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Sample records for platelet thromboxane a2

  1. Effects of heparin on platelet aggregation and release and thromboxane A2 production

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    Mohammad, S.F.; Anderson, W.H.; Smith, J.B.; Chuang, H.Y.; Mason, R.G.

    1981-08-01

    Heparin, when added to citrated platelet-rich plasma (PRP), caused potentiation of platelet aggregation and the release reaction induced by the aggregating agents adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid, collagen, and epinephrine. At low concentrations (4.7 x 10(-5) M) arachidonic acid failed to cause aggregation of platelets in citrated PRP. However, in the presence of heparin, the same concentration of arachidonic acid caused aggregation. Examination of PRP for the presence of thromboxane A2 (TxA2) by use of a bioassay revealed that heparin also stimulated release of TxA2. This finding indicated that platelets released more TxA2 when they were challenged by low concentrations of arachidonic acid in the presence of heparin than in its absence. Platelets were labeled with /sup 3/H-arachidonic acid and /sup 14/C-serotonin, and attempts were made to determine whether heparin stimulated the platelet release reaction first with subsequent increased production of TxA2, or alternatively, whether heparin stimulated TxA2 production first with subsequent enhancement of the release reaction. In view of the demonstrated simultaneous release of /sup 14/C-serotonin and /sup 3/H-arachidonic acid metabolites, it appeared that either release of /sup 14/C and /sup 3/H occurs concurrently or, even if one of these events is dependent on the other, both events take place in rapid succession. Timed sequential studies revealed that in the presence of arachidonic acid, the addition of heparin hastened the apparently simultaneous release of both /sup 14/C and /sup 3/H.

  2. The association of thromboxane A2 receptor with lipid rafts is a determinant for platelet functional responses.

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    Moscardó, A; Vallés, J; Latorre, A; Santos, M T

    2014-08-25

    We have investigated the presence of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptor associated with lipid rafts in human platelets and the regulation of platelet function in response to TXA2 receptor agonists when lipid rafts are disrupted by cholesterol extraction. Platelet aggregation with TXA2 analogs U46619 and IBOP was almost blunted in cholesterol-depleted platelets, as well as αIIbβ3 integrin activation and P-selectin exposure. Raft disruption also inhibited TXA2-induced cytosolic calcium increase and nucleotide release, ruling out an implication of P2Y12 receptor. An important proportion of TXA2 receptor (40%) was colocalized at lipid rafts. The presence of the TXA2 receptor associated with lipid rafts in platelets is important for functional platelet responses to TXA2.

  3. Human thromboxane A2 receptor genetic variants: in silico, in vitro and "in platelet" analysis.

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    Scott Gleim

    Full Text Available Thromboxane and its receptor have emerged as key players in modulating vascular thrombotic events. Thus, a dysfunctional hTP genetic variant may protect against (hypoactivity or promote (hyperactivity vascular events, based upon its activity on platelets. After extensive in silico analysis, six hTP-α variants were selected (C(68S, V(80E, E(94V, A(160T, V(176E, and V(217I for detailed biochemical studies based on structural proximity to key regions involved in receptor function and in silico predictions. Variant biochemical profiles ranged from severe instability (C(68S to normal (V(217I, with most variants demonstrating functional alteration in binding, expression or activation (V(80E, E(94V, A(160T, and V(176E. In the absence of patient platelet samples, we developed and validated a novel megakaryocyte based system to evaluate human platelet function in the presence of detected dysfunctional genetic variants. Interestingly, variant V80E exhibited reduced platelet activation whereas A160T demonstrated platelet hyperactivity. This report provides the most comprehensive in silico, in vitro and "in platelet" evaluation of hTP variants to date and highlightscurrent inherent problems in evaluating genetic variants, with possible solutions. The study additionally provides clinical relevance to characterized dysfunctional hTP variants.

  4. Antiplatelet activity of L-sulforaphane by regulation of platelet activation factors, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and thromboxane A2.

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    Oh, Chung-Hun; Shin, Jang-In; Mo, Sang Joon; Yun, Sung-Jo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Rhee, Yun-Hee

    2013-07-01

    L-sulforaphane was identified as an anticarcinogen that could produce quinine reductase and a phase II detoxification enzyme. In recent decades, multi-effects of L-sulforaphane may have been investigated, but, to the authors' knowledge, the antiplatelet activation of L-sulforaphane has not been studied yet.In this study, 2 μg/ml of collagen, 50 μg/ml of ADP and 5 μg/ml of thrombin were used for platelet aggregations with or without L-sulforaphane. L-sulforaphane inhibited the platelet aggregation dose-dependently. Among these platelet activators, collagen was most inhibited by L-sulforaphane, which markedly decreased collagen-induced glycoprotein IIb/IIIa activation and thromboxane A2 (TxA2) formation in vitro. L-sulforaphane also reduced the collagen and epinephrine-induced pulmonary embolism, but did not affect prothrombin time (PT) in vivo. This finding demonstrated that L-sulforaphane inhibited the platelet activation through an intrinsic pathway.L-sulforaphane had a beneficial effect on various pathophysiological pathways of the collagen-induced platelet aggregation and thrombus formation as a selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist. Thus, we recommend L-sulforaphane as a potential antithrombotic drug.

  5. TRA-418, a novel compound having both thromboxane A(2) receptor antagonistic and prostaglandin I(2) receptor agonistic activities: its antiplatelet effects in human and animal platelets.

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    Yamada, N; Miyamoto, M; Isogaya, M; Suzuki, M; Ikezawa, S; Ohno, M; Otake, A; Umemura, K

    2003-08-01

    TRA-418 is a novel compound that has been found in our screening for compounds having both thromboxane A2 (TP) receptor antagonistic and prostaglandin I2 (IP) receptor agonistic activities. In the binding assays, TRA-418 showed a 10-fold higher affinity to TP-receptors than IP-receptors. TRA-418 inhibited platelet aggregation induced by the TP-receptor agonist, U-46619 and by arachidonic acid at concentrations lower than those required for inhibition of ADP-induced aggregations. Furthermore, TRA-418 inhibited not only platelet aggregation induced by ADP alone, but also that induced by ADP in the presence of the TP-receptor antagonist, SQ-29548. When the IC50 values of TRA-418 for platelet aggregation were estimated in platelet preparations from monkeys, dogs, cats, and rats using ADP and arachidonic acid as the platelet stimulating agents, it was found that the values estimated in monkey platelets were quite similar to those estimated in human platelets. In ex vivo platelet aggregation in monkeys, TRA-418 exhibited significant inhibitory effects on arachidonic acid-induced aggregation in platelet preparations from monkeys treated at 3 micro g kg min-1 or higher doses, where neither a significant decrease in blood pressure nor a significant increase in heart rate was observed. These results are consistent with the fact that TRA-418 has a relatively potent TP-receptor antagonistic activity together with a relatively weak IP-receptor agonistic activity.

  6. TRA-418, a thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist and prostacyclin receptor agonist, inhibits platelet-leukocyte interaction in human whole blood.

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    Miyamoto, Mitsuko; Ohno, Michihiro; Yamada, Naohiro; Ohtake, Atsushi; Matsushita, Teruo

    2010-10-01

    TRA-418, a compound with both thromboxane A2 receptor (TP receptor) antagonistic and prostacyclin receptor (IP receptor) agonistic activities, was synthesised in our laboratory as a new antithrombotic agent. In this study, we examined the effects of TRA-418 on platelet-leukocyte interactions in human whole blood. Platelet-leukocyte interactions were induced by U-46619 in the presence of epinephrine (U-46619 + epinephrine) or with thrombin receptor agonist peptide 1-6 (TRAP). Platelet-leukocyte interactions were assessed by flow cytometry, with examination of both platelet-neutrophil and platelet-monocyte complexes. In a control experiment, the TP receptor antagonist SQ-29548 significantly inhibited the induction of platelet-leukocyte complexes by the combination of U-46619 and epinephrine, but not TRAP-induced formation of platelet-leukocyte complexes. Conversely, the IP receptor agonist beraprost sodium inhibited platelet-leukocyte complex formation induced by both methods, although the IC50 values of beraprost sodium for U-46619 + epinephrine were at least 10-fold greater than for TRAP. Under such conditions, TRA-418 inhibited both U-46619 + epinephrine-induced and TRAP-induced platelet-leukocyte complex formation in a concentration-dependent manner, in a similar range. These results suggest that TRA-418 exerts its inhibitory effects on platelet-leukocyte interactions by acting as a TP receptor antagonist as well as an IP receptor agonist in an additive or synergistic manner. These inhibitory effects of TRA-418 on formation of platelet-leukocyte complexes suggest the compound is beneficial effects as an antithrombotic agent.

  7. Piperine Inhibits the Activities of Platelet Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 and Thromboxane A2 Synthase without Affecting Cyclooxygenase-1 Activity: Different Mechanisms of Action Are Involved in the Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation and Macrophage Inflammatory Response

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    Dong Ju Son

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Piperine, a major alkaloid of black pepper (Piper nigrum and long pepper (Piper longum, was shown to have anti-inflammatory activity through the suppression of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 gene expression and enzyme activity. It is also reported to exhibit anti-platelet activity, but the mechanism underlying this action remains unknown. In this study, we investigated a putative anti-platelet aggregation mechanism involving arachidonic acid (AA metabolism and how this compares with the mechanism by which it inhibits macrophage inflammatory responses; METHODS: Rabbit platelets and murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were treated with piperine, and the effect of piperine on the activity of AA-metabolizing enzymes, including cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2, COX-1, COX-2, and thromboxane A2 (TXA2 synthase, as well as its effect on AA liberation from the plasma membrane components, were assessed using isotopic labeling methods and enzyme immunoassay kit; RESULTS: Piperine significantly suppressed AA liberation by attenuating cPLA2 activity in collagen-stimulated platelets. It also significantly inhibited the activity of TXA2 synthase, but not of COX-1, in platelets. These results suggest that piperine inhibits platelet aggregation by attenuating cPLA2 and TXA2 synthase activities, rather than through the inhibition of COX-1 activity. On the other hand, piperine significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced generation of prostaglandin (PGE2 and PGD2 in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing the activity of COX-2, without effect on cPLA2; CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that piperine inhibits platelet aggregation and macrophage inflammatory response by different mechanisms.

  8. Effect of ethanol on thromboxane and prostacyclin synthesis by fetal platelets and umbilical artery

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    Ylikorkala, O.; Halmesmaeki, E.; Viinikka, L.

    1987-07-20

    The effect of ethanol (10-500 mmol/1) on platelet thromboxane production and on vascular thromboxane and prostacyclin was studied in human fetal tissues. The release of thromboxane B/sub 2/ (a metabolite of thromboxane A/sub 2/) during thrombin-induced spontaneous aggregation of fetal platelets was inhibited by ethanol concentrations of 50 mmol/1 or higher. Ethanol at concentration from 100 mmol/1 also inhibited umbilical artery production of thromboxane B/sub 2/ and that of 6-keto-prostaglandin F/sub 1a/ (a metabolite of prostacyclin). However, it stimulated the conversion of exogenous arachidonic acid to thromboxane B/sub 2/ in fetal platelets and to 6-keto-prostaglandin F/sub 1a/ in the umbilical artery. This suggests that ethanol inhibits phospholipase A/sub 2/, but stimulates the enzymes distal from phospholipase A/sub 2/ in the prostaglandin-synthesizing enzyme cascade. 23 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  9. Evaluation of platelet thromboxane radioimmunoassay method to measure platelet life-span: Comparison with /sup 111/indium-platelet method

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    Vallabhajosula, S.; Machac, J.; Badimon, L.; Lipszyc, H.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Fuster, V.

    1985-05-01

    The platelet activation during radiolabeling in vitro with Cr-51 and In-111 may affect the platelet life-span (PLS) in vivo. A new RIA method to measure PLS is being evaluated. Aspirin inhibits platelet thromboxane (TxA/sub 2/) by acetylating cyclooxygenase. The time required for the TxA/sub 2/ levels to return towards control values depends on the rate of new platelets entering circulation and is a measure of PLS. A single dose of aspirin (150mg) was given to 5 normal human subjects. Blood samples were collected for 2 days before aspirin and daily for 10 days. TxA/sub 2/ production in response to endogenous thrombin was studied by allowing 1 ml blood sample to clot at 37/sup 0/C for 90 min. Serum TxB/sub 2/ (stable breakdown product of Tx-A/sub 2/) levels determined by RIA technique. The plot of TxB/sub 2/ levels (% control) against time showed a gradual increase. The PLS calculated by linear regression analysis assuming a 2-day lag period before cyclooxygenase recovery is 9.7 +- 2.37. In the same 5 subjects, platelets from a 50ml blood sample were labeled with /sup 111/In-tropolone in 2 ml autologous plasma. Starting at 1 hr after injection of labeled platelets, 10 blood samples were obtained over a 8 day period. The PLS calculated based on a linear regression analysis is 10.2 +. 1.4. The PLS measured from the rate of platelet disappearance from circulation and the rate of platelet regeneration into circulation are quite comparable in normal subjects. TxA/sub 2/ regeneration RIA may provide a method to measure PLS without administering radioactivity to patient.

  10. Evidence for homogeneity of thromboxane A2 receptor using structurally different antagonists.

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    Swayne, G T; Maguire, J; Dolan, J; Raval, P; Dane, G; Greener, M; Owen, D A

    1988-08-01

    Nine structurally dissimilar thromboxane antagonists (SQ 29548, ICI 185282, AH 23848, BM 13505 (Daltroban), BM 13177 (Sulotroban), SK&F 88046, L-636499, L-640035 and a Bayer compound SK&F 47821) were studied for activity as thromboxane A2 receptor antagonists. The assays used were inhibition of responses induced by the thromboxane mimetic, U46619, on human washed platelet aggregation, rabbit platelet aggregation, rabbit aortic strip contraction, anaesthetised guinea-pig bronchoconstriction, and a radio-labelled ligand (125I-PTA-OH) binding assay as a measure of affinity for the human platelet receptor. The results of the present study, with activities spanning at least four orders of magnitude along with statistically significant correlations (at least P less than 0.01), strongly suggests that between assays, antagonists and species a homogenous population of thromboxane A2 receptors exists. This finding is in contrast to those of a close series of 13-azapinane antagonists studied by other workers which have suggested receptor heterogeneity.

  11. In vitro effects of mercury on platelet aggregation, thromboxane and vascular prostacyclin production.

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    Caprino, L; Togna, A R; Cebo, B; Dolci, N; Togna, G

    1983-01-01

    Mercuric chloride [25-50 micrograms/ml platelet-rich plasma (PRP)] lowers the threshold concentration of arachidonic acid (AA) required for triggering rabbit platelet aggregation and causes a marked increase of thromboxane production. The metal, added as HgCl2, does not modify (50 micrograms/ml PRP) or block (100 micrograms/ml PRP) the platelet aggregation wave induced by a normal aggregating dose of AA. Whether or not AA-induced platelet aggregation takes place, a large increase in thromboxane production is observed. Methyl mercury, assayed as reference drug, induces platelet aggregation and a significant increase of thromboxane levels. Finally, HgCl2 and methyl mercury, in a concentration range of 0.125-0.5 micrograms/microliters in the incubation liquid, induce an increased prostacyclin release from rat aortic tissue.

  12. Effect of a selective thromboxane synthase inhibitor on arterial graft patency and platelet deposition in dogs

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    McDaniel, M.D.; Huntsman, W.T.; Miett, T.O.; Cronenwett, J.L.

    1987-08-01

    This study examined the effect of selective thromboxane synthase inhibition and nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibition on vascular graft patency and indium 111-labeled platelet deposition in 35 mongrel dogs undergoing carotid artery replacement with 4 mm X 4 cm polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) (one side) and Dacron (opposite side) end-to-end grafts. Aspirin-dipyridamole therapy improved one-week graft patency, from 46% in untreated dogs to 93% in treated dogs. Thromboxane synthase inhibition (U-63557A) improved graft patency in these dogs to 81%. Both drug treatments reduced platelet deposition on Dacron and PTFE grafts by 48% to 68% compared with control dogs. Dacron grafts accumulated significantly more platelets than PTFE grafts but had comparable patency rates. Low-dose aspirin therapy had no significant effect on either graft patency or platelet deposition. All treatment groups showed a 60% to 76% reduction in serum thromboxane B2, but only thromboxane synthase inhibitor treatment increased plasma 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha by 100%. Selective thromboxane synthase inhibition improved small-caliber prosthetic graft patency to the same extent as did conventional cyclooxygenase inhibition in this preliminary study.

  13. Differential effects of oral and transdermal menopausal hormone therapy on prostacyclin and thromboxane in platelets.

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    Raz, Limor; Hunter, Larry W; Jayachandran, Muthuvel; Heit, John A; Miller, Virginia M

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Menopausal hormone therapies (MHT) may increase thrombotic risk but modulate endothelial function and reduce development of vascular lesions. This study compared effects of MHT on prostanoid-modulated adenosine triphosphate (ATP) secretion from platelets in relationship with endothelial reactive hyperemia (RH) index and carotid intima medial thickness (CIMT). Participants were healthy, recently menopausal women of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) randomized to one of three treatments: oral conjugated equine estrogen (oCEE, 0.45 mg/day), transdermal 17β-estradiol (tE2, 50 μg/day) each with intermittent oral progesterone or placebo pills and patch (PL). Prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 were assessed by quantification of their stable metabolites (6-keto-prostaglandin F1α, 6-k-PGF1α; thromboxane B2, TXB2), using ELISA. Dense granule ATP secretion from activated platelets was determined by bioluminescence; RH and CIMT were determined by fingertip tonometry and ultrasound, respectively. After 48 months of treatment, platelet content of 6-k-PGF1α and TXB2 was significantly lower in oCEE compared to the PL. Inhibition of ATP secretion by exogenous activation of cAMP associated with platelet 6-k-PGF1α (r = -0.41, P = 0.04) and TXB2 (r = 0.71, P = 0.0005) only in the oCEE group. Serum and platelet content of 6-k-PGF1α and TXB2 associated positively in the PL and tE2 groups. Serum 6-k-PGF1α positively associated with RH in the oCEE group (r = 0.73, P = 0.02), while serum TXB2 positively associated with CIMT in the tE2 group (r = 0.64, P = 0.01). Thus, oCEE and tE2 differentially affect prostanoid-mediated platelet secretory pathways but alone would not account for an increased thrombotic risk for oral MHT. Furthermore, platelet-derived prostanoids may contribute to RH and vascular remodeling in healthy menopausal women.

  14. AGN 191976: a novel thromboxane A2-mimetic with ocular hypotensive properties.

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    Krauss, A H; Woodward, D F; Chen, J; Gibson, L L; Lai, R K; Protzman, C E; Shan, T; Williams, L S; Gac, T S; Burk, R M

    1995-01-01

    The possible subdivision of thromboxane A2-sensitive (TP) receptors is currently a controversial subject. We report herein on a novel thromboxane A2 mimetic, AGN 191976, which has almost identical pharmacological activity to the well-characterized prostaglandin H2/thromboxane A2 (PGH2/TxA2) mimetic U-46619, but its effects on intraocular pressure are quite distinct from U-46619. Prostanoid receptor activity was determined in vitro using different smooth muscle assays and platelets. Intraocular pressure was measured tonometrically in ocular normotensive Beagle dogs and Cynomolgus monkeys. Conjunctival microvascular permeability was determined in guinea pigs. Despite closely resembling U-46619 as a potent and selective TP receptor agonist, AGN 191976 was a potent ocular hypotensive in dogs and monkeys whereas U-46619 did not lower IOP in either species. The ocular hypotensive effect of AGN 191976 in dogs was attenuated by pretreatment with the TP receptor antagonist SQ 29548. Thus, the ocular hypotensive effects of AGN 191976 are consistent with TP receptor stimulation. Both TxA2-mimetics caused plasma leakage in the guinea pig conjunctiva. The disparate activities of U-46619 and AGN 191976 in our studies suggest the existence of heterogeneous populations of TP-receptors in the eye.

  15. Effects of Firocoxib, Flunixin Meglumine, and Phenylbutazone on Platelet Function and Thromboxane Synthesis in Healthy Horses.

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    Burkett, Brenna N; Thomason, John M; Hurdle, Holly M; Wills, Robert W; Fontenot, Robin L

    2016-11-01

    Determine the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) on platelet function and thromboxane synthesis immediately after drug administration and following 5 days of NSAID administration in healthy horses. Randomized cross-over study. Healthy adult horses (n=9; 6 geldings and 3 mares). Horses received either flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg IV every 12 hours), phenylbutazone (2.2 mg/kg IV every 12 hours), or firocoxib (loading dose of 0.27 mg/kg IV on day 1, then 0.09 mg/kg IV every 24 hours for 4 days) for a total of 5 days. Blood samples were collected prior to drug administration (day 0), 1 hour after initial NSAID administration (day 1), and then 1 hour post-NSAID administration on day 5. Platelet function was assessed using turbidimetric aggregometry and a platelet function analyzer. Serum thromboxane B2 concentrations were determined by commercial ELISA kit. A minimum 14 day washout period occurred between trials. At 1 hour and 5 days postadministration of firocoxib, flunixin meglumine, or phenylbutazone, there was no significant effect on platelet aggregation or function using turbidimetric aggregometry or a platelet function analyzer. There was, however, a significant decrease in thromboxane synthesis at 1 hour and 5 days postadministration of flunixin meglumine and phenylbutazone that was not seen with firocoxib. Preoperative administration of flunixin meglumine, phenylbutazone, or firocoxib should not inhibit platelet function based on our model. The clinical implications of decreased thromboxane B2 synthesis following flunixin meglumine and phenylbutazone administration are undetermined. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  16. Timosaponin AIII induces antiplatelet and antithrombotic activity via Gq-mediated signaling by the thromboxane A2 receptor

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    Cong, Yue; Wang, Limei; Peng, Renjun; Zhao, Yang; Bai, Fan; Yang, Chao; Liu, Xiaolan; Wang, Daqian; Ma, Baiping; Cong, Yuwen

    2016-01-01

    The thromboxane (Tx) A2 pathway is a major contributor to the amplification of initial platelet activation and is therefore a key drug target. To identify potent small-molecule inhibitors of the thromboxane prostaglandin (TP) receptor, we screened a small steroidal saponin library using U46619-induced rat platelet aggregation assays. Timosaponin AIII (TAIII) was identified as a potent inhibitor of U46619-induced rat platelet aggregation and exhibited superior selectivity for the TP receptor versus other G protein-coupled receptors and a PKC activator. TAIII inhibited U46619-induced rat platelet aggregation independent of increases in cAMP and cGMP and the inhibition of TxA2 production. Both PKC and PLC activators restored TAIII-inhibited platelet aggregation, whereas TAIII did not inhibit platelet aggregation induced by co-activation of the G12/13 and Gz pathways. Furthermore, TAIII did not affect the platelet shape change or ROCK2 phosphorylation evoked by low-dose U46619. In vivo, TAIII prolonged tail bleeding time, reduced the mortality of animals with acute pulmonary thromboembolism and significantly reduced venous thrombus weight. Our study suggests that TAIII, by preferentially targeting Gq-mediated PLC/PKC signaling from the TP receptor, induces stronger in vitro antiplatelet activity and in vivo antithrombotic effects and may be an excellent candidate for the treatment of thrombotic disorders. PMID:27934923

  17. Pyrazolinone analgesics prevent the antiplatelet effect of aspirin and preserve human platelet thromboxane synthesis.

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    Hohlfeld, T; Zimmermann, N; Weber, A-A; Jessen, G; Weber, H; Schrör, K; Höltje, H-D; Ebel, R

    2008-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory analgesics, including ibuprofen and naproxen, are known to interfere with the antiplatelet effect of aspirin, presumably as a result of a drug-drug interaction at the level of platelet cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1). We studied whether dipyrone, which has recently been reported to inhibit COX isoforms by a mechanism different from conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), also interferes with the antiplatelet effect of aspirin. Arachidonic acid- and collagen-induced aggregation, as well as thromboxane formation, were measured in human platelet-rich plasma. Platelet P-selectin expression was determined by flow cytometry and cell-free COX enzyme activity was quantified by luminol-enhanced luminescence of human platelet microsomes. In addition, computerized docking was performed based on the crystal structure of COX-1. 4-Methylaminoantipyrine (MAA), the active metabolite of dipyrone, largely attenuated or even completely abolished the inhibition of arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation, thromboxane formation and P-selectin expression by aspirin. Similar results were obtained for other pyrazolinones, as well as for the conventional NSAIDs ibuprofen and naproxen. Moreover, MAA attenuated the effect of aspirin on COX activity of platelet microsomes, suggesting a competition with aspirin at the COX-1 enzyme. This was confirmed by docking studies, which revealed that MAA forms a strong hydrogen bond with serine 530 within the COX-1, thereby preventing enzyme acetylation by aspirin. This study demonstrates for the first time that dipyrone and other pyrazolinones have a high potential to attenuate or prevent the antiplatelet effect of aspirin. This should be considered if pyrazolinone analgesics are administered to patients with cardiovascular disease requiring antiplatelet aspirin therapy.

  18. Pharmacologic antagonism of thromboxane A2 receptors by trimetoquinol analogs in vitro and in vivo

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    Shin, Y.; Romstedt, K.J.; Doyle, K.; Harrold, M.W.; Gerhardt, M.A.; Miller, D.D.; Patil, P.N.; Feller, D.R. (Ohio State University, Columbus (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Although (-)-(S)-trimetoquinol (1-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-benzyl)- 6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline; TMQ) is recognized as a potent bronchodilator, (+)-(R)-TMQ is a selective antagonist of human platelet aggregation and serotonin secretion induced by thromboxane A2 (TXA2) agonists. To confirm the pharmacological actions of TMQ analogs, the interaction of the drugs with TXA2 receptors was examined in human platelets and in a mouse sudden death model. The inhibitory potencies of TMQ analogs (pIC50 values) for displacement of (3H)SQ 29,548 binding to platelets showed excellent correlation with the respective pIC50 (-log IC50) values for U46619-induced aggregation (r = 0.99, P less than 0.01) and serotonin secretion (r = 0.99, P less than 0.01) in human platelet-rich plasma and for whole blood aggregation (r = 0.99, P less than 0.01). In each system, the rank order of inhibitory potencies was rac-iodoTMQ greater than or equal to (+)-(R)-TMQ greater than rac-TMQ much greater than (-)-(S)-TMQ. Antithrombotic effects of TMQ analogs were evaluated in a mouse sudden death model. In vivo antithrombotic potencies of these compounds were consistent with the in vitro potencies as TXA2 receptor antagonists in platelet systems. Administration of rac-iodoTMQ, (+)-(R)-TMQ and rac-TMQ 15 min before the injection of U46619 (800 micrograms/kg, iv) protected mice against U46619-induced sudden death. On the other hand, (-)-(S)-TMQ did not protect animals against death. Protection of U46619-induced cardiopulmonary thrombosis by TMQ analogs was seen at doses of 3-100 mg/kg.

  19. Antiasthmatic activity of a novel thromboxane A2 antagonist, S-1452, in guinea pigs.

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    Arimura, A; Asanuma, F; Kurosawa, A; Harada, M

    1992-01-01

    We examined the effect of a potent thromboxane (Tx) A2 receptor antagonist, calcium (1R, 2S, 3S, 4S)-(5Z)-7-(((phenylsulfonyl)amino)bicyclo[2.2.1] hept-2-yl)-5-heptenoate dihydrate (S-1452), on antigen- and various allergic-spasmogen-induced contractions of guinea pig lung parenchymal strips and on the increase in insufflation pressure, an index of bronchoconstriction, in anesthetized guinea pigs. In isolated guinea pig lung parenchymal strips, S-1452 showed competitive antagonism of the contractile activity of U-46619, a TxA2 mimetic, with a pA2 value of 8.9. The compound also inhibited the contraction induced by prostaglandin (PG) D2 and PGF2 alpha, but a TxA2 synthetase inhibitor, OKY-046, did not. In contrast, both drugs inhibited not only leukotriene (LT) D4-induced contraction but also antigen-induced contraction in the presence of a histamine antagonist. In anesthetized guinea pigs, oral administration of S-1452 markedly inhibited the bronchoconstrictions induced by intravenous injection of U-46619, PGD2, PGF2 alpha, LTD4 and platelet-activating factor (PAF) with ED50 values of 0.006, 0.031, 0.112, 0.033 and 0.115 mg/kg, respectively, but OKY-046 inhibited only that by LTD4 and PAF. Additionally, bronchoconstriction following intravenous injection of antigen was almost completely suppressed by S-1452 (0.1 mg/kg) and partially by OKY-046 (300 mg/kg) in passively sensitized guinea pigs which were treated with diphenydramine and propranolol. The inhibitory effect of S-1452 against U-46619-induced broncho-constriction persisted up to 7 h after oral administration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Identification and characterization of a putative human platelet thromboxane A/sub 2//prostaglandin H/sub 2/ receptor

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    Saussy, D.L. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The thromboxane A/sub 2/ (TXA/sub 2/) analog, 9,11-dimethylmethano-11,12-methano-16-(3-iodo-4-hydroxyphenyl)-13,14-dihydro-13-aza-15..cap alpha beta..-omega-tetranor TXA/sub 2/ (I-PTA-OH) was characterized as a competitive antagonist of TXA/sub 2/ mimetic-induced platelet aggregation, with a K/sub d/ of 190 nM in platelet rich plasma. This antagonism was specific for the putative thromboxane A/sub 2//prostaglandin H/sub 2/ (TXA/sub 2//PGH/sub 2/) receptor, since I-PTA-OH had no inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation stimulated by agonists which act independently of TXA/sub 2//PGH/sub 2/, and did not inhibit platelet TXA/sub 2/ synthesis. (/sup 125/I)-PTA-OH binding to a particulate fraction from human platelets was saturable, displaceable, and linear with protein concentration. Scatchard analysis of equilibrium binding revealed a single class of high affinity binding sites, with a K/sub d/ of 30 +/- 4 nM and a B/sub max/ of 1.8 +/- 0.3 pmol/mg protein. Kinetic analysis yielded a k/sub 1/ of 1.35 x 10/sup 6/ M/sup -1/ x min/sup -1/ and a k..sqrt../sub 1/ of 0.032 min/sup -1/, K/sub d/ = k..sqrt../sub 1//k/sub 1/ = 24 nM. The subcellular localization of the putative TXA/sub 2//PGH/sub 2/ receptor was determined using (/sup 125/I)-PTA-OH binding as a marker for the receptor. (/sup 125/I)-PTA-OH binding as a marker for the receptor. (/sup 125/I)-PTA-OH binding, was coenriched with markers for plasma membranes and dense tubular system; but not with markers for cytoplasmic constituents, mitochondria, or granules.

  1. The human megakaryocytic cell line UT-7/TPO expresses functional platelet agonist signals mediated through GPVI and thromboxane receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ryuji; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2010-09-01

    We have demonstrated that a unique megakaryocytic cell line UT-7/TPO could respond to one of the primary platelet signals through GP (glycoprotein) VI and a secondary signal of the AA (arachidonic acid) cascade. Unlike other megakaryocytic cell lines, UT-7/TPO was found to express GPVI and its associate signal molecule of FcRgamma (Fc receptor gamma chain). When UT-7/TPO was stimulated with the GPVI agonist convulxin, the [Ca2+]i (intracellular Ca2+) was elevated in a convulxin concentration-dependent manner, and [Ca2+]i elevation was blocked by pretreatment with the Src family kinase inhibitor PP2 and the phospholipase inhibitor U73122. These results strongly indicate that endogenously expressed GPVI signal molecules are functional in UT-7/TPO. Concerning the AA cascade, the expression of COX (cyclooxygenase)-1 and TX (thromboxane) synthase was observed, and this cell line was able to produce TX by exogenous AA, followed by [Ca2+]i elevation mediated through the TX receptor. It is worth noting that convulxin stimulation did not cause TX generation, even through the GPVI pathway and the AA cascade are functional in this cell line. As there are many reports that convulxin-stimulated platelets failed to produce TX, it is suggested that UT-7/TPO has the same property as the platelets in regards to convulxin stimulation. Thus, UT-7/TPO is useful for the observation of both the GPVI pathway and AA cascade without requiring either the induction of differentiation or GPVI transfection. Furthermore, this cell line provides a new tool for research on platelet activation signals.

  2. Interaction of platelets with collagen substrate: role of platelet prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane A/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurov, A.B.; Leitin, V.L.; Repin, V.S.

    1985-04-01

    In this investigation, the role of PG-endoperoxides and TA/sub 2/ in interaction of platelets and a collagen-coated surface was studied. For this purpose, the effects of exogenous AA, of U46619, a stable analog of PG endoperoxides, which simulates the action of PG endoperoxides and TA/sub 2/ on platelets at the receptor level, and of aspirin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, on platelet-surface interaction were investigated. The quantity of TA/sub 2/ synthesized in the platelets was determined by measuring accumulation of its stable product TB/sub 2/. After adhesion of the platelets the incubation medium was removed, nonadherent platelets were destroyed by freezing and thawing, and TB/sub 2/ was determined by radioimmunoassay.

  3. A novel thromboxane A2 receptor D304N variant that abrogates ligand binding in a patient with a bleeding diathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Andrew D.; Dawood, Ban B.; Daly, Martina E.; Murden, Sherina L.; Williams, Michael D.; Protty, Majd B.; Spalton, Jennifer C.; Wheatley, Mark; Mundell, Stuart J.; Watson, Steve P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the cause of mild mucocutaneous bleeding in a 14-year-old male patient (P1). Platelet aggregation and ATP secretion induced by arachidonic acid and the thromboxane A2 receptor (TxA2R) agonist U46619 were reduced in P1 compared with controls, whereas the responses to other platelet agonists were retained. P1 was heterozygous for a transversion within the TBXA2R gene predictive of a D304N substitution in the TxA2R. In Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells expressing the variant D304N TxA2R, U46619 did not increase cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration, indicating loss of receptor function. The TxA2R antagonist [3H]-SQ29548 showed an approximate 50% decrease in binding to platelets from P1 but absent binding to Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells expressing variant D304N TxA2R. This is the second naturally occurring TxA2R variant to be associated with platelet dysfunction and the first in which loss of receptor function is associated with reduced ligand binding. D304 lies within a conserved NPXXY motif in transmembrane domain 7 of the TxA2R that is a key structural element in family A G protein-coupled receptors. Our demonstration that the D304N substitution causes clinically significant platelet dysfunction by reducing ligand binding establishes the importance of the NPXXY motif for TxA2R function in vivo. PMID:19828703

  4. Prostaglandin cyclooxygenase products but not thromboxane A2 are involved in the pathogenesis of ewthromelalgia in thrombocythaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Michiels

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid of artificial blisters from erythromelalgic skin areas in primary thrombocythaemia contained a high amount of prostaglandin-E-like activity. Dazoxiben did not alleviate the erythromelalgia in patients with primary thrombocythaemia despite complete inhibition of platelet malondialdehyde and thromboxane B2 synthesis and no inhibition of prostaglandin-E-like material. During a 10-day dazoxiben treatment period, persistent erythromelalgia was associated with a significant shortened mean platelet life span of 3.2 days. During subsequent treatment with low dose acetylsalicylic acid daily complete relief of erythromelalgia was associated with inhibition of platelet prostaglandin endoperoxide production and correction of platelet mean life span to normal, 7.9 days. These observations indicate that prostaglandin E2, or another prostaglandin endoperoxide metabolite, is involved in the pathogenesisof erythromelalgia. The presented study does not give one single clue as to the origin (platelet, vessel wall or other of the prostanoid, but very likely originates from platelets because a very low dose of acetylsalicylic acid (250 to 500 mg every other day, which irreversibly inhibits platelet cyclooxygenase, is highly effective in the prevention of erythromelalgia in thrombocythaemia.

  5. A novel thromboxane receptor antagonist, nstpbp5185, inhibits platelet aggregation and thrombus formation in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiu-Wen; Kuo, Heng-Lan; Hsu, Ming-Tsung; Tseng, Yufeng Jane; Lin, Shu-Wha; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Peng, Hui-Chin; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Huang, Tur-Fu

    2016-08-01

    A novel benzimidazole derivative, nstpbp5185, was discovered through in vitro and in vivo evaluations for antiplatelet activity. Thromaboxane receptor (TP) is important in vascular physiology, haemostasis and pathophysiological thrombosis. Nstpbp5185 concentration-dependently inhibited human platelet aggregation caused by collagen, arachidonic acid and U46619. Nstpbp5185 caused a right-shift of the concentration-response curve of U46619 and competitively inhibited the binding of 3H-SQ-29548 to TP receptor expressed on HEK-293 cells, with an IC50 of 0.1 µM, indicating that nstpbp5185 is a TP antagonist. In murine thrombosis models, nstpbp5185 significantly prolonged the latent period in triggering platelet plug formation in mesenteric and FeCl3-induced thrombi formation, and increased the survival rate in pulmonary embolism model with less bleeding than aspirin. This study suggests nstpbp5185, an orally selective anti-thrombotic agent, acting through blockade of TXA2 receptor, may be efficacious for prevention or treatment of pathologic thrombosis.

  6. Thromboxane A2 release in ischemia and reperfusion of free flaps in rats, studied by microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionac, M; Schaefer, D; Geishauser, M

    2001-02-01

    Several studies have implicated enhanced eicosanoid production in reperfusion injury. The reported study investigated the use of microdialysis in the in vivo measurement of thromboxane levels during reperfusion in ischemic and reperfused experimental free muscle flaps. Microdialysis probes were inserted, via a guide, into the gracilis and semitendinosus free flap in the rat. The probe was perfused at a flow of 5 microl/min, with samples collected at intervals of 20 min, and analyzed by the ELISA technique. Animals were randomly distributed into three groups. After ischemic periods of 2, 4, and 6 hr, respectively, the free muscle flaps were revascularized on the contralateral femoral vessels. The mean thromboxane level during ischemia was 1785.34 +/- 124.81 pg/ml. The mean levels of thromboxane rose significantly (p ischemia group, 192.33 percent in the 4-hr ischemia group, and 294.69 percent in the 6-hr ischemia group, and correlated well with histologic observations. The results suggest that a microdialysis technique, combined with a sensitive assay for measuring thromboxane, is a useful method for in vivo monitoring of inflammatory processes during ischemia and reperfusion. The evolution of thromboxane release following 6 hr of ischemia indicates that this mediator may be involved in facilitation of cell death, following ischemia and reperfusion, since its tissue level correlates with histologic tissue damage.

  7. The role of thromboxane A(2) in the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth restriction associated with maternal smoking in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Caoimhe M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the effect of maternal smoking in pregnancy on the production of two eicosanoids, thromboxane A(2) and prostacyclin I2, and their role in the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth restriction. METHODS: Prospective case control study enrolled smoking and non-smoking women at <\\/=14 weeks gestation. Maternal urine samples were obtained at <\\/=14, 28 and 36 weeks. High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was used to quantify 11-dehydrothromboxane B(2) (TX-M) and 2,3 dinor-6-ketoprostaglandin F1alpha (PG-M), stable urinary metabolites of thromboxane A(2) and prostacyclin I2. Confirmation of the smoking status was performed by quantitation of urinary nicotine metabolites. Data was analysed using SPSS and Stata((R)). RESULTS: Thirty five were enrolled in the smoking group and 32 in the non-smoking group. Smoking resulted higher levels of TX-M at <\\/=14, 28 and 36 weeks gestation. There was no difference in PG-M at any gestational time point between the two groups. The median customised birthweight centile in the smoking group was 17.0 (0-78) compared to 55.5 (4-100) in the non-smoking group (P<0.001). A causal relationship between elevated TX-M and IUGR could not be established. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking in pregnancy is associated with altered eicosanoid production in favour of the vasoconstrictor thromboxane A(2) which occurs early in the first trimester.

  8. Significance of thromboxane A2 and prostaglandin I2 in acute necrotizing pancreatitis in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Ooijen (B.); W.J. Kort (Wil); C.J. Tinga (Cor); J.H.P. Wilson (Paul)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractPlasma thromboxane concentrations were found to be significantly elevated in acute necrotizing pancreatitis in rats, whereas prostaglandin I2 levels were not. The significance of these alterations was investigated. Pancreatitis was induced by injecting 5% sodium taurocholate into the

  9. Role of enhanced glomerular synthesis of thromboxane A2 in progressive kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, P; Ferti, C; Ferrario, R G; Lamberti, E; Duzzi, L; Bianchi, G; Remuzzi, G; Perico, N; Benigni, A; Braidotti, P

    1990-09-01

    Normotensive rats of the Milan strain (MNS) spontaneously develop focal glomerulosclerosis. In order to explore the contribution of glomerular thromboxane (TX) A2 synthesis to the development of the disease, we have characterized the time course of renal functional and biochemical changes, and their modification by long-term treatment with a TX-synthase inhibitor. Oral administration (150 mg.kg-1 from 1 to 14 months of age) of FCE 22178 suppressed enhanced glomerular TXB2 production at all experimental times (mean inhibition 80%) and proteinuria (varying between 27.1 and 73.0%) while preserving renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. These effects of TX-synthase inhibition were seen in the absence of any statistically significant changes in systemic blood pressure. Moreover, FCE 22178 had no antihypertensive effects in hypertensive rats of the Milan strain (MHS) nor in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Treatment also prevented the age-related hypoalbuminemia and hyperlipidemia observed in control MNS and significantly (P less than 0.01) reduced glomerular histologic damage, as demonstrated by light microscopy studies and measurement of sclerotic area. We conclude that: 1) MNS rats provide an animal model of long-lasting proteinuria characterized by an age-related increase in glomerular TXB2 production paralleled by progressive loss of renal structural integrity and function and by a secondary dyslipidemia; 2) pharmacological inhibition of glomerular TX-synthase attenuates the structural as well as the functional expression of kidney disease, without a primary effect on systemic blood pressure. These data are suggestive of an important modulating role of TXA2 in the progression of MNS renal disease.

  10. Thromboxane A(2 receptor stimulation promotes closure of the rat ductus arteriosus through enhancing neointima formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Yokota

    Full Text Available Ductus arteriosus (DA closure follows constriction and remodeling of the entire vessel wall. Patent ductus arteriosus occurs when the DA does not close after birth, and this condition is currently treated using cyclooxygenase inhibitors. However, the efficacy of cyclooxygenase inhibitors is often limited. Our previous study demonstrated that low-dose thromboxane A2 receptor (TP stimulation constricted the DA with minimal adverse effects in rat neonates. However, its effect on DA remodeling remains unknown. In this study, we focused on the impact of the exogenous TP stimulation on the DA remodeling, especially intimal thickening. Using DA explants from rat fetuses at embryonic day 19 as a ex vivo model and primary cultured rat DA smooth muscle cells from embryonic day 21 as a in vitro model, we evaluated the effect of TP stimulation on the DA remodeling. The selective TP agonists U46619 and I-BOP promoted neointima formation in the ex vivo DA explants, and TP stimulation increased DA SMC migration in a dose-dependent manner. Both effects were inhibited by the selective TP antagonist SQ29548 or the siRNA against TP. TP stimulation also increased DA SMC proliferation in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum. LC/MS/MS analysis revealed that TP stimulation increased secretion of several extracellular matrix proteins that may contribute to an increase in neointima formation. In conclusion, we uncovered that exogenous administration of TP agonist promotes neointima formation through the induction of migration and proliferation of DA SMC, which could contribute to DA closure and also to its vasoconstrictive action.

  11. Mechanisms Involved in Thromboxane A2-induced Vasoconstriction of Rat Intracavernous Small Penile Arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grann, Martin; Comerma Steffensen, Simon Gabriel; Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino

    2015-01-01

    relaxation in rat mesenteric arteries. Our findings suggest that U46619 contraction depends on Ca2+ influx through L-type and TRP channels, and ROCKdependent mechanisms in penile arteries. Inhibition of the ROCK pathway is a potential approach for the treatment of erectile dysfunction associated......Diabetes is associated with erectile dysfunction and with hypercontractility in erectile tissue and this is in part ascribed to increased formation of thromboxane. Rho kinase (ROCK) is a key regulator of calcium sensitization and contraction in vascular smooth muscle. This study investigated...... the role of calcium and ROCK in contraction evoked by activation of the thromboxane receptors. Rat intracavernous penile arteries were mounted for isometric tension and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) recording and corpus cavernosum for measurements of MYPT1 phosphorylation. In penile arteries, U46619...

  12. Mechanisms Involved in Thromboxane A2 -induced Vasoconstriction of Rat Intracavernous Small Penile Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grann, Martin; Comerma-Steffensen, Simon; Arcanjo, Daniel D R; Simonsen, Ulf

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes is associated with erectile dysfunction and with hypercontractility in erectile tissue and this is in part ascribed to increased formation of thromboxane. Rho kinase (ROCK) is a key regulator of calcium sensitization and contraction in vascular smooth muscle. This study investigated the role of calcium and ROCK in contraction evoked by activation of the thromboxane receptors. Rat intracavernous penile arteries were mounted for isometric tension and intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+) ]i ) recording and corpus cavernosum for measurements of MYPT1 phosphorylation. In penile arteries, U46619 by activation of thromboxane receptors concentration dependently increased calcium and contraction. U46619-induced calcium influx was blocked by nifedipine, a blocker of L-type calcium channels, and by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, a blocker of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Inhibitors of ROCK, Y27632 and glycyl-H1152P, concentration dependently reduced U46619-induced contraction, but only Y27632 reduced [Ca(2+) ]i levels in the penile arteries activated with either high extracellular potassium or U46619. MYPT-Thr(850) phosphorylation in corpus cavernous strips was increased in response to U46619 through activation of TP receptors and was found to be a direct result of phosphorylation by ROCK. Y27632 induced less relaxation in mesenteric arteries, H1152P induced equipotent relaxations, and a protein kinase C inhibitor, Ro-318220, failed to relax intracavernous penile arteries, but induced full relaxation in rat mesenteric arteries. Our findings suggest that U46619 contraction depends on Ca(2+) influx through L-type and TRP channels, and ROCK-dependent mechanisms in penile arteries. Inhibition of the ROCK pathway is a potential approach for the treatment of erectile dysfunction associated with hypertension and diabetes.

  13. Changes of nitric oxide and endothelin, thromboxane A2 and prostaglandin in cirrhotic patients undergoing liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-Qing Hei; He-Qing Huang; Chen-Fang Luo; Shang-Rong Li; Gang-Jian Luo

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the perioperative changes of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin (ET), thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and prostaglandin (PGI2) during liver transplantation in end-stage liver disease patients.METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with end-stage cirrhosis undergoing liver transplantation were enrolled in this prospective study. Blood samples were obtained from superior vena at five different surgical stages.Plasma concentrations of nitrate and nitrite were determined to reflect plasma NO levels. Plasma levels of ET-1,6-keto-PGF1 alpha and thromboxane B2 (TXB2),the latter two being stable metabolites of PGI2 and TXA2 respectively, were measured.RESULTS: The NO level decreased significantly after vascular cross-clamping and increased significantly at 30 min after reperfusion. While the ET levels at 30 min after clamping and after reperfusion were significantly elevated. The ratio of NO/ET decreased significantly at 30 min after vascular cross-clamping and at the end of surgery. The PGI2 level and the TXA2 during liver transplantation were significantly higher than the baseline level, but the ratio of TXA2/PGI2 decreased significantly at 30 min after clamping.CONCLUSION: NO/ET and TXA2/PGI2 change during liver transplantation. Although the precise mechanism remains unknown, they may play a role in the pathobiology of a variety of liver transplant-relevant processes.

  14. Cyclosporine A enhances platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, A A; Barradas, M A; Mikhailidis, D P; Jeremy, J Y; Moorhead, J F; Sweny, P; Dandona, P

    1987-12-01

    In view of the reported increase in thromboembolic episodes following cyclosporine A (CyA) therapy, the effect of this drug on platelet aggregation and thromboxane A2 release was investigated. The addition of CyA, at therapeutic concentrations to platelet rich plasma from normal subjects in vitro was found to increase aggregation in response to adrenaline, collagen and ADP. Ingestion of CyA by healthy volunteers was also associated with enhanced platelet aggregation. The CyA-mediated enhancement of aggregation was further enhanced by the addition in vitro of therapeutic concentrations of heparin. Platelets from renal allograft recipients treated with CyA also showed hyperaggregability and increased thromboxane A2 release, which were most marked at "peak" plasma CyA concentration and less so at "trough" concentrations. Platelet hyperaggregability in renal allograft patients on long-term CyA therapy tended to revert towards normal following the replacement of CyA with azathioprine. Hypertensive patients with renal allografts on nifedipine therapy had normal platelet function and thromboxane release in spite of CyA therapy. These observations suggest that CyA-mediated platelet activation may contribute to the pathogenesis of the thromboembolic phenomena associated with the use of this drug. The increased release of thromboxane A2 (a vasoconstrictor) may also play a role in mediating CyA-related nephrotoxicity.

  15. Platelet lipidomic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolegowska, B; Lubkowska, A; De Girolamo, L

    2012-01-01

    Lipids account for 16-19 percent dry platelet matter and includes 65 percent phospholipids, 25 percent neutral lipids and about 8 percent glycosphingolipids. The cell membrane that surrounds platelets is a bilayer that contains different types phospholipids symmetrically distributed in resting platelets, such as phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine, and sphingomyelin. The collapse of lipid asymmetry is exposure of phosphatidylserine in the external leaflet of the plasma bilayer, where it is known to serve at least two major functions: providing a platform for development of the blood coagulation cascade and presenting the signal that induces phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. During activation, this asymmetrical distribution becomes disrupted, and PS and PE become exposed on the cell surface. The transbilayer movement of phosphatidylserine is responsible for the platelet procoagulant activity. Exposure of phosphatidylserine is a flag for macrophage recognition and clearance from the circulation. Platelets, stored at room temperature for transfusion for more than 5 days, undergo changes collectively known as platelet storage lesions. Thus, the platelet lipid composition and its possible modifications over time are crucial for efficacy of platelet rich plasma therapy. Moreover, a number of substances derived from lipids are contained into platelets. Eicosanoids are lipid signaling mediators generated by the action of lipoxygenase and include prostaglandins, thromboxane A2, 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. Isoprostanes have a chemical structure similar to this of prostanoids, but are differently produced into the particle, and are ligands for prostaglandins receptors, exhibiting biological activity like thromboxane A2. Endocannabinoids are derivatives from arachidonic acid which could reduce local pain. Phospholipids growth factors (sphingolipids, lysophosphatidic acid, platelet-activating factor) are involved in tissue

  16. Antiplatelet Effect of Catechol Is Related to Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase, Reactive Oxygen Species, ERK/p38 Signaling and Thromboxane A2 Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong-Mei; Lin, Bor-Ru; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Yeh, Chien-Yang; Cheng, Ru-Hsiu; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2014-01-01

    Catechol (benzenediol) is present in plant-derived products, such as vegetables, fruits, coffee, tea, wine, areca nut and cigarette smoke. Because platelet dysfunction is a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, including stroke, atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory effect of catechol and its mechanisms. The effects of catechol on cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation, thromboxane B2 (TXB2) production, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38 phosphorylation were determined in rabbit platelets. In addition, its effect on IL-1β-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by fibroblasts was determined. The ex vivo effect of catechol on platelet aggregation was also measured. Catechol (5-25 µM) suppressed AA-induced platelet aggregation and inhibited TXB2 production at concentrations of 0.5–5 µM; however, it showed little cytotoxicity and did not alter U46619-induced platelet aggregation. Catechol (10–50 µM) suppressed COX-1 activity by 29–44% and COX-2 activity by 29–50%. It also inhibited IL-1β-induced PGE2 production, but not COX-2 expression of fibroblasts. Moreover, catechol (1–10 µM) attenuated AA-induced ROS production in platelets and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced ROS production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Exposure of platelets to catechol decreased AA-induced ERK and p38 phosphorylation. Finally, intravenous administration of catechol (2.5–5 µmole/mouse) attenuated ex vivo AA-induced platelet aggregation. These results suggest that catechol exhibited anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory effects, which were mediated by inhibition of COX, ROS and TXA2 production as well as ERK/p38 phosphorylation. The anti-platelet effect of catechol was confirmed by ex vivo analysis. Exposure to catechol may affect platelet

  17. Antiplatelet effect of catechol is related to inhibition of cyclooxygenase, reactive oxygen species, ERK/p38 signaling and thromboxane A2 production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Chi Chang

    Full Text Available Catechol (benzenediol is present in plant-derived products, such as vegetables, fruits, coffee, tea, wine, areca nut and cigarette smoke. Because platelet dysfunction is a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, including stroke, atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory effect of catechol and its mechanisms. The effects of catechol on cyclooxygenase (COX activity, arachidonic acid (AA-induced aggregation, thromboxane B2 (TXB2 production, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release, reactive oxygen species (ROS production and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK/p38 phosphorylation were determined in rabbit platelets. In addition, its effect on IL-1β-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production by fibroblasts was determined. The ex vivo effect of catechol on platelet aggregation was also measured. Catechol (5-25 µM suppressed AA-induced platelet aggregation and inhibited TXB2 production at concentrations of 0.5-5 µM; however, it showed little cytotoxicity and did not alter U46619-induced platelet aggregation. Catechol (10-50 µM suppressed COX-1 activity by 29-44% and COX-2 activity by 29-50%. It also inhibited IL-1β-induced PGE2 production, but not COX-2 expression of fibroblasts. Moreover, catechol (1-10 µM attenuated AA-induced ROS production in platelets and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA-induced ROS production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Exposure of platelets to catechol decreased AA-induced ERK and p38 phosphorylation. Finally, intravenous administration of catechol (2.5-5 µmole/mouse attenuated ex vivo AA-induced platelet aggregation. These results suggest that catechol exhibited anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory effects, which were mediated by inhibition of COX, ROS and TXA2 production as well as ERK/p38 phosphorylation. The anti-platelet effect of catechol was confirmed by ex vivo analysis. Exposure to catechol may affect platelet function

  18. Evidence that the angiotensin at 2-receptor agonist compound 21 is also a low affinity thromboxane TXA2-receptor antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredgart, M.; Leurgans, T.; Stenelo, M.;

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to test whether Compound 21 (C21), a high-affinity, non-peptide angiotensinAT2-receptor agonist, is also an antagonist of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptors thus reducing both vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation. Design and method: Binding of C21 to t...

  19. Inherited human group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 deficiency abolishes platelet, endothelial, and leucocyte eicosanoid generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Nicholas S; Reed, Daniel M; Edin, Matthew L; Rauzi, Francesca; Mataragka, Stefania; Vojnovic, Ivana; Bishop-Bailey, David; Milne, Ginger L; Longhurst, Hilary; Zeldin, Darryl C; Mitchell, Jane A; Warner, Timothy D

    2015-11-01

    Eicosanoids are important vascular regulators, but the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isoforms supporting their production within the cardiovascular system are not fully understood. To address this, we have studied platelets, endothelial cells, and leukocytes from 2 siblings with a homozygous loss-of-function mutation in group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α). Chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine levels of a broad range of eicosanoids produced by isolated vascular cells, and in plasma and urine. Eicosanoid release data were paired with studies of cellular function. Absence of cPLA2α almost abolished eicosanoid synthesis in platelets (e.g., thromboxane A2, control 20.5 ± 1.4 ng/ml vs. patient 0.1 ng/ml) and leukocytes [e.g., prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), control 21.9 ± 7.4 ng/ml vs. patient 1.9 ng/ml], and this was associated with impaired platelet activation and enhanced inflammatory responses. cPLA2α-deficient endothelial cells showed reduced, but not absent, formation of prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin; control 956 ± 422 pg/ml vs. patient 196 pg/ml) and were primed for inflammation. In the urine, prostaglandin metabolites were selectively influenced by cPLA2α deficiency. For example, prostacyclin metabolites were strongly reduced (18.4% of control) in patients lacking cPLA2α, whereas PGE2 metabolites (77.8% of control) were similar to healthy volunteer levels. These studies constitute a definitive account, demonstrating the fundamental role of cPLA2α to eicosanoid formation and cellular responses within the human circulation.

  20. Transcriptional down-regulation of thromboxane A(2) receptor expression via activation of MAPK ERK1/2, p38/NF-kappaB pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yaping; Edvinsson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have developed an in vitro model by organ culture of rat mesenteric arteries to imitate vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) receptor changes in cardiovascular disease. By using this model, alteration of VSMC thromboxane A(2) (TP) receptors was studied. METHODS AND RESULTS:After organ...... abolished decreased TP receptor-mediated contraction, while inhibition of translation, cyclooxygenase or nitric oxide synthase had no effect. TP receptor mRNA stability was unchanged during organ culture. CONCLUSIONS:The present study has demonstrated for the first time that organ culture of rat mesenteric...

  1. Transcriptional Down-Regulation of Thromboxane A(2) Receptor Expression via Activation of MAPK ERK1/2, p38/NF-kappaB Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yaping; Edvinsson, Lars

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have developed an in vitro model by organ culture of rat mesenteric arteries to imitate vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) receptor changes in cardiovascular disease. By using this model, alteration of VSMC thromboxane A(2) (TP) receptors was studied. METHODS AND RESULTS:After organ...... abolished decreased TP receptor-mediated contraction, while inhibition of translation, cyclooxygenase or nitric oxide synthase had no effect. TP receptor mRNA stability was unchanged during organ culture. CONCLUSIONS:The present study has demonstrated for the first time that organ culture of rat mesenteric...

  2. Human Platelet Lipidomics: Variance, Visualization, Flux, and Fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Garret A

    2016-05-10

    The cardioprotection afforded by low-dose aspirin reflects the biological importance of the platelet lipid thromboxane A2. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Slatter et al. (2016) illuminate the breadth, complexity, and variability of the human platelet lipidome under conditions of thrombin activation and aspirin suppression, potentially facilitating the pursuit of precision medicine.

  3. Inherited human group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 deficiency abolishes platelet, endothelial, and leucocyte eicosanoid generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Nicholas S.; Reed, Daniel M.; Edin, Matthew L.; Rauzi, Francesca; Mataragka, Stefania; Vojnovic, Ivana; Bishop-Bailey, David; Milne, Ginger L.; Longhurst, Hilary; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Mitchell, Jane A.; Warner, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Eicosanoids are important vascular regulators, but the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isoforms supporting their production within the cardiovascular system are not fully understood. To address this, we have studied platelets, endothelial cells, and leukocytes from 2 siblings with a homozygous loss-of-function mutation in group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α). Chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine levels of a broad range of eicosanoids produced by isolated vascular cells, and in plasma and urine. Eicosanoid release data were paired with studies of cellular function. Absence of cPLA2α almost abolished eicosanoid synthesis in platelets (e.g., thromboxane A2, control 20.5 ± 1.4 ng/ml vs. patient 0.1 ng/ml) and leukocytes [e.g., prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), control 21.9 ± 7.4 ng/ml vs. patient 1.9 ng/ml], and this was associated with impaired platelet activation and enhanced inflammatory responses. cPLA2α-deficient endothelial cells showed reduced, but not absent, formation of prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin; control 956 ± 422 pg/ml vs. patient 196 pg/ml) and were primed for inflammation. In the urine, prostaglandin metabolites were selectively influenced by cPLA2α deficiency. For example, prostacyclin metabolites were strongly reduced (18.4% of control) in patients lacking cPLA2α, whereas PGE2 metabolites (77.8% of control) were similar to healthy volunteer levels. These studies constitute a definitive account, demonstrating the fundamental role of cPLA2α to eicosanoid formation and cellular responses within the human circulation.—Kirkby, N. S., Reed, D. M., Edin, M. L., Rauzi, F., Mataragka, S., Vojnovic, I., Bishop-Bailey, D., Milne, G. L., Longhurst, H., Zeldin, D. C., Mitchell, J. A., Warner, T. D. Inherited human group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 deficiency abolishes platelet, endothelial, and leucocyte eicosanoid generation. PMID:26183771

  4. Effects of AT1 Receptor Blockade on Plasma Thromboxane A2 (TXA2 Level and Skin Microcirculation in Young Healthy Women on Low Salt Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cavka

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of AT1 receptor antagonism on skin microcirculation and plasma level of thromboxane A2 (TXA2. Methods: Healthy women (n=20 maintained 7 days low salt (LS diet (intake 2 metabolite thromboxane B2 (TXB2 and plasma renin activity (PRA aldosterone concentration, electrolytes (Na+, K+, as well as blood pressure and heart rate were determined before and after study protocols. Results: PRA and aldosterone increased significantly after 7 days of both LS diet and LS diet+losartan. LS diet or LS diet+losartan administrations had no significant effect on post-occlusion hyperemia While there was no change in TXB2 after LS diet TXB2 significantly increased after one week of LS+losartan compared to control levels (cTXB2 pg/mL control 101±80 vs. LS diet+losartan 190±116, pConclusion: These data suggest that inhibition of AT1 receptors could lead to activation of AT2 receptors, which maintain hyperemia, despite the increased level of vasoconstrictor TXA2. These findings also suggest an important role of crosstalk between renin-angiotensin system (RAS and arachidonic acid metabolites in the regulation of microcirculation under physiological conditions.

  5. 血栓素A2与慢性肺部炎症性疾病%Thromboxane A2 and chronic pulmonary inflammatory disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继琼; 文富强

    2008-01-01

    在慢性阻塞性肺疾病、支气管哮喘和肺囊性纤维化等气道慢性炎症性疾病中,常伴有广泛的气道结构破坏、重塑和黏液高分泌等病理改变.炎症介质血栓素A2(TXA2)是花生四烯酸的环氧合酶代谢产物之一,因其诱导血小板聚集、收缩血管及呼吸道平滑肌和刺激气道及血管平滑肌增殖而在这些病理改变中起着重要作用.TXA2作为一种重要的炎症介质,能刺激血管收缩,进而引起气道微血管渗漏,气道黏液增多,刺激气道平滑肌收缩进而引起气道阻力增加,并参与多种肺部炎症反应,近来还发现其可能参与杯状细胞化生和黏液分泌.现就其在肺部炎性疾病的作用作一综述.%Airway destruction remodeling,and mucous hypersecretion are involved in the process of pulmonary inflammatory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD),asthma and cystic fibrosis.Thromboxane A2(TXA2),one of the cyclooxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid,plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases,which stimulates contraction of vascullar and airway smooth muscle to result in airway micrangium leakage,mucous hypersecretion and airway resistance augmentation.TXA2,as an important inflammatory mediator,participates in various kinds of pulmonary inflammatory reactions.Recent studies have reported that TXA2 may also participate in goblet cell metaplasia and mucous hypersecretion,which are reviewed in the article.

  6. A strategy using NMR peptide structures of thromboxane A2 receptor as templates to construct ligand-recognition pocket of prostacyclin receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruan Ke-He

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Prostacyclin receptor (IP and thromboxane A2 receptor (TP belong to rhodopsin-type G protein-coupling receptors and respectively bind to prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 derived from arachidonic acid. Recently, we have determined the extracellular loop (eLP structures of the human TP receptor by 2-D 1H NMR spectroscopy using constrained peptides mimicking the individual eLP segments. The studies have identified the segment along with several residues in the eLP domains important to ligand recognition, as well as proposed a ligand recognition pocket for the TP receptor. Results: The IP receptor shares a similar primary structure in the eLPs with those of the TP receptor. Forty percent residues in the second eLPs of the receptors are identical, which is the major region involved in forming the ligand recognition pocket in the TP receptor. Based on the high homology score, the eLP domains of the IP receptor were constructed by the homology modeling approach using the NMR structures of the TP eLPs as templates, and then configured to the seven transmembrane (TM domains model constructed using the crystal structure of the bovine rhodopsin as a template. A NMR structure of iloprost was docked into the modeled IP ligand recognition pocket. After dynamic studies, the segments and residues involved in the IP ligand recognition were proposed. A key residue, Arg173 involved in the ligand recognition for the IP receptor, as predicted from the modeling, was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. Conclusion: A 3-D model of the human IP receptor was constructed by homology modeling using the crystal structure of bovine rhodopsin TM domains and the NMR structures of the synthetic constrained peptides of the eLP domains of the TP receptor as templates. This strategy can be applied to molecular modeling and the prediction of ligand recognition pockets for other prostanoid receptors.

  7. Cisplatin triggers platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togna, G I; Togna, A R; Franconi, M; Caprino, L

    2000-09-01

    Clinical observations suggest that anticancer drugs could contribute to the thrombotic complications of malignancy in treated patients. Thrombotic microangiopathy, myocardial infarction, and cerebrovascular thrombotic events have been reported for cisplatin, a drug widely used in the treatment of many solid tumours. The aim of this study is to explore in vitro cisplatin effect on human platelet reactivity in order to define the potentially active role of platelets in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced thrombotic complications. Our results demonstrate that cisplatin increases human platelet reactivity (onset of platelet aggregation wave and thromboxane production) to non-aggregating concentrations of the agonists involving arachidonic acid metabolism. Direct or indirect activation of platelet phospholipase A(2) appears to be implicated. This finding contributes to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of thrombotic complications occurring during cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

  8. Thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist SQ29548 reduces ischemic stroke-induced microglia/macrophages activation and enrichment, and ameliorates brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Aijuan; Zhang, Tingting; Yang, Xiao; Shao, Jiaxiang; Fu, Ningzhen; Shen, Fanxia; Fu, Yi; Xia, Weiliang

    2016-01-01

    Thromboxane A2 receptor (TXA2R) activation is thought to be involved in thrombosis/hemostasis and inflammation responses. We have previously shown that TXA2R antagonist SQ29548 attenuates BV2 microglia activation by suppression of ERK pathway, but its effect is not tested in vivo. The present study aims to explore the role of TXA2R on microglia/macrophages activation after ischemia/reperfusion brain injury in mice. Adult male ICR mice underwent 90-min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Immediately and 24 h after reperfusion, SQ29548 was administered twice to the ipsilateral ventricle (10 μl, 2.6 μmol/ml, per dose). Cerebral infarction volume, inflammatory cytokines release and microglia/macrophages activation were measured using the cresyl violet method, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and immunofluorescence double staining, respectively. Expression of TXA2R was significantly increased in the ipsilateral brain tissue after ischemia/reperfusion, which was also found to co-localize with activated microglia/macrophages in the infarct area. Administration of SQ29548 inhibited microglia/macrophages activation and enrichment, including both M1 and M2 phenotypes, and attenuated ischemia-induced IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α up-regulation and iNOS release. TXA2R antagonist SQ29548 inhibited ischemia-induced inflammatory response and furthermore reduced microglia/macrophages activation and ischemic/reperfusion brain injury. PMID:27775054

  9. Up-regulation of thromboxane A2 receptor expression by lipid soluble smoking particles through post-transcriptional mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yaping; Edvinsson, Lars

    2008-01-01

    . The present study was designed to test if lipid soluble smoking particles (DSP) enhance TxA(2) receptor (TP) expression in rat mesenteric arteries, and if intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways play a role. Organ culture of rat mesenteric arteries in the presence of DSP (0.2 microl...... actinomycin D, but was almost completely abolished by cycloheximide, a general translational inhibitor. Dexamethasone, a glucocorticoid, manifested a potent inhibitory effect as well. These results suggest that the up-regulation of TP receptor occurs via post-transcriptional events, and mainly translation...... are responsible for the up-regulation of TP receptor by DSP, in which enhanced translation is the major cause of the elevated protein expression and the enhanced contraction....

  10. Effect of Aspirin and ibuprofen either alone or in combination on gastric mucosa and bleeding time and on serum prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane A2 levels in the anaesthetized rats in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastaki, Salim M A; Padol, Ireneusz T; Amir, Naheed; Hunt, Richard H

    2017-08-01

    There is much evidence that a combination of ibuprofen (IBU) and Aspirin (ASA) can antagonize the irreversible inhibition of platelet function. This study was designed to investigate the degree of gastric damage, bleeding time (BT) and fluctuations in the serum levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) after oral administration of ASA (200 mg/kg) and IBU (50 mg/kg) either alone or in combination in rats in vivo. The stomach was assessed for any damage either after 6 h, 18 h or 6 days and carboxymethylcellulose (1% CMC) served as a vehicle and control. ELISA was used to measure TXA2 and PGE2 in serum. Bleeding time was assessed using tail blood. The results show that ASA and IBU either alone or in combination can cause gastric ulceration in 25-100% of the rats at 6 and 18 h. In contrast, gastric ulceration was seen in 50% of rats with a combination of ASA given before IBU only after 6 days of oral administration. BT was unaffected either by ASA or IBU when administered alone except after 18 h for IBU. In contrast, BT was significantly reduced when IBU was administered before ASA after 18 h and 6 days (P < 0.001). Serum PGE2 levels decreased significantly after ASA administered either alone or in combination with IBU for 6 h, 18 h and 6 days (P < 0.05). Serum TXA2 levels were significantly reduced after 6 h, 18 h and 6 days following ASA and IBU administration except for IBU alone which caused a significant increase in serum TXA2 6 days after its administration (P < 0.01). It can be concluded that ASA and IBU administered either alone or in combination can cause gastric ulcers in the rat stomach after 6 h and 18 h, but less severe after 6 days. IBU either alone or in combination with ASA reduced BT only after 18 h and 6 days of administration. Together, the results show that gastric ulceration correlated well with the inhibition of serum PGE2 and TXA2 levels.

  11. Helenalin and 11 alpha,13-dihydrohelenalin, two constituents from Arnica montana L., inhibit human platelet function via thiol-dependent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, H; Lösche, W; Strobach, H; Leven, W; Willuhn, G; Till, U; Schrör, K

    1990-03-15

    This study investigates the effect on human platelet function of two sesquiterpene lactones from Arnica montana L., helenalin (H) and 11 alpha,13-dihydrohelenalin (DH). Both compounds inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation, thromboxane formation and 5-hydroxytryptamine secretion in a concentration-dependent manner at 3-300 microM. When arachidonic acid was used as stimulus, thromboxane formation remained unaffected despite of inhibition of platelet aggregation. Both H and DH reduced the number of acid-soluble sulfhydryl groups in platelets, by up to 78% at anti-aggregatory concentrations. Moreover, H- and DH-induced platelet inhibition could be prevented by the thiol containing amino acid cysteine. It is concluded that H and DH inhibit platelet function via interaction with platelet sulfhydryl groups, probably associated with reduced phospholipase A2 activity.

