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Sample records for platelet 5-ht uptake

  1. 5-HT receptor probe (/sup 3/H)8-OH-DPAT labels the 5-HT transporter in human platelets

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    Ieni, J.R.; Meyerson, L.R.

    1988-01-01

    The present study characterizes a serotonin (5-HT) binding site on human platelet membranes, using (/sup 3/H)8-OH-DPAT as the radioligand. (/sup 3/H)8-OH-DPAT binds specifically and saturably to a site on human platelet membranes with an average K/sub D/ of 43 nM and B/sub max/ of 1078 fmol/mg protein. Determinations of IC/sub 50/ values for various serotonergic characterizing agents in platelets for displacement of (/sup 3/H)8-OH-DPAT were performed. The pharmacological inhibitory profile of the platelet 8-OH-DPAT site is not consistent with profiles reported for brain. 8-OH-DPAT does not inhibit (/sup 3/H) imipramine binding, however, it does inhibit (/sup 3/H)5-HT uptake in human platelets near 5-HT's K/sub m/ value (IC/sub 50/ = 2-4 ..mu..M). These results suggest that the human platelet site labelled by (/sub 3/H)8-OH-DPAT is pharmocologically different from the neuronal site and probably is a component of the 5-HT transporter. 32 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  2. Stimulation of 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A/2C, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors or 5-HT uptake inhibition: short- and long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2007-11-22

    In order to determine whether short- (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) function in serial or parallel manner, serotonin (5-hydroxtryptamine, 5-HT) receptor agonists were tested in autoshaping task. Results show that control-vehicle animals were modestly but significantly mastering the autoshaping task as illustrated by memory scores between STM and LTM. Thus, post-training administration of 8-OHDPAT (agonist for 5-HT(1A/7) receptors) only at 0.250 and 0.500 mg/kg impaired both STM and LTM. CGS12066 (agonist for 5-HT(1B)) produced biphasic affects, at 5.0 mg/kg impaired STM but at 1.0 and 10.0 mg/kg, respectively, improved or impaired LTM. DOI (agonist for 5-HT(2A/2C) receptors) dose-dependently impaired STM and, at 10.0 mg/kg only impaired LTM. Both, STM and LTM were impaired by either mCPP (mainly agonist for 5-HT(2C) receptors) or mesulergine (mainly antagonist for 5-HT(2C) receptors) lower dose. The 5-HT(3) agonist mCPBG at 1.0 impaired STM and its higher dose impaired both STM and LTM. RS67333 (partial agonist for 5-HT(4) receptors), at 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg facilitated both STM and LTM. The higher dose of fluoxetine (a 5-HT uptake inhibitor) improved both STM and LTM. Using as head-pokes during CS as an indirect measure of food-intake showed that of 30 memory changes, 21 of these were unrelated to the former. While some STM or LTM impairments can be attributed to decrements in food-intake, but not memory changes (either increase or decreases) produced by 8-OHDPAT, CGS12066, RS67333 or fluoxetine. Except for animals treated with DOI, mCPBG or fluoxetine, other groups treated with 5-HT agonists 6 h following autoshaping training showed similar LTM and unmodified CS-head-pokes scores.

  3. Tianeptine: 5-HT uptake sites and 5-HT(1-7) receptors modulate memory formation in an autoshaping Pavlovian/instrumental task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2002-05-01

    Recent studies using invertebrate and mammal species have revealed that, endogenous serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) modulates cognitive processes, particularly learning and memory, though, at present, it is unclear the manner, where, and how long 5-HT systems are involved. Hence in this work, an attempt was made to study the effects of 5-HT endogenous on memory formation, using a 5-HT uptake facilitator (tianeptine) and, selective 5-HT(1-7) receptor antagonists to determine whether 5-HT uptake sites and which 5-HT receptors are involved, respectively. Results showed that post-training tianeptine injection enhanced memory consolidation in an autoshaping Pavlovian/instrumental learning task, which has been useful to detect changes on memory formation elicited by drugs or aging. On interaction experiments, ketanserin (5-HT(1D/2A/2C) antagonist) slightly enhanced tianeptine effects, while WAY 100635 (5-HT(1A) antagonist), SB-224289 (5-HT(1B) inverse agonist), SB-200646 (5-HT(2B/2C) antagonist), ondansetron (5-HT(3) antagonist), GR 127487 (5-HT(4) antagonist), Ro 04-6790 (5-HT(6) antagonist), DR 4004 (5-HT(7) antagonist), or fluoxetine (an inhibitor of 5-HT reuptake) blocked the facilitatory tianeptine effect. Notably, together tianeptine and Ro 04-6790 impaired learning consolidation. Moreover, 5-HT depletion completely reversed the tianeptine effect. Tianeptine also normalized an impaired memory elicited by scopolamine (an antimuscarinic) or dizocilpine (non-competitive glutamatergic antagonist), while partially reversed that induced by TFMPP (5-HT(1B/1D/2A-2C/7) agonist/antagonist). Finally, tianeptine-fluoxetine coadministration had no effect on learning consolidation; nevertheless, administration of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, phenserine, potentiated subeffective tianeptine or fluoxetine doses. Collectively, these data confirmed that endogenously 5-HT modulates, via uptake sites and 5-HT(1-7) receptors, memory consolidation, and are consistent with the

  4. Hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/) stimulates the active transport of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) into platelets

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    Bosin, T.R.

    1986-03-01

    Platelets function in a variety of physiological and pathological processes which may be altered by oxidant injury. One such process is the active transport 5-HT, which is an important mechanism in the control of circulating 5-HT levels. Exposure of mouse platelets (10/sup 8//ml) to H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ caused a time-dependent and dose-dependent increase in 5-HT (10/sup -7/M) uptake. The uptake 4 and 10 min following H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ (50 ..mu..M) was 228% and 145% of control values, respectively. Fluoxetine (10/sup -6/M) blocked all 5-HT uptake and catalase (1500 U/ml) blocked the H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-stimulated uptake. Enzymatically produced H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ (glucose/glucose oxidase) and xanthine (X)/xanthine oxidase (XO) generated oxygen radicals produced quantitatively and qualitatively similar results. The stimulatory response of platelets to X/XO generated oxidants was unaffected by superoxide dismutase (250 U/ml) but, was inhibited using heat-denatured XO, allopurinol (0.5 mM) and catalase; fluoxetine inhibited all 5-HT uptake. Platelets exposed to X/XO in the presence of chelated (EDTA, 100 ..mu..M) or unchelated FeSO/sub 4/, FeNH/sub 4/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ or CuCl (50 ..mu..M) did not have altered 5-HT uptake. These data indicate that brief exposure of platelets to physiological levels of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ results in marked, reversible stimulation of active 5-HT uptake which may represent a homeostatic defense mechanism when H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is elevated in the platelet microenvironment.

  5. Platelet serotonin content and uptake in spontaneously hypertensive rats

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    Guicheney, P.; Legros, M.; Marcel, D.; Kamal, L.; Meyer, P.

    1985-02-18

    Platelet serotonin (5-HT) content and uptake were studied in male SHR and WKY at various ages. Blood was withdrawn from the carotid artery under anesthesia and 5-HT levels determined from platelet rich plasma (PRP) using a HPLC technique coupled with an electrochemical detection method. Platelet 5-HT uptake was studied by incubating PRP at 37/sup 0/C for 10 sec with increasing concentrations of /sup 3/H-5HT. Lineweaver-Burk plots of /sup 3/H-5HT uptake were linear suggesting simple Michaelis-Menten uptake kinetics. The SHR had more platelets than age-matched controls and consequently a higher blood circulating pool of 5-HT. Nevertheless, the 5-HT platelet levels were similar to those of their age-matched rats. The 5 week-old SHR and WKY had greater numbers of platelets and higher 5-HT platelet levels than the older rats of both strains. The affinity constants (Km) and the maximal velocities (Vmax) of platelet 5-HT uptake did not differ significantly between the 12 week- and the 6 month-old SHR and WKY. These data suggest that the SHR do not show the same impairment in platelet 5-HT metabolism as observed in essential hypertension in man.

  6. Activation of 5-HT7 receptors increases neuronal platelet-derived growth factor β receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasefi, Maryam S; Kruk, Jeff S; Liu, Hui; Heikkila, John J; Beazely, Michael A

    2012-03-09

    Several antipsychotics have a high affinity for 5-HT7 receptors yet despite intense interest in the 5-HT7 receptor as a potential drug target to treat psychosis, the function and signaling properties of 5-HT7 receptors in neurons remain largely uncharacterized. In primary mouse hippocampal and cortical neurons, as well as in the SH-SY5Y cell line, incubation with 5-HT, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), or 5-HT7 receptor-selective agonists increases the expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)β receptors. The increased PDGFβ receptor expression is cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)-dependent, suggesting that 5-HT7 receptors couple to Gα(s) in primary neurons. Interestingly, up-regulated PDGFβ receptors display an increased basal phosphorylation state at the phospholipase Cγ-activating tyrosine 1021. This novel linkage between the 5-HT7 receptor and the PDGF system may be an important GPCR-neurotrophic factor signaling pathway in neurons.

  7. The Effect of Paroxetine on Depressive Symptom with Somatic Disease and Change of Platelet 5-HT Concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑凯; 史庭慧; 刘晓晴

    2003-01-01

    To study the effect of paroxetine on depressive symptom accompanying somatic disease and the value of platelet 5-HT concentration in the diagnosis of depression, 30 patients with depressive symptom were treated with paroxetine. All patients were evaluated on Zung and HAMD scale and assayed of platelet 5-HT concentration before and after treatment. It was found that patients had a lower level of platelet 5-HT concentration than healthy people (P<0. 01). After six weeks of treatment, depressive and somatic symptoms were both improved (P<0. 01) and platelet 5-HT concentration was even lower (P>0. 05). It was suggested that paroxetine was a good antidepressant and platelet 5-HT concentration was useful in the screening of depression.

  8. Serotonin uptake in blood platelets of psychiatric patients

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    Meltzer, H.Y.; Arora, R.C.; Baber, R.; Tricou, B.J.

    1981-12-01

    Platelet serotonin (5-HT) uptake was determined in 72 newly admitted, unmedicated psychiatric patients. Decreased maximum velocity (Vmax) of 5-HT uptake was present in unipolar and bipolar depressed patients as well as schizoaffective depressed patients. The apparent Michaelis constant (km) of 5-HT uptake was normal in these groups, as was Vmax and Km in manic-depressive and chronic schizophrenic patients. Treatment of depressed patients with notriptyline hydrochloride or imipramine hydrochloride increased Km significantly. There was a trend for the increase in Km in the nortriptyline-treated patients to correlate with clinical improvement. Decreased 5-HT uptake in platelets provides additional evidence for the role of 5-HT in the pathophysiologic process of some forms of depression.

  9. Characterization of the binding of /sup 3/H-norzimeldine, a 5-HT uptake inhibitor, to rat brain homogenates

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    Hall, H. (Department of Biochemical Neuropharmacology, Research and Development Laboratories, Astra Laekemedel, Soedertaelje, Sweden)

    1984-01-01

    The binding of radiolabelled norzimeldine, a potent selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, to rat brain homogenates is described. /sup 3/H-Norzimeldine binds to a site with high affinity (Ksub(D) = 10.5 nM) in a saturable manner (Bsub(max) = 15.4 pmol/g wet weight in the cerebral cortex). The number of binding sites in the various regions of the brain parallels the capacity of the 5-HT reuptake mechanism. Drugs that inhibit the reuptake of 5-HT are also potent inhibitors of the /sup 3/H-norzimeldine binding, as are the tricyclic antidepressants, which are non-specific inhibitors of the noradrenaline and the 5-HT reuptake. Lesioning experiments using DSP4 (a NA neurotoxin) and p-chloroamphetamine (a 5-HT neurotoxin) suggest that the binding site is located on the presynaptic 5-HT nerve terminal, although a small component of the binding may be to noradrenergic uptake sites as well.

  10. The effects of 5-HT uptake- and MAO-inhibitors on L-5-HTP-induced excitation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortmann, R; Waldmeier, P C; Radeke, E; Felner, A; Delini-Stula, A

    1980-03-01

    The behavioural syndrome caused by L-5-HTP in rats was used for the study of effects of selective 5-HT uptake inhibitors and inhibitors of MAO on central 5-HT receptors. A good correlation was found between the relative potencies of drugs in inhibiting the 5-HT uptake in the rat brain and in intensifying L-5-HTP-induced behavioural stimulation. The potentiation of the L-5-HTP syndrome by the MAO inhibitors correlated with the inhibition of the A- but not of the B-form of the brain monoamine oxidase. In rats treated with the maximally inhibiting dose of a 5-HT uptake inhibitor, MAO inhibitors were still able to increase the intensity of the L-5-HTP syndrome, while the combination of maximal doses of two 5-HT uptake inhibitors did not produce a more intense syndrome than that produced by one 5-HT uptake inhibitor alone. The L-5-HTP-induced behavioural syndrome in rats seems to afford an experimental model allowing the quantification and characterization of the interaction of drugs with serotonin metabolism in the brain.

  11. 5-HT system and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, A

    1999-12-01

    The study of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system has benefited from the identification, classification and cloning of multiple 5-HT receptors (5-HT1 to 5-HT7). Growing evidence suggests that 5-HT is important in learning and memory and all its receptors might be implicated in this. Actually, 5-HT pathways, 5-HT reuptake site/transporter complex and 5-HT receptors show regional distribution in brain areas implicated in learning and memory. Likewise, the stimulation or blockade of presynaptic 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT(2A/2C) and 5-HT3 receptors, postsynaptic 5-HT(2B/2C) and 5-HT4 receptors and 5-HT uptake/transporter sites modulate these processes. Available evidence strongly suggests that the 5-HT system may be important in normal function, the treatment and/or pathogenesis of cognitive disorders. Further investigation will help to specify the 5-HT system nature involvement in cognitive processes, pharmacotherapies, their mechanisms and action sites and to determine under which conditions they could operate. In this regard, it is probable that selective drugs with agonists, neutral antagonist, agonists or inverse agonist properties for 5-HT1A, 5-HT(1B/1D), 5-HT(2A/2B/2C), 5-HT4 and 5-HT7 receptors could constitute a new therapeutic opportunity for learning and memory alterations.

  12. The antidepressant 5-HT2A receptor antagonists pizotifen and cyproheptadine inhibit serotonin-enhanced platelet function.

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    Olivia A Lin

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in defining new agents or targets for antithrombotic purposes. The 5-HT2A receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR expressed on many cell types, and a known therapeutic target for many disease states. This serotonin receptor is also known to regulate platelet function. Thus, in our FDA-approved drug repurposing efforts, we investigated the antiplatelet activity of cyproheptadine and pizotifen, two antidepressant 5-HT2A Receptor antagonists. Our results revealed that cyproheptadine and pizotifen reversed serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo. And the inhibitory effects of these two agents were found to be similar to that of EMD 281014, a 5-HT2A Receptor antagonist under development. In separate experiments, our studies revealed that these 5-HT2A receptor antagonists have the capacity to reduce serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced elevation in intracellular calcium levels and tyrosine phosphorylation. Using flow cytometry, we also observed that cyproheptadine, pizotifen, and EMD 281014 inhibited serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced phosphatidylserine (PS exposure, P-selectin expression, and glycoprotein IIb-IIIa activation. Furthermore, using a carotid artery thrombosis model, these agents prolonged the time for thrombotic occlusion in mice in vivo. Finally, the tail-bleeding time was investigated to assess the effect of cyproheptadine and pizotifen on hemostasis. Our findings indicated prolonged bleeding time in both cyproheptadine- and pizotifen-treated mice. Notably, the increases in occlusion and bleeding times associated with these two agents were comparable to that of EMD 281014, and to clopidogrel, a commonly used antiplatelet drug, again, in a fashion comparable to clopidogrel and EMD 281014. Collectively, our data indicate that the antidepressant 5-HT2A antagonists, cyproheptadine and pizotifen do exert antiplatelet and thromboprotective effects, but similar to clopidogrel and

  13. Effect of fluvoxamine on platelet 5-HT2A receptors as studied by [3H]lysergic acid diethylamide ([3H]LSD) binding in healthy volunteers.

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    Spigset, O; Mjörndal, T

    1997-09-01

    Alterations in platelet 5-HT2A receptor characteristics have been reported in major depression as well as in other psychiatric diseases, and some effort has been made to utilize platelet 5-HT2A receptor status as a biological correlate to antidepressant drug response. In order to investigate whether treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor affects platelet 5-HT2A receptors, we have studied platelet [3H]lysergic acid diethylamide ([3H]LSD) binding in healthy subjects treated with fluvoxamine in increasing dosage once weekly for 4 weeks. After 1 week of fluvoxamine treatment (25 mg/day), both Bmax and Kd were significantly lower than before the start of the treatment (19.9 versus 25.5 fmol/mg protein, P = 0.005 for Bmax; 0.45 versus 0.93 nM, P = 0.006 for Kd). Bmax returned to baseline during week 2, whereas Kd was lower than the baseline value throughout the treatment period. After discontinuation of fluvoxamine treatment, there was a significant increase in Kd (0.50 nM before discontinuation vs. 1.14 nM after discontinuation; P = 0.001), but not in Bmax. The study demonstrates that fluvoxamine affects platelet 5-HT2A receptor status irrespective of underlying psychiatric disease, and that this effect is evident already after 1 week at a subtherapeutic fluvoxamine dose.

  14. Effects of halopemide, a new psychotropic agent, on the uptake of serotonin by blood platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, A.J.M.; Soudijn, W.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of halopemide, a new psychotropic agent, and some putative metabolites on the uptake of14C-5-HT into blood platelets of rat and man were studied and compared to the effects of imipramine, sulpiride and clozapine. Halopemide, its putative metabolites R 38570 and R 29676 and sulpiride in

  15. Effect of Jin-3-Needling Therapy on Plasma Corticosteroid, Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone and Platelet 5-HT Levels in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To observe the therapeutic efficacy of Jin-3-needling therapy(J3N)on generalized anxiety disorder(GAD)through clinical global impression scale(CGI),and to explore the mechanism by measuring the plasma levels of corticosteroid(CS),adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH),and platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT)before and after treatment.Methods:Eightysix GAD patients with the diagnosis agreeing with the inclusion criteria were assigned,according to the sequence of visiting time,to three groups.The 29 patients in the Western medicine group were treated mainly with fluoxetine or paroxetine,Alprazolam might be given additionally in severe conditions if necessary;the 29 patients in the needling group received J3N therapy with Sishenzhen,Dingshenzhen,Neiguan(PC6),Shenmen(HT7)and Sanyinjiao(SP6)as the chief acupoints selected;and the 28 patients in the combined treatment group were treated with both drugs and needling in the same way as applied in the above two groups.The therapeutic course for all was 6weeks.Conditions of patients were evaluated before and after treatment with CGI,and levels of CS,ACTH as well as 5-HT were measured by high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemistry.Results:By CGI scoring,the scores of severity index and the general index were not different significantly in the three groups,but the efficacy index proved to be the highest in the needling group,the second in the combined trentment group,and the lowest in the drug group.Plasma level of ACTH and platelet content of 5-HT were lowered in all the three groups after treatment,showing statistical significance(P<0.05),but no significant change was found in CS level(P>0.05).Conclusion:The therapeutic efficacy of J3N in treating GAD is equivalent to,but with the efficacy index significantly higher than,that of conventional treatment.Moreover,when combined with drugs,needling might effectively prevent the side effect of the routinely used Western drugs.The regulatory action of needling

  16. Apical and basal uptake of L-dopa and L-5-HTP and their corresponding amines, dopamine and 5-HT, in OK cells.

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    Vieira-Coelho, M A; Soares-da-Silva, P

    1997-05-01

    The present study defined the kinetic characteristics of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) and L-5-hydroxytryptophan (L-5-HTP) transport and their decarboxylation products, dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), respectively, in OK cells. The apical uptake of both L-dopa and 5-HTP was temperature dependent and stereoselective. Nonlinear analysis of the saturation curves revealed for L-dopa and L-5-HTP Michaelis constants of 13.8 and 29.1 microM, respectively, and maximal velocities of 21 and 29 nmol.mg protein-1.6 min-1, respectively, L-5-HTP inhibited the apical uptake of L-dopa with a half-maximal inhibitory constant of 29.1 microM. The accumulation of L-dopa and L-5-HTP from the basolateral cell border was dependent on the concentration used and saturable at nearly 50 microM. The accumulation of dopamine and 5-HT was found to be saturable only when the substrates were applied from the basolateral cell border. These results demonstrate that the L-dopa and L-5-HTP transporters in OK cells are located in both the apical and basolateral cell borders, whereas the uptake of dopamine and 5-HT is a saturable process only when the substrates are applied from the basolateral cell border.

  17. Kinetics of 3H-serotonin uptake by platelets in infantile autism and developmental language disorder (including five pairs of twins)

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    Katsui, T.; Okuda, M.; Usuda, S.; Koizumi, T.

    1986-03-01

    The kinetics of 5-HT uptake by platelets was studied in cases of infantile autism and developmental language disorder (DLD) and normal subjects. Two patients of the autism group were twins, and the seven patients of the DLD group were members of four pairs of twins. The Vmax values (means +/- SD) for autism and DLD were 6.46 +/- .90 pmol 5-HT/10(7) cells/min and 4.85 +/- 1.50 pmol 5-HT/10(7) cells/min, respectively. These values were both significantly higher than that of 2.25 +/- .97 pmole 5-HT/10(7) cells/min for normal children. The Km values of the three groups were not significantly different. Data on the five pairs of twins examined suggested that the elevated Vmax of 5-HT uptake by platelets was determined genetically.

  18. Serotonin 5-HT2A receptor binding in platelets from healthy subjects as studied by [3H]-lysergic acid diethylamide ([3H]-LSD): intra- and interindividual variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigset, O; Mjörndal, T

    1997-04-01

    In studies on platelet 5-HT2A receptor binding in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, there has been a marked variability and a considerable overlap of values between patients and controls. The causes of the large variability in 5-HT2A receptor parameters is still unsettled. In the present study, we have quantified the intra- and interindividual variability of platelet 5-HT2A receptor binding in 112 healthy subjects and explored factors that may influence 5-HT2A receptor binding, using [3H]-lysergic acid diethylamide as radioligand. Age, gender, blood pressure, and metabolic capacity of the liver enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 did not influence Bmax and Kd values. Body weight and body mass index (BMI) showed a negative correlation with Kd (p = .04 and .03, respectively), but not with Bmax. Bmax was significantly lower in the light half of the year than in the dark half of the year (p = .001), and Kd was significantly lower in the fall than in the summer and winter (p < .001). In females, there was a significant increase in Bmax from week 1 to week 2 of the menstrual cycle (p = .03). Females taking contraceptive pills had significantly higher Kd than drug-free females in weeks 1 and 4 of the menstrual cycle (p = .04). This study shows that a number of factors should be taken into account when using platelet 5-HT2A receptor binding in studies of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  19. Kinetics of platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake in headache patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, P; Jarman, J; Glover, V; Sandler, M; Davies, P T; Clifford Rose, F

    1991-07-01

    Platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) uptake was measured in asymptomatic headache patients attending a specialist migraine clinic, and in hospital staff who did not suffer from regular or severe headache. Current levels of anxiety and depression were assessed in all subjects using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale and their possible influence on the uptake kinetics taken into account during the analysis of results. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) was significantly raised in common migraine and tension headache compared with controls (p less than 0.001 and p less than 0.01, respectively), but not in classical migraine or cluster headache. The increase remained significant after adjusting for differences in age, sex, presence of anxiety or depression (HAD sub-scale score greater than or equal to 8), drug intake during the week before testing, time elapsed since last attack and time of assay (am or pm). No differences were observed between patients and controls in the maximal rate of uptake (Vmax) or platelet count, and previous reports of a reduction in Vmax in patients experiencing attack within 5 days prior to testing could not be confirmed. The cause and significance of an increased Km are not clear, but plasma factors acting as competitive inhibitors for the uptake site or an alteration in the configuration of the uptake site are possible explanations. If confirmed, the shared biochemical abnormality may suggest that common migraine and tension headache have a common pathogenesis.

  20. Platelet 5-HT2A receptor binding and tryptophan availability in depression are not associated with recent history of suicide attempts but with personality traits characteristic for suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Erik; Brunner, Jürgen; Hawellek, Barbara; Lewitzka, Ute; Ising, Marcus; Bondy, Brigitta; Rao, Marie Luise; Frahnert, Christine; Rujescu, Dan; Müller-Oerlinghausen, Bruno; Schley, Jürgen; Heuser, Isabella; Maier, Wolfgang; Hohagen, Fritz; Felber, Werner; Bronisch, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    Abnormalities in the serotonergic (5-HT) system have been implicated in the pathogenesis of suicidal behavior. Studies on peripheral serotonergic parameters as a measure for central serotonergic function in suicidal patients appear to be promising, yet failed to show a clear association with suicidality. The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of serotonergic blood parameters in depressed suicidal patients and to examine their usefulness as a potential biological marker for suicidality. A number of personality traits were assessed in order to provide a basis for a psychobiological model of suicidal behavior. Depressed patients with a recent suicide attempt (SA; n = 59) were compared to those without history of suicide attempts (NSA; n = 28). 5-HT2A receptor binding in platelets and tryptophan/amino acid ratio in plasma were measured. Acute psychopathology and personality traits as well as characteristics of suicide attempts were assessed. There was no significant difference between SA and NSA in terms of peripheral serotonergic parameters as well as personality traits. However, the whole sample showed associations between certain personality traits and serotonergic platelet parameters. Furthermore, we observed a relation between suicidal ideation, lethality of suicide attempts and peripheral serotonergic markers. The number of cases with data on peripheral markers is relatively low. The potential influence of antidepressant medication previous to study inclusion has to be taken into account. The study focussed on depressed patients only. Low serotonergic function is involved in the pathogenesis of suicidality, whereas the use of platelet 5-HT2A receptor activity and tryptophan availability as biological markers for suicidality in depressed patients could not be proven an appropriate tool. Alterations in the serotonergic system are associated with trait aggression and other character dimensions.

  1. Sertraline reduces glutamate uptake in human platelets.

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    Rodrigues, Débora Olmedo; Bristot, Ivi Juliana; Klamt, Fábio; Frizzo, Marcos Emílio

    2015-12-01

    Mitochondrial damage and declines in ATP levels have been recently attributed to sertraline. The effects of sertraline on different parameters were investigated in washed platelets from 18 healthy male volunteers, after 24h of drug exposure. Sertraline toxicity was observed only at the highest concentrations, 30 and 100 μM, which significantly reduced platelet viability to 76 ± 3% and 20 ± 2%, respectively. The same concentrations significantly decreased total ATP to 73 ± 3% and 13 ± 2%, respectively. Basal values of glycogen were not significantly affected by sertraline treatment. Glutamate uptake was significantly reduced after treatment with 3, 30 and 100 μM, by 28 ± 6%, 32 ± 5% and 54 ± 4%, respectively. Our data showed that sertraline at therapeutic concentrations does not compromise platelet viability and ATP levels, but they suggest that in a situation where extracellular glutamate levels are potentially increased, sertraline might aggravate an excitotoxic condition.

  2. Behavioral, sleep-waking and EEG power spectral effects following the two specific 5-HT uptake inhibitors zimeldine and alaproclate in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfelt, L; Ursin, R

    1991-11-26

    Sleep, waking and EEG power spectra were studied in cats for 15 h following peroral administration of placebo or 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg of the 5-HT reuptake inhibitors zimeldine and alaproclate. Behavior was also observed during the initial period following drug administration. Both drugs had effects on motor behavior and initiated hallucinatory like behavior. Zimeldine increased latency to stable sleep and to SWS-2. Alaproclate increased latency to SWS-1. Both drugs increased SWS (NREM sleep) and particularly SWS-2. REM sleep latency was increased and REM sleep was reduced following both drugs. EEG slow wave activity was increased following zimeldine. It is concluded that the 5-HT stimulation caused by the drugs yields complex effects on the sleep-waking axis, both sleep incompatible and sleep promoting effects.

  3. Effects of clomipramine treatment on cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites and platelet sup 3 H-imipramine binding and serotonin uptake and concentration in major depressive disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, B.; Waegner, A.; Aasberg, M. (Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)); Beck, O.; Brodin, K. (Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)); Monterio, D. (Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Huddinge Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1991-01-01

    In an open study of 12 inpatients who met the DSM-III criteria for a major depressive episode, the effects of clomipramine (CI) on the monoamine metabolites 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl glycol (HMPG) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured simultaneously with the effects on {sup 3}H-imipramine binding, serotonin (5-HT) uptake and 5-HT concentration in platelets after 3 and 6 weeks of treatment. Drug (CI and desmethylclomipramine) plasma concentrations were determined. The concentrations of 5-HIAA and HMPG decreased substantially, and the concentration of HVA remained unchanged. There was also a large and significant reduction of the number of imipramine binding sites (B{sub max}) and of the platelet 5-HT concentration. The 5-HT uptake was not measurable aftet 3 weeks of treatment. None of the parameters changed significantly between weeks 3 and 6. There were no significant correlations between antidepressant effect (measured by the Montgomery-Aasberg Depression Rating Scale) and plasma drug concentrations, although a tendency to a significant correlation between antidepressant effect and CI was observed at 3 weeks. There were no significant intercorrelations between the different 5-HT parameters and no other significant correlations between the biochemical measures and clinical outcome. (author).

  4. Physiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic roles of 5-HT systems in learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, A

    1998-01-01

    Multiple 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors have been identified (5-HT1A/1B/1D/1E/1F, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, 5-HT3A/3B, 5-HT4A/4B, 5-HT5A/5B, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7A/7B/7C/7D) and extensive evidence suggests that 5-HT receptors have a role in learning and memory. Indeed, available evidence strongly supports physiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic roles of 5-HT systems in cognitive processes, although the evidence seems incomplete. Indeed, there has been a clear tendency to use pre-learning administration most frequently, whereas post-learning and pre-retention administration protocols have been utilized in only a few studies, and probably this trend has led to missed relevant information. For instance, when pre- vs post-training administration of 5-HT1A agonist, 5-HT2 antagonists and 5-HT4 agonists have been compared contrasting findings were reported in aversive and appetitive learning tasks. Emerging evidence also indicates that 5-HT1A and 5-HT4 receptor agonists, as well as, 5-HT1A antagonists, 5-HT2 antagonists, 5-HT3 antagonists and 5-HT uptake inhibitors may have therapeutic utility in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and amnesia. Inasmuch as the activation or blockade of diverse 5-HT receptors is able to modulate cognitive processes, and 5-HT uptake inhibition could have therapeutic applications in the treatment of cognitive disorders, it seems evident that the role of 5-HT in learning and memory is more complex than a simple imbalance. Consequently, the notion that activation of the 5-HT systems impairs performance, whereas reduced serotonergic function may facilitate learning, must be reconsidered.

  5. 抑郁症患者血小板五羟色胺浓度的研究%Blood platelet 5-HT concentration in patients with depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘桂花; 林治光; 李华芳; 徐韬园

    2005-01-01

    目的通过测定抑郁症患者血小板五羟色胺(5-HT)浓度,探讨抑郁症治疗前后5-HT变化及其与临床特征的关系.方法用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)及电化学探测仪测定60例抑郁症患者治疗前后血小板5-HT浓度,并与30名正常者对照比较,同时作相关分析.结果治疗前后抑郁症患者血小板5-HT浓度均显著低于正常对照组(t=5.38, P<0.001; t=3.63, P<0.001);治疗前血小板5-HT浓度与HAMD因子1(焦虑/躯体化)有显著相关性(r=-0.88, P=0.001).结论抑郁症患者血小板5-HT浓度明显降低,治疗前焦虑/躯体化症状与5-HT浓度呈负相关.

  6. Effect on the uptake kinetics of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) in platelets from workers with long-term exposure to organic solvents. A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beving, H.; Kristensson, J.; Malmgren, R.; Olsson, P.; Unge, G.

    1984-08-01

    Six workers from a paint industry were examined concerning the concentration of solvents in the breathing zone, the platelet count and kinetic uptake of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)), the serum concentration of calcium, potassium and sodium, and pH. The degree of exposure was found to be moderate. The results showed a decrease in platelet count in whole blood and platelet-rich plasma. The maximum uptake rate for serotonin in platelets (Vmax) was significantly increased compared to that of nonexposed subjects. No changes in the ionic concentration and pH of serum were observed. One worker was reexamined after a six-week period of nonexposure. Though the measured platelet variables were still aberrant, the values approached normal.

  7. Serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2A Receptor (5-HT2AR):5-HT2CR Imbalance in Medial Prefrontal Cortex Associates with Motor Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasio, Noelle C; Stutz, Sonja J; Fink, Latham H L; Swinford-Jackson, Sarah E; Sears, Robert M; DiLeone, Ralph J; Rice, Kenner C; Moeller, F Gerard; Cunningham, Kathryn A

    2015-07-15

    A feature of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders is motor impulsivity. Recent studies have implicated serotonin (5-HT) systems in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in mediating individual differences in motor impulsivity, notably the 5-HT2AR receptor (5-HT2AR) and 5-HT2CR. We investigated the hypothesis that differences in the ratio of 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR protein expression in mPFC would predict the individual level of motor impulsivity and that the engineered loss of the 5-HT2CR would result in high motor impulsivity concomitant with elevated 5-HT2AR expression and pharmacological sensitivity to the selective 5-HT2AR antagonist M100907. High and low impulsive rats were identified in a 1-choice serial reaction time task. Native protein levels of the 5-HT2AR and the 5-HT2CR predicted the intensity of motor impulsivity and the 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR ratio in mPFC positively correlated with levels of premature responses in individual outbred rats. The possibility that the 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2CR act in concert to control motor impulsivity is supported by the observation that high phenotypic motor impulsivity associated with a diminished mPFC synaptosomal 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR protein:protein interaction. Knockdown of mPFC 5-HT2CR resulted in increased motor impulsivity and triggered a functional disruption of the local 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR balance as evidenced by a compensatory upregulation of 5-HT2AR protein expression and a leftward shift in the potency of M100907 to suppress impulsive behavior. We infer that there is an interactive relationship between the mPFC 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2CR, and that a 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR imbalance may be a functionally relevant mechanism underlying motor impulsivity.

  8. Regulation of extrasynaptic 5-HT by serotonin reuptake transporter function in 5-HT-absorbing neurons underscores adaptation behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Gholamali; Xie, Yusu; Kullyev, Andrey; Liang, Bin; Sze, Ji Ying

    2011-06-15

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)]-absorbing neurons use serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) to uptake 5-HT from extracellular space but do not synthesize it. While 5-HT-absorbing neurons have been identified in diverse organisms from Caenorhabditis elegans to humans, their function has not been elucidated. Here, we show that SERT in 5-HT-absorbing neurons controls behavioral response to food deprivation in C. elegans. The AIM and RIH interneurons uptake 5-HT released from chemosensory neurons and secretory neurons. Genetic analyses suggest that 5-HT secreted by both synaptic vesicles and dense core vesicles diffuse readily to the extrasynaptic space adjacent to the AIM and RIH neurons. Loss of mod-5/SERT function blocks the 5-HT absorption. mod-5/SERT mutants have been shown to exhibit exaggerated locomotor response to food deprivation. We found that transgenic expression of MOD-5/SERT in the 5-HT-absorbing neurons fully corrected the exaggerated behavior. Experiments of cell-specific inhibition of synaptic transmission suggest that the synaptic release of 5-HT from the 5-HT-absorbing neurons is not required for this behavioral modulation. Our data point to the role of 5-HT-absorbing neurons as temporal-spatial regulators of extrasynaptic 5-HT. Regulation of extrasynaptic 5-HT levels by 5-HT-absorbing neurons may represent a fundamental mechanism of 5-HT homeostasis, integrating the activity of 5-HT-producing neurons with distant targets in the neural circuits, and could be relevant to some actions of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in humans.

  9. Serotonin (5-HT) regulates neurite outgrowth through 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Paulina S; Neira, David; Muñoz, Mauricio; Lavandero, Sergio; Fiedler, Jenny L

    2014-08-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) production and expression of 5-HT receptors (5-HTRs) occur early during prenatal development. Recent evidence suggests that, in addition to its classical role as a neurotransmitter, 5-HT regulates neuronal connectivity during mammalian development by modulating cell migration and neuronal cytoarchitecture. Given the variety of 5-HTRs, researchers have had difficulty clarifying the specific role of each receptor subtype in brain development. Signalling mediated by the G-protein-coupled 5-HT1A R and 5-HT7 R, however, has been associated with neuronal plasticity. Thus, we hypothesized that 5-HT promotes neurite outgrowth through 5-HT1A R and 5-HT7 R. The involvement of 5-HT1A R and 5-HT7 R in the morphology of rat hippocampal neurons was evaluated by treating primary cultures at 2 days in vitro with 5-HT and specific antagonists for 5-HT1A R and 5-HT7 R (WAY-100635 and SB269970, respectively). The stimulation of hippocampal neurons with 100 nM 5-HT for 24 hr produced no effect on either the number or the length of primary neurites. Nonetheless, after 5HT7 R was blocked, the addition of 5-HT increased the number of primary neurites, suggesting that 5HT7 R could inhibit neuritogenesis. In contrast, 5-HT induced secondary neurite outgrowth, an effect inhibited by 1 μM WAY-100635 or SB269970. These results suggest that both serotonergic receptors participate in secondary neurite outgrowth. We conclude that 5-HT1A R and 5-HT7 R regulate neuronal morphology in primary hippocampal cultures by promoting secondary neurite outgrowth.

  10. INSIGHTS INTO THE REGULATION OF 5-HT2A RECEPTORS BY SCAFFOLDING PROTEINS AND KINASES

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Bryan L.; Allen, John A.; Yadav, Prem N.

    2008-01-01

    5-HT2A serotonin receptors are essential molecular targets for the actions of LSD-like hallucinogens and atypical antipsychotic drugs. 5-HT2A serotonin receptors also mediate a variety of physiological processes in peripheral and central nervous systems including platelet aggregation, smooth muscle contraction, and the modulation of mood and perception. Scaffolding proteins have emerged as important regulators of 5-HT2A receptors and our recent studies suggest multiple scaffolds exist for 5-H...

  11. 5-HT systems: emergent targets for memory formation and memory alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Drugs acting through 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin or 5-HT) systems modulate memory and its alterations, although the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. 5-HT drugs may present promnesic and/or antiamnesic (or even being amnesic) effects. Key questions regarding 5-HT markers include whether receptors directly or indirectly participate and/or contribute to the physiological and pharmacological basis of memory and its pathogenesis; hence, the major aim of this article was to examine recent advances in emergent targets of the 5-HT systems for memory formation and memory alterations. Recent reviews and findings are summarized, mainly in the context of the growing notion of memory deficits in brain disorders (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder, mild cognitive impairment, consumption of drugs, poststroke cognitive dysfunctions, schizophrenia, Parkinson disease, and infection-induced memory impairments). Mainly, mammalian and (some) human data were the focus. At least agonists and antagonists for 5-HT1A/1B, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors as well as serotonin uptake inhibitors seem to have a promnesic and/or antiamnesic effect in different conditions and 5-HT markers seem to be associated to neural changes. Available evidence offers clues about the possibilities, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. For instance, 5-HT transporter expression seems to be a reliable neural marker related to memory mechanisms and its alterations.

  12. 5-HT(1A) receptors and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo; Perez-Garcia, Georgina

    2007-01-01

    The study of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) systems has benefited from the identification, classification and cloning of multiple 5-HT receptors (5-HT(1)-5-HT(7)). Increasing evidence suggests that 5-HT pathways, reuptake site/transporter complex and 5-HT receptors represent a strategic distribution for learning and memory. A key question still remaining is whether 5-HT markers (e.g., receptors) are directly or indirectly contributing to the physiological and pharmacological basis of memory and its pathogenesis or, rather, if they represent protective or adaptable mechanisms (at least in initial stages). In the current paper, the major aim is to revise recent advances regarding mammalian 5-HT(1A) receptors in light of their physiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic implications in memory. An attempt is made to identify and discuss sources of discrepancies by employing an analytic approach to examine the nature and degree of difficulty of behavioral tasks used, as well as implicating other factors (for example, brain areas, training time or duration, and drug administration) which might offer new insights into the understanding and interpretation of these data. In this context, 8-OH-DPAT deserves special attention since for many years it has been the more selective 5-HT drug and, hence, more frequently used. As 5-HT(1A) receptors are key components of serotonergic signaling, investigation of their memory mechanisms and action sites and the conditions under which they might operate, could yield valuable insights. Moreover, selective drugs with agonists, neutral antagonists or inverse agonist properties for 5-HT(1A) (and 5-HT(7)) receptors may constitute a new therapeutic opportunity for learning and memory disorders.

  13. Control of Amygdala Circuits by 5-HT Neurons via 5-HT and Glutamate Cotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Ayesha; Bocchio, Marco; Bannerman, David M; Sharp, Trevor; Capogna, Marco

    2017-02-15

    The serotonin (5-HT) system and the amygdala are key regulators of emotional behavior. Several lines of evidence suggest that 5-HT transmission in the amygdala is implicated in the susceptibility and drug treatment of mood disorders. Therefore, elucidating the physiological mechanisms through which midbrain 5-HT neurons modulate amygdala circuits could be pivotal in understanding emotional regulation in health and disease. To shed light on these mechanisms, we performed patch-clamp recordings from basal amygdala (BA) neurons in brain slices from mice with channelrhodopsin genetically targeted to 5-HT neurons. Optical stimulation of 5-HT terminals at low frequencies (≤1 Hz) evoked a short-latency excitation of BA interneurons (INs) that was depressed at higher frequencies. Pharmacological analysis revealed that this effect was mediated by glutamate and not 5-HT because it was abolished by ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists. Optical stimulation of 5-HT terminals at higher frequencies (10-20 Hz) evoked both slow excitation and slow inhibition of INs. These effects were mediated by 5-HT because they were blocked by antagonists of 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors, respectively. These fast glutamate- and slow 5-HT-mediated responses often coexisted in the same neuron. Interestingly, fast-spiking and non-fast-spiking INs displayed differential modulation by glutamate and 5-HT. Furthermore, optical stimulation of 5-HT terminals did not evoke glutamate release onto BA principal neurons, but inhibited these cells directly via activation of 5-HT1A receptors and indirectly via enhanced GABA release. Collectively, these findings suggest that 5-HT neurons exert a frequency-dependent, cell-type-specific control over BA circuitry via 5-HT and glutamate co-release to inhibit the BA output.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The modulation of the amygdala by serotonin (5-HT) is important for emotional regulation and is implicated in the pathogenesis and treatment of affective disorders

  14. Memory time-course: mRNA 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Garcia, Georgina; Meneses, Alfredo

    2009-08-24

    In an attempt to clarify conflicting results about serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptors in memory formation, their mRNA expression was determined by RT-PCR in key brain areas for explicit and implicit memory. The time-course (0-120 h) of autoshaped responses was progressive and mRNA 5-HT(1A) or 5-HT(7) receptors expression monotonically augmented or declined in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and raphe nuclei, respectively. At 24-48 h acutely 8-OH-DPAT (0.062 mg/kg) administration enhanced memory and attenuated mRNA 5-HT(1A)memory; however both combinations suppressed or up-regulated mRNA expression 5-HT(1A) or 5-HT(7) receptors. In contrast, AS19 (5.0 mg/kg) facilitated memory consolidation, decreased or increased hippocampal 5-HT(7) and 5-HT(1A) receptors expression. Together these data revealed that, when both 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptors were stimulated by 8-OHDPAT under memory consolidation, subtle changes emerged, not evident at behavioral level though detectable at genes expression. Notably, high levels of efficient memory were maintained even when serotonergic tone, via either 5-HT(1A) or 5-HT(7) receptor, was down- or up-regulated. Nevertheless, WAY100635 plus SB-269970 impaired memory consolidation and suppressed their expression. Considering that serotonergic changes are prominent in AD patients with an earlier onset of disease the present approach might be useful in the identification of functional changes associated to memory formation, memory deficits and reversing or even preventing these deficits.

  15. Serotonergic 5-HT7 receptors and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarri, Antonella; Pompili, Assunta

    2014-01-01

    The abundant distribution of serotonin (5-HT) in different areas of the central nervous system can explain the involvement of this neurotransmitter in the regulation of several functions, such as sleep, pain, feeding, and sexual and emotional behaviors. Moreover, the serotonergic system is also involved in other more complex roles, such as cognition, including learning and memory processes. Recent studies led to the discovery of various types and subtypes of receptors differentially associated to cognitive mechanisms. 5-HT7 is the most recently discovered receptor for 5-HT; therefore, it is also one of the least well characterized. Studies exist hypothesizing the role of 5-HT7 on the modulation of learning and memory processes and other cognitive functions. Moreover, much attention has been devoted to the possible role of 5-HT7 receptors in psychiatric disorders. Therefore, the aim of this review is to clarify the behavioral role of the recently discovered 5-HT7 type receptor and highlight its involvement in the cognitive functions, with particular attention to the modulation of learning and memory processes, thus providing a basis to obtain new therapeutic agents and strategies for the treatment of cognitive disorders.

  16. [5-HT1A/5-HT7 receptor interplay: Chronic activation of 5-HT7 receptors decreases the functional activity of 5-HT1A receptor and its сontent in the mouse brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondaurova, E M; Bazovkina, D V; Naumenko, V S

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin receptors 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 are involved in the development of various psychopathologies. Some data indicate that there is an interplay between 5-HT1A 5-HT7 receptors that could be implicated in the regulation of their function. This work analyzed the effects of chronic 5-HT7 activation on the functional activity of 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptors, on the corresponding protein levels, and on the expression of genes encoding 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptors in the mouse brain. Chronic administration of the 5-HT7 selective agonist LP44 (20.5 nmol, i.c.v., 14 days) produced considerable desensitization of both 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptors. In LP44-treated mice, the hypothermic responses mediated by both 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptors were attenuated. Moreover, the levels of 5-HT1A receptor protein in the midbrain and the frontal cortex of LP44-treated mice were significantly decreased. However, the brain levels of 5-HT7 receptor protein did not differ between LP44-treated and control mice. Chronic LP44 treatment did not alter the expression of the 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptor genes in all investigated brain structure. These data suggest that 5-HT7 receptors participate in the posttranscriptional regulation of the 5-HT1A receptors functioning.

  17. Changes of Serotonin (5-HT), 5-HT2A Receptor, and 5-HT Transporter in the Sprague-Dawley Rats of Depression,Myocardial Infarction and Myocardial Infarction Co-exist with Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Yan Liu; Yah-Ping Ren; Wan-Lin Wei; Guo-Xiang Tian; Guo Li

    2015-01-01

    Background:To evaluate whether serotonin (5-HT),5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR),and 5-HT transporter (serotonin transporter [SERT]) are associated with different disease states of depression,myocardial infarction (MI) and MI co-exist with depression in Sprague-Dawley rats.Methods:After established the animal model of four groups include control,depression,MI and MI with depression,we measured 5-HT,5-HT2AR and SERT from serum and platelet lysate.Results:The serum concentration of 5-HT in depression rats decreased significantly compared with the control group (303.25 ± 9.99 vs.352.98 ± 13.73;P =0.000),while that in MI group increased (381.78 ± 14.17 vs.352.98 ± 13.73;P =0.000).However,the depression + MI group had no change compared with control group (360.62 ± 11.40 vs.352.98 ± 13.73;P =0.036).The changes of the platelet concentration of 5-HT in the depression,MI,and depression + MI group were different from that of serum.The levels of 5-HT in above three groups were lower than that in the control group (380.40 ± 17.90,387.75 ± 22.28,246.40 ± 18.99 vs.500.29 ± 20.91;P =0.000).The platelet lysate concentration of 5-HT2AR increased in depression group,MI group,and depression + MI group compared with the control group (370.75 ± 14.75,393.47 ± 15.73,446.66 ± 18.86 vs.273.66 ± 16.90;P =0.000).The serum and platelet concentration of SERT in the depression group,MI group and depression + MI group were all increased compared with the control group (527.51 ± 28.32,602.02 ± 23.32,734.76 ± 29.59 vs.490.56 ± 16.90;P =0.047,P =0.000,P =0.000 in each and 906.38 ± 51.84,897.33 ± 60.34,1030.17 ± 58.73 vs.708.62 ± 51.15;P =0.000 in each).Conclusions:The concentration of 5-HT2AR in platelet lysate and SERT in serum and platelet may be involved in the pathway of MI with depression.Further studies should examine whether elevated 5-HT2AR and SERT may contribute to the biomarker in MI patients with depression.

  18. 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors contribute to lurasidone-induced dopamine efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mei; Horiguchi, Masakuni; Felix, Anna R; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2012-05-09

    Lurasidone is a novel, atypical antipsychotic drug with serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)]2A, 5-HT7, dopamine (DA) D2 antagonist, and 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist properties. The ability of lurasidone to reverse the effects of subchronic administration phencyclidine, to impair novel object recognition in rats, an animal model of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, is dependent, in part, on its 5-HT1A agonist and 5-HT7 receptor antagonist properties. We tested whether 5-HT1A partial agonism or 5-HT7 antagonism, or both, contributed to the ability of lurasidone to enhance cortical and hippocampal DA efflux, which may be related to its ability to improve cognition. Here, we report that lurasidone, 0.25 and 0.5, but not 0.1 mg/kg, subcutaneously, significantly increased DA efflux in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in a dose-dependent manner. Lurasidone, 0.5 mg/kg, also produced a smaller increase in DA efflux in the nucleus accumbens. Pretreatment with the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY100635 (0.2 mg/kg, subcutaneously), partially blocked the lurasidone-induced cortical and hippocampal DA efflux. Further, subeffective doses of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, tandospirone (0.2 mg/kg), or the 5-HT7 antagonist, SB269970 (0.3 mg/kg), potentiated the ability of a subeffective dose of lurasidone (0.1 mg/kg) to increase DA efflux in the prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest that the effects of lurasidone on the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, DA efflux are dependent, at least partially, on its 5-HT1A agonist and 5-HT7 antagonist properties and may contribute to its efficacy to reverse the effects of subchronic phencyclidine treatment and improve schizophrenia.

  19. Interplay between serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors in depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, Vladimir S; Popova, Nina K; Lacivita, Enza; Leopoldo, Marcello; Ponimaskin, Evgeni G

    2014-07-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter regulating a wide range of physiological and pathological functions via activation of heterogeneously expressed 5-HT receptors. Besides the important role of 5-HT receptors in the pathogenesis of depressive disorders and in their clinical medications, underlying mechanisms are far from being completely understood. This review focuses on possible cross talk between two serotonin receptors, 5-HT1A and the 5-HT7 . Although these receptors are highly co-expressed in brain regions implicated in depression, and most agonists developed for the 5-HT1A or 5-HT7 receptors have cross-reactivity, their functional interaction has not been yet established. It has been recently shown that 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors form homo- and heterodimers both in vitro and in vivo. From the functional point of view, heterodimerization has been shown to play an important role in regulation of receptor-mediated signaling and internalization, suggesting the implication of heterodimerization in the development and maintenance of depression. Interaction between these receptors is also of clinical interest, because both receptors represent an important pharmacological target for the treatment of depression and anxiety.

  20. Memory formation and memory alterations: 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptors, novel alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Agonists and antagonists of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor6 (5-HT6) or receptor7 (5-HT7) might improve memory and/or reverse amnesia, although the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Hence, the current work summarizes recent reviews and findings involving these receptors. Evidence indicates that diverse 5-HT6 receptor antagonists produce promnesic and/or antiamnesic effect in conditions, such as memory formation, age-related cognitive impairments and memory deficit in preclinical studies, as well as in diseases such as schizophrenia, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Memory, aging, and AD modify 5-HT6 receptors and signaling cascades; likewise, the modulation of 5-HT6 drugs on memory seems to be accompanied with neural changes. Moreover, 5-HT7 receptors are localized in brain areas mediating memory, including the cortex, hippocampus (e.g., Zola-Morgan and Squire, 1993) and raphe nuclei; however, the role of these receptors on memory has yet to be fully explored. Hence, findings and reviews are summarized in this work. Evidence suggests that both 5-HT7 receptor agonists and antagonists might have promnesic and anti-amnesic effects. These effects seem to be dependent on the basal level of performance, i.e., normal or impaired. Available evidence suggests that a potential utility of 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptor in mild-to-moderate AD patients and other memory dysfunctions as therapeutic targets.

  1. Expression of mRNAs encoding for 5-HT2C,5-HT3,5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptor subtypes in rat spinal cord%大鼠脊髓内5-HT2C,5-HT3,5-HT6和5-HT7受体亚型mRNAs的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武胜昔; 王亚云; 刘翔宇; 王文; 李云庆

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To examine the expression of mRNAs encoding for serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2c, 5-HT3, 5-HT6and 5-HT7 receptor subtypes within different segments of the rat spinal cord. Methods: Reverse transcriptase-polymerasechain reaction (RT-PCR) technique was used. Results: Strong expression of 5-HT2C receptor mRNA was observed inboth dorsal horn (DH) and ventral horn (VH) of the cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral segments of the spinal cord.The 5-HT3 receptor mRNA was present at high expression level in the DH and at slightly lower expression level in the Vhof all spinal cord segments. In contrast, the VH generally contained higher expression level of 5-HT6 receptor subtype mR-NA when compared to the DH. Similar to 5-HT3 receptor, the 5-HT7 receptor mRNA was also found at high expressionlevel in the DH. The differences in the expression level among these 5-HT receptor subtypes at the same level of the spinalcord or the same receptor subtype in different segments of the spinal cord were also observed. Conclusion: Four serotoninreceptor subtypes show a distinct expression pattern in the spinal cord. The present results indicate that these 5-HT recep-tor subtypes might have different physiological roles at the spinal level and provide further evidence for 5-HT receptor un-derlying the mechanism of nociception and movement.%目的:观察5-HT2C,5-HT3,5-HT6和5-HT7受体亚型mRNAs在大鼠脊髓不同节段的表达.方法:反转录PCR方法.结果:5-HT2C受体亚型mRNA在颈、胸、腰、骶段脊髓的背角(DH)和前角(VH)均有较强的表达;5-HT3受体mRNA在各节段脊髓DH的表达水平较高,而在VH则较低;与5-HT3受体亚型相反,5-HT6受体亚型mR-NA在脊髓VH的表达水平高于DH;5-HT7受体mRNA在脊髓的表达则与5-HT3受体相似,在各节段的DH均有较高水平的表达.不同的受体亚型在脊髓同一节段以及同一受体亚型在不同脊髓节段的表达水平存在差异.结论:本研究结果表明,上述四种5-HT受体亚

  2. The 5-HT hypothesis of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondzadeh, S

    2001-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a serious psychiatric illness that is responsible for a substantial proportion of mental illness worldwide. Symptoms include hallucination, delusions, thought disorder and negative symptoms, including poverty of thought and emotion, and social withdrawal. Early theories of schizophrenia implicated disturbed serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission, but these were largely overshadowed by the dopamine theory of schizophrenia, which became established after the introduction of chlorpromazine. However, the importance of 5-HT in CNS function is once again being recognized. The ability of antipsychotic drugs to diminish positive symptoms has been correlated with their ability to block dopamine D(2) receptors, although negative symptoms are not as effectively treated by typical neuroleptics. There is increasing interest in the correlation between negative symptoms of schizophrenia and 5-HT(2) receptors. The rationale for these studies is the hypothesis that abnormal neurotransmission at 5-HT(2) receptors may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. This review highlights recent pharmacological and clinical advances in the understanding of the potential use of serotonin 5-HT(2) receptor antagonists in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  3. Hydrogen peroxide stimulates the active transport of serotonin into human platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosin, T.R. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington (United States))

    1991-03-11

    The effect of hydrogen peroxide on the active transport of serotonin (5-HT) by human platelets was investigated. Platelets were exposed to either a single dose of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generated by the glucose/glucose oxidase or xanthine/xanthine oxidase enzyme systems. H{sub 2}{sub 2} produced a rapid, dose-dependent and time-dependent increase in 5-HT transport which was maximal after a 2 min incubation and decreased with continued incubation. Catalase completely prevented H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced stimulation and fluoxetine totally blocked 5-HT uptake into stimulated platelets. The glucose/glucose oxidase and the xanthine/xanthine oxidase generating systems produced a similar response to that of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. In the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system, superoxide dismutase failed to alter the stimulation, while catalase effectively prevented the response. The kinetics of 5-HT transport indicated that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment did not alter the K{sub m} of 5-HT transport but significantly increased the maximal rate of 5-HT transport. These data demonstrated that exposure of human platelets to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} resulted in a stimulation of the active transport of 5-HT and suggested that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} may function to regulate this process.

  4. Design and synthesis of dual 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori, Edward; Zhu, Xue Y; Etukala, Jagan R; Peprah, Kwakye; Jordan, Kamanski R; Adkins, Adia A; Bricker, Barbara A; Kang, Hye J; Huang, Xi-Ping; Roth, Bryan L; Ablordeppey, Seth Y

    2016-08-15

    5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors have been at the center of discussions recently due in part to their major role in the etiology of major central nervous system diseases such as depression, sleep disorders, and schizophrenia. As part of our search to identify dual targeting ligands for these receptors, we have carried out a systematic modification of a selective 5HT7 receptor ligand culminating in the identification of several dual 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor ligands. Compound 16, a butyrophenone derivative of tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ), was identified as the most potent agent with low nanomolar binding affinities to both receptors. Interestingly, compound 16 also displayed moderate affinity to other clinically relevant dopamine receptors. Thus, it is anticipated that compound 16 may serve as a lead for further exploitation in our quest to identify new ligands with the potential to treat diseases of CNS origin.

  5. 5-HT1B receptor modulation of the serotonin transporter in vivo: Studies using KO mice

    OpenAIRE

    Montañez, Sylvia; Munn, Jaclyn L.; Owens, W. Anthony; Horton, Rebecca E.; Daws, Lynette C.

    2013-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) controls the strength and duration of serotonergic neurotransmission by the high-affinity uptake of ser otonin (5-HT) from extracellular fluid. SERT is a key target for many psychotherapeutic and abused drugs, therefore understanding how SERT activity and expression are regulated is of fundamental importance. A growing literature suggests that SERT activity is under regulatory control of the 5-HT1B autoreceptor. The present studies made use of mice with a cons...

  6. Role of 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, A; Hong, E

    1997-08-01

    The effects of post-training (i.p.) injection of TFMPP, mCPP, DOI or 1-NP in the autoshaping learning task was explored. Furthermore, the post-training effects of these agonists after treatment with the antagonists (+/-)-pindolol, (+/-)-propranolol, NAN-190, ketanserin, ritanserin, mesulergine, MDL-72222 or p-chloroamphetamine (5-HT depleter) were studied. Rats were individually trained with a lever-press response (conditioned response; CR) on the autoshaping task and tested 24 h later. The results showed that the injection of TFMPP (1-10 mg/kg), mCPP (1-10 mg/kg), 1-NP (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) or mesulergine (0.4 mg/kg) decreased the rate of CR, while DOI (0.01-0.1 mg/kg) and ritanserin (0.5 mg/kg) and ketanserin (0.001-0.1 mg/kg) increased it. However, the effect induced by TFMPP was reversed by (+/-)-pindolol, ketanserin, ritanserin and PCA; the mCPP-induced effect was antagonized by (+/-)-propranolol, ketanserin, ritanserin and MDL-72222; and the effect produced by 1-NP was reversed by ketanserin, ritanserin and PCA. In addition, the increment in CR provoked by DOI was enhanced by ketanserin, and reversed by ritanserin, mesulergine and PCA. These findings suggest that TFMPP, 1-NP and DOI exerted their effects via stimulation of presynaptic 5-HT receptors. The effects of mCPP most probably reflect activation of postsynaptic receptors. The present data suggest that both 5-HT1B and 5-HT2A-2C receptors play a significant role in the consolidation of learning.

  7. SEROTONIN (5-HT) AND THE RATS EYE - SOME PILOT-STUDIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOERRIGTER, RMM; SIERTSEMA, JV; KEMA, IP

    1992-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a biogenic amine which has a multitude of more or less clearly established effects on peripheral vessels. It influences blood viscosity, platelet aggregation, and vasoconstruction and -dilatation, it enhances capillary permeability, it is the precursor of mel

  8. Antagonism of 5-HT1A receptors uncovers an excitatory effect of SSRIs on 5-HT neuronal activity, an action probably mediated by 5-HT7 receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, Fokko J.; Folgering, Joost H. A.; Gladkevich, Anatoliy V.; Schmidt, Anne; van der Hart, Marieke C. G.; Sprouse, Jeffrey; den Boer, Johan A.; Westerink, Ben H. C.; Cremers, Thomas I. F. H.

    2009-01-01

    Both microdialysis and electrophysiology were used to investigate whether another serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtype next to the 5-HT1A autoreceptor is involved in the acute effects of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor on 5-HT neuronal activity. On the basis of a previous study, we decided to

  9. Brief Report: Platelet-Poor Plasma Serotonin in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, George M.; Hertzig, Margaret E.; McBride, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Possible explanations for the well-replicated platelet hyperserotonemia of autism include an alteration in the platelet's handling of serotonin (5-hydroxyserotonin, 5-HT) or an increased exposure of the platelet to 5-HT. Measurement of platelet-poor plasma (PPP) levels of 5-HT appears to provide the best available index of in vivo exposure of the…

  10. Locomotor and peripheral effects of sibutramine modulated by 5-HT2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassetto, Silvana Soriano; Della Santa Rubio, Angela; Lopes, Janaína Jardim; Pereira, Patrícia; Brum, Clarice; Khazzaka, Márcia; Vinagre, Anapaula Sommer

    2006-12-01

    Sibutramine has been described as an anti-obesity drug with the ability to inhibit serotonin (5-HT), noradrenaline, and dopamine re-uptake, but without affinity to histamine and muscarinic receptors. On the other hand, cyproheptadine antagonizes serotonin 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B), and 5-HT(2C), histamine H1, and muscarinic (M) receptors. There are many reports concerning the influence of sibutramine on central serotoninergic pathways. In this study, we suggest that peripheral pathways may also be involved in the serotoninergic effects of sibutramine. In vivo experiments were undertaken to investigate the serotoninergic effects of sibutramine on body mass, the glycogen concentration in the diaphragm of rats, and locomotor behaviour. Rats were submitted to oral treatment with sibutramine, cyproheptadine, or sibutramine applied in combination with cyproheptadine, for a period of 2 months to investigate the 5-HT2 effects of sibutramine on these parameters. As the results demonstrated, the lower increase in body mass and the increased glycogen levels in the diaphragm muscle of rats treated with sibutramine seem to be modulated by 5-HT2 receptors, since these effects were completely antagonized by cyproheptadine in the group treated with the 2 drugs co-applied. Furthermore, the behavioural results also suggest that mechanisms modulated by 5-HT2 receptors are involved in the increase of locomotion in the rats treated with sibutramine, since the effect did not occur in the rats treated with sibutramine co-applied with the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, cyproheptadine. The results suggest that sibutramine modifies energy-related parameters such as body mass, diaphragm glycogen, and locomotor behaviour in rats via 5-HT2 serotoninergic pathways.

  11. High trait aggression in men is associated with low 5-HT levels, as indexed by 5-HT4 receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Mc Mahon, Brenda; Fisher, Patrick MacDonald;

    2016-01-01

    Impulsive aggression has commonly been associated with a dysfunction of the serotonin (5-HT) system: many, but not all, studies point to an inverse relationship between 5-HT and aggression. As cerebral 5-HT4 receptor (5-HT4R) binding has recently been recognized as a proxy for stable brain levels...... of 5-HT, we here test the hypothesis in healthy men and women that brain 5-HT levels, as indexed by cerebral 5-HT4R, are inversely correlated with trait aggression and impulsivity. Sixty-one individuals (47 men) underwent positron emission tomography scanning with the radioligand [(11)C]SB207145...... for quantification of brain 5-HT4R binding. The Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale were used for assessment of trait aggression and trait impulsivity. Among male subjects, there was a positive correlation between global 5-HT4R and BPAQ total score (P = 0.037) as well...

  12. Conservation of 5-HT1A receptor-mediated autoinhibition of serotonin (5-HT neurons in mice with altered 5-HT homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naozumi eAraragi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Firing activity of serotonin (5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN is controlled by inhibitory somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors. This autoinhibitory mechanism is implicated in the etiology of disorders of emotion regulation, such as anxiety disorders and depression, as well as in the mechanism of antidepressant action. Here, we investigated how persistent alterations in brain 5-HT availability affect autoinhibition in two genetically modified mouse models lacking critical mediators of serotonergic transmission: 5-HT transporter knockout (Sert -/- and tryptophan hydroxylase-2 knockout (Tph2 -/- mice. The degree of autoinhibition was assessed by loose-seal cell-attached recording in DRN slices. First, application of the 5-HT1A-selective agonist R(+-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylaminotetralin showed mild sensitization and marked desensitization of 5-HT1A receptors in Tph2 -/- mice and Sert -/- mice, respectively. While 5-HT neurons from Tph2 -/- mice did not display autoinhibition in response to L-tryptophan, autoinhibition of these neurons was unaltered in Sert -/- mice despite marked desensitization of their 5-HT1A autoreceptors. When the Tph2-dependent 5-HT synthesis step was bypassed by application of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP, neurons from both Tph2 -/- and Sert -/- mice decreased their firing rates at significantly lower concentrations of 5-HTP compared to wildtype controls. Our findings demonstrate that, as opposed to the prevalent view, sensitivity of somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors does not predict the magnitude of 5-HT neuron autoinhibition. Changes in 5-HT1A receptor sensitivity may rather be seen as an adaptive mechanism to keep autoinhibition functioning in response to extremely altered levels of extracellular 5-HT resulting from targeted inactivation of mediators of serotonergic signaling.

