WorldWideScience

Sample records for plated wire computer

  1. Aluminum/steel wire composite plates exhibit high tensile strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Composite plate of fine steel wires imbedded in an aluminum alloy matrix results in a lightweight material with high tensile strength. Plates have been prepared having the strength of titanium with only 85 percent of its density.

  2. [Study of a wire-to-plate positive pulsed corona discharge reactor by emission spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shen-Bing; Luo, Zhong-Yang; Zhao, Lei; Xuan, Jian-Yong; Jiang, Jian-Ping; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2011-11-01

    In order to get extensive knowledge of wire-to-plate pulsed corona discharge reactor, the influences of different diameters of wire electrode, different wire-to-plate and wire-to-wire spacing on OH radical generation were experimentally investigated under atmospheric pressure based on emission spectrum, and the spatial distribution of OH radicals in the electric field was also discussed in detail The results showed that OH radicals decrease along the X-axis, and the activation radius is approximately 20 mm; showing a trend of first increase and then decrease along the Y-axis, with the activation radius being more than 30 mm. OH radical has small change as the diameter of wire electrode changes below 2 mm, with a sharp decline as the diameter continues to increase. OH radical emission intensity increases as wire-to-wire spacing increases and decrease as wire-to-plate spacing increases.

  3. Investigation of a wire plate micro heat pipe array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Launay, Stephane; Sartre, Valerie; Lallemand, Monique [CETHIL, UMR CNRS 5008, INSA, 20, av. A. Einstein, 69621 Cedex, Villeurbanne (France); Mantelli, Marcia B.H.; Paiva, Kleber Vieira de [Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina UFSC, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900, SC, Florianopolis (Brazil)

    2004-05-01

    In the present work, experimental and theoretical investigations have been conducted on a copper/water wire plate micro heat pipe (MHP). The experimental results show that its effective thermal conductivity is improved by a factor 1.3 as compared to the empty MHP array. A numerical model is used to predict the fluid distribution along the MHP axis, the temperature field and the maximum heat flux corresponding to the MHP capillary limit. The 1D, steady-state hydrodynamic model is based on the conservation equations for the liquid and vapour phases. The wall temperatures are calculated from the thermal resistance network of the wall and the liquid film. A good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data is achieved. The effect of various parameters - contact angle, fluid type, corner angle, fill charge - is theoretically investigated. (authors)

  4. Quantum computer of wire circuit architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseev, S A; Andrianov, S N

    2010-01-01

    First solid state quantum computer was built using transmons (cooper pair boxes). The operation of the computer is limited because of using a number of the rigit cooper boxes working with fixed frequency at temperatures of superconducting material. Here, we propose a novel architecture of quantum computer based on a flexible wire circuit of many coupled quantum nodes containing controlled atomic (molecular) ensembles. We demonstrate wide opportunities of the proposed computer. Firstly, we reveal a perfect storage of external photon qubits to multi-mode quantum memory node and demonstrate a reversible exchange of the qubits between any arbitrary nodes. We found optimal parameters of atoms in the circuit and self quantum modes for quantum processing. The predicted perfect storage has been observed experimentally for microwave radiation on the lithium phthalocyaninate molecule ensemble. Then also, for the first time we show a realization of the efficient basic two-qubit gate with direct coupling of two arbitrary...

  5. Multicellular computing using conjugation for wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi-Moreno, Angel; Amos, Martyn; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Recent efforts in synthetic biology have focussed on the implementation of logical functions within living cells. One aim is to facilitate both internal "re-programming" and external control of cells, with potential applications in a wide range of domains. However, fundamental limitations on the degree to which single cells may be re-engineered have led to a growth of interest in multicellular systems, in which a "computation" is distributed over a number of different cell types, in a manner analogous to modern computer networks. Within this model, individual cell type perform specific sub-tasks, the results of which are then communicated to other cell types for further processing. The manner in which outputs are communicated is therefore of great significance to the overall success of such a scheme. Previous experiments in distributed cellular computation have used global communication schemes, such as quorum sensing (QS), to implement the "wiring" between cell types. While useful, this method lacks specificity, and limits the amount of information that may be transferred at any one time. We propose an alternative scheme, based on specific cell-cell conjugation. This mechanism allows for the direct transfer of genetic information between bacteria, via circular DNA strands known as plasmids. We design a multi-cellular population that is able to compute, in a distributed fashion, a Boolean XOR function. Through this, we describe a general scheme for distributed logic that works by mixing different strains in a single population; this constitutes an important advantage of our novel approach. Importantly, the amount of genetic information exchanged through conjugation is significantly higher than the amount possible through QS-based communication. We provide full computational modelling and simulation results, using deterministic, stochastic and spatially-explicit methods. These simulations explore the behaviour of one possible conjugation-wired cellular computing

  6. Corona Discharges in Atmospheric Air Between a Wire and Two Plates

    OpenAIRE

    Bérard, Philippe; Lacoste, Deanna,; Laux, C.

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The corona discharge obtained in atmospheric air between a wire and two plates is presented. For the configuration studied and the voltage applied, the current is steady for the positive corona and exhibits Trichel pulses in the negative corona. The positive corona produces a homogeneous blue halo around the wire, whereas the negative discharge produces evenly spaced spots on the wire surface. We verified the analytic prediction that the ionic wind varies as the square...

  7. Ionic wind generation by a wire-cylinder-plate corona discharge in air at atmospheric pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Colas, Dorian,; Ferret, Antoine; Pai, David,; Lacoste, Deanna,; Laux, C.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; A wire-cylinder-plate electrode configuration is presented to generate ionic wind with a dc corona discharge in air at atmospheric pressure. The objective of the work is to maximize the power supplied to the flow in order to increase acceleration while avoiding breakdown. Thus, the proposed experimental setup addresses the problem of decoupling the mechanism of ion generation from that of ion acceleration. Using a wire-plate configuration as a reference, we have focuse...

  8. Large Vortex in Front Stagnation Region of a Square Plate Induced by a Fine Interference Wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连淇祥; 苏宗周

    1994-01-01

    Using hydrogen bubble technique, the great change in flow field caused by weak interference in the stagnation region has been observed. When a fine interference wire was set in the upstream of a square plate, the wake of the wire invoked a large counter rotating vortex pair in the front stagnation region of the square plate. This large vortex pair and the reverse flow region might occupy a region larger than half part of the model, with a size over a 100 times greater than the diameter of the interference wire. The formation and development process of the large vortex pair are investigated in this paper.

  9. Simulation of computed radiography with imaging plate detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisseur, D.; Costin, M. [CEA LIST, CEA Saclay 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Mathy, F. [CEA-LETI, Campus Minatec, F-38054, Grenoble (France); Schumm, A. [EDF R and D, 1 avenue du général de gaulle 92141 Clamart (France)

    2014-02-18

    Computed radiography (CR) using phosphor imaging plate detectors is taking an increasing place in Radiography Testing. CR uses similar equipment as conventional radiography except that the classical X-ray film is replaced by a numerical detector, called image plate (IP), which is made of a photostimulable layer and which is read by a scanning device through photostimulated luminescence. Such digital radiography has already demonstrated important benefits in terms of exposure time, decrease of source energies and thus reduction of radioprotection area besides being a solution without effluents. This paper presents a model for the simulation of radiography with image plate detectors in CIVA together with examples of validation of the model. The study consists in a cross comparison between experimental and simulation results obtained on a step wedge with a classical X-ray tube. Results are proposed in particular with wire Image quality Indicator (IQI) and duplex IQI.

  10. Experimental determination of the onset of turbulence on inclined plates using hot wire velocity measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Sevillano, Angel; Pérez Grande, María Isabel; Meseguer Ruiz, José

    2010-01-01

    The problem of determination of the turbulence onset in natural convection on heated inclined plates in an air environment has been experimentally revisited. The transition has been detected by using hot wire velocity measurements. The onset of turbulence has been considered to take place where velocity fluctuations (measured through turbulence intensity) start to grow. Experiments have shown that the distance to the plate edge where the onset begins depends both on the plate inclinatio...

  11. Simulation of a wire-cylinder-plate positive corona discharge in nitrogen gas at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Alexandre A. [Institute for Plasmas and Nuclear Fusion and Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2012-06-15

    In this work, we are going to perform a simulation of a wire-cylinder-plate positive corona discharge in nitrogen gas, and compare our results with already published experimental results in air for the same structure. We have chosen to simulate this innovative geometry because it has been established experimentally that it can generate a thrust per unit electrode length transmitted to the gas of up to 0.35 N/m and is also able to induce an ion wind top velocity in the range of 8-9 m/s in air. In our model, the used ion source is a small diameter wire, which generates a positive corona discharge in nitrogen gas directed to the ground electrode, after which the generated positive ions are further accelerated in the acceleration channel between the ground and cathode. By applying the fluid dynamic and electrostatic theories, all hydrodynamic and electrostatic forces that act on the considered geometries will be computed in an attempt to theoretically confirm the generated ion wind profile and also the thrust per unit electrode length. These results are important to establish the validity of this simulation tool for the future study and development of this effect for practical purposes.

  12. Simulation of a wire-cylinder-plate positive corona discharge in nitrogen gas at atmospheric pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Alexandre A

    2012-01-01

    In this work we are going to perform a simulation of a wire-cylinder-plate positive corona discharge in nitrogen gas, and compare our results with already published experimental results in air for the same structure. We have chosen to simulate this innovative geometry because it has been established experimentally that it can generate a thrust per unit electrode length transmitted to the gas of up to 0.35 N/m and is also able to induce an ion wind top velocity in the range of 8-9 m/s in air. In our model, the used ion source is a small diameter wire, which generates a positive corona discharge in nitrogen gas directed to the ground electrode, after which the generated positive ions are further accelerated in the acceleration channel between the ground and cathode. By applying the fluid dynamic and electrostatic theories all hydrodynamic and electrostatic forces that act on the considered geometries will be computed in an attempt to theoretically confirm the generated ion wind profile and also the thrust per u...

  13. Experimental Study on EHD Flow Transition in a Small Scale Wire-plate ESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrohydrodynamic (EHD flow induced by the corona discharge was experimentally investigated in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP. The ESP was a narrow horizontal Plexiglas box (1300 mm×60 mm×60 mm. The electrode set consisted of a single wire discharge electrode and two collecting aluminum plate electrodes. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV method was used to visualize the EHD flow characteristics inside the ESP seeded with fine oil droplets. The influence of applied voltage (from 8 kV to 10 kV and primary gas flow (0.15 m/s, 0.2 m/s, 0.4 m/s on the EHD flow transition was elucidated through experimental analysis. The formation and transition of typical EHD flows from onset to the fully developed were described and explained. Experimental results showed that the EHD flow patterns change depends on the gas velocity and applied voltage. EHD flow starts with flow streamlines near collecting plates bending towards the wire electrode, forming two void regions. An oscillating jet forming the downstream appeared and moved towards the wire electrode as voltage increased. For higher velocities (≥0.2 m/s, the EHD transition became near wire phenomenon with a jet-like flow structure near the wire, forming a void region behind the wire and expanding as voltage increased. Fully developed EHD secondary flow in the form of counter-rotating vortices appeared upstream with high applied voltage.

  14. Experimental Study on EHD Flow Transition in a Small Scale Wire-plate ESP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Xie, Zhenqiang; Xu, Binggui; Li, Jun; Zhou, Xu

    2016-06-01

    The electrohydrodynamic (EHD) flow induced by the corona discharge was experimentally investigated in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The ESP was a narrow horizontal Plexiglas box (1300 mm×60 mm×60 mm). The electrode set consisted of a single wire discharge electrode and two collecting aluminum plate electrodes. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) method was used to visualize the EHD flow characteristics inside the ESP seeded with fine oil droplets. The influence of applied voltage (from 8 kV to 10 kV) and primary gas flow (0.15 m/s, 0.2 m/s, 0.4 m/s) on the EHD flow transition was elucidated through experimental analysis. The formation and transition of typical EHD flows from onset to the fully developed were described and explained. Experimental results showed that the EHD flow patterns change depends on the gas velocity and applied voltage. EHD flow starts with flow streamlines near collecting plates bending towards the wire electrode, forming two void regions. An oscillating jet forming the downstream appeared and moved towards the wire electrode as voltage increased. For higher velocities (≥0.2 m/s), the EHD transition became near wire phenomenon with a jet-like flow structure near the wire, forming a void region behind the wire and expanding as voltage increased. Fully developed EHD secondary flow in the form of counter-rotating vortices appeared upstream with high applied voltage.

  15. Strongly birefringent cut-wire pair structure as negative index wave plates at THz frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Weis, P.; Paul, O.; Imhof, C.; Beigang, R; Rahm, M.

    2009-01-01

    We report a new approach for the design and fabrication of thin wave plates with high transmission in the terahertz (THz) regime. The wave plates are based on strongly birefringent cut-wire pair metamaterials that exhibit refractive indices of opposite signs for two orthogonal polarization components of an incident wave. As specific examples, we fabricated and investigated a quarter- and a half-wave plate that revealed a peak intensity transmittance of 74% and 58% at 1.34 THz and 1.3 THz, res...

  16. Comparison of joint designs for laser welding of cast metal plates and wrought wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Yasuko; Nomoto, Rie; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Ohkubo, Chikahiro

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare joint designs for the laser welding of cast metal plates and wrought wire, and to evaluate the welded area internally using X-ray micro-focus computerized tomography (micro-CT). Cast metal plates (Ti, Co-Cr) and wrought wires (Ti, Co-Cr) were welded using similar metals. The specimens were welded using four joint designs in which the wrought wires and the parent metals were welded directly (two designs) or the wrought wires were welded to the groove of the parent metal from one or both sides (n = 5). The porosity and gap in the welded area were evaluated by micro-CT, and the maximum tensile load of the welded specimens was measured with a universal testing machine. An element analysis was conducted using an electron probe X-ray microanalyzer. The statistical analysis of the results was performed using Bonferroni's multiple comparisons (α = 0.05). The results included that all the specimens fractured at the wrought wire when subjected to tensile testing, although there were specimens that exhibited gaps due to the joint design. The wrought wires were affected by laser irradiation and observed to melt together and onto the filler metal. Both Mo and Sn elements found in the wrought wire were detected in the filler metal of the Ti specimens, and Ni was detected in the filler metal of the Co-Cr specimens. The four joint designs simulating the designs used clinically were confirmed to have adequate joint strength provided by laser welding.

  17. Computation of radiation from wire antennas on conducting bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, N. Christian; Hansen, Jesper; Jensen, Niels E.

    1974-01-01

    A theoretical formulation, in terms of combined magnetic and electric field integral equations, is presented for the class of electromagnetic problems in which one or more wire antennas are connected to a conducting body of arbitrary shape. The formulation is suitable for numerical computation...

  18. Influence of wire-coil inserts on the thermo-hydraulic performance of a flat-plate solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero Martín, R.; García, A.; Pérez-García, J.

    2012-11-01

    Enhancement techniques can be applied to flat-plate liquid solar collectors towards more compact and efficient designs. For the typical operating mass flow rates in flat-plate solar collectors, the most suitable technique is inserted devices. Based on previous studies from the authors, wire coils were selected for enhancing heat transfer. This type of inserted device provides better results in laminar, transitional and low turbulence fluid flow regimes. To test the enhanced solar collector and compare with a standard one, an experimental side-by-side solar collector test bed was designed and constructed. The testing set up was fully designed following the requirements of EN12975-2 and allow us to accomplish performance tests under the same operating conditions (mass flow rate, inlet fluid temperature and weather conditions). This work presents the thermal efficiency curves of a commercial and an enhanced solar collector, for the standardized mass flow rate per unit of absorber area of 0.02 kg/sm2 (in useful engineering units 144 kg/h for water as working fluid and 2 m2 flat-plate solar collector of absorber area). The enhanced collector was modified inserting spiral wire coils of dimensionless pitch p/D = 1 and wire-diameter e/D = 0.0717. The friction factor per tube has been computed from the overall pressure drop tests across the solar collectors. The thermal efficiency curves of both solar collectors, a standard and an enhanced collector, are presented. The enhanced solar collector increases the thermal efficiency by 15%. To account for the overall enhancement a modified performance evaluation criterion (R3m) is proposed. The maximum value encountered reaches 1.105 which represents an increase in useful power of 10.5% for the same pumping power consumption.

  19. Dimensional analysis of detrimental ozone generation by positive wire-to-plate corona discharge in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Z.; Chen, J. H.

    2010-02-01

    The dimensional analysis technique is used to formulate a correlation between ozone generation rate and various parameters that are important in the design and operation of positive wire-to-plate corona discharges in indoor air. The dimensionless relation is determined by linear regression analysis based on the results from 36 laboratory-scale experiments. The derived equation is validated by experimental data and a numerical model published in the literature. Applications of such derived equation are illustrated through an example selection of the appropriate set of operating conditions in the design/operation of a photocopier to follow the federal regulations of ozone emission. Finally, a new current-voltage characteristic equation is proposed for positive wire-to-plate corona discharges based on the derived dimensionless equation.

  20. Computer animation of Phanerozoic plate motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotese, C.R. (Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Since 1985, the PALEOMAP Project, in collaboration with research groups both in the US and abroad, has assembled a digital model that describes global plate motions during the last 600 million years. In this paper the authors present a series of computer animations that dynamically illustrates the movement of continents and terranes, and the evolution of the ocean basins since the breakup of the late Precambrian supercontinent. These animations depict the motion of the plates from both equatorial and polar perspectives. Mesozoic and Cenozoic plate tectonic reconstructions are based on a synthesis of linear magnetic anomalies, fracture zone locations, intracontinental rifts, collision and thrust belts, and zones of strike-slip. Paleozoic plate reconstructions, though more speculative, are based on evidence of past subduction, continental collision, and inferred sea floor spreading. The relative longitudinal positions of the continents during the Paleozoic and the width of intervening oceans have been adjusted to best explain changing biogeographic and paleoclimatic patterns. A new paleomagnetic/hot spot reference frame has been constructed that combines paleomagnetic data compiled by Rob Van der Voo (1992) with inferred motion relative to a fixed frame of hot spots. Using probable Early Mesozoic and Paleozoic hot spot tracks on the major continents, the authors have extended plate motions relative to the hot spot reference frame back to 400 million years.

  1. Study of a reinforced concrete beam strengthened using a combination of SMA wire and CFRP plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-qiang; Li, Hui

    2006-03-01

    Traditional methods used for strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) structures, such as bonding of steel plates, suffer from inherent disadvantages. In recent years, strengthening of RC structures using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) plates has attracted considerable attentions around the world. Most existing research on CFRP plate bonding for flexural strengthening of RC beams has been carried out for the strength enhancement. However, little research is focused on effect of residual deformations on the strengthening. The residual deformations have an important effect on the strengthening by CFRP plates. There exists a very significant challenge how the residual deformations are reduced. Shape memory alloy (SMA) has showed outstanding functional properties as an actuator. It is a possibility that SMA can be used to reduce the residual deformation and make cracks of concrete close by imposing the recovery forces on the concrete in the tensile zone. It is only an emergency damage repair since the SMA wires need to be heated continuously. So, an innovative method of a RC beam strengthened by CFRP plates in combination with SMA wires was first investigated experimentally in this paper. In addition, the nonlinear finite element software of ABAQUS was employed to further simulate the behavior of RC beams strengthened through the new strengthening method. It can be found that this is an excellent and effective strengthening method.

  2. Carbon black dispersion pre-plating technology for printed wire board manufacturing. Final technology evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folsom, D.W.; Gavaskar, A.R.; Jones, J.A.; Olfenbuttel, R.F.

    1993-10-01

    The project compared chemical use, waste generation, cost, and product quality between electroless copper and carbon-black-based preplating technologies at the printed wire board (PWB) manufacturing facility of McCurdy Circuits in Orange, CA. The carbon-black based preplating technology evaluated is used as an alternative process for electroless copper (EC) plating of through-holes before electrolytic copper plating. The specific process used at McCurdy is the BlackHole (BH) technology process, which uses a dispersion of carbon black in an aqueous solution to provide a conductive surface for subsequent electrolytic copper plating. The carbon-black dispersion technology provided effective waste reduction and long-term cost savings. The economic analysis determined that the new process was cost efficient because chemical use was reduced and the process proved more efficient; the payback period was less than 4 yrs.

  3. Numerical modelling of ozone production in a wire-cylinder corona discharge and comparison with a wire-plate corona discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengxiang; Chen, Junhong

    2009-02-01

    The effect of electrode configuration on ozone production in the direct-current corona discharge of dry and humid air is studied by a numerical model that combines the electron distribution in the corona plasma, plasma chemistry and transport phenomena. Two electrode configurations are considered: wire-cylinder discharge with air flowing along the wire axis and wire-plate discharge with air flowing transverse to the wire. The ozone distributions in both types of discharges are compared. For both electrode configurations, the ozone production rate is higher in the negative corona than in the positive corona and it decreases with an increase in relative humidity. More importantly, the detailed ozone distribution in the neighbourhood of the discharge wire, together with the ozone kinetics, reveals the possible difference in the ozone production from the two discharges. With the same operating conditions and sufficiently short flow residence time, the ozone production rate is nearly the same for both electrode configurations. When the flow residence time is longer than the characteristic time for homogeneous ozone destruction, the net ozone production is higher in the wire-cylinder discharge than in the wire-plate discharge due to relatively less ozone destruction.

  4. Size measurement of radioactive aerosol particles in intense radiation fields using wire screens and imaging plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, Yuichi; Tanaka, Toru; Takamiya, Koichi; Ishi, Yoshihiro; UesugI, Tomonori; Kuriyama, Yasutoshi; Sakamoto, Masaaki; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Osaka (Japan); Nitta, Shinnosuke [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Osada, Naoyuki [Advanced Science Research Center, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    Very fine radiation-induced aerosol particles are produced in intense radiation fields, such as high-intensity accelerator rooms and containment vessels such as those in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP). Size measurement of the aerosol particles is very important for understanding the behavior of radioactive aerosols released in the FDNPP accident and radiation safety in high-energy accelerators. A combined technique using wire screens and imaging plates was developed for size measurement of fine radioactive aerosol particles smaller than 100 nm in diameter. This technique was applied to the radiation field of a proton accelerator room, in which radioactive atoms produced in air during machine operation are incorporated into radiation-induced aerosol particles. The size of 11C-bearing aerosol particles was analyzed using the wire screen technique in distinction from other positron emitters in combination with a radioactive decay analysis. The size distribution for 11C-bearing aerosol particles was found to be ca. 70 μm in geometric mean diameter. The size was similar to that for 7Be-bearing particles obtained by a Ge detector measurement, and was slightly larger than the number-based size distribution measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer. The particle size measuring method using wire screens and imaging plates was successfully applied to the fine aerosol particles produced in an intense radiation field of a proton accelerator. This technique is applicable to size measurement of radioactive aerosol particles produced in the intense radiation fields of radiation facilities.

