The ISC-coated 430SS shows a more advantageous corrosion resistance than that of the BC-coated. The ISC-coated 430SS can suffer the salt spray over 1000 h. Besides, it exhibits a high corrosion potential beyond 0.925 V and good passivation characteristics during the potentiodynamic polarization.

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Polystyrene/Nanosilica Organic-Inorganic Hybrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A polystyrene(PS)/nanosilica organic-inorganic hybrid material was prepared from styrene monomer and commercial aqueous silica sol containing large amounts of Si-OH by means of emulsion polymerization. The nanosilica sol was modified by the addition of the reactive coupling agent methacryloxy propyltrimethoxysilane(MPS), and the resulting latex particles were protected by surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulphonate(SDS), hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose(HMPC), and poly(vinylpyrrolidone)(PVP). The effects of the type of surfactant, the amount of surfactant, and the coupling agent on the shape and stability of the resulting latex particles were investigated. The TEM observation indicates that among SDS, HMPC, and PVP, SDS is the best surfactant. When the content of SDS is 0.5% and the amount of MPS is 7% in the system, the latex with obvious core-shell structure could be obtained. The average diameters of the monodispersed particles range from 182 to278 nm, and the average number of silica beads for each composite are 1325 and 4409, respectively. The FTIR analysis shows that PS was chemically linked to silica through MPS. The thermal gravimetric analysis shows that when there is a higher silica content, the hybrid composites have a better heat resistance.

  10. Laccase-conjugated amino-functionalized nanosilica for efficient degradation of Reactive Violet 1 dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlout, Mayur; Rudakiya, Darshan M.; Gupte, Shilpa; Gupte, Akshaya

    2017-08-01

    Immobilization of enzyme with nanostructures enhances its ideal characteristics, which may allow the enzyme to become more stable and resistant. The present investigation deals with the formulation of laccase nanosilica conjugates to overcome the problems associated with its stability and reusability. Synthesized nanosilica and laccase nanoparticles were spherical shaped, with the mean size of 220 and 615 nm, respectively. Laccase nanoparticles had an optimum temperature of 55 °C and pH 4.0 for the oxidation of ABTS. Laccase nanoparticle retained 79% of residual activity till 20th cycle. It also showed 91% of its initial activity at lower temperatures even after 60 days. Laccase nanoparticles were applied for Reactive Violet 1 degradation wherein 96.76% of decolourization was obtained at pH 5.0 and 30 °C within 12 h. Toxicity studies on microbes and plants suggested that the degraded metabolites were less toxic than control dye. Thus, the method applied for immobilization increased storage stability and reusability of laccase, and therefore, it can be utilized for efficient degradation of azo dyes.

  11. Use of polypropylene fibers coated with nano-silica particles into a cementitious mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppola, B., E-mail: bcoppola@unisa.it; Di Maio, L.; Scarfato, P.; Incarnato, L. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno Via Giovanni Paolo II n. 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    Fiber reinforced cementitious composite (FRCC) materials have been widely used during last decades in order to overcome some of traditional cementitious materials issues: brittle behaviour, fire resistance, cover spalling, impact strength. For composite materials, fiber/matrix bond plays an important role because by increasing fiber/matrix interactions is possible to increase the behaviour of the entire material. In this study, in order to improve fiber to matrix adhesion, two chemical treatments of polypropylene fibers were investigated: alkaline hydrolysis and nano-silica sol-gel particles deposition. Treatmtents effect on fibers morphology and mechanical properties was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tensile tests. SEM investigations report the presence of spherical nano-silica particles on fiber surface, in the case of sol-gel process, while alkaline hydrolysis leads to an increase of fibers roughness. Both treatments have negligible influence on fibers mechanical properties confirming the possibility of their use in a cementitious mortar. Pullout tests were carried out considering three embedded length of fibers in mortar samples (10, 20 and 30 mm, respectively) showing an increase of pullout energy for treated fibers. The influence on fiber reinforced mortar mechanical properties was investigated by three-point flexural tests on prismatic specimens considering two fibers length (15 and 30 mm) and two fibers volume fractions (0.50 and 1.00 %). A general increase of flexural strength over the reference mix was achieved and an overall better behaviour is recognizable for mortars containing treated fibers.

  12. Biogenic nanosilica blended by nanofibrillated cellulose as support for slow-release of tebuconazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Bruno D.; Magalhães, Washington L. E.

    2016-09-01

    Despite the potential application of nanotechnology in the agricultural sector, it is not as competitive as other industrial sectors because these approaches do not demonstrate a sufficient economic return to counterbalance the high production costs. For biocidal purposes, the reduction of the initial costs can be addressed if biogenic nanosilica and nanofibrillated cellulose were used to prepare nanocomposite for further utilization as support for slow-release of tebuconazole. Infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis revealed that biocide was entrapped in the cellulose/silica nanocomposites network. The scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microtomography evaluation showed the nanocomposite's microstructure based on irregular shape nanosilica blended by nanofibrillated cellulose in a randomly organized network. Elemental mapping images showed the tebuconazole better dispersed in the composite blended with lower content of cellulose. The nanofibrillated cellulose played an important role in the release rate of the biocide mainly at short-term periods. At 15 days of immersion, the pure biocide had 95 % release compared with 30-45 % release of the tebuconazole loaded in the nanocomposites.

  13. Preparation of Nanosilica-immobilized Antioxidant and the Antioxidation Effects in Polypropylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zai-man Liu; Yun Liu; Nai-pu He; Bai-yu Li

    2014-01-01

    To improve the dispersion of silica in polypropylene (PP) matrix and to avoid physical loss of the antioxidants,nanosilica with dendric polyamidoamines on the surface (SG-PAMAM) was synthesized by using divergent method.Then nanosilica-immobilized antioxidant (SG-PAMAM-AO) was prepared by grafting 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-aminophenol which was derived from 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-phenol (AO).The SG-PAMAM-AO was added into PP by melt mixing to study the aging property.The oxidation induction time of PP/SG-PAMAM-AO and PP/AO compounds was measured.It was found that the antioxidant property of the SG-PAMAM-AO was superior to that of AO.According to the changes of carbonyl absorption before and after photo-thermal aging,the photo-thermal oxidative stability of PP/SG-PAMAM-AO was much higher than that of PP,PP/SG-PAMAM and PP/AO.

  14. Synthesis of a nanosilica supported CO{sub 2} sorbent in a fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria-Hoyo, C., E-mail: cshoyo@us.es [Facultad de Física, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Valverde, J.M. [Facultad de Física, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Ommen, J.R. van [Department of Chemical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Product and Process Engineering, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands); Sánchez-Jiménez, P.E.; Pérez-Maqueda, L.A.; Sayagués, M.J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales (CSIC – Universidad de Sevilla), Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • CaO coating at atmospheric pressure is applied on silica nanoparticles in a fluidized bed. • Atmospheric pressure would facilitate scaling-up of the process. • The conditions for the coating process at atmospheric pressure are discussed. • The CO{sub 2} sorbent capacity is demonstrated by TGA in carbonation/calcination. • STEM-EDX shows the presence of CaO on the surface of the nanoparticles. - Abstract: CaO has been deposited on a nanosilica powder matrix by a procedure based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a fluidized bed reactor at atmospheric pressure following a potentially scalable process. In previous works ALD in gas fluidized bed has been mostly performed under reduced pressure, which hampers scaling-up the production technology. The material synthesized in the present work is tested as CO{sub 2} solid sorbent at calcium looping conditions. Multicyclic thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows that the nanosilica support stabilizes the capture capacity of CaO. EDX-STEM analysis illustrates the presence of Ca well distributed on the surface of the SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  15. Ballistic impact behavior of carbon nanotube and nanosilica dispersed resin and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, K. S.; Akella, K.; Joshi, M.; Naik, N. K.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental studies are presented on the ballistic impact behavior of nanoparticle dispersed materials viz. symmetric balanced cross-ply laminates made using unidirectional E-glass fabric with epoxy resin and neat epoxy resin. The nanoparticles used are nanosilica and multi-walled carbon nanotube for polymer matrix composites and nanosilica for epoxy resin. For comparison, studies are carried out on symmetric balanced cross-ply E-glass/epoxy and neat epoxy resin without nanoparticles. Effect of nanoparticle dispersion on ballistic limit velocity, V50 and energy absorbed has been studied. It is observed that V50 can be enhanced up to 6.3% for polymer matrix composites and up to 7.3% for neat resin on addition of nanoparticles. Also, energy absorbed can be increased up to 13.0% for polymer matrix composites and up to 15.2% for neat resin on addition of nanoparticles. Damage and energy absorbing mechanisms for different types of materials studied is also presented. Further, it is observed that the damage size on the target around the point of impact decreases on addition of nanoparticles. Quantitative data are given for high velocity impact behavior of the five types of specimens studied.

  16. Immobilization of Magnetic Nanoparticles onto Amine-Modified Nano-Silica Gel for Copper Ions Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Elkady

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel nano-hybrid was synthesized through immobilization of amine-functionalized silica gel nanoparticles with nanomagnetite via a co-precipitation technique. The parameters, such as reagent concentrations, reaction temperature and time, were optimized to accomplish the nano-silica gel chelating matrix. The most proper amine-modified silica gel nanoparticles were immobilized with magnetic nanoparticles. The synthesized magnetic amine nano-silica gel (MANSG was established and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM. The feasibility of MANSG for copper ions’ remediation from wastewater was examined. MANSG achieves a 98% copper decontamination from polluted water within 90 min. Equilibrium sorption of copper ions onto MANSG nanoparticles obeyed the Langmuir equation compared to the Freundlich, Temkin, Elovich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R equilibrium isotherm models. The pseudo-second-order rate kinetics is appropriate to describe the copper sorption process onto the fabricated MANSG.

  17. Synthesis and surface characteristics of nanosilica produced from alkali-extracted rice husk ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Tzong-Horng, E-mail: thliou@mail.mcut.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gungjuan Rd., Taipei 24301, Taiwan (China); Yang, Chun-Chen [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gungjuan Rd., Taipei 24301, Taiwan (China)

    2011-04-25

    Rice husk is a form of agricultural biomass that provides an abundant silicon source. This study used rice husk as a raw material to prepare nanosilica without adding an extra surfactant. This work investigated a dissolution-precipitation technique as a function of acid treatment, sodium silicate concentration, gelation pH, aging temperature, and aging time to establish optimum conditions for preparing silica nanoparticles. Experimental results showed that silica produced by hydrochloric acid possesses higher surface area than that of sulfuric, oxalic, and citric acids. Surface characteristics of the sample depend mainly upon gelation pH. The highest surface area and pore volume of silica samples were 634 m{sup 2}/g and 0.811 cm{sup 3}/g. Pore diameters were controllable from 3 to 9 nm by adjusting the solution pH value. Particles had a uniform size of 5-30 nm. The objective of this study was to develop a method of nanosilica preparation that enhances the economic benefits of re-using rice husk waste.

  18. Structural, thermal, electrical and mechanical properties of nanosilica-composite polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johan, Mohd Rafie; Jimson, Sharon Anak; Ghazali, Nadiah; Zahari, Nurhannie Azrin Mohd; Redha, Nurul Farzana [Malaya Univ., Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Advanced Materials Research Lab.

    2011-04-15

    We synthesized a new kind of solid polymer electrolyte with polyethylene oxide (PEO) as a host, lithium triflate (LiCF{sub 3}-SO{sub 3}) as a salt, mixtures of ethylene carbonate (EC) and dibuthyl phthalate (DBP) as a double plasticizer and nanosilica (SiO{sub 2}) as a filler using the solution casting technique. Nanosilica was produced through mechanical milling with a size range of 60-80 nm as shown by transmission electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the complex formation of the PEO-LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}-EC-DBP-SiO{sub 2} system. The optimum conductivity value at room temperature was 5.1 . 10{sup -3}S cm{sup -1} for 4 wt.% of SiO{sub 2}. Differential scanning calorimetry results show that the glass transition temperature of the composite polymer electrolyte was found to increase when SiO{sub 2} was added. Addition of salt and plasticizers decreases the Young's modulus of the polymer electrolyte. However, the addition of 4 wt.% SiO{sub 2} increases the Young's modulus value from 5.1 . 10{sup -2} to 1.08 . 10{sup -1} MPa. (orig.)

  19. Platelet Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Platelet Function Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... their patients by ordering one or more platelet function tests. Platelet function testing may include one or more of ...

  20. Congenital platelet function defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... storage pool disorder; Glanzmann's thrombasthenia; Bernard-Soulier syndrome; Platelet function defects - congenital ... Congenital platelet function defects are bleeding disorders that ... function, even though there are normal platelet numbers. Most ...

  1. The hydrocarbon sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandev, P.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrocarbon sphere is understood to be the area in which hydrocarbon compounds are available. It is believed that the lower boundary on the hydrocarbon sphere is most probably located at a depth where the predominant temperatures aid in the destruction of hydrocarbons (300 to 400 degrees centigrade). The upper limit on the hydrocarbon sphere obviously occurs at the earth's surface, where hydrocarbons oxidize to H20 and CO2. Within these ranges, the occurrence of the hydrocarbon sphere may vary from the first few hundred meters to 15 kilometers or more. The hydrocarbon sphere is divided into the external (mantle) sphere in which the primary gas, oil and solid hydrocarbon fields are located, and the internal (metamorphic) sphere containing primarily noncommercial accumulations of hydrocarbon gases and solid carbon containing compounds (anthraxilite, shungite, graphite, etc.) based on the nature and scale of hydrocarbon compound concentrations (natural gas, oil, maltha, asphalt, asphaltite, etc.).

  2. Surface Degradation and Nanoparticle Release of a Commercial Nanosilica/Polyurethane Coating Under UV Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Deborah S; Huang, Sin-Ru; Cheng, Yu-Lun; Rabb, Savelas A; Gorham, Justin M; Krommenhoek, Peter J; Yu, Lee L; Nguyen, Tinh; Sung, Lipiin

    2016-09-01

    Many coatings properties such as mechanical, electrical, and ultra violet (UV) resistance are greatly enhanced by the addition of nanoparticles, which can potentially increase the use of nanocoatings for many outdoor applications. However, because polymers used in all coatings are susceptible to degradation by weathering, nanoparticles in a coating may be brought to the surface and released into the environment during the life cycle of a nanocoating. Therefore, the goal of this study is to investigate the process and mechanism of surface degradation and potential particle release from a commercial nanosilica/polyurethane coating under accelerated UV exposure. Recent research at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that the matrix in an epoxy nanocomposite undergoes photodegradation during exposure to UV radiation, resulting in surface accumulation of nanoparticles and subsequent release from the composite. In this study, specimens of a commercial polyurethane (PU) coating, to which a 5 mass % surface treated silica nanoparticles solution was added, were exposed to well-controlled, accelerated UV environments. The nanocoating surface morphological changes and surface accumulation of nanoparticles as a function of UV exposure were measured, along with chemical change and mass loss using a variety of techniques. Particles from the surface of the coating were collected using a simulated rain process developed at NIST, and the collected runoff specimens were measured using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) to determine the amount of silicon released from the nanocoatings. The results demonstrated that the added silica nanoparticle solution decreased the photodegradation rate (i.e., stabilization) of the commercial PU nanocoating. Although the degradation was slower than the previous nanosilica epoxy model system, the degradation of the PU matrix resulted in accumulation of silica nanoparticles on the

  3. Distribution and histologic effects of intravenously administered amorphous nanosilica particles in the testes of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Yuki [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yoshioka, Yasuo, E-mail: yasuo@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Satoh, Hiroyoshi; Nojiri, Nao [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nagano, Kazuya [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saitoasagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Abe, Yasuhiro [Cancer Biology Research Center, Sanford Research/USD, 2301 E. 60th Street N, Sioux Falls, SD 57104 (United States); Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saitoasagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); The Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nabeshi, Hiromi [Division of Foods, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1, Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Tomoaki [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tsutsumi, Yasuo, E-mail: ytsutsumi@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saitoasagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); The Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is rising concern regarding the potential health risks of nanomaterials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few studies have investigated the effect of nanomaterials on the reproductive system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Here, we evaluated the intra-testicular distribution of nanosilica particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We showed that nanosilica particles can penetrate the blood-testis barrier. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These data provide basic information on ways to create safer nanomaterials. -- Abstract: Amorphous nanosilica particles (nSP) are being utilized in an increasing number of applications such as medicine, cosmetics, and foods. The reduction of the particle size to the nanoscale not only provides benefits to diverse scientific fields but also poses potential risks. Several reports have described the in vivo and in vitro toxicity of nSP, but few studies have examined their effects on the male reproductive system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the testicular distribution and histologic effects of systemically administered nSP. Mice were injected intravenously with nSP with diameters of 70 nm (nSP70) or conventional microsilica particles with diameters of 300 nm (nSP300) on two consecutive days. The intratesticular distribution of these particles 24 h after the second injection was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. nSP70 were detected within sertoli cells and spermatocytes, including in the nuclei of spermatocytes. No nSP300 were observed in the testis. Next, mice were injected intravenously with 0.4 or 0.8 mg nSP70 every other day for a total of four administrations. Testes were harvested 48 h and 1 week after the last injection and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histologic analysis. Histologic findings in the testes of nSP70-treated mice did not differ from those of control mice. Taken together, our results suggest that nSP70 can penetrate the blood-testis barrier and the

  4. CO2 permeation through poly(amide-6-b-ethylene oxide)-nanosilica membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovineh, Shirin Gh.; Asghari, Morteza; Khanbabaei, Ghader

    2014-11-01

    The organic-inorganic hybrids of poly(amide-6-b-ethylene oxide) (PEBA) and silica utilizing aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as precursor was prepared via sol-gel process and was compared with neat PEBA. The nanodispersed inorganic network produced in the organic matrix was structurally characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) that revealed the existence of different chemical groups corresponding to the silica precursors. The single gas permeability was carried out for neat PEBA and PEBA-nano silica (10 wt.% precursor) membranes. CO2 permeability for the neat polymer membrane was higher than the nano-composite membrane and increased with pressure. Adding 10 wt.% of nanosilica filler into the polymeric matrix caused CO2 permeability to decrease.

  5. Use of triangular membership function for prediction of compressive strength of concrete containing nanosilica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, application of fuzzy logic technique using triangular membership function for developing models for predicting compressive strength of concrete with partial replacement of cement with nanosilica has been carried out. For this, the data have been taken from various literatures and help in optimizing the constituents available and reducing cost and efforts in studying design to develop mixes by predefining suitable range for experimenting. The use of nanostructured materials in concrete can add many benefits that are directly related to the durability of various cementitious materials, besides the fact that it is possible to reduce the quantities of cement in the composite. Successful prediction by the model indicates that fuzzy logic could be a useful modelling tool for engineers and research scientists in the area of cement and concrete. Compressive strength values of concrete can be predicted in fuzzy logic models without attempting any experiments in a quite short period of time with tiny error rates.

  6. Friction and wear behavior of nanosilica-filled epoxy resin composite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang Yingke [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Chen Xinhua, E-mail: xuc0374@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Song Shiyong; Yu Laigui [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Zhang Pingyu, E-mail: pingyu@henu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2012-06-15

    Hydrophilic silica nanoparticles (abridged as nano-SiO{sub 2}) surface-capped with epoxide were dispersed in the solution of epoxy resin (abridged as EP) in tetrahydrofuran under magnetic stirring. Resultant suspension of nano-SiO{sub 2} in EP was then coated onto the surface of glass slides and dried at 80 Degree-Sign C in a vacuum oven for 2 h, generating epoxy resin-nanosilica composite coatings (coded as EP/nano-SiO{sub 2}). EP coating without nano-SiO{sub 2} was also prepared as a reference in the same manner. A water contact angle meter and a surface profiler were separately performed to measure the water contact angles and surface roughness of as-prepared EP/nano-SiO{sub 2} composite coatings. The friction and wear behavior of as-prepared EP/nano-SiO{sub 2} composite coatings sliding against steel in a ball-on-plate contact configuration under unlubricated condition was evaluated. Particularly, the effect of coating composition on the friction and wear behavior of the composite coatings was highlighted in relation to their microstructure and worn surface morphology examined by means of scanning electron microscopy. Results indicate that EP/nano-SiO{sub 2} composite coatings have a higher surface roughness and water contact angle than EP coating. The EP-SiO{sub 2} coatings doped with a proper amount of hydrophilic SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles show lower friction coefficient than EP coating. However, the introduction of surface-capped nanosilica as the filler results in inconsistent change in the friction coefficient and wear rate of the filled EP-matrix composites; and it needs further study to achieve well balanced friction-reducing and antiwear abilities of the composite coatings for tribological applications.

  7. Jammed lattice sphere packings

    OpenAIRE

    Kallus, Yoav; Marcotte, Étienne; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    We generate and study an ensemble of isostatic jammed hard-sphere lattices. These lattices are obtained by compression of a periodic system with an adaptive unit cell containing a single sphere until the point of mechanical stability. We present detailed numerical data about the densities, pair correlations, force distributions, and structure factors of such lattices. We show that this model retains many of the crucial structural features of the classical hard-sphere model and propose it as a...

  8. DISE: directed sphere exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, Alberto; Lee, Man-Ling

    2003-01-01

    The Sphere Exclusion algorithm is a well-known algorithm used to select diverse subsets from chemical-compound libraries or collections. It can be applied with any given distance measure between two structures. It is popular because of the intuitive geometrical interpretation of the method and its good performance on large data sets. This paper describes Directed Sphere Exclusion (DISE), a modification of the Sphere Exclusion algorithm, which retains all positive properties of the Sphere Exclusion algorithm but generates a more even distribution of the selected compounds in the chemical space. In addition, the computational requirement is significantly reduced, thus it can be applied to very large data sets.

  9. Dielectric properties of nanosilica/low-density polyethylene composites: The surface chemistry of nanoparticles and deep traps induced by nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ju

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Four kinds of nanosilica particles with different surface modification were employed to fabricate low-density polyethylene (LDPE composites using melt mixing and hot molding methods. The surface chemistry of modified nanosilica was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. All silica nanoparticles were found to suppress the space charge injection and accumulation, increase the volume resistivity, decrease the permittivity and dielectric loss factor at low frequencies, and decrease the dielectric breakdown strength of the LDPE polymers. The modified nanoparticles, in general, showed better dielectric properties than the unmodified ones. It was found that the carrier mobility, calculated from J–V curves using the Mott-Gurney equation, was much lower for the nanocomposites than for the neat LDPE.

  10. Polyacrylate/nanosilica causes pleural and pericardial effusion, and pulmonary fibrosis and granuloma in rats similar to those observed in exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoli; Cao, Wen; Chang, Bing; Zhang, Linyuan; Qiao, Peihuan; Li, Xue; Si, Lifang; Niu, Yingmei; Song, Yuguo

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials offer great benefit as well as potential damage to humans. Workers exposed to polyacrylate coatings have pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and pulmonary fibrosis and granuloma, which are thought to be related to the high exposure to nanomaterials in the coatings. The study aimed to determine whether polyacrylate/silica nanoparticles cause similar toxicity in rats, as observed in exposed workers. Ninety male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups with 18 rats in each group. The groups included the saline control group, another control group of polyacrylate only, and low-, intermediate-, and high-dose groups of polyacrylate/nanosilica with concentrations of 3.125, 6.25, and 12.5 mg/kg. Seventy-five rats for the 1-week study were terminated for scheduled necropsy at 24 hours, 3 days, and 7 days postintratracheal instillation. The remaining 15 rats (three males/group) had repeated ultrasound and chest computed tomography examinations in a 2-week study to observe the pleural and pericardial effusion and pulmonary toxicity. We found that polyacrylate/nanosilica resulted in pleural and pericardial effusions, where nanosilica was isolated and detected. Effusion occurred on day 3 and day 5 post-administration of nanocomposites in the 6.25 and 12.5 mg/kg groups, it gradually rose to a maximum on days 7-10 and then slowly decreased and disappeared on day 14. With an increase in polyacrylate/nanosilica concentrations, pleural effusion increased, as shown by ultrasonographic qualitative observations. Pulmonary fibrosis and granuloma were also observed in the high-dose polyacrylate/nanosilica group. Our study shows that polyacrylate/nanosilica results in specific toxicity presenting as pleural and pericardial effusion, as well as pulmonary fibrosis and granuloma, which are almost identical to results in reported patients. These results indicate the urgent need and importance of nanosafety and awareness of toxicity of polyacrylate/nanosilica.

  11. Platelet matching for alloimmunized patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S H.Hsu

    2010-01-01

    @@ Platelets play an essential role in blood coagulation,hemostasis and maintenance of vascular integrity.Platelets are utilized primarily to prevent or treat bleeding in thrombocytopenic patients and patients with impaired platelet production in the bone marrow and/or with dysfunctional platelets.In current practice,platelet transfusion begins with randomly selected platelet products:either pooled platelets prepared from whole blood derived platelets; or single donor platelets prepared by apheresis procedures.

  12. MINIMAL IMMERSIONS OF SPHERES INTO SPHERES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Carmo, Manfredo P.; Wallach, Nolan R.

    1969-01-01

    In this paper we announce a qualitative description of an important class of closed n-dimensional submanifolds of the m-dimensional sphere, namely, those which locally minimize the n-area in the same way that geodesics minimize the arc length and are themselves locally n-spheres of constant radius r; those r that may appear are called admissible. It is known that for n = 2 each admissible r determines a unique element of the above class. The main result here is that for each n ≥ 3 and each admissible r ≥ [unk]8 there exists a continuum of distinct such submanifolds. PMID:16591771

  13. Dispersion of nano-silica in monomer casting nylon6 and its effect on the structure and properties of composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available To promote dispersion of nano-silica in monomer casting nylon6 (MC nylon6, nano-silica was dispersed in melted caprolactam with the assistance of ultrasound, anionic polymerization was then initiated to form silica/MC nylon6 in-situ nanocomposites. It was found that hydrogen bonds were formed between nano-silica and caprolactam, in the meantime, ultrasound helped to break the nanoparticles aggregations into smaller ones or even mono-dispersing particles. Therefore, the agglomerated nanoparticles were pulled apart and stabilized by caprolactam. Additionally, the rapid anionic polymerization of caprolactam also contributed to the avoidance of re-agglomeration and deposition of nanoparticles during the polymerization process, leading to the uniform distribution of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. Mechanical tests indicated that the silica/MC nylon6 in-situ nanocomposites prepared according to the above strategy were simultaneously toughened, strengthened and stiffened. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA results showed that thermal stability of nanocomposites was notably improved compared to neat MC nylon6.

  14. ORGANIZATION IN CONTEMPORARY PUBLIC SPHERE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosemarie HAINES

    2013-01-01

    The critical analysis of Habermas’ Public Sphere Theory and the comparative undertaking to the current day enables us to assert that in contemporary society, public sphere is no longer a political public sphere, this dimension being...

  15. SPHERES National Lab Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Jose

    2014-01-01

    SPHERES is a facility of the ISS National Laboratory with three IVA nano-satellites designed and delivered by MIT to research estimation, control, and autonomy algorithms. Since Fall 2010, The SPHERES system is now operationally supported and managed by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). A SPHERES Program Office was established and is located at NASA Ames Research Center. The SPHERES Program Office coordinates all SPHERES related research and STEM activities on-board the International Space Station (ISS), as well as, current and future payload development. By working aboard ISS under crew supervision, it provides a risk tolerant Test-bed Environment for Distributed Satellite Free-flying Control Algorithms. If anything goes wrong, reset and try again! NASA has made the capability available to other U.S. government agencies, schools, commercial companies and students to expand the pool of ideas for how to test and use these bowling ball-sized droids. For many of the researchers, SPHERES offers the only opportunity to do affordable on-orbit characterization of their technology in the microgravity environment. Future utilization of SPHERES as a facility will grow its capabilities as a platform for science, technology development, and education.

  16. Experiment SPHERE status 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaulov, S.B., E-mail: shaul@sci.lebedev.r [P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Besshapov, S.P.; Kabanova, N.V.; Sysoeva, T.I. [P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Antonov, R.A.; Anyuhina, A.M.; Bronvech, E.A.; Chernov, D.V.; Galkin, V.I. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Tkaczyk, W. [Department of Experimental Physics of University of Lodz (Poland); Finger, M. [Karlov University, Prague (Czech Republic); Sonsky, M. [COMPAS Consortium, Turnov (Czech Republic)

    2009-12-15

    The expedition carried out in March, 2008 to Lake Baikal became an important stage in the development of the SPHERE experiment. During the expedition the SPHERE-2 installation was hoisted, for the first time, on a tethered balloon, APA, to a height of 700 m over the lake surface covered with ice and snow. A series of test measurements were made. Preliminary results of the data processing are presented. The next plan of the SPHERE experiment is to begin a set of statistics for constructing the CR spectrum in the energy range 10{sup 16}-10{sup 18} eV.

  17. Jammed lattice sphere packings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallus, Yoav; Marcotte, Étienne; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-12-01

    We generate and study an ensemble of isostatic jammed hard-sphere lattices. These lattices are obtained by compression of a periodic system with an adaptive unit cell containing a single sphere until the point of mechanical stability. We present detailed numerical data about the densities, pair correlations, force distributions, and structure factors of such lattices. We show that this model retains many of the crucial structural features of the classical hard-sphere model and propose it as a model for the jamming and glass transitions that enables exploration of much higher dimensions than are usually accessible.

  18. Jammed lattice sphere packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallus, Yoav; Marcotte, Étienne; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-12-01

    We generate and study an ensemble of isostatic jammed hard-sphere lattices. These lattices are obtained by compression of a periodic system with an adaptive unit cell containing a single sphere until the point of mechanical stability. We present detailed numerical data about the densities, pair correlations, force distributions, and structure factors of such lattices. We show that this model retains many of the crucial structural features of the classical hard-sphere model and propose it as a model for the jamming and glass transitions that enables exploration of much higher dimensions than are usually accessible.

  19. Clinical application of radiolabelled platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, C. (Medical Univ. Lubeck, Lubeck (DE))

    1990-01-01

    This book presents papers on the clinical applications of radiolabelled platelets. The papers are grouped into six sections on platelet labelling techniques, radiolabelled platelets in cardiology, monitoring of antiplatelet therapy, platelet scintigraphy in stroke patients, platelet scintigraphy in angiology, and platelet scintigraphy in hematology and other clinical applications, including renal transplant rejection.

  20. STRUCTURAL MODIFICATION OF NEW FORMATIONS IN CEMENT MATRIX USING CARBON NANOTUBE DISPERSIONS AND NANOSILICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev

    2017-01-01

    nanosilica is ensured by a direct influence of hydration processes and subsequent crystallization of new formations. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis with detection in IR spectra have revealed that adding of multi-walled carbon nanotubes dispersion together with nanodispersed silica provides structuring of rather dense shell of hydrated new formations along cement matrix on the surface of solid phase. The structured interfacial layers form separate cells in the modified cement matrix that ensures a formation of extremely filled system and predetermines structural strengthening of the modified cement matrix due to formation of spatial packaging. Consequently, the main factor increasing characteristics of cement concrete which is modified with carbon nanotubes and nanosilica is a structural modification of calcium hydrosilicates with relation to composition and morphology of new formations.

  1. Covalent Immobilization and Characterization of a Novel Pullulanase from Fontibacillus sp. Strain DSHK 107 onto Florisil® and Nano-silica for Pullulan Hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagöz, Dilek; Yildirim, Deniz; Güvenmez, Hatice Korkmaz; Sihay, Damla; Tükel, S Seyhan

    2016-08-01

    A novel pullulanase partially purified from Fontibacillus sp. was covalently immobilized on Florisil® and nano-silica through both glutaraldehyde and (3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane spacer arms. The pullulanase immobilized on Florisil® and nano-silica through glutaraldehyde spacer arm showed 85 and 190 % activity of its free form, respectively, whereas no activity was observed when it was immobilized on the same supports through (3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane spacer arm. The maximum working pHs of both the immobilized pullulanases on Florisil® and nano-silica through glutaraldehyde spacer arm were determined as 5.0; however, the maximum working pH of the free pullulanase was pH 6.0. The maximum temperatures of all the pullulanase preparations were determined as 35 °C. The apparent K m values were 1.49, 1.54, and 0.59 mg/mL pullunan, respectively, for the free and immobilized pullulanases on Florisil® and nano-silica. The corresponding apparent V max values were 0.59, 1.53, and 1.57 U mg prot.(-1) min.(-1). Thermal stability of pullulanases immobilized on Florisil® and nano-silica was enhanced 6.5- and 15.6-folds, respectively at 35 °C and 6.6- and 16.0-folds, respectively, at 50 °C. The pullulanases immobilized on Florisil® and nano-silica protected 71 and 90 % of their initial activities after 10 reuses.

  2. Affine Sphere Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate spacetimes whose light cones could be anisotropic. We prove the equivalence of the structures: (a) Lorentz-Finsler manifold for which the mean Cartan torsion vanishes, (b) Lorentz-Finsler manifold for which the indicatrix (observer space) at each point is a convex hyperbolic affine sphere centered on the zero section, and (c) pair given by a spacetime volume and a sharp convex cone distribution. The equivalence suggests to describe (affine sphere) spacetimes with this structure, so that no algebraic-metrical concept enters the definition. As a result, this work shows how the metric features of spacetime emerge from elementary concepts such as measure and order. Non-relativistic spacetimes are obtained replacing proper spheres with improper spheres, so the distinction does not call for group theoretical elements. In physical terms, in affine sphere spacetimes the light cone distribution and the spacetime measure determine the motion of massive and massless particles (hence the dispersion relation). Furthermore, it is shown that, more generally, for Lorentz-Finsler theories non-differentiable at the cone, the lightlike geodesics and the transport of the particle momentum over them are well defined, though the curve parametrization could be undefined. Causality theory is also well behaved. Several results for affine sphere spacetimes are presented. Some results in Finsler geometry, for instance in the characterization of Randers spaces, are also included.

  3. Chinese Armillary Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    The armillary sphere was perhaps the most important type of astronomical instrument in ancient China. It was first invented by Luoxia Hong in the first century BC. After Han times, the structure of the armillary sphere became increasingly sophisticated by including more and more rings representing various celestial movements as recognized by the Chinese astronomers. By the eighth century, the Chinese armillary sphere consisted of three concentric sets of rings revolving on the south-north polar axis. The relative position of the rings could be adjusted to reflect the precession of the equinoxes and the regression of the Moon's nodes along the ecliptic. To counterbalance the defect caused by too many rings, Guo Shoujing from the late thirteenth century constructed the Simplified Instruments which reorganized the rings of the armillary sphere into separate instruments for measuring equatorial coordinates and horizontal coordinates. The armillary sphere was still preserved because it was a good illustration of celestial movements. A fifteenth-century replica of Guo Shoujing's armillary sphere still exists today.

  4. Particle image velocimetry and infrared thermography in a levitated droplet with nanosilica suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Abhishek; Kumar, Ranganathan [University of Central Florida, Department of Mechanical Materials and Aerospace Engineering, Orlando, FL (United States); Basu, Saptarshi [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangalore (India)

    2012-03-15

    Preferential accumulation and agglomeration kinetics of nanoparticles suspended in an acoustically levitated water droplet under radiative heating has been studied. Particle image velocimetry performed to map the internal flow field shows a single cell recirculation with increasing strength for decreasing viscosities. Infrared thermography and high speed imaging show details of the heating process for various concentrations of nanosilica droplets. Initial stage of heating is marked by fast vaporization of liquid and sharp temperature rise. Following this stage, aggregation of nanoparticles is seen resulting in various structure formations. At low concentrations, a bowl structure of the droplet is dominant, maintained at a constant temperature. At high concentrations, viscosity of the solution increases, leading to rotation about the levitator axis due to the dominance of centrifugal motion. Such complex fluid motion inside the droplet due to acoustic streaming eventually results in the formation of a ring structure. This horizontal ring eventually reorients itself due to an imbalance of acoustic forces on the ring, exposing larger area for laser absorption and subsequent sharp temperature rise. (orig.)

  5. Effect of nanosilica on optical, electric modulus and AC conductivity of polyvinyl alcohol/polyaniline films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed, Somyia, E-mail: somyia.elsayed@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Education, Taif University (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, 63514 El Fayoum (Egypt); Abel-Baset, Tarob; Elfadl, Azza Abou [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, 63514 El Fayoum (Egypt); Hassen, Arafa [Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Education, Taif University (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, 63514 El Fayoum (Egypt)

    2015-05-01

    Nanosilica (NS) was synthesized by a sol–gel method and mixed with 0.98 polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/0.02 polyaniline (PANI) in different amounts to produce nanocomposite films. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) revealed the average particle size of the NS to be ca. 15 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the NS was well-dispersed on the surface of the PVA/PNAI films. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the samples showed a significant change in the intensity of the characteristic peak of the functional groups in the composite films with the amount of NS added. The absorbance and refractive index (n) of the composites were studied in the UV–vis range, and the optical energy band gap, E{sub g}, and different optical parameters were calculated. The dielectric loss modulus, M″ and ac conductivity, σ{sub ac}, of the samples were studied within 300–425 K and 0.1 kHz–5 MHz, respectively. Two relaxation peaks were observed in the frequency dependence of the dielectric loss modulus, M″. The behavior of σ{sub ac}(f) for the composite films indicated that the conduction mechanism was correlated barrier hopping (CBH). The results of this work are discussed and compared with those of previous studies of similar composites.

  6. EFFECT OF NANOSILICA ON THE KINETICS OF CURE REACTION AND THERMAL DEGRADATION OF EPOXY RESIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Ghaemy; M. Bazzar; H. Mighani

    2011-01-01

    Nanocomposites from nanoscale silica particles (NS), diglycidylether of bisphenol-A based epoxy (DGEBA), and 3,5-diamino-N-(4-(quinolin-8-yloxy) phenyl) benzamide (DQPB) as curing agent were obtained from direct blending of these materials. The effect of nanosilica (NS) particles as catalyst on the cure reaction of DGEBA/DQPB system was studied by using non-isothermal DSC technique. The activation energy (Ea) was obtained by using Kissinger and Ozawa equations.The Ea value of curing of DGEBA/DQPB/10% NS system showed a decrease of about 10 KJ/mol indicating the catalytic effect of NS particles on the cure reaction. The Ea values of thermal degradation of the cured samples of both systems were 148 KJ/mol and 160 KJ/mol, respectively. The addition of 10% of NS to the curing mixture did not have much effect on the initial decomposition temperature (Ti) but increased the char residues from 20% to 28% at 650℃.

  7. Integrated probabilistic risk assessment for nanoparticles: the case of nanosilica in food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Rianne, E-mail: rianne.jacobs@wur.nl; Voet, Hilko van der; Braak, Cajo J. F. ter [Wageningen University and Research Centre, Biometris (Netherlands)

    2015-06-15

    Insight into risks of nanotechnology and the use of nanoparticles is an essential condition for the social acceptance and safe use of nanotechnology. One of the problems with which the risk assessment of nanoparticles is faced is the lack of data, resulting in uncertainty in the risk assessment. We attempt to quantify some of this uncertainty by expanding a previous deterministic study on nanosilica (5–200 nm) in food into a fully integrated probabilistic risk assessment. We use the integrated probabilistic risk assessment method in which statistical distributions and bootstrap methods are used to quantify uncertainty and variability in the risk assessment. Due to the large amount of uncertainty present, this probabilistic method, which separates variability from uncertainty, contributed to a better understandable risk assessment. We found that quantifying the uncertainties did not increase the perceived risk relative to the outcome of the deterministic study. We pinpointed particular aspects of the hazard characterization that contributed most to the total uncertainty in the risk assessment, suggesting that further research would benefit most from obtaining more reliable data on those aspects.

  8. Integrated probabilistic risk assessment for nanoparticles: the case of nanosilica in food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Rianne; van der Voet, Hilko; ter Braak, Cajo J. F.

    2015-06-01

    Insight into risks of nanotechnology and the use of nanoparticles is an essential condition for the social acceptance and safe use of nanotechnology. One of the problems with which the risk assessment of nanoparticles is faced is the lack of data, resulting in uncertainty in the risk assessment. We attempt to quantify some of this uncertainty by expanding a previous deterministic study on nanosilica (5-200 nm) in food into a fully integrated probabilistic risk assessment. We use the integrated probabilistic risk assessment method in which statistical distributions and bootstrap methods are used to quantify uncertainty and variability in the risk assessment. Due to the large amount of uncertainty present, this probabilistic method, which separates variability from uncertainty, contributed to a better understandable risk assessment. We found that quantifying the uncertainties did not increase the perceived risk relative to the outcome of the deterministic study. We pinpointed particular aspects of the hazard characterization that contributed most to the total uncertainty in the risk assessment, suggesting that further research would benefit most from obtaining more reliable data on those aspects.

  9. Platelets and hemostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Panteleev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Platelets are anuclear cell fragments playing important role in hemostasis, termination of bleeding after damage, as well as in pathological thrombus formation. The main action of platelets is the formation of aggregates, overlapping the injury. They obtained the ability to aggregate by the transition process called activation. Despite the relatively simple and definite function platelet structure is very difficult: they have almost a full set of organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and other entities. When activated platelets secrete various granules interact with plasma proteins and red blood cells and other tissues. Their activation is controlled by multiple receptors and complex signaling cascades. In this review platelet structure, mechanisms of its functioning in health and disease, diagnostic methods of platelet function and approaches to their correction were considered. Particular attention will be given to those areas of the science of platelets, which still lay hidden mysteries.

  10. Influence of particle size on the low and high strain rate behavior of dense colloidal dispersions of nanosilica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asija, Neelanchali; Chouhan, Hemant; Gebremeskel, Shishay Amare; Bhatnagar, Naresh

    2017-01-01

    Shear thickening is a non-Newtonian flow behavior characterized by the increase in apparent viscosity with the increase in applied shear rate, particularly when the shear rate exceeds a critical value termed as the critical shear rate (CSR). Due to this remarkable property of shear-thickening fluids (STFs), they are extensively used in hip protection pads, protective gear for athletes, and more recently in body armor. The use of STFs in body armor has led to the development of the concept of liquid body armor. In this study, the effect of particle size is explored on the low and high strain rate behavior of nanosilica dispersions, so as to predict the efficacy of STF-aided personal protection systems (PPS), specifically for ballistic applications. The low strain rate study was conducted on cone and plate rheometer, whereas the high strain rate characterization of STF was conducted on in-house fabricated split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. Spherical nanosilica particles of three different sizes (100, 300, and 500 nm) as well as fumed silica particles of four different specific surface areas (Aerosil A-90, A-130, A-150, and A-200), respectively, were used in this study. The test samples were prepared by dispersing nanosilica particles in polypropylene glycol (PPG) using ultrasonic homogenization method. The low strain rate studies aided in determining the CSR of the synthesized STF dispersions, whereas the high strain rate studies explored the impact-resisting ability of STFs in terms of the impact toughness and the peak stress attained during the impact loading of STF in SHPB testing.

  11. Spinning the fuzzy sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berenstein, David [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics,University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of California Santa Barbara,Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Dzienkowski, Eric; Lashof-Regas, Robin [Department of Physics, University of California Santa Barbara,Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2015-08-27

    We construct various exact analytical solutions of the SO(3) BMN matrix model that correspond to rotating fuzzy spheres and rotating fuzzy tori. These are also solutions of Yang Mills theory compactified on a sphere times time and they are also translationally invariant solutions of the N=1{sup ∗} field theory with a non-trivial charge density. The solutions we construct have a ℤ{sub N} symmetry, where N is the rank of the matrices. After an appropriate ansatz, we reduce the problem to solving a set of polynomial equations in 2N real variables. These equations have a discrete set of solutions for each value of the angular momentum. We study the phase structure of the solutions for various values of N. Also the continuum limit where N→∞, where the problem reduces to finding periodic solutions of a set of coupled differential equations. We also study the topology change transition from the sphere to the torus.

  12. AlphaSphere

    OpenAIRE

    Place, A.; Lacey, L.; Mitchell, T.

    2013-01-01

    The AlphaSphere is an electronic musical instrument featuring a series of tactile, pressure sensitive touch pads arranged in a spherical form. It is designed to offer a new playing style, while allowing for the expressive real-time modulation of sound available in electronic-based music. It is also designed to be programmable, enabling the flexibility to map a series of different notational arrangements to the pad-based interface.\\ud \\ud The AlphaSphere functions as an HID, MIDI and OSC devic...

  13. Effects of a Nano-Silica Additive on the Rock Erosion Characteristics of a SC-CO2 Jet under Various Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the erosion capacity of a supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 jet, the influence of a nano-silica additive on the rock erosion characteristics was experimentally investigated. By impinging the SC-CO2 jets with nano-silica mass fractions of 0 wt % (pure SC-CO2 jet, 3 wt %, 6 wt %, 9 wt %, 12 wt %, 15 wt %, and 18 wt % on specimens of red sandstone, the erosion volumes under various operating conditions were measured and analyzed. Results show that an appropriate amount of nano-silica additive can greatly enhance the erosion ability of a SC-CO2 jet. The effect on the erosion ability largely depends on the operating conditions. For instance, when the other conditions are fixed, 6 wt %, 9 wt %, 12 wt %, and 15 wt % were the optimum mass fractions, successively, with the inlet pressure increasing from 30 MPa to 60 MPa. With the increase in ambient pressure, the optimum mass fraction is unchanged under the constant inlet pressure, while it increases under the constant pressure drop. Additionally, the optimum mass fraction decreases when the fluid temperature increases. In addition, the optimal standoff distances are about five times the nozzle diameter of the nano-silica SC-CO2 jet, and three times for the pure jet. This research provides a new method for effectively enhancing the rock erosion performance of a SC-CO2 jet.

  14. Synthesis and study of properties of dental resin composites with different nanosilica particles size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabela, Maria M; Sideridou, Irini D

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work was the synthesis of light-cured resin nanocomposites using nanosilica particles with different particle size and the study of some physical-mechanical properties of the composites. Various types of silica nanoparticles (Aerosil) with average particle size of 40, 20, 16, 14, and 7 nm, used as filler were silanized with the silane 3-methacryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (MPS). The total amount of silane used was kept constant at 10 wt% relative to the filler weight to ensure the complete silanization of nanoparticles. The silanizated silica nanoparticles were identified by FT-IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Then the silanized nanoparticles (55 wt%) were mixed with a photoactivated Bis-GMA/TEGDMA (50/50 wt/wt) matrix. Degree of conversion of composites was determined by FT-IR analysis. The static flexural strength and flexural modulus were measured using a three-point bending set up. The dynamic thermomechanical properties were determined by dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA). Sorption, solubility and volumetric change were determined after storage of composites in water or ethanol/water solution 75 vol% for 30 days. The TGA for composites was performed in nitrogen atmosphere from 30 to 700 °C. As the average silica particle size decreases, the percentage amount of MPS attached on the silica surface increases. However, the number of MPS molecules attached on the silica surface area of 1 nm(2) is independent of filler particle size. As the average filler particles size decreases a progressive increase in the degree of conversion of composites and an increase in the amount of sorbed water is observed. The prepared composites containing different amount of silica filler, with different particle size, but with the same amount of silanized silica and organic matrix showed similar flexural strength and flexural modulus, except composite with the lowest filler particle size, which showed lower flexural modulus. Copyright © 2011

  15. The Moyal Sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Eckstein, Michał; Wulkenhaar, Raimar

    2016-01-01

    We construct a family of constant curvature metrics on the Moyal plane and compute the Gauss-Bonnet term for each of them. They arise from the conformal rescaling of the metric in the orthonormal frame approach. We find a particular solution, which corresponds to the Fubini-Study metric and which equips the Moyal algebra with the geometry of a noncommutative sphere.

  16. The Moyal sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Michał; Sitarz, Andrzej; Wulkenhaar, Raimar

    2016-11-01

    We construct a family of constant curvature metrics on the Moyal plane and compute the Gauss-Bonnet term for each of them. They arise from the conformal rescaling of the metric in the orthonormal frame approach. We find a particular solution, which corresponds to the Fubini-Study metric and which equips the Moyal algebra with the geometry of a noncommutative sphere.