  13. Functional expression of 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, Takao; Kaneshige, Kota; Kurosaki, Teruko [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuyama University, 1 Gakuen-cho, Fukuyama, Hiroshima 729-0292 (Japan); Nishio, Hiroaki, E-mail: nishio@fupharm.fukuyama-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuyama University, 1 Gakuen-cho, Fukuyama, Hiroshima 729-0292 (Japan)

    2010-05-28

    In the previous study, we reported the gene expression for proteins related to the function of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) and elucidated the expression patterns of 5-HT{sub 2} receptor subtypes in mouse osteoblasts. In the present study, we evaluated the possible involvement of 5-HT receptor subtypes and its inactivation system in MC3T3-E1 cells, an osteoblast cell line. DOI, a 5-HT{sub 2A} and 5-HT{sub 2C} receptor selective agonist, as well as 5-HT concentration-dependently increased proliferative activities of MC3T3-E1 cells in their premature period. This effect of 5-HT on cell proliferation were inhibited by ketanserin, a 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor specific antagonist. Moreover, both DOI-induced cell proliferation and phosphorylation of ERK1 and 2 proteins were inhibited by PD98059 and U0126, selective inhibitors of MEK in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment with fluoxetine, a 5-HT specific re-uptake inhibitor which inactivate the function of extracellular 5-HT, significantly increased the proliferative activities of MC3T3-E1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data indicate that 5-HT fill the role for proliferation of osteoblast cells in their premature period. Notably, 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor may be functionally expressed to regulate mechanisms underlying osteoblast cell proliferation, at least in part, through activation of ERK/MAPK pathways in MC3T3-E1 cells.

  14. L-5-HTP facilitates the electrically stimulated flexor reflex in pithed rats: evidence for 5-HT2-receptor mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarsfeldt, T; Arnt, J; Hyttel, J

    1990-02-06

    Different serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonists were tested on the electrically stimulated flexor reflex in pithed rats. The 5-HT2 receptor agonist, (1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane) [+/-)DOI), the mixed 5-HT1/5-HT2 receptor agonist, quipazine, and the 5-HT precursor, l-5-HTP, showed agonistic activity upon intravenous injection while 5-HT was without effect. A combination of the peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor, Ro 4-4602 (benzerazide), the specific 5-HT-uptake inhibitor, citalopram, and l-5-HTP induced a prolonged (greater than 3 h) increase of the flexor reflex in pithed rats. Different compounds were tested for an inhibitory effect against this l-5-HTP-induced flexor reflex. The 5-HT2 antagonists (ketanserin, methergoline and methiothepin) were potent antagonists. (-)Alprenolol (5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptor antagonist) and the 5-HT3-receptor antagonist, ICS 205-930, were without an antagonistic effect. The inhibitory potencies in the reflex model (l-5-HTP, citalopram and Ro 4-4602) were significantly correlated (r = 0.83, P less than 0.01, r2 = 0.69) with the potencies to inhibit l-5-HTP-induced head twitches and quipazine-induced head twitches (r = 0.81, P less than 0.01, r2 = 0.66). There was less correlation (r = 0.75, P less than 0.01, r2 = 0.56) with the affinities for 5-HT2 receptors in vitro. There was no significant correlation between inhibitory potencies in the reflex model and affinities for dopamine (DA) D-2 receptors or alpha 1-adrenoceptors (r2 = 0.13 and 0.14, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. High trait aggression in men is associated with low 5-HT levels, as indexed by 5-HT4 receptor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Mc Mahon, Brenda; Fisher, Patrick MacDonald; Jensen, Peter Steen; Svarer, Claus; Knudsen, Gitte Moos

    2016-04-01

    Impulsive aggression has commonly been associated with a dysfunction of the serotonin (5-HT) system: many, but not all, studies point to an inverse relationship between 5-HT and aggression. As cerebral 5-HT4 receptor (5-HT4R) binding has recently been recognized as a proxy for stable brain levels of 5-HT, we here test the hypothesis in healthy men and women that brain 5-HT levels, as indexed by cerebral 5-HT4R, are inversely correlated with trait aggression and impulsivity. Sixty-one individuals (47 men) underwent positron emission tomography scanning with the radioligand [(11)C]SB207145 for quantification of brain 5-HT4R binding. The Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale were used for assessment of trait aggression and trait impulsivity. Among male subjects, there was a positive correlation between global 5-HT4R and BPAQ total score (P = 0.037) as well as BPAQ physical aggression (P = 0.025). No main effect of global 5-HT4R on trait aggression or impulsivity was found in the mixed gender sample, but there was evidence for sex interaction effects in the relationship between global 5-HT4R and BPAQ physical aggression. In conclusion we found that low cerebral 5-HT levels, as indexed by 5-HT4R binding were associated with high trait aggression in males, but not in females.

  16. Cyclic guanidines as dual 5-HT5A/5-HT7 receptor ligands: optimising brain penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jens-Uwe; Lübbers, Thomas; Alanine, Alexander; Kolczewski, Sabine; Blasco, Francesca; Steward, Lucinda

    2008-01-01

    The optimisation of molecular properties within a series of 2-amino dihydroquinazoline 5-HT5A/5-HT7 receptor ligands resulted in a significantly improved brain-to-plasma ratio, enhancing the pharmacological utility of these compounds. By modulating the lipophilicity and pKa, a 20-fold increase in brain-to-plasma ratio could be achieved, leading to micromolar brain concentrations after oral administration. The enantiomers of one representative of this series of improved compounds were separated, and the configuration of the eutomer was determined by X-ray crystallography.

  17. Aryl biphenyl-3-ylmethylpiperazines as 5-HT7 receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeeyeon; Kim, Youngjae; Tae, Jinsung; Yeom, Miyoung; Moon, Bongjin; Huang, Xi-Ping; Roth, Bryan L; Lee, Kangho; Rhim, Hyewhon; Choo, Il Han; Chong, Youhoon; Keum, Gyochang; Nam, Ghilsoo; Choo, Hyunah

    2013-11-01

    The 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7 R) is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of depression and neuropathic pain. The 5-HT7 R antagonist SB-269970 exhibited antidepressant-like activity, whereas systemic administration of the 5-HT7 R agonist AS-19 significantly inhibited mechanical hypersensitivity and thermal hyperalgesia. In our efforts to discover selective 5-HT7 R antagonists or agonists, aryl biphenyl-3-ylmethylpiperazines were designed, synthesized, and biologically evaluated against the 5-HT7 R. Among the synthesized compounds, 1-([2'-methoxy-(1,1'-biphenyl)-3-yl]methyl)-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (28) was the best binder to the 5-HT7 R (pKi =7.83), and its antagonistic property was confirmed by functional assays. The selectivity profile of compound 28 was also recorded for the 5-HT7 R over other serotonin receptor subtypes, such as 5-HT1 R, 5-HT2 R, 5-HT3 R, and 5-HT6 R. In a molecular modeling study, the 2-methoxyphenyl moiety attached to the piperazine ring of compound 28 was proposed to be essential for the antagonistic function.

  18. 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 antagonists inhibit peristaltic contractions in guinea-pig distal colon by mechanisms independent of endogenous 5-HT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiong Cheng Sia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that endogenous serotonin is not required for colonic peristalsis in vitro, nor gastrointestinal (GI transit in vivo. However, antagonists of 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT receptors can inhibit peristalsis and GI-transit in mammals, including humans. This raises the question of how these antagonists inhibit GI-motility and transit, if depletion of endogenous 5-HT does not cause any significant inhibitory changes to either GI-motility or transit ? We investigated the mechanism by which 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 antagonists inhibit distension-evoked peristaltic contractions in guinea-pig distal colon. In control animals, repetitive peristaltic contractions of the circular muscle were evoked in response to fixed fecal pellet distension. Distension-evoked peristaltic contractions were unaffected in animals with mucosa and submucosal plexus removed, that were also treated with reserpine (to deplete neuronal 5-HT. In control animals, peristaltic contractions were blocked temporarily by ondansetron (1-10µM and SDZ-205-557 (1-10µM in many animals. Interestingly, after this temporary blockade, and whilst in the continued presence of these antagonists, peristaltic contractions recovered, with characteristics no different from controls. Surprisingly, similar effects were seen in mucosa-free preparations, which had no detectable 5-HT, as detected by mass spectrometry. In summary, distension-evoked peristaltic reflex contractions of the circular muscle layer of the guinea-pig colon can be inhibited temporarily, or permanently, in the same preparation by selective 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 antagonists, depending on the concentration of the antagonists applied. These effects also occur in preparations that lack any detectable 5-HT. We suggest caution should be exercised when interpreting the effects of 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 antagonists; and the role of endogenous 5-HT, in the generation of distension-evoked colonic peristalsis.

  19. Cyclic guanidines as dual 5-HT5A/5-HT7 receptor ligands: structure-activity relationship elucidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jens-Uwe; Lübbers, Thomas; Alanine, Alexander; Kolczewski, Sabine; Blasco, Francesca; Steward, Lucinda

    2008-01-01

    The optimisation of affinity and selectivity in a novel series of dual 5-HT5A/5-HT7 receptor ligands is described. Brain penetrant 2-aminodihydroquinazolines with low nanomolar affinities were identified.

  20. On the role of brain 5-HT7 receptor in the mechanism of hypothermia: comparison with hypothermia mediated via 5-HT1A and 5-HT3 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, Vladimir S; Kondaurova, Elena M; Popova, Nina K

    2011-12-01

    Intracerebroventricular administration of selective agonist of serotonin 5-HT(7) receptor LP44 (4-[2-(methylthio)phenyl]-N-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthalenyl)-1-pyperasinehexanamide hydrochloride; 10.3, 20.5 or 41.0 nmol) produced considerable hypothermic response in CBA/Lac mice. LP44-induced (20.5 nmol) hypothermia was significantly attenuated by the selective 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist SB 269970 (16.1 fmol, i.c.v.) pretreatment. At the same time, intraperitoneal administration of LP44 in a wide range of doses 1.0, 2.0 or 10.0 mg/kg (2.0, 4.0, 20.0 μmol/kg) did not cause considerable hypothermic response. These findings indicate the implication of central, rather than peripheral 5-HT(7) receptors in the regulation of hypothermia. The comparison of LP44-induced (20.5 nmol) hypothermic reaction in eight inbred mouse strains (DBA/2J, CBA/Lac, C57BL/6, BALB/c, ICR, AKR/J, C3H and Asn) was performed and a significant effect of genotype was found. In the same eight mouse strains, functional activity of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(3) receptors was studied. The comparison of hypothermic responses produced by 5-HT(7) receptor agonist LP44 (20.5 nmol, i.c.v.) and 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. (3.0 μmol/kg), 5-HT(3) receptor agonist m-CPBG (40.0 nmol, i.c.v.) did not reveal considerable interstrain correlations between 5-HT(7) and 5-HT(1A) or 5-HT(3) receptor-induced hypothermia. The selective 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist SB 269970 (16.1 fmol, i.c.v.) failed to attenuate the hypothermic effect of 8-OH-DPAT 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. (3.0 μmol/kg) and m-CPBG (40.0 nmol, i.c.v.) indicating that the brain 5-HT(7) receptor is not involved in the hypothermic effects of 8-OH-DPAT or m-CPBG. The obtained results suggest that the central 5-HT(7) receptor plays an essential role in the mediation of thermoregulation independent of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(3) receptors.

  1. 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors as hypothalamic targets of developmental programming in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata S. Martin-Gronert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although obesity is a global epidemic, the physiological mechanisms involved are not well understood. Recent advances reveal that susceptibility to obesity can be programmed by maternal and neonatal nutrition. Specifically, a maternal low-protein diet during pregnancy causes decreased intrauterine growth, rapid postnatal catch-up growth and an increased risk for diet-induced obesity. Given that the synthesis of the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT is nutritionally regulated and 5-HT is a trophic factor, we hypothesised that maternal diet influences fetal 5-HT exposure, which then influences development of the central appetite network and the subsequent efficacy of 5-HT to control energy balance in later life. Consistent with our hypothesis, pregnant rats fed a low-protein diet exhibited elevated serum levels of 5-HT, which was also evident in the placenta and fetal brains at embryonic day 16.5. This increase was associated with reduced levels of 5-HT2CR, the primary 5-HT receptor influencing appetite, in the fetal, neonatal and adult hypothalamus. As expected, a reduction of 5-HT2CR was associated with impaired sensitivity to 5-HT-mediated appetite suppression in adulthood. 5-HT primarily achieves effects on appetite by 5-HT2CR stimulation of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC peptides within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC. We show that 5-HT2ARs are also anatomically positioned to influence the activity of ARC POMC neurons and that mRNA encoding 5-HT2AR is increased in the hypothalamus of in utero growth-restricted offspring that underwent rapid postnatal catch-up growth. Furthermore, these animals at 3 months of age are more sensitive to appetite suppression induced by 5-HT2AR agonists. These findings not only reveal a 5-HT-mediated mechanism underlying the programming of susceptibility to obesity, but also provide a promising means to correct it, by treatment with a 5-HT2AR agonist.

  2. 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors as hypothalamic targets of developmental programming in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S.; Stocker, Claire J.; Wargent, Edward T.; Cripps, Roselle L.; Garfield, Alastair S.; Jovanovic, Zorica; D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Yeo, Giles S. H.; Cawthorne, Michael A.; Arch, Jonathan R. S.; Heisler, Lora K.; Ozanne, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although obesity is a global epidemic, the physiological mechanisms involved are not well understood. Recent advances reveal that susceptibility to obesity can be programmed by maternal and neonatal nutrition. Specifically, a maternal low-protein diet during pregnancy causes decreased intrauterine growth, rapid postnatal catch-up growth and an increased risk for diet-induced obesity. Given that the synthesis of the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is nutritionally regulated and 5-HT is a trophic factor, we hypothesised that maternal diet influences fetal 5-HT exposure, which then influences development of the central appetite network and the subsequent efficacy of 5-HT to control energy balance in later life. Consistent with our hypothesis, pregnant rats fed a low-protein diet exhibited elevated serum levels of 5-HT, which was also evident in the placenta and fetal brains at embryonic day 16.5. This increase was associated with reduced levels of 5-HT2CR, the primary 5-HT receptor influencing appetite, in the fetal, neonatal and adult hypothalamus. As expected, a reduction of 5-HT2CR was associated with impaired sensitivity to 5-HT-mediated appetite suppression in adulthood. 5-HT primarily achieves effects on appetite by 5-HT2CR stimulation of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) peptides within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC). We show that 5-HT2ARs are also anatomically positioned to influence the activity of ARC POMC neurons and that mRNA encoding 5-HT2AR is increased in the hypothalamus of in utero growth-restricted offspring that underwent rapid postnatal catch-up growth. Furthermore, these animals at 3 months of age are more sensitive to appetite suppression induced by 5-HT2AR agonists. These findings not only reveal a 5-HT-mediated mechanism underlying the programming of susceptibility to obesity, but also provide a promising means to correct it, by treatment with a 5-HT2AR agonist. PMID:26769798

  3. Role of 5-HT6 receptors in memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, A

    2001-09-01

    Mice lacking the 5-HT(6) receptor presented neither gross anatomical or behavioral abnormalities nor obvious changes in microscopic brain morphology, and their performance in rotarod, open field and novel object testing paradigms revealed no differences compared with wild-type animals. Nevertheless, an association between the 5-HT(6) receptor polymorphism C267T and Alzheimer's disease has been reported. Interestingly, the 5-HT(6) antisense oligonucleotide decreased 5-HT(6) gene expression and enhanced spatial learning acquisition in the water maze. Similarly, injection of the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist Ro-04-6790 improved learning consolidation in an autoshaping task, while mCPP, scopolamine and dizocilpine decreased performance. The effect induced by scopolamine or dizocilpine, but not that induced by mCPP, was completely or partially reversed by Ro-04-6790. Ro-04-6790 did not modify the 8-OH-DPAT facilitatory effects on learning consolidation. Since Ro-04-6790 facilitatory effect was unaffected by 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A/2B/2C), 5-HT(3), 5-HT(4) or 5-HT(7) receptor blockade, the facilitatory effect induced by Ro-04-6790 involved specifically 5-HT6 receptors. Similarly, the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist SB-271046 improved retention in the water maze and produced a significant performance improvement in aged rats in an operant-delayed alternation task. A series of Ro-04-6790 analogues that penetrate the brain and specifically bind to 5-HT(6) receptors reversed scopolamine-induced retention deficit in a passive avoidance learning test. Collectively, these data provide further support to the notion that 5-HT systems, via 5-HT(6) receptors, also play a significant role in memory formation under normal and dysfunctional memory conditions.

  4. Review: 5-Ht1, 5-Ht2, 5-Ht3, And 5-Ht7 Receptors And Their Role In The Modulation Of Pain Response In The Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Altamirano, José Luis; Olmos-Hernández, Adriana; Bonilla-Jaime, Herlinda; Carrillo-Mora, Paul; Bandala, Cindy; Reyes-Long, S; Alfaro-Rodríguez, Alfonso

    2017-09-11

    The aim of this review was to identify the mechanisms by which serotonin receptors involved at the central level are able to modulate the nociceptive response. Pain is a defense mechanism of the body that entails physiological, anatomical, neurochemical, and psychological changes, and is defined as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience with potential risk of tissue damage, comprising the leading cause of appointments with Physicians worldwide. Treatment for this symptom has generated several neuropharmacological lines of research, due to the different types of pain and the various drugs employed to treat this condition. Serotonin [5-HydroxyTryptamine (5-HT)] is a neurotransmitter with seven families (5-HT1–5-HT7) and approximately 15 receptor subtypes. Serotonin modulates neuronal activity; however, this neurotransmitter is related with a number of physiological processes, such as cardiovascular function, gastric motility, renal function, etc. On the other hand, several researches reported that serotonin modulates nociceptive response through 5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7 receptors in the Central Nervous System (CNS). In this review, a search was conducted on PubMed, ProQuest, EBSCO, and the Science Citation Index for studies evaluating the effects of 5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7 receptors in the CNS on the modulation of different types of pain. Conclusions We concluded that 5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7 receptors in the CNS modulate the pain, but this depends on the distribution of the receptors, dose of agonists or antagonists, administration route, pain type and duration to order to inhibit, to excite, or even maintain the nociceptive response. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. 补充支链氨基酸对划船运动员血液某些氨基酸浓度及血小板5-HT2A受体与螺环哌丁苯结合的影响%Effect of Supplementing Branched-Chain Amino Acids on Some Amino Acid Concentration in Blood and the Binding of Platelets 5-HT2AR with [3H]spiperone in Rowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱卓君; 黄园; 卢汉平; 许豪文

    2005-01-01

    目的:观察补充支链氨基酸(BCAA)对划船运动员血液某些氨基酸浓度及血小板5-HT2A受体与螺环哌丁苯结合的影响,为运动员疲劳控制及合理营养补充提供实验依据.方法:18名男子划船运动员,随机分为安慰剂组、BCAA组及BCAA+CHO组,补剂的同时进行2周大运动量训练,2周后的1次急性运动前后,采用放射标记受体测定技术,测定各组运动员血小板5-HT2A受体与[3H]Spiperone(螺环哌丁苯)结合的最大结合容量、平衡解离常数的变化;同时测定血液BCAA、游离色氨酸的含量并进行分析.结果:(1)血浆中几种氨基酸浓度的变化:男子划船运动员2周大运动量训练后的1次急性运动前,各组安静值均无显著性差异;运动后BCAA组及BCAA+CHO组BCAA值与运动前相比显著提高.BCAA组和BCAA+CHO组运动员运动后血液丙氨酸浓度显著升高(P<0.05).BCAA及BCAA+CHO组1次急性运动后即刻,fTrp/BCAA比值与运动前相比均显著降低.(2)血小板5-HT2A受体与[3H]Spiperone(螺环哌丁苯)结合的最大结合容量及平衡解离常数的变化:男子划船运动员2周大运动量训练后的1次急性运动后,安慰剂组较BCAA组和BCAA+CHO组最大结合容量下降更显著(P<0.05);BCAA组及BCAA+CHO组的平衡解离常数显著降低(P<0.05).结论:2周大运动量训练期间补充BCAA或BCAA+CHO对改善血液BCAA含量、fTrp/BCAA比率等某些外周以及中枢疲劳指标有一定作用.

  6. Inhibition of uptake of adenosine into human blood platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lips, J.P.M.; Sixma, J.J.; Trieschnigg, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    Adenosine transport into human blood platelets is mediated by two independent systems with different affinities. Both systems transport only purine nucleosides and no pyrimidine nucleosides. In experiments with differently substituted purine nucleosides, purines and analogues, differences in carrier

  7. Effects of the 5-HT receptor antagonists GR127935 (5-HT1B/1D) and MDL100907 (5-HT2A) in the consolidation of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, A; Terrón, J A; Hong, E

    1997-12-01

    We have previously reported that 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptors play a role in learning and memory. The present investigation was devoted to analyze further in the autoshaping learning task: (1) the effects of the 5-HT1A/1B/1D receptor agonist, GR46611, the 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist, GR127935, and the selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, MDL100907. Consistent with a role of 5-HT1B/1D receptors in learning, the post-training injection of GR46611 (1-10 mg/kg) decreased the consolidation of learning whereas GR127935 (10 mg/kg) increased it; the effects of both drugs were reversed by PCA pretreatment. GR127935 abolished the decrease induced by GR46611, TFMPP and mCPP, whereas MDL100907 (0.1-3.0 mg/kg) had no effect by itself but abolished the effects of DOI, ketanserin and TFMPP and moderately inhibited the effects elicited by mCPP, 1-NP and mesulergine. Neither did GR127935 nor MDL100907 significantly modify the increase in the consolidation of learning induced by 8-OH-DPAT. Thus, the present findings suggest that stimulation of presynaptic 5-HT1B/1D receptors impairs the consolidation of learning whilst stimulation of 5-HT2A/2C receptors enhances it; the blockade of 5-HT2A receptors has no effects. In addition, 5-HT2 receptors seem to modulate this cognitive stage.

  8. 5-HT7 receptor activation promotes an increase in TrkB receptor expression and phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarajeewa, Anshula; Goldemann, Lolita; Vasefi, Maryam S; Ahmed, Nawaz; Gondora, Nyasha; Khanderia, Chandni; Mielke, John G; Beazely, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including the cortex and hippocampus. We have previously demonstrated that the application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists to primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells increases platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor expression and promotes neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate-(NMDA)-induced toxicity. The tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor is one of the receptors for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuroprotective effects. Application of LP 12 to primary cerebral cortical cultures, SH-SY5Y cells, as well as the retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5, increased both the expression of full length TrkB as well as its basal phosphorylation state at tyrosine 816. The increase in TrkB expression and phosphorylation was observed as early as 30 min after 5-HT7 receptor activation. In addition to full-length TrkB, kinase domain-deficient forms may be expressed and act as dominant-negative proteins toward the full length receptor. We have identified distinct patterns of TrkB isoform expression across our cell lines and cortical cultures. Although TrkB receptor expression is regulated by cyclic AMP and Gαs-coupled GPCRs in several systems, we demonstrate that, depending on the model system, pathways downstream of both Gαs and Gα12 are involved in the regulation of TrkB expression by 5-HT7 receptors. Given the number of psychiatric and degenerative diseases associated with TrkB/BDNF deficiency and the current interest in developing 5-HT7 receptor ligands as pharmaceuticals, identifying signaling relationships between these two receptors will aid in our understanding of the potential therapeutic effects of 5-HT7 receptor ligands.

  9. 5-HT7 receptor activation promotes an increase in TrkB receptor expression and phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshula eSamarajeewa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The serotonin (5-HT type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including cortical neurons. We have previously demonstrated that the application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists to primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells increases platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF receptor expression and promotes neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate-(NMDA-induced toxicity. The tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB receptor is one of the receptors for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuroprotective effects. Application of LP 12 to primary cerebral cortical cultures, SH-SY5Y cells, as well as the retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5, increased both the expression of full length TrkB as well as its basal phosphorylation state at tyrosine 816. The increase in TrkB expression and phosphorylation was observed as early as 30 min after 5-HT7 receptor activation. In addition to full-length TrkB, kinase domain-deficient forms may be expressed and act as dominant-negative proteins towards the full length receptor. We have identified distinct patterns of TrkB isoform expression across our cell lines and cortical cultures. Although TrkB receptor expression is regulated by cyclic AMP and Gαs-coupled GPCRs in several systems, we demonstrate that, depending on the model system, pathways downstream of both Gαs and Gα12 are involved in the regulation of TrkB expression by 5-HT7 receptors. Given the number of psychiatric and degenerative diseases associated with TrkB/BDNF deficiency and the current interest in developing 5-HT7 receptor ligands as pharmaceuticals, identifying signaling relationships between these two receptors will aid in our understanding of the potential therapeutic effects of 5-HT7 receptor ligands.

  10. 5-HT7 receptor activation promotes an increase in TrkB receptor expression and phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarajeewa, Anshula; Goldemann, Lolita; Vasefi, Maryam S.; Ahmed, Nawaz; Gondora, Nyasha; Khanderia, Chandni; Mielke, John G.; Beazely, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including the cortex and hippocampus. We have previously demonstrated that the application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists to primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells increases platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor expression and promotes neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate-(NMDA)-induced toxicity. The tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor is one of the receptors for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuroprotective effects. Application of LP 12 to primary cerebral cortical cultures, SH-SY5Y cells, as well as the retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5, increased both the expression of full length TrkB as well as its basal phosphorylation state at tyrosine 816. The increase in TrkB expression and phosphorylation was observed as early as 30 min after 5-HT7 receptor activation. In addition to full-length TrkB, kinase domain-deficient forms may be expressed and act as dominant-negative proteins toward the full length receptor. We have identified distinct patterns of TrkB isoform expression across our cell lines and cortical cultures. Although TrkB receptor expression is regulated by cyclic AMP and Gαs-coupled GPCRs in several systems, we demonstrate that, depending on the model system, pathways downstream of both Gαs and Gα12 are involved in the regulation of TrkB expression by 5-HT7 receptors. Given the number of psychiatric and degenerative diseases associated with TrkB/BDNF deficiency and the current interest in developing 5-HT7 receptor ligands as pharmaceuticals, identifying signaling relationships between these two receptors will aid in our understanding of the potential therapeutic effects of 5-HT7 receptor ligands. PMID:25426041

  11. Peripheral 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 Serotonergic Receptors Modulate Parasympathetic Neurotransmission in Long-Term Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Beatriz; Martín, María Luisa; San Román, Luis; Morán, Asunción

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the modulation of serotonin on the bradycardia induced in vivo by vagal electrical stimulation in alloxan-induced long-term diabetic rats. Bolus intravenous administration of serotonin had a dual effect on the bradycardia induced either by vagal stimulation or exogenous Ach, increasing it at low doses and decreasing it at high doses of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), effect reproduced by 5-carboxamidotryptamine maleate (5-CT), a 5-HT1/7 agonist. The enhancement of the bradycardia at low doses of 5-CT was reproduced by 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) and abolished by WAY-100,635, 5-HT1A antagonist. Pretreatment with 5-HT1 antagonist methiothepin blocked the stimulatory and inhibitory effect of 5-CT, whereas pimozide, 5-HT7 antagonist, only abolished 5-CT inhibitory action. In conclusion, long-term diabetes elicits changes in the subtype of the 5-HT receptor involved in modulation of vagally induced bradycardia. Activation of the 5-HT1A receptors induces enhancement, whereas attenuation is due to 5-HT7 receptor activation. This 5-HT dual effect occurs at pre- and postjunctional levels. PMID:21403818

  12. Peripheral 5-HT 1A and 5-HT 7 Serotonergic Receptors Modulate Parasympathetic Neurotransmission in Long-Term Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Restrepo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the modulation of serotonin on the bradycardia induced in vivo by vagal electrical stimulation in alloxan-induced long-term diabetic rats. Bolus intravenous administration of serotonin had a dual effect on the bradycardia induced either by vagal stimulation or exogenous Ach, increasing it at low doses and decreasing it at high doses of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, effect reproduced by 5-carboxamidotryptamine maleate (5-CT, a 5-HT1/7 agonist. The enhancement of the bradycardia at low doses of 5-CT was reproduced by 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT and abolished by WAY-100,635, 5-HT1A antagonist. Pretreatment with 5-HT1 antagonist methiothepin blocked the stimulatory and inhibitory effect of 5-CT, whereas pimozide, 5-HT7 antagonist, only abolished 5-CT inhibitory action. In conclusion, long-term diabetes elicits changes in the subtype of the 5-HT receptor involved in modulation of vagally induced bradycardia. Activation of the 5-HT1A receptors induces enhancement, whereas attenuation is due to 5-HT7 receptor activation. This 5-HT dual effect occurs at pre- and postjunctional levels.

  13. Effects of the 5-HT(4) receptor agonist RS67333 and paroxetine on hippocampal extracellular 5-HT levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Cecilie Löe; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Sharp, Trevor

    2010-01-01

    The 5-HT(4) receptor modulates activity of serotonergic neurons and is a new potential target for antidepressant treatment. This microdialysis study evaluated the effect of the 5-HT(4) receptor agonist, RS67333, on extracellular serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and 5-HIAA levels in rat ventral...... on extracellular 5-HT or 5-HIAA levels, while acute paroxetine (0.5mg/kg i.v.) increased 5-HT levels by 299+/-16% and decreased 5-HIAA levels by 25+/-4%. Administration of RS67333 80 min after paroxetine caused an additional transient increase in 5-HT levels (to 398+/-52% of baseline). Subchronic RS67333...... administration (1.5mg/kg i.p.) increased basal 5-HT levels by 73+/-15% and decreased 5-HIAA levels by 27+/-13%. In conclusion, the 5-HT(4) receptor agonist RS67333 augmented the acute effect of paroxetine on extracellular 5-HT levels in the ventral hippocampus, and after 3 days increased basal hippocampal 5-HT...

  14. ENHANCEMENT OF DNA SYNTHESIS IN CULTURED ADULT RAT HEPATOCYTES BY 5-HT THROUGH STIMULATION OF 5-HT2 RECEPTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Hepatocytes were isolated from livers of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats and cultured in Williams'E Medium with [3 H] thymidine. The effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was investigated through adding various concentrations (10-8~10-3 mol/L) of 5-HT to the hepatocyte cultures in the presence or absence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin. The involvement of 5-HT2 receptor was examined by adding a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, ketanserin (10-6 mol/L), to some of the cultures containing 5-HT. The increment of DNA synthesis was measured by [3 H] thymidine incorporation. The results showed that 5-HT2 (≥10-6 mol/L) significantly (P<0.05) increased the amount of DNA synthesis induced by EGF and insulin in the cultured adult rat hepaptocytes. The effect of 5-HT in enhancing DNA synthesis began to appear at a concentration between 10-7 and 10-6 mol/L and reached maximum at concentrations of ≥10-4 mol/L. The enhancement of DNA synthesis by 5-HT was significantly (P<0.05) antagonized by ketanserin, suggesting that this effect of 5-HT was mediated by 5-HT2 receptor subtype.

  15. The rapid recovery of 5-HT cell firing induced by the antidepressant vortioxetine involves 5-HT(3) receptor antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bétry, Cécile; Pehrson, Alan L; Etiévant, Adeline; Ebert, Bjarke; Sánchez, Connie; Haddjeri, Nasser

    2013-06-01

    The therapeutic effect of current antidepressant drugs appears after several weeks of treatment and a significant number of patients do not respond to treatment. Here, we report the effects of the multi-modal antidepressant vortioxetine (Lu AA21004), a 5-HT(3) and 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist, 5-HT(1B) receptor partial agonist, 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist and 5-HT transporter (SERT) inhibitor, on rat 5-HT neurotransmission. Using in vivo electrophysiological recordings in the dorsal raphe nucleus of anaesthetized rats, we assessed the acute and subchronic effects of vortioxetine and/or the selective 5-HT(3) receptor agonist, SR57227 or the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist flesinoxan, on 5-HT neuronal firing activity. Using ex-vivo autoradiography, we correlated SERT occupancy and presumed 5-HT firing activity. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, was used as comparator. Importantly, the recovery of 5-HT neuronal firing was achieved after 1 d with vortioxetine and 14 d with fluoxetine. SR57227 delayed this recovery. In contrast, vortioxetine failed to alter the reducing action of 3 d treatment of flesinoxan. Acute dosing of vortioxetine inhibited neuronal firing activity more potently than fluoxetine. SR57227 prevented the suppressant effect of vortioxetine, but not of fluoxetine. In contrast, flesinoxan failed to modify the suppressant effect of vortioxetine acutely administered. Differently to fluoxetine, vortioxetine suppressed neuronal firing without saturating occupancy at the SERT. Vortioxetine produced a markedly faster recovery of 5-HT neuronal firing than fluoxetine. This is at least partly due to 5-HT(3) receptor antagonism of vortioxetine in association with its reduced SERT occupancy.

  16. Epiminocyclohepta[b]indole analogs as 5-HT6 antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henderson, Alan J; Guzzo, Peter R; Ghosh, Animesh;

    2012-01-01

    A new series of epiminocyclohepta[b]indoles with potent 5-HT(6) antagonist activity were discovered and optimized using in vitro protocols. One compound from this series was progressed to advanced pharmacokinetic (PK) studies followed by 5-HT(6) receptor occupancy studies. The compound was found...... to have excellent oral absorption, a highly favorable PK profile and demonstrated pharmacodynamic interaction with the 5-HT(6) receptor as shown by ex vivo autoradiography....

  17. The serotonin 5-HT3 receptor: a novel neurodevelopmental target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareen eEngel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT, next to being an important neurotransmitter, recently gained attention as a key regulator of pre- and postnatal development in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS. Several receptors for 5-HT are expressed in the developing brain including a ligand-gated ion channel, the 5-HT3 receptor. Over the past years, evidence has been accumulating that 5-HT3 receptors are involved in the regulation of neurodevelopment by serotonin.Here, we review the spatial and temporal expression patterns of 5-HT3 receptors in the pre- and early postnatal rodent brain and its functional implications. First, 5-HT3 receptors are expressed on GABAergic interneurons in neocortex and limbic structures derived from the caudal ganglionic eminence. Mature inhibitory GABAergic interneurons fine-tune neuronal excitability and thus are crucial for the physiological function of the brain. Second, 5-HT3 receptors are expressed on specific glutamatergic neurons, Cajal-Retzius cells in the cortex and granule cells in the cerebellum, where they regulate morphology, positioning and connectivity of the local microcircuitry. Taken together, the 5-HT3 receptor emerges as a potential key-regulator of network formation and function in the CNS, which could have a major impact on our understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in which 5-HT plays a role.

  18. Inflammation and peripheral 5-HT7 receptors: the role of 5-HT7 receptors in carrageenan induced inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Abdulmecit; Halici, Zekai; Cadirci, Elif; Polat, Beyzagul; Karakus, Emre; Bayir, Yasin; Unal, Deniz; Atasoy, Mustafa; Dogrul, Ahmet

    2013-09-05

    The aim of this study was: (1) to investigate possible role for 5-HT7 receptors in carrageenan induced inflammatory paw oedema in rats; (2) to determine the presence of 5-HT7 receptors in rat paw tissue; (3) to observe the effects of 5-HT7 receptor agonist and antagonist administration on inflammation; and (4) to determine a unique mechanism for inflammatory processes via 5-HT7 receptors. Effects of 5-HT7 receptor agonist, antagonist and indomethacin were investigated in carrageenan induced paw oedema in rats. Blood and tissue samples were collected and evaluated biochemically for serum cytokine levels, tissue oxidant-antioxidant balance and histopathologically for inflammatory cell accumulation. We performed Real Time PCR analyses for tissue 5-HT7 receptor and COX mRNA expressions. The 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS-19 exerted significant anti-inflammatory effect both alone and in combination with indomethacin. Antagonist, SB269970, did not affect inflammation alone but decreased the effects of agonist when co-administered. 5-HT7 mRNA levels were higher in the carrageenan group than healthy control. Carrageenan+indometacin group decreased the mRNA expression of 5-HT7 when compared to carrageenan group. While agonist administration decreased 5-HT7 mRNA expression when compared to carrageenan group. Agonist decreased paw COX expression. Agonist also decreased serum cytokine levels and tissue oxidative stress. In conclusion, this study demonstrated for the first time that 5-HT7 receptors are expressed in rat paw tissue and that this expression responds to inflammatory stimuli. The 5-HT7 receptor may be a promising new therapeutic target for prevention of inflammation and inflammatory disorders and may also provide a new glimpse into inflammation pathophysiology.

  19. Antidepressant activity: contribution of brain microdialysis in knock-out mice to the understanding of BDNF/5-HT transporter/5-HT autoreceptor interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain M Gardier

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Why antidepressants vary in terms of efficacy is currently unclear. Despite the leadership of Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs in the treatment of depression, the precise neurobiological mechanisms involved in their therapeutic action are poorly understood. A better knowledge of molecular interactions between monoaminergic system, pre- and post-synaptic partners, brain neuronal circuits and regions involved may help to overcome limitations of current treatments and to identify new therapeutic targets. Intracerebral in vivo microdialysis (ICM already provided important information about the brain mechanism of action of antidepressants first in anesthetized rats in the early 90s, and since then in conscious wild-type or knockout mice. The principle of ICM is based on the balance between release of neurotransmitters (e.g., monoamines, and re-uptake by selective transporters (e.g., SERT for serotonin 5-HT. Complementary to electrophysiology, this technique reflects presynaptic monoamines release and intrasynaptic events corresponding to ≈ 80% of whole brain tissue content. The inhibitory role of serotonergic autoreceptors infers that they limit somatodendritic and nerve terminal 5-HT release. It has been proposed that activation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptor sub-types limit the antidepressant-like activity of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI. This hypothesis is based partially on results obtained in ICM experiments performed in naïve, non-stressed Rodents. The present review will first remind the principle and methodology of ICM performed in mice. The crucial need of developing animal models that display anxiety and depression-like behaviors, neurochemical and brain morphological phenotypes reminiscent of these mood disorders in Human, will be underlined. Recently developed genetic mouse models have been generated to independently manipulate 5-HT1A auto and hetero-receptors and ICM helped to clarify the role of the

  20. Vortioxetine, but not escitalopram or duloxetine, reverses memory impairment induced by central 5-HT depletion in rats: evidence for direct 5-HT receptor modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bornø; du Jardin, Kristian Gaarn; Song, Dekun

    2014-01-01

    Depressed patients suffer from cognitive dysfunction, including memory deficits. Acute serotonin (5-HT) depletion impairs memory and mood in vulnerable patients. The investigational multimodal acting antidepressant vortioxetine is a 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonist, 5-HT1B receptor par...

  1. 5-HT reuptake inhibitors with 5-HT(1B/1D) antagonistic activity: a new approach toward efficient antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzen, L; van Amsterdam, C; Rautenberg, W; Greiner, H E; Harting, J; Seyfried, C A; Böttcher, H

    2000-03-23

    As part of our research program toward new, potential antidepressants, a series of unsymmetrical ureas has been prepared and evaluated as 5-HT reuptake inhibitors with 5-HT(1B/1D) antagonistic activities. The design of these compounds was based on coupling of various indole derivatives, previously shown to inhibit 5-HT reuptake, to three different aniline moieties, which are part of known 5-HT(1B/1D) ligands. Binding experiments in rat frontal cortex using [(125)I]iodocyanopindolol, in calf striatum using [(3)H]5-HT, and in rat hippocampus using [(3)H]8-OH-DPAT as radioligands, respectively, revealed significantly higher affinity at the 5-HT(1B) receptor as compared to the affinities for the 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1D) receptors for a number of compounds, among them 4-(5-fluoro-1H-indol-3-yl)piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [4-methoxy-3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl]amide (5), the corresponding 4-fluoro-1H-indol-3-yl analogue 21a, and the corresponding 6-fluoro-1H-indol-3-yl analogue 21b. Conformational restriction of the aniline moiety in 5 only slightly enhanced the 5-HT(1B) affinity, whereas introduction of an aniline moiety with higher conformational flexibility resulted in a less potent 5-HT(1B) receptor ligand as compared to 5. The functional 5-HT(1B/1D) antagonistic activity was investigated using the rabbit saphenous vein model as well as the [(3)H]5-HT release from guinea pig cortical slices. All new compounds tested in the rabbit saphenous vein model were shown to antagonize the sumatriptan-evoked contractile responses with pA(2) values ranging from 7.3 to 8.7. These observations were consistent with the results of the cortical slice model, in which the ureas were found to block the sumatriptan-induced inhibition of potassium-evoked [(3)H]5-HT release. The 5-HT reuptake inhibition of the ureas determined in rat brain synaptosomes was found to be either increased or decreased as compared to the uncoupled indole derivatives indicating that the reuptake inhibition

  2. Cellular resilience: 5-HT neurons in Tph2(-/-) mice retain normal firing behavior despite the lack of brain 5-HT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbano, Alberto; Waider, Jonas; Barbieri, Mario; Baytas, Ozan; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Corradetti, Renato; Mlinar, Boris

    2015-11-01

    Considerable evidence links dysfunction of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transmission to neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders characterized by compromised "social" cognition and emotion regulation. It is well established that the brain 5-HT system is under autoregulatory control by its principal transmitter 5-HT via its effects on activity and expression of 5-HT system-related proteins. To examine whether 5-HT itself also has a crucial role in the acquisition and maintenance of characteristic rhythmic firing of 5-HT neurons, we compared their intrinsic electrophysiological properties in mice lacking brain 5-HT, i.e. tryptophan hydroxylase-2 null mice (Tph2(-/-)) and their littermates, Tph2(+/-) and Tph2(+/+), by using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in a brainstem slice preparation and single unit recording in anesthetized animals. We report that the active properties of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) 5-HT neurons in vivo (firing rate magnitude and variability; the presence of spike doublets) and in vitro (firing in response to depolarizing current pulses; action potential shape) as well as the resting membrane potential remained essentially unchanged across Tph2 genotypes. However, there were subtle differences in subthreshold properties, most notably, an approximately 25% higher input conductance in Tph2(-/-) mice compared with Tph2(+/-) and Tph2(+/+) littermates (presilience to complete brain 5-HT deficiency.

  3. The serotonin 5-HT3 receptor: a novel neurodevelopmental target.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, M.; Smidt, M.P.; van Hooft, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), next to being an important neurotransmitter, recently gained attention as a key-regulator of pre- and postnatal development in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Several receptors for 5-HT are expressed in the developing brain including a ligand-gated

  4. Agonist properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine at serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R L; Canton, H; Barrett, R J; Sanders-Bush, E

    1998-11-01

    Extensive behavioral and biochemical evidence suggests an agonist role at the 5-HT2A receptor, and perhaps the 5-HT2C receptor, in the mechanism of action of hallucinogenic drugs. However the published in vitro pharmacological properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), an hallucinogenic tryptamine analog, are not consistent with this hypothesis. We, therefore, undertook an extensive investigation into the properties of DMT at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. In fibroblasts transfected with the 5-HT2A receptor or the 5-HT2C receptor, DMT activated the major intracellular signaling pathway (phosphoinositide hydrolysis) to an extent comparable to that produced by serotonin. Because drug efficacy changes with receptor density and cellular microenvironment, we also examined the properties of DMT in native preparations using a behavioral and biochemical approach. Rats were trained to discriminate an antagonist ketanserin from an agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) in a two-lever choice paradigm. Pharmacological studies showed that responding on the DOI and ketanserin lever reflected agonist and antagonist activity at 5-HT2A receptors, and hence, was a suitable model for evaluating the in vivo functional properties of DMT. Like other 5-HT2A receptor agonists, DMT substituted fully for DOI. Intact choroid plexus was used to evaluate the agonist properties at endogenous 5-HT2C receptors; DMT was a partial agonist at 5-HT2C receptors in this native preparation. Thus, we conclude that DMT behaves as an agonist at both 5-HT2A and 5-HT2A receptors. One difference was evident in that the 5-HT2C, but not the 5-HT2A, receptor showed a profound desensitization to DMT over time. This difference is interesting in light of the recent report that the hallucinogenic activity of DMT does not tolerate in humans and suggests the 5-HT2C receptor plays a less prominent role in the action of DMT.

  5. 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptors differently modulate AMPA receptor-mediated hippocampal synaptic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, L; Trovato, C; Musumeci, S A; Catania, M V; Ciranna, L

    2012-04-01

    We have studied the effects of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) serotonin receptor activation in hippocampal CA3-CA1 synaptic transmission using patch clamp on mouse brain slices. Application of either 5-HT or 8-OH DPAT, a mixed 5-HT(1A)/5-HT(7) receptor agonist, inhibited AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory post synaptic currents (EPSCs); this effect was mimicked by the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-OH PIPAT and blocked by the 5-HT(1A) antagonist NAN-190. 8-OH DPAT increased paired-pulse facilitation and reduced the frequency of mEPSCs, indicating a presynaptic reduction of glutamate release probability. In another group of neurons, 8-OH DPAT enhanced EPSC amplitude but did not alter paired-pulse facilitation, suggesting a postsynaptic action; this effect persisted in the presence of NAN-190 and was blocked by the 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist SB-269970. To confirm that EPSC enhancement was mediated by 5-HT(7) receptors, we used the compound LP-44, which is considered a selective 5-HT(7) agonist. However, LP-44 reduced EPSC amplitude in most cells and instead increased EPSC amplitude in a subset of neurons, similarly to 8-OH DPAT. These effects were respectively antagonized by NAN-190 and by SB-269970, indicating that under our experimental condition LP-44 behaved as a mixed agonist. 8-OH DPAT also modulated the current evoked by exogenously applied AMPA, inducing either a reduction or an increase of amplitude in distinct neurons; these effects were respectively blocked by 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptor antagonists, indicating that both receptors exert a postsynaptic action. Our results show that 5-HT(1A) receptors inhibit CA3-CA1 synaptic transmission acting both pre- and postsynaptically, whereas 5-HT(7) receptors enhance CA3-CA1 synaptic transmission acting exclusively at a postsynaptic site. We suggest that a selective pharmacological targeting of either subtype may be envisaged in pathological loss of hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions. In this respect, we underline the

  6. Targeting Dopamine D3 and Serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A Receptors for Developing Effective Antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brindisi, Margherita; Butini, Stefania; Franceschini, Silvia;

    2014-01-01

    Combination of dopamine D3 antagonism, serotonin 5-HT1A partial agonism, and antagonism at 5-HT2A leads to a novel approach to potent atypical antipsychotics. Exploitation of the original structure-activity relationships resulted in the identification of safe and effective antipsychotics devoid...

  7. Clomipramine enhances the cortisol response to 5-HTP: implications for the therapeutic role of 5-HT2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, P A; Quested, D J; Cowen, P J

    1998-11-01

    We measured the cortisol response to the 5-HT precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan, (5-HTP) in seven patients with major depression before and after 8 weeks treatment with the tricyclic antidepressant, clomipramine. The cortisol response to 5-HTP was significantly increased following clomipramine treatment, suggesting that clomipramine, like selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), enhances this 5-HT2 receptor mediated response. Because other tricyclic antidepressants do not increase 5-HTP-mediated cortisol release, it seems unlikely that enhancement of 5-HT2 receptor function is a critical mechanism for antidepressant action. However, facilitation of neurotransmission at 5-HT2 receptors could account for the efficacy of clomipramine and SSRIs in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder and also for their liability to cause orgasmic dysfunction.

  8. Changes in 5-HT4 receptor and 5-HT transporter binding in olfactory bulbectomized and glucocorticoid receptor heterozygous mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Cecilie Löe; Kirkegaard, Lisbeth; Zueger, Maha;

    2010-01-01

    The 5-HT(4) receptor is a new potential target for antidepressant treatment and may be implicated in the pathogenesis of depression. This study investigated differences in 5-HT(4) receptor and 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) binding by quantitative autoradiography of [(3)H]SB207145 and (S)-[N-methyl-(3)H......]citalopram in two murine models of depression-related states, olfactory bulbectomy and glucocorticoid receptor heterozygous (GR(+/-)) mice. The olfactory bulbectomy model is characterized by 5-HT system changes, while the GR(+/-) mice have a deficit in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system control....... The olfactory bulbectomized mice displayed increased activity in the open field test, a characteristic depression-like feature of this model. After bulbectomy, 5-HT(4) receptor binding was increased in the ventral hippocampus (12%) but unchanged in the dorsal hippocampus, frontal and caudal caudate putamen...

  9. Activation of 5-HT6 receptors inhibits corticostriatal glutamatergic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassone, Annalisa; Madeo, Graziella; Schirinzi, Tommaso; Vita, Daniela; Puglisi, Francesca; Ponterio, Giulia; Borsini, Franco; Pisani, Antonio; Bonsi, Paola

    2011-09-01

    We investigated the effect of 5-HT6 receptor subtype activation on glutamatergic transmission by means of whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings from medium spiny neurons of the striatum and layer V pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex. To this aim, we took advantage of a novel ligand, ST1936, showing nM affinity and agonist activity at the 5-HT6 receptor subtype. Our data show that 5-HT6 receptor activation by ST1936 reduces the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents, with an IC50 of 1.3 μM. Moreover, 5-HT6 receptor activation also reduced the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents recorded from medium spiny neurons, suggesting a mechanism of action involving postsynaptic 5-HT6 receptors, as further confirmed by the paired-pulse analysis on evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents and by recordings of miniature glutamatergic events. The inhibitory effect of ST1936 on glutamatergic transmission was prevented by the selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist SB258585 and mimicked by a different agonist, WAY-181187. Conversely, in the cortex ST1936 reduced the frequency, but not the amplitude, of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents suggesting a presynaptic or indirect effect of the 5-HT6 receptor.

  10. Role of 5-HT3 Receptors in the Antidepressant Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Sanchez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT3 receptors are the only ligand-gated ion channel of the 5-HT receptors family. They are present both in the peripheral and central nervous system and are localized in several areas involved in mood regulation (e.g., hippocampus or prefrontal cortex. Moreover, they are involved in regulation of neurotransmitter systems implicated in the pathophysiology of major depression (e.g., dopamine or GABA. Clinical and preclinical studies have suggested that 5-HT3 receptors may be a relevant target in the treatment of affective disorders. 5-HT3 receptor agonists seem to counteract the effects of antidepressants in non-clinical models, whereas 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, such as ondansetron, present antidepressant-like activities. In addition, several antidepressants, such as mirtazapine, also target 5-HT3 receptors. In this review, we will report major advances in the research of 5-HT3 receptor’s roles in neuropsychiatric disorders, with special emphasis on mood and anxiety disorders.

  11. Shuyu Capsules Relieve Premenstrual Syndrome Depression by Reducing 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR Expression in the Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Feng, Jizhen; Gao, Dongmei; Wang, Jieqiong; Song, Chunhong; Wei, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the Shuyu capsule on 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression in a rat model of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) depression and on 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression and hippocampal neuron 5-HT3 channel current were investigated, to elucidate its mechanism of action against PMS depression. PMS depression model rats were divided into depression and Shuyu- and fluoxetine-treated groups, which were compared to control rats for frontal lobe and hippocampal 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression and behavior. The depressed model rats displayed symptoms of depression, which were reduced in treated and normal control rats. Frontal lobe and hippocampal 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR levels were significantly higher in the model versus the control group and were significantly lower in the Shuyu group. As compared to control rats, the 5-HT3R channel current in the model group was significantly higher; the 5-HT3R channel current in hippocampal neurons treated with serum from Shuyu group rats was significantly lower than that in those treated with model group serum. Thus, PMS depression may be related to 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression and increased 5-HT3 channel current. Shuyu capsules rectified abnormal 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression and 5-HT3 channel current changes in a rat model; this finding may provide insight into treating PMS depression.

  12. Cartography of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A Receptor Subtypes in Prefrontal Cortex and Its Projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengod, Guadalupe; Palacios, José M; Cortés, Roser

    2015-07-15

    Since the development of chemical neuroanatomical tools in the 1960s, a tremendous wealth of information has been generated on the anatomical components of the serotonergic system, at the microscopic level in the brain including the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The PFC receives a widespread distribution of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) terminals from the median and dorsal raphe nuclei. 5-HT receptors were first visualized using radioligand autoradiography in the late 1980s and early 1990s and showed, in contrast to 5-HT innervation, a differential distribution of binding sites associated with different 5-HT receptor subtypes. Due to the cloning of the different 5-HT receptor subtype genes in the late 1980s and early 1990s, it was possible, using in situ hybridization histochemistry, to localize cells expressing mRNA for these receptors. Double in situ hybridization histochemistry and immunohistochemistry allowed for the chemical characterization of the phenotype of cells expressing 5-HT receptors. Tract tracing technology allowed a detailed cartography of the neuronal connections of PFC and other brain areas. Based on these data, maps have been constructed that reflect our current understanding of the different circuits where 5-HT receptors can modulate the electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral functions of the PFC. We will review current knowledge regarding the cellular localization of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in mammalian PFC and their possible functions in the neuronal circuits of the PFC. We will discuss data generated in our laboratory as well as in others, focusing on localization in the pyramidal and GABAergic neuronal cell populations in different mammalian species using molecular neuroanatomy and on the connections with other brain regions.

  13. Fluoxetine-induced inhibition of synaptosomal ( sup 3 H)5-HT release: Possible Ca sup 2+ -channel inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauderman, K.A. (Marion Merrell Dow Research Inst., Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Gandhi, V.C.; Jones, D.J. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Fluoxetine, a selective 5-Ht uptake inhibitor, inhibited 15 mM K{sup +}-induced ({sup 3}H)5-HT release from rat spinal cord and cortical synaptosomes at concentrations > 0.5 uM. This effect reflected a property shared by another selective 5-HT uptake inhibitor paroxetine but not by less selective uptake inhibitors such as amitriptyline, desipramine, imipramine or nortriptyline. Inhibition of release by fluoxetine was inversely related to both the concentration of K{sup +} used to depolarize the synaptosomes and the concentration of external Ca{sup 2+}. Experiments aimed at determining a mechanism of action revealed that fluoxetine did not inhibit voltage-independent release of ({sup 3}H)5-HT release induced by the Ca{sup 2+}-ionophore A 23187 or Ca{sup 2+}-independent release induced by fenfluramine. Moreover the 5-HT autoreceptor antagonist methiothepin did not reverse the inhibitory actions of fluoxetine on K{sup +}-induced release. Further studies examined the effects of fluoxetine on voltage-dependent Ca{sup 2+} channels and Ca{sup 2+} entry.

  14. Caveolin-1 interacts with 5-HT2A serotonin receptors and profoundly modulates the signaling of selected Galphaq-coupled protein receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Anushree; Sheffler, Douglas J; Kroeze, Wesley K; Compton-Toth, BethAnn; Roth, Bryan L

    2004-08-13

    5-Hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT(2A)) serotonin receptors are important for a variety of functions including vascular smooth muscle contraction, platelet aggregation, and the modulation of perception, cognition, and emotion. In a search for 5-HT(2A) receptor-interacting proteins, we discovered that caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a scaffolding protein enriched in caveolae, complexes with 5-HT(2A) receptors in a number of cell types including C6 glioma cells, transfected HEK-293 cells, and rat brain synaptic membrane preparations. To address the functional significance of this interaction, we performed RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Cav-1 in C6 glioma cells, a cell type that endogenously expresses both 5-HT(2A) receptors and Cav-1. We discovered that the in vitro knockdown of Cav-1 in C6 glioma cells nearly abolished 5-HT(2A) receptor-mediated signal transduction as measured by calcium flux assays. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Cav-1 also greatly attenuated endogenous Galpha(q)-coupled P2Y purinergic receptor-mediated signaling without altering the signaling of PAR-1 thrombin receptors. Cav-1 appeared to modulate 5-HT(2A) signaling by facilitating the interaction of 5-HT(2A) receptors with Galpha(q). These studies provide compelling evidence for a prominent role of Cav-1 in regulating the functional activity of not only 5-HT(2A) serotonin receptors but also selected Galpha(q)-coupled receptors.

  15. Menthol inhibits 5-HT3 receptor-mediated currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoor, Abrar; Nordman, Jacob C; Veltri, Daniel; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Shuba, Yaroslav; Al Kury, Lina; Sadek, Bassem; Howarth, Frank C; Shehu, Amarda; Kabbani, Nadine; Oz, Murat

    2013-11-01

    The effects of alcohol monoterpene menthol, a major active ingredient of the peppermint plant, were tested on the function of human 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. 5-HT (1 μM)-evoked currents recorded by two-electrode voltage-clamp technique were reversibly inhibited by menthol in a concentration-dependent (IC50 = 163 μM) manner. The effects of menthol developed gradually, reaching a steady-state level within 10-15 minutes and did not involve G-proteins, since GTPγS activity remained unaltered and the effect of menthol was not sensitive to pertussis toxin pretreatment. The actions of menthol were not stereoselective as (-), (+), and racemic menthol inhibited 5-HT3 receptor-mediated currents to the same extent. Menthol inhibition was not altered by intracellular 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid injections and transmembrane potential changes. The maximum inhibition observed for menthol was not reversed by increasing concentrations of 5-HT. Furthermore, specific binding of the 5-HT3 antagonist [(3)H]GR65630 was not altered in the presence of menthol (up to 1 mM), indicating that menthol acts as a noncompetitive antagonist of the 5-HT3 receptor. Finally, 5-HT3 receptor-mediated currents in acutely dissociated nodose ganglion neurons were also inhibited by menthol (100 μM). These data demonstrate that menthol, at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, is an allosteric inhibitor of 5-HT3 receptors.

  16. Changes in 5-HT4 receptor and 5-HT transporter binding in olfactory bulbectomized and glucocorticoid receptor heterozygous mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Cecilie L; Kirkegaard, Lisbeth; Zueger, Maha;

    2010-01-01

    . The olfactory bulbectomized mice displayed increased activity in the open field test, a characteristic depression-like feature of this model. After bulbectomy, 5-HT(4) receptor binding was increased in the ventral hippocampus (12%) but unchanged in the dorsal hippocampus, frontal and caudal caudate putamen....... Among post hoc analyzed regions, there was a 14% decrease in 5-HT(4) receptor binding in the olfactory tubercles. The 5-HTT binding was unchanged in the hippocampus and caudate putamen of bulbectomized mice but post hoc analysis showed small decreases in lateral septum and lateral globus pallidus....... In comparison, GR(+/-) mice had increased 5-HT(4) receptor (11%) binding in the caudal caudate putamen and decreased 5-HTT binding in the frontal caudate putamen but no changes in dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Post hoc analysis showed increased 5-HT(4) receptor binding in the olfactory tubercles of GR...

  17. Effect of flunarizine and calcium on serotonin uptake in human and rat blood platelets and rat synaptosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P N; Smith, D F; Poulsen, J H

    1994-01-01

    in blood platelets, whereas no effect was observed in synaptosomes. Flunarizine inhibited serotonin uptake in a concentration dependent manner with an IC50 value of 1 mumol/L in blood platelets and 5 mumol/L in synaptosomes. The inhibition did not depend on the presence of extracellular calcium indicating...

  18. Serotonin and the 5-HT7 receptor: the link between hepatocytes, IGF-1 and small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svejda, Bernhard; Kidd, Mark; Timberlake, Andrew; Harry, Kathy; Kazberouk, Alexander; Schimmack, Simon; Lawrence, Ben; Pfragner, Roswitha; Modlin, Irvin M

    2013-07-01

    Platelet-derived serotonin (5-HT) is involved in liver regeneration. The liver is also the metastatic site for malignant enterochromaffin (EC) cell "carcinoid" (neuroendocrine) neoplasms, the principal cellular source of 5-HT. We hypothesized that 5-HT produced by metastatic EC cells played a role in the hepatic tumor-microenvironment principally via 5-HT₇ receptor-mediated activation of hepatocyte IGF-1 synthesis and secretion. Using isolated rat hepatocytes, we evaluated 5-HT₇ receptor expression (using PCR, sequencing and western blot). ELISA, cell transfection and western blots delineated 5-HT-mediated signaling pathways (pCREB, AKT and ERK). IGF-1 synthesis/secretion was evaluated using QPCR and ELISA. IGF-1 was tested on small intestinal neuroendocrine neoplasm proliferation, while IGF-1 production and 5-HT₇ expression were examined in an in vivo SCID metastasis model. Our results demonstrated evidence for a functional 5-HT₇ receptor. 5-HT activated cAMP/PKA activity, pCREB (130-205%, P < 0.05) and pERK/pAKT (1.2-1.75, P < 0.05). Signaling was reversed by the 5-HT₇ receptor antagonist SB269970. IGF-1 significantly stimulated proliferation of two small intestinal neuroendocrine neoplasm cell lines (EC₅₀: 7-70 pg/mL) and could be reversed by the small molecule inhibitor BMS-754807. IGF-1 and 5-HT were elevated (40-300×) in peri-tumoral hepatic tissue in nude mice, while 5-HT₇ was increased fourfold compared to sham-operated animals. We conclude that hepatocytes express a cAMP-coupled 5-HT₇ receptor, which, at elevated 5-HT concentrations that occur in liver metastases, signals via CREB/AKT and is linked to IGF-1 synthesis and secretion. Because IGF-1 regulates NEN proliferation, identification of a role for 5-HT₇ in the hepatic metastatic tumor microenvironment suggests the potential for novel therapeutic strategies for amine-producing mid-gut tumors.

  19. Peripheral 5-HT 1A and 5-HT 7 Serotonergic Receptors Modulate Parasympathetic Neurotransmission in Long-Term Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Restrepo; María Luisa Martín; Luis San Román; Asunción Morán

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the modulation of serotonin on the bradycardia induced in vivo by vagal electrical stimulation in alloxan-induced long-term diabetic rats. Bolus intravenous administration of serotonin had a dual effect on the bradycardia induced either by vagal stimulation or exogenous Ach, increasing it at low doses and decreasing it at high doses of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), effect reproduced by 5-carboxamidotryptamine maleate (5-CT), a 5-HT1/7 agonist. The enhancement of the bradycardia at l...

  20. Effects of dominance status on conditioned defeat and expression of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Kathleen E; Swallows, Cody L; Cooper, Matthew A

    2011-08-01

    Past experience can alter how individuals respond to stressful events. The brain serotonin system is a key factor modulating stress-related behavior and may contribute to individual variation in coping styles. In this study we investigated whether dominant and subordinate hamsters respond differently to social defeat and whether their behavioral responses are associated with changes in 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor immunoreactivity in several limbic brain regions. We paired weight-matched hamsters in daily aggressive encounters for two weeks so that they formed a stable dominance relationship. We also included controls that were exposed to an empty cage each day for two weeks. Twenty-four hours after the final pairing or empty cage exposure, subjects were socially defeated in 3, 5-min encounters with a more aggressive hamster. Twenty-four hours after social defeat, animals were tested for conditioned defeat in a 5-min social interaction test with a non-aggressive intruder. We collected brains following conditioned defeat testing and performed immunohistochemistry for 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. We found that dominants showed less submissive and defensive behavior at conditioned defeat testing compared to both subordinates and controls. Additionally, both dominants and subordinates had an increased number of 5-HT1A immunopositive cells in the basolateral amygdala compared to controls. Subordinates also had more 5-HT1A immunopositive cells in the dorsal medial amygdala than did controls. Finally, dominants had fewer 5-HT1A immunopositive cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus compared to controls. Our results indicate that dominant social status results in a blunted conditioned defeat response and a distinct pattern of 5-HT1A receptor expression, which may contribute to resistance to conditioned defeat.

  1. The role of the serotonin receptor subtypes 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 and its interaction in emotional learning and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Stiedl, Oliver; Pappa, Elpiniki; Konradsson-Geuken, Åsa; Ögren, Sven Ove

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is a multifunctional neurotransmitter innervating cortical and limbic areas involved in cognition and emotional regulation. Dysregulation of serotonergic transmission is associated with emotional and cognitive deficits in psychiatric patients and animal models. Drugs targeting the 5-HT system are widely used to treat mood disorders and anxiety-like behaviors. Among the fourteen 5-HT receptor (5-HTR) subtypes, the 5-HT1AR and 5-HT7R are associated with th...

  2. The role of the serotonin receptor subtypes 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 and its interaction in emotional learning and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver eStiedl; Elpiniki ePappa; Åsa eKonradsson-Geuken; Sven Ove eÖgren

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a multifunctional neurotransmitter innervating cortical and limbic areas involved in cognition and emotional regulation. Dysregulation of serotonergic transmission is associated with emotional and cognitive deficits in psychiatric patients and animal models. Drugs targeting the 5-HT system are widely used to treat mood disorders and anxiety-like behaviors. Among the fourteen 5-HT receptor (5-HTR) subtypes, the 5-HT1AR and 5-HT7R are associated with the...