  5. Stability of extraoral vertical ramus osteotomy: plate fixation versus maxillomandibular/skeletal suspension wire fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, K A; Krogstad, O; Espeland, L; Lyberg, T

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this cephalometric study was to evaluate skeletal stability and time course of postoperative changes in 2 groups of mandibular prognathism patients following extraoral oblique vertical ramus osteotomy (VRO). One group (n = 22) received maxillomandibular fixation and skeletal suspension wires (MMF group) for a period of 8 weeks. In the other group (n = 22), the segments were rigidly fixed with plates and the patients were allowed to function immediately after surgery. Lateral cephalograms were taken on 5 occasions: immediately presurgical, immediately postsurgical, 8 weeks postsurgical, 6 months postsurgical, and 1 year postsurgical. During the first 8 weeks after surgery, the MMF group demonstrated posterior movement of the mandible, with an increase in mandibular plane angle, shortening of the rami, and dental compensations. Upon release of MMF and skeletal suspension wiring, a small anterior relapse tendency was observed, but the net setback 1 year after surgery was still greater than the actual surgical setback. In the plate fixation group, postoperative changes were mainly in the form of a small anterior relapse tendency in the range of 10% of the surgical setback. The results indicate that the use of plate fixation with VRO, while eliminating the inconvenience for the patient of several weeks of MMF and preventing the early side effects observed in the MMF group, also resulted in a more predictable surgical procedure, with excellent stability 1 year after surgery.

  6. 3D PIV measurements of the EHD flow patterns in a narrow lectrostatic precipitator with wire-plate or wire-flocking electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podliński, J.; Kocik, M.; Barbucha, R.; Niewulis, A.; Mizeraczyk, J.; Mizuno, A.

    2006-10-01

    The results of 3-dimensional (3D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of the electrohydrodynamic (EHD) flow patterns in a narrow electrostatic precipitator (ESP) are presented in this paper. The ESP was an acrylic parallelepiped with a wire discharge electrode and two plane collecting electrodes. In contrary to typical ESPs the wire electrode was placed along the gas flow, in the ESP centre, in the halfway between collecting electrodes. Either two smooth stainless steel plates or two stainless steel meshes with nylon flocks were used as the collecting electrodes. They were placed on the top and bottom of the ESP. The PIV measurements were carried out in two parallel planes, placed perpendicularly to the collecting electrodes and parallel to the wire electrode. The obtained results showed some similarities and differences of a 3D particle flow in the ESP with plate or flocking electrodes.

  7. Novel Wire-on-Plate Electrostatic Precipitator (WOP-EP) for Controlling Fine Particle and Nanoparticle Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziyi; Liu, Yingshu; Xing, Yi; Tran, Thi-Minh-Phuong; Le, Thi-Cuc; Tsai, Chuen-Jinn

    2015-07-21

    A new wire-on-plate electrostatic precipitator (WOP-EP), where discharge wires are attached directly on the surface of a dielectric plate, was developed to ease the installation of the wires, minimize particle deposition on the wires, and lower ozone emission while maintaining a high particle collection efficiency. For a lab-scale WOP-EP (width, 50 mm; height, 20 mm; length, 180 mm) tested at the applied voltage of 18 kV, experimental total particle collection efficiencies were found as high as 90.9-99.7 and 98.8-99.9% in the particle size range of 30-1870 nm at the average air velocities of 0.50 m/s (flow rate, 30 L/min; residence time, 0.36 s) and 0.25 m/s (flow rate, 15 L/min; residence time, 0.72 s), respectively. Particle collection efficiencies calculated by numerical models agreed well with the experimental results. The comparison to the traditional wire-in-plate EP showed that, at the same applied voltage, the current WOP-EP emitted 1-2 orders of magnitude lower ozone concentration, had cleaner discharge wires after heavy particle loading in the EP, and recovered high particle collection efficiency after the grounded collection plate was cleaned. It is expected that the current WOP-EP can be scaled up as an efficient air-cleaning device to control fine particle and nanoparticle pollution.

  8. Experimental investigation of cooling of a plate by ionic wind from a corona-forming wire electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elagin, I. A.; Yakovlev, V. V.; Ashikhmin, I. A.; Stishkov, Yu. K.

    2016-08-01

    We report on the results of experimental investigations of the kinematic structure of ionic wind from a wire electrode placed near a heated plate, which plays the role of the earthed electrode. Experiments are carried out in a wide range of voltages for different polarities of the wire for several values of the electrode gap. We compare the structures of the flows emerging as a result of natural convection in open air for different positions of the plate and in the presence of a fast ionic wind jet that considerably intensifies heat transfer in the boundary layer at the heated planar electrode. Local temperature distributions over the plate surface are obtained, as well as the integral dependences of the effective heat removal on the electric parameters of the corona discharge. The velocity of air flows with ionic wind reaches 4 m/s, and the heat power removed from the plate for fixed overheating increases ninefold compared to the situation with natural convection.

  9. Prospective blind comparative clinical study of two point fixation of zygomatic complex fracture using wire and mini plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandi Lakshmi N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The zygomatic maxillary complex (ZMC fractures are one of the most frequent injuries of the facial skeleton due to its position and facial contour. Assaults, road traffic accidents and falls are the principal etiologic factors that may cause fractures of zygomatic bone. The different fixation methods are applied to treat the zygomatic bone fractures, with many more classifications which have been described in the literature for the ease of management. The type of the fracture, its severity and associated facial fractures usually interferes the treatment modality. Purpose of study The aim of this paper is to show the results of 18yrs prospective blind comparative study using wire and plate osteosynthesis which needed open reduction and internal fixation involving Type II to Type IV Spissel and Schroll ZMC fractures. Materials and methods Total 80 cases included in the study out of 1780 ZMC cases which were treated using wire and plate osteosynthesis over a period of 18 yrs, involving only Type II to Type IV Spissel and Schroll ZMC fractures. Other types excluded from study to prevent observer bias. All the fixations carried out through Standard Dingman's incision using stainless steel 26 gauze wire and titanium 1.5 mm mini plate system under general anesthesia by single maxillofacial surgeon and evaluated by another maxillofacial surgeon who is blinded for surgical procedure after 2 and 4 wks of follow-up for facial symmetry, wound healing, functional assessment (mouth opening, diplopia, and sensory disturbance. All the data tabulated in Excel software (Microsoft for statistical analysis. P-value calculated to know the Significance of treatment modality in all aspects. Results Result shows no significant p-values indicating both the operating techniques are equally efficient in the surgical management of ZMC fracture. Conclusion Osteosynthesis by mini plates is simple, logical and effective treatment compared to wire

  10. CFD simulation of high-temperature effect on EHD characteristics in a wire-plate electrostatic precipitator☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Li; Chenghang Zheng; Kun Luo; Xiang Gao; Jianren Fan; Kefa Cen

    2015-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is carried out to describe the wire-plate electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in high temperature conditions, alming to study the effects of high temperature on the electro-hydrodynamic (EHD) characteristics. In the model, the complex interactions at high temperatures between the electric field, fluid dynamics and the particulate flow are taken into account. We apply different numerical methods for different fields, including an electric field model, Euler–Lagrange particle-laden flows model, and particle charging model. The effects of high temperature on ionic wind, EHD characteristics and collection effi-ciency are investigated. The numerical results show high temperature causes more significant effects of the ionic wind on the gas secondary flow. High viscosity of gas at high temperature makes particles follow the gas flow pattern more closely. High temperature reduces the surface electric strength, so that the mean electric strength weakens the space charging. On the contrary, there is an increase in the diffusion charging at high tem-perature compared with at low temperature. High temperature increases the ratio of mean drag force over mean electrostatic force acting on the particles which may contribute to a decline of collection efficiency.

  11. HOT WIRE MEASUREMENT OF TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER ON A FILM COOLING PLATE WITH DIFFUSION HOLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This study experimentally investigated the film cooling flowfield of a single row of diffusion holes, from which the secondary air flow was injected into a turbulent boundary layer with zero pressure gradient on a flat plate. Circular-shaped holes were also tested as a basis for comparison. All the holes were inclined downstream at 35° with respect to the surface and the lateral spacing between the holes was 3 diameters of the hole. The mainstream velocity was maintained at 17 m/s and the Reynolds number based on the injection hole diameter was almost 11000. The density ratio of the jet to mainstream was 1.0, and the jet-to-mainstream velocity ratios M were 0.5 and 1.5. Normal-type and X-type hot wire anemometries were used to measure the streamwise mean velocity and its components, the normal and shear turbulent Reynolds stress components at the locations from the backward edge of the injection hole to 25 diameters downstream.

  12. Evaluation of the performance of a wire-plate electrostatic precipitator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóbrega S.W.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an analysis based on experimental measurement of the influence of gas velocity, applied potential, diameter of the active electrode and distance between two consecutive active electrodes in the performance of a wire-plate electrostatic precipitator. The dimensions of the experimental equipment were as follows: length = 0.5 m, height = 0.3 m, width = 0.3 m, number of ducts = 3, distance between the collection electrodes = 0.1 m and collection area = 0.9 m². The particulate material used in the tests was a phosphatic concentrate with a density of 3.0 x 10³ kg/m³ and a mean particle size of 8.0 mum. The performance of the precipitator was evaluated by measuring its overall collection efficiency, obtained by isokinetic sampling at the entrance and exit of the experimental system. The results were compared to predictions obtained using the classic Deutsch-Anderson equation as well as the one from Zhao et al. (1996. A correction factor is proposed.

  13. Decomposition of mixed malodorants in a wire-plate pulse corona reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y; Ruan, J; Wang, X; Li, W; Tan, T

    2005-09-01

    Decomposition characteristics of two groups of representative mixed malodorants (1, ethanethiol + hydrogen sulfide; 2, ethanethiol + ammonia) in air were investigated employing a wire-plate pulse corona reactor. A new type of high-voltage pulse generator with a thyratron switch and a Blumlein pulse-forming network (BPFN) was used in our experiments. The experiments were conducted at a gas-flow rate of 13 m3/h. Important parameters, including peak voltage, chemical structures of malodorants, pulse frequency, and initial concentration, which influenced the removal efficiency, were investigated. The results showed that the mixed malodorants could be treated effectively by pulse corona. The removal efficiencies of 200 mg/m3 C2H5SH and 200 mg/m3 H2S for group 1 were 95.6% and 100%, respectively, which were almost equal to those of the two pollutants separately. The energy cost was about 65.1-81.4 J/L, which was 31.5-45.2% lower than for treating pollutants alone. The removal efficiencies of 105 mg/m3 C2HsSH and 40 mg/m3 NH3 for group 2 were 93.1% and almost 100%, and the energy cost was 65.1 J/L, 55.6% lower than that which was treated separately. In the case of two groups of mixed malodorants removal, NOx, 03, SO2, CO2, and CO were all observed. Moreover, some sulfur and white crystal ammonium nitrates were discovered adhering to the corona wires in the removal of groups 1 and 2, respectively. A dynamics model was developed to describe the relation of the removal efficiency with specific energy density and initial concentration. In the case of group 1 removal,the decomposition rate constants decreased as compared to the single treating. As for group 2 removal, the decomposition rate constants increased, especially for NH3. According to the results, the optimization design for the reactor and the matching of high pulse voltage source can be reckoned.

  14. Computer simulation of metal wire explosion under high rate heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnikov, K. P.; Kryzhevich, D. S.; Korchuganov, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    Synchronous electric explosion of metal wires and synthesis of bicomponent nanoparticles were investigated on the base of molecular dynamics method. Copper and nickel nanosized crystallites of cylindrical shape were chosen as conductors for explosion. The embedded atom approximation was used for calculation of the interatomic interactions. The agglomeration process after explosion metal wires was the main mechanism for particle synthesis. The distribution of chemical elements was non-uniform over the cross section of the bicomponent particles. The copper concentration in the surface region was higher than in the bulk of the synthesized particle. By varying the loading parameters (heating temperature, the distance between the wires) one can control the size and internal structure of the synthesized bicomponent nanoparticles. The obtained results showed that the method of molecular dynamics can be effectively used to determine the optimal technological mode of nanoparticle synthesis on the base of electric explosion of metal wires.

  15. Tensile Residual Stress Mitigation Using Low Temperature Phase Transformation Filler Wire in Welded Armor Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Zhili [ORNL; Bunn, Jeffrey R [ORNL; Tzelepis, Demetrios A [ORNL; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; Yu, Xinghua [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) has been a persistent issue in welding of high-strength steels. Mitigating residual stresses is one of the most efficient ways to control HIC. The current study develops a proactive in-process weld residual stress mitigation technique, which manipulates the thermal expansion and contraction sequence in the weldments during welding process. When the steel weld is cooled after welding, martensitic transformation will occur at a temperature below 400 C. Volume expansion in the weld due to the martensitic transformation will reduce tensile stresses in the weld and heat affected zone and in some cases produce compressive residual stresses in the weld. Based on this concept, a customized filler wire which undergoes a martensitic phase transformation during cooling was developed. The new filler wire shows significant improvement in terms of reducing the tendency of HIC in high strength steels. Bulk residual stress mapping using neutron diffraction revealed reduced tensile and compressive residual stresses in the welds made by the new filler wire.

  16. An optimized process for the production of advanced planar wire grid plates as detectors for high energy physics experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Iacopi, F; Pins, R; Van Hook, R I; Honore, M; Zhukov, V; Van Lancker, L; Van Doninck, W K; Beyne, E

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel production technique for the planar wire grid plates of microstrip gas chambers (MSGCs, gaseous particle detectors), taking advantage from the typical thin film metallization technologies. The aim of the work here presented has been to manufacture MSGC substrates which can meet the challenging requirements proper to particle tracking detectors in highly ionizing environments. These requirements are mainly represented by high reliability and robustness, since the devices are supposed to operate efficiently for at least 10 years in the extremely hostile conditions foreseen at the large hadron collider at CERN (CH). A detailed process description will be given and results will be analyzed both from the production point of view and from the application of the manufactured prototypes as detectors for high energy physics experiments. (7 refs).

  17. Numerical simulation of effect of catalyst wire-mesh pressure drop characteristics on flow distribution in catalytic parallel plate steam reformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Haftor Örn; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    Steam reforming of hydrocarbons using a catalytic plate-type-heat-exchanger (CPHE) reformer is an attractive method of producing hydrogen for a fuel cell-based micro combined-heat-and-power system. In this study the flow distribution in a CPHE reformer, which uses a coated wire-mesh catalyst...

  18. Mini-plate versus Kirschner wire internal fixation for treatment of metacarpal and phalangeal fractures in Chinese Han population: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaming; Zhang, Changqing

    2014-04-11

    This meta-analysis aimed to compare the therapeutic effect of mini-plate versus Kirschner wire (K-wire) internal fixation on the treatment of metacarpal and phalangeal fractures among Chinese Han population. Databases of China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Chinese VIP, PubMed, and Embase were retrieved for studies on mini-plate (case group) versus K-wire (control group) internal fixation for the treatment of metacarpal and phalangeal fractures among Chinese Han population. The odds ratio (OR) and standardized mean difference (SMD) at 95% confidence interval (CI) were used for estimating the effects of dichotomous data and continuous data, respectively. All statistical analyses were performed by Review Manager 5.2 software. A total of 18 studies involving 1,375 metacarpal or phalangeal fracture patients (709 cases and 666 controls) were included in the meta-analysis. There were significant differences in fracture healing time (SMD = -1.28; 95% CI: -1.81, -0.76), postoperative infection rate (OR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.39), complication incidence (OR = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.38), and surgery time (SMD = 1.57; 95% CI: 0.76, 2.37) between the case and the control group, while no significant difference was found in hospital stays between these two groups (SMD = 0.43; 95% CI: -0.34, 1.20; P = 0.27). For the treatment of metacarpal or phalangeal fracture among Chinese Han population, mini-plate has advantages of shorter healing time and lower infection rate and complication incidence compared with K-wire internal fixation, while a longer surgery time than K-wire. In conclusion, mini-plate is prior than K-wire internal fixation for the treatment of metacarpal or phalangeal fracture among Chinese Han population.

  19. The Quantum Socket: Three-Dimensional Wiring for Extensible Quantum Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Béjanin, J H; Rinehart, J R; Earnest, C T; McRae, C R H; Shiri, D; Bateman, J D; Rohanizadegan, Y; Penava, B; Breul, P; Royak, S; Zapatka, M; Fowler, A G; Mariantoni, M

    2016-01-01

    Quantum computing architectures are on the verge of scalability, a key requirement for the implementation of a universal quantum computer. The next stage in this quest is the realization of quantum error correction codes, which will mitigate the impact of faulty quantum information on a quantum computer. Architectures with ten or more quantum bits (qubits) have been realized using trapped ions and superconducting circuits. While these implementations are potentially scalable, true scalability will require systems engineering to combine quantum and classical hardware. One technology demanding imminent efforts is the realization of a suitable wiring method for the control and measurement of a large number of qubits. In this work, we introduce an interconnect solution for solid-state qubits: The quantum socket. The quantum socket fully exploits the third dimension to connect classical electronics to qubits with higher density and better performance than two-dimensional methods based on wire bonding. The quantum ...

  20. Experimental and Computational Studies of High Energy Density Plasma Streams Ablated from Fine Wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenly, John B. [Cornell University; Seyler, Charles [Cornell University

    2014-03-30

    Experimental and computational studies of high energy density plasma streams ablated from fine wires. Laboratory of Plasma Studies, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University. Principal Investigators: Dr. John B. Greenly and Dr. Charles E. Seyler. This report summarizes progress during the final year of this project to study the physics of high energy density (HED) plasma streams of 10^17-10^20/cm3 density and high velocity (~100-500 km/s). Such streams are produced from 5-250 micrometer diameter wires heated and ionized by a 1 MA, 250 ns current pulse on the COBRA pulsed power facility at Cornell University. Plasma is ablated from the wires and is driven away to high velocity by unbalanced JxB force. A wire, or an array of wires, can persist as an essentially stationary, continuous source of this streaming plasma for >200 ns, even with driving magnetic fields of many Tesla and peak current densities in the plasma of many MA/cm2. At the heart of the ablation stream generation is the continuous transport of mass from the relatively cold, near-solid-density wire "core" into current-carrying plasma within 1 mm of the wire, followed by the magnetic acceleration of that plasma and its trapped flux to form a directed stream. In the first two years of this program, an advancing understanding of ablation physics led to the discovery of several novel wire ablation experimental regimes. In the final year, one of these new HED plasma regimes has been studied in quantitative detail. This regime studies highly reproducible magnetic reconnection in strongly radiating plasma with supersonic and superalfvenic flow, and shock structures in the outflow. The key discovery is that very heavy wires, e.g. 250 micrometer diameter Al or 150 micrometer Cu, behave in a qualitatively different way than the lighter wires typically used in wire-array Z-pinches. Such wires can be configured to produce a static magnetic X-point null geometry that stores magnetic and

  1. Annealing effects in plated-wire memory elements. II - Recrystallization in Permalloy films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, S. J.; Kench, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Results of grain-size measurements in Permalloy platings suggest that recrystallization is possible at temperatures as low as 200 C, but that it is an extremely heterogeneous process. No worthwhile correlation was found to exist between observed grain size and magnetic dispersion in samples aged in the temperature range from 180 to 230 C. It is suggested that the magnetic aging which occurs under these conditions may be due to some other diffusion-controlled process than recrystallization; a process such as chemical homogenization is tentatively preferred.

  2. Computed Tomography Guided Hook-wire Precise Localization and Minimally Invasive Resection of Pulmonary Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong WANG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Localization of pulmonary ground glass nodule is the technical difficulty of minimally invasive operation resection. The aim of this study is to evaluate the value of computed tomography (CT-guided Hook-wire precise localization in resection of pulmonary nodules by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS as well as to discuss the necessity and feasibility of surgical resection of GGOs through a minimally invasive approach. Methods CT-guided Hook-wire precise localization and wedge resection was done on 25 cases with 26 pulmonary nodules by VATS from May 2013 to June 2015. The efficacy of localization was evaluated in terms of procedure time, VATS success rate, and associated complications of localization. Results All the 26 pulmonary nodules (6 solid nodules and 20 GGOs of 25 patients (10 males and 15 females were preoperatively detected and localized with Hook-wire under CT guidance. Nodule diameters ranged from 5 mm-20 mm (mean: 8 mm. The distance of lung lesions from the nearest pleural surfaces ranged within 5 mm-30 mm (mean: 14 mm. All resections of lesions guided by the Hook-wire were successfully performed by VATS (success rate: 100%. The mean procedure time for the CT-guided Hook-wire localization was 10 min (range: 5 min-10 min. The mean procedure time for VATS wedge resection was 20 min (range: 15 min-40 min. The mean hospital time was 4 d (range: 3 d-6 d. The major complication of CT-guided Hook-wire localization was mild pneumothorax in 4 patients, but no one needed chest tube drainage. Wedge resection was performed successfully in all cases. The dislocation of Hook-wire was found in only one patient during the operation, but the lesion was still successfully resected under VATS. Results of pathological examination of 16 mGGOs revealed 8 primary lung cancers and 8 nonspecific chronic inflammations. Results of pathological examination of 4 pGGOs revealed 1 primary lung cancers, 1 atypical adenomatous

  3. Effect of confining pressure due to external jacket of steel plate or shape memory alloy wire on bond behavior between concrete and steel reinforcing bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dongkyun; Park, Kyoungsoo

    2014-12-01

    For external jackets of reinforced concrete columns, shape memory alloy (SMA) wires are easy to install, and they provide active and passive confining pressure; steel plates, on the other hand, only provide passive confining pressure, and their installation on concrete is not convenient because of the requirement of a special device. To investigate how SMA wires distinctly impact bond behavior compared with steel plates, this study conducted push-out bond tests of steel reinforcing bars embedded in concrete confined by SMA wires or steel plates. For this purpose, concrete cylinders were prepared with dimensions of 100 mm x 200 mm, and D-22 reinforcing bars were embedded at the center of the concrete cylinders. External jackets of 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm thickness steel plates were used to wrap the concrete cylinders. Additionally, NiTiNb SMA wire with a diameter of 1.0 mm was wound around the concrete cylinders. Slip of the reinforcing bars due to pushing force was measured by using a displacement transducer, while the circumferential deformation of specimens was obtained by using an extensometer. The circumferential deformation was used to calculate the circumferential strains of the specimens. This study assessed the radial confining pressure due to the external jackets on the reinforcing bars at bond strength from bond stress-slip curves and bond stress-circumferential strain curves. Then, the effects of the radial confining pressure on the bond behavior of concrete are investigated, and an equation is suggested to estimate bond strength using the radial confining pressure. Finally, this study focused on how active confining pressure due to recovery stress of the SMA wires influences bond behavior.

  4. Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots Theoretical and Computational Physics of Semiconductor Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots, 3rd Edition is aimed at providing all the essential information, both theoretical and computational, in order that the reader can, starting from essentially nothing, understand how the electronic, optical and transport properties of semiconductor heterostructures are calculated. Completely revised and updated, this text is designed to lead the reader through a series of simple theoretical and computational implementations, and slowly build from solid foundations, to a level where the reader can begin to initiate theoretical investigations or explanations of their

  5. Ultrathin Terahertz Quarter-wave plate based on Split Ring Resonator and Wire Grating hybrid Metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouman, Muhammad Tayyab; Hwang, Ji Hyun; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2016-12-01

    Planar metasurface based quarter-wave plates offer various advantages over conventional waveplates in terms of compactness, flexibility and simple fabrication; however they offer very narrow bandwidth of operation. Here, we demonstrate a planar terahertz (THz) metasurface capable of linear to circular polarization conversion and vice versa in a wide frequency range. The proposed metasurface is based on horizontally connected split ring resonators and is realized on an ultrathin (0.05λ) zeonor substrate. The fabricated quarter waveplate realizes linear to circular polarization conversion in two broad frequency bands comprising 0.64-0.82 THz and 0.96-1.3 THz with an insertion loss ranging from -3.9 to -10 dB. By virtue of ultrathin sub wavelength thickness, the proposed waveplate design is well suited for application in near field THz optical systems. Additionally, the proposed metasurface design offers novel transmission phase characteristics that present further opportunities to realize dynamic polarization control of incident waves.