  12. Xanthohumol, a Prenylated Flavonoid from Hops (Humulus lupulus), Prevents Platelet Activation in Human Platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ye-Ming; Hsieh, Kuo-Hsien; Lu, Wan-Jung; Chou, Hsiu-Chu; Chou, Duen-Suey; Lien, Li-Ming; Sheu, Joen-Rong; Lin, Kuan-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Xanthohumol is the principal prenylated flavonoid in the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.). Xanthohumol was found to be a very potent cancer chemopreventive agent through regulation of diverse mechanisms. However, no data are available concerning the effects of xanthohumol on platelet activation. The aim of this paper was to examine the antiplatelet effect of xanthohumol in washed human platelets. In the present paper, xanthohumol exhibited more-potent activity in inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen. Xanthohumol inhibited platelet activation accompanied by relative [Ca(2+)](i) mobilization, thromboxane A(2) formation, hydroxyl radical (OH(●)) formation, and phospholipase C (PLC)γ2, protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and Akt phosphorylation. Neither SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, nor ODQ, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, reversed the xanthohumol-mediated inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation. Furthermore, xanthohumol did not significantly increase nitrate formation in platelets. This study demonstrates for the first time that xanthohumol possesses potent antiplatelet activity which may initially inhibit the PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK, and PLCγ2-PKC cascades, followed by inhibition of the thromboxane A(2) formation, thereby leading to inhibition of [Ca(2+)](i) and finally inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, this novel role of xanthohumol may represent a high therapeutic potential for treatment or prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Xanthohumol, a Prenylated Flavonoid from Hops (Humulus lupulus, Prevents Platelet Activation in Human Platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Ming Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthohumol is the principal prenylated flavonoid in the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.. Xanthohumol was found to be a very potent cancer chemopreventive agent through regulation of diverse mechanisms. However, no data are available concerning the effects of xanthohumol on platelet activation. The aim of this paper was to examine the antiplatelet effect of xanthohumol in washed human platelets. In the present paper, xanthohumol exhibited more-potent activity in inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen. Xanthohumol inhibited platelet activation accompanied by relative [Ca2+]i mobilization, thromboxane A2 formation, hydroxyl radical (OH● formation, and phospholipase C (PLCγ2, protein kinase C (PKC, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, and Akt phosphorylation. Neither SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, nor ODQ, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, reversed the xanthohumol-mediated inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation. Furthermore, xanthohumol did not significantly increase nitrate formation in platelets. This study demonstrates for the first time that xanthohumol possesses potent antiplatelet activity which may initially inhibit the PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK, and PLCγ2-PKC cascades, followed by inhibition of the thromboxane A2 formation, thereby leading to inhibition of [Ca2+]i and finally inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, this novel role of xanthohumol may represent a high therapeutic potential for treatment or prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Platelet activation and lipid peroxidation in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. van Kooten (Fop); G. Ciabattoni; C. Patrono; D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Both platelet activation and lipid peroxidation are potential sources of vasoactive eicosanoids that can be produced via the cyclooxygenase pathway, ie, thromboxane (TX) A2, or by free radical-catalyzed peroxidation of arachidonic acid, ie, isoprostanes. We invest

  15. Platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tiny fraction of the blood volume. The principal function of platelets is to prevent bleeding. Red blood cells are ... forming a long string. This illustrates the basic function of platelets, to stick to any foreign surface and then ...

  16. Anti-thromboxane B2 antibodies protect against acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ćavar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostanoids are lipid compounds that mediate a variety of physiological and pathological functions in almost all body tissues and organs. Thromboxane (TX A2 is a powerful inducer of platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction and it has ulcerogenic activity in the gastrointestinal tract. Overdose or chronic use of a high dose of acetaminophen (N-acetyl-paminophenol, APAP is a major cause of acute liver failure in the Western world. We investigated whether TXA2 plays a role in host response to toxic effect of APAP. CBA/H Zg mice of both sexes were intoxicated with a single lethal or high sublethal dose of APAP, which was administered to animals by oral gavage. The toxicity of APAP was determined by observing the survival of mice during 48 h, by measuring concentration of alanine-aminotransferase (ALT in plasma 20-22 h after APAP administration and by liver histology. The results have shown that anti-thromboxane (TX B2 antibodies (anti-TXB2 and a selective inhibitor of thromboxane (TX synthase, benzylimidazole (BZI, were significantly hepatoprotective, while a selective thromboxane receptor (TPR antagonist, daltroban, was slightly protective in this model of acute liver injury. A stabile metabolite of TXA2, TXB2, and a stabile agonist of TPR, U-46619, had no influence on APAP-induced liver damage. Our findings suggest that TXA2 has a pathogenic role in acute liver toxicity induced with APAP, which was highly abrogated by administration of anti-TXB2. According to our results, this protection is mediated, at least in part, through decreased production of TXB2 by liver fragments ex vivo.

  17. Prostaglandin I2 and Prostaglandin E2 Modulate Human Intrarenal Artery Contractility Through Prostaglandin E2-EP4, Prostacyclin-IP, and Thromboxane A2-TP Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Morten P; Hansen, Pernille B L; Stubbe, Jane

    2014-01-01

    receptors. Intrarenal arteries were microdissected from human nephrectomy samples (n=53, median diameter ≈362 μm, 88% viable, 76% relaxed in response to acetylcholine). Rings were suspended in myographs to record force development. In vessels with K(+)-induced tension (EC70: -log [mol/L]=1.36±0.03), PGE2....../L elicited increased tension. This was abolished by thromboxane receptor (TP) antagonist (S18886, 10(-6) mol/L). A TP agonist (U46619, n=6) evoked tension (EC50=8.1±0.2) that was inhibited by S18886. Polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting showed EP4, IP, and TP receptors in intrarenal arteries......Cyclooxygenase inhibitors decrease renal blood flow in settings with decreased effective circulating volume. The present study examined the hypothesis that prostaglandins, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostacyclin (PGI2), induce relaxation of human intrarenal arteries through PGE2-EP and PGI2-IP...

  18. Evaluation of the TEG® platelet mappingTM assay in blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsen, Louise; Wiinberg, Bo; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads Jens

    2007-01-01

    for quantification of platelet function, including the contribution of the adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and thromboxane A2 (TxA2) receptors to clot formation. Methods In 43 healthy blood donors, the analytical (CVa) and inter-individual variability (CVg) of the TEG® Platelet MappingTM assay were determined together...... with platelet receptor inhibition in response to arachidonic acid (AA) and ADP. Results The CVa of the assay for maximal platelet contribution to clot strength (MAThrombin) was 3.5%, for the fibrin contribution to clot strength (MAFibrin) 5.2%, for MAAA 4.5% and for MAADP it was 6.6%. The MAThrombin CVg was 2...

  19. The effect of long-term hypoxia on tension and intracellular calcium responses following stimulation of the thromboxane A(2) receptor in the left anterior descending coronary artery of fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruko, Keiko; Stiffel, Virginia M; Gilbert, Raymond D

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of tension and intracellular calcium regulation following stimulation with the thromboxane A(2) receptor agonist U46619 in the left anterior descending coronary artery of fetal sheep exposed to long-term hypoxia. We hypothesized that there would be a reduction in intracellular calcium responses in long-term hypoxic left anterior descending coronary artery accompanied by an increase in calcium sensitivity of the contractile mechanism. Pregnant sheep were kept at altitude (3820 m) from day 30 of gestation until day 140. Fetal hearts from long-term hypoxic and from a control, normoxic group were obtained and the left anterior descending coronary artery of the fetus was dissected, cleaned, and mounted in a bath (Jasco) in which tension and intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)](i), using Fura-2, could be measured simultaneously following stimulation of the thromboxane A(2) receptor with U46619. The role of intracellular calcium and the Rho kinase and protein kinase C pathways in the tension responses were investigated by maintaining intracellular calcium constant or by using the Rho kinase blocker, Y27632, or the protein kinase C blocker, GF109203-X. There was no difference in the tension dose-response to U46619 between the normoxic fetal and hypoxic fetal left anterior descending, although [Ca(2+)](i) was lower in the hypoxic fetal than normoxic fetal at the highest doses. When [Ca(2+)]( i) was maintained constant at baseline levels, U46619 produced the same tension dose-response in both normoxic fetal and hypoxic fetal left anterior descending as when [Ca(2+)](i) was allowed to rise. The tension response was abolished in both groups when the Rho kinase inhibitor, Y27632, was given either during or before stimulation with U46619. The protein kinase C blocker, GF109203-X, had no effect on the tension response in either group. Long-term hypoxia did not alter the tension response to thromboxane A(2) receptor stimulation

  20. Mechanism of platelet activation induced by endocannabinoids in blood and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantl, S Annette; Khandoga, Anna L; Siess, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Platelets play a central role in atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis, and circulating endocannabinoids might modulate platelet function. Previous studies concerning effects of anandamide (N-arachidonylethanolamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) on platelets, mainly performed on isolated cells, provided conflicting results. We therefore investigated the action of three main endocannabinoids [anandamide, 2-AG and virodhamine (arachidonoylethanolamine)] on human platelets in blood and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). 2-AG and virodhamine induced platelet aggregation in blood, and shape change, aggregation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) secretion in PRP. The EC50 of 2-AG and virodhamine for platelet aggregation in blood was 97 and 160 µM, respectively. Lower concentrations of 2-AG (20 µM) and virodhamine (50 µM) synergistically induced aggregation with other platelet stimuli. Platelet activation induced by 2-AG and virodhamine resembled arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation: shape change, the first platelet response, ATP secretion and aggregation induced by 2-AG and virodhamine were all blocked by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or the specific thromboxane A2 (TXA2) antagonist daltroban. In addition, platelet activation induced by 2-AG and virodhamine in blood and PRP were inhibited by JZL184, a selective inhibitor of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). In contrast to 2-AG and virodhamine, anandamide, a substrate of fatty acid amidohydrolase, was inactive. Synthetic cannabinoid receptor subtype 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) agonists lacked stimulatory as well as inhibitory platelet activity. We conclude that 2-AG and virodhamine stimulate platelets in blood and PRP by a MAGL-triggered mechanism leading to free AA and its metabolism by platelet cyclooxygenase-1/thromboxane synthase to TXA2. CB1, CB2 or non-CB1/CB2 receptors are not involved. Our results imply that ASA and MAGL inhibitors will protect platelets from activation by high endocannabinoid levels, and that

  1. New analogues of 13-hydroxyocatdecadienoic acid and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid block human blood platelet aggregation and cyclooxygenase-1 activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirz Taghreed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thromboxane A2 is derived from arachidonic acid through the action of cyclooxygenases and thromboxane synthase. It is mainly formed in blood platelets upon activation and plays an important role in aggregation. Aspirin is effective in reducing the incidence of complications following acute coronary syndrome and stroke. The anti-thrombotic effect of aspirin is obtained through the irreversible inhibition of cyclooxygenases. Analogues of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and 13-hydroxyocatdecadienoic acid were shown previously to modulate platelet activation and to block thromboxane receptors. Results and discussion We synthesized 10 compounds based on the structures of analogues of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and 13-hydroxyocatdecadienoic acid and evaluated their effect on platelet aggregation triggered by arachidonic acid. The structure activity relationship was evaluated. Five compounds showed a significant inhibition of platelet aggregation and highlighted the importance of the lipidic hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain and the phenol group. Their IC50 ranged from 7.5 ± 0.8 to 14.2 ± 5.7 μM (Mean ± S.E.M.. All five compounds decreased platelet aggregation and thromboxane synthesis in response to collagen whereas no modification of platelet aggregation in response to thromboxane receptor agonist, U46619, was observed. Using COS-7 cells overexpressing human cyclooxygenase-1, we showed that these compounds are specific inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-1 with IC50 ranging from 1.3 to 12 μM. Docking observation of human recombinant cyclooxygenase-1 supported a role of the phenol group in the fitting of cyclooxygenase-1, most likely related to hydrogen bonding with the Tyr 355 of cyclooxygenase-1. Conclusions In conclusion, the compounds we synthesized at first based on the structures of analogues of 12 lipoxygenase metabolites showed a role of the phenol group in the anti-platelet and anti-cyclooxygenase-1 activities

  2. Skepinone-L, a Novel Potent and Highly Selective Inhibitor of p38 MAP Kinase, Effectively Impairs Platelet Activation and Thrombus Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Borst

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Platelets are critically important for primary haemostasis and the major players in thrombotic vascular occlusion. Platelets are activated by agonists, such as thrombin and collagen-related peptide as well as second-wave mediators including thromboxane A2 via different intracellular signaling pathways resulting in degranulation, aggregation and thrombus formation. Platelet activation is paralleled by phosphorylation and activation of p38 MAPK. The limited specificity of hitherto known p38 MAPK inhibitors precluded safe conclusions on the precise role of p38 MAPK in the regulation of platelet function. The present study examined the impact of Skepinone-L, a novel and highly selective inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK, on platelet activation and thrombus formation. Methods: Experiments were performed in freshly isolated human platelets. Protein phosphorylation was quantified by Western blotting, thromboxane B2 synthesis by enzyme immunoassay, ATP release by ChronoLume luciferin assay, cytosolic Ca2+ concentration by Fura-2 fluorescence-measurements, platelet aggregation by a light transmissions measurement and in vitro thrombus formation by a flow chamber. Results: Skepinone-L (1 μM virtually abrogated the phosphorylation of platelet p38 MAPK substrate Hsp27 following stimulation with CRP (1 μg/ml, thrombin (5 mU/ml or thromboxane A2 analogue U-46619 (1 μM. Furthermore, Skepinone-L significantly blunted activation-dependent platelet secretion and aggregation following threshold concentrations of CRP, thrombin and thromboxane A2 analogue U-46619. Skepinone-L did not impair platelet Ca2+ signaling but prevented agonist-induced thromboxane A2 synthesis through abrogation of p38 MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of platelet cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2. Skepinone-L further markedly blunted thrombus formation under low (500-s and high (1700-s arterial shear rates. Conclusions: The present study discloses

  3. Elevated plasma phospholipase A2 and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activity in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Denizot

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This clinical study reports that blood levels of the pro-inflammatory mediator platelet-activating factor (PAF did not change in colorectal cancer patients. In contrast, plasma levels of two enzymatic activities, one implicated in PAF production (i.e. phospholipase A2 and one in PAF degradation (i.e. PAF acetylhydrolase activity were significantly elevated.

  4. Secretory phospholipase A2 modified HDL rapidly and potently suppresses platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcic, Sanja; Holzer, Michael; Pasterk, Lisa; Knuplez, Eva; Eichmann, Thomas O; Frank, Saša; Zimmermann, Robert; Schicho, Rudolf; Heinemann, Akos; Marsche, Gunther

    2017-08-14

    Levels of secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2) highly increase under acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. sPLA2 is mainly associated with high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and generates bioactive lysophospholipids implicated in acute and chronic inflammatory processes. Unexpectedly, pharmacological inhibition of sPLA2 in patients with acute coronary syndrome was associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. Given that platelets are key players in thrombosis and inflammation, we hypothesized that sPLA2-induced hydrolysis of HDL-associated phospholipids (sPLA2-HDL) generates modified HDL particles that affect platelet function. We observed that sPLA2-HDL potently and rapidly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by several agonists, P-selectin expression, GPIIb/IIIa activation and superoxide production, whereas native HDL showed little effects. sPLA2-HDL suppressed the agonist-induced rise of intracellular Ca(2+) levels and phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2, which trigger key steps in promoting platelet activation. Importantly, sPLA2 in the absence of HDL showed no effects, whereas enrichment of HDL with lysophosphatidylcholines containing saturated fatty acids (the main sPLA2 products) mimicked sPLA2-HDL activities. Our findings suggest that sPLA2 generates lysophosphatidylcholine-enriched HDL particles that modulate platelet function under inflammatory conditions.

  5. Effect of a thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist ramatroban (BAY u 3405, on inflammatory cells, chemical mediators and non-specific nasal hyperreactivity after allergen challenge in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhisa Terada

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In some clinical studies performed in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis, ramatroban, a new thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist, significantly improved nasal symptoms. As yet the mechanism of action of this drug has not been fully elucidated. In the present study we investigated the effects of ramatroban on changes in nasal reactivity and levels of inflammatory cells and mediators in nasal lavage fluid after allergen challenge. Ramatroban was administered orally at a daily dose of 150 mg (b.i.d. for 4 weeks to 11 patients with perennial allergic rhinitis exhibiting positive responses to nasal allergen challenge with house dust mite. Analysis of variance revealed that there was a significant decrease in eosinophil counts and eosinophil cationic protein levels in nasal lavage fluid when compared with values immediately before allergen challenge before and after ramatroban treatment. Histamine, tryptase and albumin levels were significantly decreased in analysis of variance before and after ramatroban treatment. The degree of nasal reactivity to histamine was also significantly decreased after the ramatroban treatment. These findings indicate that ramatroban decreases important pathogenic factors in allergic rhinitis, resulting in an improvement in nasal symptoms.

  6. Defective acid hydrolase secretion in RUNX1 haplodeficiency: Evidence for a global platelet secretory defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A K; Poncz, M

    2017-06-29

    RUNX1 haplodeficiency is associated with thrombocytopenia, platelet dysfunction and a predisposition to acute leukaemia. Platelets possess three distinct types of granules and secretory processes involving dense granules (DG), α-granules and vesicles or lysosomes containing acid hydrolases (AH). Dense granules and granule deficiencies have been reported in patients with RUNX1 mutations. Little is known regarding the secretion from AH-containing vesicles. We studied two related patients with a RUNX1 mutation, easy bruising, and mild thrombocytopenia. Platelet aggregation and (14) C serotonin in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) were impaired in response to ADP, epinephrine, collagen and arachidonic acid. Contents of DG (ATP, ADP), α-granules (β-thromboglobulin) and AH-containing vesicles (β-glucuronidase, β-hexosaminidase, α-mannosidase) were normal or minimally decreased. Dense granules secretion on stimulation of gel-filtered platelets with thrombin and divalent ionophore A23187 (4-12 μmol L(-1) ) were diminished. β-thromboglobulin and AH secretion was impaired in response to thrombin or A23187. We studied thromboxane-related pathways. The incorporation of (14) C -arachidonic acid into phospholipids and subsequent arachidonic acid release on thrombin activation was normal. Platelet thromboxane A2 production in whole blood serum and on thrombin stimulation of PRP was normal, suggesting that the defective secretion was not due to impaired thromboxane production. These studies provide the first evidence in patients with a RUNX1 mutation for a defect in AH (lysosomal) secretion, and for a global defect in secretion involving all three types of platelet granules that is unrelated to a granule content deficiency. They highlight the pleiotropic effects and multiple platelet defects associated with RUNX1 mutations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Cognitive Stimulation Modulates Platelet Total Phospholipases A2 Activity in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balietti, Marta; Giuli, Cinzia; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Fabbietti, Paolo; Postacchini, Demetrio; Conti, Fiorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of cognitive stimulation (CS) on platelet total phospholipases A2 activity (tPLA2A) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI_P). At baseline, tPLA2A negatively correlated with Mini-Mental State Examination score (MMSE_s): patients with MMSE_s cognitive conditions of MCI_P, and that CS acts selectively on subjects with a dysregulated tPLA2A.

  8. Time-dependent effect of orchidectomy on vascular nitric oxide and thromboxane A2 release. Functional implications to control cell proliferation through activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta del Campo

    Full Text Available This study analyzes whether the release of nitric oxide (NO and thromboxane A2 (TXA2 depends on the time lapsed since gonadal function is lost, and their correlation with the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC mediated by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. For this purpose, aortic and mesenteric artery segments from control and 6-weeks or 5-months orchidectomized rats were used to measure NO and TXA2 release. The results showed that the basal and acetylcholine (ACh-induced NO release were decreased 6 weeks post-orchidectomy both in aorta and mesenteric artery, but were recovered 5 months thereafter up to levels similar to those found in arteries from control rats. The basal and ACh-induced TXA2 release increased in aorta and mesenteric artery 6 weeks post-orchidectomy, and was maintained at high levels 5 months thereafter. Since we previously observed that orchidectomy, which decreased testosterone level, enlarged the muscular layer of mesenteric arteries, the effect of testosterone on VSMC proliferation was analyzed. The results showed that treatment of cultured VSMC with testosterone downregulated mitogenic signaling pathways initiated by the ligand-dependent activation of the EGFR. In contrast, the EGFR pathways were constitutively active in mesenteric arteries of long-term orchidectomized rats. Thus, the exposure of mesenteric arteries from control rats to epidermal growth factor (EGF induced the activation of EGFR signaling pathways. However, the addition of EGF to arteries from orchidectomized rats failed to induce a further activation of these pathways. In conclusion, this study shows that the release of NO depends on the time lapsed since the gonadal function is lost, while the release of TXA2 is already increased after short periods post-orchidectomy. The alterations in these signaling molecules could contribute to the constitutive activation of the EGFR and its downstream signaling pathways after long period

  9. Time-dependent effect of orchidectomy on vascular nitric oxide and thromboxane A2 release. Functional implications to control cell proliferation through activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, Marta; Sagredo, Ana; del Campo, Lara; Villalobo, Antonio; Ferrer, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes whether the release of nitric oxide (NO) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) depends on the time lapsed since gonadal function is lost, and their correlation with the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) mediated by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). For this purpose, aortic and mesenteric artery segments from control and 6-weeks or 5-months orchidectomized rats were used to measure NO and TXA2 release. The results showed that the basal and acetylcholine (ACh)-induced NO release were decreased 6 weeks post-orchidectomy both in aorta and mesenteric artery, but were recovered 5 months thereafter up to levels similar to those found in arteries from control rats. The basal and ACh-induced TXA2 release increased in aorta and mesenteric artery 6 weeks post-orchidectomy, and was maintained at high levels 5 months thereafter. Since we previously observed that orchidectomy, which decreased testosterone level, enlarged the muscular layer of mesenteric arteries, the effect of testosterone on VSMC proliferation was analyzed. The results showed that treatment of cultured VSMC with testosterone downregulated mitogenic signaling pathways initiated by the ligand-dependent activation of the EGFR. In contrast, the EGFR pathways were constitutively active in mesenteric arteries of long-term orchidectomized rats. Thus, the exposure of mesenteric arteries from control rats to epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced the activation of EGFR signaling pathways. However, the addition of EGF to arteries from orchidectomized rats failed to induce a further activation of these pathways. In conclusion, this study shows that the release of NO depends on the time lapsed since the gonadal function is lost, while the release of TXA2 is already increased after short periods post-orchidectomy. The alterations in these signaling molecules could contribute to the constitutive activation of the EGFR and its downstream signaling pathways after long period post

  10. Thromboxane A2 receptor-mediated release of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) induces expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by activation of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuling; Tai, Hsin-Hsiung

    2014-08-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, CCL2) are known to be upregulated in many tumors. Their roles in tumor invasion and metastasis are being uncovered. How they are related to each other and involved in tumor progression remains to be determined. Earlier it was reported that I-BOP-initiated activation of thromboxane A2 receptor (TP) induced the release of MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-9 from lung cancer A549 cells overexpressing TPα (A549-TPα). Herein it was found that MMP-1, but not MMP-3 or MMP-9, induced the expression of MCP-1 in A549 cells. Conditioned medium (CM) from I-BOP activated, MMP-1 siRNA pretreated A549-TPα cells induced greatly attenuated expression of MCP-1 in A549 cells indicating that MMP-1 in the CM contributed significantly to the expression of MCP-1. MMP-1 was shown to activate protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) instead of commonly assumed PAR1 to increase the expression of MCP-1 in A549 cells. This conclusion was reached from the following findings: (1) expression of MCP-1 induced by trypsin, a PAR2 agonist, and also PAR2 agonist peptide, was inhibited by a PAR2 antagonist; (2) expression of MCP-1 induced by MMP-1 and by CM from I-BOP activated A549-TPα cells was blocked by a PAR2 antagonist but not by other PAR antagonists; (3) expression of MCP-1 induced by MMP-1 and by CM from I-BOP activated A549-TPα cells was attenuated significantly by pretreatment of cells with PAR2-siRNA. These results suggest that PAR2 is a novel MMP-1 target mediating MMP-1-induced signals in A549 lung cancer cells.

  11. Echicetin coated polystyrene beads: a novel tool to investigate GPIb-specific platelet activation and aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navdaev, Alexey; Subramanian, Hariharan; Petunin, Alexey; Clemetson, Kenneth J; Gambaryan, Stepan; Walter, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    von Willebrand factor/ristocetin (vWF/R) induces GPIb-dependent platelet agglutination and activation of αIIbβ3 integrin, which also binds vWF. These conditions make it difficult to investigate GPIb-specific signaling pathways in washed platelets. Here, we investigated the specific mechanisms of GPIb signaling using echicetin-coated polystyrene beads, which specifically activate GPIb. We compared platelet activation induced by echicetin beads to vWF/R. Human platelets were stimulated with polystyrene beads coated with increasing amounts of echicetin and platelet activation by echicetin beads was then investigated to reveal GPIb specific signaling. Echicetin beads induced αIIbβ3-dependent aggregation of washed platelets, while under the same conditions vWF/R treatment led only to αIIbβ3-independent platelet agglutination. The average distance between the echicetin molecules on the polystyrene beads must be less than 7 nm for full platelet activation, while the total amount of echicetin used for activation is not critical. Echicetin beads induced strong phosphorylation of several proteins including p38, ERK and PKB. Synergistic signaling via P2Y12 and thromboxane receptor through secreted ADP and TxA2, respectively, were important for echicetin bead triggered platelet activation. Activation of PKG by the NO/sGC/cGMP pathway inhibited echicetin bead-induced platelet aggregation. Echicetin-coated beads are powerful and reliable tools to study signaling in human platelets activated solely via GPIb and GPIb-triggered pathways.

  12. Thrombopoietin potentiates agonist-stimulated activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezumi, Y; Nishida, E; Uchiyama, T; Takayama, H

    1999-07-22

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) plays a crucial role in megakaryocyte differentiation and platelet production. c-Mpl, a receptor for TPO, is also expressed in terminally differentiated platelets. We investigated the effects of TPO on activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in human platelets. Thrombin, a thrombin receptor agonist peptide, a thromboxane A(2) analogue, collagen, crosslinking the glycoprotein VI, ADP, and epinephrine, but not phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate activated p38. TPO did not activate p38 by itself, whereas TPO pretreatment potentiated the agonist-induced activation of p38. TPO did not promote phosphorylation of Hsp27 and cytosolic phospholipase A(2) by itself, but enhanced thrombin-induced phosphorylation of them. The specific p38 inhibitor SB203580 strongly inhibited such phosphorylation. Thus, TPO possesses the priming effect on p38 activation in human platelets and could affect platelet functions through the p38 pathway. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  13. Differential expression of thromboxane synthase in prostate carcinoma: role in tumor cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Daotai; Che, Mingxin; Zacharek, Alex; Qiao, Yan; Li, Li; Li, Xinglin; Lamberti, Mario; Tang, Keqin; Cai, Yilong; Guo, Yande; Grignon, David; Honn, Kenneth V

    2004-02-01

    Arachidonic acid metabolism through cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, or P-450 epoxygenase pathways can generate a variety of eicosanoids. Thromboxane synthase (TxS) metabolizes the cyclooxygenase product, prostanglandin H(2), into thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)), which can cause vessel constriction, platelet activation, and aggregation. Here we demonstrate that human prostate cancer (PCa) cells express enzymatically active TxS and that this enzyme is involved in cell motility. In human PCa cell lines, PC-3, PC-3M, and ML-2 cells expressed higher levels of TxS than normal prostate epithelial cells or other established PCa cell lines such as DU145, LNCaP, or PPC-1. We cloned and sequenced the full-length TxS cDNA from PC-3 cells and found two changes in the amino acid residues. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor specimens revealed that expression of TxS is weak or absent in normal differentiated luminal, or secretory cells, significantly elevated in less differentiated or advanced prostate tumors, and markedly increased in tumors with perineural invasion. TxS expressed in PC-3 cells was enzymatically active and susceptible to carboxyheptal imidazole, an inhibitor of TxS. The biosynthesis of TXA(2) in PC-3 cells was dependent on COX-2, and to a lesser extent, COX-1. Treatment of PC-3 cells with a COX-1 selective inhibitor, piroxicam, reduced TXA(2) synthesis by approximately 40%, while the COX-2 specific inhibitor NS398 reduced TXA(2) production by approximately 80%. Inhibition of TxS activity or blockade of TXA(2) function reduced PC-3 cell migration on fibronectin, while having minimal effects on cell cycle progression or survival. Finally, increased expression of TxS in DU145 cells increased cell motility. Our data suggest that human PCa cells express TxS and that this enzyme may contribute to PCa progression through modulating cell motility.

  14. SDF-1α is a novel autocrine activator of platelets operating through its receptor CXCR4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Tony G; Harper, Matthew T; Poole, Alastair W

    2015-01-01

    Platelets store and secrete the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α upon platelet activation, but the ability of platelet-derived SDF-1α to signal in an autocrine/paracrine manner mediating functional platelet responses relevant to thrombosis and haemostasis is unknown. We sought to explore the role of platelet-derived SDF-1α and its receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7 in facilitating platelet activation and determine the mechanism facilitating SDF-1α-mediated regulation of platelet function. Using human washed platelets, CXCR4 inhibition, but not CXCR7 blockade significantly abrogated collagen-mediated platelet aggregation, dense granule secretion and thromboxane (Tx) A2 production. Time-dependent release of SDF-1α from collagen-activated platelets supports a functional role for SDF-1α in this regard. Using an in vitro whole blood perfusion assay, collagen-induced thrombus formation was substantially reduced with CXCR4 inhibition. In washed platelets, recombinant SDF-1α in the range of 20-100 ng/mL(-1) could significantly enhance platelet aggregation responses to a threshold concentration of collagen. These enhancements were completely dependent on CXCR4, but not CXCR7, which triggered TxA2 production and dense granule secretion. Rises in cAMP were significantly blunted by SDF-1α, which could also enhance collagen-mediated Ca2+ mobilisation, both of which were mediated by CXCR4. This potentiating effect of SDF-1α primarily required TxA2 signalling acting upstream of dense granule secretion, whereas blockade of ADP signalling could only partially attenuate SDF-1α-induced platelet activation. Therefore, this study supports a potentially novel autocrine/paracrine role for platelet-derived SDF-1α during thrombosis and haemostasis, through a predominantly TxA2-dependent and ADP-independent pathway.

  15. An inhibitor selective for collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation from the salivary glands of hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis and its mechanism of action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程远国; 吴厚永; 李德昌

    1999-01-01

    Soluble materials of salivary glands from Haemaphysalis longicornis were found to inhibit collagen, ADP, and thrombin-stimulated platelet aggregation. One inhibitory component was purified to salivary gland homogeneity by a combination of gel filtration, ion-exchange, and C8 reverse phase HPLC. The purified activity, named longieornin, is a protein of moleeular weight 16 000 on SDS-PAGE under both reduced and nonredueed conditions. Collagen-mediated aggregation of platelets in plasma and of washed platelets (IC50 was approximately 60 nmol/L) was inhibited with the same efficacy. No inhibition of aggregation stimulated by other effeetors, including ADP, arachidonic acid, thrombin, ristocetin, calcium ionophore A23187, thromboxane A2 mimetic U46619 and 12-O-phorbol-13-myristate acetate, was observed. Longieonin had no effect on platelet adhension to collagen. Not only platelet aggregation but also release reaction, and increase of intraeellar Ca2+ level of platelets in response to collagen were com

  16. Platelets release mitochondria serving as substrate for bactericidal group IIA-secreted phospholipase A2 to promote inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Luc H.; Duchez, Anne-Claire; Cloutier, Nathalie; Soulet, Denis; Martin, Nicolas; Bollinger, James; Paré, Alexandre; Rousseau, Matthieu; Naika, Gajendra S.; Lévesque, Tania; Laflamme, Cynthia; Marcoux, Geneviève; Lambeau, Gérard; Farndale, Richard W.; Pouliot, Marc; Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Cognasse, Fabrice; Garraud, Olivier; Nigrovic, Peter A.; Guderley, Helga; Lacroix, Steve; Thibault, Louis; Semple, John W.; Gelb, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a highly potent inflammatory trigger and is reportedly found outside the cells in blood in various pathologies. Platelets are abundant in blood where they promote hemostasis. Although lacking a nucleus, platelets contain functional mitochondria. On activation, platelets produce extracellular vesicles known as microparticles. We hypothesized that activated platelets could also release their mitochondria. We show that activated platelets release respiratory-competent mitochondria, both within membrane-encapsulated microparticles and as free organelles. Extracellular mitochondria are found in platelet concentrates used for transfusion and are present at higher levels in those that induced acute reactions (febrile nonhemolytic reactions, skin manifestations, and cardiovascular events) in transfused patients. We establish that the mitochondrion is an endogenous substrate of secreted phospholipase A2 IIA (sPLA2-IIA), a phospholipase otherwise specific for bacteria, likely reflecting the ancestral proteobacteria origin of mitochondria. The hydrolysis of the mitochondrial membrane by sPLA2-IIA yields inflammatory mediators (ie, lysophospholipids, fatty acids, and mtDNA) that promote leukocyte activation. Two-photon microscopy in live transfused animals revealed that extracellular mitochondria interact with neutrophils in vivo, triggering neutrophil adhesion to the endothelial wall. Our findings identify extracellular mitochondria, produced by platelets, at the midpoint of a potent mechanism leading to inflammatory responses. PMID:25082876

  17. Angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonists inhibit platelet adhesion and aggregation by nitric oxide release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Leszek; Matys, Tomasz; Chabielska, Ewa; Buczko, Włodzimierz; Malinski, Tadeusz

    2002-10-01

    This study investigated the process of nitric oxide (NO) release from platelets after stimulation with different angiotensin II type 1 (AT1)-receptor antagonists and its effect on platelet adhesion and aggregation. Angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonist-stimulated NO release in platelets was compared with that in human umbilical vein endothelial cells by using a highly sensitive porphyrinic microsensor. In vitro and ex vivo effects of angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonists on platelet adhesion to collagen and thromboxane A2 analog U46619-induced aggregation were evaluated. Losartan, EXP3174, and valsartan alone caused NO release from platelets and endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner in the range of 0.01 to 100 micro mol/L, which was attenuated by NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. The angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonists had more than 70% greater potency in NO release in platelets than in endothelial cells. The degree of inhibition of platelet adhesion (collagen-stimulated) and aggregation (U46619-stimulated) elicited by losartan, EXP3174, and valsartan, either in vitro or ex vivo, closely correlated with the NO levels produced by each of these drugs alone. The inhibiting effects of angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonists on collagen-stimulated adhesion and U46619-stimulated aggregation of platelets were significantly reduced by pretreatment with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Neither the AT2 receptor antagonist PD123319, the cyclooxygenase synthase inhibitor indomethacin, nor the selective thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 receptor antagonist SQ29,548 had any effect on angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonist-stimulated NO release in platelets and endothelial cells. The presented studies clearly indicate a crucial role of NO in the arterial antithrombotic effects of angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonists.

  18. Platelet function in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line A.; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Pedersen, Henrik D.

    2007-01-01

    Cairn Terriers, 10 Boxers, and 11 Labrador Retrievers) were included in the study. Platelet function was assessed by whole-blood aggregation with ADP (1, 5, 10, and 20 µM) as agonist and by PFA-100 using collagen and epinephrine (Col + Epi) and Cpæ + ADP as agonists. Plasma thromboxane B2 concentration......Background: Clinical studies investigating platelet function in dogs have had conflicting results that may be caused by normal physiologic variation in platelet response to agonists. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate platelet function in clinically healthy dogs of 4...... different breeds by whole-blood aggregometry and with a point-of-care platelet function analyzer (PFA-100), and to evaluate the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) administration on the results from both methods. Methods: Forty-five clinically healthy dogs (12 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels [CKCS], 12...

  19. Transcriptional regulation of human thromboxane synthase gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.D.; Baek, S.J.; Fleischer, T [Univ. of Maryland Medical School, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The human thromboxane synthase (TS) gene encodes a microsomal enzyme catalyzing the conversion of prostaglandin endoperoxide into thromboxane A{sub 2}(TxA{sub 2}), a potent inducer of vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation. A deficiency in platelet TS activity results in bleeding disorders, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. Increased TxA{sub 2} has been associated with many pathophysiological conditions such as cardiovascular disease, pulmonary hypertension, pre-eclampsia, and thrombosis in sickle cell patients. Since the formation of TxA{sub 2} is dependent upon TS, the regulation of TS gene expression may presumably play a crucial role in vivo. Abrogation of the regulatory mechanism in TS gene expression might contribute, in part, to the above clinical manifestations. To gain insight into TS gene regulation, a 1.7 kb promoter of the human TS gene was cloned and sequenced. RNase protection assay and 5{prime} RACE protocols were used to map the transcription initiation site to nucleotide A, 30 bp downstream from a canonical TATA box. Several transcription factor binding sites, including AP-1, PU.1, and PEA3, were identified within this sequence. Transient expression studies in HL-60 cells transfected with constructs containing various lengths (0.2 to 5.5 kb) of the TS promoter/luciferase fusion gene indicated the presence of multiple repressor elements within the 5.5 kb TS promoter. However, a lineage-specific up-regulation of TS gene expression was observed in HL-60 cells induced by TPA to differentiate along the macrophage lineage. The increase in TS transcription was not detectable until 36 hr after addition of the inducer. These results suggest that expression of the human TS gene may be regulated by a mechanism involving repression and derepression of the TS promoter.

  20. JAM-A protects from thrombosis by suppressing integrin αIIbβ3-dependent outside-in signaling in platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Meghna U; Stalker, Timothy J; Brass, Lawrence F; Naik, Ulhas P

    2012-04-05

    Mounting evidence suggests that agonist-initiated signaling in platelets is closely regulated to avoid excessive responses to injury. A variety of physiologic agonists induce a cascade of signaling events termed as inside-out signaling that culminate in exposure of high-affinity binding sites on integrin α(IIb)β(3). Once platelet activation has occurred, integrin α(IIb)β(3) stabilizes thrombus formation by providing agonist-independent "outside-in" signals mediated in part by contractile signaling. Junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A), a member of the cortical thymocyte marker of the Xenopus (CTX) family, was initially identified as a receptor for a platelet stimulatory mAb. Here we show that JAM-A in resting platelets functions as an endogenous inhibitor of platelet function. Genetic ablation of Jam-A in mice enhances thrombotic function of platelets in vivo. The absence of Jam-A results in increase in platelet aggregation ex vivo. This gain of function is not because of enhanced inside-out signaling because granular secretion, Thromboxane A2 (TxA2) generation, as well as fibrinogen receptor activation, are normal in the absence of Jam-A. Interestingly, integrin outside-in signaling such as platelet spreading and clot retraction is augmented in Jam-A-deficient platelets. We conclude that JAM-A normally limits platelet accumulation by inhibiting integrin outside-in signaling thus preventing premature platelet activation.

  1. Thromboxane synthase deficiency improves insulin action and attenuates adipose tissue fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xia; Li, Qing; Rodriguez, Susana; Tan, Stefanie Y; Seldin, Marcus M; McLenithan, John C; Jia, Weiping; Wong, G William

    2015-05-01

    Thromboxane A2, an arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoid generated by thromboxane synthase (TBXAS), plays critical roles in hemostasis and inflammation. However, the contribution of thromboxane A2 to obesity-linked metabolic dysfunction remains incompletely understood. Here, we used in vitro and mouse models to better define the role of TBXAS in metabolic homeostasis. We found that adipose expression of Tbxas and thromboxane A2 receptor (Tbxa2r) was significantly upregulated in genetic and dietary mouse models of obesity and diabetes. Expression of Tbxas and Tbxa2r was detected in adipose stromal cells, including macrophages. Furthermore, stimulation of macrophages with interferon-γ or resistin factors known to be upregulated in obesity induced Tbxas and Tbxa2r expression. Mice lacking Tbxas had similar weight gain, food intake, and energy expenditure. However, loss of Tbxas markedly enhanced insulin sensitivity in mice fed a low-fat diet. Improvement in glucose homeostasis was correlated with the upregulated expression of multiple secreted metabolic regulators (Ctrp3, Ctrp9, and Ctrp12) in the visceral fat depot. Following a challenge with a high-fat diet, Tbxas deficiency led to attenuated adipose tissue fibrosis and reduced circulating IL-6 levels without adipose tissue macrophages being affected; however, these changes were not sufficient to improve whole body insulin action. Together, our results highlight a novel, diet-dependent role for thromboxane A2 in modulating peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity and adipose tissue fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Thromboxane synthase deficiency improves insulin action and attenuates adipose tissue fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xia; Li, Qing; Rodriguez, Susana; Tan, Stefanie Y.; Seldin, Marcus M.; McLenithan, John C.; Jia, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Thromboxane A2, an arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoid generated by thromboxane synthase (TBXAS), plays critical roles in hemostasis and inflammation. However, the contribution of thromboxane A2 to obesity-linked metabolic dysfunction remains incompletely understood. Here, we used in vitro and mouse models to better define the role of TBXAS in metabolic homeostasis. We found that adipose expression of Tbxas and thromboxane A2 receptor (Tbxa2r) was significantly upregulated in genetic and dietary mouse models of obesity and diabetes. Expression of Tbxas and Tbxa2r was detected in adipose stromal cells, including macrophages. Furthermore, stimulation of macrophages with interferon-γ or resistin factors known to be upregulated in obesity induced Tbxas and Tbxa2r expression. Mice lacking Tbxas had similar weight gain, food intake, and energy expenditure. However, loss of Tbxas markedly enhanced insulin sensitivity in mice fed a low-fat diet. Improvement in glucose homeostasis was correlated with the upregulated expression of multiple secreted metabolic regulators (Ctrp3, Ctrp9, and Ctrp12) in the visceral fat depot. Following a challenge with a high-fat diet, Tbxas deficiency led to attenuated adipose tissue fibrosis and reduced circulating IL-6 levels without adipose tissue macrophages being affected; however, these changes were not sufficient to improve whole body insulin action. Together, our results highlight a novel, diet-dependent role for thromboxane A2 in modulating peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity and adipose tissue fibrosis. PMID:25738781

  3. Foetal vascular responses to thromboxane receptor blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Meyer

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that foetal administration of SQ-29,548, a putative thromboxane receptor blocker, would prevent foeto–placental vasoconstriction produced by the thromboxane mimic U46619. Arterial blood gases, continuous monitoring of maternal and foetal heart rates and blood pressures were performed in chronically catheterized pregnant ewes. Foetal blood flows and vascular resistance were determined with radioactive microspheres. SQ-29,548 effectively blocked the expected vasoconstrictive effects of thromboxane. However, prolonged infusion of SQ-29,548 resulted in significant decreases in umbilical–placental blood flow and foetal mean arterial pressure. This was accompanied by a respiratory acidemia. Potential therapy for the vasoconstrictive disorders of pregnancy with SQ-29,548 awaits further investigation of its intrinsic vasoactive properties in the umbilical–placental vasculature.

  4. Cyclic nucleotides and mitogen-activated protein kinases: regulation of simvastatin in platelet activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Ssu-Yu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins have been widely used to reduce cardiovascular risk. These statins (i.e., simvastatin may exert other effects besides from their cholesterol-lowering actions, including inhibition of platelet activation. Platelet activation is relevant to a variety of coronary heart diseases. Although the inhibitory effect of simvastatin in platelet activation has been studied; the detailed signal transductions by which simvastatin inhibit platelet activation has not yet been completely resolved. Methods The aim of this study was to systematically examine the detailed mechanisms of simvastatin in preventing platelet activation. Platelet aggregation, flow cytometric analysis, immunoblotting, and electron spin resonance studies were used to assess the antiplatelet activity of simvastatin. Results Simvastatin (20-50 μM exhibited more-potent activity of inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen than other agonists (i.e., thrombin. Simvastatin inhibited collagen-stimulated platelet activation accompanied by [Ca2+]i mobilization, thromboxane A2 (TxA2 formation, and phospholipase C (PLCγ2, protein kinase C (PKC, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (i.e., p38 MAPK, JNKs phosphorylation in washed platelets. Simvastatin obviously increased both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels. Simvastatin markedly increased NO release, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP phosphorylation, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression. SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, markedly reversed the simvastatin-mediated inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation, PLCγ2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and simvastatin-mediated stimulatory effects on VASP and eNOS phosphorylation. Conclusion The most important findings of this study demonstrate for the first time that inhibitory effect of simvastatin in platelet activation may involve activation of the cyclic AMP

  5. In vitro and in vivo characterization of ultraviolet light C-irradiated human platelets in a 2 event mouse model of transfusion.

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    Li Zhi

    Full Text Available UV-based pathogen reduction technologies have been developed in recent years to inactivate pathogens and contaminating leukocytes in platelet transfusion products in order to prevent transfusion-transmitted infections and alloimmunization. UVC-based technology differs from UVA or UVB-based technologies in that it uses a specific wavelength at 254 nm without the addition of any photosensitizers. Previously, it was reported that UVC irradiation induces platelet aggregation and activation. To understand if UVC-induced changes of platelet quality correlate with potential adverse events when these platelets are transfused into animals, we used a 2-event SCID mouse model in which the predisposing event was LPS treatment and the second event was infusion of UVC-irradiated platelets. We analyzed lung platelet accumulation, protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as an indication of lung injury, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2 release in mice received UVC-irradiated or untreated control platelets. Our results showed UVC-irradiated platelets accumulated in lungs of the mice in a dose-dependent manner. High-doses of UVC-irradiated platelets were sequestered in the lungs to a similar level as we previously reported for UVB-irradiated platelets. Unlike UVB-platelets, UVC-platelets did not lead to lung injury or induce MIP-2 release. This could potentially be explained by our observation that although UVC treatment activated platelet surface αIIbβ3, it failed to activate platelet cells. It also suggests lung platelet accumulation and subsequent lung damage are due to different and separate mechanisms which require further investigation.

  6. In vitro and in vivo characterization of ultraviolet light C-irradiated human platelets in a 2 event mouse model of transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Li; Chi, Xuan; Vostal, Jaroslav G

    2013-01-01

    UV-based pathogen reduction technologies have been developed in recent years to inactivate pathogens and contaminating leukocytes in platelet transfusion products in order to prevent transfusion-transmitted infections and alloimmunization. UVC-based technology differs from UVA or UVB-based technologies in that it uses a specific wavelength at 254 nm without the addition of any photosensitizers. Previously, it was reported that UVC irradiation induces platelet aggregation and activation. To understand if UVC-induced changes of platelet quality correlate with potential adverse events when these platelets are transfused into animals, we used a 2-event SCID mouse model in which the predisposing event was LPS treatment and the second event was infusion of UVC-irradiated platelets. We analyzed lung platelet accumulation, protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as an indication of lung injury, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) release in mice received UVC-irradiated or untreated control platelets. Our results showed UVC-irradiated platelets accumulated in lungs of the mice in a dose-dependent manner. High-doses of UVC-irradiated platelets were sequestered in the lungs to a similar level as we previously reported for UVB-irradiated platelets. Unlike UVB-platelets, UVC-platelets did not lead to lung injury or induce MIP-2 release. This could potentially be explained by our observation that although UVC treatment activated platelet surface αIIbβ3, it failed to activate platelet cells. It also suggests lung platelet accumulation and subsequent lung damage are due to different and separate mechanisms which require further investigation.

  7. Pharmacological characterization of nanoparticle-induced platelet microaggregation using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation: comparison with light aggregometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Martinez, Maria J; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Medina, Carlos; Bazou, Despina; Gilmer, John F; Radomski, Marek W

    2015-01-01

    Background Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) can induce platelet activation and aggregation, but the mechanisms underlying these interactions are not well understood. This could be due in part to use of devices that study platelet function under quasi-static conditions with low sensitivity to measure platelet microaggregation. Therefore, in this study we investigated the pharmacological pathways and regulators of NP-induced platelet microaggregation under flow conditions at nanoscale using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and compared the data thus obtained with those generated by light aggregometry. Methods Blood was collected from healthy volunteers, and platelet-rich plasma was obtained. Thrombin receptor-activating peptide, a potent stimulator of platelet function, and pharmacological inhibitors were used to modulate platelet microaggregation in the presence/absence of silica (10 nm and 50 nm) and polystyrene (23 nm) NPs. Light aggregometry was used to study platelet aggregation in macroscale. Optical, immunofluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy were also used to visualize platelet aggregates. Results Platelet microaggregation was enhanced by thrombin receptor-activating peptide, whereas prostacyclin, nitric oxide donors, acetylsalicylic acid, and phenanthroline, but not adenosine diphosphate (ADP) blockers, were able to inhibit platelet microaggregation. NPs caused platelet microaggregation, an effect not detectable by light aggregometry. NP-induced microaggregation was attenuated by platelet inhibitors. Conclusion NP-induced platelet microaggregation appears to involve classical proaggregatory pathways (thromboxane A2-mediated and matrix metalloproteinase-2-mediated) and can be regulated by endogenous (prostacyclin) and pharmacological (acetylsalicylic acid, phenanthroline, and nitric oxide donors) inhibitors of platelet function. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, but not light aggregometry, is an appropriate method for

  8. Circulating primers enhance platelet function and induce resistance to antiplatelet therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, T A; Moore, S F; Hers, I

    2015-01-01

    Background Aspirin and P2Y12 antagonists are antiplatelet compounds that are used clinically in patients with thrombosis. However, some patients are ‘resistant’ to antiplatelet therapy, which increases their risk of developing acute coronary syndromes. These patients often present with an underlying condition that is associated with altered levels of circulating platelet primers and platelet hyperactivity. Platelet primers cannot stimulate platelet activation, but, in combination with physiologic stimuli, significantly enhance platelet function. Objectives To explore the role of platelet primers in resistance to antiplatelet therapy, and to evaluate whether phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) contributes to this process. Methods and Results We used platelet aggregation, thromboxane A2 production and ex vivo thrombus formation as functional readouts of platelet activity. Platelets were treated with the potent P2Y12 inhibitor AR-C66096, aspirin, or a combination of both, in the presence or absence of the platelet primers insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and thrombopoietin (TPO), or the Gz-coupled receptor ligand epinephrine. We found that platelet primers largely overcame the inhibitory effects of antiplatelet compounds on platelet functional responses. IGF-1-mediated and TPO-mediated, but not epinephrine-mediated, enhancements in the presence of antiplatelet drugs were blocked by the PI3K inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. Conclusions These results demonstrate that platelet primers can contribute to antiplatelet resistance. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that there are PI3K-dependent and PI3K-independent mechanisms driving primer-mediated resistance to antiplatelet therapy. PMID:26039631

  9. DMSO inhibits human platelet activation through cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition. A novel agent for drug eluting stents?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmis, Lars [Institute for Clinical Hematology, University Hospital Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Tanner, Felix C. [Cardiovascular Research, Physiology Institute, University of Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Center for Integrative Human Physiology, University of Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, University Hospital Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Sudano, Isabella [Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, University Hospital Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Luescher, Thomas F. [Cardiovascular Research, Physiology Institute, University of Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Center for Integrative Human Physiology, University of Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, University Hospital Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Camici, Giovanni G., E-mail: giovannic@access.uzh.ch [Cardiovascular Research, Physiology Institute, University of Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Center for Integrative Human Physiology, University of Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-01-22

    Background: DMSO is routinely infused together with hematopoietic cells in patients undergoing myeloablative therapy and was recently found to inhibit smooth muscle cells proliferation and arterial thrombus formation in the mouse by preventing tissue factor (TF), a key activator of the coagulation cascade. This study was designed to investigate whether DMSO prevents platelet activation and thus, whether it may represent an interesting agent to be used on drug eluting stents. Methods and results: Human venous blood from healthy volunteers was collected in citrated tubes and platelet activation was studied by cone and platelet analyzer (CPA) and rapid-platelet-function-assay (RPFA). CPA analysis showed that DMSO-treated platelets exhibit a lower adherence in response to shear stress (-15.54 {+-} 0.9427%, n = 5, P < 0.0001 versus control). Additionally, aggregometry studies revealed that DMSO-treated, arachidonate-stimulated platelets had an increased lag phase (18.0% {+-} 4.031, n = 9, P = 0.0004 versus control) as well as a decreased maximal aggregation (-6.388 {+-} 2.212%, n = 6, P = 0.0162 versus control). Inhibitory action of DMSO could be rescued by exogenous thromboxane A2 and was mediated, at least in part, by COX-1 inhibition. Conclusions: Clinically relevant concentrations of DMSO impair platelet activation by a thromboxane A2-dependent, COX-1-mediated effect. This finding may be crucial for the previously reported anti-thrombotic property displayed by DMSO. Our findings support a role for DMSO as a novel drug to prevent not only proliferation, but also thrombotic complications of drug eluting stents.

  10. 血栓素 A2受体通过介导环氧酶2的合成增强类风湿关节炎滑膜细胞的增殖作用%Thromboxane A2 receptor induces proliferation of rheumatoid arthritis synovial cells by up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储永良; 黄清春; 黄闰月; 晏靖遥; 陈秀敏; 徐侦雄

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究血栓素A2受体(thromboxane A2 receptor, TXA2R)作为环氧酶2(cyclooxygenase-2, COX-2)下游产物对类风湿关节炎(rheumatoid arthritis,RA)滑膜细胞增殖力和COX-2表达的影响。方法:利用细胞增殖与毒性检测试剂盒(MTS)检测TXA2R拮抗剂SQ29548和激动剂U46619对RA关节滑膜细胞MH7A增殖力的影响作用,并用real-time PCR检测它们对COX-2 mRNA表达的影响;利用BrdU细胞增殖检测法观察MH7A细胞在转染COX-2小干扰RNA(small interfering RNA, siRNA)后细胞增殖受抑制的情况及额外施加U46619的可能影响。结果:SQ29548和U46619分别具有抑制和促进MH7A细胞增殖力与COX-2 mRNA表达的作用,且U46619可在一定程度上重建由COX-2 siRNA所抑制的MH7A细胞增殖力。结论:TXA2通过其受体TXA2 R既可控制COX-2的表达,又可介导COX-2的细胞增殖效应,有可能作为RA治疗较为理想的新靶标。%AIM:To examine the effects of thromboxane A 2 receptor ( TXA2 R) , the downstream product of cy-clooxygenase-2 (COX-2), on the proliferative ability and COX-2 expression in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial cells. METHODS:The effects of TXA2 R antagonist SQ29548 and agonist U46619 on the proliferation of RA synovial cell line MH7A were detected by MTS cell proliferation assay , and their effects on COX-2 mRNA expression in MH7A cells were al-so examined by real-time PCR.In addition, the possible effect of U46619 on the proliferation of MH7A cells, when COX-2 was knocked down by siRNA , was determined by BrdU cell proliferation assay .RESULTS:SQ29548 inhibited the cell proliferation and the mRNA level of COX-2 while U46619 enhanced them.Moreover, U46619 reconstitute the proliferative ability of MH7A cells to some extent that inhibited by COX-2 siRNA.CONCLUSION: In RA synovial cells, TXA2R is able to control COX-2 expression, while it also mediates the effects of COX-2, suggesting that TXA2R might be an ideal

  11. Inhibition of Glycoprotein VI Clustering by Collagen as a Mechanism of Inhibiting Collagen-Induced Platelet Responses: The Example of Losartan.

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    Peng Jiang

    Full Text Available Exposure of platelets to collagen triggers the formation of a platelet clot. Pharmacological agents capable of inhibiting platelet activation by collagen are thus of potential therapeutic interest. Thrombus formation is initiated by the interaction of the GPIb-V-IX complex with collagen-bound vWF, while GPVI interaction with collagen triggers platelet activation that is reinforced by ADP and thromboxane A2. Losartan is an angiotensin II (Ang II type I receptor (AT1R antagonist proposed to have an antiplatelet activity via the inhibition of both the thromboxane A2 (TXA2 receptor (TP and the glycoprotein VI (GPVI. Here, we characterized in vitro the effects of losartan at different doses on platelet responses: losartan inhibited platelet aggregation and secretion induced by 1 μg . mL(-1 and 10 μg . mL(-1 of collagen with an IC50 of ~ 6 μM. Losartan inhibited platelet responses induced by the GPVI specific collagen related peptide but not by the α2β1 specific peptide. However, losartan did not inhibit the binding of recombinant GPVI to collagen, which is not in favor of a simple competition. Indeed, the clustering of GPVI observed in flow cytometry and using the Duolink methodology, was inhibited by losartan. The impact of a therapeutic dose of losartan (100 mg/day on platelet responses was analyzed ex vivo in a double blind study. No statistically significant differences were observed between losartan-treated (n=25 and non-treated (n=30 patients in terms of collagen and U46619-induced platelet activation. These data indicate that in treated patients, losartan does not achieve a measurable antiplatelet effect but provide the proof of concept that inhibiting collagen-induced GPVI clustering is of pharmacological interest to obtain an antithrombotic efficacy.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00763893.

  12. Lack of influence of the COX inhibitors metamizol and diclofenac on platelet GPIIb/IIIa and P-selectin expression in vitro

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    Gröschel Werner

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs for reduced platelet aggregation and thromboxane A2 synthesis has been well documented. However, the influence on platelet function is not fully explained. Aim of this study was to examine the influence of the COX-1 inhibiting NSAIDs, diclofenac and metamizol on platelet activation and leukocyte-platelet complexes, in vitro. Surface expression of GPIIb/IIIa and P-selectin on platelets, and the percentage of platelet-leukocyte complexes were investigated. Methods Whole blood was incubated with three different concentrations of diclofenac and metamizol for 5 and 30 minutes, followed by activation with TRAP-6 and ADP. Rates of GPIIb/IIIa and P-selectin expression, and the percentage of platelet-leukocyte complexes were analyzed by a flow-cytometric assay. Results There were no significant differences in the expression of GPIIb/IIIa and P-selectin, and in the formation of platelet-leukocyte complexes after activation with ADP and TRAP-6, regarding both the time of incubation and the concentrations of diclofenac and metamizol. Conclusions Accordingly, the inhibitory effect of diclofenac and metamizol on platelet aggregation is not related to a reduced surface expression of P-selectin and GPIIb/IIIa on platelets.

  13. Lack of influence of the COX inhibitors metamizol and diclofenac on platelet GPIIb/IIIa and P-selectin expression in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinichen, Dirk; Elsner, Holger-Andreas; Osorio, Rodin; Jüttner, Björn; Gröschel, Werner; Jaeger, Karsten; Piepenbrock, Siegfried

    2004-01-01

    Background The effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for reduced platelet aggregation and thromboxane A2 synthesis has been well documented. However, the influence on platelet function is not fully explained. Aim of this study was to examine the influence of the COX-1 inhibiting NSAIDs, diclofenac and metamizol on platelet activation and leukocyte-platelet complexes, in vitro. Surface expression of GPIIb/IIIa and P-selectin on platelets, and the percentage of platelet-leukocyte complexes were investigated. Methods Whole blood was incubated with three different concentrations of diclofenac and metamizol for 5 and 30 minutes, followed by activation with TRAP-6 and ADP. Rates of GPIIb/IIIa and P-selectin expression, and the percentage of platelet-leukocyte complexes were analyzed by a flow-cytometric assay. Results There were no significant differences in the expression of GPIIb/IIIa and P-selectin, and in the formation of platelet-leukocyte complexes after activation with ADP and TRAP-6, regarding both the time of incubation and the concentrations of diclofenac and metamizol. Conclusions Accordingly, the inhibitory effect of diclofenac and metamizol on platelet aggregation is not related to a reduced surface expression of P-selectin and GPIIb/IIIa on platelets. PMID:15107131

  14. Regulation of cAMP Intracellular Levels in Human Platelets Stimulated by 2-Arachidonoylglycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorello, Maria Grazia; Leoncini, Giuliana

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrated that in human platelets the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) decreased dose- and time-dependently cAMP intracellular levels. No effect on cAMP decrease induced by 2-AG was observed in the presence of the adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 as well in platelets pretreated with the thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist, SQ29548 or with aspirin, inhibitor of arachidonic acid metabolism through the cyclooxygenase pathway. An almost complete recovering of cAMP level was measured in platelets pretreated with the specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3A, milrinone. In platelets pretreated with LY294002 or MK2206, inhibitors of PI3K/AKT pathway, and with U73122, inhibitor of phospholipase C pathway, only a partial prevention was shown. cAMP intracellular level depends on synthesis by adenylate cyclase and hydrolysis by PDEs. In 2-AG-stimulated platelets adenylate cyclase activity seems to be unchanged. In contrast PDEs appear to be involved. In particular PDE3A was specifically activated, as milrinone reversed cAMP reduction by 2-AG. 2-AG enhanced PDE3A activity through its phosphorylation. The PI3K/AKT pathway and PKC participate to this PDE3A phosphorylation/activation mechanism as it was greatly inhibited by platelet pretreatment with LY294002, MK2206, U73122, or the PKC specific inhibitor GF109203X. Taken together these data suggest that 2-AG potentiates its power of platelet agonist reducing cAMP intracellular level.

  15. [Studies of platelet aggregation in six cases of EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimasaki, A; Kato, T; Ozaki, Y

    1994-06-01

    Peripheral blood count was performed by a Coulter Model S Plus STKR on six pseudothrombocytopenia patients (age: 16-70, 2 men and 4 women) using three different anticoagulants. Treatment with ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA, 1 mg/ml) or sodium heparin (25 U/ml) aggregated platelets, but sodium citrate (3.8%, 1:9) had no effect. Smear examination revealed much platelet clumping but the satellite phenomenon was not present. No specific pattern was elucidated concerning cell size distribution curves between treatment by EDTA and heparin. Theophylline (10 mg/ml) and prostaglandin I2 (1 microM) inhibited EDTA-induced platelet aggregation but aspirin (1.8 mM) did not. On the other hand, these three substances inhibited heparin-induced platelet aggregation. These findings, taken together, suggested that EDTA and heparin initiated platelet activation and EDTA-induced platelet aggregation might be a process unrelated to thromboxane A2 production. Heparin may not be a suitable anticoagulant since it aggregates platelets of some healthy individuals.

  16. Evaluation of the TEG® platelet mapping™ assay in blood donors

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    Steinbrüchel Daniel A

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring of antiplatelet therapy in patients at cardiovascular risk is difficult because existing platelet function tests are too sophisticated for clinical routine. The whole blood TEG® Platelet Mapping™ assay measures clot strength as maximal amplitude (MA and enables for quantification of platelet function, including the contribution of the adenosine diphosphate (ADP and thromboxane A2 (TxA2 receptors to clot formation. Methods In 43 healthy blood donors, the analytical (CVa and inter-individual variability (CVg of the TEG® Platelet Mapping™ assay were determined together with platelet receptor inhibition in response to arachidonic acid (AA and ADP. Results The CVa of the assay for maximal platelet contribution to clot strength (MAThrombin was 3.5%, for the fibrin contribution to clot strength (MAFibrin 5.2%, for MAAA 4.5% and for MAADP it was 6.6%. The MAThrombin CVg was 2.8%, MAFibrin 4.7%, MAAA 6.6% and for MAADP it was 26.2%. Females had a higher MAThrombin compared to males (62.8 vs. 58.4 mm, p = 0.005. The platelet TxA2 receptor inhibition was 1.2% (range 0–10% and lower than for the ADP receptor (18.6% (0–58%; p Conclusion The high variability in ADP receptor inhibition may explain both the differences in response to ADP receptor inhibitor therapy and why major bleeding sometimes develops during surgery in patients not treated with ADP receptor inhibitors. An analytical variation of ~5 % for the TEG® enables, however, for routine monitoring of the variability in ADP receptor inhibition and of antiplatelet therapy.

  17. Echicetin coated polystyrene beads: a novel tool to investigate GPIb-specific platelet activation and aggregation.

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    Alexey Navdaev

    Full Text Available von Willebrand factor/ristocetin (vWF/R induces GPIb-dependent platelet agglutination and activation of αIIbβ3 integrin, which also binds vWF. These conditions make it difficult to investigate GPIb-specific signaling pathways in washed platelets. Here, we investigated the specific mechanisms of GPIb signaling using echicetin-coated polystyrene beads, which specifically activate GPIb. We compared platelet activation induced by echicetin beads to vWF/R. Human platelets were stimulated with polystyrene beads coated with increasing amounts of echicetin and platelet activation by echicetin beads was then investigated to reveal GPIb specific signaling. Echicetin beads induced αIIbβ3-dependent aggregation of washed platelets, while under the same conditions vWF/R treatment led only to αIIbβ3-independent platelet agglutination. The average distance between the echicetin molecules on the polystyrene beads must be less than 7 nm for full platelet activation, while the total amount of echicetin used for activation is not critical. Echicetin beads induced strong phosphorylation of several proteins including p38, ERK and PKB. Synergistic signaling via P2Y12 and thromboxane receptor through secreted ADP and TxA2, respectively, were important for echicetin bead triggered platelet activation. Activation of PKG by the NO/sGC/cGMP pathway inhibited echicetin bead-induced platelet aggregation. Echicetin-coated beads are powerful and reliable tools to study signaling in human platelets activated solely via GPIb and GPIb-triggered pathways.

  18. Echicetin Coated Polystyrene Beads: A Novel Tool to Investigate GPIb-Specific Platelet Activation and Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petunin, Alexey; Clemetson, Kenneth J.; Gambaryan, Stepan; Walter, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    von Willebrand factor/ristocetin (vWF/R) induces GPIb-dependent platelet agglutination and activation of αIIbβ3 integrin, which also binds vWF. These conditions make it difficult to investigate GPIb-specific signaling pathways in washed platelets. Here, we investigated the specific mechanisms of GPIb signaling using echicetin-coated polystyrene beads, which specifically activate GPIb. We compared platelet activation induced by echicetin beads to vWF/R. Human platelets were stimulated with polystyrene beads coated with increasing amounts of echicetin and platelet activation by echicetin beads was then investigated to reveal GPIb specific signaling. Echicetin beads induced αIIbβ3-dependent aggregation of washed platelets, while under the same conditions vWF/R treatment led only to αIIbβ3-independent platelet agglutination. The average distance between the echicetin molecules on the polystyrene beads must be less than 7 nm for full platelet activation, while the total amount of echicetin used for activation is not critical. Echicetin beads induced strong phosphorylation of several proteins including p38, ERK and PKB. Synergistic signaling via P2Y12 and thromboxane receptor through secreted ADP and TxA2, respectively, were important for echicetin bead triggered platelet activation. Activation of PKG by the NO/sGC/cGMP pathway inhibited echicetin bead-induced platelet aggregation. Echicetin-coated beads are powerful and reliable tools to study signaling in human platelets activated solely via GPIb and GPIb-triggered pathways. PMID:24705415

  19. Thromboxane synthetase inhibitor ameliorates delayed neuronal death in the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus after transient global ischemia in gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, T; Sawa, H; Shiokawa, Y; Saito, I; Ishii, H; Nakamura, Z; Sankawa, H

    1996-07-01

    Thromboxane A2 accumulates in the hippocampus after global ischemia and may play a key role in postischemic hypoperfusion. Thromboxane synthetase inhibitor (OKY-046) inhibits the accumulation of thromboxane A2 and promotes prostacycline production. Therefore, we set out to determine whether the inhibition of thromboxane synthesis would ameriolate postischemic neuronal death. Three groups of six Mongolian gerbils were subjected to different treatments: untreated control, untreated ischemia, and treated ischemia. Immediately after forebrain ischemia, OKY-046 (10 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally into the treated group. After 7 days of survival, the histopathology of the brain was examined. Pyramidal cell density in the CA1 sector in the treated group was 147 +/- 70 nuclei/mm (mean +/- SD), which was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than than in the untreated group (33 +/- 10 (nuclei/mm). The findings were 231 +/- 7 nuclei/mm for the control group. No significant difference was seen in the profile of temporal muscle temperature before and after ischemia between the groups. Ultrastructurally, the vessels in the CAI sector showed lumen patency in the treated group, whereas occluded vessels with an extended perivascular space were observed in the untreated group. Thromboxane synthetase inhibitor thus partly ameliorates the selective vulnerability of the hippocampus after forebrain ischemia, suggesting that thromboxane A2 is involved in the development of delayed neuronal death, independently of any thermal effect.

  20. Platelet activation patterns in platelet size sub-populations: differential responses to aspirin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalpally, Kiran Kumar R; Siqueiros-Garcia, Alan; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Dong, Jing-Fei; Kleiman, Neal S; Guthikonda, Sasidhar

    2010-10-01

    Circulating platelets are heterogeneous in size and structure. Whether this translates into differences in platelet function and efficacy of antiplatelet therapy is unclear. Hence, we decided to investigate the activation patterns among different platelet populations differentiated by size, and to compare the inhibitory effects of aspirin in these populations. Circulating platelets from 9 healthy volunteers were separated by size and stratified into the largest and smallest quintiles. Platelets were stimulated with 75 μM arachidonic acid (AA), 10 μM ADP or 25 μM TRAP. Alpha-granule protein secretion and expression (P-selectin, VWF, fibrinogen), surface-protein activation (activated integrin αIIbβ3) were assessed. Platelet thromboxane B(2) (TxB(2)) synthesis following AA stimulation was measured in vitro before and after incubation with 265 μM aspirin. Reticulated (juvenile) platelets were assessed using thiazole orange staining. A greater number of large platelets in the largest quintile were reticulated compared with the smallest quintile (6.1 ± 2.8% vs. 1.2 ± 1.5% respectively, p aspirin (1029 ± 190 pg/mL vs. 851 ± 159 pg/mL, respectively, p = 0.03). After stimulation with each agonist, a greater proportion of large platelets bound fibrinogen, VWF, P-selectin and activated integrin αIIbβ3 than small platelets both in the presence and in the absence of in vitro aspirin. In an in vitro setting, large platelets appear to be more active than small platelets and continue to be more active even after in vitro aspirin. Platelets exhibit heterogeneity in size and structure. Whether this translates into platelet function and efficacy of antiplatelet therapy is unclear. We evaluated platelet functional properties and the effects of aspirin on separated platelet subpopulations in an in vitro setting. Platelets were sorted into the largest and smallest size quintiles using flow cytometry forward scatter. Alpha-granule protein release, dense granule content

  1. Effect of albumin-bound DHA on phosphoinositide phosphorylation in collagen stimulated human platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudette, D.C.; Holub, B.J. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-05-15

    The effect of exogenous albumin-bound docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) (DHA), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) (AA), and eicosapendaenoic acid (20:5n-3) (EPA) on phosphoinositide metabolism following collagen stimulation was studied using (3H)inositol prelabelled platelets. Collagen stimulation (3 min, 1.8 micrograms/ml) increased the labelling of both phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate (PIP), and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2). Of the fatty acids tested, only pre-incubation (2 min) with DHA (20 microM) significantly attenuated the collagen-induced increased PIP and PIP2 labelling; EPA was without effect, while AA enhanced PIP labelling. Forty microM DHA was less effective at attenuating the increased PIP and PIP2 labelling even though this concentration of DHA resulted in greater inhibition of platelet aggregation. Neither concentration of DHA attenuated the increased polyphosphoinositide labelling resulting from stimulation by the endoperoxide analogue U46619, or the phorbol ester, PMA. These data suggest that the effect of DHA on attenuating the increased PIP and PIP2 labelling following collagen stimulation likely occurs before thromboxane receptor occupancy, may not occur at the level of protein kinase C activation, and could be mediated in part via a lessened synthesis of thromboxane A2.