  3. 补充支链氨基酸对运动大鼠脑及血小板5-HT2A受体与螺环哌丁苯结合影响的研究%Effect of Supplement of BCAA on [3H] Spiperone Binding to Serotonin2A Receptors of Brain and Platelets in Training Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱卓君; 季健民; 黄园; 卢汉平; 许豪文

    2003-01-01

    采用放射标记受体测定技术观察补充支链氨基酸(BCAA)或BCAA+CHO对SD大鼠一次性运动以及3周耐力训练后的一次性运动前后血小板以及脑5-HT2A受体与 [3H]Spiperone(螺环哌丁苯)结合的影响, 结果表明:急性耐力运动可导致SD大鼠脑5-HT浓度的增加,并且导致血小板以及脑5-HT2A受体下调,大鼠3周耐力训练期间补充BCAA+CHO有防止由耐力运动引起的5-HT2A受体密度下调的作用,长期耐力训练期间补充BCAA+CHO对延缓中枢疲劳有积极的作用.

  4. Propranolol modifies platelet serotonergic mechanisms in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zółtowski, R; Pawlak, R; Matys, T; Pietraszek, M; Buczko, W

    2002-06-01

    Though the mechanisms for the vascular actions of vasodilatory beta-blockers are mostly determined, some of their interactions with monoaminergic systems are not elucidated. Because there are evidences supporting a possible involvement of serotonin (5-HT) in the actions of beta-blockers, we studied the effect of propranolol on peripheral serotonergic mechanisms in normotensive and Goldblatt two-kidney - one clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats. In both groups of animals propranolol decreased systolic blood pressure, significantly increased whole blood serotonin concentration and at the same time it decreased platelet serotonin level. The uptake of the amine by platelets from hypertensive animals was lower than that of normotensive animals and it was decreased by propranolol only in the latter. In both groups propranolol inhibited potentiation of ADP-induced platelet aggregation by serotonin. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that propranolol modifies platelet serotonergic mechanisms in normotensive and renal hypertensive rats.

  5. Evaluation of the novel 5-HT4 receptor PET ligand [11C]SB207145 in the Göttingen minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Lind, Nanna M; Gillings, Nic;

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 (5-HT(4)) receptor binding in the minipig brain with positron emission tomography (PET), tissue homogenate-binding assays, and autoradiography in vitro. The cerebral uptake and binding of the novel 5-HT(4) receptor radioligand [(11)C]SB207145 in vivo...... autoradiographic 5-HT(4) receptor distribution resembles the human 5-HT(4) receptor distribution with the highest binding in the striatum and no detectable binding in the cerebellum. We found that in the minipig brain [(11)C]SB207145 follows one-tissue compartment kinetics, and the simplified reference tissue...... model provides stable and precise estimates of the binding potential in all regions. The binding potentials calculated for striatum, midbrain, and cortex from the PET data were highly correlated with 5-HT(4) receptor concentrations determined in brain homogenates from the same regions, except...

  6. Comparison of 5-HT4 and 5-HT7 receptor expression and function in the circular muscle of the human colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Helen R; Tan, Yean Y; Tochon-Danguy, Nathalie; Liu, Haihuang; Chetty, Navinisha; Desmond, Paul V; Pouton, Colin W; Coupar, Ian M

    2007-03-06

    Serotonin receptors are potential targets for treating functional bowel disorders. This study investigated the functional roles and expression of the 5-HT4 and the 5-HT7 receptor, which coexist in human colon circular smooth muscle. 5-HT3 receptor expression was also investigated. Part of the relaxant response to 5-HT was due to activation of 5-HT4 receptors as the apparent pKB value of the selective 5-HT4 antagonist, GR 113808, was 9.36. 5-HT4 mRNA levels were low in five tissues and undetectable in four others, but all responded to 5-HT with an EC50 value of 102.54+/-19.32 nM. The contribution of 5-HT7 receptors to the response was not readily demonstrated using the selective 5-HT7 antagonist, SB-269970, as its apparent pKB value of 7.19 (5-HT4 block with 1 microM GR 113808) was lower than the value obtained using the 5-HT7 guinea pig ileum assay (8.62). Nevertheless, the 5-HT7 receptor was expressed more consistently than the 5-HT4, but at similar levels. The 5-HT(3Ashort) and 5-HT(3B) subunits were co-expressed at similar levels, but the 5-HT(3Along) subunit was detected in only five of the nine samples tested. The findings show that 5-HT4-induced relaxation occurs at low to undetectable levels of tissue mRNA, as measured by qPCR. Although 5-HT7 receptor mRNA is detected at low, but consistent levels, the functional activity of this receptor is not readily identified given the currently available drugs.

  7. 5-HT receptors and reward-related behaviour: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Dave J; Greenshaw, Andrew J

    2011-05-01

    The brain's serotonin (5-HT) system is key in the regulation of reward-related behaviours, from eating and drinking to sexual activity. The complexity of studying this system is due, in part, to the fact that 5-HT acts at many receptor subtypes throughout the brain. The recent development of drugs with greater selectivity for individual receptor subtypes has allowed for rapid advancements in our understanding of this system. Use of these drugs in combination with animal models entailing selective reward measures (i.e. intracranial self-stimulation, drug self-administration, conditioned place preference) have resulted in a greater understanding of the pharmacology of reward-related processing and behaviour (particularly regarding drugs of abuse). The putative roles of each 5-HT receptor subtype in the pharmacology of reward are outlined and discussed here. It is concluded that the actions of 5-HT in reward are receptor subtype-dependent (and thus should not be generalized) and that all studied subtypes appear to have a unique profile which is determined by content (e.g. receptor function, localization - both throughout the brain and within the synapse) and context (e.g. type of behavioural paradigm, type of drug). Given evidence of altered reward-related processing and serotonergic function in numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression, schizophrenia, and addiction, a clearer understanding of the role of 5-HT receptor subtypes in this context may lead to improved drug development and therapeutic approaches.

  8. Changes in 5-HT1A and NMDA binding sites by a single rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation procedure in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kole, MHP; Fuchs, E; Ziemann, U; Paulus, W; Ebert, U

    1999-01-01

    The effects of a single rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) exposure on neurotransmitter binding sites in the rat brain 24 h after the stimulation were examined. Quantification by in vitro-autoradiography showed no differences for H-3-paroxetine binding (5-HT uptake sites) between rT

  9. INFLUENCE OF ARYLPIPERAZINES AROMATIC STRUCTURE OVER DIFFERENTIAL AFFINITY FOR 5-HT1A AND 5-HT2A RECEPTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Rebelo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las piperazinas son una familia de compuestos químicos muy amplia y con una gran capacidad para interactuar con diversos receptores serotonérgicos (5-HT. Debido a estas propiedades, estos compuestos tienen un importante potencial farmacológico, sin embargo muestran también algunos efectos tóxicos asociados. En la actualidad el subtipo 1A del receptor serotonérgico (5-HT1A ha resultado ser un importante blanco para el tratamiento eficaz de la depresión y ansiedad, mientras que el subtipo 2A del receptor serotonérgico (5-HT2A ha sido asociado con numerables efectos adversos. En este estudio, se utilizan diversos métodos computacionales con el fin de efectuar una caracterización de los fragmentos estructurales y las propiedades químicas asociadas, responsables por la afinidad de las piperazinas para los receptores 5-HT1A Y 5-HT2A. En este trabajo, se discuten también, algunas propiedades de las estructuras aromáticas en las arilpiperazinas que son similares para los dos subtipos del receptor serotonérgico. Por otra parte se sugiere, que la substitución con calcógenos en la posición orto- y meta- así como el ligero incremento en el peso molecular son modificaciones que pueden aumentan la afinidad para el receptor 5-HT1A; mientras que las arilpiperazinas con substitución por halógenos en las mismas posiciones además de un pequeño decrecimiento en el peso molecular podrían incrementar la afinidad para el 5-HT2A receptor.

  10. The human 5-HT7 serotonin receptor splice variants: constitutive activity and inverse agonist effects

    OpenAIRE

    Krobert, Kurt A; Levy, Finn Olav

    2002-01-01

    Using membranes from stably or transiently transfected HEK293 cells cultured in 5-HT-free medium and expressing the recombinant human 5-HT7 receptor splice variants (h5-HT7(a), h5-HT7(b) and h5-HT7(d)), we compared their abilities to constitutively activate adenylyl cyclase (AC).All h5-HT7 splice variants elevated basal and forskolin-stimulated AC. The basal AC activity was reduced by the 5-HT7 antagonist methiothepin and this effect was blocked by mesulergine (neutral 5-HT7 antagonist) indic...

  11. New 1-arylindoles based serotonin 5-HT7 antagonists. Synthesis and binding evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnes, Charlène; Fournet, Guy; Satala, Grzegorz; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Joseph, Benoît

    2014-03-21

    Based on 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 ligand MR25003 scaffold, a new series of 1-aryl indole analogues were prepared and evaluated against 5-HT7 receptors. Modulations of aryl moieties provided a large number of new indolic derivatives. Most of compounds tested have displayed 5-HT7 affinity in the nanomolar range. Among them, 1-(naphthyl)indole derivative 3p (Ki (5-HT7) = 4.5 nM) showed also a good selectivity over 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT6 receptors. This compound was pharmacology characterized as an antagonist.

  12. The role of the serotonin receptor subtypes 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 and its interaction in emotional learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver eStiedl

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT is a multifunctional neurotransmitter innervating cortical and limbic areas involved in cognition and emotional regulation. Dysregulation of serotonergic transmission is associated with emotional and cognitive deficits in psychiatric patients and animal models. Drugs targeting the 5-HT system are widely used to treat mood disorders and anxiety-like behaviors. Among the fourteen 5-HT receptor (5-HTR subtypes, the 5-HT1AR and 5-HT7R are associated with the development of anxiety, depression and cognitive function linked to mechanisms of emotional learning and memory. In rodents fear conditioning and passive avoidance (PA are associative learning paradigms to study emotional memory. This review assesses the role of 5-HT1AR and 5-HT7R as well as their interplay at the molecular, neurochemical and behavioral level. Activation of postsynaptic 5-HT1ARs impairs emotional memory through attenuation of neuronal activity, whereas presynaptic 5-HT1AR activation reduces 5-HT release and exerts pro-cognitive effects on PA retention. Antagonism of the 5-HT1AR facilitates memory retention possibly via 5-HT7R activation and evidence is provided that 5HT7R can facilitate emotional memory upon reduced 5-HT1AR transmission. These findings highlight the differential role of these 5-HTRs in cognitive/emotional domains of behavior. Moreover, the results indicate that tonic and phasic 5-HT release can exert different and potentially opposing effects on emotional memory, depending on the states of 5-HT1ARs and 5-HT7Rs and their interaction. Consequently, individual differences due to genetic and/or epigenetic mechanisms play an essential role for the responsiveness to drug treatment, e.g., by SSRIs which increase intrasynaptic 5-HT levels thereby activating multiple pre- and postsynaptic 5-HTR subtypes.

  13. Molecular and pharmacological characterization of serotonin 5-HT2α and 5-HT7 receptors in the salivary glands of the blowfly Calliphora vicina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Röser

    Full Text Available Secretion in blowfly (Calliphora vicina salivary glands is stimulated by the biogenic amine serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT, which activates both inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3/Ca(2+ and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP signalling pathways in the secretory cells. In order to characterize the signal-inducing 5-HT receptors, we cloned two cDNAs (Cv5-ht2α, Cv5-ht7 that share high similarity with mammalian 5-HT(2 and 5-HT(7 receptor genes, respectively. RT-PCR demonstrated that both receptors are expressed in the salivary glands and brain. Stimulation of Cv5-ht2α-transfected mammalian cells with 5-HT elevates cytosolic [Ca(2+] in a dose-dependent manner (EC(50 = 24 nM. In Cv5-ht7-transfected cells, 5-HT produces a dose-dependent increase in [cAMP](i (EC(50 = 4 nM. We studied the pharmacological profile for both receptors. Substances that appear to act as specific ligands of either Cv5-HT(2α or Cv5-HT(7 in the heterologous expression system were also tested in intact blowfly salivary gland preparations. We observed that 5-methoxytryptamine (100 nM activates only the Cv5-HT(2α receptor, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (300 nM activates only the Cv5-HT(7 receptor, and clozapine (1 µM antagonizes the effects of 5-HT via Cv5-HT(7 in blowfly salivary glands, providing means for the selective activation of each of the two 5-HT receptor subtypes. This study represents the first comprehensive molecular and pharmacological characterization of two 5-HT receptors in the blowfly and permits the analysis of the physiological role of these receptors, even when co-expressed in cells, and of the modes of interaction between the Ca(2+- and cAMP-signalling cascades.

  14. The role of the serotonin receptor subtypes 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 and its interaction in emotional learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiedl, Oliver; Pappa, Elpiniki; Konradsson-Geuken, Åsa; Ögren, Sven Ove

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is a multifunctional neurotransmitter innervating cortical and limbic areas involved in cognition and emotional regulation. Dysregulation of serotonergic transmission is associated with emotional and cognitive deficits in psychiatric patients and animal models. Drugs targeting the 5-HT system are widely used to treat mood disorders and anxiety-like behaviors. Among the fourteen 5-HT receptor (5-HTR) subtypes, the 5-HT1AR and 5-HT7R are associated with the development of anxiety, depression and cognitive function linked to mechanisms of emotional learning and memory. In rodents fear conditioning and passive avoidance (PA) are associative learning paradigms to study emotional memory. This review assesses the role of 5-HT1AR and 5-HT7R as well as their interplay at the molecular, neurochemical and behavioral level. Activation of postsynaptic 5-HT1ARs impairs emotional memory through attenuation of neuronal activity, whereas presynaptic 5-HT1AR activation reduces 5-HT release and exerts pro-cognitive effects on PA retention. Antagonism of the 5-HT1AR facilitates memory retention possibly via 5-HT7R activation and evidence is provided that 5HT7R can facilitate emotional memory upon reduced 5-HT1AR transmission. These findings highlight the differential role of these 5-HTRs in cognitive/emotional domains of behavior. Moreover, the results indicate that tonic and phasic 5-HT release can exert different and potentially opposing effects on emotional memory, depending on the states of 5-HT1ARs and 5-HT7Rs and their interaction. Consequently, individual differences due to genetic and/or epigenetic mechanisms play an essential role for the responsiveness to drug treatment, e.g., by SSRIs which increase intrasynaptic 5-HT levels thereby activating multiple pre- and postsynaptic 5-HTR subtypes.

  15. 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor crosstalk in the regulation of emotional memory: implications for effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Therese M; Holst, Sarah; Stan, Tiberiu L; Hager, Torben; Sjögren, Benita; Ogren, Sven Öve; Svenningsson, Per; Stiedl, Oliver

    2012-11-01

    This study utilized pharmacological manipulations to analyze the role of direct and indirect activation of 5-HT(7) receptors (5-HT(7)Rs) in passive avoidance learning by assessing emotional memory in male C57BL/6J mice. Additionally, 5-HT(7)R binding affinity and 5-HT(7)R-mediated protein phosphorylation of downstream signaling targets were determined. Elevation of 5-HT by the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine had no effect by itself, but facilitated emotional memory performance when combined with the 5-HT(1A)R antagonist NAD-299. This facilitation was blocked by the selective 5-HT(7)R antagonist SB269970, revealing excitatory effects of the SSRI via 5-HT(7)Rs. The enhanced memory retention by NAD-299 was blocked by SB269970, indicating that reduced activation of 5-HT(1A)Rs results in enhanced 5-HT stimulation of 5-HT(7)Rs. The putative 5-HT(7)R agonists LP-44 when administered systemically and AS19 when administered both systemically and into the dorsal hippocampus failed to facilitate memory. This finding is consistent with the low efficacy of LP-44 and AS19 to stimulate protein phosphorylation of 5-HT(7)R-activated signaling cascades. In contrast, increasing doses of the dual 5-HT(1A)R/5-HT(7)R agonist 8-OH-DPAT impaired memory, while co-administration with NAD-299 facilitated of emotional memory in a dose-dependent manner. This facilitation was blocked by SB269970 indicating 5-HT(7)R activation by 8-OH-DPAT. Dorsohippocampal infusion of 8-OH-DPAT impaired passive avoidance retention through hippocampal 5-HT(1A)R activation, while 5-HT(7)Rs appear to facilitate memory processes in a broader cortico-limbic network and not the hippocampus alone.

  16. Spinal 5-HT7 receptors are critical for alternating activity during locomotion: in vitro neonatal and in vivo adult studies using 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Akay, Turgay; Hedlund, Peter B; Pearson, Keir G; Jordan, Larry M

    2009-07-01

    5-HT7 receptors have been implicated in the control of locomotion. Here we use 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice to rigorously test whether 5-HT acts at the 5-HT7 receptor to control locomotor-like activity in the neonatal mouse spinal cord in vitro and voluntary locomotion in adult mice. We found that 5-HT applied onto in vitro spinal cords of 5-HT7+/+ mice produced locomotor-like activity that was disrupted and subsequently blocked by the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-269970. In spinal cords isolated from 5-HT7-/- mice, 5-HT produced either uncoordinated rhythmic activity or resulted in synchronous discharges of the ventral roots. SB-269970 had no effect on 5-HT-induced rhythmic activity in the 5-HT7-/- mice. In adult in vivo experiments, SB-269970 applied directly to the spinal cord consistently disrupted locomotion and produced prolonged-extension of the hindlimbs in 5-HT7+/+ but not 5-HT7-/- mice. Disrupted EMG activity produced by SB-269970 in vivo was similar to the uncoordinated rhythmic activity produced by the drug in vitro. Moreover, 5-HT7-/- mice displayed greater maximal extension at the hip and ankle joints than 5-HT7+/+ animals during voluntary locomotion. These results suggest that spinal 5-HT7 receptors are required for the production and coordination of 5-HT-induced locomotor-like activity in the neonatal mouse and are important for the coordination of voluntary locomotion in adult mice. We conclude that spinal 5-HT7 receptors are critical for alternating activity during locomotion.

  17. Vortioxetine dose-dependently reverses 5-HT depletion-induced deficits in spatial working and object recognition memory: a potential role for 5-HT1A receptor agonism and 5-HT3 receptor antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Jardin, Kristian Gaarn; Jensen, Jesper Bornø; Sanchez, Connie; Pehrson, Alan L

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that the investigational multimodal antidepressant, vortioxetine, reversed 5-HT depletion-induced memory deficits while escitalopram and duloxetine did not. The present report studied the effects of vortioxetine and the potential impact of its 5-HT1A receptor agonist and 5-HT3 receptor antagonist properties on 5-HT depletion-induced memory deficits. Recognition and spatial working memory were assessed in the object recognition (OR) and Y-maze spontaneous alternation (SA) tests, respectively. 5-HT depletion was induced in female Long-Evans rats using 4-cholro-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester HCl (PCPA) and receptor occupancies were determined by ex vivo autoradiography. Rats were acutely dosed with vortioxetine, ondansetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist) or flesinoxan (5-HT1A receptor agonist). The effects of chronic vortioxetine administration on 5-HT depletion-induced memory deficits were also assessed. 5-HT depletion reliably impaired memory performance in both the tests. Vortioxetine reversed PCPA-induced memory deficits dose-dependently with a minimal effective dose (MED) ≤0.1mg/kg (∼80% 5-HT3 receptor occupancy; OR) and ≤3.0mg/kg (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT3 receptor occupancy: ∼15%, 60%, 95%) in SA. Ondansetron exhibited a MED ≤3.0μg/kg (∼25% 5-HT3 receptor occupancy; OR), but was inactive in the SA test. Flesinoxan had a MED ≤1.0mg/kg (∼25% 5-HT1A receptor occupancy; SA); only 1.0mg/kg ameliorated deficits in the NOR. Chronic p.o. vortioxetine administration significantly improved memory performance in OR and occupied 95%, 66%, and 9.5% of 5-HT3, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT1A receptors, respectively. Vortioxetine's effects on SA performance may involve 5-HT1A receptor agonism, but not 5-HT3 receptor antagonism, whereas the effects on OR performance may involve 5-HT3 receptor antagonism and 5-HT1A receptor agonism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of the 5-HT3 receptor channel system for insulin secretion and interaction of ginger extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimes, Katharina; Feistel, Björn; Verspohl, Eugen J

    2009-12-10

    The relevance of serotonin and in particular that of 5-HT(3) receptors is unequivocal with respect to emetic/antiemetic effects, but it is controversial with respect to antidiabetic effects. The effects of tropisetron (5-HT(3) receptor antagonist) and various ginger (Zingiber officinale) extracts (known to interact with the 5-HT(3) receptor channel system) were investigated. Serotonin (32 to 500 microM) inhibits insulin release (RIA) from INS-1 cells which is reversed by tropisetron (10 to 100 microM) and two different ginger extracts (spissum and an oily extract). Their effects are obvious even in the absence of serotonin but are more pronounced in its presence (doubled to tripled). Specific 5-HT(3) binding sites are present in INS-1 cells using 0.4 nM [3H] GR65630 in displacement experiments. The in vitro data with respect to ginger are corroborated by in vivo data on glucose-loaded rats showing that blood glucose (Glucoquant) is decreased by approximately 35% and plasma insulin (RIA) is increased by approximately 10%. Both the spissum extract and the oily ginger extract are effective in two other models: they inhibit [(14)C] guanidinium uptake into N1E-115 cells (model of 5-HT(3) effects) and relax rat ileum both directly and as a serotonin antagonistic effect. Other receptors addressed by ginger are 5-HT(2) receptors as demonstrated by using methysergide and ketanserin. They weakly antagonize the serotonin effect as well. It may be concluded that serotonin and in particular the 5-HT(3) receptor channel system are involved in modulating insulin release and that tropisetron and various ginger extracts can be used to improve a diabetic situation.

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of 1-[2-(4-[(11)C]methoxyphenyl)phenyl]piperazine for imaging of the serotonin 5-HT7 receptor in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Yoko; Yui, Joji; Xie, Lin; Fujinaga, Masayuki; Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Ogawa, Masanao; Nengaki, Nobuki; Kumata, Katsushi; Hatori, Akiko; Kawamura, Kazunori; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2013-09-01

    1-[2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)phenyl]piperazine (4) is a potent serotonin 5-HT7 receptor antagonist (Ki=2.6nM) with a low binding affinity for the 5-HT1A receptor (Ki=476nM). As a potential positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer for the 5-HT7 receptor, [(11)C]4 was synthesized at high radiochemical yield and specific activity, by O-[(11)C]methylation of 2'-(piperazin-1-yl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-ol (6) with [(11)C]methyl iodide. Autoradiography revealed that [(11)C]4 showed in vitro specific binding with 5-HT7 in the rat brain regions, such as the thalamus which is a region with high 5-HT7 expression. Metabolite analysis indicated that intact [(11)C]4 in the brain exceeded 90% of the radioactive components at 15min after the radiotracer injection, although two radiolabeled metabolites were found in the rat plasma. The PET study of rats showed moderated uptake of [(11)C]4 in the brain (1.2SUV), but no significant regional difference in radioactivity in the brain. Pretreatment with 5-HT7-selective antagonist SB269970 (3) did not decrease the uptake of [(11)C]4 in the rat brain. Further studies are warranted that focus on the development of PET ligand candidates with higher binding affinity for 5-HT7 and higher in vivo stability in brain than 4.

  20. Uptake and release of arachidonic acid by platelets and cultured cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufeld, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    The release by thrombin of arachidonic acid, and the accompanying phospholipid metabolism, were studied in human platelets. At 23/sup 0/C, arachidonate release was half-maximal by 10-30 sec after stimulation, and preceded substantial increase in phosphatidic acid (PA) mass. (/sup 3/H)-glycerol-labeled platelets synthesized phospholipids from (/sup 3/H) PA at a rate of 0.08-0.3 nmol/min/10/sup 9/ cells at 37/sup 0/C. This rate of PA turnover was not enhanced by thrombin stimulation. Thus, an increase in PA mass is not a necessary event in the pathway loading to arachidonate release, and the release of several nmol of arachidonate from PI in the first minute after thrombin stimulation could not have arisen via PA as an intermediate. Biological function of arachidonate-specific acyl-CoA synthetase was examined in platelets and in HSDM/sub 1/C/sub 1/ murine fibrosarcoma cells. Washed platelets were found to take up and esterify into cellular phospholipids eicosanoid precursor fatty acids present at concentrations of 5-500 nM. The uptake process was saturable with respect to fatty acid concentration, with apparent K/sub m/ less than or equal to 85 nM. Stearate, oleate and linoleate were taken up less rapidly, and with higher apparent K/sub m/'s (greater than or equal to 170 nM). High affinity uptake was also found in HSDM/sub 1/C/sub 1/ cells. The fatty acid structural requirements of arachidonoyl-CoA synthetase were examined. Among common mammalian fatty acids, only eicosanoid precursors and docosahexaenoate could serve as substrates. These studies strongly suggest that the synthetase is required for normal eicosanoid homeostasis.

  1. Effect of fluoxetine on learning and memory involves multiple 5-HT systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, A; Hong, E

    1995-10-01

    Diverse evidence suggests that 5-HT uptake blockers enhance learning and memory. However, there is no information about the mechanisms of action involved in such effects. The aim of the present work was to investigate the nature of the receptors involved in the effects of fluoxetine on learning. Therefore, a dose-response curve of posttraining injection (intraperitoneal) of fluoxetine was carried out in an associative learning task (auto-shaping). Fluoxetine or the vehicle was injected 10 min after 5-HT antagonists: (+/-)-pindolol, (+/-)-propanolol, NAN-190, ketanserin, ritanserin, mesulergine, MDL 72222, or SDZ 205-557. Presynaptic activity was eliminated by means of chloroamphetamine pretreatment. Scopolamine (an anticholinergic) and dizocilpine (a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist) were also used. Results showed that fluoxetine enhanced learning of the conditioned response (CR) in a dose-dependent fashion. All 5-HT antagonists had no effects by themselves but inhibited the effects of fluoxetine at different degrees. Decrement of CR produced by scopolamine was reversed by fluoxetine. Dizocilpine did not affect CR but prevented the effects of fluoxetine. The present findings suggest that the actions of fluoxetine on learning are due to an interaction with multiple receptors of postsynaptic nature.

  2. ( sup 3 H)Dopamine uptake by platelet storage granules in schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabey, J.M.; Graff, E.; Oberman, Z. (Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center (Israel)); Lerner, A.; Sigal, M. (Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel))

    1992-01-01

    ({sup 3}H)Dopamine (DA) uptake by platelet storage granules was determined in 26 schizophrenic male patients, paranoid type (14 acute stage; 12 in remission) and 20 age-matched, normal controls. maximum velocity (Vmax) of DA uptake was significantly higher in acute patients, than patients in remission or controls (p>0.05). The apparent Michaelis constant (kM) of DA uptake in acute patients was also significantly different from chronic patients a substantial diminution of DA uptake, while haloperidol produced a substantial diminution of DA uptake, while haloperidol (10{sup {minus}4}, 10{sup {minus}5} M) did not affect the assay. Considering that a DA disequilibrium in schizophrenia may be expressed not only in the brain, but also in the periphery and that an increased amount of DA accumulated in the vesicles, implies that an increased quantity of catecholamine is available for release, our findings suggest additional evidence for the role of DA overactivity in the pathophysiology of this disorder.

  3. Platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tiny fraction of the blood volume. The principal function of platelets is to prevent bleeding. Red blood cells are ... forming a long string. This illustrates the basic function of platelets, to stick to any foreign surface and then ...

  4. The 5-HT(4) receptor levels in hippocampus correlates inversely with memory test performance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Mette Ewers; Fisher, Patrick; Holst, Klaus Kähler

    2013-01-01

    The cerebral serotonin (5-HT) system is involved in cognitive functions such as memory and learning and animal studies have repeatedly shown that stimulation of the 5-HT type 4 receptor (5-HT(4) R) facilitates memory and learning and further that the 5-HT(4) R modulates cellular memory processes ...

  5. The 5-HT[subscript 3A] Receptor Is Essential for Fear Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Makoto; Nakamura, Yukiko; Ishida, Yusuke; Yamada, Takahiro; Shimada, Shoichi

    2014-01-01

    The 5-HT [subscript 3] receptor, the only ionotropic 5-HT receptor, is expressed in limbic regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cortex. However, it is not known whether it has a role in fear memory processes. Analysis of 5-HT [subscript 3A] receptor knockout mice in fear conditioning paradigms revealed that the 5-HT [subscript 3A]…

  6. 5-HT2CRs expressed by pro-opiomelanocortin neurons regulate insulin sensitivity in liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mice lacking 5-HT 2C receptors displayed hepatic insulin resistance, a phenotype normalized by re-expression of 5-HT2CRs only in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. 5-HT2CR deficiency also abolished the anti-diabetic effects of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (a 5-HT2CR agonist); these effects were re...

  7. Synthesis and Inhibition Effects on 5-HT{sub 6} Receptor of Benzothiazole Derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, Faisal; Yoo, Euna; Choo, Heayoung Park [Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rhim, Hyewhon [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    A novel series of aryl sulfonylpiperazine derivatives (5-15) were synthesized as 5-HT{sub 6} ligands. In vitro assay was evaluated by measuring the 5-HT-induced Ca{sup 2+} increases using HeLa cell line expressing the cloned human 5-HT{sub 6} receptor, and the compound 13 showed potent 5-HT{sub 6} receptor antagonistic effect with IC{sub 50} value of 3.9 μM. Compound 13 also showed good selectivity on the 5-HT{sub 6} over 5-HT{sub 4} and 5-HT{sub 7} receptors.

  8. Long-term Stress with Hyperglucocorticoidemia-induced Hepatic Steatosis with VLDL Overproduction Is Dependent on both 5-HT2 Receptor and 5-HT Synthesis in Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jihua; Ma, Shaoxin; Li, Xin; An, Shanshan; Li, Tao; Guo, Keke; Lin, Min; Qu, Wei; Wang, Shanshan; Dong, Xinyue; Han, Xiaoyu; Fu, Ting; Huang, Xinping; Wang, Tianying; He, Siyu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic triglycerides production and adipose lipolysis are pivotal for long-term stress (LTS) or hyperglucocorticoidemia-induced insulin resistance. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) has been demonstrated to induce hepatic lipid metabolic abnormality by activating mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). In present study, we explored whether 5-HT is involved in LTS effects in liver using restraint stress-exposed rats and cultured primary rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. LTS with hyperglucocorticoidemia induced hepatic 5-HT synthetic increase with tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) up-regulation, and 5-HT2 receptor (5-HT2R, including 5-HT2A, 2B receptor) up-regulation in liver and visceral adipose, as well as hepatic mTOR activation with triglycerides and VLDL overproduction with steatosis, and visceral adipose lipolytic increase with high blood free fatty acids (FFAs) level. 5-HT exposure exhibited LTS-like effects in both tissues, and both LTS and 5-HT effects could be abolished significantly by blocking 5-HT2R. In HepG2 cells dexamethasone or palmitate-induced mTOR activation with triglycerides and VLDL overproduction were accompanied by up-regulations of 5-HT synthesis and 5-HT2R, which were significantly abolished by gene silencing Tph1 or 5-HT2R and were almost fully abolished by co-silencing of both, especially on VLDL overproduction. Chemical inhibition of Tph1 or/and 5-HT2R in both hepatocytes exhibited similar abolishment with genetic inhibition on dexamethason-induced effects. 5-HT-stimulated effects in both hepatocytes were fully abolished by blocking 5-HT2R, while 5-HT itself also up-regulated 5-HT2R. In conclusion, up-regulated hepatic 5-HT synthesis and 5-HT2R induced by both glucocorticoid and FFAs are crucial for LTS-induced hepatic steatosis with VLDL overproduction, while 5-HT by acting on 5-HT2R mediates mTOR activation in liver.

  9. Cellular mechanisms of the 5-HT7 receptor-mediated signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Guseva, Daria; Wirth, Alexander; Ponimaskin, Evgeni

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter regulating a wide range of physiological and pathological functions via activation of heterogeneously expressed 5-HT receptors. The 5-HT7 receptor is one of the most recently described members of the 5-HT receptor family. Functionally, 5-HT7 receptor is associated with a number of physiological and pathological responses, including serotonin-induced phase shifting of the circadian rhythm, control of memory as well as loc...

  10. 5-HT is a potent relaxant in rat superior mesenteric veins

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Stephanie W.; Darios, Emma S.; Seitz, Bridget M.; Janice M Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine) reduces blood pressure of the conscious rat when administered chronically (1 week). 5-HT does not directly relax isolated arteries, and microsphere experiments in 5-HT-infused rats suggested that 5-HT increased flow to the splanchnic bed. We hypothesized that 5-HT increased splanchnic flow because of direct venous relaxation; our focus was thus on the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) as an important vein in splanchnic circulation. Real-time RT-PCR, immunohi...

  11. Anti-dyskinetic mechanisms of amantadine and dextromethorphan in the 6-OHDA rat model of Parkinson’s disease: role of NMDA vs. 5-HT1A receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Melanie A.; Martinez, Alex A.; Macheda, Teresa; Meshul, Charles K.; Johnson, Steven W.; Berger, S. Paul; Giuffrida, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Amantadine and dextromethorphan suppress levodopa (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesia (LID) in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model. These effects have been attributed to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonism. However, amantadine and dextromethorphan are also thought to block serotonin (5-HT) uptake and cause 5-HT overflow, leading to stimulation of 5-HT1A receptors, which has been shown to reduce LID. We undertook a study in 6-OHDA rats to determine whether the anti-dyskinetic effects of these two compounds are mediated by NMDA antagonism and/or 5-HT1A agonism. In addition, we assessed the sensorimotor effects of these drugs using the Vibrissae-Stimulated Forelimb Placement and Cylinder tests. Our data show that the AIM-suppressing effect of amantadine was not affected by the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY-100635, but was partially reversed by the NMDA agonist d-cycloserine. Conversely, the AIM-suppressing effect of dextromethorphan was prevented by WAY-100635 but not by d-cycloserine. Neither amantadine nor dextromethorphan affected the therapeutic effects of L-DOPA in sensorimotor tests. We conclude that the anti-dyskinetic effect of amantadine is partially dependent on NMDA antagonism, while dextromethorphan suppresses AIMs via indirect 5-HT1A agonism. Combined with previous work from our group, our results support the investigation of 5-HT1A agonists as pharmacotherapies for LID in PD patients. PMID:22861201

  12. Changes in 5-HT2A-mediated behavior and 5-HT2A- and 5-HT1A receptor binding and expression in conditional brain-derived neurotrophic factor knock-out mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, A B; Santini, M A; Aznar, S;

    2010-01-01

    specific for the serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT(2A)R) in prefrontal cortex was described previously in these mice. This is of much interest, as 5-HT(2A)Rs have been linked to neuropsychiatric disorders and anxiety-related behavior. Here we further characterized the serotonin receptor alterations triggered...... by BDNF depletion. 5-HT(2A) ([(3)H]-MDL100907) and 5-HT(1A) ([(3)H]-WAY100635) receptor autoradiography revealed site-specific alterations in BDNF mutant mice. They exhibited lower 5-HT(2A) receptor binding in frontal cortex but increased binding in hippocampus. Additionally, 5-HT(1A) receptor binding...... was decreased in hippocampus of BDNF mutants, but unchanged in frontal cortex. Molecular analysis indicated corresponding changes in 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(1A) mRNA expression but normal 5-HT(2C) content in these brain regions in BDNF(2L/2LCk-cre) mice. We investigated whether the reduction in frontal 5-HT(2A...

  13. Deletion of Munc18-1 in 5-HT Neurons Results in Rapid Degeneration of the 5-HT System and Early Postnatal Lethality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudok, Jacobus J.; Groffen, Alexander J. A.; Toonen, Ruud F. T.; Verhage, Matthijs

    2011-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) system densely innervates many brain areas and is important for proper brain development. To specifically ablate the 5-HT system we generated mutant mice carrying a floxed Munc18-1 gene and Cre recombinase driven by the 5-HT-specific serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) promoter. The majority of mutant mice died within a few days after birth. Immunohistochemical analysis of brains of these mice showed that initially 5-HT neurons are formed and the cortex is innervated with 5-HT projections. From embryonic day 16 onwards, however, 5-HT neurons started to degenerate and at postnatal day 2 hardly any 5-HT projections were present in the cortex. The 5-HT system of mice heterozygous for the floxed Munc18-1 allele was indistinguishable from control mice. These data show that deletion of Munc18-1 in 5-HT neurons results in rapid degeneration of the 5-HT system and suggests that the 5-HT system is important for postnatal survival. PMID:22140524

  14. Deletion of Munc18-1 in 5-HT neurons results in rapid degeneration of the 5-HT system and early postnatal lethality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus J Dudok

    Full Text Available The serotonin (5-HT system densely innervates many brain areas and is important for proper brain development. To specifically ablate the 5-HT system we generated mutant mice carrying a floxed Munc18-1 gene and Cre recombinase driven by the 5-HT-specific serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT promoter. The majority of mutant mice died within a few days after birth. Immunohistochemical analysis of brains of these mice showed that initially 5-HT neurons are formed and the cortex is innervated with 5-HT projections. From embryonic day 16 onwards, however, 5-HT neurons started to degenerate and at postnatal day 2 hardly any 5-HT projections were present in the cortex. The 5-HT system of mice heterozygous for the floxed Munc18-1 allele was indistinguishable from control mice. These data show that deletion of Munc18-1 in 5-HT neurons results in rapid degeneration of the 5-HT system and suggests that the 5-HT system is important for postnatal survival.

  15. Serotonin increases ERK1/2 phosphorylation in astrocytes by stimulation of 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoman; Zhang, Shiquen; Li, Min; Hertz, Leif; Peng, Liang

    2010-11-01

    We have previously shown that fluoxetine causes ERK(1/2) phosphorylation in cultured mouse astrocytes mediated exclusively by stimulation of 5-HT(2B) receptors (Li et al., 2008b). This raises the question whether this is also the case for serotonin (5-HT) itself. In the present study serotonin was found to induce ERK(1/2) phosphorylation by stimulation of 5-HT(2B) receptors with high affinity (EC(50): 20-30 pM), and by stimulation of 5-HT(2C) receptor with low affinity (EC(50): 1 microM or higher). ERK(1/2) phosphorylation induced by stimulation of either 5-HT(2B) or 5-HT(2C) receptors was mediated by epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor transactivation (Peng et al., this issue), shown by the inhibitory effect of AG1478, an inhibitor of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase, and GM6001, an inhibitor of Zn-dependent metalloproteinases, and thus of 5-HT(2B) receptor-mediated EGF receptor agonist release. It is discussed that the high potency of the 5-HT(2B)-mediated effect is consistent with literature data for binding affinity of serotonin to cloned human 5-HT(2B) receptors and with observations of low extracellular concentrations of serotonin in brain, which would allow a demonstrated moderate and modality-dependent increase in specific brain areas to activate 5-HT(2B) receptors. In contrast the relevance of the observed 5-HT(2C) receptors on astrocytes is questioned.

  16. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of new carbonyl guanidine derivatives as novel dual 5-HT2B and 5-HT7 receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritomo, Ayako; Yamada, Hiroyoshi; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Itahana, Hirotsune; Akuzawa, Shinobu; Okada, Minoru; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2013-12-15

    To identify potent dual 5-HT2B and 5-HT7 receptor antagonists, we synthesized a series of novel carbonyl guanidine derivatives and examined their structure-activity relationships. Among these compounds, N-(9-hydroxy-9H-fluorene-2-carbonyl)guanidine (10) had a good in vitro profile, that is, potent affinity for human 5-HT2B and 5-HT7 receptor subtypes (Ki=1.8 nM and Ki=17.6 nM, respectively) and high selectivity over 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, α1, D2 and M1 receptors. Compound 10 also showed a suppressing effect on 5-HT-induced dural protein extravasation in guinea pigs when orally administered.

  17. 5-HT1A受体基因PCR产物的直接测序及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林宁; 宁方勇; 王光圣; 白秀娟

    2008-01-01

    目前,已知的5-羟色胺(5-HT)受体至少存在7种类型,即5-HT1、5-HT2、5-HT3、5-HT4、5-HT5、5-HT6、和5-HT7,其中5-HT1受体又可分为5-HT1A、5-HT1B、5-HT1C、5-HT1D、5-HT1E和5-HT1F等亚型。5-HT1A是最早被克隆成功的5-HT受体亚型,

  18. The serotonin 5-HT7 receptors: two decades of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellynck, Evelien; Heyninck, Karen; Andressen, Kjetil W; Haegeman, Guy; Levy, Finn Olav; Vanhoenacker, Peter; Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen

    2013-10-01

    Like most neurotransmitters, serotonin possesses a simple structure. However, the pharmacological consequences are more complex and diverse. Serotonin is involved in numerous functions in the human body including the control of appetite, sleep, memory and learning, temperature regulation, mood, behavior, cardiovascular function, muscle contraction, endocrine regulation, and depression. Low levels of serotonin may be associated with several disorders, namely increase in aggressive and angry behaviors, clinical depression, Parkinson's disease, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, migraine, irritable bowel syndrome, tinnitus, and bipolar disease. These effects are mediated via different serotonin (5-HT) receptors. In this review, we will focus on the last discovered member of this serotonin receptor family, the 5-HT7 receptor. This receptor belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily and was cloned two decades ago. Later, different splice variants were described but no major functional differences have been described so far. All 5-HT7 receptor variants are coupled to Gαs proteins and stimulate cAMP formation. Recently, several interacting proteins have been reported, which can influence receptor signaling and trafficking.

  19. Radioiodinated SB 207710 as a radioligand in vivo: imaging of brain 5-HT{sub 4} receptors with SPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, Victor W. [MRC Cyclotron Unit, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Ducane Road, W12 0NN, London (United Kingdom); PET Radiopharmaceutical Sciences Section, Molecular Imaging Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room B3 C346A, 10 Center Drive, MD 20892-1003, Bethesda (United States); Halldin, Christer; Nobuhara, Kenji; Swahn, Carl-Gunnar; Karlsson, Per; Olsson, Hans; Larsson, Stig; Schnell, Per-Olof; Farde, Lars [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Hospital, 17176, Stockholm (Sweden); Hiltunen, Julka [MAP Medical Technologies, Oy, Tikkakoski (Finland); Mulligan, Rachel S. [MRC Cyclotron Unit, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Ducane Road, W12 0NN, London (United Kingdom); Institute of Psychiatry, SE 8AF, De Crespigny Park, Denmark Hill, London (United Kingdom); Centre for PET, Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, Studley Road, Melbourne VIC 3084 (Australia); Hume, Susan P.; Hirani, Ella [MRC Cyclotron Unit, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Ducane Road, W12 0NN, London (United Kingdom); Imaging Research Solutions Ltd., Cyclotron Building, Hammersmith Hospital, Ducane Road, W12 0NN, London (United Kingdom); Whalley, Jaqueline [MRC Cyclotron Unit, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Ducane Road, W12 0NN, London (United Kingdom); Pilowsky, Lyn S. [Institute of Psychiatry, SE 8AF, De Crespigny Park, Denmark Hill, London (United Kingdom); Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Free and University College, Medical School, Mortimer Street, W1N 8AA, London (United Kingdom); Ell, Peter J. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Free and University College, Medical School, Mortimer Street, W1N 8AA, London (United Kingdom)

    2003-11-01

    Single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and positron emission tomography (PET), when coupled to suitable radioligands, are uniquely powerful for investigating the status of neurotransmitter receptors in vivo. The serotonin subtype-4 (5-HT{sub 4}) receptor has discrete and very similar distributions in rodent and primate brain. This receptor population may play a role in normal cognition and memory and is perhaps perturbed in some neuropsychiatric disorders. SB 207710 [(1-butyl-4-piperidinylmethyl)-8-amino-7-iodo-1,4-benzodioxan-5-carboxylate] is a selective high-affinity antagonist at 5-HT{sub 4} receptors. We explored radioiodinated SB 207710 as a possible radioligand for imaging 5-HT{sub 4} receptors in vivo. Rats were injected intravenously with iodine-125 labelled SB 207710, euthanised at known times and dissected to establish radioactivity content in brain tissues. Radioactivity entered brain but cleared rapidly and to a high extent from blood and plasma. Between 45 and 75 min after injection, the ratios of radioactivity concentration in each of 12 selected brain tissues to that in receptor-poor cerebellum correlated with previous measures of 5-HT{sub 4} receptor density distribution in vitro. The highest ratio was about 3.4 in striatum. SB 207710 was labelled with iodine-123 by an iododestannylation procedure. A cynomolgus monkey was injected intravenously with [{sup 123}I]SB 207710 and examined by SPET. Maximal whole brain uptake of radioactivity was 2.3% of the injected dose at 18 min after radioligand injection. Brain images acquired between 9 and 90 min showed high radioactivity uptake in 5-HT{sub 4} receptor-rich regions, such as striatum, and low uptake in receptor-poor cerebellum. At 169 min the ratio of radioactivity concentration in striatum to that in cerebellum was 4.0. In a second SPET experiment, the cynomolgus monkey was pretreated with a selective 5-HT{sub 4} receptor antagonist, SB 204070, at 20 min before [{sup 123}I]SB 207710 injection

  20. The effects of the 5-HT(6) receptor agonist EMD and the 5-HT(7) receptor agonist AS19 on memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, A; Perez-Garcia, G; Liy-Salmeron, G; Flores-Galvez, D; Castillo, C; Castillo, E

    2008-12-16

    Growing evidence indicates that 5-hydrohytryptamine (5-HT) receptors mediate learning and memory. Particularly interesting are 5-HT(6) and 5-HT(7) receptors, which are localized in brain areas involved in memory formation. Interestingly, recently selective 5-HT(6) and 5-HT(7) receptor agonists and antagonists have become available. Previous evidence indicates that 5-HT(6) or 5-HT(7) receptors antagonists had no effects, improved memory formation and/or reversed amnesia. Herein, the effects of EMD (a 5-HT(6) receptor agonist) and AS19 (a 5-HT(7) receptor agonist) in the associative learning task of autoshaping were studied. Post-training systemic administration of EMD (1-10 mg/kg) or AS19 (1-10 mg/kg) were tested in short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). Results showed that only EMD 5.0mg/kg impaired both STM and LTM. AS19 at 1-10 mg/kg significantly impaired STM but not LTM. In those groups used to test only LTM, EMD impaired it; while AS19 improved LTM. Moreover, in the interaction experiments, the STM EMD-impairment effect was partially reversed by the selective 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist SB-399885 (10 mg/kg). The STM AS19-impairment effect (5.0 mg/kg) was not altered by the selective 5-HT(1A) antagonist WAY 100635 (0.3 mg/kg) but reversed by the selective 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist SB-269970 (10.0 mg/kg). The AS19-SB-269970 combination impaired LTM. Taken together these data suggest that the stimulation of 5-HT(6) impaired both STM and LTM. 5-HT(7) receptors stimulation impaired STM but improved LTM. And these results are discussed in the context of their possible neural bases.

  1. Peripheral and spinal 5-HT receptors participate in cholestatic itch and antinociception induced by bile duct ligation in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bin; Wang, Xue-Long; Huang, Ya; Chen, Li-Hua; Cheng, Ruo-Xiao; Zhou, Feng-Ming; Guo, Ran; Li, Jun-Cheng; Liu, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Although 5-HT has been implicated in cholestatic itch and antinociception, two common phenomena in patients with cholestatic disease, the roles of 5-HT receptor subtypes are unclear. Herein, we investigated the roles of 5-HT receptors in itch and antinociception associated with cholestasis, which was induced by common bile duct ligation (BDL) in rats. 5-HT-induced enhanced scratching and antinociception to mechanical and heat stimuli were demonstrated in BDL rats. 5-HT level in the skin and spinal cord was significantly increased in BDL rats. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT2A, 5-HT3A, 5-HT5B, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 were up-regulated in peripheral nervous system and 5-HT1A, 5-HT1F, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT3A were down-regulated in the spinal cord of BDL rats. Intradermal 5-HT2, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7 receptor agonists induced scratching in BDL rats, whereas 5-HT3 agonist did not induce scratching in sham rats. 5-HT1A, 5-HT2, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7 agonists or antagonists suppressed itch in BDL rats. 5-HT1A agonist attenuated, but 5-HT1A antagonist enhanced antinociception in BDL rats. 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 agonists or antagonists attenuated antinociception in BDL rats. Our data suggested peripheral and central 5-HT system dynamically participated in itch and antinociception under cholestasis condition and targeting 5-HT receptors may be an effective treatment for cholestatic itch. PMID:27824106

  2. Imipramine treatment differentially affects platelet /sup 3/H-imipramine binding and serotonin uptake in depressed patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suranyi-Cadotte, B.E.; Quirion, R.; Nair, N.P.V.; Lafaille, F.; Schwartz, G.

    1985-02-25

    Uptake of serotonin and /sup 3/H-imipramine binding in platelets of depressed patients were investigated simultaneously with changes in clinical state. Both V/sub max/ for serotonin uptake and B/sub max/ for /sup 3/H-imipramine binding were significantly lower in unmedicated depressed patients with respect to normal subjects. Successful treatment with imipramine led to a significant increase in B/sub max/ for /sup 3/H-imipramine binding, without significant change in V/sub max/ for serotonin uptake. B/sub max/ values increased to the normal range following complete, rather than partial clinical improvement. These data indicate that successful antidepressant treatment may increase the density of /sup 3/H-imipramine binding sites on platelets by a process which is independent of the uptake of serotonin. 29 references, 1 table.

  3. Arene- and quinoline-sulfonamides as novel 5-HT7 receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajdel, Paweł; Marciniec, Krzysztof; Maślankiewicz, Andrzej; Paluchowska, Maria H; Satała, Grzegorz; Partyka, Anna; Jastrzębska-Więsek, Magdalena; Wróbel, Dagmara; Wesołowska, Anna; Duszyńska, Beata; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Pawłowski, Maciej

    2011-11-15

    Novel arene- and quinolinesulfonamides were synthesized using different solutions and a solid-support methodology, and were evaluated for their affinity for 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(6), and 5-HT(7) receptors. Compound 54 (N-Ethyl-N-[4-(1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-decahydroisoquinolin-2-yl)butyl]-8-quinolinesulfonamide) was identified as potent 5-HT(7) antagonist (K(i)=13 nM, K(B)=140 nM) with good selectivity over 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(6) receptors. In the FST in mice, it reduced immobility in a manner similar to the selective 5-HT(7) antagonist SB-269970.

  4. Effects of acute MDMA intoxication on mood and impulsivity: role of the 5-HT2 and 5-HT1 receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle H P van Wel

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: MDMA induces positive mood and increases impulse control during intoxication, but only a few studies on the neuropharmacological mechanisms underlying these processes have been conducted. It was hypothesized that pretreatment with 5-HT(1 and 5-HT(2 receptor blockers would prevent MDMA effects on mood and impulsivity. Subjects (N = 17 participated in a double-blind, placebo controlled, within-subject design involving 6 experimental conditions consisting of pretreatment (T1 and treatment (T2. T1 preceded T2 by 30 minutes. T1-T2 combinations were: placebo-placebo, 20 mg pindolol-placebo, 50 mg ketanserin-placebo, placebo-75 mg MDMA, 20 mg pindolol-75 mg MDMA and 50 mg ketanserin-75 g MDMA. Subjects completed a Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire and several impulsivity tasks (Stop signal task, Matching familiar figures task, Cue dependent reversal learning task at 1.5 hrs post-treatment. MDMA alone increased both positive (vigor, arousal, friendliness, elation, positive mood and negative affect (anxiety, confusion as assessed by the POMS questionnaire. MDMA also increased stop reaction time in the Stop signal task and reaction time in the Matching familiar figures task. Pretreatment with ketanserin blocked MDMA effects on positive affect, but not negative affect. Ketanserin did not influence the effects of MDMA on impulsivity. Pindolol did not interact with MDMA on any of the measures. In conclusion, 5-HT(2 receptors mediate positive moods induced by MDMA but not negative moods or impulsivity. 5-HT(1 receptors do not appear to be involved in MDMA effects on mood and impulse control. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Nederlands Trial Register NTR2352.

  5. Pharmacological profile of the 5-HT-induced inhibition of cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow in pithed rats: correlation with 5-HT1 and putative 5-ht5A/5B receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-López, Araceli; Centurión,David; Vázquez, Erika; Arulmani, Udayasankar; Saxena, Pramod R; Villalón, Carlos M

    2003-01-01

    Continuous infusions of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) inhibit the tachycardiac responses to preganglionic (C7-T1) sympathetic stimulation in pithed rats pretreated with desipramine. The present study identified the pharmacological profile of this inhibitory action of 5-HT.The inhibition induced by intravenous (i.v.) continuous infusions of 5-HT (5.6 μg kg−1 min−1) on sympathetically induced tachycardiac responses remained unaltered after i.v. treatment with saline or the antagonists GR 127935 (5...

  6. 5-HT is a potent relaxant in rat superior mesenteric veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Stephanie W; Darios, Emma S; Seitz, Bridget M; Thompson, Janice M

    2015-02-01

    Serotonin (5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine) reduces blood pressure of the conscious rat when administered chronically (1 week). 5-HT does not directly relax isolated arteries, and microsphere experiments in 5-HT-infused rats suggested that 5-HT increased flow to the splanchnic bed. We hypothesized that 5-HT increased splanchnic flow because of direct venous relaxation; our focus was thus on the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) as an important vein in splanchnic circulation. Real-time RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western analyses supported the predominant expression of the 5-HT2B and 5-HT7 receptor in the SMV. The SMV was mounted in tissue baths for measurement of isometric contraction. 5-HT caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of the endothelin-1 (ET-1)-contracted vein. The threshold of 5-HT-induced venous relaxation was significantly lower than for 5-HT-induced venous contraction (∼2 vs. 700 nmol/L, respectively). A series of serotonergic agonists established in their use of receptor characterization was tested, and the following rank order of potency found for agonist-induced relaxation (receptor selectivity): 5-CT (5-HT1/5-HT7)>5-HT = LP-44 (5-HT7)>PNU109291 (5-HT1D) = BW723C86 (5-HT2B). 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A/7), CP93129 (5-HT1B), mCPBG (5-HT3/4), AS19 (5-HT7) and TCB-2 (5-HT2A) did not relax the isolated vein. Consistent with these findings, two different 5-HT7 receptor antagonists SB 269970 and LY215840 but not the 5-HT2B receptor antagonist LY272015 nor the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor LNNA abolished 5-CT-induced relaxation of the isolated SMV. 5-CT (1 μg kg(-1) min(-1), sc) also reduced blood pressure over 7 days. These findings suggest that 5-HT directly relaxes the SMV primarily through activation of the 5-HT7 receptor.

  7. GR-127935-sensitive mechanism mediating hypotension in anesthetized rats: are 5-HT5B receptors involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Maldonado, Carolina; López-Sánchez, Pedro; Anguiano-Robledo, Liliana; Leopoldo, Marcello; Lacivita, Enza; Terrón, José A

    2015-04-01

    The 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist, GR-127935, inhibits hypotensive responses produced by the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT7 receptor agonist, and 5-HT5A/5B receptor ligand, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), in rats. This work further characterized the above mechanism using more selective 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptor antagonists. Also, expression of 5-HT5A and 5-HT5B receptor mRNAs in blood vessels was searched by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Decreases in diastolic blood pressure induced by 5-CT (0.001-10 μg/kg, intravenously) were analyzed in anesthetized rats that had received intravenous vehicle (1 mL/kg), SB-224289 (5-HT1B antagonist; 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg), BRL15572 (5-HT1D antagonist; 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg), SB-224289 + BRL15572 (0.3 mg/kg, each), or SB-224289 + BRL15572 (0.3 mg/kg, each) + GR-127935 (1 mg/kg). Because only the latter treatment inhibited 5-CT-induced hypotension, suggestive of a mechanism unrelated to 5-HT1B/1D receptors, the effects of antagonists/ligands at 5-HT5A (SB-699551, 1 mg/kg), 5-HT6 (SB-399885, 1 mg/kg), and 5-HT1B/1D/5A/5B/7 receptors (ergotamine, 0.1 mg/kg) on 5-CT-induced hypotension were tested. Interestingly, only ergotamine blocked 5-CT-induced responses; this effect closely paralleled that of SB-224289 + BRL-15572 + GR-127935. Neither did ergotamine nor GR-127935 inhibit hypotensive responses induced by the 5-HT7 receptor agonist, LP-44. Faint but clear bands corresponding to 5-HT5A and 5-HT5B receptor mRNAs in aorta and mesenteric arteries were detected. Results suggest that the GR-127935-sensitive mechanism mediating hypotension in rats is unrelated to 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT5A, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors. This mechanism, however, resembles putative 5-HT5B receptors.

  8. Evidence for the existence of FGFR1-5-HT1A heteroreceptor complexes in the midbrain raphe 5-HT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Narvaez, Manuel; Pérez-Alea, Mileidys; Tarakanov, Alexander O; Jiménez-Beristain, Antonio; Mudó, Giuseppa; Agnati, Luigi F; Ciruela, Francisco; Belluardo, Natale; Fuxe, Kjell

    2015-01-02

    The ascending midbrain 5-HT neurons known to contain 5-HT1A autoreceptors may be dysregulated in depression due to a reduced trophic support. With in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) and supported by co-location of the FGFR1 and 5-HT1A immunoreactivities in midbrain raphe 5-HT cells, evidence for the existence of FGFR1-5-HT1A heteroreceptor complexes were obtained in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei of the Sprague-Dawley rat. Their existence in the rat medullary raphe RN33B cell cultures was also established. After combined FGF-2 and 8-OH-DPAT treatment, a marked and significant increase in PLA positive clusters was found in the RN33B cells. Similar results were reached upon coactivation by agonists in HEK293T cells using the Fluorescent Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) technique resulting in increased FRETmax and reduced FRET50 values. The heteroreceptor complex formation was dependent on TMV of the 5-HT1A receptor since it was blocked by incubation with TMV but not with TMII. Taken together, the 5-HT1A autoreceptors by being recruited into a FGFR1-5-HT1A heteroreceptor complex in the midbrain raphe 5-HT nerve cells may develop a novel function, namely a trophic role in many midbrain 5-HT neuron systems originating from the dorsal and medianus raphe nuclei.

  9. 5-Hydroxytryptamine potentiates neurogenic contractions of rat isolated urinary bladder through both 5-HT(7) and 5-HT(2C) receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekik, Moèz; Lluel, Philippe; Palea, Stefano

    2011-01-10

    Serotonin (5-HT) enhances the neurogenic contractile response induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the rat isolated urinary bladder. The aim of this study was to functionally characterize the receptors involved in this effect by using a range of 5-HT receptor subtype selective agonists and antagonists. 5-HT produced a concentration-dependent potentiation of contractile responses to EFS with a pEC(50) value of 6.86±0.24. SB-269970 (0.01, 0.1 and 1μM), a selective 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist, caused a concentration-dependent rightward shift of the 5-HT-induced response. The pA(2) value was 8.16 with a slope of 0.46±0.08. Neither ketanserine nor SB-204741, 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptors antagonists, respectively, affected the concentration-response curve to 5-HT. However, 5-HT response was antagonized by the selective 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist SB-242084 (0.1 and 1μM). In the presence of 1μM of both antagonists SB-269970 and SB-242084, 5-HT response was almost fully inhibited. 5-CT, a 5-HT(7) receptor agonist, induced a biphasic concentration-dependent potentiation of neurogenic contractions. SB-269970 concentration-dependently antagonized the first phase of 5-CT response with a pA(2) value of 8.77 and a slope not significantly different from unity (0.91±0.11) that suggests a competitive antagonism. WAY-161503, a 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist (0.01-10μM), induced a concentration-dependent potentiation of contractile response to EFS while DOI (a selective 5-HT(2A) agonist) had no effect. SB-242084 (0.1 and 1μM) antagonized the effect of WAY-161503 in a concentration-dependent manner. The current results demonstrate that 5-HT potentiates neurogenic contractions of rat isolated detrusor muscle through both 5-HT(7) and 5-HT(2c) receptors.

  10. Platelet serotonin transporter (5HTt): physiological influences on kinetic characteristics in a large human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banović, Miroslav; Bordukalo-Niksić, Tatjana; Balija, Melita; Cicin-Sain, Lipa; Jernej, Branimir

    2010-01-01

    The present study had two goals: first, to give a detailed description of a reliable method for full kinetic analysis of serotonin transporter (5HTt) on the membrane of human platelets, and second, as a main issue, to report on physiological influences on kinetic characteristics of this transmembrane transport on a large population of healthy individuals. Full kinetic analyses of platelet serotonin uptake were performed on 334 blood donors of both sexes by the use of 14C-radioisotopic method, which was first optimized according to assumptions of enzyme kinetic analyses, with regard to platelet concentration, duration of uptake, concentration of substrate as well as important technical parameters (underpressure of filtration, blanks, incubating temperature, etc). Kinetic parameters of platelet serotonin uptake in the whole population were for V(max): 142 +/- 25.3 pmol 5HT/10(8) platelets/minute and for K(m): 0.404 +/- 0.089 microM 5HT. Besides the report on kinetic values of 5HT transporter protein, we have also described major physiological influences on the mentioned parameters, V(max), K(m) and their derivative, V(max)/K(m) (transporter efficiency): range and frequency distribution of normal values, intraindividual stability over time, lack of age influence, gender dependence and seasonal variations. The report on kinetic values and main physiological influences on platelet serotonin transport kinetics, obtained by the use of thoroughly reassessed methodology, and on by far the largest human population studied until now, offers a reliable frame of reference for pathophysiological studies of this parameter in various clinical fields.

  11. Towards novel 5-HT7versus 5-HT1A receptor ligands among LCAPs with cyclic amino acid amide fragments: design, synthesis, and antidepressant properties. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Vittorio; Kurczab, Rafał; Partyka, Anna; Satała, Grzegorz; Witek, Jagna; Jastrzębska-Więsek, Magdalena; Pawłowski, Maciej; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Wesołowska, Anna; Zajdel, Paweł

    2015-03-06

    A 26-membered library of novel long-chain arylpiperazines, which contained primary and tertiary amides of cyclic amino acids (proline and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxamide) in the terminal fragment was synthesized and biologically evaluated for binding affinity for 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptors. Docking studies confirmed advantages of Tic-amide over Pro-amide fragment for interaction with 5-HT7 receptors. Selected compounds 32 and 28, which behaved as 5-HT7Rs antagonist and 5-HT1A partial agonist, respectively, produced antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test in mice after acute treatment in doses of 10 mg/kg (32) and 1.25 mg/kg (28). Compound 32 reduced immobility in a manner similar to the selective 5-HT7 antagonist SB-269970.

  12. A Pharmacological Analysis of an Associative Learning Task: 5-HT1 to 5-HT7 Receptor Subtypes Function on a Pavlovian/Instrumental Autoshaped Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies using both invertebrates and mammals have revealed that endogenous serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) modulates plasticity processes, including learning and memory. However, little is currently known about the mechanisms, loci, or time window of the actions of 5-HT. The aim of this review is to discuss some recent results on the effects of systemic administration of selective agonists and antagonists of 5-HT on associative learning in a Pavlovian/instrumental autoshaping (P/I-A) task in rats. The results indicate that pharmacological manipulation of 5-HT1-7 receptors or 5-HT reuptake sites might modulate memory consolidation, which is consistent with the emerging notion that 5-HT plays a key role in memory formation. PMID:14557609

  13. A pharmacological analysis of an associative learning task: 5-HT(1) to 5-HT(7) receptor subtypes function on a pavlovian/instrumental autoshaped memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies using both invertebrates and mammals have revealed that endogenous serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) modulates plasticity processes, including learning and memory. However, little is currently known about the mechanisms, loci, or time window of the actions of 5-HT. The aim of this review is to discuss some recent results on the effects of systemic administration of selective agonists and antagonists of 5-HT on associative learning in a Pavlovian/instrumental autoshaping (P/I-A) task in rats. The results indicate that pharmacological manipulation of 5-HT1-7 receptors or 5-HT reuptake sites might modulate memory consolidation, which is consistent with the emerging notion that 5-HT plays a key role in memory formation.

  14. Impaired effect of activation of rat hippocampal 5-HT7 receptors, induced by treatment with the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB 269970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusek, M; Sowa, J; Tokarski, K; Hess, G

    2015-04-01

    Effects of the 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist SB 269970, administered for 14 days (1.25 mg/kg), were studied in ex vivo slices of rat hippocampus. To activate the 5-HT(7) receptor, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT, 200 nM) was applied in the presence of WAY 100635 (2 μM), a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist. In contrast to control preparations, no 5-HT(7) receptor-mediated increase in excitability nor depolarization and an increase in the input resistance of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons were present in slices prepared from rats treated with SB 269970. The treatment also abolished the stimulatory effect of 5-HT(7) receptor activation on spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents recorded from CA1 stratum radiatum/lacunosum-moleculare interneurons. These data demonstrate that repeated administration of SB 269970 impairs the reactivity of the CA1 hippocampal neuronal network to 5-HT(7) receptor activation.

  15. Rational Drug Design Leading to the Identification of a Potent 5-HT(2C) Agonist Lacking 5-HT(2B) Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Cho, Sung Jin; Huang, Xi-Ping; Jensen, Niels H; Svennebring, Andreas; Sassano, Maria F; Roth, Bryan L; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2011-12-08

    The 5-HT(2C) receptor is an attractive drug target in the quest for new therapeutics to treat a variety of human disorders. We have previously undertaken a structural optimization campaign that has led to some potent and moderately selective 5-HT(2C) receptor agonists. After expanding our structure-function library, we were able to combine our datasets so as to allow the design of compounds of improved selectivity and potency. We disclose herein the structural optimization of our previously reported 5-HT(2B)/5-HT(2C) agonists, which has led to the identification of a highly selective 5-HT(2C) agonist, (+)-trans-[2-(2-cyclopropylmethoxyphenyl)cyclopropyl]methylamine hydrochloride, with an EC(50) of 55 nM and no detectable agonism at the 5-HT(2B) receptor.