  6. Numerical simulation of effect of catalyst wire-mesh pressure drop characteristics on flow distribution in catalytic parallel plate steam reformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Haftor Örn; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    , is considered to investigate the effect of catalyst wire-mesh pressure drop characteristics on flow distribution in the CPHE reformer. Flow distribution in a CPHE reformer is rarely uniform due to inlet and exhaust manifold design. Poorly-designed manifolds may lead to severe flow maldistribution, flow reversal...... in some of the CPHE reformer channels and increased overall pressure drop. Excessive flow maldistribution can significantly reduce the CPHE reformer performance. Detailed three-dimensional models are used to investigate the flow distribution at three different catalyst wire-mesh pressure drop coefficients......Steam reforming of hydrocarbons using a catalytic plate-type-heat-exchanger (CPHE) reformer is an attractive method of producing hydrogen for a fuel cell-based micro combined-heat-and-power system. In this study the flow distribution in a CPHE reformer, which uses a coated wire-mesh catalyst...

  7. Dual-bath Plating of Composition Modulated Alloys (CMA) based on a newly developed Computer Controlled Plating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Leisner, Peter; Møller, Per

    1994-01-01

    of a computer controlled plating system for producing large scale CMA-coatings. Employing a dual-bath technique, multilayered materials with more than 1000 alternating layers have been manufactured and investigated. The thickness of each layer ranges from 25 nm to several microns. The characterisation results......, as obtained with SEM and applications for multilayered systems such as Cu/Ni and Cu/Co, as well as the possibilities and limitation of the plating system will be discussed....

  8. A Novel Computer-Aided Approach for Parametric Investigation of Custom Design of Fracture Fixation Plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaozhong; He, Kunjin; Chen, Zhengming

    2017-01-01

    The present study proposes an integrated computer-aided approach combining femur surface modeling, fracture evidence recover plate creation, and plate modification in order to conduct a parametric investigation of the design of custom plate for a specific patient. The study allows for improving the design efficiency of specific plates on the patients' femur parameters and the fracture information. Furthermore, the present approach will lead to exploration of plate modification and optimization. The three-dimensional (3D) surface model of a detailed femur and the corresponding fixation plate were represented with high-level feature parameters, and the shape of the specific plate was recursively modified in order to obtain the optimal plate for a specific patient. The proposed approach was tested and verified on a case study, and it could be helpful for orthopedic surgeons to design and modify the plate in order to fit the specific femur anatomy and the fracture information.

  9. A Novel Computer-Aided Approach for Parametric Investigation of Custom Design of Fracture Fixation Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The present study proposes an integrated computer-aided approach combining femur surface modeling, fracture evidence recover plate creation, and plate modification in order to conduct a parametric investigation of the design of custom plate for a specific patient. The study allows for improving the design efficiency of specific plates on the patients' femur parameters and the fracture information. Furthermore, the present approach will lead to exploration of plate modification and optimization. The three-dimensional (3D) surface model of a detailed femur and the corresponding fixation plate were represented with high-level feature parameters, and the shape of the specific plate was recursively modified in order to obtain the optimal plate for a specific patient. The proposed approach was tested and verified on a case study, and it could be helpful for orthopedic surgeons to design and modify the plate in order to fit the specific femur anatomy and the fracture information. PMID:28203270

  10. Charge Transport in 4 nm Molecular Wires with Interrupted Conjugation: Combined Experimental and Computational Evidence for Thermally Assisted Polaron Tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherinia, Davood; Smith, Christopher E; Ghosh, Soumen; Odoh, Samuel O; Balhorn, Luke; Gagliardi, Laura; Cramer, Christopher J; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2016-04-26

    We report the synthesis, transport measurements, and electronic structure of conjugation-broken oligophenyleneimine (CB-OPI 6) molecular wires with lengths of ∼4 nm. The wires were grown from Au surfaces using stepwise aryl imine condensation reactions between 1,4-diaminobenzene and terephthalaldehyde (1,4-benzenedicarbaldehyde). Saturated spacers (conjugation breakers) were introduced into the molecular backbone by replacing the aromatic diamine with trans-1,4-diaminocyclohexane at specific steps during the growth processes. FT-IR and ellipsometry were used to follow the imination reactions on Au surfaces. Surface coverages (∼4 molecules/nm(2)) and electronic structures of the wires were determined by cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis spectroscopy, respectively. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the wires were acquired using conducting probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM) in which an Au-coated AFM probe was brought into contact with the wires to form metal-molecule-metal junctions with contact areas of ∼50 nm(2). The low bias resistance increased with the number of saturated spacers, but was not sensitive to the position of the spacer within the wire. Temperature dependent measurements of resistance were consistent with a localized charge (polaron) hopping mechanism in all of the wires. Activation energies were in the range of 0.18-0.26 eV (4.2-6.0 kcal/mol) with the highest belonging to the fully conjugated OPI 6 wire and the lowest to the CB3,5-OPI 6 wire (the wire with two saturated spacers). For the two other wires with a single conjugation breaker, CB3-OPI 6 and CB5-OPI 6, activation energies of 0.20 eV (4.6 kcal/mol) and 0.21 eV (4.8 kcal/mol) were found, respectively. Computational studies using density functional theory confirmed the polaronic nature of charge carriers but predicted that the semiclassical activation energy of hopping should be higher for CB-OPI molecular wires than for the OPI 6 wire. To reconcile the experimental and

  11. A computer study of biodegradable plates for internal fixation of mandibular angle fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tams, J; Van Loon, JP; Otten, B; Bos, RRM

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: This computer-based study was performed to determine the suitability of small biodegradable plate systems for mandibular angle fractures. Materials and Methods: In a 3-dimensional computer model of the mandible, fracture mobility and plate strain were calculated for bite forces applied on 1

  12. Computational investigations of mechanical failures of internal plate fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G; Schmutz, B; Wullschleger, M; Pearcy, M J; Schuetz, M A

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigated the biomechanics of two clinical cases of bone fracture treatments. Both fractures were treated with the same locking compression plate but with different numbers of screws as well as different plate materials. The fracture treated with 12 screws (rigid fixation) failed at 7 weeks with the plate breaking; the fracture with six screws (flexible fixation) endured the entire healing process. It was hypothesized that the plate failure in the unsuccessful case was due to the material fatigue induced by stress concentration in the plate. As the two clinical cases had different fracture locations and different plate materials, finite element simulations were undertaken for each fractured bone fixed by both a rigid and a flexible method. This enabled comparisons to be made between the rigid and flexible fixation methods. The fatigue life was assessed for each fixation method. The results showed that the stress in the rigid fixation methods could be significantly higher than that in flexible fixation methods. The fatigue analyses showed that, with the stress level in flexible fixation (i.e. with fewer screws), the plate was able to endure 2000 days, and that the plate in rigid fixation could fail by fatigue fracture in 20 days. The paper concludes that the rigid fixation method resulted in serious stress concentrations in the plate, which induced fatigue failure. The flexible fixation gave sufficient stability and was better for fracture healing.

  13. Three-Dimensional Wiring for Extensible Quantum Computing: The Quantum Socket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béjanin, J. H.; McConkey, T. G.; Rinehart, J. R.; Earnest, C. T.; McRae, C. R. H.; Shiri, D.; Bateman, J. D.; Rohanizadegan, Y.; Penava, B.; Breul, P.; Royak, S.; Zapatka, M.; Fowler, A. G.; Mariantoni, M.

    2016-10-01

    Quantum computing architectures are on the verge of scalability, a key requirement for the implementation of a universal quantum computer. The next stage in this quest is the realization of quantum error-correction codes, which will mitigate the impact of faulty quantum information on a quantum computer. Architectures with ten or more quantum bits (qubits) have been realized using trapped ions and superconducting circuits. While these implementations are potentially scalable, true scalability will require systems engineering to combine quantum and classical hardware. One technology demanding imminent efforts is the realization of a suitable wiring method for the control and the measurement of a large number of qubits. In this work, we introduce an interconnect solution for solid-state qubits: the quantum socket. The quantum socket fully exploits the third dimension to connect classical electronics to qubits with higher density and better performance than two-dimensional methods based on wire bonding. The quantum socket is based on spring-mounted microwires—the three-dimensional wires—that push directly on a microfabricated chip, making electrical contact. A small wire cross section (approximately 1 mm), nearly nonmagnetic components, and functionality at low temperatures make the quantum socket ideal for operating solid-state qubits. The wires have a coaxial geometry and operate over a frequency range from dc to 8 GHz, with a contact resistance of approximately 150 m Ω , an impedance mismatch of approximately 10 Ω , and minimal cross talk. As a proof of principle, we fabricate and use a quantum socket to measure high-quality superconducting resonators at a temperature of approximately 10 mK. Quantum error-correction codes such as the surface code will largely benefit from the quantum socket, which will make it possible to address qubits located on a two-dimensional lattice. The present implementation of the socket could be readily extended to accommodate a

  14. Dual-bath Plating of Composition Modulated Alloys (CMA) based on a newly developed Computer Controlled Plating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Leisner, Peter; Møller, Per;

    1994-01-01

    of a computer controlled plating system for producing large scale CMA-coatings. Employing a dual-bath technique, multilayered materials with more than 1000 alternating layers have been manufactured and investigated. The thickness of each layer ranges from 25 nm to several microns. The characterisation results...

  15. Noise-driven informatics: secure classical communications via wire and noise-based computing

    CERN Document Server

    Kish, Laszlo B

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we show recent results indicating that using electrical noise as information carrier offers outstanding potentials reminding of quantum informatics. One example is noise-based computing and logic that shows certain similarities to quantum logic. However, due to the lack of the collapse of wavefunction and due to the immediate accessibility of superposition components, the use of noise-based and quantum computers will probably be different. Another example is secure communications where, out of the unconditional security at idealistic situations, a practical security beyond known quantum solutions can be achieved and has been demonstrated. Here the keys to security are the robustness of classical information, and the second law of thermodynamics. These offer the avoidance of making error statistics and single bit security. It has the potential to restrict the practical applications of quantum communicators to the situations where no wire can be used but optical communication via fiber or via spa...

  16. Computational aspects of hot-wire identification of thermal conductivity and diffusivity under high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vala, Jiří; Jarošová, Petra

    2016-07-01

    Development of advanced materials resistant to high temperature, needed namely for the design of heat storage for low-energy and passive buildings, requires simple, inexpensive and reliable methods of identification of their temperature-sensitive thermal conductivity and diffusivity, covering both well-advised experimental setting and implementation of robust and effective computational algorithms. Special geometrical configurations offer a possibility of quasi-analytical evaluation of temperature development for direct problems, whereas inverse problems of simultaneous evaluation of thermal conductivity and diffusivity must be handled carefully, using some least-squares (minimum variance) arguments. This paper demonstrates the proper mathematical and computational approach to such model problem, thanks to the radial symmetry of hot-wire measurements, including its numerical implementation.

  17. A Computational Model of Soil Adhesion and Resistance for a Non-smooth Bulldozing Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Wei-ping; Ren Lu-quan; Tian Li-mei

    2005-01-01

    Adhesive forces exist between soil and the surfaces of soil-engaging components; they increase working resistance and energy consumption. This paper tries to find an approach to reduce the adhesion and resistance of bulldozing plate. A simplified mechanical model of adhesion and resistance between soil and a non-smooth bulldozing plate is proposed. The interaction force between moist soil and a non-smooth bulldozing plate is analyzed. The pressure and friction distribution on the bulldozing plate are computed, and the anti-adhesive effect of a corrugated bulldozing plate is simulated numerically.Numerical results show that the wavy bulldozing plate achieves an effective drag reduction in moist soil. The optimal wavy shape of the corrugated bulldozing plate with the minimal resistance is designed. The basic principle of reducing soil adhesion of the non-smooth surface is discovered.

  18. A computational study of gabor zone plate gamma ray holography

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, C E

    2000-01-01

    Gamma ray zone plate holography is a new technique with applications to Nuclear Medicine. Unlike other tomographic techniques, three-dimensional images can be reconstructed from just one projection. The history of zone plate holography is reviewed, and the differences between this technique and conventional holography are outlined. Sources of error in the recorded hologram are reviewed and methods for the assessment of image quality are given. Three image reconstruction techniques are described and compared. These techniques are convolution, deconvolution and the CLEAN algorithm. Simulated diffraction is the main image reconstruction method which has previously been used to reconstruct images from zone plate holograms. This method is a form of convolution reconstruction. Several variations on this technique are introduced and compared. Matched filtering is also investigated and compared with the simulated diffraction based methods. An approximate Fourier Wiener filter is used to reconstruct the images by deco...

  19. Quantum wells, wires and dots theoretical and computational physics of semiconductor nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots provides all the essential information, both theoretical and computational, to develop an understanding of the electronic, optical and transport properties of these semiconductor nanostructures. The book will lead the reader through comprehensive explanations and mathematical derivations to the point where they can design semiconductor nanostructures with the required electronic and optical properties for exploitation in these technologies. This fully revised and updated 4th edition features new sections that incorporate modern techniques and extensive new material including: - Properties of non-parabolic energy bands - Matrix solutions of the Poisson and Schrodinger equations - Critical thickness of strained materials - Carrier scattering by interface roughness, alloy disorder and impurities - Density matrix transport modelling -Thermal modelling Written by well-known authors in the field of semiconductor nanostructures and quantum optoelectronics, this user-friendly guide is pr...

  20. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured wires (1D) to plates (3D) LiV3O8 combining sol-gel and electrospinning processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Pill; Manesh, Kalayil Manian; Kim, Kyu Soo; Gopalan, Anantha Iyengar

    2009-01-01

    Using the combined techniques of sol-gel and electrospinning, nanostructures (wire (1D) to plates (3D)) of LiV3O8 are prepared with poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) as the template. A precursor gel of LiOH-V2O5 is prepared in alkaline medium. Fibrous membranes of PVA with different weight% of LiOH-V2O5 gel are prepared by electrospinning and designated as PVA/LiOH-V2O5 composite membrane fibers. The composite fibrous membranes are subjected to calcination at 500 degrees C to obtain different nanostructured LiV3O8. FESEM images of LiV3O8 inform that as the loading % of LiOH-V2O5 gel in the composite membrane increased, the morphology of LiV3O8 changed from fibrous wires (1D) to plates (3D). FESEM images reveal that the diameters of the composite fibrous membranes, PVA/LiOH-V2O5 are in the range of 80-120 nm. Results from X-ray diffraction and thermal studies clearly confirm the formation of LiV3O8 after calcination of PVA/LiOH-V2O5 composite membrane at 500 degrees C. It is presumed that this preparation strategy can be extended to obtain nanostructures of other inorganic oxides.

  1. Effect of wire shape on wire array discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimomura, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Yushita, Y.; Nagata, M. [University of Tokushima, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokushima (Japan); Teramoto, Y.; Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H. [Kumamoto University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Although considerable investigations have been reported on z-pinches to achieve nuclear fusion, little attention has been given from the point of view of how a wire array consisting of many parallel wires explodes. Instability existing in the wire array discharge has been shown. In this paper, the effect of wire shape in the wire array on unstable behavior of the wire array discharge is represented by numerical analysis. The claws on the wire formed in installation of wire may cause uniform current distribution on wire array. The effect of error of wire diameter in production is computed by Monte Carlo Method. (author)

  2. Computer program for Thin Wire Antennas Mounted on a Satellite Body Modeled by Flat Plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    S \\ l I ’ ( ’ ) + t ’ p ’ )~~~ T f.~~~’ l * \\ , ]~~~ - - ( , ’ ) - 4 - lf r , , . I , t . ~~) 4 i5~ ‘~Tt ;t ~) Il5 ’-~ t~) i-~c- = L~ 1I’ .~ 4

  3. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  4. Implementation Methods of Computer Aided Design-Drawing and Drawing Management for Plate Cutting-Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yu-de; ZHAO Han; TAN Jian-rong

    2002-01-01

    The implementation methods of computer aided design,drawing and drawing management for plate cuttingmachine are discussed. The system structure for plate cutting- machine design is put forward firstly, then some key technologies and their implementation methods are introduced, which include the structure management of graphics, the unification of graph and design calculation, information share of part, assemble and drawing management system, and movement simulation of key components.

  5. Computer simulation of viscous fingering in a lifting Hele-Shaw cell with grooved plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sujata Tarafdar; Soma Nag; Tapati Dutta; Suparna Sinha

    2009-10-01

    We simulate viscous fingering generated by separating two plates with a constant force, in a lifting Hele-Shaw cell. Variation in the patterns for different fluid viscosity and lifting force is studied. Viscous fingering is strongly affected by anisotropy. We report a computer simulation study of fingering patterns, where circular or square grooves are etched on to the lower plate. Results are compared with experiments.

  6. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    ’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through......Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  7. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty......’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  8. Computer-to-plate Technology: Violet or Thermo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mittelhaus

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Up to now CtP has been a technology for medium-sized and large companies and their printing presses, and thus predominantly in the 70 x 100 cm format and larger. The CtP technology is and remains divided up between violet and thermo, with the advantages and drawbacks of both imaging systems in a counterbalance. Due to the broad penetration of CtP in many markets, practical questions have now come to the fore, including those of continuous process control and quality assurance; providers and specialist forums on these topics will also hold centre stage at drupa. This applies equally to frequency-modulated screening processes, which are today well known and are viewed as a means for ensuring a competitive edge. The CtP technology is now broader and more diverse than ever, and drupa 2004 will clarify which technology and which imagers best allow economical digital plate production for formats up to 50 x 70 cm.

  9. An investigation of heat transfer augmentation and friction characteristics in solar air heater duct with V-shaped wire as artificial roughness on absorber plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukeshwara N., E. S. Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation of heat transfer augmentation and friction characteristics of fully developed turbulent flow in a rectangular duct of solar air heater with absorber plate having V-shaped wire ribs as artificial roughness on its underside is carried out. The investigation covers wide range of different parameters of wire ribbed roughness: relative roughness pitch (p/e from 10 to 40, relative roughness height (e/Dh from 0.01 to 0.04 and angle of attack of flow from 20° to 90°. Duct aspect ratio (W/B is kept 5 and Reynolds number (Re is varied from 2,500 to 8,500. The heat transfer and friction factor values obtained are compared with those of smooth duct under similar flow conditions. Expressions are developed for Nusselt number and friction factor for the roughness geometry. Enhancement of Nusselt number and friction factor for roughened duct are 1.5 and 2.7 times of smooth duct respectively.

  10. An investigation of heat transfer augmentation and friction characteristics in solar air heater duct with V-shaped wire as artificial roughness on absorber plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhukeshwara, N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.I.E.T, Davanagere, Karnataka (India); Prakash, E.S. [Department of Studies in Mechanical Engineering, U.B.D.T.C.E, Davanagere, Karnataka (India)

    2013-07-01

    An experimental investigation of heat transfer augmentation and friction characteristics of fully developed turbulent flow in a rectangular duct of solar air heater with absorber plate having V-shaped wire ribs as artificial roughness on its underside is carried out. The investigation covers wide range of different parameters of wire ribbed roughness: relative roughness pitch (p/e) from 10 to 40, relative roughness height (e/Dh) from 0.01 to 0.04 and angle of attack of flow from 20° to 90°. Duct aspect ratio (W/B) is kept 5 and Reynolds number (Re) is varied from 2,500 to 8,500. The heat transfer and friction factor values obtained are compared with those of smooth duct under similar flow conditions. Expressions are developed for Nusselt number and friction factor for the roughness geometry. Enhancement of Nusselt number and friction factor for roughened duct are 1.5 and 2.7 times of smooth duct respectively.

  11. Effect of Small Variation in the Composition of Plates and Weld Filler Wires on the General Corrosion Rate of Ni-Cr-Mo Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, D V; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

    2005-02-05

    The ASTM standard B 575 provides the requirements for the chemical composition of Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum (Ni-Cr-Mo) alloys such as Alloy 22 (N06022) and Alloy 686 (N06686). The compositions of each element are given in a range. For example, the content of Mo is specified from 12.5 to 14.5 weight percent for Alloy 22 and from 15.0 to 17.0 weight percent for Alloy 686. It was important to determine how the corrosion rate of welded plates of Alloy 22 using Alloy 686 weld filler metal would change if heats of these alloys were prepared using several variations in the composition of the elements even though still in the range specified in B 575. All the material used in this report were especially prepared at Allegheny Ludlum Co. Seven heats of plate were welded with seven heats of wire. Immersion corrosion tests were conducted in a boiling solution of sulfuric acid plus ferric sulfate (ASTM G 28 A) using both as-welded (ASW) coupons and solution heat-treated (SHT) coupons. Results show that the corrosion rate was not affected by the chemistry of the materials within the range of the standards.

  12. Societal costs in displaced transverse olecranon fractures: using decision analysis tools to find the most cost-effective strategy between tension band wiring and locked plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Tittu; Washington, Travis; Srivastava, Karan; Moutzouros, Vasilios; Makhni, Eric C; Hakeos, William

    2017-09-15

    Tension band wiring (TBW) and locked plating are common treatment options for Mayo IIA olecranon fractures. Clinical trials have shown excellent functional outcomes with both techniques. Although TBW implants are significantly less expensive than a locked olecranon plate, TBW often requires an additional operation for implant removal. To choose the most cost-effective treatment strategy, surgeons must understand how implant costs and return to the operating room influence the most cost-effective strategy. This cost-effective analysis study explored the optimal treatment strategies by using decision analysis tools. An expected-value decision tree was constructed to estimate costs based on the 2 implant choices. Values for critical variables, such as implant removal rate, were obtained from the literature. A Monte Carlo simulation consisting of 100,000 trials was used to incorporate variability in medical costs and implant removal rates. Sensitivity analysis and strategy tables were used to show how different variables influence the most cost-effective strategy. TBW was the most cost-effective strategy, with a cost savings of approximately $1300. TBW was also the dominant strategy by being the most cost-effective solution in 63% of the Monte Carlo trials. Sensitivity analysis identified implant costs for plate fixation and surgical costs for implant removal as the most sensitive parameters influencing the cost-effective strategy. Strategy tables showed the most cost-effective solution as 2 parameters vary simultaneously. TBW is the most cost-effective strategy in treating Mayo IIA olecranon fractures despite a higher rate of return to the operating room. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermal noise informatics: Totally secure communication via a wire; Zero-power communication; and Thermal noise driven computing

    CERN Document Server

    Kish, Laszlo B; gingl, Zoltan

    2007-01-01

    Very recently, it has been shown that Gaussian thermal noise and its artificial versions (Johnson-like noises) can be utilized as an information carrier with peculiar properties therefore it may be proper to call this topic Thermal Noise Informatics. Zero Power (Stealth) Communication, Thermal Noise Driven Computing, and Totally Secure Classical Communication are relevant examples. In this paper, while we will briefly describe the first and the second subjects, we shall focus on the third subject, the secure classical communication via wire. This way of secure telecommunication utilizes the properties of Johnson(-like) noise and those of a simple Kirchhoff's loop. The communicator is unconditionally secure at the conceptual (circuit theoretical) level and this property is (so far) unique in communication systems based on classical physics. The communicator is superior to quantum alternatives in all known aspects, except the need of using a wire.