  17. Phase diagram of mixtures of hard colloidal spheres and discs: a free-volume scaled-particle approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oversteegen, S M; Lekkerkerker, H N W

    2004-02-01

    Phase diagrams of mixtures of colloidal hard spheres with hard discs are calculated by means of the free-volume theory. The free-volume fraction available to the discs is determined from scaled-particle theory. The calculations show that depletion induced phase separation should occur at low disc concentrations in systems now experimentally available. The gas-liquid equilibrium of the spheres becomes stable at comparable size ratios as with bimodal mixtures of spheres or mixtures of rods and spheres. Introducing finite thickness of the platelets gives rise to a significant lowering of the fluid branch of the binodal. Copyright 2004 American Institute of Physics

  18. ORGANIZATION IN CONTEMPORARY PUBLIC SPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie HAINES

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The critical analysis of Habermas’ Public Sphere Theory and the comparative undertaking to the current day enables us to assert that in contemporary society, public sphere is no longer a political public sphere, this dimension being completed by a societal dimension, the public sphere has extended and now we can talk about partial public spheres in an ever more commercial environment. The new rebuilding and communication technologies create a new type of public character: the visible sphere – non-located, non-dialogical and open. Information and communication are more and more involved in the restructuring of capitalism on an international scale and the reorganization of leadership and management systems. The reevaluation of the public sphere, public opinion, communication allows us to define public sphere according to the profound mutations from today’s democratic societies.

  19. Platelet alloimmunization after transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taaning, E; Simonsen, A C; Hjelms, E;

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The frequency of platelet-specific antibodies after one series of blood transfusions has not been reported, and in multiply transfused patients is controversial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied the frequency of alloimmunization against platelet antigens in 117 patient...

  20. Flavanols and Platelet Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra A. Pearson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet activity and platelet-endothelial cell interactions are important in the acute development of thrombosis, as well as in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. An increasing number of foods have been reported to have platelet-inhibitory actions, and research with a number of flavanol-rich foods, including, grape juice, cocoa and chocolate, suggests that these foods may provide some protection against thrombosis. In the present report, we review a series of in vivo studies on the effects of flavanol-rich cocoa and chocolate on platelet activation and platelet-dependent primary hemostasis. Consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa inhibited several measures of platelet activity including, epinephrine- and ADP-induced glycoprotein (GP IIb/IIIa and P-Selectin expression, platelet microparticle formation, and epinephrine-collagen and ADP-collagen induced primary hemostasis. The epinephrine-induced inhibitory effects on GP IIb/IIIa and primary hemostasis were similar to, though less robust than those associated with the use of low dose (81 mg aspirin. These data, coupled with information from other studies, support the concept that flavanols present in cocoa and chocolate can modulate platelet function through a multitude of pathways.

  1. Platelet activation and aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Sander; Larsen, O H; Christiansen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces a new laboratory model of whole blood platelet aggregation stimulated by endogenously generated thrombin, and explores this aspect in haemophilia A in which impaired thrombin generation is a major hallmark. The method was established to measure platelet aggregation initiated...

  2. Gasotransmitters and platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truss, Nicola J; Warner, Timothy D

    2011-11-01

    Platelets are essential to prevent blood loss and promote wound healing. Their activation comprises of several complex steps which are regulated by a range of mediators. Over the last few decades there has been intense interest in a group of gaseous mediators known as gasotransmitters; currently comprising nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S). Here we consider the action of gasotransmitters on platelet activity. NO is a well established platelet inhibitor which mediates its effects predominantly through activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase leading to a decrease in intraplatelet calcium. More recently CO has been identified as a gasotransmitter with inhibitory actions on platelets; CO acts through the same mechanism as NO but is less potent. The in vivo and platelet functions of the most recently identified gasotransmitter, H(2)S, are still the subject of investigations, but they appear generally inhibitory. Whilst there is evidence for the individual action of these mediators, it is also likely that combinations of these mediators are more relevant regulators of platelets. Furthermore, current evidence suggests that these mediators in combination alter the production of each other, and so modify the circulating levels of gasotransmitters. The use of gasotransmitters as therapeutic agents is also being explored for a range of indications. In conclusion, the importance of NO in the regulation of vascular tone and platelet activity has long been understood. Other gasotransmitters are now establishing themselves as mediators of vascular tone, and recent evidence suggests that these other gasotransmitters may also modulate platelet function.

  3. Neural tissue-spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke K; Johansen, Mathias; Blaabjerg, Morten

    2007-01-01

    maintained their neurogenic potential throughout 77 days of propagation, while the ability of anterior NTS to generate neurons severely declined from day 40. The present procedure describes isolation and long-term expansion of forebrain SVZ tissue with potential preservation of the endogenous cellular......By combining new and established protocols we have developed a procedure for isolation and propagation of neural precursor cells from the forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ) of newborn rats. Small tissue blocks of the SVZ were dissected and propagated en bloc as free-floating neural tissue......-spheres (NTS) in EGF and FGF2 containing medium. The spheres were cut into quarters when passaged every 10-15th day, avoiding mechanical or enzymatic dissociation in order to minimize cellular trauma and preserve intercellular contacts. For analysis of regional differences within the forebrain SVZ, NTS were...

  4. Alloimmune refractoriness to platelet transfusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, S G

    1997-11-01

    Patients who are transfused on multiple occasions with red cells or platelets may develop platelet-reactive alloantibodies and experience decreased clinical responsiveness to platelet transfusion. This situation, conventionally described as "refractoriness to platelet transfusions," is defined by an unsatisfactory low post-transfusion platelet count increment. If antibodies to HLAs are detected, improved clinical outcomes may result from transfusions of HLA-matched or donor-recipient cross-matched platelets. Because refractoriness is an expected, frequently occurring phenomenon, prevention of HLA alloimmunization is an important management strategy. Prevention strategies include efforts to decrease the number of transfusions, filtration of cellular components to reduce the number of HLA-bearing leukocytes, or pretransfusion ultraviolet B irradiation of cellular components to decrease their immunogenicity. Other investigational approaches include reducing the expression of HLAs on transfused platelets, inducing a transient reticuloendothelial system blockade by infusions of specialized immunoglobulin products, or transfusing semisynthetic platelet substitutes (thromboerythrocytes, thrombospheres) or modified platelets (infusible platelet membranes, lyophilized platelets).

  5. Absolute multilateration between spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muelaner, Jody; Wadsworth, William; Azini, Maria; Mullineux, Glen; Hughes, Ben; Reichold, Armin

    2017-04-01

    Environmental effects typically limit the accuracy of large scale coordinate measurements in applications such as aircraft production and particle accelerator alignment. This paper presents an initial design for a novel measurement technique with analysis and simulation showing that that it could overcome the environmental limitations to provide a step change in large scale coordinate measurement accuracy. Referred to as absolute multilateration between spheres (AMS), it involves using absolute distance interferometry to directly measure the distances between pairs of plain steel spheres. A large portion of each sphere remains accessible as a reference datum, while the laser path can be shielded from environmental disturbances. As a single scale bar this can provide accurate scale information to be used for instrument verification or network measurement scaling. Since spheres can be simultaneously measured from multiple directions, it also allows highly accurate multilateration-based coordinate measurements to act as a large scale datum structure for localized measurements, or to be integrated within assembly tooling, coordinate measurement machines or robotic machinery. Analysis and simulation show that AMS can be self-aligned to achieve a theoretical combined standard uncertainty for the independent uncertainties of an individual 1 m scale bar of approximately 0.49 µm. It is also shown that combined with a 1 µm m‑1 standard uncertainty in the central reference system this could result in coordinate standard uncertainty magnitudes of 42 µm over a slender 1 m by 20 m network. This would be a sufficient step change in accuracy to enable next generation aerospace structures with natural laminar flow and part-to-part interchangeability.

  6. Platelet function in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line A.; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Pedersen, Henrik D.

    2007-01-01

    Cairn Terriers, 10 Boxers, and 11 Labrador Retrievers) were included in the study. Platelet function was assessed by whole-blood aggregation with ADP (1, 5, 10, and 20 µM) as agonist and by PFA-100 using collagen and epinephrine (Col + Epi) and Cpæ + ADP as agonists. Plasma thromboxane B2 concentration......Background: Clinical studies investigating platelet function in dogs have had conflicting results that may be caused by normal physiologic variation in platelet response to agonists. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate platelet function in clinically healthy dogs of 4...... different breeds by whole-blood aggregometry and with a point-of-care platelet function analyzer (PFA-100), and to evaluate the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) administration on the results from both methods. Methods: Forty-five clinically healthy dogs (12 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels [CKCS], 12...

  7. Cisplatin triggers platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togna, G I; Togna, A R; Franconi, M; Caprino, L

    2000-09-01

    Clinical observations suggest that anticancer drugs could contribute to the thrombotic complications of malignancy in treated patients. Thrombotic microangiopathy, myocardial infarction, and cerebrovascular thrombotic events have been reported for cisplatin, a drug widely used in the treatment of many solid tumours. The aim of this study is to explore in vitro cisplatin effect on human platelet reactivity in order to define the potentially active role of platelets in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced thrombotic complications. Our results demonstrate that cisplatin increases human platelet reactivity (onset of platelet aggregation wave and thromboxane production) to non-aggregating concentrations of the agonists involving arachidonic acid metabolism. Direct or indirect activation of platelet phospholipase A(2) appears to be implicated. This finding contributes to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of thrombotic complications occurring during cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

  8. Platelet function in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line A.; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Pedersen, Henrik D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Clinical studies investigating platelet function in dogs have had conflicting results that may be caused by normal physiologic variation in platelet response to agonists. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate platelet function in clinically healthy dogs of 4...... different breeds by whole-blood aggregometry and with a point-of-care platelet function analyzer (PFA-100), and to evaluate the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) administration on the results from both methods. Methods: Forty-five clinically healthy dogs (12 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels [CKCS], 12...... applied. However, the importance of these breed differences remains to be investigated. The PFA-100 method with Col + Epi as agonists, and ADP-induced platelet aggregation appear to be sensitive to ASA in dogs....

  9. VMware vSphere Design

    CERN Document Server

    Guthrie, Forbes; Saidel-Keesing, Maish

    2011-01-01

    The only book focused on designing VMware vSphere implementations.VMware vSphere is the most widely deployed virtualization platform today. Considered the most robust and sophisticated hypervisor product, vSphere is the de facto standard for businesses, both large and small. This book is the only one of its kind to concisely explain how to execute a successful vSphere architecture, tailored to meet your company's needs. Expert authors share with you the factors that shape the design of a vSphere implementation. Learn how to make the right design decisions for your environment.Explores the late

  10. Measurement of platelet aggregation, independently of patient platelet count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinholt, P. J.; Frederiksen, H.; Hvas, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    platelet aggregation ruled out bleeding tendency in thrombocytopenic patients. Summary: Background: Methods for testing platelet aggregation in thrombocytopenia are lacking. Objective: To establish a flow-cytometric test of in vitro platelet aggregation independently of the patient's platelet count......, and examine the association of aggregation with a bleeding history in thrombocytopenic patients. Patients/methods: We established a flow-cytometric assay of platelet aggregation, and measured samples from healthy individuals preincubated with antiplatelet drugs, and samples from two patients with inherited...... platelets at platelet counts of > 10 × 109 L-1; otherwise, platelet isolation was required. The platelet aggregation percentage decreased with increasing antiplatelet drug concentration. Platelet aggregation in patients was reduced as compared with healthy individuals: 42% (interquartile range [IQR] 27...

  11. Platelet-collagen adhesion enhances platelet aggregation induced by binding of VWF to platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laduca, F.M.; Bell, W.R.; Bettigole, R.E. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA) State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA))

    1987-11-01

    Ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (RIPA) was evaluated in the presence of platelet-collagen adhesion. RIPA of normal donor platelet-rich plasma (PRP) demonstrated a primary wave of aggregation mediated by the binding of von Willebrand factor (VWF) to platelets and a secondary aggregation wave, due to a platelet-release reaction, initiated by VWF-platelet binding and inhibitable by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). An enhanced RIPA was observed in PRP samples to which collagen had been previously added. These subthreshold concentrations of collagen, which by themselves were insufficient to induce aggregation, caused measurable platelet-collagen adhesion. Subthreshold collagen did not cause microplatelet aggregation, platelet release of ({sup 3}H)serotonin, or alter the dose-responsive binding of {sup 125}I-labeled VWF to platelets, which occurred with increasing ristocetin concentrations. However, ASA inhibition of the platelet release reaction prevented collagen-enhanced RIPA. These results demonstrate that platelet-collagen adhesion altered the platelet-release reaction induced by the binding of VWF to platelets causing a platelet-release reaction at a level of VWF-platelet binding not normally initiating a secondary aggregation. These findings suggest that platelet-collagen adhesion enhances platelet function mediated by VWF.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of mixture of nanozirconia and nanosilica obtained from commercially available zircon flour by sol–gel method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A J K Prasad; S M Shashidhara; B K Muralidhara

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we present the results of our patented (application filed in India) process for synthesizing a mixture of nanozirconia and nanosilica, obtained by the sol–gel method from commercially available zircon flour and hydrofluoric acid at low temperatures (∼ 100°C). Within the scope of this study, 99.2% dissolution of zircon was obtained by using 40% HF for a solid–liquid (S/L) ratio of 0.05 for a digestion period of 120 h. The nanoparticles, characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM techniques, were found to be largely spherical in shape and the average size of the particles was found to be less than 5 nm. Within the product, zirconiarich and silica-rich regions were found to exist.

  13. Evolution of concentration fluctuation during phase separation of polystyrene/poly (vinyl methyl ether) blend in the presence of nanosilica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Qi; Zuo, Min; Yang, Ruiquan

    2017-01-01

    The influence of nanosilica on the concentration fluctuation of polystyrene/poly (vinyl methyl ether) (PS/PVME) mixtures was investigated during phase separation. The amplitude of concentration fluctuation was quantified by dielectric spectrums based on the idea of Lodge–Mcleish model and the lin...... and components of blend matrix and little effect of R974 on the molecular dynamics of PS chains may result in the weak retardation of concentration fluctuation for blend matrix....... dynamics of PVME and PS in homogeneous matrix was hardly influenced by A200 and R974, the enhanced miscibility and the significantly constrained flow relaxation of PVME chains might contribute to the retarded concentration fluctuation of PS/PVME/A200 nanocomposites. While the weak interaction between R974...

  14. Defining Platelet Function During Polytrauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    using calibrated automated thrombography ( CAT ). 3. Platelet-induced clot contraction and using viscoelastic measures such as TEG with Platelet Mapping...using calibrated automated thrombography ( CAT ) in platelet-rich plasma. 3. Platelet-induced clot contraction and effect on clot structure by platelet...if injury with stable vital signs on initial evaluation.  Pregnancy (confirmed with urine pregnancy testing)  Documented do not resuscitate order

  15. Polyacrylate/nanosilica causes pleural and pericardial effusion, and pulmonary fibrosis and granuloma in rats similar to those observed in exposed workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu X

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoli Zhu,1 Wen Cao,2 Bing Chang,3 Linyuan Zhang,3 Peihuan Qiao,3 Xue Li,4 Lifang Si,5 Yingmei Niu,1 Yuguo Song1 1Department of Occupational Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Ultrasound, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Toxicology, National Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control, China CDC, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Pathology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 5Department of Radiology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nanomaterials offer great benefit as well as potential damage to humans. Workers exposed to polyacrylate coatings have pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and pulmonary fibrosis and granuloma, which are thought to be related to the high exposure to nanomaterials in the coatings. The study aimed to determine whether polyacrylate/silica nanoparticles cause similar toxicity in rats, as observed in exposed workers. Ninety male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups with 18 rats in each group. The groups included the saline control group, another control group of polyacrylate only, and low-, intermediate-, and high-dose groups of polyacrylate/nanosilica with concentrations of 3.125, 6.25, and 12.5 mg/kg. Seventy-five rats for the 1-week study were terminated for scheduled necropsy at 24 hours, 3 days, and 7 days postintratracheal instillation. The remaining 15 rats (three males/group had repeated ultrasound and chest computed tomography examinations in a 2-week study to observe the pleural and pericardial effusion and pulmonary toxicity. We found that polyacrylate/nanosilica resulted in pleural and pericardial effusions, where nanosilica was isolated and detected

  16. Clinical application of radiolabelled platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, C. (Medical University Luebeck (Federal Republic of Germany). Department of Neurology); Hardeman, M.R. (Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis); Henningsen, H. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Neurologische Klinik); Petrovici, J.-N. (Cologne-Merheim Hospital (Federal Republic of Germany). Department of Neurology) (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    The increasing number of therapeutic modalities available for the management of patients with thromboembolic complications, such as fibrinolytic treatment or vascular surgery, require the development of new imaging techniques to provide more information on the xtent, age and activity of the thromboembolic material causing clinical symptoms. Since the introduction of radiolabelling of platelets with indium-111, platelet scintigraphy (PSC) has been used as a tool in the diagnosis of various thromboembolic diseases. During the International Symposium on Radiolabelled Platelets scientists from a variety of medical backgrounds presented their results on the clinical applictions of radiolabelled platelets. The papers presented there have been updated to take account of the latest results before publication in this volume. The papers are grouped into six sections on platelet labelling techniques, radiolabelled platelets in cardiology, monitoring of antiplatelet therapy, platelet scintigraphy in stroke patients, platelet scintigraphy in angiology, and platelet scintigraphy in hematology and other clinical applications, including renal transplant rejection. refs.; figs.; tabs.

  17. Platelet preservation: agitation and containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Pieter F; de Korte, Dirk

    2011-06-01

    For platelets to maintain their in vitro quality and in vivo effectiveness, they need to be stored at room temperature with gentle agitation in gas-permeable containers. The mode of agitation affects the quality of the platelets, and a gentle method of agitation, either a circular or a flat bed movement, provides the best results. Tumblers or elliptical agitators induce platelet activation and subsequent damage. As long as the platelets remain in suspension, the agitation speed is not important. Agitation of the platelet concentrates ensures that the platelets are continuously oxygenated, that sufficient oxygen can enter the storage container and that excess carbon dioxide can be expelled. During transportation of platelet concentrates, nowadays over long distances where they are held without controlled agitation, platelets may tolerate a certain period without agitation. However, evidence is accumulating that during the time without agitation, local hypoxia surrounding the platelets may induce irreversible harm to the platelets. Over the decades, more gas-permeable plastics have been used to manufacture platelet containers. The use of different plastics and their influence on the platelet quality both in vitro and in vivo is discussed. The improved gas-permeability has allowed the extension of platelet storage from 3 days in the early 1980s, to currently at least 7 days. In the light of new developments, particularly the introduction of pathogen reduction techniques, the use of platelet additive solutions and the availability of improved automated separators, further (renewed) research in this area is warranted.

  18. ENHANCED MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYPROPYLENE/SILICA NANOCOMPOSITES WITH SURFACE MODIFICATION OF NANO-SILICA VIA IN SITU COPOLYMERIZATION OF METHYL METHACRYLATE AND BUTYL ACRYLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-zhi Zheng; Xing-ping Zhou; Ji-ru Ying; Xiao-lin Xie

    2009-01-01

    Nano-sized silica particles were modified with methacryloxy-propyltrimethoxysilane(MPS)followed by in situ copolymerization of methyl methacrylate(MMA)and butyl acrylate(BA).These modified nanoparticles were compounded with polypropylene(PP)to prepare PP/silica nanocomposites.PMMA grafted on nano-silica enhances the dispersion of the nanoparticles and interfacial adhesion,decreases the size of PP spherulites in nanocomposites and leads to increasing the Young's modulus and toughness of PP/silica nanocomposites at the same time.PBA grafted on nano-silica further improves the dispersion and the interfacial interaction,decreases the size of PP spherulites in PP/silica nanocomposite and leads to further toughening the PP/silica nanocomposite.But,its low modulus decreases the modulus of the PP/silica nanocomposite.The nanocomposites with PP and nano-silica particles modified by P(MMA-co-BA)have balanced stiffness and toughness due to the moderate modulus and solubility parameter of P(MMA-co-BA).

  19. Panoramic stereo sphere vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weijia; Zhang, Baofeng; Röning, Juha; Zong, Xiaoning; Yi, Tian

    2013-01-01

    Conventional stereo vision systems have a small field of view (FOV) which limits their usefulness for certain applications. While panorama vision is able to "see" in all directions of the observation space, scene depth information is missed because of the mapping from 3D reference coordinates to 2D panoramic image. In this paper, we present an innovative vision system which builds by a special combined fish-eye lenses module, and is capable of producing 3D coordinate information from the whole global observation space and acquiring no blind area 360°×360° panoramic image simultaneously just using single vision equipment with one time static shooting. It is called Panoramic Stereo Sphere Vision (PSSV). We proposed the geometric model, mathematic model and parameters calibration method in this paper. Specifically, video surveillance, robotic autonomous navigation, virtual reality, driving assistance, multiple maneuvering target tracking, automatic mapping of environments and attitude estimation are some of the applications which will benefit from PSSV.

  20. Platelets and cardiac arrhythmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas S De Jong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death remains one of the most prevalent modes of death in industrialized countries, and myocardial ischemia due to thrombotic coronary occlusion is its primary cause. The role of platelets in the occurrence of SCD extends beyond coronary flow impairment by clot formation. Here we review the substances released by platelets during clot formation and their arrhythmic properties. Platelet products are released from three types of platelet granules: dense core granules, alpha-granules, and platelet lysosomes. The physiologic properties of dense granule products are of special interest as a potential source of arrhythmic substances. They are released readily upon activation and contain high concentrations of serotonin, histamine, purines, pyrimidines, and ions such as calcium and magnesium. Potential arrhythmic mechanisms of these substances, e.g. serotonin and high energy phosphates, include induction of coronary constriction, calcium overloading, and induction of delayed after-depolarizations. Alpha-granules produce thromboxanes and other arachidonic acid products with many potential arrhythmic effects mediated by interference with cardiac sodium, calcium and potassium channels. Alpha-granules also contain hundreds of proteins that could potentially serve as ligands to receptors on cardiomyocytes. Lysosomal products probably do not have an important arrhythmic effect. Platelet products and ischemia can induce coronary permeability, thereby enhancing interaction with surrounding cardiomyocytes. Antiplatelet therapy is known to improve survival after myocardial infarction. Although an important part of this effect results from prevention of coronary clot formation, there is evidence to suggest that antiplatelet therapy also induces anti-arrhythmic effects during ischemia by preventing the release of platelet activation products.

  1. Haphazard Packing of Unequal Spheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶大年; 张金民

    1991-01-01

    Haphazard packing of equal and unequal spheres can be performed for the spheres of molecular sieve material with a density of 1.80.The packing of such spheres in air is equivalent to that of nat-ural grains in water.Packing concentrations of equal spheres have been obtained for different pac-king intensities.Unequal spheres can be regarded as equal ones in a wide range of diameter ratios,so far as the packing concentration is concerned.A threshold of diameter ratio exists at 0.70,be-low which the packing concentration is expected to increase.The variation curves of concentration vs.diameter ratio were established in the experiment.The result will help us to understand the process of sedimentation and the concentration of voids in sedimentary rocks.

  2. The Platelet and Platelet Function Testing in Liver Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenholtz, Greg G. C.; Porte, Robert J.; Lisman, Ton

    2009-01-01

    Patients who have liver disease commonly present with alterations in platelet number and function. Recent data have questioned the contribution of these changes to bleeding complications in these patients. Modern tests of platelet function revealed compensatory mechanisms for the decreased platelet

  3. Investigation of platelet function and platelet disorders using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubak, Peter; Nissen, Peter H; Kristensen, Steen D; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2016-01-01

    Patients with thrombocytopenia or platelet disorders are at risk of severe bleeding. We report the development and validation of flow cytometry assays to diagnose platelet disorders and to assess platelet function independently of platelet count. The assays were developed to measure glycoprotein levels (panel 1) and platelet function (panel 2) in sodium citrated blood. Twenty healthy volunteers and five patients diagnosed with different platelet disorders were included. Glycoprotein expression levels of the receptors Ia, Ib, IIb, IIIa and IX were measured and normalised with forward scatter (FS) as a measurement of platelet size. Platelet function was assessed by CD63, P-selectin and bound fibrinogen in response to arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen-related peptide, ristocetin and thrombin receptor-activation peptide-6. All patients except one with suspected δ-granule defect showed aberrant levels of glycoproteins in panel 1. Glanzmann's thrombasthenia and genetically verified Bernard-Soulier syndrome could be diagnosed using panel 1. All patients showed reduced platelet function according to at least one agonist. Using panel 2 it was possible to diagnose Bernard-Soulier syndrome, δ-granule defect and GPVI disorder. By combining the two assays, we were able to diagnose different platelet disorders and investigate platelet function independent of platelet count.

  4. Reproducibility of Manual Platelet Estimation Following Automated Low Platelet Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab S Al-Hosni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Manual platelet estimation is one of the methods used when automated platelet estimates are very low. However, the reproducibility of manual platelet estimation has not been adequately studied. We sought to assess the reproducibility of manual platelet estimation following automated low platelet counts and to evaluate the impact of the level of experience of the person counting on the reproducibility of manual platelet estimates. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, peripheral blood films of patients with platelet counts less than 100 × 109/L were retrieved and given to four raters to perform manual platelet estimation independently using a predefined method (average of platelet counts in 10 fields using 100× objective multiplied by 20. Data were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC as a method of reproducibility assessment. Results: The ICC across the four raters was 0.840, indicating excellent agreement. The median difference of the two most experienced raters was 0 (range: -64 to 78. The level of platelet estimate by the least-experienced rater predicted the disagreement (p = 0.037. When assessing the difference between pairs of raters, there was no significant difference in the ICC (p = 0.420. Conclusions: The agreement between different raters using manual platelet estimation was excellent. Further confirmation is necessary, with a prospective study using a gold standard method of platelet counts.

  5. Mean platelet volume and mean platelet volume/platelet count ratio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amira M. Elsayed

    2016-03-30

    Mar 30, 2016 ... Abstract The mean platelet volume (MPV) is a laboratory marker associated with platelet func- tion and activity. .... the first 24 h of presentation to the emergency department. Severity of ..... J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry.

  6. Isentropic Spheres in General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Humi, Mayer

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysical gas clouds undergo thermodynamically irreversible processes and emit heat to their surroundings. Due the emission of this heat one can envision an idealized situation in which gas entropy remains (almost) constant. With this motivation in mind we derive in this paper interior solutions to the Einstein equations of General Relativity for spheres which consist of isentropic gas. In particular we investigate solutions in which the mass distribution inside the sphere has several shells. Such spheres might be considered an early stage for the formation of a "solar system".

  7. Prophylactic platelets in dengue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitehorn, James; Rodriguez Roche, Rosmari; Guzman, Maria G

    2012-01-01

    of platelets in dengue. Respondents were all physicians involved with the treatment of patients with dengue. Respondents were asked that their answers reflected what they would do if they were the treating physician. We received responses from 306 physicians from 20 different countries. The heterogeneity...

  8. Dyson Spheres around White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Semiz, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    A Dyson Sphere is a hypothetical structure that an advanced civilization might build around a star to intercept all of the star's light for its energy needs. One usually thinks of it as a spherical shell about one astronomical unit (AU) in radius, and surrounding a more or less Sun-like star; and might be detectable as an infrared point source. We point out that Dyson Spheres could also be built around white dwarfs. This type would avoid the need for artificial gravity technology, in contrast to the AU-scale Dyson Spheres. In fact, we show that parameters can be found to build Dyson Spheres suitable --temperature- and gravity-wise-- for human habitation. This type would be much harder to detect.

  9. Data compression on the sphere

    CERN Document Server

    McEwen, J D; Eyers, D M; 10.1051/0004-6361/201015728

    2011-01-01

    Large data-sets defined on the sphere arise in many fields. In particular, recent and forthcoming observations of the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) made on the celestial sphere contain approximately three and fifty mega-pixels respectively. The compression of such data is therefore becoming increasingly important. We develop algorithms to compress data defined on the sphere. A Haar wavelet transform on the sphere is used as an energy compression stage to reduce the entropy of the data, followed by Huffman and run-length encoding stages. Lossless and lossy compression algorithms are developed. We evaluate compression performance on simulated CMB data, Earth topography data and environmental illumination maps used in computer graphics. The CMB data can be compressed to approximately 40% of its original size for essentially no loss to the cosmological information content of the data, and to approximately 20% if a small cosmological information loss is tolerated. For the topographic and il...

  10. Rho GTPases in platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, J E; McCarty, O J T

    2013-01-01

    The Rho family of GTP binding proteins, also commonly referred to as the Rho GTPases, are master regulators of the platelet cytoskeleton and platelet function. These low-molecular-weight or 'small' GTPases act as signaling switches in the spatial and temporal transduction, and amplification of signals from platelet cell surface receptors to the intracellular signaling pathways that drive platelet function. The Rho GTPase family members RhoA, Cdc42 and Rac1 have emerged as key regulators in the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton in platelets and play key roles in platelet aggregation, secretion, spreading and thrombus formation. Rho GTPase regulators, including GEFs and GAPs and downstream effectors, such as the WASPs, formins and PAKs, may also regulate platelet activation and function. In this review, we provide an overview of Rho GTPase signaling in platelet physiology. Previous studies of Rho GTPases and platelets have had a shared history, as platelets have served as an ideal, non-transformed cellular model to characterize Rho function. Likewise, recent studies of the cell biology of Rho GTPase family members have helped to build an understanding of the molecular regulation of platelet function and will continue to do so through the further characterization of Rho GTPases as well as Rho GAPs, GEFs, RhoGDIs and Rho effectors in actin reorganization and other Rho-driven cellular processes. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Encapsulated Nanosilica Particles with an Acrylic Copolymer by in Situ Emulsion Polymerization Using Thermoresponsive Nonionic Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoosh Vashaee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites of encapsulated silica nanoparticles were prepared by in situ emulsion polymerization of acrylate monomers. The synthesized material showed good uniformity and dispersion of the inorganic components in the base polymer, which enhances the properties of the nanocomposite material. A nonionic surfactant with lower critical solution temperature (LCST was used to encapsulate the silica nanoparticles in the acrylic copolymer matrix. This in situ method combined the surface modification and the encapsulation in a single pot, which greatly simplified the process compared with other conventional methods requiring separate processing steps. The morphology of the encapsulated nanosilica particles was investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, which confirmed the uniform distribution of the nanoparticles without any agglomerations. A neat copolymer was also prepared as a control sample. Both the neat copolymer and the prepared nanocomposite were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermal gravimetric analyses (TGA, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA and the flame resistance test. Due to the uniform dispersion of the non-agglomerated nanoparticles in the matrix of the polymer, TGA and flame resistance test results showed remarkably improved thermal stability. Furthermore, DMTA results demonstrated an enhanced storage modulus of the nanocomposite samples compared with that of the neat copolymer, indicating its superior mechanical properties.

  12. Synergistic Effect of Nanosilica Aerogel with Phosphorus Flame Retardants on Improving Flame Retardancy and Leaching Resistance of Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosilica (Nano-SiO2 sol fabricated by a sol-gel process was introduced into wood modification with phosphorus flame retardants to improve the flame retardancy and leaching resistance of wood. The obtained materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, cone calorimetric (CONE, and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The residual rate of flame retardants before and after leaching was determinated by a leaching resistance. The results showed that the phosphorus flame retardants and SiO2 sol could reside in the poplar wood and are widely distributed in the vessels, pits, wood timber, and the spaces between wood cells of poplar substrate. TGA and CONE results indicated that the introduction of nano-SiO2 aerogel with phosphorus flame retardants had a significantly synergistic effect on improving the flame retardancy and inhibiting the release of smoke and toxic gases. In addition, the leaching resistance test, combined with infrared analysis and EDS analysis, confirmed that the phosphorus flame retardants were able to be fixed by SiO2 aerogel in the wood.

  13. Manganese(II) Complexes with Schiff Bases Immobilized on Nanosilica as Catalysts of the Reaction of Ozone Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakytska, Tetyana; Truba, Alla; Radchenko, Evgen; Golub, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we submit the description of synthesis and identification of manganese(II) complexes with pyrogenic nanosilica-immobilized ( d av = 10 nm; S sp = 290 m2/g) hydroxyaldimine ligands (Mn{(L)}_2/overline{Si}) : salicilaldiminopropyl (L1); 5-bromosalicilaldiminopropyl (L2); 2-hydroxynaphtaldiminopropyl (L3); 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldiminopropyl (L4); 2-hydroxy-3,5-dichloroacetophenoniminopropyl (L5); and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldiminopropyl (L6). The ligands and complexes were characterized by UV-VIS and IR spectrometry. Nanocomposites consisting of complexes Mn{(L)}_2/overline{Si} showed a high catalytic activity in low-temperature ozone decomposition in the range of concentrations between 2.1 × 10-6 and 8.4 × 10-6 mol/l. The number of catalytic cycles increased for isostructural pseudotetrahedral complexes Mn{(L)}_2/overline{Si} (L1-L5) in the following order: Mn(L3)2 >> Mn(L4)2 > Mn(L1)2 > Mn(L2)2 > Mn(L5)2. In the case of pseudooctahedral complexes with L6, the change of coordination polyhedral does not influence the kinetics and stoichiometric parameters of the reaction.

  14. Expansion of the neonatal platelet mass is achieved via an extension of platelet lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhi-Jian; Hoffmeister, Karin M.; Hu, Zhongbo; Mager, Donald E.; Ait-Oudhia, Sihem; Debrincat, Marlyse A.; Pleines, Irina; Josefsson, Emma C.; Benjamin T Kile; Italiano, Joseph; Ramsey, Haley; Grozovsky, Renata; Veng-Pedersen, Peter; Chavda, Chaitanya; Sola-Visner, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Rapid growth and rising platelet counts result in a significant expansion of platelet mass during neonatal life.The rise in platelet counts is mediated by a prolongation in the neonatal platelet lifespan.

  15. Preparation of Polyurethane/nanosilica Composites via in situ Polymerization%原位聚合法制备纳米二氧化硅/聚氨酯复合树脂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建; 章于川; 吴兵

    2011-01-01

    The preparation of nanosilica/polyurethane composites via in situ polymerization is reported. Nanosilica particles were first dispersed into polymer diols by high pressure shearing homogenizer ( HPSH) , then polymerization was carried out with the addition of the 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate(MDI) and the polymer diols containing ethylene glycol ( EG) as the chain extender. Effects of the nanosilica content and dispersion method on the thermal and mechanical properties of nanosilica/polyurethane composites were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis ( TGA ) , scanning electron microscopy ( SEM ) , and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The results indicated that the -NCO groups in reaction mixture had reacted with the hydroxy on the surface of nanosilica particles during the in situ polymerization, and the chemical encapsulating ratio of the surface for nanosilica was 7%. Nanosilica particles ( HPSH treated) in the nanocomposites were homogenously dispersed in the polyurethane matrix at the size of 30 ~ 40 nm, while the nanosilica treated by ultrasonic method aggregated so seriously that the diameter of the agglomerate size reached about 200 nm. Meanwhile, the tensile strength and elongation of the nanocomposites(HPSH treated) increased with increasing the nanosilica mass fraction( <3% ). When the mass fraction of silica was 3% , the tensile strength and enlongation reached the maximal values, and were 84. 3 Mpa and 438.1% respectively. Moreover, the polyurethane/nanosilica composites ( HPSH treated) obtained by in situ polymerization had better thermal stability than pure polyurethane resins. Compared with the pure PU, the Tg, Td and T-50% of the nanocomposites samples(4% nanosilica) were increased by 17. 2, 9 and 21 °C , respectively.%采用高压剪切分散(HPSH)的方法先将纳米SiO2分散在合成聚氨酯原料中,再应用原位聚合的方法制备了纳米SiO2/聚氨酯复合树脂.用热重分析、动态机械热分析(DMTA)和扫

  16. PREGNANCY WITH PLATELET FUNCTION DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available latelets play a vital role in haemostasis . Antenatal patients with platelet function disorders should be managed in tertiary care centres that are well equipped to tackle any obstetric haemorrhage that can ensue during labour and delivery . Primi gravida was admitted for safe confinement . She had been evaluated earlier for complaints of multiple episodes of mucosal bleeding . On evaluation she had nor mal platelet counts and coagulation factor assay was normal . Platelet aggregometry revealed mild disorder of platelet aggregation . She was planned for induction of labour after arranging enough blood and blood products . She got into active labour and was p ut on syntocinon augmentation . She had emergency Caesarean section for foetal distress . Oxytocics were given proactively . Intraoperatively platelet transfusions and tranexamic acid infusion were given . Complete haemostasis was achieved . She had an uneventf ul postoperative period . Patients with functional platelet disorders can be successfully managed with local application of antifibrinolytic agents like tranexamic acid , in case of minor bleeds . Platelet transfusions are very effective in tackling major ble eds , especially during surgeries and for obstetric indications . If a patient has the history of clinically significant bleeding suggestive of platelet dysfunction , appropriate platelet function tests should be obtained so that the risk of bleeding can be adequately assessed and therapy chosen more rationally . . In obstetric practice the response of such patients to platelet transfusions has been excellent

  17. Effects of hormones on platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Antonio López; Modrego, Javier; Zamorano-León, José J

    2014-04-01

    Platelets and their activation/inhibition mechanisms play a central role in haemostasis. It is well known agonists and antagonists of platelet activation; however, during the last years novel evidences of hormone effects on platelet activation have been reported. Platelet functionality may be modulated by the interaction between different hormones and their platelet receptors, contributing to sex differences in platelet function and even in platelet-mediated vascular damage. It has suggested aspects that apparently are well established should be reviewed. Hormones effects on platelet activity are included among them. This article tries to review knowledge about the involvement of hormones in platelet biology and activity.

  18. Novel hydrophobic associated polymer based nano-silica composite with core–shell structure for intelligent drilling fluid under ultra-high temperature and ultra-high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Mao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Micro-nano-based drilling fluid has attracted a strong interest due to its attractive properties, and micro-nano composite materials have great potential for developing intelligent drilling fluid. In this study a novel hydrophobic associated polymer based nano-silica composite with core–shell structure was prepared and characterized by PSD, SEM, TEM and ESEM. The results showed that the composite, as a micro-nano drilling fluid additive, possessed excellent properties such as thermal stability, rheology, fluid loss and lubricity. Especially, it could plug the formation effectively and improve the pressure bearing capability of formation significantly.

  19. Platelet aggregation following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windeløv, Nis A; Sørensen, Anne M; Perner, Anders

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to elucidate platelet function in trauma patients, as it is pivotal for hemostasis yet remains scarcely investigated in this population. We conducted a prospective observational study of platelet aggregation capacity in 213 adult trauma patients on admission to an emergency department (ED......). Inclusion criteria were trauma team activation and arterial cannula insertion on arrival. Blood samples were analyzed by multiple electrode aggregometry initiated by thrombin receptor agonist peptide 6 (TRAP) or collagen using a Multiplate device. Blood was sampled median 65 min after injury; median injury...... severity score (ISS) was 17; 14 (7%) patients received 10 or more units of red blood cells in the ED (massive transfusion); 24 (11%) patients died within 28 days of trauma: 17 due to cerebral injuries, four due to exsanguination, and three from other causes. No significant association was found between...

  20. Platelets in inflammation and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, J M; Rossaint, J; Zarbock, A

    2014-11-01

    The paradigm of platelets as mere mediators of hemostasis has long since been replaced by a dual role: hemostasis and inflammation. Now recognized as key players in innate and adaptive immune responses, platelets have the capacity to interact with almost all known immune cells. These platelet-immune cell interactions represent a hallmark of immunity, as they can potently enhance immune cell functions and, in some cases, even constitute a prerequisite for host defense mechanisms such as NETosis. In addition, recent studies have revealed a new role for platelets in immunity: They are ubiquitous sentinels and rapid first-line immune responders, as platelet-pathogen interactions within the vasculature appear to precede all other host defense mechanisms. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of platelets as inflammatory cells, and provide an exemplary review of their role in acute inflammation.

  1. Estrogen, inflammation, and platelet phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Virginia M; Jayachandran, Muthuvel; Hashimoto, Kazumori; Heit, John A; Owen, Whyte G

    2008-01-01

    Although exogenous estrogenic therapies increase the risk of thrombosis, the effects of estrogen on formed elements of blood are uncertain. This article examines the genomic and nongenomic actions of estrogen on platelet phenotype that may contribute to increased thrombotic risk. To determine aggregation, secretion, protein expression, and thrombin generation, platelets were collected from experimental animals of varying hormonal status and from women enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Estrogen receptor beta predominates in circulating platelets. Estrogenic treatment in ovariectomized animals decreased platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) secretion. However, acute exposure to 17beta-estradiol did not reverse decreases in platelet ATP secretion invoked by lipopolysaccharide. Thrombin generation was positively correlated to the number of circulating microvesicles expressing phosphatidylserine. Assessing the effect of estrogen treatments on blood platelets may lead to new ways of identifying women at risk for adverse thrombotic events with such therapies.

  2. Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0523 TITLE: Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: George Tsokos, M.D. CONTRACTING...Activation Alters Platelet Function 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0523 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) George Tsokos, M.D...a decreased level of disease. Further studies will expand upon these observations better outlining the function of platelets in the injury associated

  3. Unveiling small sphere's scattering behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Tzarouchis, Dimitrios C; Sihvola, Ari

    2016-01-01

    A classical way for exploring the scattering behavior of a small sphere is to approximate Mie coefficients with a Taylor series expansion. This ansatz delivered a plethora of insightful results, mostly for small spheres supporting electric localized plasmonic resonances. However, many scattering aspects are still uncharted, especially for the case of magnetic resonances. Here, an alternative system ansatz is proposed based on the Pad\\'e approximants for the Mie coefficients. The extracted results reveal new aspects, such as the existence of a self-regulating radiative damping mechanism for the first magnetic resonance. Hence, a systematic way of exploring the scattering behavior is introduced, sharpening our understanding about sphere's scattering behavior and its emergent functionalities.

  4. Public Sphere as Digital Assemblage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    the 1990s onwards digitalization brought concepts of network and complexity into the theoretical discourse. This relational turn changed the social ontology of the public sphere into a dynamic and complex system, erasing the division between the fields of reality (the world), representation (discourse...... theories. Drawing from Deleuze & Guattari (1987), Bennett (2010), and Latour (2004) in order to imagine post-human assemblages of public sphere, this paper argues for a relational ontology that emphasizes the complex interactions of political assemblages. Empirically, it draws from the author’s studies......Normative theories of public sphere have struggled with the topic of materiality. The historical narrative of the ‘public sphere’ situated the phenomenon in specific spaces, where practices (public deliberation) and language (discourse) constructed political agencies, and further publics. From...

  5. Matrix dynamics of fuzzy spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Jatkar, D P; Wadia, S R; Yogendran, K P; Jatkar, Dileep P.; Mandal, Gautam; Wadia, Spenta R.

    2002-01-01

    We study the dynamics of fuzzy two-spheres in a matrix model which represents string theory in the presence of RR flux. We analyze the stability of known static solutions of such a theory which contain commuting matrices and SU(2) representations. We find that irreducible as well as reducible representations are stable. Since the latter are of higher energy, this stability poses a puzzle. We resolve this puzzle by noting that reducible representations have marginal directions corresponding to non-spherical deformations. We obtain new static solutions by turning on these marginal deformations. These solutions now have instability or tachyonic directions. We discuss condensation of these tachyons which correspond to classical trajectories interpolating from multiple, small fuzzy spheres to a single, large sphere. We briefly discuss spatially independent configurations of a D3/D5 system described by the same matrix model which now possesses a supergravity dual.

  6. Platelet effects on ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ashley; Afshar-Kharghan, Vahid; Sood, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    Growing understanding of the role of thrombocytosis, high platelet turnover, and the presence of activated platelets in the circulation in cancer progression and metastasis has brought megakaryocytes into focus. Platelet biology is essential to hemostasis, vascular integrity, angiogenesis, inflammation, innate immunity, wound healing, and cancer biology. However, before megakaryocyte/platelet-directed therapies can be considered for clinical use, understanding of the mechanism and biology of paraneoplastic thrombocytosis in malignancy is required. Here, we provide an overview of the clinical implications, biological significance, and mechanisms of paraneoplastic thrombocytosis in the context of ovarian cancer. PMID:25023353

  7. Novel aspects of platelet aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roka-Moya Y. M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The platelet aggregation is an important process, which is critical for the hemostatic plug formation and thrombosis. Recent studies have shown that the platelet aggregation is more complex and dynamic than it was previously thought. There are several mechanisms that can initiate the platelet aggregation and each of them operates under specific conditions in vivo. At the same time, the influence of certain plasma proteins on this process should be considered. This review intends to summarize the recent data concerning the adhesive molecules and their receptors, which provide the platelet aggregation under different conditions.

  8. Overview of platelet physiology and laboratory evaluation of platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, G M

    1999-06-01

    Appropriate laboratory testing for the platelet-type bleeding disorders hinges on an adequate assessment in the history and physical examination. Patients with histories and screening laboratory results consistent with coagulation disorders (hemophilia, disseminated intravascular coagulation) are not appropriate candidates for platelet function testing. In contrast, patients with a lifelong history of platelet-type bleeding symptoms and perhaps a positive family history of bleeding would be appropriate for testing. Figure 6 depicts one strategy to evaluate these patients. Platelet morphology can easily be evaluated to screen for two uncommon qualitative platelet disorders: Bernard-Soulier syndrome (associated with giant platelets) and gray platelet syndrome, a subtype of storage pool disorder in which platelet granulation is morphologically abnormal by light microscopy. If the bleeding disorder occurred later in life (no bleeding with surgery or trauma early in life), the focus should be on acquired disorders of platelet function. For those patients thought to have an inherited disorder, testing for vWD should be done initially because approximately 1% of the population has vWD. The complete vWD panel (factor VIII coagulant activity, vWf antigen, ristocetin cofactor activity) should be performed because many patients will have abnormalities of only one particular panel component. Patients diagnosed with vWD should be classified using multimeric analysis to identify the type 1 vWD patients likely to respond to DDAVP. If vWD studies are normal, platelet aggregation testing should be performed, ensuring that no antiplatelet medications have been ingested at least 1 week before testing. If platelet aggregation tests are normal and if suspicion for an inherited disorder remains high, vWD testing should be repeated. The evaluation of thrombocytopenia may require bone marrow examination to exclude primary hematologic disorders. If future studies with thrombopoietin assays

  9. Troubleshooting vSphere storage

    CERN Document Server

    Preston, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This is a step-by-step example-oriented tutorial aimed at showing the reader how to troubleshoot a variety of vSphere storage problems, and providing the reader with solutions that can be completed with minimal effort and time in order to limit damage to work.If you are a vSphere administrator, this is the book for you. This book will provide you with 'need to know' information about the various storage transports that ESXi utilizes, the tools and techniques we can use to identify problems, and the fundamental knowledge and steps to take to troubleshoot storage-related issues. Prior knowledge

  10. Nano-silica fabricated with silver nanoparticles: antifouling adsorbent for efficient dye removal, effective water disinfection and biofouling control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sujoy K.; Khan, Md. Motiar R.; Parandhaman, T.; Laffir, Fathima; Guha, Arun K.; Sekaran, G.; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2013-05-01

    A nano-silica-AgNPs composite material is proposed as a novel antifouling adsorbent for cost-effective and ecofriendly water purification. Fabrication of well-dispersed AgNPs on the nano-silica surface, designated as NSAgNP, has been achieved through protein mediated reduction of silver ions at ambient temperature for development of sustainable nanotechnology. The coated proteins on AgNPs led to the formation of stable NSAgNP and protected the AgNPs from oxidation and other ions commonly present in water. The NSAgNP exhibited excellent dye adsorption capacity both in single and multicomponent systems, and demonstrated satisfactory tolerance against variations in pH and dye concentration. The adsorption mainly occurred through electrostatic interaction, though π-π interaction and pore diffusion also contributed to the process. Moreover, the NSAgNP showed long-term antibacterial activity against both planktonic cells and biofilms of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs retarded the initial attachment of bacteria on NSAgNP and thus significantly improved the antifouling properties of the nanomaterial, which further inhibited biofilm formation. Scanning electron and fluorescence microscopic studies revealed that cell death occurred due to irreversible damage of the cell membrane upon electrostatic interaction of positively charged NSAgNP with the negatively charged bacterial cell membrane. The high adsorption capacity, reusability, good tolerance, removal of multicomponent dyes and E. coli from the simulated contaminated water and antifouling properties of NSAgNP will provide new opportunities to develop cost-effective and ecofriendly water purification processes.A nano-silica-AgNPs composite material is proposed as a novel antifouling adsorbent for cost-effective and ecofriendly water purification. Fabrication of well-dispersed AgNPs on the nano-silica surface, designated as NSAgNP, has been achieved through

  11. Platelet Concentrates: Past, Present and Future

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Platelets play a crucial role in hemostasis and wound healing, platelet growth factors are well known source of healing cytokines. Numerous techniques of autologous platelet concentrates have been developed and applied in oral and maxillofacial surgery. This review describes the evolution of the first and second generation of platelet concentrates (platelet rich plasma and platelet rich fibrin respectively) from their fore runner-fibrin sealants.