  2. Platelets and cardiac arrhythmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas S De Jong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death remains one of the most prevalent modes of death in industrialized countries, and myocardial ischemia due to thrombotic coronary occlusion is its primary cause. The role of platelets in the occurrence of SCD extends beyond coronary flow impairment by clot formation. Here we review the substances released by platelets during clot formation and their arrhythmic properties. Platelet products are released from three types of platelet granules: dense core granules, alpha-granules, and platelet lysosomes. The physiologic properties of dense granule products are of special interest as a potential source of arrhythmic substances. They are released readily upon activation and contain high concentrations of serotonin, histamine, purines, pyrimidines, and ions such as calcium and magnesium. Potential arrhythmic mechanisms of these substances, e.g. serotonin and high energy phosphates, include induction of coronary constriction, calcium overloading, and induction of delayed after-depolarizations. Alpha-granules produce thromboxanes and other arachidonic acid products with many potential arrhythmic effects mediated by interference with cardiac sodium, calcium and potassium channels. Alpha-granules also contain hundreds of proteins that could potentially serve as ligands to receptors on cardiomyocytes. Lysosomal products probably do not have an important arrhythmic effect. Platelet products and ischemia can induce coronary permeability, thereby enhancing interaction with surrounding cardiomyocytes. Antiplatelet therapy is known to improve survival after myocardial infarction. Although an important part of this effect results from prevention of coronary clot formation, there is evidence to suggest that antiplatelet therapy also induces anti-arrhythmic effects during ischemia by preventing the release of platelet activation products.

  3. The effect of cimetidine on platelet function: a study involving gastric fluid measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailidis, D P; Christofides, J; Barradas, M A; Jeremy, J Y; Dilawari, J; Dandona, P

    1986-10-01

    Gastric fluid samples were aspirated 30 and 60 minutes after the ingestion of two 200 mg tablets of cimetidine. The concentration of cimetidine in these samples was measured and their effect on platelet aggregation assessed in vitro. Gastric fluid samples significantly inhibited adrenaline- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. In a further series of experiments, cimetidine solutions, at concentrations found in gastric fluid, inhibited platelet aggregation and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) release, in vitro. Ranitidine, another H2-receptor antagonist, was a more potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation than cimetidine. Since ranitidine is also the more potent H2-receptor antagonist which, unlike cimetidine, does not include an imidazole group (which is known to inhibit TXA2 synthesis) in its structure, we conclude that H2 blockade mediates the observed inhibition of aggregation. This platelet anti-aggregatory effect may be relevant to haemostatic mechanisms involved in bleeding peptic ulcers or gastric erosions exposed to high local concentrations of H2-receptor antagonists.

  4. D-glucaro 1,4-lactone and resveratrol as antioxidants in blood platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata; Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Wachowicz, Barbara

    2008-04-01

    The aim of our work was to study the anti-aggregatory and antioxidative effects of natural dietary products, D-glucaro 1,4-lactone (1,4-GL) in combination with phenolic compound resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). Our results in vitro showed that 1,4-GL alone slightly inhibits platelet aggregation induced by thrombin. The combination of resveratrol (0.1 microM) with 0.5 mM of 1,4-GL caused a significant decrease of thrombin-induced platelet aggregation; however separately, neither of studied compound at used concentrations was not effective. When platelets were treated with 1,4-GL (at the concentration of 0.1 mM and higher) and resveratrol (0.1 microM), similar synergistic action of both tested compound on markers of oxidative stress formation was observed. We measured the levels of different specific markers of oxidative stress, e.g., superoxide anion radicals O(2)(-)*, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and carbonyl group formation. Both tested compounds inhibited also the generation of O(2)(-)* and malondialdehyde that represents enzymatical peroxidation of arachidonic acid leading to thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) formation in platelets after thrombin stimulation. The obtained in vitro results demonstrate that anti-platelet and antioxidative properties of resveratrol may be significantly augmented by another dietary agent such as 1,4-GL, but mechanism synergistic action of these compounds is not yet known.

  5. Effect of Antrodia camphorata on Inflammatory Arterial Thrombosis-Mediated Platelet Activation: The Pivotal Role of Protein Kinase C

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    Wan-Jung Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antrodia camphorata is a rare Taiwanese medicinal mushroom. Antrodia camphorata extract has been reported to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammation, antimetastasis, and anticancer activities and plays a role in liver fibrosis, vasorelaxation, and immunomodulation. Critical vascular inflammation leads to vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases, including abdominal aortic aneurysms, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Platelet activation plays a crucial role in intravascular thrombosis, which is involved in a wide variety of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of Antrodia camphorata on platelet activation remains unclear. We examined the effects of Antrodia camphorata on platelet activation. In the present study, Antrodia camphorata treatment (56–224 μg/mL inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen, but not U46619, an analogue of thromboxane A2, thrombin, and arachidonic acid. Antrodia camphorata inhibited collagen-induced calcium (Ca2+ mobilization and phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC and Akt. In addition, Antrodia camphorata significantly reduced the aggregation and phosphorylation of PKC in phorbol-12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu activated platelets. In conclusion, Antrodia camphorata may inhibit platelet activation by inhibiting of Ca2+ and PKC cascade and the Akt pathway. Our study suggests that Antrodia camphorata may be a potential therapeutic agent for preventing or treating thromboembolic disorders.

  6. Computer-aided molecular modeling of a thromboxane receptor antagonist S-145 and its related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezumi, K; Yamakawa, M; Narisada, M

    1990-04-01

    Conformational analyses on thromboxane A2 (TxA2), its receptor agonist, U-46619, and its receptor antagonist, sulotroban, were carried out by molecular mechanics (MMFF) or molecular orbital (MNDO) methods. Two kinds of putative active conformations of TxA2 and the agonist were proposed on the basis of these results by referring to the hairpin conformation hypothesis. From the superposition of stable conformers of sulotroban on those conformers, the molecular structural requirements for potent TxA2 receptor antagonism were elucidated. S-145 in which these requirements are satisfied was a very potent TxA2 antagonist.

  7. Thrombin-induced lysosomal exocytosis in human platelets is dependent on secondary activation by ADP and regulated by endothelial-derived substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Södergren, Anna L; Svensson Holm, Ann-Charlotte B; Ramström, Sofia; Lindström, Eva G; Grenegård, Magnus; Öllinger, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Exocytosis of lysosomal contents from platelets has been speculated to participate in clearance of thrombi and vessel wall remodelling. The mechanisms that regulate lysosomal exocytosis in platelets are, however, still unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the pathways underlying platelet lysosomal secretion and elucidate how this process is controlled by platelet inhibitors. We found that high concentrations of thrombin induced partial lysosomal exocytosis as assessed by analysis of the activity of released N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (NAG) and by identifying the fraction of platelets exposing the lysosomal-associated membrane protein (LAMP)-1 on the cell surface by flow cytometry. Stimulation of thrombin receptors PAR1 or PAR4 with specific peptides was equally effective in inducing LAMP-1 surface expression. Notably, lysosomal exocytosis in response to thrombin was significantly reduced if the secondary activation by ADP was inhibited by the P2Y12 antagonist cangrelor, while inhibition of thromboxane A2 formation by treatment with acetylsalicylic acid was of minor importance in this regard. Moreover, the NO-releasing drug S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) or the cyclic AMP-elevating eicosanoid prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) significantly suppressed lysosomal exocytosis. We conclude that platelet inhibitors that mimic functional endothelium such as PGI2 or NO efficiently counteract lysosomal exocytosis. Furthermore, we suggest that secondary release of ADP and concomitant signaling via PAR1/4- and P2Y12 receptors is important for efficient platelet lysosomal exocytosis by thrombin.

  8. Evidence that platelet buoyant density, but not size, correlates with platelet age in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzano, D; Hwang, K; Catalano, P; Aster, R H

    1981-01-01

    Following infusion of 51Cr-labeled autologous platelets into normal subjects, high-density (HD) and low-density (LD) platelet cohorts were isolated by prolonged centrifugation in isosmotic arabino-galactan (Stractan). Specific radio-activity of LD platelets declined rapidly post-infusion (T1/2 = 1.5 days), but specific radioactivity of HD platelets remained constant or increased over a 3--4-day period and gradually declined for 6--7 days thereafter. These differences were exaggerated when platelet cohorts enriched in LD or HD cells by slow centrifugation in high-density albumin were labeled and transfused. Mean survival of a platelet cohort enriched with HD cells was significantly (P less than 0.02) shorter (7.73 days) than that of a cohort enriched with LD cells (9.33) days). In normal subjects treated with aspirin, capacity for thromboxane synthesis was regained more rapidly (P less than 0.05) in LD than in HD platelets. HD and LD platelets differed only slightly in mean volume (HD platelets = 7.57 mu3, LD platelets = 6.87 mu3, 0.05 less than P less than 0.01). We believe the most logical interpretation of these findings is that under normal conditions in man, newly formed platelets are less dense on the average than total platelets and become more dense as they age in the circulation. Thus, specific radioactivity of LD platelets declines rapidly as these platelets move into a more dense compartment and are replaced by newly formed, unlabelled cells; specific radioactivity of HD platelets remains constant or increases as labelled platelets enter this compartment in numbers equal to or greater than the number leaving it at the end of their life span. The similarity in mean volumes of LD and HD platelets suggests that platelet size is unrelated to platelet age under normal conditions.

  9. Evidence that platelet buoyant density, but not size, correlates with platelet age in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezzano, D.; Hwang, K.; Catalano, P.; Aster, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Following infusion of 51Cr-labeled autologous platelets into normal subjects, high-density (HD) and low-density (LD) platelet cohorts were isolated by prolonged centrifugation in isosmotic arabino-galactan (Stractan). Specific radio-activity of LD platelets declined rapidly post-infusion (T1/2 . 1.5 days), but specific radioactivity of HD platelets remained constant or increased over a 3--4-day period and gradually declined for 6--7 days thereafter. These differences were exaggerated when platelet cohorts enriched in LD or HD cells by slow centrifugation in high-density albumin were labeled and transfused. Mean survival of a platelet cohort enriched with HD cells was significantly (P less than 0.02) shorter (7.73 days) than that of a cohort enriched with LD cells (9.33) days). In normal subjects treated with aspirin, capacity for thromboxane synthesis was regained more rapidly (P less than 0.05) in LD than in HD platelets. HD and LD platelets differed only slightly in mean volume (HD platelets . 7.57 mu3, LD platelets . 6.87 mu3, 0.05 less than P less than 0.01). We believe the most logical interpretation of these findings is that under normal conditions in man, newly formed platelets are less dense on the average than total platelets and become more dense as they age in the circulation. Thus, specific radioactivity of LD platelets declines rapidly as these platelets move into a more dense compartment and are replaced by newly formed, unlabelled cells; specific radioactivity of HD platelets remains constant or increases as labelled platelets enter this compartment in numbers equal to or greater than the number leaving it at the end of their life span. The similarity in mean volumes of LD and HD platelets suggests that platelet size is unrelated to platelet age under normal conditions.

  10. Tritium labeled amino acid conjugates of prostaglandins and thromboxanes as labeled ligands in prostanoid radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sautebin, L.; Kindahl, H.; Kumlin, M.; Granstroem, E.

    1985-09-01

    Conjugates of prostaglandins and thromboxanes with tritium labeled amino acids were prepared and employed as labeled ligands in prostaglandin and thromboxane radioimmunoassays. Assays for PGF2 alpha, 15-keto-13, 14-dihydro-PGF2 alpha, TXB2 and 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-TXB2 were evaluated in comparative studies using either these heterologous ligands or the corresponding homologous tritiated eicosanoid as tracers. Binding properties for the respective antibodies were found to be similar using either tracer. Three biological studies were also conducted, viz. study of the release of TXB2 during collagen induced platelet aggregation, of 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-TXB2 during guinea pig pulmonary anaphylaxis, and of PGF2 alpha during bovine luteolysis. The analyses gave comparable results using either the heterologous or the homologous assay. Thus, this type of labeled prostanoid conjugates may serve as a convenient alternative to homologous tracers in radioimmunoassay. Heterologous tracers may even in certain cases provide the only simple solution to the problem of preparing a labeled ligand of high specific activity.

  11. French maritime pine bark extract Pycnogenol reduces thromboxane generation in blood from diabetic male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocun, Marek; Ulicna, Olga; Muchova, Jana; Durackova, Zdenka; Watala, Cezary

    2008-03-01

    The protective effect of Pycnogenol against cardiovascular diseases was clearly demonstrated. Nevertheless, little is known about its antithrombotic effect, especially in diabetes associated with enhanced thromboxane synthesis leading to severe vascular complications. Therefore, the main purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of long-term Pycnogenol intake on synthesis of prothrombotic thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) in animal model of insulin-dependent diabetes. The levels of main plasma TXA(2) metabolite, thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)), were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Diabetes was induced in Wistar male rats by single injection of streptozotocin, resulting after 8 weeks in significant body weight reduction, increased plasma glucose concentrations, and decreased plasma C-peptide levels, compared to non-diabetic animals. There was no significant reduction of plasma glucose concentrations after Pycnogenol ingestion. It was found, however, that daily administration of either Pycnogenol (5mg/kg b.wt.) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 10mg/kg b.wt.) significantly reduced plasma TXB(2) concentrations, and this inhibitory effect was higher in the latter case. Nonetheless, simultaneous administration of Pycnogenol and ASA did not improve effectiveness of ASA-mediated decrease in TXB(2) generation. The results of the present study suggest that Pycnogenol might have a beneficial antithrombotic effect when administered alone or as a supplementation of standard antiplatelet therapy in diabetic patients.

  12. Terutroban, a thromboxane/prostaglandin endoperoxide receptor antagonist, prevents hypertensive vascular hypertrophy and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelosa, Paolo; Sevin, Gulnur; Pignieri, Alice; Budelli, Silvia; Castiglioni, Laura; Blanc-Guillemaud, Vanessa; Lerond, Laurence; Tremoli, Elena; Sironi, Luigi

    2011-03-01

    Thromboxane A(2) and other eicosanoids such as isoprostanes contribute to vascular proliferation and atherosclerosis by binding to the thromboxane/prostaglandin endoperoxide receptors. The effects of terutroban, a thromboxane/prostaglandin endoperoxide receptor antagonist, on aorta remodeling were evaluated in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSPs), a model of severe hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation, and cerebrovascular diseases. Male SHRSPs were allocated to three groups receiving a standard diet (n = 5) or a high-sodium permissive diet plus vehicle (n = 6) or plus terutroban (30 mg · kg(-1) · day(-1); n = 6). After 6 wk of dietary treatment, all of the animals were injected with bromodeoxyuridine and simultaneously euthanized for aorta collection. The aortic media thickness-to-lumen ratio significantly (P hyperplasia and has beneficial effects on fibrotic processes by affecting TGF-β and heat shock protein-47 expression in SHRSPs. These findings provide mechanistic data supporting the beneficial effects of terutroban in preventing or retarding atherogenesis.

  13. Hypersensitive prostaglandin and thromboxane response to hormones in rabbit colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipser, R.D.; Patterson, J.B.; Kao, H.W.; Hauser, C.J.; Locke, R.

    1985-10-01

    Inflammation of the colon is associated with increased production of prostaglandins (PG) and thromboxanes (Tx), and these eicosanoids may contribute to the inflammatory, secretory, and motility dysfunctions in colitis. To evaluate the potential role of peptide hormones in the enhanced eicosanoid release, colitis was established in rabbits by a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to dinitrochlorobenzene and by an immune-complex-mediated reaction. PG and Tx were identified in the venous effluent of isolated perfused colons by radiochromatography after ( UC)arachidonic acid prelabeling, as well as by bioassay, and then quantitated by immunoassay. The two colitis models were morphologically similar. Basal release of PGE2, PGI2, and TxA2 was two- to threefold greater from colitis tissue than from control tissue. Bradykinin (BK) and angiotensin II (ANG II) increased release of UC-labeled eicosanoids, whereas several gastrointestinal hormones had no effect. In control colons, BK and ANG II increased PGE2 and PGI2 release (by about 2-fold) but did not alter TxA2. In contrast, BK and ANG II markedly exaggerated the release of eicosanoids in colitis. Since BK and possibly ANG II are increased at sites of inflammation, the hypersensitive eicosanoid response to these peptides may augment the eicosanoid-mediated manifestations of colitis.

  14. [Myocardial ischemia during exertion. Correlations between blood levels of thromboxane B2 and changes in coronary flow and resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Servi, S; Vidale, E; Mussini, A; Cafiso, A; Gavazzi, A; Falcone, C; Bramucci, E; Angoli, L; Ferrario, M; Ghio, S

    1985-01-01

    Platelet activation, with the subsequent generation of Thromboxane (Tx) A2, has been implied as a possible cause of resting as well as exercise induced myocardial ischemia. To verify the latter hypothesis, we measured the exercise release of TxB2, the stable metabolite of TxA2, in 9 patients with exertional angina and left anterior descending coronary artery disease. Three of the patients also suffered from angina at rest, due to coronary vasospasm. The great cardiac vein flow, venous efflux from the myocardial territory supplied by the left anterior descending, was determined by the thermodilution technique in the basal conditions, at peak exercise when angina and/or significant ST changes occurred, and 20 min after exercise. Simultaneous blood samples were drawn from the great cardiac vein and a peripheral artery for TxB2 measurements. Regional coronary resistances were calculated as the ratio of mean arterial pressure and coronary flow. At peak exercise the great cardiac vein flow increased and regional coronary resistances decreased in all patients, except in one who showed exercise induced coronary spasm. An increase in TxB2 release was found in 3 patients, a decrease in 3, while the remaining 3 patients did not show significant changes. After exercise the great cardiac vein flow and regional coronary resistances returned to control values in all, whereas both great cardiac vein and arterial TxB2 levels were increased in 6 patients. Our data show that no apparent relation exists between exercise-induced changes in coronary resistances and generation of TxB2.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Effects of danshensu on platelet aggregation and thrombosis: in vivo arteriovenous shunt and venous thrombosis models in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yu

    Full Text Available Danshensu, a type of dihydroxyphenyl lactic acid, is one of the most abundant active phenolic acids in the dried root of Salvia miltiorrhizae (Lamiaceae--widely used traditional Chinese medicine. The effects of danshensu on platelet aggregation and thrombus formation in rats were examined using various methods. It was found that danshensu significantly reduced thrombus weight in 2 experimental thrombosis models; dose-dependent inhibition of adenosine diphosphate (ADP and arachidonic acid (AA-induced platelet aggregation occurred in normal and blood stasis-induced rats; Danshensu also significantly mitigated blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and hematocrit levels. Moreover, danshensu significantly inhibited venous thrombosis-induced expression of cyclooxygenases-2 (COX-2 rather than cyclooxygenases-1(COX-1 in the venous walls, down regulated thromboxane B2 (TXB2 and up regulated 6-keto prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α, normalizing the TXB2/6-keto-PGF1α ratio. In addition, danshensu did not induce gastric lesions and even had protective effects on aspirin-induced ulcer formation at doses as high as 60 mg/kg. These findings suggest that the antithrombotic and antiplatelet aggregation effects of danshensu are attributed to its highly selective inhibition of COX-2 and ability to normalize the thromboxane A2(TXA2/prostacyclin(PGI2 balance. These findings suggest that danshensu have great prospects in antithrombotic and antiplatelet therapy.

  16. Evaluation of participants with suspected heritable platelet function disorders including recommendation and validation of a streamlined agonist panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Ban B; Lowe, Gillian C; Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Bem, Danai; Daly, Martina E; Makris, Mike; Mumford, Andrew; Wilde, Jonathan T; Watson, Steve P

    2012-12-13

    Light transmission aggregometry (LTA) is used worldwide for the investigation of heritable platelet function disorders (PFDs), but interpretation of results is complicated by the feedback effects of ADP and thromboxane A(2) (TxA(2)) and by the overlap with the response of healthy volunteers. Over 5 years, we have performed lumi-aggregometry on 9 platelet agonists in 111 unrelated research participants with suspected PFDs and in 70 healthy volunteers. Abnormal LTA or ATP secretion test results were identified in 58% of participants. In 84% of these, the patterns of response were consistent with defects in Gi receptor signaling, the TxA(2) pathway, and dense granule secretion. Participants with defects in signaling to Gq-coupled receptor agonists and to collagen were also identified. Targeted genotyping identified 3 participants with function-disrupting mutations in the P2Y(12) ADP and TxA(2) receptors. The results of the present study illustrate that detailed phenotypic analysis using LTA and ATP secretion is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of PFDs. Our data also enable subdivision at the level of platelet-signaling pathways and in some cases to individual receptors. We further demonstrate that most PFDs can be reliably diagnosed using a streamlined panel of key platelet agonists and specified concentrations suitable for testing in most clinical diagnostic laboratories.

  17. C-phycocyanin, a very potent and novel platelet aggregation inhibitor from Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, George; Chou, Po-Hsiu; Shen, Ming-Yi; Chou, Duen-Suey; Lin, Chien-Huang; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2005-10-05

    The aim of this study was to systematically examine the inhibitory mechanisms of C-phycocyanin (C-PC), one of the major phycobiliproteins of Spirulina platensis (a blue-green alga), in platelet activation. In this study, C-PC concentration-dependently (0.5-10 nM) inhibited platelet aggregation stimulated by agonists. C-PC (4 and 8 nM) inhibited intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and thromboxane A2 formation but not phosphoinositide breakdown stimulated by collagen (1 microg/mL) in human platelets. In addition, C-PC (4 and 8 nM) markedly increased levels of cyclic GMP and cyclic GMP-induced vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) Ser(157) phosphorylation. Rapid phosphorylation of a platelet protein of Mw 47,000 (P47), a marker of protein kinase C activation, was triggered by phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (150 nM). This phosphorylation was markedly inhibited by C-PC (4 and 8 nM). In addition, C-PC (4 and 8 nM) markedly reduced the electron spin resonance (ESR) signal intensity of hydroxyl radicals in collagen (1 microg/mL)-activated platelets. The present study reports on a novel and very potent (in nanomolar concentrations) antiplatelet agent, C-PC, which is involved in the following inhibitory pathways: (1) C-phycocyanin increases cyclic GMP/VASP Ser157 phosphorylation and subsequently inhibits protein kinase C activity, resulting in inhibition of both P47 phosphorylation and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, and (2) C-PC may inhibit free radicals (such as hydroxyl radicals) released from activated platelets, which ultimately inhibits platelet aggregation. These results strongly indicate that C-PC appears to represent a novel and potential antiplatelet agent for treatment of arterial thromboembolism.

  18. Resveratrol preserves the function of human platelets stored for transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannan, Katie L; Refaai, Majed A; Ture, Sara K; Morrell, Craig N; Blumberg, Neil; Phipps, Richard P; Spinelli, Sherry L

    2016-03-01

    Stored platelets undergo biochemical, structural and functional changes that lead to decreased efficacy and safety of platelet transfusions. Not only do platelets acquire markers of activation during storage, but they also fail to respond normally to agonists post-storage. We hypothesized that resveratrol, a cardioprotective antioxidant, could act as a novel platelet storage additive to safely prevent unwanted platelet activation during storage, while simultaneously preserving normal haemostatic function. Human platelets treated with resveratrol and stored for 5 d released less thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin E2 compared to control platelets. Resveratrol preserved the ability of platelets to aggregate, spread and respond to thrombin, suggesting an improved ability to activate post-storage. Utilizing an in vitro model of transfusion and thromboelastography, clot strength was improved with resveratrol treatment compared to conventionally stored platelets. The mechanism of resveratrol's beneficial actions on stored platelets was partly mediated through decreased platelet apoptosis in storage, resulting in a longer half-life following transfusion. Lastly, an in vivo mouse model of transfusion demonstrated that stored platelets are prothrombotic and that resveratrol delayed vessel occlusion time to a level similar to transfusion with fresh platelets. We show resveratrol has a dual ability to reduce unwanted platelet activation during storage, while preserving critical haemostatic function.

  19. Attenuation of Thrombosis by Crude Rice (Oryza sativa) Bran Policosanol Extract: Ex Vivo Platelet Aggregation and Serum Levels of Arachidonic Acid Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Maznah; Tohit, Eusni Rahayu Mohd; Abdullah, Rasedee; Zhang, Yi-Da

    2016-01-01

    Background. Vascular occlusion or thrombosis was often attributed to uncontrolled platelet activation. Influence of sugarcane policosanol extract on platelet was reported but little was known of rice bran policosanol, particularly its mechanisms of actions on platelet activities. Objective. Antiplatelet mechanisms of rice bran policosanol extract (RBE) were studied using hyperlipidemic Sprague Dawley rats. Ex vivo platelet aggregation, platelet count (PC), bleeding time (BT), and coagulation time were assayed. Serum eicosanoids and other aggregation-related metabolites levels were quantified. Design. Rats were divided into 6 groups for comparisons (vehicle control Tween 20/H2O, high dose policosanol 500 mg/kg, middle dose policosanol 250 mg/kg, low dose policosanol 100 mg/kg, and positive control aspirin 30 mg/kg). Results. Low dose 100 mg/kg of RBE inhibited aggregation by 42.32 ± 4.31% and this was comparable with the effect of 30 mg/kg aspirin, 43.91 ± 5.27%. Results showed that there were no significant differences in PC, BT, and coagulation time among various groups after RBE treatment. Serum thromboxane A2 was attenuated while prostacyclin level increased upon RBE treatment. Conclusions. RBE reduced ex vivo ADP-induced platelet aggregation without giving adverse effects. No changes in full blood count suggested that rice bran policosanol did not disturb biological blood cell production and destruction yet it reduced aggregation through different mechanisms. PMID:27800004

  20. Prostanoid production in the presence of platelet activation in hypoxic cocaine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togna, G; Graziani, M; Sorrentino, C; Caprino, L

    1996-01-01

    To extend our previous in vitro data, we investigated the effects of cocaine on thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and prostacyclin (PGI2) production in vivo in the rat. To obtain the slight platelet activation that our in vitro experiments showed useful to highlight the effect of cocaine, we infused cocaine in rats in the presence of platelet-activating factors (circulation of blood through a perspex vascular device or by infusion of sodium arachidonate) and in various respiratory conditions. Experiments were conducted in rats breathing atmospheric air (normoxic conditions) and in rats breathing an oxygen-poor mixture (hypoxic conditions). In rats under hypoxic conditions cocaine invariably increased TXA2 plasma levels, whereas in normoxic conditions it increased TXA2 only in the presence of platelet-activating factors. Cocaine significantly increased PGI2 plasma levels in arachidonate-treated rats in hypoxic respiratory conditions; in normoxic conditions cocaine left PGI2 levels unchanged. These results support the hypothesis that in cocaine users who have concomitant pathological conditions able to activate platelets, such as atherosclerosis, coronary vasospasm or ischaemia, or both, cocaine may contribute to the onset of thrombotic phenomena by interfering with the prostaglandin system.

  1. Metabolic syndrome, platelet activation and the development of transient ischemic attack or thromboembolic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooy, Mia-Jeanne; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2015-03-01

    Stroke is the second most common cause of mortality in the world today, where transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a period of focal ischemia, the symptoms of which resemble a thromboembolic stroke. Contrary to stroke, TIA symptoms typically last less than one hour and necrosis is absent. Stroke is often preceded by TIA, making it an important predictor of future ischemic events. The causal role of atherosclerosis in the development of TIA is well established, however, research indicates that the atherosclerotic process begins years earlier with the development of metabolic syndrome, which affects approximately 45% of the adult population worldwide. Metabolic syndrome is present if three or more of the following is present: increased waist circumference, increased triglycerides, decreased HDL, increased fasting glucose and hypertension. This syndrome causes systemic inflammation that activates the coagulation system and may cause the formation of pathological thrombi. The role of platelets in stroke has been studied and platelet activation pathways identified. ADP and thromboxane A(2) are the most common activators of platelets in normal physiology. Several pharmacological treatments have been employed to prevent the activation of platelets, the most common of which include aspirin and P2Y(12)-inhibitors. Although treatment is administered strokes and subsequent TIAs are very common in individuals that suffered an initial event. This indicates that research needs to be done in order to elucidate new therapeutic targets, but also to better treat ischemic events to not only decrease the amount of recurring events but also decrease stroke mortality worldwide.

  2. Sulforaphane prevents human platelet aggregation through inhibiting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Wen-Ying; Kung, Po-Hsiung; Kuo, Chih-Yun; Wu, Chin-Chung

    2013-06-01

    Sulforaphane, a dietary isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to exert beneficial effects in animal models of cardiovascular diseases. However, its effect on platelet aggregation, which is a critical factor in arterial thrombosis, is still unclear. In the present study, we show that sulforaphane inhibited human platelet aggregation caused by different receptor agonists, including collagen, U46619 (a thromboxane A2 mimic), protease-activated receptor 1 agonist peptide (PAR1-AP), and an ADP P2Y12 receptor agonist. Moreover, sulforaphane significantly reduced thrombus formation on a collagen-coated surface under whole blood flow conditions. In exploring the underlying mechanism, we found that sulforaphane specifically prevented phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling, without markedly affecting other signlaling pathways involved in platelet aggregation, such as protein kinase C activation, calcium mobilisation, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Although sulforaphane did not directly inhibit the catalytic activity of PI3K, it caused ubiquitination of the regulatory p85 subunit of PI3K, and prevented PI3K translocation to membranes. In addition, sulforaphane caused ubiquitination and degradation of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), which is required for Akt activation. Therefore, sulforaphane is able to inhibit the PI3K/Akt pathway at two distinct sites. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that sulforaphane prevented platelet aggregation and reduced thrombus formation in flow conditions; our data also support that the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway by sulforaphane contributes it antiplatelet effects.

  3. 1,25(OH)2D3 suppresses COX-2 up-regulation and thromboxane production in placental trophoblast cells in response to hypoxic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J; Zhong, W; Gu, Y; Groome, L J; Wang, Y

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we determined if vitamin D could inhibit oxidative stress-induced thromboxane production by placental trophoblasts. Trophoblast isolated from normal placentas were stimulated with CoCl2, a hypoxic mimicking agent, with or without pretreatment of 1,25(OH)2D3. Soluble phospholipase-A2, metabolites of thromboxane-A2 and prostacyclin, and 8-isoprostane were measured. Expression of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), COX-2, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were determined. We found that pretreatment of trophoblasts with 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly reduced 8-isoprostane and the ratio of thromboxane-A2 to prostacyclin production, and blocked COX-2 expression induced by CoCl2. These results provide evidence of the beneficial effects of vitamin D on placental trophoblasts.

  4. High oxygen modifies vasodilator effect of cysteine via enhanced oxidative stress and thromboxane production in the rat mesenteric artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Yoshitaka; Feng, Guo-Gang; Li, Jiazheng; Nakamura, Emi; Hayashi, Hisaki; Sato, Motohiko; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    Whether high oxygen is harmful to the vascular function is unclear. The present study examined if high oxygen modifies vasodilator effect of cysteine via enhanced oxidative stress and thromboxane production. Rat mesenteric arteries with endothelium at 95 or 50 % oxygen were subjected to isometric force recordings, measurement of thromboxane B2 levels, determination of superoxide and peroxynitrite levels and evaluation of NADPH oxidase subunit protein expression, respectively. L-cysteine (0.01-3 mM) constricted or dilated arteries at 95 and 50 % oxygen, respectively. Thromboxane receptor antagonist SQ-29,548 (1 μM) abolished the constriction at 95 % oxygen. L-cysteine (3 mM) increased levels of thromboxane B2 in arteries upon 95 % oxygen application. L-cysteine relaxed arteries treated with superoxide inhibitor tiron (2 mM) or NADPH oxidase inhibitor gp91ds-tat (1 μM) irrespective of the oxygen concentration while ATP-sensitive K(+) channel inhibitor glibenclamide (1 μM) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) inhibitor DL-propargylglycine (10 mM) similarly abolished the relaxation. L-cysteine (3 mM) with 95 % oxygen augmented levels of superoxide as well as nitrotyrosine within the artery, concomitantly with enhanced membrane protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox. The higher concentration of oxygen attenuates L-cysteine-induced vasodilation via superoxide production mediated by NADPH oxidase along with thromboxane A2 production, resulting in vasoconstriction. The increased levels of superoxide, as well as peroxynitrite, coexist with the impaired vasodilation related to ATP-sensitive K(+) channels and CSE. Higher oxygen with plasma cysteine may cause oxidative stress and vasoconstrictor prostanoid production in blood vessels.

  5. Investigation of cyclooxygenase and signaling pathways involved in human platelet aggregation mediated by synergistic interaction of various agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nadia; Farooq, Ahsana Dar; Sadek, Bassem

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the mechanism(s) of synergistic interaction of various platelet mediators such as arachidonic acid (AA) when combined with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or adenosine diphosphate (ADP) on human platelet aggregation were examined. The results demonstrated that 5-HT had no or negligible effect on aggregation but it did potentiate the aggregation response of AA. Similarly, the combination of subeffective concentrations of ADP and AA exhibited noticeable rise in platelet aggregation. Moreover, the observed synergistic effect of AA with 5-HT on platelets was inhibited by different cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, namely ibuprofen and celecoxib, with half maximal inhibitory effect (IC50) values of 18.0 ± 1.8 and 15.6 ± 3.4 μmol/L, respectively. Interestingly, the synergistic effect observed for AA with 5-HT was, also, blocked by the 5-HT receptor blockers cyproheptadine (IC50=22.0 ± 7 μmol/L), ketanserin (IC50=152 ± 23 μmol/L), phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor (U73122; IC50=6.1 ± 0.8 μmol/L), and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor (PD98059; IC50=3.8 ± 0.5 μmol/L). Likewise, the synergism of AA and ADP was, also, attenuated by COX inhibitors (ibuprofen; IC50=20 ± 4 μmol/L and celecoxib; IC50=24 ± 7 μmol/L), PLC inhibitor (U73122; IC50=3.7 ± 0.3 μmol/L), and MAPK inhibitor (PD98059; IC50=2.8 ± 1.1 μmol/L). Our observed data demonstrate that the combination of subthreshold concentrations of agonists amplifies platelet aggregation and that these synergistic effects largely depend on activation of COX/thromboxane A2, receptor-operated Ca(2+) channels, Gq/PLC, and MAPK signaling pathways. Moreover, our data revealed that inhibition of COX pathways by using both selective and/or non-selective COX inhibitors blocks not only AA metabolism and thromboxane A2 formation, but also its binding to Gq receptors and activation of receptor-operated Ca(2+) channels in platelets. Overall, our results show that PLC and MAPK inhibitors proved

  6. Variation in thromboxane B2 concentrations in serum and plasma in patients taking regular aspirin before and after clopidogrel therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Richard I S; McGarrity, Anne; Sheehan, Rory; James, Tina E; Miller, Helen; Stephens, Jonathan; Watkins, Stuart; McConnachie, Alex; Goodall, Alison H; Oldroyd, Keith G

    2015-01-01

    Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a P2Y12 antagonist is widely prescribed for the prevention of thrombotic events in patients with an acute coronary syndrome or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). It is recognised that there is inter-individual variation in the antiplatelet effects of both drugs. Recent data also suggest that P2Y12 antagonists can affect the response to aspirin. A direct indicator of the effect of aspirin on platelets is their ability to generate thromboxane, which if measured as the difference between the level of thromboxane B2 in serum and plasma ([TxB2]S-P) avoids the confounding effect of endogenous TxB2 production from other cells. We therefore analysed [TxB2]S-P as a measure of aspirin response in a group of 123 patients undergoing elective PCI before and after the introduction of clopidogrel. In a subgroup of 40 patients taking aspirin alone, we compared [TxB2]S-P and VerifyNow Aspirin for the assessment of aspirin response. There was a wide variation in plasma and serum TxB2 concentrations both before and after clopidogrel therapy but only 3.5% of patients had residual serum concentration of TxB2 > 10 ng/ml. There was a strong correlation between the pre and post clopidogrel levels of TxB2 (r ≥ 0.78; p = 0.001) and no significant difference in [TxB2]S-P. There was no correlation between the magnitude of response to clopidogrel response and the generation of thromboxane B2. Correlation between [TxB2]S-P and VerifyNow Aspirin was poor. We conclude that the use of a P2Y12 antagonist does not influence the effect of aspirin on the ability of platelets to generate thromboxane. Therefore, measurement of TxB2 levels in serum, after subtracting the contribution from plasma, provides a measure of the response to aspirin in patients taking dual antiplatelet therapy.

  7. Coexistence of CACNA1A, ATP1A2, and KCNN3 gene mutation in migraine patients with human platelet polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Shalini; Abdullah, Jafri M; Ghazali, Mazira M

    2008-10-01

    To look for any possible coexistence of CACNA1A, ATP1A2, and KCNN3 gene mutations in migraine patients who had human platelet HPA-1a/1b polymorphism, which is also known as PlA1/A2 polymorphism. The study was carried out at the Neurology Clinic, Hospital University Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia between April 2004 and March 2005. The DNA from 4 patients who had migraine with the HPA1a/1b polymorphism were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction using the allele specific oligonucleotide technique to detect the presence of CACNA1A, ATP1A2, and KCNN3 genotypes. We found that the CACNA1A gene mutation alone was present in only one patient who presented with classical migraine with aura. The gene mutations on ATP1A2 and KCNN3 were seen in none of our 4 cases with migraine. There is no coexistence between the platelet HPA-1a/1b polymorphism and the ATP1A2 and KCNN3 gene mutations, though one classical migraine patient with HPA-1a/1b polymorphism had the CACNA1A gene mutation. Larger studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  8. PGE2 decreases reactivity of human platelets by activating EP2 and EP4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James P; Haddad, Elias V; Downey, Jason D; Breyer, Richard M; Boutaud, Olivier

    2010-07-01

    Platelet hyperreactivity associates with cardiovascular events in humans. Studies in mice and humans suggest that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) regulates platelet activation. In mice, activation of the PGE2 receptor subtype 3 (EP3) promotes thrombosis, but the significance of EP3 in humans is less well understood. To characterize the regulation of thromboxane-dependent human platelet activation by PGE2. Platelets collected from nineteen healthy adults were studied using an agonist of the thromboxane receptor (U46,619), PGE2, and selective agonists and/or antagonists of the EP receptor subtypes. Platelet activation was assayed by (1) optical aggregometry, (2) measurement of dense granule release, and (3) single-platelet counting. Healthy volunteers demonstrated significant interindividual variation in platelet response to PGE2. PGE2 completely inhibited U46,619-induced platelet aggregation and ATP release in 26% of subjects; the remaining 74% had partial or no response to PGE2. Antagonism of EP4 abolished the inhibitory effect of PGE2. In all volunteers, a selective EP2 agonist inhibited U46,619-induced aggregation. Furthermore, the selective EP3 antagonist DG-041 converted all PGE2 nonresponders to full responders. There is significant interindividual variation of platelet response to PGE2 in humans. The balance between EP2, EP3, and EP4 activation determines its net effect. PGE2 can prevent thromboxane-induced platelet aggregation in an EP4-dependent manner. EP3 antagonism converts platelets of nonresponders to a PGE2-responsive phenotype. These data suggest that therapeutic targeting of EP pathways may have cardiovascular benefit by decreasing platelet reactivity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Structure-activity relationship studies of 1-substituted 3-dodecanoylindole-2-carboxylic acids as inhibitors of cytosolic phospholipase A2-mediated arachidonic acid release in intact platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griessbach, Klaus; Klimt, Monika; Schulze Elfringhoff, Alwine; Lehr, Matthias

    2002-01-01

    A series of 3-dodecanoylindole-2-carboxylic acid derivatives with varied carboxylic acid substituents at the indole 1-position were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit arachidonic acid release in human platelets mediated by the cytosolic phospholipase A(2). Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that increasing the polarity of these substituents by the introduction of additional polar groups in the proximity of the carboxylic acid moiety reduced activity. Conformational restriction of the indole-1-carboxylic acid substituents in distinct positions as well as extending the length of these residues led to compounds which did not substantially differ in their potencies.

  10. Effects of TRA-418, a novel TP-receptor antagonist, and IP-receptor agonist, on human platelet activation and aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Mitsuko; Yamada, Naohiro; Ikezawa, Shiho; Ohno, Michihiro; Otake, Atsushi; Umemura, Kazuo; Matsushita, Teruo

    2003-11-01

    [4-[2-(1,1-Diphenylethylsulfanyl)-ethyl]-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[1,4]oxazin-8-yloxy]-acetic acid N-Methyl-d-glucamine salt (TRA-418) has both thromboxane A2 (TP)-receptor antagonist and prostacyclin (IP)-receptor agonist properties. The present study examined the advantageous effects of TRA-418 based on the dual activities, over an agent having either activity alone and also the difference in the effects of TRA-418 and a glycoprotein alphaIIb/beta3 integrin (GPIIb/IIIa) inhibitor. TRA-418 inhibited platelet GPIIb/IIIa activation as well as P-selectin expression induced by adenosine 5'-diphosphate, thrombin receptor agonist peptide 1-6 (Ser-Phe-Leu-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH2), and U-46619 in the presence of epinephrine (U-46619+ epinephrine). TRA-418 also inhibited platelet aggregation induced by those platelet-stimulants in Ca2+ chelating anticoagulant, citrate and in nonchelating anticoagulant, d-phenylalanyl-l-prolyl-l-arginyl-chloromethyl ketone (PPACK). The TP-receptor antagonist SQ-29548 inhibited only U-46619+epinephrine-induced GPIIb/IIIa activation, P-selectin expression, and platelet aggregation. The IP-receptor agonist beraprost sodium inhibited platelet activation. Beraprost also inhibited platelet aggregation induced by platelet stimulants we tested in citrate and in PPACK. The GPIIb/IIIa inhibitor abciximab blocked GPIIb/IIIa activation and platelet aggregation. However, abciximab showed slight inhibitory effects on P-selectin expression. TRA-418 is more advantageous as an antiplatelet agent than TP-receptor antagonists or IP-receptor agonists separately used. TRA-418 showed a different inhibitory profile from abciximab in the effects on P-selectin expression.

  11. Cyclic nucleotide dependent dephosphorylation of regulator of G-protein signaling 18 in human platelets.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gegenbauer, Kristina

    2013-11-01

    Regulator of G-protein signaling 18 (RGS18) is a GTPase-activating protein that turns off Gq signaling in platelets. RGS18 is regulated by binding to the adaptor protein 14-3-3 via phosphorylated serine residues S49 and S218 on RGS18. In this study we confirm that thrombin, thromboxane A2, or ADP stimulate the interaction of RGS18 and 14-3-3 by increasing the phosphorylation of S49. Cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent kinases (PKA, PKG) inhibit the interaction of RGS18 and 14-3-3 by phosphorylating S216. To understand the effect of S216 phosphorylation we studied the phosphorylation kinetics of S49, S216, and S218 using Phos-tag gels and phosphorylation site-specific antibodies in transfected cells and in platelets. Cyclic nucleotide-induced detachment of 14-3-3 from RGS18 coincides initially with double phosphorylation of S216 and S218. This is followed by dephosphorylation of S49 and S218. Dephosphorylation of S49 and S218 might be mediated by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) which is linked to RGS18 by the regulatory subunit PPP1R9B (spinophilin). We conclude that PKA and PKG induced S216 phosphorylation triggers the dephosphorylation of the 14-3-3 binding sites of RGS18 in platelets.

  12. Inhibition of thromboxane synthesis attenuates insulin hypertension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, H L; Brands, M W; Smith, M J; Shek, E W; Hall, J E

    1997-10-01

    Chronic insulin infusion in rats increases mean arterial pressure (MAP) and reduces glomerular filtration rate (GFR), but the mechanisms for these actions are not known. This study tested whether thromboxane synthesis inhibition (TSI) would attenuate the renal and blood pressure responses to sustained hyperinsulinemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented with arterial and venous catheters, and MAP was measured 24 h/day. After 4 days of baseline measurements, endogenous synthesis of thromboxane was suppressed in 7 rats by infusing the thromboxane synthetase inhibitor, U63557A, intravenously (30 microg/kg/min) for the remainder of the experiment; 7 other rats received vehicle. Baseline MAP was not significantly different between vehicle and TSI rats (96 +/- 1 v 99 +/- 1 mm Hg). After 3 days of U63557A or vehicle, a 5-day control period was started, followed by a 7-day infusion of insulin (1.5 mU/kg/min, intravenously). Glucose (22 mg/kg/min, intravenously) was infused along with insulin to prevent hypoglycemia. In the control period, MAP was not different between vehicle and TSI rats (99 +/- 2 v 100 +/- 1 mm Hg), but MAP increased throughout the 7-day infusion period only in the vehicle rats with an average increase in blood pressure of 7 +/- 2 mm Hg. In the control period, GFR was lower in vehicle rats compared with TSI rats (2.5 +/- 0.1 v 3.1 +/- 0.2 mL/min, P = .06), and the decrease to 81% +/- 4% and 91% +/- 6% of control, respectively, during insulin was significant only in the vehicle rats. All variables returned toward control during a 6-day recovery period. These results suggest that full expression of hypertension and renal vasoconstriction during hyperinsulinemia in rats is dependent on a normal ability to synthesize thromboxane.

  13. Additive effect of cysteinyl leukotriene or thromboxane modifiers to inhaled corticosteroids in asthmatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeharu Myou

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the conducting airways. Current asthma treatment guidelines recommend inhaled corticosteroids (ICS as the first-line maintenance therapy for mild to severe persistent asthma, because ICS are the most efficacious anti-inflammatory medication. Despite treatment with ICS, suppression of inflammation is often incomplete and blockade by ICS of cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT and thromboxane (TX A2 biosynthesis is limited. The addition of a CysLT1 receptor antagonist to an ICS represents a reasonable alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of asthma patients whose symptoms remain uncontrolled on ICS alone. Indeed, CysLT1 receptor antagonists are demonstrated both to have an additive effect to ICS therapy and to allow the reduction of ICS dosage. Thromboxane modifiers also have an additive effect with low- to moderate-dose ICS. Although the long-term usefulness of add-on therapy of CysLT or TX modifiers (vs long-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonists to ICS is unclear, these alternatives are worthy of further consideration.

  14. Patients with previous definite stent thrombosis have a larger fraction of immature platelets and a reduced antiplatelet effect of aspirin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Morten; Grove, Erik; Wulff, Lise Nielsen

    Objectives This study sought to evaluate the platelet response to aspirin and the immature platelet fraction in patients with previous stent thrombosis (ST). Background ST is a potentially fatal complication of coronary stenting. A reduced platelet response to aspirin increases the risk of cardio......Objectives This study sought to evaluate the platelet response to aspirin and the immature platelet fraction in patients with previous stent thrombosis (ST). Background ST is a potentially fatal complication of coronary stenting. A reduced platelet response to aspirin increases the risk...... were treated with aspirin 75 mg once daily. Platelet function was assessed by multiple electrode aggregometry in citrated and hirudinized blood and by VerifyNow Aspirin Assay (Accumetrics, San Diego, California). Flow cytometric determination of the immature platelet fraction was performed to evaluate...... platelet turnover. Platelet activation was evaluated by soluble serum P-selectin. Compliance was confirmed by serum thromboxane B2. Results All patients were fully compliant, which was confirmed by suppressed levels of serum thromboxane B2. Platelet aggregation was increased in patients with previous ST...

  15. Platelet function studies in women on oral contraceptive pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, R; Mohamed, A B; Hassan, K

    1990-06-01

    A study was conducted on a total of 100 women attending the Family Planning Clinic in Kuala Lumpur. 50 took combined low-dose estrogen and progesterone pills for a year or more and the other 50 used different methods of birth control. Platelet aggregation, ATP release, Thromboxane B2, and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha estimations were made to evaluate the effect of oral contraceptives (OCs) on platelet function and prostanoid production. The results showed no significant differences in the parameters measured in the 2 groups investigated. These findings are comparable to those reported by other studies, suggesting relatively low risk, if any, of thrombosis in OC users.

  16. Platelet mimicry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Hunter, Alan Christy; Peer, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Here we critically examine whether coating of nanoparticles with platelet membranes can truly disguise them against recognition by elements of the innate immune system. We further assess whether the "cloaking technology" can sufficiently equip nanoparticles with platelet-mimicking functionalities...

  17. Platelet Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their spleen removed surgically Use of birth control pills (oral contraceptives) Some conditions may cause a temporary (transitory) increased ... increased platelet counts include estrogen and birth control pills (oral contraceptives). Mildly decreased platelet counts may be seen in ...

  18. Triplatin, a platelet aggregation inhibitor from the salivary gland of the triatomine vector of Chagas disease, binds to TXA(2) but does not interact with glycoprotein PVI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongying; Assumpção, Teresa C F; Li, Yuan; Andersen, John F; Ribeiro, José; Francischetti, Ivo M B

    2012-01-01

    Salivary glands from haematophagous animals express a notable diversity of negative modulators of platelet function. Triplatin is an inhibitor of collagen-induced platelet aggregation which has been described as an antagonist of glycoprotein VI (GPVI). Because triplatin displays sequence homology to members of the lipocalin family of proteins, we investigated whether triplatin mechanism of action could be explained by interaction with pro-haemostatic prostaglandins. Our results demonstrate that triplatin inhibits platelet aggregation induced by low doses of collagen, thromboxane A2 (TXA(2)) mimetic (U46619), and arachidonic acid (AA). On the other hand, it does not inhibit platelet aggregation by convulxin, PMA, or low-dose ADP. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) revealed that triplatin binds AA, cTXA(2), TXB(2), U46619 or prostaglandin (PG)H(2) mimetic (U51605). Consistent with its ligand specificity, triplatin induces relaxation of rat aorta contracted with U46619. Triplatin also interacts with PGF(2α) and PGJ(2), but not with leukotrienes, AA or biogenic amines. Surface plasmon resonance experiments failed to demonstrate interaction of triplatin with GPVI; it also did to inhibit platelet adhesion to fibrillar or soluble collagen. Because triplatin displays sequence similarity to apolipoprotein D (ApoD) - a lipocalin associated with high-density lipoprotein, ApoD was tested as a putative TXA(2)-binding molecule. ITC failed to demonstrate binding of ApoD to all prostanoids described above, or to AA. Furthermore, ApoD was devoid of inhibitory properties towards platelets activation by AA, collagen, or U46619. In conclusion, triplatin mechanism of action has been elucidated without ambiguity as a novel TXA(2)- and PGF(2α)- binding protein. It conceivably blocks platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction, thus contributing to successful blood feeding at the vector-host interface.

  19. Balancing Potency of Platelet Inhibition with Bleeding Risk in the Early Treatment of Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slattery, David E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review available evidence and examine issues surrounding the use of advanced antiplatelet therapy in an effort to provide a practical guide for emergency physicians caring for patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS.Data Sources: American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA 2007 guidelines for the management of patients with unstable angina (UA and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI, AHA/ACC 2007 focused update for the management of patients with STEMI, selected clinical articles identified through the PubMed database (1965-February 2008, and manual searches for relevant articles identified from those retrieved.Study Selection: English-language controlled studies and randomized clinical trials that assessed the efficacy and safety of antiplatelet therapy in treating patients with all ACS manifestations.Data Extraction and Synthesis: Clinical data, including treatment regimens and patient demographics and outcomes, were extracted and critically analyzed from the selected studies and clinical trials. Pertinent data from relevant patient registries were also evaluated to assess current clinical practice.Conclusions: As platelet activation and aggregation are central to ACS pathology, antiplatelet agents are critical to early treatment. A widely accepted first-line treatment is aspirin, which acts to decrease platelet activation via inhibition of thromboxane A2 synthesis. Thienopyridines, which inhibit ADP-induced platelet activation, and glycoprotein (GP receptor antagonists, which bind to platelet GP IIb/IIIa receptors and hinder their role in platelet aggregation and thrombus formation, provide complementary mechanisms of platelet inhibition and are often employed in combination with aspirin. While the higher levels of platelet inhibition that accompany combination therapy improve protection against ischemic and peri-procedural events, the risk of bleeding is also increased. Thus, the

  20. In vitro model of platelet aggregation in stenotic arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, D.; Santamore, W.P.

    1988-07-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence suggest a strong relationship between arterial stenosis, platelet aggregation, and subsequent thrombus formation. To facilitate the study of platelet accumulation in stenotic arteries, we developed an in vitro preparation. Arterial segments were perfused with whole citrated blood. A stenosis was created by applying an external plastic constrictor to the artery. Platelet accumulation within the stenosis was assessed by scanning electron microscopy and by radioactive counts from Indium-111 labeled platelets. Utilizing this preparation, 30 carotid arterial segments from 10 mongrel dogs were perfused at 100 mmHg for 15 min. In 10 arteries without a stenosis, scanning electron microscopy and radioactive counts demonstrated little platelet accumulation. In contrast, extensive platelet aggregation was observed in 10 arteries with stenoses. Moreover, in 10 stenotic arteries exposed to the thromboxane mimetic, U46619 (Upjohn Diagnostic Group), scanning electron microscopy and radioactive counts demonstrated a significant increase in platelet deposition. Conversely, we demonstrated a dimunition of platelet accumulation in stenosed arterial segments exposed to the prostacyclin analogue platelet inhibitor, Iloprost. The in vitro preparation allows precise control of hemodynamic variables and makes it possible to perform multiple tests on segments of the same vessel from the same animal.

  1. Beta-lactam antibiotic-mediated changes in platelet reactivity and vascular endothelial functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togna, G I; Togna, A R; Caprino, L

    2001-05-01

    To evaluate vascular and platelet compatibility of intravenous administration of beta-lactam antibiotics, we assessed the effects of therapeutic concentrations of ceftriaxone, aztreonam, and ceftazidime on platelet reactivity to different agonists (sodium arachidonate, collagen and adenosine diphosphate) and on selected vascular endothelial functions (adenosine diphosphatase activity, prostacyclin production and t-PA release). Ceftriaxone and, to a lesser degree, aztreonam, enhanced platelet reactivity, evaluated as onset of platelet aggregating response, and increased thromboxane production to subthreshold concentrations of arachidonate. There was no modification in platelet reactivity after ceftazidime treatment. Ceftriaxone and ceftazidime, but not aztreonam, inhibited endothelial adenosine diphosphatase activity. Prostacyclin production and t-PA release were inhibited only by ceftriaxone at high concentrations. While it is difficult to establish which marker (platelet or endothelial functions) has more clinical reference in human vascular compatibility, it seems feasible to consider aztreonam the most compatible of the beta-lactams studied.

  2. No effects of atorvastatin (10 mg/d or 80 mg/d) on nitric oxide, prostacyclin, thromboxane and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients of the DALI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsikas, D.; Pham, V.V.; Suchy, M.T.; Ree, M.A. van de; Huisman, M.V.; Frolich, J.C.; Princen, H.M.; Hoogerbrugge, N.

    2015-01-01

    The present study describes the effects of atorvastatin on whole body synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin (PGI2), and thromboxane A2 (TxA2), on oxidative stress and nitrite/nitrate-related renal carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A double-blin

  3. Platelet proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zufferey, Anne; Fontana, Pierre; Reny, Jean-Luc; Nolli, Severine; Sanchez, Jean-Charles

    2012-01-01

    Platelets are small cell fragments, produced by megakaryocytes, in the bone marrow. They play an important role in hemostasis and diverse thrombotic disorders. They are therefore primary targets of antithrombotic therapies. They are implicated in several pathophysiological pathways, such as inflammation or wound repair. In blood circulation, platelets are activated by several pathways including subendothelial matrix and thrombin, triggering the formation of the platelet plug. Studying their proteome is a powerful approach to understand their biology and function. However, particular attention must be paid to different experimental parameters, such as platelet quality and purity. Several technologies are involved during the platelet proteome processing, yielding information on protein identification, characterization, localization, and quantification. Recent technical improvements in proteomics combined with inter-disciplinary strategies, such as metabolomic, transcriptomics, and bioinformatics, will help to understand platelets biological mechanisms. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of the platelet proteome under different environmental conditions may contribute to elucidate complex processes relevant to platelet function regarding bleeding disorders or platelet hyperreactivity and identify new targets for antiplatelet therapy.

  4. ExoU-induced vascular hyperpermeability and platelet activation in the course of experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumosepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Gloria-Beatriz S; de Assis, Maria-Cristina; Leão, Robson; Saliba, Alessandra M; Silva, Mauricio C A; Suassuna, Jose H; de Oliveira, Albanita V; Plotkowski, Maria-Cristina

    2010-03-01

    To address the question whether ExoU, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytotoxin with phospholipase A2 activity, can induce hemostatic abnormalities during the course of pneumosepsis, mice were instilled i.t. with the ExoU-producing PA103 P. aeruginosa or with a mutant obtained by deletion of the exoU gene. Control animals were instilled with sterile vehicle. To assess the role of ExoU in animal survival, mice were evaluated for 72 h. In all the other experiments, animals were studied at 24 h after infection. PA103-infected mice showed significantly higher mortality rate, lower blood leukocyte concentration, and higher platelet concentration and hematocrit than animals infected with the bacterial mutant, as well as evidences of increased vascular permeability and plasma leakage, which were confirmed by our finding of higher protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids and by the Evans blue dye assay. Platelets from PA103-infected mice demonstrated features of activation, assessed by the flow cytometric detection of higher percentage of P-selectin expression and of platelet-derived microparticles as well as by the enzyme immunoassay detection of increased thromboxane A2 concentration in animal plasma. Histopathology of lung and kidney sections from PA103-infected mice exhibited evidences of thrombus formation that were not detected in sections of animals from the other groups. Our results demonstrate the ability of ExoU to induce vascular hyperpermeability, platelet activation, and thrombus formation during P. aeruginosa pneumosepsis, and we speculate that this ability may contribute to the reported poor outcome of patients with severe infection by ExoU-producing P. aeruginosa.

  5. [Platelet aggregation upon acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel treatment and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa content in patients with acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaspekova, S G; Ziuriaev, I T; Iakushkin, V V; Golubeva, N V; Ruda, M Ia; Mazurov, A V

    2011-01-01

    Interaction between aggregating activity of platelets and glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa (fibrinogen receptor) content on their surface was investigated in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Eighty nine ACS patients were included into the study - 69 with and 20 without elevation of ST segment. Blood was collected within the first hour of admission to the clinic (1 day), and then at 3-5 and 8-12 days. All patients received standard antiaggregant therapy - acetylsalicylic acid - ASA (thromboxane A2 synthesis inhibitor) and clopidogrel (ADP receptor antagonist). Platelet aggregation was analyzed at the first time point when patients had already taken ASA but not clopidogrel, and then (3-5 and 8- 12 days) upon combined therapy with both preparations. Aggregation was induced by 5 and 20 uM ADP and measured by turbidimetric method. In comparison with the initial level (1 day, ASA) at days 3-5, i.e. after development of clopidogrel effect, platelet aggregation was decreased by 54 and 40% upon its stimulation with 5 and 20 uM ADP, and was not further changed at days 8-12. GP IIb/IIIa content on platelet surface was determined by binding of 125I-labelled monoclonal antibody CRC64. GP IIb/IIIa number varied from 31100 to 73000 per platelet with the mean level of 48500 +/- 8400 (mean +/- standard deviation). No differences were detected between mean GP IIb/IIIa number at 1, 3-5 and 8-12 days after ACS onset. Upon repeat GP IIb/IIIa measurement coefficient of variation was 6.1% demonstrating the stability of this parameter in each patient. Positive correlation between platelet aggregation and GP IIb/IIIa content was detected at the first day - correlation coefficients (r) 0.425 and 0.470 for 5 and 20 uM ADP (n=57, p0.05). These results indicates that variations of GP IIb/IIIa content affect platelet aggregating activity within first hours of ACS upon ASA treatment. However after saturation with clopidogrel this factor has no significant influence on platelet aggregation

  6. Toxicological effects of beryllium on platelets and vascular endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togna, G; Togna, A R; Russo, P; Caprino, L

    1997-06-01

    Although ample research has described the toxic effects of the metal beryllium on the respiratory apparatus, less is known about its effects on the vascular apparatus, including pulmonary blood vessels. We investigated the in vitro effects of beryllium on endothelial vascular adenosine diphosphatase activity and prostacyclin production in bovine aortic endothelium, and on nitric oxide release in isolated rabbit arteries. Rabbit and human platelet responsiveness was also evaluated. Beryllium inhibited vascular endothelial adenosine diphosphatase activity, prostacyclin production, and nitric oxide release, thus inducing functional alterations in vascular endothelial cells. It also induced platelet hyperreactivity to arachidonic acid, as shown by a lowering of the threshold of aggregating concentration and by concurrently increasing thromboxane production. In contrast, beryllium left the response to aggregating and nonaggregating concentrations of ADP and collagen unchanged. These findings show that beryllium may impair some vascular endothelial functions and alter the interaction between platelet and endothelial mediators.

  7. Acidosis downregulates platelet haemostatic functions and promotes neutrophil proinflammatory responses mediated by platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etulain, Julia; Negrotto, Soledad; Carestia, Agostina; Pozner, Roberto Gabriel; Romaniuk, María Albertina; D'Atri, Lina Paola; Klement, Giannoula Lakka; Schattner, Mirta

    2012-01-01

    Acidosis is one of the hallmarks of tissue injury such as trauma, infection, inflammation, and tumour growth. Although platelets participate in the pathophysiology of all these processes, the impact of acidosis on platelet biology has not been studied outside of the quality control of laboratory aggregation assays or platelet transfusion optimization. Herein, we evaluate the effect of physiologically relevant changes in extracellular acidosis on the biological function of platelets, placing particular emphasis on haemostatic and secretory functions. Platelet haemostatic responses such as adhesion, spreading, activation of αIIbβ3 integrin, ATP release, aggregation, thromboxane B2 generation, clot retraction and procoagulant activity including phosphatidilserine exposure and microparticle formation, showed a statistically significant inhibition of thrombin-induced changes at pH of 7.0 and 6.5 compared to the physiological pH (7.4). The release of alpha granule content was differentially regulated by acidosis. At low pH, thrombin or collagen-induced secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor and endostatin were dramatically reduced. The release of von Willebrand factor and stromal derived factor-1α followed a similar, albeit less dramatic pattern. In contrast, the induction of CD40L was not changed by low pH, and P-selectin exposure was significantly increased. While the generation of mixed platelet-leukocyte aggregates and the increased chemotaxis of neutrophils mediated by platelets were further augmented under acidic conditions in a P-selectin dependent manner, the increased neutrophil survival was independent of P-selectin expression. In conclusion, our results indicate that extracellular acidosis downregulates most of the haemostatic platelet functions, and promotes those involved in amplifying the neutrophil-mediated inflammatory response.

  8. Chlorin e6 Prevents ADP-Induced Platelet Aggregation by Decreasing PI3K-Akt Phosphorylation and Promoting cAMP Production

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    Ji Young Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of reagents that prevent thrombosis have been developed but were found to have serious side effects. Therefore, we sought to identify complementary and alternative medicinal materials that are safe and have long-term efficacy. In the present studies, we have assessed the ability of chlorine e6 (CE6 to inhibit ADP-induced aggregation of rat platelets and elucidated the underlying mechanism. CE6 inhibited platelet aggregation induced by 10 µM ADP in a concentration-dependent manner and decreased intracellular calcium mobilization and granule secretion (i.e., ATP and serotonin release. Western blotting revealed that CE6 strongly inhibited the phosphorylations of PI3K, Akt, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, and different mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 as well as p38-MAPK. Our study also demonstrated that CE6 significantly elevated intracellular cAMP levels and decreased thromboxane A2 formation in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, we determined that CE6 initiated the activation of PKA, an effector of cAMP. Taken together, our findings indicate that CE6 may inhibit ADP-induced platelet activation by elevating cAMP levels and suppressing PI3K/Akt activity. Finally, these results suggest that CE6 could be developed as therapeutic agent that helps prevent thrombosis and ischemia.

  9. In vitro effects of ethanol on the pathways of platelet aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rand, M.L.; Kinlough-Rathbone, R.L.; Packham, M.A.; Mustard, J.F.

    1986-03-01

    Ethanol is reported to inhibit platelet aggregation in vivo and in vitro, but the mechanisms of its action on stimulus-response coupling in platelets is unknown. Platelet aggregation to thrombin occurs through at least three pathways: released ADP; thromboxane A/sub 2/ (TXA/sub 2/); and a third pathway(s). Aggregation of rabbit platelets in citrated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or washed suspensions to ADP (0.5-10 ..mu..M) was not affected by ethanol, at concentrations up to 5 mg/ml (lethal). Primary ADP-induced (5 ..mu..M) aggregation of human platelets in PRP was also unaffected by ethanol, but secondary aggregation and release of /sup 14/C-serotonin, due to TXA/sub 2/ formation, was inhibited by ethanol (2 and 4 mg/ml). Since arachidonate (AA)-induced (25-250 ..mu..M) aggregation and release by washed rabbit platelets was unaltered by ethanol, it may inhibit mobilization of AA from platelet membrane phospholipids. Ethanol (2-4 mg/ml) inhibited rabbit platelet aggregation and release to low concentrations of thrombin (< 10 mU/ml) or collagen, and also inhibited aggregation and release of aspirin-treated (500 ..mu.. M) rabbit platelets (that cannot form TXA/sub 2/) to low concentrations of thrombin (< 10 mU/ml). Thus, ethanol does not inhibit the mobilization of AA, and partially inhibits the third pathway(s) of platelet aggregation.

  10. Acquired platelet function defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquired qualitative platelet disorders; Acquired disorders of platelet function ... blood clotting. Disorders that can cause problems in platelet function include: Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura Chronic myelogenous leukemia Multiple ...

  11. Platelet Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of gratitude that washed over me when I saw those platelets going into my husband’s body. I ... Needles LGBTQ+ Donors Blood Donor Community SleevesUp Games Facebook Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Red Cross Information ...

  12. Stimulation of Platelet Death by Vancomycin

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    Syeda T. Towhid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Side effects of vancomycin, a widely used antibiotic, include thrombocytopenia. The vancomycin-induced thrombocytopenia has been attributed to immune reactions. At least in theory, thrombocytopenia could result in part from the triggering of apoptosis, which results in cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with subsequent phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface. The cell membrane scrambling could be initiated by a signaling involving increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity, ceramide formation, mitochondrial depolarization and/or caspase activation. Vancomycin has indeed been shown to trigger neutrophil apoptosis. An effect of vancomycin on platelet apoptosis has, however, never been tested. The present study thus explored the effect of vancomycin on platelet activation and apoptosis. Methods: Human blood platelets were exposed to vancomycin and forward scatter was utilized to estimate cell volume, annexin V-binding to quantify phosphatidylserine (PS exposure, Fluo-3 AM fluorescence to estimate cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i, antibodies to quantify ceramide formation and immunofluorescence to quantify protein abundance of active caspase-3. Results: A 30 minutes exposure to vancomycin (≥1 µg/ ml decreased cell volume, triggered annexin V-binding, increased [Ca2+]i, activated caspase 3, stimulated ceramide formation, triggered release of thromboxane B2, and upregulated surface expression of CD62P (P-selectin as well as activated integrin αllbβ3. Annexin V-binding and upregulation of CD62P (P-selectin and integrin αllbβ3 was significantly blunted by removal of extracellular Ca2+. Annexin V-binding was not significantly blunted by pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-FMK (1 µM. In conclusion, vancomycin results in platelet activation and suicidal platelet death with increase of [Ca2+]i, caspase-3 activation, cell membrane scrambling and cell shrinkage. Activation and cell membrane scrambling required the presence of Ca2

  13. Extract of a spice--omum (Trachyspermum ammi)-shows antiaggregatory effects and alters arachidonic acid metabolism in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, K C

    1988-07-01

    An ethereal extract of omum (Trachyspermum ammi; Hindustani: ajwan)--a frequently consumed spice--was found to inhibit platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid (AA), epinephrine and collagen; in this respect it was most effective against AA-induced aggregation. Inhibition of aggregation by omum could be explained by its effect on platelet thromboxane production as suggested by the following experimental observation. (i) Omum reduced TxB2 formation in intact platelet preparations from added arachidonate, and (ii) it reduced the formation of TxB2 from AA-labelled platelets after stimulation with Ca2+-ionophore A23187 by a direct action on cyclooxygenase as it did not affect the release of AA from labelled platelets. An increased formation of lipoxygenase-derived products from exogenous AA in omum-treated platelets was apparently due to redirection of AA from cyclooxygenase to the lipoxygenase pathway.

  14. Thrombosis is reduced by inhibition of COX-1, but unaffected by inhibition of COX-2, in an acute model of platelet activation in the mouse.