  16. Central 5-HT Neurotransmission Modulates Weight Loss following Gastric Bypass Surgery in Obese Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, M. E.; Hansen, D. L.; Fisher, P. M.

    2015-01-01

    , it was confirmed that obese individuals have higher cerebral 5-HT2A receptor binding than lean individuals. Importantly, we found that higher presurgical 5-HT2A receptor binding predicted greater weight loss after RYGB and that the change in 5-HT2A receptor and 5-HT transporter binding correlated with weight loss......The cerebral serotonin (5-HT) system shows distinct differences in obesity compared with the lean state. Here, it was investigated whether serotonergic neurotransmission in obesity is a stable trait or changes in association with weight loss induced by Roux-in-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery...... after RYGB. The changes in the 5-HT neurotransmission before and after RYGB are in accordance with a model wherein the cerebral extracellular 5-HT level modulates the regulation of body weight. Our findings support that the cerebral 5-HT system contributes both to establish the obese condition...

  17. BDNF downregulates 5-HT(2A) receptor protein levels in hippocampal cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trajkovska, V; Santini, M A; Marcussen, Anders Bue;

    2009-01-01

    Both brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the serotonin receptor 2A (5-HT(2A)) have been related to depression pathology. Specific 5-HT(2A) receptor changes seen in BDNF conditional mutant mice suggest that BDNF regulates the 5-HT(2A) receptor level. Here we show a direct effect of BDNF...... on 5-HT(2A) receptor protein levels in primary hippocampal neuronal and mature hippocampal organotypic cultures exposed to different BDNF concentrations for either 1, 3, 5 or 7 days. In vivo effects of BDNF on hippocampal 5-HT(2A) receptor levels were further corroborated in (BDNF +/-) mice...... with reduced BDNF levels. In primary neuronal cultures, 7 days exposure to 25 and 50ng/mL BDNF resulted in downregulation of 5-HT(2A), but not of 5-HT(1A), receptor protein levels. The BDNF-associated downregulation of 5-HT(2A) receptor levels was also observed in mature hippocampal organotypic cultures...

  18. 5-HT7 receptor signaling: improved therapeutic strategy in gut disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Janice J; Khan, Waliul I

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is most commonly known for its role as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the majority of the body's 5-HT is produced in the gut by enterochromaffin (EC) cells. Alterations in 5-HT signaling have been associated with various gut disorders including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and enteric infections. Recently, our studies have identified a key role for 5-HT in the pathogenesis of experimental colitis. 5-HT7 receptors are expressed in the gut and very recently, we have shown evidence of 5-HT7 receptor expression on intestinal immune cells and demonstrated a key role for 5-HT7 receptors in generation of experimental colitis. This review summarizes the key findings of these studies and provides a comprehensive overview of our current knowledge of the 5-HT7 receptor in terms of its pathophysiological relevance and therapeutic potential in intestinal inflammatory conditions, such as IBD.

  19. Measuring endogenous 5-HT release by emission tomography: promises and pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paterson, Louise M; Tyacke, Robin J; Nutt, David J;

    2010-01-01

    emission tomography, but has not yet been adequately extended to other neurotransmitter systems. This review focuses on how the technique has been applied to the study of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system. The principles behind visualising fluctuations in neurotransmitters are introduced......, with reference to the dopaminergic system. Studies that aim to image acute, endogenous 5-HT release or depletion at 5-HT receptor targets are summarised, with particular attention to studies in humans. Radiotracers targeting the 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), and 5-HT(4) receptors and the serotonin reuptake transporter...... have been explored for their sensitivity to 5-HT fluctuations, but with mixed outcomes; tracers for these targets cannot reliably image endogenous 5-HT in humans. Shortcomings in our basic knowledge of the mechanisms underlying changes in binding potential are addressed, and suggestions are made...

  20. A Pharmacological Analysis of an Associative Learning Task: 5-HT1 to 5-HT7 Receptor Subtypes Function on a Pavlovian/Instrumental Autoshaped Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies using both invertebrates and mammals have revealed that endogenous serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) modulates plasticity processes, including learning and memory. However, little is currently known about the mechanisms, loci, or time window of the actions of 5-HT. The aim of this review is to discuss some recent results on the effects of systemic administration of selective agonists and antagonists of 5-HT on associative learning in a Pavlovian/instrumental autoshaping (P...

  1. The Effect of Serotonin-Targeting Antidepressants on Neurogenesis and Neuronal Maturation of the Hippocampus Mediated via 5-HT1A and 5-HT4 Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Segi-Nishida

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Antidepressant drugs such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs specifically increase serotonin (5-HT levels in the synaptic cleft and are widely used to treat mood and anxiety disorders. There are 14 established subtypes of 5-HT receptors in rodents, each of which has regionally different expression patterns. Many preclinical studies have suggested that the hippocampus, which contains abundant 5-HT1A and 5-HT4 receptor subtypes in the dentate gyrus (DG, is critically involved in the mechanisms of action of antidepressants. This review article will analyze studies demonstrating regulation of hippocampal functions and hippocampus-dependent behaviors by SSRIs and similar serotonergic agents. Multiple studies indicate that 5-HT1A and 5-HT4 receptor signaling in the DG contributes to SSRI-mediated promotion of neurogenesis and increased neurotrophic factors expression. Chronic SSRI treatment causes functions and phenotypes of mature granule cells (GCs to revert to immature-like phenotypes defined as a “dematured” state in the DG, and to increase monoamine reactivity at the dentate-to-CA3 synapses, via 5-HT4 receptor signaling. Behavioral studies demonstrate that the 5-HT1A receptors on mature GCs are critical for expression of antidepressant effects in the forced swim test and in novelty suppressed feeding; such studies also note that 5-HT4 receptors mediate neurogenesis-dependent antidepressant activity in, for example, novelty-suppressed feeding. Despite their limitations, the collective results of these studies describe a potential new mechanism of action, in which 5-HT1A and 5-HT4 receptor signaling, either independently or cooperatively, modulates the function of the hippocampal DG at multiple levels, any of which could play a critical role in the antidepressant actions of 5-HT-enhancing drugs.

  2. Changes in 5-HT2A-mediated behavior and 5-HT2A- and 5-HT1A receptor binding and expression in conditional brain-derived neurotrophic factor knock-out mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, A B; Santini, M A; Aznar, S;

    2010-01-01

    Changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression have been implicated in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. To investigate pathological mechanisms elicited by perturbed BDNF signaling, we examined mutant mice with central depletion of BDNF (BDNF(2L/2LCk-cre)). A severe impairment...... by BDNF depletion. 5-HT(2A) ([(3)H]-MDL100907) and 5-HT(1A) ([(3)H]-WAY100635) receptor autoradiography revealed site-specific alterations in BDNF mutant mice. They exhibited lower 5-HT(2A) receptor binding in frontal cortex but increased binding in hippocampus. Additionally, 5-HT(1A) receptor binding...... was decreased in hippocampus of BDNF mutants, but unchanged in frontal cortex. Molecular analysis indicated corresponding changes in 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(1A) mRNA expression but normal 5-HT(2C) content in these brain regions in BDNF(2L/2LCk-cre) mice. We investigated whether the reduction in frontal 5-HT(2A...

  3. Role of dorsal raphe nucleus 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2) receptors in tonic immobility modulation in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mateus Dalbem; Menescal-de-Oliveira, Leda

    2009-08-18

    Tonic immobility (TI) is an innate defensive behavior characterized by a state of physical inactivity and diminished responsiveness to environmental stimuli. Behavioral adaptations to changes in the external and internal milieu involve complex neuronal network activity and a large number of chemical neurotransmitters. The TI response is thought to be influenced by serotonin (5-HT) activity in the central nervous system (CNS) of vertebrates, but the neuronal groups involved in the mechanisms underlying this behavior are poorly understood. Owing to its extensive afferents and efferents, the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) has been implicated in a great variety of physiological and behavioral functions. In the current study, we investigated the influence of serotonergic 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2) receptor activity within the DRN on the modulation of TI behavior in the guinea pig. Microinjection of a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist (8-OH-DPAT, 0.01 and 0.1 microg) decreased TI behavior, an effect blocked by pretreatment with WAY-100635 (0.033 microg), a 5-HT(1A) antagonist. In contrast, activation of 5-HT(2) receptors within the DRN (alpha-methyl-5-HT, 0.5 microg) increased the TI duration, and this effect could be reversed by pretreatment with an ineffective dose (0.01 microg) of ketanserine. Since the 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2) agonists decreased and increased, respectively, the duration of TI, different serotonin receptor subtypes may play distinct roles in the modulation of TI in the guinea pig.

  4. Polysynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials that trigger spasms after spinal cord injury in rats are inhibited by 5-HT1B and 5-HT1F receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Katherine C; Stephens, Marilee J; Rank, Michelle; D'Amico, Jessica; Gorassini, Monica A; Bennett, David J

    2011-08-01

    Sensory afferent transmission and associated spinal reflexes are normally inhibited by serotonin (5-HT) derived from the brain stem. Spinal cord injury (SCI) that eliminates this 5-HT innervation leads to a disinhibition of sensory transmission and a consequent emergence of unusually long polysynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in motoneurons. These EPSPs play a critical role in triggering long polysynaptic reflexes (LPRs) that initiate muscles spasms. In the present study we examined which 5-HT receptors modulate the EPSPs and whether these receptors adapt to a loss of 5-HT after chronic spinal transection in rats. The EPSPs and associated LPRs recorded in vitro in spinal cords from chronic spinal rats were consistently inhibited by 5-HT(1B) or 5-HT(1F) receptor agonists, including zolmitriptan (5-HT(1B/1D/1F)) and LY344864 (5-HT(1F)), with a sigmoidal dose-response relation, from which we computed the 50% inhibition (EC(50)) and potency (-log EC(50)). The potencies of 5-HT receptor agonists were highly correlated with their binding affinity to 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(1F) receptors, and not to other 5-HT receptors. Zolmitriptan also inhibited the LPRs and general muscle spasms recorded in vivo in the awake chronic spinal rat. The 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonists SB216641 and GR127935 and the inverse agonist SB224289 reduced the inhibition of LPRs by 5-HT(1B) agonists (zolmitriptan). However, when applied alone, SB224289, SB216641, and GR127935 had no effect on the LPRs, indicating that 5-HT(1B) receptors do not adapt to chronic injury, remaining silent, without constitutive activity. The reduction in EPSPs with zolmitriptan unmasked a large glycine-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) after SCI. This IPSC and associated chloride current reversed at -73 mV, slightly below the resting membrane potential. Zolmitriptan did not change motoneuron properties. Our results demonstrate that 5-HT(1B/1F) agonists, such as zolmitriptan, can restore inhibition

  5. No hypothermic response to serotonin in 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hedlund, P. B.; Danielson, P. E.; Thomas, E. A.; Slanina, K.; Carson, M.J.; Sutcliffe, J G

    2003-01-01

    With data from recently available selective antagonists for the 5-HT7 receptor, it has been hypothesized that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced hypothermia is mediated by the 5-HT7 receptor, an effect previously attributed to other receptor subtypes. It has been established that the biologically active lipid oleamide allosterically interacts with the 5-HT7 receptor to regulate its transmission. The most well characterized effects of oleamide administration are induction of sleep and hypother...

  6. 5-HT7 receptor signaling: improved therapeutic strategy in gut disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Janice J Kim; Khan, Waliul I.

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytrytamine; 5-HT) is most commonly known for its role as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. However, the majority of the body’s 5-HT is produced in the gut by enterochromaffin (EC) cells. Alterations in 5-HT signaling have been associated with various gut disorders including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and enteric infections. Recently, our studies have identified a key role for 5-HT in the pathogenesis of experimental coli...

  7. 5-HT7 receptor signaling: improved therapeutic strategy in gut disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Janice J Kim; Khan, Waliul I.

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is most commonly known for its role as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the majority of the body’s 5-HT is produced in the gut by enterochromaffin (EC) cells. Alterations in 5-HT signaling have been associated with various gut disorders including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and enteric infections. Recently, our studies have identified a key role for 5-HT in the pathogenesis of experiment...

  8. Role of 5-HT3 Receptor on Food Intake in Fed and Fasted Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bingjin Li; Dongyuan Shao; Yungang Luo; Pu Wang; Changhong Liu; Xingyi Zhang; Ranji Cui

    2015-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor subtypes are involved in the regulation of feeding behavior. However, the relative contribution of 5-HT3 receptor remains unclear. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of 5-HT3 receptor in control of feeding behavior in fed and fasted mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Food intake and expression of c-Fos, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and 5-HT in the brain were examined after a...

  9. The citalopram/5-HTP-induced head shake syndrome is correlated to 5-HT2 receptor affinity and also influenced by other transmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnt, J; Hyttel, J; Larsen, J J

    1984-11-01

    Combination of the 5-HT-uptake inhibitor, citalopram, with 1-5-HTP induced a characteristic head shake syndrome in rats. This was blocked by a range of 5-HT antagonists, including the selective 5-HT2 antagonists, ketanserin and pirenperone and was also blocked by the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists, prazosin and WB 4101, and the alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, clonidine. 1-5-HTP-antagonistic effect was also recorded for 26 neuroleptic drugs. Their inhibitory potencies showed close correlation to 5-HT2-receptor affinity in vitro and, slightly weaker, to alpha 1-adrenoceptor affinity. In contrast, no correlation to dopamine D-2 receptor affinity was found, indicating that the cataleptogenic and motility-inhibitory properties of neuroleptics did not unspecifically influence 1-5-HTP-induced head shakes. These were not influenced by a histaminic antagonist, muscarinic antagonist or alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, but were inhibited by beta-adrenoceptor blockers, GABA agonists, a benzodiazepine and morphine. The results indicate that 1-5-HTP-induced head shakes are most sensitive to 5-HT2 antagonists, but that the syndrome is influenced by other neuronal systems. Since 5-HT2 affinity and alpha 1-adrenoceptor affinity of many compounds is found concomitantly, caution is needed to evaluate the relative importance of these properties for 1-5-HTP antagonism.

  10. Localization of serotoni (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) with partial purification and characterization of a serotonin binding protein in the intestinal tissue of the nematode Ascaris suum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    An intracellular 5-HT binding protein (SBP) from intestinal tissue was partially purified and characterized. Binding of ({sup 3}H) 5-HT to the protein appeared to be Fe{sup +2}-sensitive and maximal (20.8pmol/mg protein) at 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}M Fe{sup +2} and 10{sup {minus}7}M ({sup 3}H) 5-HT. There were two 5-HT binding sites present at optimum Fe{sup +2} concentrations. The Bmax values of these sites were more sensitive to Fe{sup +2} than Kd values. Sulfhydryl reducing agents, cation chelators, Fe{sup +3}, Ca{sup +2} and antagonists of 5-HT uptake and storage inhibited binding of 5-HT to SBP. Gel exclusion chromatography indicated the presence of a 45Kda SBP that in 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}M Fe{sup +2} may form aggregates ranging in size from approximately 80 to >1000Kda. The data indicate these in vitro aggregates may correspond to the electron-opaque patches observed in situ. Ascaris suum may provide a model system to further elucidate the physiological role of analogous serotonin binding proteins that have been identified in mammalian systems.

  11. Differential mechanisms involved in the effect of nicotinic agonists DMPP and lobeline to release [3H]5-HT from rat hippocampal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendvai, B; Sershen, H; Lajtha, A; Santha, E; Baranyi, M; Vizi, E S

    1996-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the effect of different nicotinic agonists (dimethylphenyl-piperazinium-iodide (DMPP), (-)nicotine, cytisine, (-)-lobeline, and (-)epibatidine) and antagonists (mecamylamine and dihydro-beta-erythroidine) on the release of [3H]5-HT from hippocampal slices. The nicotinic agonists DMPP and lobeline and electrical field stimulation, released [3H]5-HT from the hippocampus; other nicotinic agonists, such as (-)-nicotine, cytisine, and (-)-epibatidine had no effect. Unlike lobeline-induced release of [3H]5-HT, the effect of DMPP (10 and 40 microM) was antagonized by mecamylamine (20 and 10 microM). The effect of DMPP was [Ca2+]o-independent. In experiments carried out at 7 degrees C, i.e. the membrane carrier proteins are inhibited and the release by lobeline was abolished while the DMPP-induced release of 5-HT was rather potentiated. It is proposed that the effect of DMPP and lobeline, to enhance the release of [3H]5-HT from the hippocampus, was mediated by two different mechanisms. While DMPP-induced 5-HT release can be linked to a non-classical nAChR activation ([Ca2+]o-independence), the effect of lobeline was likely mediated by uptake carriers.

  12. Locomotor-activated neurons of the cat. I. Serotonergic innervation and co-localization of 5-HT7, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT1A receptors in the thoraco-lumbar spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noga, Brian R; Johnson, Dawn M G; Riesgo, Mirta I; Pinzon, Alberto

    2009-09-01

    Monoamines are strong modulators and/or activators of spinal locomotor networks. Thus monoaminergic fibers likely contact neurons involved in generating locomotion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the serotonergic innervation of locomotor-activated neurons within the thoraco-lumbar spinal cord following induction of hindlimb locomotion. This was determined by immunohistochemical co-localization of serotonin (5-HT) fibers or 5-HT(7)/5-HT2A/5-HT1A receptors with cells expressing the activity-dependent marker c-fos. Experiments were performed on paralyzed, decerebrate cats in which locomotion was induced by electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region. Abundant c-fos immunoreactive cells were observed in laminae VII and VIII throughout the thoraco-lumbar segments of locomotor animals. Control sections from the same segments showed significantly fewer labeled neurons, mostly within the dorsal horn. Multiple serotonergic boutons were found in close apposition to the majority (80-100%) of locomotor cells, which were most abundant in lumbar segments L3-7. 5-HT7 receptor immunoreactivity was observed on cells across the thoraco-lumbar segments (T7-L7), in a dorsoventral gradient. Most locomotor-activated cells co-localized with 5-HT7, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT1A receptors, with largest numbers in laminae VII and VIII. Co-localization of c-fos and 5-HT7 receptor was highest in the L5-L7 segments (>90%) and decreased rostrally (to approximately 50%) due to the absence of receptors on cells within the intermediolateral nucleus. In contrast, 60-80 and 35-80% of c-fos immunoreactive cells stained positive for 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors, respectively, with no rostrocaudal gradient. These results indicate that serotonergic modulation of locomotion likely involves 5-HT(7)/5-HT2A/5-HT1A receptors located on the soma and proximal dendrites of serotonergic-innervated locomotor-activated neurons within laminae VII and VIII of thoraco-lumbar segments.

  13. Evidence that the anorexia induced by lipopolysaccharide is mediated by the 5-HT2C receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Meyenburg, Claudia; Langhans, Wolfgang; Hrupka, Brian J

    2003-01-01

    Rats consistently reduce their food intake following injections of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Because inhibition of serotonergic (5-HT) activity by 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT(1A) activation) attenuates LPS-induced anorexia, we conducted a series of studies to examine whether other 5-HT-receptors are involved in the mediation of peripheral LPS-induced anorexia. In all experiments, rats were injected with LPS (100 microg/kg body weight [BW] ip) at lights out (hour 0). Antagonists were administered peripherally at hour 4, shortly after the onset of anorexia, which presumably follows the enhanced cytokine production after LPS. Food intake was then recorded during the subsequent 2 h or longer. 5-HT receptor antagonists cyanopindolol and SB 224289 (5-HT(1B)), ketanserin (5-HT(2A)), RS-102221 (5-HT(2C)), and metoclopramide (5-HT(3)) failed to attenuate LPS-induced anorexia. In contrast, both ritanserin (5-HT(2A/C)-receptor antagonist) (0.5 mg/kg BW) and SB 242084 (5-HT(2C)) (0.3 mg/kg BW) attenuated LPS-induced anorexia at doses that did not alter food intake in non-LPS-treated rats (all Panorexia following peripheral LPS administration is mediated through an enhanced 5-HT-ergic activity and the 5-HT(2C) receptor.

  14. CALCINEURIN INHIBITS DESENSITIZATION OF CLONED RAT 5-HT(1C)RECEPTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BODDEKE, HWGM; HOFFMAN, BJ; PALACIOS, JM; HOYER, D

    1993-01-01

    Functional responses to stimulation of rat 5-HT1C receptors expressed in A9 cells were studied using whole cell voltage clamp recording technique. Stimulation of 5-HT1C receptors with serotonin (5-HT) evoked calcium-dependent outward currents of 109 pA in cells clamped at -50 mV. Pretreatment with t

  15. Phenylpyrroles, a new chemolibrary virtual screening class of 5-HT7 receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillet-Loilier, Magalie; Fabis, Frédéric; Lepailleur, Alban; Bureau, Ronan; Butt-Gueulle, Sabrina; Dauphin, François; Delarue, Catherine; Vaudry, Hubert; Rault, Sylvain

    2005-08-15

    Virtual screening studies have identified a series of phenylpyrroles as novel 5-HT7 receptor ligands. The synthesis and the affinity for the 5-HT7 receptor of these phenylpyrroles are described. Some of these compounds exhibited high affinity for the 5-HT7 receptors.

  16. Impaired social behavior in 5-HT(3A) receptor knockout mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Smit-Rigter; W.J. Wadman; J.A. van Hooft

    2010-01-01

    The 5-HT(3) receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel expressed on interneurons throughout the brain. So far, analysis of the 5-HT(3A) knockout mouse revealed changes in nociceptive processing and a reduction in anxiety related behavior. Recently, it was shown that the 5-HT(3) receptor is also expresse

  17. Distribution of serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT7 receptors in the Onuf's nucleus of the rat spinal cord

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fanqing Zeng; Chen Xu; Ge Xu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Motoneurons from the Onuf's nucleus of the spinal cord, which innervate the striated muscle of the pelvic floor, play an important role in erection, ejaculation, and urine control. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) regulates motoneuron activity from the Onuf's nucleus of the spinal cord.However, few studies exist that describe 5-HT receptor distribution in the Onuf's nucleus. In addition, the nature of the effects of 5-HT receptor on the innervating striated muscle of the pelvic floor is controversial.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT7 receptors in motoneurons of Onuf's nucleus in the spinal cord of male rats, and to analyze the relationship of 5-HT2A and 5-H7 receptors to central modulation of urogenital function.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The neural morphology experiment was performed at the Ultramicrostructure Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Basic Medical College, Chongqing Medical University, China from April to December 2007.MATERIALS: Ten adult, Sprague Dawley rats (eight males and two females) were randomly divided into a gender control group (n = 4,50% male and 50% female) and a retrograde tracing group (n = 6, 100% male).Recombinant pseudorabies virus (PRV-152) was provided by Professor LW Enquist from Princeton University, USA. Rabbit anti-5-HT2A and 5-HT7 receptor antibodies were purchased from Diasorin, France.METHODS: In the gender control group, the spinal L5-6segments were harvested, sliced, and then incubated antibodies specific against 5-HT2A or 5-HT7 receptors for immunohistochemical staining. In the retrograde tracing group, PRV-152 was separately injected into the right ischiocavernosus (ischiocavernosus subgroup,n = 3) and the fight external urethral sphincter (external urethral sphincter subgroup, n = 3). Four days after injection, L5-6 segments were harvested, sliced, and incubated with antibodies specific against 5-HT2A or 5-HT7 receptors for double-labeling immunofluoresccnce

  18. Hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI enhance dopamine D2R protomer recognition and signaling of D2-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Narvaez, Manuel; Oflijan, Julia; Agnati, Luigi F; Fuxe, Kjell

    2014-01-03

    Dopamine D2LR-serotonin 5-HT2AR heteromers were demonstrated in HEK293 cells after cotransfection of the two receptors and shown to have bidirectional receptor-receptor interactions. In the current study the existence of D2L-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complexes was demonstrated also in discrete regions of the ventral and dorsal striatum with in situ proximity ligation assays (PLA). The hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI but not the standard 5-HT2AR agonist TCB2 and 5-HT significantly increased the density of D2like antagonist (3)H-raclopride binding sites and significantly reduced the pKiH values of the high affinity D2R agonist binding sites in (3)H-raclopride/DA competition experiments. Similar results were obtained in HEK293 cells and in ventral striatum. The effects of the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists on D2R density and affinity were blocked by the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin. In a forskolin-induced CRE-luciferase reporter gene assay using cotransfected but not D2R singly transfected HEK293 cells DOI and LSD but not TCB2 significantly enhanced the D2LR agonist quinpirole induced inhibition of CRE-luciferase activity. Haloperidol blocked the effects of both quinpirole alone and the enhancing actions of DOI and LSD while ketanserin only blocked the enhancing actions of DOI and LSD. The mechanism for the allosteric enhancement of the D2R protomer recognition and signalling observed is likely mediated by a biased agonist action of the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists at the orthosteric site of the 5-HT2AR protomer. This mechanism may contribute to the psychotic actions of LSD and DOI and the D2-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complex may thus be a target for the psychotic actions of hallunicogenic 5-HT2A agonists. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lamotrigine, an antiepileptic drug, inhibits 5-HT3 receptor currents in NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Jung; Jeun, Seung Hyun; Sung, Ki-Wug

    2017-03-01

    Lamotrigine is an antiepileptic drug widely used to treat epileptic seizures. Using whole-cell voltage clamp recordings in combination with a fast drug application approach, we investigated the effects of lamotrigine on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)3 receptors in NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells. Co-application of lamotrigine (1~300 µM) resulted in a concentration-dependent reduction in peak amplitude of currents induced by 3 µM of 5-HT for an IC50 value of 28.2±3.6 µM with a Hill coefficient of 1.2±0.1. These peak amplitude decreases were accompanied by the rise slope reduction. In addition, 5-HT3-mediated currents evoked by 1 mM dopamine, a partial 5-HT3 receptor agonist, were inhibited by lamotrigine co-application. The EC50 of 5-HT for 5-HT3 receptor currents were shifted to the right by co-application of lamotrigine without a significant change of maximal effect. Currents activated by 5-HT and lamotrigine co-application in the presence of 1 min pretreatment of lamotrigine were similar to those activated by 5-HT and lamotrigine co-application alone. Moreover, subsequent application of lamotrigine in the presence of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindole, known to attenuate 5-HT3 receptor desensitization, inhibited 5-HT3 receptor currents in a concentration-dependent manner. The deactivation of 5-HT3 receptor was delayed by washing with an external solution containing lamotrigine. Lamotrigine accelerated the desensitization process of 5-HT3 receptors. There was no voltage-dependency in the inhibitory effects of lamotrigine on the 5-HT3 receptor currents. These results indicate that lamotrigine inhibits 5-HT3-activated currents in a competitive manner by binding to the open state of the channels and blocking channel activation or accelerating receptor desensitization.

  20. 5-HT6 receptor blockade regulates primary cilia morphology in striatal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Matthew; Lesiak, Adam J; Croicu, Alex; Cohenca, Nathalie; Sullivan, Jane M; Neumaier, John F

    2017-04-01

    The 5-HT6 receptor has been implicated in a variety of cognitive processes including habitual behaviors, learning, and memory. It is found almost exclusively in the brain, is expressed abundantly in striatum, and localizes to neuronal primary cilia. Primary cilia are antenna-like, sensory organelles found on most neurons that receive both chemical and mechanical signals from other cells and the surrounding environment; however, the effect of 5-HT6 receptor function on cellular morphology has not been examined. We confirmed that 5-HT6 receptors were localized to primary cilia in wild-type (WT) but not 5-HT6 knockout (5-HT6KO) in both native mouse brain tissue and primary cultured striatal neurons then used primary neurons cultured from WT or 5-HT6KO mice to study the function of these receptors. Selective 5-HT6 antagonists reduced cilia length in neurons cultured from wild-type mice in a concentration and time-dependent manner without altering dendrites, but had no effect on cilia length in 5-HT6KO cultured neurons. Varying the expression levels of heterologously expressed 5-HT6 receptors affected the fidelity of ciliary localization in both WT and 5-HT6KO neurons; overexpression lead to increasing amounts of 5-HT6 localization outside of the cilia but did not alter cilia morphology. Introducing discrete mutations into the third cytoplasmic loop of the 5-HT6 receptor greatly reduced, but did not entirely eliminate, trafficking of the 5-HT6 receptor to primary cilia. These data suggest that blocking 5-HT6 receptor activity reduces the length of primary cilia and that mechanisms that regulate trafficking of 5-HT6 receptors to cilia are more complex than previously thought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. LP-211 is a brain penetrant selective agonist for the serotonin 5-HT7 receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Hedlund, Peter B.; Leopoldo, Marcello; Caccia, Silvio; Sarkisyan, Gor; Fracasso, Claudia; Martelli, Giuliana; Lacivita, Enza; Berardi, Francesco; Perrone, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    We have determined the pharmacological profile of the new serotonin 5-HT7 receptor agonist N-(4-cyanophenylmethyl)-4-(2-diphenyl)-1-piperazinehexanamide (LP-211). Radioligand binding assays were performed on a panel of 5-HT receptor subtypes. The compound was also evaluated in vivo by examining its effect on body temperature regulation in mice lacking the 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7−/−) and their 5-HT7+/+ sibling controls. Disposition studies were performed in mice of both genotypes. It was found t...

  2. Research for SIPI0856 in receptor-binding of the 5-HT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-xinDONG; Jian-qiLI; Xiang-lianNI; Feng-huaGU; Li-yingHUANG; Chao-fengHUANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Using the radio ligand-receptor binding assay to study the combined effect of SIPI0856 with 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors,then, to study the bio-effect of SIPI0856 using isolated organ.METHODS: Using [3H]-5-HT as the specific ligand of 5-HT1 receptor and [3H]-spiperone as the specific ligand of 5-HT2 receptor to draw the saturation curves of each. On the basis of the membrane protein concentration provided by the saturation test,

  3. Regional distribution and behavioral correlates of 5-HT(2A) receptors in Alzheimer's disease with [(18)F]deuteroaltanserin and PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Lekshmi; Estok, Kristina M; Vogel, Rebecca S; Tamagnan, Gilles D; Baldwin, Ronald M; Mitsis, Effie M; Macavoy, Martha G; Staley, Julie K; van Dyck, Christopher H

    2009-09-30

    Postmortem studies show reductions in brain serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptors in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Converging evidence also suggests that serotonergic dysregulation may contribute to behavioral symptoms that frequently occur in AD. This study aimed to define regional reductions in 5-HT(2A) binding in AD patients and to examine their behavioral correlates. Nine patients with probable AD and eight elderly controls were studied using a constant infusion paradigm for equilibrium modeling of [(18)F]deuteroaltanserin with positron emission tomography (PET). Region of interest analyses were performed on PET images coregistered to MRI scans. The outcome measures BP(P) (ratio of specific brain uptake to total plasma parent concentration) and BP(ND) (ratio of specific to nondisplaceable uptake) were obtained for pertinent cortical and subcortical regions. AD patients showed a statistically significant decrease in the anterior cingulate in both BP(P) and BP(ND), but in no other region. Within the AD patient sample, no significant correlations were observed between regional 5-HT(2A) binding and behavioral measures, including depressive and psychotic symptoms. These results confirm a reduction in cortical 5-HT(2A) receptors in AD, specifically in the anterior cingulate. However, in a limited AD patient sample, they fail to demonstrate a relationship between regional 5-HT(2A) binding and major behavioral symptoms.

  4. 5-HT2A/5-HT2C receptor pharmacology and intrinsic clearance of N-benzylphenethylamines modified at the primary site of metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Sebastian; Petersen, Ida Nymann; Jensen, Anders A

    2016-01-01

    The toxic hallucinogen 25B-NBOMe is very rapidly degraded by human liver microsomes and has low oral bioavailability. Herein we report on the synthesis, microsomal stability and 5-HT2A/5-HT2C receptor profile of novel analogs of 25B-NBOMe modified at the primary site of metabolism. Although micro...

  5. Operant learning and differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate 36-s responding in 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptor knockout mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pattij, T.; Broersen, L.M.; Linde, J. van der; Groenink, L.; Gugten, J. van der; Maes, R.A.A.; Olivier, B.

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies with mice lacking 5-HT(1A) (1AKO) and 5-HT(1B) (1BKO) receptors in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory paradigms, suggest that these receptors play an important role in learning and memory, although their precise role is unclear. In the present study, 1AKO and 1BKO mice were s

  6. Limited participation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A/2C receptors in the clozapine-induced Fos-protein expression in rat forebrain regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebens, JB; Kuipers, SD; Koch, T; Ter Horst, GJ; Korf, J

    2000-01-01

    Through the development of tolerance following long-term clozapine treatment, we investigated whether 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A/2C receptors participate in the clozapine-induced Fos-protein expression in the rat forebrain. Tolerance exists when the acutely increased Fos responses to a challenge dose of the

  7. Characterization of the 5-HT7 receptor. Determination of the pharmacophore for 5-HT7 receptor agonism and CoMFA-based modeling of the agonist binding site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, ES; Schmidt, AW; Sprouse, JS; Wikstrom, HV; Grol, CJ

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of a set of 20 diverse 5-HT7 receptor agonists, the pharmacophore for 5-HT7 receptor agonism was determined. Additionally two CoMFA models were developed, based on different alignments of the agonists. Both models show good correlations between experimental and predictive pK(i) values a

  8. [CROSS-TALK BETWEEN 5-HT1A AND 5-HT7 RECEPTORS: ROLE IN THE AUTOREGULATION OF THE BRAIN SEROTONIN SYSTEM AND IN MECHANISM OF ANTIDEPRESSANTS ACTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, N K; Ponimaskin, E G; Naumenko, V S

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies considerably extended our knowledge of the mechanisms and physiological role of the interaction between different receptors in the brain. Current review summarizes data on the formation of receptor complexes and the role of such complexes in the autoregulation of the brain serotonin system, behavioral abnormalities and mechanism of antidepressants action. Particular attention is paid to 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor heterodimers. The results described in the present review indicate that: i) dimerization and formation of mobile receptor complexes is a common feature for the members of G-protein coupled receptor superfamily; ii) 5-HT7 receptor appears to be a modulator for 5-HT1A receptor - the key autoregulator of the brain serotonin system; iii) 5-HT1A/5-HT7 receptor complexes formation is one of the mechanisms for inactivation and desensitization of the 5-HTIA receptors in the brain; iv) differences in the 5-HT7 receptor and 5-HTIA/5-HT7 heterodimers density define different sensitivity of pre- and postsynaptic 5-HTlA receptors to chronic treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

  9. In Vivo Effect of a 5-HT7 Receptor Agonist on 5-HT Neurons and GABA Interneurons in the Dorsal Raphe Nuclei of Sham and PD Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Zhao, Yan; Gao, Jie; Guo, Yufang; Wang, Xiang; Huo, Jian; Wei, Ping; Cao, Jian

    2017-03-01

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) neurotransmission is severely affected by the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Here, we report the effects of the systemic administration of the 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS-19. In sham rats, the mean response of the 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) to systemic AS-19 was excitatory and the mean response of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons was inhibitory. In Parkinson disease (PD) rats, the same dose did not affect the 5-HT neurons and only high doses (640 μg/kg intravenous) were able to the increase GABA interneuron activity. These results indicate that DRN 5-HT neurons and GABA interneurons are regulated by the activation of 5-HT7 receptors and that the degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway leads to decreased responses of these neurons to AS-19, which in turn suggests that the 5-HT7 receptors on 5-HT neurons and GABA interneurons in PD rats are dysfunctional and downregulated.

  10. Do imipramine and dihydroergosine possess two components - one stimulating 5-HT sub 1 and the other inhibiting 5-HT sub 2 receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pericic, D.; Mueck-Seler, D. (Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Yugoslavia))

    1990-01-01

    The mechanisms by which imipramine and dihydroergosine stimulate the 5-HT syndrome in rats and inhibit the head-twitch response in rats and mice were studied. Imipramine- and dihydroergosine-included stimulation of the 5-HT syndrome was inhibited stereoselectively by propranolol, a high affinity ligand for 5-HT{sub 1} receptor sites, but not by ritanserin, a specific 5-HT{sub 2} receptor antagonist. (-) -Propranolol potentiated the inhibitory effect of imipramine, but not of dihydroergosine on the head-twitch response, while ritanserin was without effect. As expected, 8-OH-DPAT, a selective 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor agonist, stimulated, and 5-HT{sub 1B} agonists CGS 12066B and 1-(trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine (TFMPP) failed to stimulate the 5-HT syndrome induced in rats by pargyline and 5-HTP administration. A higher dose of ritanserin inhibited the syndrome. While 8-OH-DPAT alone produced all behavioral components of the 5-HT syndrome, dihydroergosine or imipramine alone even at very high doses never produced tremor or a more intensive forepaw padding as seen when these drugs were given in combination with pargyline and 5-HTP. A single administration of (-)-propranolol also inhibited the head-twitch response. This effect lasted in mice longer that after ritanserin administration. In in vitro experiments dihydroergosine expressed approximately twenty-fold higher affinity for {sup 3}H-ketanserin binding sites than imipramine.

  11. Building a 5-HT3A Receptor Expression Map in the Mouse Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Yoshihisa; Kondo, Makoto; Shimada, Shoichi

    2017-01-01

    Of the many serotonin receptors, the type 3 receptors (5-HT3R) are the only ionotropic ones, playing a key role in fast synaptic transmission and cognitive and emotional brain function through controlled neuronal excitation. To better understand the various functions of 5-HT3Rs, it is very important to know their expression pattern in the central nervous system (CNS). To date, many distributional studies have shown localized 5-HT3R expression in the brain and spinal cord. However, an accurate pattern of 5-HT3R expression in the CNS remains to be elucidated. To investigate the distribution of 5-HT3R in the mouse brain in detail, we performed immunofluorescent staining using 5-HT3AR-GFP transgenic mice. We found strong 5-HT3AR expression in the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala; and partial expression in the pons, medulla, and spinal cord. Meanwhile, the thalamus, hypothalamus, and midbrain exhibited a few 5-HT3AR-expressing cells, and no expression was detected in the cerebellum. Further, double-immunostaining using neural markers confirmed that 5-HT3AR is expressed in GABAergic interneurons containing somatostatin or calretinin. In the present study, we built a 5-HT3AR expression map in the mouse brain. Our findings make significant contributions in elucidating the novel functions of 5-HT3R in the CNS. PMID:28276429

  12. Cellular mechanisms of the 5-HT7 receptor-mediated signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseva, Daria; Wirth, Alexander; Ponimaskin, Evgeni

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter regulating a wide range of physiological and pathological functions via activation of heterogeneously expressed 5-HT receptors. The 5-HT7 receptor is one of the most recently described members of the 5-HT receptor family. Functionally, 5-HT7 receptor is associated with a number of physiological and pathological responses, including serotonin-induced phase shifting of the circadian rhythm, control of memory as well as locomotor and exploratory activity. A large body of evidence indicates involvement of the 5-HT7 receptor in anxiety and depression, and recent studies suggest that 5-HT7 receptor can be highly relevant for the treatment of major depressive disorders. The 5-HT7 receptor is coupled to the stimulatory Gs-protein, and receptor stimulation results in activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC) leading to a rise of cAMP concentration. In addition, this receptor is coupled to the G12-protein to activate small GTPases of the Rho family. This review focuses on molecular mechanisms responsible for the 5-HT7 receptor-mediated signaling. We provide detailed overview of signaling cascades controlled and regulated by the 5-HT7 receptor and discuss the functional impact of 5-HT7 receptor for the regulation of different cellular and subcellular processes.

  13. Cellular mechanisms of the 5-HT7 receptor-mediated signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria eGuseva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT is an important neurotransmitter regulating a wide range of physiological and pathological functions via activation of heterogeneously expressed 5-HT receptors. The 5-HT7 receptor is one of the most recently described members of the 5-HT receptor family. Functionally, 5-HT7 receptor is associated with a number of physiological and pathological responses, including serotonin-induced phase shifting of the circadian rhythm, control of memory as well as locomotor and exploratory activity. A large body of evidence indicates involvement of the 5-HT7 receptor in anxiety and depression, and recent studies suggest that 5-HT7 receptor can be highly relevant for the treatment of major depressive disorders. The 5-HT7 receptor is coupled to the stimulatory Gs-protein, and receptor stimulation results in activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC leading to a rise of cAMP concentration. In addition, this receptor is coupled to the G12-protein to activate small GTPases of the Rho family. This review focuses on molecular mechanisms responsible for the 5-HT7 receptor-mediated signaling. We provide detailed overview of signaling cascades controlled and regulated by the 5-HT7 receptor and discuss the functional impact of 5-HT7 receptor for the regulation of different cellular and subcellular processes.

  14. What Do We Really Know About 5-HT1A Receptor Signaling in Neuronal Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Paulina S.; Fiedler, Jenny L.

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in neuronal plasticity. Variations in the levels of 5-HT at the synaptic cleft, expression or dysfunction of 5-HT receptors may alter brain development and predispose to various mental diseases. Here, we review the transduction pathways described in various cell types transfected with recombinant 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR), specially contrasting with those findings obtained in neuronal cells. The 5-HT1AR is detected in early stages of neural development and is located in the soma, dendrites and spines of hippocampal neurons. The 5-HT1AR differs from other 5-HT receptors because it is coupled to different pathways, depending on the targeted cell. The signaling pathway associated with this receptor is determined by Gα isoforms and some cascades involve βγ signaling. The activity of 5-HT1AR usually promotes a reduction in neuronal excitability and firing, provokes a variation in cAMP and Ca2+, levels which may be linked to specific types of behavior and cognition. Furthermore, evidence indicates that 5-HT1AR induces neuritogesis and synapse formation, probably by modulation of the neuronal cytoskeleton through MAPK and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathways. Advances in understanding the actions of 5-HT1AR and its association with different signaling pathways in the central nervous system will reveal their pivotal role in health and disease. PMID:27932955

  15. Down-regulation of 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors inhibits proliferation, clonogenicity and invasion of human pancreatic cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Gurbuz

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is characterized by extensive local tumor invasion, metastasis and early systemic dissemination. The vast majority of pancreatic cancer (PaCa patients already have metastatic complications at the time of diagnosis, and the death rate of this lethal type of cancer has increased over the past decades. Thus, efforts at identifying novel molecularly targeted therapies are priorities. Recent studies have suggested that serotonin (5-HT contributes to the tumor growth in a variety of cancers including prostate, colon, bladder and liver cancer. However, there is lack of evidence about the impact of 5-HT receptors on promoting pancreatic cancer. Having considered the role of 5-HT-1 receptors, especially 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D subtypes in different types of malignancies, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors in PaCa growth and progression and analyze their potential as cytotoxic targets. We found that knockdown of 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors expression, using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA, induced significant inhibition of proliferation and clonogenicity of PaCa cells. Also, it significantly suppressed PaCa cells invasion and reduced the activity of uPAR/MMP-2 signaling and Integrin/Src/Fak-mediated signaling, as integral tumor cell pathways associated with invasion, migration, adhesion, and proliferation. Moreover, targeting 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors down-regulates zinc finger ZEB1 and Snail proteins, the hallmarks transcription factors regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, concomitantly with up-regulating of claudin-1 and E-Cadherin. In conclusion, our data suggests that 5-HT1B- and 5-HT1D- mediated signaling play an important role in the regulation of the proliferative and invasive phenotype of PaCa. It also highlights the therapeutic potential of targeting of 5-HT1B/1D receptors in the treatment of PaCa, and opens a new avenue for biomarkers identification

  16. Differential involvement of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors in human interferon-alpha-induced immobility in the mouse forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Shang, Jing; Zhang, Luyong

    2010-01-01

    Although Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha, CAS 9008-11-1) is a powerful drug in treating several viral infections and certain tumors, a considerable amount of neuropsychiatric side-effects such as depression and anxiety are an unavoidable consequence. Combination with the selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine (CAS 56296-78-7) significantly improved the situation. However, the potential 5-HT(1A) receptor- and 5-HT(1B) receptor-signals involved in the antidepressant effects are still unclear. The effects of 5-HT(1A) receptor- and 5-HT(1B) receptor signals were analyzed by using the mouse forced swimming test (FST), a predictive test of antidepressant-like action. The present results indicated that (1) fluoxetine (administrated intragastrically, 30 mg/kg; not subactive dose: 15 mg/kg) significantly reduced IFN-alpha-induced increase of the immobility time in the forced swimming test; (2) 5-HT(1A) receptor- and 5-HT(1B) receptor ligands alone or in combination had no effects on IFN-alpha-induced increase of the immobility time in the FST; (3) surprisingly, WAY 100635 (5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, 634908-75-1) and 8-OH-DPAT(5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, CAS 78950-78-4) markedly enhanced the antidepressant effect of fluoxetine at the subactive dose (15 mg/kg, i. g.) on the IFN-alpha-treated mice in the FST. Further investigations showed that fluoxetine combined with WAY 100635 and 8-OH-DPAT failed to produce antidepressant effects in the FST. (4) Co-application of CGS 12066A (5-HT(1B) receptor agonist, CAS 109028-09-3) or GR 127935 (5-HT(1B/1D) receptor antagonist, CAS 148642-42-6) with fluoxetine had no synergistic effects on the IFN-alpha-induced increase of immobility time in FST. (5) Interestingly, co-administration of GR 127935, WAY 100635 and fluoxetine significantly reduced the IFN-alpha-induced increase in immobility time of FST, being more effective than co-administration of WAY 100635 and fluoxetine. All results suggest that (1) compared to

  17. Down-regulation of 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors inhibits proliferation, clonogenicity and invasion of human pancreatic cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Gurbuz

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is characterized by extensive local tumor invasion, metastasis and early systemic dissemination. The vast majority of pancreatic cancer (PaCa patients already have metastatic complications at the time of diagnosis, and the death rate of this lethal type of cancer has increased over the past decades. Thus, efforts at identifying novel molecularly targeted therapies are priorities. Recent studies have suggested that serotonin (5-HT contributes to the tumor growth in a variety of cancers including prostate, colon, bladder and liver cancer. However, there is lack of evidence about the impact of 5-HT receptors on promoting pancreatic cancer. Having considered the role of 5-HT-1 receptors, especially 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D subtypes in different types of malignancies, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors in PaCa growth and progression and analyze their potential as cytotoxic targets. We found that knockdown of 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors expression, using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA, induced significant inhibition of proliferation and clonogenicity of PaCa cells. Also, it significantly suppressed PaCa cells invasion and reduced the activity of uPAR/MMP-2 signaling and Integrin/Src/Fak-mediated signaling, as integral tumor cell pathways associated with invasion, migration, adhesion, and proliferation. Moreover, targeting 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors down-regulates zinc finger ZEB1 and Snail proteins, the hallmarks transcription factors regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, concomitantly with up-regulating of claudin-1 and E-Cadherin. In conclusion, our data suggests that 5-HT1B- and 5-HT1D-mediated signaling play an important role in the regulation of the proliferative and invasive phenotype of PaCa. It also highlights the therapeutic potential of targeting of 5-HT1B/1D receptors in the treatment of PaCa, and opens a new avenue for biomarkers identification

  18. Cerebral 5-HT release correlates with [11C]Cimbi36 PET measures of 5-HT2A receptor occupancy in the pig brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise M; Weikop, Pia; Villadsen, Jonas;

    2017-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) can, when used with appropriate radioligands, non-invasively generate temporal and spatial information about acute changes in brain neurotransmitter systems. We for the first time evaluate the novel 5-HT2A receptor agonist PET radioligand, [(11)C]Cimbi-36, for its...... sensitivity to detect changes in endogenous cerebral 5-HT levels, as induced by different pharmacological challenges. To enable a direct translation of PET imaging data to changes in brain 5-HT levels, we calibrated the [(11)C]Cimbi-36 PET signal in the pig brain by simultaneous measurements of extracellular...... 5-HT levels with microdialysis and [(11)C]Cimbi-36 PET after various acute interventions (saline, citalopram, citalopram + pindolol, fenfluramine). In a subset of pigs, para-chlorophenylalanine pretreatment was given to deplete cerebral 5-HT. The interventions increased the cerebral extracellular 5...

  19. Identification and functional characterisation of 5-HT4 receptor in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianming; Yang, Zhen; Zhou, Naiming; Sun, Lina; Lv, Zhenming; Wu, Changwen

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter and neuromodulator that controls a variety of sensory and motor functions through 5-HT receptors (5-HTRs). The 5-HT4R subfamily is linked to Gs proteins, which activate adenylyl cyclases (ACs), and is involved in many responses in peripheral organs. In this study, the 5-HT4R from Apostichopus japonicus (Aj5-HT4R) was identified and characterised. The cloned full-length Aj5-HT4R cDNA is 1,544 bp long and contains an open reading frame 1,011 bp in length encoding 336 amino acid proteins. Bioinformatics analysis of the Aj5-HT4R protein indicated this receptor was a member of class A G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Further experiments using Aj5-HT4R-transfected HEK293 cells demonstrated that treatment with 5-HT triggered a significant increase in intracellular cAMP level in a dose-dependent manner and induced a rapid internalisation of Aj5-HT4R fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (Aj5-HT4R-EGFP) from the cell surface into the cytoplasm. In addition, the transcriptional profiles of Aj5-HT4R in aestivating A. japonicas and phosphofructokinase (AjPFK) in 5-HT administrated A. japonicus have been analysed by real-time PCR assays. Results have led to a basic understanding of Aj5-HT4R in A. japonicus, and provide a foundation for further exploration of the cell signaling and regulatory functions of this receptor. PMID:28059140

  20. Development of the 5-HT2CR-Tango System Combined with an EGFP Reporter Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Tsujimura, Atsushi; Aoki, Miku; Taguchi, Katsutoshi; Tanaka, Masaki

    2016-02-01

    The serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor implicated in emotion, feeding, reward, and cognition. 5-HT2CRs are pharmacological targets for mental disorders and metabolic and reward system abnormalities, as alterations in 5-HT2CR expression, RNA editing, and SNPs are involved in these disturbances. To date, 5-HT2CR activity has mainly been measured by quantifying inositol phosphate production and intracellular Ca(2+) release, but these assays are not suitable for in vivo analysis. Here, we developed a 5-HT2CR-Tango assay system, a novel analysis tool of 5-HT2CR activity based on the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-arrestin interaction. With desensitization of activated 5-HT2CR by arrestin, this system converts the 5-HT2CR-arrestin interaction into EGFP reporter gene signal via the LexA transcriptional activation system. For validation of our system, we measured activity of two 5-HT2CR RNA-editing isoforms (INI and VGV) in HEK293 cells transfected with EGFP reporter gene. The INI isoform displayed both higher basal- and 5-HT-stimulated activities than the VGV isoform. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of 5-HT2CR antagonist SB242084 was also detected by 5-HT2CR-Tango system. This novel tool is useful for in vitro high-throughput targeted 5-HT2CR drug screening and can be applied to future in vivo brain function studies associated with 5-HT2CRs in transgenic animal models.

  1. Serotonergic activation of 5HT1A and 5HT2 receptors modulates sexually dimorphic communication signals in the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G Troy; Combs, Nicole

    2008-06-01

    Serotonin modulates agonistic and reproductive behavior across vertebrate species. 5HT(1A) and 5HT(1B) receptors mediate many serotonergic effects on social behavior, but other receptors, including 5HT(2) receptors, may also contribute. We investigated serotonergic regulation of electrocommunication signals in the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus. During social interactions, these fish modulate their electric organ discharges (EODs) to produce signals known as chirps. Males chirp more than females and produce two chirp types. Males produce high-frequency chirps as courtship signals; whereas both sexes produce low-frequency chirps during same-sex interactions. Serotonergic innervation of the prepacemaker nucleus, which controls chirping, is more robust in females than males. Serotonin inhibits chirping and may contribute to sexual dimorphism and individual variation in chirping. We elicited chirps with EOD playbacks and pharmacologically manipulated serotonin receptors to determine which receptors regulated chirping. We also asked whether serotonin receptor activation generally modulated chirping or more specifically targeted particular chirp types. Agonists and antagonists of 5HT(1B/1D) receptors (CP-94253 and GR-125743) did not affect chirping. The 5HT(1A) receptor agonist 8OH-DPAT specifically increased production of high-frequency chirps. The 5HT(2) receptor agonist DOI decreased chirping. Receptor antagonists (WAY-100635 and MDL-11939) opposed the effects of their corresponding agonists. These results suggest that serotonergic inhibition of chirping may be mediated by 5HT(2) receptors, but that serotonergic activation of 5HT(1A) receptors specifically increases the production of high-frequency chirps. The enhancement of chirping by 5HT(1A) receptors may result from interactions with cortisol and/or arginine vasotocin, which similarly enhance chirping and are influenced by 5HT(1A) activity in other systems.

  2. Prelimbic cortex 5-HT1A and 5-HT2C receptors are involved in the hypophagic effects caused by fluoxetine in fasted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanquini, Laura A; Resstel, Leonardo B M; Corrêa, Fernando M A; Joca, Sâmia R L; Scopinho, América A

    2015-09-01

    The regulation of food intake involves a complex interplay between the central nervous system and the activity of organs involved in energy homeostasis. Besides the hypothalamus, recognized as the center of this regulation, other structures are involved, especially limbic regions such as the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC). Monoamines, such as serotonin (5-HT), play an important role in appetite regulation. However, the effect in the vMPFC of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine, on food intake has not been studied. The aim of the present study was to study the effects on food intake of fed and fasted rats evoked by fluoxetine injection into the prelimbic cortex (PL), a sub-region of the vMPFC, or given systemically, and which 5-HT receptors in the PL are involved in fluoxetine responses. Fluoxetine was injected into the PL or given systemically in male Wistar rats. Independent groups of rats were pretreated with intra-PL antagonists of 5-HT receptors: 5-HT1A (WAY100635), 5-HT2C (SB242084) or 5-HT1B (SB216641). Fluoxetine (0.1; 1; 3; 10nmol/200nL) injected into the PL induced a dose-dependent hypophagic effect in fasted rats. This effect was reversed by prior local treatment with WAY100635 (1; 10nmol) or SB242084 (1; 10nmol), but not with SB216641 (0.2; 2.5; 10nmol). Systemic fluoxetine induced a hypophagic effect, which was blocked by intra-PL 5-HT2C antagonist (10nmol) administration. Our findings suggest that PL 5-HT neurotransmission modulates the central control of food intake and 5-HT1A and 5-HT2C receptors in the PL could be potential targets for the action of fluoxetine.

  3. Dynamic 5-HT2C receptor editing in a mouse model of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriët Schellekens

    Full Text Available The central serotonergic signalling system has been shown to play an important role in appetite control and the regulation of food intake. Serotonin exerts its anorectic effects mainly through the 5-HT(1B, 5-HT(2C and 5-HT(6 receptors and these are therefore receiving increasing attention as principal pharmacotherapeutic targets for the treatment of obesity. The 5-HT(2C receptor has the distinctive ability to be modified by posttranscriptional RNA editing on 5 nucleotide positions (A, B, C, D, E, having an overall decreased receptor function. Recently, it has been shown that feeding behaviour and fat mass are altered when the 5-HT(2C receptor RNA is fully edited, suggesting a potential role for 5-HT(2C editing in obesity. The present studies investigate the expression of serotonin receptors involved in central regulation of food intake, appetite and energy expenditure, with particular focus on the level of 5-HT(2C receptor editing. Using a leptin-deficient mouse model of obesity (ob/ob, we show increased hypothalamic 5-HT(1A receptor expression as well as increased hippocampal 5-HT(1A, 5-HT(1B, and 5-HT(6 receptor mRNA expression in obese mice compared to lean control mice. An increase in full-length 5-HT(2C expression, depending on time of day, as well as differences in 5-HT(2C receptor editing were found, independent of changes in total 5-HT(2C receptor mRNA expression. This suggests that a dynamic regulation exists of the appetite-suppressing effects of the 5-HT(2C receptor in both the hypothalamus and the hippocampus in the ob/ob mice model of obesity. The differential 5-HT(1A, 5-HT(1B and 5-HT(6 receptor expression and altered 5-HT(2C receptor editing profile reported here is poised to have important consequences for the development of novel anti-obesity therapies.

  4. Targeting to 5-HT1F Receptor Subtype for Migraine Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer

    2012-01-01

    The effective anti-migraine drugs triptans, all bind with high affinity to three serotonin (5-HT) subtypes, the 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D and 5-HT1F. 5- HT1B mRNA is densely localized within smooth muscle, and less in the endothelium of cerebral blood vessels. This vascular distribution of 5-HT1B receptor has...... been shown to mediate the vasoconstrictive properties of the triptans, responsible for potential cardiac adverse events. Activation of 5-HT1D subtype, although effective in animal models of migraine, was not enough efficient to attenuate migraine attacks in clinical trials. Τhe 5- HT1F receptor...... is located both in vessels and within the trigeminal ganglion (TG) and the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (Sp5C), but with the difference that the 5-HT1F receptor lack vasoconstrictive properties, making it an attractive target for new anti-migraine drugs. Selective activation of 5-HT1F receptor potently...

  5. Effects of the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist Ro 04-6790 on learning consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, A

    2001-01-08

    The 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist Ro-04-6790 or 8-OH-DPAT injection improved learning consolidation on an autoshaping task, while mCPP, scopolamine and dizocilpine decreased the performance. The effect induced by scopolamine, but not that induced by mCPP, was reversed completely by Ro-04-6790, while dizocilpine effect was antagonized partially. Nevertheless, ritanserin or WAY 100635, but not Ro 04-6790, antagonized the 8-OH-DPAT facilitatory effects on learning consolidation. As WAY 100635 did not modify the Ro 04-6790 facilitatory effect, hence 5-HT(1A), and/or 5-HT(7), but not 5-HT(6), receptors might mediate the 8-OH-DPAT facilitatory effect on learning consolidation. Since, the Ro 04-6790 facilitatory effect was unaffected by 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A)/(2B)/(2C), 5-HT(3) or 5-HT(4) receptor blockade, thereby, the facilitatory effect induced by Ro 04-6790 involved specifically 5-HT(6) receptors. Indeed, the present data provide further support to the notion that, 5-HT(6) receptors play a significant part in the learning consolidation under normal and dysfunctional memory conditions.

  6. Modifying 5-HT1A receptor gene expression as a new target for antidepressant therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Albert

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Major depression is the most common form of mental illness, and is treated with antidepressant compounds that increase serotonin (5-HT neurotransmission. Increased 5-HT1A autoreceptor levels in the raphe nuclei act as a “brake” to inhibit the 5-HT system, leading to depression and resistance to antidepressants. Several 5-HT1A receptor agonists (buspirone, flesinoxan, ipsapirone that preferentially desensitize 5-HT1A autoreceptors have been tested for augmentation of antidepressant drugs with mixed results. One explanation could be the presence of the C(-1019G 5-HT1A promoter polymorphism that prevents gene repression of the 5-HT1A autoreceptor. Furthermore, down-regulation of 5-HT1A autoreceptor expression, not simply desensitization of receptor signaling, appears to be required to enhance and accelerate antidepressant action. The current review focuses on the transcriptional regulators of 5-HT1A autoreceptor expression, their roles in permitting response to 5-HT1A-targeted treatments and their potential as targets for new antidepressant compounds for treatment-resistant depression.

  7. Connections between 5-HT-containing terminals and 5-HT2A receptor and γ-aminobutyric acid or glycine co-existed neurons in the rat medullary dorsal horn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; LI Yun-qing

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the connections between serotonin (5-HT)-containing terminals and 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR)/γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or 5-HT2AR/glycine co-existed neurons in the rat medullary dorsal horn (MDH).Methods: Immunofluorescence histochemical triple-staining for 5-HT, 5-HT2AR, GABA or glycine. Results: 5-HT-immunoreaetive fibers and terminals were chiefly located in the superficial laminae (laminae Ⅰ and Ⅱ) of the MDH. Neurons exhibiting 5-HT2AR-, GABA- or glycine-immunoreactivities were mainly observed in the superficial laminae. Some 5-HT2AR-immunopositive neurons also exhibited GABA- or glycine-immunoreaetivities. 5-HT-containing terminals made close contacts with 5-HT2AR/GABA or 5-HT2AR/glycine co-existed neurons. Conclusion: 5-HT2AR/GABA or 5-HT2AR /glycine co-exist in some of the neurons in the superficial laminae of the MDH. 5-HT-immunoreactive terminals form close connections with 5-HT2AR/GABA or 5-HT2AR/glycine co-existed neurons.

  8. Dm5-HT2B: Pharmacological Characterization of the Fifth Serotonin Receptor Subtype of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Blenau

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT is an important regulator of physiological and behavioral processes in both protostomes (e.g., insects and deuterostomes (e.g., mammals. In insects, serotonin has been found to modulate the heart rate and to control secretory processes, development, circadian rhythms, aggressive behavior, as well as to contribute to learning and memory. Serotonin exerts its activity by binding to and activating specific membrane receptors. The clear majority of these receptors belong to the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In Drosophila melanogaster, a total of five genes have been identified coding for 5-HT receptors. From this family of proteins, four have been pharmacologically examined in greater detail, so far. While Dm5-HT1A, Dm5-HT1B, and Dm5-HT7 couple to cAMP signaling cascades, the Dm5-HT2A receptor leads to Ca2+ signaling in an inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent manner. Based on sequence similarity to homologous genes in other insects, a fifth D. melanogaster gene was uncovered coding for a Dm5-HT2B receptor. Knowledge about this receptor’s pharmacological properties is very limited. This is quite surprising because Dm5-HT2B has been attributed to distinct physiological functions based on genetic interference with its gene expression. Mutations were described reducing the response of the larval heart to 5-HT, and specific knockdown of Dm5-HT2B mRNA in hemocytes resulted in a higher susceptibility of the flies to bacterial infection. To gain deeper understanding of Dm5-HT2B’s pharmacology, we evaluated the receptor’s response to a series of established 5-HT receptor agonists and antagonists in a functional cell-based assay. Metoclopramide and mianserin were identified as two potent antagonists that may allow pharmacological interference with Dm5-HT2B signaling in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Vortioxetine restores reversal learning impaired by 5-HT depletion or chronic intermittent cold stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ashley; Pehrson, Alan L; Sánchez, Connie; Morilak, David A

    2014-10-01

    Current treatments for depression, including serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are only partially effective, with a high incidence of residual symptoms, relapse, and treatment resistance. Loss of cognitive flexibility, a component of depression, is associated with dysregulation of the prefrontal cortex. Reversal learning, a form of cognitive flexibility, is impaired by chronic stress, a risk factor for depression, and the stress-induced impairment in reversal learning is sensitive to chronic SSRI treatment, and is mimicked by serotonin (5-HT) depletion. Vortioxetine, a novel, multimodal-acting antidepressant, is a 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonist, a 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, and inhibits the 5-HT transporter. Using adult male rats, we first investigated the direct effects of vortioxetine, acting at post-synaptic 5-HT receptors, on reversal learning that was compromised by 5-HT depletion using 4-chloro-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride (PCPA), effectively eliminating any contribution of 5-HT reuptake blockade. PCPA induced a reversal learning impairment that was alleviated by acute or sub-chronic vortioxetine administration, suggesting that post-synaptic 5-HT receptor activation contributes to the effects of vortioxetine. We then investigated the effects of chronic dietary administration of vortioxetine on reversal learning that had been compromised in intact animals exposed to chronic intermittent cold (CIC) stress, to assess vortioxetine's total pharmacological effect. CIC stress impaired reversal learning, and chronic vortioxetine administration prevented the reversal-learning deficit. Together, these results suggest that the direct effect of vortioxetine at 5-HT receptors may contribute to positive effects on cognitive flexibility deficits, and may enhance the effect of 5-HT reuptake blockade.