  12. Studies on megakaryopoiesis and platelet function

    OpenAIRE

    Meinders, M.

    2015-01-01

    Platelets are blood circulating specialized subcellular fragments, which are produced by megakaryocytes. Platelets are essential for hemostasis and wound healing but also play a role in non-hemostatic processes such as the immune response or cancer metastasis. Considering the immediate precursors of platelets, normal megakaryocyte development is essential for normal platelet function. Although much is known about platelet development, some aspects of platelet production remain poorly understo...

  13. [STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PLATELETS AND PLATELET-DERIVED MICROVESICLES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomareva, A A; Nevzorova, T A; Mordakhanova, E R; Andrianova, I A; Litvinov, R I

    2016-01-01

    Platelets are the anucleated blood cells, wich together with the fibrin stop bleeding (hemostasis). Cellular microvesicles are membrane-surrounded microparticles released into extracellular space upon activation and/or apoptosis of various cells. Platelet-derived macrovesicles from the major population of circulating blood microparticles that play an important role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Despite numerous studies on the pathophysiology of platelet-derived macrovesicles, mechanisms of their formation and structural details remain poorly understood. Here we investigated the ultrastructure of parental platelets and platelet-derived microvesicles formed in vitro by quiescent cells as well as by cells stimulated with one of the following activators: arachidonic acid, ADP, thrombin, calcium ionophore A23187. Using transmission electron microscopy of human platelets and isolated microvesicles, we analyzed the intracellular origin, steps of formation, structural diversity, and size distributions of the subcellular particles. We have revealed that thrombin, unlike other stimuli, not only induced vesiculation of the plasma membrane but also caused break-up of the cells followed by formation of microparticles that are comparable with microvesicles by size. A fraction of these microparticles contained cellular organelles surrounded by a thin membrane. The size of platelet-derived macrovesicles varied from 30 nm to 500 nm, however, the size distributions depended on the nature of a cell-activating stimulus. The results obtained provide new information about the formation of platelet-derived macrovesicles and their structural diversity, wich is important to understand their multiple functions in normal and disease states.

  14. 纳米二氧化硅微球的应用及制备进展%Progress in Application and Preparation of Nano-silica Microspheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜小阳; 李霞

    2011-01-01

    Nanosized silica microspheres have important applications in electronics, optical devices,chemical biosensors, catalysis, etc. In this thesis, the preparation methods of nano-silica were reviewed such as sol-gel process, template process, precipitation process, high gravity reactive method, microemulsion method, etc. The relative merits of each method are introduced. At last, the application prospect of nano-silica microspheres is depicted.%纳米二氧化硅微球在电子、光学器件、化学生物芯片、催化等领域有着广泛的应用.本文综述了近几年纳米二氧化硅微球几种制备方法,例如:溶胶-凝胶法、模板法、沉淀法、超重力法、微乳液法等,并对这些工艺方法的优缺点做了简单评述,最后对二氧化硅的应用前景进行了展望.

  15. Neuroscience in the public sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Cliodhna; Rees, Geraint; Joffe, Helene

    2012-04-26

    The media are increasingly fascinated by neuroscience. Here, we consider how neuroscientific discoveries are thematically represented in the popular press and the implications this has for society. In communicating research, neuroscientists should be sensitive to the social consequences neuroscientific information may have once it enters the public sphere. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Spheres of Justice within Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabbagh, Clara; Resh, Nura; Mor, Michal;

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that there are distinct spheres of justice within education and examines a range of justice norms and distribution rules that characterize the daily life of schools and classrooms. Moving from the macro to micro level, we identify the following five areas: the right to education...

  17. Kinetic theory of hard spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijeren, H. van; Ernst, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    Kinetic equations for the hard-sphere system are derived by diagrammatic techniques. A linear equation is obtained for the one-particle-one particle equilibrium time correlation function and a nonlinear equation for the one-particle distribution function in nonequilibrium. Both equations are nonloca

  18. Voronoi diagrams on the sphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Na, H.-S.; Lee, C.-N.; Cheong, O.

    2001-01-01

    Given a set of compact sites on a sphere, we show that their spherical Voronoi diagram can be computed by computing two planar Voronoi diagrams of suitably transformed sites in the plane. We also show that a planar furthest-site Voronoi diagram can always be obtained as a portion of a

  19. Hard sphere model of atom

    CERN Document Server

    Tsekov, R

    2014-01-01

    The finite size effect of electron and nucleus is accounted for in the model of atom. Due to their hard sphere repulsion the energy of the 1s orbital decreases and the corrections amount up to 8 % in Uranium. Several models for boundary conditions on the atomic nucleus surface are discussed as well.

  20. Phase diagram of elastic spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulou, L; Ziherl, P

    2017-02-15

    Experiments show that polymeric nanoparticles often self-assemble into several non-close-packed lattices in addition to the face-centered cubic lattice. Here, we explore theoretically the possibility that the observed phase sequences may be associated with the softness of the particles, which are modeled as elastic spheres interacting upon contact. The spheres are described by two finite-deformation theories of elasticity, the modified Saint-Venant-Kirchhoff model and the neo-Hookean model. We determine the range of indentations where the repulsion between the spheres is pairwise additive and agrees with the Hertz theory. By computing the elastic energies of nine trial crystal lattices at densities far beyond the Hertzian range, we construct the phase diagram and find the face- and body-centered cubic lattices as well as the A15 lattice and the simple hexagonal lattice, with the last two being stable at large densities where the spheres are completely faceted. These results are qualitatively consistent with observations, suggesting that deformability may indeed be viewed as a generic property that determines the phase behavior in nanocolloidal suspensions.

  1. Phase diagram of Hertzian spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pàmies, J.C.; Cacciuto, A.; Frenkel, D.

    2009-01-01

    We report the phase diagram of interpenetrating Hertzian spheres. The Hertz potential is purely repulsive, bounded at zero separation, and decreases monotonically as a power law with exponent 5/2, vanishing at the overlapping threshold. This simple functional describes the elastic interaction of wea

  2. Approximation on the complex sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Alsaud, Huda; Kushpel, Alexander; Levesley, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We develop new elements of harmonic analysis on the complex sphere on the basis of which Bernstein's, Jackson's and Kolmogorov's inequalities are established. We apply these results to get order sharp estimates of $m$-term approximations. The results obtained is a synthesis of new results on classical orthogonal polynomials, harmonic analysis on manifolds and geometric properties of Euclidean spaces.

  3. Platelets, inflammation and tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurden, Alan T

    2011-05-01

    Blood platelets have long been recognised to bring about primary haemostasis with deficiencies in platelet production and function manifesting in bleeding while upregulated function favourises arterial thrombosis. Yet increasing evidence indicates that platelets fulfil a much wider role in health and disease. First, they store and release a wide range of biologically active substances including the panoply of growth factors, chemokines and cytokines released from a-granules. Membrane budding gives rise to microparticles (MPs), another active participant within the blood stream. Platelets are essential for the innate immune response and combat infection (viruses, bacteria, micro-organisms). They help maintain and modulate inflammation and are a major source of pro-inflammatory molecules (e.g. P-selectin, tissue factor, CD40L, metalloproteinases). As well as promoting coagulation, they are active in fibrinolysis; wound healing, angiogenesis and bone formation as well as in maternal tissue and foetal vascular remodelling. Activated platelets and MPs intervene in the propagation of major diseases. They are major players in atherosclerosis and related diseases, pathologies of the central nervous system (Alzheimers disease, multiple sclerosis), cancer and tumour growth. They participate in other tissue-related acquired pathologies such as skin diseases and allergy, rheumatoid arthritis, liver disease; while, paradoxically, autologous platelet-rich plasma and platelet releasate are being used as an aid to promote tissue repair and cellular growth. The above mentioned roles of platelets are now discussed.

  4. Analyzing the platelet proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Angel; Zitzmann, Nicole; Watson, Steve P

    2004-08-01

    During the last 10 years, mass spectrometry (MS) has become a key tool for protein analysis and has underpinned the emerging field of proteomics. Using high-throughput tandem MS/MS following protein separation, it is potentially possible to analyze hundreds to thousands of proteins in a sample at a time. This technology can be used to analyze the protein content (i.e., the proteome) of any cell or tissue and complements the powerful field of genomics. The technology is particularly suitable for platelets because of the absence of a nucleus. Cellular proteins can be separated by either gel-based methods such as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis or one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography (LC) -MS/MS or by multidimensional LC-MS/MS. Prefractionation techniques, such as subcellular fractionations or immunoprecipitations, can be used to improve the analysis. Each method has particular advantages and disadvantages. Proteomics can be used to compare the proteome of basal and diseased platelets, helping to reveal information on the molecular basis of the disease.

  5. Vortical flow past a sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattner, Trent; Chong, Min; Joubert, Peter

    2000-11-01

    Vortical flow past a sphere in a constant diameter pipe was studied experimentally in a guide vane apparatus similar to those used in fundamental experimental studies of vortex breakdown. The initial effect of swirl was to shorten the downstream separation bubble. For a small range of the swirl intensity, an almost stagnant upstream separation bubble formed. As the swirl intensity was increased, the bubble became unstable and an unsteady spiral formed. At high swirl intensity there was a mean recirculation region which penetrated far upstream while the flow on the downstream hemisphere was attached. Measurements of the velocity field were obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry. Analysis of these results suggests that the onset of upstream separation is associated with the formation of a negative azimuthal vorticity component which slows the axial flow near the axis of symmetry. This is consistent with inviscid distortion of the vortex filaments in the diverging flow approaching the sphere.

  6. Capillary holdup between vertical spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zeinali Heris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The maximum volume of liquid bridge left between two vertically mounted spherical particles has been theoretically determined and experimentally measured. As the gravitational effect has not been neglected in the theoretical model, the liquid interface profile is nonsymmetrical around the X-axis. Symmetry in the interface profile only occurs when either the particle size ratio or the gravitational force becomes zero. In this paper, some equations are derived as a function of the spheres' sizes, gap width, liquid density, surface tension and body force (gravity/centrifugal to estimate the maximum amount of liquid that can be held between the two solid spheres. Then a comparison is made between the result based on these equations and several experimental results.

  7. Entanglement Entropy of Two Spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Shiba, Noburo

    2012-01-01

    We study the entanglement entropy S_{AB} of a massless free scalar field on two spheres A and B whose radii are R_1 and R_2, respectively, and the distance between them is r. The state of the massless free scalar field is the vacuum state. We obtain the result that the mutual information S_{A;B}:=S_A+S_B-S_{AB} is independent of the ultraviolet cutoff and proportional to the product of the areas of the two spheres when r>>R_1,R_2, where S_A and S_B are the entanglement entropy on the inside region of A and B, respectively. We discuss possible connections of this result with the physics of black holes.

  8. Entanglement entropy of two spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Noburo

    2012-07-01

    We study the entanglement entropy S AB of a massless free scalar field on two spheres A and B whose radii are R 1 and R 2, respectively, and the distance between the centers of them is r. The state of the massless free scalar field is the vacuum state. We obtain the result that the mutual information {S_{{A;B}}} equiv {S_A} + {S_B} - {S_{{AB}}} is independent of the ultraviolet cutoff and proportional to the product of the areas of the two spheres when r ≫ R 1 ,R 2,where S A and S B aretheentanglemententropyontheinsideregionof A and B, respectively. We discuss possible connections of this result with the physics of black holes.

  9. Elastic Curves on the Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-16

    12 = (K,, + )- (29) K 2 (see [3]). The parameter KM represents the amplitude of the periodic curva - ture function and sm denotes the value at which K...Additamentum De curvis elasticis. Methodus Inveniendi Lineas Curvas Maximi Minimive Proprietate Gaudentes, Ser. 1., Vol. 24, Lausanne 1744. 17 [10...Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. 4th. ed., Cambridge University Press, 1927. [12] G. Nielson. Bernstein/ Bezier Curves and Splines on Spheres based upon

  10. On sphere-filling ropes

    CERN Document Server

    Gerlach, Henryk

    2010-01-01

    What is the longest rope on the unit sphere? Intuition tells us that the answer to this packing problem depends on the rope's thickness. For a countably infinite number of prescribed thickness values we construct and classify all solution curves. The simplest ones are similar to the seamlines of a tennis ball, others exhibit a striking resemblance to Turing patterns in chemistry, or to ordered phases of long elastic rods stuffed into spherical shells.

  11. Principal Fibrations from Noncommutative Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Giovanni; Suijlekom, Walter Van

    2005-11-01

    We construct noncommutative principal fibrations Sθ7→Sθ4 which are deformations of the classical SU(2) Hopf fibration over the four sphere. We realize the noncommutative vector bundles associated to the irreducible representations of SU(2) as modules of coequivariant maps and construct corresponding projections. The index of Dirac operators with coefficients in the associated bundles is computed with the Connes-Moscovici local index formula. "The algebra inclusion is an example of a not-trivial quantum principal bundle."

  12. Light Scattering by Charged Spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-29

    Wyman Graduate Student: Mr. Alan Chu %"% ,’A% 4, % .1 % 70 References , % -- Arnold S. and N. Hessel , 1985: Photoemission from Single...position of the natural resonances of a sphere are used to determine its size or its chemical * composition ( Arnold , 1980; Lettieri, 1984). High...us very helpful suggestions during the program. We also kept close scientific contact with Dr. Arnold of the Polytechnic Institute of New York, and

  13. Platelets in inflammation and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenne, Craig N; Kubes, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Although platelets are traditionally recognized for their central role in hemostasis, many lines of research clearly demonstrate these rather ubiquitous blood components are potent immune modulators and effectors. Platelets have been shown to directly recognize, sequester and kill pathogens, to activated and recruit leukocytes to sites of infection and inflammation, and to modulate leukocyte behavior, enhancing their ability to phagocytose and kill pathogens and inducing unique effector functions, such as the production of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs). This multifaceted response to infection and inflammation is due, in part, to the huge array of soluble mediators and cell surface molecules expressed by platelets. From their earliest origins as primordial hemocytes in invertebrates to their current form as megakaryocyte-derived cytoplasts, platelets have evolved to be one of the key regulators of host intravascular immunity and inflammation. In this review, we present the diverse roles platelets play in immunity and inflammation associated with autoimmune diseases and infection. Additionally, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of platelet behavior made possible through the use of advanced imaging techniques that allow us to visualize platelets and their interactions, in real-time, within the intact blood vessels of a living host.

  14. [Murine models of platelet diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, F

    2007-05-01

    Platelet-related diseases correspond to functional defects or abnormal production (thrombopoiesis) of hereditary and immunological origins. Recent progress in the manipulation of the mouse genome (transgenesis, gene inactivation or insertion) has resulted in the generation of numerous strains exhibiting defective platelet function or production. Some strains reproduce known hereditary diseases affecting haemostasis (Glanzmann thrombasthenia, Bernard-Soulier syndrome (BSS) or thrombopoiesis (Wiscott-Aldrich or May-Hegglin syndrome). More often the mutated strains have no human equivalent and represent useful models to study: (i) the role of adhesive or signalling receptors or of signalling proteins in platelet-dependent haemostasis and thrombosis or; (ii) to study the poorly characterized mechanisms of thrombopoiesis, which implicate transcription factors (GATA, Fli1), growth factors and receptors (TPO, cMPL), and cytoskeletal or contractile proteins (tubulin, myosin). Additional mouse strains result from the selection of spontaneous mutants many of which affect intracellular platelet granules, representing models of storage pool diseases (SPD) such as the Gray platelet syndrome (alphaSPD) or Hermansky-Pudlack syndrome (deltaSPD). More recently, a systematic chemical mutagenesis approach has also identified genes involved in thrombopoiesis and platelet survival. Finally, mouse models of auto- or allo-immune thrombocytopenia have been developed to study the mechanisms of platelet destruction or removal.

  15. Platelet scintigraphy in atherothrombotic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaka, Yoshinari (Osaka National Hospital (Japan))

    1993-01-01

    Indium-111 platelet scintigraphy for the measurement of in vivo thrombogenicity is a useful noninvasive technique with a number of applications. From 1982 to 1989, we explored clinical relevance of this method for 576 consecutive patients with atherothrombotic disease. There was a disease-related difference in the percentage of positive platelet accumulation; 85% in patients with Dacron bifurcation graft, 75% in abdominal or thoracic aneurysm, 40% in intra-cardiac thrombi, 33% in arteriosclerosis obliterans and 25% in ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Labelled platelets accumulated frequently in the lesion with severe arteriographic abnormality. Aspirin clearly inhibited platelet accumulation on carotid atheroma but the effect of ticlopidine has been less conclusive. Short-term orally active PGI[sub 2] analogue had inhibitory effects on platelet accumulation in carotid atheroma and platelet aggregability, but did not cause significant reduction in plaque size. The results suggest the usefulness of platelet scintigraphy for monitoring the thrombogenicity in various atherothrombotic diseases. It will be necessary, however, to simplify the labelling procedures and to develop a new [sup 99m]Tc-labelled thrombus imaging agent, if thrombus imaging is to be considered for more generall use for patients with atherosclerosis. (author).

  16. Cyclosporine A enhances platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, A A; Barradas, M A; Mikhailidis, D P; Jeremy, J Y; Moorhead, J F; Sweny, P; Dandona, P

    1987-12-01

    In view of the reported increase in thromboembolic episodes following cyclosporine A (CyA) therapy, the effect of this drug on platelet aggregation and thromboxane A2 release was investigated. The addition of CyA, at therapeutic concentrations to platelet rich plasma from normal subjects in vitro was found to increase aggregation in response to adrenaline, collagen and ADP. Ingestion of CyA by healthy volunteers was also associated with enhanced platelet aggregation. The CyA-mediated enhancement of aggregation was further enhanced by the addition in vitro of therapeutic concentrations of heparin. Platelets from renal allograft recipients treated with CyA also showed hyperaggregability and increased thromboxane A2 release, which were most marked at "peak" plasma CyA concentration and less so at "trough" concentrations. Platelet hyperaggregability in renal allograft patients on long-term CyA therapy tended to revert towards normal following the replacement of CyA with azathioprine. Hypertensive patients with renal allografts on nifedipine therapy had normal platelet function and thromboxane release in spite of CyA therapy. These observations suggest that CyA-mediated platelet activation may contribute to the pathogenesis of the thromboembolic phenomena associated with the use of this drug. The increased release of thromboxane A2 (a vasoconstrictor) may also play a role in mediating CyA-related nephrotoxicity.

  17. Hard sphere packings within cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lin; Steinhardt, William; Zhao, Hao; Socolar, Joshua E S; Charbonneau, Patrick

    2016-03-07

    Arrangements of identical hard spheres confined to a cylinder with hard walls have been used to model experimental systems, such as fullerenes in nanotubes and colloidal wire assembly. Finding the densest configurations, called close packings, of hard spheres of diameter σ in a cylinder of diameter D is a purely geometric problem that grows increasingly complex as D/σ increases, and little is thus known about the regime for D > 2.873σ. In this work, we extend the identification of close packings up to D = 4.00σ by adapting Torquato-Jiao's adaptive-shrinking-cell formulation and sequential-linear-programming (SLP) technique. We identify 17 new structures, almost all of them chiral. Beyond D ≈ 2.85σ, most of the structures consist of an outer shell and an inner core that compete for being close packed. In some cases, the shell adopts its own maximum density configuration, and the stacking of core spheres within it is quasiperiodic. In other cases, an interplay between the two components is observed, which may result in simple periodic structures. In yet other cases, the very distinction between the core and shell vanishes, resulting in more exotic packing geometries, including some that are three-dimensional extensions of structures obtained from packing hard disks in a circle.

  18. Diffusive redistribution of small spheres in crystallization of highly asymmetric binary hard-sphere mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Wen-Sheng; Sun, Zhao-Yan; An, Li-Jia

    2011-01-01

    We report a molecular dynamics study of crystallization in highly asymmetric binary hard-sphere mixtures, in which the large spheres can form a crystal phase while the small ones remain disordered during the crystallization process of the large spheres. By taking advantage of assisting crystal nucleation with a patterned substrate, direct evidence is presented that there is a close link between the diffusive redistribution of the small spheres and the crystal formation of the large spheres. A...

  19. The Staphylococcus aureus Exotoxin Recognition Using a Sensor Designed by Nanosilica and SEA genotyping by Multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ahari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the ever increasing population and industrialization of the developmental trend of human life, we are no longer able to detect the toxins produced in food products using the traditional techniques. This is due to the fact that the isolation time for food products is not cost-effective, and even in most of the cases, the precision of practical techniques like bacterial cultivation and other techniques suffers from operator errors, or the errors of the mixtures used. Hence, with the advent of nanotechnology, the design of selective and smart sensors has turned into one of the greatest industrial revelations of the quality control of food products that, in few minutes time and with a very high precision, can identify the volume and toxicity of the bacteria. In this research, based on the bacterial antibody's connection to nanoparticles, a sensor was used. In this part of the research, as the basis for absorption for the recognition of bacterial toxin, medium sized silica nanoparticles of 10 nm in the form of solid powder were utilized with Notrino brand. Then the suspension produced from the agent-linked nanosilica, which was connected to the bacterial antibody, was positioned near the samples of distilled water, which were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus bacterial toxin with the density of  10-3 molar, so that in case any toxin exists in the sample, a connection between the toxin antigen and the antibody would be formed. Finally, the light absorption related to the connection of antigen to the particle-attached antibody was measured using spectrophotometry. The 23S rRNA gene that is conserved in all Staphylococcus spp. was used as the control. The accuracy of the test was monitored by using the serial dilution (l0-6 of overnight cell culture of Staphylococcus spp. bacteria (OD600: 0.02 = 107 cell. It showed that the sensitivity of PCR is 10 bacteria per ml of cells within few hours. The results indicated that the sensor

  20. Black Hole Formation in Fuzzy Sphere Collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Iizuka, Norihiro; Roy, Shubho; Sarkar, Debajyoti

    2013-01-01

    We study the collapse of a fuzzy sphere, that is a spherical membrane built out of D0-branes, in the BFSS model. At weak coupling, as the sphere shrinks, open strings are produced. If the initial radius is large then open string production is not important and the sphere behaves classically. At intermediate initial radius the back-reaction from open string production is important but the fuzzy sphere retains its identity. At small initial radius the sphere collapses to form a black hole. The crossover between the later two regimes is smooth and occurs at the correspondence point of Horowitz and Polchinski.

  1. Mastering VMware vSphere 5

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A new and updated edition of bestselling Mastering VMware vSphere 4 Written by leading VMware expert, this book covers all the features and capabilities of VMware vSphere. You'll learn how to install, configure, operate, manage, and secure the latest release.Covers all the new features and capabilities of the much-anticipated new release of VMware vSphereDiscusses the planning, installation, operation, and management for the latest releaseReviews migration to the latest vSphere softwareOffers hands-on instruction and clear explanations with real-world examples Mastering VMware vSphere is the

  2. Platelet enzyme abnormalities in leukemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: The aim of this study was to evaluate platelet enzyme activity in cases of leukemia. Materials and Methods: Platelet enzymes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, pyruvate kinase (PK and hexokinase (HK were studied in 47 patients of acute and chronic leukemia patients, 16 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML(13 relapse, three in remission, 12 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL (five in relapse, seven in remission, 19 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Results: The platelet G6PD activity was significantly low in cases of AML, ALL and also in CML. G6PD activity was normalized during AML remission. G6PD activity, although persistently low during ALL remission, increased significantly to near-normal during remission (P < 0.05 as compared with relapse (P < 0.01. Platelet PK activity was high during AML relapse (P < 0.05, which was normalized during remission. Platelet HK however was found to be decreased during all remission (P < 0.05. There was a significant positive correlation between G6PD and PK in cases of AML (P < 0.001 but not in ALL and CML. G6PD activity did not correlate with HK activity in any of the leukemic groups. A significant positive correlation was however seen between PK and HK activity in cases of ALL remission (P < 0.01 and CML (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Both red cell and platelet enzymes were studied in 36 leukemic patients and there was no statistically significant correlation between red cell and platelet enzymes. Platelet enzyme defect in leukemias suggests the inherent abnormality in megakaryopoiesis and would explain the functional platelet defects in leukemias.

  3. Platelet surface glutathione reductase-like activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, David W; Li, Mengru; Feinman, Richard D; Miller, Anna

    2004-09-01

    We previously found that reduced glutathione (GSH) or a mixture of GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) potentiated platelet aggregation. We here report that GSSG, when added to platelets alone, also potentiates platelet aggregation. Most of the GSSG was converted to GSH by a flavoprotein-dependent platelet surface mechanism. This provided an appropriate redox potential for platelet activation. The addition of GSSG to platelets generated sulfhydryls in the beta subunit of the alpha(IIb)beta(3) fibrinogen receptor, suggesting a mechanism for facilitation of agonist-induced platelet activation.

  4. SURFACES OF HARD-SPHERE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Stoyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In various situations surfaces appear that are formed by systems of hard spheres. Examples are porous layers as surfaces of sand heaps and biofilms or fracture surfaces of concrete. The present paper considers models where a statistically homogeneous system of hard spheres with random radii is intersected by a plane and the surface is formed by the spheres with centers close to this plane. Formulae are derived for various characteristics of such surfaces: for the porosity profile, i.e. the local porosity in dependence on the distance from the section plane and for the geometry of the sphere caps that look above the section plane.It turns out that these characteristics only depend on the first-order characteristics of the sphere system, its sphere density and the sphere radius distribution.Comparison with empirically studied biofilms shows that the model is realistic.

  5. Mechanisms of platelet-mediated liver regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisman, Ton; Porte, Robert J

    2016-08-04

    Platelets have multiple functions beyond their roles in thrombosis and hemostasis. Platelets support liver regeneration, which is required after partial hepatectomy and acute or chronic liver injury. Although it is widely assumed that platelets stimulate liver regeneration by local excretion of mitogens stored within platelet granules, definitive evidence for this is lacking, and alternative mechanisms deserve consideration. In-depth knowledge of mechanisms of platelet-mediated liver regeneration may lead to new therapeutic strategies to treat patients with failing regenerative responses.

  6. Platelets as delivery systems for disease treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Qizhen; Montgomery, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    Platelets are small, anucleate, discoid shaped blood cells that play a fundamental role in hemostasis. Platelets contain a large number of biologically active molecules within cytoplasmic granules that are critical to normal platelet function. Because platelets circulate in blood through out the body, release biological molecules and mediators on demand, and participate in hemostasis as well as many other pathophysiologic processes, targeting expression of proteins of interest to platelets an...

  7. [Protein kinase C activation induces platelet apoptosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Li; Chen, Meng-Xing; Zhang, Ming-Yi; Dai, Ke-Sheng

    2013-10-01

    Platelet apoptosis elucidated by either physical or chemical compound or platelet storage occurs wildly, which might play important roles in controlling the numbers and functions of circulated platelets, or in the development of some platelet-related diseases. However, up to now, a little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of platelet apoptosis. Protein kinase C (PKC) is highly expressed in platelets and plays central roles in regulating platelet functions. Although there is evidence indicating that PKC is involved in the regulation of apoptosis of nucleated cells, it is still unclear whether PKC plays a role in platelet apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PKC in platelet apoptosis. The effects of PKC on mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, and caspase-3 activation of platelets were analyzed by flow cytometry and Western blot. The results showed that the ΔΨm depolarization in platelets was induced by PKC activator in time-dependent manner, and the caspase-3 activation in platelets was induced by PKC in concentration-dependent manner. However, the platelets incubated with PKC inhibitor did not results in ΔΨm depolarization and PS exposure. It is concluded that the PKC activation induces platelet apoptosis through influencing the mitochondrial functions and activating caspase 3. The finds suggest a novel mechanism for PKC in regulating platelet numbers and functions, which has important pathophysiological implications for thrombosis and hemostasis.

  8. Inherited platelet disorders and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Marie-Cécile; Kemoun, Philippe; Cousty, Sarah; Sie, Pierre; Payrastre, Bernard

    2013-02-01

    Platelets play a key role in thrombosis and hemostasis. Accumulation of platelets at the site of vascular injury is the first step in the formation of hemostatic plugs, which play a pivotal role in preventing blood loss after injury. Platelet adhesion at sites of injury results in spreading, secretion, recruitment of additional platelets, and formation of platelet aggregates. Inherited platelet disorders are rare causes of bleeding syndromes, ranging from mild bruising to severe hemorrhage. The defects can reflect deficiency or dysfunction of platelet surface glycoproteins, granule contents, cytoskeletal proteins, platelet pro-coagulant function, and signaling pathways. For instance, Bernard-Soulier syndrome and Glanzmann thrombasthenia are attributed to deficiencies of glycoprotein Ib/IX/V and GPIIb/IIIa, respectively, and are rare but severe platelet disorders. Inherited defects that impair platelet secretion and/or signal transduction are among the most common forms of mild platelet disorders and include gray platelet syndrome, Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, and Chediak-Higashi syndrome. When necessary, desmopressin, antifibrinolytic agents, and transfusion of platelets remain the most common treatment of inherited platelet disorders. Alternative therapies such as recombinant activated factor VII are also available for a limited number of situations. In this review, we will discuss the management of patients with inherited platelet disorders in various clinical situations related to dental cares, including surgical intervention. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF): a second-generation platelet concentrate. Part II: platelet-related biologic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan, David M; Choukroun, Joseph; Diss, Antoine; Dohan, Steve L; Dohan, Anthony J J; Mouhyi, Jaafar; Gogly, Bruno

    2006-03-01

    Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) belongs to a new generation of platelet concentrates, with simplified processing and without biochemical blood handling. In this second article, we investigate the platelet-associated features of this biomaterial. During PRF processing by centrifugation, platelets are activated and their massive degranulation implies a very significant cytokine release. Concentrated platelet-rich plasma platelet cytokines have already been quantified in many technologic configurations. To carry out a comparative study, we therefore undertook to quantify PDGF-BB, TGFbeta-1, and IGF-I within PPP (platelet-poor plasma) supernatant and PRF clot exudate serum. These initial analyses revealed that slow fibrin polymerization during PRF processing leads to the intrinsic incorporation of platelet cytokines and glycanic chains in the fibrin meshes. This result would imply that PRF, unlike the other platelet concentrates, would be able to progressively release cytokines during fibrin matrix remodeling; such a mechanism might explain the clinically observed healing properties of PRF.

  10. Fibrous nano-silica supported ruthenium (KCC-1/Ru): A sustainable catalyst for the hydrogenolysis of alkanes with good catalytic activity and lifetime

    KAUST Repository

    Fihri, Aziz

    2012-07-06

    We have shown that fibrous nanosilica (KCC-1) can serve as a suitable support for the synthesis of highly dispersed ruthenium (Ru) nanoparticles. The resulting KCC-1/Ru catalyst displayed superior activity for the hydrogenolysis of propane and ethane at atmospheric pressure and at low temperature. The high catalytic activity was due to the formation of Ru-nanoparticles with an active size range (1-4 nm) and the presence of hexagonal-shaped particles with several corners and sharp edges possessing reactive atoms with lowest coordination numbers. The catalyst was stable with an excellent lifetime and no sign of deactivation, even after eight days. This enhanced stability may be due to the fibrous nature of KCC-1 which restricts Ostwald ripening of Ru nanoparticles. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Platelet-containing tantalum powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiele, E.K.

    1988-04-26

    A method of forming platelet tantalum powders is described comprising the steps of: (a) providing an ingot-derived precursor tantalum powder, and (b) ball-milling the precursor powder for a time sufficient to form a platelet powder having an average FSSS of less than about 2 micrometers, a Scott density not greater than about 30 g/in/sup 3/ and a BET surface area of at least about 0.7 in/sup 2//g.

  12. In vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Platelets are routinely isolated from whole blood and stored in plasma for 5 days. The present study was done to assess the in vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution at 22°C. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 30 blood donors of both sex in State Blood Bank, CSM Medical University, Lucknow. Random donor platelets were prepared by platelet rich plasma method. Whole blood (350 ml was collected in anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine triple blood bags. Random donor platelets were stored for 7 days at 22°C in platelet incubators and agitators, with and without additive solution. Results: Platelet swirling was present in all the units at 22°C on day 7, with no evidence of bacterial contamination. Comparison of the mean values of platelet count, platelet factor 3, lactate dehydrogenase, pH, glucose and platelet aggregation showed no significant difference in additive solution, whereas platelet factor 3, glucose and platelet aggregation showed significant difference (P < 0.001 on day 7 without additive solution at 22°C. Conclusion: Our study infers that platelet viability and aggregation were best maintained within normal levels on day 7 of storage in platelet additive solution at 22°C. Thus, we may conclude that in vitro storage of random donor platelets with an extended shelf life of 7 days using platelet additive solution may be advocated to improve the inventory of platelets.

  13. VMware vSphere design

    CERN Document Server

    Guthrie, Forbes

    2013-01-01

    Achieve the performance, scalability, and ROI your business needs What can you do at the start of a virtualization deployment to make things run more smoothly? If you plan, deploy, maintain, and optimize vSphere solutions in your company, this unique book provides keen insight and solutions. From hardware selection, network layout, and security considerations to storage and hypervisors, this book explains the design decisions you'll face and how to make the right choices. Written by two virtualization experts and packed with real-world strategies and examples, VMware v

  14. Fractional Boundaries for Fluid Spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Bayin, S; Krisch, J P; Bayin, Selcuk; Krisch, Jean P.

    2006-01-01

    A single Israel layer can be created when two metrics adjoin with no continuous metric derivative across the boundary. The properties of the layer depend only on the two metrics it separates. By using a fractional derivative match, a family of Israel layers can be created between the same two metrics. The family is indexed by the order of the fractional derivative. The method is applied to Tolman IV and V interiors and a Schwarzschild vacuum exterior. The method creates new ranges of modeling parameters for fluid spheres. A thin shell analysis clarifies pressure/tension in the family of boundary layers.

  15. Entanglement entropy of round spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solodukhin, Sergey N., E-mail: Sergey.Solodukhin@lmpt.univ-tours.f [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique, Universite Francois-Rabelais Tours Federation Denis Poisson - CNRS, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)

    2010-10-18

    We propose that the logarithmic term in the entanglement entropy computed in a conformal field theory for a (d-2)-dimensional round sphere in Minkowski spacetime is identical to the logarithmic term in the entanglement entropy of extreme black hole. The near horizon geometry of the latter is H{sub 2}xS{sub d-2}. For a scalar field this proposal is checked by direct calculation. We comment on relation of this and earlier calculations to the 'brick wall' model of 't Hooft. The case of generic 4d conformal field theory is discussed.

  16. Hydrodynamic interaction between a platelet and an erythrocyte: effect of erythrocyte deformability, dynamics, and wall proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidkhah, Koohyar; Diamond, Scott L; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2013-05-01

    We present three-dimensional numerical simulations of hydrodynamic interaction between a red blood cell (RBC) and a platelet in a wall-bounded shear flow. The dynamics and large deformation of the RBC are fully resolved in the simulations using a front-tracking method. The objective is to quantify the influence of tank treading and tumbling dynamics of the RBC, and the presence of a bounding wall on the deflection of platelet trajectories. We observe two types of interaction: A crossing event in which the platelet comes in close proximity to the RBC, rolls over it, and continues to move in the same direction; and a turning event in which the platelet turns away before coming close to the RBC. The crossing events occur when the initial lateral separation between the cells is above a critical separation, and the turning events occur when it is below the critical separation. The critical lateral separation is found to be higher during the tumbling motion than that during the tank treading. When the RBC is flowing closer to the wall than the platelet, the critical separation increases by several fold, implying the turning events have higher probability to occur than the crossing events. On the contrary, if the platelet is flowing closer to the wall than the RBC, the critical separation decreases by several folds, implying the crossing events are likely to occur. Based on the numerical results, we propose a mechanism of continual platelet drift from the RBC-rich region of the vessel towards the wall by a succession of turning and crossing events. The trajectory deflection in the crossing events is found to depend nonmonotonically on the initial lateral separation, unlike the monotonic trend observed in tracer particle deflection and in deformable sphere-sphere collision. This nonmonotonic trend is shown to be a consequence of the deformation of the RBC caused by the platelet upon collision. An estimation of the platelet diffusion coefficient yields values that are

  17. Evidence of platelet activation in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Steven

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective A fatality in one multiple sclerosis (MS patient due to acute idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP and a near fatality in another stimulated our interest in platelet function abnormalities in MS. Previously, we presented evidence of platelet activation in a small cohort of treatment-naive MS patients. Methods In this report, 92 normal controls and 33 stable, untreated MS patients were studied. Platelet counts, measures of platelet activation [plasma platelet microparticles (PMP, P-selectin expression (CD62p, circulating platelet microaggragtes (PAg], as well as platelet-associated IgG/IgM, were carried out. In addition, plasma protein S activity was measured. Results Compared to controls, PMP were significantly elevated in MS (p Conclusion Platelets are significantly activated in MS patients. The mechanisms underlying this activation and its significance to MS are unknown. Additional study of platelet activation and function in MS patients is warranted.

  18. Floating behavior of hydrophobic glass spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinjie; Wang, Xiaolong; Liang, Yongmin; Zhou, Feng

    2009-08-15

    When a hydrophobic solid sphere is floating on water or salt solutions with different concentrations, it is at equilibrium under the impact of gravity, buoyancy force, and curvature force, the component of surface tension in the vertical direction. We have changed the diameters of the spheres and the concentrations of the two selected salts, NaCl and NaNO(3), to study the floating behaviors of these spheres and the contributions of surface tension and buoyancy force to their floatation. Generally speaking, the surface tension plays a more important role than the buoyancy force when the gravity is small, but the buoyancy force plays an identical or a more important role when the spheres are big enough. The wettability of the spheres significantly influences the height below the contact perimeter especially in salt solutions. The theoretical calculation meniscus slope angles at the sphere three-phase contact line are in agreement with experimental results.

  19. Gravity theory through affine spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2017-08-01

    In this work it is argued that in order to improve our understanding of gravity and spacetime our most successful theory, general relativity, must be destructured. That is, some geometrical assumptions must be dropped and recovered just under suitable limits. Along this line of thought we pursue the idea that the roundness of the light cone, and hence the isotropy of the speed of light, must be relaxed and that, in fact, the shape of light cones must be regarded as a dynamical variable. Mathematically, we apply some important results from affine differential geometry to this problem, the idea being that in the transition we should preserve the identification of the spacetime continuum with a manifold endowed with a cone structure and a spacetime volume form. To that end it is suggested that the cotangent indicatrix (dispersion relation) must be described by an equation of Monge-Ampère type determining a hyperbolic affine sphere, at least whenever the matter content is negligible. Non-relativistic spacetimes fall into this description as they are recovered whenever the center of the affine sphere is at infinity. In the more general context of Lorentz-Finsler theories it is shown that the lightlike unparametrized geodesic flow is completely determined by the distribution of light cones. Moreover, the transport of lightlike momenta is well defined though there could be no notion of affine parameter. Finally, we show how the perturbed indicatrix can be obtained from the perturbed light cone.

  20. Sphere Drag and Heat Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhipeng; He, Boshu; Duan, Yuanyuan

    2015-07-20

    Modelling fluid flows past a body is a general problem in science and engineering. Historical sphere drag and heat transfer data are critically examined. The appropriate drag coefficient is proposed to replace the inertia type definition proposed by Newton. It is found that the appropriate drag coefficient is a desirable dimensionless parameter to describe fluid flow physical behavior so that fluid flow problems can be solved in the simple and intuitive manner. The appropriate drag coefficient is presented graphically, and appears more general and reasonable to reflect the fluid flow physical behavior than the traditional century old drag coefficient diagram. Here we present drag and heat transfer experimental results which indicate that there exists a relationship in nature between the sphere drag and heat transfer. The role played by the heat flux has similar nature as the drag. The appropriate drag coefficient can be related to the Nusselt number. This finding opens new possibilities in predicting heat transfer characteristics by drag data. As heat transfer for flow over a body is inherently complex, the proposed simple means may provide an insight into the mechanism of heat transfer for flow past a body.

  1. The Chiral Dipolar Hard Sphere Model.

    OpenAIRE

    Mazars, Martial

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A simple molecular model of chiral molecules is presented in this paper : the chiral dipolar hard sphere model. The discriminatory interaction between enantiomers is represented by electrostatic (or magnetic) dipoles-dipoles interactions : short ranged steric repulsion are represented by hard sphere potential and, in each molecule, two point dipoles are located inside the sphere. The model is described in detail and some of its elementary properties are given ; in particul...

  2. Impact of reticulated platelets on antiplatelet response to thienopyridines is independent of platelet turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratz, Christian; Nührenberg, Thomas; Amann, Michael; Cederqvist, Marco; Kleiner, Pascal; Valina, Christian M; Trenk, Dietmar; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Hochholzer, Willibald

    2016-10-28

    Reticulated platelets are associated with impaired antiplatelet response to thienopyridines. It is uncertain whether this interaction is caused by a decreased drug exposure due to high platelet turnover reflected by elevated levels of reticulated platelets or by intrinsic properties of reticulated platelets. This study sought to investigate if the impact of reticulated platelets on early antiplatelet response to thienopyridines is mainly caused by platelet turnover as previously suggested. Elective patients undergoing coronary intervention were randomised to loading with clopidogrel 600 mg or prasugrel 60 mg (n=200). Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet reactivity was determined by impedance aggregometry before, at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes and at day 1 after loading. Immature platelet count was assessed as marker of reticulated platelets by flow cytometry. Platelet reactivity increased with rising levels of immature platelet count in both groups. This effect was more distinctive in patients on clopidogrel as compared to patients on prasugrel. Overall, immature platelet count correlated well with on-treatment platelet reactivity at all time-points (p < 0.001). These correlations did not change over time in the entire cohort as well as in patients treated with clopidogrel or prasugrel indicating an effect independent of platelet turnover (comparison of correlations 120 minutes/day 1: p = 0.64). In conclusion, the association of immature platelet count with impaired antiplatelet response to thienopyridines is similar early and late after loading. This finding suggests as main underlying mechanism another effect of reticulated platelets on thienopyridines than platelet turnover.

  3. Fluorescent integrating sphere for the vacuum ultraviolet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenberg, W M

    1970-02-01

    An integrating sphere for absolute, hemispherical reflectance measurements on imperfectly diffuse surfaces in the wavelength range between 1250 A and 3500 A has been built. The sphere uses a double layer coating consisting of a sodium salicylate film on top of a diffuse white paint. The phosphor coating, under uv irradiation, emits fluorescent radiation in the blue, and the underlying paint layer serves as a diffuser of the fluorescent radiation. The usual problem, encountered in ordinary integrating spheres where direct irradiation of the detector by the sample can lead to erroneous signals, is easily eliminated in the fluorescent integrating sphere by proper filtering of the detector.

  4. SPATIAL STATISTICS FOR SIMULATED PACKINGS OF SPHERES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bezrukov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on spatial-statistical analyses for simulated random packings of spheres with random diameters. The simulation methods are the force-biased algorithm and the Jodrey-Tory sedimentation algorithm. The sphere diameters are taken as constant or following a bimodal or lognormal distribution. Standard characteristics of spatial statistics are used to describe these packings statistically, namely volume fraction, pair correlation function of the system of sphere centres and spherical contact distribution function of the set-theoretic union of all spheres. Furthermore, the coordination numbers are analysed.

  5. Small-world networks on a sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Gilberto; Torres Cruz, Claudia P.

    2017-01-01

    The Small-World Network on a Sphere SWNS is a non-crossing network that has no hubs and presents the small-world property diam log N with diam being the maximal distance between any two vertices and N being the number of vertices. The SWNS is constructed using a partition of the sphere and the parallels are regular sections of the sphere with constant latitude. The number of cells on the parallels, however, increases exponentially from the pole to the equator of the sphere. We analytically compute the distribution of connectivity, the clustering coefficient and the SWNS distances. The resilience of the model against selective attacks is also discussed.

  6. Plasmonic lateral forces on chiral spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Canaguier-Durand, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    We show that the optical force exerted on a finite size chiral sphere by a surface plasmon mode has a component along a direction perpendicular to the plasmon linear momentum. We reveal how this chiral lateral force, pointing in opposite directions for opposite enantiomers, stems from an angular-to-linear crossed momentum transfer involving the plasmon transverse spin angular momentum density and mediated by the chirality of the sphere. Our multipolar approach allows us discussing the inclusion of the recoil term in the force on a small sphere taken in the dipolar limit and observing sign inversions of the lateral chiral force when the size of the sphere increases.

  7. Macromolecule-Induced Clustering of Hard Spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Avik Prasun

    2001-06-01

    The connectivity Ornstein-Zernike formalism, together with the polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM), is employed to describe connectivity and network formation in mixtures of spheres and polymers. Results are presented for the percolation of spheres induced by both flexible coil-like and rigid rod-like linear polymers; the Percus-Yevick (PY) approximation is used throughout. Our results are compared with predictions based on the adhesive hard sphere (AHS) model, and correlations with the polymer-mediated second virial coefficient between spheres are discussed. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  8. Absolute Stability Limit for Relativistic Charged Spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Giuliani, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    We find an exact solution for the stability limit of relativistic charged spheres for the case of constant gravitational mass density and constant charge density. We argue that this provides an absolute stability limit for any relativistic charged sphere in which the gravitational mass density decreases with radius and the charge density increases with radius. We then provide a cruder absolute stability limit that applies to any charged sphere with a spherically symmetric mass and charge distribution. We give numerical results for all cases. In addition, we discuss the example of a neutral sphere surrounded by a thin, charged shell.

  9. Platelets and infection — an emerging role of platelets in viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice eAssinger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Platelets are anucleate blood cells that play a crucial role in the maintenance of hemostasis. While platelet activation and elevated platelet counts (thrombocytosis are associated with increased risk of thrombotic complications, low platelet counts (thrombocytopenia and several platelet function disorders increase the risk of bleeding. Over the last years more and more evidence has emerged that platelets and their activation state can also modulate innate and adaptive immune responses and low platelet counts have been identified as a surrogate marker for poor prognosis in septic patients.Viral infections often coincide with platelet activation. Host inflammatory responses result in the release of platelet activating mediators and a pro-oxidative and pro-coagulant environment, which favours platelet activation. However, viruses can also directly interact with platelets and megakaryocytes and modulate their function. Furthermore, platelets can be activated by viral antigen-antibody complexes and in response to some viruses B-lymphocytes also generate anti-platelet antibodies.All these processes contributing to platelet activation result in increased platelet consumption and removal and often lead to thrombocytopenia, which is frequently observed during viral infection. However, virus-induced platelet activation does not only modulate platelet count, but also shapes immune responses. Platelets and their released products have been reported to directly and indirectly suppress infection and to support virus persistence in response to certain viruses, making platelets a double-edged sword during viral infections. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge on platelet interaction with different types of viruses, the viral impact on platelet activation and platelet-mediated modulations of innate and adaptive immune responses.