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    Paul C Armstrong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical use of selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 appears associated with increased risk of thrombotic events. This is often hypothesised to reflect reduction in anti-thrombotic prostanoids, notably PGI(2, formed by COX-2 present within endothelial cells. However, whether COX-2 is actually expressed to any significant extent within endothelial cells is controversial. Here we have tested the effects of acute inhibition of COX on platelet reactivity using a functional in vivo approach in mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A non-lethal model of platelet-driven thromboembolism in the mouse was used to assess the effects of aspirin (7 days orally as control diclofenac (1 mg.kg(-1, i.v. and parecoxib (0.5 mg.kg(-1, i.v. on thrombus formation induced by collagen or the thromboxane (TX A(2-mimetic, U46619. The COX inhibitory profiles of the drugs were confirmed in mouse tissues ex vivo. Collagen and U46619 caused in vivo thrombus formation with the former, but not latter, sensitive to oral dosing with aspirin. Diclofenac inhibited COX-1 and COX-2 ex vivo and reduced thrombus formation in response to collagen, but not U46619. Parecoxib inhibited only COX-2 and had no effect upon thrombus formation caused by either agonist. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Inhibition of COX-1 by diclofenac or aspirin reduced thrombus formation induced by collagen, which is partly dependent upon platelet-derived TXA(2, but not that induced by U46619, which is independent of platelet TXA(2. These results are consistent with the model demonstrating the effects of COX-1 inhibition in platelets, but provide no support for the hypothesis that acute inhibition of COX-2 in the circulation increases thrombosis.

  15. Effect of BN 52021, a specific antagonist of platelet activating factor (PAF-acether), on calcium movements and phosphatidic acid production induced by PAF-acether in human platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, M.F.; Chap, H.; Braquet, P.; Douste-Blazy, L.

    1987-02-15

    /sup 32/P-labelled human platelets loaded with quin 2 and pretreated with aspirin were stimulated with 1-100 nM platelet activating factor (PAF-acether or 1-0-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) in a medium containing the ADP-scavenging system creatine phosphate/creatine phosphokinase. Under these conditions, PAF-acether evoked a characteristic fluorescence change allowing to quantify elevations in cytoplasmic free Ca/sup 2 +/ from internal stores (Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization) or from external medium (Ca/sup 2 +/ influx), as well as an increased production of phosphatidic acid, reflecting phospholipase C activation. These effects, which can be attributed to PAF-acether only and not to released products such as ADP or thromboxane A2, were strongly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by BN 52021, a specific antagonist of PAF-acether isolated from Ginkgo biloba. As the drug remained inactive against the same effects elicited by thrombin, it is concluded that BN 52021 does not interfere directly with the mechanism of transmembrane signalling involving inositol-phospholipids or (and) some putative receptor-operated channels, but rather acts on the binding of PAF-acether to its presumed membrane receptor.

  16. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 activity, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH in leukocytes and body composition in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitsavos Christos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 also known as serum platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH activity constitutes a novel risk marker for cardiovascular disease. Leukocytes constitute one main cellular source of circulating Lp-PLA2. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of both serum and leukocyte PAF-AH activities with fat distribution and lean tissue. One hundred healthy volunteers without cardiovascular disease history participated in this study (n = 52 men, 44 ± 13 years and n = 48 women, 43 ± 13 years. Body composition was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, while anthropometrical indices were also measured. The activity of Lp-PLA2 and levels of lipid and glycemic parameters were determined in fasting samples. Results Mean Lp-PLA2 activity was 24.8 ± 4.5 and 19.6 ± 5.0 nmol/min/mL in men and women, respectively (P 2 activity in men after adjusting for LDL-cholesterol, age, smoking, hs-CRP and physical activity, whereas no associations were found with PAF-AH leukocyte homogenates activity. Hierarchical analysis revealed that the variables with the highest explanatory ability of Lp-PLA2 activity in men, were DXA deriving L1–L4 region of interest and arms fat (increase in R2 = 0.136, P = 0.005 and increase in R2 = 0.118, P = 0.009, respectively, followed by trunk fat and total fat. In women, no association of body composition variables with Lp-PLA2 nor PAF-AH leukocyte homogenates activity was found. Conclusion Lp-PLA2 activity is differentiated across levels of adiposity and topology of adipose tissue, whereas no association was found regarding PAF-AH leukocyte homogenates activity. Our findings suggest that Lp-PLA2 may compensate for the adiposity-associated increases in inflammatory and oxidative burden, in men.

  17. Impaired cytoplasmic ionized calcium mobilization in inherited platelet secretion defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, A.K.; Kowalska, M.A.; Disa, J. (Temple Univ. School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Defects in platelet cytoplasmic Ca++ mobilization have been postulated but not well demonstrated in patients with inherited platelet secretion defects. We describe studies in a 42-year-old white woman, referred for evaluation of easy bruising, and her 23-year-old son. In both subjects, aggregation and {sup 14}C-serotonin secretion responses in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), epinephrine, platelet activating factor (PAF), arachidonic acid (AA), U46619, and ionophore A23187 were markedly impaired. Platelet ADP and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), contents and thromboxane synthesis induced by thrombin and AA were normal. In quin2-loaded platelets, the basal intracellular Ca++ concentration, (Ca++)i, was normal; however, peak (Ca++)i measured in the presence of 1 mmol/L external Ca++ was consistently diminished following activation with ADP (25 mumol/L), PAF (20 mumol/L), collagen (5 micrograms/mL), U46619 (1 mumol/L), and thrombin (0.05 to 0.5 U/mL). In aequorin-loaded platelets, the peak (Ca++)i studied following thrombin (0.05 and 0.5 U/mL) stimulation was diminished. Myosin light chain phosphorylation following thrombin (0.05 to 0.5 U/mL) stimulation was comparable with that in the normal controls, while with ADP (25 mumol/L) it was more strikingly impaired in the propositus. We provide direct evidence that at least in some patients with inherited platelet secretion defects, agonist-induced Ca++ mobilization is impaired. This may be related to defects in phospholipase C activation. These patients provide a unique opportunity to obtain new insights into Ca++ mobilization in platelets.

  18. Effects of Nd:YAG laser-heated metal cap on human platelets in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Guo, You-chi

    1993-03-01

    Human platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was irradiated in vitro with a fiberoptic Nd:YAG laser-heated metal cap to study its effects on platelets. The energy of the laser was 5 and 10 watts with an irradiation time of 0, 3, 6, and 9 seconds and 14 watts with an irradiation time of 0, 3, 4, and 5 seconds, respectively. The irradiated PRPs were analyzed for platelet count, aggregation reaction, thromboxane (TX)B2 measurement and electron microscopy. Various degrees of decrease in platelet count were observed in all groups. Except the 5Wx3S group, the other groups showed an increase in the maximum aggregation rate of platelets, which corresponded to the enhancement of TXB2 formation. It was also demonstrated by a transmission electron microscopy in 10Wx3S, 10Wx6S, 10Wx9S, 14Wx3S, 14Wx4S, and 14Wx5S energy groups that alpha- and dense-particles in irradiated platelets became sparse in number or even disappeared, less electron density, irregularity in size and shape, and a tendency for these particles to cluster around platelet membranes and open canalicular systems, which dilated apparently. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy depicted the appearance of short and thick pseudopods on the surfaces of some irradiated platelets and an increase in the axis rate in most of the irradiated platelets.

  19. Effect of thromboxane antagonists on ozone-induced airway responses in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G.L.; Lane, C.G.; O' Byrne, P.M. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-09-01

    Airway hyperresponsiveness after inhaled ozone in dogs may occur as a result of thromboxane release in the airway. In this study, two thromboxane receptor antagonists, L-655,240 and L-670,596, were used in doses that inhibit the response to an inhaled thromboxane mimetic, U-46619, to determine further the role of thromboxane in ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. Dogs were studied on 2 days separated by 1 wk. On each day, the dogs inhaled ozone (3 ppm) for 30 min. On one randomly assigned day, 10 dogs received an infusion of L-655,240 (5 mg.kg-1.h-1) and 5 dogs received an infusion of L-670,596 (1 mg.kg-1.h-1); on the other day dogs received a control infusion. Airway responses to doubling doses of acetylcholine were measured before and after inhalation of ozone and were expressed as the concentration of acetylcholine giving a rise in resistance of 5 cmH2O.l-1.s from baseline (acetylcholine provocation concentration). The development of airway hyperresponsiveness after ozone was not inhibited by the thromboxane antagonists. The mean log difference in the acetylcholine provocative concentration before and after ozone on the L-655,240 treatment day was 0.62 +/- 0.12 (SE) and on the control day was 0.71 +/- 0.12 (P = 0.48); on the L-670,596 treatment day the mean log difference was 0.68 +/- 0.15 (SE) and on the control day it was 0.75 +/- 0.19 (P = 0.45). These results do not support an important role for thromboxane in causing ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness.

  20. Bleeding diathesis and gastro-duodenal ulcers in inherited cytosolic phospholipase-A2 alpha deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faioni, E M; Razzari, C; Zulueta, A; Femia, E A; Fenu, L; Trinchera, M; Podda, G M; Pugliano, M; Marongiu, F; Cattaneo, M

    2014-12-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA), when cleaved from phospholipids by cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha (cPLA2a), generates eicosanoids, with pro-hemostatic, pro-inflammatory, vasoactive and gastro-protective functions. We describe a patient (27-year-old man) and his twin-sister with early-onset bleeding diathesis and recurrent gastro-intestinal (GI) ulcers. Platelet aggregation/δ-granules secretion by collagen was impaired, but normal by AA; serum levels of thromboxane (Tx) B2 and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and urinary levels of 11-dehydro-TxB2 were extremely low. Patients were homozygous for 1723G>C transition in PLA2G4A gene, which changed the codon for Asp575 to His. GI ulcers affected 5/14 heterozygous ( 60 years) family members; none had bleeding diathesis. The proband, his sister and mother also had mildly reduced factor XI levels. Platelet messenger RNA expression did not differ among subjects with different PLA2G4A genotypes. Conversely, platelet cPLA2a was undetectable by Western Blotting in the proband and his sister, and decreased in 1723G>C heterozygous subjects, suggesting that the variant is transcribed, but not translated or translated into an unstable protein. We described a syndromic form of deficiency of cPLA2a , characterised by recurrent GI ulcers and bleeding diathesis, associated with mild inherited deficiency of factor XI. Unlike other reported patients with cPLA2a deficiency, these patients had extremely low levels of platelet TxA2 biosynthesis.

  1. Inhibition of prostaglandin D2 clearance in rat hepatocytes by the thromboxane receptor antagonists daltroban and ifetroban and the thromboxane synthase inhibitor furegrelate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, Sabine; Nath, Annegret; Jungermann, Kurt; Schieferdecker, Henrike L

    2003-08-15

    Prostanoids, i.e. prostaglandins and thromboxane, regulate liver-specific functions both in homeostasis and during defense reactions. For example, prostanoids are released from Kupffer cells, the resident liver macrophages, in response to the inflammatory mediator anaphylatoxin C5a, and mediate an enhanced glucose output from hepatocytes as energy supply. In perfused rat livers, the thromboxane receptor antagonist daltroban enhanced C5a-induced prostanoid overflow and reduced glucose output. It was the aim of this study to elucidate whether daltroban interfered with prostanoid release from Kupffer cells or prostanoid clearance by hepatocytes, and/or whether it directly influenced prostanoid-dependent glucose metabolism in these cells. In perfused rat livers, daltroban enhanced prostaglandin (PG)D(2) overflow not only after infusion of C5a (15-fold), but also after PGD(2) (10-fold). Neither daltroban nor another receptor antagonist, ifetroban, or the thromboxane synthase inhibitor furegrelate enhanced prostanoid release from Kupffer cells. In contrast, all inhibitors reduced clearance, i.e. uptake and degradation, of PGD(2) by hepatocytes: within 5 min uptake of 1 nmol/L PGD(2) was reduced from 43+/-5 fmol (controls) to 22+/-6 fmol (daltroban), 24+/-6 fmol (ifetroban) and 21+/-6 fmol (furegrelate). PGD(2) in the medium was reduced to 39+/-7% in the controls, but remained at 93+/-9%, 93+/-11% and 60+/-3% in the presence of the inhibitors. PGD(2)-dependent glucose output in the perfused liver or activation of glycogen phosphorylase in isolated hepatocytes remained unaffected by daltroban. These data clearly demonstrate that the thromboxane-inhibitors reduced PGD(2) clearance by hepatocytes, presumably by inhibition of prostanoid transport into the cells. In contrast, they did not interfere with PGD(2)-dependent glucose metabolism, suggesting an independent mechanism for the inhibition of glucose output from the liver.

  2. Nanoparticle-induced platelet aggregation and vascular thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomski, Anna; Jurasz, Paul; Alonso-Escolano, David; Drews, Magdalena; Morandi, Maria; Malinski, Tadeusz; Radomski, Marek W

    2005-11-01

    Ever increasing use of engineered carbon nanoparticles in nanopharmacology for selective imaging, sensor or drug delivery systems has increased the potential for blood platelet-nanoparticle interactions. We studied the effects of engineered and combustion-derived carbon nanoparticles on human platelet aggregation in vitro and rat vascular thrombosis in vivo. Multiplewall (MWNT), singlewall (SWNT) nanotubes, C60 fullerenes (C60CS) and mixed carbon nanoparticles (MCN) (0.2-300 microg ml(-1)) were investigated. Nanoparticles were compared with standard urban particulate matter (SRM1648, average size 1.4 microm). Platelet function was studied using lumi aggregometry, phase-contrast, immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy, flow cytometry, zymography and pharmacological inhibitors of platelet aggregation. Vascular thrombosis was induced by ferric chloride and the rate of thrombosis was measured, in the presence of carbon particles, with an ultrasonic flow probe. Carbon particles, except C60CS, stimulated platelet aggregation (MCN>or=SWNT>MWNT>SRM1648) and accelerated the rate of vascular thrombosis in rat carotid arteries with a similar rank order of efficacy. All particles resulted in upregulation of GPIIb/IIIa in platelets. In contrast, particles differentially affected the release of platelet granules, as well as the activity of thromboxane-, ADP, matrix metalloproteinase- and protein kinase C-dependent pathways of aggregation. Furthermore, particle-induced aggregation was inhibited by prostacyclin and S-nitroso-glutathione, but not by aspirin. Thus, some carbon nanoparticles and microparticles have the ability to activate platelets and enhance vascular thrombosis. These observations are of importance for the pharmacological use of carbon nanoparticles and pathology of urban particulate matter.

  3. Identification of human platelet alpha 2-adrenoceptors with a new antagonist [3H]-RX821002, a 2-methoxy derivative of idazoxan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galitzky, J.; Senard, J. M.; Lafontan, M.; Stillings, M.; Montastruc, J. L.; Berlan, M.

    1990-01-01

    1. The binding of a new alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, [3H]-RX821002 (2-(2-methoxy-1,4-benzodioxan-2-yl)-2-imidazoline), was investigated in human platelet membranes and compared with [3H]-yohimbine binding parameters. 2. Analysis of kinetic data revealed association and dissociation time courses consistent with a simple biomolecular reaction. Saturation isotherms showed that [3H]-RX821002 labelled a higher total number of alpha 2-binding sites (224 +/- 31 vs 168 +/- 24 fmol mg-1 protein) than [3H]-yohimbine and with higher affinity (Kd: 0.92 +/- 0.06 vs 1.51 +/- 0.08 nM). Moreover [3H]-RX821002 exhibited a lower percentage of nonspecific binding 3. The difference in total binding is due to a better labelling of the alpha 2-adrenoceptors in the low affinity state by [3H]-RX821002 since the labelled receptors number in high affinity state was identical with the two radioligands. 4. [3H]-RX821002 binding displayed a specificity similar to that obtained with [3H]-yohimbine. The potency of various compounds acting on adrenoceptors was: yohimbine greater than oxymetazoline greater than UK14304 greater than (-)-adrenaline greater than prazosin greater than or equal to (+)-adrenaline greater than isoprenaline. This order of potency is classical for an alpha 2A-adrenoceptor. 5. RX821002 is a more potent alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist than yohimbine on adrenaline-induced platelet aggregation. 6. These results indicate that [3H]-RX821002 is a suitable ligand for the identification of human platelet alpha 2-adrenoceptors. PMID:1976403

  4. Calprotectin and platelet aggregation in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Bøjet Larsen

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that the inflammation-associated protein calprotectin may be implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD. However, the impact of calprotectin levels on platelet aggregation in CAD patients has never been investigated.We investigated the association between calprotectin levels and platelet aggregation in stable, high-risk CAD patients receiving aspirin as mono antiplatelet therapy. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate independent clinical and laboratory determinants of calprotectin levels.We performed a cross-sectional study including 581 stable, high-risk CAD patients. All patients received 75 mg aspirin daily as mono antiplatelet therapy. Platelet aggregation was assessed by 1 impedance aggregometry (Multiplate Analyzer using arachidonic acid (AA and collagen as agonists and by 2 the VerifyNow Aspirin Assay. Low-grade inflammation was evaluated by calprotectin, high-sensitive C-reactive-protein (hs-CRP and interleukin-6. Platelet activation was assessed by soluble P-selectin, and cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition was evaluated by serum thromboxane B2, both measured by ELISA.Calprotectin levels correlated positively with platelet aggregation according to Multiplate Analyzer (r=0.12, p=0.01. Additionally, calprotectin was positively associated with leukocytes (r=0.33, p<0.0001, hs-CRP (r=0.31, p<0.0001, interleukin-6 (r=0.28, p<0.0001, soluble P-selectin (r=0.10, p=0.02 and serum thromboxane B2 (r=0.10, p=0.02. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was an independent predictor of increased calprotectin levels (p=0.004, and trends were seen for body mass index (p=0.06 and smoking (p=0.07. Compliance with aspirin was confirmed by low serum thromboxane B2 levels in all patients (median [25%;75%]: 1.07 [0.52;1.87] ng/mL.Calprotectin levels correlated positively, though weakly, with platelet aggregation and activation as well as serum thromboxane B2 in high-risk, stable CAD patients treated with aspirin.

  5. Platelet Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Platelet Function Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... their patients by ordering one or more platelet function tests. Platelet function testing may include one or more of ...

  6. Congenital platelet function defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... storage pool disorder; Glanzmann's thrombasthenia; Bernard-Soulier syndrome; Platelet function defects - congenital ... Congenital platelet function defects are bleeding disorders that ... function, even though there are normal platelet numbers. Most ...

  7. Lack of Thromboxane Synthase Prevents Hypertension and Fetal Growth Restriction after High Salt Treatment during Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Hsueh Pai

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is a potentially fatal pregnancy-related hypertensive disorder characterized by poor placenta development that can cause fetal growth restriction. PE-associated pathologies, including thrombosis, hypertension, and impaired placental development, may result from imbalances between thromboxane A2 (TXA2 and prostacyclin. Low-dose aspirin, which selectively inhibits TXA2 production, is used to prevent high-risk PE. However, the role of TXA2 in aspirin-mediated protective effects in women with PE is not understood fully. In this study, we examined the role of prostanoids in PE using human samples and an induced PE mouse model. We demonstrated that the administration of salted drinking water (2.7% NaCl to wild-type mice resulted in elevated placental TXA2 synthase (TXAS and plasma TXA2, but not prostacyclin, levels, which was also found in our clinical PE placenta samples. The high salt-treated wild-type pregnant mice had shown unchanged maternal body weight, hypertension (MAP increase 15 mmHg, and decreased pup weight (~50% and size (~24%, but these adverse effects were ameliorated in TXAS knockout (KO mice. Moreover, increased expression of interleukin-1β and downstream phosphorylated-p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase were concordant with apoptosis induction in the placentas of salt water-treated wild-type mice. These alterations were not observed in TXAS KO mice. Together, our data suggest that TXA2 depletion has anti-PE effects due to the prevention of hypertension and placental damage through downregulation of the interleukin-1β pathway.

  8. Lack of Thromboxane Synthase Prevents Hypertension and Fetal Growth Restriction after High Salt Treatment during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Chen-Hsueh; Yen, Ching-Tzu; Chen, Chie-Pein; Yu, I-Shing; Lin, Shu-Wha; Lin, Shu-Rung

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a potentially fatal pregnancy-related hypertensive disorder characterized by poor placenta development that can cause fetal growth restriction. PE-associated pathologies, including thrombosis, hypertension, and impaired placental development, may result from imbalances between thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and prostacyclin. Low-dose aspirin, which selectively inhibits TXA2 production, is used to prevent high-risk PE. However, the role of TXA2 in aspirin-mediated protective effects in women with PE is not understood fully. In this study, we examined the role of prostanoids in PE using human samples and an induced PE mouse model. We demonstrated that the administration of salted drinking water (2.7% NaCl) to wild-type mice resulted in elevated placental TXA2 synthase (TXAS) and plasma TXA2, but not prostacyclin, levels, which was also found in our clinical PE placenta samples. The high salt-treated wild-type pregnant mice had shown unchanged maternal body weight, hypertension (MAP increase 15 mmHg), and decreased pup weight (~50%) and size (~24%), but these adverse effects were ameliorated in TXAS knockout (KO) mice. Moreover, increased expression of interleukin-1β and downstream phosphorylated-p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase were concordant with apoptosis induction in the placentas of salt water-treated wild-type mice. These alterations were not observed in TXAS KO mice. Together, our data suggest that TXA2 depletion has anti-PE effects due to the prevention of hypertension and placental damage through downregulation of the interleukin-1β pathway.

  9. Palmitoylation of Gαq determines its association with the thromboxane receptor in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikarwar, Anuraq S; Hinton, Martha; Santhosh, K Thomas; Chelikani, Prashen; Dakshinamurti, Shyamala

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial vasoconstriction is a hallmark of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). We reported increased calcium responses to thromboxane and selectively increased thromboxane prostanoid (TP) association with Gαq in hypoxic pulmonary artery. Palmitoylation of Gαq is important for efficient receptor-Gαq-phospholipase-C interactions. TPα receptor is not itself amenable to palmitoylation. We studied the role of Gαq palmitoylation in constriction of hypoxic pulmonary artery using pharmacological palmitoylation inhibition, the effects of hypoxia on palmitoylation, and the effects of site-specific cysteine substitution mutations of Gαq on Gαq membrane targeting, TPα association, and calcium dose-response curve to a TP agonist. PPHN pulmonary artery and HEK293T cells expressing TPα were exposed to irreversible palmitoylation inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate before challenge with TP agonist U46619. Palmitate uptake was studied in hypoxic and normoxic myocytes. Wild-type Gαq and Gαq cysteine-to-alanine mutants C9A, C10A, and C9A/C10A were transiently coexpressed in HEK293T cells stably expressing TPα. We examined membrane localization of Gαq, TP receptor-Gαq association by coimmunoprecipitation, and Ca(2+) responses to U46619 in hypoxic and normoxic cells. Gαq palmitoylation is essential for the Ca(2+) response to TPα stimulation. Inhibition of palmitoylation reduces contractile force to thromboxane in PPHN but not in control pulmonary artery. Hypoxia increases palmitoylation of Gαq; the hypoxic. but not the normoxic, response to thromboxane is palmitoylation sensitive. Palmitoylation of one N-terminal cysteine is required for physical association of Gαq with the TPα receptor. Palmitoylation of both cysteines is required for Gαq membrane localization and Ca(2+) mobilization. Depalmitoylation of any one Gαq cysteine reduces the hypoxic response to thromboxane challenge to equal that of normoxic cells.

  10. Inflammation, oxidative stress and platelet activation in aspirin-treated critical limb ischaemia: beneficial effects of iloprost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessiani, Gianfranco; Vazzana, Natale; Cuccurullo, Chiara; Di Michele, Dario; Laurora, Giuseppe; Sgrò, Giuseppe; Di Ruscio, Paolo; Simeone, Emilio; Di Iorio, Pierangelo; Lattanzio, Stefano; Liani, Rossella; Ferrante, Elisabetta; Davì, Giovanni

    2011-02-01

    Platelets critically contribute to atherothrombosis and worsening ischaemia in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD), eventually leading to critical limb ischaemia (CLI). Furthermore, persistent platelet activation despite antiplatelet therapy has been reported in this setting. The prostacyclin analogue iloprost is currently recommended in CLI patients for its effects in relieving symptoms by promoting local perfusion. In this study, we investigated the effects of iloprost infusion on urinary 11-dehydro-TXB₂ and 8-iso-PGF(₂α) excretion rate, as in vivo indexes of thromboxane-dependent platelet activation and lipid peroxidation, respectively, and on platelet-derived proinflammatory sCD40L and nitric oxide bioavailability in 44 patients with CLI while on chronic treatment with low-dose aspirin. Daily iloprost infusion for one-week significantly decreased urinary 11-dehydro-TXB₂ [499 (277-807) vs. 380 (189-560) pg/mg creatinine, p iloprost treatment (Rho = 0.695, p iloprost is able to significantly reduce residual thromboxane biosynthesis, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and platelet-derived inflammation in low-dose aspirin treated patients with CLI.

  11. Potential Participation of calpain in platelet activation studied by use of a cell penetrating calpain inhibitor (Calpeptin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujinaka, Toshimasa; Ariyoshi, Hideo; Uemura, Yoshio; Sakon, Masato; Kambayashi, Junichi; Mori, Takesada (Osaka Univ. Medical School, Fukushima (Japan))

    1990-01-01

    Employing a cell penetrating calpain inhibitor (calpeptin), the role of calpain in platelet activation was examined. In washed platelets (WPs) both thrombin and collagen-induced platelet aggregation were dose-dependently inhibited by calpeptin. The addition of plasma to WPs interfered with the action of calpeptin, however more than 3 min preincubation of calpeptin with WPs completely abolished the influence of plasma. In thrombin-activated WPs with calcium, the increase of intracellular calcium concentration, (Ca{sup 2+})i, and the production of inositol triphosphate (IP{sub 3}) were dose-dependently inhibited by calpeptin. The generation of thromboxane B{sub 2} (TxB{sub 2}) was inhibited by calpeptin in collagen and thrombin-activated WPs. In ({sub 3}H)-arachidonic acid (AA)-labelled platelets, calpeptin increased the amount of ({sup 3}H)-AA liberated by inhibiting ({sup 3}H)-AA degradation after collagen or thrombin stimulation. When ({sup 14}C)-AA degradation by the platelet suspension was observed, calpeptin inhibited TxB{sub 2} and hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid (HHT) generation but increased prostaglandin (PG) E{sub 1}, E{sub 2}, 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12HETE) and AA. Based on these findings, calpain may be involved in the activation phospholipase C and thromboxane synthetase.

  12. Subarachnoid hemorrhage induces enhanced expression of thromboxane A2 receptors in rat cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansar, Saema; Larsen, Carl; Maddahi, Aida;

    2010-01-01

    after SAH in cerebral arteries. SAH was induced in rats by injecting 250 microl of blood into the prechiasmatic cistern. Two days after the SAH, cerebral arteries were harvested and contractile responses to the TP receptor agonist U46619 were investigated with myographs. In addition, the contractile...

  13. Targeting Thromboxane A2 Receptor for Anti-Metastasis Therapy of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Focusing Tumor Microenvironment, Stem Cells and Metastasis 570 (MTOC) and Golgi apparatus to the front of the nucleus, oriented toward the direction of...movement. MTOC orientation at the leading edge then facilitates the delivery of Golgi derived vesicles to the leading edge and microtubule growth into

  14. Targeting Thromboxane A2 Receptor for Antimetastasis Therapy of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Nie D and Zhang X. Use of Acetylsalicylic acid to reduce cancer metastasis. Disclosed to Technology Transfer office of Southern Illinois...surface. A polyclonal antibody raised against the N-terminal 120 amino acid residues of TP was used to stain live, non-permeabilized cells. As shown

  15. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by polyaspartoyl L-arginine and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-ye WANG; Zhi-yu TANG; Min DONG; Xiao-yan LIU; Shi-qi PENG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To observe the oral anti-platelet efficacy and the potential action mechanism of polyaspartoyl L-arginine (PDR), a new L-arginine rich compound. METHODS: Platelet aggregation was conducted by Born's method;bleeding time was determined using tail's bleeding time in mice; platelet adhesion was carried out with glass bottle method; nitric oxide (NO) was tested with Griess' method; and cAMP, thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto-PGF1a were assessed with commercial kits. RESULTS: The inhibition by PDR (15-60 mg/kg ig or 10 mg/kg iv) of platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen or thrombin at 1 h after oral administration or at 20 min after iv injection for rats (P<0.01), and its (15 mg/kg, ig) inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation for rabbits during 6 h after administration were observed. PDR (15-60 mg/kg) prolonged the bleeding time of mice (P<0.05) and (30 mg/kg) increased NO concentration in plasma. On the other hand PDR did not change the contents of cAMP in platelet and TXB2 or 6-keto-PGF1a in plasma. CONCLUSION: PDR is a novel, oral effective platelet aggregation inhibitor and its action mechanism possibly related to increasing NO generation.

  16. Examination of thromboxane synthase as a prognostic factor and therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cathcart, Mary-Clare

    2011-03-01

    Thromboxane synthase (TXS) metabolises prostaglandin H2 into thromboxanes, which are biologically active on cancer cells. TXS over-expression has been reported in a range of cancers, and associated with a poor prognosis. TXS inhibition induces cell death in-vitro, providing a rationale for therapeutic intervention. We aimed to determine the expression profile of TXS in NSCLC and if it is prognostic and\\/or a survival factor in the disease.

  17. The increased level of COX-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism in blood platelets from secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Agnieszka; Miller, Elzbieta; Bijak, Michal; Saluk, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Platelet activation is increasingly postulated as a possible component of the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), especially due to the increased risk of cardiovascular events in MS. Arachidonic acid cascade metabolized by cyclooxygenase (COX) is a key pathway of platelet activation. The aim of our study was to investigate the COX-dependent arachidonic acid metabolic pathway in blood platelets from secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SP MS) patients. The blood samples were obtained from 50 patients (man n = 22; female n = 28), suffering from SP MS, diagnosed according to the revised McDonald criteria. Platelet aggregation was measured in platelet-rich plasma after arachidonic acid stimulation. The level of COX activity and thromboxane B2 concentration were determined by ELISA method. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring the level of malondialdehyde. The results were compared with a control group of healthy volunteers. We found that blood platelets obtained from SP MS patients were more sensitive to arachidonic acid and their response measured as platelet aggregation was stronger (about 14 %) relative to control. We also observed a significantly increased activity of COX (about 40 %) and synthesis of thromboxane B2 (about 113 %). The generation of malondialdehyde as a marker of lipid peroxidation was about 10 % higher in SP MS than in control. Cyclooxygenase-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism is significantly increased in blood platelets of patients with SP MS. Future clinical studies are required to recommend the use of low-dose aspirin, and possibly other COX inhibitors in the prevention of cardiovascular risk in MS.

  18. Platelet matching for alloimmunized patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S H.Hsu

    2010-01-01

    @@ Platelets play an essential role in blood coagulation,hemostasis and maintenance of vascular integrity.Platelets are utilized primarily to prevent or treat bleeding in thrombocytopenic patients and patients with impaired platelet production in the bone marrow and/or with dysfunctional platelets.In current practice,platelet transfusion begins with randomly selected platelet products:either pooled platelets prepared from whole blood derived platelets; or single donor platelets prepared by apheresis procedures.

  19. Synergism interaction between arachidonic acid by 5-hydroxytryptamine in human platelet aggregation is mediated through multiple signalling pathways%多种信号途径介导花生四烯酸与5-羟色胺在促人类血小板凝集中的协同作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheikh Arshad SAEED; Huma RASHEED; Anwar-ul-Hassan GILANI

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To examine the signalling mechanisms involved in the synergistic interaction of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)and arachidonic acid (AA) in human platelet aggregation. METHODS: Blood was obtained from healthy human subjects, mixed with 3.8 % sodium citrate (9:1), and centrifuged to prepare platelet rich plasma (PRP). Aggregation was monitored using a Dual-channel Lumi-aggregometer. The agonist-induced influx of Ca2+ was measured using Fura-2 AM. TXA2 formation was studied using radiochemical method. RESULTS: Subthreshold concentration of 5-HT (2 μmol/L) potentiated the effect of low dose of AA (0.2 mmol/L) in human platelets. This synergistic effect was blocked by 5-HT2 receptor antagonist (methysergide IC50=5.2 nmol/L; cyproheptadine IC50=0.6 nmol/L), and thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist (SQ 29 548; IC50=30 nmol/L), showing that the effect is receptor-mediated.To examine the down-stream signalling pathways, we found that such an interaction was inhibited by calcium channel blockers (diltiazem; IC50=3 μmol/L and verapamil; IC50=5 μmol/L), phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor (U73122;IC50=4 μmol/L), cyclooxygenase inhibitor, (indomethacin; IC50=0.2 μmol/L) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP)kinase inhibitor (PD98059; IC50=3 μmol/L). The effect was also inhibited by a specific tyrosine light chain kinase (TLCK) inhibitor, herbimycin A with IC50 value of 5 μmol/L. Pretreatment of platelet with 5-HT and AA induced rise in intracellular calcium and this effect was blocked by verapamil. CONCLUSION: The synergism between 5-HT and AA in platelet aggregation involves activation of PLC/Ca2+, COX, and MAP kinase pathways.

  20. Inhibitory effect of GBH on platelet aggregation through inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in activated human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won-Hwan; Kim, Han-Kyu; Nam, Kyung-Soo; Shon, Yun-Hee; Jeon, Byung Hun; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Kim, Min-Gon; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2004-11-05

    Geiji-Bokryung-Hwan (GBH) was studied on antiplatelet activity in human platelet suspensions. GBH consists of the 5 herbs Cinnamomi Ramulus, Poria Cocos, Mountan Cortex Radicis, Paeoniae Radix, and Persicae Semen, which have been used in herbal medicine for thousands of years for atherosclerosis. The mechanism involved in the antiplatelet activity of GBH in human platelet suspensions was investigated. GBH inhibited platelet aggregation and Ca2+ mobilization in a concentration-dependent manner without increasing intracellular cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. GBH had no inhibitory effect on thromboxane B2 (TXB2) production in cell-free systems. Collagen-related peptide (CRP)-induced Ca2+ mobilization is regulated by phospholipase C-2 (PLC-gamma2) activation. We evaluated the effect of GBH on tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma2 and the production of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). GBH at concentrations that inhibited platelet aggregation and Ca2+ mobilization had no effects on tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma2 or on the formation of IP3 induced by CRP. Similar results were obtained with thrombin-induced platelet activation. GBH inhibited platelet aggregation and Ca2+ mobilization induced by thrombin without affecting the production of IP3. We then evaluated the effect of GBH on the binding of IP3 to its receptor. GBH at high concentrations partially blocked the binding of IP3 to its receptor. Therefore, the results suggested that GBH suppresses Ca2+ mobilization at a step distal to IP3 formation. GBH may provide a good tool for investigating Ca2+ mobilization.

  1. Hypersensitivity to thromboxane receptor mediated cerebral vasomotion and CBF oscillations during acute NO-deficiency in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Horváth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low frequency (4-12 cpm spontaneous fluctuations of the cerebrovascular tone (vasomotion and oscillations of the cerebral blood flow (CBF have been reported in diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction. Since endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO suppresses constitutively the release and vascular effects of thromboxane A(2 (TXA(2, NO-deficiency is often associated with activation of thromboxane receptors (TP. In the present study we hypothesized that in the absence of NO, overactivation of the TP-receptor mediated cerebrovascular signaling pathway contributes to the development of vasomotion and CBF oscillations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Effects of pharmacological modulation of TP-receptor activation and its downstream signaling pathway have been investigated on CBF oscillations (measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry in anesthetized rats and vasomotion (measured by isometric tension recording in isolated rat middle cerebral arteries, MCAs both under physiological conditions and after acute inhibition of NO synthesis. Administration of the TP-receptor agonist U-46619 (1 µg/kg i.v. to control animals failed to induce any changes of the systemic or cerebral circulatory parameters. Inhibition of the NO synthesis by nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 mg/kg i.v. resulted in increased mean arterial blood pressure and a decreased CBF accompanied by appearance of CBF-oscillations with a dominant frequency of 148±2 mHz. U-46619 significantly augmented the CBF-oscillations induced by L-NAME while inhibition of endogenous TXA(2 synthesis by ozagrel (10 mg/kg i.v. attenuated it. In isolated MCAs U-46619 in a concentration of 100 nM, which induced weak and stable contraction under physiological conditions, evoked sustained vasomotion in the absence of NO, which effect could be completely reversed by inhibition of Rho-kinase by 10 µM Y-27632. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that hypersensitivity of the TP

  2. Clinical application of radiolabelled platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, C. (Medical Univ. Lubeck, Lubeck (DE))

    1990-01-01

    This book presents papers on the clinical applications of radiolabelled platelets. The papers are grouped into six sections on platelet labelling techniques, radiolabelled platelets in cardiology, monitoring of antiplatelet therapy, platelet scintigraphy in stroke patients, platelet scintigraphy in angiology, and platelet scintigraphy in hematology and other clinical applications, including renal transplant rejection.

  3. Sympathy for the devil: the role of thromboxane in the regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Minga M; Stallone, John N

    2008-05-01

    Historically, the vasodilatory prostanoids, especially prostacyclin and prostaglandin E(2), are believed to contribute significantly to the regulation of normal vascular tone and blood pressure (BP), primarily by counteracting the prevailing effects of the systemic vasoconstrictor systems, including angiotensin II, the catecholamines, and vasopressin. In contrast, the primary vasoconstrictor prostanoid thromboxane A(2) (TxA(2)) is produced in far smaller quantities in the normal state. While TxA(2) is believed to play a significant role in a variety of cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction, cerebral vasospasm, hypertension, preeclampsia, and various thrombotic disorders, its role in the regulation of vascular tone and BP in the normal physiological state is, at best, uncertain. Numerous studies have firmly established the dogma that TxA(2), while important in pathophysiological states in males, plays little or no role in the regulation of vascular tone or BP in females, except in the pulmonary vasculature. However, this concept is largely based on the predominant and preferential use of males in animal and human studies. Recent studies from our laboratory and others challenge this dogma and reveal that the TxA(2) pathway in the systemic vascular wall is an estrogen-dependent mechanism that appears to play an important role in the regulation of vascular tone and BP in females, in both normal and pathophysiological states. It is proposed that the potent vasoconstrictor action of TxA(2) is beneficial in the female in the normal state by acting as a local counterregulatory mechanism to increase vascular tone and BP and defend against hypotension that could result from the multiple estrogen-sensitive local vasodilator mechanisms present in the female vascular wall. Validation of this proposal must await further studies at the systemic, tissue, and molecular levels.

  4. Involvement of COX2-thromboxane pathway in TCDD-induced precardiac edema in developing zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraoka, Hiroki; Okuno, Yuki; Nijoukubo, Daisuke; Yamakoshi, Ayumi; Peterson, Richard E; Stegeman, John J; Kitazawa, Takio; Hiraga, Takeo; Kubota, Akira

    2014-09-01

    The cardiovascular system is one of the most characteristic and important targets for developmental toxicity by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in fish larvae. However, knowledge of the mechanism of TCDD-induced edema after heterodimerization of aryl hydrocarbon receptor type 2 (AHR2) and AHR nuclear translocator type 1 (ARNT1) is still limited. In the present study, microscopic analysis with a high-speed camera revealed that TCDD increased the size of a small cavity between the heart and body wall in early eleutheroembryos, a toxic effect that we designate as precardiac edema. A concentration-response curve for precardiac edema at 2 days post fertilization (dpf) showed close similarity to that for conventional pericardial edema at 3 dpf. Precardiac edema caused by TCDD was reduced by morpholino knockdown of AHR2 and ARNT1, as well as by an antioxidant (ascorbic acid). A selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX2), NS398, also markedly inhibited TCDD-induced precardiac edema. A thromboxane receptor (TP) antagonist, ICI-192,605 almost abolished TCDD-induced precardiac edema and this effect was canceled by U46619, a TP agonist, which was not influential in the action of TCDD by itself. Knockdown of COX2b and thromboxane A synthase 1 (TBXS), but not COX2a, strongly reduced TCDD-induced precardiac edema. Knockdown of COX2b was without effect on mesencephalic circulation failure caused by TCDD. The edema by TCDD was also inhibited by knockdown of c-mpl, a thrombopoietin receptor necessary for thromobocyte production. Finally, induction of COX2b, but not COX2a, by TCDD was seen in eleutheroembryos at 3 dpf. These results suggest a role of the COX2b-thromboxane pathway in precardiac edema formation following TCDD exposure in developing zebrafish.

  5. Peroxynitrite formed during a transient episode of brain ischaemia increases endothelium-derived hyperpolarization-type dilations in thromboxane/prostaglandin receptor-stimulated rat cerebral arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onetti, Y; Dantas, A P; Pérez, B; McNeish, A J; Vila, E; Jiménez-Altayó, F

    2017-05-01

    Increased thromboxane A2 and peroxynitrite are hallmarks of cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R). Stimulation of thromboxane/prostaglandin receptors (TP) attenuates endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH). We investigated whether EDH-type middle cerebral artery (MCA) relaxations following TP stimulation are altered after I/R and the influence of peroxynitrite. Vascular function was determined by wire myography after TP stimulation with the thromboxane A2 mimetic 9,11-dideoxy-9α, 11α -methano-epoxy prostaglandin F2α (U46619) in MCA of Sprague Dawley rats subjected to MCA occlusion (90 min)/reperfusion (24 h) or sham operation, and in non-operated (control) rats. Some rats were treated with saline or the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrinato iron (III) (20 mg kg(-1) ). Protein expression was evaluated in MCA and in human microvascular endothelial cells submitted to hypoxia (overnight)/reoxygenation (24 h) (H/R) using immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. In U46619-pre-constricted MCA, EDH-type relaxation by the proteinase-activated receptor 2 agonist serine-leucine-isoleucine-glycine-arginine-leucine-NH2 (SLIGRL) was greater in I/R than sham rats due to an increased contribution of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SKCa ), which was confirmed by the enlarged relaxation to the SKCa activator N-cyclohexyl-N-2-(3,5-dimethyl-pyrazol-1-yl)-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinamine. I/R and H/R induced endothelial protein tyrosine nitration and filamentous-actin disruption. In control MCA, either cytochalasin D or peroxynitrite disrupted endothelial filamentous-actin and augmented EDH-type relaxation. Furthermore, peroxynitrite decomposition during I/R prevented the increase in EDH-type responses. Following TP stimulation in MCA, EDH-type relaxation to SLIGRL is greater after I/R due to endothelial filamentous-actin disruption by peroxynitrite, which prevents TP-induced block of SKCa input to EDH. These

  6. Platelets and hemostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Panteleev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Platelets are anuclear cell fragments playing important role in hemostasis, termination of bleeding after damage, as well as in pathological thrombus formation. The main action of platelets is the formation of aggregates, overlapping the injury. They obtained the ability to aggregate by the transition process called activation. Despite the relatively simple and definite function platelet structure is very difficult: they have almost a full set of organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and other entities. When activated platelets secrete various granules interact with plasma proteins and red blood cells and other tissues. Their activation is controlled by multiple receptors and complex signaling cascades. In this review platelet structure, mechanisms of its functioning in health and disease, diagnostic methods of platelet function and approaches to their correction were considered. Particular attention will be given to those areas of the science of platelets, which still lay hidden mysteries.

  7. Determinants of ABH expression on human blood platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooling, Laura L W; Kelly, Kathleen; Barton, James; Hwang, Debbie; Koerner, Theodore A W; Olson, John D

    2005-04-15

    Platelets express ABH antigens, which can adversely effect platelet transfusion recovery and survival in ABH-incompatible recipients. To date, there has been no large, comprehensive study comparing specific donor factors with ABH expression on platelet membranes and glycoconjugates. We studied ABH expression in 166 group A apheresis platelet donors by flow cytometry, Western blotting, and thin layer chromatography relative to donor age, sex, A1/A2 subgroup, and Lewis phenotype. Overall, A antigen on platelet membranes, glycoproteins, and glycosphingolipids was linked to an A1 red blood cell (RBC) phenotype. Among A1 donors, platelet ABH varied significantly between donors (0%-87%). Intradonor variability, however, was minimal, suggesting that platelet ABH expression is a stable, donor-specific characteristic, with 5% of A1 donors typing as either ABH high- or low-expressers. Group A2 donors, in contrast, possessed a Bombay-like phenotype, lacking both A and H antigens. Unlike RBCs, ABH expression on platelets may be determined primarily by H-glycosyltransferase (FUT1) activity. Identification of A2 and A1 low expressers may increase the availability and selection of crossmatched and HLA-matched platelets. Platelets from group A2 may also be a superior product for patients undergoing A/O major mismatch allogeneic progenitor cell transplantation.

  8. Effects of the dual TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on human endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petri, Marcelo H. [Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Tellier, Céline; Michiels, Carine [NARILIS, URBC, University of Namur, Namur (Belgium); Ellertsen, Ingvill [Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Dogné, Jean-Michel [Department of Pharmacy, Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Center, University of Namur, Namur (Belgium); Bäck, Magnus, E-mail: Magnus.Back@ki.se [Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •EV-077 reduced TNF-α induced inflammation in endothelial cells. •The thromboxane mimetic U69915 enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. •EV-077 inhibited smooth muscle cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The prothrombotic mediator thromboxane A{sub 2} is derived from arachidonic acid metabolism through the cyclooxygenase and thromboxane synthase pathways, and transduces its effect through the thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptor. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on inflammatory markers in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and on human coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation. To this end, mRNA levels of different proinflammatory mediators were studied by real time quantitative PCR, supernatants were analyzed by enzyme immune assay, and cell proliferation was assessed using WST-1. EV-077 significantly decreased mRNA levels of ICAM-1 and PTX3 after TNFα incubation, whereas concentrations of 6-keto PGF1α in supernatants of endothelial cells incubated with TNFα were significantly increased after EV-077 treatment. Although U46619 did not alter coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation, this thromboxane mimetic enhanced the proliferation induced by serum, insulin and growth factors, which was significantly inhibited by EV-077. In conclusion, EV-077 inhibited TNFα-induced endothelial inflammation and reduced the enhancement of smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by a thromboxane mimetic, supporting that the thromboxane pathway may be associated with early atherosclerosis in terms of endothelial dysfunction and vascular hypertrophy.

  9. Ativação plaquetária na esclerose sistêmica e alternativas metodológicas para sua avaliação Platelet activation in systemic sclerosis and methodological options to its assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sergio Massabki

    2004-02-01

    immunologic abnormalities. The microangiopathic aspect is responsible for the most severe and life-threatening features of the disease. The interaction between endothelium and platelets plays an important role in the pathophysiology of SSc. Evidence of platelet activation in SSc includes high plasma levels of platelet-derived substances (Von Willenbrand factor, platelet factor 4, thromboxane A2, and ß-thromboglobulin, circulating platelet aggregates, ultra structural abnormalities in platelets, and the presence of platelets adhered to the endothelium. This review addresses the principles and possible pitfalls of the main methods for evaluation of platelet activation and function. The assessment of the ability of platelet aggregation is performed with and without the addition of agonists (adenosine diphosphate, collagen, adrenaline. Platelet activation may be assessed by two ways: by measurement of plasma concentration of substances that are released as the platelets are activated (e.g., thromboxane, platelet factor 4 and by the measurement of membrane expression of molecules that are transported to the platelet membrane during the activation process (e.g., GMP-140, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa. A recent contribution to this field was the demonstration that neuron-specific enolase (NSE is released from the platelets into the blood in patients with active SSc. NSE, which is readily available in clinical laboratories with emphasis in tumor markers, may become a useful platelet activation marker in a series of clinical conditions.

  10. Effects of prostaglandins and thromboxane analogues on bullock and dog iris sphincter preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y J; Jones, R L

    1982-05-01

    1 The bullock iris sphincter was contracted by low concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), 16, 16-dimethyl PGE2 and 17,18,19,20-tetranor-16-p-chlorophenoxy PGE2. Other compounds with thromboxane-like actions, for example 11,9-epoxymethano PGH2, were also potent spasmogens, ZK 36374, a stable carbacyclin, was a partial agonist on the PGE-sensitive system of this tissue. 2 The thromboxane antagonist, EP 045, had little effect on the action of PGE2 and 16,16-dimethyl PGE2 on the bullock iris. 3 The dog iris sphincter was sensitive to PGF2 alpha but not to PGE2 and 11,9-epoxymethano PGH2. 4 16,16-dimethyl PGE2 had very low activity on the dog iris in contrast to its high activity on the bullock iris. The reverse was found with the 17,18,19,20-tetranor-16-m-trifluoromethylphenoxy analogue of PGF2 alpha (ICI 81008). This indicates a considerable selectivity of action of the two analogues. 5 The results are discussed in relation to the existing knowledge of prostanoid receptors.

  11. Ethanol increase PGE and thromboxane production in mouse pregnant uterine tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, R.F.; Becker, H.C.; Randall, C.L. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Charleston, SC (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The teratogenic effect of ethanol in the C57BL/6J mouse can be attenuated by pretreatment with aspirin (ASA). One prominent effect of ASA is to inhibit prostaglandin (PGE) and thromboxane (TXB{sub 2}) production. We examined the effect in vivo ethanol exposure on PGE and TXB{sub 2} production in a uterine-embryo tissue sample of C57BL/6J mice either before or after in vivo ASA pretreatment on day 10 of gestation. Ethanol increase both PGE and TXB{sub 2} production by approximately 20%. ASA caused a marked reduction of PGE and TXB{sub 2} in both control and ethanol groups by approximately 80-90%. The mouse strain, gestation time, and study parameters used in this study were the same as in the previously reported ASA attenuation of the teratogenic effect of ethanol. Therefore, the present data add additional support to the hypothesis that prostaglandin and/or thromboxane production may be involved in at least some aspects of fetal alcohol syndrome.

  12. Cordycepin-Enriched WIB801C from Cordyceps militaris Inhibits Collagen-Induced [Ca2+]i Mobilization via cAMP-Dependent Phosphorylation of Inositol 1, 4, 5-Trisphosphate Receptor in Human Platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Ha; Kim, Hyun-Hong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Yu, Young-Bin; Kang, Hyo-Chan; Kim, Jong-Lae; Lee, Jong-Jin; Park, Hwa-Jin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we prepared cordycepin-enriched (CE)-WIB801C, a n-butanol extract of Cordyceps militaris-hypha, and investigated the effect of CE-WIB801C on collagen-induced human platelet aggregation. CE-WIB801C dose-dependently inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation, and its IC50 value was 175 μg/ml. CE-WIB801C increased cAMP level more than cGMP level, but inhibited collagen-elevated [Ca2+]i mobilization and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) production. cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase) inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS increased the CE-WIB801C-downregulated [Ca2+]i level in a dose dependent manner, and strongly inhibited CE-WIB801C-induced inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) phosphorylation. These results suggest that the inhibition of [Ca2+]i mobilization by CE-WIB801C is resulted from the cAMP/A-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of IP3R. CE-WIB801C suppressed TXA2 production, but did not inhibit the activities of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and TXA2 synthase (TXAS). These results suggest that the inhibition of TXA2 production by WIB801C is not resulted from the direct inhibition of COX-1 and TXAS. In this study, we demonstrate that CE-WIB801C with cAMP-dependent Ca2+-antagonistic antiplatelet effects may have preventive or therapeutic potential for platelet aggregation-mediated diseases, such as thrombosis, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and ischemic cerebrovascular disease. PMID:25009703

  13. Static platelet adhesion, flow cytometry and serum TXB2 levels for monitoring platelet inhibiting treatment with ASA and clopidogrel in coronary artery disease: a randomised cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedbäck Bo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the use of anti-platelet agents such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA and clopidogrel in coronary heart disease, some patients continue to suffer from atherothrombosis. This has stimulated development of platelet function assays to monitor treatment effects. However, it is still not recommended to change treatment based on results from platelet function assays. This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of a static platelet adhesion assay to detect platelet inhibiting effects of ASA and clopidogrel. The adhesion assay measures several aspects of platelet adhesion simultaneously, which increases the probability of finding conditions sensitive for anti-platelet treatment. Methods With a randomised cross-over design we evaluated the anti-platelet effects of ASA combined with clopidogrel as well as monotherapy with either drug alone in 29 patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome. Also, 29 matched healthy controls were included to evaluate intra-individual variability over time. Platelet function was measured by flow cytometry, serum thromboxane B2 (TXB2-levels and by static platelet adhesion to different protein surfaces. The results were subjected to Principal Component Analysis followed by ANOVA, t-tests and linear regression analysis. Results The majority of platelet adhesion measures were reproducible in controls over time denoting that the assay can monitor platelet activity. Adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP-induced platelet adhesion decreased significantly upon treatment with clopidogrel compared to ASA. Flow cytometric measurements showed the same pattern (r2 = 0.49. In opposite, TXB2-levels decreased with ASA compared to clopidogrel. Serum TXB2 and ADP-induced platelet activation could both be regarded as direct measures of the pharmacodynamic effects of ASA and clopidogrel respectively. Indirect pharmacodynamic measures such as adhesion to albumin induced by various soluble activators as well as SFLLRN

  14. A human platelet calcium calculator trained by pairwise agonist scanning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yan Lee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Since platelet intracellular calcium mobilization [Ca(t]i controls granule release, cyclooxygenase-1 and integrin activation, and phosphatidylserine exposure, blood clotting simulations require prediction of platelet [Ca(t]i in response to combinatorial agonists. Pairwise Agonist Scanning (PAS deployed all single and pairwise combinations of six agonists (ADP, convulxin, thrombin, U46619, iloprost and GSNO used at 0.1, 1, and 10xEC50; 154 conditions including a null condition to stimulate platelet P2Y1/P2Y12 GPVI, PAR1/PAR4, TP, IP receptors, and guanylate cyclase, respectively, in Factor Xa-inhibited (250 nM apixaban, diluted platelet rich plasma that had been loaded with the calcium dye Fluo-4 NW. PAS of 10 healthy donors provided [Ca(t]i data for training 10 neural networks (NN, 2-layer/12-nodes per donor. Trinary stimulations were then conducted at all 0.1x and 1xEC50 doses (160 conditions as was a sampling of 45 higher ordered combinations (four to six agonists. The NN-ensemble average was a calcium calculator that accurately predicted [Ca (t]i beyond the single and binary training set for trinary stimulations (R = 0.924. The 160 trinary synergy scores, a normalized metric of signaling crosstalk, were also well predicted (R = 0.850 as were the calcium dynamics (R = 0.871 and high-dimensional synergy scores (R = 0.695 for the 45 higher ordered conditions. The calculator even predicted sequential addition experiments (n = 54 conditions, R = 0.921. NN-ensemble is a fast calcium calculator, ideal for multiscale clotting simulations that include spatiotemporal concentrations of ADP, collagen, thrombin, thromboxane, prostacyclin, and nitric oxide.

  15. Platelet receptor polymorphisms do not influence Staphylococcus aureus-platelet interactions or infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga, Shruti; Shepherd, James G; Callaghan, J Garreth S; Hung, Rachel K Y; Dawson, Dana K; Padfield, Gareth J; Hey, Shi Y; Cartwright, Robyn A; Newby, David E; Fitzgerald, J Ross

    2011-03-01

    Cardiac vegetations result from bacterium-platelet adherence, activation and aggregation, and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in infective endocarditis. The GPIIb/IIIa and FcγRIIa platelet receptors play a central role in platelet adhesion, activation and aggregation induced by endocarditis pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, but the influence of known polymorphisms of these receptors on the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis is unknown. We determined the GPIIIa platelet antigen Pl(A1/A2) and FcγRIIa H131R genotype of healthy volunteers (n = 160) and patients with infective endocarditis (n = 40), and investigated the influence of these polymorphisms on clinical outcome in infective endocarditis and S. aureus-platelet interactions in vitro. Platelet receptor genotype did not correlate with development of infective endocarditis, vegetation characteristics on echocardiogram or the composite clinical end-point of embolism, heart failure, need for surgery or mortality (P > 0.05 for all), even though patients with the GPIIIa Pl(A1/A1) genotype had increased in vivo platelet activation (P = 0.001). Furthermore, neither GPIIIa Pl(A1/A2) nor FcγRIIa H131R genotype influenced S. aureus-induced platelet adhesion, activation or aggregation in vitro (P > 0.05). Taken together, our data suggest that the GPIIIa and FcγRIIa platelet receptor polymorphisms do not influence S. aureus-platelet interactions in vitro or the clinical course of infective endocarditis.

  16. Platelet receptor polymorphisms do not influence Staphylococcus aureus–platelet interactions or infective endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga, Shruti; Shepherd, James G.; Callaghan, J. Garreth S.; Hung, Rachel K.Y.; Dawson, Dana K.; Padfield, Gareth J.; Hey, Shi Y.; Cartwright, Robyn A.; Newby, David E.; Fitzgerald, J. Ross

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac vegetations result from bacterium–platelet adherence, activation and aggregation, and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in infective endocarditis. The GPIIb/IIIa and FcγRIIa platelet receptors play a central role in platelet adhesion, activation and aggregation induced by endocarditis pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, but the influence of known polymorphisms of these receptors on the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis is unknown. We determined the GPIIIa platelet antigen PlA1/A2 and FcγRIIa H131R genotype of healthy volunteers (n = 160) and patients with infective endocarditis (n = 40), and investigated the influence of these polymorphisms on clinical outcome in infective endocarditis and S. aureus–platelet interactions in vitro. Platelet receptor genotype did not correlate with development of infective endocarditis, vegetation characteristics on echocardiogram or the composite clinical end-point of embolism, heart failure, need for surgery or mortality (P > 0.05 for all), even though patients with the GPIIIa PlA1/A1 genotype had increased in vivo platelet activation (P = 0.001). Furthermore, neither GPIIIa PlA1/A2 nor FcγRIIa H131R genotype influenced S. aureus-induced platelet adhesion, activation or aggregation in vitro (P > 0.05). Taken together, our data suggest that the GPIIIa and FcγRIIa platelet receptor polymorphisms do not influence S. aureus–platelet interactions in vitro or the clinical course of infective endocarditis. PMID:21044892

  17. Leukaemia-associated Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (LARG) plays an agonist specific role in platelet function through RhoA activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Siying; Teixeira, Alexandra M; Yin, Mingzhu; Xiang, Yaozu; Xavier-Ferrucio, Juliana; Zhang, Ping-Xia; Hwa, John; Min, Wang; Krause, Diane S

    2016-08-30

    Leukemia-Associated RhoGEF (LARG) is highly expressed in platelets, which are essential for maintaining normal haemostasis. We studied the function of LARG in murine and human megakaryocytes and platelets with Larg knockout (KO), shRNA-mediated knockdown and small molecule-mediated inhibition. We found that LARG is important for human, but not murine, megakaryocyte maturation. Larg KO mice exhibit macrothrombocytopenia, internal bleeding in the ovaries and prolonged bleeding times. KO platelets have impaired aggregation, α-granule release and integrin α2bβ3 activation in response to thrombin and thromboxane, but not to ADP. The same agonist-specific reductions in platelet aggregation occur in human platelets treated with a LARG inhibitor. Larg KO platelets have reduced RhoA activation and myosin light chain phosphorylation, suggesting that Larg plays an agonist-specific role in platelet signal transduction. Using two different in vivo assays, Larg KO mice are protected from in vivo thrombus formation. Together, these results establish that LARG regulates human megakaryocyte maturation, and is critical for platelet function in both humans and mice.

  18. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Enhanced stimulation of platelets by the terminal complement components is related to the lack of C8bp in the membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaas, P; Berger, B; Weber, S; Peter, H H; Hänsch, G M

    1988-05-01

    Recently, a protein isolated from the membrane of human E, the so-called C8 binding protein (C8bp), has been described. C8bp is characterized as a 65-kDa protein that binds to C8 and inhibits the C5b-9-mediated lysis in a homologous system. In the present study, membranes of peripheral blood cells were tested for the presence of C8bp by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. In all cells a protein band reacting with anti-C8bp was seen, the Mr, however, was only about 50 kDa. To further analyze the 50-kDa protein, we isolated the protein by phenol-water extraction and isoelectric focusing from papain-treated platelets. The isolated protein behaved similar to the E-derived C8bp: it inhibited the lysis of model target cells by C5b-9. To examine the function of C8bp in platelets, we tested platelets from patients suffering from paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). These platelets were deficient in C8bp, being in accordance with their higher lytic susceptibility in vitro. In response to sublytic C5b-9 doses, the PNH platelets released considerably more serotonin and thromboxane B2 than normal platelets. By addition of purified C8bp, the thromboxane B2 release was suppressed, indicating that C8bp not only restricts the lytic complement attack, but also regulates the C5b-9-mediated stimulation of target cells. Thus, lack of C8bp might not only result in enhanced hemolysis, but also in enhanced stimulation of platelets, which in turn might contribute to the thrombotic complications seen in some PNH-type III patients.

  19. In vitro and in vivo assessment of platelet function in healthy dogs during administration of a low-dose aspirin regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Jillian M; Thomason, John M; Seage, Eileen C; Wills, Robert W; Bulla, Camilo; Lunsford, Kari V; Mackin, Andrew J

    2016-02-01

    To assess the in vitro and in vivo platelet function of healthy dogs during administration of a low-dose aspirin regimen. 16 dogs. Dogs received aspirin (1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) for 7 days. Blood and urine samples were collected before (day 1; baseline) and on days 3 and 7 of the low-dose aspirin regimen. Platelet function was evaluated by use of turbidimetric and conventional impedance aggregometry, multiple-electrode impedance aggregometry, a platelet function analyzer (PFA), and determination of urine 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 concentration. Turbidimetric aggregometry results were compared with the results obtained by the other 4 methods. Fourteen days after cessation of aspirin, platelet-rich plasma was incubated with acetylsalicylic acid and platelet function was assessed by turbidimetric aggregometry to determine whether this technique could accurately identify dogs that responded to the low-dose aspirin regimen. Of the 16 dogs, 13 had turbidimetric and conventional impedance aggregometry results that were decreased by > 25% from baseline on days 3 and 7, and 4 and 7 dogs had PFA closure times > 300 seconds on days 3 and 7, respectively. The median urine 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 concentration-to-creatinine concentration ratio decreased by 49% between days 1 and 7. Turbidimetric aggregometry results were correlated with conventional impedance aggregometry results. There was poor agreement between the turbidimetric aggregometry and PFA results. The multiple-electrode impedance aggregometry protocol failed to reliably detect aspirin-induced platelet dysfunction. In vitro incubation of platelet-rich plasma with acetylsalicylic acid followed by turbidimetric aggregometry did not predict whether dogs responded to the low-dose aspirin regimen. Results indicated that the response to a low-dose aspirin regimen varied among healthy dogs.

  20. Human platelet/erythroleukemia cell prostaglandin G/H synthase: cDNA cloning, expression, and gene chromosomal assignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, C.D.; Funk, L.B.; Kennedy, M.E.; Pong, A.S.; Fitzgerald, G.A. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States))

    1991-06-01

    Platelets metabolize arachidonic acid to thromboxane A{sub 2}, a potent platelet aggregator and vasoconstrictor compound. The first step of this transformation is catalyzed by prostaglandin (PG) G/H synthase, a target site for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. We have isolated the cDNA for both human platelet and human erythroleukemia cell PGG/H synthase using the polymerase chain reaction and conventional screening procedures. The cDNA encoding the full-length protein was expressed in COS-M6 cells. Microsomal fractions from transfected cells produced prostaglandin endoperoxide derived products which were inhibited by indomethacin and aspirin. Mutagenesis of the serine residue at position 529, the putative aspirin acetylation site, to an asparagine reduced cyclooxygenase activity to barely detectable levels, an effect observed previously with the expressed sheep vesicular gland enzyme. Platelet-derived growth factor and phorbol ester differentially regulated the expression of PGG/H synthase mRNA levels in the megakaryocytic/platelet-like HEL cell line. The PGG/H synthase gene was assigned to chromosome 9 by analysis of a human-hamster somatic hybrid DNA panel. The availability of platelet PGG/H synthase cDNA should enhance our understanding of the important structure/function domains of this protein and it gene regulation.

  1. Platelet alloimmunization after transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taaning, E; Simonsen, A C; Hjelms, E;

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The frequency of platelet-specific antibodies after one series of blood transfusions has not been reported, and in multiply transfused patients is controversial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied the frequency of alloimmunization against platelet antigens in 117 patient...

  2. Flavanols and Platelet Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra A. Pearson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet activity and platelet-endothelial cell interactions are important in the acute development of thrombosis, as well as in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. An increasing number of foods have been reported to have platelet-inhibitory actions, and research with a number of flavanol-rich foods, including, grape juice, cocoa and chocolate, suggests that these foods may provide some protection against thrombosis. In the present report, we review a series of in vivo studies on the effects of flavanol-rich cocoa and chocolate on platelet activation and platelet-dependent primary hemostasis. Consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa inhibited several measures of platelet activity including, epinephrine- and ADP-induced glycoprotein (GP IIb/IIIa and P-Selectin expression, platelet microparticle formation, and epinephrine-collagen and ADP-collagen induced primary hemostasis. The epinephrine-induced inhibitory effects on GP IIb/IIIa and primary hemostasis were similar to, though less robust than those associated with the use of low dose (81 mg aspirin. These data, coupled with information from other studies, support the concept that flavanols present in cocoa and chocolate can modulate platelet function through a multitude of pathways.

  3. Platelet activation and aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Sander; Larsen, O H; Christiansen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces a new laboratory model of whole blood platelet aggregation stimulated by endogenously generated thrombin, and explores this aspect in haemophilia A in which impaired thrombin generation is a major hallmark. The method was established to measure platelet aggregation initiated...

  4. Gasotransmitters and platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truss, Nicola J; Warner, Timothy D

    2011-11-01

    Platelets are essential to prevent blood loss and promote wound healing. Their activation comprises of several complex steps which are regulated by a range of mediators. Over the last few decades there has been intense interest in a group of gaseous mediators known as gasotransmitters; currently comprising nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S). Here we consider the action of gasotransmitters on platelet activity. NO is a well established platelet inhibitor which mediates its effects predominantly through activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase leading to a decrease in intraplatelet calcium. More recently CO has been identified as a gasotransmitter with inhibitory actions on platelets; CO acts through the same mechanism as NO but is less potent. The in vivo and platelet functions of the most recently identified gasotransmitter, H(2)S, are still the subject of investigations, but they appear generally inhibitory. Whilst there is evidence for the individual action of these mediators, it is also likely that combinations of these mediators are more relevant regulators of platelets. Furthermore, current evidence suggests that these mediators in combination alter the production of each other, and so modify the circulating levels of gasotransmitters. The use of gasotransmitters as therapeutic agents is also being explored for a range of indications. In conclusion, the importance of NO in the regulation of vascular tone and platelet activity has long been understood. Other gasotransmitters are now establishing themselves as mediators of vascular tone, and recent evidence suggests that these other gasotransmitters may also modulate platelet function.

  5. A critical role for the transient receptor potential channel type 6 in human platelet activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Priya Vemana

    Full Text Available While calcium signaling is known to play vital roles in platelet function, the mechanisms underlying its receptor-operated calcium entry component (ROCE remain poorly understood. It has been proposed, but never proven in platelets, that the canonical transient receptor potential channel-6 (TRPC6 mediates ROCE. Nonetheless, we have previously shown that the mouse TRPC6 regulates hemostasis, thrombogenesis by regulating platelet aggregation. In the present studies, we used a pharmacological approach to characterize the role of TRPC6 in human platelet biology. Thus, interestingly, we observed that a TRPC6 inhibitor exerted significant inhibitory effects on human platelet aggregation in a thromboxane receptor (TPR-selective manner; no additional inhibition was observed in the presence of the calcium chelator BAPTA. This inhibitor also significantly inhibited human platelet secretion (dense and alpha granules, integrin IIb-IIIa, Akt and ERK phosphorylation, again, in a TPR-selective manner; no effects were observed in response to ADP receptor stimulation. Furthermore, there was a causal relationship between these inhibitory effects, and the capacity of the TRPC6 inhibitor to abrogate elevation in intracellular calcium, that was again found to be TPR-specific. This effect was not found to be due to antagonism of TPR, as the TRPC6 inhibitor did not displace the radiolabeled antagonist [3H]SQ29,548 from its binding sites. Finally, our studies also revealed that TRPC6 regulates human clot retraction, as well as physiological hemostasis and thrombus formation, in mice. Taken together, our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that TRPC6 directly regulates TPR-dependent ROCE and platelet function. Moreover, these data highlight TRPC6 as a novel promising therapeutic strategy for managing thrombotic disorders.

  6. Alloimmune refractoriness to platelet transfusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, S G

    1997-11-01

    Patients who are transfused on multiple occasions with red cells or platelets may develop platelet-reactive alloantibodies and experience decreased clinical responsiveness to platelet transfusion. This situation, conventionally described as "refractoriness to platelet transfusions," is defined by an unsatisfactory low post-transfusion platelet count increment. If antibodies to HLAs are detected, improved clinical outcomes may result from transfusions of HLA-matched or donor-recipient cross-matched platelets. Because refractoriness is an expected, frequently occurring phenomenon, prevention of HLA alloimmunization is an important management strategy. Prevention strategies include efforts to decrease the number of transfusions, filtration of cellular components to reduce the number of HLA-bearing leukocytes, or pretransfusion ultraviolet B irradiation of cellular components to decrease their immunogenicity. Other investigational approaches include reducing the expression of HLAs on transfused platelets, inducing a transient reticuloendothelial system blockade by infusions of specialized immunoglobulin products, or transfusing semisynthetic platelet substitutes (thromboerythrocytes, thrombospheres) or modified platelets (infusible platelet membranes, lyophilized platelets).

  7. Platelet function in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line A.; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Pedersen, Henrik D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Clinical studies investigating platelet function in dogs have had conflicting results that may be caused by normal physiologic variation in platelet response to agonists. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate platelet function in clinically healthy dogs of 4...... different breeds by whole-blood aggregometry and with a point-of-care platelet function analyzer (PFA-100), and to evaluate the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) administration on the results from both methods. Methods: Forty-five clinically healthy dogs (12 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels [CKCS], 12...... applied. However, the importance of these breed differences remains to be investigated. The PFA-100 method with Col + Epi as agonists, and ADP-induced platelet aggregation appear to be sensitive to ASA in dogs....