  14. Computers Take Flight: A History of NASA's Pioneering Digital Fly-By-Wire Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, James E.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of the NASA F-8 Fly-by Wire project is presented. The project made two significant contributions to the new technology: (1) a solid design base of techniques that work and those that do not, and (2) credible evidence of good flying qualities and the ability of such a system to tolerate real faults and to continue operation without degradation. In 1972 the F-8C aircraft used in the program became he first digital fly-by-wire aircraft to operate without a mechanical backup system.

  15. The Laser Welding with Hot Wire of 316LN Thick Plate Applied on ITER Correction Coil Case

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Chao; Wu, Weiyue; Wei, Jing; Zhang, Shuquan; Li, Hongwei; Dolgetta, N; Libeyre, P; Cormany, C; Sgobba, S

    2014-01-01

    ITER correction coil (CC) cases have characteristics of small cross section, large dimensions, and complex structure. The cases are made of heavy thick (20 mm), high strength and high toughness austenitic stainless steel 316LN. The multi-pass laser welding with hot wire technology is used for the case closure welding, due to its low heat input and deformation. In order to evaluate the reliability of this welding technology, 20 mm welding samples with the same groove structure and welding depth as the cases were welded. High purity argon was used as the shielding gas to prevent oxidation because of the narrowness and depth of the weld. In this paper investigation of, microstructure characteristics and mechanical properties of welded joints using optimized welding parameters are presented. The results show that the base metal, fusion metal, and heat affected zone (HAZ) are all have fully austenitic microstructure, and that the grain size of fusion metal was finer than that of the base metal. The welding resulte...

  16. Plate-specific gain map correction for the improvement of detective quantum efficiency in computed radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnell, Erich A.; Samei, Ehsan; Dobbins, James T. [Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Departments of Radiology, Biomedical Engineering, and Physics, and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to improve the noise power spectrum (NPS), and thus the detective quantum efficiency (DQE), of computed radiography (CR) images by correcting for spatial gain variations specific to individual imaging plates. CR devices have not traditionally employed gain-map corrections, unlike the case with flat-panel detectors, because of the multiplicity of plates used with each reader. The lack of gain-map correction has limited the DQE(f) at higher exposures with CR. This current work describes a feasible solution to generating plate-specific gain maps. Methods: Ten high-exposure open field images were taken with an RQA5 spectrum, using a sixth generation CR plate suspended in air without a cassette. Image values were converted to exposure, the plates registered using fiducial dots on the plate, the ten images averaged, and then high-pass filtered to remove low frequency contributions from field inhomogeneity. A gain-map was then produced by converting all pixel values in the average into fractions with mean of one. The resultant gain-map of the plate was used to normalize subsequent single images to correct for spatial gain fluctuation. To validate performance, the normalized NPS (NNPS) for all images was calculated both with and without the gain-map correction. Variations in the quality of correction due to exposure levels, beam voltage/spectrum, CR reader used, and registration were investigated. Results: The NNPS with plate-specific gain-map correction showed improvement over the noncorrected case over the range of frequencies from 0.15 to 2.5 mm{sup -1}. At high exposure (40 mR), NNPS was 50%-90% better with gain-map correction than without. A small further improvement in NNPS was seen from carefully registering the gain-map with subsequent images using small fiducial dots, because of slight misregistration during scanning. Further improvement was seen in the NNPS from scaling the gain map about the mean to account for different beam

  17. Plate-specific gain map correction for the improvement of detective quantum efficiency in computed radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Erich A; Samei, Ehsan; Dobbins, James T

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to improve the noise power spectrum (NPS), and thus the detective quantum efficiency (DQE), of computed radiography (CR) images by correcting for spatial gain variations specific to individual imaging plates. CR devices have not traditionally employed gain-map corrections, unlike the case with flat-panel detectors, because of the multiplicity of plates used with each reader. The lack of gain-map correction has limited the DQE(f) at higher exposures with CR. This current work describes a feasible solution to generating plate-specific gain maps. Ten high-exposure open field images were taken with an RQA5 spectrum, using a sixth generation CR plate suspended in air without a cassette. Image values were converted to exposure, the plates registered using fiducial dots on the plate, the ten images averaged, and then high-pass filtered to remove low frequency contributions from field inhomogeneity. A gain-map was then produced by converting all pixel values in the average into fractions with mean of one. The resultant gain-map of the plate was used to normalize subsequent single images to correct for spatial gain fluctuation. To validate performance, the normalized NPS (NNPS) for all images was calculated both with and without the gain-map correction. Variations in the quality of correction due to exposure levels, beam voltage/spectrum, CR reader used, and registration were investigated. The NNPS with plate-specific gain-map correction showed improvement over the noncorrected case over the range of frequencies from 0.15 to 2.5 mm(-1). At high exposure (40 mR), NNPS was 50%-90% better with gain-map correction than without. A small further improvement in NNPS was seen from carefully registering the gain-map with subsequent images using small fiducial dots, because of slight misregistration during scanning. Further improvement was seen in the NNPS from scaling the gain map about the mean to account for different beam spectra. This study

  18. Distal radius plate of CFR-PEEK has minimal effect compared to titanium plates on bone parameters in high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Joost J A; Lataster, Arno; van Rietbergen, Bert; Arts, Jacobus J; Geusens, Piet P; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Willems, Paul C

    2017-02-27

    Carbon-fiber-reinforced poly-ether-ether-ketone (CFR-PEEK) has superior radiolucency compared to other orthopedic implant materials, e.g. titanium or stainless steel, thus allowing metal-artifact-free postoperative monitoring by computed tomography (CT). Recently, high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HRpQCT) proved to be a promising technique to monitor the recovery of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), micro-architecture and biomechanical parameters in stable conservatively treated distal radius fractures. When using HRpQCT to monitor unstable distal radius fractures that require volar distal radius plating for fixation, radiolucent CFR-PEEK plates may be a better alternative to currently used titanium plates to allow for reliable assessment. In this pilot study, we assessed the effect of a volar distal radius plate made from CFR-PEEK on bone parameters obtained from HRpQCT in comparison to two titanium plates. Plates were instrumented in separate cadaveric human fore-arms (n = 3). After instrumentation and after removal of the plates duplicate HRpQCT scans were made of the region covered by the plate. HRpQCT images were visually checked for artifacts. vBMD, micro-architectural and biomechanical parameters were calculated, and compared between the uninstrumented and instrumented radii. No visible image artifacts were observed in the CFR-PEEK plate instrumented radius, and errors in bone parameters ranged from -3.2 to 2.6%. In the radii instrumented with the titanium plates, severe image artifacts were observed and errors in bone parameters ranged between -30.2 and 67.0%. We recommend using CFR-PEEK plates in longitudinal in vivo studies that monitor the healing process of unstable distal radius fractures treated operatively by plating or bone graft ingrowth.

  19. 线-板式脉冲电晕放电反应器的发射光谱研究%Study of a Wire-to-Plate Positive Pulsed Corona Discharge Reactor by Emission Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王沈兵; 骆仲泱; 赵磊; 轩俭勇; 江建平; 岑可法

    2011-01-01

    以发射光谱法为基础,检测了常压状态线-板式脉冲电晕放电过程OH自由基在反应器内的空间分布;研究了线电极直径,线线间距以及线板间距对生成OH自由基的影响;从而明确脉冲电晕放电反应器的性能.结果显示:OH自由基浓度沿线电极X轴方向逐渐降低,活化区域半径20 mm左右,沿Y轴方向先升高后降低,活化区域半径大于30 mm;线电极的直径小于2mm时,OH自由基的光谱强度基本不变,线电极直径继续增大,发射光谱强度随之迅速下降.线线间距逐渐增大,OH自由基的发射光谱强度随之增强.OH自由基的发射光谱强度随着线板间距的增大而降低.%In order to get extensive knowledge of wire-to-plate pulsed corona discharge reactor, the influences of different diameters of wire electrode, different wire-to-plate and wire-to-wire spacing on OH radical generation were experimentally investigated under atmospheric pressure based on emission spectrum, and the spatial distribution of OH radicals in the electric field was also discussed in detail. The results showed that OH radicals decrease along the X-axis, and the activation radius is approximately 20 mm; showing a trend of first increase and then decrease along the Y-axis, with the activation radius being more than 30 mm. OH radical has small change as the diameter of wire electrode changes below 2 mm, with a sharp decline as the diameter continues to increase. OH radical emission intensity increases as wire-to-wire spacing increases and decrease as wire-to-plate spacing increases.

  20. Assessing the effects of manual dexterity and playing computer games on catheter-wire manipulation for inexperienced operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsafi, Z; Hameed, Y; Amin, P; Shamsad, S; Raja, U; Alsafi, A; Hamady, M S

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effect of playing computer games and manual dexterity on catheter-wire manipulation in a mechanical aortic model. Medical student volunteers filled in a preprocedure questionnaire assessing their exposure to computer games. Their manual dexterity was measured using a smartphone game. They were then shown a video clip demonstrating renal artery cannulation and were asked to reproduce this. All attempts were timed. Two-tailed Student's t-test was used to compare continuous data, while Fisher's exact test was used for categorical data. Fifty students aged 18-22 years took part in the study. Forty-six completed the task at an average of 168 seconds (range 103-301 seconds). There was no significant difference in the dexterity score or time to cannulate the renal artery between male and female students. Students who played computer games for >10 hours per week had better dexterity scores than those who did not play computer games: 9.1 versus 10.2 seconds (p=0.0237). Four of 19 students who did not play computer games failed to complete the task, while all of those who played computer games regularly completed the task (p=0.0168). Playing computer games is associated with better manual dexterity and ability to complete a basic interventional radiology task for novices. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of electroless Ni-P plating condition on wire bondability(1)%化学镀Ni-P镀层状态对引线键合的影响(1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡积庆(译)

    2012-01-01

    观测了化学镀Ni/Au工艺中化学镀Ni-P镀层的状态,评估了基底化学镀Ni-P镀层的P含量和Ni析出状态对引线键合性的影响。%In this paper,electroless Ni-P plating condition in electroless Au/Ni process was observed,and influence of P content and Ni deposits condition of electroless Ni-P plating sued as under layer on wire bondability was evaluated.

  2. Computed tomographic Assessment of Lateral Lamella of Cribiform Plate and Comparison of Depth of Olfactory Fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bista

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic sinus surgery is an upcoming branch in rhinological practice but with some major risks since it has to play around the skull base area. Lateral lamella of cribriform plate is the thinnest area of the skull base. Thus this study is undertaken to evaluate the height of lateral lamella of cribriform plate and the depth of olfactory fossae by the help of computed tomographic images. METHODS: Computed tomographic study of 50 patients was done in Advanced Imaging and Diagnostic center, Kathmandu Medical College. Coronal sections at the centre of infra-orbital foramina were taken as reference slide. The height of cribriform plate point was subtracted from the height of medial ethmoidal roof point to measure the length of lateral lamella of cribriform plates on both sides. RESULTS: The median height of LLCP in 100 slides was 2.8 mm. LLCP height was 0 to 3.9 mm in 86 slides, 4 to 7 mm in 12 slides and greater than 7mm in 2 slides. The LLCP length was greater in right side in 28 (56% patients and was greater in left side in 19 (38% patients. It was equal in both sides in only three patients (6%. CONCLUSIONS: As regards the length of LLCP; 0 to 3.9 mm length was most common. The olfactory fossa depth was more in the right side compared to the left side. Thus, right side is more vulnerable to injury during surgery. Thus adequate caution has to be exercised by the rhinological surgeon during endoscopic sinus surgery. Keywords: lateral lamella of Cribriform plate, medical ethmoidal roof, olfactory fossa.

  3. UK DRAFFT - A randomised controlled trial of percutaneous fixation with kirschner wires versus volar locking-plate fixation in the treatment of adult patients with a dorsally displaced fracture of the distal radius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Jaclyn

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fractures of the distal radius are extremely common injuries in adults. However, the optimal management remains controversial. In general, fractures of the distal radius are treated non-operatively if the bone fragments can be held in anatomical alignment by a plaster cast or orthotic. However, if this is not possible, then operative fixation is required. There are several operative options but the two most common in the UK, are Kirschner-wire fixation (K-wires and volar plate fixation using fixed-angle screws (locking-plates. The primary aim of this trial is to determine if there is a difference in the Patient-Reported Wrist Evaluation one year following K-wire fixation versus locking-plate fixation for adult patients with a dorsally-displaced fracture of the distal radius. Methods/design All adult patients with an acute, dorsally-displaced fracture of the distal radius, requiring operative fixation are potentially eligible to take part in this study. A total of 390 consenting patients will be randomly allocated to either K-wire fixation or locking-plate fixation. The surgery will be performed in trauma units across the UK using the preferred technique of the treating surgeon. Data regarding wrist function, quality of life, complications and costs will be collected at six weeks and three, six and twelve months following the injury. The primary outcome measure will be wrist function with a parallel economic analysis. Discussion This pragmatic, multi-centre trial is due to deliver results in December 2013. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN31379280 UKCRN portfolio ID 8956

  4. Wiring the deep ocean: planned 'observatory' covering Juan de Fuca tectonic plate generating interest in the oilpatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.

    2005-03-01

    Following in the wake of the devastating earthquake and tsunami in Southeast Asia, calls for an urgent need to upgrade warning systems and improve ability to monitor, and even predict, such devastating earthquakes and killer waves are heard around the world. Calls for action are particularly urgent in the Northeast Pacific, which is not only one of the most seismically active area of the planet, but is widely considered to be due for a tremor of equal or greater magnitude in the near future. Accompanying this concern is increased curiosity about the likelihood of a bonanza of hydrocarbons awaiting discovery under the frigid waters, and if so, what are the obstacles to their removal and how these obstacles may be overcome. As if to respond to both types of concerns, the Royal Society of Canada's Expert Panel on Science Related to Oil and Gas Activities in its 2004 Annual Report warned of 'gaps in knowledge' and suggested a better network of earthquake activity recorders to be built as soon as possible. Such a network is about to become a reality with NEPTUNE, a 3,000 km network of optic/power cables encircling and crossing the Juan de Fuca tectonic plate. Between 30 and 50 experimental sites will be established at nodes along the cable and will be instrumented to interact with physical, chemical and biological phenomena that operate across multiple scales of space and time. Many of the technologies going into this project are of definite interest to the oil industry, since much of future oil and gas exploration is expected to be in deep water. Researchers believe that the offshore Hydrate Ridge is an ideal location to study gas hydrate dynamics and free gas expulsion. Data captured by means of the NEPTUNE network instruments may also have significant influence on any lifting of the drilling moratorium in the Queen Charlotte Straits. Two smaller prototype projects, VENUS (shallow water) and MARS (deep water) currently under construction off southern

  5. Depth compensating calculation method of computer-generated holograms using symmetry and similarity of zone plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hui; Gong, Guanghong; Li, Ni

    2017-10-01

    Computer-generated hologram (CGH) is a promising 3D display technology while it is challenged by heavy computation load and vast memory requirement. To solve these problems, a depth compensating CGH calculation method based on symmetry and similarity of zone plates is proposed and implemented on graphics processing unit (GPU). An improved LUT method is put forward to compute the distances between object points and hologram pixels in the XY direction. The concept of depth compensating factor is defined and used for calculating the holograms of points with different depth positions instead of layer-based methods. The proposed method is suitable for arbitrary sampling objects with lower memory usage and higher computational efficiency compared to other CGH methods. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by numerical and optical experiments.

  6. Using Network Calculus to compute end-to-end delays in SpaceWire networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrandiz, Thomas; Frances, Fabrice; Fraboul, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The SpaceWire network standard is promoted by the ESA and is scheduled to be used as the sole on-board network for future satellites. This network uses a wormhole routing mechanism that can lead to packet blocking in routers and consequently to variable end-to-end delays. As the network will be shared by real-time and non real- time traffic, network designers require a tool to check that temporal constraints are verified for all the critical messages. Network Calculus can be used for evaluati...

  7. Localizing Energy Sources and Sinks in Plates Using Power Flow Maps Computed From Laser Vibrometer Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R.F. Arruda

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental method especially adapted for the computation of structural power flow using spatially dense vibration data measured with scanning laser Doppler vibrometers. In the proposed method, the operational deflection shapes measured over the surface of the structure are curve-fitted using a two-dimensional discrete Fourier series approximation that minimizes the effects of spatial leakage. From the wavenumber-frequency domain data thus obtained, the spatial derivatives that are necessary to determine the structural power flow are easily computed. Divergence plots are then obtained from the computed intensity fields. An example consisting of a rectangular aluminum plate supported by rubber mounts and excited by a point force is used to appraise the proposed method. The proposed method is compared with more traditional finite difference methods. The proposed method was the only to allow the localization of the energy source and sinks from the experimental divergence plots.

  8. Who's wired and who's not: children's access to and use of computer technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, H J

    2000-01-01

    As computer technology becomes increasingly prevalent throughout society, concerns have been raised about an emerging "digital divide" between those children who are benefitting and those who are being left behind. This article presents results from new analyses of national survey data describing children's differential access to computers in school and at home, and the varying conditions that affect how children experience computers. For example, responses from a nationwide survey of teachers suggest that, as of 1998, more than 75% of students had access to computers at school. In fact, those teaching lower-income students reported weekly use of computers more often than those teaching higher-income students. But the nature of children's experiences using computers in school varied greatly by subject and teacher objectives, and the data suggest that lower-income students use computers more often for repetitive practice, whereas higher-income students use computers more often for more sophisticated, intellectually complex applications. Differences between low-income and high-income children's access to home computers were far less subtle. Survey data indicate that only about 22% of children in families with annual incomes of less than $20,000 had access to a home computer, compared to 91% of those in families with annual incomes of more than $75,000. And among children with access, those in low-income families were reported to use the computer less than those in high-income families, perhaps because most low-income families with computers lacked a connection to the Internet. The two most predictive factors of children's use of home computers were the child's age and the computer's capabilities. The author concludes that home access to computers will be a continued area of inequality in American society, and that schools must play a critical role in ensuring equal opportunity for less-advantaged children to access the benefits of the more intellectually powerful

  9. A retrospective study to validate an intraoperative robotic classification system for assessing the accuracy of kirschner wire (K-wire) placements with postoperative computed tomography classification system for assessing the accuracy of pedicle screw placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Wu, Dong-Syuan; Su, Yu-Feng; Wu, Chieh-Hsin; Lin, Chih-Lung

    2016-09-01

    This purpose of this retrospective study is validation of an intraoperative robotic grading classification system for assessing the accuracy of Kirschner-wire (K-wire) placements with the postoperative computed tomography (CT)-base classification system for assessing the accuracy of pedicle screw placements.We conducted a retrospective review of prospectively collected data from 35 consecutive patients who underwent 176 robotic assisted pedicle screws instrumentation at Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital from September 2014 to November 2015. During the operation, we used a robotic grading classification system for verifying the intraoperative accuracy of K-wire placements. Three months after surgery, we used the common CT-base classification system to assess the postoperative accuracy of pedicle screw placements. The distributions of accuracy between the intraoperative robot-assisted and various postoperative CT-based classification systems were compared using kappa statistics of agreement.The intraoperative accuracies of K-wire placements before and after repositioning were classified as excellent (131/176, 74.4% and 133/176, 75.6%, respectively), satisfactory (36/176, 20.5% and 41/176, 23.3%, respectively), and malpositioned (9/176, 5.1% and 2/176, 1.1%, respectively)In postoperative CT-base classification systems were evaluated. No screw placements were evaluated as unacceptable under any of these systems. Kappa statistics revealed no significant differences between the proposed system and the aforementioned classification systems (P system and various postoperative CT-based grading systems. The robotic grading classification system is a feasible method for evaluating the accuracy of K-wire placements. Using the intraoperative robot grading system to classify the accuracy of K-wire placements enables predicting the postoperative accuracy of pedicle screw placements.

  10. The thermal decomposition of waste computer wire%废电线热解过程产物分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玉文; 王松涛; 刘景洋; 乔琦; 张建强; 王红梅

    2009-01-01

    The pyrolysis characteristics,thermal decomposition products from waste computer wire were simulant studied.Results show that waste computer wire has three acutely weight loss stages,of which the first is decomposing of the organic polymer,the second is decomposing of the Plasticizer,and decomposing of flame retardants persists throughout the experiment.A variety of organic compounds could probably be produced in the thermal decomposition,such as aromatic oil compounds comprised 6~16 caibon atom,little numerator organic compounds,chloridized organic compounds and HCI.The pyrolysis products have diversiform poisonous and toxic sudstances.Its pollution controlling is necessary.%模拟研究了废电脑电线热解特性和热处理产物.结果表明,废电脑电线热解过程出现3个剧烈失重阶段,第l剧烈失重阶段主要是聚合物分解,第2剧烈失重阶段主要是增塑剂分解,阻燃剂分解持续整个实验过程.废电脑电线热解产物既有6~16个c原子的油状有机物,也有烃类小分子有机化合物、有机氯化物和HCI.热解产物中有多种毒害物质,必须加以控制.

  11. 电晕线串并联的脉冲电晕放电特性%Pulse Corona Discharge Characteristics of the Line-to-plate Reactor with Series and Parallel Corona Wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何正浩; 李劲

    2001-01-01

    The V-A characteristics of nanosecond pulse corona discharge with different corona wire length in series and parallel in the line-to-plate pulse corona discharge reactor is measured.It investigates the different features of the pulse corona discharge while the corona wires are connected in series and parallel. It is known from the study that the V-A characteristics of nanosecond pulse corona discharge trends to rise as exponential function. The corona currents with the wire in series increase as logarithmic function with the increase of the corona wire. But the corona currents with the wire in parallel increase as linear function with the increase of the corona wire. The results suggest that the corona wires is better to be connected in parallel in practical design for getting high corona discharge efficiency and the corona wire shouldn’t be long.%在线板结构脉冲电晕放电试验模型上,测试了不同长度电晕线串并联时的ns脉冲电晕放电伏安特性,研究了电晕线串并联时脉冲电晕放电的不同特点。研究表明ns脉冲电晕放电伏安特性呈指数函数上升趋势,串联电晕线的电晕电流随其长度的增长为自然对数函数上升趋势,并联电晕线的电晕 电流随其长度的增长为线形函数上升趋势。根据研究,实际设计脉冲电晕放电反应器时,为提高反应器效率,多根电晕线应并联而不宜串联,且电晕线不宜过长。

  12. Computational simulation of fuel burnup estimation for research reactors plate type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Nadia Rodrigues dos, E-mail: nadiasam@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), Paracambi, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Zelmo Rodrigues de; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes, E-mail: zrlima@ien.gov.br, E-mail: malu@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the spatial fuel burnup, through computational simulation, in two research reactors plate type, loaded with dispersion fuel: the benchmark Material Test Research - International Atomic Energy Agency (MTR-IAEA) and a typical multipurpose reactor (MR). The first composed of plates with uranium oxide dispersed in aluminum (UAlx-Al) and a second composed with uranium silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) dispersed in aluminum. To develop this work we used the deterministic code, WIMSD-5B, which performs the cell calculation solving the neutron transport equation, and the DF3DQ code, written in FORTRAN, which solves the three-dimensional neutron diffusion equation using the finite difference method. The methodology used was adequate to estimate the spatial fuel burnup , as the results was in accordance with chosen benchmark, given satisfactorily to the proposal presented in this work, even showing the possibility to be applied to other research reactors. For future work are suggested simulations with other WIMS libraries, other settings core and fuel types. Comparisons the WIMSD-5B results with programs often employed in fuel burnup calculations and also others commercial programs, are suggested too. Another proposal is to estimate the fuel burnup, taking into account the thermohydraulics parameters and the Xenon production. (author)

  13. Neuromorphological and wiring pattern alterations effects on brain function: a mixed experimental and computational approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Manubens-Gil

    2015-04-01

    In addition, the study of fixed intact brains (by means of the state of the art CLARITY technique brings us closer to biologically and medically relevant situations, allowing not only to confirm whether the functional links in neuronal cultures are also present in vivo, but also enabling the introduction of functional information (like behavioral studies and functional imaging and another layer of structural alterations such as brain region morphology, neuronal density, and long-range connectivity. Taking together the experimental information from these systems we want to feed self-developed computational models that allow us to understand what are the fundamental characteristics of the observed connectivity patterns and the impact of each of the alterations on neuronal network function. These models will also provide a framework able to account for the emergent properties that bridge the gap between spontaneous electrical activity arousal/transmission and higher order information processing and memory storage capacities in the brain. As an additional part of the project we are now working on the application of the clearing, labeling and imaging protocols to human biopsy samples. Our aim is to obtain neuronal architecture and connectivity information from focal cortical dysplasia microcircuits using samples from intractable temporal lobe epilepsy patients that undergo deep-brain electrode recording diagnosis and posterior surgical extraction of the tissue. Our computational models can allow us to discern the contributions of the observed abnormalities to neuronal hyperactivity and epileptic seizure generation.