  10. Pharmacological activation of 5-HT7 receptors reduces nerve injury-induced mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenchat, Alex; Nadal, Xavier; Romero, Luz; Ovalle, Sergio; Muro, Asunción; Sánchez-Arroyos, Ricard; Portillo-Salido, Enrique; Pujol, Marta; Montero, Ana; Codony, Xavier; Burgueño, Javier; Zamanillo, Daniel; Hamon, Michel; Maldonado, Rafael; Vela, José Miguel

    2010-06-01

    The involvement of the 5-HT(7) receptor in nociception and pain, particularly chronic pain (i.e., neuropathic pain), has been poorly investigated. In the present study, we examined whether the 5-HT(7) receptor participates in some modulatory control of nerve injury-evoked mechanical hypersensitivity and thermal (heat) hyperalgesia in mice. Activation of 5-HT(7) receptors by systemic administration of the selective 5-HT(7) receptor agonist AS-19 (1 and 10mg/kg) exerted a clear-cut reduction of mechanical and thermal hypersensitivities that were reversed by co-administering the selective 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist SB-258719. Interestingly, blocking of 5-HT(7) receptors with SB-258719 (2.5 and 10mg/kg) enhanced mechanical (but not thermal) hypersensitivity in nerve-injured mice and induced mechanical hypersensitivity in sham-operated mice. Effectiveness of the treatment with a 5-HT(7) receptor agonist was maintained after repeated systemic administration: no tolerance to the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects was developed following treatment with the selective 5-HT(7) receptor agonist E-57431 (10mg/kg) twice daily for 11 days. The 5-HT(7) receptor co-localized with GABAergic cells in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, suggesting that the activation of spinal inhibitory GABAergic interneurons could contribute to the analgesic effects of 5-HT(7) receptor agonists. In addition, a significant increase of 5-HT(7) receptors was found by immunohistochemistry in the ipsilateral dorsal horn of the spinal cord after nerve injury, suggesting a "pain"-triggered regulation of receptor expression. These results support the idea that the 5-HT(7) receptor subtype is involved in the control of pain and point to a new potential use of 5-HT(7) receptor agonists for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

  11. Meta-chlorophenylpiperazine induced changes in locomotor activity are mediated by 5-HT1 as well as 5-HT2C receptors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, S D; Shannon, H E

    1998-01-12

    1-(Meta-chloro)phenylpiperazine (m-CPP) is a 5-HT receptor agonist which has been purported to be relatively selective for the 5-HT2C receptor. In particular, the hypolocomotion produced by m-CPP has been suggested to be mediated by 5-HT2C receptors. m-CPP binds with high affinity to 5-HT1 as well as 5-HT2 receptors, thus effects of m-CPP on locomotor activity may be due to the physiologic summation of the actions of m-CPP at 5-HT1 as well as 5-HT2 receptors. The present study investigated the effects of m-CPP alone and in the presence of the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist 6-methyl-1-(-methyethyl)-ergoline-8beta-carboxylic acid 2-hydroxy-1-methylpropyl ester maleate (LY53857), the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]-ethyl]-N-(2pyridinyl)c yclohexanecarboxamide trihydrochloride (WAY 100,635), and the 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor antagonist 2'-methyl-4'-(5-methyl-[1,2,4]oxadiazol-3-yl)-biphenyl-4-corbox ylic acid [4-methoxy-3-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-phenyl]amide (GR 127935) on locomotor activity. Administration of m-CPP alone (0.3-10 mg/kg) produced a dose-related decrease in locomotor activity. The 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor antagonist GR 127935 (3.0 mg/kg) in combination with m-CPP produced a slight leftward shift of the dose-response curve of m-CPP. The 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100,635 (1.0 mg/kg) in combination with m-CPP did not alter the m-CPP dose-response curve. The non-selective 5-HT2 receptor antagonist LY53857 (1.0 mg/kg) in combination with m-CPP unmasked a hyperlocomotion produced by m-CPP. Furthermore, the hyperlocomotion produced by m-CPP in the presence of LY53857 (1.0 mg/kg) was blocked by both the 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor antagonist GR 127935 (3.0 mg/kg) and the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100,635 (1.0 mg/kg). The present results demonstrate that the hyperlocomotion seen with the combination of m-CPP and LY53857 is mediated by 5-HT1 receptors. Taken together the data indicate that m-CPP affects locomotor activity by the

  12. Lack of association or linkage disequilibrium between schizophrenia and polymorphisms in the 5-HT1Dalpha and 5-HT1Dbeta autoreceptor genes: family-based association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrósio, Alda M; Kennedy, James L; Macciardi, Fabio; Coelho, Isabel; Soares, Maria J; Oliveira, Catarina R; Pato, Carlos N

    2004-07-01

    Genetic factors play a major role in the etiology of schizophrenia and disturbances of serotonergic pathways have been implicated in this disorder. The aim of the present study was to examine genetic association between schizophrenia and polymorphisms in the 5-HT1Dalpha (TaqI) and 5-HT1Dbeta (T261G and G861C) autoreceptor genes in ninety trios from Portugal. No association or linkage disequilibrium was obtained between schizophrenia and 5-HT1Dalpha and 5-HT1Dbeta autoreceptor genes with both haplotype relative risk (HRR) and transmission disequilibrium test (TDT). Concerning 5-HT1Dbeta autoreceptor gene, also negative results was obtained in the analysis of the haplotypes with transmit. Thus, our data provide no support for the hypothesis that polymorphisms at 5-HT1Dalpha (TaqI) and 5-HT1Dbeta (T261G and G861C) genes contributes to susceptibility to schizophrenia in the Portuguese population. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Effect of treadmill exercise on 5-HT, 5-HT1A receptor and brain derived neurophic factor in rats after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiaofang; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Wan; Zheng, Zongju; Wu, Yuan; Zeng, Qian; Liu, Shudong; Liu, Ke; Li, Guangqin

    2014-05-01

    It has been well documented that exercise promotes neurological rehabilitation in patients with cerebral ischemia. However, the exact mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to discuss the effect of treadmill exercise on expression levels of 5-HT, 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR) and brain derived neurophic factor (BDNF) in rat brains after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). A total of 55 rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: pMCAO group, pMCAO and treadmill exercise (pMCAO + Ex) group, and sham-operated group. Rats in pMCAO + Ex group underwent treadmill exercise for 16 days. Neurological function was evaluated by modified Neurological Severity Scores (mNSS). High-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection system was used to determine the content of 5-HT in cortex tissues. The protein levels of 5-HT1AR, BDNF and synaptophysin were measured by Western blot. The mNSS in pMCAO + Ex group was lower than that in pMCAO group on day 19 post-MCAO (p exercise (p exercise improves neurologic function, enhances neuronal plasticity and upregulates the levels of 5-HT, 5-HT1AR and BDNF in rats with pMCAO.

  14. Intrathecal nefopam-induced antinociception through activation of descending serotonergic projections involving spinal 5-HT7 but not 5-HT3 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung Gon; Kim, Woong Mo; Kim, Joung Min; Bae, Hong-Beom; Choi, Jeong Il

    2015-02-05

    We examined the involvement of spinal 5-HT(5-hydroxytryptamine) receptor 3(5-HT3R) and 7(5-HT7R) as well as the overall role of descending serotonergic projections in the analgesic effects of intrathecal(i.t.) nefopam for two rat models of formalin and paw incision test. I.t. nefopam produced an antinociceptive effect in a dose-dependent manner in both tests. Lesioning the spinal serotonergic projections using i.t. 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine(5,7-DHT) did not influence the intensity of allodynia in the paw incision test, but i.t. 5,7-DHT abolished the effect of nefopam. In the formain test, i.t. 5,7-DHT alone significantly diminished the flinches, but the effect of nefopam was not affected by i.t. 5,7-DHT. Antagonism study showed that i.t. 5-HT7R antagonist, SB269970 significantly blocked the antinociceptive effect of nefopam in both tests, but i.t. 5-HT3R antagonist, ondansetron has no influence on the effect of nefopam. The present study demonstrates that descending spinal serotonergic projections play a vital role in antinociceptive effect of i.t. nefopam in the paw incision test, but indeterminate in the formalin test. In both tests, the antinociceptive effect of i.t. nefopam involves the spinal 5-HT7R, but not 5-HT3R.

  15. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of optically pure, novel carbonyl guanidine derivatives as dual 5-HT2B and 5-HT7 receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritomo, Ayako; Yamada, Hiroyoshi; Matsuzawa-Nomura, Takaho; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Itahana, Hirotsune; Oku, Makoto; Akuzawa, Shinobu; Okada, Minoru

    2014-11-01

    A series of 9-disubstituted N-(9H-fluorene-2-carbonyl)guanidine derivatives have been discovered as potent and orally active dual 5-HT(2B) and 5-HT(7) receptor antagonists. Upon screening several compounds, N-(diaminomethylene)-4',5'-dihydro-3'H-spiro[fluorene-9,2'-furan]-2-carboxamide (17) exhibited potent affinity for both 5-HT(2B) (Ki = 5.1 nM) and 5-HT(7) (K(i) = 1.7 nM) receptors with high selectivity over 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2C), α(1), D(2) and M(1) receptors. Optical resolution of the intermediate carboxylic acid 16 via the formation of diastereomeric salts using chiral alkaloids gave the optically pure compounds (R)-17 and (S)-17. Both enantiomers suppressed 5-HT-induced dural protein extravasation in guinea pigs in a dose-dependent manner and the amount of leaked protein was suppressed to near normal levels when orally administrated at 10 mg/kg. (R)-17 and (S)-17 were therefore selected as candidates for human clinical trials.

  16. Expression of mRNA for 5-HT2 Receptors and Proteins Related to Inactivation of 5-HT in Mouse Osteoblasts

    OpenAIRE

    平居, 貴生; 徳毛, 孝至; 土谷, 大樹; 西尾, 廣昭

    2010-01-01

    マウス骨芽細胞の初代培養細胞における5-HT2受容体と5-HT不活性化関連蛋白質の発現について検討した。5-HT2受容体(5-HT2A、5-HT2B、5-HT2C)と5-HT輸送体のmRNAは、未分化骨芽細胞で検出されなかったが、分化及び成熟骨芽細胞では検出された。5-HTは、5-HT不活性化機序による調節なしで5-HT2A受容体を介して未分化骨芽細胞の増殖を調節することが示唆された。骨芽細胞の細胞分化と成熟は、5-HT不活性化の調節下で5-HT2B受容体の活性化により調節されると考えられた。...

  17. In vivo examination of 111In-bis-5HT-DTPA to target myeloperoxidase in atherosclerotic ApoE knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Che; Ho, Hsin-I; Lee, Te-Wei; Wu, Hua-Lin; Lo, Jem-Mau

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the feasibility of imaging specific activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a leukocyte-derived enzyme with important role in atherosclerosis, by SPECT/CT using a novel radiotracer, (111)In-bis-5-hydroxytryptamide-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetate ((111)In-bis-5HT-DTPA). Bis-5HT-DTPA was synthesized. Oligomerization of bis-5HT-DTPA in the presence of MPO/H(2)O(2) was studied and confirmed using MALDI-TOF. Apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE KO) mice was used as an atherosclerosis-prone rodent model. Biodistribution assay and micro SPECT/CT imaging were carried out to prove the atherosclerosis targeting of (111)In-bis-5HT-DTPA in the ApoE KO mice. MALDI-TOF spectrum showed that the 5HT base agent can self oligomerize after activating by MPO. From the biodistribution study, (111)In-bis-5HT-DTPA was quantified to be retained markedly higher while eliminated much slower in the aortas of the ApoE KO mice than that of the wild type (WT) mice within 1 h post-injection. The nuclear imaging showed significantly higher uptake in the aorta of the ApoE KO mice than that of the WT mice at least within 2 h post-injection. This study described the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of (111)In-bis-5HT-DTPA in ApoE KO mice and validated its utilization for early detection of atherosclerotic marker, MPO, in the aortic wall of atherosclerosis-prone rodent model.

  18. Role of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of piperine in the forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qing-Qiu; Huang, Zhen; Ip, Siu-Po; Xian, Yan-Fang; Che, Chun-Tao

    2011-10-24

    Our previous studies have showed that treating mice with piperine significantly decreased the immobility time of the animals in the forced swim test and tail suspension test, which was related to up-regulation of serotonin (5-HT) level in the brain. The purpose of this study is to explore the contribution of 5-HT receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of piperine. The results showed that pre-treating mice with methiothepin (a non-selective 5-HT receptor antagonist, 0.1mg/kg, intraperitoneally), 4-(2'-methoxy-phenyl)-1-[2'-(n-2″-pyridinyl)-p-iodobenzamino-]ethyl-piperazine (a selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, 1mg/kg, subcutaneously) or 1-(2-(1-pyrrolyl)-phenoxy)-3-isopropylamino-2-propanol (a 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonist, 2.5mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was found to abolish the anti-immobility effect of piperine (10mg/kg, intraperitoneally) in the forced swim test. On the other hand, a sub-effective dose of piperine (1mg/kg, intraperitoneally) produced a synergistic antidepressant-like effect with (+)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, 1mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or anpirtoline (a 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist, 0.25mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Taken together, these results suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of piperine in the mouse forced swim test may be mediated, at least in part, by the activation of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) receptors.

  19. Role of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptors in the facilitatory response induced by 8-OH-DPAT on learning consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, A; Terrón, J A

    2001-06-01

    The present study further explored the mechanisms involved in the facilitatory effect induced by (+/-)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) on learning consolidation. For this purpose, we analyzed in parallel the effects of LY215840 and ritanserin, two 5-HT(2) receptor antagonists with high affinity for the 5-HT(7) receptor, and WAY100635, a selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, on the facilitatory effect induced by 8-OH-DPAT on learning consolidation. We also determined whether LY215840 and/or ritanserin could be beneficial in restoring a deficient learning condition. Using the model of autoshaping task, post-training injection of LY215840 or WAY100635 had no effect on learning consolidation. However, both drugs abolished the enhancing effect of 8-OH-DPAT, with LY215840 being slightly more effective than WAY100635 in this respect. Ritanserin produced an increase in performance by itself and also abolished the effect of 8-OH-DPAT. Remarkably, selective blockade of 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B/2C) receptors with MDL100907 and SB200646, respectively, failed to alter the 8-OH-DPAT effect. LY215840 and ritanserin, at the doses that inhibited the 8-OH-DPAT-induced response, reversed the learning deficits induced by scopolamine and dizocilpine. The present results suggest that the enhancing effect produced by 8-OH-DPAT on learning consolidation involves activation of 5-HT(1A) receptors and an additional mechanism, probably related to the 5-HT(7) receptor. Blockade of 5-HT(2) receptors, and perhaps of 5-HT(7) receptors as well, may provide some benefit in reversing learning deficits associated with decreased cholinergic and/or glutamatergic neurotransmission.

  20. Quinolinesulfonamides of aryloxy-/arylthio-ethyl piperidines: influence of an arylether fragment on 5-HT1A/5-HT7 receptor selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grychowska, Katarzyna; Marciniec, Krzysztof; Canale, Vittorio; Szymiec, Michał; Glanowski, Grzegorz; Satała, Grzegorz; Maślankiewicz, Andrzej; Pawłowski, Maciej; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Zajdel, Paweł

    2013-03-01

    The solid-phase synthesis of a new series of 19 biomimetics of long-chain arylpiperazines, namely flexible quinoline sulfonamides of aryl(heteroaryl)oxy-/heteroarylthio-ethyl 4-aminomethylpiperidines, is reported. Various structural modifications applied followed by biological evaluation for 5-HT1A, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors gave further support of a possible replacement of arylpiperazine with aryloxy-/arylthio-ethyl derivatives of alicyclic amines and control of receptor selectivity upon diversification in the aryl(heteroaryl)oxy-/heteroarylthio-ethyl fragment.

  1. Autoradiographic Mapping of 5-HT(1B/1D) Binding Sites in the Rhesus Monkey Brain Using [carbonyl-C]zolmitriptan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhe, Orjan; Almqvist, Per; Kågedal, Matts; Gustafsson, Sven-Åke; Bergström, Mats; Nilsson, Dag; Antoni, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    Zolmitriptan is a serotonin 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonist that is an effective and well-tolerated drug for migraine treatment. In a human positron emission tomography study, [(11)C]zolmitriptan crossed the blood-brain barrier but no clear pattern of regional uptake was discernable. The objective of this study was to map the binding of [(11)C]zolmitriptan in Rhesus monkey brain using whole hemisphere in vitro autoradiography with [(11)C]zolmitriptan as a radioligand. In saturation studies, [(11)C]zolmitriptan showed specific (90%) binding to a population of high-affinity binding sites (Kd 0.95-5.06 nM). There was regional distribution of binding sites with the highest density in the ventral pallidum, followed by the external globus pallidus, substantia nigra, visual cortex, and nucleus accumbens. In competitive binding studies with 5-HT(1) receptor antagonists, [(11)C]zolmitriptan binding was blocked by selective 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(1D) ligands in all target areas. There was no appreciable change in binding with the addition of a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist.

  2. Autoradiographic Mapping of 5-HT1B/1D Binding Sites in the Rhesus Monkey Brain Using [carbonyl-11C]zolmitriptan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Örjan Lindhe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zolmitriptan is a serotonin 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist that is an effective and well-tolerated drug for migraine treatment. In a human positron emission tomography study, [11C]zolmitriptan crossed the blood-brain barrier but no clear pattern of regional uptake was discernable. The objective of this study was to map the binding of [11C]zolmitriptan in Rhesus monkey brain using whole hemisphere in vitro autoradiography with [11C]zolmitriptan as a radioligand. In saturation studies, [11C]zolmitriptan showed specific (90% binding to a population of high-affinity binding sites (Kd 0.95–5.06 nM. There was regional distribution of binding sites with the highest density in the ventral pallidum, followed by the external globus pallidus, substantia nigra, visual cortex, and nucleus accumbens. In competitive binding studies with 5-HT1 receptor antagonists, [11C]zolmitriptan binding was blocked by selective 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D ligands in all target areas. There was no appreciable change in binding with the addition of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist.

  3. Neuroticism and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirvonen, Jussi; Tuominen, Lauri; Någren, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    Neuroticism is a personality trait associated with vulnerability for mood and anxiety disorders. Serotonergic mechanisms likely contribute to neuroticism. Serotonin 5-HT1A receptors are altered in mood and anxiety disorders, but whether 5-HT1A receptors are associated with neuroticism in healthy...... and radiometabolite determination. Personality traits were assessed using the Karolinska Scales of Personality. We found a strong negative association between serotonin 5-HT1A receptor BPP and neuroticism. That is, individuals with high neuroticism tended to have lower 5-HT1A receptor binding than individuals...... with low neuroticism. This finding was confirmed with an independent voxel-based whole-brain analysis. Other personality traits did not correlate with 5-HT1A receptor BPP. Previous observations have reported lower serotonin 5-HT1A receptor density in major depression. This neurobiological finding may...

  4. Discovery of a Novel 5-HT2A Inhibitor by Pharmacophore-based Virtual Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Zi-jun; DU Peng; LI Bian; XU Li-li; ZHEN Xue-chu; FU Wei

    2011-01-01

    The serotonin 2A(5-HT2A) receptor has been implicated in several neurological conditions and potent 5-HT2A antagonists have therapeutic effects in the treatment of schizophrenia and depression.In this study,a potent novel 5-HT2A inhibitor 05245768 with a Ki value of (593.89±34.10) nmol/L was discovered by integrating a set of computational approaches and experiments(protein structure prediction,pharmacophore-based virtual screening,automated molecular docking and pharmacological bioassay).The 5-HT2A receptor showed a negatively charged binding pocket.The binding mode of compound 05245768 with 5-HT2A was obtained by GOLD docking procedure,which revealed the conserved interaction between protonated nitrogen in compound 05245768 and carboxylate group of D3.32 at the active site of 5-HT2A.

  5. A study on the mechanisms by which minocycline protects against MDMA ('ecstasy')-induced neurotoxicity of 5-HT cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, Laura; Llopis, Noemi; Torres, Elisa; Izco, Maria; O'Shea, Esther; Colado, M Isabel

    2010-08-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') is a selective 5-HT neurotoxin in rat brain which has been shown to produce acute neuroinflammation characterized by activation of microglia and release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). We aimed to determine whether or not minocycline, a semi-synthetic tetracycline antibiotic capable of inhibiting microglial activation, could prevent the inflammatory response and reduce the toxicity induced by MDMA. Adult male Dark Agouti rats were given minocycline twice a day for 2 days (45 mg/kg on the first day and 90 mg/kg on the second day; 12-h apart, i.p.). MDMA (12.5 mg/kg; i.p.) was given after the third minocycline injection and animals were killed either 1 h later for the determination of NFkappaB binding activity, 3 h later for the determination of IL-1beta, 24 h later for the determination of microglial activation or 7 days later for the determination of [(3)H]-paroxetine binding as a measure of 5-HT neurotoxicity. MDMA increased NFkappaB activation, IL-1beta release and microglial activation both in the frontal cortex and in the hypothalamus and 7 days later produced a reduction in the density of 5-HT uptake sites in both these brain areas. Minocycline prevented the MDMA-induced increase in NFkappaB activation, IL-1beta release and microglial activation in the frontal cortex and prevented the 5-HT neurotoxicity 7 days later. However, in the hypothalamus, in spite of preventing MDMA-induced microglial activation, minocycline failed to prevent MDMA-induced NFkappaB activation, IL-1beta release and neurotoxicity. This suggests that the protective mechanism of minocycline against MDMA-induced neurotoxicity in frontal cortex involves inhibition of MDMA-induced NFkappaB activation possibly through a reduction in IL-1beta signalling.

  6. Signalling properties and pharmacology of a 5-HT7 -type serotonin receptor from Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleugels, R; Lenaerts, C; Vanden Broeck, J; Verlinden, H

    2014-04-01

    In the last decade, genome sequence data and gene structure information on invertebrate receptors has been greatly expanded by large sequencing projects and cloning studies. This information is of great value for the identification of receptors; however, functional and pharmacological data are necessary for an accurate receptor classification and for practical applications. In insects, an important group of neurotransmitter and neurohormone receptors, for which ample sequence information is available but pharmacological information is missing, are the biogenic amine G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In the present study, we investigated the sequence information, pharmacology and signalling properties of a 5-HT7 -type serotonin receptor from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Trica5-HT7 ). The receptor encoding cDNA shows considerable sequence similarity with cognate 5-HT7 receptors and phylogenetic analysis also clusters the receptor within this 5-HT receptor group. Real-time reverse transcription PCR demonstrated high expression levels in the brain, indicating the possible importance of this receptor in neural processes. Trica5-HT7 was dose-dependently activated by 5-HT, which induced elevated intracellular cyclic AMP levels but had no effect on calcium signalling. The synthetic agonists, α-methyl 5-HT, 5-methoxytryptamine, 5-carboxamidotryptamine and 8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin hydrobromide, showed a response, although with a much lower potency and efficacy than 5-HT. Ketanserin and methiothepin were the most potent antagonists. Both showed characteristics of competitive inhibition on Trica5-HT7 . The signalling pathway and pharmacological profile offer important information that will facilitate functional and comparative studies of 5-HT receptors in insects and other invertebrates. The pharmacology of invertebrate 5-HT receptors differs considerably from that of vertebrates. The present study may therefore contribute to establishing a more

  7. Effect of 5-HT7 receptor blockade on liver regeneration after 60-70% partial hepatectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Tzirogiannis, Konstantinos N; Kourentzi, Kalliopi T; Zyga, Sofia; Papalimneou, Vassiliki; Tsironi, Maria; Grypioti, Agni D; Protopsaltis, Ioannis; Panidis, Dimitrios; Panoutsopoulos, Georgios I

    2014-01-01

    Background Serotonin exhibits a vast repertoire of actions including cell proliferation and differentiation. The effect of serotonin, as an incomplete mitogen, on liver regeneration has recently been unveiled and is mediated through 5-HT2 receptor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 5-HT7 receptor blockade on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. Methods Male Wistar rats were subjected to 60-70% partial hepatectomy. 5-HT7 receptor blockade was applied by int...

  8. Estradiol increases the anorexia associated with increased 5-HT2C receptor activation in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, Heidi M.; Santollo, Jessica; Nikonova, Larissa V.; Eckel, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Estradiol’s inhibitory effect on food intake is mediated, in part, by its ability to increase the activity of meal-related signals, including serotonin (5-HT), which hasten satiation. The important role that postsynaptic 5-HT2C receptors play in mediating 5-HT’s anorexigenic effect prompted us to investigate whether a regimen of acute estradiol treatment increases the anorexia associated with increased 5-HT2C receptor activation in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. We demonstrated that intraperitone...

  9. The effects of photic and nonphotic stimuli in the 5-HT7 receptor knockout mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardani, M; Biello, S M

    2008-03-03

    5-HT and agonists of the 5-HT receptor can modify the response of the mammalian pacemaker, which is located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), to photic and nonphotic stimulation. Previous studies suggest that the 5-HT7 receptor is involved in the regulation of photic input, and the modulation of nonphotic circadian resetting of the circadian clock. The present study investigated the role of the 5-HT7 receptor by evaluating a wide variety of circadian parameters in mice lacking a functional allele for this receptor (5-HT7 knockout (KO)) compared with wild type (WT) animals that were bred on the same genetic background, including rate of entrainment, photic responsiveness and nonphotic response to a serotonergic agonist. No significant differences were detected in the average number of days 5-HT7 KO mice needed to reach entrainment to an advance of 6 h in the LD cycle compared with WT animals. Further, we investigated the acute responsiveness of both groups of mice to acute light stimulation at various times (circadian time (CT) 0, 6, 9, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20 and 22). A significant difference in the phase resetting response to light between the groups was revealed at CT22. Finally, as the 5-HT7 receptor has been associated with the modulation of nonphotic resetting in vitro, we examined the response of the 5-HT7 KO mice to systemic administration of a 5-HT(1A/7) agonist. The current study is the first to demonstrate the elimination of a nonphotic response to (+) 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) in mice lacking the 5-HT7 receptor compared with WT animals in vivo. Taken together, the present findings provide additional evidence that reform the established view on the role of the 5-HT7 in the photic regulation of retinohypothalamic (RHT) input, and support further the involvement of the 5-HT7 receptor in the modulation of nonphotic resetting in circadian clock.

  10. Familial Risk for Major Depression is Associated with Lower Striatal 5-HT4 Receptor Binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Karine; Torstensen, Eva; Holst, Klaus Kähler

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The 5-HT4 receptor provides a novel potential target for antidepressant treatment. No studies exist to elucidate the 5-HT4 receptor's in vivo distribution in the depressed state or in populations that may display trait markers for major depression disorder (MDD). The aim of this study......-degree relatives with a history of MDD binding correlated negatively with 5-HT4 receptor binding in both the striatum (p = 0.001) and limbic regions (p = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the 5-HT4 receptor is involved in the neurobiological mechanism underlying familial risk for depression...

  11. The 5-HT3 receptor is essential for exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, M; Nakamura, Y; Ishida, Y; Shimada, S

    2015-11-01

    Exercise has a variety of beneficial effects on brain structure and function, such as hippocampal neurogenesis, mood and memory. Previous studies have shown that exercise enhances hippocampal neurogenesis, induces antidepressant effects and improves learning behavior. Brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) levels increase following exercise, and the 5-HT system has been suggested to have an important role in these exercise-induced neuronal effects. However, the precise mechanism remains unclear. In this study, analysis of the 5-HT type 3A receptor subunit-deficient (htr3a(-/-)) mice revealed that lack of the 5-HT type 3 (5-HT3) receptor resulted in loss of exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects, but not of learning enhancement. Furthermore, stimulation of the 5-HT3 receptor promoted neurogenesis. These findings demonstrate that the 5-HT3 receptor is the critical target of 5-HT action in the brain following exercise, and is indispensable for hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects induced by exercise. This is the first report of a pivotal 5-HT receptor subtype that has a fundamental role in exercise-induced morphological changes and psychological effects.

  12. 5-HT Radioligands for Human Brain Imaging With PET and SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Louise M.; Kornum, Birgitte R.; Nutt, David J.; Pike, Victor W.; Knudsen, Gitte M.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonergic system plays a key modulatory role in the brain and is the target for many drug treatments for brain disorders either through reuptake blockade or via interactions at the 14 subtypes of 5-HT receptors. This review provides the history and current status of radioligands used for positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging of human brain serotonin (5-HT) receptors, the 5-HT transporter (SERT), and 5-HT synthesis rate. Currently available radioligands for in vivo brain imaging of the 5-HT system in humans include antagonists for the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT4 receptors, and for SERT. Here we describe the evolution of these radioligands, along with the attempts made to develop radioligands for additional serotonergic targets. We describe the properties needed for a radioligand to become successful and the main caveats. The success of a PET or SPECT radioligand can ultimately be assessed by its frequency of use, its utility in humans, and the number of research sites using it relative to its invention date, and so these aspects are also covered. In conclusion, the development of PET and SPECT radioligands to image serotonergic targets is of high interest, and successful evaluation in humans is leading to invaluable insight into normal and abnormal brain function, emphasizing the need for continued development of both SPECT and PET radioligands for human brain imaging. PMID:21674551

  13. Could the 5-HT1B receptor inverse agonism affect learning consolidation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, A

    2001-03-01

    Diverse evidence indicates that, the 5-HT system might play a role in learning and memory, since it occurs in brain areas mediating such processes and 5-HT drugs modulate them. Hence in this work, in order to explore further 5-HT involvement on learning and memory 5-HT1B receptors' role is investigated. Evidence indicates that SB-224289 (a 5-HT1B receptor inverse agonist) post-training injection facilitated learning consolidation in an associative autoshaping learning task, this effect was partially reversed by GR 127935 (a 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist), but unaffected by MDL 100907 (a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist) or ketanserin (a 5-HT1D/2A/7 receptor antagonist) at low doses. Moreover, SB-224289 antagonized the learning deficit produced by TFMPP (a 5-HT1A/1B/1D/2A/2C receptor agonist), GR 46611 (a 5-HT1A/1B/1D receptor agonist), mCPP (a 5-HT2A/2C/3/7 receptor agonist/antagonist) or GR 127935 (at low dose). SB-224289 did not alter the 8-OH-DPAT (a 5-HT1A/7 receptor agonist) learning facilitatory effect. SB-224289 eliminated the deficit learning produced by the anticholinergic muscarinic scopolamine or the glutamatergic antagonist dizocilpine. Administration of both, GR 127935 (5mg/kg) plus ketanserin (0.01 mg/kg) did not modify learning consolidation; nevertheless, when ketanserin dose was increased (0.1-1.0mg/kg) and SB-224289 dose was maintained constant, a learning facilitation effect was observed. Notably, SB-224289 at 1.0mg/kg potentiated a subeffective dose of the 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist/antagonist mixed GR 127935, which facilitated learning consolidation and this effect was abolished by ketanserin at a higher dose. Collectively, the data confirm and extend the earlier findings with GR 127935 and the effects of non-selective 5-HT(1B) receptor agonists. Clearly 5-HT1B agonists induced a learning deficit which can be reversed with SB-224289. Perhaps more importantly, SB-224289 enhances learning consolidation when given alone and can reverse the deficits

  14. The 5-HT7 receptor as a mediator and modulator of antidepressant-like behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkisyan, Gor; Roberts, Amanda J.; Hedlund, Peter B.

    2010-01-01

    The 5-HT7 receptor has been suggested as a target for treating depression since inactivation or blockade of the receptor has an antidepressant-like behavioral effect. The present study investigated possible interactions between various classes of drugs with antidepressant properties and blockade or inactivation of the 5-HT7 receptor. Immobility despair in the tail suspension test and the forced swim test was evaluated in mice lacking the 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7−/−) and in wild-type controls (5-...

  15. The 5-HT7 receptor is involved in allocentric spatial memory information processing

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkisyan, Gor; Hedlund, Peter B.

    2009-01-01

    The hippocampus has been implicated in aspects of spatial memory. Its ability to generate new neurons has been suggested to play a role in memory formation. Hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission has also been proposed as a contributor to memory processing. Studies have shown that the 5-HT7 receptor is present in the hippocampus in relatively high abundance. Thus the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible role of the 5-HT7 receptor in spatial memory using 5-HT7 recep...

  16. What do we really know about 5-HT1A receptor signaling in neuronal cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JENNY LUCY FIEDLER

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in neuronal plasticity. Variations in the levels of 5-HT at the synaptic cleft, expression or dysfunction of serotonin receptors may alter brain development and predispose to various mental diseases. Here, we review the transduction pathways described in various cell types transfected with recombinant 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR, specially contrasting with those findings obtained in neuronal cells. The 5-HT1AR is detected in early stages of neural development and is located in the soma, dendrites and spines of hippocampal neurons. The 5-HT1AR differs from other serotonin receptors because it is coupled to different pathways, depending on the targeted cell. The signaling pathway associated with this receptor is determined by Gα isoforms and some cascades involve βγ signaling. The activity of 5-HT1AR usually promotes a reduction in neuronal excitability and firing, provokes a variation in cAMP and Ca2+, levels which may be linked to specific types of behavior and cognition. Furthermore, evidence indicates that 5-HT1AR induces neuritogesis and synapse formation, probably by modulation of the neuronal cytoskeleton through MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. Advances in understanding the actions of 5-HT1AR and its association with different signaling pathways in the central nervous system will reveal their pivotal role in health and disease.

  17. The discovery of diazepinone-based 5-HT3 receptor partial agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, David D; Guo, Cheng; Zhang, Zhenjun; Ryan, Kristen N; Naginskaya, Jennifer; Choo, Sok Hui; Masih, Liaqat; Earley, William G; Wierschke, Jonathan D; Newman, Amy S; Brady, Catherine A; Barnes, Nicholas M; Guzzo, Peter R

    2014-06-01

    Serotonin type 3 (5-HT3) receptor partial agonists have been targeted as potential new drugs for the symptomatic relief of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Multiple diazepinone-based compounds have been discovered, which exhibit nanomolar binding affinity for the h5-HT3A receptor and display a range of intrinsic activities (IA=7-87% of 5-HT Emax) in HEK cells heterologously expressing the h5-HT3A receptor. Favorable physicochemical properties and in vitro ADME profile coupled with oral activity in the murine von Bezold-Jarisch reflex model demonstrates the series has promise for producing low to moderate IA partial agonists suitable for an IBS indication.

  18. Discovery of 2-substituted benzoxazole carboxamides as 5-HT3 receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhicai; Fairfax, David J; Maeng, Jun-Ho; Masih, Liaqat; Usyatinsky, Alexander; Hassler, Carla; Isaacson, Soshanna; Fitzpatrick, Kevin; DeOrazio, Russell J; Chen, Jianqing; Harding, James P; Isherwood, Matthew; Dobritsa, Svetlana; Christensen, Kevin L; Wierschke, Jonathan D; Bliss, Brian I; Peterson, Lisa H; Beer, Cathy M; Cioffi, Christopher; Lynch, Michael; Rennells, W Martin; Richards, Justin J; Rust, Timothy; Khmelnitsky, Yuri L; Cohen, Marlene L; Manning, David D

    2010-11-15

    A new class of 2-substituted benzoxazole carboxamides are presented as potent functional 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists. The chemical series possesses nanomolar in vitro activity against human 5-HT(3)A receptors. A chemistry optimization program was conducted and identified 2-aminobenzoxazoles as orally active 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists with good metabolic stability. These novel analogues possess drug-like characteristics and have potential utility for the treatment of diseases attributable to improper 5-HT(3) receptor function, especially diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D).

  19. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of aminoalkanol derivatives of selected azatricycloundecane system for binding with beta-adrenergic and 5HT1A and 5HT2A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossakowski, Jerzy; Kuran, Bozena

    2007-01-01

    A series of aminoalkanol derivatives of 8,11-dimethyl-3,5-dioxo-4-azatricyclo[5.2.2.0(2,6)] undec-8-en-1-yl acetate and 1,11-dimethyl-4-azatricyclo[5.2.2.0(2,6)]undecane-3,5,8-trione was prepared. The pharmacological profile of selected compounds was evaluated for affinity to beta-adrenoreceptors and serotoninergic receptors (5HT1A and 5HT2A).

  20. An Orally Active Phenylaminotetralin-Chemotype Serotonin 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A Receptor Partial Agonist that Corrects Motor Stereotypy in Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Clinton E; Felsing, Daniel E; Liu, Yue; Zhu, Wanying; Wood, JodiAnne T; Perry, Charles K; Vemula, Rajender; Booth, Raymond G

    2015-07-15

    Stereotypy (e.g., repetitive hand waving) is a key phenotype of autism spectrum disorder, Fragile X and Rett syndromes, and other neuropsychiatric disorders, and its severity correlates with cognitive and attention deficits. There are no effective treatments, however, for stereotypy. Perturbation of serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission contributes to stereotypy, suggesting that distinct 5-HT receptors may be pharmacotherapeutic targets to treat stereotypy and related neuropsychiatric symptoms. For example, preclinical studies indicate that 5-HT7 receptor activation corrects deficits in mouse models of Fragile X and Rett syndromes, and clinical trials for autism are underway with buspirone, a 5-HT1A partial agonist with relevant affinity at 5-HT7 receptors. Herein, we report the synthesis, in vitro molecular pharmacology, behavioral pharmacology, and pharmacokinetic parameters in mice after subcutaneous and oral administration of (+)-5-(2'-fluorophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-amine ((+)-5-FPT), a new, dual partial agonist targeting both 5-HT7 (Ki = 5.8 nM, EC50 = 34 nM) and 5-HT1A (Ki = 22 nM, EC50 = 40 nM) receptors. Three unique, heterogeneous mouse models were used to assess the efficacy of (+)-5-FPT to reduce stereotypy: idiopathic jumping in C58/J mice, repetitive body rotations in C57BL/6J mice treated with the NMDA antagonist, MK-801, and repetitive head twitching in C57BL/6J mice treated with the 5-HT2 agonist, DOI. Systemic (+)-5-FPT potently and efficaciously reduced or eliminated stereotypy in each of the mouse models without altering locomotor behavior on its own, and additional tests showed that (+)-5-FPT, at the highest behaviorally active dose tested, enhanced social interaction and did not cause behaviors indicative of serotonin syndrome. These data suggest that (+)-5-FPT is a promising medication for treating stereotypy in psychiatric disorders.

  1. 5-HT7 receptor-mediated meningeal dilatation induced by 5-carboxamidotryptamine in rats is not altered by 5-HT depletion and chronic corticosterone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, E; Sánchez-Maldonado, C; Terrón, J A

    2011-01-01

    Low brain serotonin levels and high circulating levels of corticosterone are features of migraine. The 5-HT7 receptor was shown to mediate dilator responses to the 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT7 receptor agonist, 5-carboxamidotryptamine in the middle meningeal artery of rats. Here we analyzed the effect of serotonin depletion and chronic corticosterone treatment on 5-HT7 receptor-mediated dilatation induced by 5-carboxamidotryptamine in the middle meningeal artery of anesthetized rats. Two weeks before experiments, male Wistar rats received i.c.v. injections of vehicle or the neurotoxin, 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine; upon recovery, animals received a chronic s.c. treatment (2 weeks) with vehicle (1 ml/kg/day) or corticosterone (20 mg/kg/day). At the end of treatments, animals were anesthetized and prepared for recording of blood pressure and blood flow in the middle meningeal artery, and i.v. drug administration. All animals received the 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist GR-127935 (1 mg/kg, i.v.) alone or combined with the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, SB-269970 (1 mg/kg, i.v.). Topical 5-carboxamidotryptamine (0.01-1000 microM) to the exposed dura mater encephala produced decreases in diastolic blood pressure, variable changes in meningeal blood flow and increases in conductance (i.e. dilatation) in the middle meningeal artery. Meningeal dilator responses to 5-carboxamidotryptamine did not differ among treatment groups. In all cases, the combined treatment with GR-127935 + SB-269970 inhibited hypotensive and meningeal dilator responses to 5- carboxamidotryptamine. Together, these data do not support the notion that 5-HT7 receptors mediating dilatation in the middle meningeal artery are regulated by low brain serotonin levels and/or chronically high circulating levels of corticosterone. Further studies are required to elucidate the potential impact of these conditions and the role of 5-HT7 receptors in migraine.

  2. Aminoalkyl Derivatives of 8-Alkoxypurine-2,6-diones: Multifunctional 5-HT1A /5-HT7 Receptor Ligands and PDE Inhibitors with Antidepressant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chłoń-Rzepa, Grażyna; Zagórska, Agnieszka; Żmudzki, Paweł; Bucki, Adam; Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Partyka, Anna; Wesołowska, Anna; Kazek, Grzegorz; Głuch-Lutwin, Monika; Siwek, Agata; Starowicz, Gabriela; Pawłowski, Maciej

    2016-12-01

    In the search for potential psychotropic agents, a new series of 3,7-dimethyl- and 1,3-dimethyl-8-alkoxypurine-2,6-dione derivatives of arylpiperazines, perhydroisoquinolines, or tetrahydroisoquinolines with flexible alkylene spacers (5-16 and 21-32) were synthesized and evaluated for 5-HT1A /5-HT7 receptor affinities as well as PDE4B1 and PDE10A inhibitory properties. The 1-(4-(4-(2-hydroxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-3,7-dimethyl-8-propoxypurine-2,6-dione (16) and 7-(2-hydroxyphenyl)piperazinylalkyl-1,3-dimethyl-8-ethoxypurine-2,6-diones (31 and 32) as potent dual 5-HT1A /5-HT7 receptor ligands with antagonistic activity produced an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swim test in mice. This effect was similar to that produced by citalopram. All the tested compounds were stronger phosphodiesterase isoenzyme inhibitors than theophylline and theobromine. The most potent compounds, 15 and 16, were characterized by 51 and 52% inhibition, respectively, of PDE4B1 activity at a concentration of 10(-5)  M. Concerning the above findings, it may be assumed that the inhibition of PDE4B1 may impact on the signal strength and specificity resulting from antagonism toward the 5-HT1 and 5-HT7 receptors, especially in the case of compounds 15 and 16. This dual receptor and enzyme binding mode was analyzed and explained via molecular modeling studies.

  3. 5-HT7 receptor modulates GABAergic transmission in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus and controls cortical release of serotonin

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena eKusek; Joanna eSowa; Katarzyna eKamińska; Krystyna eGołembiowska; Krzysztof eTokarski; Grzegorz eHess

    2015-01-01

    The 5-HT7 receptor is one of the several serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes that are expressed in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). Some earlier findings suggested that 5-HT7 receptors in the DRN were localized on GABAergic interneurons modulating the activity of 5-HT projection neurons. The aim of the present study was to find out how the 5-HT7 receptor modulates the GABAergic synaptic input to putative 5-HT DRN neurons, and whether blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor would affect the release of 5-...

  4. Serotonin concentrations in platelets, plasma, mitral valve leaflet, and left ventricular myocardial tissue in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cremer, Signe Emilie; Singletary, G.E.; Olsen, Lisbeth Høier

    2014-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Altered serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) signaling is postulated in development and progression of canine myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). Little is known regarding platelet, plasma, valvular, or myocardial 5HT concentration ([5HT]) in affected dogs. We quantified...

  5. Stress-induced alterations in 5-HT1A receptor transcriptional modulators NUDR and Freud-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Kotarska, Katarzyna; Daigle, Mireille; Misztak, Paulina; Sowa-Kucma, Magdalena; Rafalo, Anna; Curzytek, Katarzyna; Kubera, Marta; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Nowak, Gabriel; Albert, Paul R

    2014-11-01

    The effect of stress on the mRNA and protein level of the 5-HT1A receptor and two of its key transcriptional modulators, NUDR and Freud-1, was examined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (Hp) using rodent models: olfactory bulbectomy (OB) and prenatal stress (PS) in male and female rats; chronic mild stress in male rats (CMS) and pregnancy stress. In PFC, CMS induced the most widespread changes, with significant reduction in both mRNA and protein levels of NUDR, 5-HT1A receptor and in Freud-1 mRNA; while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor and Freud-1 protein levels were also decreased. In male, but not female OB rats PFC Freud-1 and 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were reduced, while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor, Freud-1 and NUDR mRNA's but not protein were reduced. In PS rats PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein was reduced more in females than males; while in Hp Freud-1 protein was increased in females. In pregnancy stress, PFC NUDR, Freud-1 and 5-HT1A protein receptor levels were reduced, and in HP 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were also reduced; in HP only NUDR and Freud-1 mRNA levels were reduced. Overall, CMS and stress during pregnancy produced the most salient changes in 5-HT1A receptor and transcription factor expression, suggesting a primary role for altered transcription factor expression in chronic regulation of 5-HT1A receptor expression. By contrast, OB (in males) and PS (in females) produced gender-specific reductions in PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein levels, suggesting a role for post-transcriptional regulation. These and previous data suggest that chronic stress might be a key regulator of NUDR/Freud-1 gene expression.

  6. 5-HT1A receptors modulate small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Morten; Jespersen, Thomas; Perrier, Jean-François

    2004-01-01

    Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK) are responsible for the medium afterhyperpolarisation (mAHP) following action potentials in neurons. Here we tested the ability of serotonin (5-HT) to modulate the activity of SK channels by coexpressing 5-HT1A receptors with different...

  7. The 5-HT(1F) receptor agonist lasmiditan as a potential treatment of migraine attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer C; Olesen, Jes

    2012-01-01

    Lasmiditan is a novel selective 5-HT(1F) receptor agonist. It is both scientifically and clinically relevant to review whether a 5-HT(1F) receptor agonist is effective in the acute treatment of migraine. Two RCTs in the phase II development of lasmiditan was reviewed. In the intravenous placebo...

  8. Converging evidence for central 5-HT effects in acute tryptophan depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crockett, Molly; Clark, Luke; Roiser, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD), a dietary technique for manipulating brain serotonin (5-HT) function, has advanced our understanding of 5-HT mechanisms in the etiology and treatment of depression and other affective disorders.1 A recent review article in Molecular Psychiatry questioned the vali...

  9. Effects of the potential 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS 19 in an autoshaping learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-García, Georgina S; Meneses, A

    2005-08-30

    This work aimed to evaluate further the role of 5-HT7 receptors during memory formation in an autoshaping Pavlovian/instrumental learning task. Post-training administration of the potential 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS 19 or antagonist SB-269970 enhanced memory formation or had no effect, respectively. The AS 19 facilitatory effect was reversed by SB-269970, but not by the selective 5-HT1A antagonist WAY100635. Amnesia induced by scopolamine (cholinergic antagonist) or dizocilpine (NMDA antagonist) was also reversed by AS 19. Certainly, reservations regarding the selectivity of AS 19 for 5-HT7 and other 5-HT receptors in vivo are noteworthy and, therefore, its validity for use in animal models as a pharmacological tool. Having mentioned that, it should be noticed that together these data are providing further support to the notion of the 5-HT7 receptors role in memory formation. Importantly, this 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS 19 appears to represent a step forward respect to the notion that potent and selective 5-HT7 receptor agonists can be useful in the treatment of dysfunctional memory in aged-related decline and Alzheimer's disease.

  10. 5-HT7 receptor signaling: improved therapeutic strategy in gut disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice J Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-hydroxytrytamine; 5-HT is most commonly known for its role as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. However, the majority of the body’s 5-HT is produced in the gut by enterochromaffin (EC cells. Alterations in 5-HT signaling have been associated with various gut disorders including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and enteric infections. Recently, our studies have identified a key role for 5-HT in the pathogenesis of experimental colitis. 5-HT7 receptors are expressed in the gut and very recently, we have shown evidence of 5-HT7 receptor expression on intestinal immune cells and demonstrated a key role for 5-HT7 receptors in generation of experimental colitis. This review summarizes the key findings of these studies and provides a comprehensive overview of our current knowledge of the 5-HT7 receptor in terms of its pathophysiological relevance and therapeutic potential in intestinal inflammatory conditions, such as IBD.

  11. The 5-HT7 receptor triggers cerebellar long-term synaptic depression via PKC-MAPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippiello, Pellegrino; Hoxha, Eriola; Speranza, Luisa; Volpicelli, Floriana; Ferraro, Angela; Leopoldo, Marcello; Lacivita, Enza; Perrone-Capano, Carla; Tempia, Filippo; Miniaci, Maria Concetta

    2016-02-01

    The 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7R) mediates important physiological effects of serotonin, such as memory and emotion, and is emerging as a therapeutic target for the treatment of cognitive disorders and depression. Although previous studies have revealed an expression of 5-HT7R in cerebellum, particularly at Purkinje cells, its functional role and signaling mechanisms have never been described. Using patch-clamp recordings in cerebellar slices of adult mice, we investigated the effects of a selective 5-HT7R agonist, LP-211, on the main plastic site of the cerebellar cortex, the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse. Here we show that 5-HT7R activation induces long-term depression of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse via a postsynaptic mechanism that involves the PKC-MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, a 5-HT7R antagonist abolished the expression of PF-LTD, produced by pairing parallel fiber stimulation with Purkinje cell depolarization; whereas, application of a 5-HT7R agonist impaired LTP induced by 1 Hz parallel fiber stimulation. Our results indicate for the first time that 5-HT7R exerts a fine regulation of cerebellar bidirectional synaptic plasticity that might be involved in cognitive processes and neuropsychiatric disorders involving the cerebellum.

  12. Involvement of 5-HT receptor subtypes in the discriminative stimulus properties of mescaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, J B; Callahan, P M

    1989-01-01

    In order to further evaluate the extent to which particular 5-HT receptor subtypes (5-HT1, 5-HT2) might be involved in the behavioral effects of hallucinogenic drugs, rats were trained to discriminate mescaline (10 mg/kg i.p.) from saline and were given substitution (generalization) and combination (antagonism) tests with putatively selective serotonergic and related neuroactive compounds. The mescaline cue generalized to relatively high doses of the 5-HT2 agonists, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), LSD and psilocybin; the extent of generalization to 5-HT1 agonists (8-hydroxy-2-[diethylamino]tetralin (8-OHDPAT), RU-24969 and 8-hydroxy-2-[di-n-propylamino]tetralin (TFMPP] was unclear. Combinations of the training drug and sufficiently high doses of 5-HT2 antagonists (ketanserin, LY-53857, pirenperone) were followed by saline-lever responding; less selective central 5-HT (metergoline), and DA (SCH-23390, haloperidol) antagonists, did not block the mescaline cue. These data suggest that 5-HT2 receptors are involved in the stimulus properties of mescaline.

  13. Neuroticism and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, Jussi; Tuominen, Lauri; Någren, Kjell; Hietala, Jarmo

    2015-10-30

    Neuroticism is a personality trait associated with vulnerability for mood and anxiety disorders. Serotonergic mechanisms likely contribute to neuroticism. Serotonin 5-HT1A receptors are altered in mood and anxiety disorders, but whether 5-HT1A receptors are associated with neuroticism in healthy subjects is unclear. We measured brain serotonin 5-HT1A receptor in 34 healthy subjects in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) and [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY-100635. Binding potential (BPP) was determined using the golden standard of kinetic compartmental modeling using arterial blood samples and radiometabolite determination. Personality traits were assessed using the Karolinska Scales of Personality. We found a strong negative association between serotonin 5-HT1A receptor BPP and neuroticism. That is, individuals with high neuroticism tended to have lower 5-HT1A receptor binding than individuals with low neuroticism. This finding was confirmed with an independent voxel-based whole-brain analysis. Other personality traits did not correlate with 5-HT1A receptor BPP. Previous observations have reported lower serotonin 5-HT1A receptor density in major depression. This neurobiological finding may be a trait-like phenomenon and partly explained by higher neuroticism in patients with affective disorders. The link between personality traits and 5-HT1A receptors should be studied in patients with major depression.

  14. The 5-HT7 receptor influences stereotypic behavior in a model of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Peter B; Sutcliffe, J Gregor

    2007-03-13

    The 5-HT7 receptor has been suggested as a new putative target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, especially depression. This hypothesis is based on the finding that antidepressant drugs have relatively high affinity for the 5-HT7 receptor, and that inactivation or blockade of the receptor leads to an antidepressant-like profile in behavioral models and sleep parameters. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is also believed to involve the serotonergic system and is treated using antidepressants, thus it is of interest to study the possible role of the 5-HT7 receptor in this disorder. We have evaluated the effect of inactivation or pharmacological blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor in three mouse behavioral models that are believed to mimic some of the stereotypic aspects of obsessive-compulsive disorder. In the most well-established behavioral model, marble burying, both inactivation and blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor reduced stereotypic behavior in that the number of marbles buried decreased. In two newer, less well-characterized models, head dipping and plastic-mesh screen chewing, there was no difference between wild-type mice and mice lacking the 5-HT7 receptor. Taken together the data confirms and expands on previous findings that the 5-HT7 receptor is of importance for behaviors affected by antidepressants, and suggests that the 5-HT7 receptor might be of relevance as a target for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  15. The 5-HT1A Receptor and the Stimulus Effects of LSD in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissig, C.J.; Eckler, J.R.; Rabin, R.A.; Winter, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Rationale It has been suggested that the 5-HT1A receptor plays a significant modulatory role in the stimulus effects of the indoleamine hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Objectives The present study sought to characterize the effects of several compounds with known affinity for the 5-HT1A receptor on the discriminative stimulus effects of LSD. Methods 12 Male F-344 rats were trained in a two-lever, fixed ratio10, food reinforced task with LSD (0.1 mg/kg; IP; 15 min pretreatment) as a discriminative stimulus. Combination and substitution tests with the 5-HT1A agonists, 8-OH-DPAT, buspirone, gepirone, and ipsapirone, with LSD-induced stimulus control were then performed. The effects of these 5-HT1A ligands were also tested in the presence of the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY-100,635 (0.3 mg/kg; SC; 30 min. pretreatment). Results In combination tests stimulus control by LSD was increased by all 5-HT1A receptor ligands with agonist properties. Similarly, in tests of antagonism, the increase in drug-appropriate responding caused by stimulation of the 5-HT1A receptor was abolished by administration of WAY-100,635. Conclusions These data, obtained using a drug discrimination model of the hallucinogenic effects of LSD, provide support for the hypothesis that the 5-HT1A receptor has a significant modulatory role in the stimulus effects of LSD. PMID:16025319

  16. Drug-induced Hypothermia by 5HT1A Agonists Provide Neuroprotection in Experimental Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Flemming Fryd; Hasseldam, Henrik; Nybro Smith, Matthias;

    2014-01-01

    with .55°C ranging between .1-1.4°C. CONCLUSIONS: 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A (5HT1A) agonists significantly reduce infarct volumes in MCAO rats primarily because of the hypothermic drug effect. 5HT1A agonists may be introduced to reduce body temperatures rapidly and prepare patients for further...

  17. Sumatriptan (5-HT1D receptor agonist) does not exacerbate symptoms in obsessive compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pian, KLH; Westerberg, HGM; van Megen, HJGM; den Boer, JA

    1998-01-01

    The non-selective serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) has been reported to elicit symptoms in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). MK-212, another nonselective 5-HT receptor agonist, does not seem to induce obsessive compulsive symptoms in OCD patients.

  18. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and pharmacological properties of the porcine 5-HT(1D) receptor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.L. Bhalla (Pankaj); H.S. Sharma (Hari); T. Wurch (Thierry); P.J. Pauwels (Petrus); P.R. Saxena (Pramod Ranjan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractA cDNA encoding the full-length 5-HT(1D) receptor derived from porcine cerebral cortex was amplified, cloned and sequenced, using guinea-pig 5-HT(1D) receptor coding sequence oligonucleotide primers in reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT - PC

  19. A brain microdialysis study on 5-HT release in freely moving rat lines selectively bred for differential 5-HT1A receptor function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Gonzalez

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Breeding for high and low hypothermic responses to systemic administration of a serotonin1A (5-HT1A receptor agonist (8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylaminotetralin, 8-OH-DPAT has resulted in high DPAT-sensitive (HDS and low DPAT-sensitive (LDS lines of rats, respectively. These lines also differ in several behavioral measures associated with stress. In the present microdialysis study we observed that basal 5-HT concentrations in the prefrontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus did not differ significantly between HDS and LDS rats. Thus, behavioral differences between the HDS and LDS lines might not be attributed to differences in basal 5-HT release. However, both lines had lower basal levels of 5-HT release than their randomly bred control group (random DPAT-sensitive, RDS in the prefrontal cortex (mean ± SEM, pg/20 µl, was 3.0 ± 0.4 for LDS, 3.8 ± 0.3 for HDS and 6.4 ± 0.6 for RDS; F(2,59 = 5.8, P<0.005. The administration of (±-fenfluramine (10 mg/kg induced a greater increase in hippocampal 5-HT levels in HDS rats (500% as compared with LDS (248% or RDS (243% rats (P<0.0001. There were no significant differences in the prefrontal cortex among lines, with a fenfluramine-induced 5-HT increase of about 900% in the three groups. This differential response to fenfluramine may be due to functional alterations of hippocampal 5-HT reuptake sites in the HDS line.

  20. 5-HT2 and 5-HT7 receptor agonists facilitate plantar stepping in chronic spinal rats through actions on different populations of spinal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula eSlawinska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable evidence from research in neonatal and adult rat and mouse preparations to warrant the conclusion that activation of 5-HT2 and 5-HT1A/7 receptors leads to activation of the spinal cord circuitry for locomotion. These receptors are involved in control of locomotor movements, but it is not clear how they are implicated in the responses to 5-HT agonists observed after spinal cord injury. Here we used agonists that are efficient in promoting locomotor recovery in paraplegic rats, 8-OHDPAT (acting on 5-HT1A/7 receptors and quipazine (acting on 5-HT2 receptors, to examine this issue. Analysis of intra- and interlimb coordination confirmed that the locomotor performance was significantly improved by either drug, but the data revealed marked differences in their mode of action. Interlimb coordination was significantly better after 8-OHDPAT application, and the activity of the extensor soleus muscle was significantly longer during the stance phase of locomotor movements enhanced by quipazine. Our results show that activation of both receptors facilitates locomotion, but their effects are likely exerted on different populations of spinal neurons. Activation of 5-HT2 receptors facilitates the output stage of the locomotor system, in part by directly activating motoneurons, and also through activation of interneurons of the locomotor CPG. Activation of 5-HT7/1A receptors facilitates the activity of the locomotor CPG, without direct actions on the output components of the locomotor system, including motoneurons. Although our findings show that the combined use of these two drugs results in production of well-coordinated weight supported locomotion with a reduced need for exteroceptive stimulation, they also indicate that there might be some limitations to the utility of combined treatment. Sensory feedback and some intraspinal circuitry recruited by the drugs can conflict with the locomotor activation.

  1. Anxiolytic-like effects observed in rats exposed to the elevated zero-maze following treatment with 5-HT2/5-HT3/5-HT4 ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Rob Bell; Aaron A. Duke; Gilmore, Paula E.; Deaglan Page; Laurent Bègue

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of administering selective 5-HT antagonists and agonists to rats tested in the elevated zero-maze (EZM) model of anxiety. The EZM paradigm has advantages over the elevated plus-maze (EPM) paradigm with respect to measuring anxiety, yet has been utilized less frequently. Three experiments were conducted each with a diazepam control (0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 mg/kg). In the first experiment, we administered the 5-HT2C antagonist RS 102221 (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg...

  2. Pharmacology of the hypothermic response to 5-HT1A receptor activation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, K P; Poten, B; Söhnle, K; Schulte, H M

    1990-01-01

    The selective 5-HT1A receptor ligand ipsapirone (IPS) caused dose-related hypothermia in humans. The response was attenuated by the nonselective 5-HT1/2 receptor antagonist metergoline and was completely antagonized by the nonselective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist pindolol, which interacts stereoselectively with the 5-HT1A receptor. The selective beta 1-adrenergic antagonist betaxolol had no effect. The findings indicate that IPS-induced hypothermia specifically involves activation of (presynaptic) 5-HT1A receptors. Therefore, the hypothermic response to IPS may provide a convenient in vivo paradigma to assess the function of the presynaptic 5-HT receptor in affective disorders and its involvement in the effects of psychotropic drugs.

  3. 5-HT radioligands for human brain imaging with PET and SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paterson, Louise M; Kornum, Birgitte R; Nutt, David J

    2013-01-01

    for positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging of human brain serotonin (5-HT) receptors, the 5-HT transporter (SERT), and 5-HT synthesis rate. Currently available radioligands for in vivo brain imaging of the 5-HT system in humans include antagonists...... to image serotonergic targets is of high interest, and successful evaluation in humans is leading to invaluable insight into normal and abnormal brain function, emphasizing the need for continued development of both SPECT and PET radioligands for human brain imaging.......The serotonergic system plays a key modulatory role in the brain and is the target for many drug treatments for brain disorders either through reuptake blockade or via interactions at the 14 subtypes of 5-HT receptors. This review provides the history and current status of radioligands used...

  4. Reduced 5-HT2A receptor binding in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, S G; Madsen, K; Svarer, C;

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have described reduced brain serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptor density. It is unclear whether this abnormality sets in early in the course of the disease and whether it is related to early cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms. We assessed...... cerebral 5-HT(2A) receptor binding in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and related 5-HT(2A) receptor binding to clinical symptoms. Sixteen patients with MCI of the amnestic type (mean age 73, mean MMSE 26.1) and 17 age and sex matched control subjects were studied with MRI and [(18)F......]altanserin PET in a bolus-infusion approach. A significant global reduction of 20-30% in 5-HT(2A) binding (atrophy corrected) was found in most neocortical areas. Reduced 5-HT(2A) binding in the striatum correlated significantly with Neuropsychiatric Inventory depression and anxiety scores. We conclude...

  5. Activation of glucocorticoid receptors increases 5-HT2A receptor levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trajkovska, Viktorija; Kirkegaard, Lisbeth; Krey, Gesa;

    2009-01-01

    Major depression is associated with both dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and serotonergic deficiency, not the least of the 5-HT2A receptor. However, how these phenomena are linked to each other, and whether a low 5-HT2A receptor level is a state or a trait marker...... of depression is unknown. In mice with altered glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression we investigated 5-HT2A receptor levels by Western blot and 3H-MDL100907 receptor binding. Serotonin fibre density was analyzed by stereological quantification of serotonin transporter immunopositive fibers. To establish...... an effect of GR activation on 5-HT2A levels, mature organotypic hippocampal cultures were exposed to corticosterone with or without GR antagonist mifepristone and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist spironolactone. In GR under-expressing mice, hippocampal 5-HT2A receptor protein levels were decreased...

  6. Control of sensory neuron excitability by serotonin involves 5HT2C receptors and Ca(2+)-activated chloride channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Isabella; Gantumur, Enkhbileg; Yousuf, Arsalan; Boehm, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    Serotonin (5HT) is a constituent of the so-called "inflammatory soup" that sensitizes nociceptors during inflammation. Nevertheless, receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate an excitation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons by 5HT remained controversial. Therefore, capsaicin-sensitive nociceptive neurons dissociated from rat DRGs were used to investigate effects of 5HT on membrane excitability and currents through ligand- as well as voltage-gated ion channels. In 58% of the neurons tested, 5HT increased action potential firing, an effect that was abolished by the 5HT2 receptor antagonist ritanserin, but not by the 5HT3 antagonist tropisetron. Unlike other algogenic mediators, such as PGE2 and bradykinin, 5HT did not affect currents through TTX-resistant Na(+) channels or Kv7 K(+) channels. In all neurons investigated, 5HT potentiated capsaicin-evoked currents through TRPV1 channels, an effect that was attenuated by antagonists at 5HT2A (4 F 4 PP), 5HT2B (SB 204741), as well as 5HT2C (RS 102221) receptors. 5HT triggered slowly arising inward Cl(-) currents in 53% of the neurons. This effect was antagonized by the 5HT2C receptor blocker only, and the current was prevented by an inhibitor of Ca(2+)-activated chloride channels (CaCC). The 5HT-induced increase in action potential firing was also abolished by this CaCC blocker and by the TRPV1 inhibitor capsazepine. Amongst the subtype selective 5HT2 antagonists, only RS 102221 (5HT2C-selectively) counteracted the rise in action potential firing elicited by 5HT. These results show that 5HT excites DRG neurons mainly via 5HT2C receptors which concomitantly mediate a sensitization of TRPV1 channels and an opening of CaCCs.

  7. Chronic Sarpogrelate Treatment Reveals 5-HT7 Receptor in the Serotonergic Inhibition of the Rat Vagal Bradycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pedraza, José Ángel; García, Mónica; Martín, María Luisa; Eleno, Nélida; Morán, Asunción

    2017-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) modulates the cardiac parasympathetic neurotransmission, inhibiting the bradyarrhythmia by 5-HT2 receptor activation. We aimed to determine whether the chronic selective 5-HT2 blockade (sarpogrelate) could modify the serotonergic modulation on vagal cardiac outflow in pithed rat. Bradycardic responses in rats treated with sarpogrelate (30 mg·kg·d; orally) were obtained by electrical stimulation of the vagal fibers (3, 6, and 9 Hz) or intravenous (IV) injections of acetylcholine (1, 5, and 10 μg/kg). 5-HT7 receptor expression was quantified by Western blot in vagus nerve and right atrium. The IV administration of 5-HT (10-200 μg/kg) dose dependently decreased the vagally induced bradycardia, and agonists 5-CT (5-HT1/7), 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A), or AS-19 (5-HT7) (50 μg/kg each) mimicked the 5-HT-induced inhibitory effect. Neither agonists CGS-12066B (5-HT1B), L-694,247 (5-HT1D), nor 1-phenylbiguanide (5-HT3) modified the electrically-induced bradycardic responses. Moreover, SB-258719 (5-HT7 antagonist) abolished the 5-HT-, 5-CT-, 8-OH-DPAT-, and AS-19-induced bradycardia inhibition; 5-HT or AS-19 did not modify the bradycardia induced by IV acetylcholine; and 5-HT7 receptor was expressed in both the vagus nerve and the right atrium. Our outcomes suggest that blocking chronically 5-HT2 receptors modifies the serotonergic influence on cardiac vagal neurotransmission exhibiting 5-HT as an exclusively inhibitory agent via prejunctional 5-HT7 receptor.

  8. Effect of peripheral 5-HT on glucose and lipid metabolism in wether sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Watanabe

    Full Text Available In mice, peripheral 5-HT induces an increase in the plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin and bile acids, and a decrease in plasma triglyceride, NEFA and cholesterol concentrations. However, given the unique characteristics of the metabolism of ruminants relative to monogastric animals, the physiological role of peripheral 5-HT on glucose and lipid metabolism in sheep remains to be established. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of 5-HT on the circulating concentrations of metabolites and insulin using five 5-HT receptor (5HTR antagonists in sheep. After fasting for 24 h, sheep were intravenously injected with 5-HT, following which-, plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride and NEFA concentrations were significantly elevated. In contrast, 5-HT did not affect the plasma cholesterol concentration, and it induced a decrease in bile acid concentrations. Increases in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations induced by 5-HT were attenuated by pre-treatment with Methysergide, a 5HTR 1, 2 and 7 antagonist. Additionally, decreased plasma bile acid concentrations induced by 5-HT were blocked by pre-treatment with Ketanserin, a 5HTR 2A antagonist. However, none of the 5HTR antagonists inhibited the increase in plasma triglyceride and NEFA levels induced by 5-HT. On the other hand, mRNA expressions of 5HTR1D and 1E were observed in the liver, pancreas and skeletal muscle. These results suggest that there are a number of differences in the physiological functions of peripheral 5-HT with respect to lipid metabolism between mice and sheep, though its effect on glucose metabolism appears to be similar between these species.