  8. Hypoxia increases pulmonary arterial thromboxane receptor internalization independent of receptor sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, J; Sikarwar, A S; Lizotte, P P; Hinton, M; Nolette, N; Dakshinamurti, S

    2015-02-01

    Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn (PPHN) is characterized by sustained vasospasm and an increased thromboxane:prostacyclin ratio. Thromboxane (TP) receptors signal via Gαq to mobilize IP3 and Ca(2+), causing pulmonary arterial constriction. We have previously reported increased TP internalization in hypoxic pulmonary arterial (PA) myocytes. Serum-deprived PA myocytes were grown in normoxia (NM) or hypoxia (HM) for 72 h. TP localization was visualized in agonist-naïve and -challenged NM and HM by immunocytochemistry. Pathways for agonist-induced TP receptor internalization were determined by inhibiting caveolin- or clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and caveolar fractionation. Roles of actin and tubulin in TP receptor internalization were assessed using inhibitors of tubulin, actin-stabilizing or -destabilizing agents. PKA, PKC or GRK activation and inhibition were used to determine the kinase responsible for post-agonist receptor internalization. Agonist-naïve HM had decreased cell surface TP, and greater TP internalization after agonist challenge. TP protein did not sort with caveolin-rich fractions. Inhibition of clathrin prevented TP internalization. Both actin-stabilizing and -destabilizing agents prevented TP endocytosis in NM, while normalizing TP internalization in HM. Velocity of TP internalization was unaffected by PKA activity, but PKC activation normalized TP receptor internalization in HM. GRK inhibition had no effect. We conclude that in hypoxic myocytes, TP is internalized faster and to a greater extent than in normoxic controls. Internalization of the agonist-challenged TP requires clathrin, dynamic actin and is sensitive to PKC activity. TP receptor trafficking and signaling in hypoxia are pivotal to understanding increased vasoconstrictor sensitivity.

  9. Dibutyryl cAMP effects on thromboxane and leukotriene production in decompression-induced lung injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, T. M.; Butler, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Decompression-induced venous bubble formation has been linked to increased neutrophil counts, endothelial cell injury, release of vasoactive eicosanoids, and increased vascular membrane permeability. These actions may account for inflammatory responses and edema formation. Increasing the intracellular cAMP has been shown to decrease eicosanoid production and edema formation in various models of lung injury. Reduction of decompression-induced inflammatory responses was evaluated in decompressed rats pretreated with saline (controls) or dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP, an analog of cAMP). After pretreatment, rats were exposed to either 616 kPa for 120 min or 683 kPa for 60 min. The observed increases in extravascular lung water ratios (pulmonary edema), bronchoalveolar lavage, and pleural protein in the saline control group (683 kPa) were not evident with DBcAMP treatment. DBcAMP pretreatment effects were also seen with the white blood cell counts and the percent of neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage. Urinary levels of thromboxane B2, 11-dehydrothromboxane B2, and leukotriene E4 were significantly increased with the 683 kPa saline control decompression exposure. DBcAMP reduced the decompression-induced leukotriene E4 production in the urine. Plasma levels of thromboxane B2, 11-dehydrothromboxane B2, and leukotriene E4 were increased with the 683-kPa exposure groups. DBcAMP treatment did not affect these changes. The 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 and leukotriene E4 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage were increased with the 683 kPa exposure and were reduced with the DBcAMP treatment. Our results indicate that DBcAMP has the capability to reduce eicosanoid production and limit membrane permeability and subsequent edema formation in rats experiencing decompression sickness.

  10. Measurement of platelet aggregation, independently of patient platelet count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinholt, P. J.; Frederiksen, H.; Hvas, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    platelet aggregation ruled out bleeding tendency in thrombocytopenic patients. Summary: Background: Methods for testing platelet aggregation in thrombocytopenia are lacking. Objective: To establish a flow-cytometric test of in vitro platelet aggregation independently of the patient's platelet count......, and examine the association of aggregation with a bleeding history in thrombocytopenic patients. Patients/methods: We established a flow-cytometric assay of platelet aggregation, and measured samples from healthy individuals preincubated with antiplatelet drugs, and samples from two patients with inherited...... platelets at platelet counts of > 10 × 109 L-1; otherwise, platelet isolation was required. The platelet aggregation percentage decreased with increasing antiplatelet drug concentration. Platelet aggregation in patients was reduced as compared with healthy individuals: 42% (interquartile range [IQR] 27...

  11. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ether derivatives inhibit platelet activation after oral administration to rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Marín, Javier; De la Cruz, José Pedro; Reyes, José Julio; López-Villodres, Juan Antonio; Guerrero, Ana; López-Leiva, Inmaculada; Espartero, José Luis; Labajos, María Teresa; González-Correa, José Antonio

    2013-08-01

    The low lipophilicity of hydroxytyrosol (HT) has motivated efforts to synthesize homologous series with better lipid solubility, such as the ethers, which are more lipophilic than HT. Because HT inhibits platelet aggregation, the aim of the study was to assess the possible anti-platelet effect of five HT ether derivatives (ethyl, butyl, hexyl, octyl and dodecyl) after oral administration to rats. Whole blood collagen-induced platelet aggregation and calcium-induced thromboxane B2 (TxB2), aortic 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α) and nitrites+nitrates, plasma concentration of lipid peroxides (TBARS) and red blood cell content of reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured. The administration of 20 mg/kg/day inhibited platelet aggregation, TxB2 and TBARS in a non-linear manner related to the length of the carbon chain, with a cut-off effect in the hexyl derivative. Aortic nitrite and red blood cell GSH production were also increased. The aortic production of 6-keto-PGF1α was unaltered except in the group treated with the dodecyl derivative. The administration of 50 mg/kg/day showed a similar pharmacodynamic profile but without the non-linear effect. In conclusion, HT ethers, especially the hexyl derivative, are a potential alternative to hydroxytyrosol, and their effect merits additional research to determine their role in the prophylaxis of vascular disease.

  12. Platelet-collagen adhesion enhances platelet aggregation induced by binding of VWF to platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laduca, F.M.; Bell, W.R.; Bettigole, R.E. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA) State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA))

    1987-11-01

    Ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (RIPA) was evaluated in the presence of platelet-collagen adhesion. RIPA of normal donor platelet-rich plasma (PRP) demonstrated a primary wave of aggregation mediated by the binding of von Willebrand factor (VWF) to platelets and a secondary aggregation wave, due to a platelet-release reaction, initiated by VWF-platelet binding and inhibitable by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). An enhanced RIPA was observed in PRP samples to which collagen had been previously added. These subthreshold concentrations of collagen, which by themselves were insufficient to induce aggregation, caused measurable platelet-collagen adhesion. Subthreshold collagen did not cause microplatelet aggregation, platelet release of ({sup 3}H)serotonin, or alter the dose-responsive binding of {sup 125}I-labeled VWF to platelets, which occurred with increasing ristocetin concentrations. However, ASA inhibition of the platelet release reaction prevented collagen-enhanced RIPA. These results demonstrate that platelet-collagen adhesion altered the platelet-release reaction induced by the binding of VWF to platelets causing a platelet-release reaction at a level of VWF-platelet binding not normally initiating a secondary aggregation. These findings suggest that platelet-collagen adhesion enhances platelet function mediated by VWF.

  13. Defining Platelet Function During Polytrauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    using calibrated automated thrombography ( CAT ). 3. Platelet-induced clot contraction and using viscoelastic measures such as TEG with Platelet Mapping...using calibrated automated thrombography ( CAT ) in platelet-rich plasma. 3. Platelet-induced clot contraction and effect on clot structure by platelet...if injury with stable vital signs on initial evaluation.  Pregnancy (confirmed with urine pregnancy testing)  Documented do not resuscitate order

  14. A native whole blood test for the evaluation of blood-surface interaction: determination of thromboxane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, E; Marconi, W; Cebo, B; Togna, A R; Togna, G; Caprino, L

    1984-05-01

    The method developed to evaluate the hemocompatibility of artificial materials involves the determination of thromboxane production during the clotting of rabbit blood, in test tubes of different materials. The concentration of serum TXB2 obtained after incubation of whole blood in glass test tubes, for 40 min at 37 degrees C, averaged 416.8 +/- 23.3 ng/ml (mean +/- SE). Polymethylpentene, recognised as having a relatively poor blood compatibility, elicited 309.5 +/- 17.2 ng/ml of serum TXB2, while silicone and Avcothane, considered of better hemocompatibility, showed thromboxane levels of 276.2 +/- 28.2 and 222.9 +/- 31.5 ng/ml, respectively. These values validate the usefulness of the proposed method as a preliminary in vitro screening test of artificial materials intended for biomedical application.

  15. Inhibitory effects and mechanisms of high molecular-weight phlorotannins from Sargassum thunbergii on ADP-induced platelet aggregation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yuxi; WANG Changyun; LI Jing; GUO Qi; QI Hongtao

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of high molecular-weight phlorotannins from Sargassum thunbergii (STP) on ADP-induced platelet aggregation and arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in New Zealand white rabbits and Wistar rats. The inhibition of STP on platelet aggregation was investigated using a turbidimetric method, and the levels of the terminal products of AA metabolism were measured using the corresponding kits for maleic dialdehyde (MDA), thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α) by colorimetry and radioimmunoassay, as appropriate. We found that STP could inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation, and the inhibitory ratio was 91.50% at the STP concentration of 4.0 mg/mL. Furthermore, STP markedly affected AA metabolism by decreasing the synthesis of MDA (P<0.01) and increasing the synthesis of 6-keto-PGF1α, thus changing the plasma TXB2/6-keto-PGF1α balance when the platelets were activated (P<0.01). Therefore, STP altered AA metabolism and these findings partly revealed the molecular mechanism by which STP inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation.

  16. The impact of vitamin C on the relationship among inflammation, lipid peroxidation, and platelet activation during analgesic nephropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzi-Petrushev, Nikola; Mitrov, Dine; Kostovski, Vladimir; Mladenov, Mitko

    2017-08-03

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in the pathogenesis of paracetamol-induced renal damage. This study examines the relationship between 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) and platelet activation as well as the relative contribution of the pro-inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in enhanced 8-iso-PGF2α biosynthesis, as a complementary onset during analgesic nephropathy induced by chronic treatment with paracetamol. The protective effects of vitamin C on the aforementioned settings are also investigated. Analgesic nephropathy was induced in Wistar rats. Renal function markers and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were determined spectrophotometrically. Immunoassays were used to measure the pro-inflammatory markers and the markers of lipid peroxidation and platelet activation. The chronic treatment with paracetamol led to renal dysfunction, represented by the elevation of plasma urea and creatinine and the decline in the enzymatic antioxidant status, but did not cause a significant increase in TNF-α and IL-1β. The paracetamol-induced lipid peroxidation and enhanced production of 8-iso-PGF2α was not sufficient to cause changes in platelet activation represented by the level of 11-dehydro thromboxane B2. Our results suggest that oxidative stress cannot circumvent the need of stimulation by circulatory cytokines in order to induce inflammatory response and changes in platelet activation during analgesic nephropathy. Vitamin C proved to be beneficial in restoring the renal function markers to normal, increasing the renal enzymatic antioxidant potential, inhibiting lipid peroxidation, and lowering cytokine production and 11-dehydro thromboxane B2 excretion. The observed effects of vitamin C offer support for its potential use as protective treatment in cases of chronic paracetamol overdose.

  17. Enhancement by platelets of oxygen radical responses of human neutrophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, K.K.; Powell, J.; Johnson, K.J.; Ward, P.A.

    1986-03-01

    When human blood neutrophils were incubated with immune complexes (consisting of IgG antibody) in the presence of platelets, there was a 2 to 10 fold enhancement in the generation of O-/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. This enhancement phenomenon was proportional to the dose of immune complex added and the number of platelets present. The response was not agonist specific since similar enhancement also occurred with the following agonists: phorbol myristate acetate, opsonized zymosan particles and the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-met-leu-phe. The platelet related phenomenon of enhanced O-/sub 2/ generation could not be reproduced by the addition of serotonin, histamine or platelet-derived growth factor and was not affected by prior treatment of platelets with cyclooxygenase inhibitors (indomethacin, piroxicam) or lipoxygenase inhibitors (nafazatrom, BW755C or nordihydroguaiaretic acid). However, activation of platelets by thrombin caused release into the platelet supernatant fluid of a factor that, only in the presence of immune complexes, caused enhanced O-/sub 2/ responses to neutrophils. These data indicate that platelets potentiate oxygen radical responses of human neutrophils and suggest a mechanisms by which platelets may participate in tissue injury which is mediated by oxygen radical products from activated neutrophils.

  18. Abnormal function of platelets and role of angelica sinensis in patients with ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Guo Dong; Shao-Ping Liu; Hai-Hang Zhu; He-Sheng Luo; Jie-Ping Yu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the abnormal function of platelets and the role of angelica sinensis injection (ASI) in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC).METHODS: In 39 patients with active UC, 25 patients with remissive UC and 30 healthy people, α-granule membrane protein (GMP-140) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) were detected by means of ELISA, 6-keto-PGF1awas detected by radioimmunoassay, platelet count (PC) and 1 min platelet aggregation rate (1 min PAR) were detected by blood automatic tester and platelet aggregation tester respectively,and yon Willebrand factor related antigen (vWF:Ag) was detected by the means of monoclonal -ELISA. The 64 patients with UC were divided into two therapy groups. After routine treatment and angelica sinensis injection (ASI) + routine treatment respectively for 3 weeks, all these parameters were also detected.RESULTS: The PC, 1 min PAR and levels of GMP-140,TXB2, and vWF:Ag in active UC were significanrly higher than those in remissive UC and normal controls (P<0.05-0.01).Meanwhile, 1 min PAR and levels of GMP-140, TXB2,and vWF:Ag in remissive UC were still significantly higher than those in normal controls (P<0.05). Furthermore, 6-keto-PGF1a level in active and remissive UC was remarkably lower than that in normal control (P<0.05-0.01). These parameters except 6-keto-PGF1a were significantly improved after the treatment in ASI therapy group (P<0.05-0.01),whereas they all were little changed in routine therapy group (P>0.05).CONCLUSION: Platelets can be significantly activated in UC, which might be related with vascular endothelium injury and imbalance between TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1a in blood.ASI can significantly inhibit platelet activation, relieve vascular endothelial cell injury, and improve microcirculation in UC.

  19. Platelet activation indices and apolipoproteins in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, M; Belletti, S; Russo, U; Aronica, A; Carzaniga, G; Seregni, R; Libretti, A

    1988-10-01

    We have studied the platelet activation indices beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG and platelet factor 4(PF4), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and apolipoprotein (A1, A2, B, C2, C3, E) profiles of 22 untreated essential hypertensive subjects (WHO stages 1 and 2) and 22 controls, to see if there might be some causal relationship between lipoprotein abnormalities and greater platelet activation. The results showed the patients had both greater platelet activation than the controls, as demonstrated by higher plasma beta-TG levels (P less than 0.01) and lower apolipoprotein A2 levels (P less than 0.05). However there were no significant correlations between the platelet activation indices and the plasma levels of apolipoproteins, lipoproteins or lipids in either group.

  20. Examination of thromboxane synthase as a prognostic factor and therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Byrne Kenneth J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thromboxane synthase (TXS metabolises prostaglandin H2 into thromboxanes, which are biologically active on cancer cells. TXS over-expression has been reported in a range of cancers, and associated with a poor prognosis. TXS inhibition induces cell death in-vitro, providing a rationale for therapeutic intervention. We aimed to determine the expression profile of TXS in NSCLC and if it is prognostic and/or a survival factor in the disease. Methods TXS expression was examined in human NSCLC and matched controls by western analysis and IHC. TXS metabolite (TXB2 levels were measured by EIA. A 204-patient NSCLC TMA was stained for COX-2 and downstream TXS expression. TXS tissue expression was correlated with clinical parameters, including overall survival. Cell proliferation/survival and invasion was examined in NSCLC cells following both selective TXS inhibition and stable TXS over-expression. Results TXS was over-expressed in human NSCLC samples, relative to matched normal controls. TXS and TXB2 levels were increased in protein (p p p p Conclusion TXS is over-expressed in NSCLC, particularly in the adenocarcinoma subtype. Inhibition of this enzyme inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis. Targeting thromboxane synthase alone, or in combination with conventional chemotherapy is a potential therapeutic strategy for NSCLC.

  1. Clinical application of radiolabelled platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, C. (Medical University Luebeck (Federal Republic of Germany). Department of Neurology); Hardeman, M.R. (Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis); Henningsen, H. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Neurologische Klinik); Petrovici, J.-N. (Cologne-Merheim Hospital (Federal Republic of Germany). Department of Neurology) (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    The increasing number of therapeutic modalities available for the management of patients with thromboembolic complications, such as fibrinolytic treatment or vascular surgery, require the development of new imaging techniques to provide more information on the xtent, age and activity of the thromboembolic material causing clinical symptoms. Since the introduction of radiolabelling of platelets with indium-111, platelet scintigraphy (PSC) has been used as a tool in the diagnosis of various thromboembolic diseases. During the International Symposium on Radiolabelled Platelets scientists from a variety of medical backgrounds presented their results on the clinical applictions of radiolabelled platelets. The papers presented there have been updated to take account of the latest results before publication in this volume. The papers are grouped into six sections on platelet labelling techniques, radiolabelled platelets in cardiology, monitoring of antiplatelet therapy, platelet scintigraphy in stroke patients, platelet scintigraphy in angiology, and platelet scintigraphy in hematology and other clinical applications, including renal transplant rejection. refs.; figs.; tabs.

  2. Platelet preservation: agitation and containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Pieter F; de Korte, Dirk

    2011-06-01

    For platelets to maintain their in vitro quality and in vivo effectiveness, they need to be stored at room temperature with gentle agitation in gas-permeable containers. The mode of agitation affects the quality of the platelets, and a gentle method of agitation, either a circular or a flat bed movement, provides the best results. Tumblers or elliptical agitators induce platelet activation and subsequent damage. As long as the platelets remain in suspension, the agitation speed is not important. Agitation of the platelet concentrates ensures that the platelets are continuously oxygenated, that sufficient oxygen can enter the storage container and that excess carbon dioxide can be expelled. During transportation of platelet concentrates, nowadays over long distances where they are held without controlled agitation, platelets may tolerate a certain period without agitation. However, evidence is accumulating that during the time without agitation, local hypoxia surrounding the platelets may induce irreversible harm to the platelets. Over the decades, more gas-permeable plastics have been used to manufacture platelet containers. The use of different plastics and their influence on the platelet quality both in vitro and in vivo is discussed. The improved gas-permeability has allowed the extension of platelet storage from 3 days in the early 1980s, to currently at least 7 days. In the light of new developments, particularly the introduction of pathogen reduction techniques, the use of platelet additive solutions and the availability of improved automated separators, further (renewed) research in this area is warranted.

  3. Loss of prostaglandin F2alpha, but not thromboxane, responsiveness in pregnant human myometrium during labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Deborah P; Hutchinson, Jonathon A; Farrar, Diane; O'Donovan, Peter J; Woodward, David F; Marshall, Kay M

    2008-04-01

    Prostaglandins (PG) E2, PGF2alpha and thromboxane (TX) mediate uterine contractility by targeting prostonoid EP, FP and TP receptors respectively. The aim of this study was to elucidate the function of these receptors in isolated human myometrium taken at term gestation prior to and following labour onset. Lower segment myometrial strips were immersed in organ baths in oxygenated Krebs' solution at 37 degrees C and connected to isometric force transducers. After equilibration, spontaneous activity and concentration responses to PGE2, PGF2alpha and U46619 (a stable TX mimetic) were measured as area under the curve and expressed as a percentage of the final contraction induced by hypotonic shock. Results were expressed as arithmetic means+/-s.e.m. and analysed using two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni's post hoc test. Myometrium excised at late gestation displayed the greatest spontaneous activity compared with the tissues taken during labour (Plabour onset. U46619 consistently stimulated concentration-dependent contractions (Plabour-associated disorders.

  4. Diet Rich in Saturated Fat Decreases the Ratio of Thromboxane/prostacyclin in Healthy Men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUO LI; RAYMUNDO HABITO; GEORGE ANGELOS; ANDREW J. SINCLAIR; MADELEINE J. BALL

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of dietary saturated fat (SFA) from animal sources on the urine excretion 11-dehydro thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto prostaglandin F 1α (PGF 1α) in 27 healthy free-living male subjects aged 30 to 55 years. Methods It was a randomized crossover design. Each volunteer was randomly assigned to one of the two diets (high fat and low fat) for a period of 4 weeks, after which each subject resumed his usual diet for 2 weeks as a ‘wash-out period',before being assigned to the other diet for an additional 4 weeks. Results Serum proportion of 20:4n-6 was 5% lower in the high fat (6.2% of total fatty acid) than in the low fat diet (6.5% of total fatty acid), which was associated with a significantly decreased ratio of the urinary excretion 11-dehydro TXB2 to 6-keto PGF 1α (P<0.05). However, there was no significant fall in the absolute urinary excretion of 11-dehydro TXB2. Conclusions Diet rich in SFA from animal sources may influence TXA2 formation via effect on tissue proportion of 20:4n-6.

  5. The Platelet and Platelet Function Testing in Liver Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenholtz, Greg G. C.; Porte, Robert J.; Lisman, Ton

    2009-01-01

    Patients who have liver disease commonly present with alterations in platelet number and function. Recent data have questioned the contribution of these changes to bleeding complications in these patients. Modern tests of platelet function revealed compensatory mechanisms for the decreased platelet

  6. Investigation of platelet function and platelet disorders using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubak, Peter; Nissen, Peter H; Kristensen, Steen D; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2016-01-01

    Patients with thrombocytopenia or platelet disorders are at risk of severe bleeding. We report the development and validation of flow cytometry assays to diagnose platelet disorders and to assess platelet function independently of platelet count. The assays were developed to measure glycoprotein levels (panel 1) and platelet function (panel 2) in sodium citrated blood. Twenty healthy volunteers and five patients diagnosed with different platelet disorders were included. Glycoprotein expression levels of the receptors Ia, Ib, IIb, IIIa and IX were measured and normalised with forward scatter (FS) as a measurement of platelet size. Platelet function was assessed by CD63, P-selectin and bound fibrinogen in response to arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen-related peptide, ristocetin and thrombin receptor-activation peptide-6. All patients except one with suspected δ-granule defect showed aberrant levels of glycoproteins in panel 1. Glanzmann's thrombasthenia and genetically verified Bernard-Soulier syndrome could be diagnosed using panel 1. All patients showed reduced platelet function according to at least one agonist. Using panel 2 it was possible to diagnose Bernard-Soulier syndrome, δ-granule defect and GPVI disorder. By combining the two assays, we were able to diagnose different platelet disorders and investigate platelet function independent of platelet count.

  7. Reproducibility of Manual Platelet Estimation Following Automated Low Platelet Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab S Al-Hosni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Manual platelet estimation is one of the methods used when automated platelet estimates are very low. However, the reproducibility of manual platelet estimation has not been adequately studied. We sought to assess the reproducibility of manual platelet estimation following automated low platelet counts and to evaluate the impact of the level of experience of the person counting on the reproducibility of manual platelet estimates. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, peripheral blood films of patients with platelet counts less than 100 × 109/L were retrieved and given to four raters to perform manual platelet estimation independently using a predefined method (average of platelet counts in 10 fields using 100× objective multiplied by 20. Data were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC as a method of reproducibility assessment. Results: The ICC across the four raters was 0.840, indicating excellent agreement. The median difference of the two most experienced raters was 0 (range: -64 to 78. The level of platelet estimate by the least-experienced rater predicted the disagreement (p = 0.037. When assessing the difference between pairs of raters, there was no significant difference in the ICC (p = 0.420. Conclusions: The agreement between different raters using manual platelet estimation was excellent. Further confirmation is necessary, with a prospective study using a gold standard method of platelet counts.

  8. Dialyzer membranes: effect of surface area and chemical modification of cellulose on complement and platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahiout, A; Meinhold, H; Kessel, M; Schulze, H; Baurmeister, U

    1987-04-01

    Using an ex vivo model, the effects of membrane composition and surface area on both the complement system (as reflected by plasma C3a levels) and platelets [as indicated by plasma concentrations of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and platelet factor 4 (PF4)] were studied. In this model, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was associated with less complement activation than cuprammonium cellulose (CC). A new "modified cellulose" (MC) membrane, in which a small number of the free hydroxyl groups on cellulose are substituted with a tertiary amino compound, was also associated with a low degree of complement activation, similar to that with PAN. However, the extent of hydroxyl group substitution in four MC membrane subtypes did not correlate with the reduction in complement activation. In studies using CC, the amount of generated C3a correlated with the membrane surface area, although the relationship was curvilinear. Plasma concentrations at the "dialyzer" outlet of TXB2 and PF4 were similar with CC, PAN, and MC. In studies with the MC subtypes, increasing the extent of hydroxyl group substitution paradoxically increased, albeit slightly, the amount of TXB2 generation. In studies with CC, a linear relationship between membrane surface area and TXB2 generation was found. The results suggest a dissociation between platelet and complement effects among different dialyzer membranes, and underline the importance of membrane surface area.

  9. Mean platelet volume and mean platelet volume/platelet count ratio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amira M. Elsayed

    2016-03-30

    Mar 30, 2016 ... Abstract The mean platelet volume (MPV) is a laboratory marker associated with platelet func- tion and activity. .... the first 24 h of presentation to the emergency department. Severity of ..... J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry.

  10. Inhibitory Effect of the Punica granatum Fruit Extract on Angiotensin-II Type I Receptor and Thromboxane B2 in Endothelial Cells Induced by Plasma from Preeclamptic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumawati, Widya; Keman, Kusnarman; Soeharto, Setyawati

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate whether the Punica granatum fruit extract modulates the Angiotensin-II Type I receptor (AT1-R) and thromboxane B2 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluence, endothelial cells were divided into five groups, which included endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from normal pregnancy (NP), endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), and endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum (PP + PG) at the following three doses: 14; 28; and 56 ppm. The expression of AT1-R was observed by immunohistochemistry technique, and thromboxane B2 level was done by immunoassay technique. Plasma from PP significantly increased AT1-R expression and thromboxane B2 levels compared to cells treated by normal pregnancy plasma. The increasing of AT1-R expression significantly (P Punica granatum extract. Moreover, the increasing of thromboxane B2 levels significantly (P Punica granatum extract. We further concluded that Punica granatum fruit protects and inhibits the sensitivity of endothelial cells to plasma from preeclamptic patients due to inhibition of AT1-R expression (56 ppm) and reduced thromboxane B2 levels (14 ppm).

  11. Effect of ozone exposure on lung functions and plasma prostaglandin and thromboxane concentrations in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P.D.; Ainsworth, D.; Lam, H.F.; Amdur, M.O.

    1987-03-30

    Male Hartley guinea pigs were exposed either to filtered air or to 1 ppm ozone (O/sub 3/) for 1 hr. At 2, 8, 24, or 48 hr after exposure we measured ventilation, respiratory mechanics, lung volumes, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and alveolar volume (VA) in anesthetized, tracheotomized animals. Respiratory frequency and tidal volume were unchanged in all groups. Pulmonary resistance was increased 2 hr after O/sub 3/ but returned to control at 8 hr and thereafter. Prolonged reductions in lung volumes (total lung capacity, vital capacity, functional residual capacity, and residual volume) as well as in DLCO and VA occurred after O/sub 3/, with maximum decreases at 8 and 24 hr postexposure. Increased ratios of wet lung weight to body weight were seen at 2, 8, and 24 hr. In separate groups of animals, also exposed either to filtered air or to 1 ppm O/sub 3/, plasma eicosanoid (EC) concentrations were measured at 2, 8, 24, 48, or 72 hr after exposure. Significant increases in thromboxane B2 concentrations were seen at 2, 24, and 48 hr after exposure. Plasma concentrations of 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha (PGF1 alpha) and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) were increased at 24 hr and at 24, 48, and 72 hr, respectively. The nature of this long-term pulmonary response to a short-term exposure to O/sub 3/ suggests alveolar involvement, including probable alveolar duct constriction and localized pulmonary edema. Although changes in plasma EC concentrations were observed concurrent with impaired lung functions, no simple causal relationship was apparent from these studies.

  12. AD6 (8-monochloro-3-beta-diethylamino-ethyl-4-methyl-7-ethoxycarbonyl-meth oxy coumarin) inhibits the release of arachidonic acid in human platelets stimulated by thrombin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcellati, S.; Costantini, V.; Prosdocimi, M.; Pistolesi, R.; Porrovecchio, P.; Nenci, G.G.; Goracci, G.

    1987-07-01

    The coumarin derivative AD6 is known to inhibit platelet aggregation and release and it possesses vasodilatory properties on coronary arteries of laboratory animals. Furthermore, the inhibition of the production of TxB2 from endogenous substrates after stimulation of human platelets with collagen has been demonstrated. The present report demonstrates that AD6 inhibits the production of labeled arachidonic acid and diglycerides from phospholipids of platelets stimulated with thrombin. This effect is dose-dependent and is already evident at a concentration of the drug (25 microM) which is unable to prevent the aggregation. Apparently, AD6 inhibits the release of arachidonic acid from phosphatidylinositol and choline phosphoglycerides which are the main sources of the substrate for the synthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes.

  13. Prophylactic platelets in dengue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitehorn, James; Rodriguez Roche, Rosmari; Guzman, Maria G

    2012-01-01

    of platelets in dengue. Respondents were all physicians involved with the treatment of patients with dengue. Respondents were asked that their answers reflected what they would do if they were the treating physician. We received responses from 306 physicians from 20 different countries. The heterogeneity...

  14. Examination of thromboxane synthase as a prognostic factor and therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cathcart, Mary-Clare

    2011-03-09

    Abstract Background Thromboxane synthase (TXS) metabolises prostaglandin H2 into thromboxanes, which are biologically active on cancer cells. TXS over-expression has been reported in a range of cancers, and associated with a poor prognosis. TXS inhibition induces cell death in-vitro, providing a rationale for therapeutic intervention. We aimed to determine the expression profile of TXS in NSCLC and if it is prognostic and\\/or a survival factor in the disease. Methods TXS expression was examined in human NSCLC and matched controls by western analysis and IHC. TXS metabolite (TXB2) levels were measured by EIA. A 204-patient NSCLC TMA was stained for COX-2 and downstream TXS expression. TXS tissue expression was correlated with clinical parameters, including overall survival. Cell proliferation\\/survival and invasion was examined in NSCLC cells following both selective TXS inhibition and stable TXS over-expression. Results TXS was over-expressed in human NSCLC samples, relative to matched normal controls. TXS and TXB2 levels were increased in protein (p < 0.05) and plasma (p < 0.01) NSCLC samples respectively. TXS tissue expression was higher in adenocarcinoma (p < 0.001) and female patients (p < 0.05). No significant correlation with patient survival was observed. Selective TXS inhibition significantly reduced tumour cell growth and increased apoptosis, while TXS over-expression stimulated cell proliferation and invasiveness, and was protective against apoptosis. Conclusion TXS is over-expressed in NSCLC, particularly in the adenocarcinoma subtype. Inhibition of this enzyme inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis. Targeting thromboxane synthase alone, or in combination with conventional chemotherapy is a potential therapeutic strategy for NSCLC.

  15. Rho GTPases in platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, J E; McCarty, O J T

    2013-01-01

    The Rho family of GTP binding proteins, also commonly referred to as the Rho GTPases, are master regulators of the platelet cytoskeleton and platelet function. These low-molecular-weight or 'small' GTPases act as signaling switches in the spatial and temporal transduction, and amplification of signals from platelet cell surface receptors to the intracellular signaling pathways that drive platelet function. The Rho GTPase family members RhoA, Cdc42 and Rac1 have emerged as key regulators in the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton in platelets and play key roles in platelet aggregation, secretion, spreading and thrombus formation. Rho GTPase regulators, including GEFs and GAPs and downstream effectors, such as the WASPs, formins and PAKs, may also regulate platelet activation and function. In this review, we provide an overview of Rho GTPase signaling in platelet physiology. Previous studies of Rho GTPases and platelets have had a shared history, as platelets have served as an ideal, non-transformed cellular model to characterize Rho function. Likewise, recent studies of the cell biology of Rho GTPase family members have helped to build an understanding of the molecular regulation of platelet function and will continue to do so through the further characterization of Rho GTPases as well as Rho GAPs, GEFs, RhoGDIs and Rho effectors in actin reorganization and other Rho-driven cellular processes. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  16. Involvement of COX2–thromboxane pathway in TCDD-induced precardiac edema in developing zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraoka, Hiroki, E-mail: hteraoka@rakuno.ac.jp [School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu (Japan); Okuno, Yuki; Nijoukubo, Daisuke; Yamakoshi, Ayumi [School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu (Japan); Peterson, Richard E. [School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Stegeman, John J. [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Kitazawa, Takio; Hiraga, Takeo [School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu (Japan); Kubota, Akira [School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu (Japan); Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We establish a new indicator of pericardial edema in developing zebrafish (precardiac edema). • Property of precardiac edema by TCDD is similar to that for conventional pericardial edema. • COX2b (but not COX2a)–thromboxane pathway is involved in precardiac edema by TCDD. - Abstract: The cardiovascular system is one of the most characteristic and important targets for developmental toxicity by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in fish larvae. However, knowledge of the mechanism of TCDD-induced edema after heterodimerization of aryl hydrocarbon receptor type 2 (AHR2) and AHR nuclear translocator type 1 (ARNT1) is still limited. In the present study, microscopic analysis with a high-speed camera revealed that TCDD increased the size of a small cavity between the heart and body wall in early eleutheroembryos, a toxic effect that we designate as precardiac edema. A concentration–response curve for precardiac edema at 2 days post fertilization (dpf) showed close similarity to that for conventional pericardial edema at 3 dpf. Precardiac edema caused by TCDD was reduced by morpholino knockdown of AHR2 and ARNT1, as well as by an antioxidant (ascorbic acid). A selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX2), NS398, also markedly inhibited TCDD-induced precardiac edema. A thromboxane receptor (TP) antagonist, ICI-192,605 almost abolished TCDD-induced precardiac edema and this effect was canceled by U46619, a TP agonist, which was not influential in the action of TCDD by itself. Knockdown of COX2b and thromboxane A synthase 1 (TBXS), but not COX2a, strongly reduced TCDD-induced precardiac edema. Knockdown of COX2b was without effect on mesencephalic circulation failure caused by TCDD. The edema by TCDD was also inhibited by knockdown of c-mpl, a thrombopoietin receptor necessary for thromobocyte production. Finally, induction of COX2b, but not COX2a, by TCDD was seen in eleutheroembryos at 3 dpf. These results suggest a role of the COX2b–thromboxane

  17. 抗精神病药对精神分裂症患者血小板腺苷A2a受体基因表达的影响%Effects of antipsychotics on platelet adenosine A2a receptor gene expression in un-medicated patients with schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章杰; 王俊清; 张印南; 洪晓虹; 黄庆军; 吴仁华; 许崇涛

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨未用药精神分裂症患者治疗前后血小板腺苷A2a受体(ADA2aR) mRNA表达量的变化及其与临床症状的相关性.方法 采用实时定量聚合酶链反应技术,对30例未用药精神分裂症患者(患者组)治疗前和治疗6周后进行血小板ADA2aR mRNA表达量测定,并与30名健康志愿者(对照组)进行比较;采用Pearson相关分析对患者组血小板ADA2aR mRNA表达量与精神分裂症临床症状进行相关性分析.结果 (1)治疗前,患者组血小板ADA2aR mRNA表达量(747.6±282.3)与对照组(692.7 ±286.7)比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);治疗第6周末,患者组血小板ADA2aR mRNA表达量(873.2 ±206.2)高于对照组(635.4±263.2)及患者组治疗前,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).(2)患者组治疗前血小板ADA2aR mRNA表达量与病程(r=0.17)、PANSS总分(r=0.08)、阳性症状(r=-0.12)、阴性症状(r=0.08)、一般病理症状(r=0.12)均无统计学相关性(P>0.05);治疗第6周末,患者组血小板ADA2aR mRNA表达量与病程PANSS总分(r=0.09)、阳性症状(r=-0.02)、阴性症状(r=0.26)、一般病理症状(r=-0.08)亦无统计学相关性(P>0.05);患者组治疗前后血小板ADA2aR mRNA表达量差值与PANSS总分减分值(r=-0.31)、阳性症状减分值(r=-0.28)、阴性症状减分值(r=-0.14)、一般病理症状减分值(r=-0.11)均无统计学相关性(P>0.05).结论 抗精神病药治疗可能对精神分裂症患者外周血小板ADA2aR基因表达产生影响,血小板ADA2aR基因表达变化可能与精神分裂症临床症状无明显联系.%Objective To explore the effects of antipsychotics on peripheric platelet mRNA level of adenosine A2a receptor (ADA2aR) in un-medicated patients with schizophrenia.Methods The mRNA level of ADA2aR in 30 un-medicated patients with schizophrenia was evaluated with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at baseline and after six-week antipsychotic treatment,and 30 healthy volunteers were

  18. Expansion of the neonatal platelet mass is achieved via an extension of platelet lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhi-Jian; Hoffmeister, Karin M.; Hu, Zhongbo; Mager, Donald E.; Ait-Oudhia, Sihem; Debrincat, Marlyse A.; Pleines, Irina; Josefsson, Emma C.; Benjamin T Kile; Italiano, Joseph; Ramsey, Haley; Grozovsky, Renata; Veng-Pedersen, Peter; Chavda, Chaitanya; Sola-Visner, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Rapid growth and rising platelet counts result in a significant expansion of platelet mass during neonatal life.The rise in platelet counts is mediated by a prolongation in the neonatal platelet lifespan.

  19. PREGNANCY WITH PLATELET FUNCTION DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available latelets play a vital role in haemostasis . Antenatal patients with platelet function disorders should be managed in tertiary care centres that are well equipped to tackle any obstetric haemorrhage that can ensue during labour and delivery . Primi gravida was admitted for safe confinement . She had been evaluated earlier for complaints of multiple episodes of mucosal bleeding . On evaluation she had nor mal platelet counts and coagulation factor assay was normal . Platelet aggregometry revealed mild disorder of platelet aggregation . She was planned for induction of labour after arranging enough blood and blood products . She got into active labour and was p ut on syntocinon augmentation . She had emergency Caesarean section for foetal distress . Oxytocics were given proactively . Intraoperatively platelet transfusions and tranexamic acid infusion were given . Complete haemostasis was achieved . She had an uneventf ul postoperative period . Patients with functional platelet disorders can be successfully managed with local application of antifibrinolytic agents like tranexamic acid , in case of minor bleeds . Platelet transfusions are very effective in tackling major ble eds , especially during surgeries and for obstetric indications . If a patient has the history of clinically significant bleeding suggestive of platelet dysfunction , appropriate platelet function tests should be obtained so that the risk of bleeding can be adequately assessed and therapy chosen more rationally . . In obstetric practice the response of such patients to platelet transfusions has been excellent

  20. Effects of hormones on platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Antonio López; Modrego, Javier; Zamorano-León, José J

    2014-04-01

    Platelets and their activation/inhibition mechanisms play a central role in haemostasis. It is well known agonists and antagonists of platelet activation; however, during the last years novel evidences of hormone effects on platelet activation have been reported. Platelet functionality may be modulated by the interaction between different hormones and their platelet receptors, contributing to sex differences in platelet function and even in platelet-mediated vascular damage. It has suggested aspects that apparently are well established should be reviewed. Hormones effects on platelet activity are included among them. This article tries to review knowledge about the involvement of hormones in platelet biology and activity.

  1. Platelet aggregation following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windeløv, Nis A; Sørensen, Anne M; Perner, Anders

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to elucidate platelet function in trauma patients, as it is pivotal for hemostasis yet remains scarcely investigated in this population. We conducted a prospective observational study of platelet aggregation capacity in 213 adult trauma patients on admission to an emergency department (ED......). Inclusion criteria were trauma team activation and arterial cannula insertion on arrival. Blood samples were analyzed by multiple electrode aggregometry initiated by thrombin receptor agonist peptide 6 (TRAP) or collagen using a Multiplate device. Blood was sampled median 65 min after injury; median injury...... severity score (ISS) was 17; 14 (7%) patients received 10 or more units of red blood cells in the ED (massive transfusion); 24 (11%) patients died within 28 days of trauma: 17 due to cerebral injuries, four due to exsanguination, and three from other causes. No significant association was found between...

  2. Platelets in inflammation and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, J M; Rossaint, J; Zarbock, A

    2014-11-01

    The paradigm of platelets as mere mediators of hemostasis has long since been replaced by a dual role: hemostasis and inflammation. Now recognized as key players in innate and adaptive immune responses, platelets have the capacity to interact with almost all known immune cells. These platelet-immune cell interactions represent a hallmark of immunity, as they can potently enhance immune cell functions and, in some cases, even constitute a prerequisite for host defense mechanisms such as NETosis. In addition, recent studies have revealed a new role for platelets in immunity: They are ubiquitous sentinels and rapid first-line immune responders, as platelet-pathogen interactions within the vasculature appear to precede all other host defense mechanisms. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of platelets as inflammatory cells, and provide an exemplary review of their role in acute inflammation.

  3. Estrogen, inflammation, and platelet phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Virginia M; Jayachandran, Muthuvel; Hashimoto, Kazumori; Heit, John A; Owen, Whyte G

    2008-01-01

    Although exogenous estrogenic therapies increase the risk of thrombosis, the effects of estrogen on formed elements of blood are uncertain. This article examines the genomic and nongenomic actions of estrogen on platelet phenotype that may contribute to increased thrombotic risk. To determine aggregation, secretion, protein expression, and thrombin generation, platelets were collected from experimental animals of varying hormonal status and from women enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Estrogen receptor beta predominates in circulating platelets. Estrogenic treatment in ovariectomized animals decreased platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) secretion. However, acute exposure to 17beta-estradiol did not reverse decreases in platelet ATP secretion invoked by lipopolysaccharide. Thrombin generation was positively correlated to the number of circulating microvesicles expressing phosphatidylserine. Assessing the effect of estrogen treatments on blood platelets may lead to new ways of identifying women at risk for adverse thrombotic events with such therapies.

  4. Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0523 TITLE: Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: George Tsokos, M.D. CONTRACTING...Activation Alters Platelet Function 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0523 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) George Tsokos, M.D...a decreased level of disease. Further studies will expand upon these observations better outlining the function of platelets in the injury associated

  5. Platelet effects on ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ashley; Afshar-Kharghan, Vahid; Sood, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    Growing understanding of the role of thrombocytosis, high platelet turnover, and the presence of activated platelets in the circulation in cancer progression and metastasis has brought megakaryocytes into focus. Platelet biology is essential to hemostasis, vascular integrity, angiogenesis, inflammation, innate immunity, wound healing, and cancer biology. However, before megakaryocyte/platelet-directed therapies can be considered for clinical use, understanding of the mechanism and biology of paraneoplastic thrombocytosis in malignancy is required. Here, we provide an overview of the clinical implications, biological significance, and mechanisms of paraneoplastic thrombocytosis in the context of ovarian cancer. PMID:25023353

  6. Novel aspects of platelet aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roka-Moya Y. M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The platelet aggregation is an important process, which is critical for the hemostatic plug formation and thrombosis. Recent studies have shown that the platelet aggregation is more complex and dynamic than it was previously thought. There are several mechanisms that can initiate the platelet aggregation and each of them operates under specific conditions in vivo. At the same time, the influence of certain plasma proteins on this process should be considered. This review intends to summarize the recent data concerning the adhesive molecules and their receptors, which provide the platelet aggregation under different conditions.

  7. Overview of platelet physiology and laboratory evaluation of platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, G M

    1999-06-01

    Appropriate laboratory testing for the platelet-type bleeding disorders hinges on an adequate assessment in the history and physical examination. Patients with histories and screening laboratory results consistent with coagulation disorders (hemophilia, disseminated intravascular coagulation) are not appropriate candidates for platelet function testing. In contrast, patients with a lifelong history of platelet-type bleeding symptoms and perhaps a positive family history of bleeding would be appropriate for testing. Figure 6 depicts one strategy to evaluate these patients. Platelet morphology can easily be evaluated to screen for two uncommon qualitative platelet disorders: Bernard-Soulier syndrome (associated with giant platelets) and gray platelet syndrome, a subtype of storage pool disorder in which platelet granulation is morphologically abnormal by light microscopy. If the bleeding disorder occurred later in life (no bleeding with surgery or trauma early in life), the focus should be on acquired disorders of platelet function. For those patients thought to have an inherited disorder, testing for vWD should be done initially because approximately 1% of the population has vWD. The complete vWD panel (factor VIII coagulant activity, vWf antigen, ristocetin cofactor activity) should be performed because many patients will have abnormalities of only one particular panel component. Patients diagnosed with vWD should be classified using multimeric analysis to identify the type 1 vWD patients likely to respond to DDAVP. If vWD studies are normal, platelet aggregation testing should be performed, ensuring that no antiplatelet medications have been ingested at least 1 week before testing. If platelet aggregation tests are normal and if suspicion for an inherited disorder remains high, vWD testing should be repeated. The evaluation of thrombocytopenia may require bone marrow examination to exclude primary hematologic disorders. If future studies with thrombopoietin assays

  8. Platelet Concentrates: Past, Present and Future

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Platelets play a crucial role in hemostasis and wound healing, platelet growth factors are well known source of healing cytokines. Numerous techniques of autologous platelet concentrates have been developed and applied in oral and maxillofacial surgery. This review describes the evolution of the first and second generation of platelet concentrates (platelet rich plasma and platelet rich fibrin respectively) from their fore runner-fibrin sealants.

  9. Studies on megakaryopoiesis and platelet function

    OpenAIRE

    Meinders, M.

    2015-01-01

    Platelets are blood circulating specialized subcellular fragments, which are produced by megakaryocytes. Platelets are essential for hemostasis and wound healing but also play a role in non-hemostatic processes such as the immune response or cancer metastasis. Considering the immediate precursors of platelets, normal megakaryocyte development is essential for normal platelet function. Although much is known about platelet development, some aspects of platelet production remain poorly understo...

  10. Determination of thromboxanes, leukotrienes and lipoxins using high-temperature capillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and on-line sample preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sandra Rinne; Kleiveland, Charlotte Ramstad; Kassem, Moustapha

    2009-01-01

    An on-line strong cation-exchange (SCX)-reversed-phase (RP) capillary liquid chromatographic (cLC) method with ion-trap tandem mass spectrometric (IT-MS/MS) detection for the simultaneous determination of thromboxane (TX) B(2), TXB(3), leukotriene (LT) B(4), LTD(4) and lipoxin (LX) A(4) in cell...

  11. [STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PLATELETS AND PLATELET-DERIVED MICROVESICLES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomareva, A A; Nevzorova, T A; Mordakhanova, E R; Andrianova, I A; Litvinov, R I

    2016-01-01

    Platelets are the anucleated blood cells, wich together with the fibrin stop bleeding (hemostasis). Cellular microvesicles are membrane-surrounded microparticles released into extracellular space upon activation and/or apoptosis of various cells. Platelet-derived macrovesicles from the major population of circulating blood microparticles that play an important role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Despite numerous studies on the pathophysiology of platelet-derived macrovesicles, mechanisms of their formation and structural details remain poorly understood. Here we investigated the ultrastructure of parental platelets and platelet-derived microvesicles formed in vitro by quiescent cells as well as by cells stimulated with one of the following activators: arachidonic acid, ADP, thrombin, calcium ionophore A23187. Using transmission electron microscopy of human platelets and isolated microvesicles, we analyzed the intracellular origin, steps of formation, structural diversity, and size distributions of the subcellular particles. We have revealed that thrombin, unlike other stimuli, not only induced vesiculation of the plasma membrane but also caused break-up of the cells followed by formation of microparticles that are comparable with microvesicles by size. A fraction of these microparticles contained cellular organelles surrounded by a thin membrane. The size of platelet-derived macrovesicles varied from 30 nm to 500 nm, however, the size distributions depended on the nature of a cell-activating stimulus. The results obtained provide new information about the formation of platelet-derived macrovesicles and their structural diversity, wich is important to understand their multiple functions in normal and disease states.

  12. Increased platelet reactivity in Klinefelter men: something new to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minno, M N D; Esposito, D; Di Minno, A; Accardo, G; Lupoli, G; Cittadini, A; Giugliano, D; Pasquali, D

    2015-09-01

    Patients with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) exhibit an increased cardiovascular risk, but underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The present cross-sectional study has been conducted to evaluate platelet reactivity and the expression of platelet activation markers (8-iso-prostaglandin F2α[8-iso-PGF2α] and 11-dehydro-thromboxane-B₂[11-dehydro-TXB2]) in KS patients and healthy controls. Twenty-three consecutive KS patients under testosterone replacement therapy have been included as case group and 46 age-matched healthy males recruited among hospital staff served as controls. Light transmission aggregometry was performed in both cases and controls and maximal platelet aggregation (max-A%) was defined as maximal light transmittance reached within 5 min after the addition of 0.2 or 0.4 mm arachidonic acid (AA). A ≥ 50% irreversible light transmittance (LT-50%) following platelet stimulation defined an adequate platelet aggregation and AC-50% was defined as the minimal agonist concentration needed to achieve LT-50%. The AC-50% was 0.26 mm AA for KS and 0.36 mm for controls (p < 0.001). Whereas AA (0.2 mm) induced LT-50% in 69.6% of KS and in 15.2% of controls (p < 0.001), the stimulation with AA (0.4 mm) determined LT-50% in all cases and controls. However, max-A% was higher in KS than in controls both after AA (0.2 mm) (65.61% vs. 46.30%, p = 0.002,) and after AA (0.4 mm) (96.43% vs. 81.04%, p < 0.001). 8-iso-PGF2α and 11-dehydro-TXB2 were higher in KS than in controls (446.54 pg/mg creatinine vs. 230.00 pg/mg creatinine, p < 0.001 and 1278.36 pg/mg creatinine vs. 595.08 pg/mg creatinine, p = 0.001, respectively) and AC-50% inversely correlated with 8-iso-PGF2α (ρ = -0.548, p < 0.001) and with 11-dehydro-TXB2 (ρ = -0.523, p < 0.001). In a linear regression model, KS independently predicted a lower AC-50% (β = -0.597, p < 0.001) and higher levels of 8-iso-PGF2α (β = 0.709, p < 0.001) and 11-dehydro-TXB2 (β = 0

  13. Platelets, inflammation and tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurden, Alan T

    2011-05-01

    Blood platelets have long been recognised to bring about primary haemostasis with deficiencies in platelet production and function manifesting in bleeding while upregulated function favourises arterial thrombosis. Yet increasing evidence indicates that platelets fulfil a much wider role in health and disease. First, they store and release a wide range of biologically active substances including the panoply of growth factors, chemokines and cytokines released from a-granules. Membrane budding gives rise to microparticles (MPs), another active participant within the blood stream. Platelets are essential for the innate immune response and combat infection (viruses, bacteria, micro-organisms). They help maintain and modulate inflammation and are a major source of pro-inflammatory molecules (e.g. P-selectin, tissue factor, CD40L, metalloproteinases). As well as promoting coagulation, they are active in fibrinolysis; wound healing, angiogenesis and bone formation as well as in maternal tissue and foetal vascular remodelling. Activated platelets and MPs intervene in the propagation of major diseases. They are major players in atherosclerosis and related diseases, pathologies of the central nervous system (Alzheimers disease, multiple sclerosis), cancer and tumour growth. They participate in other tissue-related acquired pathologies such as skin diseases and allergy, rheumatoid arthritis, liver disease; while, paradoxically, autologous platelet-rich plasma and platelet releasate are being used as an aid to promote tissue repair and cellular growth. The above mentioned roles of platelets are now discussed.

  14. Effect of pretreatment with aspirin and ticlopidine on the change of platelet aggregability after radiofrequency catheter ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利宏; 陈君柱; 郑良荣; 陶谦民

    2002-01-01

    Eighty-two patients with supraventricular tachycardia undergoing radi o frequency catheter ablation (RFCA) were studied to observe the inhibition effect of aspirin and ticlopidine on platelet aggregability (PAG) and thromboxane B2 (T XB2) of the blood samples. Patients were divided into aspirin group A, ticlopi di ne group B, aspirin+ticlopidine group C and control group D. PAG and TXB2 were i ncreased clearly after RFCA in all groups (P<0.001). Treatment with aspirin or t iclopidine before operation could reduce the platelet aggregability caused by RF CA and the joint effect of two drugs(change rate of group A:52.51±12.51%; group B:54.78±11.27%;group C: 30.51±10.59%;group D:91.75±21.43%; P<0.05)was st udie d. The much decreased platelet aggregability after antiplatelet therapy was evid ence of the potential benefit of the treatment in preventing thromboembolism aft er ablation. Pretreatment with aspirin and ticlopidine together is a good way to decrease palatelet aggregability after RFCA.

  15. The effects of xanthoangelol E on arachidonic acid metabolism in the gastric antral mucosa and platelet of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T; Sakuma, S; Sumiya, T; Nishida, H; Fujimoto, Y; Baba, K; Kozawa, M

    1992-08-01

    The effects of a new chalcone derivative, xanthoangelol E, isolated from Angelica keiskei Koidzumi, on arachidonic acid metabolism in the gastric antral mucosa and platelet of the rabbit were examined. When gastric antral mucosal slices were incubated with xanthoangelol E (0.05-1.0 mM), there was no significant effect on the production of prostaglandin (PG) E2, PGF2 alpha and their metabolites. On the other hand, this compound inhibited effectively the production of thromboxane B2 and 12-hydroxy-5,8,10-heptadecatrienoic acid from exogenous arachidonic acid in platelets, and the concentration required for 50% inhibition (IC50) was approximately 5 microM. The formation of 12-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid was also reduced by this drug (IC50, 50 microM). These results suggest that xanthoangelol E has the potential to modulate arachidonic acid metabolism in platelets and that this action may participate in some pharmacological effect of the plant.

  16. Misoprostol inhibits gastric mucosal release of endogenous prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2 in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Eskerod, O; Bukhave, K

    1995-01-01

    Prostaglandin analogues of the E-series theoretically offer the ideal antiulcer drugs. Peptic ulcer healing with prostaglandin analogues is, however, no better than would be predicted from their ability to inhibit gastric acid secretion and they are less effective than histamine H2 receptor...... antagonists in preventing ulcer relapse. It could be that prostaglandin analogues inhibit gastric mucosal synthesis or release of endogenous eicosanoids, thereby abrogating their own effects. This study, therefore, examined how a single therapeutic dose (200 micrograms) of misoprostol, a synthetic analogue...... of prostaglandin E1, influences gastric mucosal release of endogenous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thromboxane B2 (TXB2), and chemotactic leukotriene B4 (LTB4) during basal conditions and in response to gastric luminal acidification (0.1 M HCl; 5 ml/min for 10 minutes). Nine healthy volunteers were studied in a single...

  17. Analyzing the platelet proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Angel; Zitzmann, Nicole; Watson, Steve P

    2004-08-01

    During the last 10 years, mass spectrometry (MS) has become a key tool for protein analysis and has underpinned the emerging field of proteomics. Using high-throughput tandem MS/MS following protein separation, it is potentially possible to analyze hundreds to thousands of proteins in a sample at a time. This technology can be used to analyze the protein content (i.e., the proteome) of any cell or tissue and complements the powerful field of genomics. The technology is particularly suitable for platelets because of the absence of a nucleus. Cellular proteins can be separated by either gel-based methods such as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis or one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography (LC) -MS/MS or by multidimensional LC-MS/MS. Prefractionation techniques, such as subcellular fractionations or immunoprecipitations, can be used to improve the analysis. Each method has particular advantages and disadvantages. Proteomics can be used to compare the proteome of basal and diseased platelets, helping to reveal information on the molecular basis of the disease.

  18. Next-generation re-sequencing of genes involved in increased platelet reactivity in diabetic patients on acetylsalicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postula, Marek; Janicki, Piotr K; Eyileten, Ceren; Rosiak, Marek; Kaplon-Cieslicka, Agnieszka; Sugino, Shigekazu; Wilimski, Radosław; Kosior, Dariusz A; Opolski, Grzegorz; Filipiak, Krzysztof J; Mirowska-Guzel, Dagmara

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether rare missense genetic variants in several genes related to platelet functions and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) response are associated with the platelet reactivity in patients with diabetes type 2 (T2D) on ASA therapy. Fifty eight exons and corresponding introns of eight selected genes, including PTGS1, PTGS2, TXBAS1, PTGIS, ADRA2A, ADRA2B, TXBA2R, and P2RY1 were re-sequenced in 230 DNA samples from T2D patients by using a pooled PCR amplification and next-generation sequencing by Illumina HiSeq2000. The observed non-synonymous variants were confirmed by individual genotyping of 384 DNA samples comprising of the individuals from the original discovery pools and additional verification cohort of 154 ASA-treated T2DM patients. The association between investigated phenotypes (ASA induced changes in platelets reactivity by PFA-100, VerifyNow and serum thromboxane B2 level [sTxB2]), and accumulation of rare missense variants (genetic burden) in investigated genes was tested using statistical collapsing tests. We identified a total of 35 exonic variants, including 3 common missense variants, 15 rare missense variants, and 17 synonymous variants in 8 investigated genes. The rare missense variants exhibited statistically significant difference in the accumulation pattern between a group of patients with increased and normal platelet reactivity based on PFA-100 assay. Our study suggests that genetic burden of the rare functional variants in eight genes may contribute to differences in the platelet reactivity measured with the PFA-100 assay in the T2DM patients treated with ASA.

  19. Platelet adhesion and degranulation induce pro-survival and pro-angiogenic signalling in ovarian cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Egan

    Full Text Available Thrombosis is common in ovarian cancer. However, the interaction of platelets with ovarian cancer cells has not been critically examined. To address this, we investigated platelet interactions in a range of ovarian cancer cell lines with different metastatic potentials [HIO-80, 59M, SK-OV-3, A2780, A2780cis]. Platelets adhered to ovarian cancer cells with the most significant adhesion to the 59M cell line. Ovarian cancer cells induced platelet activation [P-selectin expression] in a dose dependent manner, with the most significant activation seen in response to the 59M cell line. The platelet antagonists [cangrelor, MRS2179, and apyrase] inhibited 59M cell induced activation suggesting a P2Y12 and P2Y1 receptor mediated mechanism of platelet activation dependent on the release of ADP by 59M cells. A2780 and 59M cells potentiated PAR-1, PAR-4, and TxA2 receptor mediated platelet activation, but had no effect on ADP, epinephrine, or collagen induced activation. Analysis of gene expression changes in ovarian cancer cells following treatment with washed platelets or platelet releasate showed a subtle but valid upregulation of anti-apoptotic, anti-autophagy pro-angiogenic, pro-cell cycle and metabolic genes. Thus, ovarian cancer cells with different metastatic potential adhere and activate platelets differentially while both platelets and platelet releasate mediate pro-survival and pro-angiogenic signals in ovarian cancer cells.

  20. Discovering anti-platelet drug combinations with an integrated model of activator-inhibitor relationships, activator-activator synergies and inhibitor-inhibitor synergies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Lombardi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Identifying effective therapeutic drug combinations that modulate complex signaling pathways in platelets is central to the advancement of effective anti-thrombotic therapies. However, there is no systems model of the platelet that predicts responses to different inhibitor combinations. We developed an approach which goes beyond current inhibitor-inhibitor combination screening to efficiently consider other signaling aspects that may give insights into the behaviour of the platelet as a system. We investigated combinations of platelet inhibitors and activators. We evaluated three distinct strands of information, namely: activator-inhibitor combination screens (testing a panel of inhibitors against a panel of activators; inhibitor-inhibitor synergy screens; and activator-activator synergy screens. We demonstrated how these analyses may be efficiently performed, both experimentally and computationally, to identify particular combinations of most interest. Robust tests of activator-activator synergy and of inhibitor-inhibitor synergy required combinations to show significant excesses over the double doses of each component. Modeling identified multiple effects of an inhibitor of the P2Y12 ADP receptor, and complementarity between inhibitor-inhibitor synergy effects and activator-inhibitor combination effects. This approach accelerates the mapping of combination effects of compounds to develop combinations that may be therapeutically beneficial. We integrated the three information sources into a unified model that predicted the benefits of a triple drug combination targeting ADP, thromboxane and thrombin signaling.

  1. Heparin-induced platelet aggregation (H-IPA): dose/response relationship for two low molecular weight (LMW) heparin preparations (CY 216 and CY 222)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brace, L.D.; Fareed, J.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously demonstrated that heparin and a LMW heparin derivative (PK 10169) causes platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner that can be inhibited by antagonists of the thromboxane pathway. Using fractions of these agents separated on the basis of molecular weight (MW) by gel permeation chromatography, the authors showed that H-IPA was directly dependent upon the MW of the agents tested. In order to further examine this MW dependence, the authors tested two other LMW heparin preparations, CY 216 and CY 222 and subfractions of these agents separated on the basis of MW. Citrate anticoagulated whole blood was drawn from drug-free normal healthy donors whose platelets aggregated when heparin was added to their platelet-rich plasma (PRP). PRP was prepared, various concentrations of the agents or their subfractions were added and aggregation was monitored for 40 minutes at 37/sup 0/C. The results demonstrate that like heparin and PK 10169, CY 216 and CY 222 caused platelet aggregation in a dose and MW dependent manner. Fractions with MW less than 2500 daltons caused aggregation only at concentrations exceeding the therapeutic range of the agents. The authors conclude that the ability to cause H-IPA is an inherent property of heparin and its fractions.

  2. Effect of erythrocytes and prostacyclin production in the effect of fructose and sorbitol on platelet activation in human whole blood in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz, J P; Maximo, M A; Blanco, E; Moreno, A; Sánchez de la Cuesta, F

    1997-06-15

    We analyzed the in vitro effects of sorbitol and fructose on platelet function. Sorbitol and fructose increased platelet aggregation induced with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or collagen in whole blood, but had no effect in platelet-rich plasma. The concentration that increased basal aggregation by 50% with ADP as the inducer was 12.89 +/- 1.55 mmol/L for fructose, and 18.99 +/- 2.01 mmol/L for sorbitol. When collagen was the inducer, these concentrations were 15.02 +/- 0.98 mmol/L for fructose, and 12.94 +/- 1.57 mmol/L for sorbitol. Both sugars increased, in a concentration-dependent way, the proaggregatory effect of erythrocytes, and erythrocyte uptake of adenosine. Time to uptake of 50% adenosine was 2.1 +/- 0.3 min in control samples, 0.14 +/- 0.01 min in the presence of fructose, and 0.23 +/- 0.03 min with sorbitol. Both sugars reduced vascular prostacyclin synthesis, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 26.48 +/- 1.97 mmol/L for fructose, and 39.53 +/- 2.81 mmol/L for sorbitol. Both sugars also increased arterial lipid peroxidation by 30% (sorbitol) and 23% (fructose). We conclude that these two sugars enhance platelet function and disrupt the thromboxane/prostacyclin ratio.

  3. Platelets in inflammation and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenne, Craig N; Kubes, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Although platelets are traditionally recognized for their central role in hemostasis, many lines of research clearly demonstrate these rather ubiquitous blood components are potent immune modulators and effectors. Platelets have been shown to directly recognize, sequester and kill pathogens, to activated and recruit leukocytes to sites of infection and inflammation, and to modulate leukocyte behavior, enhancing their ability to phagocytose and kill pathogens and inducing unique effector functions, such as the production of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs). This multifaceted response to infection and inflammation is due, in part, to the huge array of soluble mediators and cell surface molecules expressed by platelets. From their earliest origins as primordial hemocytes in invertebrates to their current form as megakaryocyte-derived cytoplasts, platelets have evolved to be one of the key regulators of host intravascular immunity and inflammation. In this review, we present the diverse roles platelets play in immunity and inflammation associated with autoimmune diseases and infection. Additionally, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of platelet behavior made possible through the use of advanced imaging techniques that allow us to visualize platelets and their interactions, in real-time, within the intact blood vessels of a living host.

  4. [Murine models of platelet diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, F

    2007-05-01

    Platelet-related diseases correspond to functional defects or abnormal production (thrombopoiesis) of hereditary and immunological origins. Recent progress in the manipulation of the mouse genome (transgenesis, gene inactivation or insertion) has resulted in the generation of numerous strains exhibiting defective platelet function or production. Some strains reproduce known hereditary diseases affecting haemostasis (Glanzmann thrombasthenia, Bernard-Soulier syndrome (BSS) or thrombopoiesis (Wiscott-Aldrich or May-Hegglin syndrome). More often the mutated strains have no human equivalent and represent useful models to study: (i) the role of adhesive or signalling receptors or of signalling proteins in platelet-dependent haemostasis and thrombosis or; (ii) to study the poorly characterized mechanisms of thrombopoiesis, which implicate transcription factors (GATA, Fli1), growth factors and receptors (TPO, cMPL), and cytoskeletal or contractile proteins (tubulin, myosin). Additional mouse strains result from the selection of spontaneous mutants many of which affect intracellular platelet granules, representing models of storage pool diseases (SPD) such as the Gray platelet syndrome (alphaSPD) or Hermansky-Pudlack syndrome (deltaSPD). More recently, a systematic chemical mutagenesis approach has also identified genes involved in thrombopoiesis and platelet survival. Finally, mouse models of auto- or allo-immune thrombocytopenia have been developed to study the mechanisms of platelet destruction or removal.

  5. Platelet scintigraphy in atherothrombotic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaka, Yoshinari (Osaka National Hospital (Japan))

    1993-01-01

    Indium-111 platelet scintigraphy for the measurement of in vivo thrombogenicity is a useful noninvasive technique with a number of applications. From 1982 to 1989, we explored clinical relevance of this method for 576 consecutive patients with atherothrombotic disease. There was a disease-related difference in the percentage of positive platelet accumulation; 85% in patients with Dacron bifurcation graft, 75% in abdominal or thoracic aneurysm, 40% in intra-cardiac thrombi, 33% in arteriosclerosis obliterans and 25% in ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Labelled platelets accumulated frequently in the lesion with severe arteriographic abnormality. Aspirin clearly inhibited platelet accumulation on carotid atheroma but the effect of ticlopidine has been less conclusive. Short-term orally active PGI[sub 2] analogue had inhibitory effects on platelet accumulation in carotid atheroma and platelet aggregability, but did not cause significant reduction in plaque size. The results suggest the usefulness of platelet scintigraphy for monitoring the thrombogenicity in various atherothrombotic diseases. It will be necessary, however, to simplify the labelling procedures and to develop a new [sup 99m]Tc-labelled thrombus imaging agent, if thrombus imaging is to be considered for more generall use for patients with atherosclerosis. (author).

  6. Platelet enzyme abnormalities in leukemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: The aim of this study was to evaluate platelet enzyme activity in cases of leukemia. Materials and Methods: Platelet enzymes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, pyruvate kinase (PK and hexokinase (HK were studied in 47 patients of acute and chronic leukemia patients, 16 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML(13 relapse, three in remission, 12 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL (five in relapse, seven in remission, 19 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Results: The platelet G6PD activity was significantly low in cases of AML, ALL and also in CML. G6PD activity was normalized during AML remission. G6PD activity, although persistently low during ALL remission, increased significantly to near-normal during remission (P < 0.05 as compared with relapse (P < 0.01. Platelet PK activity was high during AML relapse (P < 0.05, which was normalized during remission. Platelet HK however was found to be decreased during all remission (P < 0.05. There was a significant positive correlation between G6PD and PK in cases of AML (P < 0.001 but not in ALL and CML. G6PD activity did not correlate with HK activity in any of the leukemic groups. A significant positive correlation was however seen between PK and HK activity in cases of ALL remission (P < 0.01 and CML (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Both red cell and platelet enzymes were studied in 36 leukemic patients and there was no statistically significant correlation between red cell and platelet enzymes. Platelet enzyme defect in leukemias suggests the inherent abnormality in megakaryopoiesis and would explain the functional platelet defects in leukemias.

  7. Platelet surface glutathione reductase-like activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, David W; Li, Mengru; Feinman, Richard D; Miller, Anna

    2004-09-01

    We previously found that reduced glutathione (GSH) or a mixture of GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) potentiated platelet aggregation. We here report that GSSG, when added to platelets alone, also potentiates platelet aggregation. Most of the GSSG was converted to GSH by a flavoprotein-dependent platelet surface mechanism. This provided an appropriate redox potential for platelet activation. The addition of GSSG to platelets generated sulfhydryls in the beta subunit of the alpha(IIb)beta(3) fibrinogen receptor, suggesting a mechanism for facilitation of agonist-induced platelet activation.

  8. Mechanisms of platelet-mediated liver regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisman, Ton; Porte, Robert J

    2016-08-04

    Platelets have multiple functions beyond their roles in thrombosis and hemostasis. Platelets support liver regeneration, which is required after partial hepatectomy and acute or chronic liver injury. Although it is widely assumed that platelets stimulate liver regeneration by local excretion of mitogens stored within platelet granules, definitive evidence for this is lacking, and alternative mechanisms deserve consideration. In-depth knowledge of mechanisms of platelet-mediated liver regeneration may lead to new therapeutic strategies to treat patients with failing regenerative responses.

  9. Platelets as delivery systems for disease treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Qizhen; Montgomery, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    Platelets are small, anucleate, discoid shaped blood cells that play a fundamental role in hemostasis. Platelets contain a large number of biologically active molecules within cytoplasmic granules that are critical to normal platelet function. Because platelets circulate in blood through out the body, release biological molecules and mediators on demand, and participate in hemostasis as well as many other pathophysiologic processes, targeting expression of proteins of interest to platelets an...

  10. Activation of circulating platelets and platelet response to activating agents in children with cyanotic congenital heart disease: their relevance to palliative systemic-pulmonary shunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierzkowska, B; Stańczyk, J; Wiectawska, B; Rózalski, M; Boncler, M; Chrul, S; Watala, C

    2001-06-01

    Abnormal platelet function has been hypothesised to play a role in the haemostatic abnormalities in cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) patients. Using whole blood flow cytometry we found that platelets from cyanotic patients were hyperreactive and we related such hyperreactivity directly to young age, unoperated state, high haematocrit, reduced saturation with oxygen and low platelet count. Circulating platelets from CCHD children showed significantly enhanced P-selectin expression (Pplatelet 'priming' largely concerned CCHD children who were not subjected to modified Blalock-Taussig shunts in the past (non-MBTS). Only non-MBTS cyanotic children, but not MBTS-operated patients, showed significantly higher platelet reactivity compared to controls in response to ADP or 1 microM TRAP with respect to P-selectin expression (pchildren and reduced GPIb expression in non-MBTS patients, especially in younger patients, were positively associated with the occurrence of the polymorphic variant Pl(A2) of platelet membrane glycoprotein IIIa gene. Altered blood morphology parameters (elevated RBC, Hb, Hct and MCHC, for all Pchildren correlated with the enhanced degranulation of circulating blood platelets and their hyperreactivity in response to some agonists (Pplatelets are remarkably hyperreactive in non-MBTS cyanotic children, which are at higher risk to often encounter platelets activation in circulation. It seems unlikely that the apparently unchanged platelet reactivity in MBTS-operated children is due to the advantageous effects of the shunt, since these patients showed neither altered haematological parameters nor improved oxygen carrying capacity. Otherwise, it may rather result from more frequent episodes of platelet degranulation and preactivation in the past, and/or post-operative enhanced platelet consumption.