  14. Application of New Yoke Plate Wire Grip for Transmission Line in Maintenance%输电线路用新型联板紧线器在检修工作中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑浩; 廖志斌; 李德波; 于启万

    2015-01-01

    Combined with the present situation of the maintenance of twin insulator strings of transmission line, the problems of the wire grip in the maintenance work are discussed , aiming at proposing a mainte-nance tactics to replace the twin insulator strings of 110kV and over transmission line tower , and resolving the problem of just using tool to fasten yoke plate , and a kind of wire grip which can fasten two yoke plates and string is researched .%结合输电线路双联串绝缘子检修现状,对输电线路检修工作中的紧线器存在的问题进行了探讨,旨在提出一种用于更换110千伏及以上输电线路杆塔双联串绝缘子的检修策略,解决使用工具单独固定联板的难题,并研究一种可以固定两个联板然后进行紧线的紧线器工具。

  15. Computational Fluid Dynamics Uncertainty Analysis Applied to Heat Transfer over a Flat Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Curtis Edward; Ilie, Marcel; Schallhorn, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    There have been few discussions on using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) without experimental validation. Pairing experimental data, uncertainty analysis, and analytical predictions provides a comprehensive approach to verification and is the current state of the art. With pressed budgets, collecting experimental data is rare or non-existent. This paper investigates and proposes a method to perform CFD uncertainty analysis only from computational data. The method uses current CFD uncertainty techniques coupled with the Student-T distribution to predict the heat transfer coefficient over a at plate. The inputs to the CFD model are varied from a specified tolerance or bias error and the difference in the results are used to estimate the uncertainty. The variation in each input is ranked from least to greatest to determine the order of importance. The results are compared to heat transfer correlations and conclusions drawn about the feasibility of using CFD without experimental data. The results provide a tactic to analytically estimate the uncertainty in a CFD model when experimental data is unavailable

  16. Computer-assisted preoperative simulation for positioning of plate fixation in Lefort I osteotomy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Suenaga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography images are used for three-dimensional planning in orthognathic surgery. This facilitates the actual surgery by simulating the surgical scenario. We performed a computer-assisted virtual orthognathic surgical procedure using optically scanned three-dimensional (3D data and real computed tomography data on a personal computer. It helped maxillary bone movement and positioning and the titanium plate temporary fixation and positioning. This simulated the surgical procedure, which made the procedure easy, and we could perform precise actual surgery and could forecast the postsurgery outcome. This simulation method promises great potential in orthognathic surgery to help surgeons plan and perform operative procedures more precisely.

  17. Computer-assisted preoperative simulation for positioning of plate fixation in Lefort I osteotomy: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suenaga, Hideyuki; Taniguchi, Asako; Yonenaga, Kazumichi; Hoshi, Kazuto; Takato, Tsuyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Computed tomography images are used for three-dimensional planning in orthognathic surgery. This facilitates the actual surgery by simulating the surgical scenario. We performed a computer-assisted virtual orthognathic surgical procedure using optically scanned three-dimensional (3D) data and real computed tomography data on a personal computer. It helped maxillary bone movement and positioning and the titanium plate temporary fixation and positioning. This simulated the surgical procedure, which made the procedure easy, and we could perform precise actual surgery and could forecast the postsurgery outcome. This simulation method promises great potential in orthognathic surgery to help surgeons plan and perform operative procedures more precisely.

  18. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  19. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  20. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  1. Clinical Study of Intra-operative Computed Tomography Guided Localization with A Hook-wire System for Small Ground Glass Opacities in Minimally Invasive Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyang CHU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Localization of pulmonary ground glass small nodule is the technical difficulty of minimally invasive operation resection. The aim of this study is to evaluate the value of intraoperative computed tomography (CT-guided localization using a hook-wire system for small ground glass opacity (GGO in minimally invasive resection, as well as to discuss the necessity and feasibility of surgical resection of small GGOs (<10 mm through a minimally invasive approach. Methods The records of 32 patients with 41 small GGOs who underwent intraoperative CT-guided double-thorn hook wire localization prior to video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resection from October 2009 to October 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS within 10 min after wire localization. The efficacy of intraoperative localization was evaluated in terms of procedure time, VATS success rate, and associated complications of localization. Results A total of 32 patients (15 males and 17 females underwent 41 VATS resections, with 2 simultaneous nodule resections performed in 3 patients, 3 lesion resections in 1 patient, and 5 lesions in a patient. Nodule diameters ranged from 2 mm-10 mm (mean: 5 mm. The distance of lung lesions from the nearest pleural surfaces ranged within 5 mm-24 mm (mean: 12.5 mm. All resections of lesions guided by the inserted hook wires were successfully performed by VATS (100% success rate. The mean procedure time for the CT-guided hook wire localization was 8.4 min (range: 4 min-18 min. The mean procedure time for VATS was 32 min (range: 14 min-98 min. The median hospital time was 8 d (range: 5 d-14 d. Results of pathological examination revealed 28 primary lung cancers, 9 atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, and 4 nonspecific chronic inflammations. No major complication related to the intraoperative hook wire localization and VATS was noted. Conclusion Intraoperative CT-guided hook wire

  2. Novel procedure to compute a contact zone magnitude of vibrations of two-layered uncoupled plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awrejcewicz J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel iteration procedure for dynamical problems, where in each time step, a contacting plates' zone is improved, is proposed. Therefore, a zone and magnitude of a contact load are also improved. Investigations of boundary conditions' influence on externally driven vibrations of uncoupled two-layer plates, where for each of the layers, the Kirchhoff hypothesis holds, are carried out.

  3. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  4. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  5. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  6. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  7. Computer Simulation on Metallic Card Clothing Garnett Wire Teeth's Temperature Field & Structure Field in the Process of Quenching Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Liang; REN Shi-he

    2006-01-01

    The quenching process of garnett wire teeth of metallic card clothing heated by flame was researched by use of 3-D finite element method and the equation of boundary condition was established by making use of a model of artificial neural network. The transient temperature field, phase transformation in the heating process, the quenching microstructures and the hardness distribution on quenched garnett wire teeth of metallic card clothing were simulated.The result shows that the maximum error of the hardness between the simulative value and the actual measuring value is 8.0% on only one testing point and errors are all less than 3.0% on other testing points.

  8. Anode wire aging tests with selected gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadyk, J.; Wise, J.; Hess, D.; Williams, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1990-04-01

    As a continuation of earlier wire aging investigations, additional candidates for wire chamber gas and wire have been tested. These include the gases: argon/ethane, HRS gas, dimethyl ether, carbon dioxide/ethane, and carbon tetrafluoride/isobutane. Wires used were: gold- plated tungsten, Stablohm, Nicotin, and Stainless Steel. Measurements were made of the effects upon wire aging of impurities from plumbing materials or contamination from various types of oil. Attempts were made to induce wire aging by adding measured amounts of oxygen and halogen (methyl chloride) with negative results. In this paper, the possible role of electronegativity in the wire aging process is discussed, and measurements of electronegativity are made with several single carbon Freons, using both an electron capture detector and a wire chamber operating with dimethyl ether.

  9. Computer implementation of the Passage Arrangement for Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers According to Local Balance Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    A two-step method for stacking arrangement of passages in multistream plate-fin heat exchanger is proposed.The first step (predict step)is to initialize the arrangement according to a local-balance principle,and the second step(correct step) is to re-adjust the arrangement according to the results of differential computation of the temperature distribution.The computer implementation process of the local balance principle is described in detail and three examples are illustrated to whos the feasibility of this principle.A subroutine program is provided to facilitate the reader to adopt this principle.

  10. In vivo analysis of acromioclavicular joint motion after hook plate fixation using three-dimensional computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Sang; Yoo, Yon-Sik; Jang, Seong Wook; Nair, Ayyappan Vijayachandran; Jin, Hyonki; Song, Hyun-Seok

    2015-07-01

    The clavicle hook plate can be used to treat acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligament injury or distal clavicular fracture with comminution. However, the hook plate can induce subacromial impingement, resulting in discomfort from the hardware. Our inclusion criteria were (1) men and women aged older than 20 years and (2) the presence of comminuted distal clavicular fractures (Neer type IIB) fixed with a hook plate (Synthes, Oberdorf, Switzerland). Three-dimensional computed tomography was obtained before removal of the hook plate. Seven patients were enrolled prospectively. The mean age was 42 years (range, 24-60 years). Zero degree images and abduction images were obtained. The sagittal cut surface was obtained 5 mm medial from the distal clavicle. The equator of the cut surface of the clavicle was compared with the full abduction model to analyze rotation. The center of the cut surface of the clavicle was compared with the full abduction model to analyze translation. The average difference in rotation of the distal clavicle between both shoulders was 16° (range, 3°-22°; P = .001). The mean difference in anterior translation of the distal clavicle was 2.2 mm (range, -0.7 to 5.6 mm; P = .030). Hook plate fixation at the acromioclavicular joint causes decreased internal rotation and increased anterior translation of the distal clavicle with respect to the medial acromion, indicating that the scapula relative to the thorax has decreased posterior tilting and increased external rotation in shoulders fixed using a hook plate. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Computer fluid dynamics (CFD) study of a plate heat exchanger working with nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Liviu-Constantin; Cǎlimǎnescu, Ioan

    2016-12-01

    The industry fosters many types of heat exchangers such double pipe or plate heat exchangers (HX), but lately the plate HX are gaining the high ground in many applications. Such a plate HX is made out of serial plate modules packed together allowing the warm and cold fluids to pass through and exchange the heat. The paper is demonstrating the functioning of a medium sized plate HX functioning with 10% Al2O3 and water nanofluids flowing in both cold and warm sides of the HX. The influence of the nanofluid properties will be investigated as impact upon the outlet temperature of the fluid leaving the HX. Using the RSM methodology. The main conclusion of this study is that there is a balance between the nanofluids increased conductivity and their increased viscosity. The nanofluids are working well for those applications where the flow is not impeded by narrow fluid passages where the bigger influence of the viscosity is actually worsening the heat transfer conditions instead of increasing it, since the influence of viscosity in that kind of applications is three time bigger. A nanofluid conductivity threshold was also detected over which the nanofluids say with 15$ or 20% alumina content is useless for the overall heat transfer conditions.

  12. Quantitative computed tomography as a test of endurance for evaluation of bony plates; Utilizacao da tomografia computadorizada quantitativa como teste de resistencia para avaliacao de placas osseas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo Filho, E.V.; Costa, L.A.V.S.; Oliveira, D.C. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Freitas, P.M.C. [Escola de Veterinaria - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Teixeira, M.W.; Costa, F.S. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco - Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    Quantitative computed tomography was used to determine the radiodensity of bony plates. The CT scans provided information regarding radiodensity of bony plates and allowed to verify the uniformity of bone mineral density in their scope. The proposed methodology should be considered as another tool for determining the resistance of these biomaterials. (author)

  13. Efficacy of CM-Wire, M-Wire, and Nickel-Titanium Instruments for Removing Filling Material from Curved Root Canals: A Micro-Computed Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Clarissa Teles; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; de Almeida, Marcela Milanezi; de Andrade, Flaviana Bombarda; Bernardineli, Norberti

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the removal of filling material after using CM-wire, M-wire, and nickel-titanium instruments in both reciprocating and rotary motions in curved canals. Thirty maxillary lateral incisors were divided into 9 groups according to retreatment procedures: Reciproc R25 followed by Mtwo 40/.04 and ProDesign Logic 50/.01 files; ProDesign R 25/.06 followed by ProDesign Logic 40/.05 and ProDesign Logic 50/.01 files; and Gates-Glidden drills, Hedström files, and K-files up to apical size 30 followed by K-file 40 and K-file 50 up to the working length. Micro-computed tomography scans were performed before and after each reinstrumentation procedure to evaluate root canal filling removal. Statistical analysis was performed with Kruskal-Wallis, Friedman, and Wilcoxon tests (P material removal were found in the 3 groups of teeth. The use of Mtwo and ProDesign Logic 40/.05 rotary files did not enhance filling material removal after the use of reciprocating files. The use of ProDesign Logic 50/.01 files significantly reduced the amount of filling material at the apical levels compared with the use of reciprocating files. Association of reciprocating and rotary files was capable of removing a large amount of filling material in the retreatment of curved canals, irrespective of the type of alloy of the instruments. The use of a ProDesign Logic 50/.01 file for apical preparation significantly reduced the amount of remnant material in the apical portion when compared with reciprocating instruments. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pterygoid plate fracture in Le Fort I osteotomy with and without pterygoid chisel: a computed tomography scan evaluation of 58 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precious, D S; Goodday, R H; Bourget, L; Skulsky, F G

    1993-02-01

    The incidence of pterygoid plate fracture as determined by computed tomography (CT) scan is much higher than that determined at surgery. This observation is irrespective of whether a chisel is used to effect pterygo-maxillary separation.

  15. Getting "Wired" for McLuhan's Cyberculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurdo, George

    1995-01-01

    Examines the introduction of the computing magazine, "Wired", into the United Kingdom's (UK) market. Presents conversations with the founder and editorial staff of the UK edition, and discusses the accessibility of "Wired" via the World Wide Web. Describes 10 articles from United States "Wired" back-issues and…

  16. Comparison between wire mesh and plate electrodes during Wide-pattern machining on invar fine sheet using through-mask electrochemical micromachining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwang-ho; Jin, Da-som; Kim, Seong-hyun; Lee, Eun-sang [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Many research on the fabrication of Organic light emitting diodes (OLED) shadow masks with high resolution have been carried out because of the development of the smart-display industry. It is the parts of display panel which has millions of micro holes on invar (Fe- Ni) fine sheet. Various techniques such as laser machining, chemical etching and Electrochemical micro-machining (EMM) are used to produce micro-hole arrays. In this study, Through-mask electrochemical machining (TMEMM) combine with portion of photolithography process was applied to fabricate micro-hole arrays on invar fine sheet. The sheet was coated with dry film photoresist. Two types of electrode, plate and mesh, was used to compare the influence of electrode type. The sheet was coated with dry film photoresist with micro- sized through holes. The results were compared in regard to uniformity and taper angle. Compared with the plate electrode, the mesh electrode has better uniformity and taper angle which is important criteria of OLED shadow mask. These results could be used to improve TMEMM for invar fine sheet when it is applied to fabricate micro-hole arrays and help to obtain optical uniformity and desired taper angles.

  17. 微型钢板结合克氏针固定治疗 Lisfranc 损伤%Treatment of the Lisfranc injury using miniature plate combined with the Kirschner wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕冰; 孙士强; 杨通宝

    2014-01-01

    Objective To summarize and analyze the clinical effect of miniature plate combined with the Kirschner wire on the Lisfranc injury. Methods From March 2010 to March 2013,22 patients with Lisfranc injury were treated,including 15 male cases and 7 female cases,and their age was from 23 - 62,with an average of 39. 8 years old. The injury causes including traffic accident in 8 cases,high falling in 5 cases,heavy parts in 3 cases,and sport injury in 6 cases. According to the Myerson injury parting,there were 6 cases of type A,7 cases of type B1,4 cases of type B2,3 cases of type C1 and 2 cases of type C2. The time from injury to surgery was 7 - 11 d,with an average of 8. 8 d. And all pa-tients were treated by miniature plate combined with the Kirschner wire. Results All patients were fol-lowed up,and the follow-up time was 10 - 38 months,with the average of(21. 3 ± 6. 25)months. Ac-cording to the AOFAS scoring standard,12 feet were optimal,8 feet were good,2 feet were fair,and the fine rate was 90. 9% . Conclusions The treatment of the Lisfranc injury by miniature plate combined with the Kirschner wire has strong fixation,less complications and satisfactory clinical effect,and it is also beneficial to early functional training.%目的:分析切开复位微型钢板结合克氏针固定治疗 Lisfranc 损伤的临床疗效。方法2010年3月至2013年3月期间收治22例 Lisfranc 损伤患者,其中男15例,女7例;年龄23~62岁,平均39.8岁;致伤原因:车祸伤8例,高处坠落伤5例,重物砸伤3例,运动伤6例;根据 Myerson 损伤分型,A 型6例,B1型7例,B2型4例, C1型3例,C2型2例。受伤距离手术时间为7~11 d,平均8.8 d,采用微型钢板结合克氏针进行治疗。结果12例患者均获得随访,随访时间为10~38个月,平均(21.3±6.25)个月。采用 AOFAS 评分标准进行评定,本研究优12足,良8足,可为2足,优良率为90.9%。结论采用微型钢

  18. Evaluation of DAPI direct count, computer assisted and plate count methods

    OpenAIRE

    Chivu, Bogdan

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility of using automatic counting of bacteria stained with highly specific and sensitive fluorescing DNA stain DAPI, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and direct manual counting to enumerate both pure culture of Pseudomonas putida overnight culture and sea water enhanced culture, was tested in correlation with plate direct counting, turbidity and absorbance at 600nm, to obtain cross validation. Six diluted samples from overnight pure culture of Pseudomonas putida and sea water culture ...

  19. Leadless Chip Carrier Packaging and CAD/CAM (Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing) Supported Wire Wrap Interconnect Technology for Subnanosecond ECL (Emitter Coupled Logic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Operational Results The overall ring system clock rate is determined by the longest node-to-node wire pathway , which in this system is four feet. This length...Clock; 18.2 ns Period; 4 Foot Internode Separation; CERDI P Encapsulation) Node Input Register Ring Register Ring Data Signal OLoado Pulse "Clear* Pulse...NETWORK FABRICATED WITH SUBNANOSECOND ECL (55 MHz Clock; 18.2 ns Period; 4 Foot Internode Separation; CERDIP Encapsulation) Ring Data Signal: Differential

  20. Computational aspects of crack growth in sandwich plates from reinforced concrete and foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakaliatakis, G.; Panoskaltsis, V. P.; Liontas, A.

    2012-12-01

    In this work we study the initiation and propagation of cracks in sandwich plates made from reinforced concrete in the boundaries and from a foam polymeric material in the core. A nonlinear finite element approach is followed. Concrete is modeled as an elastoplastic material with its tensile behavior and damage taken into account. Foam is modeled as a crushable, isotropic compressible material. We analyze slabs with a pre-existing macro crack at the position of the maximum bending moment and we study the macrocrack propagation, as well as the condition under which we have crack arrest.

  1. Wire frame to MOVIE. BYU transfer program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, D.; Byers, L.D.; Benner, M.S.

    1982-12-01

    At SNLA, the primary computer-aided drafting tool is the Applicon Graphics System (AGS). The data base for mechanical parts on the AGS is a wire frame model. This report summarizes a method of adding surface information to the wire frame and passing this information up stream to MOVIE.BYU which is on a VAX computer and is used to produce shaded graphics pictures of the AGS wire frame model on a RAMTEK 9400 display terminal.

  2. Magnetoconductance of quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gerson J.; Sammarco, Filipe; Egues, Carlos

    2010-03-01

    At low temperatures the conductance of a quantum wires exhibit characteristic plate-aus due to the quantization of the transverse modes [1]. In the presence of high in-plane magnetic fields these spin-split transverse modes cross. Recently, these crossings were observed experimentally [2] via measurements of the differential conductance as a function of the gate voltage and the in-plane magnetic-field. These show structures described as either anti-crossings or magnetic phase transitions. Motivated by our previous works on magnetotransport in 2DEGs via the Spin Density Functional Theory (SDFT) [3], here we propose a similar model to investigate the magnetoconductance of quantum wires. We use (i) the SDFT via the Kohn-Sham self-consistent scheme within the local spin density approximation to obtain the electronic structure and (ii) the Landauer-Buettiker formalism to calculate the conductance of a quantum wire. Our results show qualitative agreement with the data of Ref. [2]. [1] B. J. van Wees et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 848 (1988). [2] A. C. Graham et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 226804 (2008). [3] H. J. P. Freire, and J. C. Egues, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 026801 (2007); G. J. Ferreira, and J. Carlos Egues, J. Supercond. Nov. Mag., in press; G. J. Ferreira, H. J. P. Freire, J. Carlos Egues, submitted.

  3. Computational modelling of long bone fractures fixed with locking plates - How can the risk of implant failure be reduced?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nassiri, M

    2013-03-01

    The Locking Compression Plate (LCP) is part of a new plate generation requiring an adapted surgical technique and new thinking about commonly used concepts of internal fixation using plates. Knowledge of the fixation stability provided by these new plates is very limited and clarification is still necessary to determine how the mechanical stability and the risk of implant failure can best be controlled.

  4. Finite element computation of multi-physical micropolar transport phenomena from an inclined moving plate in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshuddin, MD.; Anwar Bég, O.; Sunder Ram, M.; Kadir, A.

    2017-08-01

    Non-Newtonian flows arise in numerous industrial transport processes including materials fabrication systems. Micropolar theory offers an excellent mechanism for exploring the fluid dynamics of new non-Newtonian materials which possess internal microstructure. Magnetic fields may also be used for controlling electrically-conducting polymeric flows. To explore numerical simulation of transport in rheological materials processing, in the current paper, a finite element computational solution is presented for magnetohydrodynamic, incompressible, dissipative, radiative and chemically-reacting micropolar fluid flow, heat and mass transfer adjacent to an inclined porous plate embedded in a saturated homogenous porous medium. Heat generation/absorption effects are included. Rosseland's diffusion approximation is used to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. A Darcy model is employed to simulate drag effects in the porous medium. The governing transport equations are rendered into non-dimensional form under the assumption of low Reynolds number and also low magnetic Reynolds number. Using a Galerkin formulation with a weighted residual scheme, finite element solutions are presented to the boundary value problem. The influence of plate inclination, Eringen coupling number, radiation-conduction number, heat absorption/generation parameter, chemical reaction parameter, plate moving velocity parameter, magnetic parameter, thermal Grashof number, species (solutal) Grashof number, permeability parameter, Eckert number on linear velocity, micro-rotation, temperature and concentration profiles. Furthermore, the influence of selected thermo-physical parameters on friction factor, surface heat transfer and mass transfer rate is also tabulated. The finite element solutions are verified with solutions from several limiting cases in the literature. Interesting features in the flow are identified and interpreted.