  9. Effects of age of serotonin 5-HT2 receptors in cocaine abusers and normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Logan, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    We measured the effect of age on serotonin 5-HT2 receptor availability and compared it with the effects on dopamine D2 receptors on 19 chronic cocaine abusers (35.2{plus_minus}9.8 years, range 18-54 years old) and 19 age matched normal controls using positron emission tomography (PET) and F-18 N-methylspiperone (NMS). 5-HT2 Receptor availability was measure din frontal (FR), occipital (OC), cingulate (CI) and orbitofrontal (OF) cortices using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest to that in the cerebelium (CB) which is a function of Bmax/Kd. D2 receptor availability in the basal ganglia was measured using the {open_quotes}ratio index{close_quotes} (slope of striatum/CB versus time over 180 min of the scan) which is a function of Bmax. 5-HT2 Receptor availability differed among regions and were as follows: CI>OF>OC>FC.5-HT2 Receptor availability decreased significantly with age. This effect was more accentuated for 5-HT2 receptor availability in FR than in OC(df=1, p<0.025). Striatal dopamine D2 receptors were also found to decrease significantly with age (r=0.63, p<0.007). In a given subject, D2 receptor availability was significantly correlated with 5-HT2 receptor availability in FR (r=0.51, p<0.035) but not in OC. The values for 5-HT2 receptor availability were not different in normal subjects and cocaine abusers. These results document a decline in 5-HT2 and D2 receptors with age and document an association between frontal 5-HT2 and striatal D2 receptor availability. These results did not show any changes in 5-HT2 receptor availability in cocaine abusers as compared to control subjects.

  10. Role of spinal 5-HT receptors in cutaneous hypersensitivity induced by REM sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hong; Ma, Ainiu; Wang, Yong-Xiang; Pertovaara, Antti

    2008-06-01

    Previous studies indicate that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation facilitates pain sensitivity. Since serotoninergic raphe neurons are involved both in regulation of sleep and descending pain modulation, we studied whether spinal 5-HT receptors have a role in sleep deprivation-induced facilitation of pain-related behavior. REM sleep deprivation of 48h was induced by the flower pot method in the rat. The pain modulatory influence of various serotoninergic compounds administered intrathecally was assessed by determining limb withdrawal response to monofilaments. REM sleep deprivation produced a marked hypersensitivity. Sleep deprivation-induced hypersensitivity and normal sensitivity in controls were reduced both by a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist (WAY-100635) and a 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist (RS-102221). An antagonist of the 5-HT(3) receptor (LY-278584) failed to modulate hypersensitivity in sleep-deprived or control animals. Paradoxically, sensitivity in sleep-deprived and control animals was reduced not only by a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist but also by a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist (8-OHDPAT). The results indicate that serotoninergic receptors in the spinal cord have a complex role in the control of sleep-deprivation induced cutaneous hypersensitivity as well as baseline sensitivity in control conditions. While endogenous serotonin acting on 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors may facilitate mechanical sensitivity in animals with a sleep deprivation-induced hypersensitivity as well as in controls, increased activation of spinal 5-HT(1A) receptors by an exogenous agonist leads to suppression of mechanical sensitivity in both conditions. Spinal 5-HT(3) receptors do not contribute to cutaneous hypersensitivity induced by sleep deprivation.

  11. Spinal 5-HT7 receptors induce phrenic motor facilitation via EPAC-mTORC1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, D P; Springborn, S R; Mitchell, G S

    2015-09-01

    Spinal serotonin type 7 (5-HT7) receptors elicit complex effects on motor activity. Whereas 5-HT7 receptor activation gives rise to long-lasting phrenic motor facilitation (pMF), it also constrains 5-HT2 receptor-induced pMF via "cross-talk inhibition." We hypothesized that divergent cAMP-dependent signaling pathways give rise to these distinct 5-HT7 receptor actions. Specifically, we hypothesized that protein kinase A (PKA) mediates cross-talk inhibition of 5-HT2 receptor-induced pMF whereas 5-HT7 receptor-induced pMF results from exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC) signaling. Anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated rats receiving intrathecal (C4) 5-HT7 receptor agonist (AS-19) injections expressed pMF for >90 min, an effect abolished by pretreatment with a selective EPAC inhibitor (ESI-05) but not a selective PKA inhibitor (KT-5720). Furthermore, intrathecal injections of a selective EPAC activator (8-pCPT-2'-Me-cAMP) were sufficient to elicit pMF. Finally, spinal mammalian target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1) inhibition via intrathecal rapamycin abolished 5-HT7 receptor- and EPAC-induced pMF, demonstrating that spinal 5-HT7 receptors elicit pMF by an EPAC-mTORC1 signaling pathway. Thus 5-HT7 receptors elicit and constrain spinal phrenic motor plasticity via distinct signaling mechanisms that diverge at cAMP (EPAC vs. PKA). Selective manipulation of these molecules may enable refined regulation of serotonin-dependent spinal motor plasticity for therapeutic advantage.

  12. Modifications of 5-HT4 receptor expression in rat brain during memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel-Apolinar, L; Rocha, L; Pascoe, D; Castillo, E; Castillo, C; Meneses, A

    2005-04-25

    Pharmacological evidence indicates a specific role of 5-HT(4) receptors on memory function. These receptors are members of G-protein-coupled 7-transmembrane domain receptor superfamily, are positively coupled to adenylyl cyclase, and are heterogeneously located in some structures important for memory, such as the hippocampus and cortical regions. To further clarify 5-HT(4) receptors' role in memory, the expression of these receptors in passive (P3) untrained and autoshaping (A3) trained (3 sessions) adult (3 months) and old (P9 or A9; 9 months) male rats was determined by autoradiography. Adult trained (A3) rats showed a better memory respect to old trained (A9). Using [(3)H] GR113808 as ligand (0.2 nM specific activity 81 Ci/mmol) for 5-HT(4) receptor expression, 29 brain areas were analyzed, 16 areas of A3 and 17 of A9 animals displayed significant changes. The medial mammillary nucleus of A3 group showed diminished 5-HT(4) receptor expression, and in other 15 brain areas of A3 or 10 of A9 animals, 5-HT(4) receptors were increased. Thus, for A3 rats, 5-HT(4) receptors were augmented in olfactory lobule, caudate putamen, fundus striatum, CA2, retrosplenial, frontal, temporal, occipital, and cingulate cortex. Also, 5-HT(4) receptors were increased in olfactory tubercule, hippocampal CA1, parietal, piriform, and cingulate cortex of A9. However, hippocampal CA2 and CA3 areas, and frontal, parietal, and temporal cortex of A9 rats, expressed less 5-HT(4) receptors. These findings suggest that serotonergic activity, via 5-HT(4) receptors in hippocampal, striatum, and cortical areas, mediates memory function and provides further evidence for a complex and regionally specific regulation over 5-HT receptor expression during memory formation.

  13. Family-based association study of 5-HT2A and 5-HT6 and APOE gene in Chinese autistic children%5-HT2A、5-HT6和APOE基因多态性与儿童孤独症的关联研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢建平; 苏林雁; 舒明跃; 杨志伟; 吴怀安; 邓小敏; 雷映

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨儿童孤独症与5-羟色胺2A受体(5-HT2A)及5-羟色胺6受体(5-HT6)和载脂蛋白E(APOE)基因多态性之间的关系.方法 应用聚合酶链反应和限制性片段长度多态性技术检测符合ICD-10诊断标准的孤独症患儿(患者组)和他们的父母(对照组)的5-HT2A及5-HT6和APOE基因多态性,采用传递不平衡检验(TDT)方法进行儿童孤独症核心家系5-HT2A及5-HT6和APOE基因与孤独症的关联分析.结果 (1)孤独症组和父母对照组5-HT2A基因型频率和等位基因频率分布2组间的均差异无显著性(X2=0.849,P=0.654;X2=0.234,P=0.629);APOE基因型频率和等位基因频率分布2组间的均差异无显著性(X2=5.524,P=0.238;x2=0.312,P=0.856);5-HT6基因型频率和等位基因频率分布2组间的均差异无显著性(X2=1.423,P=0.491;X2=1.169,P=0.280).(2)传递不平衡检验(TDT)发现5-HT6发生传递不平衡,孤独症与5-HT6基因相连锁(P=0.04).结论 5-HT6基因与儿童孤独症存在关联,其周围可能存在孤独症的致病基因.%Objective To investigate the association between 5-HT2A,5-HT6,APOE gene and Chinese autistic children. Methods The ploymorphisms of 5-HT2A,5-HT6 ,APOE gene were detected with PCR-RFLP in parent/offspring trios where the proband met the ICD-10 autism criteria. Transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) analysis was used in all nucleus families. Results (1) The differences of 5-HT2A,5-HT6, APOE genotypic distribution between two groups were not statistical significant (P0.05). (2) With transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) analysis,there was a linkage association between autism and 5-HT6 gene polymorphism(P=0.04). Conclusion It showed a possibility of linkage association between autism and 5-HT6 gene, and 5-HTs may be a predisposing gene of Chinese autistic children.

  14. Synthesis and initial biological evaluation of a novel Tc-99m radioligand as a potential agent for 5-HT1A receptor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelounis, Najoua Mejri; Saied, Nadia Malek; Essouissi, Imen; Guizani, Sihem; Saidi, Mouldi [CNSTN, Sidi Thabet (Tunisia). Research Unit of Medical, Agricultural and Environmental Use of Nuclear Applications

    2014-09-01

    The synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of N-Tolueneferrocenecarboxamide labeled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc-TTCC) is reported. Biological studies in Wistar rats showed the ability of {sup 99m}Tc-TPCC to cross the intact blood-brain barrier. In vivo biodistribution indicated that this complex had good brain uptake (1.32%ID/g at 5 min and 0.64%ID/g at 60 min) and good retention (about 50% of the activity was retained in the brain at 60 min post-injection). Regional brain distribution study showed that hippocampus, where the 5-HT1A receptor density is high, had the highest uptake (0.73%ID/g at 5 min p.i.) and the cerebellum, where the 5-HT1A receptor density is low, had the lowest uptake (0.12%ID/gID/g at 5 min p.i.). After blocking with 8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino) tetralin, the uptake of hippocampus was decreased significantly from 0.73%ID/g to 0.20%ID/g at 5 min p.i., while the cerebellum had no significant decrease. This result indicates that 99mTc complex has specific binding to 5-HT1A receptor. (orig.)

  15. Pharmacological evidence that 5-HT1D activation induces renal vasodilation by NO pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pedraza, José-Ángel; García, Mónica; Martín, María-Luisa; Morán, Asunción

    2015-06-01

    5-HT is a powerful vasoconstrictor substance in renal vasculature (mainly by 5-HT₂ activation). Nevertheless, 5-HT is notable for its dual cardiovascular effects, producing both vasodilator and vasoconstrictor actions. This study aimed to investigate whether, behind the predominant serotonergic vasoconstrictor action, THE 5-HT system may exert renal vasodilator actions, and, if so, characterize the 5-HT receptors and possible indirect pathways. Renal perfusion pressure (PP), systemic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) measurement in in situ autoperfused rat kidney was determined in phenylephrine infused rats. Intra arterial (i.a.) bolus administration of 5-HT (0.00000125-0.1 μg/kg) decreased renal PP in the presence of a phenylephrine continuous infusion (phenylephrine-infusion group), without modifying SBP or HR. These vasodilator responses were potentiated by 5-HT₂ antagonism (ritanserin, 1 mg/kg i.v.), whereas the responses were abolished by 5-HT₁ /₇ antagonist (methiothepin, 100 μg/kg i.v.) or 5-HT1D antagonist (LY310762, 1 mg/kg i.v.). The i.a. administration (0.00000125 to 0.1 μg/kg) of 5-CT or L-694,247 (5-HT1D agonist) mimicked 5-HT vasodilator effect, while other agonists (1-PBG, α-methyl-5-HT, AS-19 (5-HT₇), 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A) or CGS-12066B (5-HT1B)) did not alter baseline haemodynamic variables. L-694,247 vasodilation was abolished by i.v. bolus of antagonists LY310762 (5-HT1D, 1 mg/kg) or L-NAME (nitric oxide, 10 mg/kg), but not by i.v. bolus of indomethacin (cyclooxygenase, 2 mg/kg) or glibenclamide (ATP-dependent K(+) channel, 20 mg/kg). These outcomes suggest that 5-HT1D activation produces a vasodilator effect in the in situ autoperfused kidney of phenylephrine-infusion rats mediated by the NO pathway.

  16. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reduces total peripheral resistance during chronic infusion: direct arterial mesenteric relaxation is not involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert Patrick; Pattison, Jill; Thompson, Janice M; Tiniakov, Ruslan; Scrogin, Karie E; Watts, Stephanie W

    2012-05-06

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) delivered over 1 week results in a sustained fall in blood pressure in the sham and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt rat. We hypothesized 5-HT lowers blood pressure through direct receptor-mediated vascular relaxation. In vivo, 5-HT reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP), increased heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac index, and reduced total peripheral resistance during a 1 week infusion of 5-HT (25 µg/kg/min) in the normotensive Sprague Dawley rat. The mesenteric vasculature was chosen as an ideal candidate for the site of 5-HT receptor mediated vascular relaxation given the high percentage of cardiac output the site receives. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that mRNA transcripts for the 5-HT2B, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT7 receptors are present in sham and DOCA-salt superior mesenteric arteries. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot validated the presence of the 5-HT2B, 5- HT1B and 5-HT7 receptor protein in sham and DOCA-salt superior mesenteric artery. Isometric contractile force was measured in endothelium-intact superior mesenteric artery and mesenteric resistance arteries in which the contractile 5- HT2A receptor was antagonized. Maximum concentrations of BW-723C86 (5- HT2B agonist), CP 93129 (5-HT1B agonist) or LP-44 (5-HT7 agonist) did not relax the superior mesenteric artery from DOCA-salt rats vs. vehicle. Additionally, 5-HT (10-9 M to 10-5 M) did not cause relaxation in either contracted mesenteric resistance arteries or superior mesenteric arteries from normotensive Sprague- Dawley rats. Thus, although 5-HT receptors known to mediate vascular relaxation are present in the superior mesenteric artery, they are not functional, and are therefore not likely involved in a 5-HT-induced fall in total peripheral resistance and MAP.

  17. Radiosynthesis and in vivo evaluation of a series of substituted {sup 11}C-phenethylamines as 5-HT{sub 2A} agonist PET tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettrup, Anders; Santini, Martin A.; Palner, Mikael; Knudsen, Gitte M. [Copenhagen University Hospital, Neurobiology Research Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (Cimbi), Copenhagen (Denmark); Hansen, Martin; Paine, James; Kristensen, Jesper; Begtrup, Mikael [University of Copenhagen, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Copenhagen (Denmark); Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (Cimbi), Copenhagen (Denmark); Gillings, Nic; Herth, Matthias M.; Madsen, Jacob [Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, PET and Cyclotron Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (Cimbi), Copenhagen (Denmark); Lehel, Szabolcs [Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, PET and Cyclotron Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2011-04-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of serotonin 2A (5-HT{sub 2A}) receptors with agonist tracers holds promise for the selective labelling of 5-HT{sub 2A} receptors in their high-affinity state. We have previously validated [{sup 11}C]Cimbi-5 and found that it is a 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor agonist PET tracer. In an attempt to further optimize the target-to-background binding ratio, we modified the chemical structure of the phenethylamine backbone and carbon-11 labelling site of [{sup 11}C]Cimbi-5 in different ways. Here, we present the in vivo validation of nine novel 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor agonist PET tracers in the pig brain. Each radiotracer was injected intravenously into anaesthetized Danish Landrace pigs, and the pigs were subsequently scanned for 90 min in a high-resolution research tomography scanner. To evaluate 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor binding, cortical nondisplaceable binding potentials (BP{sub ND}) were calculated using the simplified reference tissue model with the cerebellum as a reference region. After intravenous injection, all compounds entered the brain and distributed preferentially into the cortical areas, in accordance with the known 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor distribution. The largest target-to-background binding ratio was found for [{sup 11}C]Cimbi-36 which also had a high brain uptake compared to its analogues. The cortical binding of [{sup 11}C]Cimbi-36 was decreased by pretreatment with ketanserin, supporting 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor selectivity in vivo. [{sup 11}C]Cimbi-82 and [{sup 11}C]Cimbi-21 showed lower cortical BP{sub ND}, while [{sup 11}C]Cimbi-27, [{sup 11}C]Cimbi-29, [{sup 11}C]Cimbi-31 and [{sup 11}C]Cimbi-88 gave rise to cortical BP{sub ND} similar to that of [{sup 11}C]Cimbi-5. [{sup 11}C]Cimbi-36 is currently the most promising candidate for investigation of 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor agonist binding in the living human brain with PET. (orig.)

  18. Preclinical evaluation of [{sup 18}F]2FNQ1P as the first fluorinated serotonin 5-HT{sub 6} radioligand for PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Guillaume [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS INSERM, Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, Lyon (France); Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Colomb, Julie [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Villeurbanne (France); Sgambato-Faure, Veronique; Tremblay, Leon [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, Cognitive Neuroscience Center, Bron (France); Billard, Thierry [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Villeurbanne (France); CERMEP-Imaging Platform, Groupement Hospitalier Est, Lyon (France); Zimmer, Luc [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS INSERM, Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, Lyon (France); Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); CERMEP-Imaging Platform, Groupement Hospitalier Est, Lyon (France)

    2014-10-21

    Brain serotonin 6 receptor (5-HT{sub 6}) is one of the most recently identified serotonin receptors. It is a potent therapeutic target for psychiatric and neurological diseases, e.g. schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Since no specific fluorinated radioligand has yet been successfully used to study this receptor by positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging, the objective of the present study was to study the first 5-HT{sub 6} {sup 18}F-labelled radiotracer. 2FNQ1P, inspired by the quinolone core of a previous radiotracer candidate, GSK215083, was selected according its 5-HT{sub 6} affinity and selectivity and was radiolabelled by {sup 18}F nucleophilic substitution. The cerebral distribution of [{sup 18}F]2FNQ1P was studied in vivo in rats, cats and macaque monkeys. The chemical and radiochemical purities of [{sup 18}F]2FNQ1P were >98 %. In rats, in vitro competition with the 5-HT{sub 6} antagonist, SB258585, revealed that the radioligand was displaced dose dependently. Rat microPET studies showed low brain uptake of [{sup 18}F]2FNQ1P, reversed by the P-glycoprotein inhibitor, cyclosporin. On the contrary, PET scans in cats showed good brain penetration and specific striatal binding blocked after pretreatment with unlabelled 2FNQ1P. PET scans in macaque monkeys confirmed high specific binding in both cortical and subcortical regions, specifically decreased by pretreatment with the 5-HT{sub 6} receptor antagonist, SB258585. 2FNQ1P was initially selected because of its suitable characteristics for 5-HT{sub 6} receptor probing in vitro in terms of affinity and specificity. Although in vivo imaging in rats cannot be considered as predictive of the clinical characteristics of the radiotracer, [{sup 18}F]2FNQ1P appeared to be a suitable 5-HT{sub 6} PET tracer in feline and primate models. These preclinical results encourage us to pursue the clinical development of this first fluorinated 5-HT{sub 6} PET radiotracer. (orig.)

  19. Distinct effect of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in the medial nucleus of the amygdala on tonic immobility behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Bruna Balbino; Leite-Panissi, Christie Ramos Andrade

    2016-07-15

    The tonic immobility (TI) response is an innate fear behavior associated with intensely dangerous situations, exhibited by many species of invertebrate and vertebrate animals. In humans, it is possible that TI predicts the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. This behavioral response is initiated and sustained by the stimulation of various groups of neurons distributed in the telencephalon, diencephalon and brainstem. Previous research has found the highest Fos-IR in the posteroventral part of the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MEA) during TI behavior; however, the neurotransmission of this amygdaloid region involved in the modulation of this innate fear behavior still needs to be clarified. Considering that a major drug class used for the treatment of psychopathology is based on serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission, we investigated the effects of serotonergic receptor activation in the MEA on the duration of TI. The results indicate that the activation of the 5HT1A receptors or the blocking of the 5HT2 receptors of the MEA can promote a reduction in fear and/or anxiety, consequently decreasing TI duration in guinea pigs. In contrast, blocking the 5HT1A receptors or activating the 5HT2 receptors in this amygdalar region increased the TI duration, suggesting an increase in fear and/or anxiety. These alterations do not appear to be due to a modification of spontaneous motor activity, which might non-specifically affect TI duration. Thus, these results suggest a distinct role of the 5HT receptors in the MEA in innate fear modulation.

  20. Analysis of ergotamine - 5-HT interaction on the isolated rat stomach preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankhuijzen, A L

    1975-02-01

    The effect of ergotamine on the isolated rat stomach and its influence on the response to ACh and 5-HT were investigated. The log dose-response curve of ergotamine was bell-shaped. Extension of the incubation time of ergotamine resulted in a parallel shift to the left of the curve. The response to ergotamine was inhibited by methyserigide and piperoxan. Incubation with ergotamine resulted in a decrease of the pD2-value of 5-HT together with a marked suppression of the maximum of the 5-HT curve. The response to ACh was affected in accordance with the prediction of an action of ACh and ergotamine on different receptors. The prolonged receptor stimulation by 5-HT or ACh resulted in a decrease of the apparent affinity towards their receptors. Incubation with ACh resulted in a parallel shift to the right of the 5-HT curve. However no inconsistency with the theoretical prediction of an action on separate receptors was observed with the ACh curve in the presence of 5-HT. It is concluded that ergotamine is a partial agonist on the D-tryptamine receptors of tbe isolated rat stomach. The marked decrease of the maximum of the 5-HT curve by ergotamine is probably caused by the slowly reversible character of its antagonism. The parallel shift to the left of the ergotamine curve with the extension of the incubation time and the persistence of its antagonism both are probably caused by a slow diffusion into and from the biophase.

  1. 5-HT2C受体与癫痫的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍雪英; 龚玉来; 李倩; 何进宇

    2008-01-01

    5-HT是人体中枢及外周神经系统重要的神经递质,研究发现它涉及感觉、运动和行为等多种生理活动,分为7个亚族,即5-HT1—5-HT7,5-HT2由5-HT2A、5-HT2B、和5-HT2C三部分组成,5-HT2C受体基因定位于Xq24区,由RNA来修饰调节的G蛋白偶联受体,其主要分布在中枢神经系统,除大量分布在脉络丛外(该位置仅有此一种亚型),还广泛分布在嗅核,梨状核,带状核,后夹肌,边缘系统的伏隔核,海马杏仁核和基底神经节的尾状核和黑质。

  2. 5-HT6 receptor memory and amnesia: behavioral pharmacology--learning and memory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo; Pérez-García, Georgina; Ponce-Lopez, Teresa; Castillo, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that antagonists of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor6 (5-HT6) improve memory and reverse amnesia, although the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Hence, in this paper an attempt was made to summarize recent findings. Available evidence indicates that diverse 5-HT6 receptor antagonists produce promnesic and/or antiamnesic effects in diverse conditions, including memory formation, age-related cognitive impairments, memory deficits in diseases such as schizophrenia, Parkinson, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Notably, some 5-HT6 receptor agonists seem to have promnesic and/or antiamnesic effects. At the present, it is unclear why 5-HT6 receptor agonists and antagonists may facilitate memory or may reverse amnesia in some memory tasks. Certainly, 5-HT6 drugs modulate memory, which are accompanied with neural changes. Likewise, memory, aging, and AD modify 5-HT6 receptors and signaling cascades. Further investigation in different memory tasks, times, and amnesia models together with more complex control groups might provide further clues. Notably, human studies suggest a potential utility of 5-HT6 receptor antagonists in mild-to-moderate AD patients. Even individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) offer a great opportunity to test them.

  3. Estradiol increases the anorexia associated with increased 5-HT(2C) receptor activation in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Heidi M; Santollo, Jessica; Nikonova, Larissa V; Eckel, Lisa A

    2012-01-18

    Estradiol's inhibitory effect on food intake is mediated, in part, by its ability to increase the activity of meal-related signals, including serotonin (5-HT), which hastens satiation. The important role that postsynaptic 5-HT(2C) receptors play in mediating 5-HT's anorexigenic effect prompted us to investigate whether a regimen of acute estradiol treatment increases the anorexia associated with increased 5-HT(2C) receptor activation in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. We demonstrated that intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of low doses of the 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) decreased 1-h dark-phase food intake in estradiol-treated, but not oil-treated, OVX rats. During a longer feeding test, we demonstrated that i.c.v. administration of mCPP decreased 22-h food intake in oil-treated and, to a greater extent, estradiol-treated OVX rats. In a second study, we demonstrated that estradiol increased 5-HT(2C) receptor protein content in the caudal brainstem, but not hypothalamus, of OVX rats. We conclude that a physiologically-relevant regimen of acute estradiol treatment increases sensitivity to mCPP's anorexigenic effect. Our demonstration that this same regimen of estradiol treatment increases 5-HT(2C) receptor protein content in the caudal hindbrain of OVX rats provides a possible mechanism to explain our behavioral findings.

  4. Desensitization of 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors induced by neonatal DSP-4 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, Joanna; Nowak, Przemysław; Brus, Ryszard

    2007-01-15

    To examine the effect of noradrenergic lesion on the reactivity of central 5-HT(1A) receptors, DSP-4 (50 mg/kg) was administered neonatally 30 min after zimelidine (10 mg/kg) administration. 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors are involved in the regulation of serotonin (5-HT) synthesis. In HPLC assay R-(+)-8-OH-DPAT (0.03 mg/kg) significantly decreased 5-HT synthesis rate in striatum, hypothalamus and frontal cortex of control, whilst nonsignificantly in DSP-4-lesioned adult rats (10-12 weeks old). To determine which type of receptor, pre- or postsynaptically located, is involved in the attenuated response to 5-HT(1A) receptors' agonist, behavioral tests were conducted. R-(+)-8-OH-DPAT (0.015 mg/kg) caused hyperphagia of control rats, but did not change feeding of DSP-4 treated rats. R-(+)-8-OH-DPAT (0.1 mg/kg) induced hypothermia and "5-HT(1A) syndrome" in both control and DSP-4-lesioned animals. The nature of this phenomenon is attributable to the presynaptic adaptive mechanism and suggests the desensitization of 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors of rats with neonatal lesion of the central noradrenergic system.

  5. Structure-based discovery of selective serotonin 5-HT(1B) receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, David; Brea, José; Loza, María Isabel; Carlsson, Jens

    2014-08-05

    The development of safe and effective drugs relies on the discovery of selective ligands. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) G protein-coupled receptors are therapeutic targets for CNS disorders but are also associated with adverse drug effects. The determination of crystal structures for the 5-HT1B and 5-HT2B receptors provided an opportunity to identify subtype selective ligands using structure-based methods. From docking screens of 1.3 million compounds, 22 molecules were predicted to be selective for the 5-HT1B receptor over the 5-HT2B subtype, a requirement for safe serotonergic drugs. Nine compounds were experimentally verified as 5-HT1B-selective ligands, with up to 300-fold higher affinities for this subtype. Three of the ligands were agonists of the G protein pathway. Analysis of state-of-the-art homology models of the two 5-HT receptors revealed that the crystal structures were critical for predicting selective ligands. Our results demonstrate that structure-based screening can guide the discovery of ligands with specific selectivity profiles.

  6. Distribution of serotonin 5-HT1A-binding sites in the brainstem and the hypothalamus, and their roles in 5-HT-induced sleep and ingestive behaviors in rock pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Tiago Souza; Krüger, Jéssica; Melleu, Fernando Falkenburger; Herold, Christina; Zilles, Karl; Poli, Anicleto; Güntürkün, Onur; Marino-Neto, José

    2015-12-15

    Serotonin 1A receptors (5-HT1ARs), which are widely distributed in the mammalian brain, participate in cognitive and emotional functions. In birds, 5-HT1ARs are expressed in prosencephalic areas involved in visual and cognitive functions. Diverse evidence supports 5-HT1AR-mediated 5-HT-induced ingestive and sleep behaviors in birds. Here, we describe the distribution of 5-HT1ARs in the hypothalamus and brainstem of birds, analyze their potential roles in sleep and ingestive behaviors, and attempt to determine the involvement of auto-/hetero-5-HT1ARs in these behaviors. In 6 pigeons, the anatomical distribution of [(3)H]8-OH-DPAT binding in the rostral brainstem and hypothalamus was examined. Ingestive/sleep behaviors were recorded (1h) in 16 pigeons pretreated with MM77 (a heterosynaptic 5-HT1AR antagonist; 23 or 69 nmol) for 20 min, followed by intracerebroventricular ICV injection of 5-HT (N:8; 150 nmol), 8-OH-DPAT (DPAT, a 5-HT1A,7R agonist, 30 nmol N:8) or vehicle. 5-HT- and DPAT-induced sleep and ingestive behaviors, brainstem 5-HT neuronal density and brain 5-HT content were examined in 12 pigeons, pretreated by ICV with the 5-HT neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) or vehicle (N:6/group). The distribution of brainstem and diencephalic c-Fos immunoreactivity after ICV injection of 5-HT, DPAT or vehicle (N:5/group) into birds provided with or denied access to water is also described. 5-HT1ARs are concentrated in the brainstem 5-HTergic areas and throughout the periventricular hypothalamus, preoptic nuclei and circumventricular organs. 5-HT and DPAT produced a complex c-Fos expression pattern in the 5-HT1AR-enriched preoptic hypothalamus and the circumventricular organs, which are related to drinking and sleep regulation, but modestly affected c-Fos expression in 5-HTergic neurons. The 5-HT-induced ingestivebehaviors and the 5-HT- and DPAT-induced sleep behaviors were reduced by MM77 pretreatment. 5,7-DHT increased sleep per se, decreased tryptophan

  7. Mutational analysis of the promoter and the coding region of the 5-HT1A gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, J.; Noethen, M.M.; Shimron-Abarbanell, D. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Disturbances of serotonergic pathways have been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Serotonin (5HT) receptors can be subdivided into at least three major families (5HT1, 5HT2, and 5HT3). Five human 5HT1 receptor subtypes have been cloned, namely 1A, 1D{alpha}, 1D{beta}, 1E, and 1F. Of these, the 5HT1A receptor is the best characterized subtype. In the present study we sought to identify genetic variation in the 5HT1A receptor gene which through alteration of protein function or level of expression might contribute to the genetics of neuropsychiatric diseases. The coding region and the 5{prime} promoter region of the 5HT1A gene from 159 unrelated subjects (45 schizophrenic, 46 bipolar affective, and 43 patients with Tourette`s syndrome, as well as 25 controls) were analyzed using SSCA. SSCA revealed the presence of two mutations both located in the coding region of the 5HT1A receptor gene. The first mutation is a rare silent C{r_arrow}T substitution at nucleotide position 549. The second mutation is characterized by a base pair substitution (A{r_arrow}G) at the first position of codon 28 and results in an amino acid exchange (Ile{r_arrow}Val). Since Val28 was found only in a single schizophrenic patient and in none of the other patients or controls, we decided to extend our samples and to use a restriction assay for screening a further 74 schizophrenic, 95 bipolar affective, and 49 patients with Tourette`s syndrome, as well as 185 controls, for the presence of the mutation. In total, the mutation was found in 2 schizophrenic patients, in 3 bipolars, in 1 Tourette patient, and in 5 controls. To our knowledge the Ile-28-Val substitution reported here is the first natural occuring molecular variant which has been identified for a serotonin receptor so far.

  8. Brain 5-HT deficiency increases stress vulnerability and impairs antidepressant responses following psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Benjamin D; Ni, Jason R; Caron, Marc G

    2015-02-24

    Brain serotonin (5-HT) deficiency and exposure to psychosocial stress have both been implicated in the etiology of depression and anxiety disorders, but whether 5-HT deficiency influences susceptibility to depression- and anxiety-like phenotypes induced by psychosocial stress has not been formally established. Most clinically effective antidepressants increase the extracellular levels of 5-HT, and thus it has been hypothesized that antidepressant responses result from the reversal of endogenous 5-HT deficiency, but this hypothesis remains highly controversial. Here we evaluated the impact of brain 5-HT deficiency on stress susceptibility and antidepressant-like responses using tryptophan hydroxylase 2 knockin (Tph2KI) mice, which display 60-80% reductions in brain 5-HT. Our results demonstrate that 5-HT deficiency leads to increased susceptibility to social defeat stress (SDS), a model of psychosocial stress, and prevents the fluoxetine (FLX)-induced reversal of SDS-induced social avoidance, suggesting that 5-HT deficiency may impair antidepressant responses. In light of recent clinical and preclinical studies highlighting the potential of inhibiting the lateral habenula (LHb) to achieve antidepressant and antidepressant-like responses, we also examined whether LHb inhibition could achieve antidepressant-like responses in FLX-insensitive Tph2KI mice subjected to SDS. Our data reveal that using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) to inhibit LHb activity leads to reduced SDS-induced social avoidance behavior in both WT and Tph2KI mice. This observation provides additional preclinical evidence that inhibiting the LHb might represent a promising alternative therapeutic approach under conditions in which selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors are ineffective.

  9. 5-HT1A receptors modulate the consolidation of learning in normal and cognitively impaired rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, A; Hong, E

    1999-03-01

    Attempts were made to further analyze the role of 5-HT1A receptors in consolidation of learning by evaluating the role of these receptors in cognitively normal and impaired animals. The effects of post-training administration of 8-OH-DPAT and 5-HT1A receptor antagonists, WAY 100135, WAY 100635, and S-UH-301, plus the cholinergic and glutamatergic antagonists, scopolamine and dizolcipine, respectively, were determined using an autoshaping learning task. The results showed that 8-OH-DPAT increased the number of conditioned responses, whereas WAY100135, WAY100635, and S-UH-301, and the 5-HT depleter, p-chloroamphetamine (PCA), had no effect. PCA did not change the silent properties of the 5-HT1A receptor antagonists. PCA, WAY100635, and S-UH-301, but not GR127935 (a 5-HT1B/1D-receptor antagonist) or MDL100907 (a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist), reversed the effect to 8-OH-DPAT. Ketanserin (a 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist) and ondansetron (a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist), at a dose that increased the conditioned responses by itself, reversed the effect of 8-OH-DPAT. Moreover, 8-OH-DPAT or S-UH-301 reversed the learning deficit induced by scopolamine and dizocilpine whereas WAY100635 reversed the effect of scopolamine only. These data confirm a role for presynaptic 5-HT1A receptors during the consolidation of learning and support the hypothesis that serotonergic, cholinergic, and glutamatergic systems interact in cognitively impaired animals.

  10. Serotonergic effects of dotarizine in coronary artery and in oocytes expressing 5-HT2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, C; Herrero, C J; García-Palomero, E; Renart, J; García, A G; Lomax, R B

    1997-08-01

    In strips of pig coronary arteries incubated in oxygenated Krebs-bicarbonate solution at 37 degrees C, dotarizine blocked the phasic contractions evoked by 5-HT (0.5 microM) or K+ depolarization (35 mM K+) with an IC50 of 0.22 and 3.7 microM, respectively. Flunarizine inhibited both types of contractions with IC50 values of 1.7 microM for 5-HT and 2.4 microM for K+ responses. In Xenopus oocytes injected with in vitro transcribed RNA encoding for 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors, 5-HT (100 nM for 20 s) applied every 10 min caused, in both cases, a reproducible inward current through Ca2(+)-activated Cl- channels (ICl). Dotarizine inhibited the 5-HT2A response in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50 of 2.2 nM. In contrast, the 5-HT2C response was unaffected by 1 microM dotarizine and blocked around 62% by 10 microM of this drug. The ICl activated either by intracellular injection of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) in oocytes or by direct photorelease of Ca2+ in DM-nitrophen-injected oocytes was unaffected by 10 microM dotarizine. It is concluded that dotarizine blocks 5-HT2A receptors with a high affinity; the compound is devoid of intracellular effects on any further steps of the transduction pathway (i.e., IP3 receptor). Contrary to flunarizine that blocks equally well the serotonergic and the K+ vascular responses, dotarizine exhibits 17-fold higher affinity for vascular 5-HT receptors. These findings might be relevant to an understanding of the mechanism involved in the use of dotarizine and flunarizine as prophylactic agents in migraine.

  11. 5-HT1D receptor agonists and human coronary artery reactivity in vitro: crossover comparisons of 5-HT and sumatriptan with rizatriptan and L-741,519.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmore, J; Boulanger, C M; Desta, B; Hill, R G; Schofield, W N; Taylor, A A

    1996-10-01

    1. Rizatriptan (MK-462, (N,N-dimethyl-2-[5-(1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)-1H-indol-3-yl] ethylamine)) and its structurally related analogue L-741,519 (N-methyl-4-[5-(1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)-1H-indol-3-yl]piperidine) are novel 5-HT1D-receptor agonists. Rizatriptan has shown efficacy as an anti-migraine agent in clinical trials. Since angiographic studies in patients have shown that sumatriptan (an established 5-HT1D-receptor agonist) can cause coronary artery vasoconstriction, we compared the effects of rizatriptan and L-741,519 with those of 5-HT and sumatriptan on endothelium-denuded segments of human coronary artery in vitro. 2. Coronary arteries were obtained from explanted hearts from patients undergoing cardiac transplantation (n = 16 viable arteries from 13 males, 3 females, aged 38-68 years) and arterial segments (5-6 mm in length) were mounted in organ baths for isometric tension recording. Each segment was first exposed to 45mM KCl and then to 5-HT (1 nM-100 microM). Concentration-effect curves to rizatriptan and sumatriptan (Study 1, n = 6 or 7 arteries) or sumatriptan and L-741,519 (Study 2, n = 8 arteries) were then performed in a consecutive and random manner. The response to repeated application of 5-HT was obtained in separate segments. 3. One artery showed severe atheroma and was not included in the analysis. ANOVA showed that 5-HT responsiveness varied significantly between arteries from different patients; but not between arterial segments from the same patient. Desensitization was seen consistently across all agonists but did not significantly affect inter-agonist comparisons. 4. There was graded effectiveness in the ability of the agonists to cause contraction with the rank order of Emax values being 5-HT > sumatriptan > L-741,519 > rizatriptan. In terms of EC50 values, L-741,519 was significantly more potent than sumatriptan. 5. The present study (using a 'cross-over' experimental protocol) confirms our previous observation that rizatriptan is less

  12. 5-HT2B Receptor Antagonists Inhibit Fibrosis and Protect from RV Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Wiebke Janssen; Yves Schymura; Tatyana Novoyatleva; Baktybek Kojonazarov; Mario Boehm; Astrid Wietelmann; Himal Luitel; Kirsten Murmann; Damian Richard Krompiec; Aleksandra Tretyn; Soni Savai Pullamsetti; Norbert Weissmann; Werner Seeger; Hossein Ardeschir Ghofrani; Ralph Theo Schermuly

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The serotonin (5-HT) pathway was shown to play a role in pulmonary hypertension (PH), but its functions in right ventricular failure (RVF) remain poorly understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of Terguride (5-HT2A and 2B receptor antagonist) or SB204741 (5-HT2B receptor antagonist) on right heart function and structure upon pulmonary artery banding (PAB) in mice. Methods. Seven days after PAB, mice were treated for 14 days with Terguride (0.2 mg/kg b...

  13. 5-HT receptors involved in initiation or modulation of motor patterns: opportunities for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, D I

    1994-08-01

    A clearer understanding of the role of descending systems in motor control can be achieved by using in vitro preparations of mammalian spinal cord that display patterned motor output, together with the use of selective pharmacological agents. It has been suggested that 5-HT is involved in either the initiation or the modulation of certain motor behaviours, and that it acts to enhance or regulate the motor pattern. Most attention has been paid to the locomotor rhythms underlying walking or swimming, and in respiratory pattern generation. In this article, David Wallis discusses the involvement of 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors in these processes and the possible therapeutic relevance.

  14. 5-HT7受体对肠道运动的调节作用%The role of 5-HT7 receptor in modulation of intestinal motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹百仓; 董蕾; 李红; 王燕; 赵刚

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT7) receptor in the intestinal tract of rat constipation and diarrhea models so as to probe the role of 5-HT7 receptor in modulation of intestinal motility. Methods Rat model of constipation was established by gastric irrigation with cool water. Rat model of diarrhea was established by restrain stress while the contorl rats were not intervened. After gastrointestinal transiting time and feces properties were surveyed, the expression of intestinal 5-HT7 receptor was investigater by immunohis-tochemistry and realtime quantitative PCR. Results The feces properties of constipation were less and drier than those of the controls, and the gastrointestinal transiting time in constipation was longer. The number of positive cells and mRNA expression of 5-HT7 receptor in the ileum and colon of the constipation rats were higher than those of the controls (P<0.01), and higher in the colon of the constipation rats than in the diarrhea group (P<0. 01). Conclusion 5-HT7 receptor plays a role in modulating gastrointestinal tract contractility and the colonic migrating motor complex (CMMC). The gastrointestinal dyskinesis in constipation rats may be associated with a higher expression of 5-HT7 receptor in the intestines.%目的 观察5羟色胺7(5-HT7)受体在便秘及腹泻模型大鼠肠道中的表达差异,探索其对肠道运动的调节作用.方法 用冰水灌胃法制备便秘大鼠模型,束缚刺激方法制备腹泻模型并设对照组.观察各组胃肠通过时间、粪便形状,用免疫组化及实时定量PCR法测定各组大鼠肠道组织中5-HT7受体阳性细胞数及基因表达差异.结果 便秘组大鼠粪便特征及胃肠通过时间显示胃肠运动迟缓特征;而腹泻组粪便特征及胃肠通过时间显示胃肠运动过速特征.便秘组回肠及结肠组织中5-HT7受体阳性细胞数及基因表达高于对照组(P<0.01),并且结肠组织中高于腹泻组(P<0.01).

  15. 5-HT7 receptor modulates GABAergic transmission in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus and controls cortical release of serotonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena eKusek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The 5-HT7 receptor is one of the several serotonin (5-HT receptor subtypes that are expressed in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN. Some earlier findings suggested that 5-HT7 receptors in the DRN were localized on GABAergic interneurons modulating the activity of 5-HT projection neurons. The aim of the present study was to find out how the 5-HT7 receptor modulates the GABAergic synaptic input to putative 5-HT DRN neurons, and whether blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor would affect the release of 5-HT in the target structure. Male Wistar rats with microdialysis probes implanted in the prefrontal cortex (PFC received injections of the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist (2R-1-[(3-hydroxyphenylsulfonyl]-2-[2-(4-methyl-1 piperidinylethyl]pyrrolidine hydrochloride (SB 269970, which induced an increase in the levels of 5-HT and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA in the PFC. In another set of experiments whole-cell recordings from presumed projection neurons were carried out using DRN slices. SB 269970 application resulted in depolarization and in an increase in the firing frequency of the cells. In order to activate 5-HT7 receptors, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT was applied in the presence of N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl-1piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-2- pyridinylcyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY100635. Hyperpolarization of cells and a decrease in the firing frequency were observed after activation of the 5-HT7 receptor. Blockade of 5-HT7 receptors caused

  16. Acute uptake inhibition increases extracellular serotonin in the rat forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, J J; Auerbach, S B

    1993-06-01

    The effect of acute uptake inhibition on serotonin (5-HT) in the rat central nervous system was monitored by using in vivo dialysis. Peripheral administration of the selective 5-HT uptake blocker, fluoxetine, caused a dose-dependent increase in extracellular 5-HT in both the diencephalon and the striatum. Administration of fluoxetine or sertraline, another selective 5-HT uptake inhibitor, caused a prolonged (24 hr) increase in 5-HT and decrease in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. In addition, fluoxetine and sertraline attenuated the 5-HT releasing effect of fenfluramine administered 24 hr later. Local infusion of fluoxetine into the diencephalon caused an increase in 5-HT that was twice as large as the effect of peripheral injection. Peripheral fluoxetine, by enhancing extracellular 5-HT in the raphe, probably resulted in activation of somatodendritic autoreceptors and inhibition of 5-HT neuronal discharge. Thus, the increase in 5-HT in the diencephalon after peripheral fluoxetine presumably reflected a balance between decreased release and inhibition of reuptake. In support of this, after first infusing fluoxetine into the diencephalon to maximally block reuptake, peripheral injection of the uptake inhibitor caused a decrease in 5-HT.

  17. Expression of hippocampal serotonin receptors 5-HT2C and 5-HT5A in a rat model of diet-induced obesity supplemented with tryptophan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Esparza, Sarahi; Berumen, Laura C; Padilla, Karla; Miledi, Ricardo; García-Alcocer, Guadalupe

    2015-05-01

    Food intake regulation is a complex mechanism that involves endogenous substances and central nervous system structures like hypothalamus or even hippocampus. The neurotransmitter serotonin is distinguished as food intake mediator; within its multiples receptors, the 5-HT2C type is characterized by its inhibitory appetite action but there is no information about 5-HT5A receptors involvement in obesity disease. It is also unknown if there are any changes in the receptors expression in rats hippocampus with induced obesity during development through a high energy diet (HED) supplemented with tryptophan (W). To appreciate the receptors expression pattern in the hippocampus, obesity was induced to young Sprague Dawley rats through a HED and supplemented with W. Immunocytochemical and western blot techniques were used to study the receptor distribution and quantify the protein expression. The rats with HED diet developed obesity until week 13 of treatment. The 5-HT2C receptor expression decreased in CA1, CA2, CA3 and DG of HED group; and also in CA2, CA3 and DG for HEDW group. The 5-HT5A receptor expression only decreased in DG for HED group. Variations of the two serotonin receptors subtypes support their potential role in obesity.

  18. Different distributions of the 5-HT reuptake complex and the postsynaptic 5-HT(2A) receptors in Brodmann areas and brain hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosel, Pilar; Arranz, Belén; Urretavizcaya, Mikel; Oros, Miguel; San, Luis; Vallejo, Julio; Navarro, Miguel Angel

    2002-08-30

    The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of the presynaptic 5-HT reuptake complex and the 5-HT(2A) receptors through Brodmann areas from two control subjects, together with the possible existence of laterality between both brain hemispheres. A left laterality was observed in the postsynaptic 5-HT(2A) binding sites, with significantly higher B(max) values in the left frontal and cingulate cortex. In frontal cortex, [3H]imipramine and [3H]paroxetine binding showed the highest B(max) values in areas 25, 10 and 11. In cingulate cortex, the highest [3H]imipramine and [3H]paroxetine B(max) values were noted in Brodmann area 33 followed by area 24, while postsynaptic 5-HT(2A) receptors were mainly distributed through Brodmann areas 23 and 29. In temporal cortex, the highest [3H]imipramine and [3H]paroxetine B(max) was noted in Brodmann areas 28 and 34, followed by areas 35 and 38. All Brodmann areas from parietal cortex (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 39, 40 and 43) showed similar presynaptic and postsynaptic binding values. In occipital cortex no differences were observed with regard to the brain hemisphere or to the Brodmann area (17, 18 and 19). These results suggest the need to carefully define the brain hemisphere and the Brodmann areas studied, as well to avoid comparisons between studies including different Brodmann areas or brain hemispheres.

  19. Differences in the effects of 5-HT1A receptor agonists on forced swimming behavior and brain 5-HT metabolism between low and high aggressive mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenema, AH; Cremers, TIFH; Jongsma, ME; Steenbergen, PJ; de Boer, SF; Koolhaas, JM; Jongsma, Minke E.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Male wild house- mice genetically selected for long attack latency ( LAL) and short attack latency ( SAL) differ in structural and functional properties of postsynaptic serotonergic- 1A ( 5- HT1A) receptors. These mouse lines also show divergent behavioral responses in the forced swimming

  20. 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptor agonists and aggression : A pharmacological challenge of the serotonin deficiency hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Sietse F.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    2005-01-01

    More than any other brain neurotransmitter system, the indolamine serotonin (5-HT) has been linked to aggression in a wide and diverse range of species, including humans. The nature of this linkage, however, is not simple and it has proven difficult to unravel the precise role of this amine in the p

  1. Central 5-HT4 receptor binding as biomarker of serotonergic tonus in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, M E; Fisher, P M; Jensen, C G

    2014-01-01

    levels, is associated with a decline in brain 5-HT4R binding. A total of 35 healthy men were studied in a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study. Participants were assigned to receive 3 weeks of oral dosing with placebo or fluoxetine, 40 mg per day. Brain 5-HT4R binding was quantified...... at baseline and at follow-up with [(11)C]SB207145 positron emission tomography (PET). Three weeks of intervention with fluoxetine was associated with a 5.2% reduction in brain 5-HT4R binding (P=0.017), whereas placebo intervention did not change 5-HT4R binding (P=0.52). Our findings are consistent...

  2. Characterization of SB-269970-A, a selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist

    OpenAIRE

    Hagan, Jim J.; Price, Gary W; Jeffrey, Phillip; Deeks, Nigel J; Stean, Tania; Piper, David; Smith, Martin I; Upton, Neil; Medhurst, Andrew D; Middlemiss, Derek N; Riley, Graham J; Lovell, Peter J; Bromidge, Steven M; Thomas, David R.

    2000-01-01

    The novel 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, SB-269970-A, potently displaced [3H]-5-CT from human 5-HT7(a) (pKi 8.9±0.1) and 5-HT7 receptors in guinea-pig cortex (pKi 8.3±0.2).5-CT stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in 5-HT7(a)/HEK293 membranes (pEC50 7.5±0.1) and SB-269970-A (0.03–1 μM) inhibited the 5-CT concentration-response with no significant alteration in the maximal response. The pA2 (8.5±0.2) for SB-269970-A agreed well with the pKi determined from [3H]-5-CT binding studies.5-CT-stimulated...

  3. Characterization of SB-269970-A, a selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist

    OpenAIRE

    Hagan, Jim J; Price, Gary W; Jeffrey, Phillip; Deeks, Nigel J; Stean, Tania; Piper, David; Smith, Martin I.; Upton, Neil; Medhurst, Andrew D.; Middlemiss, Derek N; Riley, Graham J; Lovell, Peter J; Bromidge, Steven M; Thomas, David R.

    2000-01-01

    The novel 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, SB-269970-A, potently displaced [3H]-5-CT from human 5-HT7(a) (pKi 8.9±0.1) and 5-HT7 receptors in guinea-pig cortex (pKi 8.3±0.2).5-CT stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in 5-HT7(a)/HEK293 membranes (pEC50 7.5±0.1) and SB-269970-A (0.03–1 μM) inhibited the 5-CT concentration-response with no significant alteration in the maximal response. The pA2 (8.5±0.2) for SB-269970-A agreed well with the pKi determined from [3H]-5-CT binding studies.5-CT-stimulated...

  4. Potentiation of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine-induced hyperthermia by harmaline and the involvement of activation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xi-Ling; Shen, Hong-Wu; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2015-02-01

    5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) and harmaline are serotonin (5-HT) analogs often abused together, which alters thermoregulation that may indicate the severity of serotonin toxicity. Our recent studies have revealed that co-administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitor harmaline leads to greater and prolonged exposure to 5-HT agonist 5-MeO-DMT that might be influenced by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) status. This study was to define the effects of harmaline and 5-MeO-DMT on thermoregulation in wild-type and CYP2D6-humanized (Tg-CYP2D6) mice, as well as the involvement of 5-HT receptors. Animal core body temperatures were monitored noninvasively in the home cages after implantation of telemetry transmitters and administration of drugs. Harmaline (5 and 15 mg/kg, i.p.) alone was shown to induce hypothermia that was significantly affected by CYP2D6 status. In contrast, higher doses of 5-MeO-DMT (10 and 20 mg/kg) alone caused hyperthermia. Co-administration of harmaline (2, 5 or 15 mg/kg) remarkably potentiated the hyperthermia elicited by 5-MeO-DMT (2 or 10 mg/kg), which might be influenced by CYP2D6 status at certain dose combination. Interestingly, harmaline-induced hypothermia was only attenuated by 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635, whereas 5-MeO-DMT- and harmaline-5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia could be suppressed by either WAY-100635 or 5-HT2A receptor antagonists (MDL-100907 and ketanserin). Moreover, stress-induced hyperthermia under home cage conditions was not affected by WAY-100635 but surprisingly attenuated by MDL-100907 and ketanserin. Our results indicate that co-administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitor largely potentiates 5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia that involves the activation of both 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. These findings shall provide insights into development of anxiolytic drugs and new strategies to relieve the lethal hyperthermia in serotonin toxicity.

  5. Conditioned taste aversion: modulation by 5-HT receptor activity and corticosterone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boris, Gorzalka; Hanson, Laura; Harrington, J

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments were designed to elucidate the involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system in the acquisition of lithium chloride-conditioned taste aversion. In Experiment 1, rats were administered either vehicle or 50 mg/kg nefazodone daily fo......, corticosterone-treated animals required more trials to reach extinction. These results suggest the involvement of both the 5-HT system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in lithium chloride-conditioned taste aversion....

  6. Identification of critical residues in loop E in the 5-HT3ASR binding site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthalagi Mani

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The serotonin type 3 receptor (5-HT3R is a member of a superfamily of ligand gated ion channels. All members of this family share a large degree of sequence homology and presumably significant structural similarity. A large number of studies have explored the structure-function relationships of members of this family, particularly the nicotinic and GABA receptors. This information can be utilized to gain additional insights into specific structural and functional features of other receptors in this family. Results Thirteen amino acids in the mouse 5-HT3ASR that correspond to the putative E binding loop of the nicotinic α7 receptor were chosen for mutagenesis. Due to the presence of a highly conserved glycine in this region, it has been suggested that this binding loop is comprised of a hairpin turn and may form a portion of the ligand-binding site in this ion channel family. Mutation of the conserved glycine (G147 to alanine eliminated binding of the 5-HT3R antagonist [3H]granisetron. Three tyrosine residues (Y140, Y142 and Y152 also significantly altered the binding of 5-HT3R ligands. Mutations in neighboring residues had little or no effect on binding of these ligands to the 5-HT3ASR. Conclusion Our data supports a role for the putative E-loop region of the 5-HT3R in the binding of 5-HT, mCPBG, d-tc and lerisetron. 5-HT and mCPBG interact with Y142, d-tc with Y140 and lerisetron with both Y142 and Y152. Our data also provides support for the hypothesis that this region of the receptor is present in a loop structure.

  7. Impaired social behavior in 5-HT3A receptor knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Smit-Rigter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The 5-HT3 receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel expressed on interneurons throughout the brain. So far, analysis of the 5-HT3A knockout mouse revealed changes in nociceptive processing and a reduction in anxiety related behavior. Recently, it was shown that the 5-HT3 receptor is also expressed on Cajal-Retzius cells which play a key role in cortical development and that knockout mice lacking this receptor showed aberrant growth of the dendritic tree of cortical layer II/III pyramidal neurons. Other mouse models in which serotonergic signaling was disrupted during development showed similar morphological changes in the cortex, and in addition, also deficits in social behavior. Here, we subjected male and female 5-HT3A knockout mice and their non-transgenic littermates to several tests of social behavior. We found that 5-HT3A knockout mice display impaired social communication in the social transmission of food preference task. Interestingly, we showed that in the social interaction test only female 5-HT3A knockout mice spent less time in reciprocal social interaction starting after 5 minutes of testing. Moreover, we observed differences in preference for social novelty for male and female 5-HT3A knockout mice during the social approach test. However, no changes in olfaction, exploratory activity and anxiety were detected. These results indicate that the 5-HT3A knockout mouse displays impaired social behavior with specific changes in males and females, reminiscent to other mouse models in which serotonergic signaling is disturbed in the developing brain.

  8. Memory formation, amnesia, improved memory and reversed amnesia: 5-HT role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Garcia, G; Meneses, A

    2008-12-16

    Traditionally, the search for memory circuits has been focused on examinations of amnesic and AD patients, cerebral lesions and neuroimaging. A complementary alternative has become the use of autoradiography with radioligands, aiming to identify neurobiological markers associated with memory formation, amnesia states and (more recently) recovery from memory deficits. Indeed, ex vivo autoradiographic studies offer the advantage of detecting functionally active receptors altered by pharmacological tools during memory formation, amnesia states and memory recovery. Moreover, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) systems have become a pharmacological and genetic target in the treatment of memory disorders. Herein evidence from studies involving expression of 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(4), and 5-HT(6) receptors in memory formation, amnesia conditions (e.g., pharmacological models or aging) and recovery of memory is reviewed. Thus, specific 5-HT receptors were expressed in trained animals relative to untrained in brain areas such as cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. However, relative to the control group, rats showing amnesia or recovered memory, showed in the hippocampus, region where explicit memory is formed, a complex pattern of 5-HT receptor expression. An intermediate expression occurred in amygdala, septum and some cortical areas in charge of explicit memory storage. Even in brain areas thought to be in charge of procedural memory such as basal ganglia, animals showing recovered memory displayed an intermediate expression, while amnesic groups, depending on the pharmacological amnesia model, showed up- or down-regulation. In conclusion, evidence indicates that autoradiography, by using specific radioligands, offers excellent opportunities to map dynamic changes in brain areas engaged in these cognitive processes. The 5-HT modulatory role strengthens or suppresses memory is critically depend on the timing of the memory formation.

  9. The role of serotonin 5-HT7 receptor in regulating sleep and wakefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Jaime M; Jantos, Héctor

    2014-01-01

    Different approaches have been followed to characterize the role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 7 (5-HT7) in the regulation of sleep-wake behavior: (1) 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice spend less time in rapid eye movement sleep than their wild-type counterparts, mainly during the light period. In contrast, there is no difference between the genotypes in time spent in wakefulness or slow-wave sleep. (2) Systemic administration of the selective 5-HT7 receptor agonist LP-211 significantly increased wakefulness (time spent awake) and reduced rapid eye movement sleep in the rat. Direct infusion of LP-211 into the dorsal raphe nucleus, locus coeruleus nucleus, basal forebrain (horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca), or laterodorsal tegmental nucleus also produced a decrease in rapid eye movement sleep. Additionally, microinjection of the 5-HT7 receptor agonist into the basal forebrain augmented the time animals remained awake. Local injection of the 5-HT7 receptor agonist LP-44 into the dorsal raphe nucleus also suppressed rapid eye movement sleep in the rat. (3) A similar reduction of rapid eye movement sleep has been described following intraperitoneal injection of the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonists SB-269970 and SB-656104 in the rat and oral administration of the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist NJ-18038683 to rat and man. Local microinjection of SB-269970 into the dorsal raphe nucleus and basal forebrain also induced a decrease in rapid eye movement sleep in the rat. This tends to suggest that the on-off (activation/blockade), two-state ligand-receptor interaction model is not tenable for the 5-HT7 receptor.

  10. Bidirectional regulation of emotional memory by 5-HT1B receptors involves hippocampal p11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, T M; Alvarsson, A; Stan, T L; Zhang, X; Hascup, K N; Hascup, E R; Kehr, J; Gerhardt, G A; Warner-Schmidt, J; Arango-Lievano, M; Kaplitt, M G; Ogren, S O; Greengard, P; Svenningsson, P

    2013-10-01

    Cognitive impairments are common in depression and involve dysfunctional serotonin neurotransmission. The 5-HT1B receptor (5-HT(1B)R) regulates serotonin transmission, via presynaptic receptors, but can also affect transmitter release at heterosynaptic sites. This study aimed at investigating the roles of the 5-HT(1B)R, and its adapter protein p11, in emotional memory and object recognition memory processes by the use of p11 knockout (p11KO) mice, a genetic model for aspects of depression-related states. 5-HT(1B)R agonist treatment induced an impairing effect on emotional memory in wild type (WT) mice. In comparison, p11KO mice displayed reduced long-term emotional memory performance. Unexpectedly, 5-HT(1B)R agonist stimulation enhanced memory in p11KO mice, and this atypical switch was reversed after hippocampal adeno-associated virus mediated gene transfer of p11. Notably, 5-HT(1B)R stimulation increased glutamatergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus in p11KO mice, but not in WT mice, as measured by both pre- and postsynaptic criteria. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrated global hippocampal reductions of inhibitory GABA, which may contribute to the memory enhancement and potentiation of pre- and post-synaptic measures of glutamate transmission by a 5-HT(1B)R agonist in p11KO mice. It is concluded that the level of hippocampal p11 determines the directionality of 5-HT(1B)R action on emotional memory processing and modulates hippocampal functionality. These results emphasize the importance of using relevant disease models when evaluating the role of serotonin neurotransmission in cognitive deficits related to psychiatric disorders.

  11. Autoantibodies against serotoninergic 5-HT(4) receptor in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidert, M; Wördehoff, S; Hansen, A; Eftekhari, P

    2012-01-01

    Serotoninergic 5-HT(4) receptors have been detected in several tissues including the heart. An autoimmune mechanism may underline the pathogenesis of heart failure. The aim of this work was to look for autoantibodies to the 5-HT(4) receptor in patients with heart failure. We looked for the presence of autoantibodies against 5-HT(4) receptor as well as angiotensin II type (AT1), β(1)-adrenoceptor, and muscarinic M2 receptors in the sera of 176 patients with heart failure (female: n=96, male: n=80) and in 108 controls (female: n=69; male: n=39). The prevalence of 5-HT(4) receptor autoantibodies was 18.8% (n=33) in the group of patients with heart failure and 4.6% (n=5) in the control group (preceptor M2 4.2 (n=5). Female patients with diabetes and heart failure had a positive trend (p=0.07) to the presence of 5-HT(4) receptor autoantibodies. In the group of female heart failure patients we found a significant correlation with the presence of coronary heart disease (p=0.05). The clinical relevance of 5-HT(4) receptor autoantibodies has to be further studied. The prevalence of 5-HT(4) receptor autoantibodies was highly significant in patients with chronic heart failure. It was also a significant correlation between these autoantibodies and the female subgroup with coronary heart disease. It is conceivable that the increased prevalence of autoantibodies against the 5-HT(4) receptor in patients with heart failure is more than just an epiphenomenon.

  12. SAR of psilocybin analogs: discovery of a selective 5-HT 2C agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sard, Howard; Kumaran, Govindaraj; Morency, Cynthia; Roth, Bryan L; Toth, Beth Ann; He, Ping; Shuster, Louis

    2005-10-15

    An SAR study of psilocybin and psilocin derivatives reveals that 1-methylpsilocin is a selective agonist at the h5-HT(2C) receptor. The corresponding phosphate derivative, 1-methylpsilocybin, shows efficacy in an animal model for obsessive-compulsive disorder, as does 4-fluoro-N,N-dimethyltryptamine. These results suggest a new area for development of novel 5-HT(2C) agonists with applications for drug discovery.

  13. The role of 5-HT7 Receptor in the pathogenesis of IBS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the role of 5-HT7 receptor in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome(IBS). Methods:Rat model of D-IBS was established by intracolonic instillation of acetic acid and restraint stress; Rat model of C-IBS was established by stomach irrigated with 0-4℃ cool water daily for 14 d. The content and distribution of 5-HT7 receptor at the brain and bowel was examined by immunohistochemistry and the expression of 5-HT7 receptor mRNA was detected by fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR(Real-time PCR). Results:Immunocytochemistry result showed the 5-HT7 rceptor positive staining at hippocampus and hypothalamus of both C-IBS and D-IBS group was stronger than that of control group(P<0.01). The 5-HT7R expression at ileum, proximate colon, distal colon of C-IBS group was significantly stronger than that of control group(P<0.05). Realtime-PCR analysis results showed the expression level of 5-HT7 receptor at hippocampus and hypothalamus of both C-IBS and D-IBS group was increased than that of control group(P<0.05). At proximal and distal colon of C-IBS group, the 5-HT7 receptor mRNA expression was increased compared with control group(P<0.05). Conclusion:The up-regulated expression of 5-HT7 receptor at brain and colon may play an important role in the pathogenesis of C-IBS.

  14. Gaddum and LSD: the birth and growth of experimental and clinical neuropharmacology research on 5-HT in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Green, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    The vasoconstrictor substance named serotonin was identified as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) by Maurice Rapport in 1949. In 1951, Rapport gave Gaddum samples of 5-HT substance allowing him to develop a bioassay to both detect and measure the amine. Gaddum and colleagues rapidly identified 5-HT in brain and showed that lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) antagonized its action in peripheral tissues. Gaddum accordingly postulated that 5-HT might have a role in mood regulation. This review examines t...

  15. Spinal 5-HT3 receptor activation induces behavioral hypersensitivity via a neuronal-glial-neuronal signaling cascade

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Ming; Miyoshi, Kan; Dubner, Ronald; Guo, Wei; Zou, Shiping; Ren, Ke; Noguchi, Koichi; Wei, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the descending serotonin (5-HT) system from the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) in brainstem and the 5-HT3 receptor subtype in the spinal dorsal horn are involved in enhanced descending pain facilitation after tissue and nerve injury. However, the mechanisms underlying the activation of the 5-HT3 receptor and its contribution to facilitation of pain remain unclear. In the present study, activation of spinal 5-HT3 receptor by intrathecal injection of a selective...

  16. The Stimulus Effects of 8-OH-DPAT: Evidence for a 5-HT2A Receptor-Mediated Component

    OpenAIRE

    Reissig, C.J.; Eckler, J.R.; Rabin, R. A.; Rice, K. C.; Winter, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    A previous investigation in our laboratory found that the stimulus effects of the 5-HT2A agonist, LSD, are potentiated by 5-HT1A receptor agonists including the prototypic agonist, 8-OH-DPAT. Also suggestive of behaviorally relevant interactions between 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors are behavioral analyses of locomotor activity, head twitch response, forepaw treading and production of the serotonin syndrome; in some instances effects are augmented, in other, diminished. These observations led u...