  10. Platelets and infection - an emerging role of platelets in viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assinger, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Platelets are anucleate blood cells that play a crucial role in the maintenance of hemostasis. While platelet activation and elevated platelet counts (thrombocytosis) are associated with increased risk of thrombotic complications, low platelet counts (thrombocytopenia) and several platelet function disorders increase the risk of bleeding. Over the last years, more and more evidence has emerged that platelets and their activation state can also modulate innate and adaptive immune responses and low platelet counts have been identified as a surrogate marker for poor prognosis in septic patients. Viral infections often coincide with platelet activation. Host inflammatory responses result in the release of platelet activating mediators and a pro-oxidative and pro-coagulant environment, which favors platelet activation. However, viruses can also directly interact with platelets and megakaryocytes and modulate their function. Furthermore, platelets can be activated by viral antigen-antibody complexes and in response to some viruses B-lymphocytes also generate anti-platelet antibodies. All these processes contributing to platelet activation result in increased platelet consumption and removal and often lead to thrombocytopenia, which is frequently observed during viral infection. However, virus-induced platelet activation does not only modulate platelet count but also shape immune responses. Platelets and their released products have been reported to directly and indirectly suppress infection and to support virus persistence in response to certain viruses, making platelets a double-edged sword during viral infections. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge on platelet interaction with different types of viruses, the viral impact on platelet activation, and platelet-mediated modulations of innate and adaptive immune responses.

  11. Platelet satellitism in infectious disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskaj, Renata; Sikiric, Dubravka; Skerk, Visnja

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet satellitism is a phenomenon of unknown etiology of aggregating platelets around polymorphonuclear neutrophils and other blood cells which causes pseudothrombocytopenia, visible by microscopic examination of blood smears. It has been observed so far in about a hundred cases in the world. Case subject and methods Our case involves a 73-year-old female patient with a urinary infection. Biochemical serum analysis (CRP, glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, bilirubin, sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine) and blood cell count were performed with standard methods on autoanalyzers. Serum protein fractions were examined by electrophoresis and urinalysis with standard methods on autoanalyzer together with microscopic examination of urine sediment. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, blood culture and urine culture tests were performed with standard methods. Results Due to typical pathological values for bacterial urinary infection, the patient was admitted to the hospital. Blood smear examination revealed phenomenon, which has persisted for three weeks after the disease has been cured. Blood smears with EDTA as an anticoagulant had platelet satellitism whereas the phenomenon was not observed in tubes with different anticoagulants (Na, Li-heparin) and capillary blood. Discussion We hypothesize that satellitism was induced by some immunological mechanism through formation of antibodies which have mediated platelets binding to neutrophil membranes and vice versa. Unfortunately we were unable to determine the putative trigger for this phenomenon. To our knowledge this is the second case of platelet satellitism ever described in Croatia. PMID:26110042

  12. Evaluation of platelet aggregation in platelet concentrates: storage implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neiva Teresinha J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of hemo-derivatives is nowadays a fundamentally important therapeutic modality in the exercise of medicine. Among the various hemo-components employed, we have the platelet concentrate (PC, indicated in cases of hemorrhagic disturbances. We previously showed that platelet function in blood donors is reduced in their screening phase and after the separation process of PCs. Currently, we are providing evidence for the existence of biochemical and functional changes in PC preparations stored for three days at temperatures of 20 ± 2 ºC. Platelet concentrates from 40 healthy donors, collected in CPD anticoagulant and PL-146 polyvinylchloride containers, were examined in order to determine the pH value, pCO2 ,pO2 and lactate concentrations. In addition, the aggregation of platelets with thrombin and collagen were examined to evaluate platelet function. A pH increase from 7.07 ± 0.04 to 7.36 ± 0.07 (p < 0.01 was observed. The pCO2 concentration decreased progressively from 69.2 ± 7.7 mmHg to 28.8 ± 6.2 mmHg (p < 0.001 during the storage period. In contrast, pO2 value increase from 103.4 ± 30.6 to 152.3 ± 24.6 mmHg (p < 0.001 was evidenced during the 48 hours of storage. The lactate concentration increased from 17.97 ± 5.2 to 57.21 ± 5.7 mg/dl (p < 0.001. Platelet aggregation using 0.25 U/ml-thrombin and 2.0 µg/ml-collagen showed significant hypofunction from 61.8 ± 2.7% to 24.8 ± 9.8% and 62.7±5.0 to 33.4± 6.2 (p < 0.001, respectively. We concluded that the evaluated biochemical parameters and the platelet function changed significantly when the platelets were kept under routine storage conditions.

  13. CD8+ T cells induce platelet clearance in the liver via platelet desialylation in immune thrombocytopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jihua; Liu, Xuena; Li, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Xu; Han, Panpan; Zhou, Hai; Shao, Linlin; Hou, Yu; Min, Yanan; Kong, Zhangyuan; Wang, Yawen; Wei, Yu; Liu, Xinguang; Ni, Heyu; Peng, Jun; Hou, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In addition to antiplatelet autoantibodies, CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play an important role in the increased platelet destruction in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Recent studies have highlighted that platelet desialylation leads to platelet clearance via hepatocyte asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPRs). Whether CD8+ T cells induce platelet desialylation in ITP remains unclear. Here, we investigated the cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells towards platelets and platelet desialylation in ITP. We found that the desialylation of fresh platelets was significantly higher in ITP patients with positive cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells than those without cytotoxicity and controls. In vitro, CD8+ T cells from ITP patients with positive cytotoxicity induced significant platelet desialylation, neuraminidase-1 expression on the platelet surface, and platelet phagocytosis by hepatocytes. To study platelet survival and clearance in vivo, CD61 knockout mice were immunized and their CD8+ splenocytes were used. Platelets co-cultured with these CD8+ splenocytes demonstrated decreased survival in the circulation and increased phagocytosis in the liver. Both neuraminidase inhibitor and ASGPRs competitor significantly improved platelet survival and abrogated platelet clearance caused by CD8+ splenocytes. These findings suggest that CD8+ T cells induce platelet desialylation and platelet clearance in the liver in ITP, which may be a novel mechanism of ITP. PMID:27321376

  14. An overview of platelet indices and methods for evaluating platelet function in thrombocytopenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinholt, Pernille Just; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Nybo, Mads

    2014-01-01

    in thrombocytopenia. Flow cytometry, platelet aggregometry and platelet secretion tests are used to diagnose specific platelet function defects. The flow cytometric activation marker P-selectin and surface coverage by the Cone and Plate[let] analyser™ predict bleeding in selected thrombocytopenic populations...

  15. Platelet antigens and antibodies. Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Mineeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet antigens structure, role of platelet antibodies in the pathogenesis of various clinical conditions, characteristic of modern antibodies detection methods are presented in this article.

  16. Platelet antigens and antibodies. Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Mineeva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Platelet antigens structure, role of platelet antibodies in the pathogenesis of various clinical conditions, characteristic of modern antibodies detection methods are presented in this article.

  17. Effect of photodynamic therapy on mouse platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuannong; Chi, Shunji; Deng, Jinsheng; Zhang, Hua; Liang, Junlin; Ha, Xian-wen

    1993-06-01

    Normal mice received hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) i.v. prior to red light irradiation and the platelet-rich plasma was prepared and irradiated by red light. The platelets were processed for EM examination and stereological analysis. It was shown the 16 hrs after irradiation almost all platelets were necrotized; 8 hours after irradiation about one fourth of the platelets were necrotized and the remaining were considerably damaged. Immediately after irradiation a small number of platelets became necrotic and most other platelets were swollen and deformated, showing significantly increased mean area, perimeter and short axis, and mean cell volume and cell surface area. The findings indicate that platelets are highly sensitive to PDT action and can be directly and rapidly damaged by PDT even in the absence of vascular endothelial cells. The early platelet photoactivation may play an important role in the initiation of early vascular damage and microcirculatory alterations induced by PDT in vivo.

  18. Platelet Disorders: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Article: Erythropoietin and thrombopoietin mimetics: Natural alternatives to erythrocyte and platelet... Article: Detection of CALR Mutation in Clonal and Nonclonal Hematologic Diseases... Platelet Disorders -- see more articles Thrombocytopenias -- see more ...

  19. Status of the SPHERE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Antonov, R A; Bonvech, E A; Chernov, D V; Dzhatdoev, T A; Finger, Mir; Finger, M; Galkin, V I; Kabanova, N N; Petkun, A S; Podgrudkov, D A; Roganova, T M; Shaulov, S B; Sysoeva, T I

    2012-01-01

    Here is presented the current state of the SPHERE-2 balloon-borne experiment. The detector is elevated up to 1 km above the snow surface and registers the reflected Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation from extensive air showers. This method has good sensitivity to the mass-composition of the primary cosmic rays due to its high resolution near the shower axis. The detector consists of a 1500 mm spherical mirror with a 109 PMT cluster in its focus. The electronics record a signal pulse profile in each PMT. In the last 2 years the detector was upgraded: time resolution of pulse registration was enhanced up to 12.5 ns, channel sensitivity was increased by a factor of 3, a new LED-based relative PMT calibration method was introduced, and new hardware and etc. was installed.

  20. The Hubble Sphere Hydrogen Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, J B; Pen, U L; Peterson, Jeffrey B.; Bandura, Kevin; Pen, Ue Li

    2006-01-01

    An all sky redshift survey, using hydrogen 21 cm emission to locate galaxies, can be used to track the wavelength of baryon acoustic oscillations imprints from z ~ 1.5 to z = 0. This will allow precise determination of the evolution of dark energy. A telescope made of fixed parabolic cylindrical reflectors offers substantial benefit for such a redshift survey. Fixed cylinders can be built for low cost, and long cylinders also allow low cost fast fourier transform techniques to be used to define thousands of simultaneous beams. A survey made with fixed reflectors naturally covers all of the sky available from it's site with good uniformity, minimizing sample variance in the measurement of the acoustic peak wavelength. Such a survey will produce about a billion redshifts, nearly a thousand times the number available today. The survey will provide a three dimensional mapping of a substantial fraction of the Hubble Sphere.

  1. Phononic crystals of poroelastic spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevizaki, A.; Sainidou, R.; Rembert, P.; Morvan, B.; Stefanou, N.

    2016-11-01

    An extension of the layer-multiple-scattering method to phononic crystals of poroelastic spheres immersed in a fluid medium is developed. The applicability of the method is demonstrated on specific examples of close-packed fcc crystals of submerged water-saturated meso- and macroporous silica microspheres. It is shown that, by varying the pore size and/or the porosity, the transmission, reflection, and absorption spectra of finite slabs of these crystals are significantly altered. Strong absorption, driven by the slow waves in the poroelastic material and enhanced by multiple scattering, leads to negligible transmittance over an extended frequency range, which might be useful for practical applications in broadband acoustic shielding. The results are analyzed by reference to relevant phononic dispersion diagrams in the viscous and inertial coupling limits, and a consistent interpretation of the underlying physics is provided.

  2. Innovation embedded in entrepreneurs’ networks in private and public spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøtt, Thomas; Cheraghi, Maryam; Rezaei, Shahamak;

    2014-01-01

    Global studies have found tendencies: traditional culture promotes entrepreneurs' networking in the private sphere, impeding innovation, whereas secular-rational culture facilitates networking in the public sphere, benefiting innovation. This embeddedness is here scrutinised in contrasting...... is negatively affected by private sphere networking and positively affected by public sphere networking, but innovation is less promoted by public sphere networking in China than in Denmark....

  3. Seifert fibered homology spheres with trivial Heegaard Floer homology

    OpenAIRE

    Eftekhary, Eaman

    2009-01-01

    We show that among Seifert fibered integer homology spheres, Poincare sphere (with either orientation) is the only non-trivial example which has trivial Heegaard Floer homology. Together with an earlier result, this shows that if an integer homology sphere has trivial Heegaard Floer homology, then it is a connected sum of a number of Poincare spheres and hyperbolic homology spheres.

  4. Scattering by two spheres: Theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1998-01-01

    on three issues: (1) to develop a simplified theory for scattering by two elastical spheres; (2) to measure the scattering by two spheres in a water tank, and (3) to compare the theoretical/numerical results with the measured data. A number of factors influencing multiple scattering, including...

  5. Electric dipoles on the Bloch sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Vutha, Amar C

    2014-01-01

    The time evolution of a two-level quantum mechanical system can be geometrically described using the Bloch sphere. By mapping the Bloch sphere evolution onto the dynamics of oscillating electric dipoles, we provide a physically intuitive link between classical electromagnetism and the electric dipole transitions of atomic & molecular physics.

  6. Reversible thermal gelation in soft spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapnistos, M.; Vlassopoulos, D.; Fytas, G.

    2000-01-01

    Upon heating, concentrated solutions of star polymers and block copolymer micelles in a good solvent, representing soft spheres, undergo a reversible gelation. This phenomenon is attributed to the formation of clusters causing a partial dynamic arrest of the swollen interpenetrating spheres at hi...

  7. Effect of platelet age on adhesiveness to collagen and platelet surface charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellan, R.M.; Steiner, M.

    1976-11-30

    Adhesion to collagen was investigated as a function of platelet age in rat platelets. Platelet adherence was measured using EDTA-containing platelet- rich plasma which was added to preparations of collagen fibers clamped between magnetic stirrers by recording changes in light transmission. The plot of light transmission versus logarithm of time was linear and allowed calculation of a slope factor which related to the rate of adherence. Neither the amount of collagen nor the platelet count were limiting in the test. Young platelet populations (less than or equal to 1 day old) were obtained during the recovery phase from immune induced thrombocytopenia. Old platelet populations were prepared by blocking thrombopoiesis with cyclophosphamide. Young platelets did not differ significantly from randomly aged platelets in this function. The electrophoretic mobility of platelets was not affected by their age.

  8. Dengue platelets meet Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Paul F

    2013-11-14

    In this issue of Blood, Hottz et al provide compelling evidence that dengue virus (DV) induces (1) platelet synthesis of interleukin-1b (IL-1b); (2) platelet-derived IL-1b–containing microvesicles (MVs) that increase vascular permeability; and (3) DV-triggered inflammasome activation in platelets.

  9. Molecular Basis Linking Platelet to Inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽萍

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction Blood platelets not only play an important role in hemostasis and thrombosis,but increasing evidence show that they participate in the induction of inflammation.Firstly,platelets contain and release cytokines and immune mediators.And platelets are able to modulate and regulate the function of surrounding cells by adhesion molecules or by the release of various factors.

  10. Platelets Inhibit Migration of Canine Osteosarcoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, S C; Badial, P R; Silva, R C; Lunsford, K; Bulla, C

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between platelets and tumour cells is important for tumour growth and metastasis. Thrombocytopenia or antiplatelet treatment negatively impact on cancer metastasis, demonstrating potentially important roles for platelets in tumour progression. To our knowledge, there is no information regarding the role of platelets in cancer progression in dogs. This study was designed to test whether canine platelets affected the migratory behaviour of three canine osteosarcoma cell lines and to give insights of molecular mechanisms. Intact platelets, platelet lysate and platelet releasate inhibited the migration of canine osteosarcoma cell lines. Addition of blood leucocytes to the platelet samples did not alter the inhibitory effect on migration. Platelet treatment also significantly downregulated the transcriptional levels of SNAI2 and TWIST1 genes. The interaction between canine platelets or molecules released during platelet activation and these tumour cell lines inhibits their migration, which suggests that canine platelets might antagonize metastasis of canine osteosarcoma. This effect is probably due to, at least in part, downregulation of genes related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Platelet regulating properties of insulin revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrade Ferreira, I. (Irlando)

    2005-01-01

    Disturbances in platelet responsiveness in diabetes mellitus (DM) lead to platelet-dependent complications in the vasculature. Our studies showed that insulin inhibits platelet activation by inhibiting ADP- and thrombin-induced Ca2+ levels. Ca2+ is under control of cAMP that is a potent endogenous p

  12. Image analysis of blood platelets adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krízová, P; Rysavá, J; Vanícková, M; Cieslar, P; Dyr, J E

    2003-01-01

    Adhesion of blood platelets is one of the major events in haemostatic and thrombotic processes. We studied adhesion of blood platelets on fibrinogen and fibrin dimer sorbed on solid support material (glass, polystyrene). Adhesion was carried on under static and dynamic conditions and measured as percentage of the surface covered with platelets. Within a range of platelet counts in normal and in thrombocytopenic blood we observed a very significant decrease in platelet adhesion on fibrin dimer with bounded active thrombin with decreasing platelet count. Our results show the imperative use of platelet poor blood preparations as control samples in experiments with thrombocytopenic blood. Experiments carried on adhesive surfaces sorbed on polystyrene showed lower relative inaccuracy than on glass. Markedly different behaviour of platelets adhered on the same adhesive surface, which differed only in support material (glass or polystyrene) suggest that adhesion and mainly spreading of platelets depends on physical quality of the surface. While on polystyrene there were no significant differences between fibrin dimer and fibrinogen, adhesion measured on glass support material markedly differed between fibrin dimer and fibrinogen. We compared two methods of thresholding in image analysis of adhered platelets. Results obtained by image analysis of spreaded platelets showed higher relative inaccuracy than results obtained by image analysis of platelets centres and aggregates.

  13. Instability of Extremal Relativistic Charged Spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Anninos, P; Anninos, Peter; Rothman, Tony

    2002-01-01

    With the question, ``Can relativistic charged spheres form extremal black holes?" in mind, we investigate the properties of such spheres from a classical point of view. The investigation is carried out numerically by integrating the Oppenheimer-Volkov equation for relativistic charged fluid spheres and finding interior Reissner-Nordstr\\"om solutions for these objects. We consider both constant density and adiabatic equations of state, as well as several possible charge distributions, and examine stability by both a normal mode and an energy analysis. In all cases, the stability limit for these spheres lies between the extremal ($Q = M$) limit and the black hole limit ($R = R_+$). That is, we find that charged spheres undergo gravitational collapse before they reach $Q = M$, suggesting that extremal Reissner-Nordtr\\"om black holes produced by collapse are ruled out. A general proof of this statement would support a strong form of the cosmic censorship hypothesis, excluding not only stable naked singularities, ...

  14. Human platelet antigen genotyping of platelet donors in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzoni, J; Fagundes, I S; Lunardi, L W; Lindenau, J D-R; Gil, B C; Jobim, M; Dias, V G; Merzoni, L; Sekine, L; Onsten, T G H; Jobim, L F

    2015-10-01

    Human platelet antigens (HPA) are immunogenic structures that result from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) leading to single amino acid substitutions. This study sought to determine the allele and genotype frequencies of HPA-1, HPA-2, HPA-3, HPA-4, HPA-5 and HPA-15 in platelet donors from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil, and compare their allele frequencies to those observed in other populations. HPA genotyping was performed by PCR-SSP method. The study sample comprised 201 platelet donors (167 Caucasians and 34 non-Caucasians). Allele 'a' was that most commonly found for HPA-1 to 5 in both groups. The HPA-15ab genotype predominated over homozygous genotypes of this system. Fisher's exact test revealed statistically significant differences for the HPA-5 system, with a greater prevalence of the HPA-5b allele in non-Caucasians. The neighbour-joining method and principal components analysis revealed genetic proximity between our Caucasian group and European populations. We conclude that the allele frequencies of HPA-1 to 5 and HPA-15 found in our Caucasian sample are similar to those reported for European populations. These findings corroborate the ethnic makeup of the population of RS. The higher frequency of the HPA-5b allele found in the non-Caucasian group of our sample suggests the possibility of allosensitization in patients who receive platelet transfusions from genetically incompatible donors.

  15. Platelet count and platelet indices in women with preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlSheeha MA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Muneera A AlSheeha,1 Rafi S Alaboudi,1 Mohammad A Alghasham,1 Javed Iqbal,2 Ishag Adam1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Medicine, Qassim University, Buriadah, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Maternity and Children’s Hospital, Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: Although the exact pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not completely understood, the utility of different platelets indices can be utilized to predict preeclampsia.Objective: To compare platelet indices, namely platelet count (PC, mean platelet volume (MPV, platelet distribution width (PDW, and PC to MPV ratio in women with preeclampsia compared with healthy controls.Setting: Qassim Hospital, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Design: A case–control study. Sixty preeclamptic women were the cases and an equal number of healthy pregnant women were the controls.Results: There was no significant difference in age, parity, and body mass index between the study groups. Sixteen and 44 of the cases were severe and mild preeclampsia, respectively. There was no significant difference in PDW and MPV between the preeclamptic and control women. Both PC and PC to MPV ratios were significantly lower in the women with preeclampsia compared with the controls. There was no significant difference in the PC, PDW, MPV, and PC to MPV ratio when women with mild and severe preeclampsia were compared. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, the PC cutoff was 248.0×103/µL for diagnosis of preeclampsia (P=0.019; the area under the ROC curve was 62.4%. Binary regression suggests that women with PC <248.010×103/µL were at higher risk of preeclampsia (odds ratio =2.2, 95% confidence interval =1.08–4.6, P=0.03. The PC/MPV cutoff was 31.2 for diagnosis of preeclampsia (P=0.035, the area under the ROC curve was 62.2%.Conclusion: PC <248.010×103/µL and PC to MPV ratio 31.2 are valid predictors of preeclampsia. Keywords: preeclampsia, platelets, PDW, mean platelet

  16. Platelet count and platelet indices in women with preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSheeha, Muneera A; Alaboudi, Rafi S; Alghasham, Mohammad A; Iqbal, Javed; Adam, Ishag

    2016-01-01

    Although the exact pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not completely understood, the utility of different platelets indices can be utilized to predict preeclampsia. To compare platelet indices, namely platelet count (PC), mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), and PC to MPV ratio in women with preeclampsia compared with healthy controls. Qassim Hospital, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A case-control study. Sixty preeclamptic women were the cases and an equal number of healthy pregnant women were the controls. There was no significant difference in age, parity, and body mass index between the study groups. Sixteen and 44 of the cases were severe and mild preeclampsia, respectively. There was no significant difference in PDW and MPV between the preeclamptic and control women. Both PC and PC to MPV ratios were significantly lower in the women with preeclampsia compared with the controls. There was no significant difference in the PC, PDW, MPV, and PC to MPV ratio when women with mild and severe preeclampsia were compared. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, the PC cutoff was 248.0×10(3)/µL for diagnosis of pre-eclampsia (P=0.019; the area under the ROC curve was 62.4%). Binary regression suggests that women with PC preeclampsia (odds ratio =2.2, 95% confidence interval =1.08-4.6, P=0.03). The PC/MPV cutoff was 31.2 for diagnosis of preeclampsia (P=0.035, the area under the ROC curve was 62.2%). PC preeclampsia.

  17. Pooled platelet concentrates: an alternative to single donor apheresis platelets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietersz, R N I

    2009-10-01

    Three types of platelet concentrates (PC) are compared: PC either processed with the platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or the Buffy coat (BC) method from whole blood units and PC obtained by apheresis. Leuko-reduction (LR) pre-storage is advocated to improve quality of the PC during storage and reduce adverse reactions in recipients. Standardization of methods allow preparation of PC with comparable yields of approximately 400 x 10(9) platelets in pooled non-LR-PRP, approximately 370 x 10(9) in pooled LR-BC-PC and in LR apheresis PC the number of platelets can be targeted on 350 x 10(9) or more with devices of various manufacturers. While viral transmission can be prevented by outstanding laboratory tests, the risk of bacterial contamination should be reduced by improved arm disinfection, deviation of the first 20-30 ml of blood and culture or rapid detection assays of the PC pre-issue. In a large prospective multicenter trial no significant difference was observed between cultures of apheresis PC (n = 15,198): 0.09% confirmed positive units versus 0.06% in pooled BC-PC (n = 37,045), respectively. Though platelet activation as measured by CD62 expression may differ in vitro in PC obtained with various apheresis equipment, and also between PC processed with the two whole blood methods there is scarce literature about the clinical impact of these findings. In conclusion the final products of LR-PC derived from whole blood or obtained by apheresis can be comparable, provided the critical steps of the processing method are identified and covered and the process is in control.

  18. Effect of ionizing radiation on platelet function in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalovidouris, A.E.; Papayannis, A.G. (Evangelismos Hospital, Athens (Greece))

    1981-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on platelet function was investigated in vitro. Platelet-rich plasma (300x10/sup 9//l) was irradiated with doses of 1, 4, 10, 20 and 50 Gy. Platelet function tests were performed on both irradiated and control (non-irradiated) platelet samples. The platelet function tests were (1) platelet aggregation by ADP (1, 2, 4 ..mu..mol final concentration), adrenaline and collagen, (2) ADP-release from platelets, (3) clot retraction and (4) platelet factor-3 availability. It was found that roentgen irradiation of platelets in vitro did not affect these platelet function tests.

  19. Platelets: crossroads of immunity and hemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenne, Craig N

    2014-07-31

    In this issue of Blood, Koupenova and colleagues report that platelets express functional TOLL-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and contribute to host survival during viral infection. Through a series of experiments utilizing mice deficient for TLR7 together with adoptive transfer of wild-type platelets, Koupenova et al demonstrate that platelets specifically respond to viral analogs and intact virus, leading to platelet activation and binding to various leukocyte subsets. Perhaps most importantly, this platelet activation appears absolutely essential for host survival during infection with some viral pathogens such as encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV).

  20. Evidence that platelet buoyant density, but not size, correlates with platelet age in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzano, D; Hwang, K; Catalano, P; Aster, R H

    1981-01-01

    Following infusion of 51Cr-labeled autologous platelets into normal subjects, high-density (HD) and low-density (LD) platelet cohorts were isolated by prolonged centrifugation in isosmotic arabino-galactan (Stractan). Specific radio-activity of LD platelets declined rapidly post-infusion (T1/2 = 1.5 days), but specific radioactivity of HD platelets remained constant or increased over a 3--4-day period and gradually declined for 6--7 days thereafter. These differences were exaggerated when platelet cohorts enriched in LD or HD cells by slow centrifugation in high-density albumin were labeled and transfused. Mean survival of a platelet cohort enriched with HD cells was significantly (P less than 0.02) shorter (7.73 days) than that of a cohort enriched with LD cells (9.33) days). In normal subjects treated with aspirin, capacity for thromboxane synthesis was regained more rapidly (P less than 0.05) in LD than in HD platelets. HD and LD platelets differed only slightly in mean volume (HD platelets = 7.57 mu3, LD platelets = 6.87 mu3, 0.05 less than P less than 0.01). We believe the most logical interpretation of these findings is that under normal conditions in man, newly formed platelets are less dense on the average than total platelets and become more dense as they age in the circulation. Thus, specific radioactivity of LD platelets declines rapidly as these platelets move into a more dense compartment and are replaced by newly formed, unlabelled cells; specific radioactivity of HD platelets remains constant or increases as labelled platelets enter this compartment in numbers equal to or greater than the number leaving it at the end of their life span. The similarity in mean volumes of LD and HD platelets suggests that platelet size is unrelated to platelet age under normal conditions.

  1. Evidence that platelet buoyant density, but not size, correlates with platelet age in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezzano, D.; Hwang, K.; Catalano, P.; Aster, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Following infusion of 51Cr-labeled autologous platelets into normal subjects, high-density (HD) and low-density (LD) platelet cohorts were isolated by prolonged centrifugation in isosmotic arabino-galactan (Stractan). Specific radio-activity of LD platelets declined rapidly post-infusion (T1/2 . 1.5 days), but specific radioactivity of HD platelets remained constant or increased over a 3--4-day period and gradually declined for 6--7 days thereafter. These differences were exaggerated when platelet cohorts enriched in LD or HD cells by slow centrifugation in high-density albumin were labeled and transfused. Mean survival of a platelet cohort enriched with HD cells was significantly (P less than 0.02) shorter (7.73 days) than that of a cohort enriched with LD cells (9.33) days). In normal subjects treated with aspirin, capacity for thromboxane synthesis was regained more rapidly (P less than 0.05) in LD than in HD platelets. HD and LD platelets differed only slightly in mean volume (HD platelets . 7.57 mu3, LD platelets . 6.87 mu3, 0.05 less than P less than 0.01). We believe the most logical interpretation of these findings is that under normal conditions in man, newly formed platelets are less dense on the average than total platelets and become more dense as they age in the circulation. Thus, specific radioactivity of LD platelets declines rapidly as these platelets move into a more dense compartment and are replaced by newly formed, unlabelled cells; specific radioactivity of HD platelets remains constant or increases as labelled platelets enter this compartment in numbers equal to or greater than the number leaving it at the end of their life span. The similarity in mean volumes of LD and HD platelets suggests that platelet size is unrelated to platelet age under normal conditions.

  2. Platelets: bridging hemostasis, inflammation, and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenne, C N; Urrutia, R; Kubes, P

    2013-06-01

    Although the function of platelets in the maintenance of hemostasis has been studied in great detail, more recent evidence has highlighted a central role for platelets in the host inflammatory and immune responses. Platelets by virtue of their large numbers and their ability to rapidly release a broad spectrum of immunomodulatory cytokines, chemokines, and other mediators act as circulating sentinels. Upon detection of a pathogen, platelets quickly activate and begin to drive the ensuing inflammatory response. Platelets have the ability to directly modulate the activity of neutrophils (phagocytosis, oxidative burst), endothelium (adhesion molecule and chemokine expression), and lymphocytes. Due to their diverse array of adhesion molecules and preformed chemokines, platelets are able to adhere to leukocytes and facilitate their recruitment to sites of tissue damage or infection. Furthermore, platelets directly participate in the capture and sequestration of pathogens within the vasculature. Platelet-neutrophil interactions are known to induce the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in response to either bacterial or viral infection, and platelets have been shown to internalize pathogens, sequestering them in engulfment vacuoles. Finally, emerging data indicate that platelets also participate in the host immune response by directly killing infected cells. This review will highlight the central role platelets play in the initiation and modulation of the host inflammatory and immune responses.

  3. Calpain Activator Dibucaine Induces Platelet Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-dependent calpains are a family of cysteine proteases that have been demonstrated to play key roles in both platelet glycoprotein Ibα shedding and platelet activation and altered calpain activity is associated with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Calpain activators induce apoptosis in several types of nucleated cells. However, it is not clear whether calpain activators induce platelet apoptosis. Here we show that the calpain activator dibucaine induced several platelet apoptotic events including depolarization of the mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential, up-regulation of Bax and Bak, down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, caspase-3 activation and phosphatidylserine exposure. Platelet apoptosis elicited by dibucaine was not affected by the broad spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001. Furthermore, dibucaine did not induce platelet activation as detected by P-selectin expression and PAC-1 binding. However, platelet aggregation induced by ristocetin or α-thrombin, platelet adhesion and spreading on von Willebrand factor were significantly inhibited in platelets treated with dibucaine. Taken together, these data indicate that dibucaine induces platelet apoptosis and platelet dysfunction.

  4. Theorising Public and Private Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Remina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The 19th century saw an expression of women’s ardent desire for freedom, emancipation and assertion in the public space. Women hardly managed to assert themselves at all in the public sphere, as any deviation from their traditional role was seen as unnatural. The human soul knows no gender distinctions, so we can say that women face the same desire for fulfillment as men do. Today, women are more and more encouraged to develop their skills by undertaking activities within the public space that are different from those that form part of traditional domestic chores. The woman of the 19th century felt the need to be useful to society, to make her contribution visible in a variety of domains. A woman does not have to become masculine to get power. If she is successful in any important job, this does not mean that she thinks like a man, but that she thinks like a woman. Women have broken through the walls that cut them off from public life, activity and ambition. There are no hindrances that can prevent women from taking their place in society.

  5. Lines, Circles, Planes and Spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Purdy, George B

    2009-01-01

    Let $S$ be a set of $n$ points in $\\mathbb{R}^3$, no three collinear and not all coplanar. If at most $n-k$ are coplanar and $n$ is sufficiently large, the total number of planes determined is at least $1 + k \\binom{n-k}{2}-\\binom{k}{2}(\\frac{n-k}{2})$. For similar conditions and sufficiently large $n$, (inspired by the work of P. D. T. A. Elliott in \\cite{Ell67}) we also show that the number of spheres determined by $n$ points is at least $1+\\binom{n-1}{3}-t_3^{orchard}(n-1)$, and this bound is best possible under its hypothesis. (By $t_3^{orchard}(n)$, we are denoting the maximum number of three-point lines attainable by a configuration of $n$ points, no four collinear, in the plane, i.e., the classic Orchard Problem.) New lower bounds are also given for both lines and circles.

  6. Hitting spheres on hyperbolic spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Cammarota, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    For a hyperbolic Brownian motion on the Poincar\\'e half-plane $\\mathbb{H}^2$, starting from a point of hyperbolic coordinates $z=(\\eta, \\alpha)$ inside a hyperbolic disc $U$ of radius $\\bar{\\eta}$, we obtain the probability of hitting the boundary $\\partial U$ at the point $(\\bar \\eta,\\bar \\alpha)$. For $\\bar{\\eta} \\to \\infty$ we derive the asymptotic Cauchy hitting distribution on $\\partial \\mathbb{H}^2$ and for small values of $\\eta$ and $\\bar \\eta$ we obtain the classical Euclidean Poisson kernel. The exit probabilities $\\mathbb{P}_z\\{T_{\\eta_1}sphere. For the hyperbolic half-space $\\mathbb{H}^n$ we obtain the Poisson kernel of a ball in terms of a series involving Gegenbauer polynomials and hypergeometric functions. For small do...

  7. Platelet-mediated cytotoxicity and its enhancement by platelet activating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykovskaya, S N; Bolvacheva, A V; Kiselevsky, M V; Khaylenko, V A; Bykovsky, A F

    1991-01-01

    Platelet cytotoxicity was assessed in 70 cancer patients with various tumor localizations and in 30 normal donors. The data presented reveal that the ACL cell line displays the highest sensitivity to platelet cytotoxicity. Using the ACL cells, we discovered that platelets from oncological patients and normal donors display comparable cytotoxicity. The level of platelet lytic activity is irrelevant to tumor localisation; however, it appears to be dependent on the stage of tumor growth. Incubation of platelets, both from donors and patients, with PAF (concentration range 10 pM to 10 nM) results in a significant rise of the killing activity of platelets. PAF induces greater cytotoxicity enhancement for platelets with lower initial activity, this pattern appearing to be the specific feature of the PAF mediated effect. Hence, platelets can be considered as effector cells relevant to antitumor immunity; PAF-mediated enhancement of platelet cytotoxicity can appear to be useful in the search for new immunotherapeutic drugs.

  8. Aerial View of StenniSphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    StenniSphere, the John C. Stennis Space Center's visitor center in Hancock County, Miss., features a 14,000-square-foot museum and outdoor exhibits about Stennis Space Center. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA, the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command, and other resident agencies. Recently named Mississippi's Travel Attraction of the Year, StenniSphere hosted a quarter of a million visitors in its first year and is a major school field trip destination.

  9. Performance Evaluation of List Sphere Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiang; LUO Han-wen; YI Yang

    2005-01-01

    A list sphere detector can use a smaller list than commonly believed by employing an appropriate soft output approximation method. Its effect on the "quality" of detector's soft output value is evaluated by measuringmutual information under ergodic channel. The result shows a length 40 list is adequate for a 4 × 4 16QAM MIMO system without system-level iteration. For the ergodic channel, the gain of a sphere detector over the linear MMSE detector is dependent on channel coding rate, which answers an important question when sphere detector should be used in system level design. All these theoretical results are then verified by Monte Carlo simulation.

  10. The Positive Freedom of the Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between democracy and the media since the appearance of Habermas' major texts in the 1960s has been articulated through theories of the public sphere. The structure of the public sphere is significantly influenced by the communicative media, and the emergence of the internet thus......-value of utterances is not adequate. Negative freedom and truth are certainly important in the public sphere, because they are necessary conditions for taking a qualified stance towards the challenges that we face. It is, however, important also to reflect on what negative liberties are used for—which kinds of truths...

  11. Platelet function tests: a comparative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paniccia R

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rita Paniccia,1,2 Raffaella Priora,1,2 Agatina Alessandrello Liotta,2 Rosanna Abbate1,2 1Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Thrombosis Center, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 2Department of Heart and Vessels, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Florence, Italy Abstract: In physiological hemostasis a prompt recruitment of platelets on the vessel damage prevents the bleeding by the rapid formation of a platelet plug. Qualitative and/or quantitative platelet defects promote bleeding, whereas the high residual reactivity of platelets in patients on antiplatelet therapies moves forward thromboembolic complications. The biochemical mechanisms of the different phases of platelet activation – adhesion, shape change, release reaction, and aggregation – have been well delineated, whereas their complete translation into laboratory assays has not been so fulfilled. Laboratory tests of platelet function, such as bleeding time, light transmission platelet aggregation, lumiaggregometry, impedance aggregometry on whole blood, and platelet activation investigated by flow cytometry, are traditionally utilized for diagnosing hemostatic disorders and managing patients with platelet and hemostatic defects, but their use is still limited to specialized laboratories. To date, a point-of-care testing (POCT dedicated to platelet function, using pertinent devices much simpler to use, has now become available (ie, PFA-100, VerifyNow System, Multiplate Electrode Aggregometry [MEA]. POCT includes new methodologies which may be used in critical clinical settings and also in general laboratories because they are rapid and easy to use, employing whole blood without the necessity of sample processing. Actually, these different platelet methodologies for the evaluation of inherited and acquired bleeding disorders and/or for monitoring antiplatelet therapies are spreading and the study of platelet function is strengthening. In this review, well

  12. Platelet Function Tests in Bleeding Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassila, Riitta

    2016-04-01

    Functional disorders of platelets can involve any aspect of platelet physiology, with many different effects or outcomes. These include platelet numbers (thrombocytosis or thrombocytopenia); changes in platelet production or destruction, or capture to the liver (Ashwell receptor); altered adhesion to vascular injury sites and/or influence on hemostasis and wound healing; and altered activation or receptor functions, shape change, spreading and release reactions, procoagulant and antifibrinolytic activity. Procoagulant membrane alterations, and generation of thrombin and fibrin, also affect platelet aggregation. The above parameters can all be studied, but standardization and quality control of assay methods have been limited despite several efforts. Only after a comprehensive clinical bleeding assessment, including family history, information on drug use affecting platelets, and exclusion of coagulation factor, and tissue deficits, should platelet function testing be undertaken to confirm an abnormality. Current diagnostic tools include blood cell counts, platelet characteristics according to the cell counter parameters, peripheral blood smear, exclusion of pseudothrombocytopenia, whole blood aggregometry (WBA) or light transmission aggregometry (LTA) in platelet-rich plasma, luminescence, platelet function analysis (PFA-100) for platelet adhesion and deposition to collagen cartridges under blood flow, and finally transmission electron microscopy to exclude rare structural defects leading to functional deficits. The most validated test panels are included in WBA, LTA, and PFA. Because platelets are isolated from their natural environment, many simplifications occur, as circulating blood and interaction with vascular wall are omitted in these assays. The target to reach a highly specific platelet disorder diagnosis in routine clinical management can be exhaustive, unless needed for genetic counseling. The elective overall assessment of platelet function disorder

  13. In vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Platelets are routinely isolated from whole blood and stored in plasma for 5 days. This study was done to assess the in vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution at 22°C. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 30 blood donors of both sex in State Blood Bank, C S M Medical University, Lucknow. Random donor platelets were prepared by the platelet-rich plasma method. Whole blood (350 ml was collected in anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine triple blood bags. Random donor platelets were stored for 7 days at 22°C in platelet incubators and agitators with and without additive solution. Results: Platelet swirling was present in all the units at 22°C on day 7 with no evidence of bacterial contamination. Comparison of the mean values of platelet count, platelet factor 3, lactate dehydrogenase, pH, glucose and platelet aggregation showed no significant difference in additive solution while platelet factor 3, glucose and platelet aggregation showed significant difference (P < 0.001 on day 7 without additive solution at 22°C. Conclusion: Our study infers that the platelet viability and aggregation were the best maintained within normal levels on day 7 of storage in platelet additive solution at 22°C. Thus, we may conclude that in vitro storage of random donor platelets with an extended shelf life of 7 days using platelet additive solution may be advocated to improve the inventory of platelets.

  14. Platelet receptors and patient responses: The contributions of Professor Stan Heptinstall to platelet research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemetson, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    Stan Heptinstall's contributions to platelet research covered organising meetings at the national and European level as well as starting and maintaining the journal "Platelets". The major part of his research addressed problems of inhibition of platelet receptors and the effects of this on patient health. In particular, the effects of P2Y12 inhibitors on patients with acute cardiovascular problems were a major focus. Other studies included the effects of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) extracts on platelets, of direct anti-IIb/IIIa receptor (αIIbβ3) inhibitors and of prostanoids on platelet function. Recently, methods for assessing the effectiveness of platelet inhibition were investigated.

  15. Platelet count and platelet indices in women with preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    AlSheeha MA; Alaboudi RS; Alghasham MA; Iqbal J; Adam I

    2016-01-01

    Muneera A AlSheeha,1 Rafi S Alaboudi,1 Mohammad A Alghasham,1 Javed Iqbal,2 Ishag Adam1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Medicine, Qassim University, Buriadah, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Maternity and Children’s Hospital, Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: Although the exact pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not completely understood, the utility of different platelets indices can be utilized to predict preeclampsia.Obj...

  16. Pathogen-Reduced, Platelet Additive Solution, Extended Stored Platelets (PREPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    associated sepsis remains the principal lethal risk associated with platelet transfusion. Cold storage (4°C) is known to reduce post transfusion...and no residual radiation is detectable . *P-selectin samples will be prepped on end of storage day and batch tested. **Bacterial Culture sample...temperature controlled room until such time as they have no detectable residual radiation. This is generally about 3-4 months. At that point they are

  17. Directional spin wavelets on the sphere

    CERN Document Server

    McEwen, Jason D; Büttner, Martin; Peiris, Hiranya V; Wiaux, Yves

    2015-01-01

    We construct a directional spin wavelet framework on the sphere by generalising the scalar scale-discretised wavelet transform to signals of arbitrary spin. The resulting framework is the only wavelet framework defined natively on the sphere that is able to probe the directional intensity of spin signals. Furthermore, directional spin scale-discretised wavelets support the exact synthesis of a signal on the sphere from its wavelet coefficients and satisfy excellent localisation and uncorrelation properties. Consequently, directional spin scale-discretised wavelets are likely to be of use in a wide range of applications and in particular for the analysis of the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We develop new algorithms to compute (scalar and spin) forward and inverse wavelet transforms exactly and efficiently for very large data-sets containing tens of millions of samples on the sphere. By leveraging a novel sampling theorem on the rotation group developed in a companion article, only hal...

  18. ANALYSIS OF MECHANISMS FINANCING OF CULTURAL SPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costandachi Gheorghe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work is made analysis concern basically state structures of culture and arts activities, is describes the problems are met during the reforming process the financial mechanisms in cultural sphere. Author disclosed the ways evolve private and estate financing cultural sphere, also is disclosed why is need estate financial support. The work contains something detailed measures actions to improve financial and mechanisms financing of cultural sphere. Analyzing questions of modernization of budgetary financing of branch the author have formulated effectiveness of use of budgetary funds at all levels in cultural structures and proposed the ways of finishing of market reforms in cinematography. In the final of work is presented scheme system of financing, formation and distribution of financial resources in cinematography and is making conclusions and is offered wais of the solutions created present situation in this sphere in Moldova.

  19. Computer simulation of rod-sphere mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Antypov, D

    2003-01-01

    Results are presented from a series of simulations undertaken to investigate the effect of adding small spherical particles to a fluid of rods which would otherwise represent a liquid crystalline (LC) substance. Firstly, a bulk mixture of Hard Gaussian Overlap particles with an aspect ratio of 3:1 and hard spheres with diameters equal to the breadth of the rods is simulated at various sphere concentrations. Both mixing-demixing and isotropic-nematic transition are studied using Monte Carlo techniques. Secondly, the effect of adding Lennard-Jones particles to an LC system modelled using the well established Gay-Berne potential is investigated. These rod-sphere mixtures are simulated using both the original set of interaction parameters and a modified version of the rod-sphere potential proposed in this work. The subject of interest is the internal structure of the binary mixture and its dependence on density, temperature, concentration and various parameters characterising the intermolecular interactions. Both...

  20. Acoustic levitation of a large solid sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Marco A. B., E-mail: marcobrizzotti@gmail.com [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-090 (Brazil); Bernassau, Anne L. [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Adamowski, Julio C. [Department of Mechatronics and Mechanical Systems Engineering, Escola Politécnica, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-030 (Brazil)

    2016-07-25

    We demonstrate that acoustic levitation can levitate spherical objects much larger than the acoustic wavelength in air. The acoustic levitation of an expanded polystyrene sphere of 50 mm in diameter, corresponding to 3.6 times the wavelength, is achieved by using three 25 kHz ultrasonic transducers arranged in a tripod fashion. In this configuration, a standing wave is created between the transducers and the sphere. The axial acoustic radiation force generated by each transducer on the sphere was modeled numerically as a function of the distance between the sphere and the transducer. The theoretical acoustic radiation force was verified experimentally in a setup consisting of an electronic scale and an ultrasonic transducer mounted on a motorized linear stage. The comparison between the numerical and experimental acoustic radiation forces presents a good agreement.

  1. Spheres of SA Government, responsibilities and delivery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available with distinctive but interdependent and interrelated functional responsibilities. The new local sphere of government was created by amalgamating over 800 municipalities into 283 municipalities. This chapter discusses the responsibilities of the Government...

  2. Scalar Casimir effect between two concentric spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Ozcan, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    The Casimir effect giving rise to an attractive force between the closely spaced two concentric spheres that confine the massless scalar field is calculated by using a direct mode summation with contour integration in the complex plane of eigenfrequencies. We devoleped a new approach appropriate for the calculation of the Casimir energy for spherical boundary conditions. The Casimir energy for a massless scalar field between the closely spaced two concentric spheres coincides with the Casimir energy of the parallel plates for a massless scalar field in the limit when the dimensionless parameter {\\eta}, ({\\eta}=((a-b)/(\\surd(ab))) where a (b) is inner (outer) radius of sphere), goes to zero. The efficiency of new approach is demonstrated by calculation of the Casimir energy for a massless scalar field between the closely spaced two concentric half spheres. PACS number(s): 03.70.+k, 12.20.DS, 11.10.Gh

  3. Spheres of Exemption, Figures of Exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , the history of ideas, social science, political science and literature studies, Spheres of Exemption, Figures of Exclusion offers thirteen investigations into the co-constitutive relationship between subjectivity and political and legal order, combining theoretical reflection with empirical and historical...

  4. Acoustic levitation of a large solid sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Marco A. B.; Bernassau, Anne L.; Adamowski, Julio C.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that acoustic levitation can levitate spherical objects much larger than the acoustic wavelength in air. The acoustic levitation of an expanded polystyrene sphere of 50 mm in diameter, corresponding to 3.6 times the wavelength, is achieved by using three 25 kHz ultrasonic transducers arranged in a tripod fashion. In this configuration, a standing wave is created between the transducers and the sphere. The axial acoustic radiation force generated by each transducer on the sphere was modeled numerically as a function of the distance between the sphere and the transducer. The theoretical acoustic radiation force was verified experimentally in a setup consisting of an electronic scale and an ultrasonic transducer mounted on a motorized linear stage. The comparison between the numerical and experimental acoustic radiation forces presents a good agreement.