  11. [Protein kinase C activation induces platelet apoptosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Li; Chen, Meng-Xing; Zhang, Ming-Yi; Dai, Ke-Sheng

    2013-10-01

    Platelet apoptosis elucidated by either physical or chemical compound or platelet storage occurs wildly, which might play important roles in controlling the numbers and functions of circulated platelets, or in the development of some platelet-related diseases. However, up to now, a little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of platelet apoptosis. Protein kinase C (PKC) is highly expressed in platelets and plays central roles in regulating platelet functions. Although there is evidence indicating that PKC is involved in the regulation of apoptosis of nucleated cells, it is still unclear whether PKC plays a role in platelet apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PKC in platelet apoptosis. The effects of PKC on mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, and caspase-3 activation of platelets were analyzed by flow cytometry and Western blot. The results showed that the ΔΨm depolarization in platelets was induced by PKC activator in time-dependent manner, and the caspase-3 activation in platelets was induced by PKC in concentration-dependent manner. However, the platelets incubated with PKC inhibitor did not results in ΔΨm depolarization and PS exposure. It is concluded that the PKC activation induces platelet apoptosis through influencing the mitochondrial functions and activating caspase 3. The finds suggest a novel mechanism for PKC in regulating platelet numbers and functions, which has important pathophysiological implications for thrombosis and hemostasis.

  12. Inherited platelet disorders and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Marie-Cécile; Kemoun, Philippe; Cousty, Sarah; Sie, Pierre; Payrastre, Bernard

    2013-02-01

    Platelets play a key role in thrombosis and hemostasis. Accumulation of platelets at the site of vascular injury is the first step in the formation of hemostatic plugs, which play a pivotal role in preventing blood loss after injury. Platelet adhesion at sites of injury results in spreading, secretion, recruitment of additional platelets, and formation of platelet aggregates. Inherited platelet disorders are rare causes of bleeding syndromes, ranging from mild bruising to severe hemorrhage. The defects can reflect deficiency or dysfunction of platelet surface glycoproteins, granule contents, cytoskeletal proteins, platelet pro-coagulant function, and signaling pathways. For instance, Bernard-Soulier syndrome and Glanzmann thrombasthenia are attributed to deficiencies of glycoprotein Ib/IX/V and GPIIb/IIIa, respectively, and are rare but severe platelet disorders. Inherited defects that impair platelet secretion and/or signal transduction are among the most common forms of mild platelet disorders and include gray platelet syndrome, Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, and Chediak-Higashi syndrome. When necessary, desmopressin, antifibrinolytic agents, and transfusion of platelets remain the most common treatment of inherited platelet disorders. Alternative therapies such as recombinant activated factor VII are also available for a limited number of situations. In this review, we will discuss the management of patients with inherited platelet disorders in various clinical situations related to dental cares, including surgical intervention. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF): a second-generation platelet concentrate. Part II: platelet-related biologic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan, David M; Choukroun, Joseph; Diss, Antoine; Dohan, Steve L; Dohan, Anthony J J; Mouhyi, Jaafar; Gogly, Bruno

    2006-03-01

    Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) belongs to a new generation of platelet concentrates, with simplified processing and without biochemical blood handling. In this second article, we investigate the platelet-associated features of this biomaterial. During PRF processing by centrifugation, platelets are activated and their massive degranulation implies a very significant cytokine release. Concentrated platelet-rich plasma platelet cytokines have already been quantified in many technologic configurations. To carry out a comparative study, we therefore undertook to quantify PDGF-BB, TGFbeta-1, and IGF-I within PPP (platelet-poor plasma) supernatant and PRF clot exudate serum. These initial analyses revealed that slow fibrin polymerization during PRF processing leads to the intrinsic incorporation of platelet cytokines and glycanic chains in the fibrin meshes. This result would imply that PRF, unlike the other platelet concentrates, would be able to progressively release cytokines during fibrin matrix remodeling; such a mechanism might explain the clinically observed healing properties of PRF.

  14. Impact of high dose vitamin C on platelet function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Bassem M; Sanford, Kimberly W; Fisher, Bernard J; Martin, Erika J; Contaifer Jr, Daniel; Warncke, Urszula Osinska; Wijesinghe, Dayanjan S; Chalfant, Charles E; Brophy, Donald F; Fowler III, Alpha A; Natarajan, Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    AIM To examine the effect of high doses of vitamin C (VitC) on ex vivo human platelets (PLTs). METHODS Platelet concentrates collected for therapeutic or prophylactic transfusions were exposed to: (1) normal saline (control); (2) 0.3 mmol/L VitC (Lo VitC); or (3) 3 mmol/L VitC (Hi VitC, final concentrations) and stored appropriately. The VitC additive was preservative-free buffered ascorbic acid in water, pH 5.5 to 7.0, adjusted with sodium bicarbonate and sodium hydroxide. The doses of VitC used here correspond to plasma VitC levels reported in recently completed clinical trials. Prior to supplementation, a baseline sample was collected for analysis. PLTs were sampled again on days 2, 5 and 8 and assayed for changes in PLT function by: Thromboelastography (TEG), for changes in viscoelastic properties; aggregometry, for PLT aggregation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) secretion in response to collagen or adenosine diphosphate (ADP); and flow cytometry, for changes in expression of CD-31, CD41a, CD62p and CD63. In addition, PLT intracellular VitC content was measured using a fluorimetric assay for ascorbic acid and PLT poor plasma was used for plasma coagulation tests [prothrombin time (PT), partial thrombplastin time (PTT), functional fibrinogen] and Lipidomics analysis (UPLC ESI-MS/MS). RESULTS VitC supplementation significantly increased PLTs intracellular ascorbic acid levels from 1.2 mmol/L at baseline to 3.2 mmol/L (Lo VitC) and 15.7 mmol/L (Hi VitC, P 8 d exposure period (P > 0.05). PLT function assayed by TEG, aggregometry and flow cytometry was not significantly altered by Lo or Hi VitC for up to 5 d. However, PLTs exposed to 3 mmol/L VitC for 8 d demonstrated significantly increased R and K times by TEG and a decrease in the α-angle (P 0.05). Collagen and ADP-induced ATP secretion was also not different between the three groups (P > 0.05). Finally, VitC at the higher dose (3 mmol/L) also induced the release of several eicosanoids including thromboxane B2

  15. Platelet-containing tantalum powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiele, E.K.

    1988-04-26

    A method of forming platelet tantalum powders is described comprising the steps of: (a) providing an ingot-derived precursor tantalum powder, and (b) ball-milling the precursor powder for a time sufficient to form a platelet powder having an average FSSS of less than about 2 micrometers, a Scott density not greater than about 30 g/in/sup 3/ and a BET surface area of at least about 0.7 in/sup 2//g.

  16. Characterization of the platelet-aggregating activity of cancer cells with different metastatic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grignani, G; Pacchiarini, L; Almasio, P; Pagliarino, M; Gamba, G; Rizzo, S C; Ascari, E

    1986-08-15

    We studied the mechanisms of platelet activation by sublines exhibiting different metastatic potential of two murine experimental tumors: sublines M4 and M9 of the benzopyrene-induced mFS6 sarcoma and sublines B77-AA6 and B77-3T3 of RSV-transformed BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts. The neoplastic cells of both models induced platelet aggregation, secretion and prostaglandin biosynthesis. In the first model but not in the second, all these processes correlated with the in vivo malignancy of cells. Pretreatment of B77-AA6 and B77-3T3 cells with apyrase significantly decreased platelet aggregation, while pretreatment of M4 cells was ineffective. However, pretreatment with trypsin or neuraminidase was effective in reducing platelet aggregation induced by M4 cells, but not that induced by any of the others; furthermore, phospholipase A2 reduced the platelet response by all sublines. Finally, platelet-activating activity was also found in the pellets obtained following centrifugation of culture media. These results suggest that platelets are stimulated by cancer cells through different mechanisms; platelet activation by a sialo-lipo-protein complex of the cellular membrane was found to be characteristic of the model in which the platelet-aggregating activity of neoplastic cells correlated with their in vivo metastatic behavior.

  17. In vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Platelets are routinely isolated from whole blood and stored in plasma for 5 days. The present study was done to assess the in vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution at 22°C. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 30 blood donors of both sex in State Blood Bank, CSM Medical University, Lucknow. Random donor platelets were prepared by platelet rich plasma method. Whole blood (350 ml was collected in anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine triple blood bags. Random donor platelets were stored for 7 days at 22°C in platelet incubators and agitators, with and without additive solution. Results: Platelet swirling was present in all the units at 22°C on day 7, with no evidence of bacterial contamination. Comparison of the mean values of platelet count, platelet factor 3, lactate dehydrogenase, pH, glucose and platelet aggregation showed no significant difference in additive solution, whereas platelet factor 3, glucose and platelet aggregation showed significant difference (P < 0.001 on day 7 without additive solution at 22°C. Conclusion: Our study infers that platelet viability and aggregation were best maintained within normal levels on day 7 of storage in platelet additive solution at 22°C. Thus, we may conclude that in vitro storage of random donor platelets with an extended shelf life of 7 days using platelet additive solution may be advocated to improve the inventory of platelets.

  18. Evidence of platelet activation in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Steven

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective A fatality in one multiple sclerosis (MS patient due to acute idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP and a near fatality in another stimulated our interest in platelet function abnormalities in MS. Previously, we presented evidence of platelet activation in a small cohort of treatment-naive MS patients. Methods In this report, 92 normal controls and 33 stable, untreated MS patients were studied. Platelet counts, measures of platelet activation [plasma platelet microparticles (PMP, P-selectin expression (CD62p, circulating platelet microaggragtes (PAg], as well as platelet-associated IgG/IgM, were carried out. In addition, plasma protein S activity was measured. Results Compared to controls, PMP were significantly elevated in MS (p Conclusion Platelets are significantly activated in MS patients. The mechanisms underlying this activation and its significance to MS are unknown. Additional study of platelet activation and function in MS patients is warranted.

  19. Impact of reticulated platelets on antiplatelet response to thienopyridines is independent of platelet turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratz, Christian; Nührenberg, Thomas; Amann, Michael; Cederqvist, Marco; Kleiner, Pascal; Valina, Christian M; Trenk, Dietmar; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Hochholzer, Willibald

    2016-10-28

    Reticulated platelets are associated with impaired antiplatelet response to thienopyridines. It is uncertain whether this interaction is caused by a decreased drug exposure due to high platelet turnover reflected by elevated levels of reticulated platelets or by intrinsic properties of reticulated platelets. This study sought to investigate if the impact of reticulated platelets on early antiplatelet response to thienopyridines is mainly caused by platelet turnover as previously suggested. Elective patients undergoing coronary intervention were randomised to loading with clopidogrel 600 mg or prasugrel 60 mg (n=200). Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet reactivity was determined by impedance aggregometry before, at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes and at day 1 after loading. Immature platelet count was assessed as marker of reticulated platelets by flow cytometry. Platelet reactivity increased with rising levels of immature platelet count in both groups. This effect was more distinctive in patients on clopidogrel as compared to patients on prasugrel. Overall, immature platelet count correlated well with on-treatment platelet reactivity at all time-points (p < 0.001). These correlations did not change over time in the entire cohort as well as in patients treated with clopidogrel or prasugrel indicating an effect independent of platelet turnover (comparison of correlations 120 minutes/day 1: p = 0.64). In conclusion, the association of immature platelet count with impaired antiplatelet response to thienopyridines is similar early and late after loading. This finding suggests as main underlying mechanism another effect of reticulated platelets on thienopyridines than platelet turnover.

  20. Platelets and infection — an emerging role of platelets in viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice eAssinger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Platelets are anucleate blood cells that play a crucial role in the maintenance of hemostasis. While platelet activation and elevated platelet counts (thrombocytosis are associated with increased risk of thrombotic complications, low platelet counts (thrombocytopenia and several platelet function disorders increase the risk of bleeding. Over the last years more and more evidence has emerged that platelets and their activation state can also modulate innate and adaptive immune responses and low platelet counts have been identified as a surrogate marker for poor prognosis in septic patients.Viral infections often coincide with platelet activation. Host inflammatory responses result in the release of platelet activating mediators and a pro-oxidative and pro-coagulant environment, which favours platelet activation. However, viruses can also directly interact with platelets and megakaryocytes and modulate their function. Furthermore, platelets can be activated by viral antigen-antibody complexes and in response to some viruses B-lymphocytes also generate anti-platelet antibodies.All these processes contributing to platelet activation result in increased platelet consumption and removal and often lead to thrombocytopenia, which is frequently observed during viral infection. However, virus-induced platelet activation does not only modulate platelet count, but also shapes immune responses. Platelets and their released products have been reported to directly and indirectly suppress infection and to support virus persistence in response to certain viruses, making platelets a double-edged sword during viral infections. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge on platelet interaction with different types of viruses, the viral impact on platelet activation and platelet-mediated modulations of innate and adaptive immune responses.

  1. Platelets and infection - an emerging role of platelets in viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assinger, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Platelets are anucleate blood cells that play a crucial role in the maintenance of hemostasis. While platelet activation and elevated platelet counts (thrombocytosis) are associated with increased risk of thrombotic complications, low platelet counts (thrombocytopenia) and several platelet function disorders increase the risk of bleeding. Over the last years, more and more evidence has emerged that platelets and their activation state can also modulate innate and adaptive immune responses and low platelet counts have been identified as a surrogate marker for poor prognosis in septic patients. Viral infections often coincide with platelet activation. Host inflammatory responses result in the release of platelet activating mediators and a pro-oxidative and pro-coagulant environment, which favors platelet activation. However, viruses can also directly interact with platelets and megakaryocytes and modulate their function. Furthermore, platelets can be activated by viral antigen-antibody complexes and in response to some viruses B-lymphocytes also generate anti-platelet antibodies. All these processes contributing to platelet activation result in increased platelet consumption and removal and often lead to thrombocytopenia, which is frequently observed during viral infection. However, virus-induced platelet activation does not only modulate platelet count but also shape immune responses. Platelets and their released products have been reported to directly and indirectly suppress infection and to support virus persistence in response to certain viruses, making platelets a double-edged sword during viral infections. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge on platelet interaction with different types of viruses, the viral impact on platelet activation, and platelet-mediated modulations of innate and adaptive immune responses.

  2. Influence of caffeine on blood pressure and platelet aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wilson S. Cavalcante

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies have demonstrated that methylxanthines, such as caffeine, are A1 and A2 adenosine receptor antagonists found in the brain, heart, lungs, peripheral vessels, and platelets. Considering the high consumption of products with caffeine in their composition, in Brazil and throughout the rest of the world, the authors proposed to observe the effects of this substance on blood pressure and platelet aggregation. METHODS: Thirteen young adults, ranging from 21 to 27 years of age, participated in this study. Each individual took 750mg/day of caffeine (250mg tid, over a period of seven days. The effects on blood pressure were analyzed through the pressor test with handgrip, and platelet aggregation was analyzed using adenosine diphosphate, collagen, and adrenaline. RESULTS: Diastolic pressure showed a significant increase 24 hours after the first intake (p<0.05. This effect, however, disappeared in the subsequent days. The platelet aggregation tests did not reveal statistically significant alterations, at any time during the study. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that caffeine increases diastolic blood pressure at the beginning of caffeine intake. This hypertensive effect disappears with chronic use. The absence of alterations in platelet aggregation indicates the need for larger randomized studies.

  3. The Thromboxane Receptor Antagonist S18886 influence the stability of atherosclerosis in ApoE Null Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cong Hongliang; Xiang Nina; Chen Yingchong; Julie H

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether thromboxane receptor antagonist S18886 inhibits infiltrating macrophages to vessel wall and influence the morphology of atherosclerotic plaque;The effective of S18886 compared to clopidegrol on the development of atherosclerosis, accumulation of lipidfilled macropha-ges in apoE null mice. Methods All mice were done cuffed common carotid artery and fed a Western-type atherogenic diet for 6 weeks from the day of surgery, at same time the therapy group mice were gavaged S18886 5 mg/Kg/day and clopidegrol respectively, the same volume water were gavaged as the placebo group. Results profound inhibition of lesion area growth after cuff of the right common carotid artery in mice with 5 mg/kg of S18886, markdely reduce intima to media ratio and intima to total wall area compare with clopidegrol or blank group; Macrophage infiltration into sites of arterial plaque was also markedly attenuated by ICAM-1 deficiency in the S18886 group, whereas inside the arterial wall plaque of placebo apoE null mice α-smooth muscle actin markedly attenuated. Treatment with 25 mg/kg/day clopidegrol reduced the level of ICAM-1 staining, both S18886 and clopidegrol didn't influence the α-smooth muscle actin inside plaque. Conclusions It was considered that the novel anti-thrombotic drug significant reduce macrophage infiltration in the sites of arterial plaque by ICAM- 1 deficiency, S 18886 not only reduce the size, but also stabilized the plaque.

  4. Increased cyclooxygenase-2 and thromboxane synthase expression is implicated in diosgenin-induced megakaryocytic differentiation in human erythroleukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailleteau, C; Liagre, B; Battu, S; Jayat-Vignoles, C; Beneytout, J L

    2008-09-01

    Differentiation induction as a therapeutic strategy has, so far, the greatest impact in hematopoietic malignancies, most notably leukemia. Diosgenin is a very interesting natural product because, depending on the specific dose used, its biological effect is very different in HEL (human erythroleukemia) cells. For example, at 10 microM, diosgenin induced megakaryocytic differentiation, in contrast to 40 microM diosgenin, which induced apoptosis in HEL cells previously demonstrated using sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF). The goal of this work focused on the correlation between cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and thromboxane synthase (TxS) and megakaryocytic differentiation induced by diosgenin in HEL cells. Furthermore, the technique of SdFFF, having been validated in our models, was used in this new study as an analytical tool that provided us with more or less enriched differentiated cell fractions that could then be used for further analyses of enzyme protein expression and activity for the first time. In our study, we showed the implication of COX-2 and TxS in diosgenin-induced megakaryocytic differentiation in HEL cells. Furthermore, we showed that the analytical technique of SdFFF may be used as a tool to confirm our results as a function of the degree of cell differentiation.

  5. Platelet satellitism in infectious disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskaj, Renata; Sikiric, Dubravka; Skerk, Visnja

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet satellitism is a phenomenon of unknown etiology of aggregating platelets around polymorphonuclear neutrophils and other blood cells which causes pseudothrombocytopenia, visible by microscopic examination of blood smears. It has been observed so far in about a hundred cases in the world. Case subject and methods Our case involves a 73-year-old female patient with a urinary infection. Biochemical serum analysis (CRP, glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, bilirubin, sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine) and blood cell count were performed with standard methods on autoanalyzers. Serum protein fractions were examined by electrophoresis and urinalysis with standard methods on autoanalyzer together with microscopic examination of urine sediment. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, blood culture and urine culture tests were performed with standard methods. Results Due to typical pathological values for bacterial urinary infection, the patient was admitted to the hospital. Blood smear examination revealed phenomenon, which has persisted for three weeks after the disease has been cured. Blood smears with EDTA as an anticoagulant had platelet satellitism whereas the phenomenon was not observed in tubes with different anticoagulants (Na, Li-heparin) and capillary blood. Discussion We hypothesize that satellitism was induced by some immunological mechanism through formation of antibodies which have mediated platelets binding to neutrophil membranes and vice versa. Unfortunately we were unable to determine the putative trigger for this phenomenon. To our knowledge this is the second case of platelet satellitism ever described in Croatia. PMID:26110042

  6. Evaluation of platelet aggregation in platelet concentrates: storage implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neiva Teresinha J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of hemo-derivatives is nowadays a fundamentally important therapeutic modality in the exercise of medicine. Among the various hemo-components employed, we have the platelet concentrate (PC, indicated in cases of hemorrhagic disturbances. We previously showed that platelet function in blood donors is reduced in their screening phase and after the separation process of PCs. Currently, we are providing evidence for the existence of biochemical and functional changes in PC preparations stored for three days at temperatures of 20 ± 2 ºC. Platelet concentrates from 40 healthy donors, collected in CPD anticoagulant and PL-146 polyvinylchloride containers, were examined in order to determine the pH value, pCO2 ,pO2 and lactate concentrations. In addition, the aggregation of platelets with thrombin and collagen were examined to evaluate platelet function. A pH increase from 7.07 ± 0.04 to 7.36 ± 0.07 (p < 0.01 was observed. The pCO2 concentration decreased progressively from 69.2 ± 7.7 mmHg to 28.8 ± 6.2 mmHg (p < 0.001 during the storage period. In contrast, pO2 value increase from 103.4 ± 30.6 to 152.3 ± 24.6 mmHg (p < 0.001 was evidenced during the 48 hours of storage. The lactate concentration increased from 17.97 ± 5.2 to 57.21 ± 5.7 mg/dl (p < 0.001. Platelet aggregation using 0.25 U/ml-thrombin and 2.0 µg/ml-collagen showed significant hypofunction from 61.8 ± 2.7% to 24.8 ± 9.8% and 62.7±5.0 to 33.4± 6.2 (p < 0.001, respectively. We concluded that the evaluated biochemical parameters and the platelet function changed significantly when the platelets were kept under routine storage conditions.

  7. Basic study of platelet labeling with /sup 111/In-oxine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yui, T.; Uchida, T.; Matsuda, S.; Muroi, S.; Tanaka, T. (Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1981-05-01

    Indium-111-oxine has recently been suggested as a new isotopic labeling agent of platelets. In this paper, the results on the investigation of in vitro labeling of human platelets with In-111-oxine and those of platelet kinetics in rats are presented. Based on the findings of those studies, the protocol of human platelet labeling with In-111-oxine for clinical use was established. All operations should be carried out with sterile techniques at 20 - 25/sup 0/C. 1) Forty four ml venous blood is drawn into a 50 ml polystyrene syringe containing 6 ml ACD-A. 2) The blood is transferred to a 50 ml tube and centrifuged at 300 g for 15 min. 3) Supernatant platelet rich plasma (PRP) is transferred to other 50 ml tube. Then, the pH is adjusted to 6.5 by addition of 1 ml ACD-A per 20 ml PRP. 4) Platelets are sedimented by centrifuging at 1,500 g for 15 min and resuspended in 3 ml ACD-A-saline solution (pH 6.5). 5) Three hundreds ..mu..Ci of In-111-oxine is added to the platelet suspension. The mixture is incubated for 20 min at room temperature. 6) About 15 ml of the platelet poor autologous plasma (PPP) is added into the incubated mixture, followed by the sedimentation of labeled platelets (1,500 g, 15 min). 7) The labeled platelets are suspended in 10 ml PPP and the contaminating red cells are sedimented by centrifuging at 200 g for 5 min. 8) One hundred and fifty ..mu..Ci of labeled platelet suspension is injected to the patient intravenously. The labeling efficiency in this method was 62 +- 5% (mean +- 1S.D., n = 6).

  8. CD8+ T cells induce platelet clearance in the liver via platelet desialylation in immune thrombocytopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jihua; Liu, Xuena; Li, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Xu; Han, Panpan; Zhou, Hai; Shao, Linlin; Hou, Yu; Min, Yanan; Kong, Zhangyuan; Wang, Yawen; Wei, Yu; Liu, Xinguang; Ni, Heyu; Peng, Jun; Hou, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In addition to antiplatelet autoantibodies, CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play an important role in the increased platelet destruction in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Recent studies have highlighted that platelet desialylation leads to platelet clearance via hepatocyte asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPRs). Whether CD8+ T cells induce platelet desialylation in ITP remains unclear. Here, we investigated the cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells towards platelets and platelet desialylation in ITP. We found that the desialylation of fresh platelets was significantly higher in ITP patients with positive cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells than those without cytotoxicity and controls. In vitro, CD8+ T cells from ITP patients with positive cytotoxicity induced significant platelet desialylation, neuraminidase-1 expression on the platelet surface, and platelet phagocytosis by hepatocytes. To study platelet survival and clearance in vivo, CD61 knockout mice were immunized and their CD8+ splenocytes were used. Platelets co-cultured with these CD8+ splenocytes demonstrated decreased survival in the circulation and increased phagocytosis in the liver. Both neuraminidase inhibitor and ASGPRs competitor significantly improved platelet survival and abrogated platelet clearance caused by CD8+ splenocytes. These findings suggest that CD8+ T cells induce platelet desialylation and platelet clearance in the liver in ITP, which may be a novel mechanism of ITP. PMID:27321376

  9. An overview of platelet indices and methods for evaluating platelet function in thrombocytopenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinholt, Pernille Just; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Nybo, Mads

    2014-01-01

    in thrombocytopenia. Flow cytometry, platelet aggregometry and platelet secretion tests are used to diagnose specific platelet function defects. The flow cytometric activation marker P-selectin and surface coverage by the Cone and Plate[let] analyser™ predict bleeding in selected thrombocytopenic populations...

  10. Platelet antigens and antibodies. Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Mineeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet antigens structure, role of platelet antibodies in the pathogenesis of various clinical conditions, characteristic of modern antibodies detection methods are presented in this article.

  11. Platelet antigens and antibodies. Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Mineeva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Platelet antigens structure, role of platelet antibodies in the pathogenesis of various clinical conditions, characteristic of modern antibodies detection methods are presented in this article.

  12. Effect of photodynamic therapy on mouse platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuannong; Chi, Shunji; Deng, Jinsheng; Zhang, Hua; Liang, Junlin; Ha, Xian-wen

    1993-06-01

    Normal mice received hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) i.v. prior to red light irradiation and the platelet-rich plasma was prepared and irradiated by red light. The platelets were processed for EM examination and stereological analysis. It was shown the 16 hrs after irradiation almost all platelets were necrotized; 8 hours after irradiation about one fourth of the platelets were necrotized and the remaining were considerably damaged. Immediately after irradiation a small number of platelets became necrotic and most other platelets were swollen and deformated, showing significantly increased mean area, perimeter and short axis, and mean cell volume and cell surface area. The findings indicate that platelets are highly sensitive to PDT action and can be directly and rapidly damaged by PDT even in the absence of vascular endothelial cells. The early platelet photoactivation may play an important role in the initiation of early vascular damage and microcirculatory alterations induced by PDT in vivo.

  13. Platelet Disorders: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Article: Erythropoietin and thrombopoietin mimetics: Natural alternatives to erythrocyte and platelet... Article: Detection of CALR Mutation in Clonal and Nonclonal Hematologic Diseases... Platelet Disorders -- see more articles Thrombocytopenias -- see more ...

  14. Effect of pretreatment with aspirin and ticlopidine on the change of platelet aggregability after radiofrequency catheter ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利宏; 陈君柱; 郑良荣; 陶谦民

    2002-01-01

    Eighty-two patients with supraventricular tachycardia undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) were studied to observe the inhibition effect of aspirin and ticlopidine on platelet aggregability(PAG) and thromboxane B2(TXB2) of the blood samples.Patients were divided into aspirin group A.ticlopidine group B.aspirin+ticlopidine group C and control group D.PAG and TXB2 were increased clearly after RFCA in all groups(P<0.001).Treatment with aspirin or ticlopidine before operation could reduce the patelet aggregability caused by RFCA and the joint effect of two drugs(change rate of group A:52.51±12.51%;group B:54.78±11.27%;group C:30.51±10.59%;group D:91.75±21.43%;(P<0.05)was studied .The much decreased platelet aggregability after antiplatelet therapy was evidence of the potential benefit of the treatment in preventing thromboembolism after ablation.Pretreatment with aspirin and ticlopidine together is a good way to decrease palateler aggregability after RFCA.

  15. Effect of platelet age on adhesiveness to collagen and platelet surface charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellan, R.M.; Steiner, M.

    1976-11-30

    Adhesion to collagen was investigated as a function of platelet age in rat platelets. Platelet adherence was measured using EDTA-containing platelet- rich plasma which was added to preparations of collagen fibers clamped between magnetic stirrers by recording changes in light transmission. The plot of light transmission versus logarithm of time was linear and allowed calculation of a slope factor which related to the rate of adherence. Neither the amount of collagen nor the platelet count were limiting in the test. Young platelet populations (less than or equal to 1 day old) were obtained during the recovery phase from immune induced thrombocytopenia. Old platelet populations were prepared by blocking thrombopoiesis with cyclophosphamide. Young platelets did not differ significantly from randomly aged platelets in this function. The electrophoretic mobility of platelets was not affected by their age.

  16. Dengue platelets meet Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Paul F

    2013-11-14

    In this issue of Blood, Hottz et al provide compelling evidence that dengue virus (DV) induces (1) platelet synthesis of interleukin-1b (IL-1b); (2) platelet-derived IL-1b–containing microvesicles (MVs) that increase vascular permeability; and (3) DV-triggered inflammasome activation in platelets.

  17. Molecular Basis Linking Platelet to Inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽萍

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction Blood platelets not only play an important role in hemostasis and thrombosis,but increasing evidence show that they participate in the induction of inflammation.Firstly,platelets contain and release cytokines and immune mediators.And platelets are able to modulate and regulate the function of surrounding cells by adhesion molecules or by the release of various factors.

  18. Platelets Inhibit Migration of Canine Osteosarcoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, S C; Badial, P R; Silva, R C; Lunsford, K; Bulla, C

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between platelets and tumour cells is important for tumour growth and metastasis. Thrombocytopenia or antiplatelet treatment negatively impact on cancer metastasis, demonstrating potentially important roles for platelets in tumour progression. To our knowledge, there is no information regarding the role of platelets in cancer progression in dogs. This study was designed to test whether canine platelets affected the migratory behaviour of three canine osteosarcoma cell lines and to give insights of molecular mechanisms. Intact platelets, platelet lysate and platelet releasate inhibited the migration of canine osteosarcoma cell lines. Addition of blood leucocytes to the platelet samples did not alter the inhibitory effect on migration. Platelet treatment also significantly downregulated the transcriptional levels of SNAI2 and TWIST1 genes. The interaction between canine platelets or molecules released during platelet activation and these tumour cell lines inhibits their migration, which suggests that canine platelets might antagonize metastasis of canine osteosarcoma. This effect is probably due to, at least in part, downregulation of genes related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Platelet regulating properties of insulin revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrade Ferreira, I. (Irlando)

    2005-01-01

    Disturbances in platelet responsiveness in diabetes mellitus (DM) lead to platelet-dependent complications in the vasculature. Our studies showed that insulin inhibits platelet activation by inhibiting ADP- and thrombin-induced Ca2+ levels. Ca2+ is under control of cAMP that is a potent endogenous p

  20. Image analysis of blood platelets adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krízová, P; Rysavá, J; Vanícková, M; Cieslar, P; Dyr, J E

    2003-01-01

    Adhesion of blood platelets is one of the major events in haemostatic and thrombotic processes. We studied adhesion of blood platelets on fibrinogen and fibrin dimer sorbed on solid support material (glass, polystyrene). Adhesion was carried on under static and dynamic conditions and measured as percentage of the surface covered with platelets. Within a range of platelet counts in normal and in thrombocytopenic blood we observed a very significant decrease in platelet adhesion on fibrin dimer with bounded active thrombin with decreasing platelet count. Our results show the imperative use of platelet poor blood preparations as control samples in experiments with thrombocytopenic blood. Experiments carried on adhesive surfaces sorbed on polystyrene showed lower relative inaccuracy than on glass. Markedly different behaviour of platelets adhered on the same adhesive surface, which differed only in support material (glass or polystyrene) suggest that adhesion and mainly spreading of platelets depends on physical quality of the surface. While on polystyrene there were no significant differences between fibrin dimer and fibrinogen, adhesion measured on glass support material markedly differed between fibrin dimer and fibrinogen. We compared two methods of thresholding in image analysis of adhered platelets. Results obtained by image analysis of spreaded platelets showed higher relative inaccuracy than results obtained by image analysis of platelets centres and aggregates.

  1. Human platelet antigen genotyping of platelet donors in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzoni, J; Fagundes, I S; Lunardi, L W; Lindenau, J D-R; Gil, B C; Jobim, M; Dias, V G; Merzoni, L; Sekine, L; Onsten, T G H; Jobim, L F

    2015-10-01

    Human platelet antigens (HPA) are immunogenic structures that result from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) leading to single amino acid substitutions. This study sought to determine the allele and genotype frequencies of HPA-1, HPA-2, HPA-3, HPA-4, HPA-5 and HPA-15 in platelet donors from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil, and compare their allele frequencies to those observed in other populations. HPA genotyping was performed by PCR-SSP method. The study sample comprised 201 platelet donors (167 Caucasians and 34 non-Caucasians). Allele 'a' was that most commonly found for HPA-1 to 5 in both groups. The HPA-15ab genotype predominated over homozygous genotypes of this system. Fisher's exact test revealed statistically significant differences for the HPA-5 system, with a greater prevalence of the HPA-5b allele in non-Caucasians. The neighbour-joining method and principal components analysis revealed genetic proximity between our Caucasian group and European populations. We conclude that the allele frequencies of HPA-1 to 5 and HPA-15 found in our Caucasian sample are similar to those reported for European populations. These findings corroborate the ethnic makeup of the population of RS. The higher frequency of the HPA-5b allele found in the non-Caucasian group of our sample suggests the possibility of allosensitization in patients who receive platelet transfusions from genetically incompatible donors.

  2. Platelet count and platelet indices in women with preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlSheeha MA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Muneera A AlSheeha,1 Rafi S Alaboudi,1 Mohammad A Alghasham,1 Javed Iqbal,2 Ishag Adam1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Medicine, Qassim University, Buriadah, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Maternity and Children’s Hospital, Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: Although the exact pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not completely understood, the utility of different platelets indices can be utilized to predict preeclampsia.Objective: To compare platelet indices, namely platelet count (PC, mean platelet volume (MPV, platelet distribution width (PDW, and PC to MPV ratio in women with preeclampsia compared with healthy controls.Setting: Qassim Hospital, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Design: A case–control study. Sixty preeclamptic women were the cases and an equal number of healthy pregnant women were the controls.Results: There was no significant difference in age, parity, and body mass index between the study groups. Sixteen and 44 of the cases were severe and mild preeclampsia, respectively. There was no significant difference in PDW and MPV between the preeclamptic and control women. Both PC and PC to MPV ratios were significantly lower in the women with preeclampsia compared with the controls. There was no significant difference in the PC, PDW, MPV, and PC to MPV ratio when women with mild and severe preeclampsia were compared. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, the PC cutoff was 248.0×103/µL for diagnosis of preeclampsia (P=0.019; the area under the ROC curve was 62.4%. Binary regression suggests that women with PC <248.010×103/µL were at higher risk of preeclampsia (odds ratio =2.2, 95% confidence interval =1.08–4.6, P=0.03. The PC/MPV cutoff was 31.2 for diagnosis of preeclampsia (P=0.035, the area under the ROC curve was 62.2%.Conclusion: PC <248.010×103/µL and PC to MPV ratio 31.2 are valid predictors of preeclampsia. Keywords: preeclampsia, platelets, PDW, mean platelet

  3. Platelet count and platelet indices in women with preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSheeha, Muneera A; Alaboudi, Rafi S; Alghasham, Mohammad A; Iqbal, Javed; Adam, Ishag

    2016-01-01

    Although the exact pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not completely understood, the utility of different platelets indices can be utilized to predict preeclampsia. To compare platelet indices, namely platelet count (PC), mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), and PC to MPV ratio in women with preeclampsia compared with healthy controls. Qassim Hospital, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A case-control study. Sixty preeclamptic women were the cases and an equal number of healthy pregnant women were the controls. There was no significant difference in age, parity, and body mass index between the study groups. Sixteen and 44 of the cases were severe and mild preeclampsia, respectively. There was no significant difference in PDW and MPV between the preeclamptic and control women. Both PC and PC to MPV ratios were significantly lower in the women with preeclampsia compared with the controls. There was no significant difference in the PC, PDW, MPV, and PC to MPV ratio when women with mild and severe preeclampsia were compared. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, the PC cutoff was 248.0×10(3)/µL for diagnosis of pre-eclampsia (P=0.019; the area under the ROC curve was 62.4%). Binary regression suggests that women with PC preeclampsia (odds ratio =2.2, 95% confidence interval =1.08-4.6, P=0.03). The PC/MPV cutoff was 31.2 for diagnosis of preeclampsia (P=0.035, the area under the ROC curve was 62.2%). PC preeclampsia.

  4. Pooled platelet concentrates: an alternative to single donor apheresis platelets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietersz, R N I

    2009-10-01

    Three types of platelet concentrates (PC) are compared: PC either processed with the platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or the Buffy coat (BC) method from whole blood units and PC obtained by apheresis. Leuko-reduction (LR) pre-storage is advocated to improve quality of the PC during storage and reduce adverse reactions in recipients. Standardization of methods allow preparation of PC with comparable yields of approximately 400 x 10(9) platelets in pooled non-LR-PRP, approximately 370 x 10(9) in pooled LR-BC-PC and in LR apheresis PC the number of platelets can be targeted on 350 x 10(9) or more with devices of various manufacturers. While viral transmission can be prevented by outstanding laboratory tests, the risk of bacterial contamination should be reduced by improved arm disinfection, deviation of the first 20-30 ml of blood and culture or rapid detection assays of the PC pre-issue. In a large prospective multicenter trial no significant difference was observed between cultures of apheresis PC (n = 15,198): 0.09% confirmed positive units versus 0.06% in pooled BC-PC (n = 37,045), respectively. Though platelet activation as measured by CD62 expression may differ in vitro in PC obtained with various apheresis equipment, and also between PC processed with the two whole blood methods there is scarce literature about the clinical impact of these findings. In conclusion the final products of LR-PC derived from whole blood or obtained by apheresis can be comparable, provided the critical steps of the processing method are identified and covered and the process is in control.

  5. Effect of ionizing radiation on platelet function in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalovidouris, A.E.; Papayannis, A.G. (Evangelismos Hospital, Athens (Greece))

    1981-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on platelet function was investigated in vitro. Platelet-rich plasma (300x10/sup 9//l) was irradiated with doses of 1, 4, 10, 20 and 50 Gy. Platelet function tests were performed on both irradiated and control (non-irradiated) platelet samples. The platelet function tests were (1) platelet aggregation by ADP (1, 2, 4 ..mu..mol final concentration), adrenaline and collagen, (2) ADP-release from platelets, (3) clot retraction and (4) platelet factor-3 availability. It was found that roentgen irradiation of platelets in vitro did not affect these platelet function tests.

  6. Effects of astaxanthin on blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation in hyperlipidemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zu-Yue; Shan, Wei-Guang; Wang, Shen-Feng; Hu, Meng-Mei; Chen, Yan

    2017-12-01

    Astaxanthin (ASTX) is a xanthophyll carotenoid that reduces hemostasis in hyperlipidemic organisms. Its antihemostatic mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of ASTX on coagulation, the fibrinolytic system and platelet aggregation were investigated in hyperlipidemic rats. Different doses of ASTX (5, 10 and 30 mg/kg/day, p.o.) were administered for four weeks to high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Serum lipid and lipoprotein levels were measured with an automatic biochemical analyzer. The prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and maximum platelet aggregation rate (MAR) were determined by a coagulation analyzer. The activities of the tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), as well as the levels of thromboxane B(2) [TXB(2)], 6-keto prostaglandin F(1α) [6-keto-PGF(1α)] and platelet granule membrane protein (GMP-140), were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Gene and protein expression levels were analyzed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. ASTX (30 mg/kg) treatment in hyperlipidemic rats reduced serum TG (0.58 ± 0.14 versus 1.12 ± 0.24 mmol/L), serum TC (1.77 ± 0.22 versus 2.24 ± 0.21 mmol/L), serum LDL-C (1.13 ± 0.32 versus 2.04 ± 0.48 mmol/L), serum MDA (69%), plasma MAR (55%), serum TXB2/6-keto-PGF1α (34%) and serum GMP-140 levels (25%), plasma PAI-1 activity (48%) and downregulated the mRNA (33%) and protein (23%) expression of aorta eNOS, the mRNA (79%) and protein (72%) expression levels of aorta PAI-1. However, ASTX (30 mg/kg/d) treatment increased serum SOD activity (2.1 fold), serum GPx activity (1.8 fold), plasma PT (1.3 fold), plasma APTT (1.7 fold), serum NO (1.4-fold), serum 6-keto-PGF1α (1.3 fold). ASTX reduced blood coagulation and platelet aggregation and promoted fibrinolytic activity in hyperlipidemic rats

  7. Platelets: crossroads of immunity and hemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenne, Craig N

    2014-07-31

    In this issue of Blood, Koupenova and colleagues report that platelets express functional TOLL-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and contribute to host survival during viral infection. Through a series of experiments utilizing mice deficient for TLR7 together with adoptive transfer of wild-type platelets, Koupenova et al demonstrate that platelets specifically respond to viral analogs and intact virus, leading to platelet activation and binding to various leukocyte subsets. Perhaps most importantly, this platelet activation appears absolutely essential for host survival during infection with some viral pathogens such as encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV).

  8. Platelets: bridging hemostasis, inflammation, and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenne, C N; Urrutia, R; Kubes, P

    2013-06-01

    Although the function of platelets in the maintenance of hemostasis has been studied in great detail, more recent evidence has highlighted a central role for platelets in the host inflammatory and immune responses. Platelets by virtue of their large numbers and their ability to rapidly release a broad spectrum of immunomodulatory cytokines, chemokines, and other mediators act as circulating sentinels. Upon detection of a pathogen, platelets quickly activate and begin to drive the ensuing inflammatory response. Platelets have the ability to directly modulate the activity of neutrophils (phagocytosis, oxidative burst), endothelium (adhesion molecule and chemokine expression), and lymphocytes. Due to their diverse array of adhesion molecules and preformed chemokines, platelets are able to adhere to leukocytes and facilitate their recruitment to sites of tissue damage or infection. Furthermore, platelets directly participate in the capture and sequestration of pathogens within the vasculature. Platelet-neutrophil interactions are known to induce the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in response to either bacterial or viral infection, and platelets have been shown to internalize pathogens, sequestering them in engulfment vacuoles. Finally, emerging data indicate that platelets also participate in the host immune response by directly killing infected cells. This review will highlight the central role platelets play in the initiation and modulation of the host inflammatory and immune responses.

  9. Calpain Activator Dibucaine Induces Platelet Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-dependent calpains are a family of cysteine proteases that have been demonstrated to play key roles in both platelet glycoprotein Ibα shedding and platelet activation and altered calpain activity is associated with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Calpain activators induce apoptosis in several types of nucleated cells. However, it is not clear whether calpain activators induce platelet apoptosis. Here we show that the calpain activator dibucaine induced several platelet apoptotic events including depolarization of the mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential, up-regulation of Bax and Bak, down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, caspase-3 activation and phosphatidylserine exposure. Platelet apoptosis elicited by dibucaine was not affected by the broad spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001. Furthermore, dibucaine did not induce platelet activation as detected by P-selectin expression and PAC-1 binding. However, platelet aggregation induced by ristocetin or α-thrombin, platelet adhesion and spreading on von Willebrand factor were significantly inhibited in platelets treated with dibucaine. Taken together, these data indicate that dibucaine induces platelet apoptosis and platelet dysfunction.

  10. Platelet-mediated cytotoxicity and its enhancement by platelet activating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykovskaya, S N; Bolvacheva, A V; Kiselevsky, M V; Khaylenko, V A; Bykovsky, A F

    1991-01-01

    Platelet cytotoxicity was assessed in 70 cancer patients with various tumor localizations and in 30 normal donors. The data presented reveal that the ACL cell line displays the highest sensitivity to platelet cytotoxicity. Using the ACL cells, we discovered that platelets from oncological patients and normal donors display comparable cytotoxicity. The level of platelet lytic activity is irrelevant to tumor localisation; however, it appears to be dependent on the stage of tumor growth. Incubation of platelets, both from donors and patients, with PAF (concentration range 10 pM to 10 nM) results in a significant rise of the killing activity of platelets. PAF induces greater cytotoxicity enhancement for platelets with lower initial activity, this pattern appearing to be the specific feature of the PAF mediated effect. Hence, platelets can be considered as effector cells relevant to antitumor immunity; PAF-mediated enhancement of platelet cytotoxicity can appear to be useful in the search for new immunotherapeutic drugs.

  11. Platelet function tests: a comparative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paniccia R

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rita Paniccia,1,2 Raffaella Priora,1,2 Agatina Alessandrello Liotta,2 Rosanna Abbate1,2 1Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Thrombosis Center, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 2Department of Heart and Vessels, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Florence, Italy Abstract: In physiological hemostasis a prompt recruitment of platelets on the vessel damage prevents the bleeding by the rapid formation of a platelet plug. Qualitative and/or quantitative platelet defects promote bleeding, whereas the high residual reactivity of platelets in patients on antiplatelet therapies moves forward thromboembolic complications. The biochemical mechanisms of the different phases of platelet activation – adhesion, shape change, release reaction, and aggregation – have been well delineated, whereas their complete translation into laboratory assays has not been so fulfilled. Laboratory tests of platelet function, such as bleeding time, light transmission platelet aggregation, lumiaggregometry, impedance aggregometry on whole blood, and platelet activation investigated by flow cytometry, are traditionally utilized for diagnosing hemostatic disorders and managing patients with platelet and hemostatic defects, but their use is still limited to specialized laboratories. To date, a point-of-care testing (POCT dedicated to platelet function, using pertinent devices much simpler to use, has now become available (ie, PFA-100, VerifyNow System, Multiplate Electrode Aggregometry [MEA]. POCT includes new methodologies which may be used in critical clinical settings and also in general laboratories because they are rapid and easy to use, employing whole blood without the necessity of sample processing. Actually, these different platelet methodologies for the evaluation of inherited and acquired bleeding disorders and/or for monitoring antiplatelet therapies are spreading and the study of platelet function is strengthening. In this review, well

  12. Platelet Function Tests in Bleeding Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassila, Riitta

    2016-04-01

    Functional disorders of platelets can involve any aspect of platelet physiology, with many different effects or outcomes. These include platelet numbers (thrombocytosis or thrombocytopenia); changes in platelet production or destruction, or capture to the liver (Ashwell receptor); altered adhesion to vascular injury sites and/or influence on hemostasis and wound healing; and altered activation or receptor functions, shape change, spreading and release reactions, procoagulant and antifibrinolytic activity. Procoagulant membrane alterations, and generation of thrombin and fibrin, also affect platelet aggregation. The above parameters can all be studied, but standardization and quality control of assay methods have been limited despite several efforts. Only after a comprehensive clinical bleeding assessment, including family history, information on drug use affecting platelets, and exclusion of coagulation factor, and tissue deficits, should platelet function testing be undertaken to confirm an abnormality. Current diagnostic tools include blood cell counts, platelet characteristics according to the cell counter parameters, peripheral blood smear, exclusion of pseudothrombocytopenia, whole blood aggregometry (WBA) or light transmission aggregometry (LTA) in platelet-rich plasma, luminescence, platelet function analysis (PFA-100) for platelet adhesion and deposition to collagen cartridges under blood flow, and finally transmission electron microscopy to exclude rare structural defects leading to functional deficits. The most validated test panels are included in WBA, LTA, and PFA. Because platelets are isolated from their natural environment, many simplifications occur, as circulating blood and interaction with vascular wall are omitted in these assays. The target to reach a highly specific platelet disorder diagnosis in routine clinical management can be exhaustive, unless needed for genetic counseling. The elective overall assessment of platelet function disorder

  13. Homocysteine is a novel risk factor for suboptimal response of blood platelets to acetylsalicylic acid in coronary artery disease: a randomized multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolczak, Kamil; Kamysz, Wojciech; Karafova, Anna; Drzewoski, Jozef; Watala, Cezary

    2013-08-01

    The incomplete inhibition of platelet function by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), despite the patients are receiving therapeutic doses of the drug ('aspirin-resistance'), is caused by numbers of risk factors. In this study we verified the idea that plasma homocysteine (Hcy) contributes to 'aspirin-resistance' in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A cross-designed randomized controlled intervention study has been performed (126 CAD pts incl. 26 with T2DM) to determine whether increasing ASA dose from 75mg to 150mg daily may result in the increased antiplatelet effect, in the course of four-week treatment. Platelet response to collagen (coll) or arachidonic acid (AA) was monitored with whole blood aggregometry, plasma thromboxane (Tx), and Hcy levels were determined immunochemically. The ASA-mediated reductions in platelet response to coll (by 12±3%) or AA (by 10±3%) and in plasma Tx (by 20±9%; p<0.02 or less) were significantly greater for higher ASA dose and significantly correlated with plasma Hcy, which was significantly lower in "good" ASA responders compared to "poor" responders (p<0.001). Higher plasma Hcy appeared a significant risk factor for blood platelet refractoriness to low ASA dose (OR=1.11; ±95%CI: 1.02-1.20, p<0.02, adjusted to age, sex and CAD risk factors). Hcy diminished in vitro antiplatelet effect of low ASA concentration and augmented platelet aggregation (by up to 62% (p<0.005) for coll and up to 15% (p<0.005) for AA), whereas its acetyl derivative acted oppositely. Otherwise, Hcy intensified antiplatelet action of high ASA. Hyperhomocysteinaemia may be a novel risk factor for the suppressed blood platelet response to ASA, and homocysteine may act as a specific sensitizer of blood platelets to some agonists. While homocysteine per se acts as a proaggregatory agent to blood platelets, its acetylated form is able to reverse this effect. Thus, these findings reveal a possibly new

  14. In vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Platelets are routinely isolated from whole blood and stored in plasma for 5 days. This study was done to assess the in vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution at 22°C. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 30 blood donors of both sex in State Blood Bank, C S M Medical University, Lucknow. Random donor platelets were prepared by the platelet-rich plasma method. Whole blood (350 ml was collected in anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine triple blood bags. Random donor platelets were stored for 7 days at 22°C in platelet incubators and agitators with and without additive solution. Results: Platelet swirling was present in all the units at 22°C on day 7 with no evidence of bacterial contamination. Comparison of the mean values of platelet count, platelet factor 3, lactate dehydrogenase, pH, glucose and platelet aggregation showed no significant difference in additive solution while platelet factor 3, glucose and platelet aggregation showed significant difference (P < 0.001 on day 7 without additive solution at 22°C. Conclusion: Our study infers that the platelet viability and aggregation were the best maintained within normal levels on day 7 of storage in platelet additive solution at 22°C. Thus, we may conclude that in vitro storage of random donor platelets with an extended shelf life of 7 days using platelet additive solution may be advocated to improve the inventory of platelets.

  15. Platelet receptors and patient responses: The contributions of Professor Stan Heptinstall to platelet research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemetson, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    Stan Heptinstall's contributions to platelet research covered organising meetings at the national and European level as well as starting and maintaining the journal "Platelets". The major part of his research addressed problems of inhibition of platelet receptors and the effects of this on patient health. In particular, the effects of P2Y12 inhibitors on patients with acute cardiovascular problems were a major focus. Other studies included the effects of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) extracts on platelets, of direct anti-IIb/IIIa receptor (αIIbβ3) inhibitors and of prostanoids on platelet function. Recently, methods for assessing the effectiveness of platelet inhibition were investigated.

  16. Platelet count and platelet indices in women with preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    AlSheeha MA; Alaboudi RS; Alghasham MA; Iqbal J; Adam I

    2016-01-01

    Muneera A AlSheeha,1 Rafi S Alaboudi,1 Mohammad A Alghasham,1 Javed Iqbal,2 Ishag Adam1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Medicine, Qassim University, Buriadah, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Maternity and Children’s Hospital, Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: Although the exact pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not completely understood, the utility of different platelets indices can be utilized to predict preeclampsia.Obj...

  17. Pathogen-Reduced, Platelet Additive Solution, Extended Stored Platelets (PREPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    associated sepsis remains the principal lethal risk associated with platelet transfusion. Cold storage (4°C) is known to reduce post transfusion...and no residual radiation is detectable . *P-selectin samples will be prepped on end of storage day and batch tested. **Bacterial Culture sample...temperature controlled room until such time as they have no detectable residual radiation. This is generally about 3-4 months. At that point they are

  18. 当归对人体血栓素A2与前列环素平衡影响的研究现状%Present Status of study of Chinses Angelica Root on TXA2-PGI2 Balance Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓君; 黄文增; 张步延

    2000-01-01

    @@ 血小板(blood platelet cell,BPC)与血管壁分别合成和释放两种对BPC聚集和血管舒缩有作用的血栓素A2(thromboxaneA2,TXA2)与前列环素(prostacycline,PGI2).TXA2主要产生于BPC,近年来发现鼠血管内皮细胞亦能产生TXA2[1],具有收缩血管和促BPC聚集作用.PGI2主要产生于脂肪组织、动脉、静脉及毛细血管内细胞,可扩张血管,抑制BPC聚集.在正常情况下,TXA2和PGI2在体内保持一定的平衡,这两种生理活性物质的相对比值在维护血管张力,血管壁完整性以及调节BPC功能等方面,起着重要作用.任何因素造成两者平衡失调均可引起血管疾病[2],导致许多严重的病理变化[3].因此,应用抑制TXA2合成,促进PGI2合成,维持二者平衡的药物,将对防治心脑血管疾病甚为有益[4],亦为临床开展药物干预TXA2-PGI2的研究提供了广阔的前景.本文拟就中药当归对TXA2-PGI2平衡影响的研究现状综述如下.

  19. Detection of microbial contamination in platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Tracy L.; Leparc, German; Huffman, Debra E.; Gennaccaro, Angela L.; Garcia-Lopez, Alicia; Klungness, Greta; Stephans, Christie; Garcia-Rubio, Luis H.

    2005-03-01

    In the United States, approximately 100 patients develop fatal sepsis associated with platelet transfusions every year. Current culture methods take 24-48 hours to acquire results, which in turn decrease the shelf life of platelets. Many of the microorganisms that contaminate platelets can replicate easily at room temperature, which is the necessary storage temperature to keep platelets functional. Therefore, there is a need for in-situ quality control assessment of the platelet quality. For this purpose, a real time spectrophotometric technique has been developed. The Spectral Acquisition Processing Detection (SAPD) method, comprised of a UV-vis spectrophotometer and modeling algorithms, is a rapid method that can be performed prior to platelet transfusion to decrease the risk of bacterial infection to patients. The SAPD method has been used to determine changes in cell suspensions, based on size, shape, chemical composition and internal structure. Changes in these cell characteristics can in turn be used to determine microbial contamination, platelet aging and other physiologic changes. Detection limits of this method for platelet suspensions seeded with bacterial contaminants were identified to be less than 100 cfu/ml of sample. Bacterial counts below 1000 cfu/ml are not considered clinically significant. The SAPD method can provide real-time identification of bacterial contamination of platelets affording patients an increased level of safety without causing undue strain on laboratory budgets or personnel while increasing the time frame that platelets can be used by dramatically shortening contaminant detection time.

  20. Influence of Oxidative Stress on Stored Platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Manasa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet storage and its availability for transfusion are limited to 5-6 days. Oxidative stress (OS is one of the causes for reduced efficacy and shelf-life of platelets. The studies on platelet storage have focused on improving the storage conditions by altering platelet storage solutions, temperature, and materials. Nevertheless, the role of OS on platelet survival during storage is still unclear. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the influence of storage on platelets. Platelets were stored for 12 days at 22°C. OS markers such as aggregation, superoxides, reactive oxygen species, glucose, pH, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and antioxidant enzymes were assessed. OS increased during storage as indicated by increments in aggregation, superoxides, pH, conjugate dienes, and superoxide dismutase and decrements in glucose and catalase. Thus, platelets could endure OS till 6 days during storage, due to the antioxidant defense system. An evident increase in OS was observed from day 8 of storage, which can diminish the platelet efficacy. The present study provides an insight into the gradual changes occurring during platelet storage. This lays the foundation towards new possibilities of employing various antioxidants as additives in storage solutions.

  1. Effects of Physical (Inactivity on Platelet Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Heber

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As platelet activation is closely related to the liberation of growth factors and inflammatory mediators, platelets play a central role in the development of CVD. Virtually all cardiovascular risk factors favor platelet hyperreactivity and, accordingly, also physical (inactivity affects platelet function. Within this paper, we will summarize and discuss the current knowledge on the impact of acute and habitual exercise on platelet function. Although there are apparent discrepancies regarding the reported effects of acute, strenuous exercise on platelet activation, a deeper analysis of the available literature reveals that the applied exercise intensity and the subjects’ cardiorespiratory fitness represent critical determinants for the observed effects. Consideration of these factors leads to the summary that (i acute, strenuous exercise can lead to platelet activation, (ii regular physical activity and/or physical fitness diminish or prevent platelet activation in response to acute exercise, and (iii habitual physical activity and/or physical fitness also favorably modulate platelet function at physical rest. Notably, these effects of exercise on platelet function show obvious similarities to the well-recognized relation between exercise and the risk for cardiovascular events where vigorous exercise transiently increases the risk for myocardial infarction and a physically active lifestyle dramatically reduces cardiovascular mortality.

  2. Trehalose lyophilized platelets for wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietramaggiori, Giorgio; Kaipainen, Arja; Ho, David; Orser, Cindy; Pebley, Walter; Rudolph, Alan; Orgill, Dennis P

    2007-01-01

    Fresh platelet preparations are utilized to treat a wide variety of wounds, although storage limitations and mixed results have hampered their clinical use. We hypothesized that concentrated lyophilized and reconstituted platelet preparations, preserved with trehalose, maintain and possibly enhance fresh platelets' ability to improve wound healing. We studied the ability of a single dose of trehalose lyophilized and reconstituted platelets to enhance wound healing when topically applied on full-thickness wounds in the genetically diabetic mouse. We compared these results with the application of multiple doses of fresh platelet preparations and trehalose lyophilized and reconstituted platelets as well as multiple doses of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and wounds left untreated. Trehalose lyophilized and reconstituted platelets, in single and multiple applications, multiple applications of fresh platelets and multiple applications of VEGF increased granulation tissue deposition, vascularity, and proliferation when compared with untreated wounds, as assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Wounds treated with multiple doses of VEGF and a single dose of freeze-dried platelets reached 90% closure faster than wounds left untreated. A single administration of trehalose lyophilized and reconstituted platelet preparations enhanced diabetic wound healing, therefore representing a promising strategy for the treatment of nonhealing wounds.

  3. Small RNAs as potential platelet therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Leonard C; Bray, Paul F

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 21-23 nucleotide RNAs that regulate more than 60% of mammalian protein coding genes. miRNAs play critical roles in hematopoiesis and megakaryocyte function and development. Platelets, in addition to possessing functional miRNA processing machinery, have miRNA levels that have been correlated with platelet reactivity, and these miRNAs have been shown to target mRNAs that encode proteins that alter platelet function. There are potential uses of platelet miRNA as biomarkers and therapeutic agents. Due to the ability of platelets to release miRNA-containing microparticles at sites of activation, including angiogenic regions, tumors, and atherosclerotic plaques, there is the possibility of engineering platelets to deliver miRNA-based therapies to these sites. Cellpreferential expression of miRNAs could be exploited to restrict transgene expression in hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy to the desired lineage, including megakaryocytes and platelets. Finally, manipulation of gene expression in stored platelets may allow more effective platelet storage. Although much work remains to be done, there is great potential in miRNA-based platelet therapies.

  4. Platelet MicroRNAs: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Neetu; Sarachana, Tewarit; Vu, Long; Becker, Kevin G; Wood, William H; Zhang, Yongqing; Atreya, Chintamani D

    2015-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short ~22-nucleotide noncoding RNA that have been found to influence the expression of many genes and cellular processes by either repressing translation or degrading messenger RNA transcripts. Platelet miRNA expression has been shown to be perturbed during ex vivo storage of platelets and in platelet-associated disorders. Although bioinformatics-based miRNA target predictions have been established, direct experimental validation of the role of miRNAs in platelet biology has been rather slow. Target prediction studies are, nonetheless, valuable in directing the design of appropriate experiments to test specific miRNA:messenger RNA interactions relevant to the underlying mechanisms of platelet function in general and in disease as well as in ex vivo storage-associated "storage lesions," a collective term used to include physiologic, biochemical, and morphologic changes that occur in stored platelets. This brief review will focus on emerging human platelet miRNA studies to emphasize their potential role relevant to transfusion medicine field in terms of regulating platelet signaling pathways, markers of platelet associated disorders, and remote impactors of gene expression (intercellular biomodulators) as well as potential platelet quality markers of storage and pathogen reduction treatments.

  5. Understanding platelet function through signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Alan H; Song, Seng; Crow, Andrew R

    2003-01-01

    Platelets are activated by a number of stimuli resulting in the expression and/or activation of surface receptors, secretion of vasoactive substances, adhesion, aggregation, and finally thrombus formation. These events are propagated by a process known as transmembrane signaling, which relays the activating signal from the platelet membrane (eg, von Willebrand Factor binding to glycoprotein Ib) to the inside of the platelet which then serves to activate the platelet via a cascade of biochemical interactions. Inhibition of these transmembrane signaling molecules with a variety of available inhibitors or antagonists can in many cases prevent the platelet from becoming activated. An awareness of the mechanisms involved in platelet transmembrane signaling and the recent availability of new reagents to inhibit signaling may provide us with additional means to prevent platelet activation and perhaps even ameliorate the platelet storage lesion. This review will provide an introduction to the field of platelet transmembrane signaling and give an overview of some of the platelet signaling mechanisms that are relevant to transfusion medicine. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  6. The platelet glycoprotein thrombospondin binds specifically to sulfated glycolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D D; Haverstick, D M; Dixit, V M; Frazier, W A; Santoro, S A; Ginsburg, V

    1985-08-05

    The human platelet glycoprotein thrombospondin (TSP) binds specifically and with high affinity to sulfatides (galactosylceramide-I3-sulfate). Binding of 125I-TSP to lipids from sheep and human erythrocytes and human platelets resolved on thin layer chromatograms indicates that sulfatides are the only lipids in the membrane which bind TSP. Binding to less than 2 ng of sulfatide could be detected. TSP failed to bind to other purified lipids including cholesterol 3-sulfate, phospholipids, neutral glycolipids, and gangliosides. Binding of 125I-TSP was inhibited by unlabeled TSP, by low pH, and by reduction of intersubunit disulfide bonds with dithiothreitol. A monoclonal antibody against TSP (A2.5), which inhibits hemagglutination and agglutination of fixed activated platelets by TSP, strongly inhibited TSP binding to sulfatides. A second monoclonal antibody (C6.7), which inhibits hemagglutination and aggregation of thrombin-activated live platelets, weakly inhibited sulfatide binding. Binding was inhibited by high ionic strength and by some monosaccharide sulfates including methyl-alpha-D-GlcNAc-3-sulfate. Neutral sugars did not inhibit. Fucoidan, a sulfated fucan, strongly inhibited binding with 50% inhibition at 0.3 micrograms/ml fucoidan. Other sulfated polysaccharides including heparin and dextran sulfates were good inhibitors, whereas hyaluronic acid and keratan sulfate were very weak.

  7. Platelet destruction in autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura: kinetics and clearance of indium-111-labeled autologous platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, J.R.; Ballem, P.J.; Gernsheimer, T.; Cerqueira, M.; Slichter, S.J.

    1989-05-01

    Using autologous /sup 111/In-labeled platelets, platelet kinetics and the sites of platelet destruction were assessed in 16 normal subjects (13 with and three without spleens), in 17 studies of patients with primary autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (AITP), in six studies of patients with secondary AITP, in ten studies of patients with AITP following splenectomy, and in five thrombocytopenic patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. In normal subjects, the spleen accounted for 24 +/- 4% of platelet destruction and the liver for 15 +/- 2%. Untreated patients with primary AITP had increased splenic destruction (40 +/- 14%, p less than 0.001) but not hepatic destruction (13 +/- 5%). Compared with untreated patients, prednisone treated patients did not have significantly different spleen and liver platelet sequestration. Patients with secondary AITP had similar platelet counts, platelet survivals, and increases in splenic destruction of platelets as did patients with primary AITP. In contrast, patients with myelodysplastic syndromes had a normal pattern of platelet destruction. In AITP patients following splenectomy, the five nonresponders all had a marked increase (greater than 45%) in liver destruction compared to five responders (all less than 40%). Among all patients with primary or secondary AITP, there was an inverse relationship between the percent of platelets destroyed in the liver plus spleen and both the platelet count (r = 0.75, p less than 0.001) and the platelet survival (r = 0.86, p less than 0.001). In a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, total liver plus spleen platelet destruction, the platelet survival and the platelet turnover were all significant independent predictors of the platelet count. Thus platelet destruction is shifted to the spleen in primary and secondary AITP. Failure of splenectomy is associated with a marked elevation in liver destruction.

  8. Thromboxane A{sub 2} receptor signaling promotes liver tissue repair after toxic injury through the enhancement of macrophage recruitment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minamino, Tsutomu [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Departments of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Ito, Yoshiya [Departments of Surgery, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Ohkubo, Hirotoki [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Departments of Surgery, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Hosono, Kanako; Suzuki, Tatsunori [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Sato, Takehito [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Departments of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Ae, Takako; Shibuya, Akitaka [Departments of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Sakagami, Hiroyuki [Departments of Anatomy, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Narumiya, Shuh [Department of Pharmacology, Kyoto University School of Medicine, Kyoto, 606-8315 (Japan); Koizumi, Wasaburo [Departments of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Majima, Masataka, E-mail: mmajima@med.kitasato-u.ac.jp [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    It is thought that thromboxane A{sub 2} (TxA{sub 2}) contributes to the progression of inflammation during acute hepatic injury; however, it is still unknown whether TxA{sub 2} is involved in liver repair. The objective of the present study was to examine the role of TxA{sub 2} receptor (TP) signaling in liver injury and repair in response to toxic injury. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) was used to induce liver injury in TP knockout (TP{sup −/−}) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. In WT mice, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and the size of the necrotic area peaked at 24 and 48 h, respectively, and then declined. In TP{sup −/−} mice, the changes in ALT levels were similar to WT mice, but liver regeneration was impaired as evidenced by remained elevated levels of hepatic necrosis and by delayed hepatocyte proliferation, which was associated with the reduced expression of growth factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). In TP{sup −/−} mice, the accumulation of hepatic CD11b{sup +}/F4/80{sup +} macrophages in injured livers was attenuated, and the hepatic expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) and its receptor, the C―C chemokine receptor (CCR2), was reduced compared to WT. Additionally, the application of the TP receptor agonist, U-46619, enhanced the expression of MCP-1/CCL2 and CCR2 in peritoneal macrophages, which was associated with increased levels of IL-6, TNFα and HGF. These results suggested that TP receptor signaling facilitates liver recovery following CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatotoxicity by affecting the expression of hepatotrophic growth factors, and through the recruitment of macrophages mediated by MCP-1/CCL2-CCR2 expression. -- Highlights: ► TP enhances liver regeneration by CCl{sub 4}. ► TP accumulates macrophages. ► TP up-regulates MCP-1.

  9. STABILIZATION OF STANDARD PLATELET CONCENTRATES AND MINIMIZATION OF THE PLATELET STORAGE LESION BY A PROSTACYCLIN ANALOG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ELIAS, M; HEETHUIS, A; BOM, [No Value; BLOM, N; MCSHINE, RL; HALIE, MR; SIBINGA, CTS

    Platelet concentrates were pretreated with a stable synthetic prostacyclin analogue (Iloprost) at two different concentrations before the second centrifugation step (pelleting step) of preparation. This resulted in loss. of platelet sensitivity to aggregating agents. To mimic the situation after

  10. Mean platelet volume in acute rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Ahmet; Aypar, Ebru; Odabas, Dursun

    2013-01-01

    Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is still an endemic disease, especially among school-aged children in developing countries. Mean platelet volume (MPV), which is commonly used as a measure of platelet size, indicates the rate of platelet production and platelet activation. We aimed to investigate MPV in children with ARF. The study population consisted of 40 children with ARF (32 patients with carditis and 8 patients without carditis) and 40 healthy control subjects. White blood cell (WBC) and platelet counts were significantly higher and MPV values were significantly lower in patients with ARF during the acute stage when compared to controls. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein values significantly decreased in patients with ARF after the treatment when compared to baseline, whereas MPV values increased. MPV values were negatively correlated with ESR and WBC, and platelet counts. In conclusion, during the acute stage of ARF, MPV values were lower when compared to controls.

  11. Therapeutic platelet reduction: Use in postsplenectomy thrombocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Negi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic platelet reduction is an effective modality for the reduction of platelet count in patients with treatment of extreme thrombocytosis resulting from a variety of primary and secondary causes of thrombocytosis, which may be associated with thrombotic or hemorrhagic complications of varying degrees. These cases when symptomatic fall into the ASFA Category II indication for therapeutic platelet apheresis procedure. Here, we report a case of postsplenectomy secondary thrombocytosis presenting with extremely high platelet counts and subsequent thrombosis in the shunt and successful treatment after therapeutic platelet reduction. The case is being presented to bring forth the fact that therapeutic platelet reduction is an easy procedure that gives quick and good results and also to bring to the attention of transfusion specialists an associated but as yet unreported procedural finding.

  12. Laboratory testing for platelet function disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israels, S J

    2015-05-01

    Platelet function testing is both complex and labor intensive. A stepwise approach to the evaluation of patients with suspected platelet disorders will optimize the use of laboratory resources, beginning with an appropriate clinical evaluation to determine whether the bleeding is consistent with a defect of primary hemostasis. Bleeding assessment tools, evaluation of platelet counts, and review of peripheral blood cell morphology can aid the initial assessment. For patients requiring further laboratory testing, platelet aggregometry, secretion assays, and von Willebrand factor assays are the most useful next steps and will direct further specialized testing including flow cytometry, electron microscopy, and molecular diagnostics. Guidelines and recommendations for standardizing platelet function testing, with a particular focus on light transmission aggregometry, are available and can provide a template for clinical laboratories in establishing procedures that will optimize diagnosis and assure quality results. This review outlines an approach to platelet function testing and reviews testing methods available to clinical laboratories.