  17. Cannabidiol induces rapid-acting antidepressant-like effects and enhances cortical 5-HT/glutamate neurotransmission: role of 5-HT1A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linge, Raquel; Jiménez-Sánchez, Laura; Campa, Leticia; Pilar-Cuéllar, Fuencisla; Vidal, Rebeca; Pazos, Angel; Adell, Albert; Díaz, Álvaro

    2016-04-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), the main non-psychotomimetic component of marihuana, exhibits anxiolytic-like properties in many behavioural tests, although its potential for treating major depression has been poorly explored. Moreover, the mechanism of action of CBD remains unclear. Herein, we have evaluated the effects of CBD following acute and chronic administration in the olfactory bulbectomy mouse model of depression (OBX), and investigated the underlying mechanism. For this purpose, we conducted behavioural (open field and sucrose preference tests) and neurochemical (microdialysis and autoradiography of 5-HT1A receptor functionality) studies following treatment with CBD. We also assayed the pharmacological antagonism of the effects of CBD to dissect out the mechanism of action. Our results demonstrate that CBD exerts fast and maintained antidepressant-like effects as evidenced by the reversal of the OBX-induced hyperactivity and anhedonia. In vivo microdialysis revealed that the administration of CBD significantly enhanced serotonin and glutamate levels in vmPFCx in a different manner depending on the emotional state and the duration of the treatment. The potentiating effect upon neurotransmitters levels occurring immediately after the first injection of CBD might underlie the fast antidepressant-like actions in OBX mice. Both antidepressant-like effect and enhanced cortical 5-HT/glutamate neurotransmission induced by CBD were prevented by 5-HT1A receptor blockade. Moreover, adaptive changes in pre- and post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptor functionality were also found after chronic CBD. In conclusion, our findings indicate that CBD could represent a novel fast antidepressant drug, via enhancing both serotonergic and glutamate cortical signalling through a 5-HT1A receptor-dependent mechanism.

  18. Serotonin decreases aggression via 5-HT1A receptors in the fighting fish Betta splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; O'Hare, Erin P; McNitt, Meredith M; Carpenter, Russ E; Summers, Cliff H

    2007-01-01

    The role of the monoamine neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the modulation of conspecific aggression in the fighting fish (Betta splendens) was investigated using pharmacological manipulations. We used a fish's response to its mirror image as our index of aggressive behavior. We also investigated the effects of some manipulations on monoamine levels in the B. splendens brain. Acute treatment with 5-HT and with the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT both decreased aggressive behavior; however, treatment with the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 did not increase aggression. Chronic treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine caused no significant changes in aggressive behavior and a significant decline in 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations. Treatment with the serotonin synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine resulted in no change in aggression, yet serotonergic activity decreased significantly. Finally, a diet supplemented with L-tryptophan (Trp), the precursor to 5-HT, showed no consistent effects on aggressive behavior or brain monoamine concentrations. These results suggest a complex role for serotonin in the expression of aggression in teleost fishes, and that B. splendens may be a useful model organism in pharmacological and toxicological studies.

  19. 5-HT7 receptor modulators: Amino groups attached to biphenyl scaffold determine functional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjae; Park, Hyeri; Lee, Jeongeun; Tae, Jinsung; Kim, Hak Joong; Min, Sun-Joon; Rhim, Hyewhon; Choo, Hyunah

    2016-11-10

    5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7R) agonists and antagonists have been reported to be used for treatment of neuropathic pain and depression, respectively. In this study, as a novel scaffold for 5-HT7R modulators, we designed and prepared a series of biphenyl-3-yl-methanamine derivatives with various amino groups. Evaluation of functional activities as well as binding affinities of the title compounds identified partial agonists (EC50 = 0.55-3.2 μM) and full antagonists (IC50 = 5.57-23.1 μM) depending on the amino substituents. Molecular docking study suggested that the ligand-based switch in functional activity from agonist to antagonist results from the size of the amino groups and thereby different binding modes to 5-HT7R. In particular, interaction of the ligand with Arg367 of 5-HT7R is shown to differentiate agonists and antagonists. In the pharmacophore model study, two distinct pharmacophore models can tell whether a ligand is an agonist or an antagonist. Taken together, this study provides valuable information for designing novel compounds with selective agonistic or antagonistic properties against 5-HT7R.

  20. Seizure susceptibility alteration through 5-HT(3) receptor: modulation by nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour, Taha; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Riazi, Kiarash; Ghaffarpour, Majid; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2010-01-01

    There is some evidence that epileptic seizures could be induced or increased by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) attenuation, while augmentation of serotonin functions within the brain (e.g. by SSRIs) has been reported to be anticonvulsant. This study was performed to determine the effect of selective 5-HT(3) channel/receptor antagonist granisetron and agonist SR57227 hydrochloride on the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure threshold in mice. The possible interaction of this effect with nitrergic system was also examined using the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and the NO precursor l-arginine. SR57227 (10mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased the seizure threshold compared to control group, while high dose granisetron (10mg/kg, i.p.) proved proconvulsant. Co-administration of sub-effective doses of the 5-HT(3) agonist with l-NAME (5 and 60mg/kg, i.p., respectively) exerted a significant anticonvulsive effect, while sub-effective doses of granisetron (3mg/kg) was observed to have a proconvulsive action with the addition of l-arginine (75mg/kg, i.p.). Our data demonstrate that enhancement of 5-HT(3) receptor function results in as anticonvulsant effect in the PTZ-induced seizure model, and that selective antagonism at the 5-HT(3) receptor yields proconvulsive effects. Furthermore, the NO system may play a role in 5-HT(3) receptor function.

  1. Design and Discovery of Functionally Selective Serotonin 2C (5-HT2C) Receptor Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianjun; McCorvy, John D; Giguere, Patrick M; Zhu, Hu; Kenakin, Terry; Roth, Bryan L; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2016-11-10

    On the basis of the structural similarity of our previous 5-HT2C agonists with the melatonin receptor agonist tasimelteon and the putative biological cross-talk between serotonergic and melatonergic systems, a series of new (2,3-dihydro)benzofuran-based compounds were designed and synthesized. The compounds were evaluated for their selectivity toward 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptors in the calcium flux assay with the ultimate goal to generate selective 5-HT2C agonists. Selected compounds were studied for their functional selectivity by comparing their transduction efficiency at the G protein signaling pathway versus β-arrestin recruitment. The most functionally selective compound (+)-7e produced weak β-arrestin recruitment and also demonstrated less receptor desensitization compared to serotonin in both calcium flux and phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis assays. We report for the first time that selective 5-HT2C agonists possessing weak β-arrestin recruitment can produce distinct receptor desensitization properties.

  2. Functional, molecular and pharmacological advances in 5-HT7 receptor research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Peter B; Sutcliffe, J Gregor

    2004-09-01

    The 5-HT7 receptor was among a group of 5-HT receptors that were discovered using targeted cloning strategies 12 years ago. This receptor is a seven-transmembrane-domain G-protein-coupled receptor that is positively linked to adenylyl cyclase. The distributions of 5-HT7 receptor mRNA, immunolabeling and radioligand binding exhibit strong similarities, with the highest receptor densities present in the thalamus and hypothalamus and significant densities present in the hippocampus and cortex. The recent availability of selective antagonists and knockout mice strains has dramatically increased our knowledge about this receptor. Together with unselective agonists, these new tools have helped to reveal the 5-HT7 receptor distribution in more detail. Important functional roles for the 5-HT7 receptor in thermoregulation, circadian rhythm, learning and memory, hippocampal signaling and sleep have also been established. Hypotheses driving current research indicate that this receptor might be involved in mood regulation, suggesting that the 5-HT7 receptor is a putative target in the treatment of depression.

  3. Role of 5-HT3 receptor on food intake in fed and fasted mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingjin Li

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT receptor subtypes are involved in the regulation of feeding behavior. However, the relative contribution of 5-HT3 receptor remains unclear. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of 5-HT3 receptor in control of feeding behavior in fed and fasted mice.Food intake and expression of c-Fos, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, proopiomelanocortin (POMC and 5-HT in the brain were examined after acute treatment with 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR-57227 alone or in combination with 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron. Food intake was significantly inhibited within 3 h after acute treatment with SR 57227 in fasted mice but not fed mice, and this inhibition was blocked by ondansetron. Immunohistochemical study revealed that fasting-induced c-Fos expression was further enhanced by SR 57227 in the brainstem and the hypothalamus, and this enhancement was also blocked by ondansetron. Furthermore, the fasting-induced downregulation of POMC expression in the hypothalamus and the TH expression in the brain stem was blocked by SR 57227 in the fasted mice, and this effect of SR 57227 was also antagonized by ondansetron.Taken together, our findings suggest that the effect of SR 57227 on the control of feeding behavior in fasted mice may be, at least partially, related to the c-Fos expression in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as POMC system in the hypothalamus and the TH system in the brain stem.

  4. 5-HT2B Receptor Antagonists Inhibit Fibrosis and Protect from RV Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Janssen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The serotonin (5-HT pathway was shown to play a role in pulmonary hypertension (PH, but its functions in right ventricular failure (RVF remain poorly understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of Terguride (5-HT2A and 2B receptor antagonist or SB204741 (5-HT2B receptor antagonist on right heart function and structure upon pulmonary artery banding (PAB in mice. Methods. Seven days after PAB, mice were treated for 14 days with Terguride (0.2 mg/kg bid or SB204741 (5 mg/kg day. Right heart function and remodeling were assessed by right heart catheterization, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and histomorphometric methods. Total secreted collagen content was determined in mouse cardiac fibroblasts isolated from RV tissues. Results. Chronic treatment with Terguride or SB204741 reduced right ventricular fibrosis and showed improved heart function in mice after PAB. Moreover, 5-HT2B receptor antagonists diminished TGF-beta1 induced collagen synthesis of RV cardiac fibroblasts in vitro. Conclusion. 5-HT2B receptor antagonists reduce collagen deposition, thereby inhibiting right ventricular fibrosis. Chronic treatment prevented the development and progression of pressure overload-induced RVF in mice. Thus, 5-HT2B receptor antagonists represent a valuable novel therapeutic approach for RVF.

  5. 5-HT2B receptor antagonists inhibit fibrosis and protect from RV heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Wiebke; Schymura, Yves; Novoyatleva, Tatyana; Kojonazarov, Baktybek; Boehm, Mario; Wietelmann, Astrid; Luitel, Himal; Murmann, Kirsten; Krompiec, Damian Richard; Tretyn, Aleksandra; Pullamsetti, Soni Savai; Weissmann, Norbert; Seeger, Werner; Ghofrani, Hossein Ardeschir; Schermuly, Ralph Theo

    2015-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) pathway was shown to play a role in pulmonary hypertension (PH), but its functions in right ventricular failure (RVF) remain poorly understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of Terguride (5-HT2A and 2B receptor antagonist) or SB204741 (5-HT2B receptor antagonist) on right heart function and structure upon pulmonary artery banding (PAB) in mice. Seven days after PAB, mice were treated for 14 days with Terguride (0.2 mg/kg bid) or SB204741 (5 mg/kg day). Right heart function and remodeling were assessed by right heart catheterization, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and histomorphometric methods. Total secreted collagen content was determined in mouse cardiac fibroblasts isolated from RV tissues. Chronic treatment with Terguride or SB204741 reduced right ventricular fibrosis and showed improved heart function in mice after PAB. Moreover, 5-HT2B receptor antagonists diminished TGF-beta1 induced collagen synthesis of RV cardiac fibroblasts in vitro. 5-HT2B receptor antagonists reduce collagen deposition, thereby inhibiting right ventricular fibrosis. Chronic treatment prevented the development and progression of pressure overload-induced RVF in mice. Thus, 5-HT2B receptor antagonists represent a valuable novel therapeutic approach for RVF.

  6. The effect of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, in chronic fatigue syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    The, G.K.H.; Bleijenberg, G.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accumulating data support the involvement of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) system in the pathophysiology of chronic fatigue syndrome. Neuropharmacologic studies point to a hyperactive 5-HT system, and open-label treatment studies with 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists have shown

  7. Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of Oxindole Derivatives as Potential Radioligands for 5-HT7 Receptor Imaging with PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herth, Matthias Manfred; Volk, Balázs; Pallagi, Katalin

    2012-01-01

    The most recently discovered serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtype, 5-HT(7), is considered to be associated with several CNS disorders. Noninvasive in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) studies of cerebral 5-HT(7) receptors could provide a significant advance in the understanding of the neurobio...

  8. Morphologic research Of the distribution Of serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT7 receptors in spinal Onuf's nucleus Of rats%5-HT2A、5-HT7受体在大鼠脊髓Onuf核分布的形态学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾凡清; 徐晨; 许舸

    2008-01-01

    目的:探讨5-HTZA、5-HT7,受体在雄性大鼠脊髓Onuf核不同运动神经元内分布及其与泌尿生殖功能中枢调控的关系.方法:成年SD大鼠10只(雄性8只、雌性2只),随机分为性别对照组(n=4,雌雄各2只)和逆行示踪组(雄性大鼠,n=6).性别对照组取脊髓L5~6节段,切片后作5-HTZA或5-HT7受体免疫组化染色;逆行示踪组采用重组伪狂犬病毒株(PRV-152)分别注入右侧尿道外括约肌(Eus组;n=3)或右侧坐骨海绵体肌(Ic组;n=3),4d后取L5-6节段,切片后作5-HT2A或5-HT7受体双标记荧光免疫组化染色.分别在光镜或激光共聚焦显微镜下观察5-HT2A、5-HT7受体在Onuf核的分布情况.结果:5-HT2A受体的免疫产物主要位于Onuf核背外侧核的内侧,5-HT7受体则主要位于背外侧核的外侧;雄性大鼠5-HT2A、5-HT7受体在Onuf核的表达明显强于雌性大鼠.免疫荧光双标记显示5-HT2A受体的免疫标记主要分布于支配IC的运动神经元周围,5-HT7受体主要分布于支配EUS的运动神经元.结论:5-HT2A、5-HT7受体不均匀分布在Onuf核支配不同的盆底横纹肌的运动神经元.5-HT2A受体可能主要参与性反射的调节,5-HT7受体则可能主要参与泌尿反射的调控.

  9. Human-derived gut microbiota modulates colonic secretion in mice by regulating 5-HT3 receptor expression via acetate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Yogesh; Schmidt, Bradley A; Linden, David R; Larson, Eric D; Grover, Madhusudan; Beyder, Arthur; Farrugia, Gianrico; Kashyap, Purna C

    2017-07-01

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)], an important neurotransmitter and a paracrine messenger in the gastrointestinal tract, regulates intestinal secretion by its action primarily on 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors. Recent studies highlight the role of gut microbiota in 5-HT biosynthesis. In this study, we determine whether human-derived gut microbiota affects host secretory response to 5-HT and 5-HT receptor expression. We used proximal colonic mucosa-submucosa preparation from age-matched Swiss Webster germ-free (GF) and humanized (HM; ex-GF colonized with human gut microbiota) mice. 5-HT evoked a significantly greater increase in short-circuit current (ΔIsc) in GF compared with HM mice. Additionally, 5-HT3 receptor mRNA and protein expression was significantly higher in GF compared with HM mice. Ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, inhibited 5-HT-evoked ΔIsc in GF mice but not in HM mice. Furthermore, a 5-HT3 receptor-selective agonist, 2-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine hydrochloride, evoked a significantly higher ΔIsc in GF compared with HM mice. Immunohistochemistry in 5-HT3A-green fluorescent protein mice localized 5-HT3 receptor expression to enterochromaffin cells in addition to nerve fibers. The significant difference in 5-HT-evoked ΔIsc between GF and HM mice persisted in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) but was lost after ondansetron application in the presence of TTX. Application of acetate (10 mM) significantly lowered 5-HT3 receptor mRNA in GF mouse colonoids. We conclude that host secretory response to 5-HT may be modulated by gut microbiota regulation of 5-HT3 receptor expression via acetate production. Epithelial 5-HT3 receptor may function as a mediator of gut microbiota-driven change in intestinal secretion.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We found that gut microbiota alters serotonin (5-HT)-evoked intestinal secretion in a 5-HT3 receptor-dependent mechanism and gut microbiota metabolite acetate alters 5-HT3 receptor expression in colonoids.View this article

  10. High-resolution imaging of brain 5-HT{sub 1B} receptors in the rhesus monkey using [{sup 11}C]P943

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabulsi, Nabeel; Huang Yiyun; Weinzimmer, David; Ropchan, Jim; Frost, James J. [Yale PET Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208048, New Haven, CT 06520-8048 (United States); McCarthy, Timothy [Pfizer Global R and D, Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Carson, Richard E.; Ding Yushin [Yale PET Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208048, New Haven, CT 06520-8048 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The serotonin 5-HT{sub 1B} receptors regulate the release of serotonin and are involved in various disease states, including depression and schizophrenia. The goal of the study was to evaluate a high affinity and high selectivity antagonist, [{sup 11}C]P943, as a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for imaging the 5-HT{sub 1B} receptor. [{sup 11}C]P943 was synthesized via N-methylation of the precursor with [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide or [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate using automated modules. The average radiochemical yield was approx. 10% with radiochemical purity of >99% and specific activity of 8.8{+-}3.6 mCi/nmol at the end-of-synthesis (n=37). PET imaging was performed in non-human primates with a high-resolution research tomograph scanner with a bolus/infusion paradigm. Binding potential (BP{sub ND}) was calculated using the equilibrium ratios of regions to cerebellum. The tracer uptake was highest in the globus pallidus and occipital cortex, moderate in basal ganglia and thalamus, and lowest in the cerebellum, which is consistent with the known brain distribution of 5-HT{sub 1B} receptors. Infusion of tracer at different specific activities (by adding various amount of unlabeled P943) reduced BP{sub ND} values in a dose-dependent manner, demonstrating the saturability of the tracer binding. Blocking studies with GR127935 (2 mg/kg iv), a selective 5-HT{sub 1B}/5-HT{sub 1D} antagonist, resulted in reduction of BP{sub ND} values by 42-95% across regions; for an example, in occipital region from 0.71 to 0.03, indicating a complete blockade. These results demonstrate the saturability and specificity of [{sup 11}C]P943 for 5-HT{sub 1B} receptors, suggesting its suitability as a PET radiotracer for in vivo evaluations of the 5-HT{sub 1B} receptor system in humans.

  11. Support for 5-HT2C receptor functional selectivity in vivo utilizing structurally diverse, selective 5-HT2C receptor ligands and the 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine elicited head-twitch response model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Clinton E; Booth, Raymond G; Morgan, Drake

    2013-07-01

    There are seemingly conflicting data in the literature regarding the role of serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2C receptors in the mouse head-twitch response (HTR) elicited by the hallucinogenic 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI). Namely, both 5-HT2C receptor agonists and antagonists, regarding 5-HT2C receptor-mediated Gq-phospholipase C (PLC) signaling, reportedly attenuate the HTR response. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that both classes of 5-HT2C receptor compounds could attenuate the DOI-elicited-HTR in a single strain of mice, C57Bl/6J. The expected results were considered in accordance with ligand functional selectivity. Commercially-available 5-HT2C agonists (CP 809101, Ro 60-0175, WAY 161503, mCPP, and 1-methylpsilocin), novel 4-phenyl-2-N,N-dimethyl-aminotetralin (PAT)-type 5-HT2C agonists (with 5-HT2A/2B antagonist activity), and antagonists selective for 5-HT2A (M100907), 5-HT2C (SB-242084), and 5-HT2B/2C (SB-206553) receptors attenuated the DOI-elicited-HTR. In contrast, there were differential effects on locomotion across classes of compounds. The 5-HT2C agonists and M100907 decreased locomotion, SB-242084 increased locomotion, SB-206553 resulted in dose-dependent biphasic effects on locomotion, and the PATs did not alter locomotion. In vitro molecular pharmacology studies showed that 5-HT2C agonists potent for attenuating the DOI-elicited-HTR also reduced the efficacy of DOI to activate mouse 5-HT2C receptor-mediated PLC signaling in HEK cells. Although there were differences in affinities of a few compounds at mouse compared to human 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors, all compounds tested retained their selectivity for either receptor, regardless of receptor species. Results indicate that 5-HT2C receptor agonists and antagonists attenuate the DOI-elicited-HTR in C57Bl/6J mice, and suggest that structurally diverse 5-HT2C ligands result in different 5-HT2C receptor signaling outcomes compared to DOI.

  12. Discovery of a new class of potential multifunctional atypical antipsychotic agents targeting dopamine D3 and serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors: design, synthesis, and effects on behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butini, Stefania; Gemma, Sandra; Campiani, Giuseppe;

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine D(3) antagonism combined with serotonin 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptor occupancy may represent a novel paradigm for developing innovative antipsychotics. The unique pharmacological features of 5i are a high affinity for dopamine D(3), serotonin 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors, together...... with a low affinity for dopamine D(2) receptors (to minimize extrapyramidal side effects), serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptors (to reduce the risk of obesity under chronic treatment), and for hERG channels (to reduce incidence of torsade des pointes). Pharmacological and biochemical data, including specific c...

  13. Distribution of 5-HT1F receptors in monkey vestibular and trigeminal ganglion cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habiba Usman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence of serotonergic involvement in vestibular pathway contributions to migraine and balance disorders is compelling. Serotonergic 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors are expressed extensively in inner ear ganglia of monkeys and rats. The serotonergic 5-HT1F receptor is also a target of triptans. This study describes its distribution in vestibular and trigeminal ganglia of monkeys. Methods: Using primary polyclonal antibodies raised against oligopeptides specific for the human 5-HT1F receptor, neuronal somatic area and intensity of immunoreactive vestibular and trigeminal ganglia were quantified. Results and Discussion: Virtually all vestibular and considerable trigeminal ganglia showed positive 5-HT1F receptor immunoreactivity. Inferior and superior vestibular ganglia staining appeared confined to distinct cell regions, varying considerably among cells of different sizes: more intense in small, punctate in some medium and regionally polarized in some large cells. Analyses of average somatic vestibular neuronal immunoreactive intensity identified mainly medium sized cells with high standard deviation of intensity corresponding to punctately-stained cells. Less variability occurred in somatic intensity staining and cellular distribution among 5-HT1F receptor immunopositive trigeminal ganglia. Most exhibited similar punctate staining patterns, higher mean somatic immunoreactive intensity and larger neuronal somatic size proportions per size distribution subpopulation compared to vestibular ganglia size distribution populations. Centrally directed vestibular ganglion neuronal processes, cochlear inner hair cells, vestibular hair cells and blood vessels in vestibular maculae and cristae were immunoreactive. The 5-HT1F receptor expression in vestibular ganglia shows complex variable staining intensity patterns associated with cell size of immunopositive neurons, not seen in immunopositive trigeminal ganglia and not previously evident with 5

  14. Platelet serotonin concentration and suicidal behavior in combat related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, Zrnka; Henigsberg, Neven; Pivac, Nela; Nedic, Gordana; Borovecki, Andrea

    2008-02-15

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious and global problem, a psychiatric disorder that frequently occurs with different comorbidities, and is associated with a high suicide rate. Pathophysiologically, both PTSD and suicidal behavior are related to disturbances in the central serotonergic system. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) controls emotional behavior, anxiety, impulsivity and aggression, and nearly all known antidepressants and antianxiety drugs affect 5-HT transmission. Platelet 5-HT can be used as a limited peripheral marker of the central serotonergic synaptosomes, since it is related to particular basic psychopathological characteristics of several psychiatric disorders. Platelet 5-HT concentration has been reported to be similar in PTSD subjects and healthy controls, but suicidal patients across different psychiatric diagnoses have reduced platelet 5-HT concentration. This study examined platelet 5-HT concentration by the spectrofluorimetric method in male subjects: 73 suicidal and 47 non-suicidal veterans with current and chronic combat related PTSD, 45 suicidal and 30 non-suicidal comparative non-PTSD subjects and 147 healthy men. The presence of suicidal behavior (score=0, non-suicidal; scores > or =1, suicidal) was assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HDRS). Platelet 5-HT concentration was significantly lower in suicidal PTSD and non-PTSD patients compared to non-suicidal patients or healthy controls. Since the majority of patients scored very low on item 3 of HDRS, no significant correlation between suicidal scores and platelet 5-HT concentration was found. These results show that reduced platelet 5-HT concentration is related to suicidal behavior in PTSD, and suggest that platelet 5-HT concentration might be used as a peripheral marker to predict suicidal behavior across psychiatric diagnoses.

  15. Memory consolidation and amnesia modify 5-HT6 receptors expression in rat brain: an autoradiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, A; Manuel-Apolinar, L; Castillo, C; Castillo, E

    2007-03-12

    Traditionally, the search for memory circuits has been centered on examinations of amnesic and AD patients, cerebral lesions and, neuroimaging. A complementary alternative might be the use of autoradiography with radioligands. Indeed, ex vivo autoradiographic studies offer the advantage to detect functionally active receptors altered by pharmacological tools and memory formation. Hence, herein the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist SB-399885 and the amnesic drugs scopolamine or dizocilpine were used to manipulate memory consolidation and 5-HT(6) receptors expression was determined by using [(3)H]-SB-258585. Thus, memory consolidation was impaired in scopolamine and dizocilpine treated groups relative to control vehicle but improved it in SB-399885-treated animals. SB-399885 improved memory consolidation seems to be associated with decreased 5-HT(6) receptors expression in 15 out 17 brain areas. Scopolamine or dizocilpine decreased 5-HT(6) receptors expression in nine different brain areas and increased it in CA3 hippocampus or other eight areas, respectively. In brain areas thought to be in charge of procedural memory such basal ganglia (i.e., nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen, and fundus striate) data showed that relative to control animals amnesic groups showed diminished (scopolamine) or augmented (dizocilpine) 5-HT(6) receptor expression. SB-399885 showing improved memory displayed an intermediate expression in these same brain regions. A similar intermediate expression occurs with regard to amygdala, septum, and some cortical areas in charge of explicit memory storage. However, relative to control group amnesic and SB-399885 rats in the hippocampus, region where explicit memory is formed, showed a complex 5-HT(6) receptors expression. In conclusion, these results indicate neural circuits underlying the effects of 5-HT(6) receptor antagonists in autoshaping task and offer some general clues about cognitive processes in general.

  16. 5-HT and GABA modulate intrinsic excitability of type I interneurons in Hermissenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Nan Ge; Tian, Lian-Ming; Crow, Terry

    2009-11-01

    The sensory neurons (photoreceptors) in the visual system of Hermissenda are one site of plasticity produced by Pavlovian conditioning. A second site of plasticity produced by conditioning is the type I interneurons in the cerebropleural ganglia. Both photoreceptors and statocyst hair cells of the graviceptive system form monosynaptic connections with identified type I interneurons. Two proposed neurotransmitters in the graviceptive system, serotonin (5-HT) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), have been shown to modify synaptic strength and intrinsic neuronal excitability in identified photoreceptors. However, the potential role of 5-HT and GABA in plasticity of type I interneurons has not been investigated. Here we show that 5-HT increased the peak amplitude of light-evoked complex excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), enhanced intrinsic excitability, and increased spike activity of identified type I(e(A)) interneurons. In contrast, 5-HT decreased spike activity and intrinsic excitability of type I(e(B)) interneurons. The classification of two categories of type I(e) interneurons was also supported by the observation that 5-HT produced opposite effects on whole cell steady-state outward currents in type I(e) interneurons. Serotonin produced a reduction in the amplitude of light-evoked complex inhibitory PSPs (IPSPs), increased spontaneous spike activity, decreased intrinsic excitability, and depolarized the resting membrane potential of identified type I(i) interneurons. In contrast to the effects of 5-HT, GABA produced inhibition in both types of I(e) interneurons and type I(i) interneurons. These results show that 5-HT and GABA can modulate the intrinsic excitability of type I interneurons independent of the presynaptic effects of the same transmitters on excitability and synaptic efficacy of photoreceptors.

  17. Effects of 5-HT4 receptor agonists and antagonists in learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, A; Hong, E

    1997-03-01

    In the present work, the effects of pre- or post-training (ip) injection of BIMU1 and BIMU8 (5-HT4 agonists) were figured out in the autoshaping learning task. Furthermore, the post-training effects of these agonists after treatment with SDZ 205-557 and GR 125487D (5-HT4 antagonists) or p-Chloroamphetamine (PCA) were also explored. Animals were individually trained in a lever-press response on the autoshaping task and 24 hours later were tested. The results showed that pre-training injection of BIMU1 (5 20 mg/Kg) or BIMU8 (20 mg/Kg) increased the CR; in contrast, the post-training administration of BIMU1 (10-20 mg/Kg) or BIMU8 (5 and 20 mg/Kg) decreased it. Further experiments revealed that the post-training injections of SDZ 205-557 (1.0-10.0 mg/Kg) or GR 125487D (0.39-1.56 mg/Kg) by themselves did not alter the CR. When BIMU1 or BIMU8 was administered to rats pretreated with SDZ 205-557 (10 mg/Kg) or GR 125487D (0.78 mg/Kg), the decrement induced by 5-HT4 the agonists was reversed; in contrast, the administration of PCA failed to modify the CR or the agonist-induced responses. The findings showed that the pre-training stimulation of 5-HT4 receptors enhanced the acquisition of CR, while, post-training activation of 5-HT4 receptors, impaired the consolidation of learning. The latter effect was not altered by PCA pretreatment. The data show that 5-HT4 receptors are involved in the acquisition and consolidation of learning. It seems that postsynaptic 5-HT4 receptors are involved in the latter effect.

  18. Specific in vivo binding in the rat brain of [{sup 18}F]RP 62203: A selective 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor radioligand for positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besret, Laurent; Dauphin, Francois; Huard, Cecile; Lasne, Marie-Claire; Vivet, Richard; Mickala, Patrick; Barbelivien, Alexandra; Baron, Jean-Claude

    1996-02-01

    In vivo pharmacokinetic and brain binding characteristics of [{sup 18}F]RP 62203, a selective high-affinity serotonergic 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor antagonist, were assessed in the rat following intravenous injection of trace amount of the radioligand. The radioactive distribution profile observed in the brain 60 min after injection was characterized by greater than fourfold higher uptake in neocortex as compared to cerebellum (0.38 {+-} 0.07% injected dose/g, % ID/g and 0.08 {+-} 0.01 ID/g, respectively), consistent with in vivo specific binding to the 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor. Furthermore, specific [{sup 18}F]RP 62203 binding significantly correlated with the reported in vitro distribution of 5-HT{sub 2A} receptors, but not with known concentration profiles of dopaminergic D{sub 2} or adrenergic {alpha}{sub 1} receptors. Finally, detectable specific binding was abolished by pretreatment with large doses of ritanserin, a selective 5-HT{sub 2A} antagonist, which resulted in uniform uptakes across cortical, striatal and cerebellar tissues. Thus, [{sup 18}F]RP 62203 appears to be a promising selective tool to visualize and quantify 5-HT{sub 2A} brain receptors in vivo with positron emission tomography.

  19. Effects of the 5-HT7 receptor antagonists SB-269970 and DR 4004 in autoshaping Pavlovian/instrumental learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2004-12-06

    There is an important debate regarding the functional role of the 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptor in memory systems. Hence, the objective of this paper is to investigate the function of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in memory consolidation, utilising an autoshaping Pavlovian/instrumental learning test. Specific antagonists at 5-HT(1A) (WAY 100635) and 5-HT(7) (SB-269970 or DR 4004) receptors administered i.p. or s.c.) after training, significantly decreased the improvement of performance produced by the 5-HT(1A/7) agonist 8-OH-DPAT to levels lower than controls'. These same antagonists attenuated the decreased level of performance produced by mCPP, although they decrease the performance levels after p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) lesion of the 5-HT system, which has no effect on its own on the conditioned response. Moreover, SB-269970 or DR 4004 reversed amnesia induced by scopolamine and dizocilpine. These data confirm a role for 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptors in memory formation and support the hypothesis that serotonergic, cholinergic, and glutamatergic systems interact in cognitively impaired animals. These findings support a potential role for both 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptors in the pathophysiology and/or treatment of schizophrenia, cognitive deficits and the mechanism of action of atypical antipsychotic drugs.

  20. Novel insights into the potential involvement of 5-HT7 receptors in endocrine dysregulation in stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrón, José A

    2014-01-01

    A hyperactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a common feature of stress-related disorders, and the brain serotonin (5-HT) system plays a major role in HPA axis modulation. Glucocorticoids and stress profoundly affect the 5-HT system so it is possible that alterations of endocrine 5-HT mechanisms may underlie HPA axis overdrive in stress-related diseases. Available evidence suggests a role of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A/2C and 5-HT7 receptors in HPA system activation, and pharmacological blockade of 5-HT7 receptors produces a fast-acting antidepressant-like action and shortens the onset of antidepressant-like effects of various classes of antidepressants. The mechanisms involved in this effect have not been elucidated, but recent findings suggest a role of 5-HT7 receptors in the development of HPA axis overdrive as a result of chronic stress. Remarkably, clinical findings have shown an association between corticosteroid-producing adenomas and expression of ectopic 5-HT7 receptors in corticosteroid-producing adrenocortical cells. These observations might therefore reveal an endocrine mechanism for the antidepressant-like action of 5-HT7 receptor blockers, possibly through normalization of HPA axis function. If such a preliminary hypothesis is confirmed, the potential therapeutic usefulness of 5-HT7 receptor antagonists could extend beyond depression to include other diseases, the pathophysiology of which has been associated with chronic stress and HPA axis dysregulation.

  1. A new target point for development of new drug--5-HT2C receptor%药物发现新靶点--5-HT2C受体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栗强; 侯广才; 王千里; 程卯生

    2003-01-01

    5-羟色胺(5-HT或serotonin)是中枢神经系统及外周神经系统的重要神经递质.近年来,越来越多的研究结果表明,5-HT2C受体亚型与多种疾病的病理机制相关,有望成为有潜力的药物靶点.综述了5-HT2C受体亚型的结构、体内分布、信号转导以及它与肥胖、成瘾性和癫痫的作用机制之间的关系.

  2. Ex vivo study of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptor agonists and antagonists on cAMP accumulation during memory formation and amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-García, G; Meneses, A

    2008-12-16

    The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a second messenger and a central component of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate a wide range of biological functions, including memory. Hence, in this work, firstly the time-course of memory formation was determined in an autoshaping learning task, which had allowed the identification of testing times for increases or decreases in performance. Next, untrained, trained and overtrained groups were compared in cAMP production. Moreover, selective stimulation and antagonism of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptors during memory formation and cAMP production were determined. Finally, since there is scarce information about how pharmacological models of amnesia affect cAMP production, the cholinergic or glutamatergic antagonists, scopolamine and dizocilpine, were tested. The major findings of this work showed that when the time-course was determined inasmuch as training and testing sessions occurred, memory performance was graduate and progressive. Notably, for the fourth to seventh (i.e., 48-120 h following autoshaping training session) testing session performance was significantly higher from the previous ones. When animals received 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptor agonists and antagonists or amnesic drugs significant increases or decrements in memory performance were observed at 24 and 48 h. Moreover, when ex vivo cAMP production from trained and overtrained groups were compared to untrained ones, significant differences were observed among groups and brain areas. Trained animals treated with 8-OHDPAT, AS19, 8-OHDPAT plus AS19, WAY100635, SB-269970, scopolamine or dizocilpine were compared to similar untrained groups, and eightfold-reduced cAMP production was evident, showing the importance of cAMP production in the signaling case in mammalian memory formation.

  3. Antidepressant- and Anxiolytic-Like Effects of New Dual 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 Antagonists in Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytka, Karolina; Partyka, Anna; Jastrzębska-Więsek, Magdalena; Siwek, Agata; Głuch-Lutwin, Monika; Mordyl, Barbara; Kazek, Grzegorz; Rapacz, Anna; Olczyk, Adrian; Gałuszka, Adam; Błachuta, Marian; Waszkielewicz, Anna; Marona, Henryk; Sapa, Jacek; Filipek, Barbara; Wesołowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to further characterize pharmacological properties of two phenylpiperazine derivatives: 1-{2-[2-(2,6-dimethlphenoxy)ethoxy]ethyl}-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazynine hydrochloride (HBK-14) and 2-[2-(2-chloro-6-methylphenoxy)ethoxy]ethyl-4-(2- methoxyphenyl)piperazynine dihydrochloride (HBK-15) in radioligand binding and functional in vitro assays as well as in vivo models. Antidepressant-like properties were investigated in the forced swim test (FST) in mice and rats. Anxiolytic-like activity was evaluated in the four-plate test in mice and elevated plus maze test (EPM) in rats. Imipramine and escitalopram were used as reference drugs in the FST, and diazepam was used as a standard anxiolytic drug in animal models of anxiety. Our results indicate that HBK-14 and HBK-15 possess high or moderate affinity for serotonergic 5-HT2, adrenergic α1, and dopaminergic D2 receptors as well as being full 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor antagonists. We also present their potent antidepressant-like activity (HBK-14—FST mice: 2.5 and 5 mg/kg; FST rats: 5 mg/kg) and (HBK-15—FST mice: 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg; FST rats: 1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg). We show that HBK-14 (four-plate test: 2.5 and 5 mg/kg; EPM: 2.5 mg/kg) and HBK-15 (four-plate test: 2.5 and 5 mg/kg; EPM: 5 mg/kg) possess anxiolytic-like properties. Among the two, HBK-15 has stronger antidepressant-like properties, and HBK-14 displays greater anxiolytic-like activity. Lastly, we demonstrate the involvement of serotonergic system, particularly 5-HT1A receptor, in the antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like actions of investigated compounds. PMID:26554929

  4. 5-HT receptors mediate lineage-dependent effects of serotonin on adult neurogenesis in Procambarus clarkii

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    Benton Jeanne L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serotonin (5-HT is a potent regulator of adult neurogenesis in the crustacean brain, as in the vertebrate brain. However, there are relatively few data regarding the mechanisms of serotonin's action and which precursor cells are targeted. Therefore, we exploited the spatial separation of the neuronal precursor lineage that generates adult-born neurons in the crayfish (Procambarus clarkii brain to determine which generation(s is influenced by serotonin, and to identify and localize serotonin receptor subtypes underlying these effects. Results RT-PCR shows that mRNAs of serotonin receptors homologous to mammalian subtypes 1A and 2B are expressed in P. clarkii brain (referred to here as 5-HT1α and 5-HT2β. In situ hybridization with antisense riboprobes reveals strong expression of these mRNAs in several brain regions, including cell clusters 9 and 10 where adult-born neurons reside. Antibodies generated against the crustacean forms of these receptors do not bind to the primary neuronal precursors (stem cells in the neurogenic niche or their daughters as they migrate, but do label these second-generation precursors as they approach the proliferation zones of cell clusters 9 and 10. Like serotonin, administration of the P. clarkii 5-HT1α-specific agonist quipazine maleate salt (QMS increases the number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU-labeled cells in cluster 10; the P. clarkii 5-HT2β-specific antagonist methiothepin mesylate salt (MMS suppresses neurogenesis in this region. However, serotonin, QMS and MMS do not alter the rate of BrdU incorporation into niche precursors or their migratory daughters. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that the influences of serotonin on adult neurogenesis in the crayfish brain are confined to the late second-generation precursors and their descendants. Further, the distribution of 5-HT1α and 5-HT2β mRNAs and proteins indicate that these serotonergic effects are exerted directly on specific

  5. Mechanosensory Signaling in Enterochromaffin Cells and 5-HT Release: Potential Implications for Gut Inflammation

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    Andromeda Linan Rico

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterochromaffin cells (EC synthesize 95% of the body 5-HT and release 5-HT in response to mechanical or chemical stimulation. EC cell 5-HT has physiological effects on gut motility, secretion and visceral sensation. Abnormal regulation of 5-HT occurs in gastrointestinal disorders and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD where 5-HT may represent a key player in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation. The focus of this review is on mechanism(s involved in EC cell ‘mechanosensation’ and critical gaps in our knowledge for future research. Much of our knowledge and concepts are from a human BON cell model of EC, although more recent work has included other cell lines, native EC cells from mouse and human and intact mucosa. EC cells are ‘mechanosensors’ that respond to physical forces generated during peristaltic activity by translating the mechanical stimulus (MS into an intracellular biochemical response leading to 5-HT and ATP release. The emerging picture of mechanosensation includes Piezo 2 channels, caveolin-rich microdomains and tight regulation of 5-HT release by purines. The ‘purinergic hypothesis’ is that MS releases purines to act in an autocrine / paracrine manner to activate excitatory (P2Y1, P2Y4, P2Y6, A2A/A2B or inhibitory (P2Y12, A1, A3 receptors to regulate 5-HT release. MS activates a P2Y1/Gαq/PLC/IP3-IP3R/SERCA Ca2+signaling pathway, an A2A/A2B–Gs/AC/cAMP-PKA signaling pathway, an ATP-gated P2X3 channel, and an inhibitory P2Y12 -Gi/o/AC-cAMP pathway. In human IBD, P2X3 is down regulated and A2B is up regulated in EC cells, but the pathophysiological consequences of abnormal mechanosensory or purinergic 5-HT signaling remain unknown. EC cell mechanosensation remains poorly understood.

  6. 5-HT7 receptor modulates GABAergic transmission in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus and controls cortical release of serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusek, Magdalena; Sowa, Joanna; Kamińska, Katarzyna; Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Tokarski, Krzysztof; Hess, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    The 5-HT7 receptor is one of the several serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes that are expressed in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). Some earlier findings suggested that 5-HT7 receptors in the DRN were localized on GABAergic interneurons modulating the activity of 5-HT projection neurons. The aim of the present study was to find out how the 5-HT7 receptor modulates the GABAergic synaptic input to putative 5-HT DRN neurons, and whether blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor would affect the release of 5-HT in the target structure. Male Wistar rats with microdialysis probes implanted in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) received injections of the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist (2R)-1-[(3-hydroxyphenyl)sulfonyl]-2-[2-(4-methyl-1-piperidinyl)ethyl]pyrrolidine hydrochloride (SB 269970), which induced an increase in the levels of 5-HT and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the PFC. In another set of experiments whole-cell recordings from presumed projection neurons were carried out using DRN slices. SB 269970 application resulted in depolarization and in an increase in the firing frequency of the cells. In order to activate 5-HT7 receptors, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) was applied in the presence of N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-2-pyridinylcyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY100635). Hyperpolarization of cells and a decrease in the firing frequency were observed after activation of the 5-HT7 receptor. Blockade of 5-HT7 receptors caused a decrease in the mean frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs), while its activation induced an increase. The mechanism of these effects appears to involve tonically-active 5-HT7 receptors modulating firing and/or GABA release from inhibitory interneurons which regulate the activity of DRN serotonergic projection neurons.

  7. Chronotropic action of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs) in the isolated mouse colon.

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    Fida, R; Bywater, R A; Lyster, D J; Taylor, G S

    2000-04-12

    The effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and related drugs on colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs) were evaluated in isolated colons from the heterozygotes of pie-bald lethal mice. 5-HT produced a dose-related increase in the frequency of CMMCs without any change in the amplitude or duration of the CMMC contractions themselves. The 5-HT(2) agonist, alpha-methyl 5-HT, (100 nM-1 microM) increased the frequency of CMMCs whilst the 5-HT(3) agonist, 2-methyl 5-HT, did so at 10 microM. The 5-HT(4) agonist, 5-methoxy dimethyl tryptamine oxalate did not alter the frequency of CMMCs in the concentration range 1 nM-10 microM. The 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, ondansetron, increased the interval between CMMCs in the concentration range 100 nM-1 microM, whilst the 5-HT(1) receptor antagonist, methiothepin, the 5-HT(2) receptor antagonist, cyproheptadine and the 5-HT(4) receptor antagonist, SDZ 205 557, had no significant effects on the interval between CMMCs in the concentration range 1 nM-10 microM. The effects of 5-HT did not appear to be altered by the presence of ondansetron (1 microM) or cyproheptadine (1 microM). However, in the presence of ondansetron (1 microM), the further addition of cyproheptadine (1 microM) effectively abolished CMMCs. Furthermore, in the combined presence of these antagonists the effects of 5-HT were severely diminished. It is suggested that the frequency of CMMCs may be under the influence of endogenously released 5-HT in this preparation

  8. Allosteric activation of the 5-HT3AB receptor by mCPBG.

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    Miles, Timothy F; Lester, Henry A; Dougherty, Dennis A

    2015-04-01

    The 5-HT3AB receptor contains three A and two B subunits in an A-A-B-A-B order. However, serotonin function at the 5-HT3AB receptor has been shown to depend solely on the A-A interface present in the homomeric receptor. Using mutations at sites on both the primary (E122) and complementary (Y146) faces of the B subunit, we demonstrate that meta-chlorophenyl biguanide (mCPBG), a 5-HT3 selective agonist, is capable of binding to and activating the 5-HT3AB receptor at all five subunit interfaces of the heteromer. Further, mCPBG is capable of allosterically modulating the activity of serotonin from these sites. While these five binding sites are similar enough that they conform to a monophasic dose - response relationship, we uncover subtle differences in the heteromeric binding sites. We also find that the A-A interface appears to contribute disproportionately to the efficacy of 5-HT3AB receptor activation.

  9. Medial parabrachial nucleus neurons modulate d-fenfluramine-induced anorexia through 5HT2C receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifunovic, Radmila; Reilly, Steve

    2006-01-05

    We previously reported that lesions of the medial parabrachial nucleus (PBN) enhanced d-fenfluramine (DFEN)-induced anorexia; a finding that suggests these lesions may potentiate the release of serotonin (5HT) or increase the postsynaptic action of 5HT. In the present study, we used SB 206553 (a 5HT2B/2C receptor antagonist) or m-CPP (a 5HT2C/1B receptor agonist) in a standard behavioral procedure (deprivation-induced feeding) to further explore the role of the medial PBN in drug-induced anorexia. In Experiment 1, DFEN (0 or 1.0 mg/kg) was given alone or in combination with SB 206553 (2.0 or 5.0 mg/kg). In Experiment 2, we investigated the food-suppressive effects of m-CPP (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg). The results of Experiment 1 show that SB 206553, while having no influence on the performance of control subjects, attenuated (2.0 mg/kg) or abolished (5 mg/kg) the potentiating effect of the lesions on DFEN-induced anorexia. In Experiment 2, m-CPP induced a suppression of food intake in nonlesioned animals that was significantly potentiated in rats with medial PBN lesions. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that medial PBN neurons mediate anorexia through 5HT2C receptors.

  10. Mediation of ACTH and prolactin responses to 5-HTP by 5-HT2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartside, S E; Cowen, P J

    1990-04-10

    Serotonin has a facilitatory role in the role of prolactin and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secretion. The serotonin precursor 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP) dose dependently (30-100 mg/kg i.p.) increased plasma prolactin and ACTH in the male rat. Prolactin and ACTH responses to 5-HTP (100 mg/kg) were attenuated by pretreatment with the non-selective 5-HT receptor antagonist, metergoline (0.5 mg/kg), and by the selective 5-HT2 receptor antagonists, ritanserin (0.4 mg/kg), ketanserin (2.5 mg/kg), ICI (5.0 mg/kg) and spiperone (1.0 mg/kg). The 5-HT1 receptor antagonists, propranolol (40 mg/kg) and pindolol (4.0 mg/kg), failed to antagonize the prolactin and ACTH responses to 5-HTP (100 mg/kg), as did the selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, BRL 43694 (1.0 mg/kg). The results suggest that the prolactin and ACTH responses to 5-HTP in the male rat are mediated by 5-HT2 receptors.

  11. Serotonin receptor 5-HT5A in rat hippocampus decrease by leptin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alcocer, Guadalupe; Rodríguez, Angelina; Moreno-Layseca, Paulina; Berumen, Laura C; Escobar, Jesica; Miledi, Ricardo

    2010-12-17

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is involved in a variety of different physiological processes and behaviors through the activation of equally diverse receptors subtypes. In this work we studied the changes on the expression of 5-HT(5A) receptors in rat hippocampus induced by leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone that has been reported to participate in the modulation of food intake and in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. To study the effect of leptin on the 5-HT(5A) receptor gene expression a qRT-PCR was used and the distribution of those receptors in the hippocampus was visualized by immunohistochemistry. Rats were separated in four groups: control (untreated rats), leptin-treated, serotonin-treated and leptin+serotonin treated. The results showed that even though the 5-HT(5A) gene expression did not change in the hippocampus of any of the treated groups, in the rats treated with leptin and serotonin, the specific immunostaining for the 5-HT(5A) serotonin receptor decreased significantly in the dentate gyrus.

  12. Improvement of ketamine-induced social withdrawal in rats: the role of 5-HT7 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hołuj, Małgorzata; Popik, Piotr; Nikiforuk, Agnieszka

    2015-12-01

    Social withdrawal, one of the core negative symptoms of schizophrenia, can be modelled in the social interaction (SI) test in rats using N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor glutamate receptor antagonists. We have recently shown that amisulpride, an antipsychotic with a high affinity for serotonin 5-HT7 receptors, reversed ketamine-induced SI deficits in rats. The aim of the present study was to further elucidate the potential involvement of 5-HT7 receptors in the prosocial action of amisulpride. Acute administration of amisulpride (3 mg/kg) and SB-269970 (1 mg/kg), a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, reversed ketamine-induced social withdrawal, whereas sulpiride (20 or 30 mg/kg) and haloperidol (0.2 mg/kg) were ineffective. The 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS19 (10 mg/kg) abolished the prosocial efficacy of amisulpride (3 mg/kg). The coadministration of an inactive dose of SB-269970 (0.2 mg/kg) showed the prosocial effects of inactive doses of amisulpride (1 mg/kg) and sulpiride (20 mg/kg). The anxiolytic chlordiazepoxide (2.5 mg/kg) and the antidepressant fluoxetine (2.5 mg/kg) were ineffective in reversing ketamine-induced SI deficits. The present study suggests that the antagonism of 5-HT7 receptors may contribute towards the mechanisms underlying the prosocial action of amisulpride. These results may have therapeutic implications for the treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia and other disorders characterized by social withdrawal.

  13. Amisulpride promotes cognitive flexibility in rats: the role of 5-HT7 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforuk, Agnieszka; Popik, Piotr

    2013-07-01

    The antagonism of 5-HT7 receptors may contribute to the antidepressant and procognitive actions of the atypical antipsychotic drug, amisulpride. It has been previously demonstrated that the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist reversed restraint stress-induced cognitive impairments in a rat model of frontal-dependent attentional set-shifting task (ASST). Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of amisulpride against stress-evoked cognitive inflexibility. The second goal was to elucidate whether the pro-cognitive effect of amisulpride could be due to the compound's action at 5-HT7 receptors. Rats repeatedly exposed (1 h daily for 7 days) to restraint stress demonstrated impaired performance on the extra-dimensional (ED) set-shifting stage of the ASST. Amisulpride (3 mg/kg) given to stressed rats 30 min before testing reversed this restraint-induced cognitive inflexibility and improved ED performance of the unstressed control group. The 5-HT7 receptor agonist, AS19 (10 mg/kg), abolished the pro-cognitive efficacy of amisulpride (3 mg/kg). The present study suggests that the antagonism of 5-HT7 receptors may contribute to the mechanisms underlining the pro-cognitive action of amisulpride. These results may have therapeutic implications in frontal-like deficits associated with stress-related disorders.

  14. Role of 5-HT5A receptors in the consolidation of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Roberto; Chávez-Pascacio, Karla; Meneses, Alfredo

    2013-09-01

    5-HT5 receptor occurs in brain areas implicated in learning and memory. Hence, the effects (0.01-3.0 mg/kg) of SB-6995516 (a 5-HT5A receptor antagonist) in the associative learning task of autoshaping were studied. The results showed that post-training injection of SB-699551 decreased conditioned responses (CR) during short-term (STM; 1.5h; at 0.1mg/kg) and long-term memory (LTM; 24 h; at 3.0 mg/kg) relative to the vehicle animals. Moreover, considering that there are no selective 5-HT5A receptor agonists, next, diverse doses of the serotonin precursor l-tryptophan were studied during STM and LTM, showing that l-tryptophan (5-100mg/kg) facilitated performance, particularly at 50mg/kg. In interactions experiments, l-tryptophan (50 mg/kg) attenuated the impairment effect induced by SB-699551 (either 0.3 or 3.0 mg/kg). All together this evidence suggests that the blockade of 5-HT5A receptor appear to be able to impair STM and LTM (24 h), while its stimulation might facilitate it. Of course further investigation is necessary, meanly with selective 5-HT5A compounds are necessary.

  15. The 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 produces antiparkinsonian effects and decreases striatal glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twum eAnsah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 5-HT plays a regulatory role in voluntary movements of the basal ganglia and have a major impact on disorders of the basal ganglia such as Parkinson’s disease (PD. Clinical studies have suggested that 5-HT2 receptor antagonists may be useful in the treatment of the motor symptoms of PD. We hypothesized that 5-HT2A receptor antagonists may restore motor function by regulating glutamatergic activity in the striatum. Mice treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP exhibited decreased performance on the beam-walking apparatus. Peripheral administration of the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 improved performance of MPTP-treated mice on the beam-walking apparatus. In vivo microdialysis revealed an increase in striatal extracellular glutamate in MPTP-treated mice and local perfusion of M100907 into the dorsal striatum significantly decreased extracellular glutamate levels in saline and MPTP-treated mice. Our studies suggest that blockade of 5-HT2A receptors may represent a novel therapeutic target for the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.

  16. Enhanced head-twitch response to 5-HT-related agonists in thiamine-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawasai, O; Murata, A; Arai, Y; Ohba, A; Wakui, K; Mitazaki, S; Niijima, F; Tan-No, K; Tadano, T

    2007-01-01

    While many studies suggest an involvement of brain serotonergic systems in neuro-psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression, their role in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) remains unclear. Since dietary thiamine deficiency (TD) in mice is considered as a putative model of WKS, it was used in the present study to investigate the function of serotonergic neurons in this disorder. After 20 days of TD feeding, the intensity of tryptophan hydroxylase immunofluorescence was found to be significantly decreased in the dorsal and medial raphe nuclei. In addition, the head-twitch response (HTR) elicited by the intracerebroventricular administration of the 5-HT(2A) agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride (DOI) was significantly increased in TD versus control mice, whereas the injection of ketanserin, a 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist, prevented this enhancement. A single injection of thiamine HCl on the 19th day of TD feeding did not reduce the enhanced DOI-induced HTR. On the other hand, the administration of d-fenfluramine, a 5-HT releaser, did not enhance the HTR in TD mice. Together, our results indicate that TD causes a super-sensitivity of 5-HT(2A) receptors by reducing presynaptic 5-HT synthesis derived from degenerating neurons projecting from the raphe nucleus.

  17. SB-258741: a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist of potential clinical interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouzet, Bruno

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a series of 5-HT7 receptor antagonists have been developed (24,29,36,68). Among them SB-258741, R-(+)-1-(toluene-3-sulfonyl)-2-[2-(4-methylpiperidin-1-yl)ethyl]-pyrrolidine, (compound "13" in 36,37) was one of the most potent and specific compounds. Due to a lack of specific ligands the pharmacology of 5-HT7 receptor antagonists is still relatively unexplored. It has been suggested, however, that 5-HT7 receptor ligands could be useful in the therapy of various disorders such as sleep disorders, schizophrenia, depression, migraine, epilepsy, pain, or memory impairment. Many of these conceivable indications are not supported by pharmacological data. It is, therefore, of particular interest to review the data generated from studies of one of these most potent and specific 5-HT7 receptor antagonists, SB-258741, with a goal of testing the validity of the proposed clinical indications. In this review, the author describes pharmacology of this compound in order to define its potential clinical use. The available safety pharmacology data are discussed in an attempt to predict potential side effects of specific 5-HT7 receptor antagonists.

  18. Reduced 5-HT2A receptor binding after recovery from anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Guido K; Kaye, Walter H; Meltzer, Carolyn C; Price, Julie C; Greer, Phil; McConaha, Claire; Skovira, Kelli

    2002-11-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that a disturbance of serotonin neuronal pathways may contribute to the pathogenesis of anorexia nervosa (AN). This study applied positron emission tomography (PET) to investigate the brain serotonin 2A (5HT2A) receptor, which could contribute to disturbances of appetite and behavior in AN. To avoid the confounding effects of malnutrition, we studied 16 women recovered from AN (REC AN, >1 year normal weight, regular menstrual cycles, no bingeing or purging) compared with 23 healthy control women (CW) using [18F]altanserin, a specific 5-HT2A receptor antagonist on PET imaging. REC AN women had significantly reduced [18F]altanserin binding relative to CW in mesial temporal (amygdala and hippocampus), as well as cingulate cortical regions. In a subset of subjects (11 CW and 16 REC AN), statistical parametric mapping (SPM) confirmed reduced mesial temporal cortex 5HT2A receptor binding and, in addition, showed reduced occipital and parietal cortex binding. This study extends research suggesting that altered 5-HT neuronal system activity persists after recovery from AN and may be related to disturbances of mesial temporal lobe function. Altered 5-HT neurotransmission after recovery also supports the possibility that this may be a trait-related disturbance that contributes to the pathophysiology of AN.

  19. Key role of 5-HT3 receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarii in cardiovagal stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sévoz-Couche, Caroline; Brouillard, Charly

    2017-03-01

    Serotonin plays a modulatory role in central control of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) in the medulla is an area of viscerosomatic integration innervated by both central and peripheral serotonergic fibers. Influences from different origins therefore trigger the release of serotonin into the NTS and exert multiple influences on the ANS. This major influence on the ANS is also mediated by activation of several receptors in the NTS. In particular, the NTS is the central zone with the highest density of serotonin3 (5-HT3) receptors. In this review, we present evidence that 5-HT3 receptors in the NTS play a key role in one of the crucial homeostatic responses to acute and chronic stress: inhibitory modulation of the parasympathetic component of the ANS. The possible functional interactions of 5-HT3 receptors with GABAA and NK1 receptors in the NTS are also discussed.

  20. Novel highly potent serotonin 5-HT7 receptor ligands: structural modifications to improve pharmacokinetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacivita, Enza; Di Pilato, Pantaleo; Stama, Madia Letizia; Colabufo, Nicola Antonio; Berardi, Francesco; Perrone, Roberto; De Filippis, Bianca; Laviola, Giovanni; Adriani, Walter; Niso, Mauro; Leopoldo, Marcello

    2013-11-15

    Here we report the synthesis, pharmacological and pharmacokinetic evaluation of a pilot set of compounds structurally related to the potent and selective 5-HT7 ligand LP-211. Among the studied compounds, N-pyridin-3-ylmethyl-3-[4-[2-(4-methoxyphenyl)phenyl]piperazin-1-yl]ethoxy]propanamide (4b) showed high affinity for 5-HT7 receptors (K(i)=23.8 nM), selectivity over 5-HT1A receptors (>50-fold), in vitro metabolic stability (82%) and weak interaction with P-glycoprotein (BA/AB=3.3). Compound 4b was injected ip in mice to preliminarily evaluate its distribution between blood and brain.

  1. Augmentative effect of tetrandrine on pentobarbital hypnosis mediated by 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A/2C receptors in mice%5-HT1A和5-HT2A/2C受体在粉防己碱增强戊巴比妥钠睡眠中的介导作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜楠; 王黎恩; 师晓荣; 崔翔宇; 崔素颖; 张帆; 张永鹤

    2008-01-01

    前期研究表明粉防己碱增强戊巴比妥钠诱导的催眠作用与5-HT系统相关.本研究采用戊巴比妥钠(45 mg/kg,协)诱导的小鼠翻正反射消失和恢复实验方法,对粉防己碱与不同5-HT受体在增强戊巴比妥钠诱导睡眠中的相互作用进行了探讨.结果表明粉防己碱分别与选择性5-HT1A受体拮抗剂p-MPPI(1 mg/kg,i.p.),选择性5-HT2A/2C受体拮抗剂ketanserin(1.5mg/kg,i.p.)合用可以显著增强戊巴比妥钠诱导的催眠作用.选择性5-HT1A受体激动剂8-OH-DPAT(0.1 mg/kg,s.c.)或5-HT2A/2C受体激动剂DOI(0.2 mg/kg.i.p.)能够显著减少戊巴比妥钠诱导的小鼠睡眠时间,而粉防己碱(60 mg/kg,i.p.)可以显著拮抗这种睡眠抑制作用.此结果提示,粉防己碱增强戊巴比妥钠诱导的催眠作用可能与5-HT1A受体和5-HT2A/2C受体有关.%It has been reported that augmentative effect of tetrandrine on pentobarbital hypnosis in mice may be related to sero-tonergic system. The present study was undertaken to investigate the interaction of tetrandrine and different 5-HT receptors on pentobarbital-induced sleep by using the loss-of-righting reflex method. The results showed that augmentative effect of tetrandrine on pentobarbital hypnosis in mice were potentiated by the p-MPPI (5-HT1A receptor antagonist) (1 mg/kg, i.p.) and ketanserin (5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist) (1.5 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. Pretreatment with either 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A receptor agonist)(0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) or DOI (5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist) (0.2 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly decreased pentobarbital-induced sleep time,and tetrandrine (60 mg/kg, i.g.) significantly reversed this effect. These results suggest that both the 5-HTtA and 5-HT2A/2C subfamily may be involved in the potentiating mechanism of tetrandrine's effects on pentobarbital hypnosis.

  2. Structural combination of established 5-HT(2A) receptor ligands: new aspects of the binding mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Vasko; Herth, Matthias M; Santini, Martin A;

    2010-01-01

    MH.MZ, MDL 100907, and altanserin are structurally similar 4-benzoyl-piperidine derivatives and are well accommodated to receptor interaction models. We combined structural elements of different high-affinity and selective 5-HT(2A) antagonists, as MH.MZ, altanserin, and SR 46349B, to improve......) with a moderate affinity toward the 5-HT(2A) receptor (K(i) = 57 nm). The remarkably reduced affinity of other compounds (4a), (4b), and (4c) (K(i) = 411, 360 and 356 nm respectively) indicates that MH.MZ can only bind to the 5-HT(2A) receptor with the p-fluorophenylethyl residue in a sterically restricted...

  3. Molecular dynamics simulation of the structure and dynamics of 5-HT3 serotonin receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, M. Yu.; Popinako, A. V.; Prokopiev, G. A.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we investigated structure, dynamics and ion transportation in transmembrane domain of the 5-HT3 serotonin receptor. High-resolution (0.35 nm) structure of the 5-HT3 receptor in complex with stabilizing nanobodies was determined by protein crystallography in 2014 (Protein data bank (PDB) code 4PIR). Transmembrane domain of the structure was prepared in complex with explicit membrane environment (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC)) and solvent (TIP3P water model). Molecular dynamics protocols for simulation and stabilization of the transmembrane domain of the 5-HT3 receptor model were developed and 60 ns simulation of the structure was conducted in order to explore structural parameters of the system. We estimated the mean force profile for Na+ ions using umbrella sampling method.

  4. The Structure of the Mouse Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor in Lipid Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashev, Mikhail; Castaño-Díez, Daniel; Deluz, Cédric; Hassaine, Gherici; Grasso, Luigino; Graf-Meyer, Alexandra; Vogel, Horst; Stahlberg, Henning

    2016-01-01

    The function of membrane proteins is best understood if their structure in the lipid membrane is known. Here, we determined the structure of the mouse serotonin 5-HT3 receptor inserted in lipid bilayers to a resolution of 12 Å without stabilizing antibodies by cryo electron tomography and subtomogram averaging. The reconstruction reveals protein secondary structure elements in the transmembrane region, the extracellular pore, and the transmembrane channel pathway, showing an overall similarity to the available X-ray model of the truncated 5-HT3 receptor determined in the presence of a stabilizing nanobody. Structural analysis of the 5-HT3 receptor embedded in a lipid bilayer allowed the position of the membrane to be determined. Interactions between the densely packed receptors in lipids were visualized, revealing that the interactions were maintained by the short horizontal helices. In combination with methodological improvements, our approach enables the structural analysis of membrane proteins in response to voltage and ligand gating.

  5. 3D Pharmacophore, hierarchical methods, and 5-HT4 receptor binding data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varin, Thibault; Saettel, Nicolas; Villain, Jonathan; Lesnard, Aurelien; Dauphin, François; Bureau, Ronan; Rault, Sylvain

    2008-10-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine subtype-4 (5-HT(4)) receptors have stimulated considerable interest amongst scientists and clinicians owing to their importance in neurophysiology and potential as therapeutic targets. A comparative analysis of hierarchical methods applied to data from one thousand 5-HT(4) receptor-ligand binding interactions was carried out. The chemical structures were described as chemical and pharmacophore fingerprints. The definitions of indices, related to the quality of the hierarchies in being able to distinguish between active and inactive compounds, revealed two interesting hierarchies with the Unity (1 active cluster) and pharmacophore fingerprints (4 active clusters). The results of this study also showed the importance of correct choice of metrics as well as the effectiveness of a new alternative of the Ward clustering algorithm named Energy (Minimum E-Distance method). In parallel, the relationship between these classifications and a previously defined 3D 5-HT(4) antagonist pharmacophore was established.