  5. Reduction of calcium flux from the extracellular region and endoplasmic reticulum by amorphous nano-silica particles owing to carboxy group addition on their surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Onodera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that amorphous nano-silica particles (nano-SPs modulate calcium flux, although the mechanism remains incompletely understood. We thus analyzed the relationship between calcium flux and particle surface properties and determined the calcium flux route. Treatment of Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts with nano-SPs with a diameter of 70 nm (nSP70 increased cytosolic calcium concentration, but that with SPs with a diameter of 300 or 1000 nm did not. Surface modification of nSP70 with a carboxy group also did not modulate calcium flux. Pretreatment with a general calcium entry blocker almost completely suppressed calcium flux by nSP70. Preconditioning by emptying the endoplasmic reticulum (ER calcium stores slightly suppressed calcium flux by nSP70. These results indicate that nSP70 mainly modulates calcium flux across plasma membrane calcium channels, with subsequent activation of the ER calcium pump, and that the potential of calcium flux by nano-SPs is determined by the particle surface charge.

  6. Gender, Diversity and the European Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that feminist criticism of Habermasian theory leads to new ways of approaching empirical analyses of public sphere deliberation, and gives some concrete indications of which methodological consequences such a critique may lead to.......This paper argues that feminist criticism of Habermasian theory leads to new ways of approaching empirical analyses of public sphere deliberation, and gives some concrete indications of which methodological consequences such a critique may lead to....

  7. vSphere virtual machine management

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzhugh, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This book follows a step-by-step tutorial approach with some real-world scenarios that vSphere businesses will be required to overcome every day. This book also discusses creating and configuring virtual machines and also covers monitoring virtual machine performance and resource allocation options. This book is for VMware administrators who want to build their knowledge of virtual machine administration and configuration. It's assumed that you have some experience with virtualization administration and vSphere.

  8. vSphere high performance cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Prasenjit

    2013-01-01

    vSphere High Performance Cookbook is written in a practical, helpful style with numerous recipes focusing on answering and providing solutions to common, and not-so common, performance issues and problems.The book is primarily written for technical professionals with system administration skills and some VMware experience who wish to learn about advanced optimization and the configuration features and functions for vSphere 5.1.

  9. Gender, Diversity and the European Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that feminist criticism of Habermasian theory leads to new ways of approaching empirical analyses of public sphere deliberation, and gives some concrete indications of which methodological consequences such a critique may lead to.......This paper argues that feminist criticism of Habermasian theory leads to new ways of approaching empirical analyses of public sphere deliberation, and gives some concrete indications of which methodological consequences such a critique may lead to....

  10. Effective Depletion Potential of Colloidal Spheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei-Hua; MA Hong-Ru

    2004-01-01

    @@ A new semianalytical method, which is a combination of the density functional theory with Rosenfeld density functional and the Ornstein-Zernike equation, is proposed for the calculation of the effective depletion potentials between a pair of big spheres immersed in a small hard sphere fluid. The calculated results are almost identical to the integral equation method with the Percus-Yevick approximation, and are also in agreement well with the Monte Carlo simulation results.

  11. Point defects in hard-sphere crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Pronk, S.; Frenkel, D.

    2001-01-01

    We report numerical calculations of the concentration of interstitials in hard-sphere crystals. We find that, in a three-dimensional fcc hard-sphere crystal at the melting point, the concentration of interstitials is 2 * 10^-8. This is some three orders of magnitude lower than the concentration of vacancies. A simple, analytical estimate yields a value that is in fair agreement with the numerical results.

  12. Geometrical Dynamics in a Transitioning Superconducting Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claycomb J. R.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical works have concentrated on calculating the Casimir effect in curved spacetime. In this paper we outline the forward problem of metrical variation due to the Casimir effect for spherical geometries. We consider a scalar quantum field inside a hollow superconducting sphere. Metric equations are developed describing the evolution of the scalar curvature after the sphere transitions to the normal state.

  13. Detection of microbial contamination in platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Tracy L.; Leparc, German; Huffman, Debra E.; Gennaccaro, Angela L.; Garcia-Lopez, Alicia; Klungness, Greta; Stephans, Christie; Garcia-Rubio, Luis H.

    2005-03-01

    In the United States, approximately 100 patients develop fatal sepsis associated with platelet transfusions every year. Current culture methods take 24-48 hours to acquire results, which in turn decrease the shelf life of platelets. Many of the microorganisms that contaminate platelets can replicate easily at room temperature, which is the necessary storage temperature to keep platelets functional. Therefore, there is a need for in-situ quality control assessment of the platelet quality. For this purpose, a real time spectrophotometric technique has been developed. The Spectral Acquisition Processing Detection (SAPD) method, comprised of a UV-vis spectrophotometer and modeling algorithms, is a rapid method that can be performed prior to platelet transfusion to decrease the risk of bacterial infection to patients. The SAPD method has been used to determine changes in cell suspensions, based on size, shape, chemical composition and internal structure. Changes in these cell characteristics can in turn be used to determine microbial contamination, platelet aging and other physiologic changes. Detection limits of this method for platelet suspensions seeded with bacterial contaminants were identified to be less than 100 cfu/ml of sample. Bacterial counts below 1000 cfu/ml are not considered clinically significant. The SAPD method can provide real-time identification of bacterial contamination of platelets affording patients an increased level of safety without causing undue strain on laboratory budgets or personnel while increasing the time frame that platelets can be used by dramatically shortening contaminant detection time.

  14. Influence of Oxidative Stress on Stored Platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Manasa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet storage and its availability for transfusion are limited to 5-6 days. Oxidative stress (OS is one of the causes for reduced efficacy and shelf-life of platelets. The studies on platelet storage have focused on improving the storage conditions by altering platelet storage solutions, temperature, and materials. Nevertheless, the role of OS on platelet survival during storage is still unclear. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the influence of storage on platelets. Platelets were stored for 12 days at 22°C. OS markers such as aggregation, superoxides, reactive oxygen species, glucose, pH, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and antioxidant enzymes were assessed. OS increased during storage as indicated by increments in aggregation, superoxides, pH, conjugate dienes, and superoxide dismutase and decrements in glucose and catalase. Thus, platelets could endure OS till 6 days during storage, due to the antioxidant defense system. An evident increase in OS was observed from day 8 of storage, which can diminish the platelet efficacy. The present study provides an insight into the gradual changes occurring during platelet storage. This lays the foundation towards new possibilities of employing various antioxidants as additives in storage solutions.

  15. Effects of Physical (Inactivity on Platelet Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Heber

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As platelet activation is closely related to the liberation of growth factors and inflammatory mediators, platelets play a central role in the development of CVD. Virtually all cardiovascular risk factors favor platelet hyperreactivity and, accordingly, also physical (inactivity affects platelet function. Within this paper, we will summarize and discuss the current knowledge on the impact of acute and habitual exercise on platelet function. Although there are apparent discrepancies regarding the reported effects of acute, strenuous exercise on platelet activation, a deeper analysis of the available literature reveals that the applied exercise intensity and the subjects’ cardiorespiratory fitness represent critical determinants for the observed effects. Consideration of these factors leads to the summary that (i acute, strenuous exercise can lead to platelet activation, (ii regular physical activity and/or physical fitness diminish or prevent platelet activation in response to acute exercise, and (iii habitual physical activity and/or physical fitness also favorably modulate platelet function at physical rest. Notably, these effects of exercise on platelet function show obvious similarities to the well-recognized relation between exercise and the risk for cardiovascular events where vigorous exercise transiently increases the risk for myocardial infarction and a physically active lifestyle dramatically reduces cardiovascular mortality.

  16. Trehalose lyophilized platelets for wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietramaggiori, Giorgio; Kaipainen, Arja; Ho, David; Orser, Cindy; Pebley, Walter; Rudolph, Alan; Orgill, Dennis P

    2007-01-01

    Fresh platelet preparations are utilized to treat a wide variety of wounds, although storage limitations and mixed results have hampered their clinical use. We hypothesized that concentrated lyophilized and reconstituted platelet preparations, preserved with trehalose, maintain and possibly enhance fresh platelets' ability to improve wound healing. We studied the ability of a single dose of trehalose lyophilized and reconstituted platelets to enhance wound healing when topically applied on full-thickness wounds in the genetically diabetic mouse. We compared these results with the application of multiple doses of fresh platelet preparations and trehalose lyophilized and reconstituted platelets as well as multiple doses of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and wounds left untreated. Trehalose lyophilized and reconstituted platelets, in single and multiple applications, multiple applications of fresh platelets and multiple applications of VEGF increased granulation tissue deposition, vascularity, and proliferation when compared with untreated wounds, as assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Wounds treated with multiple doses of VEGF and a single dose of freeze-dried platelets reached 90% closure faster than wounds left untreated. A single administration of trehalose lyophilized and reconstituted platelet preparations enhanced diabetic wound healing, therefore representing a promising strategy for the treatment of nonhealing wounds.

  17. Small RNAs as potential platelet therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Leonard C; Bray, Paul F

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 21-23 nucleotide RNAs that regulate more than 60% of mammalian protein coding genes. miRNAs play critical roles in hematopoiesis and megakaryocyte function and development. Platelets, in addition to possessing functional miRNA processing machinery, have miRNA levels that have been correlated with platelet reactivity, and these miRNAs have been shown to target mRNAs that encode proteins that alter platelet function. There are potential uses of platelet miRNA as biomarkers and therapeutic agents. Due to the ability of platelets to release miRNA-containing microparticles at sites of activation, including angiogenic regions, tumors, and atherosclerotic plaques, there is the possibility of engineering platelets to deliver miRNA-based therapies to these sites. Cellpreferential expression of miRNAs could be exploited to restrict transgene expression in hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy to the desired lineage, including megakaryocytes and platelets. Finally, manipulation of gene expression in stored platelets may allow more effective platelet storage. Although much work remains to be done, there is great potential in miRNA-based platelet therapies.

  18. Platelet MicroRNAs: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Neetu; Sarachana, Tewarit; Vu, Long; Becker, Kevin G; Wood, William H; Zhang, Yongqing; Atreya, Chintamani D

    2015-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short ~22-nucleotide noncoding RNA that have been found to influence the expression of many genes and cellular processes by either repressing translation or degrading messenger RNA transcripts. Platelet miRNA expression has been shown to be perturbed during ex vivo storage of platelets and in platelet-associated disorders. Although bioinformatics-based miRNA target predictions have been established, direct experimental validation of the role of miRNAs in platelet biology has been rather slow. Target prediction studies are, nonetheless, valuable in directing the design of appropriate experiments to test specific miRNA:messenger RNA interactions relevant to the underlying mechanisms of platelet function in general and in disease as well as in ex vivo storage-associated "storage lesions," a collective term used to include physiologic, biochemical, and morphologic changes that occur in stored platelets. This brief review will focus on emerging human platelet miRNA studies to emphasize their potential role relevant to transfusion medicine field in terms of regulating platelet signaling pathways, markers of platelet associated disorders, and remote impactors of gene expression (intercellular biomodulators) as well as potential platelet quality markers of storage and pathogen reduction treatments.

  19. Understanding platelet function through signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Alan H; Song, Seng; Crow, Andrew R

    2003-01-01

    Platelets are activated by a number of stimuli resulting in the expression and/or activation of surface receptors, secretion of vasoactive substances, adhesion, aggregation, and finally thrombus formation. These events are propagated by a process known as transmembrane signaling, which relays the activating signal from the platelet membrane (eg, von Willebrand Factor binding to glycoprotein Ib) to the inside of the platelet which then serves to activate the platelet via a cascade of biochemical interactions. Inhibition of these transmembrane signaling molecules with a variety of available inhibitors or antagonists can in many cases prevent the platelet from becoming activated. An awareness of the mechanisms involved in platelet transmembrane signaling and the recent availability of new reagents to inhibit signaling may provide us with additional means to prevent platelet activation and perhaps even ameliorate the platelet storage lesion. This review will provide an introduction to the field of platelet transmembrane signaling and give an overview of some of the platelet signaling mechanisms that are relevant to transfusion medicine. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  20. Platelet destruction in autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura: kinetics and clearance of indium-111-labeled autologous platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, J.R.; Ballem, P.J.; Gernsheimer, T.; Cerqueira, M.; Slichter, S.J.

    1989-05-01

    Using autologous /sup 111/In-labeled platelets, platelet kinetics and the sites of platelet destruction were assessed in 16 normal subjects (13 with and three without spleens), in 17 studies of patients with primary autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (AITP), in six studies of patients with secondary AITP, in ten studies of patients with AITP following splenectomy, and in five thrombocytopenic patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. In normal subjects, the spleen accounted for 24 +/- 4% of platelet destruction and the liver for 15 +/- 2%. Untreated patients with primary AITP had increased splenic destruction (40 +/- 14%, p less than 0.001) but not hepatic destruction (13 +/- 5%). Compared with untreated patients, prednisone treated patients did not have significantly different spleen and liver platelet sequestration. Patients with secondary AITP had similar platelet counts, platelet survivals, and increases in splenic destruction of platelets as did patients with primary AITP. In contrast, patients with myelodysplastic syndromes had a normal pattern of platelet destruction. In AITP patients following splenectomy, the five nonresponders all had a marked increase (greater than 45%) in liver destruction compared to five responders (all less than 40%). Among all patients with primary or secondary AITP, there was an inverse relationship between the percent of platelets destroyed in the liver plus spleen and both the platelet count (r = 0.75, p less than 0.001) and the platelet survival (r = 0.86, p less than 0.001). In a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, total liver plus spleen platelet destruction, the platelet survival and the platelet turnover were all significant independent predictors of the platelet count. Thus platelet destruction is shifted to the spleen in primary and secondary AITP. Failure of splenectomy is associated with a marked elevation in liver destruction.

  1. A novel sampling theorem on the sphere

    CERN Document Server

    McEwen, J D

    2011-01-01

    We develop a novel sampling theorem on the sphere and corresponding fast algorithms by associating the sphere with the torus through a periodic extension. The fundamental property of any sampling theorem is the number of samples required to represent a band-limited signal. To represent exactly a signal on the sphere band-limited at L, all sampling theorems on the sphere require O(L^2) samples. However, our sampling theorem requires less than half the number of samples of other equiangular sampling theorems on the sphere and an asymptotically identical, but smaller, number of samples than the Gauss-Legendre sampling theorem. The complexity of our algorithms scale as O(L^3), however, the continual use of fast Fourier transforms reduces the constant prefactor associated with the asymptotic scaling considerably, resulting in algorithms that are fast. Furthermore, we do not require any precomputation and our algorithms apply to both scalar and spin functions on the sphere without any change in computational comple...

  2. Inverse Magnus effect on a rotating sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jooha; Park, Hyungmin; Choi, Haecheon; Yoo, Jung Yul

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we investigate the flow characteristics of rotating spheres in the subcritical Reynolds number (Re) regime by measuring the drag and lift forces on the sphere and the two-dimensional velocity in the wake. The experiment is conducted in a wind tunnel at Re = 0 . 6 ×105 - 2 . 6 ×105 and the spin ratio (ratio of surface velocity to the free-stream velocity) of 0 (no spin) - 0.5. The drag coefficient on a stationary sphere remains nearly constant at around 0.52. However, the magnitude of lift coefficient is nearly zero at Re Magnus effect, depending on the magnitudes of the Reynolds number and spin ratio. The velocity field measured from a particle image velocimetry (PIV) indicates that non-zero lift coefficient on a stationary sphere at Re > 2 . 0 ×105 results from the asymmetry of separation line, whereas the inverse Magnus effect for the rotating sphere results from the differences in the boundary-layer growth and separation along the upper and lower sphere surfaces. Supported by the WCU, Converging Research Center and Priority Research Centers Program, NRF, MEST, Korea.

  3. Platelet activation patterns in platelet size sub-populations: differential responses to aspirin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalpally, Kiran Kumar R; Siqueiros-Garcia, Alan; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Dong, Jing-Fei; Kleiman, Neal S; Guthikonda, Sasidhar

    2010-10-01

    Circulating platelets are heterogeneous in size and structure. Whether this translates into differences in platelet function and efficacy of antiplatelet therapy is unclear. Hence, we decided to investigate the activation patterns among different platelet populations differentiated by size, and to compare the inhibitory effects of aspirin in these populations. Circulating platelets from 9 healthy volunteers were separated by size and stratified into the largest and smallest quintiles. Platelets were stimulated with 75 μM arachidonic acid (AA), 10 μM ADP or 25 μM TRAP. Alpha-granule protein secretion and expression (P-selectin, VWF, fibrinogen), surface-protein activation (activated integrin αIIbβ3) were assessed. Platelet thromboxane B(2) (TxB(2)) synthesis following AA stimulation was measured in vitro before and after incubation with 265 μM aspirin. Reticulated (juvenile) platelets were assessed using thiazole orange staining. A greater number of large platelets in the largest quintile were reticulated compared with the smallest quintile (6.1 ± 2.8% vs. 1.2 ± 1.5% respectively, p aspirin (1029 ± 190 pg/mL vs. 851 ± 159 pg/mL, respectively, p = 0.03). After stimulation with each agonist, a greater proportion of large platelets bound fibrinogen, VWF, P-selectin and activated integrin αIIbβ3 than small platelets both in the presence and in the absence of in vitro aspirin. In an in vitro setting, large platelets appear to be more active than small platelets and continue to be more active even after in vitro aspirin. Platelets exhibit heterogeneity in size and structure. Whether this translates into platelet function and efficacy of antiplatelet therapy is unclear. We evaluated platelet functional properties and the effects of aspirin on separated platelet subpopulations in an in vitro setting. Platelets were sorted into the largest and smallest size quintiles using flow cytometry forward scatter. Alpha-granule protein release, dense granule content

  4. STABILIZATION OF STANDARD PLATELET CONCENTRATES AND MINIMIZATION OF THE PLATELET STORAGE LESION BY A PROSTACYCLIN ANALOG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ELIAS, M; HEETHUIS, A; BOM, [No Value; BLOM, N; MCSHINE, RL; HALIE, MR; SIBINGA, CTS

    Platelet concentrates were pretreated with a stable synthetic prostacyclin analogue (Iloprost) at two different concentrations before the second centrifugation step (pelleting step) of preparation. This resulted in loss. of platelet sensitivity to aggregating agents. To mimic the situation after

  5. Mean platelet volume in acute rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Ahmet; Aypar, Ebru; Odabas, Dursun

    2013-01-01

    Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is still an endemic disease, especially among school-aged children in developing countries. Mean platelet volume (MPV), which is commonly used as a measure of platelet size, indicates the rate of platelet production and platelet activation. We aimed to investigate MPV in children with ARF. The study population consisted of 40 children with ARF (32 patients with carditis and 8 patients without carditis) and 40 healthy control subjects. White blood cell (WBC) and platelet counts were significantly higher and MPV values were significantly lower in patients with ARF during the acute stage when compared to controls. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein values significantly decreased in patients with ARF after the treatment when compared to baseline, whereas MPV values increased. MPV values were negatively correlated with ESR and WBC, and platelet counts. In conclusion, during the acute stage of ARF, MPV values were lower when compared to controls.

  6. Therapeutic platelet reduction: Use in postsplenectomy thrombocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Negi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic platelet reduction is an effective modality for the reduction of platelet count in patients with treatment of extreme thrombocytosis resulting from a variety of primary and secondary causes of thrombocytosis, which may be associated with thrombotic or hemorrhagic complications of varying degrees. These cases when symptomatic fall into the ASFA Category II indication for therapeutic platelet apheresis procedure. Here, we report a case of postsplenectomy secondary thrombocytosis presenting with extremely high platelet counts and subsequent thrombosis in the shunt and successful treatment after therapeutic platelet reduction. The case is being presented to bring forth the fact that therapeutic platelet reduction is an easy procedure that gives quick and good results and also to bring to the attention of transfusion specialists an associated but as yet unreported procedural finding.

  7. Laboratory testing for platelet function disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israels, S J

    2015-05-01

    Platelet function testing is both complex and labor intensive. A stepwise approach to the evaluation of patients with suspected platelet disorders will optimize the use of laboratory resources, beginning with an appropriate clinical evaluation to determine whether the bleeding is consistent with a defect of primary hemostasis. Bleeding assessment tools, evaluation of platelet counts, and review of peripheral blood cell morphology can aid the initial assessment. For patients requiring further laboratory testing, platelet aggregometry, secretion assays, and von Willebrand factor assays are the most useful next steps and will direct further specialized testing including flow cytometry, electron microscopy, and molecular diagnostics. Guidelines and recommendations for standardizing platelet function testing, with a particular focus on light transmission aggregometry, are available and can provide a template for clinical laboratories in establishing procedures that will optimize diagnosis and assure quality results. This review outlines an approach to platelet function testing and reviews testing methods available to clinical laboratories.

  8. Differential effects of platelets and platelet inhibition by ticagrelor on TLR2- and TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tunjungputri, R.N.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Riksen, N.P.; Rongen, G.A.P.J.M.; Tacke, S.; Berg, T.N.A. van den; Fijnheer, R.; Gomes, M.E.; Dinarello, C.A.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Gasem, M.H.; Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Groot, P.G. de; Mast, Q. de

    2015-01-01

    Platelets and platelet-monocyte interaction play an important role in inflammation. Both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects of platelet inhibition have been reported in animal models. This study aimed to investigate the effect of platelets and platelet inhibition by the new P2Y12 receptor antagonist

  9. Collinear swimmer propelling a cargo sphere at low Reynolds number

    CERN Document Server

    Felderhof, B U

    2014-01-01

    The swimming velocity and rate of dissipation of a linear chain consisting of two or three little spheres and a big sphere is studied on the basis of low Reynolds number hydrodynamics. The big sphere is treated as a passive cargo, driven by the tail of little spheres via hydrodynamic and direct elastic interaction. The fundamental solution of Stokes' equations in the presence of a sphere with no-slip boundary condition, as derived by Oseen, is used to model the hydrodynamic interactions between the big sphere and the little spheres.

  10. Terminal energy distribution of blast waves from bursting spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, A. A.; Strehlow, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    The calculation results for the total energy delivered to the surroundings by the burst of an idealized massless sphere containing an ideal gas are presented. The logic development of various formulas for sphere energy is also presented. For all types of sphere bursts the fraction of the total initial energy available in the sphere that is delivered to the surroundings is shown to lie between that delivered for the constant pressure addition of energy to a source region and that delivered by isentropic expansion of the sphere. The relative value of E sub/Q increases at fixed sphere pressure/surrounding pressure as sphere temperature increases because the velocity of sound increases.

  11. Analysis of {sup 2}H NMR spectra of water molecules on the surface of nano-silica material MCM-41: Deconvolution of the signal into a Lorentzian and a powder pattern line shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, J., E-mail: jamal.hassan@kustar.ac.ae [Applied Mathematics and Sciences, KUSTAR, UAE and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    Water {sup 2}H NMR signal on the surface of nano-silica material MCM-41 consists of two overlapping resonances. The {sup 2}H water spectrum shows a superposition of a Lorentzian line shape and the familiar NMR powder pattern line shape, indicating the existence of two spin components. Exchange occurs between these two groups. Decomposition of the two signals is a crucial starting point to study the exchange process. In this article we have determined these spin component populations along with other important parameters for the {sup 2}H water NMR signal over a temperature range between 223 K and 343 K.

  12. LDL oxidation by platelets propagates platelet activation via an oxidative stress-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Roberto; Bartimoccia, Simona; Nocella, Cristina; Di Santo, Serena; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Illuminati, Giulio; Lombardi, Elisabetta; Boz, Valentina; Del Ben, Maria; De Marco, Luigi; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Violi, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    Platelets generate oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) via NOX2-derived oxidative stress. We investigated if once generated by activated platelets ox-LDL can propagate platelet activation. Experiments were performed in platelets from healthy subjects (HS), hyper-cholesterolemic patients and patients with NOX2 hereditary deficiency. Agonist-stimulated platelets from HS added with LDL were associated with a dose-dependent increase of reactive oxidant species and ox-LDL. Agonist-stimulated platelets from HS added with a fixed dose of LDL (57.14 μmol/L) or added with homogenized human atherosclerotic plaque showed enhanced ox-LDL formation (approximately +50% and +30% respectively), which was lowered by a NOX2 inhibitor (approximately -35% and -25% respectively). Compared to HS, ox-LDL production was more pronounced in agonist-stimulated platelet rich plasma (PRP) from hyper-cholesterolemic patients but was almost absent in PRP from NOX2-deficient patients. Platelet aggregation and 8-iso-PGF2α-ΙΙΙ formation increased in LDL-treated washed platelets (+42% and +53% respectively) and PRP (+31% and +53% respectively). Also, LDL enhanced platelet-dependent thrombosis at arterial shear rate (+33%) but did not affect platelet activation in NOX2-deficient patients. Platelet activation by LDL was significantly inhibited by CD36 or LOX1 blocking peptides, two ox-LDL receptor antagonists, or by a NOX2 inhibitor. LDL-added platelets showed increased p38MAPK (+59%) and PKC (+51%) phosphorylation, p47(phox) translocation to platelet membrane (+34%) and NOX2 activation (+30%), which were inhibited by ox-LDL receptor antagonists. Platelets oxidize LDL, which in turn amplify platelet activation via specific ox-LDL receptors; both effects are mediated by NOX2 activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Computer simulation of rod-sphere mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antypov, Dmytro

    2003-07-01

    Results are presented from a series of simulations undertaken to investigate the effect of adding small spherical particles to a fluid of rods which would otherwise represent a liquid crystalline (LC) substance. Firstly, a bulk mixture of Hard Gaussian Overlap particles with an aspect ratio of 3:1 and hard spheres with diameters equal to the breadth of the rods is simulated at various sphere concentrations. Both mixing-demixing and isotropic-nematic transition are studied using Monte Carlo techniques. Secondly, the effect of adding Lennard-Jones particles to an LC system modelled using the well established Gay-Berne potential is investigated. These rod-sphere mixtures are simulated using both the original set of interaction parameters and a modified version of the rod-sphere potential proposed in this work. The subject of interest is the internal structure of the binary mixture and its dependence on density, temperature, concentration and various parameters characterising the intermolecular interactions. Both the mixing-demixing behaviour and the transitions between the isotropic and any LC phases have been studied for four systems which differ in the interaction potential between unlike particles. A range of contrasting microphase separated structures including bicontinuous, cubic, and micelle-like arrangement have been observed in bulk. Thirdly, the four types of mixtures previously studied in bulk are subjected to a static magnetic field. A variety of novel phases are observed for the cases of positive and negative anisotropy in the magnetic susceptibility. These include a lamellar structure, in which layers of rods are separated by layers of spheres, and a configuration with a self-assembling hexagonal array of spheres. Finally, two new models are presented to study liquid crystal mixtures in the presence of curved substrates. These are implemented for the cases of convex and concave spherical surfaces. The simulation results obtained in these geometries

  14. The Separate Spheres Model of Gendered Inequality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Miller

    Full Text Available Research on role congruity theory and descriptive and prescriptive stereotypes has established that when men and women violate gender stereotypes by crossing spheres, with women pursuing career success and men contributing to domestic labor, they face backlash and economic penalties. Less is known, however, about the types of individuals who are most likely to engage in these forms of discrimination and the types of situations in which this is most likely to occur. We propose that psychological research will benefit from supplementing existing research approaches with an individual differences model of support for separate spheres for men and women. This model allows psychologists to examine individual differences in support for separate spheres as they interact with situational and contextual forces. The separate spheres ideology (SSI has existed as a cultural idea for many years but has not been operationalized or modeled in social psychology. The Separate Spheres Model presents the SSI as a new psychological construct characterized by individual differences and a motivated system-justifying function, operationalizes the ideology with a new scale measure, and models the ideology as a predictor of some important gendered outcomes in society. As a first step toward developing the Separate Spheres Model, we develop a new measure of individuals' endorsement of the SSI and demonstrate its reliability, convergent validity, and incremental predictive validity. We provide support for the novel hypotheses that the SSI predicts attitudes regarding workplace flexibility accommodations, income distribution within families between male and female partners, distribution of labor between work and family spheres, and discriminatory workplace behaviors. Finally, we provide experimental support for the hypothesis that the SSI is a motivated, system-justifying ideology.

  15. The Separate Spheres Model of Gendered Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrea L; Borgida, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Research on role congruity theory and descriptive and prescriptive stereotypes has established that when men and women violate gender stereotypes by crossing spheres, with women pursuing career success and men contributing to domestic labor, they face backlash and economic penalties. Less is known, however, about the types of individuals who are most likely to engage in these forms of discrimination and the types of situations in which this is most likely to occur. We propose that psychological research will benefit from supplementing existing research approaches with an individual differences model of support for separate spheres for men and women. This model allows psychologists to examine individual differences in support for separate spheres as they interact with situational and contextual forces. The separate spheres ideology (SSI) has existed as a cultural idea for many years but has not been operationalized or modeled in social psychology. The Separate Spheres Model presents the SSI as a new psychological construct characterized by individual differences and a motivated system-justifying function, operationalizes the ideology with a new scale measure, and models the ideology as a predictor of some important gendered outcomes in society. As a first step toward developing the Separate Spheres Model, we develop a new measure of individuals' endorsement of the SSI and demonstrate its reliability, convergent validity, and incremental predictive validity. We provide support for the novel hypotheses that the SSI predicts attitudes regarding workplace flexibility accommodations, income distribution within families between male and female partners, distribution of labor between work and family spheres, and discriminatory workplace behaviors. Finally, we provide experimental support for the hypothesis that the SSI is a motivated, system-justifying ideology.

  16. The effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on platelet function in whole blood and platelet concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reikvam, Anne-Grete; Hustad, Steinar; Reikvam, Håkon; Apelseth, Torunn Oveland; Nepstad, Ina; Hervig, Tor Audun

    2012-01-01

    Several studies report that patients who are treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for depression may have increased risk of bleeding, particularly from the gastrointestinal tract. This may be related to low intraplatelet serotonin concentrations. Several blood banks do not store platelets from donors using SSRIs for transfusion, although the possible effects of SSRIs on platelet storage are not documented. We conducted a case-control pilot study of apheresis platelet concentrates prepared from donors using SSRIs (n=8) and from donors without medication (n=10). The platelet concentrates were stored for 5 days. Light transmission aggregometry (LTA), thrombelastography (TEG), and flow cytometric analyses were preformed for in vitro measurements of platelet function. Platelet function and platelet serotonin content were investigated in whole blood and in platelet concentrates stored for up to 5 days. LTA, TEG, and flow cytometric analysis of glycoprotein expression did not reveal any significant differences between the two groups. All 18 platelet concentrates performed well according to the standards set for platelet quality in relation to transfusion. Blood donors using SSRIs had significantly lower platelet serotonin compared to blood donors without medication. The results from our pilot study indicate that platelets from donors using SSRIs may be suitable for transfusion after storage for 5 days, but further laboratory and clinical studies are necessary to confirm this.

  17. Platelet aggregation and quality control of platelet concentrates produced in the Amazon Blood Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Dantas Coêlho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The study of platelet aggregation is essential to assess in vitro platelet function by different platelet activation pathways. OBJECTIVE: To assess aggregation and biochemical parameters of random platelet concentrates produced at the Fundação HEMOAM using the quality control tests defined by law. METHODS: Whole blood samples from 80 donors and the respective platelet concentrate units were tested. Platelet concentrates were tested (platelet count, aggregation and pH on days 1, 3 and 5 of storage. Additionally a leukocyte count was done only on day 1 and microbiological tests on day 5 of storage. Collagen and adenosine diphosphate were used as inducing agonists for platelet aggregation testing. RESULTS: Donor whole blood had normal aggregation (aggregation with adenosine diphosphate = 67% and with collagen = 78%. The median aggregation in platelet concentrates with adenosine diphosphate was low throughout storage (18% on day 1, 7% on day 3 and 6% on day 5 and the median aggregation with collagen was normal only on day 1 and low thereafter (54.4% on day 1, 20.5% on day 3 and 9% on day 5. CONCLUSION: Although the results were within the norms required by law, platelet concentrates had low aggregation rates. We suggest the inclusion of a functional assessment test for the quality control of platelet concentrates for a more effective response to platelet replacement therapy.

  18. Ultrastructural studies of the gray platelet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J G

    1979-05-01

    The gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is a rare inherited disorder in which peripheral blood platelets are relatively large, vacuolated, and almost devoid of cytoplasmic granulation. In the present study we have evaluated the ultrastructure and cytochemistry of platelets from 2 patients with the GPS to determine precisely which organelles are missing from their cells. The findings indicate that gray platelets contain normal numbers of mitochondria, dense bodies, peroxisomes, and lysosomes but specifically lack alpha-granules. Preliminary studies of megakaryocytes from 1 of the 2 patients suggest that the defect in granule formation may lie at the level of the Golgi zone.

  19. Identification of platelet refractoriness in oncohematologic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Aparecida Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify the occurrence and the causes of platelet refractoriness in oncohematologic patients. INTRODUCTION: Platelet refractoriness (unsatisfactory post-transfusion platelet increment is a severe problem that impairs the treatment of oncohematologic patients and is not routinely investigated in most Brazilian services. METHODS: Forty-four episodes of platelet concentrate transfusion were evaluated in 16 patients according to the following parameters: corrected count increment, clinical conditions and detection of anti-platelet antibodies by the platelet immunofluorescence test (PIFT and panel reactive antibodies against human leukocyte antigen class I (PRA-HLA. RESULTS: Of the 16 patients evaluated (median age: 53 years, nine (56% were women, seven of them with a history of pregnancy. An unsatisfactory increment was observed in 43% of the transfusion events, being more frequent in transfusions of random platelet concentrates (54%. Platelet refractoriness was confirmed in three patients (19%, who presented immunologic and non-immunologic causes. Alloantibodies were identified in eight patients (50% by the PIFT and in three (19% by the PRA-HLA. Among alloimmunized patients, nine (64% had a history of transfusion, and three as a result of pregnancy (43%. Of the former, two were refractory (29%. No significant differences were observed, probably as a result of the small sample size. CONCLUSION: The high rate of unsatisfactory platelet increment, refractoriness and alloimmunization observed support the need to set up protocols for the investigation of this complication in all chronically transfused patients, a fundamental requirement for the guarantee of adequate management.

  20. Does bipolar pacemaker current activate blood platelets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesdal, Grunde; Hansen, Annebirthe Bo; Brandes, Axel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether bipolar pacemaker current lead can activate blood platelets. The null hypothesis was that 1 minute of electrical stimulation of platelets would not influence their subsequent reactivity to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). BACKGROUND: Both...... platelets and muscle cells contain actin and myosin filaments, and both cells are activated following calcium influx. Muscle cells open their calcium channels and contract when exposed to an electric current. Current through a bipolar pacemaker lead will expose a small volume of blood, including platelets...

  1. Platelet cytoskeleton and its hemostatic role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerecedo, Doris

    2013-12-01

    Upon vascular injury, platelets adhere to the exposed extracellular matrix, which triggers the platelet activation and aggregation to form a hemostatic plug to seal the wound. All of these events involve dramatic changes in shape because of the cytoskeleton reorganization. The versatility of the cytoskeleton's main elements depends on the biochemical nature of the elements, as well as on the associated proteins that confer multiple functions within the cell. The list of these associated proteins grows actively, increasing our knowledge concerning the complexity of platelet cytoskeleton machinery. The present review evidences the recently described platelet proteins that promote characteristic modifications in their cytoskeleton organization, with special focus on the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex.

  2. Platelet function alterations in dengue are associated with plasma leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.; Alisjahbana, B.; Groot, P.G. de; Indrati, A.R.; Fijnheer, R.; Puspita, M.; Dewi, I.M.; Wijer, L. van de; Boer, E.M. de; Roest, M.; Ven, A.J. van der; Mast, Q. de

    2014-01-01

    Severe dengue is characterised by thrombocytopenia, plasma leakage and bleeding. Platelets are important for preservation of endothelial integrity. We hypothesised that platelet activation with secondary platelet dysfunction contribute to plasma leakage. In adult Indonesian patients with acute dengu

  3. Robotics Programming Competition Spheres, Russian Part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovski, Andrei; Kukushkina, Natalia; Biryukova, Natalia

    2016-07-01

    Spheres" such name was done to Russian part of the Zero Robotics project which is a student competition devoted to programming of SPHERES (SPHERES - Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites are the experimental robotics devices which are capable of rotation and translation in all directions, http://ssl.mit.edu/spheres/), which perform different operations on the board of International Space Station. Competition takes place online on http://zerorobotics.mit.edu. The main goal is to develop a program for SPHERES to solve an annual challenge. The end of the tournament is the real competition in microgravity on the board of ISS with a live broadcast. The Russian part of the tournament has only two years history but the problems, organization and specific are useful for the other educational projects especially for the international ones. We introduce the history of the competition, its scientific and educational goals in Russia and describe the participation of Russian teams in 2014 and 2015 tournaments. Also we discuss the organizational problems.

  4. Water exit dynamics of buoyant spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, Tadd T.; Epps, Brenden P.; Munns, Randy H.

    2016-11-01

    Buoyant spheres released below the free surface can rise well above the surface in a phenomenon known as pop-up. Contrary to intuition, increasing the release depth sometimes results in a lower pop-up height. We present the pop-up height of rising buoyant spheres over a range of release depths (1-12.5 diameters) and Reynolds numbers (4 ×104 to 6 ×105 ). While the dynamics of rising buoyant spheres and bubbles has been thoroughly investigated for Reynolds numbers below 104, pop-up in these larger-Reynolds-number regimes has not been studied. Yet the underwater motions of the sphere for the Reynolds numbers we study are the key to understanding the pop-up height. Two major regimes are apparent: vertical and oscillatory. The vertical regime exhibits a nearly vertical underwater trajectory and results in the largest pop-up heights. The oscillatory regime exhibits an underwater trajectory with periodic lateral motions and results in lower pop-up heights; this periodic lateral motion is modulated by unsteady vortex shedding in the wake of the sphere. Despite these complex fluid structure interactions, the experiments presented herein yield extremely repeatable results.

  5. Platelet-rich plasma preparation using three devices : Implications for platelet activation and platelet growth factor release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, Peter A. M.; Mahoney, Christine Brown; Hoffmann, Johannes J. M. L.; Schonberger, Jacques P. A. M.; Box, Henk A. M.; Van Zundert, Andre; Knape, Johannes T. A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In this study, three commercial systems for the preparation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) were compared and platelet growth factors release was measured. Methods: Ten healthy volunteers donated whole blood that was fractionated by a blood cell separator, and a table-top centrifuge to pre

  6. Hereditary sideroblastic anemia with associated platelet abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soslau, G; Brodsky, I

    1989-12-01

    A 62 year old male (R.H.) presented with a mild anemia (Hb 11-12 gm%) and a history of multiple hemorrhagic episodes. The marrow had 40-50% sideroblasts. Marrow chromosomes were normal. His wife was hematologically normal, while one daughter, age 30 years, had a sideroblastic anemia (Hb 11-12 gm%) with 40-50% sideroblasts in the marrow. Her anemia was first noted at age 15 years. Administration of vitamin B6 did not correct the anemia in either the father or daughter. Platelet abnormalities inherited jointly with this disorder are described for the first time. Both R.H. and his daughter had prolonged bleeding times, with normal PTT, PT times, fVIII:C, fVIII:Ag levels, and vWF multimers, which may rule out a von Willebrand's disease. They have normal platelet numbers but abnormally low platelet adhesiveness and greatly depressed ADP, collagen, and epinephrine responsiveness. Response to ristocetin was in the low normal range, and aggregation with thrombin was normal. While desmopressin completely normalized R.H.'s bleeding time, none of these platelet parameters were improved. No differences in the SDS PAGE protein patterns of RH platelets could be detected in comparison to normal samples. His platelets took up and released serotonin (5HT) normally, and electron micrographs defined no morphological abnormalities. However, no ATP was released from platelets activated with collagen, and when followed by thrombin about fourfold greater ATP was released by control platelets as compared to RH platelets. The dense granule fraction derived from RH platelets contained about 20% the level of ATP, 40% the level of ADP, and 50% the level of 5HT detected in a normal sample. The results indicate that the bleeding disorder is related to a non-classical heritable storage pool defect. The connection between the inherited sideroblastic anemia and platelet defects is obscure.

  7. Multiple alterations of platelet functions dominated by increased secretion in mice lacking Cdc42 in platelets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pleines, Irina; Eckly, Anita; Elvers, Margitta;

    2010-01-01

    formation and exocytosis in various cell types, but its exact function in platelets is not established. Here, we show that the megakaryocyte/platelet-specific loss of Cdc42 leads to mild thrombocytopenia and a small increase in platelet size in mice. Unexpectedly, Cdc42-deficient platelets were able to form...... reduced, suggesting increased clearing of the cells under physiologic conditions. These data point to novel multiple functions of Cdc42 in the regulation of platelet activation, granule organization, degranulation, and a specific role in GPIb signaling....

  8. Platelet-rich fibrin: Evolution of a second-generation platelet concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunitha Raja V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is a platelet concentrate that has been used widely to accelerate soft-tissue and hard-tissue healing. The preparation of PRP has been described by several authors. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF was first described by Choukroun et al. in France. It has been referred to as a second-generation platelet concentrate, which has been shown to have several advantages over traditionally prepared PRP. Its chief advantages include ease of preparation and lack of biochemical handling of blood, which makes this preparation strictly autologous. This article describes the evolution of this novel platelet concentrate, referred to as PRF.

  9. Human platelets antigens influence the viral load of platelets after the interaction of the platelets with HCV and HIV in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Maria Tommasini Grotto

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: In this study, we evaluated hepatitis C virus (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV - platelet interactions in vitro as well as human platelets antigen (HPA polymorphisms. METHODS: Platelets were obtained from 100 healthy HPA-genotyped volunteer donors and incubated with HIV or HCV. The viral load after in vitro exposure was detected. RESULTS: The viral load in the platelets after exposure to the virus was higher in the HIV exposure than in the HCV exposure. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-platelet ligation could be more efficient than HCV-platelet interaction. Further, the HPA-1b allele seems to influence the interaction of platelets with HCV.

  10. Modelling anisotropic fluid spheres in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt

    2015-01-01

    We argue that an arbitrary general relativistic anisotropic fluid sphere, (spherically symmetric but with transverse pressure not equal to radial pressure), can nevertheless be successfully modelled by suitable linear combinations of quite ordinary classical matter: an isotropic perfect fluid, a classical electromagnetic field, and a classical (minimally coupled) scalar field. While the most general decomposition is not unique, a preferred minimal decomposition can be constructed that is unique. We show how the classical energy conditions for the anisotropic fluid sphere can be related to energy conditions for the isotropic perfect fluid, electromagnetic field, and scalar field components of the model. Furthermore we show how this decomposition relates to the distribution of electric charge density and scalar charge density throughout the model that is used to mimic the anisotropic fluid sphere. Consequently, we can build physically reasonable matter models for almost any spherically symmetric spacetime.

  11. Rigidity of marginally outer trapped 2-spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Galloway, Gregory J

    2015-01-01

    In a matter-filled spacetime, perhaps with positive cosmological constant, a stable marginally outer trapped 2-sphere must satisfy a certain area inequality. Namely, as discussed in the paper, its area must be bounded above by $4\\pi/c$, where $c > 0$ is a lower bound on a natural energy-momentum term. We then consider the rigidity that results for stable, or weakly outermost, marginally outer trapped 2-spheres that achieve this upper bound on the area. In particular, we prove a splitting result for 3-dimensional initial data sets analogous to a result of Bray, Brendle and Neves [10] concerning area minimizing 2-spheres in Riemannian 3-manifolds with positive scalar curvature. We further show that these initial data sets locally embed as spacelike hypersurfaces into the Nariai spacetime. Connections to the Vaidya spacetime and dynamical horizons are also discussed.

  12. Classical and quantum dynamics of the sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasukov, Vladimir; Moldovanova, Evgeniia; Abdrashitova, Maria; Malik, Hitendra; Gorbacheva, Ekaterina

    2016-07-01

    In Minkowski space, there has been developed the mathematic quantum model of the real particle located on the sphere evolving owing to the negative pressure inside the sphere. The developed model is analogous to the geometrodynamic model of the Lemaitre-Friedmann primordial atom in superspace-time, whose spatial coordinate is the scale factor functioning as a radial coordinate. There is a formulation of quantum geometrodynamics in which the spatial coordinate is an offset of the scale factor and wave function at the same time. With the help of the Dirac procedure for extracting the root from the Hamiltonian operator we have constructed a Dirac quantum dynamics of the sphere with fractional spin.

  13. The phase behavior of linear and partially flexible hard-sphere chain fluids and the solubility of hard spheres in hard-sphere chain fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyarzun, B.A.; Van Westen, T.; Vlugt, T.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    he liquid crystal phase behavior of linear and partially flexible hard-sphere chain fluids and the solubility of hard spheres in hard-sphere chain fluids are studied by constant pressure Monte Carlo simulations. An extensive study on the phase behavior of linear fluids with a length of 7, 8, 9, 10,

  14. Expansion of the neonatal platelet mass is achieved via an extension of platelet lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Jian; Hoffmeister, Karin M; Hu, Zhongbo; Mager, Donald E; Ait-Oudhia, Sihem; Debrincat, Marlyse A; Pleines, Irina; Josefsson, Emma C; Kile, Benjamin T; Italiano, Joseph; Ramsey, Haley; Grozovsky, Renata; Veng-Pedersen, Peter; Chavda, Chaitanya; Sola-Visner, Martha

    2014-05-29

    The fetal/neonatal hematopoietic system must generate enough blood cells to meet the demands of rapid growth. This unique challenge might underlie the high incidence of thrombocytopenia among preterm neonates. In this study, neonatal platelet production and turnover were investigated in newborn mice. Based on a combination of blood volume expansion and increasing platelet counts, the platelet mass increased sevenfold during the first 2 weeks of murine life, a time during which thrombopoiesis shifted from liver to bone marrow. Studies applying in vivo biotinylation and mathematical modeling showed that newborn and adult mice had similar platelet production rates, but neonatal platelets survived 1 day longer in circulation. This prolonged lifespan fully accounted for the rise in platelet counts observed during the second week of murine postnatal life. A study of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins showed that neonatal platelets had higher levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and were more resistant to apoptosis induced by the Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibitor ABT-737 than adult platelets. However, genetic ablation or pharmacologic inhibition of Bcl-2 alone did not shorten neonatal platelet survival or reduce platelet counts in newborn mice, indicating the existence of redundant or alternative mechanisms mediating the prolonged lifespan of neonatal platelets. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  15. [Platelet allo-antibodies identification strategies for preventing and managing platelet refractoriness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basire, A; Picard, C

    2014-11-01

    Platelet refractoriness is a serious complication for patients receiving recurrent platelet transfusions, which can be explained by non-immune and immune causes. Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) allo-immunization, especially against HLA class I, is the major cause for immune platelet refractoriness. To a lesser extent, allo-antibodies against specific Human Platelet Antigen (HPA) are also involved. Pregnancy, transplantation and previous transfusions can lead to allo-immune reaction against platelet antigens. After transfusion, platelet count is decreased by accelerated platelet destruction related to antibodies fixation on incompatible platelet antigens. New laboratory tests for allo-antibodies identification were developed to improve sensibility and specificity, especially with the LUMINEX(®) technology. The good use and interpretation of these antibodies assays can improve strategies for platelet refractoriness prevention and management with a patient adapted response. Compatible platelets units can be selected according to their identity with recipient typing or immune compatibility regarding HLA or HPA antibodies or HLA epitope compatibility. Prospective studies are needed to further confirm the clinical benefit of new allo-antibodies identification methods and consensus strategies for immune platelet refractoriness management.