  5. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1986-01-01

    Two wire chambers made originally for the R807 Experiment at CERN's Intersecting Storage Rings. In 1986 they were used for the PS 201 experiment (Obelix Experiment) at LEAR, the Low Energy Antiproton Ring. The group of researchers from Turin, using the chambers at that time, changed the acquisition system using for the first time 8 bit (10 bit non linear) analog to digital conversion for incoming signals from the chambers. The acquisition system was controlled by 54 CPU and 80 digital signal processors. The power required for all the electronics was 40 kW. For the period, this system was one of the most powerful on-line apparatus in the world. The Obelix Experiment was closed in 1996. To find more about how a wire chamber works, see the description for object CERN-OBJ-DE-038.

  6. Improving performance of flat-plate photobioreactors by installation of novel internal mixers optimized with computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianke; Feng, Fei; Wan, Minxi; Ying, Jiangguo; Li, Yuanguang; Qu, Xiaoxing; Pan, Ronghua; Shen, Guomin; Li, Wei

    2015-04-01

    A novel mixer was developed to improve the performance of flat-plate photobioreactors (PBRs). The effects of mixer were theoretically evaluated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) according to radial velocity of fluid and light/dark cycles within reactors. The structure parameters, including the riser width, top clearance, clearance between the baffles and walls, and number of the chambers were further optimized. The microalgae culture test aiming at validating the simulated results was conducted indoor. The results showed the maximum biomass concentrations in the optimized and archetype reactors were 32.8% (0.89 g L(-1)) and 19.4% (0.80 g L(-1)) higher than that in the control reactor (0.67 g L(-1)). Therefore, the novel mixer can significantly increase the fluid velocity along the light attenuation and light/dark cycles, thus further increased the maximum biomass concentration. The PBRs with novel mixers are greatly applicable for high-efficiency cultivation of microalgae.

  7. 'Light and Wires in a Box': The Computer-Oriented Information Age in Support of Effective Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenau, Suzanne E.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the computer-oriented information age, skills workers will need to keep pace, and how information technologies (microcomputers, communications satellites, and cable systems) can be utilized to support effective higher education. Obstacles to information technology use in education and how schools fail learners if technology is not…

  8. Nondestructive evaluation of printed wiring boards by microhm resistance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiefeld, B.

    1969-01-01

    Application of the microhm measuring circuit to measurement of plated-through hole resistances, when combined with appropriate probes, provides data that can be related to the quality of copper plating on printed wiring boards. Acceptance limits can be established and continuous inspection performed, with plating defects causing abnormal readings.

  9. Wire ropes tension, endurance, reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Feyrer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to present the methods used to calculate the most important parameters for ropes, and to explain how they are applied on the basis of numerous sample calculations. The book, based on the most important chapters of the German book DRAHTSEILE, has been updated to reflect the latest developments, with the new edition especially focusing on computational methods for wire ropes. Many new calculations and examples have also been added to facilitate the dimensioning and calculation of mechanical characteristics of wire ropes. This book offers a valuable resource for all those working with wire ropes, including construction engineers, operators and supervisors of machines and installations involving wire ropes.

  10. Computational Film Cooling Effectiveness of Dual Trench Configuration on Flat Plate at Moderate Blowing Ratios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antar M.M.Abdala; Qun Zheng; Fifi N.M.Elwekeel; Ping Dong

    2013-01-01

    In the present work,computational simulations was made using ANSYS CFX to predict the improvements in film cooling performance with dual trench.Dual-trench configuration consists of two trenches together,one wider trench and the other is narrow trench that extruded from the wider one.Several blowing ratios in the range (0.5∶5) were investigated.The pitch-to-diameter ratio of 2.775 is used.By using the dual trench configuration,the coolant jet impacted the trench wall two times allowing increasing the spreading of coolant laterally in the trench,reducing jet velocity and jet completely covered on the surface.The results indicate that this configuration increased adiabatic effectiveness as blowing ratio increased.The spatially averaged adiabatic effectiveness reached 57.6% for at M=2.No observed film blow-offat all blowing ratios.The adiabatic film effectiveness of dual trench case outperformed the narrow trench case,laidback fan-shaped hole,fan-shaped hole and cylinder hole at different blowing ratios.

  11. Applications of surface analysis in the wire industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, David A.

    The quality of wire is judged not only by its physical properties such as tensile strength and fatigue resistance, but also by its surface finish. The surface roughness, oxide formation, cleanliness, and plating homogeneity and porosity are just a few of the surface properties than can influence the performance of a wire product. Coupled to this is the large amount of surface area generated in drawing wire. For example, a ten pound spool holds nine miles of 0.006″ diameter stainless steel wire. For these reasons surface analysis has become important both to the manufacturer and consumer of wire products. When surface analysis equipment such as AES, ESCA, and SIMS was first becoming commercially available in the late sixties and early seventies, the wire industry was beginning to enter a phase of technological development for many of its products. Wire manufacturers and users began using surface analysis to investigate such topics as adhesion of brass plated automobile tire cord to rubber and diffusion of layered deposits. Examples of surface analysis used for process control, problem solving, and project development include discoloration problems on stainless steel wire, welding problems with composite wires, diffusion formed brass coatings, and diffusion problems with solder coated and Cu plated steel wire.

  12. Adaptive Lagrange finite element methods for high precision vibrations and piezoelectric acoustic wave computations in SMT structures and plates with nano interfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张武; 洪涛

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the validity of (adaptive) Lagrange generalized plain finite element method (FEM) and plate element method for accurate analysis of acoustic waves in multi-layered piezoelectric structures with tiny interfaces between metal electrodes and surface mounted piezoelectric substrates. We have come to conclusion that the quantitative relationships between the acoustic and electric fields in a piezoelectric structure can be accurately determined through the proposed finite element methods. The higher-order Lagrange FEM proposed for dynamic piezoelectric computation is proved to be very accurate (prescribed relative error 0.02% - 0.04% ) and a great improvement in convergence accuracy over the higher order Mindlin plate element method for piezoelectric structural analysis due to the assumptions and corrections in the plate theories.The converged lagrange finite element methods are compared with the plate element methods and the computedresults are in good agreement with available exact and experimental data. The adaptive Lagrange finite elementmethods and a new FEA computer program developed for macro- and micro-scale analyses are reviewed, and recently extended with great potential to high-precision nano-scale analysis in this paper and the similarities between piezoelectric and seismic wave propagations in layered structures and plates are stressed.

  13. Uniform wire segmentation algorithm of distributed interconnects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Guoli; Lin Zhenghui

    2007-01-01

    A uniform wire segmentation algorithm for performance optimization of distributed RLC interconnects was proposed in this paper. The optimal wire length for identical segments and buffer size for buffer insertion are obtained through computation and derivation, based on a 2-pole approximation model of distributed RLC interconnect. For typical inductance value and long wires under 180nm technology, experiments show that the uniform wire segmentation technique proposed in the paper can reduce delay by about 27% ~ 56% , while requires 34%~69% less total buffer usage and thus 29% to 58% less power consumption. It is suitable for long RLC interconnect performance optimization.

  14. 钢板内固定与经皮克氏针固定治疗桡骨远端骨折疗效比较%Treatment of distal radius fractures:a comparison between plate internal fixation and percutaneous K-wires fixation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾昕; 楼列名; 李少华

    2009-01-01

    目的 比较切开复位钢板内固定和经皮克氏针固定治疗桡骨远端骨折的临床疗效.方法选取2002年1月-2007年6月收治的110例行切开复位内固定的桡骨远端骨折患者,选取同期107例行经皮克氏针固定的患者,随访比较两组临床疗效. 结果 所有患者随访5-12个月,按Gartland和Werley评分标准,钢板内固定组的优良率为86.4%,经皮克氏针固定组优良率为74.8%(P0.05). 结论 切开复位内固定治疗桡骨远端骨折总体临床疗效优于经皮克氏针组,但治疗C3型骨折疗效欠佳.%Objective To compare the clinical results of open reduction and plate internal fixation and percutaneous kirschner-wire fixation in the management of distal radius fractures. Methods A retrospective comparison was done on clinical data of 110 patients with distal radius fractures who were treated by plate internal fixation and that of 107 by pereutaneous kirschner-wire fixation from January 2002 to June 2007. Results All patients were followed up for 5-12 months. According to Gartland and Werley scoring system, the excellent rate was 86.4% in plate internal fixation group, which was significantly higher than 74.8% in percutaneous kirschner-wire fixation group (P 0.05). Conclusions Compared with percutaneous kirschner-wire fixation, plate internal fixation is better in treatment of distal radius fractures, but has poor results in management of type C3 fractures.

  15. Microfabricated wire arrays for Z-pinch.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spahn, Olga Blum; Rowen, Adam M.; Cich, Michael Joseph; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Arrington, Christian L.; Nash, Thomas J.; Klem, John Frederick; Romero, Dustin Heinz

    2008-10-01

    Microfabrication methods have been applied to the fabrication of wire arrays suitable for use in Z. Self-curling GaAs/AlGaAs supports were fabricated as an initial route to make small wire arrays (4mm diameter). A strain relief structure that could be integrated with the wire was designed to allow displacements of the anode/cathode connections in Z. Electroplated gold wire arrays with integrated anode/cathode bus connections were found to be sufficiently robust to allow direct handling. Platinum and copper plating processes were also investigated. A process to fabricate wire arrays on any substrate with wire thickness up to 35 microns was developed. Methods to handle and mount these arrays were developed. Fabrication of wire arrays of 20mm diameter was demonstrated, and the path to 40mm array fabrication is clear. With some final investment to show array mounting into Z hardware, the entire process to produce a microfabricated wire array will have been demonstrated.

  16. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. Trolley wires, trolley feeder wires, and bare signal wires shall be insulated...

  17. Corrosion Preventative Compounds (CPCs) Effect on Aircraft Electrical Wiring Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Electrical Wiring Components TR285HN301 Final Report Revision: - • Fretting research project was performed on nano -miniature connectors...CPCs, including gold plated edge card connectors, electrical connectors, tin plated pins, nano -miniature connectors. Current Air Force and NAVAIR...early 1980’s on many Navy aircraft. The Navy’s standard wire type. M5086/2-20 c Polyvinyl chloride, polyamide jacket, glass fiber braid ( PVC /glass

  18. Lunar Module Wiring Design Considerations and Failure Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the considerations for the design of wiring for the Lunar Module. Included are a review of the choice of conductors and insulations, the wire splicing (i.e., crimping, and soldering), the wire connectors, and the fabrication of the wire harnesses. The problems in fabrication include the wires being the wrong length, the damage due to the sharp edges, the requried use of temproary protective covers and inadequate training. The problems in the wire harness installation include damge from sharp eges, work on adjacent harnesses, connector damage, and breaking wires. Engineering suggestions from the Apollo-era in reference to the conductors that are reviewed include: the use of plated conductors, and the use of alloys for stronger wiring. In refernce to insulation, the suggestions from Apollo era include the use of polymer tape-wrap wire insulation due to the light weight, however, other types of modern insulation might be more cost-effective. In reference to wire splices and terminal boards the suggestions from the Apollo Era include the use of crimp splices as superior to solder splices, joining multiple wire to a common point using modular plug-ins might be more reliable, but are heavier than crimp splicing. For connectors, the lessons from the Apollo era indicate that a rear environmental seal that does not require additional potting is preferred, and pins should be crimped or welded to the incoming wires and be removable from the rear of the connector.

  19. The aging of wire chambers filled with dimethyl ether: Wire and construction materials and freon impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jibaly, M.; Majewski, S.; Chrusch, P. Jr.; Wojcik, R. (Florida Univ., Gainesville (USA). Dept. of Physics (USA)); Sauli, F.; Gaudaen, J. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). EP-Div. (Switzerland))

    1989-11-10

    This is a complete summary of our study of the aging of different types of wire chambers, with a variety of construction materials and wires, filled with dimethyl ether (DME) of varying degrees of purity. The resistive Nicotin and Stablohm wires were corroded by DME, producing fast aging. The moderately resistive stainless steel wires were able to withstand extended irradiation (up to 1 C/cm) in high-purity DME without any apparent damage; and gold-plated tungsten and molybdenum wires exhibited a comparable behavior. Many construction materials were tested and recommendations are thus reached as to what kinds of materials are safe in building DME-operated wire chambers. Among many different Freon and hydrocarbon impurities detected in DME by means of gas chromatography (GC), Freon-11 was found to be mostly responsible for the aging, even with noncorrosive stainless steel or gold-plated wires. The availability and feasibility of obtaining Freon-free DME is reported as well. (orig.).

  20. An aging study of wire chambers with dimethyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jibaly, M.; Chrusch, P. Jr.; Hilgenberg, G.; Majewski, S.; Wojcik, R.; Sauli, F.; Gaudaen, J.

    1989-02-01

    The authors report results on the aging of different types of resistive and non-resistive wires in wire chambers filled with dimethyl ether (DME) of varying degrees of purity. Among the Freon impurities detected in our DME batches, only Freon-11 was found to contribute to the aging process. Of the resistive wires, Nicotin and Stablohm produced fast aging, whereas stainless steel withstood extended irradiation in purified DME (up to 1 C/cm) without any apparent damage. Gold-plated tungsten and molybdenum wires produced results comparable to those of the stainless steel.

  1. Computational heat transfer analysis and combined ANN–GA optimization of hollow cylindrical pin fin on a vertical base plate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Balachandar; S Arunkumar; M Venkatesan

    2015-09-01

    In the devices like laptops, microprocessors, the electric circuits generate heat while performing work which necessitates the use of fins. In the present work, the heat transfer characteristics of hollow cylindrical pin fin array on a vertical rectangular base plate is studied using commercial CFD code ANSYS FLUENT© . The hollow cylindrical pin fins are arranged inline. The heat transfer augmentation is studied for different parameters such as inner radius, outer radius, height of the fins and number of pin fins. The base plate is supplied with a constant heat flux in the range of 20–500W. The base plate dimensions are kept constant. The base plate temperature is predicted using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) by training the network based on the results of numerical simulation. The trained ANN is used to analyse the fin in terms of enhanced heat transfer and weight reduction when compared to solid pin fin. Optimization of the hollow cylindrical pin fin parameters to obtain maximum heat transfer from the base plate is carried out using Genetic Algorithm (GA) applied on the trained neural network. The analysis using the numerical simulation and neural network shows that the hollow fins provide an increased heat transfer and a weight reduction of about 90% when compared to solid cylindrical pin fins.

  2. Design and control of a Nitinol wire actuated rotary servo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, G.

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents the design and control of a rotary servo actuated by a shape memory alloy (SMA) wire. A new rotary servo device using Nitinol type of SMA wire is designed and fabricated in this study. This new rotary actuator utilizes a Nitinol wire wound on a threaded non-conductive rotor. One end of the Nitinol wire is fixed to the rotor and the other end is fixed to the supporting base plate. The rotor is connected to a pre-tensioned torsional spring such that two-way rotation can be achieved. Upon heating of the Nitinol wire using electric current, the wire contracts, causing the rotor to rotate, since the other end of the SMA wire is rigidly connected to the base plate. This rotor design is compact and offers a space-saving solution for the use of SMA wire actuators. To actively control the servo, a sliding-mode based robust control approach is used. The sliding-mode based robust control consists of three components: a standard proportional plus derivative (PD) control term, a feedforward term used as a bias current, and a robust term to increase system stability and concurrently control accuracy. Experimental results confirm the functionality of the Nitinol wire actuated rotary servo and show this device can be precisely controlled using the sliding-mode based robust control approach.

  3. Trinary flip-flops using Savart plate and spatial light modu-lator for optical computation in multivalued logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Areal K Ghosh; Amitabha Basuray

    2008-01-01

    The memory devices in multi-valued logic are of most significance in modern research. This paper deals with the imple-mentation of basic memory devices in multi-valued logic using Savart plate and spatial light modulator (SLM) basedoptoelectronic circuits. Photons are used here as the carrier to speed up the operations. Optical tree architecture (OTA) hasbeen also utilized in the optical interconnection network. We have exploited the advantages of Savart plates, SLMs andOTA and proposed the SLM based high speed JK, D-type and T-type flip-flops in a trinary system.

  4. Wire harness twisting aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, E. J.; Commadore, C. C.; Ingles, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Long wire bundles twist into uniform spiral harnesses with help of simple apparatus. Wires pass through spacers and through hand-held tool with hole for each wire. Ends are attached to low speed bench motor. As motor turns, operator moves hand tool away forming smooth twists in wires between motor and tool. Technique produces harnesses that generate less radio-frequency interference than do irregularly twisted cables.

  5. LCD and CRT display of storage phosphor plate and limited cone beam computed tomography images for the evaluation of root canal fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksi, B Güniz; Soğur, Elif; Gröndahl, Hans-Göran

    2009-03-01

    The aim was to compare quality of liquid crystal display (LCD) and high resolution cathode ray tube (CRT) screens for the evaluation of length and homogeneity of root canal fillings in storage phosphor plate (SPP) and limited cone beam computed tomography (LCBCT) images. Endodontic treatment was performed to 17 extracted permanent lower incisor teeth. Images of each tooth positioned in a dried mandible were obtained with Digora SPP and Accu-I-Tomo LCBCT systems. Six observers scored the quality of all images on CRT and LCD screens. Results were compared using McNemar's and Cochran's Q tests (p LCD displays (p > 0.05). Agreement among observers' scores was higher with CRT display. Within the limits of this ex vivo study, differences between LCD and CRT monitors for the evaluation of root canal fillings are clinically insignificant independent on whether conventional radiographs, captured by means of image plates, or cone beam images are being displayed.

  6. Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xiaodan [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 (China); Godfrey, Andrew, E-mail: awgodfrey@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 (China); Hansen, Niels; Huang Xiaoxu [Center for Fundamental Research: Metal Structures in Four Dimensions, Materials Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, DTU, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Liu Wei [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 (China); Liu Qing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400030 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The evolution of the cementite phase during wet wire drawing of a pearlitic steel wire has been followed as a function of strain. Particular attention has been given to a quantitative characterization of changes in the alignment and in the dimensions of the cementite phase. Scanning electron microscope observations show that cementite plates become increasingly aligned with the wire axis as the drawing strain is increased. Measurements in the transmission electron microscope show that the cementite deforms plastically during wire drawing , with the average thickness of the cementite plates decreasing from 19 nm ({epsilon} = 0) to 2 nm ({epsilon} = 3.7) in correspondence with the reduction in wire diameter. The deformation of the cementite is strongly related to plastic deformation in the ferrite, with coarse slip steps, shear bands and cracks in the cementite plates/particles observed parallel to either {l_brace}110{r_brace}{sub {alpha}} or {l_brace}112{r_brace}{sub {alpha}} slip plane traces in the ferrite.

  7. Water Desalination with Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Sales, B.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode

  8. Microprocessor-based data acquisition system incorporating a floating-point arithmetic unit for complex mathematical computations. [To determine thickness of conductors on printed wiring boards from measured resistance by use of curve-fitting equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopwood, J.

    1978-02-01

    A microprocessor-based, stored-program controller which incorporates a floating-point arithmetic unit to perform complex mathematical computations was developed to determine the thickness of conductors on printed wiring boards. Conductor thickness is calculated from measured resistance by means of curve-fitting equations in the stored program. Called a film thickness calculator, the instrument demonstrates a method which may serve as a basis for other designs involving microprocessor-based data acquisition systems requiring low-speed calculations. 19 figures.

  9. Case-control study on therapeutic effects between Kirschner wire fixation after early bebridement and staged plate fixation in the treatment of open calcaneal fractures%早期清创复位克氏针内固定与Ⅱ期钢板内固定治疗开放性跟骨骨折的病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱永展; 李逸群; 吴峰; 张宏宁; 温建强; 包杭生

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To compare therapeutic effects between Kirschner wire fixation after early debridement(Kirschner wire group) and staged plate fixation (plate group) in the treatment of open calcaneal fractures. Methods: From January 2001 to May 2008,55 patients (58 feel) with open calcaneal fractures were reviewed,the mean age was 36.8 years(ranged, 19 to 65 years) and the average visit time was 3 hours (ranged,30 min to 7 h). All the patients were divided into two groups:Kirschner wire group and plate group. There were 20 males(20 feet) and 9 females(9 feet) in Kirschner wire group,in which 15 feet were type 1,13 feet were type Ⅱ , 1 foot was type Ⅲ A according to Gustilo classification and 9 feet were type Ⅱ ,18 feet were type Ⅲ ,2 feet were type Ⅳ according to Sanders classification. The patients in Kirschner wire group were treated with early de-bridement,fracture reduction and Kirschner wire fixation,and the soft tissue defects were covered with VSD temporarily,and then were enveloped by skin or flap grafts at the second stage. There were 18 males (19 feet) and 8 females (10 feet) in the plate group, in which 13 feet were type 1,14 feet were type Ⅱ , 2 feet were type Ⅲ A according to Gustilo classification and 11 feet were type Ⅱ , 15 feet were type Ⅲ , 3 feet were type Ⅳ according to Sanders classification. The patients in the plate group were treated with early debridement, and plate internal fixation with were performed when the wound became stabilization. Results : Twenty-three feet (15 patients) in the Kirschner wire group and 22 feet (13 patients) in the plate group were followed, the duration ranged from 10 to 36 months,with an average of 24 months. Compared with preoperative ones,the heel height, width, Bohler angle and Gissane angle of calcaneal got improvements. According to AOFAS ankle- foot evaluation system, 11 feet got an excellent result,8 good in the Kirschner wire group;2 feet had wound local skin necrosis and cured by dressing

  10. PS wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  11. 计算机辅助钢板排料CASA开发与应用%Development and application of computer-aided steel plate arrangement(CASA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王圣平

    2000-01-01

    计算机辅助工艺CAPP是现代企业CIMS系统中的重要一环,计算机辅助钢板排料CASA(COMPUTER AIDEDSTEEL PLATE ARRANGEMENT)又是CAPP系统的一个重要组成部分,CASA与企业的生产密切相关.本文介绍了CASA应用的必要性,CASA的总体设计思想,主要处理逻辑,以及主要功能模块和系统的主要特点.

  12. Tracking with wire chambers at high luminosities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, G.G. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (USA) Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Radiation damage and rate limitations impose severe constraints on wire chambers at the SSC. Possible conceptual designs for wire chamber tracking systems that satisfy these constraints are discussed. Computer simulation studies of tracking in such systems are presented. Simulations of events from interesting physics at the SSC, including hits from minimum bias background events, are examined. Results of some preliminary pattern recognition studies are given. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  13. A computational investigation of the phase behavior and capillary sublimation of water confined between nanoscale hydrophobic plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Andrew L; Giovambattista, Nicolás; Rossky, Peter J; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z; Debenedetti, Pablo G

    2012-10-14

    Thin films of water under nanoscopic confinement are prevalent in natural and manufactured materials. To investigate the equilibrium and dynamic behavior of water in such environments, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of water confined between atomistically detailed hydrophobic plates at T = 298 K for pressures (-0.1) ≤ P ≤ 1.0 GPa and plate separations of 0.40 ≤ d ≤ 0.80 nm. From these simulations, we construct an expanded P-d phase diagram for confined water, and identify and characterize a previously unreported confined monolayer ice morphology. We also study the decompression-induced sublimation of bilayer ice in a d = 0.6 nm slit, employing principal component analysis to synthesize low-dimensional embeddings of the drying trajectories and develop insight into the sublimation mechanism. Drying is observed to proceed by the nucleation of a bridging vapor cavity at one corner of the crystalline slab, followed by expansion of the cavity along two edges of the plates, and the subsequent recession of the remaining promontory of bilayer crystal into the bulk fluid. Our findings have implications for the understanding of diverse phenomena in materials science, nanofluidics, and protein folding and aggregation.