  6. AUGMENTATIVE EFFECT OF PROSTAGLANDIN E1 ON PENTOBARBITAL HYPNOSIS MEDIATED BY 5-HT IN CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalendu Chanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandins (PG are present in different tissues specially in brain tissues endowed with different central nervous system activities. Similarly, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT a biogenic amine with its presence in different central and peripheral tissues as neurotransmitter plays an important role in the regulation of physiological functions specially hypnosis, convulsions, analgesia in rats, mice, cats and chicks etc. Pentobarbitone (PB induced sleep appear to be a serotonergic modulator activity in different animals. PGE1 potentiates the pentobarbitone hypnosis also mediated through serotonin. In the present study, PGE1 induced sleeping time in chicks was evaluated. Drugs affecting 5-HT synthesis, metabolism and receptor activity modulate the potentiating response, while adrenergic receptor antagonists did not showed any response. This study suggest that PGE1 potentiate PB induced sleep through serotonergic signaling pathway as PGE1 increased 5-HT synthesis rate in chick brain.

  7. [Antagonists of the type 3 serotonin receptor (5 -HT3) in IBS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoto, Shunsuke; Miura, Soichiro

    2006-08-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disorder, but its pathophysiology remains unknown. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) is an important neurotransmitter involved in the brain-gut connection. Alosetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, has been demonstrated in randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCT) to be effective in diarrhea-predominant IBS(IBS-D). Constipation is the most common adverse event. Alosetron improved abdominal pain and discomfort and stool consistency in both female and male patients, but it did not improve other symptoms (sense of urgency, stool frequency and bloating) in male patients. Although less is known about the gender differences in therapeutic benefit, a new 5-HT3 antagonist, cilansetron, has demonstrated effectiveness in male and female IBS-D patients and is currently under clinical trials.

  8. The 5-HT7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Sheketha R; Hedlund, Peter B; Roberts, Amanda J; Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L; Engleman, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed-including the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MCL-DA) system and the extended amygdala. The serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system is of particular interest and multiple 5-HT receptors are thought to play significant roles in alcohol and drug self-administration and the development of drug dependence. Among the 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT7 receptor is currently undergoing characterization as a potential target for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Although this receptor has received only limited research regarding addictive behaviors, aspects of its neuroanatomical, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral profiles suggest that it could play a key role in the addiction process. For instance, genomic studies in humans have suggested a link between variants in the gene encoding the 5-HT7 receptor and alcoholism. Recent behavioral testing using high-affinity antagonists in mice and preliminary tests with alcohol-preferring rats suggest that this receptor could mediate alcohol consumption and/or reinforcement and play a role in seeking/craving behavior. Interest in the development of new and more selective pharmacological agents for this receptor will aid in examining the 5-HT7 receptor as a novel target for treating addiction.

  9. The 5-HT-7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheketha R. Hauser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed – including the mesocorticolimbic (MCL dopamine system and the extended amygdala. The serotonin (5-HT neurotransmitter system is of particular interest and multiple 5-HT receptors are thought to play significant roles in alcohol and drug self-administration and the development of drug dependence. Among the 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT-7 receptor is currently undergoing characterization as a potential target for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Although this receptor has received only limited research regarding addictive behaviors, aspects of its neuroanatomical, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral profiles suggest that it could play a key role in the addiction process. For instance, genomic studies in humans have suggested a link between variants in the gene encoding the 5-HT-7 receptor and alcoholism. Recent behavioral testing using high-affinity antagonists in mice and preliminary tests with alcohol-preferring rats suggest that this receptor could mediate alcohol consumption and/or reinforcement and play a role in seeking/craving behavior. Interest in the development of new and more selective pharmacological agents for this receptor will aid in examining the 5-HT-7 receptor as a novel target for treating addiction.

  10. Release of ( sup 14 C)5-hydroxytryptamine from human platelets by red wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarman, J.; Glover, V.; Sandler, M. (Queen Charlotte' s and Chelsea Hospital, London (England))

    1991-01-01

    Red wine, at a final dilution of 1/50, caused released of ({sup 14}C)5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from preloaded platelets, an effect which was not observed with any white wines or beers tested. Since 5-HT, is probably released from body stores during migraine attacks and red wine is known to provoke migraine episodes in susceptible individuals, release of 5-HT, possibly from central stores, could represent a plausible mechanism for its mode of action.

  11. [carbonyl-{sup 11}C]Desmethyl-WAY-100635 (DWAY) is a potent and selective radioligand for central 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, V.W.; McCarron, J.A.; Hirani, E.; Hume, S.P.; Osman, S.; Poole, K.G. [Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom). M.R.C. Cyclotron Unit; Halldin, C.; Lundkvist, C.; Olsson, H.; Karlsson, P.; Swahn, C.G.; Hall, H.; Farde, L. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, S-17176, Stockholm (Sweden); Wikstroem, H.; Mensonidas, M. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    1998-04-01

    In this study we set out to assess the ability of DWAY to enter brain in vivo and to elucidate its possible interaction with 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors. Desmethyl-WAY-100635 was labelled efficiently with carbon-11 in high specific radioactivity by reaction of its descyclohexanecarbonyl analogue with [carbonyl-{sup 11}C]cyclohexanecarbonyl chloride. The product was separated in high radiochemical purity by HPLC. Rats were injected intravenously with DWAY, sacrificed and dissected to establish radioactivity content in brain tissues. At 60 min after injection, the ratios of radioactivity concentration in each brain region to that in cerebellum correlated with previous in vitro and in vivo measures of 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor density. The highest ratio was about 22 in hippocampus. Radioactivity cleared rapidly from plasma; HPLC analysis revealed that DWAY represented 55% of the radioactivity in plasma at 5 min and 33% at 30 min. Only polar radioactive metabolites were detected. Subsequently, a cynomolgus monkey was injected intravenously with DWAY and examined by PET. Maximal whole brain uptake of radioactivity was 5.7% of the administered dose at 5 min after injection. The image acquired between 9 and 90 min showed high radioactivity uptake in brain regions rich in 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors, moderate uptake in raphe nuclei and low uptake in cerebellum. A transient equilibrium was achieved in cortical regions at about 60 min, when the ratio of radioactivity concentration in frontal cortex to tcat in cerebellum reached 6. The corresponding ratio for raphe nuclei was about 3. Radioactive metabolites appeared rapidly in plasma, but these were all more polar than DWAY, which represented 52% of the radioactivity in plasma at 4 min and 20% at 55 min. In a second PET experiment, in which a cynomolgus monkey was pretreated with the selective 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor antagonist, WAY-100635, at 25 min before DWAY injection, radioactivity in all brain regions was reduced to that in cerebellum

  12. Assessment of 5-HT7 Receptor Agonists Selectivity Using Nociceptive and Thermoregulation Tests in Knockout versus Wild-Type Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Brenchat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available No study has ever examined the effect of 5-HT7 receptor agonists on nociception by using 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice. Basal sensitivity to noxious heat stimuli and formalin-induced nociception in both phase I and II of the formalin test did not differ in 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice and paired wild-type controls. Similarly, there was no significant difference in basal body temperature between both genotypes. Subcutaneous administration of 5-HT7 receptor agonists AS-19 (10 mg/kg, E-57431 (10 mg/kg, and E-55888 (20 mg/kg significantly reduced formalin-induced licking/biting behavior during the phase II of the test in wild-type but not in 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice. At these active analgesic doses, none of the three 5-HT7 receptor agonists modified the basal body temperature neither in wild-type nor in 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice. However, a significant decrease in body temperature was observed at a higher dose (20 mg/kg of AS-19 and E-57431 in both genotypes. Our data strongly suggest that the 5-HT7 receptor agonists AS-19, E-57431, and E-55888 produce antinociception in the formalin test by activating 5-HT7 receptors. These results also strengthen the idea that the 5-HT7 receptor plays a role in thermoregulation, but by acting in concert with other receptors.

  13. In vivo evaluation in rodents of [{sup 123}I]-3-I-CO as a potential SPECT tracer for the serotonin 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanckaert, Peter B.M. [Laboratory for Radiopharmacy, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: peter.blanckaert@hotmail.com; Burvenich, Ingrid; Wyffels, Leonie; Bruyne, Sylvie de; Moerman, Lieselotte; Vos, Filip de [Laboratory for Radiopharmacy, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-11-15

    Introduction: [{sup 123}I]-(4-fluorophenyl)[1-(3-iodophenethyl)piperidin-4-yl]methanone ([{sup 123}I]-3-I-CO) is a potential single photon emission computed tomography tracer with high affinity for the serotonin 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor (K{sub i}=0.51 nM) and good selectivity over other receptor (sub)types. To determine the potential of the radioligand as a 5-HT{sub 2A} tracer, regional brain biodistribution and displacement studies will be performed. The influence of P-glycoprotein blocking on the brain uptake of the radioligand will also be investigated. Methods: A regional brain biodistribution study and a displacement study with ketanserin were performed with [{sup 123}I]-3-I-CO. Also, the influence of cyclosporin A (50 mg/kg) on the brain distribution of the radioligand was investigated. For the displacement study, ketanserin (1 mg/kg) was administered 30 min after injection of [{sup 123}I]-3-I-CO. Results: The initial brain uptake of [{sup 123}I]-3-I-CO was quite high, but a rapid wash-out of radioactivity was observed. Cortex-to-cerebellum binding index ratios were low (1.1 - 1.7), indicating considerable aspecific binding and a low specific 'signal' of the radioligand. Tracer uptake was reduced to the levels in cerebellum (a 60% reduction) after ketanserin displacement. Administration of cyclosporin A resulted in a doubling of the brain radioactivity concentration. Conclusions: Although [{sup 123}I]-3-I-CO showed adequate brain uptake and could be displaced by ketanserin, high aspecific binding to brain tissue was responsible for very low cortex-to-cerebellum binding index ratios, possibly limiting the potential of the radioligand as a serotonin 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor tracer. We also demonstrated that [{sup 123}I]-3-I-CO is probably a weak substrate for the P-glycoprotein efflux transporter.

  14. Current radiosynthesis strategies for 5-HT2A receptor PET tracers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herth, Matthias M; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin 2A receptors have been implicated in various psychophysiological functions and disorders such as depression, Alzheimer's disease, or schizophrenia. Therefore, neuroimaging of this specific receptor is of significant clinical interest, and it is not surprising that many attempts have been...... made to develop a suitable 5-HT2A R positron emission tomography-tracer. In this review, we give an overview on the precursor, reference compound synthesis, and the preparation of promising 5-HT2A R radiopharmaceuticals applied in positron emission tomography. We also highlight possible learning...

  15. Effect of the 5-HT4 receptor and serotonin transporter on visceral hypersensitivity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Yan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Visceral hypersensitivity plays an important role in motor and sensory abnormalities associated with irritable bowel syndrome, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The present study was designed to evaluate the expression of the 5-HT4 receptor and the serotonin transporter (SERT as well as their roles in chronic visceral hypersensitivity using a rat model. Neonatal male Sprague-Dawley rats received intracolonic injections of 0.5% acetic acid (0.3-0.5 mL at different times between postnatal days 8 and 21 to establish an animal model of visceral hypersensitivity. On day 43, the threshold intensity for a visually identifiable contraction of the abdominal wall and body arching were recorded during rectal distention. Histological evaluation and the myeloperoxidase activity assay were performed to determine the severity of inflammation. The 5-HT4 receptor and SERT expression of the ascending colon were monitored using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses; the plasma 5-HT levels were measured using an ELISA method. As expected, transient colonic irritation at the neonatal stage led to visceral hypersensitivity, but no mucosal inflammation was later detected during adulthood. Using this model, we found reduced SERT expression (0.298 ± 0.038 vs 0.634 ± 0.200, P < 0.05 and increased 5-HT4 receptor expression (0.308 ± 0.017 vs 0.298 ± 0.021, P < 0.05. Treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg·kg-1·day-1, days 36-42, tegaserod (1 mg·kg-1·day-1, day 43, or the combination of both, reduced visceral hypersensitivity and plasma 5-HT levels. Fluoxetine treatment increased 5-HT4 receptor expression (0.322 ± 0.020 vs 0.308 ± 0.017, P < 0.01 but not SERT expression (0.219 ± 0.039 vs 0.298 ± 0.038, P = 0.654. These results indicate that both the 5-HT4 receptor and SERT play a role in the pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity, and its mechanism may be involved in the local 5-HT level.

  16. Molecular imaging of the serotonin 5-HT7 receptors: from autoradiography to positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Luc; Billard, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin and its various receptors are involved in numerous brain functions and neuropsychiatric disorders. Of the 14 known serotoninergic receptors, the 5-HT7 receptor is the most recently identified and characterized. It is closely involved in the pathogenesis of depression, anxiety, epilepsy and pain and is therefore an important target for drug therapy. It is a crucial target in neuroscience, and there is a clear need for radioligands for in vitro and in vivo visualization and quantification, first in animal models and ultimately in humans. This review focuses on the main radioligands suggested for in vitro and in vivo imaging of the 5-HT7 receptor.

  17. [Comparative pharmacophore analysis of dual dopamine D2/5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan-shen; Guo, Zong-ru

    2009-03-01

    Dual dopamine D2/5-HT2A receptor antagonists have potent activity and are referred to atypical antipsychotics due to their lower propensity to elicit EPS and their moderate efficacy toward negative symptoms. However, an on-going challenge in developing atypical antipsychotics drugs is to maintain the favorable profiles and avoid of cardiovascular risk. In this paper, comparative pharmacophore analysis of dual dopamine D2/5-HT2A receptor antagonists, hERG K+ channel blockers, and alA adrenoceptor antagonists is carried out, and the results could give some insight into multi-target drug design.

  18. Molecular properties of psychopharmacological drugs determining non-competitive inhibition of 5-HT3A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhuber, Johannes; Terfloth, Lothar; Bleich, Stefan; Wiltfang, Jens; Rupprecht, Rainer

    2009-06-01

    We developed a structure-property-activity relationship (SPAR)-model for psychopharmacological drugs acting as non-competitive 5-HT(3A) receptor antagonists by using a decision-tree learner provided by the RapidMiner machine learning tool. A single molecular descriptor, namely the molecular dipole moment per molecular weight (mu/MW), predicts whether or not a substance non-competitively antagonizes 5-HT-induced Na(+) currents. A low mu/MW is compatible with drug-cumulation in apolar lipid rafts. This study confirms that size-intensive descriptors allow the development of compact SPAR models.

  19. The influence of dihydropyridines calcium antagonists on 5-HT-induced intracellular calcium signal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was applied to detect the intracellular [Ca2+] variety of fluorescent intension, with Fluo-3/AM fluorescence loaded in SFSMC. The results show that 10 μmol/L Lacidipine can reduce the frequence which 10 μmol/L 5-HT induced [Ca2+] spark in SFSMC of calcium over loading to 50%, and amplitude to 50% or so. We can draw a conclusion that dihydropyridines cal-cium antagonists lacidipine can antagonize the release of intracellular [Ca2+] which 5-HT-induced in dose dependent manner.

  20. Compositions and methods related to serotonin 5-HT1A receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Saigal, Neil

    2010-06-08

    Contemplated substituted arylpiperazinyl compounds, and most preferably 18F-Mefway, exhibit desirable in vitro and in vivo binding characteristics to the 5-HT1A receptor. Among other advantageous parameters, contemplated compounds retain high binding affinity, display optimal lipophilicity, and are radiolabeled efficiently with 18F-fluorine in a single step. Still further, contemplated compounds exhibit high target to non-target ratios in receptor-rich regions both in vitro and in vivo, and selected compounds can be effectively and sensitively displaced by serotonin, thus providing a quantitative tool for measuring 5-HT1A receptors and serotonin concentration changes in the living brain.

  1. Prostaglandin potentiates 5-HT responses in stomach and ileum innervating visceral afferent sensory neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sojin; Jin, Zhenhua; Lee, Goeun [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong Seek; Park, Cheung-Seog [Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Young-Ho, E-mail: jinyh@khu.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • Prostaglandin E2 (PGE{sub 2}) effect was tested on visceral afferent neurons. • PGE{sub 2} did not evoke response but potentiated serotonin (5-HT) currents up to 167%. • PGE{sub 2}-induced potentiation was blocked by E-prostanoid type 4 receptors antagonist. • PGE{sub 2} effect on 5-HT response was also blocked by protein kinase A inhibitor KT5720. • Thus, PGE{sub 2} modulate visceral afferent neurons via synergistic signaling with 5-HT. - Abstract: Gastrointestinal disorder is a common symptom induced by diverse pathophysiological conditions that include food tolerance, chemotherapy, and irradiation for therapy. Prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) level increase was often reported during gastrointestinal disorder and prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors has been used for ameliorate the symptoms. Exogenous administration of PGE{sub 2} induces gastrointestinal disorder, however, the mechanism of action is not known. Therefore, we tested PGE{sub 2} effect on visceral afferent sensory neurons of the rat. Interestingly, PGE{sub 2} itself did not evoked any response but enhanced serotonin (5-HT)-evoked currents up to 167% of the control level. The augmented 5-HT responses were completely inhibited by a 5-HT type 3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron. The PGE{sub 2}-induced potentiation were blocked by a selective E-prostanoid type4 (EP{sub 4}) receptors antagonist, L-161,982, but type1 and 2 receptor antagonist AH6809 has no effect. A membrane permeable protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, KT5720 also inhibited PGE{sub 2} effects. PGE{sub 2} induced 5-HT current augmentation was observed on 15% and 21% of the stomach and ileum projecting neurons, respectively. Current results suggest a synergistic signaling in visceral afferent neurons underlying gastrointestinal disorder involving PGE{sub 2} potentiation of 5-HT currents. Our findings may open a possibility for screen a new type drugs with lower side effects than currently using steroidal prostaglandin

  2. Effect of the 5-HT4 receptor and serotonin transporter on visceral hypersensitivity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Yan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Visceral hypersensitivity plays an important role in motor and sensory abnormalities associated with irritable bowel syndrome, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The present study was designed to evaluate the expression of the 5-HT4 receptor and the serotonin transporter (SERT as well as their roles in chronic visceral hypersensitivity using a rat model. Neonatal male Sprague-Dawley rats received intracolonic injections of 0.5% acetic acid (0.3-0.5 mL at different times between postnatal days 8 and 21 to establish an animal model of visceral hypersensitivity. On day 43, the threshold intensity for a visually identifiable contraction of the abdominal wall and body arching were recorded during rectal distention. Histological evaluation and the myeloperoxidase activity assay were performed to determine the severity of inflammation. The 5-HT4 receptor and SERT expression of the ascending colon were monitored using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses; the plasma 5-HT levels were measured using an ELISA method. As expected, transient colonic irritation at the neonatal stage led to visceral hypersensitivity, but no mucosal inflammation was later detected during adulthood. Using this model, we found reduced SERT expression (0.298 ± 0.038 vs 0.634 ± 0.200, P < 0.05 and increased 5-HT4 receptor expression (0.308 ± 0.017 vs 0.298 ± 0.021, P < 0.05. Treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg·kg-1·day-1, days 36-42, tegaserod (1 mg·kg-1·day-1, day 43, or the combination of both, reduced visceral hypersensitivity and plasma 5-HT levels. Fluoxetine treatment increased 5-HT4 receptor expression (0.322 ± 0.020 vs 0.308 ± 0.017, P < 0.01 but not SERT expression (0.219 ± 0.039 vs 0.298 ± 0.038, P = 0.654. These results indicate that both the 5-HT4 receptor and SERT play a role in the pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity, and its mechanism may be involved in the local 5-HT level.

  3. Internalization and recycling of 5-HT2A receptors activated by serotonin and protein kinase C-mediated mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Samarjit; Puri, Sapna; Miledi, Ricardo; Panicker, Mitradas M.

    2002-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT), a major neurotransmitter, has a large number of G protein-coupled receptors in mammals. On activation by exposure to their ligand, 5-HT2 receptor subtypes increase IP3 levels and undergo desensitization and internalization. To visualize the receptor in cells during these processes, we have constructed a 5-HT2A-enhanced GFP (SR2-GFP) fusion receptor. We show that this fusion receptor undergoes internalization on exposure to its natural ligand, 5-HT. Because 5-HT2A receptors activate the phospholipase C pathway, we studied the effect of protein kinase C (PKC) on the internalization process and found that activation of PKC by its specific activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, in the absence of 5-HT, leads to internalization of the receptor. Moreover, inhibition of PKC by its inhibitor sphingosine in the presence of 5-HT prevents the internalization process, suggesting that activation of PKC is sufficient and necessary for the internalization of 5-HT2A receptors. We also show that SR2-GFP recycles back to the plasma membrane after 5-HT-dependent internalization, suggesting a mechanism for resensitization. In addition, receptors that have been internalized on addition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in the absence of 5-HT also recycle to the surface, with a time course similar to that seen after activation of the receptors by 5-HT. Our study suggests that 5-HT2A receptors internalize and return to the surface after both serotonin- and PKC-mediated processes. This study reveals a role for PKC in receptor internalization and also shows that 5-HT2A receptors are recycled. PMID:12388782

  4. Gaddum and LSD: the birth and growth of experimental and clinical neuropharmacology research on 5-HT in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A R

    2008-08-01

    The vasoconstrictor substance named serotonin was identified as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) by Maurice Rapport in 1949. In 1951, Rapport gave Gaddum samples of 5-HT substance allowing him to develop a bioassay to both detect and measure the amine. Gaddum and colleagues rapidly identified 5-HT in brain and showed that lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) antagonized its action in peripheral tissues. Gaddum accordingly postulated that 5-HT might have a role in mood regulation. This review examines the role of UK scientists in the first 20 years following these major discoveries, discussing their role in developing assays for 5-HT in the CNS, identifying the enzymes involved in the synthesis and metabolism of 5-HT and investigating the effect of drugs on brain 5-HT. It reviews studies on the effects of LSD in humans, including Gaddum's self-administration experiments. It outlines investigations on the role of 5-HT in psychiatric disorders, including studies on the effect of antidepressant drugs on the 5-HT concentration in rodent and human brain, and the attempts to examine 5-HT biochemistry in the brains of patients with depressive illness. It is clear that a rather small group of both preclinical scientists and psychiatrists in the UK made major advances in our understanding of the role of 5-HT in the brain, paving the way for much of the knowledge now taken for granted when discussing ways that 5-HT might be involved in the control of mood and the idea that therapeutic drugs used to alleviate psychiatric illness might alter the function of cerebral 5-HT.

  5. Gaddum and LSD: the birth and growth of experimental and clinical neuropharmacology research on 5-HT in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A R

    2008-01-01

    The vasoconstrictor substance named serotonin was identified as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) by Maurice Rapport in 1949. In 1951, Rapport gave Gaddum samples of 5-HT substance allowing him to develop a bioassay to both detect and measure the amine. Gaddum and colleagues rapidly identified 5-HT in brain and showed that lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) antagonized its action in peripheral tissues. Gaddum accordingly postulated that 5-HT might have a role in mood regulation. This review examines the role of UK scientists in the first 20 years following these major discoveries, discussing their role in developing assays for 5-HT in the CNS, identifying the enzymes involved in the synthesis and metabolism of 5-HT and investigating the effect of drugs on brain 5-HT. It reviews studies on the effects of LSD in humans, including Gaddum's self-administration experiments. It outlines investigations on the role of 5-HT in psychiatric disorders, including studies on the effect of antidepressant drugs on the 5-HT concentration in rodent and human brain, and the attempts to examine 5-HT biochemistry in the brains of patients with depressive illness. It is clear that a rather small group of both preclinical scientists and psychiatrists in the UK made major advances in our understanding of the role of 5-HT in the brain, paving the way for much of the knowledge now taken for granted when discussing ways that 5-HT might be involved in the control of mood and the idea that therapeutic drugs used to alleviate psychiatric illness might alter the function of cerebral 5-HT. PMID:18516072

  6. The absence of 5-HT4 receptors modulates depression- and anxiety-like responses and influences the response of fluoxetine in olfactory bulbectomised mice: Adaptive changes in hippocampal neuroplasticity markers and 5-HT1A autoreceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigó, J; Díaz, A; Pilar-Cuéllar, F; Vidal, R; Martín, A; Compan, V; Pazos, A; Castro, E

    2016-12-01

    Preclinical studies support a critical role of 5-HT4 receptors (5-HT4Rs) in depression and anxiety, but their influence in depression- and anxiety-like behaviours and the effects of antidepressants remain partly unknown. We evaluated 5-HT4R knockout (KO) mice in different anxiety and depression paradigms and mRNA expression of some neuroplasticity markers (BDNF, trkB and Arc) and the functionality of 5-HT1AR. Moreover, the implication of 5-HT4Rs in the behavioural and molecular effects of chronically administered fluoxetine was assessed in naïve and olfactory bulbectomized mice (OBX) of both genotypes. 5-HT4R KO mice displayed few specific behavioural impairments including reduced central activity in the open-field (anxiety), and decreased sucrose consumption and nesting behaviour (anhedonia). In these mice, we measured increased levels of BDNF and Arc mRNA and reduced levels of trkB mRNA in the hippocampus, and a desensitization of 5-HT1A autoreceptors. Chronic administration of fluoxetine elicited similar behavioural effects in WT and 5-HT4R KO mice on anxiety-and depression-related tests. Following OBX, locomotor hyperactivity and anxiety were similar in both genotypes. Interestingly, chronic fluoxetine failed to reverse this OBX-induced syndrome in 5-HT4R KO mice, a response associated with differential effects in hippocampal neuroplasticity biomarkers. Fluoxetine reduced hippocampal Arc and BDNF mRNA expressions in WT but not 5-HT4R KO mice subjected to OBX. These results demonstrate that the absence of 5-HT4Rs triggers adaptive changes that could maintain emotional states, and that the behavioural and molecular effects of fluoxetine under pathological depression appear to be critically dependent on 5-HT4Rs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of [11C]Cimbi-806 as a potential PET ligand for 5-HT7 receptor imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herth, Matthias Manfred; Hansen, Hanne Demant; Ettrup, Anders Janusz;

    2012-01-01

    2-(2',6'-Dimethoxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)-N,N-dimethylethanamine has been identified as a potent ligand for the serotonin 7 (5-HT(7)) receptor. In this study, we describe the synthesis, radiolabeling and in vivo evaluation of [(11)C]2-(2',6'-dimethoxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl......)-N,N-dimethylethanamine ([(11)C]Cimbi-806) as a radioligand for imaging brain 5-HT(7) receptors with positron emission tomography (PET). Precursor and reference compound was synthesized and subsequent (11)C-labelling with [(11)C]methyltriflate produced [(11)C]Cimbi-806 in specific activities ranging from 50 to 300 GBq......L/cm(3) in the cerebellum to 12 mL/cm(3) in the thalamus. Pretreatment with the 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist SB-269970 did not result in any significant changes in [(11)C]Cimbi-806 binding in any of the analyzed regions. Despite the high brain uptake and relevant distribution pattern, the absence...

  8. A short history of the 5-HT2C receptor: from the choroid plexus to depression, obesity and addiction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Jose M; Pazos, Angel; Hoyer, Daniel

    2017-03-07

    This paper is a personal account on the discovery and characterization of the 5-HT2C receptor (first known as the 5-HT1C receptor) over 30 years ago and how it translated into a number of unsuspected features for a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and a diversity of clinical applications. The 5-HT2C receptor is one of the most intriguing members of the GPCR superfamily. Initially referred to as 5-HT1CR, the 5-HT2CR was discovered while studying the pharmacological features and the distribution of [(3)H]mesulergine-labelled sites, primarily in the brain using radioligand binding and slice autoradiography. Mesulergine (SDZ CU-085), was, at the time, best defined as a ligand with serotonergic and dopaminergic properties. Autoradiographic studies showed remarkably strong [(3)H]mesulergine-labelling to the rat choroid plexus. [(3)H]mesulergine-labelled sites had pharmacological properties different from, at the time, known or purported 5-HT receptors. In spite of similarities with 5-HT2 binding, the new binding site was called 5-HT1C because of its very high affinity for 5-HT itself. Within the following 10 years, the 5-HT1CR (later named 5-HT2C) was extensively characterised pharmacologically, anatomically and functionally: it was one of the first 5-HT receptors to be sequenced and cloned. The 5-HT2CR is a GPCR, with a very complex gene structure. It constitutes a rarity in the GPCR family: many 5-HT2CR variants exist, especially in humans, due to RNA editing, in addition to a few 5-HT2CR splice variants. Intense research led to therapeutically active 5-HT2C receptor ligands, both antagonists (or inverse agonists) and agonists: keeping in mind that a number of antidepressants and antipsychotics are 5-HT2CR antagonists/inverse agonists. Agomelatine, a 5-HT2CR antagonist is registered for the treatment of major depression. The agonist Lorcaserin is registered for the treatment of aspects of obesity and has further potential in addiction, especially nicotine/ smoking

  9. Antidepressant-like activity of Tagetes lucida Cav. is mediated by 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Jaime, H; Guadarrama-Cruz, G; Alarcon-Aguilar, F J; Limón-Morales, O; Vazquez-Palacios, G

    2015-10-01

    It has been demonstrated that the aqueous extract of Tagetes lucida Cav. shows an antidepressant-like effect on the forced swimming test (FST) in rats. The aim of this study was to analyze the participation of the serotoninergic system in the antidepressant-like effect of the aqueous extract of T. lucida. Different doses of the extract of T. lucida were administered at 72, 48, 24, 18 and 1 h before FST. The animals were pretreated with a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist (WAY-100635, 0.5 mg/kg), a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist (ketanserin, 5 mg/kg), a β-noradrenergic receptor antagonist (propranolol, 200 mg/kg), and with a α2-noradrenergic receptor antagonist (yohimbine, 1 mg/kg) alone or combined with the extract and pretreated with a serotonin synthesis inhibitor (PCPA) before treatment with 8-OH-DPAT + the extract of T. lucida. In addition, suboptimal doses of the 5-HT1A agonist (8-OH-DPAT) + non-effective dose of extract was analyzed in the FST. To determine the presence of flavonoids, the aqueous extract of T. lucida (20 µl, 4 mg/ml) was injected in HPLC; however, a quercetin concentration of 7.72 mg/g of extract weight was detected. A suboptimal dose of 8-OH-DPAT + extract of T. lucida decreased immobility and increased swimming and climbing. An antidepressant-like effect with the aqueous extract of T. lucida at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg was observed on the FST with decreased immobility behavior and increased swimming; however, this effect was blocked by WAY-100635, ketanserin and PCPA but not by yohimbine and propranolol, suggesting that the extract of T. lucida could be modulating the release/reuptake of serotonin.

  10. Ondansetron, a selective 5-HT3 antagonist, antagonizes methamphetamine-induced anorexia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginawi, O T; Al-Majed, A A; Al-Suwailem, A K

    2005-03-01

    Effects of some selective serotonergic (5-HT) antagonists on methamphetamine-induced anorexia were investigated in male mice. The least possible dose of methamphetamine alone that caused significant anorectic activity was 11 micromolkg(-1), i.p. (2 mgkg(-1)). Various doses of some selective serotonergic receptor antagonists were administered half an hour before the above mentioned dose of methamphetamine. Methiothepin potentiated, whereas NAN-190, methysergide, mianserin and ondansetron antagonized methamphetamine-induced anorectic activity. The least possible doses of these antagonists which modified methamphetamine-induced anorexia were as follows: methiothepin (1.1 micromolkg(-1), i.p.), NAN-190 (4.2 micromolkg(-1), i.p.), methysergide (2.1 micromolkg(-1), i.p.), mianserin (3.3 micromolkg(-1), i.p.) and ondansetron (0.003 micromolkg(-1), i.p.). The serotonergic antagonists at the above mentioned doses did not modify the food intake of animals not treated with methamphetamine, except for methiothepin, which produced a significant reduction, and mianserin, which produced a significant increase in food intake. The results of the present study indicated that the anorectic activity induced by methamphetamine is related to the interactions of methamphetamine with 5-HT receptor. Since a very small dose (0.003 micromolkg(-1)) of ondansetron (the 5-HT(3) antagonist), as compared with the other antagonists used in this study, antagonized the anorexia induced by methamphetamine, the 5-HT(3) receptor is likely to be the site for this interaction.

  11. Serotonin(4) (5-HT(4)) receptor agonists are putative antidepressants with a rapid onset of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Guillaume; Rymar, Vladimir V; Du, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. In contrast, a 3 day treatment with the SSRI citalopram remains devoid of any effect on these parameters. Finally, a 3 day regimen with the 5-HT(4) agonist RS 67333 was sufficient to reduce both the hyperlocomotion induced by olfactory bulbectomy and the diminution of sucrose...

  12. Dioscin relieves endotoxemia induced acute neuro-inflammation and protect neurogenesis via improving 5-HT metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Chen, Wei; Lu, Ye; Li, Yingke; Du, Hongli; Gao, Songyan; Dong, Xin; Yuan, Hongbin

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis, in addition to causing fatality, is an independent risk factor for cognitive impairment among sepsis survivors. The pathologic mechanism of endotoxemia induced acute neuro-inflammation still has not been fully understood. For the first time, we found the disruption of neurotransmitters 5-HT, impaired neurogenesis and activation of astrocytes coupled with concomitant neuro-inflammation were the potential pathogenesis of endotoxemia induced acute neuro-inflammation in sepsis survivors. In addition, dioscin a natural steroidal saponin isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs, enhanced the serotonergic system and produced anti-depressant effect by enhancing 5-HT levels in hippocampus. What is more, this finding was verified by metabolic analyses of hippocampus, indicating 5-HT related metabolic pathway was involved in the pathogenesis of endotoxemia induced acute neuro-inflammation. Moreover, neuro-inflammation and neurogenesis within hippocampus were indexed using quantitative immunofluorescence analysis of GFAP DCX and Ki67, as well as real-time RT-PCR analysis of some gene expression levels in hippocampus. Our in vivo and in vitro studies show dioscin protects hippocampus from endotoxemia induced cascade neuro-inflammation through neurotransmitter 5-HT and HMGB-1/TLR4 signaling pathway, which accounts for the dioscin therapeutic effect in behavioral tests. Therefore, the current findings suggest that dioscin could be a potential approach for the therapy of endotoxemia induced acute neuro-inflammation. PMID:28059131

  13. Genetic variation in 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter expression causes adaptive changes in 5-HT4 receptor levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennings, Katie Ann; Licht, Cecilie Löe; Bruce, Aynsley

    2012-01-01

    +/+ mice in all brain regions. Compared to wild-type (WT) littermate controls, 5-HTT OE mice had increased 5-HT4 binding density across all brain regions, except amygdala (118-164% of WT) and this difference between genotypes was reduced by the 5-HTT inhibitor, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg twice daily, 3 d...

  14. Emotional management and 5-HT2A receptor gene variance in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chi-Hsuan; Tsai, Guochuan E; Liao, Chun-Hui; Wang, Ming-Yu; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen; Tsuang, Hui-Chun; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2010-02-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit impaired social cognitive functions, particularly emotion management. Emotion management may be partially regulated by the serotoninergic system; the -1438 A/G polymorphism in the promoter region of the 5-HT2A gene can modulate 5-HT2A activity and is linked to certain emotional traits and anger- and aggression-related behaviors. The current study aimed to investigate whether this 5-HT2A genetic variance is associated with social cognitive function, particularly the management of emotions. One hundred and fifteen patients with chronic schizophrenia were stabilized with an optimal-dose of antipsychotic treatment. All were genotyped for the -1438 A/G polymorphism and assessed with symptom rating scales, neurocognitive instruments, and the "Managing Emotions" section of Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Multiple regression showed that patients with the A/G genotype performed better than those with G/G in managing emotion (p=0.018) but did not differ from those with the A/A genotype. Regarding the two subtasks of the Managing Emotions section, the A/G heterozygotes also performed better than the G/G homozygotes in the emotion management (p=0.026) and emotional relations (p=0.027) subtasks. The results suggest that variability in the 5-HT2A gene may influence emotion management in patients with schizophrenia.

  15. Systematic Screening of the Serotonin Receptor 1A (5-HT1A) Gene in Chronic Tinnitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kleinjung T; Langguth B; Fischer B; Hajak G; Eichhammer P; Sand PG

    2006-01-01

    Objective Chronic tinnitus is a highly prevalent condition and has been hypothesized to result from an innate disturbance in central nervous serotonergic transmission. Given the frequent comorbidity with major depression and anxiety, we argue that candidate genes for these disorders are likely to overlap. The present study addresses the gene encoding for the 5-HT1A receptor as a putative risk factor for tinnitus. Methods In 88 subjects with a diagnosis of chronic subjective tinnitus who underwent a detailed neurootological examination, the entire 5-HT1A gene was amplified using overlapping PCR products. Amplicons were custom sequenced bidirectionally and were screened for variants in multiple alignments against the human genome reference. Results We identified a synonymous C > T exchange at residue 184 (Pro) in 7/88 subjects, but detected no missense variants in the population under study. Specifically, the following residues were fully conserved: 16 (Pro), 22 (Gly), 28 (Ile), 98 (Val), 220(Arg), 267 (Val), 273 (Gly), and 418 (Asn). Discussion The present data count against the causation of chronic tinnitus by a change in the 5-HT1A receptor's amino acid sequence. However, the allele frequency for the 184Pro minor allele (0.04) reached twice the frequency reported in control cohorts from the same ethnicity.Additional investigations are invited to clarify the role of the 5-HT1A polymorphism in larger samples, and to control for comorbid affective disorders.

  16. Spatial memory deficit across aging: current insights of the role of 5-HT7 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudet, Gregory; Bouet, Valentine; Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Schumann-Bard, Pascale; Dauphin, François; Paizanis, Eleni; Boulouard, Michel; Freret, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Elderly persons often face biological, psychological or social changes over time that may cause discomfort or morbidity. While some cognitive domains remain stable over time, others undergo a decline. Spatial navigation is a complex cognitive function essential for independence, safety and quality of life. While egocentric (body-centered) navigation is quite preserved during aging, allocentric (externally-centered) navigation-based on a cognitive map using distant landmarks-declines with age. Recent preclinical studies showed that serotonergic 5-HT7 receptors are localized in brain regions associated with allocentric spatial navigation processing. Behavioral assessments with pharmacological or genetic tools have confirmed the role of 5-HT7 receptors in allocentric navigation. Moreover, few data suggested a selective age-related decrease in the expression of 5-HT7 receptors in pivotal brain structures implicated in allocentric navigation such as the hippocampal CA3 region. We aim to provide a short overview of the potential role of 5-HT7 receptors in spatial navigation, and to argue for their interests as therapeutic targets against age-related cognitive decline.

  17. Characterization of the 5-HT7receptor : Synthesis and molecular modeling of ligands and the receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Erik Sander

    2005-01-01

    De serotonine-receptor 5-HT7 komt voor in bepaalde delen van de hersenen van de mens en is waarschijnlijk betrokken bij aandoeningen als migraine, depressiviteit en slaapstoornissen. In het proefschrift van Erik Vermeulen wordt het werkingsmechanisme van deze receptor onderzocht. Vermeulen synthetis

  18. 5-HT7受体与抑郁症相关研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽丽; 陈春林

    2015-01-01

    大量研究表明5-羟色胺(5-hydroxytryptamine,5-H-T)受体功能的改变在抑郁症发病机制和抗抑郁症治疗中具有重要作用.5-HT7受体是新近发现的一个G蛋白偶联5-HT受体亚型,该受体的生理和病理生理学意义是目前的研究热点之一.临床前研究表明5-HT7受体是治疗认知障碍、抑郁症和焦虑症等疾病的重要靶点.为进一步探讨5-HT7在抑郁症中的作用,以及相关药物的开发,现对5-HT7的研究现状及其对抑郁症的影响做一综述.

  19. Characterization of the 5-HT7 receptor : synthesis and molecular modeling of ligands and the receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Erik Sander

    2005-01-01

    De serotonine-receptor 5-HT7 komt voor in bepaalde delen van de hersenen van de mens en is waarschijnlijk betrokken bij aandoeningen als migraine, depressiviteit en slaapstoornissen. In het proefschrift van Erik Vermeulen wordt het werkingsmechanisme van deze receptor onderzocht. Vermeulen synthetis

  20. Spatial memory deficit across aging: current insights of the role of 5-HT7 receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory eBeaudet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elderly persons often face biological, psychological or social changes over time that may cause discomfort or morbidity. While some cognitive domains remain stable over time, others undergo a decline. Spatial navigation is a complex cognitive function essential for independence, safety and quality of life. While egocentric (body-centered navigation is quite preserved during aging, allocentric (externally-centered navigation — based on a cognitive map using distant landmarks — declines with age. Recent preclinical studies showed that serotonergic 5-HT7 receptors are localized in brain regions associated with allocentric spatial navigation processing. Behavioral assessments with pharmacological or genetic tools have confirmed the role of 5-HT7 receptors in allocentric navigation. Moreover, few data suggested a selective age-related decrease in the expression of 5-HT7 receptors in pivotal brain structures implicated in allocentric navigation such as the hippocampal CA3 region. We aim to provide a short overview of the potential role of 5-HT7 receptors in spatial navigation, and to argue for their interests as therapeutic targets against age-related cognitive decline.

  1. Expression of the 5-HT receptors in rat brain during memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, A; Manuel-Apolinar, L; Rocha, L; Castillo, E; Castillo, C

    2004-07-09

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system displays more than 14 receptors subtypes on brain areas involved in learning and memory processes, and pharmacological manipulation of specific receptors selectively affects memory formation. In order to begin the search of 5-HT receptors expression during memory formation, in this work, we aimed to determine, by autoradiography (using 3H 5-HT as ligand, 2 nM, specific activity 123 Ci/mmol), 5-HT receptors (5-HTR) expression in passive (untrained) and autoshaping trained (3 sessions) adult (3 months) and old (9 months) male rats. Thus, trained adult rats had better retention than old animals. Raphe nuclei of adult and old trained rats expressed less receptors on medial and dorsal, respectively. Hippocampal CA1 area and dentate gyrus of adult trained rats expressed less 5-HTR, while dentate gyrus of old increased them. Basomedial amygdaloid nucleus in old trained rats expressed more 5-HTR; while in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus they were augmented in both groups. Training decreased or did not change 5-HTR in caudate-putamen of adult or old animals. The above profile of 5-HTR expression is consistent with previous reports, and suggests that memory formation and aging modulates 5-HTR expression in brain areas relevant to memory systems.

  2. Genetic depletion of brain 5HT reveals a common molecular pathway mediating compulsivity and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angoa-Pérez, Mariana; Kane, Michael J; Briggs, Denise I; Sykes, Catherine E; Shah, Mrudang M; Francescutti, Dina M; Rosenberg, David R; Thomas, David M; Kuhn, Donald M

    2012-06-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by behavioral disinhibition, including disorders of compulsivity (e.g. obsessive-compulsive disorder; OCD) and impulse-control (e.g. impulsive aggression), are severe, highly prevalent and chronically disabling. Treatment options for these diseases are extremely limited. The pathophysiological bases of disorders of behavioral disinhibition are poorly understood but it has been suggested that serotonin dysfunction may play a role. Mice lacking the gene encoding brain tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2-/-), the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of serotonin, were tested in numerous behavioral assays that are well known for their utility in modeling human neuropsychiatric diseases. Mice lacking Tph2 (and brain 5HT) show intense compulsive and impulsive behaviors to include extreme aggression. The impulsivity is motor in form and not cognitive because Tph2-/- mice show normal acquisition and reversal learning on a spatial learning task. Restoration of 5HT levels by treatment of Tph2-/- mice with its immediate precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan attenuated compulsive and impulsive-aggressive behaviors. Surprisingly, in Tph2-/- mice, the lack of 5HT was not associated with anxiety-like behaviors. The results indicate that 5HT mediates behavioral disinhibition in the mammalian brain independent of anxiogenesis.

  3. Serotonin syndrome after challenge with the 5-HT agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, T; Pian, KLH; Westenberg, HGM; den Boer, JA; van Praag, HM

    1998-01-01

    meta-Chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) is a non-selective 5-HT-receptor agonist/antagonist that is used extensively in psychiatry to assess central serotonergic function. We report on three patients who developed symptoms of the serotonin syndrome when they participated in an mCPP (0.5 mg/kg body weight

  4. Schistosomiasis differentially affects vasoconstrictor responses: up-regulation of 5-HT receptor-mediated aorta contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen D'Arc dos Santos Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, classified by the World Health Organization as a neglected tropical disease, is an intravascular parasitic disease associated to a chronic inflammatory state. Evidence implicating inflammation in vascular dysfunction continues to mount, which, broadly defined, reflects a failure in the control of intracellular Ca2+ and consequently, vascular contraction. Therefore, we measured aorta contraction induced by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT and endothelin-1 (ET-1, two important regulators of vascular contraction. Isometric aortic contractions were determined in control and Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. In the infected animals, 5-HT induced a 50% higher contraction in relation to controls and we also observed an increased contraction in response to Ca2+ mobilisation from sarcoplasmic reticulum. Nevertheless, Rho kinase inhibition reduced the contraction in response to 5-HT equally in both groups, discarding an increase of the contractile machinery sensitivity to Ca2+. Furthermore, no alteration was observed for contractions induced by ET-1 in both groups. Our data suggest that an immune-vascular interaction occurs in schistosomiasis, altering vascular contraction outside the mesenteric portal system. More importantly, it affects distinct intracellular signalling involved in aorta contraction, in this case increasing 5-HT receptor signalling.

  5. N-Oxide analogs of WAY-100635 : new high affinity 5-HT (1A) receptor antagonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberwinkler - Marchais, Sandrine; Nowicki, B; Pike, VW; Halldin, C; Sandell, J; Chou, YH; Gulyas, B; Brennum, LT; Farde, L; Wikstrom, H V

    2005-01-01

    WAY-100635 [N-(2-(1-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazinyl)ethyl))-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide] 1 and its O-des-methyl derivative DWAY 2 are well-known high affinity 5-HT1A receptor antagonists. which when labeled with carbon-II (beta(+): t(1/2) 20.4min) in the carbonyl group are effective radiol

  6. N-Oxide analogs of WAY-100635 : new high affinity 5-HT1A receptor antagonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchais-Oberwinkler, S; Nowicki, B; Pike, VW; Halldin, C; Sandell, J; Chou, YH; Gulyas, B; Brennum, LT; Farde, L; Wikstrom, HV

    2005-01-01

    WAY-100635 [N-(2-(1-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazinyl)ethyl))-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide] 1 and its O-des-methyl derivative DWAY 2 are well-known high affinity 5-HT1A receptor antagonists. which when labeled with carbon-II (beta(+): t(1/2) 20.4min) in the carbonyl group are effective radiol

  7. Measuring endogenous 5-HT release by emission tomography: promises and pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paterson, Louise M; Tyacke, Robin J; Nutt, David J;

    2010-01-01

    emission tomography, but has not yet been adequately extended to other neurotransmitter systems. This review focuses on how the technique has been applied to the study of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system. The principles behind visualising fluctuations in neurotransmitters are introduced...

  8. Serotonin 5HT1A receptor availability and pathological crying after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Andersen, G; Gjedde, A

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Post-stroke depression and pathological crying (PC) implicate an imbalance of serotonergic neurotransmission. We claim that PC follows serotonin depletion that raises the binding potential (p(B)) of the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY-100635, which is reversible...

  9. Autonomic changes associated with enhanced anxiety in 5-HT(1A) receptor knockout mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pattij, T.; Groenink, L.; Hijzen, T.H.; Oosting, R.S.; Maes, R.A.A.; Gugten, J. van der; Olivier, B.

    2002-01-01

    5-HT(1A) receptor knockout (KO) mice have been described as more anxious in various anxiety paradigms. Because anxiety is often associated with autonomic changes like elevated body temperature and tachycardia, radiotelemetry was used to study these parameters in wild type (WT) and KO mice in stress-

  10. Targeting the Serotonin 5-HT7 Receptor in the Search for Treatments for CNS Disorders: Rationale and Progress to Date

    OpenAIRE

    Nikiforuk, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    The 5-HT7 (5-hydroxytryptamine 7, serotonin 7) receptor is one of the most recently identified members of the serotonin receptor family. Pharmacological tools, including selective antagonists and, more recently, agonists, along with 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7R) knock-out mice have revealed the involvement of this receptor in central nervous system processes. Its well-established role in controlling body temperature and regulating sleep and circadian rhythms has implicated this receptor in mood dis...

  11. Binding of lurasidone, a novel antipsychotic, to rat 5-HT7 receptor: analysis by [3H]SB-269970 autoradiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horisawa, Tomoko; Ishiyama, Takeo; Ono, Michiko; Ishibashi, Tadashi; Taiji, Mutsuo

    2013-01-10

    Lurasidone is a novel antipsychotic agent with high affinity for dopamine D(2) and serotonin 5-HT(7), 5-HT(2A), and 5-HT(1A) receptors. We previously reported that in addition to its antipsychotic action, lurasidone shows beneficial effects on mood and cognition in rats, likely through 5-HT(7) receptor antagonistic actions. In this study, we evaluated binding of lurasidone to 5-HT(7) receptors in the rat brain by autoradiography using [(3)H]SB-269970, a specific radioligand for 5-HT(7) receptors. Brain slices were incubated with 4 nM [(3)H]SB-269970 at room temperature and exposed to imaging plates for 8 weeks before phosphorimager analysis. Using this method, we first investigated 5-HT(7) receptor distribution. We found that 5-HT(7) receptors are abundantly localized in brain limbic structures, including the lateral septum, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala. On the other hand, its distribution was moderate in the cortex and low in the caudate putamen and cerebellum. Secondly, binding of lurasidone, a selective 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist SB-656104-A and an atypical antipsychotic olanzapine to this receptor was examined. Lurasidone, SB-656104-A (10–1000 nM), and olanzapine (100–10,000 nM) showed concentration-dependent inhibition of [(3)H]SB-269970 binding with IC(50) values of 90, 49, and 5200 nM, respectively. Similar inhibitory actions of these drugs were shown in in vitro [(3)H]SB-269970 binding to 5-HT(7) receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Since there was no marked species difference in rat and human 5-HT(7) receptor binding by lurasidone (K(i) = 1.55 and 2.10 nM, respectively), these findings suggest that binding to 5-HT(7) receptors might play some role in its beneficial pharmacological actions in schizophrenic patients.

  12. Roles of the serotonin 5-HT4 receptor in dendrite formation of the rat hippocampal neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozono, Naoki; Ohtani, Akiko; Shiga, Takashi

    2017-01-15

    Serotonin (5-HT) is involved in various aspects of hippocampal development, although the specific roles of 5-HT receptors are poorly understood. We investigated the roles of 5-HT receptors in the dendrite formation of hippocampal neurons. We focused on the 5-HT4 receptor, which is coupled with Gs protein, and compared the effects with those of the Gi-coupled 5-HT1A receptor. Neurons from rat hippocampi at embryonic day 18 were dissociated and treated for 4 days with the 5-HT4 receptor agonist BIMU8 or the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH DPAT. The formation of primary dendrites and dendrite branching were promoted by BIMU8, whereas the dendrite branching was inhibited by 8-OH DPAT. BIMU8-induced promotion of dendrite formation was neutralized by concomitant treatment with the 5-HT4 receptor antagonist, confirming the specific actions of the 5-HT4 receptor. We then examined the signaling mechanisms underlying the actions of the 5-HT4 receptor by using a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. The BIMU8-induced promotion of dendrite formation was reversed partially by the PKA inhibitor, suggesting involvement of PKA signaling downstream of the 5-HT4 receptor. Finally, we examined the contribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to the promotion of dendrite formation by BIMU8. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that BIMU8 increased the BDNF mRNA expression and that treatment of cultured neurons with the TrkB antagonist reversed the BIMU8-induced increase in dendrite formation. In summary, the present study suggests a novel role for the 5-HT4 receptor in facilitation of dendrite formation in which intracellular signaling of PKA and the BDNF-TrkB system may be involved.

  13. Pharmacological, neurochemical, and behavioral profile of JB-788, a new 5-HT1A agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, M; Morisset, S; Cloix, J F; Bizot, J C; Guerin, M; Beneteau, V; Guillaumet, G; Hevor, T K

    2010-09-01

    A novel pyridine derivative, 8-{4-[(6-methoxy-2,3-dihydro-[1,4]dioxino[2,3-b]pyridine-3-ylmethyl)-amino]-butyl}-8-aza-spiro[4.5]decane-7,9-dione hydrochloride, termed JB-788, was designed to selectively target 5-HT(1A) receptors. In the present study, the pharmacological profile of JB-788 was characterized in vitro using radioligands binding tests and in vivo using neurochemical and behavioural experiments. JB-788 bound tightly to human 5-HT(1A) receptor expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells with a K(i) value of 0.8 nM. Its binding affinity is in the same range as that observed for the (+/-)8-OH-DPAT, a reference 5HT(1A) agonist compound. Notably, JB-788 only bound weakly to 5-HT(1B) or 5-HT(2A) receptors and moreover the drug displayed only weak or indetectable binding to muscarinic, alpha(2), beta(1) and beta(2) adrenergic receptors, or dopaminergic D(1) receptors. JB-788 was found to display substantial binding affinity for dopaminergic D(2) receptors and, to a lesser extend to alpha(1) adrenoreceptors. JB-788 dose-dependently decreased forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation in HEK cells expressing human 5-HT(1A), thus acting as a potent 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist (E(max.) 75%, EC(50) 3.5 nM). JB-788 did not exhibit any D(2) receptor agonism but progressively inhibited the effects of quinpirole, a D(2) receptor agonist, in the cAMP accumulation test with a K(i) value of 250 nM. JB-788 induced a weak change in cAMP levels in mouse brain but, like some antipsychotics, transiently increased glycogen contents in various brain regions. Behavioral effects were investigated in mice using the elevated plus-maze. JB-788 was found to increase the time duration spent by animals in anxiogenic situations. Locomotor hyperactivity induced by methamphetamine in mouse, a model of antipsychotic activity, was dose-dependently inhibited by JB-788. Altogether, these results suggest that JB-788 displays pharmacological properties, which could be of interest in the area

  14. Lack of the specific influence of histamine and histamine H1, H2 and H3 receptor ligands on the serotonin uptake and release in rat blood platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, D; Malinowska, B; Wollny, T; Godlewski, G; Buczko, W

    1996-01-01

    This work was designed to investigate the influence of histamine, and H1 receptor agonist 2-(2-thiazolyl)ethylamine, H2 receptor agonist dimaprit and H3 receptor agonist R-(-)-alpha-methylhistamine on the serotonin uptake and release in rat blood platelets. Histamine and R-(-)-alpha-methylhistamine (up to 1 mmol/l), 2-(2-thiazolyl)ethylamine (up to 10 mumol/l) and dimaprit (up to 1 mumol/l) failed to affect the serotonin uptake. The concentration-dependent inhibitory effects of higher concentrations of 2-(2-thiazolyl)ethylamine and dimaprit (up to 1 mmol/l) were not diminished by the H1 receptor antagonist dimetindene and the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (1 and 100 mumol/l each), respectively. Histamine, 2-(2-thiazolyl)ethylamine, dimaprit and R-(-)-alpha-methylhistamine (up to 10 mumol/l) did not change the serotonin release from rat blood platelets. Our results demonstrate that histamine and histamine H1, H2 and H3 receptor agonists do not affect in a specific manner the serotonin uptake and release in rat blood platelets.

  15. Chronic Pain Treatment: The Influence of Tricyclic Antidepressants on Serotonin Release and Uptake in Mast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilonka Ferjan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of serotonin (5-HT in chronic pain mechanisms is established. 5-HT inhibits central painful stimuli, but recent data suggests that 5-HT could also enhance pain stimulus from the periphery, where mast cells play an important role. We aimed in our study to clarify the influence of selected tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs on mast cell function: secretion, uptake, and reuptake of 5-HT, that could interfere with 5-HT levels and in this way contribute to the generation of pain. As an experimental model, we used isolated rat peritoneal mast cells and incubated them with selected TCAs (clomipramine, amitriptyline, doxepin, and imipramine under different experimental conditions. 5-HT release, uptake, and reuptake were determined spectrofluorometrically. We showed that TCAs were able to inhibit 5-HT secretion from mast cells, as well as uptake of exogenous 5-HT and reuptake of secreted 5-HT back into mast cells. The effects of TCAs were concentration dependent; higher concentrations of TCAs inhibited the secretion of 5-HT induced by compound 48/80, whereas lower concentrations of TCAs inhibited 5-HT uptake. The most effective TCA was halogenated clomipramine. As TCAs are well introduced in chronic pain treatment, the insight into mechanisms of action is important for an understanding of their effect in various pain conditions.

  16. Sensitization of restraint-induced corticosterone secretion after chronic restraint in rats: Involvement of 5-HT7 receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Iglesias, Brenda B.; Mendoza-Garrido, María E.; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Noyola-Díaz, Martha; Terrón, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress. We examined the effect of chronic restraint stress (CRS; 20 min/day) as compared to control (CTRL) conditions for 14 days, on: 1) restraint-induced ACTH and corticosterone (CORT) secretion in rats pretreated with vehicle or SB-656104 (a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist); 2) 5-HT7 receptor-like immunoreactivity (5-HT7-LI) and protein in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and adrenal glands (AG); 3) baseline levels of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in PVN and AG; and 4) 5-HT-like immunoreactivity (5-HT-LI) in AG and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) protein in PVN and AG. On day 15, animals were subdivided into Treatment and No treatment groups. Treatment animals received an i.p. injection of vehicle or SB-656104; No Treatment animals received no injection. Sixty min later, Treatment animals were either decapitated with no further stress (0 min) or submitted to acute restraint (10, 30, 60 or 120 min); hormone serum levels were measured. No Treatment animals were employed for the rest of measurements. CRS decreased body weight gain and increased adrenal weight. In CTRL animals, acute restraint increased ACTH and CORT secretion in a time of restraint-dependent manner; both responses were inhibited by SB-656104. Exposure to CRS abolished ACTH but magnified CORT responses to restraint as compared to CTRL conditions; SB-656104 had no effect on ACTH levels but significantly inhibited sensitized CORT responses. In CTRL animals, 5-HT7-LI was detected in magnocellular and parvocellular subdivisions of PVN and sparsely in adrenal cortex. Exposure to CRS decreased 5-HT7-LI and protein in the PVN, but increased 5-HT7-LI in the adrenal cortex and protein in whole AG. Higher 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels were detected in PVN and AG from CRS animals but 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio increased in AG only. Finally, whereas 5-HT-LI was sparsely observed in the adrenal cortex

  17. Trait aggression and trait impulsivity are not related to frontal cortex 5-HT2A receptor binding in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sophie; Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; Holst, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate that the serotonergic (5-HT) transmitter system is involved in the regulation of impulsive aggression and there is from post-mortem, in vivo imaging and genetic studies evidence that the 5-HT2A receptor may be involved. We investigated 94 healthy individuals (60 men, mean...... age 47.0±18.7, range 23-86) to determine if trait aggression and trait impulsivity were related to frontal cortex 5-HT2A receptor binding (5-HT2AR) as measured with [(18)F]-altanserin PET imaging. Trait aggression and trait impulsivity were assessed with the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ...

  18. [Role of brain 5-HT7 receptors as a functional molecule involved in the development of stress adaptation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Minoru; Takeuchi, Tomoko; Miyagawa, Kazuya; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2012-08-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that the brain serotonin (5-HT) nervous system is an important component related to the etiology as well as the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Molecular cloning studies have revealed the existence of 14 different genes, each encoding a distinct 5-HT receptor subtype. The 5-HT7 receptor is the most recently identified member of the 5-HT receptor subtypes, and the physiological role of this receptor is still unknown. Recently, either selective agonists or antagonists for 5-HT7 receptors, as well as 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice, have been developed, and these have recently been used as the experimental tools for determining the actual function of 5-HT7 receptors. The first half of the present article introduces the reports that have examined the role of the 5-HT7 receptor on emotional regulation. On the other hand, it has been indicated that the ability to adapt to stress is an important defensive function of a living body, and impairment of this ability may contribute to some stress-related disorders. Thus, the examination of brain mechanisms involved in stress adaptation could help to pave the way for new therapeutic strategies for stress-related psychiatric disorders. The second half of the present article introduces our recent studies focusing on the relationship between brain 5-HT7 receptors and the mechanisms of stress adaptation.

  19. Expression of the spinal 5-HT7 receptor and p-ERK pathway in the carrageenan inflammatory pain of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Soo Young; Ki, Hyoung Gon; Kim, Joung Min; Oh, Jin Myung; Yang, Ji Hoon; Kim, Woong Mo; Lee, Hyung Gon; Yoon, Myung Ha; Choi, Jeong Il

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the inhibitory role of the 5-hydroxytrypatmine receptor 7(5-HT7R) on nociceptive processing is generally recognized, an excitatory effect associated with a reduced 5-HT7R expression has also been observed in the nerve injury model. In the carrageenan model, no significant effect is produced by the 5-HT7R activation, but the change in 5-HT7R expression has not been examined. Lesioning of the spinal serotonergic pathway enhances allodynia in the carrageenan model, but it als...

  20. Sensitization of restraint-induced corticosterone secretion after chronic restraint in rats: Involvement of 5-HT7 receptors

    OpenAIRE

    García-Iglesias, Brenda B.; Mendoza-Garrido, María E; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Noyola-Díaz, Martha; Terrón, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress. We examined the effect of chronic restraint stress (CRS; 20 min/day) as compared to control (CTRL) conditions for 14 days, on: 1) restraint-induced ACTH and corticosterone (CORT) secretion in rats pretreated with vehicle or SB-656104 (a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist); 2) 5-HT7 receptor-like immunoreactivity (5-HT7-LI) and protein in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and adrenal glands (AG); 3...

  1. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reduces total peripheral resistance during chronic infusion: direct arterial mesenteric relaxation is not involved

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Robert Patrick; Pattison, Jill; Janice M Thompson; Tiniakov, Ruslan; Scrogin, Karie E.; Watts, Stephanie W.

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) delivered over 1 week results in a sustained fall in blood pressure in the sham and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt rat. We hypothesized 5-HT lowers blood pressure through direct receptor-mediated vascular relaxation. In vivo, 5-HT reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP), increased heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac index, and reduced total peripheral resistance during a 1 week infusion of 5-HT (25 µg/kg/min) in the normotensive Sprague Dawley rat. T...

  2. Expression of 5-HT3 receptors by extrinsic duodenal afferents contribute to intestinal inhibition of gastric emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Helen E; Glatzle, Jorg; Robin, Carla; Meyer, James H; Phan, Thomas; Wong, Helen; Sternini, Catia

    2003-03-01

    Intestinal perfusion with carbohydrates inhibits gastric emptying via vagal and spinal capsaicin-sensitive afferent pathways. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of 1) 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(3) receptors (5-HT(3)R) in mediating glucose-induced inhibition of gastric emptying and 2) 5-HT(3)R expression in vagal and spinal afferents in innervating the duodenum. In awake rats fitted with gastric and duodenal cannulas, perfusion of the duodenum with glucose (50 and 100 mg) inhibited gastric emptying. Intestinal perfusion of mannitol inhibited gastric emptying only at the highest concentration (990 mosm/kgH(2)O). Pretreatment with the 5-HT(3)R antagonist tropisetron abolished both glucose- and mannitol-induced inhibition of gastric emptying. Retrograde labeling of visceral afferents by injection of dextran-conjugated Texas Red into the duodenal wall was used to identify extrinsic primary afferents. Immunoreactivity for 5-HT(3)R, visualized with an antibody directed to the COOH terminus of the rat 5-HT(3)R, was found in >80% of duodenal vagal and spinal afferents. These results show that duodenal extrinsic afferents express 5-HT(3)R and that the receptor mediates specific glucose-induced inhibition of gastric emptying. These findings support the hypothesis that enterochromaffin cells in the intestinal mucosa release 5-HT in response to glucose, which activates 5-HT(3)R on afferent nerve terminals to evoke reflex changes in gastric motility. The primary glucose sensors of the intestine may be mucosal enterochromaffin cells.

  3. Serotonin (5-HT3 receptor antagonists for the reduction of symptoms of low anterior resection syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itagaki R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ryohei Itagaki, Keiji Koda, Masato Yamazaki, Kiyohiko Shuto, Chihiro Kosugi, Atsushi Hirano, Hidehito Arimitsu, Risa Shiragami, Yukino Yoshimura, Masato Suzuki Department of Surgery, Teikyo University Chiba Medical Center, Anesaki, Ichihara, Chiba, Japan Purpose: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]3 receptor antagonists are effective for the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D, in which exaggerated intestinal/colonic hypermotility is often observed. Recent studies have suggested that the motility disorder, especially spastic hypermotility, seen in the neorectum following sphincter-preserving operations for rectal cancer may be the basis of the postoperative defecatory malfunction seen in these patients. We investigated the efficacy of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in patients suffering from severe low anterior resection syndrome. Patients and methods: A total of 25 male patients with complaints of uncontrollable urgency or fecal incontinence following sphincter-preserving operations were enrolled in this study. Defecatory status, assessed on the basis of incontinence score (0–20, urgency grade (0–3, and number of toilet visits per day, was evaluated using a questionnaire before and 1 month after the administration of the 5-HT3 antagonist ramosetron. Results: All the parameters assessed improved significantly after taking ramosetron for 1 month. The effect was more prominent in cases whose anastomotic line was lower, ie, inside the anal canal. Defecatory function was better in patients who commenced ramosetron therapy within 6 months postoperatively, as compared to those who were not prescribed ramosetron for more than 7 months postoperatively. Conclusion: These results suggest that 5-HT3 antagonists are effective for the treatment of low anterior resection syndrome, as in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. The improvement in symptoms is not merely time dependent, but it is related to treatment with 5