  16. Platelet antibodies, activated platelets and serum leptin in childhood immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrawy, Hosny; Elsayh, Khalid I; Zahran, Asmaa M; El-Ghazali, Mohamad Hamdy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of platelet-associated antibodies (PAIgG and PAIgM), activated platelets and serum leptin in children with acute immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The study included 40 patients with ITP and 40 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. PAIgG, PAIgM and activated platelet levels were estimated by flow cytometry, and serum leptin levels were estimated by ELISA. Activated platelets and serum leptin were significantly higher in the ITP patients than in the controls. The percentage and mean fluorescence intensity of PAIgG and PAIgM staining were significantly higher in the patients than in the controls. Serum leptin and activated platelet levels in patients with thrombocytopenia of brief duration were significantly lower than those in patients with thrombocytopenia of prolonged duration. The levels of activated platelets, serum leptin and PAIgG were positively correlated, and the levels of serum leptin, activated platelets and platelet counts were negatively correlated. The increased levels of activated platelets, serum leptin and platelet-associated antibodies in children with acute ITP suggest that these factors could play a role in ITP pathogenesis. Additionally, activated platelets and serum leptin could have prognostic significance in paediatric acute ITP. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. IgG platelet antibodies in EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia bind to platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorin, F; Steffan, A; Pradella, P; Bizzaro, N; Potenza, R; De Angelis, V

    1998-08-01

    EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP) consists of an inappropriate low platelet count caused by autoantibodies present in the serum samples reacting with platelets only in EDTA-anticoagulated blood. By using immunoprecipitation and Western blot techniques, we studied the immunochemical specificity of platelet agglutinating autoantibodies in the serum samples of 10 patients with PTCP. Furthermore, to evaluate a possible role of PTCP-associated IgG autoantibodies in increased platelet turnover, we assayed the plasma glycocalicin (GC) level and calculated the GC index for every patient. Our results provide direct evidence that an epitope located on platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb is recognized by PTCP-associated IgG antibodies; moreover GC levels in patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP were similar to control levels, thus excluding an increased platelet turnover. We conclude that antiplatelet antibodies directed against platelet cryptantigens are unlikely to have a major role in the increased removal of cells from circulation.

  18. Does Negative Type Characterize the Round Sphere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkendorff, Simon Lyngby

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the measure theoretic metric invariants extent, mean distance and symmetry ratio and their relation to the concept of negative type of a metric space. A conjecture stating that a compact Riemannian manifold with symmetry ratio 1 must be a round sphere, was put forward in a previous paper....... We resolve this conjecture in the class of Riemannian symmetric spaces by showing, that a Riemannian manifold with symmetry ratio 1 must be of negative type and that the only compact Riemannian symmetric spaces of negative type are the round spheres....

  19. vSphere design best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Bolander, Brian

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide full of hands-on examples of real-world design best practices. Each topic is explained and placed in context, and for the more inquisitive, there are more details on the concepts used.If you wish to learn about vSphere best practices and how to apply them when designing virtual, high performance, reliable datacenters that support business critical applications to work more efficiently and to prepare for official certifications, this is the book for you. Readers should possess a good working knowledge of vSphere as well as servers, storage, and networking.

  20. Path integral representations on the complex sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosche, C. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2007-08-15

    In this paper we discuss the path integral representations for the coordinate systems on the complex sphere S{sub 3C}. The Schroedinger equation, respectively the path integral, separates in exactly 21 orthogonal coordinate systems. We enumerate these coordinate systems and we are able to present the path integral representations explicitly in the majority of the cases. In each solution the expansion into the wave-functions is stated. Also, the kernel and the corresponding Green function can be stated in closed form in terms of the invariant distance on the sphere, respectively on the hyperboloid. (orig.)

  1. Willmore energy estimates in conformal Berger spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Manuel, E-mail: mbarros@ugr.es [Departamento de Geometria y Topologia, Facultad de Ciencias Universidad de Granada, 1807 Granada (Spain); Ferrandez, Angel, E-mail: aferr@um.es [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Murcia Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > The Willmore energy is computed in a wide class of surfaces. > Isoperimetric inequalities for the Willmore energy of Hopf tori are obtained. > The best possible lower bound is achieved on isoareal Hopf tori. - Abstract: We obtain isoperimetric inequalities for the Willmore energy of Hopf tori in a wide class of conformal structures on the three sphere. This class includes, on the one hand, the family of conformal Berger spheres and, on the other hand, a one parameter family of Lorentzian conformal structures. This allows us to give the best possible lower bound of Willmore energies concerning isoareal Hopf tori.

  2. The dissolution or growth of a sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, N.; Wiltshire, Timothy J.; Subramanian, R. Shankar

    1984-01-01

    The problem of the dissolution or growth of an isolated stationary sphere in a large fluid body is analyzed. The motion of the boundary as well as the the resulting motion in the liquid are properly taken into account. The governing equations are solved using a recently developed technique (Subramanian and Weinberg, 1981) which employs an asymptotic expansion in time. Results for the radius of the sphere as a function of time are calculated. The range of utility of the present solution is established by comparison with a numerical solution of the governing equations obtained by the method of finite differences.

  3. Fractal and Euclidean descriptors of platelet shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Max-Joseph; Neeb, Heiko; Strasser, Erwin F

    2014-01-01

    Platelet shape change is a dynamic membrane surface process that exhibits remarkable morphological heterogeneity. Once the outline of an irregular shape is identified and segmented from a digital image, several mathematical descriptors can be applied to numerical characterize the irregularity of the shapes surface. 13072 platelet outlines (PLO) were segmented automatically from 1928 microscopic images using a newly developed algorithm for the software product Matlab R2012b. The fractal dimension (FD), circularity, eccentricity, area and perimeter of each PLO were determined. 972 PLO were randomly assigned for computer-assisted manual measurement of platelet diameter as well as number, width and length of filopodia per platelet. FD can be used as a surrogate parameter for determining the roughness of the PLO and circularity can be used as a surrogate to estimate the number and length of filopodia. The relationship between FD and perimeter of the PLO reveals the existence of distinct groups of platelets with significant structural differences which may be caused by platelet activation. This new method allows for the standardized continuous numerical classification of platelet shape and its dynamic change, which is useful for the analysis of altered platelet activity (e.g. inflammatory diseases, contact activation, drug testing).

  4. Clinica use of platelet additive solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rhenen, Dick J

    2007-12-01

    Randomised clinical trial (RCT) to study the clinical efficacy and safety of new platelet products using platelet additive solutions are scarce. In this paper a number of recent RCT's is discussed. It can be the start of a development where new transfusion products enter a RCT before the product is applied in clinical practice.

  5. Platelets in liver transplantation : Friend or foe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom, Ilona T. A.; Lisman, Ton; Porte, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Apart from the well-known role of blood platelets in hemostasis, there is emerging evidence that platelets have various nonhemostatic properties that play a critical role in inflammation, angiogenesis, tissue repair and regeneration, and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. All these processes may be

  6. Studies on megakaryopoiesis and platelet function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinders, M.

    2015-01-01

    Platelets are blood circulating specialized subcellular fragments, which are produced by megakaryocytes. Platelets are essential for hemostasis and wound healing but also play a role in non-hemostatic processes such as the immune response or cancer metastasis. Considering the immediate precursors of

  7. Erythrocyte-platelet interaction in uncomplicated pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, Albe C; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2014-12-01

    Maternal and fetal requirements during uncomplicated pregnancy are associated with changes in the hematopoietic system. Platelets and erythrocytes [red blood cells (RBCs)], and especially their membranes, are involved in coagulation, and their interactions may provide reasons for the changed hematopoietic system during uncomplicated pregnancy. We review literature regarding RBC and platelet membrane structure and interactions during hypercoagulability and hormonal changes. We then study interactions between RBCs and platelets in uncomplicated pregnancy, as their interactions may be one of the reasons for increased hypercoagulability during uncomplicated pregnancy. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study whole blood smears from 90 pregnant females in different phases of pregnancy. Pregnancy-specific interaction was seen between RBCs and platelets. Typically, one or more platelets interacted through platelet spreading and pseudopodia formation with a single RBC. However, multiple interactions with RBCs were also shown for a single platelet. Specific RBC-platelet interaction seen during uncomplicated pregnancy may be caused by increased estrogen and/or increased fibrinogen concentrations. This interaction may contribute to the hypercoagulable state associated with healthy and uncomplicated pregnancy and may also play a fundamental role in gestational thrombocytopenia.

  8. BETA-ADRENOBLOCKERS AND PLATELET AGGREGATION. CARVEDILOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Zakirova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Approaches evolution to studying of beta-blockers influence on platelet aggregation is reviewed. The current view on of beta-blocker antiplatelet effects is presented on the basis of physical and chemical drug properties (water repellency, dipole moment, molecular mass. Trail results on carvedilol influence on platelet aggregation are focused.

  9. Novel agents for anti-platelet therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Xuebin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Anti-platelet therapy plays an important role in the treatment of patients with thrombotic diseases. The most commonly used anti-platelet drugs, namely, aspirin, ticlopidine, and clopidogrel, are effective in the prevention and treatment of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists (e.g., abciximab, eptifibatide and tirofiban have demonstrated good clinical benefits and safety profiles in decreasing ischemic events in acute coronary syndrome. However, adverse events related to thrombosis or bleeding have been reported in cases of therapy with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists. Cilostazol is an anti-platelet agent used in the treatment of patients with peripheral ischemia, such as intermittent claudication. Presently, platelet adenosine diphosphate P2Y(12 receptor antagonists (e.g., clopidogrel, prasugrel, cangrelor, and ticagrelor are being used in clinical settings for their pronounced protective effects. The new protease-activated receptor antagonists, vorapaxar and atopaxar, potentially decrease the risk of ischemic events without significantly increasing the rate of bleeding. Some other new anti-platelet drugs undergoing clinical trials have also been introduced. Indeed, the number of new anti-platelet drugs is increasing. Consequently, the efficacy of these anti-platelet agents in actual patients warrants scrutiny, especially in terms of the hemorrhagic risks. Hopefully, new selective platelet inhibitors with high anti-thrombotic efficiencies and low hemorrhagic side effects can be developed.

  10. Performance evaluation of PL-11 platelet analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张有涛

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and report the performance of PL-11 platelet analyzer. Methods Intravenous blood sam-ples anticoagulated with EDTA-K2 and sodium citrate were tested by the PL-11 platelet analyzer to evaluate the intra-assay and interassay coefficient of variation(CV),

  11. Platelet affinity for burro aorta collagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.D.

    1977-10-01

    Despite ingenious concepts, there are no unequivocal clues as to what, when, and how some undefined biochemical factor(s) or constituent(s) that localizes in the arterial wall can precipitate a thromboatheromatous lesion or arterial disease. The present study focused on the extraction, partial purification, and characterization of a collagen-active platelet stimulator from the aortas of aged burros. The aggregator moiety in the aorta extracts invariably had a higher affinity for platelets in citrated platelet-rich plasma of human beings than for platelets of homologous burros. The platelet-aggregating factor(s) in the aorta extract was retained by incubation with ..cap alpha..-chymotrypsin. Platelet-aggregating activity was rapidly abolished after incubation with collagenase, as determined by platelet-aggregometry tests. Evidence based on light microscope and polysaccharide histochemical reactions indicates a probability that the intracellular amorphous matrix (PAS-positive) and filamentous components (PTAH-positive) expelled from smooth muscle cells disrupted during homogenization of the aorta may be a principal source of a precursor collagen species which is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation.

  12. The origin and function of platelet glycosyltransferases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandall, Hans H; Rumjantseva, Viktoria; Sørensen, Anne Louise Tølbøll;

    2012-01-01

    Platelets are megakaryocyte subfragments that participate in hemostatic and host defense reactions and deliver pro- and anti-angiogenic factors throughout the vascular system. Platelets are anucleated cells and lack a complex secretory apparatus with distinct Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum compartme...

  13. Function of eltrombopag-induced platelets compared to platelets from control patients with immune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselboeck, Johanna; Kaider, Alexandra; Pabinger, Ingrid; Panzer, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Data on the in vivo function of platelets induced by the thrombopoietin receptor agonist eltrombopag are scarce. To assess a possible influence of eltrombopag we compared platelet function of eltrombopag-treated immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients (group 1; n=10) after treatment response to that from control ITP patients (group 2; n=12). We further analysed platelet function at baseline and after one, three, and four weeks of eltrombopag treatment and estimated daily changes of platelet function during the eltrombopag-induced platelet rise. The formation of platelet-monocyte aggregates (PMA), P-selectin expression [MFI], and platelet adhesion under high shear conditions (surface coverage, SC) in vivo and after in vitro addition of agonists (ADP, TRAP-6, Collagen) were similar between both groups after response to eltrombopag treatment. Only TRAP-6 induced a lower SC in the eltrombopag group (p=0.03). All platelet function parameters except for Collagen-induced P-selectin expression changed significantly during treatment with eltrombopag. PMA, naïve and after addition of ADP or TRAP-6 increased with increasing platelet counts. P-selectin expression decreased, when measured without and upon addition of ADP, increased in the presence of TRAP-6, and remained unchanged after addition of Collagen. SC increased during the eltrombopag-induced platelet rise. All significant changes of platelet function correlated to changes in platelet counts. Two patients developed venous thromboses during eltrombopag treatment, but no association with any distinct single platelet function parameter or combinations thereof was identifiable. Thus, eltrombopag-induced platelets function similar to those from control ITP patients without discernible increased hyper-reactivity.

  14. A platelet monoclonal antibody inhibition assay for detection of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa-related platelet alloantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, A P; Teramura, G; Nelson, K A; Slichter, S J

    1995-08-18

    Post-transfusion purpura (PTP) and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAT) result from formation of alloantibodies to platelet membrane glycoprotein-associated antigens. The detection and identification of platelet-specific alloantibodies in patient sera is often complicated by the presence of co-existing HLA antibodies and/or more than one platelet specificity in the same serum. We describe a solid phase assay that specifically detects antibodies to platelet membrane associated alloantigens by measuring the ability of patient antisera to inhibit the binding of glycoprotein GPIIb or GPIIIa monoclonal antibodies to intact platelets. When tested in the GPIIIa assay against a panel of random platelet donors, the reactivities of two known PLAI antisera that also contained different HLA antibodies were highly correlated (r = 0.99) and allowed PLA phenotyping of the population. A standard direct binding platelet ELISA, on the other hand, was unable to accurately PLA phenotype the same population. The reactivities of two known Baka antisera (one containing additional anti-PLA2 and the other anti-Brb specificities) were highly correlated (r = 0.95) in the GPIIb assay, and Bak phenotype determination was similarly accomplished for a random platelet panel. Furthermore, a comparison of platelet phenotype results (using the monoclonal inhibition assay) and genotype results (using DNA analysis) for the PLA and Bak systems showed a concordance of 98% for 146 alleles tested. In conclusion, the platelet monoclonal antibody inhibition assay: (1) allows determination of platelet-specific alloantibodies in the presence of contaminating HLA antibodies and/or in sera containing multiple platelet alloantibodies; (2) allows accurate platelet phenotyping for the GPIIIa-associated PLA and GPIIb-associated Bak antigen systems; and (3) may be applicable to the detection of other known or even novel platelet glycoprotein-associated antigens.

  15. Modulatory effect of coffee on platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Shobha; Rauf, Arun A

    2010-01-01

    Blood platelets play a major role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and thrombosis. Conflicting information exists regarding the effect of coffee consumption on the cardiovascular system. We have investigated whether the consumption of moderate amount of coffee affect platelet functions and primary hemostasis in vivo in normal and high fat diet fed rats. Coffee fed group showed significant (P production from membrane arachidonic acid and it was decreased in coffee treated group. Platelet aggregation studies with ADP, collagen, arachidonic acid and epinephrine showed significant (P coffee fed group. Scanning electron microscopic studies revealed that platelet aggregation tendency increased in HFD group and was reduced in coffee fed group. These results indicate that coffee is active in inhibiting platelet aggregation, a critical step involved in thrombosis.

  16. Platelet mitochondrial function and dysfunction: physiological consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, D.

    2015-07-01

    There is a general trend in revisiting mitochondria using the up-to-date technologies that uncovered novel attributes of this organelle, such as the intracellular displacement to locations where an energy supply is needed, the dynamic shape changes and turnover, the initiation of signaling to the rest of the cell, and the ability to crosstalk with other cellular organelles. The in-depth scrutiny of platelet mitochondria role in health and pathology is included within this ongoing revisiting trend. The current article puts into a nutshell the most recent data on platelet mitochondria function and disease-related ion, focusing on generation of stress- and apoptosis-related signaling molecules, overproduction of reactive oxygen species during activation and disease, on the biomarker potential of platelets mitochondria, and their prospective exploitation in translational applications. These novel findings complete the physiological profile of platelets and could have potential therapeutic effectiveness in platelet-associated disorders.

  17. Platelets as immune cells in infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Cornelia; Löffler, Jürgen; Krappmann, Sven; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Rambach, Günter

    2013-11-01

    Platelets have been shown to cover a broad range of functions. Besides their role in hemostasis, they have immunological functions and thus participate in the interaction between pathogens and host defense. Platelets have a broad repertoire of receptor molecules that enable them to sense invading pathogens and infection-induced inflammation. Consequently, platelets exert antimicrobial effector mechanisms, but also initiate an intense crosstalk with other arms of the innate and adaptive immunity, including neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells and T cells. There is a fragile balance between beneficial antimicrobial effects and detrimental reactions that contribute to the pathogenesis, and many pathogens have developed mechanisms to influence these two outcomes. This review aims to highlight aspects of the interaction strategies between platelets and pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, in addition to the subsequent networking between platelets and other immune cells, and the relevance of these processes for the pathogenesis of infections.

  18. Platelet bioreactor-on-a-chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazutis, Linas; Wu, Stephen; Sylman, Joanna L.; Ehrlicher, Allen; Machlus, Kellie R.; Feng, Qiang; Lu, Shijiang; Lanza, Robert; Neeves, Keith B.; Weitz, David A.; Italiano, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Platelet transfusions total >2.17 million apheresis-equivalent units per year in the United States and are derived entirely from human donors, despite clinically significant immunogenicity, associated risk of sepsis, and inventory shortages due to high demand and 5-day shelf life. To take advantage of known physiological drivers of thrombopoiesis, we have developed a microfluidic human platelet bioreactor that recapitulates bone marrow stiffness, extracellular matrix composition, micro-channel size, hemodynamic vascular shear stress, and endothelial cell contacts, and it supports high-resolution live-cell microscopy and quantification of platelet production. Physiological shear stresses triggered proplatelet initiation, reproduced ex vivo bone marrow proplatelet production, and generated functional platelets. Modeling human bone marrow composition and hemodynamics in vitro obviates risks associated with platelet procurement and storage to help meet growing transfusion needs. PMID:25606631

  19. Platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakas, M; Karkos, P D; Markou, K; Grigoriadis, N

    2016-12-01

    Platelet-rich plasma is a novel material that is being used more frequently in many surgical specialties. A literature review on the current and potential uses of platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology was performed. There is limited evidence on the use of platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology compared with other specialties: only 11 studies on various subspecialties (otology, rhinology and laryngology) were included in the final review. Based on the limited number of studies, we cannot draw safe conclusions about the value of platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology. Nevertheless, the available literature suggests that platelet-rich plasma holds promise for future research and may have a number of clinical applications.

  20. Serial Symmetrical Relocation Algorithm for the Equal Sphere Packing Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, WenQi

    2012-01-01

    For dealing with the equal sphere packing problem, we propose a serial symmetrical relocation algorithm, which is effective in terms of the quality of the numerical results. We have densely packed up to 200 equal spheres in spherical container and up to 150 equal spheres in cube container. All results are rigorous because of a fake sphere trick. It was conjectured impossible to pack 68 equal spheres of radius 1 into a sphere of radius 5. The serial symmetrical relocation algorithm has proven wrong this conjecture by finding one such packing.

  1. The effect of PTSA on preparation of mesophase carbon spheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youliang Cheng

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Mesophase spheres have been synthesized by heat-treating a medium coal tar pitch at 420 ºC for 2 hours in the presence of P-toluene sulphonic acid (PTSA. The effect of PTSA on synthesis of mesophase spheres had been studied. It was found that PTSA promotes the formation of mesophase spheres in coal tar pitch through acceleratingpolymerization of aromatic hydrocarbons. PTSA content between 3 and 5 wt % gave similar size spheres, beyond which as the PTSA content increases, the size of spheres increases. 5 wt % PTSA gives uniform spheres with small size, good spherical shape and smooth surface.

  2. Packing Effect of Excluded Volume on Hard-Sphere Colloids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖长明; 金国钧; 马余强

    2001-01-01

    We apply the principle of maximum entropy to consider the excluded volume effect on the phase separation of binary mixtures consisting of hard spheres with two different diameters. We show that a critical volume fraction of hard spheres exists locating the packing of large spheres. In particular, through numerical calculation, we have found that the critical volume fraction becomes lower when the ratio α = σ1/σ2 of large-to-small sphere diameters increases, but becomes higher when the ratio of the large sphere volume fraction to the total volume fraction of large and small spheres increases.

  3. Platelet derivatives in regenerative medicine: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Maria Rosaria; Sommese, Linda; Casamassimi, Amelia; Napoli, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Prior preclinical and clinical studies support the use of platelet-derived products for the treatment of soft and hard tissue lesions. These regenerative effects are controlled by autocrine and paracrine biomolecules including growth factors and cytokines contained in platelet alpha granules. Each growth factor is involved in a phase of the healing process, such as inflammation, collagen synthesis, tissue granulation, and angiogenesis collectively promoting tissue restitution. Platelet derivatives have been prepared as platelet-rich plasma, platelet gel, platelet-rich fibrin, and platelet eye drops. These products vary in their structure, growth factors, composition, and cytokine concentrations. Here, we review the current use of platelet-derived biological products focusing on the rationale for their use and the main requirements for their preparation. Variation in the apparent therapeutic efficacy may have resulted from a lack of reproducible, standardized protocols for preparation. Despite several individual studies showing favorable treatment effects, some randomized controlled trials as well as meta-analyses have found no constant clinical benefit from the application of platelet-derived products for prevention of tissue lesions. Recently, 3 published studies in dentistry showed an improvement in bone density. Seven published studies showed positive results in joint regeneration. Five published studies demonstrated an improvement in the wound healing, and an improvement of eye epithelial healing was observed in 2 reports. Currently, at least 14 ongoing clinical trials in phase 3 or 4 have been designed with large groups of treated patients (n > 100). Because the rationale of the therapy with platelet-derived compounds is still debated, a definitive insight can be acquired only when these large randomized trials will be completed.

  4. The Public Sphere and Online, Independent Journalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, David

    2006-01-01

    The rapid evolution of online, independent journalism affords educators an opportunity to increase students' understanding of the nature and power of the news media. Drawing from Habermas's theories of the role of the public sphere in democratic discourse, the author, as founder of an online news publication, traces trends in concentrated…

  5. Spheres: from Ground Development to ISS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katterhagen, A.

    2016-01-01

    SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites) is an internal International Space Station (ISS) Facility that supports multiple investigations for the development of multi-spacecraft and robotic control algorithms. The SPHERES National Lab Facility aboard ISS is managed and operated by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) at Moffett Field California. The SPHERES Facility on ISS consists of three self-contained eight-inch diameter free-floating satellites which perform the various flight algorithms and serve as a platform to support the integration of experimental hardware. SPHERES has served to mature the adaptability of control algorithms of future formation flight missions in microgravity (6 DOF (Degrees of Freedom) / long duration microgravity), demonstrate key close-proximity formation flight and rendezvous and docking maneuvers, understand fault diagnosis and recovery, improve the field of human telerobotic operation and control, and lessons learned on ISS have significant impact on ground robotics, mapping, localization, and sensing in three-dimensions - among several other areas of study.

  6. Wall effects on a rotating sphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Qianlong; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The flow induced by a spherical particle spinning in the presence of no-slip planar boundaries is studied by numerical means. In addition to the reference case of an infinite fluid, the situations considered include a sphere rotating near one or two infinite plane walls parallel or perpendicular to

  7. Structure of colloidal sphere-plate mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, N.; Cinacchi, G.; van Duijneveldt, J. S.; Cosgrove, T.; Prescott, S. W.; Grillo, I.; Phipps, J.; Gittins, D. I.

    2011-05-01

    In addition to containing spherical pigment particles, coatings usually contain plate-like clay particles. It is thought that these improve the opacity of the paint film by providing an efficient spacing of the pigment particles. This observation is counterintuitive, as suspensions of particles of different shapes and sizes tend to phase separate on increase of concentration. In order to clarify this matter a model colloidal system is studied here, with a sphere-plate diameter ratio similar to that found in paints. For dilute suspensions, small angle neutron scattering revealed that the addition of plates leads to enhanced density fluctuations of the spheres, in agreement with new theoretical predictions. On increasing the total colloid concentration the plates and spheres phase separate due to the disparity in their shape. This is in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental work on colloidal sphere-plate mixtures, where one particle acts as a depleting agent. The fact that no large scale phase separation is observed in coatings is ascribed to dynamic arrest in intimately mixed, or possibly micro-phase separated structures, at elevated concentration.

  8. Transnational public spheres : A spatial perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forough, Mohammadbagher

    2015-01-01

    Whereas more and more transnational challenges (such as global financial crises, climate change, terrorism, migration, and so forth) are affecting people’s lives, democratic systems and their public spheres (i.e. spaces in which citizens can express their collective concerns) are national. To give a

  9. Micro sphere with nanoporosity by electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jihuan [College of Science, Donghua University, 1882 Yan' an Xilu Road, Shanghai 200051 (China) and Modern Textile Institute, Donghua University, Shanghai (China)]. E-mail: jhhe@dhu.edu.cn; Liu Yong [College of Textile, Donghua University, Shanghai (China); Xu Lan [College of Science, Donghua University, 1882 Yan' an Xilu Road, Shanghai 200051 (China) and Modern Textile Institute, Donghua University, Shanghai (China); Yu Jianyong [Modern Textile Institute, Donghua University, Shanghai (China); College of Textile, Donghua University, Shanghai (China)

    2007-05-15

    Nanoporous structures are potentially of great technological interest for the development of electronic, catalytic and hydrogen-storage systems, invisibility device (e.g. stealth plane) and others. Here we describe a general strategy for the synthesis of micro sphere with nanoporosity by electrospinning, the porous sizes having uniform but tunable diameters can be controlled by voltage applied in the electrospinning process.

  10. The Nationalisation of the Domestic Sphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Banal forms of nationalism permeate our everyday life. However, it is not very clear when all kinds of banal objects and practices became nationalised. In this article, I focus on the domestic sphere by analysing how around 1900 a small group of activists began to propagate the nationalisation of do

  11. Performance and Politics in the Public Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Wiegmink

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pia Wiegmink’s timely examination of the transforming transnational spaces of protest in a globalizing and technologically mediated public sphere in “Performance and Politics in the Public Sphere” offers a well-researched review of contemporary theory surrounding ideas of the political (Chantal Mouffe, the public sphere (Jürgen Habermas, the transnational public sphere (Nancy Fraser, and the reterritorialized transnational public sphere (Markus Schroer as the basis for her analysis of how the performance of political action in public—virtual or physical—is transformed by the capacity of the local to be played on a global stage, thus turning the citizen-actor into a cosmopolitan, transnational force. Tracing examples from the Seattle protests against the World Trade Organization meetings in 1999 by the Global Justice Movement to the work of the Electronic Disturbance Theater, from the civil rights movement to the subject matter of her larger study, “The Church of Life After Shopping,” “Billionaires for Bush,” and “The Yes Men,” Wiegmink provides an important analysis of the “alternative aesthetics” of the counterpublics’ formation, dissent, and action in and against hegemony. This selection is taken from her monograph, Protest EnACTed: Activist Performance in the Contemporary United States, a strong, cultural studies–focused contribution to transnational American Studies.

  12. Performance and Politics in the Public Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Wiegmink

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pia Wiegmink’s timely examination of the transforming transnational spaces of protest in a globalizing and technologically mediated public sphere in “Performance and Politics in the Public Sphere” offers a well-researched review of contemporary theory surrounding ideas of the political (Chantal Mouffe, the public sphere (Jürgen Habermas, the transnational public sphere (Nancy Fraser, and the reterritorialized transnational public sphere (Markus Schroer as the basis for her analysis of how the performance of political action in public—virtual or physical—is transformed by the capacity of the local to be played on a global stage, thus turning the citizen-actor into a cosmopolitan, transnational force. Tracing examples from the Seattle protests against the World Trade Organization meetings in 1999 by the Global Justice Movement to the work of the Electronic Disturbance Theater, from the civil rights movement to the subject matter of her larger study, “The Church of Life After Shopping,” “Billionaires for Bush,” and “The Yes Men,” Wiegmink provides an important analysis of the “alternative aesthetics” of the counterpublics’ formation, dissent, and action in and against hegemony. This selection is taken from her monograph, Protest EnACTed: Activist Performance in the Contemporary United States, a strong, cultural studies–focused contribution to transnational American Studies.

  13. The Public Sphere, Globalization and Technological Development

    OpenAIRE

    Tina Sikka

    2006-01-01

    Tina Sikka examines the emergence and transformation of Habermas's theory of the public sphere, looking at how this concept informs the debates around communication technologies in development. Development (2006) 49, 87–93. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1100277

  14. Casimir stress on lossy magnetodielectric spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Raabe, C; Welsch, D G; Raabe, Christian; Knoell, Ludwig; Welsch, Dirk-Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    An expression for the Casimir stress on arbitrary dispersive and lossy linear magnetodielectric matter at finite temperature, including left-handed material, is derived and applied to spherical systems. To cast the relevant part of the scattering Green tensor for a general magnetodielectric sphere in a convenient form, classical Mie scattering is reformulated.

  15. Pious Entertainment: Hizbullah's Islamic Cultural Sphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alagha, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Alagha’s chapter on Hezbollah’s Islamic cultural sphere is sure to generate some of the most interesting discussion. Lebanon and Hezbollah in particular are among the hottest topics in the studies of contemporary Islam, but few people actually have the appropriate levels of both access to and unders

  16. Metal-Matrix/Hollow-Ceramic-Sphere Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dean M.

    2011-01-01

    A family of metal/ceramic composite materials has been developed that are relatively inexpensive, lightweight alternatives to structural materials that are typified by beryllium, aluminum, and graphite/epoxy composites. These metal/ceramic composites were originally intended to replace beryllium (which is toxic and expensive) as a structural material for lightweight mirrors for aerospace applications. These materials also have potential utility in automotive and many other terrestrial applications in which there are requirements for lightweight materials that have high strengths and other tailorable properties as described below. The ceramic component of a material in this family consists of hollow ceramic spheres that have been formulated to be lightweight (0.5 g/cm3) and have high crush strength [40.80 ksi (.276.552 MPa)]. The hollow spheres are coated with a metal to enhance a specific performance . such as shielding against radiation (cosmic rays or x rays) or against electromagnetic interference at radio and lower frequencies, or a material to reduce the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the final composite material, and/or materials to mitigate any mismatch between the spheres and the matrix metal. Because of the high crush strength of the spheres, the initial composite workpiece can be forged or extruded into a high-strength part. The total time taken in processing from the raw ingredients to a finished part is typically 10 to 14 days depending on machining required.

  17. Structure of colloidal sphere-plate mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doshi, N; Cinacchi, G; Van Duijneveldt, J S; Cosgrove, T; Prescott, S W [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Grillo, I [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Phipps, J [Imerys Minerals Ltd, Par Moor Centre, Par Moor Road, Par, Cornwall PL24 2SQ (United Kingdom); Gittins, D I, E-mail: Giorgio.Cinacchi@bristol.ac.uk, E-mail: J.S.van-Duijneveldt@bristol.ac.uk [Imerys Performance and Filtration Minerals Ltd, 130 Castilian Drive, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)

    2011-05-18

    In addition to containing spherical pigment particles, coatings usually contain plate-like clay particles. It is thought that these improve the opacity of the paint film by providing an efficient spacing of the pigment particles. This observation is counterintuitive, as suspensions of particles of different shapes and sizes tend to phase separate on increase of concentration. In order to clarify this matter a model colloidal system is studied here, with a sphere-plate diameter ratio similar to that found in paints. For dilute suspensions, small angle neutron scattering revealed that the addition of plates leads to enhanced density fluctuations of the spheres, in agreement with new theoretical predictions. On increasing the total colloid concentration the plates and spheres phase separate due to the disparity in their shape. This is in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental work on colloidal sphere-plate mixtures, where one particle acts as a depleting agent. The fact that no large scale phase separation is observed in coatings is ascribed to dynamic arrest in intimately mixed, or possibly micro-phase separated structures, at elevated concentration.

  18. Close packing density of polydisperse hard spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Robert S; Groot, Robert D

    2009-12-28

    The most efficient way to pack equally sized spheres isotropically in three dimensions is known as the random close packed state, which provides a starting point for many approximations in physics and engineering. However, the particle size distribution of a real granular material is never monodisperse. Here we present a simple but accurate approximation for the random close packing density of hard spheres of any size distribution based upon a mapping onto a one-dimensional problem. To test this theory we performed extensive simulations for mixtures of elastic spheres with hydrodynamic friction. The simulations show a general (but weak) dependence of the final (essentially hard sphere) packing density on fluid viscosity and on particle size but this can be eliminated by choosing a specific relation between mass and particle size, making the random close packed volume fraction well defined. Our theory agrees well with the simulations for bidisperse, tridisperse, and log-normal distributions and correctly reproduces the exact limits for large size ratios.

  19. First results of the SPHERE experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaulov Sergey

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available First results of the balloon-borne experiment SPHERE are presented. The primary spectrum in the energy range 1016 – 5 · 1017 eV is compared with data of other experiments. The primary energies were reconstructed using characteristics of the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation from extensive air showers, reflected from a snow surface.

  20. Ligand sphere conversions in terminal carbide complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsing, Thorbjørn Juul; Reinholdt, Anders; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Metathesis is introduced as a preparative route to terminal carbide complexes. The chloride ligands of the terminal carbide complex [RuC(Cl)2(PCy3)2] (RuC) can be exchanged, paving the way for a systematic variation of the ligand sphere. A series of substituted complexes, including the first exam...

  1. Production of Liquid Metal Spheres by Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed G. Mohammed

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates a molding technique for producing spheres composed of eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn with diameters ranging from hundreds of microns to a couple millimeters. The technique starts by spreading EGaIn across an elastomeric sheet featuring cylindrical reservoirs defined by replica molding. The metal flows into these features during spreading. The spontaneous formation of a thin oxide layer on the liquid metal keeps the metal flush inside these reservoirs. Subsequent exposure to acid removes the oxide and causes the metal to bead up into a sphere with a size dictated by the volume of the reservoirs. This technique allows for the production and patterning of droplets with a wide range of volumes, from tens of nanoliters up to a few microliters. EGaIn spheres can be embedded or encased subsequently in polymer matrices using this technique. These spheres may be useful as solder bumps, electrodes, thermal contacts or components in microfluidic devices (valves, switches, pumps. The ease of parallel-processing and the ability to control the location of the droplets during their formation distinguishes this technique.

  2. SPHERE ZIMPOL: Overview and performance simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thalmann, C.; Schmid, H.M.; Boccaletti, A.; Mouillet, D.; Dohlen, K.; Roelfsema, R.; Carbillet, M.; Gisler, D.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Feldt, M.; Gratton, R.; Joos, F.; Keller, C.U.; Kragt, J.; Pragt, J.H.; Puget, P.; Rigal, F.; Snik, F.; Waters, R.; Wildi, F.

    2008-01-01

    The ESO planet finder instrument SPHERE will search for the polarimetric signature of the reflected light from extrasolar planets, using a VLT telescope, an extreme AO system (SAXO), a stellar coronagraph, and an imaging polarimeter (ZIMPOL). We present the design concept of the ZIMPOL instrument, a

  3. Life in the E-Sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the survival of the human race in the Third Millennium. Considers environmental issues; shifting from a focus on economic growth to human development; the rate of technological change; the e-sphere, which goes beyond a global village to a global brain; technology in education and in health care; and educational reform. (LRW)

  4. 1/4-pinched contact sphere theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Jian; Huang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Given a closed contact 3-manifold with a compatible Riemannian metric, we show that if the sectional curvature is 1/4-pinched, then the contact structure is universally tight. This result improves the Contact Sphere Theorem in [EKM12], where a 4/9-pinching constant was imposed. Some tightness res...

  5. Steel Spheres and Skydiver--Terminal Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Leme, J.; Moura, C.; Costa, Cintia

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the use of open source video analysis software in the study of the relationship between the velocity of falling objects and time. We discuss an experiment in which a steel sphere falls in a container filled with two immiscible liquids. The motion is similar to that of a skydiver falling through air.

  6. Locating a circle on a sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik; Schöbel, Anita

    2003-01-01

    We consider the problem of locating a spherical circle with respect to existing facilities on a sphere, such that the sum of weighted distances between the circle and the facilities is minimized, or such that the maximum weighted distance is minimized. The problem properties are analyzed, and we ...

  7. Locating a circle on a sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik; Schöbel, Anita

    2007-01-01

    We consider the problem of locating a spherical circle with respect to existing facilities on a sphere, such that the sum of distances between the circle and the facilities is minimized or such that the maximum distance is minimized. The problem properties are analyzed, and we give solution proce...

  8. Hollow silica spheres: synthesis and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijuan; D'Acunzi, Maria; Kappl, Michael; Auernhammer, Günter K; Vollmer, Doris; van Kats, Carlos M; van Blaaderen, Alfons

    2009-03-03

    Core-shell polystyrene-silica spheres with diameters of 800 nm and 1.9 microm were synthesized by soap-free emulsion and dispersion polymerization of the polystyrene core, respectively. The polystyrene spheres were used as templates for the synthesis of silica shells of tunable thickness employing the Stöber method [Graf et al. Langmuir 2003, 19, 6693]. The polystyrene template was removed by thermal decomposition at 500 degrees C, resulting in smooth silica shells of well-defined thickness (15-70 nm). The elastic response of these hollow spheres was probed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). A point load was applied to the particle surface through a sharp AFM tip, and successively increased until the shell broke. In agreement with the predictions of shell theory, for small deformations the deformation increased linearly with applied force. The Young's modulus (18 +/- 6 GPa) was about 4 times smaller than that of fused silica [Adachi and Sakka J. Mater. Sci. 1990, 25, 4732] but identical to that of bulk silica spheres (800 nm) synthesized by the Stöber method, indicating that it yields silica of lower density. The minimum force needed to irreversibly deform (buckle) the shell increased quadratically with shell thickness.

  9. Decreased TGF-β1 and VEGF Release in Cystic Fibrosis Platelets: Further Evidence for Platelet Defects in Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, James P.; Narasimhan, Jayashree; Biller, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients suffer from chronic lung inflammation. This inflammation may activate platelets. There are limited data on the role of platelet-secreted cytokines in CF. Platelet cytokines with inflammatory effects include vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). As levels of these cytokines are tenfold greater in serum than plasma due to platelet release, serum levels may be one index of platelet content; but a more specific index is release during the aggregation of isolated platelets. We postulated that altered release of these platelet cytokines occurs in CF. Methods We obtained sera and plasma from CF outpatients (n=21) and from healthy controls (n=20), measured VEGF and TGF-β1, assessed for correlations with platelet number, analyzed cytokine release during platelet aggregation to collagen, and analyzed differences in maximal platelet aggregation. Results Platelet number and maximal aggregation levels were higher in CF. Plasma and serum levels of TGF-β1 and VEGF were higher in CF, but these levels were similar after adjusting for platelet number (serum cytokines correlated with platelet count). The release of VEGF and TGF-β1 during aggregation was decreased in CF platelets (by 52% and 29%, respectively). Conclusion Platelet release is not a source of the elevated blood proinflammatory cytokines TGF-β1 and VEGF in CF, as platelets from CF patients actually release less of these cytokines. These data provide further evidence for platelet defects in CF. PMID:27423781

  10. Breaking the mold: transcription factors in the anucleate platelet and platelet-derived microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie L Lannan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Platelets are small anucleate blood cells derived from megakaryocytes. In addition to their pivotal roles in hemostasis, platelets are the smallest, yet most abundant, immune cell and regulate inflammation, immunity, and disease progression. Although platelets lack DNA, and thus no functional transcriptional activities, they are nonetheless rich sources of RNAs, possess an intact spliceosome, and are thus capable of synthesizing proteins. Previously, it was thought that platelet RNAs and translational machinery were remnants from the megakaryocyte. We now know that the initial description of platelets as cellular fragments is an antiquated notion, as mounting evidence suggests otherwise. Therefore, it is reasonable to hypothesize that platelet transcription factors are not vestigial remnants from megakaryoctes, but have important, if only partly understood functions. Proteins play multiple cellular roles to minimize energy expenditure for maximum cellular function; thus, the same can be expected for transcription factors. In fact, numerous transcription factors have non-genomic roles, both in platelets and in nucleated cells. Our lab and others have discovered the presence and nongenomic roles of transcription factors in platelets, such as the nuclear factor kappa β (NFκB family of proteins and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ. In addition to numerous roles in regulating platelet activation, functional transcription factors can be transferred to vascular and immune cells through platelet microparticles. This method of transcellular delivery of key immune molecules may be a vital mechanism by which platelet transcription factors regulate inflammation and immunity. At the very least, platelets are an ideal model cell to dissect out the nongenomic roles of transcription factors in nucleated cells. There is abundant evidence to suggest that transcription factors in platelets play key roles in regulating inflammatory and

  11. Platelet lysates produced from expired platelet concentrates support growth and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mjoll Jonsdottir-Buch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells are promising candidates in regenerative cell therapy. Conventional culture methods involve the use of animal substances, specifically fetal bovine serum as growth supplement. Since the use of animal-derived products is undesirable for human applications, platelet lysates produced from human platelets are an attractive alternative. This is especially true if platelet lysates from already approved transfusion units at blood banks can be utilized. The purpose of this study was to produce human platelet lysates from expired, blood bank-approved platelet concentrates and evaluate their use as growth supplement in the culture of mesenchymal stem cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were cultured with one of three culture supplements; fetal bovine serum, lysates from freshly prepared human platelet concentrates, or lysates from expired human platelet concentrates. The effects of these platelet-derived culture supplements on basic mesenchymal stem cell characteristics were evaluated. All cultures maintained the typical mesenchymal stem cell surface marker expression, trilineage differentiation potential, and the ability to suppress in vitro immune responses. However, mesenchymal stem cells supplemented with platelet lysates proliferated faster than traditionally cultured cells and increased the expression of the osteogenic marker gene RUNX-2; yet no difference between the use of fresh and expired platelet concentrates was observed. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that human platelet lysates produced from expired platelet concentrates can be used as an alternative to fetal bovine serum for mesenchymal stem cell culture to the same extent as lysates from fresh platelets.

  12. Full sphere hydrodynamic and dynamo benchmarks

    KAUST Repository

    Marti, P.

    2014-01-26

    Convection in planetary cores can generate fluid flow and magnetic fields, and a number of sophisticated codes exist to simulate the dynamic behaviour of such systems. We report on the first community activity to compare numerical results of computer codes designed to calculate fluid flow within a whole sphere. The flows are incompressible and rapidly rotating and the forcing of the flow is either due to thermal convection or due to moving boundaries. All problems defined have solutions that alloweasy comparison, since they are either steady, slowly drifting or perfectly periodic. The first two benchmarks are defined based on uniform internal heating within the sphere under the Boussinesq approximation with boundary conditions that are uniform in temperature and stress-free for the flow. Benchmark 1 is purely hydrodynamic, and has a drifting solution. Benchmark 2 is a magnetohydrodynamic benchmark that can generate oscillatory, purely periodic, flows and magnetic fields. In contrast, Benchmark 3 is a hydrodynamic rotating bubble benchmark using no slip boundary conditions that has a stationary solution. Results from a variety of types of code are reported, including codes that are fully spectral (based on spherical harmonic expansions in angular coordinates and polynomial expansions in radius), mixed spectral and finite difference, finite volume, finite element and also a mixed Fourier-finite element code. There is good agreement between codes. It is found that in Benchmarks 1 and 2, the approximation of a whole sphere problem by a domain that is a spherical shell (a sphere possessing an inner core) does not represent an adequate approximation to the system, since the results differ from whole sphere results. © The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society.

  13. VMware vSphere PowerCLI Reference Automating vSphere Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Dekens, Luc; Sizemore, Glenn; van Lieshout, Arnim; Medd, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Your One-Stop Reference for VMware vSphere Automation If you manage vSphere in a Windows environment, automating routine tasks can save you time and increase efficiency. VMware vSphere PowerCLI is a set of pre-built commands based on Windows PowerShell that is designed to help you automate vSphere processes involving virtual machines, datacenters, storage, networks, and more. This detailed guide-using a practical, task-based approach and real-world examples-shows you how to get the most out of PowerCLI's handy cmdlets. Learn how to: Automate vCenter Server and ESX/ESX(i) Server deployment and

  14. Revitalization of the Public Sphere: A Comparison between Habermasian and the New Public Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Khan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available “Public sphere” is an important component of modern polity. Civil society brings the state in touch with the needs of the citizens through the medium of public sphere. However, Habermas argues that “public sphere” experienced refeudalization owing to various factors i.e. propaganda, cultural industry, market and state intervention. The “public” was condemned to be mere spectator again. This article argues that modern technologies enabled new public sphere (NPS can help restore public status as participant in the democratic process. By employing interpretivist approach the article compares the Habermasian ideal of public sphere with NPS and constructs a matrix, depicting the various related aspects between the two models for highlighting the revival of the public sphere.

  15. Radiation of non-relativistic particle on a conducting sphere and a string of spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Shul'ga, N F; Larikova, E A

    2016-01-01

    The radiation arising under uniform motion of non-relativistic charged particle by (or through) perfectly conducting sphere is considered. The rigorous results are obtained using the method of images known from electrostatics.

  16. Platelet-TLR7 mediates host survival and platelet count during viral infection in the absence of platelet-dependent thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koupenova, Milka; Vitseva, Olga; MacKay, Christopher R; Beaulieu, Lea M; Benjamin, Emelia J; Mick, Eric; Kurt-Jones, Evelyn A; Ravid, Katya; Freedman, Jane E

    2014-07-31

    Viral infections have been associated with reduced platelet counts, the biological significance of which has remained elusive. Here, we show that infection with encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) rapidly reduces platelet count, and this response is attributed to platelet Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7). Platelet-TLR7 stimulation mediates formation of large platelet-neutrophil aggregates, both in mouse and human blood. Intriguingly, this process results in internalization of platelet CD41-fragments by neutrophils, as assessed biochemically and visualized by microscopy, with no influence on platelet prothrombotic properties. The mechanism includes TLR7-mediated platelet granule release, translocation of P-selectin to the cell surface, and a consequent increase in platelet-neutrophil adhesion. Viral infection of platelet-depleted mice also led to increased mortality. Transfusion of wild-type, TLR7-expressing platelets into TLR7-deficient mice caused a drop in platelet count and increased survival post EMCV infection. Thus, this study identifies a new link between platelets and their response to single-stranded RNA viruses that involves activation of TLR7. Finally, platelet-TLR7 stimulation is independent of thrombosis and has implications to the host immune response and survival.

  17. Revitalization of the Public Sphere: A Comparison between Habermasian and the New Public Sphere

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    “Public sphere” is an important component of modern polity. Civil society brings the state in touch with the needs of the citizens through the medium of public sphere. However, Habermas argues that “public sphere” experienced refeudalization owing to various factors i.e. propaganda, cultural industry, market and state intervention. The “public” was condemned to be mere spectator again. This article argues that modern technologies enabled new public sphere (NPS) can help restore ...