  14. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare..., and bare signal wires shall be adequately guarded: (a) At all points where men are required to work or...

  15. Wire recycling for quantum circuit optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paler, Alexandru; Wille, Robert; Devitt, Simon J.

    2016-10-01

    Quantum information processing is expressed using quantum bits (qubits) and quantum gates which are arranged in terms of quantum circuits. Here, each qubit is associated with a quantum circuit wire which is used to conduct the desired operations. Most of the existing quantum circuits allocate a single quantum circuit wire for each qubit and hence introduce significant overhead. In fact, qubits are usually not needed during the entire computation, only between their initialization and measurement. Before and after that, corresponding wires may be used by other qubits. In this work, we propose a solution which exploits this fact in order to optimize the design of quantum circuits with respect to the required wires. To this end, we introduce a representation of the lifetimes of all qubits which is used to analyze the respective need for wires. Based on this analysis, a method is proposed which "recycles" the available wires and, as a result, reduces the size of the resulting circuit. Numerical tests based on established reversible and fault-tolerant quantum circuits confirm that the proposed solution reduces the number of wires by more than 90% compared to unoptimized quantum circuits.

  16. Vibrating wire alignment technique

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao-Long, Wang; lei, Wu; Chun-Hua, Li

    2013-01-01

    Vibrating wire alignment technique is a kind of method which through measuring the spatial distribution of magnetic field to do the alignment and it can achieve very high alignment accuracy. Vibrating wire alignment technique can be applied for magnet fiducialization and accelerator straight section components alignment, it is a necessary supplement for conventional alignment method. This article will systematically expound the international research achievements of vibrating wire alignment technique, including vibrating wire model analysis, system frequency calculation, wire sag calculation and the relation between wire amplitude and magnetic induction intensity. On the basis of model analysis this article will introduce the alignment method which based on magnetic field measurement and the alignment method which based on amplitude and phase measurement. Finally, some basic questions will be discussed and the solutions will be given.

  17. Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Stewart W.; Martina, Filomeno; Addison, Adrian C.; Ding, Jialuo; Pardal, Goncalo; Colegrove, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Depositing large components (>10 kg) in titanium, aluminium, steel and other metals is possible using Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing. This technology adopts arc welding tools and wire as feedstock for additive manufacturing purposes. High deposition rates, low material and equipment costs, and good structural integrity make Wire+Arc Additive Manufacturing a suitable candidate for replacing the current method of manufacturing from solid billets or large forgings, especially with regards to ...

  18. Comparative evaluation of image quality in computed radiology systems using imaging plates with different usage time; Avaliacao comparativa da qualidade da imagem em sistemas de radiologia computadorizada utilizando Imaging Plates com diferentes tempos de uso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzaro, M.V.; Luz, R.M. da; Capaverde, A.S., E-mail: marcos.lazzaro@acad.pucrs.br [Hospital Sao Lucas (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, A.M. Marques da [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Fisica

    2015-04-15

    Computed Radiology (CR) systems use imaging plates (IPs) for latent image acquisition. Taking into account the quality control (QC) of these systems, imaging plates usage time is undetermined. Different recommendations and publications on the subject suggest tests to evaluate these systems. The objective of this study is to compare the image quality of IPs of a CR system, in a mammography service, considering the usage time and consistency of assessments. 8 IPs were used divided into two groups: the first group included 4 IPs with 3 years of use (Group A); the second group consisted of 4 new IPs with no previous exposure (Group B). The tests used to assess the IP's quality were: Uniformity, Differential Signal to Noise Ratio (SDNR), Ghost Effect and Figure of Merit (FOM). Statistical results show that the proposed tests are shown efficient in assessing the conditions of image quality obtained in CR systems in mammography and can be used as determining factors for the replacement of IP's. Moreover, comparing the two sets of IP, results led to the replacement of all the set of IP’s with 3 years of use. This work demonstrates the importance of an efficient quality control, not only with regard to the quality of IP's used, but in the acquisition system as a whole. From this work, these tests will be conducted on an annual basis, already targeting as future work, monitoring the wear of IP's Group B and the creation of a baseline for analysis and future replacements. (author)

  19. Charpak hemispherical wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    pieces. Mesures are of the largest one. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  20. Photovoltaic Wire Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  1. On-Wire Lithography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lidong Qin; Sungho Park; Ling Huang; Chad A. Mirkin

    2005-01-01

    .... This procedure, termed on-wire lithography, combines advances in template-directed synthesis of nanowires with electrochemical deposition and wet-chemical etching and allows routine fabrication...

  2. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

  3. Establishing a Customized Guide Plate for Osteotomy in Total Knee Arthroplasty Using Lower-extremity X-ray and Knee Computed Tomography Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Zhang; Xiao-Bin Tian; Li Sun; Ru-Yin Hu; Jia-Liang Tian; Wei Han; Jin-Min Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Background: The conventional method cannot guarantee the precise osteotomies required for a perfect realignment and a better prognosis after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).This study investigated a customized guide plate for osteotomy placement in TKAs with the aid of the statistical shape model technique using weight-bearing lower-extremity X-rays and computed tomography (CT) images of the knee.Methods: From October 2014 to June 2015, 42 patients who underwent a TKA in Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital were divided into a guide plate group (GPG, 21 cases) and a traditional surgery group (TSG, 21 cases) using a random number table method.In the GPG group, a guide plate was designed and printed using preoperative three-dimensional measurements to plan and digitally simulate the operation.TSG cases were treated with the conventional method.Outcomes were obtained from the postoperative image examination and short-term follow-up.Results: Operative time was 49.0 ± 10.5 min for GPG, and 62.0 ± 9.7 min in TSG.The coronal femoral angle, coronal tibial angle, posterior tibial slope, and the angle between the posterior condylar osteotomy surface and the surgical transepicondylar axis were 89.2 ± 1.7°, 89.0 ± 1.1°, 6.6 ± 1.4°, and 0.9 ± 0.3° in GPG, and 86.7 ± 2.9°, 87.6 ± 2.1°, 8.9 ± 2.8°, and 1.7 ± 0.8° in TSG, respectively.The Hospital for Special Surgery scores 3 months after surgery were 83.7 ± 18.4 in GPG and 71.5 ± 15.2 in TSG.Statistically significant differences were found between GPG and TSG in all measurements.Conclusions: A customized guide plate to create an accurate osteotomy in TKAs may be created using lower-extremity X-ray and knee CT images.This allows for shorter operative times and better postoperative alignment than the traditional surgery.Application of the digital guide plate may also result in better short-term outcomes.

  4. Characteristics of coated copper wire specimens using high frequency ultrasonic complex vibration welding equipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujino, J; Ihara, S; Harada, Y; Kasahara, K; Sakamaki, N

    2004-04-01

    Welding characteristic of thin coated copper wires were studied using 40, 60, 100 kHz ultrasonic complex vibration welding equipments with elliptical to circular vibration locus. The complex vibration systems consisted of a longitudinal-torsional vibration converter and a driving longitudinal vibration system. Polyurethane coated copper wires of 0.036 mm outer diameter and copper plates of 0.3 mm thickness and the other dimension wires were used as welding specimens. The copper wire part is completely welded on the copper substrate and the insulated coating material is driven from welded area to outsides of the wire specimens by high frequency complex vibration.

  5. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  6. WormAssay: a novel computer application for whole-plate motion-based screening of macroscopic parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Marcellino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is caused by filarial nematode parasites, including Brugia malayi. Adult worms live in the lymphatic system and cause a strong immune reaction that leads to the obstruction of lymph vessels and swelling of the extremities. Chronic disease leads to the painful and disfiguring condition known as elephantiasis. Current drug therapy is effective against the microfilariae (larval stage of the parasite, but no drugs are effective against the adult worms. One of the major stumbling blocks toward developing effective macrofilaricides to kill the adult worms is the lack of a high throughput screening method for candidate drugs. Current methods utilize systems that measure one well at a time and are time consuming and often expensive. We have developed a low-cost and simple visual imaging system to automate and quantify screening entire plates based on parasite movement. This system can be applied to the study of many macroparasites as well as other macroscopic organisms.

  7. 基于 C8051F040的单片机自动查线系统%An Automatic Wiring Check System Based on Monolithic Computer C8051F040

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李磊; 李晓斌; 李玲玲

    2015-01-01

    本文针对传统的人工查线效率低下、准确率不高等问题设计了一款基于 C8051F040单片机为主体的自动化查线系统,该设计主要介绍了系统的总体架构设计、工作原理以及软硬件的实现原理,并对其中应用 C 语言进行编程软件的实现原理及算法进行了详细介绍。%Conventional manual wiring check has disadvantages of low efficiency and low accuracy. An automatic wiring check system based on a monolithic computer C8051F040 is designed. General structure design, operation principle and software implementation are presented; and implementation principle by developing with C program-ming langue as well as the algorithm are introduced in detail.

  8. Heat Transfer Analysis of Flat Plate Subjected to Multi-Jet Air Impingement using Principal Component Analysis and Computational Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palaniappan Chandramohan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate experimentally the variation in temperature, heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number of a hot plate subjected to multi-jet air impingement cooling to use the multi-objective optimization technique to arrive at optimum conditions. A flat plate of 15 cm x 10 cm is heated through a heating foil with a constant heat flux of 7667 W/m2. Air jets with and without swirling action are considered, fixing the distance of target surface from nozzle exit at 2D, 4D and 6D. Reynolds numbers 18000, 20000and 22000 and pipe diameters 8mm, 10mm and 12 mm have been considered for investigation. Experiments are designed and analyzed using Taguchi’s technique, coupled with principal component analysis for multi-variate optimization by calculating multi-response performance index (MRPI. Based on the observations made, it is concluded that lower H/D ratio and higher Reynolds number result in higher heat transfer coefficient, in accordance with the first principles. Heat transfer coefficient obtained for jets with swirl is compared with that of jet without swirling for the same Reynolds number and H/D ratio. Furthermore, it is concluded that introducing swirl results in increase of heat transfer coefficients for all the test conditions for 10mm and 12mm diameter jets. However for 8mm jet, introduction of swirl reduced the heat transfer rate for all the test conditions. From Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, it is found that significant contributions on outputs are due to the effect of H/D ratio and Reynolds number. Confirmation experiments with optimum condition result in improved heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number. Numerical simulation has also been performed with the optimum condition. It is observed that the simulation results are in consistence with the experimental results.

  9. Surgical planning and microvascular reconstruction of the mandible with a fibular flap using computer-aided design, rapid prototype modelling, and precontoured titanium reconstruction plates: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieira Gil, R; Roig, A Marí; Obispo, C Arranz; Morla, A; Pagès, C Martí; Perez, J Llopis

    2015-01-01

    The standard of mandibular reconstruction has increased since the introduction of computer-assisted design (CAD) and rapid prototype modelling (RPM) for surgical planning. Between 2008 and 2013, a prospective pilot study of 20 patients was planned to compare the outcomes of patients treated by mandibular reconstruction who had CAD and RPM-guided operations using a precontoured titanium plate, with the outcomes of patients treated conventionally. We recorded the time taken for reconstruction, total operating time, and whether this type of planning could improve the results of mandibular reconstruction. We found significant differences in the incidence of dental malocclusion (p=0.03) and exposure of the titanium plate (p=0.009). The mean operating time for reconstruction in the preoperative planning group was 135 (37)min compared with 176 (58)min in the conventional group (p=0.04). Preoperative planning using CAD and RPM can increase the accuracy of microvascular mandibular reconstruction and reduce the operating time for reconstruction. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Modeling of Vibration Damping in SMA Wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, D R; Kloucek, P; Seidman, T I

    2003-09-16

    Through a mathematical and computational model of the physical behavior of shape memory alloy wires, this study shows that localized heating and cooling of such materials provides an effective means of damping vibrational energy. The thermally induced pseudo-elastic behavior of a shape memory wire is modeled using a continuum thermodynamic model and solved computationally as described by the authors in [23]. Computational experiments confirm that up to 80% of an initial shock of vibrational energy can be eliminated at the onset of a thermally-induced phase transformation through the use of spatially-distributed transformation regions along the length of a shape memory alloy wire.

  11. Electronic transport in Si:P δ-doped wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, J. S.; Drumm, D. W.; Budi, Akin

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of Si:P δ-doped wires for modern nanoelectronics, there are currently no computational models of electron transport in these devices. In this paper we present a nonequilibrium Green’s function model for electronic transport in a δ-doped wire, which is described by a tight...... for a variety of δ-doped wires, each with different donor configurations. These calculations also allow us to accurately define the electronic extent of a δ-doped wire, which we find to be at least 4.6 nm....

  12. Comparison between External Fixator Combined with Kirschner Wire and Internal Fixation with Locking Compression Plate in the Treatment of Type C Fractures of Distal Radius%外固定架结合克氏针与锁定钢板内固定治疗桡骨远端C型骨折的疗效对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑创义; 黄钟炼; 陈舜亮

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare the clinical efficacy between external fixator combined with kirschner wire technique and internal fixation with locking compression plate in the treatment of type C fractures of distal radius.Method:Thirty-eight patients with type C distal radial fractures from February 2007 to January 2014 were selected as the study objects.Twenty-one patients who underwent external fixator combined with kirschner wire were classified into group A.Seventeen patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation with locking compression plate through volar were classified into group B.According to the AO classification,there were 5 cases of type C1,8 cases of type C2 and 8 cases of type C3 in group A.5 cases of type C1, 5 cases of type C2 and 7 cases of type C3 in group B.After the operation all patients were followed up with the use of radiographs and the wrist joints function was assessed by Dienst Scores.Result:All patients were followed up for 4 to 13 months(average 8.6 months).All fractures united in 3 to 8 months(average 5.3 months).There were 2 cases of pin tract infection and 2 cases of pin loosening and withdrawal in group A.There were 2 cases occurred loss of reduction and screws penetrated into the joint cavity in group B.The differences in the excellent and good rates of the wrist joint function of type C1 fractures and type C2 fractures between group A and group B were not significant(P>0.05).The excellent and good rates of wrist joint function of type C3 fractures were significantly higher in group A than in group B(P0.05),C3型骨折A组优于B组(P<0.05)。结论:对于闭合性桡骨远端C1、C2型骨折,可选择外固定架结合克氏针固定或锁定钢板内固定术,而对于C3型骨折,选择外固定架结合克氏针固定术疗效相对较佳。

  13. Aeroheating model advancements featuring electroless metallic plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalmach, C. J., Jr.; Goodrich, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    Discussed are advancements in wind tunnel model construction methods and hypersonic test data demonstrating the methods. The general objective was to develop model fabrication methods for improved heat transfer measuring capability at less model cost. A plated slab model approach was evaluated with cast models containing constantan wires that formed single-wire-to-plate surface thermocouple junctions with a seamless skin of electroless nickel alloy. The surface of a space shuttle orbiter model was selectively plated with scaled tiles to simulate, with high fidelity, the probable misalignments of the heatshield tiles on a flight vehicle. Initial, Mach 8 heating results indicated a minor effect of tile misalignment roughness on boundary layer transition, implying a possible relaxation of heatshield manufacturing tolerances. Some loss of the plated tiles was experienced when the model was tested at high heating rates.

  14. Cavitation during wire brushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zou, Jun; Ji, Chen

    2016-11-01

    In our daily life, brush is often used to scrub the surface of objects, for example, teeth, pots, shoes, pool, etc. And cleaning rust and stripping paint are accomplished using wire brush. Wire brushes also can be used to clean the teeth for large animals, such as horses, crocodiles. By observing brushing process in water, we capture the cavitation phenomenon on the track of moving brush wire. It shows that the cavitation also can affect the surface. In order to take clear and entire pictures of cavity, a simplified model of one stainless steel wire brushing a boss is adopted in our experiment. A transparent organic tank filled with deionized water is used as a view box. And a high speed video camera is used to record the sequences. In experiment, ambient pressure is atmospheric pressure and deionized water temperature is kept at home temperature. An obvious beautiful flabellate cavity zone appears behind the moving steel wire. The fluctuation of pressure near cavity is recorded by a hydrophone. More movies and pictures are used to show the behaviors of cavitation bubble following a restoring wire. Beautiful tracking cavitation bubble cluster is captured and recorded to show.

  15. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  16. Accuracy of Cone Beam Computed Tomography, Photostimulable Phosphor Plate Digital Radiography and Conventional Radiography for Detection of Artificial Cancellous Bone Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghieh Bardal Bardal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The optimal goal of radiography is to provide high-quality diagnostic images with the least patient radiation dose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT and intraoral photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP digital and film-based conventional radiography for detection of artificial cancellous bone defects.Materials and Methods: Five dry human mandibles were used in this study. The mandibles were placed inside a water bath made of plexiglass plates; then PSP and CBCT scans were obtained. The mandibles were cut by a coping saw in buccolingual dimension and oval defects measuring 6.1×6.1 mm, 3×6.1 mm and 4×4 mm were created by a milling machine in the spongy bone. After fixing the two parts together (buccal and lingual, radiographs were repeated. Presence or absence of defects on images was evaluated and recorded by the two observers. Using SPSS 16, compatibility level, sensitivity, specificity and receiver operating curve (ROC analysis were determined for each observer.Results: The intraobserver agreement in all three imaging modalities was low to moderate (kappa≤0.613. The inter-observer agreement in all the three imaging modalities was moderate (kappa=0.406. The area under the curve (AUC of the imaging modalities in each observation was not significantly different. The area under the curve based on defect size for the two observers was not significantly different either.Conclusion: Defects confined to spongy bone can be identified on film and PSP radiographs and CBCT scans. However, interpretation of PSP images and CBCT scans needs greater expertise and skills.

  17. Comparing between predicted output temperature of flat-plate solar collector and experimental results: computational fluid dynamics and artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Nadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The significant of solar energy as a renewable energy source, clean and without damage to the environment, for the production of electricity and heat is of great importance. Furthermore, due to the oil crisis as well as reducing the cost of home heating by 70%, solar energy in the past two decades has been a favorite of many researchers. Solar collectors are devices for collecting solar radiant energy through which this energy is converted into heat and then heat is transferred to a fluid (usually air or water. Therefore, a key component in performance improvement of solar heating system is a solar collector optimization under different testing conditions. However, estimation of output parameters under different testing conditions is costly, time consuming and mostly impossible. As a result, smart use of neural networks as well as CFD (computational fluid dynamics to predict the properties with which desired output would have been acquired is valuable. To the best of our knowledge, there are no any studies that compare experimental results with CFD and ANN. Materials and Methods A corrugated galvanized iron sheet of 2 m length, 1 m wide and 0.5 mm in thickness was used as an absorber plate for absorbing the incident solar radiation (Fig. 1 and 2. Corrugations in absorber were caused turbulent air and improved heat transfer coefficient. Computational fluid dynamics K-ε turbulence model was used for simulation. The following assumptions are made in the analysis. (1 Air is a continuous medium and incompressible. (2 The flow is steady and possesses have turbulent flow characteristics, due to the high velocity of flow. (3 The thermal-physical properties of the absorber sheet and the absorber tube are constant with respect to the operating temperature. (4 The bottom side of the absorber tube and the absorber plate are assumed to be adiabatic. Artificial neural network In this research a one-hidden-layer feed-forward network based on the

  18. Concurrent Computational and Dimensional Analyses of Design of Vehicle Floor-Plates for Landmine-Blast Survivability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujicic, M.; Cheeseman, B. A.

    2014-01-01

    Development of military vehicles capable of surviving landmine blast is seldom done using full-scale prototype testing because of the associated prohibitively-high cost, the destructive nature of testing, and the requirements for major large-scale experimental-test facilities and a large crew of engineers committed to the task. Instead, tests of small-scale models are generally employed and the model-based results are scaled up to the full-size vehicle. In these scale-up efforts, various dimensional analyses are used whose establishment and validation requires major experimental testing efforts and different-scale models. In the present work, an approach is proposed within which concurrent and interactive applications of the computational analyses (of landmine detonation and the interaction of detonation products and soil ejecta with the vehicle hull-floor) and the corresponding dimensional analysis are utilized. It is argued that this approach can guide the design of military-vehicle hull-floors which provide the required level of protection to the vehicle occupants under landmine blast attack without introducing unnecessarily high weight to the vehicle. To validate this approach, a combined Eulerian/Lagrangian formulation for landmine detonation and the interaction of detonation products and soil ejecta with the vehicle hull-floor (developed in our previous work) has been utilized along with the experimental results pertaining to small-scale model and full-scale vehicle testing.

  19. Miniaturized Linear Wire Ion Trap Mass Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinghao; Li, Ailin; Tian, Yuan; Zare, Richard N; Austin, Daniel E

    2016-08-02

    We report a linear ion trap (LIT) in which the electric field is formed by fine wires held under tension and accurately positioned using holes drilled in two end plates made of plastic. The coordinates of the hole positions were optimized in simulation. The stability diagram and mass spectra using boundary ejection were compared between simulation and experiment and good agreement was found. The mass spectra from experiments show peak widths (fwhm) in units of mass-to-charge of around 0.38 Th using a scan rate of 3830 Th/s. The limits of detection are 137 ppbv and 401 ppbv for benzene and toluene, respectively. Different sizes of the wire ion trap can be easily fabricated by drilling holes in scaled positions. Other distinguishing features, such as high ion and photon transmission, low capacitance, high tolerance to mechanical and assembly error, and low weight, are discussed.

  20. Description and theory of operation of the computer by-pass system for the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A triplex digital flight control system was installed in a NASA F-8C airplane to provide fail operate, full authority control. The triplex digital computers and interface circuitry process the pilot commands and aircraft motion feedback parameters according to the selected control laws, and they output the surface commands as an analog signal to the servoelectronics for position control of the aircraft's power actuators. The system and theory of operation of the computer by pass and servoelectronics are described and an automated ground test for each axis is included.

  1. Analysis of heat transfer from single wires close to walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J.-M.; Gerlach, D.; Breuer, M.; Durst, F.; Lange, C. F.

    2003-04-01

    Two-dimensional numerical investigations of the forced heat convection from a microcylinder in laminar cross-flow, both in free stream and in near-wall flow, were carried out aiming at a better understanding of the physics behind the wall effects on hot-wire near-wall measurements. In the physical model, an infinitely thin plate with the same properties as the fluid (air) was used as an artificial wall. The conjugate heat transfer between the flow regions on both sides of the plate was taken into account. The effect of the conjugate thermal conditions (temperature distribution and diffusive heat flux) at the interface of the two flow regions on the heat transfer from the wire was investigated by varying the flow conditions on the side opposite to the wire location. Careful energy balance analysis was performed for both the free-stream case and the near-wall case. This enabled the authors to verify their own understanding of the physical mechanism responsible for the wall effect on hot-wire measurements and to examine other mechanisms proposed in the literature. The numerical results showed that the heat diffusion from the wire is significantly enhanced in the case of small wire-to-wall distances (Y+convection) was shown not to be the most important influencing factor for the heat transfer of a hot wire. Although the present model study was performed for a laminar flow, the results obtained are applicable to hot-wire measurements in turbulent flows, as stated in the literature.