  13. Differential effects of platelets and platelet inhibition by ticagrelor on TLR2- and TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tunjungputri, R.N.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Riksen, N.P.; Rongen, G.A.P.J.M.; Tacke, S.; Berg, T.N.A. van den; Fijnheer, R.; Gomes, M.E.; Dinarello, C.A.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Gasem, M.H.; Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Groot, P.G. de; Mast, Q. de

    2015-01-01

    Platelets and platelet-monocyte interaction play an important role in inflammation. Both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects of platelet inhibition have been reported in animal models. This study aimed to investigate the effect of platelets and platelet inhibition by the new P2Y12 receptor antagonist

  14. LDL oxidation by platelets propagates platelet activation via an oxidative stress-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Roberto; Bartimoccia, Simona; Nocella, Cristina; Di Santo, Serena; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Illuminati, Giulio; Lombardi, Elisabetta; Boz, Valentina; Del Ben, Maria; De Marco, Luigi; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Violi, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    Platelets generate oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) via NOX2-derived oxidative stress. We investigated if once generated by activated platelets ox-LDL can propagate platelet activation. Experiments were performed in platelets from healthy subjects (HS), hyper-cholesterolemic patients and patients with NOX2 hereditary deficiency. Agonist-stimulated platelets from HS added with LDL were associated with a dose-dependent increase of reactive oxidant species and ox-LDL. Agonist-stimulated platelets from HS added with a fixed dose of LDL (57.14 μmol/L) or added with homogenized human atherosclerotic plaque showed enhanced ox-LDL formation (approximately +50% and +30% respectively), which was lowered by a NOX2 inhibitor (approximately -35% and -25% respectively). Compared to HS, ox-LDL production was more pronounced in agonist-stimulated platelet rich plasma (PRP) from hyper-cholesterolemic patients but was almost absent in PRP from NOX2-deficient patients. Platelet aggregation and 8-iso-PGF2α-ΙΙΙ formation increased in LDL-treated washed platelets (+42% and +53% respectively) and PRP (+31% and +53% respectively). Also, LDL enhanced platelet-dependent thrombosis at arterial shear rate (+33%) but did not affect platelet activation in NOX2-deficient patients. Platelet activation by LDL was significantly inhibited by CD36 or LOX1 blocking peptides, two ox-LDL receptor antagonists, or by a NOX2 inhibitor. LDL-added platelets showed increased p38MAPK (+59%) and PKC (+51%) phosphorylation, p47(phox) translocation to platelet membrane (+34%) and NOX2 activation (+30%), which were inhibited by ox-LDL receptor antagonists. Platelets oxidize LDL, which in turn amplify platelet activation via specific ox-LDL receptors; both effects are mediated by NOX2 activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The GPIIb/IIIa antagonist eptifibatide markedly potentiates platelet-leukocyte interaction and tissue factor expression following platelet activation in whole blood in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Thomas; Zhao, Lian; Temmler, Uta; Bath, Philip; Heptinstall, Stan; Lösche, Wolfgang

    2002-11-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is the most important initiator of intravascular coagulation. Activated platelets are able to adhere to leukocytes and this heterotypic cell-cell interaction results in a CD62P-dependent TF expression on monocytes. GPIIb/IIIa antagonists are inhibitors of the common pathway of platelet aggregation and they are widely used in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing coronary interventions. As GPIIb/IIIa antagonists do not prevent platelet activation we investigated the effect a GPIIb/IIIa antagonist, eptifibatide, on the formation of platelet-leukocyte conjugates and leukocyte TF expression. Flow cytometry was used to detect conjugates and TF. When platelets in citrated human blood were stimulated for 30 min with collagen there was a increase in the number of both neutrophils and monocytes with the platelet-specific antigen CD42a, indicating the formation of platelet-neutrophil (P/N) and platelet-monocyte (P/M) conjugates. P/M formation was associated with about a 2.5-fold increase in TF expression on monocytes, whereas P/N formation changed TF expression neutrophils only by about 10%. Eptifibatide enhanced dose-dependently (0.0625-1.5 microg/ml) both collagen-induced P/M formation and monocyte TF expression. Maximum enhancement by about 60 and 120%, respectively, was observed at 0.5 microg/ml eptifibatide. In contrast, eptifibatide had only a minor effect on P/N formation and no effect on neutrophil TF expression. The augmented P/M formation and monocyte TF expression in the presence of a GPIIb/IIIa antagonist may be relevant to the poor antithrombotic efficiency of oral GPIIb/IIIa antagonists as shown in recent large clinical trials.

  16. Acetylsalicylic Acid Daily vs Acetylsalicylic Acid Every 3 Days in Healthy Volunteers: Effect on Platelet Aggregation, Gastric Mucosa, and Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Plinio Minghin Freitas; Gagliano-Jucá, Thiago; Zaminelli, Tiago; Sampaio, Marinalva Ferreira; Blackler, Rory Willian; Trevisan, Miriam da Silva; Novaes Magalhães, Antônio Frederico; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2016-07-01

    Substantial platelet inhibition was observed 3 days after a single administration of acetylsalicylic acid 81 mg to healthy volunteers. Here we investigate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) antrum concentrations and gastrointestinal symptoms in two treatment groups: one receiving losartan and acetylsalicylic acid every day and the other receiving losartan every day and acetylsalicylic acid every 3 days. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers from both sexes received either 50 mg losartan and acetylsalicylic acid 81 mg daily or 50 mg losartan and acetylsalicylic acid 81 every 3 days with placebo on the other days. Therapy was delivered for 30 days for both groups. Gastric endoscopy was performed before and after treatment period. Biopsies were collected for PGE2 quantification. Platelet function tests were carried out before and during treatment and TXB2 release on platelet rich plasma was measured. The every 3 day low-dose acetylsalicylic acid regimen produced complete inhibition of platelet aggregation compared to the daily treatment. Thromboxane B2 release was substantially abolished for both groups during treatment. There was no significant difference on the endoscopic score of both treatment groups after the 30-day treatment (P = .215). There was over 50% suppression of antrum PGE2 content on volunteers receiving acetylsalicylic acid daily (P = .0016), while for the every 3 day dose regimen there was no significant difference between pre and post-treatment antrum PGE2 dosages (P = .4193). Since PGE2 is involved in gastric healing, we understand that this new approach could be safer and as efficient as the standard daily therapy on a long-term basis.

  17. Ultrastructural changes to rabbit fibrin and platelets due to aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, E; Humphries, P

    2007-01-01

    The coagulation process, including thrombin, fibrin, as well as platelets, plays an important role in hemostasis, contributing to the general well-being of humans. Fibrin formation and platelet activation are delicate processes that are under the control of many small physiological events. Any one of these many processes may be influenced or changed by external factors, including pharmaceutical or nutritional products, e.g., the sweetener aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester). It is known that phenylalanine is present at position P(9) and aspartate at position P(10) of the alpha-chain of human fibrinogen, and plays an important role in the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin by the catalyst alpha-thrombin. The authors investigate the effect of aspartame on platelet and fibrin ultrastructure, by using the rabbit animal model and the scanning electron microscope. Animals were exposed to 34 mg/kg of aspartame 26x during a 2-month period. Aspartame-exposed fibrin networks appeared denser, with a thick matted fine fiber network covering thick major fibers. Also, the platelet aggregates appeared more granular than the globular control platelet aggregates. The authors conclude by suggesting that aspartame usage may interfere with the coagulation process and might cause delayed fibrin breakup after clot formation. They suggest this, as the fibrin networks from aspartame-exposed rabbits are more complex and dense, due to the netlike appearance of the minor, thin fibers. Aspartame usage should possibly be limited by people on anti-clotting medicine or those with prone to clot formation.

  18. The effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on platelet function in whole blood and platelet concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reikvam, Anne-Grete; Hustad, Steinar; Reikvam, Håkon; Apelseth, Torunn Oveland; Nepstad, Ina; Hervig, Tor Audun

    2012-01-01

    Several studies report that patients who are treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for depression may have increased risk of bleeding, particularly from the gastrointestinal tract. This may be related to low intraplatelet serotonin concentrations. Several blood banks do not store platelets from donors using SSRIs for transfusion, although the possible effects of SSRIs on platelet storage are not documented. We conducted a case-control pilot study of apheresis platelet concentrates prepared from donors using SSRIs (n=8) and from donors without medication (n=10). The platelet concentrates were stored for 5 days. Light transmission aggregometry (LTA), thrombelastography (TEG), and flow cytometric analyses were preformed for in vitro measurements of platelet function. Platelet function and platelet serotonin content were investigated in whole blood and in platelet concentrates stored for up to 5 days. LTA, TEG, and flow cytometric analysis of glycoprotein expression did not reveal any significant differences between the two groups. All 18 platelet concentrates performed well according to the standards set for platelet quality in relation to transfusion. Blood donors using SSRIs had significantly lower platelet serotonin compared to blood donors without medication. The results from our pilot study indicate that platelets from donors using SSRIs may be suitable for transfusion after storage for 5 days, but further laboratory and clinical studies are necessary to confirm this.

  19. Platelet aggregation and quality control of platelet concentrates produced in the Amazon Blood Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Dantas Coêlho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The study of platelet aggregation is essential to assess in vitro platelet function by different platelet activation pathways. OBJECTIVE: To assess aggregation and biochemical parameters of random platelet concentrates produced at the Fundação HEMOAM using the quality control tests defined by law. METHODS: Whole blood samples from 80 donors and the respective platelet concentrate units were tested. Platelet concentrates were tested (platelet count, aggregation and pH on days 1, 3 and 5 of storage. Additionally a leukocyte count was done only on day 1 and microbiological tests on day 5 of storage. Collagen and adenosine diphosphate were used as inducing agonists for platelet aggregation testing. RESULTS: Donor whole blood had normal aggregation (aggregation with adenosine diphosphate = 67% and with collagen = 78%. The median aggregation in platelet concentrates with adenosine diphosphate was low throughout storage (18% on day 1, 7% on day 3 and 6% on day 5 and the median aggregation with collagen was normal only on day 1 and low thereafter (54.4% on day 1, 20.5% on day 3 and 9% on day 5. CONCLUSION: Although the results were within the norms required by law, platelet concentrates had low aggregation rates. We suggest the inclusion of a functional assessment test for the quality control of platelet concentrates for a more effective response to platelet replacement therapy.

  20. Ultrastructural studies of the gray platelet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J G

    1979-05-01

    The gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is a rare inherited disorder in which peripheral blood platelets are relatively large, vacuolated, and almost devoid of cytoplasmic granulation. In the present study we have evaluated the ultrastructure and cytochemistry of platelets from 2 patients with the GPS to determine precisely which organelles are missing from their cells. The findings indicate that gray platelets contain normal numbers of mitochondria, dense bodies, peroxisomes, and lysosomes but specifically lack alpha-granules. Preliminary studies of megakaryocytes from 1 of the 2 patients suggest that the defect in granule formation may lie at the level of the Golgi zone.

  1. Identification of platelet refractoriness in oncohematologic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Aparecida Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify the occurrence and the causes of platelet refractoriness in oncohematologic patients. INTRODUCTION: Platelet refractoriness (unsatisfactory post-transfusion platelet increment is a severe problem that impairs the treatment of oncohematologic patients and is not routinely investigated in most Brazilian services. METHODS: Forty-four episodes of platelet concentrate transfusion were evaluated in 16 patients according to the following parameters: corrected count increment, clinical conditions and detection of anti-platelet antibodies by the platelet immunofluorescence test (PIFT and panel reactive antibodies against human leukocyte antigen class I (PRA-HLA. RESULTS: Of the 16 patients evaluated (median age: 53 years, nine (56% were women, seven of them with a history of pregnancy. An unsatisfactory increment was observed in 43% of the transfusion events, being more frequent in transfusions of random platelet concentrates (54%. Platelet refractoriness was confirmed in three patients (19%, who presented immunologic and non-immunologic causes. Alloantibodies were identified in eight patients (50% by the PIFT and in three (19% by the PRA-HLA. Among alloimmunized patients, nine (64% had a history of transfusion, and three as a result of pregnancy (43%. Of the former, two were refractory (29%. No significant differences were observed, probably as a result of the small sample size. CONCLUSION: The high rate of unsatisfactory platelet increment, refractoriness and alloimmunization observed support the need to set up protocols for the investigation of this complication in all chronically transfused patients, a fundamental requirement for the guarantee of adequate management.

  2. Does bipolar pacemaker current activate blood platelets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesdal, Grunde; Hansen, Annebirthe Bo; Brandes, Axel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether bipolar pacemaker current lead can activate blood platelets. The null hypothesis was that 1 minute of electrical stimulation of platelets would not influence their subsequent reactivity to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). BACKGROUND: Both...... platelets and muscle cells contain actin and myosin filaments, and both cells are activated following calcium influx. Muscle cells open their calcium channels and contract when exposed to an electric current. Current through a bipolar pacemaker lead will expose a small volume of blood, including platelets...

  3. Platelet cytoskeleton and its hemostatic role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerecedo, Doris

    2013-12-01

    Upon vascular injury, platelets adhere to the exposed extracellular matrix, which triggers the platelet activation and aggregation to form a hemostatic plug to seal the wound. All of these events involve dramatic changes in shape because of the cytoskeleton reorganization. The versatility of the cytoskeleton's main elements depends on the biochemical nature of the elements, as well as on the associated proteins that confer multiple functions within the cell. The list of these associated proteins grows actively, increasing our knowledge concerning the complexity of platelet cytoskeleton machinery. The present review evidences the recently described platelet proteins that promote characteristic modifications in their cytoskeleton organization, with special focus on the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex.

  4. Platelet function alterations in dengue are associated with plasma leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.; Alisjahbana, B.; Groot, P.G. de; Indrati, A.R.; Fijnheer, R.; Puspita, M.; Dewi, I.M.; Wijer, L. van de; Boer, E.M. de; Roest, M.; Ven, A.J. van der; Mast, Q. de

    2014-01-01

    Severe dengue is characterised by thrombocytopenia, plasma leakage and bleeding. Platelets are important for preservation of endothelial integrity. We hypothesised that platelet activation with secondary platelet dysfunction contribute to plasma leakage. In adult Indonesian patients with acute dengu

  5. Valsartan Decreases Platelet Activity and Arterial Thrombotic Events in Elderly Patients with Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Wu; Hong-Yan Wang; Fan Cai; Ling-Jie Wang; Feng-Ru Zhang; Xiao-Nan Chen; Qian Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonists are extensively used for blood pressure control in elderly patients with hypertension.This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of AT1R antagonist valsartan on platelet aggregation and the occurrence of cardio-cerebral thrombotic events in elderly patients with hypertension.Methods:Two-hundred and ten patients with hypertension and aged > 60 years were randomized to valsartan (n =140) or amlodipine (n =70) on admission.The primary endpoint was platelet aggregation rate (PAR) induced by arachidonic acid at discharge,and the secondary endpoint was the rate of thrombotic events including brain infarction and myocardial infarction during follow-up.Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were stimulated by angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ,100 nmol/L) with or without pretreatment of valsartan (100 nmol/L),and relative expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and both p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) activities were assessed.Statistical analyses were performed by GraphPad Prism 5.0 software (GraphPad Software,Inc.,California,USA).Results:PAR was lower after treatment with valsartan (1 1.49 ± 0.69% vs.18.71 ± 2.47%,P < 0.001),associated with more reduced plasmalevels of COX-2 (76.94 ± 7.07 U/L vs.116.4 ± 15.89 U/L,P < 0.001) and TXB2 (1667 ± 56.50 pg/ml vs.2207 ± 180.20 pg/ml) (all P < 0.001).Plasma COX-2 and TXB2 levels correlated significantly with PAR in overall patients (r =0.109,P < 0.001).During follow-up (median,18 months),there was a significantly lower thrombotic event rate in patients treated with valsartan (14.3% vs.32.8%,P =0.002).Relative expression of COX-2 and secretion of TXB2 with concordant phosphorylation ofp38MAPK and NF-kB were increased in HAECs when stimulated by Ang Ⅱ (100 nmol/L) but were significantly decreased by valsartan pretreatment (100 nmol/L).Conclusions:AT1R antagonist valsartan

  6. Application of a real-time biosensor to detect bacteria in platelet concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotman, Boris; Cote, Mindy A

    2003-01-03

    A spore-based biosensor for detecting low levels of bacteria in real-time has been recently developed. The system (termed LEXSAS, label-free exponential signal-amplification system) exploits spore's ability to produce fluorescence when sensing neighboring bacterial cells. We studied the LEXSAS as a possible approach for identifying bacterially contaminated platelet concentrates prior to transfusion because the system offers rapid analysis, high sensitivity, and low cost. If successful, this approach could reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality from transfusion-related bacteremia and sepsis. In this study, we used the LEXSAS for detecting bacteria in platelet concentrates spiked with Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, or Streptococcus pyogenes. Bacteria were separated from platelets using a 2-min procedure based on bacterial resistance to detergents and osmotic shock. The results indicate that the LEXSAS could be used to design a practical biosensor for identifying bacterially contaminated platelets in real-time.

  7. Platelet-rich plasma preparation using three devices : Implications for platelet activation and platelet growth factor release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, Peter A. M.; Mahoney, Christine Brown; Hoffmann, Johannes J. M. L.; Schonberger, Jacques P. A. M.; Box, Henk A. M.; Van Zundert, Andre; Knape, Johannes T. A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In this study, three commercial systems for the preparation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) were compared and platelet growth factors release was measured. Methods: Ten healthy volunteers donated whole blood that was fractionated by a blood cell separator, and a table-top centrifuge to pre

  8. Hereditary sideroblastic anemia with associated platelet abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soslau, G; Brodsky, I

    1989-12-01

    A 62 year old male (R.H.) presented with a mild anemia (Hb 11-12 gm%) and a history of multiple hemorrhagic episodes. The marrow had 40-50% sideroblasts. Marrow chromosomes were normal. His wife was hematologically normal, while one daughter, age 30 years, had a sideroblastic anemia (Hb 11-12 gm%) with 40-50% sideroblasts in the marrow. Her anemia was first noted at age 15 years. Administration of vitamin B6 did not correct the anemia in either the father or daughter. Platelet abnormalities inherited jointly with this disorder are described for the first time. Both R.H. and his daughter had prolonged bleeding times, with normal PTT, PT times, fVIII:C, fVIII:Ag levels, and vWF multimers, which may rule out a von Willebrand's disease. They have normal platelet numbers but abnormally low platelet adhesiveness and greatly depressed ADP, collagen, and epinephrine responsiveness. Response to ristocetin was in the low normal range, and aggregation with thrombin was normal. While desmopressin completely normalized R.H.'s bleeding time, none of these platelet parameters were improved. No differences in the SDS PAGE protein patterns of RH platelets could be detected in comparison to normal samples. His platelets took up and released serotonin (5HT) normally, and electron micrographs defined no morphological abnormalities. However, no ATP was released from platelets activated with collagen, and when followed by thrombin about fourfold greater ATP was released by control platelets as compared to RH platelets. The dense granule fraction derived from RH platelets contained about 20% the level of ATP, 40% the level of ADP, and 50% the level of 5HT detected in a normal sample. The results indicate that the bleeding disorder is related to a non-classical heritable storage pool defect. The connection between the inherited sideroblastic anemia and platelet defects is obscure.

  9. Multiple alterations of platelet functions dominated by increased secretion in mice lacking Cdc42 in platelets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pleines, Irina; Eckly, Anita; Elvers, Margitta;

    2010-01-01

    formation and exocytosis in various cell types, but its exact function in platelets is not established. Here, we show that the megakaryocyte/platelet-specific loss of Cdc42 leads to mild thrombocytopenia and a small increase in platelet size in mice. Unexpectedly, Cdc42-deficient platelets were able to form...... reduced, suggesting increased clearing of the cells under physiologic conditions. These data point to novel multiple functions of Cdc42 in the regulation of platelet activation, granule organization, degranulation, and a specific role in GPIb signaling....

  10. Platelet-rich fibrin: Evolution of a second-generation platelet concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunitha Raja V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is a platelet concentrate that has been used widely to accelerate soft-tissue and hard-tissue healing. The preparation of PRP has been described by several authors. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF was first described by Choukroun et al. in France. It has been referred to as a second-generation platelet concentrate, which has been shown to have several advantages over traditionally prepared PRP. Its chief advantages include ease of preparation and lack of biochemical handling of blood, which makes this preparation strictly autologous. This article describes the evolution of this novel platelet concentrate, referred to as PRF.

  11. Human platelets antigens influence the viral load of platelets after the interaction of the platelets with HCV and HIV in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Maria Tommasini Grotto

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: In this study, we evaluated hepatitis C virus (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV - platelet interactions in vitro as well as human platelets antigen (HPA polymorphisms. METHODS: Platelets were obtained from 100 healthy HPA-genotyped volunteer donors and incubated with HIV or HCV. The viral load after in vitro exposure was detected. RESULTS: The viral load in the platelets after exposure to the virus was higher in the HIV exposure than in the HCV exposure. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-platelet ligation could be more efficient than HCV-platelet interaction. Further, the HPA-1b allele seems to influence the interaction of platelets with HCV.

  12. Expansion of the neonatal platelet mass is achieved via an extension of platelet lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Jian; Hoffmeister, Karin M; Hu, Zhongbo; Mager, Donald E; Ait-Oudhia, Sihem; Debrincat, Marlyse A; Pleines, Irina; Josefsson, Emma C; Kile, Benjamin T; Italiano, Joseph; Ramsey, Haley; Grozovsky, Renata; Veng-Pedersen, Peter; Chavda, Chaitanya; Sola-Visner, Martha

    2014-05-29

    The fetal/neonatal hematopoietic system must generate enough blood cells to meet the demands of rapid growth. This unique challenge might underlie the high incidence of thrombocytopenia among preterm neonates. In this study, neonatal platelet production and turnover were investigated in newborn mice. Based on a combination of blood volume expansion and increasing platelet counts, the platelet mass increased sevenfold during the first 2 weeks of murine life, a time during which thrombopoiesis shifted from liver to bone marrow. Studies applying in vivo biotinylation and mathematical modeling showed that newborn and adult mice had similar platelet production rates, but neonatal platelets survived 1 day longer in circulation. This prolonged lifespan fully accounted for the rise in platelet counts observed during the second week of murine postnatal life. A study of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins showed that neonatal platelets had higher levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and were more resistant to apoptosis induced by the Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibitor ABT-737 than adult platelets. However, genetic ablation or pharmacologic inhibition of Bcl-2 alone did not shorten neonatal platelet survival or reduce platelet counts in newborn mice, indicating the existence of redundant or alternative mechanisms mediating the prolonged lifespan of neonatal platelets. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  13. [Platelet allo-antibodies identification strategies for preventing and managing platelet refractoriness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basire, A; Picard, C

    2014-11-01

    Platelet refractoriness is a serious complication for patients receiving recurrent platelet transfusions, which can be explained by non-immune and immune causes. Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) allo-immunization, especially against HLA class I, is the major cause for immune platelet refractoriness. To a lesser extent, allo-antibodies against specific Human Platelet Antigen (HPA) are also involved. Pregnancy, transplantation and previous transfusions can lead to allo-immune reaction against platelet antigens. After transfusion, platelet count is decreased by accelerated platelet destruction related to antibodies fixation on incompatible platelet antigens. New laboratory tests for allo-antibodies identification were developed to improve sensibility and specificity, especially with the LUMINEX(®) technology. The good use and interpretation of these antibodies assays can improve strategies for platelet refractoriness prevention and management with a patient adapted response. Compatible platelets units can be selected according to their identity with recipient typing or immune compatibility regarding HLA or HPA antibodies or HLA epitope compatibility. Prospective studies are needed to further confirm the clinical benefit of new allo-antibodies identification methods and consensus strategies for immune platelet refractoriness management.

  14. Platelet antibodies, activated platelets and serum leptin in childhood immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrawy, Hosny; Elsayh, Khalid I; Zahran, Asmaa M; El-Ghazali, Mohamad Hamdy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of platelet-associated antibodies (PAIgG and PAIgM), activated platelets and serum leptin in children with acute immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The study included 40 patients with ITP and 40 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. PAIgG, PAIgM and activated platelet levels were estimated by flow cytometry, and serum leptin levels were estimated by ELISA. Activated platelets and serum leptin were significantly higher in the ITP patients than in the controls. The percentage and mean fluorescence intensity of PAIgG and PAIgM staining were significantly higher in the patients than in the controls. Serum leptin and activated platelet levels in patients with thrombocytopenia of brief duration were significantly lower than those in patients with thrombocytopenia of prolonged duration. The levels of activated platelets, serum leptin and PAIgG were positively correlated, and the levels of serum leptin, activated platelets and platelet counts were negatively correlated. The increased levels of activated platelets, serum leptin and platelet-associated antibodies in children with acute ITP suggest that these factors could play a role in ITP pathogenesis. Additionally, activated platelets and serum leptin could have prognostic significance in paediatric acute ITP. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Bulk fluid phase behaviour of colloidal platelet-sphere and platelet-polymer mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de las Heras, Daniel; Schmidt, Matthias

    2013-04-13

    Using a geometry-based fundamental measure density functional theory, we calculate bulk fluid phase diagrams of colloidal mixtures of vanishingly thin hard circular platelets and hard spheres. We find isotropic-nematic phase separation, with strong broadening of the biphasic region, upon increasing the pressure. In mixtures with large size ratio of platelet and sphere diameters, there is also demixing between two nematic phases with differing platelet concentrations. We formulate a fundamental measure density functional for mixtures of colloidal platelets and freely overlapping spheres, which represent ideal polymers, and use it to obtain phase diagrams. We find that, for low platelet-polymer size ratio, in addition to isotropic-nematic and nematic-nematic phase coexistence, platelet-polymer mixtures also display isotropic-isotropic demixing. By contrast, we do not find isotropic-isotropic demixing in hard-core platelet-sphere mixtures for the size ratios considered.

  16. IgG platelet antibodies in EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia bind to platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorin, F; Steffan, A; Pradella, P; Bizzaro, N; Potenza, R; De Angelis, V

    1998-08-01

    EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP) consists of an inappropriate low platelet count caused by autoantibodies present in the serum samples reacting with platelets only in EDTA-anticoagulated blood. By using immunoprecipitation and Western blot techniques, we studied the immunochemical specificity of platelet agglutinating autoantibodies in the serum samples of 10 patients with PTCP. Furthermore, to evaluate a possible role of PTCP-associated IgG autoantibodies in increased platelet turnover, we assayed the plasma glycocalicin (GC) level and calculated the GC index for every patient. Our results provide direct evidence that an epitope located on platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb is recognized by PTCP-associated IgG antibodies; moreover GC levels in patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP were similar to control levels, thus excluding an increased platelet turnover. We conclude that antiplatelet antibodies directed against platelet cryptantigens are unlikely to have a major role in the increased removal of cells from circulation.

  17. Fractal and Euclidean descriptors of platelet shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Max-Joseph; Neeb, Heiko; Strasser, Erwin F

    2014-01-01

    Platelet shape change is a dynamic membrane surface process that exhibits remarkable morphological heterogeneity. Once the outline of an irregular shape is identified and segmented from a digital image, several mathematical descriptors can be applied to numerical characterize the irregularity of the shapes surface. 13072 platelet outlines (PLO) were segmented automatically from 1928 microscopic images using a newly developed algorithm for the software product Matlab R2012b. The fractal dimension (FD), circularity, eccentricity, area and perimeter of each PLO were determined. 972 PLO were randomly assigned for computer-assisted manual measurement of platelet diameter as well as number, width and length of filopodia per platelet. FD can be used as a surrogate parameter for determining the roughness of the PLO and circularity can be used as a surrogate to estimate the number and length of filopodia. The relationship between FD and perimeter of the PLO reveals the existence of distinct groups of platelets with significant structural differences which may be caused by platelet activation. This new method allows for the standardized continuous numerical classification of platelet shape and its dynamic change, which is useful for the analysis of altered platelet activity (e.g. inflammatory diseases, contact activation, drug testing).

  18. Clinica use of platelet additive solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rhenen, Dick J

    2007-12-01

    Randomised clinical trial (RCT) to study the clinical efficacy and safety of new platelet products using platelet additive solutions are scarce. In this paper a number of recent RCT's is discussed. It can be the start of a development where new transfusion products enter a RCT before the product is applied in clinical practice.

  19. Platelets in liver transplantation : Friend or foe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom, Ilona T. A.; Lisman, Ton; Porte, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Apart from the well-known role of blood platelets in hemostasis, there is emerging evidence that platelets have various nonhemostatic properties that play a critical role in inflammation, angiogenesis, tissue repair and regeneration, and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. All these processes may be

  20. Studies on megakaryopoiesis and platelet function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinders, M.

    2015-01-01

    Platelets are blood circulating specialized subcellular fragments, which are produced by megakaryocytes. Platelets are essential for hemostasis and wound healing but also play a role in non-hemostatic processes such as the immune response or cancer metastasis. Considering the immediate precursors of

  1. Erythrocyte-platelet interaction in uncomplicated pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, Albe C; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2014-12-01

    Maternal and fetal requirements during uncomplicated pregnancy are associated with changes in the hematopoietic system. Platelets and erythrocytes [red blood cells (RBCs)], and especially their membranes, are involved in coagulation, and their interactions may provide reasons for the changed hematopoietic system during uncomplicated pregnancy. We review literature regarding RBC and platelet membrane structure and interactions during hypercoagulability and hormonal changes. We then study interactions between RBCs and platelets in uncomplicated pregnancy, as their interactions may be one of the reasons for increased hypercoagulability during uncomplicated pregnancy. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study whole blood smears from 90 pregnant females in different phases of pregnancy. Pregnancy-specific interaction was seen between RBCs and platelets. Typically, one or more platelets interacted through platelet spreading and pseudopodia formation with a single RBC. However, multiple interactions with RBCs were also shown for a single platelet. Specific RBC-platelet interaction seen during uncomplicated pregnancy may be caused by increased estrogen and/or increased fibrinogen concentrations. This interaction may contribute to the hypercoagulable state associated with healthy and uncomplicated pregnancy and may also play a fundamental role in gestational thrombocytopenia.

  2. BETA-ADRENOBLOCKERS AND PLATELET AGGREGATION. CARVEDILOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Zakirova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Approaches evolution to studying of beta-blockers influence on platelet aggregation is reviewed. The current view on of beta-blocker antiplatelet effects is presented on the basis of physical and chemical drug properties (water repellency, dipole moment, molecular mass. Trail results on carvedilol influence on platelet aggregation are focused.

  3. Novel agents for anti-platelet therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Xuebin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Anti-platelet therapy plays an important role in the treatment of patients with thrombotic diseases. The most commonly used anti-platelet drugs, namely, aspirin, ticlopidine, and clopidogrel, are effective in the prevention and treatment of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists (e.g., abciximab, eptifibatide and tirofiban have demonstrated good clinical benefits and safety profiles in decreasing ischemic events in acute coronary syndrome. However, adverse events related to thrombosis or bleeding have been reported in cases of therapy with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists. Cilostazol is an anti-platelet agent used in the treatment of patients with peripheral ischemia, such as intermittent claudication. Presently, platelet adenosine diphosphate P2Y(12 receptor antagonists (e.g., clopidogrel, prasugrel, cangrelor, and ticagrelor are being used in clinical settings for their pronounced protective effects. The new protease-activated receptor antagonists, vorapaxar and atopaxar, potentially decrease the risk of ischemic events without significantly increasing the rate of bleeding. Some other new anti-platelet drugs undergoing clinical trials have also been introduced. Indeed, the number of new anti-platelet drugs is increasing. Consequently, the efficacy of these anti-platelet agents in actual patients warrants scrutiny, especially in terms of the hemorrhagic risks. Hopefully, new selective platelet inhibitors with high anti-thrombotic efficiencies and low hemorrhagic side effects can be developed.

  4. Performance evaluation of PL-11 platelet analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张有涛

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and report the performance of PL-11 platelet analyzer. Methods Intravenous blood sam-ples anticoagulated with EDTA-K2 and sodium citrate were tested by the PL-11 platelet analyzer to evaluate the intra-assay and interassay coefficient of variation(CV),

  5. Platelet affinity for burro aorta collagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.D.

    1977-10-01

    Despite ingenious concepts, there are no unequivocal clues as to what, when, and how some undefined biochemical factor(s) or constituent(s) that localizes in the arterial wall can precipitate a thromboatheromatous lesion or arterial disease. The present study focused on the extraction, partial purification, and characterization of a collagen-active platelet stimulator from the aortas of aged burros. The aggregator moiety in the aorta extracts invariably had a higher affinity for platelets in citrated platelet-rich plasma of human beings than for platelets of homologous burros. The platelet-aggregating factor(s) in the aorta extract was retained by incubation with ..cap alpha..-chymotrypsin. Platelet-aggregating activity was rapidly abolished after incubation with collagenase, as determined by platelet-aggregometry tests. Evidence based on light microscope and polysaccharide histochemical reactions indicates a probability that the intracellular amorphous matrix (PAS-positive) and filamentous components (PTAH-positive) expelled from smooth muscle cells disrupted during homogenization of the aorta may be a principal source of a precursor collagen species which is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation.

  6. The origin and function of platelet glycosyltransferases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandall, Hans H; Rumjantseva, Viktoria; Sørensen, Anne Louise Tølbøll;

    2012-01-01

    Platelets are megakaryocyte subfragments that participate in hemostatic and host defense reactions and deliver pro- and anti-angiogenic factors throughout the vascular system. Platelets are anucleated cells and lack a complex secretory apparatus with distinct Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum compartme...

  7. Function of eltrombopag-induced platelets compared to platelets from control patients with immune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselboeck, Johanna; Kaider, Alexandra; Pabinger, Ingrid; Panzer, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Data on the in vivo function of platelets induced by the thrombopoietin receptor agonist eltrombopag are scarce. To assess a possible influence of eltrombopag we compared platelet function of eltrombopag-treated immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients (group 1; n=10) after treatment response to that from control ITP patients (group 2; n=12). We further analysed platelet function at baseline and after one, three, and four weeks of eltrombopag treatment and estimated daily changes of platelet function during the eltrombopag-induced platelet rise. The formation of platelet-monocyte aggregates (PMA), P-selectin expression [MFI], and platelet adhesion under high shear conditions (surface coverage, SC) in vivo and after in vitro addition of agonists (ADP, TRAP-6, Collagen) were similar between both groups after response to eltrombopag treatment. Only TRAP-6 induced a lower SC in the eltrombopag group (p=0.03). All platelet function parameters except for Collagen-induced P-selectin expression changed significantly during treatment with eltrombopag. PMA, naïve and after addition of ADP or TRAP-6 increased with increasing platelet counts. P-selectin expression decreased, when measured without and upon addition of ADP, increased in the presence of TRAP-6, and remained unchanged after addition of Collagen. SC increased during the eltrombopag-induced platelet rise. All significant changes of platelet function correlated to changes in platelet counts. Two patients developed venous thromboses during eltrombopag treatment, but no association with any distinct single platelet function parameter or combinations thereof was identifiable. Thus, eltrombopag-induced platelets function similar to those from control ITP patients without discernible increased hyper-reactivity.

  8. A platelet monoclonal antibody inhibition assay for detection of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa-related platelet alloantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, A P; Teramura, G; Nelson, K A; Slichter, S J

    1995-08-18

    Post-transfusion purpura (PTP) and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAT) result from formation of alloantibodies to platelet membrane glycoprotein-associated antigens. The detection and identification of platelet-specific alloantibodies in patient sera is often complicated by the presence of co-existing HLA antibodies and/or more than one platelet specificity in the same serum. We describe a solid phase assay that specifically detects antibodies to platelet membrane associated alloantigens by measuring the ability of patient antisera to inhibit the binding of glycoprotein GPIIb or GPIIIa monoclonal antibodies to intact platelets. When tested in the GPIIIa assay against a panel of random platelet donors, the reactivities of two known PLAI antisera that also contained different HLA antibodies were highly correlated (r = 0.99) and allowed PLA phenotyping of the population. A standard direct binding platelet ELISA, on the other hand, was unable to accurately PLA phenotype the same population. The reactivities of two known Baka antisera (one containing additional anti-PLA2 and the other anti-Brb specificities) were highly correlated (r = 0.95) in the GPIIb assay, and Bak phenotype determination was similarly accomplished for a random platelet panel. Furthermore, a comparison of platelet phenotype results (using the monoclonal inhibition assay) and genotype results (using DNA analysis) for the PLA and Bak systems showed a concordance of 98% for 146 alleles tested. In conclusion, the platelet monoclonal antibody inhibition assay: (1) allows determination of platelet-specific alloantibodies in the presence of contaminating HLA antibodies and/or in sera containing multiple platelet alloantibodies; (2) allows accurate platelet phenotyping for the GPIIIa-associated PLA and GPIIb-associated Bak antigen systems; and (3) may be applicable to the detection of other known or even novel platelet glycoprotein-associated antigens.

  9. Validity of Particle-Counting Method Using Laser-Light Scattering for Detecting Platelet Aggregation in Diabetic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakadate, Hiromichi; Sekizuka, Eiichi; Minamitani, Haruyuki

    We aimed to study the validity of a new analytical approach that reflected the phase from platelet activation to the formation of small platelet aggregates. We hoped that this new approach would enable us to use the particle-counting method with laser-light scattering to measure platelet aggregation in healthy controls and in diabetic patients without complications. We measured agonist-induced platelet aggregation for 10 min. Agonist was added to the platelet-rich plasma 1 min after measurement started. We compared the total scattered light intensity from small aggregates over a 10-min period (established analytical approach) and that over a 2-min period from 1 to 3 min after measurement started (new analytical approach). Consequently platelet aggregation in diabetics with HbA1c ≥ 6.5% was significantly greater than in healthy controls by both analytical approaches. However, platelet aggregation in diabetics with HbA1c < 6.5%, i.e. patients in the early stages of diabetes, was significantly greater than in healthy controls only by the new analytical approach, not by the established analytical approach. These results suggest that platelet aggregation as detected by the particle-counting method using laser-light scattering could be applied in clinical examinations by our new analytical approach.

  10. Modulatory effect of coffee on platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Shobha; Rauf, Arun A

    2010-01-01

    Blood platelets play a major role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and thrombosis. Conflicting information exists regarding the effect of coffee consumption on the cardiovascular system. We have investigated whether the consumption of moderate amount of coffee affect platelet functions and primary hemostasis in vivo in normal and high fat diet fed rats. Coffee fed group showed significant (P production from membrane arachidonic acid and it was decreased in coffee treated group. Platelet aggregation studies with ADP, collagen, arachidonic acid and epinephrine showed significant (P coffee fed group. Scanning electron microscopic studies revealed that platelet aggregation tendency increased in HFD group and was reduced in coffee fed group. These results indicate that coffee is active in inhibiting platelet aggregation, a critical step involved in thrombosis.

  11. Platelet mitochondrial function and dysfunction: physiological consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, D.

    2015-07-01

    There is a general trend in revisiting mitochondria using the up-to-date technologies that uncovered novel attributes of this organelle, such as the intracellular displacement to locations where an energy supply is needed, the dynamic shape changes and turnover, the initiation of signaling to the rest of the cell, and the ability to crosstalk with other cellular organelles. The in-depth scrutiny of platelet mitochondria role in health and pathology is included within this ongoing revisiting trend. The current article puts into a nutshell the most recent data on platelet mitochondria function and disease-related ion, focusing on generation of stress- and apoptosis-related signaling molecules, overproduction of reactive oxygen species during activation and disease, on the biomarker potential of platelets mitochondria, and their prospective exploitation in translational applications. These novel findings complete the physiological profile of platelets and could have potential therapeutic effectiveness in platelet-associated disorders.

  12. Platelets as immune cells in infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Cornelia; Löffler, Jürgen; Krappmann, Sven; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Rambach, Günter

    2013-11-01

    Platelets have been shown to cover a broad range of functions. Besides their role in hemostasis, they have immunological functions and thus participate in the interaction between pathogens and host defense. Platelets have a broad repertoire of receptor molecules that enable them to sense invading pathogens and infection-induced inflammation. Consequently, platelets exert antimicrobial effector mechanisms, but also initiate an intense crosstalk with other arms of the innate and adaptive immunity, including neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells and T cells. There is a fragile balance between beneficial antimicrobial effects and detrimental reactions that contribute to the pathogenesis, and many pathogens have developed mechanisms to influence these two outcomes. This review aims to highlight aspects of the interaction strategies between platelets and pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, in addition to the subsequent networking between platelets and other immune cells, and the relevance of these processes for the pathogenesis of infections.

  13. Platelet bioreactor-on-a-chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazutis, Linas; Wu, Stephen; Sylman, Joanna L.; Ehrlicher, Allen; Machlus, Kellie R.; Feng, Qiang; Lu, Shijiang; Lanza, Robert; Neeves, Keith B.; Weitz, David A.; Italiano, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Platelet transfusions total >2.17 million apheresis-equivalent units per year in the United States and are derived entirely from human donors, despite clinically significant immunogenicity, associated risk of sepsis, and inventory shortages due to high demand and 5-day shelf life. To take advantage of known physiological drivers of thrombopoiesis, we have developed a microfluidic human platelet bioreactor that recapitulates bone marrow stiffness, extracellular matrix composition, micro-channel size, hemodynamic vascular shear stress, and endothelial cell contacts, and it supports high-resolution live-cell microscopy and quantification of platelet production. Physiological shear stresses triggered proplatelet initiation, reproduced ex vivo bone marrow proplatelet production, and generated functional platelets. Modeling human bone marrow composition and hemodynamics in vitro obviates risks associated with platelet procurement and storage to help meet growing transfusion needs. PMID:25606631

  14. Platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakas, M; Karkos, P D; Markou, K; Grigoriadis, N

    2016-12-01

    Platelet-rich plasma is a novel material that is being used more frequently in many surgical specialties. A literature review on the current and potential uses of platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology was performed. There is limited evidence on the use of platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology compared with other specialties: only 11 studies on various subspecialties (otology, rhinology and laryngology) were included in the final review. Based on the limited number of studies, we cannot draw safe conclusions about the value of platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology. Nevertheless, the available literature suggests that platelet-rich plasma holds promise for future research and may have a number of clinical applications.

  15. Platelet derivatives in regenerative medicine: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Maria Rosaria; Sommese, Linda; Casamassimi, Amelia; Napoli, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Prior preclinical and clinical studies support the use of platelet-derived products for the treatment of soft and hard tissue lesions. These regenerative effects are controlled by autocrine and paracrine biomolecules including growth factors and cytokines contained in platelet alpha granules. Each growth factor is involved in a phase of the healing process, such as inflammation, collagen synthesis, tissue granulation, and angiogenesis collectively promoting tissue restitution. Platelet derivatives have been prepared as platelet-rich plasma, platelet gel, platelet-rich fibrin, and platelet eye drops. These products vary in their structure, growth factors, composition, and cytokine concentrations. Here, we review the current use of platelet-derived biological products focusing on the rationale for their use and the main requirements for their preparation. Variation in the apparent therapeutic efficacy may have resulted from a lack of reproducible, standardized protocols for preparation. Despite several individual studies showing favorable treatment effects, some randomized controlled trials as well as meta-analyses have found no constant clinical benefit from the application of platelet-derived products for prevention of tissue lesions. Recently, 3 published studies in dentistry showed an improvement in bone density. Seven published studies showed positive results in joint regeneration. Five published studies demonstrated an improvement in the wound healing, and an improvement of eye epithelial healing was observed in 2 reports. Currently, at least 14 ongoing clinical trials in phase 3 or 4 have been designed with large groups of treated patients (n > 100). Because the rationale of the therapy with platelet-derived compounds is still debated, a definitive insight can be acquired only when these large randomized trials will be completed.

  16. Bacillus pasteurii urease shares with plant ureases the ability to induce aggregation of blood platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera-Severo, D; Wassermann, G E; Carlini, C R

    2006-08-15

    Ureases (EC 3.5.1.5) are highly homologous enzymes found in plants, bacteria and fungi. Canatoxin, an isoform Canavalia ensiformis urease, has several biological properties unrelated to its ureolytic activity, like platelet-aggregating and pro-inflammatory effects. Here, we describe that Bacillus pasteurii urease (BPU) also induces aggregation of rabbit platelets, similar to the canatoxin-induced effect (ED(50) 0.4 and 0.015 mg/mL, respectively). BPU induced-aggregation was blocked in platelets pretreated with dexamethasone and esculetin, a phospholipase A(2) and a lipoxygenase inhibitor, respectively, while platelets treated with indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, showed increased response to BPU. Methoxyverapamil (Ca(2+) channel blocker) and AMP (ADP antagonist) abrogated urease-induced aggregation, whereas the PAF-acether antagonist Web2170 had no effect. We concluded that platelet aggregation induced by BPU is mediated by lipoxygenase-derived eicosanoids and secretion of ADP from the platelets through a calcium-dependent mechanism. Potential relevance of these findings for bacterium-plant interactions and pathogenesis of bacterial infections are discussed.

  17. Platelet-activating factor induces phospholipid turnover, calcium flux, arachidonic acid liberation, eicosanoid generation, and oncogene expression in a human B cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulam, P.G.; Kuruvilla, A.; Putcha, G.; Mangus, L.; Franklin-Johnson, J.; Shearer, W.T. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Platelet-activating factor is a potent mediator of the inflammatory response. Studies of the actions of platelet-activating factor have centered mainly around neutrophils, monocytes, and platelets. In this report we begin to uncover the influence of platelet-activating factor on B lymphocytes. Employing the EBV-transformed human B cell line SKW6.4, we demonstrate that platelet-activating factor significantly alters membrane phospholipid metabolism indicated by the incorporation of 32P into phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidic acid but not significantly into phosphatidylethanolamine at concentrations ranging from 10(-9) to 10(-6) M. The inactive precursor, lyso-platelet-activating factor, at a concentration as high as 10(-7) M had no effect on any of the membrane phospholipids. We also show that platelet-activating factor from 10(-12) to 10(-6) M induced rapid and significant elevation in intracellular calcium levels, whereas lyso-platelet-activating factor was again ineffective. We further demonstrate the impact of platelet-activating factor binding to B cells by measuring platelet-activating factor induced arachidonic acid release and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid production. Moreover, platelet-activating factor was capable of inducing transcription of the nuclear proto-oncogenes c-fos and c-jun. Finally we explored the possible role of 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid as a regulator of arachidonic acid liberation demonstrating that endogenous 5-lipoxygenase activity modulates platelet-activating factor induced arachidonic acid release perhaps acting at the level of phospholipase A2. In summary, platelet-activating factor is shown here to have a direct and profound effect on a pure B cell line.

  18. Decreased TGF-β1 and VEGF Release in Cystic Fibrosis Platelets: Further Evidence for Platelet Defects in Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, James P.; Narasimhan, Jayashree; Biller, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients suffer from chronic lung inflammation. This inflammation may activate platelets. There are limited data on the role of platelet-secreted cytokines in CF. Platelet cytokines with inflammatory effects include vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). As levels of these cytokines are tenfold greater in serum than plasma due to platelet release, serum levels may be one index of platelet content; but a more specific index is release during the aggregation of isolated platelets. We postulated that altered release of these platelet cytokines occurs in CF. Methods We obtained sera and plasma from CF outpatients (n=21) and from healthy controls (n=20), measured VEGF and TGF-β1, assessed for correlations with platelet number, analyzed cytokine release during platelet aggregation to collagen, and analyzed differences in maximal platelet aggregation. Results Platelet number and maximal aggregation levels were higher in CF. Plasma and serum levels of TGF-β1 and VEGF were higher in CF, but these levels were similar after adjusting for platelet number (serum cytokines correlated with platelet count). The release of VEGF and TGF-β1 during aggregation was decreased in CF platelets (by 52% and 29%, respectively). Conclusion Platelet release is not a source of the elevated blood proinflammatory cytokines TGF-β1 and VEGF in CF, as platelets from CF patients actually release less of these cytokines. These data provide further evidence for platelet defects in CF. PMID:27423781

  19. Breaking the mold: transcription factors in the anucleate platelet and platelet-derived microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie L Lannan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Platelets are small anucleate blood cells derived from megakaryocytes. In addition to their pivotal roles in hemostasis, platelets are the smallest, yet most abundant, immune cell and regulate inflammation, immunity, and disease progression. Although platelets lack DNA, and thus no functional transcriptional activities, they are nonetheless rich sources of RNAs, possess an intact spliceosome, and are thus capable of synthesizing proteins. Previously, it was thought that platelet RNAs and translational machinery were remnants from the megakaryocyte. We now know that the initial description of platelets as cellular fragments is an antiquated notion, as mounting evidence suggests otherwise. Therefore, it is reasonable to hypothesize that platelet transcription factors are not vestigial remnants from megakaryoctes, but have important, if only partly understood functions. Proteins play multiple cellular roles to minimize energy expenditure for maximum cellular function; thus, the same can be expected for transcription factors. In fact, numerous transcription factors have non-genomic roles, both in platelets and in nucleated cells. Our lab and others have discovered the presence and nongenomic roles of transcription factors in platelets, such as the nuclear factor kappa β (NFκB family of proteins and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ. In addition to numerous roles in regulating platelet activation, functional transcription factors can be transferred to vascular and immune cells through platelet microparticles. This method of transcellular delivery of key immune molecules may be a vital mechanism by which platelet transcription factors regulate inflammation and immunity. At the very least, platelets are an ideal model cell to dissect out the nongenomic roles of transcription factors in nucleated cells. There is abundant evidence to suggest that transcription factors in platelets play key roles in regulating inflammatory and

  20. Platelet lysates produced from expired platelet concentrates support growth and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mjoll Jonsdottir-Buch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells are promising candidates in regenerative cell therapy. Conventional culture methods involve the use of animal substances, specifically fetal bovine serum as growth supplement. Since the use of animal-derived products is undesirable for human applications, platelet lysates produced from human platelets are an attractive alternative. This is especially true if platelet lysates from already approved transfusion units at blood banks can be utilized. The purpose of this study was to produce human platelet lysates from expired, blood bank-approved platelet concentrates and evaluate their use as growth supplement in the culture of mesenchymal stem cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were cultured with one of three culture supplements; fetal bovine serum, lysates from freshly prepared human platelet concentrates, or lysates from expired human platelet concentrates. The effects of these platelet-derived culture supplements on basic mesenchymal stem cell characteristics were evaluated. All cultures maintained the typical mesenchymal stem cell surface marker expression, trilineage differentiation potential, and the ability to suppress in vitro immune responses. However, mesenchymal stem cells supplemented with platelet lysates proliferated faster than traditionally cultured cells and increased the expression of the osteogenic marker gene RUNX-2; yet no difference between the use of fresh and expired platelet concentrates was observed. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that human platelet lysates produced from expired platelet concentrates can be used as an alternative to fetal bovine serum for mesenchymal stem cell culture to the same extent as lysates from fresh platelets.

  1. Identification of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase II in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Mariangela; Pei, Yong; Southall, Michael D; Johnston, John M; Arai, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Junken; Inoue, Takao; Seltmann, Holger; Zouboulis, Christos C; Travers, Jeffrey B

    2002-10-01

    Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolases are a family of specialized phospholipase A2 enzymes. They serve an anti-inflammatory function by converting the proinflammatory autocoid, PAF, into biologically inactive lyso-PAF, by the removal of the sn-2 acetyl group of this glycerophospholipid. Similarly, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolases can also degrade oxidatively modified sn-2 polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-containing phospholipids, which are toxic to cells. Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase II is a recently cloned member of this family of specialized phospholipases. Consistent with a potential role of this intracellular enzyme in protecting membrane phospholipids against oxidative stress, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase II has been shown to translocate from cytosol to membranes in response to pro-oxidative stressors, and overexpression of this enzyme decreases the cytotoxic effects of these agents. The objective of this study was to assess whether platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase II is involved in protecting skin against oxidative stress. Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase II protein was demonstrated in human skin by immunohistochemistry, with the highest levels of the enzyme found in sebaceous glands and lesser amounts in epidermal keratinocytes. Treatment of epidermal cells with t-butylhydroperoxide or ultraviolet B radiation resulted in platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase II translocation from cytosol to membranes. To assess the role of this enzyme in epidermal function, a recombinant retroviral strategy was used to overexpress platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase II in the human keratinocyte-derived cell line HaCaT. Overexpression of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase II protected HaCaT cells against apop tosis induced by oxidative stressors t-butylhydroperoxide and ultraviolet B radiation. Similar levels of apoptosis, however, were seen in both control and platelet

  2. Platelet-TLR7 mediates host survival and platelet count during viral infection in the absence of platelet-dependent thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koupenova, Milka; Vitseva, Olga; MacKay, Christopher R; Beaulieu, Lea M; Benjamin, Emelia J; Mick, Eric; Kurt-Jones, Evelyn A; Ravid, Katya; Freedman, Jane E

    2014-07-31

    Viral infections have been associated with reduced platelet counts, the biological significance of which has remained elusive. Here, we show that infection with encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) rapidly reduces platelet count, and this response is attributed to platelet Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7). Platelet-TLR7 stimulation mediates formation of large platelet-neutrophil aggregates, both in mouse and human blood. Intriguingly, this process results in internalization of platelet CD41-fragments by neutrophils, as assessed biochemically and visualized by microscopy, with no influence on platelet prothrombotic properties. The mechanism includes TLR7-mediated platelet granule release, translocation of P-selectin to the cell surface, and a consequent increase in platelet-neutrophil adhesion. Viral infection of platelet-depleted mice also led to increased mortality. Transfusion of wild-type, TLR7-expressing platelets into TLR7-deficient mice caused a drop in platelet count and increased survival post EMCV infection. Thus, this study identifies a new link between platelets and their response to single-stranded RNA viruses that involves activation of TLR7. Finally, platelet-TLR7 stimulation is independent of thrombosis and has implications to the host immune response and survival.

  3. Blood platelets in the progression of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina S Gowert

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by neurotoxic amyloid-ß plaque formation in brain parenchyma and cerebral blood vessels known as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA. Besides CAA, AD is strongly related to vascular diseases such as stroke and atherosclerosis. Cerebrovascular dysfunction occurs in AD patients leading to alterations in blood flow that might play an important role in AD pathology with neuronal loss and memory deficits. Platelets are the major players in hemostasis and thrombosis, but are also involved in neuroinflammatory diseases like AD. For many years, platelets were accepted as peripheral model to study the pathophysiology of AD because platelets display the enzymatic activities to generate amyloid-ß (Aß peptides. In addition, platelets are considered to be a biomarker for early diagnosis of AD. Effects of Aß peptides on platelets and the impact of platelets in the progression of AD remained, however, ill-defined. The present study explored the cellular mechanisms triggered by Aß in platelets. Treatment of platelets with Aß led to platelet activation and enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and membrane scrambling, suggesting enhanced platelet apoptosis. More important, platelets modulate soluble Aß into fibrillar structures that were absorbed by apoptotic but not vital platelets. This together with enhanced platelet adhesion under flow ex vivo and in vivo and platelet accumulation at amyloid deposits of cerebral vessels of AD transgenic mice suggested that platelets are major contributors of CAA inducing platelet thrombus formation at vascular amyloid plaques leading to vessel occlusion critical for cerebrovascular events like stroke.

  4. Brief Report: Platelet-Poor Plasma Serotonin in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, George M.; Hertzig, Margaret E.; McBride, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Possible explanations for the well-replicated platelet hyperserotonemia of autism include an alteration in the platelet's handling of serotonin (5-hydroxyserotonin, 5-HT) or an increased exposure of the platelet to 5-HT. Measurement of platelet-poor plasma (PPP) levels of 5-HT appears to provide the best available index of in vivo exposure of the…

  5. 21 CFR 864.5700 - Automated platelet aggregation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... addition of an aggregating reagent to a platelet-rich plasma. (b) Classification. Class II (performance... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated platelet aggregation system. 864.5700... § 864.5700 Automated platelet aggregation system. (a) Identification. An automated platelet...

  6. Quality assessment of platelet concentrates prepared by platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC and apheresis-PC methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ravindra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC, and apheresis-PC were prepared and their quality parameters were assessed. Study Design: In this study, the following platelet products were prepared: from random donor platelets (i platelet rich plasma - platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, and (ii buffy coat poor- platelet concentrate (BC-PC and (iii single donor platelets (apheresis-PC by different methods. Their quality was assessed using the following parameters: swirling, volume of the platelet concentrate, platelet count, WBC count and pH. Results: A total of 146 platelet concentrates (64 of PRP-PC, 62 of BC-PC and 20 of apheresis-PC were enrolled in this study. The mean volume of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 62.30±22.68 ml, 68.81±22.95 ml and 214.05±9.91 ml and ranged from 22-135 ml, 32-133 ml and 200-251 ml respectively. The mean platelet count of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 7.6±2.97 x 1010/unit, 7.3±2.98 x 1010/unit and 4.13±1.32 x 1011/unit and ranged from 3.2-16.2 x 1010/unit, 0.6-16.4 x 1010/unit and 1.22-8.9 x 1011/unit respectively. The mean WBC count in PRP-PC (n = 10, BC-PC (n = 10 and apheresis-PC (n = 6 units was 4.05±0.48 x 107/unit, 2.08±0.39 x 107/unit and 4.8±0.8 x 106/unit and ranged from 3.4 -4.77 x 107/unit, 1.6-2.7 x 107/unit and 3.2 - 5.2 x 106/unit respectively. A total of 26 units were analyzed for pH changes. Out of these units, 10 each were PRP-PC and BC-PC and 6 units were apheresis-PC. Their mean pH was 6.7±0.26 (mean±SD and ranged from 6.5 - 7.0 and no difference was observed among all three types of platelet concentrate. Conclusion: PRP-PC and BC-PC units were comparable in terms of swirling, platelet count per unit and pH. As expected, we found WBC contamination to be less in BC-PC than PRP-PC units. Variation in volume was more in BC-PC than PRP-PC units and this suggests that further standardization is required for preparation of BC

  7. Platelet thrombosis in cardiac-valve prostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewanjee, M.K.

    1989-01-01

    The contribution of platelets and clotting factors in thrombosis on cardiovascular prostheses had been quantified with several tracers. Thrombus formation in vivo could be measured semiquantitatively in animal models and patients with indium-111, Technetium-99m labeled platelets, iodine-123, iodine-131 labeled fibrinogen, and In-111 and Tc-99m labeled antibody to the fibrinogen-receptor on the platelet- membrane, or fibrin. The early studies demonstrated that certain platelet-inhibitors, e.g. sulfinpyrazone, aspirin or aspirin- persantine increased platelet survival time with mechanical valves implanted in the baboon model and patients. Thrombus localization by imaging is possible for large thrombus on thrombogenic surface of prosthesis in the acute phase. The majority of thrombus was found in the sewing ring (Dacron) in the acute phase in both the mechanical and tissue valves. The amount of retained thrombus in both mechanical and tissue valves in our one-day study in the dog model was similar (< 1% if injected In-111 platelets = 5 billion platelets). As the fibrous ingrowth covered the sewing ring, the thrombus formation decreased significantly. Only a small amount of thrombus was found on the leaflets at one month in both the dog and calf models. 38 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Changes in platelet parameters in leukocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Nurinnisa; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Bakan, Ebubekir; Altas, Gulsum Feyza; Polat, Harun; Dorman, Emrullah

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, platelets are known to have a large variety of functions in many pathophysiological processes and their interaction with endothelial cells and leukocytes is known to play an important role in the pathophysiology of vascular inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between white blood cell count in conditions resulting in leukocytosis and platelet count and platelet parameters including mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, and plateletcrit. White blood cell counts count and all platelet parameters were evaluated in 341 results of normal complete blood count (of which the white blood cell counts were within reference range, group 1) and 327 results of elevated white blood cell counts count (group 2). There was a significant difference between these two groups in PLT counts and PCT values, being higher in Group 2. However, there was no statistically significant difference between two groups in MPV and PDW values. On the other hand, there were statistically significant, but weak, correlations between the WBC and platelet counts in both groups (p<0.01, r=0.235 for group 1, p<0.05, r=0.116 for group 2). As a conclusion PLT count and PCT values increase in infectious conditions. This study and previous studies show that PLTs are employed in infectious conditions but the exact mechanism and the exact clinical importance of this response remains to be cleared by further studies.

  9. Analysis of aggregation of platelets in thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Suresh

    Platelets are key players in thrombus formation by first rolling over collagen bound von Willebrand factor followed by formation of a stable interaction with collagen. The first adhered platelets bind additional platelets until the whole injury is sealed off by a platelet aggregate. The coagulation system stabilizes the formed platelet plug by creating a tight fibrin network, and then wound contraction takes place because of morphological changes in platelets. Coagulation takes place by platelet activation and aggregation mainly through fibrinogen polymerization into fibrin fibers. The process includes multiple factors, such as thrombin, plasmin, and local shear-rate which regulate and control the process. Coagulation can be divided into two pathways: the intrinsic pathway and the extrinsic pathway. The intrinsic pathway is initiated by the exposure of a negatively charged. It is able to activate factor XII, using a complex reaction that includes prekallikrein and high-molecular-weight kininogen as cofactors.. Thrombin is the final enzyme that is needed to convert fibrinogen into fibrin. The extrinsic pathway starts with the exposure of tissue factor to the circulating blood, which is the major initiator of coagulation. There are several feedback loops that reinforce the coagulation cascade, resulting in large amounts of thrombin. It is dependent on the presence of pro-coagulant surfaces of cells expressing negatively charged phospholipids--which include phosphatidylserine (PS)--on their outer membrane. PS-bearing surfaces are able to increase the efficiency of the reactions by concentrating and co-localizing coagulation factors.. Aggregation of platelets are analyzed and compared to adhesion of platelet to erythrocyte and to endothelial cells. This abstract is replacing MAR16-2015-020003.

  10. Evaluation of platelet function using multiple electrode platelet aggregometry in dogs with septic peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ronald H L; Chan, Daniel L

    2016-09-01

    To assess platelet function via multiple electrode platelet aggregometry (MEPA) in dogs with septic peritonitis and in healthy dogs. The secondary aim was to determine if there is prognostic significance to changes in platelet function observed in septic dogs. Prospective, observational cohort study conducted from January 2012 to March 2014. University teaching hospital. Twenty dogs with septic peritonitis and 23 healthy dogs. None. MEPA using arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate, and collagen (COL) as agonists was measured within 24 hours of diagnosis of sepsis. Compared to healthy dogs, platelet aggregation was reduced in dogs with septic peritonitis for all agonists (P peritonitis. Circulating platelets from dogs with septic peritonitis have diminished aggregation in response to multiple platelet agonists. MEPA may serve as an assessment tool for illness severity in this patient population. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  11. [Glycoproteins, inherited diseases of platelets, and the role of platelets in wound healing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurden, Alan T; Nurden, Paquita

    2013-02-01

    Recognition that platelets have a glycocalyx rich in membrane glycoproteins prompted the discovery in France that inherited bleeding syndromes due to defects of platelet adhesion and aggregation were caused by deficiencies in major receptors at the platelet surface. Identification of the alpha IIb beta3 integrin prompted the development of powerful anti-thrombotic drugs that have gained worldwide use. Since these discoveries, the genetic causes of many other defects of platelet function and production have been elucidated, with the identification of an ADP receptor, P2 Y12, another widespread target for anti-thrombotic drugs. Discovery of the molecular basis of a rare disease of storage of biologically active proteins in platelet alpha-granules has been accompanied by the recognition of the roles of platelets in inflammation, the innate immune system and tissue repair, opening new avenues for therapeutic advances.

  12. Decrease in platelet activating factor stimulated phosphoinositide turnover during storage of human platelets in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.G.; Shukla, S.D. (Univ. of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia (USA))

    1987-05-01

    Human platelet concentrate from the American Red Cross Blood Center was stored at 24{degree}C in a shaker and aliquots were taken out at time intervals aseptically. Platelet activating factor (PAF) stimulated turnover of phosphoinositide (PPI) was monitored by assaying {sup 32}P incorporation into phosphoinositides using platelet rich plasma (PRP). Platelets in PRP were incubated with 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} M PAF at 37{degree}C with gentle shaking and after 5 min their lipids were extracted and analysed by TLC for {sup 32}P-phosphoinositides. The percent stimulation of {sup 32}P incorporation by PAF (over control) into PPI was approximately 250, 100, 60, 25 and 20 on days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6, respectively. This indicated a dramatic decrease in PAF responsive turnover of platelet PPI during storage. These findings have important implications in relation to PAF receptor activity and viability of platelets at different periods of storage.

  13. Platelets: at the nexus of antimicrobial defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Michael R

    2014-06-01

    Platelets have traditionally been viewed as fragmentary mediators of coagulation. However, recent molecular and cellular evidence suggests that they have multiple roles in host defence against infection. From first-responders that detect pathogens and rapidly deploy host-defence peptides, to beacons that recruit and enhance leukocyte functions in the context of infection, to liaisons that facilitate the T cell-B cell crosstalk that is required in adaptive immunity, platelets represent a nexus at the intersection of haemostasis and antimicrobial host defence. In this Review, I consider recent insights into the antimicrobial roles of platelets, which are mediated both directly and indirectly to integrate innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogens.

  14. Transcellular lipoxygenase metabolism between monocytes and platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigby, T.D.; Meslier, N. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1989-09-15

    We have examined the effects of co-culture and in vitro co-stimulation on lipoxygenase metabolism in monocytes and platelets. Monocytes were obtained from the peripheral blood of normal volunteers by discontinuous gradient centrifugation and adherence to tissue culture plastic. Platelets were obtained from the platelet-rich plasma of the same donor. When 10(9) platelets and 2.5 x 10(6) monocytes were co-stimulated with 1 microM A23187, these preparations released greater quantities of 12(S)-hydroxy-10-trans-5,8,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid, 5(S),12-(S)dihydroxy-6,10-trans-8,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid, and leukotriene C4, 5(S)-hydroxy-6(R)-S-glutathionyl-7,9-trans-11,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic (LTC4) when compared with monocytes alone. Release of arachidonic acid, 5-HETE, delta 6-trans-LTB4, and delta 6-trans-12-epi-LTB4 from monocytes was decreased in the presence of platelets. A dose-response curve was constructed and revealed that the above changes became evident when the platelet number exceeded 10(7). Dual radiolabeling experiments with 3H- and 14C-arachidonic acid revealed that monocytes provided arachidonic acid, 5-HETE, and LTA4 for further metabolism by the platelet. Monocytes did not metabolize platelet intermediates detectably. In addition, as much as 1.2 microM 12(S)-hydroxy-10-trans-5,8,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid and 12(S)-hydroperoxy-10-trans-5,8,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid had no effect on monocyte lipoxygenase metabolism. Platelets were capable of converting LTA4 to LTC4, but conversion of LTA4 to LTB4 was not detected. We conclude that the monocyte and platelet lipoxygenase pathways undergo a transcellular lipoxygenase interaction that differs from the interaction of the neutrophil and platelet lipoxygenase pathways. In this interaction monocytes provide intermediate substrates for further metabolic conversion by platelets in an unidirectional manner.

  15. Flow cytometric assessment of activation of peripheral blood platelets in dogs with normal platelet count and asymptomatic thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żmigrodzka, M; Guzera, M; Winnicka, A

    2016-01-01

    Platelets play a crucial role in hemostasis. Their activation has not yet been evaluated in healthy dogs with a normal and low platelet count. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of activators on platelet activation in dogs with a normal platelet count and asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. 72 clinically healthy dogs were enrolled. Patients were allocated into three groups. Group 1 consisted of 30 dogs with a normal platelet count, group 2 included 22 dogs with a platelet count between 100 and 200×109/l and group 3 consisted of 20 dogs with a platelet count lower than 100×109/l. Platelet rich-plasma (PRP) was obtained from peripheral blood samples using tripotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (K3-EDTA) as anticoagulant. Next, platelets were stimulated using phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate or thrombin, stabilized using procaine or left unstimulated. The expression of CD51 and CD41/CD61 was evaluated. Co-expression of CD41/CD61 and Annexin V served as a marker of platelet activation. The expression of CD41/CD61 and CD51 did not differ between the 3 groups. Thrombin-stimulated platelets had a significantly higher activity in dogs with a normal platelet count than in dogs with asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. Procaine inhibited platelet activity in all groups. In conclusion, activation of platelets of healthy dogs in vitro varied depending on the platelet count and platelet activator.

  16. Neuronal damage by secretory phospholipase A2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez de Turco, Elena B; Diemer, Nils H; Bazan, Nicolas G

    2003-01-01

    Activation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) is an early event in brain injury, which leads to the formation and accumulation of bioactive lipids: platelet-activating factor (PAF), free arachidonic acid, and eicosanoids. A cross-talk between secretory PLA(2) (sPLA(2)) and cPLA(2) in neura...

  17. Pathogen-Reduced, Extended Platelet Storage in Platelet Additive Solution (PAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    concentrations will be performed to ensure the desired concentration was achieved. Platelet Additive Solutions are isotonic solutions used to replace a...Sherrill J. Slichter, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Bloodworks Northwest Seattle, WA 98104 REPORT DATE: October 2016 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pathogen-Reduced, Extended Platelet Storage in Platelet Additive Solution (PAS) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0441 5b. GRANT

  18. Xanthohumol, a Prenylated Flavonoid from Hops (Humulus lupulus), Prevents Platelet Activation in Human Platelets

    OpenAIRE

    Ye-Ming Lee; Kuo-Hsien Hsieh; Wan-Jung Lu; Hsiu-Chu Chou; Duen-Suey Chou; Li-Ming Lien; Joen-Rong Sheu; Kuan-Hung Lin

    2012-01-01

    Xanthohumol is the principal prenylated flavonoid in the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.). Xanthohumol was found to be a very potent cancer chemopreventive agent through regulation of diverse mechanisms. However, no data are available concerning the effects of xanthohumol on platelet activation. The aim of this paper was to examine the antiplatelet effect of xanthohumol in washed human platelets. In the present paper, xanthohumol exhibited more-potent activity in inhibiting platelet aggregation...