  18. Blood platelets in the progression of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina S Gowert

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by neurotoxic amyloid-ß plaque formation in brain parenchyma and cerebral blood vessels known as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA. Besides CAA, AD is strongly related to vascular diseases such as stroke and atherosclerosis. Cerebrovascular dysfunction occurs in AD patients leading to alterations in blood flow that might play an important role in AD pathology with neuronal loss and memory deficits. Platelets are the major players in hemostasis and thrombosis, but are also involved in neuroinflammatory diseases like AD. For many years, platelets were accepted as peripheral model to study the pathophysiology of AD because platelets display the enzymatic activities to generate amyloid-ß (Aß peptides. In addition, platelets are considered to be a biomarker for early diagnosis of AD. Effects of Aß peptides on platelets and the impact of platelets in the progression of AD remained, however, ill-defined. The present study explored the cellular mechanisms triggered by Aß in platelets. Treatment of platelets with Aß led to platelet activation and enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and membrane scrambling, suggesting enhanced platelet apoptosis. More important, platelets modulate soluble Aß into fibrillar structures that were absorbed by apoptotic but not vital platelets. This together with enhanced platelet adhesion under flow ex vivo and in vivo and platelet accumulation at amyloid deposits of cerebral vessels of AD transgenic mice suggested that platelets are major contributors of CAA inducing platelet thrombus formation at vascular amyloid plaques leading to vessel occlusion critical for cerebrovascular events like stroke.

  19. Brief Report: Platelet-Poor Plasma Serotonin in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, George M.; Hertzig, Margaret E.; McBride, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Possible explanations for the well-replicated platelet hyperserotonemia of autism include an alteration in the platelet's handling of serotonin (5-hydroxyserotonin, 5-HT) or an increased exposure of the platelet to 5-HT. Measurement of platelet-poor plasma (PPP) levels of 5-HT appears to provide the best available index of in vivo exposure of the…

  20. 21 CFR 864.5700 - Automated platelet aggregation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... addition of an aggregating reagent to a platelet-rich plasma. (b) Classification. Class II (performance... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated platelet aggregation system. 864.5700... § 864.5700 Automated platelet aggregation system. (a) Identification. An automated platelet...

  1. Quality assessment of platelet concentrates prepared by platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC and apheresis-PC methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ravindra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC, and apheresis-PC were prepared and their quality parameters were assessed. Study Design: In this study, the following platelet products were prepared: from random donor platelets (i platelet rich plasma - platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, and (ii buffy coat poor- platelet concentrate (BC-PC and (iii single donor platelets (apheresis-PC by different methods. Their quality was assessed using the following parameters: swirling, volume of the platelet concentrate, platelet count, WBC count and pH. Results: A total of 146 platelet concentrates (64 of PRP-PC, 62 of BC-PC and 20 of apheresis-PC were enrolled in this study. The mean volume of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 62.30±22.68 ml, 68.81±22.95 ml and 214.05±9.91 ml and ranged from 22-135 ml, 32-133 ml and 200-251 ml respectively. The mean platelet count of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 7.6±2.97 x 1010/unit, 7.3±2.98 x 1010/unit and 4.13±1.32 x 1011/unit and ranged from 3.2-16.2 x 1010/unit, 0.6-16.4 x 1010/unit and 1.22-8.9 x 1011/unit respectively. The mean WBC count in PRP-PC (n = 10, BC-PC (n = 10 and apheresis-PC (n = 6 units was 4.05±0.48 x 107/unit, 2.08±0.39 x 107/unit and 4.8±0.8 x 106/unit and ranged from 3.4 -4.77 x 107/unit, 1.6-2.7 x 107/unit and 3.2 - 5.2 x 106/unit respectively. A total of 26 units were analyzed for pH changes. Out of these units, 10 each were PRP-PC and BC-PC and 6 units were apheresis-PC. Their mean pH was 6.7±0.26 (mean±SD and ranged from 6.5 - 7.0 and no difference was observed among all three types of platelet concentrate. Conclusion: PRP-PC and BC-PC units were comparable in terms of swirling, platelet count per unit and pH. As expected, we found WBC contamination to be less in BC-PC than PRP-PC units. Variation in volume was more in BC-PC than PRP-PC units and this suggests that further standardization is required for preparation of BC

  2. Cavity formation by the impact of Leidenfrost spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy

    2012-05-01

    We report observations of cavity formation and subsequent collapse when a heated sphere impacts onto a liquid pool. When the sphere temperature is much greater than the boiling point of the liquid, we observe an inverted Leidenfrost effect where the sphere is encompassed by a vapour layer that prevents physical contact with the liquid. This creates the ultimate non-wetting scenario during sphere penetration through a free surface, producing very smooth cavity walls. In some cases during initial entry, however, the liquid contacts the sphere at the equator, leading to the formation of a dual cavity structure. For cold sphere impacts, where a contact line is observed, we reveal details of the contact line pinning, which initially forms a sawtooth pattern. We also observe surface waves on the cavity interface for cold spheres. We compare our experimental results to previous studies of cavity dynamics and, in particular, the influence of hydrophobicity on the entry of the sphere. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  3. Innovation embedded in entrepreneurs’ networks in private and public spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøtt, Thomas; Cheraghi, Maryam; Rezaei, Shahamak

    2014-01-01

    Global studies have found tendencies: traditional culture promotes entrepreneurs' networking in the private sphere, impeding innovation, whereas secular-rational culture facilitates networking in the public sphere, benefiting innovation. This embeddedness is here scrutinised in contrasting...

  4. Platelet thrombosis in cardiac-valve prostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewanjee, M.K.

    1989-01-01

    The contribution of platelets and clotting factors in thrombosis on cardiovascular prostheses had been quantified with several tracers. Thrombus formation in vivo could be measured semiquantitatively in animal models and patients with indium-111, Technetium-99m labeled platelets, iodine-123, iodine-131 labeled fibrinogen, and In-111 and Tc-99m labeled antibody to the fibrinogen-receptor on the platelet- membrane, or fibrin. The early studies demonstrated that certain platelet-inhibitors, e.g. sulfinpyrazone, aspirin or aspirin- persantine increased platelet survival time with mechanical valves implanted in the baboon model and patients. Thrombus localization by imaging is possible for large thrombus on thrombogenic surface of prosthesis in the acute phase. The majority of thrombus was found in the sewing ring (Dacron) in the acute phase in both the mechanical and tissue valves. The amount of retained thrombus in both mechanical and tissue valves in our one-day study in the dog model was similar (< 1% if injected In-111 platelets = 5 billion platelets). As the fibrous ingrowth covered the sewing ring, the thrombus formation decreased significantly. Only a small amount of thrombus was found on the leaflets at one month in both the dog and calf models. 38 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Changes in platelet parameters in leukocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Nurinnisa; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Bakan, Ebubekir; Altas, Gulsum Feyza; Polat, Harun; Dorman, Emrullah

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, platelets are known to have a large variety of functions in many pathophysiological processes and their interaction with endothelial cells and leukocytes is known to play an important role in the pathophysiology of vascular inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between white blood cell count in conditions resulting in leukocytosis and platelet count and platelet parameters including mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, and plateletcrit. White blood cell counts count and all platelet parameters were evaluated in 341 results of normal complete blood count (of which the white blood cell counts were within reference range, group 1) and 327 results of elevated white blood cell counts count (group 2). There was a significant difference between these two groups in PLT counts and PCT values, being higher in Group 2. However, there was no statistically significant difference between two groups in MPV and PDW values. On the other hand, there were statistically significant, but weak, correlations between the WBC and platelet counts in both groups (p<0.01, r=0.235 for group 1, p<0.05, r=0.116 for group 2). As a conclusion PLT count and PCT values increase in infectious conditions. This study and previous studies show that PLTs are employed in infectious conditions but the exact mechanism and the exact clinical importance of this response remains to be cleared by further studies.

  6. Analysis of aggregation of platelets in thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Suresh

    Platelets are key players in thrombus formation by first rolling over collagen bound von Willebrand factor followed by formation of a stable interaction with collagen. The first adhered platelets bind additional platelets until the whole injury is sealed off by a platelet aggregate. The coagulation system stabilizes the formed platelet plug by creating a tight fibrin network, and then wound contraction takes place because of morphological changes in platelets. Coagulation takes place by platelet activation and aggregation mainly through fibrinogen polymerization into fibrin fibers. The process includes multiple factors, such as thrombin, plasmin, and local shear-rate which regulate and control the process. Coagulation can be divided into two pathways: the intrinsic pathway and the extrinsic pathway. The intrinsic pathway is initiated by the exposure of a negatively charged. It is able to activate factor XII, using a complex reaction that includes prekallikrein and high-molecular-weight kininogen as cofactors.. Thrombin is the final enzyme that is needed to convert fibrinogen into fibrin. The extrinsic pathway starts with the exposure of tissue factor to the circulating blood, which is the major initiator of coagulation. There are several feedback loops that reinforce the coagulation cascade, resulting in large amounts of thrombin. It is dependent on the presence of pro-coagulant surfaces of cells expressing negatively charged phospholipids--which include phosphatidylserine (PS)--on their outer membrane. PS-bearing surfaces are able to increase the efficiency of the reactions by concentrating and co-localizing coagulation factors.. Aggregation of platelets are analyzed and compared to adhesion of platelet to erythrocyte and to endothelial cells. This abstract is replacing MAR16-2015-020003.

  7. Ultrasonic beam-plotting with very small spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, W H; Swan, H

    1991-12-01

    A method of pulse-echo ultrasonic beam plotting is described. It differs from traditional pulse-echo beam plotting in that the ultrasonic pulses are scattered off a totally isolated sphere rather than a sphere suspended on a wire. The method also allows extremely small spheres to be used thus providing greater resolution. It is demonstrated that pulse-echo beam plotting using spheres of different size produces different iso-echo amplitude curves.

  8. On Vassiliev invariants of braid groups of the sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Kaabi, N

    2012-01-01

    We construct a universal Vassiliev invariant for braid groups of the sphere and the mapping class groups of the sphere with $n$ punctures. The case of a sphere is different from the classical braid groups or braids of oriented surfaces of genus strictly greater than zero, since Vassiliev invariants in a group without 2-torsion do not distinguish elements of braid group of a sphere.

  9. Experimental simulation of model platelet adhesion to a semi-permeable wall exposed to flow disturbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Xiaoyan; WANG Guixue; YANG Yang

    2003-01-01

    A sudden tubular expansion with a semi- permeable wall was constructed from a tubular dialysis membrane to investigate the effects of filtration flow and flow disturbance on particle deposition. The expansion was perfused with a dilute, neutrally buoyant suspension of 1.10 ?m diameter polystyrene latex spheres (as models of platelets) in Tris buffer solution containing 10% Dextran T70 and 2% bovine serum albumin. The results showed that adhesion of particles correlated positively with the filtration rate and inversely with the wall shear rate. In the vortex flow region distal to the expansion, particle adhesion was significantly elevated with a maximum at the reattachment point where the wall shear rate was the lowest and particles were constantly carried toward the vessel wall along the curved streamlines. In conclusion, filtration flow has a profound impact on the interaction of blood cells such as platelets with blood vessel walls, and the disturbed flow with a low wall shear rate can enhance the deposits of platelet thrombi to the vessel wall.

  10. Evaluation of platelet function using multiple electrode platelet aggregometry in dogs with septic peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ronald H L; Chan, Daniel L

    2016-09-01

    To assess platelet function via multiple electrode platelet aggregometry (MEPA) in dogs with septic peritonitis and in healthy dogs. The secondary aim was to determine if there is prognostic significance to changes in platelet function observed in septic dogs. Prospective, observational cohort study conducted from January 2012 to March 2014. University teaching hospital. Twenty dogs with septic peritonitis and 23 healthy dogs. None. MEPA using arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate, and collagen (COL) as agonists was measured within 24 hours of diagnosis of sepsis. Compared to healthy dogs, platelet aggregation was reduced in dogs with septic peritonitis for all agonists (P peritonitis. Circulating platelets from dogs with septic peritonitis have diminished aggregation in response to multiple platelet agonists. MEPA may serve as an assessment tool for illness severity in this patient population. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  11. [Glycoproteins, inherited diseases of platelets, and the role of platelets in wound healing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurden, Alan T; Nurden, Paquita

    2013-02-01

    Recognition that platelets have a glycocalyx rich in membrane glycoproteins prompted the discovery in France that inherited bleeding syndromes due to defects of platelet adhesion and aggregation were caused by deficiencies in major receptors at the platelet surface. Identification of the alpha IIb beta3 integrin prompted the development of powerful anti-thrombotic drugs that have gained worldwide use. Since these discoveries, the genetic causes of many other defects of platelet function and production have been elucidated, with the identification of an ADP receptor, P2 Y12, another widespread target for anti-thrombotic drugs. Discovery of the molecular basis of a rare disease of storage of biologically active proteins in platelet alpha-granules has been accompanied by the recognition of the roles of platelets in inflammation, the innate immune system and tissue repair, opening new avenues for therapeutic advances.

  12. Decrease in platelet activating factor stimulated phosphoinositide turnover during storage of human platelets in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.G.; Shukla, S.D. (Univ. of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia (USA))

    1987-05-01

    Human platelet concentrate from the American Red Cross Blood Center was stored at 24{degree}C in a shaker and aliquots were taken out at time intervals aseptically. Platelet activating factor (PAF) stimulated turnover of phosphoinositide (PPI) was monitored by assaying {sup 32}P incorporation into phosphoinositides using platelet rich plasma (PRP). Platelets in PRP were incubated with 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} M PAF at 37{degree}C with gentle shaking and after 5 min their lipids were extracted and analysed by TLC for {sup 32}P-phosphoinositides. The percent stimulation of {sup 32}P incorporation by PAF (over control) into PPI was approximately 250, 100, 60, 25 and 20 on days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6, respectively. This indicated a dramatic decrease in PAF responsive turnover of platelet PPI during storage. These findings have important implications in relation to PAF receptor activity and viability of platelets at different periods of storage.

  13. Platelets: at the nexus of antimicrobial defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Michael R

    2014-06-01

    Platelets have traditionally been viewed as fragmentary mediators of coagulation. However, recent molecular and cellular evidence suggests that they have multiple roles in host defence against infection. From first-responders that detect pathogens and rapidly deploy host-defence peptides, to beacons that recruit and enhance leukocyte functions in the context of infection, to liaisons that facilitate the T cell-B cell crosstalk that is required in adaptive immunity, platelets represent a nexus at the intersection of haemostasis and antimicrobial host defence. In this Review, I consider recent insights into the antimicrobial roles of platelets, which are mediated both directly and indirectly to integrate innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogens.

  14. Transcellular lipoxygenase metabolism between monocytes and platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigby, T.D.; Meslier, N. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1989-09-15

    We have examined the effects of co-culture and in vitro co-stimulation on lipoxygenase metabolism in monocytes and platelets. Monocytes were obtained from the peripheral blood of normal volunteers by discontinuous gradient centrifugation and adherence to tissue culture plastic. Platelets were obtained from the platelet-rich plasma of the same donor. When 10(9) platelets and 2.5 x 10(6) monocytes were co-stimulated with 1 microM A23187, these preparations released greater quantities of 12(S)-hydroxy-10-trans-5,8,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid, 5(S),12-(S)dihydroxy-6,10-trans-8,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid, and leukotriene C4, 5(S)-hydroxy-6(R)-S-glutathionyl-7,9-trans-11,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic (LTC4) when compared with monocytes alone. Release of arachidonic acid, 5-HETE, delta 6-trans-LTB4, and delta 6-trans-12-epi-LTB4 from monocytes was decreased in the presence of platelets. A dose-response curve was constructed and revealed that the above changes became evident when the platelet number exceeded 10(7). Dual radiolabeling experiments with 3H- and 14C-arachidonic acid revealed that monocytes provided arachidonic acid, 5-HETE, and LTA4 for further metabolism by the platelet. Monocytes did not metabolize platelet intermediates detectably. In addition, as much as 1.2 microM 12(S)-hydroxy-10-trans-5,8,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid and 12(S)-hydroperoxy-10-trans-5,8,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid had no effect on monocyte lipoxygenase metabolism. Platelets were capable of converting LTA4 to LTC4, but conversion of LTA4 to LTB4 was not detected. We conclude that the monocyte and platelet lipoxygenase pathways undergo a transcellular lipoxygenase interaction that differs from the interaction of the neutrophil and platelet lipoxygenase pathways. In this interaction monocytes provide intermediate substrates for further metabolic conversion by platelets in an unidirectional manner.

  15. Flow cytometric assessment of activation of peripheral blood platelets in dogs with normal platelet count and asymptomatic thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żmigrodzka, M; Guzera, M; Winnicka, A

    2016-01-01

    Platelets play a crucial role in hemostasis. Their activation has not yet been evaluated in healthy dogs with a normal and low platelet count. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of activators on platelet activation in dogs with a normal platelet count and asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. 72 clinically healthy dogs were enrolled. Patients were allocated into three groups. Group 1 consisted of 30 dogs with a normal platelet count, group 2 included 22 dogs with a platelet count between 100 and 200×109/l and group 3 consisted of 20 dogs with a platelet count lower than 100×109/l. Platelet rich-plasma (PRP) was obtained from peripheral blood samples using tripotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (K3-EDTA) as anticoagulant. Next, platelets were stimulated using phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate or thrombin, stabilized using procaine or left unstimulated. The expression of CD51 and CD41/CD61 was evaluated. Co-expression of CD41/CD61 and Annexin V served as a marker of platelet activation. The expression of CD41/CD61 and CD51 did not differ between the 3 groups. Thrombin-stimulated platelets had a significantly higher activity in dogs with a normal platelet count than in dogs with asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. Procaine inhibited platelet activity in all groups. In conclusion, activation of platelets of healthy dogs in vitro varied depending on the platelet count and platelet activator.

  16. 21 CFR 886.3320 - Eye sphere implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eye sphere implant. 886.3320 Section 886.3320 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3320 Eye sphere implant. (a) Identification. An eye sphere implant is a device intended to be implanted in the eyeball to occupy space following the...

  17. Self-lensing of a Singular Isothermal Sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yun

    1999-01-01

    Many astrophysical systems can be approximated as isothermal spheres. In an isothermal sphere, the ``foreground'' objects can act as lenses on ``background'' objects in the same distribution. We study gravitational lensing by a singular isothermal sphere analytically. Our results may have interesting applications.

  18. Nonmonotonic settling of a sphere in a cornstarch suspension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Kann, S.; von Kann, Stefan; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus; Lohse, Detlef; van der Meer, Roger M.

    2011-01-01

    Cornstarch suspensions exhibit remarkable behavior. Here, we present two unexpected observations for a sphere settling in such a suspension: In the bulk of the liquid the velocity of the sphere oscillates around a terminal value, without damping. Near the bottom the sphere comes to a full stop, but

  19. Depletion induced demixing in polydisperse mixtures of hard spheres

    OpenAIRE

    Sear, RP

    1998-01-01

    Polydisperse mixtures are those in which components with a whole range of sizes are present. It is shown that the fluid phase of polydisperse hard spheres is thermodynamically unstable unless the density of large spheres decreases at least exponentially as their size increases. The instability is with respect to the large spheres crystallising out into multiple solid phases.

  20. Phase behavior and structure of binary hard-sphere mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Marjolein; Roij, R. van; Evans, R.

    1998-01-01

    By integrating out the degrees of freedom of the small spheres in a binary mixture of large and small hard spheres, we derive an explicit effective Hamiltonian for the large spheres. Using the two-body (depletion potential) contribution to this effective Hamiltonian in simulations, we find stable

  1. Pathogen-Reduced, Extended Platelet Storage in Platelet Additive Solution (PAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    concentrations will be performed to ensure the desired concentration was achieved. Platelet Additive Solutions are isotonic solutions used to replace a...Sherrill J. Slichter, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Bloodworks Northwest Seattle, WA 98104 REPORT DATE: October 2016 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pathogen-Reduced, Extended Platelet Storage in Platelet Additive Solution (PAS) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0441 5b. GRANT

  2. Xanthohumol, a Prenylated Flavonoid from Hops (Humulus lupulus), Prevents Platelet Activation in Human Platelets

    OpenAIRE

    Ye-Ming Lee; Kuo-Hsien Hsieh; Wan-Jung Lu; Hsiu-Chu Chou; Duen-Suey Chou; Li-Ming Lien; Joen-Rong Sheu; Kuan-Hung Lin

    2012-01-01

    Xanthohumol is the principal prenylated flavonoid in the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.). Xanthohumol was found to be a very potent cancer chemopreventive agent through regulation of diverse mechanisms. However, no data are available concerning the effects of xanthohumol on platelet activation. The aim of this paper was to examine the antiplatelet effect of xanthohumol in washed human platelets. In the present paper, xanthohumol exhibited more-potent activity in inhibiting platelet aggregation...

  3. Platelet Lysates Produced from Expired Platelet Concentrates Support Growth and Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Mjoll Jonsdottir-Buch; Ramona Lieder; Olafur Eysteinn Sigurjonsson

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells are promising candidates in regenerative cell therapy. Conventional culture methods involve the use of animal substances, specifically fetal bovine serum as growth supplement. Since the use of animal-derived products is undesirable for human applications, platelet lysates produced from human platelets are an attractive alternative. This is especially true if platelet lysates from already approved transfusion units at blood banks can be utilized. The purpose ...

  4. Revascularization of Immature Necrotic Teeth: Platelet rich Fibrin an Edge over Platelet rich Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Neelam Mittal; Isha Narang

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Revascularization is one such entity that has found its clinical application in the field of endodontics for the manage-ment of immature permanent necrotic teeth. The protocols for revascularization of such teeth focus especially on delivery of stem cells and scaffolds in a nonsurgical manner rather than concentrated growth micro molecules.The hypothesis: This article proposes the role of platelet concentrates such as platelet rich fibrin (PRF) and platelet rich plasma (PRP) in ...

  5. Platelet lipidomics: a modern day perspective on lipid discovery and characterization in platelets

    OpenAIRE

    O’Donnell, Valerie B.; Murphy, Robert C.; Watson, Steve P.

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are diverse families of biomolecules that perform essential structural and signaling roles in platelets. Their formation and metabolism is tightly controlled by enzymes and signal transduction pathways, and their dysregulation leads to significant defects in platelet function and disease. Platelet activation is associated with significant changes to membrane lipids, and formation of diverse bioactive lipids that play essential roles in hemostasis. In recent years, new generation mass s...

  6. Platelet-rich fibrin matrix for facial plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Anthony P; Saman, Masoud

    2012-05-01

    Platelets are known primarily for their role in hemostasis, but there is increasing interest in the effect of platelets on wound healing. Platelet isolates such as platelet-rich plasma have been advocated to enhance and accelerate wound healing. This article describes the use of a novel preparation, platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM), for facial plastic surgery applications such as volume augmentation, fat transfer supplementation, and as an adjunct to open surgical procedures.

  7. Platelet interaction with bacterial toxins and secreted products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Oonagh

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria that enter the bloodstream will encounter components of the cellular and soluble immune response. Platelets contribute to this response and have emerged as an important target for bacterial pathogens. Bacteria produce diverse extracellular proteins and toxins that have been reported to modulate platelet function. These interactions can result in complete or incomplete platelet activation or inhibition of platelet activation, depending on the bacteria and bacterial product. The nature of the platelet response may be highly relevant to disease pathogenesis.

  8. Evaluation of platelet thromboxane radioimmunoassay method to measure platelet life-span: Comparison with /sup 111/indium-platelet method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallabhajosula, S.; Machac, J.; Badimon, L.; Lipszyc, H.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Fuster, V.

    1985-05-01

    The platelet activation during radiolabeling in vitro with Cr-51 and In-111 may affect the platelet life-span (PLS) in vivo. A new RIA method to measure PLS is being evaluated. Aspirin inhibits platelet thromboxane (TxA/sub 2/) by acetylating cyclooxygenase. The time required for the TxA/sub 2/ levels to return towards control values depends on the rate of new platelets entering circulation and is a measure of PLS. A single dose of aspirin (150mg) was given to 5 normal human subjects. Blood samples were collected for 2 days before aspirin and daily for 10 days. TxA/sub 2/ production in response to endogenous thrombin was studied by allowing 1 ml blood sample to clot at 37/sup 0/C for 90 min. Serum TxB/sub 2/ (stable breakdown product of Tx-A/sub 2/) levels determined by RIA technique. The plot of TxB/sub 2/ levels (% control) against time showed a gradual increase. The PLS calculated by linear regression analysis assuming a 2-day lag period before cyclooxygenase recovery is 9.7 +- 2.37. In the same 5 subjects, platelets from a 50ml blood sample were labeled with /sup 111/In-tropolone in 2 ml autologous plasma. Starting at 1 hr after injection of labeled platelets, 10 blood samples were obtained over a 8 day period. The PLS calculated based on a linear regression analysis is 10.2 +. 1.4. The PLS measured from the rate of platelet disappearance from circulation and the rate of platelet regeneration into circulation are quite comparable in normal subjects. TxA/sub 2/ regeneration RIA may provide a method to measure PLS without administering radioactivity to patient.

  9. Single-step separation of platelets from whole blood coupled with digital quantification by interfacial platelet cytometry (iPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basabe-Desmonts, L; Ramstrom, S; Meade, G; O'Neill, S; Riaz, A; Lee, L P; Ricco, A J; Kenny, D

    2010-09-21

    We report the efficient single-step separation of individual platelets from unprocessed whole blood, enabling digital quantification of platelet function using interfacial platelet cytometry (iPC) on a chip. iPC is accomplished by the precision micropatterning of platelet-specific protein surfaces on solid substrates. By separating platelets from whole blood using specific binding to protein spots of a defined size, iPC implements a simple incubate-and-rinse approach, without sample preparation, that enables (1) the study of platelets in the physiological situation of interaction with a protein surface, (2) the choice of the number of platelets bound on each protein spot, from one to many, (3) control of the platelet-platelet distance, including the possibility to study noninteracting single platelets, (4) digital quantification (counting) of platelet adhesion to selected protein matrices, enabling statistical characterization of platelet subpopulations from meaningfully large numbers of single platelets, (5) the study of platelet receptor expression and spatial distribution, and (6) a detailed study of the morphology of isolated single platelets at activation levels that can be manipulated. To date, we have demonstrated 1-4 of the above list. Platelets were separated from whole blood using iPC with fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor (VWF), and anti-CD42b antibody printed "spots" ranging from a fraction of one to several platelet diameters (2-24 μm). The number of platelets captured per spot depends strongly on the protein matrix and the surface area of the spot, together with the platelet volume, morphology, and activation state. Blood samples from healthy donors, a May-Hegglin-anomaly patient, and a Glanzmann's Thrombasthenia patient were analyzed via iPC to confirm the specificity of the interaction between protein matrices and platelets. For example, the results indicate that platelets interact with fibrinogen spots only through the fibrinogen receptor (

  10. Thrombopoietin induces p-selectin expression on platelets and subsequent platelet/leukocyte interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbles, Heather E; Navara, Christopher S; Hupke, Michael A; Vassilev, Alexei O; Uckun, Fatih M

    2002-04-12

    Ligation of thrombopoietin (TPO) to the platelet c-Mpl receptor induces numerous biochemical pathways in the absence of aggregation. Two forms of recombinant TPO are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of thrombocytopenia. This study focuses on the effects of the full-length recombinant human TPO (rhTPO) on platelets in a whole blood system. Platelet-leukocyte associations (PLAs) were visualized following rhTPO stimulation as CD42b/CD 45 double positive clusters by FACS analysis. Treatment of washed platelets with rhTPO induced granule release and expression of the leukocyte adhesion receptor P-selectin (CD 62P) in the absence of aggregation and calcium mobilization. RhTPO also induced platelet-leukocyte interactions in whole blood. Following stimulation, leukocytes were recruited by platelets through P-selectin in a calcium-dependent manner. rhTPO stimulates platelet-leukocyte associations in whole blood through expression of platelet P-selectin. To our knowledge, this is the first report that identifies TPO as a promoter of platelet-leukocyte interactions.

  11. Platelets and erythrocyte-bound platelets bind infectious HIV-1 in plasma of chronically infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Zoltan; Jagodzinski, Linda L; Eller, Michael A; Thelian, Doris; Matyas, Gary R; Kunz, Anjali N; Alving, Carl R

    2013-01-01

    Chronic HIV-1 infection is associated with persistent viremia in most patients, but it remains unclear how free virus may survive the potential hostile effects of plasma. We investigated whether sites might exist on the surfaces of circulating blood cells for protection of infectious HIV-1 particles. Red blood cells (RBC) either from blood of uninfected normal individuals, or from blood obtained without EDTA from chronically infected HIV-1 patients, invariably contained a small number of RBC having attached platelets as determined by flow cytometry, light microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy. After mixing normal RBC with platelet-rich plasma, discrete populations of RBC, platelets, and complexes of platelets attached to RBC were purified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Upon incubation of purified cells or platelets with HIV-1 followed by washing and co-incubation with CD4-positive peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), platelets, and platelet-RBC complexes, but not platelet-free RBC, caused infection of PBMC. Infection was prevented by pre-treating the platelet-RBC complexes with EDTA. Plasma and RBC (comprising a RBC/platelet-RBC mixture) from chronically infected patients with low viral loads were also co-incubated with PBMC ex vivo to determine the presence of infectious HIV-1. All freshly isolated plasmas from the HIV-1-infected donors, obtained in the absence of anticoagulant, were noninfectious. Interestingly, the RBC from most of the patients caused cell-cell infection of PBMC that was prevented by stripping the RBC with EDTA. A monoclonal antibody to DC-SIGN partially inhibited cell-cell HIV-1 infection of PBMC by normal RBC pre-incubated with platelets and HIV-1. We conclude: (a) platelet-free EDTA-free plasma from chronically infected HIV-1 patients, although containing viral RNA, is an environment that lacks detectable infectious HIV-1; (b) platelets and platelet-RBC complexes, but not purified RBC, bind infectious HIV-1; (c) DC

  12. Platelets and erythrocyte-bound platelets bind infectious HIV-1 in plasma of chronically infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Beck

    Full Text Available Chronic HIV-1 infection is associated with persistent viremia in most patients, but it remains unclear how free virus may survive the potential hostile effects of plasma. We investigated whether sites might exist on the surfaces of circulating blood cells for protection of infectious HIV-1 particles. Red blood cells (RBC either from blood of uninfected normal individuals, or from blood obtained without EDTA from chronically infected HIV-1 patients, invariably contained a small number of RBC having attached platelets as determined by flow cytometry, light microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy. After mixing normal RBC with platelet-rich plasma, discrete populations of RBC, platelets, and complexes of platelets attached to RBC were purified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Upon incubation of purified cells or platelets with HIV-1 followed by washing and co-incubation with CD4-positive peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, platelets, and platelet-RBC complexes, but not platelet-free RBC, caused infection of PBMC. Infection was prevented by pre-treating the platelet-RBC complexes with EDTA. Plasma and RBC (comprising a RBC/platelet-RBC mixture from chronically infected patients with low viral loads were also co-incubated with PBMC ex vivo to determine the presence of infectious HIV-1. All freshly isolated plasmas from the HIV-1-infected donors, obtained in the absence of anticoagulant, were noninfectious. Interestingly, the RBC from most of the patients caused cell-cell infection of PBMC that was prevented by stripping the RBC with EDTA. A monoclonal antibody to DC-SIGN partially inhibited cell-cell HIV-1 infection of PBMC by normal RBC pre-incubated with platelets and HIV-1. We conclude: (a platelet-free EDTA-free plasma from chronically infected HIV-1 patients, although containing viral RNA, is an environment that lacks detectable infectious HIV-1; (b platelets and platelet-RBC complexes, but not purified RBC, bind infectious HIV

  13. The expression levels of platelet adhesive receptors in PRP derived platelet concentrates during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nassaji

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Major platelet adhesive receptors that contribute significantly to thrombus formation include platelet receptor glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα of the GPIb-IX-V complex and platelet glycoprotein VI (GPVI. GPIbα plays a crucial role in platelet tethering to sub-endothelial matrix, which initiates thrombus formation at arterial shear rates, whereas GPVI is critically involved in platelets firm adhesion to the site of injury regardless of shear condition. During storage, platelets experience some changes that deleteriously affect the expression levels of platelet receptors, which in turn can alter platelet functional behaviors. Considering the important roles of GPIbα and GPVI in platelet adhesion, it seems that any dramatic changes in the expression levels of these receptors can influence adhesive function of transfused platelets. Thereby examining GPIbα and GPVI expression during the storage of platelet concentrates may provide some useful information about the functional quality of these products after transfusion. Methods: In our experimental study, 5 PRP-platelet concentrates were randomly obtained from Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization (IBTO. All the platelet products met the standard quality assessment based on AABB (American Association of Blood Banks guidelines. Washed platelets were subjected to flowcytometry analysis for the evaluation of GPIbα and GPVI receptor expression in day 1, 3 and 5 after storage. Data were presented as mean fluorescence intensity (MFI and analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’s multiple comparison test. Results: The GPIbα expression on first day (MFI=86±5.9 was reduced three days after storage (MFI= 69±6.9. The expression levels continued to reduce until day 5 in which GPIbα expression was markedly decreased to (MFI= 61±7.7 (P= 0.0094. GPVI expression on the days 1, 3 and 5 after storage were 20.6±3.3, 24±2.5 and 14±4.9, respectively. The results showed a significant decrease of

  14. Understanding platelet generation from megakaryocytes: implications for in vitro-derived platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Xiuli; Poncz, Mortimer; Gadue, Paul; French, Deborah L

    2016-03-10

    Platelets are anucleate cytoplasmic discs derived from megakaryocytes that circulate in the blood and have major roles in hemostasis, thrombosis, inflammation, and vascular biology. Platelet transfusions are required to prevent the potentially life-threatening complications of severe thrombocytopenia seen in a variety of medical settings including cancer therapy, trauma, and sepsis. Platelets used in the clinic are currently donor-derived which is associated with concerns over sufficient availability, quality, and complications due to immunologic and/or infectious issues. To overcome our dependence on donor-derived platelets for transfusion, efforts have been made to generate in vitro-based platelets. Work in this area has advanced our understanding of the complex processes that megakaryocytes must undergo to generate platelets both in vivo and in vitro. This knowledge has also defined the challenges that must be overcome to bring in vitro-based platelet manufacturing to a clinical reality. This review will focus on our understanding of committed megakaryocytes and platelet release in vivo and in vitro, and how this knowledge can guide the development of in vitro-derived platelets for clinical application.

  15. Donor demographic and laboratory predictors of single donor platelet yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet transfusions are essential to prevent morbidity and mortality in patients who are severely thrombocytopenic and are at risk of spontaneous bleeding. Platelets are currently obtained either by fractionation of whole blood or by platelet apheresis. The quality of single donor platelets (SDP in terms of yield influences platelet recovery in the recipient and allows prolonging intervals between transfusions. Material and Methods: Donor demographic and laboratory data were analyzed prior to performing plateletpheresis to identify donor factors that influence platelet yield. The study was conducted on 130 healthy, first-time plateletpheresis donors over a period of 4 years. The plateletpheresis procedures were performed using Fresenius Kabi COM.TEC and Hemonetics MCS plus separator. A relationship between pre-donation donor variables and yield of platelets was studied using the Pearson correlation. Results: The mean platelet yield was 3.160.62x1011 per unit. A positive correlation was observed between platelet yield and pre-donation platelet count, body mass index (BMI; Kg/m2 of the donor, while a negative correlation was observed between age and the platelet yield. Conclusion: Donor pre-donation platelet count, BMI and donor age influence platelet yield. Young healthy donors with a high platelet count and better BMI can give a better platelet yield in the SDP.

  16. Second-Generation Curvelets on the Sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Jennifer Y H; Kitching, Thomas D; McEwen, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    Curvelets are efficient to represent highly anisotropic signal content, such as local linear and curvilinear structure. First-generation curvelets on the sphere, however, suffered from blocking artefacts. We present a new second- generation curvelet transform, where scale-discretised curvelets are constructed directly on the sphere. Scale-discretised curvelets exhibit a parabolic scaling relation, are well-localised in both spatial and harmonic domains, support the exact analysis and synthesis of both scalar and spin signals, and are free of blocking artefacts. We present fast algorithms to compute the exact curvelet transform, reducing computational complexity from $\\mathcal{O}(L^5)$ to $\\mathcal{O}(L^3\\log_{2}{L})$ for signals band-limited at $L$. The implementation of these algorithms is made publicly available. Finally, we present an illustrative application demonstrating the effectiveness of curvelets for representing directional curve-like features in natural spherical images.

  17. Black carbon measurements using an integrating sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzenberger, R.; Dusek, U.; Berner, A.

    1996-08-01

    An integrating sphere was used to determine the black carbon (BC) content of aerosol filter samples dissolved in chloroform (method originally described by Heintzenberg [1982]). The specific absorption coefficient Ba (equal to absorption per mass) of the samples was also measured using the sphere as an integrating detector for transmitted light. Comparing the Ba of ambient samples taken in Vienna, Austria, to the BC concentrations measured on the dissolved filters, a value of approximately 6 m2/g was found to be a reasonable value for the Ba of the black carbon found at the site. The size dependence of Ba of a nebulized suspension of soot was measured using a rotating impactor, and a reasonable agreement between measured and calculated values was found.

  18. Packing circles and spheres on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Schiftner, Alexander

    2009-12-01

    Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we introduce a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces\\' incircles form a packing. As it turns out, such meshes have a rich geometry and allow us to cover surfaces with circle patterns, sphere packings, approximate circle packings, hexagonal meshes which carry a torsion-free support structure, hybrid tri-hex meshes, and others. We show how triangle meshes can be optimized so as to have the incircle packing property. We explain their relation to conformal geometry and implications on solvability of optimization. The examples we give confirm that this kind of meshes is a rich source of geometric structures relevant to architectural geometry.

  19. THE SPECTRUM OF COMPACT HYPERSURFACE IN SPHERE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Senlin; Deng Qintao; Chen Dongmei

    2004-01-01

    Let M be a compact minimal hypersurface of sphere Sn+1(1). Let (M) be H (r)-torus of sphere Sn+ 1 (1).Assume they have the same constant mean curvature H, the result in [1] is that ifSpec0(M, g) =Spec0((M), g),then for 3≤ n ≤ 6, r2≤n-1/n or n ≥ 6, r2 ≥ n-1, then M is isometric to (M). We improved the result and prove that: if Spec0(M,g) =Spec0((M),g), then M is isometric to (M). Generally, if Specp(M,g) =Specp((M),g), here p is fixed and satisfies that n(n - 1) ≠ 6p(n - p), then M is isometric to (M).

  20. Electromagnetic Scattering by Spheres of Topological Insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Ge, Lixin; Zi, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic scattering properties of topological insulator (TI) spheres are systematically studied in this paper. Unconventional backward scattering caused by the topological magneto-electric (TME) effect of TIs are found in both Rayleigh and Mie scattering regimes. This enhanced backward scattering can be achieved by introducing an impedance-matched background which can suppress the bulk scattering. For the cross-polarized scattering coefficients, interesting antiresonances are found in the Mie scattering regime, wherein the cross-polarized electromagnetic fields induced by the TME effect are trapped inside TI spheres. In the Rayleigh limit, the quantized TME effect of TIs can be determined by measuring the electric-field components of scattered waves in the far field.

  1. Entanglement entropy for the n-sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Casini, H

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the entanglement entropy for a sphere and a massless scalar field in any dimensions. The reduced density matrix is expressed in terms of the infinitesimal generator of conformal transformations keeping the sphere fixed. The problem is mapped to the one of a thermal gas in a hyperbolic space and solved by the heat kernel approach. The coefficient of the logarithmic term in the entropy for 2 and 4 spacetime dimensions are in accordance with previous numerical and analytical results. In particular, the four dimensional result, together with the one reported by Solodukhin, gives support to the Ryu-Takayanagi holographic anzats. We also find there is no logarithmic contribution to the entropy for odd space time dimensions.

  2. Simulations of driven overdamped frictionless hard spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Edan; Düring, Gustavo; Wyart, Matthieu

    2013-03-01

    We introduce an event-driven simulation scheme for overdamped dynamics of frictionless hard spheres subjected to external forces, neglecting hydrodynamic interactions. Our event-driven approach is based on an exact equation of motion which relates the driving force to the resulting velocities through the geometric information characterizing the underlying network of contacts between the hard spheres. Our method allows for a robust extraction of the instantaneous coordination of the particles as well as contact force statistics and dynamics, under any chosen driving force, in addition to shear flow and compression. It can also be used for generating high-precision jammed packings under shear, compression, or both. We present a number of additional applications of our method.

  3. Event Driven Langevin simulations of Hard Spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Scala, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The blossoming of interest in colloids and nano-particles has given renewed impulse to the study of hard-body systems. In particular, hard spheres have become a real test system for theories and experiments. It is therefore necessary to study the complex dynamics of such systems in presence of a solvent; disregarding hydrodynamic interactions, the simplest model is the Langevin equation. Unfortunately, standard algorithms for the numerical integration of the Langevin equation require that interactions are slowly varying during an integration timestep. This in not the case for hard-body systems, where there is no clearcut between the correlation time of the noise and the timescale of the interactions. Starting first from a splitting of the Fokker-Plank operator associated with the Langevin dynamics, and then from an approximation of the two-body Green's function, we introduce and test two new algorithms for the simulation of the Langevin dynamics of hard-spheres.

  4. Theory of tectonics in the sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, A; Taborda, R; Ribeiro, Antonio; Matias, Luis; Taborda, Rui

    2005-01-01

    Soft or Deformable Plate Tectonics in the sphere must follow geometric rules inferred from the orthographic projection. An analytic equivalent of this geometry can be derived by the application of Potential Field Methods in the case of Atlantic type oceans. Laplace equation must be obeyed by the velocity field between the ridge and the passive margin if we neglect the very slight compressibility of ocean lithosphere. A strain wave propagates in the sphere analogous to the behaviour of a free harmonic oscillator. Combining zonal harmonics of order one and sectorial harmonics of degree one we obtain a tesseral harmonic equivalent to the orthographic solution. This potential field approach is valid for homogeneous deformation regime in oceanic lithosphere. Above a compression threshold of 5 to 10% buckling and simultaneous faulting occurs. In Pacific type oceans a dynamic approach, similar to a forced oscillation, must be applied because there are sinks in subduction zones.

  5. Criticality of a {sup 237}Np Sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Rene G.; Hayes, David K.; Cappiello, Charlene C.; Myers, William L.; Jaegers, Peter J.; Clement, Steven D.

    2003-07-22

    A critical mass experiment using a 6-kg {sup 237}Np sphere has been performed. The purpose of the experiment is to get a better estimate of the critical mass of {sup 237}Np. To attain criticality, the {sup 237}Np sphere was surrounded with 93 wt % {sup 235}U shells. A 1/M as a function of uranium mass was performed. An MCNP neutron transport code was used to model the experiment. The MCNP code yielded a k{sub eff} of 0.99089 {+-} 0.0003 compared with a k{sub eff} 1.0026 for the experiment. Based on these results, it is estimated that the critical mass of {sup 237}Np ranges from kilogram weights in the high fifties to low sixties.

  6. Packing circles and spheres on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Schiftner, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we introduce a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces\\' incircles form a packing. As it turns out, such meshes have a rich geometry and allow us to cover surfaces with circle patterns, sphere packings, approximate circle packings, hexagonal meshes which carry a torsion-free support structure, hybrid tri-hex meshes, and others. We show how triangle meshes can be optimized so as to have the incircle packing property. We explain their relation to conformal geometry and implications on solvability of optimization. The examples we give confirm that this kind of meshes is a rich source of geometric structures relevant to architectural geometry. © 2009 ACM.

  7. Propranolol modifies platelet serotonergic mechanisms in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zółtowski, R; Pawlak, R; Matys, T; Pietraszek, M; Buczko, W

    2002-06-01

    Though the mechanisms for the vascular actions of vasodilatory beta-blockers are mostly determined, some of their interactions with monoaminergic systems are not elucidated. Because there are evidences supporting a possible involvement of serotonin (5-HT) in the actions of beta-blockers, we studied the effect of propranolol on peripheral serotonergic mechanisms in normotensive and Goldblatt two-kidney - one clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats. In both groups of animals propranolol decreased systolic blood pressure, significantly increased whole blood serotonin concentration and at the same time it decreased platelet serotonin level. The uptake of the amine by platelets from hypertensive animals was lower than that of normotensive animals and it was decreased by propranolol only in the latter. In both groups propranolol inhibited potentiation of ADP-induced platelet aggregation by serotonin. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that propranolol modifies platelet serotonergic mechanisms in normotensive and renal hypertensive rats.

  8. Activation of human platelets by misfolded proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herczenik, E.; Bouma, B.; Korporaal, J.A.; Strangi, R.; Zeng, Q.; Gros, P.; van Eck, M.; van Berkel, T.J.C.; Gebbink, M.F.B.G.; Akkerman, J.W.N.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Protein misfolding diseases result from the deposition of insoluble protein aggregates that often contain fibrils called amyloid. Amyloids are found in Alzheimer disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and systemic amyloidosis,which are diseases where platelet activation might be

  9. Mapuche herbal medicine inhibits blood platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Tarnow, Inge; Guzman, Alfonso; Mølgaard, Per; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2012-01-01

    12 plant species traditionally used by the Mapuche people in Chile to treat wounds and inflammations have been evaluated for their direct blood platelet inhibition. Seven of the 12 tested plant species showed platelet inhibitory effect in sheep blood, and four of these were also able to inhibit the ADP- (5.0 μM) and collagen- (2.0 μg/mL) induced aggregations in human blood. These four species in respective extracts (in brackets) were Blechnum chilense (MeOH), Luma apiculata (H(2)O), Amomyrtus luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1) and Cestrum parqui (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1). The platelet aggregating inhibitory effects of A. luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1), and L. apiculata (H(2)O) were substantial and confirmed by inhibition of platelet surface activation markers.

  10. Mapuche Herbal Medicine Inhibits Blood Platelet Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Skanderup Falkenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 12 plant species traditionally used by the Mapuche people in Chile to treat wounds and inflammations have been evaluated for their direct blood platelet inhibition. Seven of the 12 tested plant species showed platelet inhibitory effect in sheep blood, and four of these were also able to inhibit the ADP- (5.0 μM and collagen- (2.0 μg/mL induced aggregations in human blood. These four species in respective extracts (in brackets were Blechnum chilense (MeOH, Luma apiculata (H2O, Amomyrtus luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1 and Cestrum parqui (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1. The platelet aggregating inhibitory effects of A. luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1, and L. apiculata (H2O were substantial and confirmed by inhibition of platelet surface activation markers.

  11. Relationship between platelet parameters and sudden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between platelet parameters and sudden sensorineural hearing loss: a ... Data source: A PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, OVID, EMBASE and ... relationship of PDW and SSNHL but due to the limited studies on this subject more ...

  12. Effects of drugs on platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, E E

    1977-01-01

    Numerous drugs and chemicals affect the function of human blood platelets. The mechanism of action of some medications is partly understood. Aspirin is the most frequently involved drug. It appears to interfere with the platelet release reaction by acetylation of a platelet membrane protein which may be involved in the synthesis of prostaglandins. Other anti-inflammatory drugs, including indomethacin, phenylbutazone, ibuprophen (Motrin) and clonixin, also interfere with the release reaction but have a shorter acting course than aspirin. Some drugs stimulate adenylcyclase (gliclazide) or block phosphodiesterase, (dipyridamole, caffeine) both of which actions lead to an increase in adenosine cyclic 3':5' monophosphate (cAMP) and decrease aggregation by adenosine diphosphate (ADP). These interactions should be known to clinical scientists since patients using these medicaments may manifest abnormal platelet function tests in the laboratory and mild hemorrhagic syndromes in the clinic.

  13. Poincar\\'e Sphere and Decoherence Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y S

    2012-01-01

    Henri Poincar\\'e formulated the mathematics of the Lorentz transformations, known as the Poincar\\'e group. He also formulated the Poincar\\'e sphere for polarization optics. It is shown that these two mathematical instruments can be combined into one mathematical device which can address the internal space-time symmetries of elementary particles, decoherence problems in polarization optics, entropy problems, and Feynman's rest of the universe.

  14. Collapse of three on a sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidambi, R.; Newton, P.K. [Southern California Univ., Los Angeles (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Center for Applied Mathematical Sciences

    1999-12-01

    The self-similar collapse of three vortices moving on the surface of a sphere of radius R is analysed and compared with known results of critical literature. Formulas for the collapsing trajectories are derived and compared with the planar formulas. The Hamiltonian system is derived governing the vortex motion. In this projected plane, the solutions are not self-similar. In the last section, the collapse process is studied using tri-linear coordinates, which reduces the system to a planar one.

  15. On the revolution of heavenly spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Copernicus, Nicolaus

    1995-01-01

    The Ptolemaic system of the universe, with the earth at the center, had held sway since antiquity as authoritative in philosophy, science, and church teaching. Following his observations of the heavenly bodies, Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) abandoned the geocentric system for a heliocentric model, with the sun at the center. His remarkable work, On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres, stands as one of the greatest intellectual revolutions of all time, and profoundly influenced, among others, Galileo and Sir Isaac Newton.

  16. Stable Stationary Harmonic Maps to Spheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Hua LIN; Chang You WANG

    2006-01-01

    For k ≥ 3, we establish new estimate on Hausdorff dimensions of the singular set of stable-stationary harmonic maps to the sphere Sk. We show that the singular set of stable-stationary harmonic maps from B5 to S3 is the union of finitely many isolated singular points and finitely many Holder continuous curves. We also discuss the minimization problem among continuous maps from Bn to S2.

  17. Simulation of Flow for an Immersed Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics, Sphere flow, LES, Large Eddy Simulation, LDKM, Locally Dynamic subgrid Kinetic energy Model MUSCL, Monotone Upstream centered...the same scales, we may be unable to accurately describe both boundary and initial conditions. For this reason , we back away from the fine scale and...terms add variables to the system. For that reason , we must add equations to the system to affect closure and admit a solution. Section 4 introduces

  18. Nineteenth Century Public And Private Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMA REMINA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to illustrate the public and private spheres. The former represents the area in which each of us carries out their daily activities, while the latter is mirrored by the home. Kate Chopin and Charlotte Perkins Gilman are two salient nineteenth-century writers who shape the everyday life of the historical period they lived in, within their literary works that shed light on the areas under discussion.

  19. Soft-sphere model for liquid metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, D.A.

    1977-11-08

    A semi-empirical soft-sphere model of fluids is modified for application to the thermodynamic properties of liquid metals. Enthalpy, volume, and sound speed are computed as functions of temperature for 13 metals and compared with experimental data. Critical points and coexistence curves are also computed and compared with experimental data, where these have been measured. Strengths and weaknesses of the model are discussed.

  20. Supersymmetric theories on squashed five-sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Imamura, Yosuke

    2012-01-01

    We construct supersymmetric theories on the SU(3)xU(1) symmetric squashed five-sphere with 2, 4, 6, and 12 supercharges. We first determine the Killing equation by dimensional reduction from 6d, and use Noether procedure to construct actions. The supersymmetric Yang-Mills action is straightforwardly obtained from the supersymmetric Chern-Simons action by using a supersymmetry preserving constant vector multiplet.

  1. Lp CONVERGENCE OF CESARO MEANS ON SPHERE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Feng; Zhang Xirong

    2000-01-01

    Let Rnbe n-dimensional Euclidean space with n≤3. Denote by Ωn the unit sphere in Rn. For f ∈ L(Ωn) ve denote by σNo (f) its Cesaro means of order δ for spherical harmonic expansions. The special value λ= 2λ n-2 of δ is knowm as the critical one. For 0<δ≤λ, we set P0=2 λ/δ+λ

  2. A property of the bidimensional sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Cavachi, Marius

    2011-01-01

    It is natural to ask for a reasonable constant k having the property that any open set of area greater than k on a bidimensional sphere of area 1 always contains the vertices of a regular tetrahedron. We shall prove that it is sufficient to take k=3/4. In fact we shall prove a more general result. The interested reader will not have any problem in establishing that 3/4 is the best constant with this property.

  3. Structure of crystals of hard colloidal spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusey, P.N.; van Megen, W.; Bartlett, P.; Ackerson, B.J.; Rarity, J.G.; Underwood, S.M. (Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, Malvern, WR14 3PS, United Kingsom (GB) Department of Applied Physics, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia School of Chemistry, Bristol University, Bristol, BS8 1TS, United Kingdom Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078)

    1989-12-18

    We report light-scattering measurements of powder diffraction patterns of crystals of essentially hard colloidal spheres. These are consistent with structures formed by stacking close-packed planes of particles in a sequence of permitted lateral positions, {ital A},{ital B},{ital C}, which shows a high degree of randomness. Crystals grown slowly, while still containing many stacking faults, show a tendency towards face-centered-cubic packing: possible explanations for this observation are discussed.

  4. The Internet And The Public Sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Kürşat, Fide; Özad, Bahire Efe

    2005-01-01

    Habermas (1989) proposes a ‘public sphere’, a setting where people talk freely on the public issues. In his early works, Habermas was rather pessimistic about the provision of the public sphere; however, soon after the introduction of the Internet as an ultimately decentralized medium, in his later work, Habermas (1996) seems more optimistic about the Internet as the provider of the ‘public sphere’. The Internet which is particularly popular among the young people, not only pro...

  5. Physiopathology of blood platelets and development of platelet substitutes. Progress report, August 1, 1975--July 31, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini, M G

    1976-04-28

    Progress is reported on studies on the physiology of blood platelets in thrombocytopenic patients and rabbits. Methods for the detection of platelet antibodies and the preservation of platelets in vitro were investigated. Studies on the effect of low doses of x irradiation (up to 1000 R) on platelet function indicate that platelets exposed to ionizing radiation have increased functional activity. A list is included of publications that report the results of the studies in detail.

  6. Effects of confinement on a rotating sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qianlong; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2009-11-01

    The hydrodynamic force and couple acting on a rotating sphere in a quiescent fluid are modified by nearby boundaries with possible consequences on spin-up and spin-down times of particles uspended in a fluid, their wall deposition, entraiment and others. Up to now, the vast majority of papers dealing with these problems have considered the low-Reynolds-number regime. This paper focuses on the effect of inertia on the hydrodynamic interaction of a spinning sphere with nearby boundaries. Rotation axes parallel and perpendicular to a plane boundary as well as other situations are studied. Several steady and transient numerical results are presented and interptreted in terms of physical scaling arguments. The Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible, constant-property Newtonian fluid are solved by the finite-difference PHYSALIS method. Among the noteworthy features of this method are the fact that the no-slip condition at the particle surface is satisfied exactly and that the force and torque on the sphere are obtained directly as a by-product of the computation. This feature avoids the need to integrate the stress over the particle surface, which with other methods is a step prone to numerical inaccuracies. A locally refined mesh surrounding the particle is used to enhance the resolution of boundary layers maintaining a manageable overall computational cost.

  7. Willmore Spheres in Compact Riemannian Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Mondino, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the variational analysis of the Willmore, and other L^2 curvature functionals, among immersions of 2-dimensional surfaces into a compact riemannian m-manifold (M^m,h) with m>2. The goal of the paper is twofold, on one hand, we give the right setting for doing the calculus of variations (including min max methods) of such functionals for immersions into manifolds and, on the other hand, we prove existence results for possibly branched Willmore spheres under various constraints (prescribed homotopy class, prescribed area) or under curvature assumptions for M^m. To this aim, using the integrability by compensation, we develop first the regularity theory for the critical points of such functionals. We then prove a rigidity theorem concerning the relation between CMC and Willmore spheres. Then we prove that, for every non null 2-homotopy class, there exists a representative given by a Lipschitz map from the 2-sphere into M^m realizing a connected family of conformal smooth (possibly branche...

  8. Platelet Glycoprotein lb-1X and Malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    patient with systemic lupus erythematosus . Am J Hematol 2001; 67:262-67. 20. Arthur JF, Dunkley S and Andrews RK. Platelet glycoprotein VI-related...Moroi M. Antibody against platelet membrane glyco- protein VI in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus . Am J Hematol 2001; 67: 262–7. 9 Arthur JF...Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the

  9. Dengue virus binding and replication by platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ayo Y; Sutherland, Michael R; Pryzdial, Edward L G

    2015-07-16

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes ∼200 million cases of severe flulike illness annually, escalating to life-threatening hemorrhagic fever or shock syndrome in ∼500,000. Although thrombocytopenia is typical of both mild and severe diseases, the mechanism triggering platelet reduction is incompletely understood. As a probable initiating event, direct purified DENV-platelet binding was followed in the current study by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and confirmed antigenically. Approximately 800 viruses specifically bound per platelet at 37°C. Fewer sites were observed at 25°C, the blood bank storage temperature (∼350 sites), or 4°C, known to attenuate virus cell entry (∼200 sites). Dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) and heparan sulfate proteoglycan were implicated as coreceptors because only the combination of anti-DC-SIGN and low-molecular-weight heparin prevented binding. Interestingly, at 37°C and 25°C, platelets replicated the positive sense single-stranded RNA genome of DENV by up to ∼4-fold over 7 days. Further time course experiments demonstrated production of viral NS1 protein, which is known to be highly antigenic in patient serum. The infectivity of DENV intrinsically decayed in vitro, which was moderated by platelet-mediated generation of viable progeny. This was shown using a transcription inhibitor and confirmed by freeze-denatured platelets being incapable of replicating the DENV genome. For the first time, these data demonstrate that platelets directly bind DENV saturably and produce infectious virus. Thus, expression of antigen encoded by DENV is a novel consideration in the pathogen-induced thrombocytopenia mechanism. These results furthermore draw attention to the possibility that platelets may produce permissive RNA viruses in addition to DENV.

  10. Platelet dynamics in three-dimensional simulation of whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidkhah, Koohyar; Diamond, Scott L; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2014-06-03

    A high-fidelity computational model using a 3D immersed boundary method is used to study platelet dynamics in whole blood. We focus on the 3D effects of the platelet-red blood cell (RBC) interaction on platelet margination and near-wall dynamics in a shear flow. We find that the RBC distribution in whole blood becomes naturally anisotropic and creates local clusters and cavities. A platelet can enter a cavity and use it as an express lane for a fast margination toward the wall. Once near the wall, the 3D nature of the platelet-RBC interaction results in a significant platelet movement in the transverse (vorticity) direction and leads to anisotropic platelet diffusion within the RBC-depleted zone or cell-free layer (CFL). We find that the anisotropy in platelet motion further leads to the formation of platelet clusters, even in the absence of any platelet-platelet adhesion. The transverse motion, and the size and number of the platelet clusters are observed to increase with decreasing CFL thickness. The 3D nature of the platelet-RBC collision also induces fluctuations in off-shear plane orientation and, hence, a rotational diffusion of the platelets. Although most marginated platelets are observed to tumble just outside the RBC-rich zone, platelets further inside the CFL are observed to flow with an intermittent dynamics that alters between sliding and tumbling, as a result of the off-shear plane rotational diffusion, bringing them even closer to the wall. To our knowledge, these new findings are based on the fundamentally 3D nature of the platelet-RBC interaction, and they underscore the importance of using cellular-scale 3D models of whole blood to understand platelet margination and near-wall platelet dynamics.

  11. [The role of blood platelets in infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micota, Bartłomiej; Sadowska, Beata; Różalska, Barbara

    2015-05-17

    Platelets are primarily associated with their main function, hemostasis, although it is known that these cells also exhibit biological activity in cancer progression, inflammation and infectious processes. During infection platelets, due to the expression of specific receptors - Toll-like receptors (TLRs) - which recognize molecular patterns associated with pathogens - pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) - are activated by the presence of microorganism components and/or substances released from damaged cells/tissue. Further antimicrobial activity of platelets is based on their capacity for phagocytosis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the synthesis, storage and release of proteins/peptides with antimicrobial activity. Another mechanism of platelet action is their immunomodulatory activity. It is based mainly on the ability to secrete chemotactic factors allowing the accumulation of professional immunocompetent cells at the site of infection, thus enhancing the effective eradication of an infectious agent. In chronic infections, platelets, due to release of numerous growth factors and various cytokines, support mechanisms of acquired immunity. They accelerate the maturation of dendritic cells, stimulate B cells to be immunoglobulin-producing plasma cells and potentiate the activity of T cells. Unfortunately, in certain situations (the existence of specific risk factors) the interaction of microorganisms with activated platelets may also be the cause of pathology within the cardiovascular system.

  12. Effects of irradiation on platelet function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, G.; Adams, G.A.; Labow, R.S.

    1988-09-01

    Current medical practice involves the irradiation of blood components, including platelet concentrates, before their administration to patients with severe immunosuppression. The authors studied the effect of irradiation on in vitro platelet function and the leaching of plasticizers from the bag, both immediately and after 5 days of storage. The platelet count, white cell count, pH, glucose, lactate, platelet aggregation and release reaction, and serotonin uptake were not altered by the irradiation of random-donor or apheresis units with 2000 rads carried out at 0 and 24 hours and 5 days after collection. The leaching of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate from the plastic bags followed by the conversion to mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate was not increased by irradiation. Therefore, it is possible to irradiate platelet concentrates on the day of collection and subsequently store them for at least 5 days while maintaining in vitro function. This procedure could have considerable benefit for blood banks involved in the provision of many platelet products.

  13. Treatment of osteochondral injuries with platelet gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Danieli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Treatments for injured articular cartilage have not advanced to the point that efficient regeneration is possible. However, there has been an increase in the use of platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of several orthopedic disorders, including chondral injuries. Our hypothesis is that the treatment of chondral injuries with platelet gel results in higher-quality repair tissue after 180 days compared with chondral injuries not treated with gel. METHODS: A controlled experimental laboratory study was performed on 30 male rabbits to evaluate osteochondral injury repair after treatment with or without platelet gel. Osteochondral injuries were surgically induced in both knees of each rabbit at the medial femoral condyle. The left knee injury was filled with the platelet gel, and the right knee was not treated. Microscopic analysis of both knee samples was performed after 180 days using a histological grading scale. RESULTS: The only histological evaluation criterion that was not significantly different between treatments was metachromasia. The group that was treated with platelet gel exhibited superior results in all other criteria (cell morphology, surface regularity, chondral thickness and repair tissue integration and in the total score. CONCLUSION: The repair tissue was histologically superior after 180 days in the study group treated with platelet gel compared with the group of untreated injuries.

  14. Lymphocyte-platelet crosstalk in Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznik, Boris I; Vitkovsky, Yuri A; Gvozdeva, Olga V; Solpov, Alexey V; Magen, Eli

    2014-03-01

    Platelets can modulate lymphocytes' role in the pathophysiology of thyroid autoimmune diseases. The present study was performed to clarify the status of platelet-lymphocyte subpopulations aggregation in circulating blood in patients with Graves' disease (GD). One hundred and fifty patients with GD (GD group) and 45 hyperthyroid patients with toxic multinodular goiter (TMG group) were recruited in the study. Control group consisted 150 healthy subjects. Immunophenotyping of lymphocytes was performed by flow cytometry. Detection of lymphocyte-platelet aggregates (LPAs) was done using light microscope after Ficoll-gradient centrifugation. The group of GD patients exhibited reduced CD8 lymphocyte and higher CD19 cell counts compared with TMG group and healthy controls. A greater number of activated CD3, HLA-DR+ lymphocytes were observed in GD than in TMG group and control group. GD group was characterized by lower blood platelet count (232 ± 89 × 10 cells/µL) than TMG group (251 ± 97 × 10 cells/µL; P < 0.05) and control group (262 ± 95 × 10 cells/µL; P < 0.05). In GD group, more platelet-bound lymphocytes (332 ± 91 /µL) were found than that in TMG group (116 ± 67/µL, P < 0.005) and control group (104 ± 58 /µL; P < 0.001). GD is associated with higher levels of activated lymphocytes and lymphocyte-platelet aggregates.

  15. A new ibuprofen derivative inhibits platelet aggregation and ROS mediated platelet apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodagahalli S Rakesh

    Full Text Available Thrombocytopenia is a serious issue connected with the pathogenesis of several human diseases including chronic inflammation, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs and other oxidative stress-associated pathologies. The indiscriminate use of antibiotics and other biological drugs are reported to result in thrombocytopenia, which is often neglected during the treatment regime. In addition, augmented oxidative stress induced by drugs and pathological conditions has also been shown to induce thrombocytopenia, which seems to be the most obvious consequence of elevated rate of platelet apoptosis. Thus, blocking oxidative stress-induced platelet apoptosis would be of prime importance in order to negotiate thrombocytopenia and associated human pathologies. The current study presents the synthesis and platelet protective nature of novel ibuprofen derivatives. The potent anti-oxidant ibuprofen derivative 4f was selected for the study and the platelet protective efficacy and platelet aggregation inhibitory property has been demonstrated. The compound 4f dose dependently mitigates the oxidative stress-induced platelet apoptosis in both platelet rich plasma and washed platelets. The platelet protective nature of compound 4f was determined by assessing various apoptotic markers such as ROS generation, cytosolic Ca2+ levels, PS externalization, cytochrome C translocation, Caspase activation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytotoxicity, LDH leakage and tyrosine phosphorylation of cytosolic proteins. Furthermore, compound 4f dose dependently ameliorated agonist induced platelet aggregation. Therefore, compound 4f can be estimated as a potential candidate in the treatment regime of pathological disorders associated with platelet activation and apoptosis. In addition, compound 4f can be used as an auxiliary therapeutic agent in pathologies associated with thrombocytopenia.

  16. Assessment of quality of platelets preserved in plasma and platelet additive solution: A Malaysian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munirah Binti Mokhtar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A use of platelet additives solution (PAS improves storage conditions so as to give increased shelf life to platelets and to maintain hemostatic function. Objective: The present study was aimed to compare in vitro quality of platelet rich plasma (PRP-derived platelet concentrate (PC during extended period of storage in plasma and in additive solution (Composol PS and Fresenius. Study Design: Randomized 19 PCs each were used in the study for plasma and PAS as the storage medium. The measurement parameters, including pH, total white blood cell (WBC count, total platelet count, and platelet activation rate, were studied on day 1, day 5, and day 8 of the storage period. The sterility test was carried out on the eighth day of storage. Results: pH of PC suspended in PAS was significantly lower as compared to that in plasma (P < 0.001 for all the three days of sampling. The WBC count, both in plasma and in PAS, showed an acceptable values of being <0.2 Χ 10 9 /unit during the storage period. Platelet count in PAS was higher as compared to that in plasma, though it was not statistically significant. While both the groups showed increased platelet activation rate during the storage, the PCs suspended in PAS showed significantly higher platelet activation rate (p0.001. Results from sterility test showed no bacterial growth in the PCs in both the groups. Conclusion: Most parameters studied on platelet storage in suspending medium of native plasma and PAS remained well within the acceptable limits. However, the pH values and platelet activation rate significantly differed in PAS as compared with plasma.

  17. Preparation and antibacterial activities of hollow silica-Ag spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Zhang, Haifang; Cui, Haiying; Xu, Mingqiang; Cao, Shunsheng; Zheng, Guanghong; Dong, Mingdong

    2013-01-01

    Hollow silica spheres with round mesoporous shells were synthesized by core-shell template method, using monodispersed cationic polystyrene particles as core, and TEOS (tetraethoxysilane) as the silica source to form shell. After calcination at 550°C, uniform spheres with a thin shell of silica and hollow interior structures. Transmission electron microscopy results showed that the size of the spheres is about 700 nm in diameter with narrow distribution. In addition, the spheres have a high surface area of 183 m(2)/g. The spheres were subsequently used as silver-loading substrates and the silver loaded spheres were tested in antimicrobial study against gram negative bacteria Eschrichia coli in vitro. The hollow silica-Ag spheres proved significantly higher antibacterial efficacy against E. coli as compared to that of the common silica-Ag particles.

  18. Confined disordered strictly jammed binary sphere packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D.; Torquato, S.

    2015-12-01

    Disordered jammed packings under confinement have received considerably less attention than their bulk counterparts and yet arise in a variety of practical situations. In this work, we study binary sphere packings that are confined between two parallel hard planes and generalize the Torquato-Jiao (TJ) sequential linear programming algorithm [Phys. Rev. E 82, 061302 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevE.82.061302] to obtain putative maximally random jammed (MRJ) packings that are exactly isostatic with high fidelity over a large range of plane separation distances H , small to large sphere radius ratio α , and small sphere relative concentration x . We find that packing characteristics can be substantially different from their bulk analogs, which is due to what we term "confinement frustration." Rattlers in confined packings are generally more prevalent than those in their bulk counterparts. We observe that packing fraction, rattler fraction, and degree of disorder of MRJ packings generally increase with H , though exceptions exist. Discontinuities in the packing characteristics as H varies in the vicinity of certain values of H are due to associated discontinuous transitions between different jammed states. When the plane separation distance is on the order of two large-sphere diameters or less, the packings exhibit salient two-dimensional features; when the plane separation distance exceeds about 30 large-sphere diameters, the packings approach three-dimensional bulk packings. As the size contrast increases (as α decreases), the rattler fraction dramatically increases due to what we call "size-disparity" frustration. We find that at intermediate α and when x is about 0.5 (50-50 mixture), the disorder of packings is maximized, as measured by an order metric ψ that is based on the number density fluctuations in the direction perpendicular to the hard walls. We also apply the local volume-fraction variance στ2(R ) to characterize confined packings and find that these

  19. Studies on platelet function in bronchial asthma Part 2. Production of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid from platelets and the platelet-lymphocyte interaction in bronchial asthmatics

    OpenAIRE

    角南, 宏二

    1992-01-01

    To clarify the role of platelets in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma, the production of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid(12HETE) from platelets of asthmatics was examined by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). The effect of platelets on lymphocyte function was also studied by lymphocyte blastogenesis. The results were as follows : 1) The production of 12HETE from platelets of asthmatics were significantly higher than that of normal subjects(p

  20. Platelets kill intraerythrocytic malarial parasites and mediate survival to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorran, Brendan J; Marshall, Vikki M; de Graaf, Carolyn; Drysdale, Karen E; Shabbar, Meriam; Smyth, Gordon K; Corbin, Jason E; Alexander, Warren S; Foote, Simon J

    2009-02-01

    Platelets play a critical role in the pathogenesis of malarial infections by encouraging the sequestration of infected red blood cells within the cerebral vasculature. But platelets also have well-established roles in innate protection against microbial infections. We found that purified human platelets killed Plasmodium falciparum parasites cultured in red blood cells. Inhibition of platelet function by aspirin and other platelet inhibitors abrogated the lethal effect human platelets exert on P. falciparum parasites. Likewise, platelet-deficient and aspirin-treated mice were more susceptible to death during erythrocytic infection with Plasmodium chabaudi. Both mouse and human platelets bind malarial-infected red cells and kill the parasite within. These results indicate a protective function for platelets in the early stages of erythrocytic infection distinct from their role in cerebral malaria.

  1. Resveratrol preserves the function of human platelets stored for transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannan, Katie L; Refaai, Majed A; Ture, Sara K; Morrell, Craig N; Blumberg, Neil; Phipps, Richard P; Spinelli, Sherry L

    2016-03-01

    Stored platelets undergo biochemical, structural and functional changes that lead to decreased efficacy and safety of platelet transfusions. Not only do platelets acquire markers of activation during storage, but they also fail to respond normally to agonists post-storage. We hypothesized that resveratrol, a cardioprotective antioxidant, could act as a novel platelet storage additive to safely prevent unwanted platelet activation during storage, while simultaneously preserving normal haemostatic function. Human platelets treated with resveratrol and stored for 5 d released less thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin E2 compared to control platelets. Resveratrol preserved the ability of platelets to aggregate, spread and respond to thrombin, suggesting an improved ability to activate post-storage. Utilizing an in vitro model of transfusion and thromboelastography, clot strength was improved with resveratrol treatment compared to conventionally stored platelets. The mechanism of resveratrol's beneficial actions on stored platelets was partly mediated through decreased platelet apoptosis in storage, resulting in a longer half-life following transfusion. Lastly, an in vivo mouse model of transfusion demonstrated that stored platelets are prothrombotic and that resveratrol delayed vessel occlusion time to a level similar to transfusion with fresh platelets. We show resveratrol has a dual ability to reduce unwanted platelet activation during storage, while preserving critical haemostatic function.

  2. Platelet inhibition by nitrite is dependent on erythrocytes and deoxygenation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirada Srihirun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nitrite is a nitric oxide (NO metabolite in tissues and blood, which can be converted to NO under hypoxia to facilitate tissue perfusion. Although nitrite is known to cause vasodilation following its reduction to NO, the effect of nitrite on platelet activity remains unclear. In this study, the effect of nitrite and nitrite+erythrocytes, with and without deoxygenation, on platelet activity was investigated. METHODOLOGY/FINDING: Platelet aggregation was studied in platelet-rich plasma (PRP and PRP+erythrocytes by turbidimetric and impedance aggregometry, respectively. In PRP, DEANONOate inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP while nitrite had no effect on platelets. In PRP+erythrocytes, the inhibitory effect of DEANONOate on platelets decreased whereas nitrite at physiologic concentration (0.1 µM inhibited platelet aggregation and ATP release. The effect of nitrite+erythrocytes on platelets was abrogated by C-PTIO (a membrane-impermeable NO scavenger, suggesting an NO-mediated action. Furthermore, deoxygenation enhanced the effect of nitrite as observed from a decrease of P-selectin expression and increase of the cGMP levels in platelets. The ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole blood showed inverse correlations with the nitrite levels in whole blood and erythrocytes. CONCLUSION: Nitrite alone at physiological levels has no effect on platelets in plasma. Nitrite in the presence of erythrocytes inhibits platelets through its reduction to NO, which is promoted by deoxygenation. Nitrite may have role in modulating platelet activity in the circulation, especially during hypoxia.

  3. Stability of lyophilized human platelets loaded with small molecule carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J X; Yang, C; Wan, W; Liu, M X; Ren, S P; Quan, G B; Han, Y

    2011-01-01

    Long-term preservation of platelets is a great challenge for blood transfusion centers, due to the required narrow storage temperature arange (22 ± 2 degree C). Short shelf life and potential bacterial growth often lead to the shortage of high-quality platelets. Freeze-dried preservation is thus believed to be a potential solution for long-term platelet storage without losing the hemostasis function. Here we report a new platelet preservation method, which uses small molecule carbohydrates to extend storage time and to maintain platelet function. The activities of lyophilized platelets that were stabilized with small molecule carbohydrate (e.g., cell viability, mean platelet volume, activation characteristics, and aggregation kinetics) were maintained after storage of 30, 60, and 90 days at room temperature, 4 degree C, and -20 degree C. The recovery of freeze-dried platelets was 87 percent in comparison to fresh platelets. The mean platelet volume of rehydrated platelets increased (from 6.8 fl to 8.0 fl). About 40 percent of rehydrated platelets was in the early-activated stage (PCA-1 positive) and 30 percent was in the terminal-activated stage (CD62P positive). The cell viability was about 60 percent as measured with CMFDA vital probes. The aggregation rate of rehydrated platelets after 90-day storage was similar to fresh platelets stored at 22 degree C ± 2 degree C.

  4. Platelet production in hypoxic and RBC-transfused mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    Platelet production rates were studied in hypoxic, red blood cell (RBC) transfused, and normal mice. In addition, platelet depletion was induced in some of the mice by injection of rabbit anti-mouse platelet serum (RAMPS) to stimulate platelet production. Hypoxia alone caused an increase in haematocrit and platelet count at 1 to 3 d, followed by a decrease in platelet counts to below normal values at 6 to 7 d. On the other hand, RBC transfusion caused increased haematocrit and decreased platelet count of mice at 1 to 4 d, with a return of platelet counts to normal by 5 to 6 d. Normal mice and mice transfused with RBC responded to platelet depletion with rebound-thrombocytosis with maximum platelet production 3 to 5 d later and elevated platelet counts on day 5 to 6. However, platelet production in platelet-depleted mice exposed to hypoxia was less marked, and platelet counts did not reach normal levels. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that hypoxia causes thrombocytopenia by stem cell competition between erythroid and megakaryocytic cell lines and/or inhibition of thrombopoietin production.

  5. Platelet activation determines the severity of thrombocytopenia in dengue infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Amrita; Nandi, Dipika; Batra, Harish; Singhal, Rashi; Annarapu, Gowtham K.; Bhattacharyya, Sankar; Seth, Tulika; Dar, Lalit; Medigeshi, Guruprasad R.; Vrati, Sudhanshu; Vikram, Naval K.; Guchhait, Prasenjit

    2017-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is common in patients with dengue virus (DENV) infections. With a focus on understanding the possible mechanism of thrombocytopenia in DENV infections we described a direct correlation between activation and depletion of platelets in patients. Our data showed a sharp decrease in platelet counts at day 4 of fever in patients. The high DENV genome copies in platelets correlated directly with the elevated platelet activation along with increased binding of complement factor C3 and IgG on their surface at day 4. Recovery in platelet count was observed on day 10 through day 6 and 8 with simultaneous decrease in platelet activation markers. Further, our in vitro data supported the above observations describing a concentration-dependent increase in platelet activation by DENV serotype-2. The high copy number of DENV2 genome in the platelet pellet correlated directly with platelet activation, microparticle generation and clot formation. Furthermore the DENV2-activated platelets were phagocytosed in large numbers by the monocytes. The DENV2-mediated lysis and clearance of platelets were abrogated in presence of platelet activation inhibitor, prostacyclin. These observations collectively suggest that platelet activation status is an important determinant of thrombocytopenia in dengue infections. A careful strategy of inactivation of platelets may rescue them from rapid destruction during DENV infections. PMID:28139770

  6. Uniform Fe3O4-PANi/PS composite spheres with conductive and magnetic properties and their hollow spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaocong; Tang, Saide; Liu, Jing; He, Ziqiong; An, Lijuan; Zhang, Chenxi; Hao, Jingmei; Feng, Wei

    2009-05-01

    Core-shell multifunctional composite spheres consisting of Fe3O4-polyaniline (PANi) shell and polystyrene (PS) core were fabricated using core-shell-structured sulfonated PS spheres (with uniform diameter of 250 nm) as templates. PANi was doped in situ by sulfonic acid resulting the composite spheres are well conductive. Dissolved with solvent, PS cores were removed from the core-shell composite spheres and hollow Fe3O4-PANi spheres were obtained. Removing the PANi and PS components by calcinations produced hollow Fe3O4 spheres. The cavity size of the hollow spheres was uniformly approximate to 190 nm and the shell thickness was 30 nm. The cavity size and the shell thickness can be synchronously controlled by varying the sulfonation time of the PS templates. The shell thickness in size range was of 20-86 nm when the sulfonation time was changed from 1 to 4 h. These resulting spheres could be arranged in order by self-assembly of the templates. Both the Fe3O4-PANi/PS composite spheres and the hollow Fe3O4 spheres exhibit a super-paramagnetic behavior. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray powder scattering were used to characterize these as-prepared spheres.

  7. Liquid bridge force between two unequal-sized spheres or a sphere and a plane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You chuan Chen; Yong zhi Zhao; Hong li Gao; Jin yang Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Liquid bridge force acting between wet particles is an important property in particle characterization.This paper deals with liquid bridge force between either two unequal-sized spherical particles or a sphere and a flat plate under conditions where gravitational effect arising from bridge distortion is negligible.In order to calculate the force of the liquid bridge efficiently and accurately,expressions of liquid configuration and liquid bridge force were derived by building a mechanical model,which assumes the liquid bridge to be circular in shape between either two unequal-sized spheres or a sphere and a plane.To assess the accuracy of the numerical results of the calculated liquid bridge forces,they were compared to the published experimental data.

  8. Anti-platelet Therapy Resistance – Concept, Mechanisms and Platelet Function Tests in Intensive Care Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărginean Alina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that critically ill patients require special attention and additional consideration during their treatment and management. The multiple systems and organ dysfunctions, typical of the critical patient, often results in different patterns of enteral absorption in these patients. Anti-platelet drugs are the cornerstone in treating patients with coronary and cerebrovascular disease. Dual anti-platelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel is the treatment of choice in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary interventions and is still widely used in patients with acute coronary syndromes. However, despite the use of dual anti-platelet therapy, some patients continue to experience cardiovascular ischemic events. Recurrence of ischemic events is partly attributed to the fact that some patients have poor inhibition of platelet reactivity despite treatment. These patients are considered low- or nonresponders to therapy. The underlying mechanisms leading to resistance are not yet fully elucidated and are probably multifactorial, cellular, genetic and clinical factors being implicated. Several methods have been developed to asses platelet function and can be used to identify patients with persistent platelet reactivity, which have an increased risk of thrombosis. In this paper, the concept of anti-platelet therapy resistance, the underlying mechanisms and the methods used to identify patients with low responsiveness to anti-platelet therapy will be highlighted with a focus on aspirin and clopidogrel therapy and addressing especially critically ill patients.

  9. 溶胶-凝胶法制备纳米SiO2/丙烯酸酯预聚物%Preparation of Nanosilica/Acrylates Prepolymer by Sol-Gel Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马国章; 闫涛; 刘伟; 郝晓刚; 许并社

    2011-01-01

    Nanosilica/acrylate prepolymer(HAPTP) was prepared by sol-gel of Michael addition product(APTP) synthesized from 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and tripropylene glycol diacrylate.The products were characterized and the effects of sol-gel of APTP on the properties of coatings and their films were studied.Result shows that nanosilica is produced after sol-gel of APTP.Compared to the coating with APTP,the conversion of C=C double bonds of coating with HTPAP was lower than the coating’s with APTP at the same UV curing time,but the thermal decomposition temperature and residue of cured film of coating with HAPTP increase,the pencil hardness increases from 4 H to 5 H and the mass loss reduces to more than 50% after abrasion resistance determination.%以3-氨丙基三乙氧基硅烷和三缩丙二醇双丙烯酸酯为原料,合成丙烯酸酯三乙氧基硅烷(APTP),再用溶胶-凝胶法对其水解缩合制备纳米SiO2/丙烯酸酯预聚物(HAPTP)。对合成产物进行了表征,研究了APTP缩合水解对涂料及其固化膜性能的影响。结果表明,APTP经水解缩合后,有纳米SiO2生成。和APTP涂料相比,在相同的紫外光辐照时间内,HAPTP涂料的C=C双键转化率稍有降低,但其固化膜初始热分解温度和残渣率提高,铅笔硬度从4 H提高到5H,磨耗降低了50%以上。

  10. Nephropathy in type 1 diabetes is associated with increased circulating activated platelets and platelet hyperreactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Inge; Michelson, Alan D.; Barnard, Marc R.;

    2009-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have increased platelet activation compared to non-diabetic controls. Platelet hyperreactivity has been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in Type 2 DM, and with diabetic nephropathy. We investigated the relationship between platelet activation...... and nephropathy in Type 1 DM. Patients with Type 1 DM and diabetic nephropathy (n = 35), age- and sex-matched Type 1 DM patients with persistent normoalbuminuria (n = 51), and healthy age- and sex-matched controls (n = 30) were studied. Platelet surface P-selectin, platelet surface activated GPIIb/IIIa, monocyte...... to 0.5 or 20 microM ADP) was higher in nephropathy patients compared with normoalbuminuric patients (P = 0.027), and non-diabetic controls (P = 0.0057). NPAs were higher in nephropathy patients compared to normoalbuminuric patients (P = 0.0088). MPAs were higher in nephropathy patients compared to non-diabetic...

  11. Electromagnetic-scattering by bi-sphere groups and coherent-beam scattering by homogeneous spheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linsheng LIU; Hengyu KE; Zhensen WU; Lu BAI

    2008-01-01

    By using Mie's theory, the boundary condi-tions, and some advanced mathematical knowledge, the scattering problem of a plane-wave by bi-sphere groups and of cores-traversed coherent Gauss-beams by one sphere was addressed. In each, the coefficients of the scattering-field expressions were deduced. Finally, the result was predigested and transfigured so that the available form for programming was achieved. On deducing, the former adopted the undetermined coeffi-cient method and the latter used the plane geometry method. Moreover, the complexity of the calculation was decreased here.

  12. A General Aspect of Platelet Rich Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur ORAL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this scientific paper is to introduce Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP cure method by people who never heard about it. People can hurt their selves, thus they can have damaged tissue; for instance broken bone, a scar or a wounded area. Furthe rmore damaged tissue can be a cartilage tissue, which takes very long time to heal. Platelets, those exist in the veins as thrombus, come up to repair those damaged tissues. However, platelets would be insufficient to cure damaged area in a short time. At this point PRP cure method give a hand to the healing process. By centrifuging people’s own blood via special kits, platelets can be separated from blood cells as plasma. That plasma’s platelet density is 3 - 5 times greater than that blood’s platelet densit y. Afterwards PRP method is implemented by injection of plasma to the damaged area or tissue. After implementation of 2 - 4 sessions per week, damaged tissue can be regenerated. It is fast healing method because densified platelet plasma is used; and it is s afe because that plasma is obtained from people’s own blood. PRP can be implemented on many areas; for instance on dentistry, sports medicine, different kind of surgeries such as plastic, vascular or orthopedic and so on. When soccer players brake their le gs, their sports life come to the end, but what if their broken legs was healed better and faster than general healing process? To sum up, PRP is very safe and the future of healing process.

  13. Calcium-binding proteins from human platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogstad, G.O.; Krutnes, M.B.; Solum, N.O.

    1983-06-01

    Calcium-binding platelet proteins were examined by crossed immunoelectrophoresis of solubilized platelets against antibodies to whole platelets followed by incubation of the immunoplates with /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ and autoradiography. When the immunoplates had been pretreated with EDTA at pH 9.0 in order to remove divalent cations, three immunoprecipitates were markedly labelled with /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/. These corresponded to the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex, glycoprotein Ia and a presently unidentified antigen termed G18. These antigens were membrane-bound and surface-oriented. When an excess of EDTA was introduced in the incubation media the results revealed that the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex and antigen G18, but not glycoprotein Ia, contained sites with a stronger affinity for calcium than has EDTA at pH 7.4. Immunoprecipitates of the separate glycoproteins IIb and IIIa both bound calcium in the same manner as the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex. As another approach, platelet-rich plasma was incubated with /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ prior to crossed immunoelectrophoresis of the solubilized platelets. A single immunoprecipitate was weakly labelled. This did not correspond to any of the immunoprecipitates which were visible after staining with Coomassie blue. The labelling of this antigen was markedly increased when the platelet-rich plasma had been preincubated with EDTA and in this case a weak labelling of the glycoprotein IIB-IIIa precipitate also became apparent. No increased incorporation of calcium occured in any of these immunoprecipitates when the platelets were aggregated with ADP in the presence of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/.

  14. Diagnosis of a Poorly Performing Liquid Hydrogen Bulk Storage Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, Angela G.

    2011-01-01

    There are two 850,000 gallon Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) storage spheres used to support the Space Shuttle Program; one residing at Launch Pad A and the other at Launch Pad B. The LH2 Sphere at Pad B has had a high boiloff rate since being brought into service in the 1960's. The daily commodity loss was estimated to be approximately double that of the Pad A sphere, and well above the minimum required by the sphere's specification. Additionally, after being re-painted in the late 1990's a "cold spot" appeared on the outer sphere which resulted in a poor paint bond, and mold formation. Thermography was used to characterize the area, and the boiloff rate was continually evaluated. All evidence suggested that the high boiloff rate was caused by an excessive heat leak into the inner sphere due to an insulation void in the annulus. Pad B was recently taken out of Space Shuttle program service which provided a unique opportunity to diagnose the sphere's poor performance. The sphere was drained and inerted, and then opened from the annular relief device on the top where a series of boroscoping operations were accomplished. Boroscoping revealed a large Perlite insulation void in the region of the sphere where the cold spot was apparent. Perlite was then trucked in and off-loaded into the annular void region until the annulus was full. The sphere has not yet been brought back into service.

  15. Platelets of patients with chronic kidney disease demonstrate deficient platelet reactivity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Bladel Esther R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with chronic kidney disease studies focusing on platelet function and properties often are non-conclusive whereas only few studies use functional platelet tests. In this study we evaluated a recently developed functional flow cytometry based assay for the analysis of platelet function in chronic kidney disease. Methods Platelet reactivity was measured using flow cytometric analysis. Platelets in whole blood were triggered with different concentrations of agonists (TRAP, ADP, CRP. Platelet activation was quantified with staining for P-selectin, measuring the mean fluorescence intensity. Area under the curve and the concentration of half-maximal response were determined. Results We studied 23 patients with chronic kidney disease (9 patients with cardiorenal failure and 14 patients with end stage renal disease and 19 healthy controls. Expression of P-selectin on the platelet surface measured as mean fluorescence intensity was significantly less in chronic kidney disease patients compared to controls after maximal stimulation with TRAP (9.7 (7.9-10.8 vs. 11.4 (9.2-12.2, P = 0.032, ADP (1.6 (1.2-2.1 vs. 2.6 (1.9-3.5, P = 0.002 and CRP (9.2 (8.5-10.8 vs. 11.5 (9.5-12.9, P = 0.004. Also the area under the curve was significantly different. There was no significant difference in half-maximal response between both groups. Conclusion In this study we found that patients with chronic kidney disease show reduced platelet reactivity in response of ADP, TRAP and CRP compared to controls. These results contribute to our understanding of the aberrant platelet function observed in patients with chronic kidney disease and emphasize the significance of using functional whole blood platelet activation assays.

  16. Platelet receptor polymorphisms do not influence Staphylococcus aureus-platelet interactions or infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga, Shruti; Shepherd, James G; Callaghan, J Garreth S; Hung, Rachel K Y; Dawson, Dana K; Padfield, Gareth J; Hey, Shi Y; Cartwright, Robyn A; Newby, David E; Fitzgerald, J Ross

    2011-03-01

    Cardiac vegetations result from bacterium-platelet adherence, activation and aggregation, and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in infective endocarditis. The GPIIb/IIIa and FcγRIIa platelet receptors play a central role in platelet adhesion, activation and aggregation induced by endocarditis pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, but the influence of known polymorphisms of these receptors on the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis is unknown. We determined the GPIIIa platelet antigen Pl(A1/A2) and FcγRIIa H131R genotype of healthy volunteers (n = 160) and patients with infective endocarditis (n = 40), and investigated the influence of these polymorphisms on clinical outcome in infective endocarditis and S. aureus-platelet interactions in vitro. Platelet receptor genotype did not correlate with development of infective endocarditis, vegetation characteristics on echocardiogram or the composite clinical end-point of embolism, heart failure, need for surgery or mortality (P > 0.05 for all), even though patients with the GPIIIa Pl(A1/A1) genotype had increased in vivo platelet activation (P = 0.001). Furthermore, neither GPIIIa Pl(A1/A2) nor FcγRIIa H131R genotype influenced S. aureus-induced platelet adhesion, activation or aggregation in vitro (P > 0.05). Taken together, our data suggest that the GPIIIa and FcγRIIa platelet receptor polymorphisms do not influence S. aureus-platelet interactions in vitro or the clinical course of infective endocarditis.

  17. Platelet receptor polymorphisms do not influence Staphylococcus aureus–platelet interactions or infective endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga, Shruti; Shepherd, James G.; Callaghan, J. Garreth S.; Hung, Rachel K.Y.; Dawson, Dana K.; Padfield, Gareth J.; Hey, Shi Y.; Cartwright, Robyn A.; Newby, David E.; Fitzgerald, J. Ross

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac vegetations result from bacterium–platelet adherence, activation and aggregation, and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in infective endocarditis. The GPIIb/IIIa and FcγRIIa platelet receptors play a central role in platelet adhesion, activation and aggregation induced by endocarditis pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, but the influence of known polymorphisms of these receptors on the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis is unknown. We determined the GPIIIa platelet antigen PlA1/A2 and FcγRIIa H131R genotype of healthy volunteers (n = 160) and patients with infective endocarditis (n = 40), and investigated the influence of these polymorphisms on clinical outcome in infective endocarditis and S. aureus–platelet interactions in vitro. Platelet receptor genotype did not correlate with development of infective endocarditis, vegetation characteristics on echocardiogram or the composite clinical end-point of embolism, heart failure, need for surgery or mortality (P > 0.05 for all), even though patients with the GPIIIa PlA1/A1 genotype had increased in vivo platelet activation (P = 0.001). Furthermore, neither GPIIIa PlA1/A2 nor FcγRIIa H131R genotype influenced S. aureus-induced platelet adhesion, activation or aggregation in vitro (P > 0.05). Taken together, our data suggest that the GPIIIa and FcγRIIa platelet receptor polymorphisms do not influence S. aureus–platelet interactions in vitro or the clinical course of infective endocarditis. PMID:21044892

  18. Zinc coordination spheres in protein structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitaoja, Mikko; Valjakka, Jarkko; Jänis, Janne

    2013-10-07

    Zinc metalloproteins are one of the most abundant and structurally diverse proteins in nature. In these proteins, the Zn(II) ion possesses a multifunctional role as it stabilizes the fold of small zinc fingers, catalyzes essential reactions in enzymes of all six classes, or assists in the formation of biological oligomers. Previously, a number of database surveys have been conducted on zinc proteins to gain broader insights into their rich coordination chemistry. However, many of these surveys suffer from severe flaws and misinterpretations or are otherwise limited. To provide a more comprehensive, up-to-date picture on zinc coordination environments in proteins, zinc containing protein structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) were analyzed in detail. A statistical analysis in terms of zinc coordinating amino acids, metal-to-ligand bond lengths, coordination number, and structural classification was performed, revealing coordination spheres from classical tetrahedral cysteine/histidine binding sites to more complex binuclear sites with carboxylated lysine residues. According to the results, coordination spheres of hundreds of crystal structures in the PDB could be misinterpreted due to symmetry-related molecules or missing electron densities for ligands. The analysis also revealed increasing average metal-to-ligand bond length as a function of crystallographic resolution, which should be taken into account when interrogating metal ion binding sites. Moreover, one-third of the zinc ions present in crystal structures are artifacts, merely aiding crystal formation and packing with no biological significance. Our analysis provides solid evidence that a minimal stable zinc coordination sphere is made up by four ligands and adopts a tetrahedral coordination geometry.

  19. Collision statistics in sheared inelastic hard spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerman, Marcus N; Green, Thomas E; Grassia, Paul; Lue, Leo

    2009-04-01

    The dynamics of sheared inelastic-hard-sphere systems is studied using nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations and direct simulation Monte Carlo. In the molecular-dynamics simulations Lees-Edwards boundary conditions are used to impose the shear. The dimensions of the simulation box are chosen to ensure that the systems are homogeneous and that the shear is applied uniformly. Various system properties are monitored, including the one-particle velocity distribution, granular temperature, stress tensor, collision rates, and time between collisions. The one-particle velocity distribution is found to agree reasonably well with an anisotropic Gaussian distribution, with only a slight overpopulation of the high-velocity tails. The velocity distribution is strongly anisotropic, especially at lower densities and lower values of the coefficient of restitution, with the largest variance in the direction of shear. The density dependence of the compressibility factor of the sheared inelastic-hard-sphere system is quite similar to that of elastic-hard-sphere fluids. As the systems become more inelastic, the glancing collisions begin to dominate over more direct, head-on collisions. Examination of the distribution of the times between collisions indicates that the collisions experienced by the particles are strongly correlated in the highly inelastic systems. A comparison of the simulation data is made with direct Monte Carlo simulation of the Enskog equation. Results of the kinetic model of Montanero [J. Fluid Mech. 389, 391 (1999)] based on the Enskog equation are also included. In general, good agreement is found for high-density, weakly inelastic systems.

  20. Determinantal point process models on the sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Nielsen, Morten; Porcu, Emilio

    defined on Sd × Sd . We review the appealing properties of such processes, including their specific moment properties, density expressions and simulation procedures. Particularly, we characterize and construct isotropic DPPs models on Sd , where it becomes essential to specify the eigenvalues......We consider determinantal point processes on the d-dimensional unit sphere Sd . These are finite point processes exhibiting repulsiveness and with moment properties determined by a certain determinant whose entries are specified by a so-called kernel which we assume is a complex covariance function...