  19. Platelet Lysates Produced from Expired Platelet Concentrates Support Growth and Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Mjoll Jonsdottir-Buch; Ramona Lieder; Olafur Eysteinn Sigurjonsson

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells are promising candidates in regenerative cell therapy. Conventional culture methods involve the use of animal substances, specifically fetal bovine serum as growth supplement. Since the use of animal-derived products is undesirable for human applications, platelet lysates produced from human platelets are an attractive alternative. This is especially true if platelet lysates from already approved transfusion units at blood banks can be utilized. The purpose ...

  20. Revascularization of Immature Necrotic Teeth: Platelet rich Fibrin an Edge over Platelet rich Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Neelam Mittal; Isha Narang

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Revascularization is one such entity that has found its clinical application in the field of endodontics for the manage-ment of immature permanent necrotic teeth. The protocols for revascularization of such teeth focus especially on delivery of stem cells and scaffolds in a nonsurgical manner rather than concentrated growth micro molecules.The hypothesis: This article proposes the role of platelet concentrates such as platelet rich fibrin (PRF) and platelet rich plasma (PRP) in ...

  1. Platelet lipidomics: a modern day perspective on lipid discovery and characterization in platelets

    OpenAIRE

    O’Donnell, Valerie B.; Murphy, Robert C.; Watson, Steve P.

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are diverse families of biomolecules that perform essential structural and signaling roles in platelets. Their formation and metabolism is tightly controlled by enzymes and signal transduction pathways, and their dysregulation leads to significant defects in platelet function and disease. Platelet activation is associated with significant changes to membrane lipids, and formation of diverse bioactive lipids that play essential roles in hemostasis. In recent years, new generation mass s...

  2. Platelet-rich fibrin matrix for facial plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Anthony P; Saman, Masoud

    2012-05-01

    Platelets are known primarily for their role in hemostasis, but there is increasing interest in the effect of platelets on wound healing. Platelet isolates such as platelet-rich plasma have been advocated to enhance and accelerate wound healing. This article describes the use of a novel preparation, platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM), for facial plastic surgery applications such as volume augmentation, fat transfer supplementation, and as an adjunct to open surgical procedures.

  3. Platelet interaction with bacterial toxins and secreted products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Oonagh

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria that enter the bloodstream will encounter components of the cellular and soluble immune response. Platelets contribute to this response and have emerged as an important target for bacterial pathogens. Bacteria produce diverse extracellular proteins and toxins that have been reported to modulate platelet function. These interactions can result in complete or incomplete platelet activation or inhibition of platelet activation, depending on the bacteria and bacterial product. The nature of the platelet response may be highly relevant to disease pathogenesis.

  4. Single-step separation of platelets from whole blood coupled with digital quantification by interfacial platelet cytometry (iPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basabe-Desmonts, L; Ramstrom, S; Meade, G; O'Neill, S; Riaz, A; Lee, L P; Ricco, A J; Kenny, D

    2010-09-21

    We report the efficient single-step separation of individual platelets from unprocessed whole blood, enabling digital quantification of platelet function using interfacial platelet cytometry (iPC) on a chip. iPC is accomplished by the precision micropatterning of platelet-specific protein surfaces on solid substrates. By separating platelets from whole blood using specific binding to protein spots of a defined size, iPC implements a simple incubate-and-rinse approach, without sample preparation, that enables (1) the study of platelets in the physiological situation of interaction with a protein surface, (2) the choice of the number of platelets bound on each protein spot, from one to many, (3) control of the platelet-platelet distance, including the possibility to study noninteracting single platelets, (4) digital quantification (counting) of platelet adhesion to selected protein matrices, enabling statistical characterization of platelet subpopulations from meaningfully large numbers of single platelets, (5) the study of platelet receptor expression and spatial distribution, and (6) a detailed study of the morphology of isolated single platelets at activation levels that can be manipulated. To date, we have demonstrated 1-4 of the above list. Platelets were separated from whole blood using iPC with fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor (VWF), and anti-CD42b antibody printed "spots" ranging from a fraction of one to several platelet diameters (2-24 μm). The number of platelets captured per spot depends strongly on the protein matrix and the surface area of the spot, together with the platelet volume, morphology, and activation state. Blood samples from healthy donors, a May-Hegglin-anomaly patient, and a Glanzmann's Thrombasthenia patient were analyzed via iPC to confirm the specificity of the interaction between protein matrices and platelets. For example, the results indicate that platelets interact with fibrinogen spots only through the fibrinogen receptor (

  5. Thrombopoietin induces p-selectin expression on platelets and subsequent platelet/leukocyte interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbles, Heather E; Navara, Christopher S; Hupke, Michael A; Vassilev, Alexei O; Uckun, Fatih M

    2002-04-12

    Ligation of thrombopoietin (TPO) to the platelet c-Mpl receptor induces numerous biochemical pathways in the absence of aggregation. Two forms of recombinant TPO are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of thrombocytopenia. This study focuses on the effects of the full-length recombinant human TPO (rhTPO) on platelets in a whole blood system. Platelet-leukocyte associations (PLAs) were visualized following rhTPO stimulation as CD42b/CD 45 double positive clusters by FACS analysis. Treatment of washed platelets with rhTPO induced granule release and expression of the leukocyte adhesion receptor P-selectin (CD 62P) in the absence of aggregation and calcium mobilization. RhTPO also induced platelet-leukocyte interactions in whole blood. Following stimulation, leukocytes were recruited by platelets through P-selectin in a calcium-dependent manner. rhTPO stimulates platelet-leukocyte associations in whole blood through expression of platelet P-selectin. To our knowledge, this is the first report that identifies TPO as a promoter of platelet-leukocyte interactions.

  6. Platelets and erythrocyte-bound platelets bind infectious HIV-1 in plasma of chronically infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Zoltan; Jagodzinski, Linda L; Eller, Michael A; Thelian, Doris; Matyas, Gary R; Kunz, Anjali N; Alving, Carl R

    2013-01-01

    Chronic HIV-1 infection is associated with persistent viremia in most patients, but it remains unclear how free virus may survive the potential hostile effects of plasma. We investigated whether sites might exist on the surfaces of circulating blood cells for protection of infectious HIV-1 particles. Red blood cells (RBC) either from blood of uninfected normal individuals, or from blood obtained without EDTA from chronically infected HIV-1 patients, invariably contained a small number of RBC having attached platelets as determined by flow cytometry, light microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy. After mixing normal RBC with platelet-rich plasma, discrete populations of RBC, platelets, and complexes of platelets attached to RBC were purified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Upon incubation of purified cells or platelets with HIV-1 followed by washing and co-incubation with CD4-positive peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), platelets, and platelet-RBC complexes, but not platelet-free RBC, caused infection of PBMC. Infection was prevented by pre-treating the platelet-RBC complexes with EDTA. Plasma and RBC (comprising a RBC/platelet-RBC mixture) from chronically infected patients with low viral loads were also co-incubated with PBMC ex vivo to determine the presence of infectious HIV-1. All freshly isolated plasmas from the HIV-1-infected donors, obtained in the absence of anticoagulant, were noninfectious. Interestingly, the RBC from most of the patients caused cell-cell infection of PBMC that was prevented by stripping the RBC with EDTA. A monoclonal antibody to DC-SIGN partially inhibited cell-cell HIV-1 infection of PBMC by normal RBC pre-incubated with platelets and HIV-1. We conclude: (a) platelet-free EDTA-free plasma from chronically infected HIV-1 patients, although containing viral RNA, is an environment that lacks detectable infectious HIV-1; (b) platelets and platelet-RBC complexes, but not purified RBC, bind infectious HIV-1; (c) DC

  7. Platelets and erythrocyte-bound platelets bind infectious HIV-1 in plasma of chronically infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Beck

    Full Text Available Chronic HIV-1 infection is associated with persistent viremia in most patients, but it remains unclear how free virus may survive the potential hostile effects of plasma. We investigated whether sites might exist on the surfaces of circulating blood cells for protection of infectious HIV-1 particles. Red blood cells (RBC either from blood of uninfected normal individuals, or from blood obtained without EDTA from chronically infected HIV-1 patients, invariably contained a small number of RBC having attached platelets as determined by flow cytometry, light microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy. After mixing normal RBC with platelet-rich plasma, discrete populations of RBC, platelets, and complexes of platelets attached to RBC were purified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Upon incubation of purified cells or platelets with HIV-1 followed by washing and co-incubation with CD4-positive peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, platelets, and platelet-RBC complexes, but not platelet-free RBC, caused infection of PBMC. Infection was prevented by pre-treating the platelet-RBC complexes with EDTA. Plasma and RBC (comprising a RBC/platelet-RBC mixture from chronically infected patients with low viral loads were also co-incubated with PBMC ex vivo to determine the presence of infectious HIV-1. All freshly isolated plasmas from the HIV-1-infected donors, obtained in the absence of anticoagulant, were noninfectious. Interestingly, the RBC from most of the patients caused cell-cell infection of PBMC that was prevented by stripping the RBC with EDTA. A monoclonal antibody to DC-SIGN partially inhibited cell-cell HIV-1 infection of PBMC by normal RBC pre-incubated with platelets and HIV-1. We conclude: (a platelet-free EDTA-free plasma from chronically infected HIV-1 patients, although containing viral RNA, is an environment that lacks detectable infectious HIV-1; (b platelets and platelet-RBC complexes, but not purified RBC, bind infectious HIV

  8. The expression levels of platelet adhesive receptors in PRP derived platelet concentrates during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nassaji

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Major platelet adhesive receptors that contribute significantly to thrombus formation include platelet receptor glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα of the GPIb-IX-V complex and platelet glycoprotein VI (GPVI. GPIbα plays a crucial role in platelet tethering to sub-endothelial matrix, which initiates thrombus formation at arterial shear rates, whereas GPVI is critically involved in platelets firm adhesion to the site of injury regardless of shear condition. During storage, platelets experience some changes that deleteriously affect the expression levels of platelet receptors, which in turn can alter platelet functional behaviors. Considering the important roles of GPIbα and GPVI in platelet adhesion, it seems that any dramatic changes in the expression levels of these receptors can influence adhesive function of transfused platelets. Thereby examining GPIbα and GPVI expression during the storage of platelet concentrates may provide some useful information about the functional quality of these products after transfusion. Methods: In our experimental study, 5 PRP-platelet concentrates were randomly obtained from Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization (IBTO. All the platelet products met the standard quality assessment based on AABB (American Association of Blood Banks guidelines. Washed platelets were subjected to flowcytometry analysis for the evaluation of GPIbα and GPVI receptor expression in day 1, 3 and 5 after storage. Data were presented as mean fluorescence intensity (MFI and analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’s multiple comparison test. Results: The GPIbα expression on first day (MFI=86±5.9 was reduced three days after storage (MFI= 69±6.9. The expression levels continued to reduce until day 5 in which GPIbα expression was markedly decreased to (MFI= 61±7.7 (P= 0.0094. GPVI expression on the days 1, 3 and 5 after storage were 20.6±3.3, 24±2.5 and 14±4.9, respectively. The results showed a significant decrease of

  9. Understanding platelet generation from megakaryocytes: implications for in vitro-derived platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Xiuli; Poncz, Mortimer; Gadue, Paul; French, Deborah L

    2016-03-10

    Platelets are anucleate cytoplasmic discs derived from megakaryocytes that circulate in the blood and have major roles in hemostasis, thrombosis, inflammation, and vascular biology. Platelet transfusions are required to prevent the potentially life-threatening complications of severe thrombocytopenia seen in a variety of medical settings including cancer therapy, trauma, and sepsis. Platelets used in the clinic are currently donor-derived which is associated with concerns over sufficient availability, quality, and complications due to immunologic and/or infectious issues. To overcome our dependence on donor-derived platelets for transfusion, efforts have been made to generate in vitro-based platelets. Work in this area has advanced our understanding of the complex processes that megakaryocytes must undergo to generate platelets both in vivo and in vitro. This knowledge has also defined the challenges that must be overcome to bring in vitro-based platelet manufacturing to a clinical reality. This review will focus on our understanding of committed megakaryocytes and platelet release in vivo and in vitro, and how this knowledge can guide the development of in vitro-derived platelets for clinical application.

  10. Donor demographic and laboratory predictors of single donor platelet yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet transfusions are essential to prevent morbidity and mortality in patients who are severely thrombocytopenic and are at risk of spontaneous bleeding. Platelets are currently obtained either by fractionation of whole blood or by platelet apheresis. The quality of single donor platelets (SDP in terms of yield influences platelet recovery in the recipient and allows prolonging intervals between transfusions. Material and Methods: Donor demographic and laboratory data were analyzed prior to performing plateletpheresis to identify donor factors that influence platelet yield. The study was conducted on 130 healthy, first-time plateletpheresis donors over a period of 4 years. The plateletpheresis procedures were performed using Fresenius Kabi COM.TEC and Hemonetics MCS plus separator. A relationship between pre-donation donor variables and yield of platelets was studied using the Pearson correlation. Results: The mean platelet yield was 3.160.62x1011 per unit. A positive correlation was observed between platelet yield and pre-donation platelet count, body mass index (BMI; Kg/m2 of the donor, while a negative correlation was observed between age and the platelet yield. Conclusion: Donor pre-donation platelet count, BMI and donor age influence platelet yield. Young healthy donors with a high platelet count and better BMI can give a better platelet yield in the SDP.

  11. Propranolol modifies platelet serotonergic mechanisms in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zółtowski, R; Pawlak, R; Matys, T; Pietraszek, M; Buczko, W

    2002-06-01

    Though the mechanisms for the vascular actions of vasodilatory beta-blockers are mostly determined, some of their interactions with monoaminergic systems are not elucidated. Because there are evidences supporting a possible involvement of serotonin (5-HT) in the actions of beta-blockers, we studied the effect of propranolol on peripheral serotonergic mechanisms in normotensive and Goldblatt two-kidney - one clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats. In both groups of animals propranolol decreased systolic blood pressure, significantly increased whole blood serotonin concentration and at the same time it decreased platelet serotonin level. The uptake of the amine by platelets from hypertensive animals was lower than that of normotensive animals and it was decreased by propranolol only in the latter. In both groups propranolol inhibited potentiation of ADP-induced platelet aggregation by serotonin. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that propranolol modifies platelet serotonergic mechanisms in normotensive and renal hypertensive rats.

  12. Activation of human platelets by misfolded proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herczenik, E.; Bouma, B.; Korporaal, J.A.; Strangi, R.; Zeng, Q.; Gros, P.; van Eck, M.; van Berkel, T.J.C.; Gebbink, M.F.B.G.; Akkerman, J.W.N.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Protein misfolding diseases result from the deposition of insoluble protein aggregates that often contain fibrils called amyloid. Amyloids are found in Alzheimer disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and systemic amyloidosis,which are diseases where platelet activation might be

  13. Mapuche herbal medicine inhibits blood platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Tarnow, Inge; Guzman, Alfonso; Mølgaard, Per; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2012-01-01

    12 plant species traditionally used by the Mapuche people in Chile to treat wounds and inflammations have been evaluated for their direct blood platelet inhibition. Seven of the 12 tested plant species showed platelet inhibitory effect in sheep blood, and four of these were also able to inhibit the ADP- (5.0 μM) and collagen- (2.0 μg/mL) induced aggregations in human blood. These four species in respective extracts (in brackets) were Blechnum chilense (MeOH), Luma apiculata (H(2)O), Amomyrtus luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1) and Cestrum parqui (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1). The platelet aggregating inhibitory effects of A. luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1), and L. apiculata (H(2)O) were substantial and confirmed by inhibition of platelet surface activation markers.

  14. Mapuche Herbal Medicine Inhibits Blood Platelet Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Skanderup Falkenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 12 plant species traditionally used by the Mapuche people in Chile to treat wounds and inflammations have been evaluated for their direct blood platelet inhibition. Seven of the 12 tested plant species showed platelet inhibitory effect in sheep blood, and four of these were also able to inhibit the ADP- (5.0 μM and collagen- (2.0 μg/mL induced aggregations in human blood. These four species in respective extracts (in brackets were Blechnum chilense (MeOH, Luma apiculata (H2O, Amomyrtus luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1 and Cestrum parqui (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1. The platelet aggregating inhibitory effects of A. luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1, and L. apiculata (H2O were substantial and confirmed by inhibition of platelet surface activation markers.

  15. Relationship between platelet parameters and sudden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between platelet parameters and sudden sensorineural hearing loss: a ... Data source: A PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, OVID, EMBASE and ... relationship of PDW and SSNHL but due to the limited studies on this subject more ...

  16. Effects of drugs on platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, E E

    1977-01-01

    Numerous drugs and chemicals affect the function of human blood platelets. The mechanism of action of some medications is partly understood. Aspirin is the most frequently involved drug. It appears to interfere with the platelet release reaction by acetylation of a platelet membrane protein which may be involved in the synthesis of prostaglandins. Other anti-inflammatory drugs, including indomethacin, phenylbutazone, ibuprophen (Motrin) and clonixin, also interfere with the release reaction but have a shorter acting course than aspirin. Some drugs stimulate adenylcyclase (gliclazide) or block phosphodiesterase, (dipyridamole, caffeine) both of which actions lead to an increase in adenosine cyclic 3':5' monophosphate (cAMP) and decrease aggregation by adenosine diphosphate (ADP). These interactions should be known to clinical scientists since patients using these medicaments may manifest abnormal platelet function tests in the laboratory and mild hemorrhagic syndromes in the clinic.

  17. Physiopathology of blood platelets and development of platelet substitutes. Progress report, August 1, 1975--July 31, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini, M G

    1976-04-28

    Progress is reported on studies on the physiology of blood platelets in thrombocytopenic patients and rabbits. Methods for the detection of platelet antibodies and the preservation of platelets in vitro were investigated. Studies on the effect of low doses of x irradiation (up to 1000 R) on platelet function indicate that platelets exposed to ionizing radiation have increased functional activity. A list is included of publications that report the results of the studies in detail.

  18. Platelet Glycoprotein lb-1X and Malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    patient with systemic lupus erythematosus . Am J Hematol 2001; 67:262-67. 20. Arthur JF, Dunkley S and Andrews RK. Platelet glycoprotein VI-related...Moroi M. Antibody against platelet membrane glyco- protein VI in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus . Am J Hematol 2001; 67: 262–7. 9 Arthur JF...Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the

  19. Dengue virus binding and replication by platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ayo Y; Sutherland, Michael R; Pryzdial, Edward L G

    2015-07-16

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes ∼200 million cases of severe flulike illness annually, escalating to life-threatening hemorrhagic fever or shock syndrome in ∼500,000. Although thrombocytopenia is typical of both mild and severe diseases, the mechanism triggering platelet reduction is incompletely understood. As a probable initiating event, direct purified DENV-platelet binding was followed in the current study by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and confirmed antigenically. Approximately 800 viruses specifically bound per platelet at 37°C. Fewer sites were observed at 25°C, the blood bank storage temperature (∼350 sites), or 4°C, known to attenuate virus cell entry (∼200 sites). Dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) and heparan sulfate proteoglycan were implicated as coreceptors because only the combination of anti-DC-SIGN and low-molecular-weight heparin prevented binding. Interestingly, at 37°C and 25°C, platelets replicated the positive sense single-stranded RNA genome of DENV by up to ∼4-fold over 7 days. Further time course experiments demonstrated production of viral NS1 protein, which is known to be highly antigenic in patient serum. The infectivity of DENV intrinsically decayed in vitro, which was moderated by platelet-mediated generation of viable progeny. This was shown using a transcription inhibitor and confirmed by freeze-denatured platelets being incapable of replicating the DENV genome. For the first time, these data demonstrate that platelets directly bind DENV saturably and produce infectious virus. Thus, expression of antigen encoded by DENV is a novel consideration in the pathogen-induced thrombocytopenia mechanism. These results furthermore draw attention to the possibility that platelets may produce permissive RNA viruses in addition to DENV.

  20. Platelet dynamics in three-dimensional simulation of whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidkhah, Koohyar; Diamond, Scott L; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2014-06-03

    A high-fidelity computational model using a 3D immersed boundary method is used to study platelet dynamics in whole blood. We focus on the 3D effects of the platelet-red blood cell (RBC) interaction on platelet margination and near-wall dynamics in a shear flow. We find that the RBC distribution in whole blood becomes naturally anisotropic and creates local clusters and cavities. A platelet can enter a cavity and use it as an express lane for a fast margination toward the wall. Once near the wall, the 3D nature of the platelet-RBC interaction results in a significant platelet movement in the transverse (vorticity) direction and leads to anisotropic platelet diffusion within the RBC-depleted zone or cell-free layer (CFL). We find that the anisotropy in platelet motion further leads to the formation of platelet clusters, even in the absence of any platelet-platelet adhesion. The transverse motion, and the size and number of the platelet clusters are observed to increase with decreasing CFL thickness. The 3D nature of the platelet-RBC collision also induces fluctuations in off-shear plane orientation and, hence, a rotational diffusion of the platelets. Although most marginated platelets are observed to tumble just outside the RBC-rich zone, platelets further inside the CFL are observed to flow with an intermittent dynamics that alters between sliding and tumbling, as a result of the off-shear plane rotational diffusion, bringing them even closer to the wall. To our knowledge, these new findings are based on the fundamentally 3D nature of the platelet-RBC interaction, and they underscore the importance of using cellular-scale 3D models of whole blood to understand platelet margination and near-wall platelet dynamics.

  1. [The role of blood platelets in infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micota, Bartłomiej; Sadowska, Beata; Różalska, Barbara

    2015-05-17

    Platelets are primarily associated with their main function, hemostasis, although it is known that these cells also exhibit biological activity in cancer progression, inflammation and infectious processes. During infection platelets, due to the expression of specific receptors - Toll-like receptors (TLRs) - which recognize molecular patterns associated with pathogens - pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) - are activated by the presence of microorganism components and/or substances released from damaged cells/tissue. Further antimicrobial activity of platelets is based on their capacity for phagocytosis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the synthesis, storage and release of proteins/peptides with antimicrobial activity. Another mechanism of platelet action is their immunomodulatory activity. It is based mainly on the ability to secrete chemotactic factors allowing the accumulation of professional immunocompetent cells at the site of infection, thus enhancing the effective eradication of an infectious agent. In chronic infections, platelets, due to release of numerous growth factors and various cytokines, support mechanisms of acquired immunity. They accelerate the maturation of dendritic cells, stimulate B cells to be immunoglobulin-producing plasma cells and potentiate the activity of T cells. Unfortunately, in certain situations (the existence of specific risk factors) the interaction of microorganisms with activated platelets may also be the cause of pathology within the cardiovascular system.

  2. Effects of irradiation on platelet function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, G.; Adams, G.A.; Labow, R.S.

    1988-09-01

    Current medical practice involves the irradiation of blood components, including platelet concentrates, before their administration to patients with severe immunosuppression. The authors studied the effect of irradiation on in vitro platelet function and the leaching of plasticizers from the bag, both immediately and after 5 days of storage. The platelet count, white cell count, pH, glucose, lactate, platelet aggregation and release reaction, and serotonin uptake were not altered by the irradiation of random-donor or apheresis units with 2000 rads carried out at 0 and 24 hours and 5 days after collection. The leaching of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate from the plastic bags followed by the conversion to mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate was not increased by irradiation. Therefore, it is possible to irradiate platelet concentrates on the day of collection and subsequently store them for at least 5 days while maintaining in vitro function. This procedure could have considerable benefit for blood banks involved in the provision of many platelet products.

  3. Treatment of osteochondral injuries with platelet gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Danieli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Treatments for injured articular cartilage have not advanced to the point that efficient regeneration is possible. However, there has been an increase in the use of platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of several orthopedic disorders, including chondral injuries. Our hypothesis is that the treatment of chondral injuries with platelet gel results in higher-quality repair tissue after 180 days compared with chondral injuries not treated with gel. METHODS: A controlled experimental laboratory study was performed on 30 male rabbits to evaluate osteochondral injury repair after treatment with or without platelet gel. Osteochondral injuries were surgically induced in both knees of each rabbit at the medial femoral condyle. The left knee injury was filled with the platelet gel, and the right knee was not treated. Microscopic analysis of both knee samples was performed after 180 days using a histological grading scale. RESULTS: The only histological evaluation criterion that was not significantly different between treatments was metachromasia. The group that was treated with platelet gel exhibited superior results in all other criteria (cell morphology, surface regularity, chondral thickness and repair tissue integration and in the total score. CONCLUSION: The repair tissue was histologically superior after 180 days in the study group treated with platelet gel compared with the group of untreated injuries.

  4. Lymphocyte-platelet crosstalk in Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznik, Boris I; Vitkovsky, Yuri A; Gvozdeva, Olga V; Solpov, Alexey V; Magen, Eli

    2014-03-01

    Platelets can modulate lymphocytes' role in the pathophysiology of thyroid autoimmune diseases. The present study was performed to clarify the status of platelet-lymphocyte subpopulations aggregation in circulating blood in patients with Graves' disease (GD). One hundred and fifty patients with GD (GD group) and 45 hyperthyroid patients with toxic multinodular goiter (TMG group) were recruited in the study. Control group consisted 150 healthy subjects. Immunophenotyping of lymphocytes was performed by flow cytometry. Detection of lymphocyte-platelet aggregates (LPAs) was done using light microscope after Ficoll-gradient centrifugation. The group of GD patients exhibited reduced CD8 lymphocyte and higher CD19 cell counts compared with TMG group and healthy controls. A greater number of activated CD3, HLA-DR+ lymphocytes were observed in GD than in TMG group and control group. GD group was characterized by lower blood platelet count (232 ± 89 × 10 cells/µL) than TMG group (251 ± 97 × 10 cells/µL; P < 0.05) and control group (262 ± 95 × 10 cells/µL; P < 0.05). In GD group, more platelet-bound lymphocytes (332 ± 91 /µL) were found than that in TMG group (116 ± 67/µL, P < 0.005) and control group (104 ± 58 /µL; P < 0.001). GD is associated with higher levels of activated lymphocytes and lymphocyte-platelet aggregates.

  5. A new ibuprofen derivative inhibits platelet aggregation and ROS mediated platelet apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodagahalli S Rakesh

    Full Text Available Thrombocytopenia is a serious issue connected with the pathogenesis of several human diseases including chronic inflammation, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs and other oxidative stress-associated pathologies. The indiscriminate use of antibiotics and other biological drugs are reported to result in thrombocytopenia, which is often neglected during the treatment regime. In addition, augmented oxidative stress induced by drugs and pathological conditions has also been shown to induce thrombocytopenia, which seems to be the most obvious consequence of elevated rate of platelet apoptosis. Thus, blocking oxidative stress-induced platelet apoptosis would be of prime importance in order to negotiate thrombocytopenia and associated human pathologies. The current study presents the synthesis and platelet protective nature of novel ibuprofen derivatives. The potent anti-oxidant ibuprofen derivative 4f was selected for the study and the platelet protective efficacy and platelet aggregation inhibitory property has been demonstrated. The compound 4f dose dependently mitigates the oxidative stress-induced platelet apoptosis in both platelet rich plasma and washed platelets. The platelet protective nature of compound 4f was determined by assessing various apoptotic markers such as ROS generation, cytosolic Ca2+ levels, PS externalization, cytochrome C translocation, Caspase activation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytotoxicity, LDH leakage and tyrosine phosphorylation of cytosolic proteins. Furthermore, compound 4f dose dependently ameliorated agonist induced platelet aggregation. Therefore, compound 4f can be estimated as a potential candidate in the treatment regime of pathological disorders associated with platelet activation and apoptosis. In addition, compound 4f can be used as an auxiliary therapeutic agent in pathologies associated with thrombocytopenia.

  6. Assessment of quality of platelets preserved in plasma and platelet additive solution: A Malaysian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munirah Binti Mokhtar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A use of platelet additives solution (PAS improves storage conditions so as to give increased shelf life to platelets and to maintain hemostatic function. Objective: The present study was aimed to compare in vitro quality of platelet rich plasma (PRP-derived platelet concentrate (PC during extended period of storage in plasma and in additive solution (Composol PS and Fresenius. Study Design: Randomized 19 PCs each were used in the study for plasma and PAS as the storage medium. The measurement parameters, including pH, total white blood cell (WBC count, total platelet count, and platelet activation rate, were studied on day 1, day 5, and day 8 of the storage period. The sterility test was carried out on the eighth day of storage. Results: pH of PC suspended in PAS was significantly lower as compared to that in plasma (P < 0.001 for all the three days of sampling. The WBC count, both in plasma and in PAS, showed an acceptable values of being <0.2 Χ 10 9 /unit during the storage period. Platelet count in PAS was higher as compared to that in plasma, though it was not statistically significant. While both the groups showed increased platelet activation rate during the storage, the PCs suspended in PAS showed significantly higher platelet activation rate (p0.001. Results from sterility test showed no bacterial growth in the PCs in both the groups. Conclusion: Most parameters studied on platelet storage in suspending medium of native plasma and PAS remained well within the acceptable limits. However, the pH values and platelet activation rate significantly differed in PAS as compared with plasma.

  7. Studies on platelet function in bronchial asthma Part 2. Production of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid from platelets and the platelet-lymphocyte interaction in bronchial asthmatics

    OpenAIRE

    角南, 宏二

    1992-01-01

    To clarify the role of platelets in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma, the production of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid(12HETE) from platelets of asthmatics was examined by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). The effect of platelets on lymphocyte function was also studied by lymphocyte blastogenesis. The results were as follows : 1) The production of 12HETE from platelets of asthmatics were significantly higher than that of normal subjects(p

  8. Platelets kill intraerythrocytic malarial parasites and mediate survival to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorran, Brendan J; Marshall, Vikki M; de Graaf, Carolyn; Drysdale, Karen E; Shabbar, Meriam; Smyth, Gordon K; Corbin, Jason E; Alexander, Warren S; Foote, Simon J

    2009-02-01

    Platelets play a critical role in the pathogenesis of malarial infections by encouraging the sequestration of infected red blood cells within the cerebral vasculature. But platelets also have well-established roles in innate protection against microbial infections. We found that purified human platelets killed Plasmodium falciparum parasites cultured in red blood cells. Inhibition of platelet function by aspirin and other platelet inhibitors abrogated the lethal effect human platelets exert on P. falciparum parasites. Likewise, platelet-deficient and aspirin-treated mice were more susceptible to death during erythrocytic infection with Plasmodium chabaudi. Both mouse and human platelets bind malarial-infected red cells and kill the parasite within. These results indicate a protective function for platelets in the early stages of erythrocytic infection distinct from their role in cerebral malaria.

  9. Platelet inhibition by nitrite is dependent on erythrocytes and deoxygenation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirada Srihirun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nitrite is a nitric oxide (NO metabolite in tissues and blood, which can be converted to NO under hypoxia to facilitate tissue perfusion. Although nitrite is known to cause vasodilation following its reduction to NO, the effect of nitrite on platelet activity remains unclear. In this study, the effect of nitrite and nitrite+erythrocytes, with and without deoxygenation, on platelet activity was investigated. METHODOLOGY/FINDING: Platelet aggregation was studied in platelet-rich plasma (PRP and PRP+erythrocytes by turbidimetric and impedance aggregometry, respectively. In PRP, DEANONOate inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP while nitrite had no effect on platelets. In PRP+erythrocytes, the inhibitory effect of DEANONOate on platelets decreased whereas nitrite at physiologic concentration (0.1 µM inhibited platelet aggregation and ATP release. The effect of nitrite+erythrocytes on platelets was abrogated by C-PTIO (a membrane-impermeable NO scavenger, suggesting an NO-mediated action. Furthermore, deoxygenation enhanced the effect of nitrite as observed from a decrease of P-selectin expression and increase of the cGMP levels in platelets. The ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole blood showed inverse correlations with the nitrite levels in whole blood and erythrocytes. CONCLUSION: Nitrite alone at physiological levels has no effect on platelets in plasma. Nitrite in the presence of erythrocytes inhibits platelets through its reduction to NO, which is promoted by deoxygenation. Nitrite may have role in modulating platelet activity in the circulation, especially during hypoxia.

  10. Stability of lyophilized human platelets loaded with small molecule carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J X; Yang, C; Wan, W; Liu, M X; Ren, S P; Quan, G B; Han, Y

    2011-01-01

    Long-term preservation of platelets is a great challenge for blood transfusion centers, due to the required narrow storage temperature arange (22 ± 2 degree C). Short shelf life and potential bacterial growth often lead to the shortage of high-quality platelets. Freeze-dried preservation is thus believed to be a potential solution for long-term platelet storage without losing the hemostasis function. Here we report a new platelet preservation method, which uses small molecule carbohydrates to extend storage time and to maintain platelet function. The activities of lyophilized platelets that were stabilized with small molecule carbohydrate (e.g., cell viability, mean platelet volume, activation characteristics, and aggregation kinetics) were maintained after storage of 30, 60, and 90 days at room temperature, 4 degree C, and -20 degree C. The recovery of freeze-dried platelets was 87 percent in comparison to fresh platelets. The mean platelet volume of rehydrated platelets increased (from 6.8 fl to 8.0 fl). About 40 percent of rehydrated platelets was in the early-activated stage (PCA-1 positive) and 30 percent was in the terminal-activated stage (CD62P positive). The cell viability was about 60 percent as measured with CMFDA vital probes. The aggregation rate of rehydrated platelets after 90-day storage was similar to fresh platelets stored at 22 degree C ± 2 degree C.

  11. Platelet production in hypoxic and RBC-transfused mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    Platelet production rates were studied in hypoxic, red blood cell (RBC) transfused, and normal mice. In addition, platelet depletion was induced in some of the mice by injection of rabbit anti-mouse platelet serum (RAMPS) to stimulate platelet production. Hypoxia alone caused an increase in haematocrit and platelet count at 1 to 3 d, followed by a decrease in platelet counts to below normal values at 6 to 7 d. On the other hand, RBC transfusion caused increased haematocrit and decreased platelet count of mice at 1 to 4 d, with a return of platelet counts to normal by 5 to 6 d. Normal mice and mice transfused with RBC responded to platelet depletion with rebound-thrombocytosis with maximum platelet production 3 to 5 d later and elevated platelet counts on day 5 to 6. However, platelet production in platelet-depleted mice exposed to hypoxia was less marked, and platelet counts did not reach normal levels. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that hypoxia causes thrombocytopenia by stem cell competition between erythroid and megakaryocytic cell lines and/or inhibition of thrombopoietin production.

  12. Platelet activation determines the severity of thrombocytopenia in dengue infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Amrita; Nandi, Dipika; Batra, Harish; Singhal, Rashi; Annarapu, Gowtham K.; Bhattacharyya, Sankar; Seth, Tulika; Dar, Lalit; Medigeshi, Guruprasad R.; Vrati, Sudhanshu; Vikram, Naval K.; Guchhait, Prasenjit

    2017-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is common in patients with dengue virus (DENV) infections. With a focus on understanding the possible mechanism of thrombocytopenia in DENV infections we described a direct correlation between activation and depletion of platelets in patients. Our data showed a sharp decrease in platelet counts at day 4 of fever in patients. The high DENV genome copies in platelets correlated directly with the elevated platelet activation along with increased binding of complement factor C3 and IgG on their surface at day 4. Recovery in platelet count was observed on day 10 through day 6 and 8 with simultaneous decrease in platelet activation markers. Further, our in vitro data supported the above observations describing a concentration-dependent increase in platelet activation by DENV serotype-2. The high copy number of DENV2 genome in the platelet pellet correlated directly with platelet activation, microparticle generation and clot formation. Furthermore the DENV2-activated platelets were phagocytosed in large numbers by the monocytes. The DENV2-mediated lysis and clearance of platelets were abrogated in presence of platelet activation inhibitor, prostacyclin. These observations collectively suggest that platelet activation status is an important determinant of thrombocytopenia in dengue infections. A careful strategy of inactivation of platelets may rescue them from rapid destruction during DENV infections. PMID:28139770

  13. Sulfonylureas and on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsze, Ankie M; Van Werkum, Jochem W; Moral, Fulya; Ten Berg, Jurri N M; Hackeng, Christian M; Klungel, Olaf H; De Boer, Anthonius; Deneer, Vera H M

    2011-01-01

    Clopidogrel is a prodrug that needs to be converted in?vivo by several cytochrome (CYP) P450 iso-enzymes to become active. Both clopidogrel and the oral hypoglycemic drug class sulfonylureas are metabolized by the iso-enzyme CYP2C9. The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship of sulfonylureas and on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients undergoing elective coronary stent implantation. In this prospective, observational study, on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity was quantified using adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced light transmittance aggregometry in 139 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients undergoing elective coronary stent implantation treated with clopidogrel and aspirin. High on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity was defined as >70.7% platelet reactivity to 20 μmol/L ADP. A total of 53 patients (38.1%) were on concomitant treatment with sulfonylureas. The remaining 86 patients were on other hypoglycemic drugs. On-clopidogrel platelet reactivity was significantly higher in patients with concomitant sulfonylurea treatment as compared to patients without concomitant sulfonylurea treatment (for 5 μmol/L ADP: 46.0% ± 11.8 vs. 40.6% ± 16.0; p=0.035, adjusted p=0.032 and for 20 μmol/L ADP: 64.6% ± 10.8 vs. 58.7% ± 15.5; p=0.019, adjusted p=0.017). The concomitant use of sulfonylureas was associated with a 2.2-fold increased risk of high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.7, p=0.039 and after adjustment for confounders: OR(adj) 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-5.7, p=0.048). Concomitant treatment with sulfonylureas might be associated with decreased platelet inhibition by clopidogrel in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients on dual antiplatelet therapy undergoing elective coronary stent implantation.

  14. Uridine Triphosphate Thio Analogues Inhibit Platelet P2Y12 Receptor and Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Dursun; Tanislav, Christian; Sedding, Daniel; Parahuleva, Mariana; Santoso, Sentot; Troidl, Christian; Hamm, Christian W.; Aslam, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Platelet P2Y12 is an important adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor that is involved in agonist-induced platelet aggregation and is a valuable target for the development of anti-platelet drugs. Here we characterise the effects of thio analogues of uridine triphosphate (UTP) on ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Using human platelet-rich plasma, we demonstrate that UTP inhibits P2Y12 but not P2Y1 receptors and antagonises 10 µM ADP-induced platelet aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of ~250 µM. An eight-fold higher platelet inhibitory activity was observed with a 2-thio analogue of UTP (2S-UTP), with an IC50 of 30 µM. The 4-thio analogue (4S-UTP) with an IC50 of 7.5 µM was 33-fold more effective. A three-fold decrease in inhibitory activity, however, was observed by introducing an isobutyl group at the 4S- position. A complete loss of inhibition was observed with thio-modification of the γ phosphate of the sugar moiety, which yields an enzymatically stable analogue. The interaction of UTP analogues with P2Y12 receptor was verified by P2Y12 receptor binding and cyclic AMP (cAMP) assays. These novel data demonstrate for the first time that 2- and 4-thio analogues of UTP are potent P2Y12 receptor antagonists that may be useful for therapeutic intervention. PMID:28146050

  15. Glycoxidized HDL, HDL enriched with oxidized phospholipids and HDL from diabetic patients inhibit platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lê, Quang Huy; El Alaoui, Meddy; Véricel, Evelyne; Ségrestin, Bérénice; Soulère, Laurent; Guichardant, Michel; Lagarde, Michel; Moulin, Philippe; Calzada, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    High-density lipoproteins (HDL) possess atheroprotective properties including anti-thrombotic and antioxidant effects. Very few studies relate to the functional effects of oxidized HDL on platelets in type 2 diabetes (T2D). The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of in vitro glycoxidized HDL and HDL from patients with T2D on platelet aggregation and arachidonic acid signaling cascade. At the same time, the contents of hydroxylated fatty acids were assessed in HDL. Compared with control HDL, in vitro glycoxidized HDL had decreased proportions of linoleic (LA) and arachidonic (AA) acids in phospholipids and cholesteryl esters, and increased concentrations of hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids (9-HODE and 13-HODE) and 15-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE), derived from LA and AA respectively, especially hydroxy derivatives esterified in phospholipids. Glycoxidized HDL dose-dependently decreased collagen-induced platelet aggregation by binding to scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI). Glycoxidized HDL prevented collagen-induced increased phosphorylation of platelet p38 MAPK and cytosolic phospholipase A2, as well as intracellular calcium mobilization. HDL enriched with oxidized phosphatidylcholine (PC), namely PC(16:0/13-HODE) dose-dependently inhibited platelet aggregation. Increased concentrations of 9-HODE, 13-HODE, and 15-HETE in phospholipids (2.1-, 2.1-, and 2.4-fold increase, respectively) were found in HDL from patients with T2D, and these HDL also inhibited platelet aggregation via SR-BI. Our results suggest that in vitro glycoxidized HDL as well as HDL from patients with T2D inhibit platelet aggregation, and suggest that oxidized LA-containing phospholipids may contribute to the anti-aggregatory effects of glycoxidized HDL and HDL from patients with T2D.

  16. Glycoxidized HDL, HDL enriched with oxidized phospholipids and HDL from diabetic patients inhibit platelet function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lê, Quang Huy; El Alaoui, Meddy; Véricel, Evelyne; Ségrestin, Bérénice; Soulère, Laurent; Guichardant, Michel; Lagarde, Michel; Moulin, Philippe; Calzada, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Context High-density lipoproteins (HDL) possess atheroprotective properties including anti-thrombotic and antioxidant effects. Very few studies relate to the functional effects of oxidized HDL on platelets in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Objective The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of in vitro glycoxidized HDL, and HDL from T2D patients on platelet aggregation and arachidonic acid signaling cascade. At the same time, the contents of hydroxylated fatty acids were assessed in HDL. Results Compared to control HDL, in vitro glycoxidized HDL had decreased proportions of linoleic (LA) and arachidonic (AA) acids in phospholipids and cholesteryl esters, and increased concentrations of hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids (9-HODE and 13-HODE) and 15-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE), derived from LA and AA respectively, especially hydroxy derivatives esterified in phospholipids. Glycoxidized HDL dose-dependently decreased collagen-induced platelet aggregation by binding to SR-BI. Glycoxidized HDL prevented collagen-induced increased phosphorylation of platelet p38 MAPK and cytosolic phospholipase A2, as well as intracellular calcium mobilization. HDL enriched with oxidized phospholipids, namely PC(16:0/13-HODE) dose-dependently inhibited platelet aggregation. Increased concentrations of 9-HODE, 13-HODE and 15-HETE in phospholipids (2.1, 2.1 and 2.4-fold increase respectively) were found in HDL from patients with T2D, and these HDL also inhibited platelet aggregation via SR-BI. Conclusions Altogether, our results indicate that in vitro glycoxidized HDL as well as HDL from T2D patients inhibit platelet aggregation, and suggest that oxidized LA-containing phospholipids may contribute to the anti-aggregatory effects of glycoxidized HDL and HDL from T2D patients. PMID:25794249

  17. Anti-platelet Therapy Resistance – Concept, Mechanisms and Platelet Function Tests in Intensive Care Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărginean Alina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that critically ill patients require special attention and additional consideration during their treatment and management. The multiple systems and organ dysfunctions, typical of the critical patient, often results in different patterns of enteral absorption in these patients. Anti-platelet drugs are the cornerstone in treating patients with coronary and cerebrovascular disease. Dual anti-platelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel is the treatment of choice in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary interventions and is still widely used in patients with acute coronary syndromes. However, despite the use of dual anti-platelet therapy, some patients continue to experience cardiovascular ischemic events. Recurrence of ischemic events is partly attributed to the fact that some patients have poor inhibition of platelet reactivity despite treatment. These patients are considered low- or nonresponders to therapy. The underlying mechanisms leading to resistance are not yet fully elucidated and are probably multifactorial, cellular, genetic and clinical factors being implicated. Several methods have been developed to asses platelet function and can be used to identify patients with persistent platelet reactivity, which have an increased risk of thrombosis. In this paper, the concept of anti-platelet therapy resistance, the underlying mechanisms and the methods used to identify patients with low responsiveness to anti-platelet therapy will be highlighted with a focus on aspirin and clopidogrel therapy and addressing especially critically ill patients.

  18. The effect of consuming meat enriched in walnut paste on platelet aggregation and thrombogenesis varies in volunteers with different apolipoprotein A4 genotype El efecto del consumo de carne enriquecida en pasta de nuez sobre la agregacion plaquetaria y la trombogenesis varia en voluntarios con diferente genotipo para la apolipoproteina A4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Canales

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Low-fat meat (LM has been considered adequate under a cardiovascular disease point of view. Meat enriched in walnut paste (WM consumption produces beneficial antithrombogenic effects but with striking inter-individual variability that may be related to gene polymorphism. Variants in the APOA4 gene (APOA4 polymorphism are known to affect the cardiovascular risk. This study aimed to compare the effects of consumption of WM and LM on platelet aggregation, production of thromboxane A2 (TXA2 and prostacyclin I2 (PGI2, and the TXA2/PGI2 ratio in 22 volunteers with different APOA4 polymorphism. Subjects and Methods: Six volunteers carried the Gln allele (APOA4-2 while 16 were homozygous for the His allele (APOA4-1. Platelet aggregation, TXA2 (measured as TXB2, PGI2 (measured as 6-keto-PGF1α, and the thrombogenic ratio (TXB2/6-keto-PGF1α were determined at baseline and at weeks 3 and 5 for the WM and LM dietary periods. Results: Platelet aggregation decreased significantly (PAntecedentes y objetivos: La carne con bajo contenido graso (LM se considera adecuada bajo el punto de vista cardiovascular. La ingesta de carne enriquecida en pasta de nuez (WM, mejora los efectos antitrombogénicos con una variabilidad inter-individual que puede estar relacionada con el polimorfismo genético. Variaciones en los genes APOA4 (APOA4 del polimorfismo afectan el riesgo cardiovascular. Este estudio compara los efectos de la ingesta de WM y LM sobre la agregación plaquetaria, la producción de tromboxano A2 (TXA2 y prostaciclina I2 (PGI2, y el cociente TXA2/PGI2 ratio en 22 voluntarios con diferentes polimorfismos APOA4. Material y métodos: Seis voluntarios portaban el alelo Gln (APOA4-2 frente a los 16 homozigotos para el alelo His (APOA4-1. La agregación plaquetaria, el TXA2 (medido como TXB2, la PGI2 (medida como 6-keto-PGF1α, y el cociente trombogenético (TXB2/6-keto-PGF1α se determinaron al comienzo y en las semanas 3 y 5 de los periodos

  19. Nephropathy in type 1 diabetes is associated with increased circulating activated platelets and platelet hyperreactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Inge; Michelson, Alan D.; Barnard, Marc R.;

    2009-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have increased platelet activation compared to non-diabetic controls. Platelet hyperreactivity has been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in Type 2 DM, and with diabetic nephropathy. We investigated the relationship between platelet activation...... and nephropathy in Type 1 DM. Patients with Type 1 DM and diabetic nephropathy (n = 35), age- and sex-matched Type 1 DM patients with persistent normoalbuminuria (n = 51), and healthy age- and sex-matched controls (n = 30) were studied. Platelet surface P-selectin, platelet surface activated GPIIb/IIIa, monocyte...... to 0.5 or 20 microM ADP) was higher in nephropathy patients compared with normoalbuminuric patients (P = 0.027), and non-diabetic controls (P = 0.0057). NPAs were higher in nephropathy patients compared to normoalbuminuric patients (P = 0.0088). MPAs were higher in nephropathy patients compared to non-diabetic...

  20. A General Aspect of Platelet Rich Plasma

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    Onur ORAL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this scientific paper is to introduce Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP cure method by people who never heard about it. People can hurt their selves, thus they can have damaged tissue; for instance broken bone, a scar or a wounded area. Furthe rmore damaged tissue can be a cartilage tissue, which takes very long time to heal. Platelets, those exist in the veins as thrombus, come up to repair those damaged tissues. However, platelets would be insufficient to cure damaged area in a short time. At this point PRP cure method give a hand to the healing process. By centrifuging people’s own blood via special kits, platelets can be separated from blood cells as plasma. That plasma’s platelet density is 3 - 5 times greater than that blood’s platelet densit y. Afterwards PRP method is implemented by injection of plasma to the damaged area or tissue. After implementation of 2 - 4 sessions per week, damaged tissue can be regenerated. It is fast healing method because densified platelet plasma is used; and it is s afe because that plasma is obtained from people’s own blood. PRP can be implemented on many areas; for instance on dentistry, sports medicine, different kind of surgeries such as plastic, vascular or orthopedic and so on. When soccer players brake their le gs, their sports life come to the end, but what if their broken legs was healed better and faster than general healing process? To sum up, PRP is very safe and the future of healing process.

  1. Calcium-binding proteins from human platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogstad, G.O.; Krutnes, M.B.; Solum, N.O.

    1983-06-01

    Calcium-binding platelet proteins were examined by crossed immunoelectrophoresis of solubilized platelets against antibodies to whole platelets followed by incubation of the immunoplates with /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ and autoradiography. When the immunoplates had been pretreated with EDTA at pH 9.0 in order to remove divalent cations, three immunoprecipitates were markedly labelled with /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/. These corresponded to the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex, glycoprotein Ia and a presently unidentified antigen termed G18. These antigens were membrane-bound and surface-oriented. When an excess of EDTA was introduced in the incubation media the results revealed that the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex and antigen G18, but not glycoprotein Ia, contained sites with a stronger affinity for calcium than has EDTA at pH 7.4. Immunoprecipitates of the separate glycoproteins IIb and IIIa both bound calcium in the same manner as the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex. As another approach, platelet-rich plasma was incubated with /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ prior to crossed immunoelectrophoresis of the solubilized platelets. A single immunoprecipitate was weakly labelled. This did not correspond to any of the immunoprecipitates which were visible after staining with Coomassie blue. The labelling of this antigen was markedly increased when the platelet-rich plasma had been preincubated with EDTA and in this case a weak labelling of the glycoprotein IIB-IIIa precipitate also became apparent. No increased incorporation of calcium occured in any of these immunoprecipitates when the platelets were aggregated with ADP in the presence of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/.

  2. Platelets of patients with chronic kidney disease demonstrate deficient platelet reactivity in vitro

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    van Bladel Esther R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with chronic kidney disease studies focusing on platelet function and properties often are non-conclusive whereas only few studies use functional platelet tests. In this study we evaluated a recently developed functional flow cytometry based assay for the analysis of platelet function in chronic kidney disease. Methods Platelet reactivity was measured using flow cytometric analysis. Platelets in whole blood were triggered with different concentrations of agonists (TRAP, ADP, CRP. Platelet activation was quantified with staining for P-selectin, measuring the mean fluorescence intensity. Area under the curve and the concentration of half-maximal response were determined. Results We studied 23 patients with chronic kidney disease (9 patients with cardiorenal failure and 14 patients with end stage renal disease and 19 healthy controls. Expression of P-selectin on the platelet surface measured as mean fluorescence intensity was significantly less in chronic kidney disease patients compared to controls after maximal stimulation with TRAP (9.7 (7.9-10.8 vs. 11.4 (9.2-12.2, P = 0.032, ADP (1.6 (1.2-2.1 vs. 2.6 (1.9-3.5, P = 0.002 and CRP (9.2 (8.5-10.8 vs. 11.5 (9.5-12.9, P = 0.004. Also the area under the curve was significantly different. There was no significant difference in half-maximal response between both groups. Conclusion In this study we found that patients with chronic kidney disease show reduced platelet reactivity in response of ADP, TRAP and CRP compared to controls. These results contribute to our understanding of the aberrant platelet function observed in patients with chronic kidney disease and emphasize the significance of using functional whole blood platelet activation assays.

  3. [Four cases of pseudothrombocytopenia due to platelet cold agglutinins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Satoru; Jouzaki, Kiyoshi; Konishi, Ichirou; Kashiwagi, Hirokazu; Tomiyama, Yoshiaki

    2006-08-01

    We report 4 cases of pseudothrombocytopenia due to platelet cold agglutinins. Case 1 was a 57 y.o. female whose platelet count was 97 x 10(3)/microl. Case 2 was a 37 y.o. male with a platelet count of 96 x 10(3)/microl. Case 3 was a 74 y.o. male with a platelet count of 28 x 10(3)/microl. Case 4 was a 62 y.o. female whose platelet count was 34 x 10(3)/microl. The platelet counts in these 4 cases were decreased and blood smears showed platelet clumping in blood drawn in a tube without anticoagulant just after withdrawal, as well as in blood drawn in a tube with anticoagulant. The platelets from these patients agglutinated at a temperature below 10 degrees C (case 1 and 4) and 24 degrees C (case 2). The immunoglobulin class of the platelet cold agglutinins in cases 1, 2 and 4 was IgM. Agglutinated platelets showed no activation marker, such as CD62P, CD63 or CD40L, on the surface of the platelets. The target antigen of cold agglutinins was GPIIb-IIIa in cases 1 and 2. We considered that the detection of platelet agglutination in blood without anticoagulant is important to diagnose pseudothrombocytopenia due to platelet cold agglutinins. Although this disease is considered to be very rare, we suspect that this disease may be misdiagnosed as pseudothrombocytopenia due to the presence of an anticoagulant, and overlooked.

  4. Equid herpesvirus type 1 activates platelets.

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    Tracy Stokol

    Full Text Available Equid herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1 causes outbreaks of abortion and neurological disease in horses. One of the main causes of these clinical syndromes is thrombosis in placental and spinal cord vessels, however the mechanism for thrombus formation is unknown. Platelets form part of the thrombus and amplify and propagate thrombin generation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that EHV-1 activates platelets. We found that two EHV-1 strains, RacL11 and Ab4 at 0.5 or higher plaque forming unit/cell, activate platelets within 10 minutes, causing α-granule secretion (surface P-selectin expression and platelet microvesiculation (increased small events double positive for CD41 and Annexin V. Microvesiculation was more pronounced with the RacL11 strain. Virus-induced P-selectin expression required plasma and 1.0 mM exogenous calcium. P-selectin expression was abolished and microvesiculation was significantly reduced in factor VII- or X-deficient human plasma. Both P-selectin expression and microvesiculation were re-established in factor VII-deficient human plasma with added purified human factor VIIa (1 nM. A glycoprotein C-deficient mutant of the Ab4 strain activated platelets as effectively as non-mutated Ab4. P-selectin expression was abolished and microvesiculation was significantly reduced by preincubation of virus with a goat polyclonal anti-rabbit tissue factor antibody. Infectious virus could be retrieved from washed EHV-1-exposed platelets, suggesting a direct platelet-virus interaction. Our results indicate that EHV-1 activates equine platelets and that α-granule secretion is a consequence of virus-associated tissue factor triggering factor X activation and thrombin generation. Microvesiculation was only partly tissue factor and thrombin-dependent, suggesting the virus causes microvesiculation through other mechanisms, potentially through direct binding. These findings suggest that EHV-1-induced platelet activation could contribute to the thrombosis

  5. Decreased mean platelet volume in panic disorder

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    Göğçegöz Gül I

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Işil Göğçegöz Gül, Gül Eryilmaz, Eylem Özten, Gökben Hizli Sayar Neuropsychiatry Health, Practice, and Research Center, Uskudar University, Istanbul, Turkey Aim: The relationship between psychological stress and platelet activation has been widely studied. It is well known that platelets may reflect certain biochemical changes that occur in the brain when different mental conditions occur. Platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT is also extensively studied in psychiatry. The mean platelet volume (MPV, the accurate measure of platelet size, has been considered a marker and determinant of platelet function. The aim of the present study was to search for any probable difference in the MPV of subjects with panic disorder (PD.Methods: A total of 37 drug-free subjects, aged 18 to 65 years, diagnosed with PD, with or without agoraphobia, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth edition (DSM-IV criteria and 45 healthy control subjects were included in the study. Platelet count and MPV were measured and recorded for each subject.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between groups in terms of female/male ratio, age, or body mass index between the PD group and control group (P=0.91, P=0.82, and P=0.93, respectively. The MPV was found to be significantly lower in the PD group compared with the control group (8.8±0.9 fL vs 9.2±0.8 fL; P=0.02. All the participants had MPV values in the standard range of 6.9–10.8 fL.Conclusion: We concluded that abnormalities of the 5-HT1A receptor function in the central nervous system of subjects with a diagnosis of PD are also mirrored in as an alteration in platelet activity. Measurements of platelet activity may be used as a tool for neuropsychiatric and psychopharmacological research and for studying how certain mental diseases and medications affect the central nervous system. Keywords: 5-HT, thrombocyte, anxiety 

  6. Prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2, and leukotriene B4 release from peritoneal macrophages by different osmotic agents in nonuremic guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, H; Jörres, A; Kögel, B; Mahiout, A; Gahl, G M; Kessel, M

    1988-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (Il-1), prostaglandins, and leukotrienes have been identified as inflammatory parameters in the setting of peritoneal dialysis. Recently, it was postulated that chronic overstimulation of peritoneal macrophages (PM) may result in fibrosis and loss of ultrafiltration. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether alternative osmotic agents (polyglucose, amino acids, glycerol, bicarbonate/glucose, gelatine, hydroxyethyl starch) provoke greater eicosanoid release by PMs than glucose. Fifty milliliters of sterile dialysate containing different osmotic agents were injected intraperitoneally into nonuremic guinea pigs. After 4 hours of dwell time, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thromboxane B2 (TXB2), and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) production was analyzed in peritoneal effluents using specific radioimmunoassays (RIA) after liquid extraction. Cyclooxygenase products were generated with all osmotic agents: PGE2 concentrations ranged from 0.9 to 2.8 ng/4h, and TXB2 levels ranged from 39 to 49 ng/4h. In addition, the lipoxygenase product LTB4 was found in concentrations between 1.8 and 3.5 ng/4h. There were no significant differences in eicosanoid release among the osmotic agents. Thus, in this experimental setting, the capacity of PM to release inflammatory mediators did not correlate with the chemical composition of the dialysis solutions.

  7. Mean platelet volume in hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almiş, H; Bucak, I H; Çelik, V; Tekin, M; Karakoç, F; Konca, Ç; Turgut, M

    2016-06-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) still continues to be a serious public health problem worldwide. Mean platelet volume (MPV) is a marker of platelet function and activation. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between MPV in acute hepatitis A patients as compared to the control group and to assess MPV as an acute phase reactant in acute hepatitis A. Seventy-six patients were enrolled in this study. The control group consisted of 41 healthy age- and sex-matched individuals. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), bilirubin, prothrombin time (PT), platelet count (PC), serum albumin (ALB), and mean platelet volume (MPV) levels were recorded. The diagnosis of HAV infection was based on anti-HAV Ig M positivity. The mean levels of MPV in the study group were significantly statistically lower than in the control group (p 0.05), but the MPV levels correlated with the platelet counts (p hepatitis A. MPV levels were significantly lower in the patients with acute hepatitis A as compared to the healthy control group. This study demonstrated that MPV may be a negative acute phase reactant for acute hepatitis A. Further studies will explain the role that MPV plays in inflammation and other viral infections.

  8. Functional platelet defects in children with severe chronic ITP as tested with 2 novel assays applicable for low platelet counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bladel, Esther R; Laarhoven, Annemieke G; van der Heijden, Laila B; Heitink-Pollé, Katja M; Porcelijn, Leendert; van der Schoot, C Ellen; de Haas, Masja; Roest, Mark; Vidarsson, Gestur; de Groot, Philip G; Bruin, Marrie C A

    2014-03-06

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disease with a complex heterogeneous pathogenesis and a bleeding phenotype that is not necessarily correlated to platelet count. In this study, the platelet function was assessed in a well-defined cohort of 33 pediatric chronic ITP patients. Because regular platelet function test cannot be performed in patients with low platelet counts, 2 new assays were developed to determine platelet function: first, the microaggregation test, measuring in platelets isolated from 10 mL of whole blood the platelet potential to form microaggregates in response to an agonist; second, the platelet reactivity assay, measuring platelet reactivity to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), convulxin (CVX), and thrombin receptor activator peptide in only 150 μL of unprocessed whole blood. Patients with a severe bleeding phenotype demonstrated a decreased aggregation potential upon phorbol myristate acetate stimulation, decreased platelet degranulation following ADP stimulation, and a higher concentration of ADP and CVX needed to activate the glycoprotein IIbIIIa complex compared with patients with a mild bleeding phenotype. In conclusion, here we have established 2 functional tests that allow for evaluation of platelet function in patients with extremely low platelet counts (platelet function is related to bleeding phenotype in chronic ITP.

  9. Roll, adhere, spread and contract: structural mechanics of platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Simona; Studt, Jan-Dirk; Medalia, Ohad; Tanuj Sapra, K

    2015-01-01

    Platelets are involved in life-sustaining processes such as hemostasis, wound healing, atherothrombosis and angiogenesis. Mechanical trauma to blood vessels causes platelet activation resulting in their adherence and clot formation at the damaged site, culminating in clot retraction and tissue repair. Two of the major players underlying this process are the cytoskeleton, i.e., actin and microtubules, and the membrane integrin receptors. Rare congenital bleeding disorders such as Glanzmann thrombasthenia and Bernard-Soulier syndrome are associated with genetic alterations of platelet surface receptors, also affecting the platelet cytoskeletal structure. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about platelet structure and adhesion, and delve into the mechanical aspects of platelet function. Platelets lack a nucleus, and can thus provide a minimal model of a biological cell. New biophysical tools may help to scrutinize platelets anew and to extend the existing knowledge on cell biology.

  10. The prowess of platelets in immunity and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenen, Rory R

    2016-09-27

    Platelets not only serve as essential haemostatic cells, they also have important roles in immune defence and inflammation. Despite not having a nucleus, platelets contain physiologically relevant amounts of RNA, which can be spliced and translated into functional proteins. In addition, platelets have the ability to bind to numerous other cells, such as leukocytes and vascular cells. During those interactions, platelets can modulate cellular responses, resulting in e. g. inflammatory activation or apoptosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that platelets can influence the outcomes of bacterial and viral infection, as well as the extent of tissue injury after ischaemia. Platelets also carry considerable amounts of cytokines and growth factors in their secretory granules, preformed for rapid secretion. Those properties in combination with the sheer amount of platelets circulating in the blood stream make them an important force in the immune response during health and disease. In this overview, recent findings concerning those interesting properties of platelets beyond haemostasis are discussed.

  11. LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE INDUCES EXPOSURE OF FIBRINOGEN RECEPTORS ON HUMAN PLATELETS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于希春; 吴其夏

    1995-01-01

    The effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the exposure of platelet fibrinogen receptors was investigated.The results showed that:1)LPS increased the binding of fibrinogen-gold complexes to platelets and the labels were primarily limited to shape-changed platelets;2)LPS caused a dose-dependent rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in platelets;3)LPS induced the activation of platelet protein kinase C(PKC) and the phosphorylation of glycoprotein llla (GP llla) which was inhibited by H-7.All these results suggest that stimulation of platelets with LPS causes a conformational change in glycoprotein llb/Illa (GPllb/llla) through platelet shape change and/or phosphorylation of GPllla via PKC,which serves to expose the fibrinogen binding sites of GPllb/llla on human platelets.

  12. Platelet concentrates, from whole blood or collected by apheresis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Pieter F

    2013-04-01

    Platelet concentrates can be isolated from donated whole blood with the platelet-rich plasma-method or the buffy coat-method. Alternatively, platelets can be obtained by apheresis, harvesting the platelets but returning all other cells to the donor. The quality and characteristics of platelets during storage are affected by a number of factors, such as anticoagulant, centrifugation and processing after collection, and pre- or post storage pooling, but when comparing literature on the various methods, most differences balance out. To have sufficient platelets to treat an adult patient, whole-blood-derived platelet concentrates need pooling of multiple donations, thereby increasing the risk of infectious agent transmission at least two-fold as compared with apheresis units. Allo immunization rates, acute reaction rates, and transfusion related acute lung injury rates are not different. Apheresis donation procedures have fewer adverse events. All these factors need to be considered and weighed when selecting a method of platelet collection for a blood center.

  13. The Role of Platelets in Cardiovascular Disease: Molecular Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapanagiotou, Angeliki; Daskalakis, Georgios; Siasos, Gerasimos; Gargalionis, Antonios; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G

    2016-01-01

    The role of platelets in atherosclerotic process and subsequently in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease is essential as platelets in addition to their contribution to thrombosis and hemostasis modulating inflammatory reactions and immune response. Platelets after adhesion on the injured vascular endothelium and activation release a wide range of molecules stored in platelets granules such as chemokines, proinflammatory molecules and other biological response modulators accelerating interaction among platelets, endothelial cells and leukocytes. These interactions establish a localized inflammatory response that promotes the atherosclerotic process. Moreover, activated platelets give rise to microparticles another active participant within the blood stream. The purpose of this review is to present the role of platelets in the above mechanisms giving an emphasis on the nature of the platelet derived- molecules and their contribution to the atherosclerotic process.

  14. Sertraline reduces glutamate uptake in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Débora Olmedo; Bristot, Ivi Juliana; Klamt, Fábio; Frizzo, Marcos Emílio

    2015-12-01

    Mitochondrial damage and declines in ATP levels have been recently attributed to sertraline. The effects of sertraline on different parameters were investigated in washed platelets from 18 healthy male volunteers, after 24h of drug exposure. Sertraline toxicity was observed only at the highest concentrations, 30 and 100 μM, which significantly reduced platelet viability to 76 ± 3% and 20 ± 2%, respectively. The same concentrations significantly decreased total ATP to 73 ± 3% and 13 ± 2%, respectively. Basal values of glycogen were not significantly affected by sertraline treatment. Glutamate uptake was significantly reduced after treatment with 3, 30 and 100 μM, by 28 ± 6%, 32 ± 5% and 54 ± 4%, respectively. Our data showed that sertraline at therapeutic concentrations does not compromise platelet viability and ATP levels, but they suggest that in a situation where extracellular glutamate levels are potentially increased, sertraline might aggravate an excitotoxic condition.

  15. Platelet concentration in platelet concentrates and periodontal regeneration-unscrambling the ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Suchetha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Platelet-rich-plasma (PRP and Platelet-rich-fibrin (PRF are extensively used autologous platelet concentrates in periodontal regeneration, and PRF has a better efficacy as compared to PRP. The rationale for this difference has often been attributed to the difference in the structure of the fibrin matrix. However, the effect of concentration of platelets on the regenerative potential of these concentrates is obscure. Aims: The study was conducted to evaluate and compare, clinically and radiographically, the efficacy of PRF and PRP in the treatment of periodontal endosseous defects and to assess the effect of platelet concentration on periodontal regeneration. Materials and Methods: Twenty intrabony defects were selected and divided into two groups randomly by the coin toss method. Group I received PRP and Group II subjects were treated with PRF. The platelet counts in PRP and PRF were analyzed. Clinical and radiological parameters were assessed at baseline and 3, 6, and 9 months postoperatively. Statistical Analysis: Kruskal–Wallis Chi-square test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, t-test, and Spearman's rank correlation were used for statistical analysis of data. Results: There was statistically significant improvement in all the parameters in the two groups except in relation to gingival recession. There was a statistically significant difference between the platelet count in Group I and Group II (P = 0.002. Conclusion: PRP and PRF appear to have nearly comparable effects in terms of periodontal regeneration. The concentration of platelets appears to play a paradoxical role in regeneration. The regenerative potential of platelets appears to be optimal within a limited range.

  16. Platelet concentration in platelet concentrates and periodontal regeneration-unscrambling the ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchetha, A.; Lakshmi, P.; Bhat, Divya; Mundinamane, Darshan B.; Soorya, K. V.; Bharwani, G. Ashit

    2015-01-01

    Context: Platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) and Platelet-rich-fibrin (PRF) are extensively used autologous platelet concentrates in periodontal regeneration, and PRF has a better efficacy as compared to PRP. The rationale for this difference has often been attributed to the difference in the structure of the fibrin matrix. However, the effect of concentration of platelets on the regenerative potential of these concentrates is obscure. Aims: The study was conducted to evaluate and compare, clinically and radiographically, the efficacy of PRF and PRP in the treatment of periodontal endosseous defects and to assess the effect of platelet concentration on periodontal regeneration. Materials and Methods: Twenty intrabony defects were selected and divided into two groups randomly by the coin toss method. Group I received PRP and Group II subjects were treated with PRF. The platelet counts in PRP and PRF were analyzed. Clinical and radiological parameters were assessed at baseline and 3, 6, and 9 months postoperatively. Statistical Analysis: Kruskal–Wallis Chi-square test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, t-test, and Spearman's rank correlation were used for statistical analysis of data. Results: There was statistically significant improvement in all the parameters in the two groups except in relation to gingival recession. There was a statistically significant difference between the platelet count in Group I and Group II (P = 0.002). Conclusion: PRP and PRF appear to have nearly comparable effects in terms of periodontal regeneration. The concentration of platelets appears to play a paradoxical role in regeneration. The regenerative potential of platelets appears to be optimal within a limited range. PMID:26681857

  17. The synthesis of proteins in unnucleated blood platelets

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Bijak; Joanna Saluk; Michał Błażej Ponczek Ponczek; Paweł Nowak; Barbara Wachowicz

    2013-01-01

    Platelets are the smallest, unnucleated blood cells that play a key role in maintaining normal hemostasis. In the human body about 1x1011 platelets are formed every day, as a the result of complex processes of differentiation, maturation and fragmentation of megakaryocytes. Studies done over 4 decades ago demonstrated that circulating in blood mature platelets can synthesize proteins. Recent discoveries confirm protein synthesis by unnucleated platelets in response to activation. Moreover, pr...

  18. IVBT-documented platelet function correlates with flow cytometric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, J; Bonacker, G; Kretschmer, V; Schulzki, T; Heimanns, J

    1996-12-01

    Thrombocytopenic patients with identical platelet counts often show different bleeding tendencies owing to significant differences in the platelet function. This could be demonstrated by the in vitro bleeding test (IVBT). Using flow cytometry, we tried to find characteristics of platelet antigen expression in order to explain these differences in function. Thirty patients with bone marrow hypoplasia receiving 65 platelet transfusions (mainly from a cell separator) were observed for 3 to 29 days. Size, granulation and fluorescence of platelet-rich plasma (n = 522 samples) were evaluated using monoclonal antibodies against GP IIIb (collagen receptor), GP IIb/IIIa (fibrinogen receptor