  2. Computed Tomography Guided Hook-wire Precise Localization and Minimally Invasive Resection of Pulmonary Nodules%CT引导下Hook-w ire精确定位并微创切除肺结节

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王通; 马少华; 闫天生; 宋金涛; 王可毅; 贺未; 白洁

    2015-01-01

    ,积极微创手术治疗是非常必要的。%Background and objective Localization of pulmonary ground glass nodule is the technical diffculty of minimally invasive operation resection. hTe aim of this study is to evaluate the value of computed tomography (CT)-guided Hook-wire precise localization in resection of pulmonary nodules by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) as well as to discuss the necessity and feasibility of surgical resection of GGOs through a minimally invasive approach.Methods CT-guided Hook-wire precise localization and wedge resection was done on 25 cases with 26 pulmonary nodules by VATS from May 2013 to June 2015. hTe effcacy of localization was evaluated in terms of procedure time, VATS success rate, and associated complications of localization.Results All the 26 pulmonary nodules (6 solid nodules and 20 GGOs ) of 25 patients (10 males and 15 females) were preoperatively detected and localized with Hook-wire under CT guidance. Nodule diameters ranged from 5 mm-20 mm (mean: 8 mm). hTe distance of lung lesions from the nearest pleural surfaces ranged within 5 mm-30 mm (mean: 14 mm). All resections of lesions guided by the Hook-wire were successfully performed by VATS (success rate: 100%). hTe mean procedure time for the CT-guided Hook-wire localization was 10 min (range: 5 min-10 min). hTe mean procedure time for VATS wedge resection was 20 min (range: 15 min-40 min). hTe mean hospital time was 4 d (range: 3 d-6 d). hTe major complication of CT-guided Hook-wire localization was mild pneumothorax in 4 patients, but no one needed chest tube drain-age. Wedge resection was performed successfully in all cases. hTe dislocation of Hook-wire was found in only one patient dur-ing the operation, but the lesion was still successfully resected under VATS. Results of pathological examination of 16 mGGOs revealed 8 primary lung cancers and 8 nonspeciifc chronic inlfammations. Results of pathological examination of 4 pGGOs re-vealed 1 primary lung cancers, 1 atypical

  3. Linear equations and rap battles: how students in a wired classroom utilized the computer as a resource to coordinate personal and mathematical positional identities in hybrid spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer-Osuna, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    This paper draws on the constructs of hybridity, figured worlds, and cultural capital to examine how a group of African-American students in a technology-driven, project-based algebra classroom utilized the computer as a resource to coordinate personal and mathematical positional identities during group work. Analyses of several vignettes of small group dynamics highlight how hybridity was established as the students engaged in multiple on-task and off-task computer-based activities, each of which drew on different lived experiences and forms of cultural capital. The paper ends with a discussion on how classrooms that make use of student-led collaborative work, and where students are afforded autonomy, have the potential to support the academic engagement of students from historically marginalized communities.

  4. 锁定加压接骨板结合克氏针治疗中青年C型桡骨远端骨折%Locking compression plate combined with Kirschner wire fixation for treatment of high-energy type C distal radius fractures in young patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 张怀保; 卓高豹; 邱海胜; 劳杰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the long-term efficacy of locking compression plate (LCP) combined with Kirschner wire fixation in treating high-energy type C distal radius fractures in young adults.Methods From June 2008 to November 2012,26 young adults (14 males and 12 females) with high-energy type C distal radius fractures were treated.The age of the patients averaged 28 years.According to AO classification,there were 14,6 and 6 cases of type C1,type C2 and C3 fractures,respectively.Twenty,4 and 2 cases were treated by fixation using LCP combined with Kirschner wire through volar,dorsal and radial approach,respectively.Postoperative evaluations included visual analogue score of wrist pain,active range of motion of the wrist,Gartland-Werley score,Batra radiological score and complications.Results In 26 patients,the follow-up duration was 18 to 48 months,the average being 26 months.Fracture healing time was 12 to 24 weeks,with an average of 18 weeks.The time of Kirschner wire removal was 3 to 5 weeks postoperatively (mean,4 weeks),and that of plate removal was 12 to 18 months (average 14 months).Reflex sympathetic dystrophy occurred in 1 case 3 months after the surgery.Postoperative traumatic arthritis occurred in 3 cases.The Gartland-Werley scores at the final follow-up were excellent in 18 cases,good in 5 cases and fair in 3 cases.Conclusion There is usually significant displacement of irregular fracture fragments on the articular surface in young adults with high-energy type C distal radius fractures.LCP combined with Kirschner wire fixation through volar,dorsal and radial approach can obtain personalized anatomic reduction of the fracture.It is one of the effective methods for treatment of unstable distal radius fractures.%目的 探讨锁定加压接骨板(locking compression plates,LCP)结合克氏针治疗中青年高能量损伤C型桡骨远端骨折的疗效.方法 自2008年6月至2012年11月收治中青年C型桡骨远端骨折26例,平均年龄28

  5. Some results on the ageing of wire chambers with dimethyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jibaly, M.; Chrusch, P. Jr.; Hilgenberg, G.; Majewski, S.; Wojcik, R.; Weintraub, R.; Sauli, F.

    1988-12-01

    Ageing results of three test wire detectors when filled with dimethyl ether (DME) are presented. DME gas was analyzed before and during the tests for the presence of electronegative impurities, such as Freons. A strong dependence of the rate of ageing on the wire composition was observed. The resistive wires, such as Stablohm and Nicotin, produced fast ageing. Also, even the best available purified DME, as of today, used with gold-plated wires, produced some slow ageing. The rate of amplitude decrease depended on the Freon impurity level.

  6. Evaluation of relative speed of latent images in relation to changes in fading time and storage temperature of imaging plates in computed radiography systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoung, Youl-Hun

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relative speed (RS) of latent images in relation to changes in the fading time and storage temperature of imaging plates (IPs) in computed radiography systems. The storage temperatures adopted were 20, 30, and 40°C, while the fading times employed were 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours. The X-ray exposure factors were 50 kVp, 10 mAs, and a 150 cm distance from an IP to an X-ray source. In the processing of each image, the parameters used for multi-scale image contrast amplification were multiscale image contrast, noise reduction, edge enhancement, and latitude reduction, all assigned a value of 0. Image sensitivity was used to convert linear properties. The RS used for the characteristic curve was evaluated using a uniform aluminum 11-step wedge. Results show that the RS values of IPs with changing fading time were 17.8 ± 0.9 at 20°C, 13.9 ± 1.1 at 30°C, and 13.4 ± 0.9 at 40°C. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that IPs should be stored in the long term at temperatures as low as 20°C.

  7. An interconnecting bus power optimization method combining interconnect wire spacing with wire ordering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zhang-Ming; Hao Bao-Tian; En Yun-Fei; Yang Yin-Tang; Li Yue-Jin

    2011-01-01

    On-chip interconnect buses consume tens of percents of dynamic power in a nanometer scale integrated circuit and they will consume more power with the rapid scaling down of technology size and continuously rising clock frequency,therefore it is meaningful to lower the interconnecting bus power in design. In this paper, a simple yet accurate interconnect parasitic capacitance model is presented first and then, based on this model, a novel interconnecting bus optimization method is proposed. Wire spacing is a process for spacing wires for minimum dynamic power, while wire ordering is a process that searches for wire orders that maximally enhance it. The method, i.e., combining wire spacing with wire ordering, focuses on bus dynamic power optimization with a consideration of bus performance requirements.The optimization method is verified based on various nanometer technology parameters, showing that with 50% slack of routing space, 25.71% and 32.65% of power can be saved on average by the proposed optimization method for a globalbus and an intermediate bus, respectively, under a 65-nm technology node, compared with 21.78% and 27.68% of power saved on average by uniform spacing technology. The proposed method is especially suitable for computer-aided designof nanometer scale on-chip buses.

  8. A comparative computational investigation on the effects of randomly distributed general corrosion on the post-buckling behaviour of uniaxially loaded plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khedmati, Mohammad Reza; Nouri, Zorareh Hadj Mohammad Esmaeil; Roshanali, Mohammad Mahdi [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Post-buckling behaviour and ultimate strength of imperfect corroded steel plates used in ships and other related marine structures are investigated. Nonlinear elastic-plastic large deflection finite element analyses are performed on corroded steel plates. General corrosion wastage is considered to be distributed randomly on either one or both surfaces of the analyzed plates. The effects of general corrosion are introduced into the finite element models using a random thickness surface model. The effects of corroded plate parameters on the plate post-buckling and ultimate strengths are evaluated in detail. It was realized that the aspect ratio and thickness (slenderness) of the corroded plates affects their strength characteristics. Age of the plate models affects mainly their post-buckling-strength regimes and degrades their buckling/ultimate strength. Also, nonlinear post-buckling characteristics of the plates suffering either one-side or both-side random corrosion exhibit some differences. Finally, simple empirical formulations are proposed in order to give rough estimations of the ultimate strength of randomly corroded plates.

  9. Distribution of wire deformation within strands of wire ropes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun; GE Shi-rong; ZHANG De-kun

    2008-01-01

    Using ANSYS software, we developed a modeling program for several kinds of wire ropes with metal cores and built a geometric model for the 6x19 IWS wire rope. Through proper grid partitioning, a finite element model for calculating the deformation of wire rope was obtained. Completely constraining one end of the wire rope and applying an axial force to the other end, we established the boundary conditions for solving the model. In addition, we numerically simulated the stress and deformation of the wire, obtaining the deformation distribution of each wire within the wire rope under different laying directions.At the end, a tensile test of the 6x19 IWS wire rope was carried out and the results of simulation and experiment compared.

  10. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  11. Wiring and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Wiring and Lighting provides a comprehensive guide to DIY wiring around the home. It sets out the regulations and legal requirements surrounding electrical installation work, giving clear guidelines that will enable the reader to understand what electrical work they are able to carry out, and what the testing and certification requirements are once the work is completed. Topics covered include: Different types of circuits; Types of cables and cable installation under floors and through joists; Isolating, earthing and bonding; Accessory boxes and fixings; Voltage bands; Detailed advice on safe

  12. Modern wiring practice

    CERN Document Server

    Steward, W E

    2012-01-01

    Continuously in print since 1952, Modern Wiring Practice has now been fully revised to provide an up-to-date source of reference to building services design and installation in the 21st century. This compact and practical guide addresses wiring systems design and electrical installation together in one volume, creating a comprehensive overview of the whole process for contractors and architects, as well as electricians and other installation engineers. Best practice is incorporated throughout, combining theory and practice with clear and accessible explanation, all

  13. Thermal Model of a Current-Carrying Wire in a Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Border, James

    2006-01-01

    A computer program implements a thermal model of an insulated wire carrying electric current and surrounded by a vacuum. The model includes the effects of Joule heating, conduction of heat along the wire, and radiation of heat from the outer surface of the insulation on the wire. The model takes account of the temperature dependences of the thermal and electrical properties of the wire, the emissivity of the insulation, and the possibility that not only can temperature vary along the wire but, in addition, the ends of the wire can be thermally grounded at different temperatures. The resulting second-order differential equation for the steady-state temperature as a function of position along the wire is highly nonlinear. The wire is discretized along its length, and the equation is solved numerically by use of an iterative algorithm that utilizes a multidimensional version of the Newton-Raphson method.

  14. Establishing a Customized Guide Plate for Osteotomy in Total Knee Arthroplasty Using Lower-extremity X-ray and Knee Computed Tomography Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: A customized guide plate to create an accurate osteotomy in TKAs may be created using lower-extremity X-ray and knee CT images. This allows for shorter operative times and better postoperative alignment than the traditional surgery. Application of the digital guide plate may also result in better short-term outcomes.

  15. Practical wiring in SI units

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Henry A

    2013-01-01

    Practical Wiring, Volume 1 is a 13-chapter book that first describes some of the common hand tools used in connection with sheathed wiring. Subsequent chapters discuss the safety in wiring, cables, conductor terminations, insulating sheathed wiring, conductor sizes, and consumer's control equipments. Other chapters center on socket outlets, plugs, lighting subcircuits, lighting accessories, bells, and primary and secondary cells. This book will be very valuable to students involved in this field of interest.

  16. 3D Wire 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and ha......, improves socialization and networking, improves media impact, improves fun factor and improves encouragement of the production team....

  17. One-wire thermocouple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, W. D.; Staimach, C. J.

    1977-01-01

    Nickel alloy/constantan device accurately measures surface temperature at precise locations. Device is moderate in cost and simplifies fabrication of highly-instrumented seamless-surface heat-transfer models. Device also applies to metal surfaces if constantan wire has insulative coat.

  18. Recycle Effect on Device Performance of Wire Mesh Packed Double-Pass Solar Air Heaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chii-Dong Ho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A new device for inserting an absorber plate to divide a flat-plate channel into two subchannels to conduct double-pass wire mesh packed operations was developed. The proposed wire mesh packed device improves the heat transfer efficiency substantially as compared that to flat-plate single-pass and double-pass operations using the same working dimensions, and the improvement of device performance was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Good agreement between the theoretical prediction and the measured values from the experimental results was achieved. Considerable heat transfer improvement was obtained employing wire mesh packed double-pass operations under the absorber plate with external recycle. The influences of recycle ratio on the heat transfer efficiency and the power consumption increase were also discussed.

  19. Deflection of elastic beam with SMA wires eccentrically inserted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamian, S.; Nik Mohamed, N. A.; Ihsan, A. K. A. Mohd; Ismail, A. E.; Nor, M. K. Mohd; Kamarudin, K. A.; Nor, N. H. Muhd

    2017-08-01

    This research is intended to investigate the ability of shape memory alloys (SMA), through its activation, in generating loads to control beam deflection. An elastic beam is formed by sandwiching eccentrically SMA wires between two elastic plates. SMA wires are activated by electrical current from the power supply. Laser displacement meter (LDM) is used to measures deflection of sample. Results show that the deflection of the beam is dependent on the temperature change. The temperature-deflection response also shows the existence of hysteresis.

  20. An in vitro comparison of diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography and phosphor storage plate to detect simulated occlusal secondary caries under amalgam restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Shoaleh; Zadeh, Nahal Kazerooni; Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Shahab, Shahriar; Bahrampour, Ehsan; Hamedani, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy and feasibility of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with phosphor storage plate (PSP) in detection of simulated occlusal secondary caries. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro descriptive-comparative study, a total of 80 slots of class I cavities were prepared on 80 extracted human premolars. Then, 40 teeth were randomly selected out of this sample and artificial carious lesions were created on these teeth by a round diamond bur no. 1/2. All 80 teeth were restored with amalgam fillings and radiographs were taken, both with PSP system and CBCT. All images were evaluated by three calibrated observers. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two systems. SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was adopted for statistical analysis. The difference between Az value of bitewing and CBCT methods were compared by pairwise comparison method. The inter- and intra-operator agreement was assessed by kappa analysis (P < 0.05). Results: The mean Az value for bitewings and CBCT was 0.903 and 0.994, respectively. Significant differences were found between PSP and CBCT (P = 0.010). The kappa value for inter-observer agreement was 0.68 and 0.76 for PSP and CBCT, respectively. The kappa value for intra-observer agreement was 0.698 (observer 1, P = 0.000), 0.766 (observer 2, P = 0.000) and 0.716 (observer 3, P = 0.000) in PSP method, and 0.816 (observer 1, P = 0.000), 0.653 (observer 2, P = 0.000) and 0.744 (observer 3, P = 0.000) in CBCT method. Conclusion: This in vitro study, with a limited number of samples, showed that the New Tom VGI Flex CBCT system was more accurate than the PSP in detecting the simulated small secondary occlusal caries under amalgam restoration. PMID:25878682

  1. Demonstrating diamond wire cutting of the TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, K.; Perry, E.; Larson, S.; Viola, M. [and others

    2000-02-24

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ceased operation in April 1997 and decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The deuterium-tritium fusion experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the Tokamak (100 cubic meters) present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Plasma arc cutting is the current baseline technology for the dismantlement of fission reactors. This technology is typically used because of its faster cutting times. Alternatively, an innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR is the use of diamond wire cutting technology. Recent improvements in diamond wire technology have allowed the cutting of carbon steel components such as pipe, plate, and tube bundles in heat exchangers. Some expected benefits of this technology include: significantly reduction in airborne contaminates, reduced personnel exposure, a reduced risk of spread of tritium contamination, and reduced overall costs as compared to using plasma arc cutting. This paper will provide detailed results of the diamond wire cutting demonstration that was completed in September of 1999, on a mock-up of this complex reactor. The results will identify cost, safety, industrial and engineering parameters, and the related performance of each situation.

  2. Addressing water vaporization in the vicinity of an exploding wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinenko, A.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Krasik, Ya. E.; Dolinsky, Yu.

    2006-12-01

    The phase state of thin (˜1μm) layer of water adjacent to the surface of rapidly heated thin wire 100±50μm in radius is analyzed by computer hydrodynamic calculation. It is shown that when heating of a wire to a temperature of 420°C is achieved in less than ˜500ns, the trajectory of the phase state is contained in the liquid part of the phase diagram. This suggests additional proof of and an explanation for the absence of shunting plasma discharge in fast underwater electrical wire explosions.

  3. Development of Catalytic Cooking Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelm, Anna-Karin; Silversand, Fredrik [CATATOR AB, Lund (Sweden); Tena, Emmanuel; Berger, Marc [Gaz de France (France)

    2004-04-01

    Gas catalytic combustion for gas stoves or cooking plates (closed catalytic burner system with ceramic plates) is a very promising technique in terms of ease of cleaning, power modulation and emissions. Previous investigations show that wire mesh catalysts, prepared and supplied by Catator AB (CAT), seem to be very well suited for such applications. Beside significantly reducing the NOx-emissions, these catalysts offer important advantages such as good design flexibility, low pressure drop and high heat transfer capacity, where the latter leads to a quick thermal response. Prior to this project, Gaz de France (GdF) made a series of measurements with CAT's wire mesh catalysts in their gas cooking plates and compared the measured performance with similar results obtained with theirs cordierite monolith catalysts. Compared to the monolith catalyst, the wire mesh catalyst was found to enable very promising results with respect to both emission levels (<10 mg NO{sub x} /kWh, <5 mg CO/kWh) and life-time (>8000 h vs. 700 h at 200 kW/m{sup 2}). It was however established that the radiation and hence, the thermal efficiency of the cooking plate, was significantly less than is usually measured in combination with the monolith (15 % vs. 32 %). It was believed that the latter could be improved by developing new burner designs based on CAT's wire mesh concept. As a consequence, a collaboration project between GdF, CAT and the Swedish Gas Technology AB was created. This study reports on the design, the construction and the evaluation of new catalytic burners, based on CAT's wire mesh catalysts, used for the combustion of natural gas in gas cooking stoves. The evaluation of the burners was performed with respect to key factors such as thermal efficiency, emission quality and pressure drop, etc, by the use of theoretical simulations and experimental tests. Impacts of parameters such as the the wire mesh number, the wire mesh structure (planar or folded), the

  4. Wired to freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kim Sune Karrasch; Bertilsson, Margareta

    2017-01-01

    of cochlear implantations among Danish users in order to shed more light on their social and political implications. We situate cochlear implantation in a framework of new life science advances, politics, and user experiences. Analytically, we draw upon the notion of social imaginary and explore the social...... dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being “wired to freedom” that involves...... new access to social life, continuous communicative challenges, common practices, and experiences. In looking at their lives as “wired to freedom,” we hope to promote a wider spectrum of civic participation in the benefit of future life science developments within and beyond the field of Cochlear...

  5. From Wires to Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Amin, Mustafa A

    2015-01-01

    We provide a statistical framework for characterizing stochastic particle production in the early universe via a precise correspondence to current conduction in wires with impurities. Our approach is particularly useful when the microphysics is uncertain and the dynamics are complex, but only coarse-grained information is of interest. We study scenarios with multiple interacting fields and derive the evolution of the particle occupation numbers from a Fokker-Planck equation. At late times, the typical occupation numbers grow exponentially which is the analog of Anderson localization for disordered wires. Some statistical features of the occupation numbers show hints of universality in the limit of a large number of interactions and/or a large number of fields. For test cases, excellent agreement is found between our analytic results and numerical simulations.

  6. Elastic plate spallation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oline, L.; Medaglia, J.

    1972-01-01

    The dynamic finite element method was used to investigate elastic stress waves in a plate. Strain displacement and stress strain relations are discussed along with the stiffness and mass matrix. The results of studying point load, and distributed load over small, intermediate, and large radii are reported. The derivation of finite element matrices, and the derivation of lumped and consistent matrices for one dimensional problems with Laplace transfer solutions are included. The computer program JMMSPALL is also included.

  7. Twisting wire scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Gharibyan, V; Krouptchenkov, I; Nölle, D; Tiessen, H; Werner, M; Wittenburg, K

    2012-01-01

    A new type of 'two-in-one' wire scanner is proposed. Recent advances in linear motors' technology make it possible to combine translational and rotational movements. This will allow to scan the beam in two perpendicular directions using a single driving motor and a special fork attached to it. Vertical or horizontal mounting will help to escape problems associated with the 45 deg scanners. Test results of the translational part with linear motors is presented.

  8. Dual wire welding torch and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  9. A REVIEW PAPER ON RECOGNIZE AUTOMATIC NUMBER PLATE AND BLURRED NUMBER PLATES

    OpenAIRE

    Aarti Soni*, Dr.Raman Chadha, Sukhmeet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    This review paper provides a brief survey on various recognition techniques for automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) in image processing. ANPR is real –time embedded system which uses number plate to identify the vehicle. This expertise is in advance popularity in security and traffic installations. License plate recognition system is an application of computer vision. Computer vision is a method of using a computer to take out high level information from a digital image. The usele...

  10. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  11. Shape memory alloy actuation effect on subsonic static aeroelastic deformation of composite cantilever plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, A. M. H.; Majid, D. L. Abdul; Abdullah, E. J.

    2016-10-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) is one of the smart materials that have unique properties and used recently in several aerospace applications. SMAs are metallic alloys that can recover permanent strains when they are heated above a certain temperature. In this study, the effects of SMA actuation on the composite plate under subsonic aeroelastic conditions are examined. The wind tunnel test is carried out for two configurations of a cantilever shape memory alloy composite plate with a single SMA wire fixed eccentrically. Strain gage data for both bending and torsional strain are recorded and demonstrated during the aeroelastic test for active and non-active SMA wire in two locations. The cyclic actuation of the SMA wire embedded inside the composite plate is also investigated during the aeroelastic test. The results show reduction in both bending and torsional strain of the composite plate after activation of the SMA wire during the wind tunnel test.

  12. Plating and Grafting for Nonunion of a Subtrochanteric Femoral Fracture in a Dog

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Healing problems following pin and wire reduction of an unstable subtrochanteric femoral fracture are described. A nonunion was treated in a two year old spayed Springer Spaniel by plating and autogenous bone grafting.

  13. Non-Similar Computational Solution for Boundary Layer Flows of Non-Newtonian Fluid from an Inclined Plate with Thermal Slip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUBBARAO ANNASAGARAM

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The laminar boundary layer flow and heat transfer of Casson non-Newtonian fluid from an inclined (solar collector plate in the presence of thermal and hydrodynamic slip conditions is analysed. The inclined plate surface is maintained at a constant temperature. The boundary layer conservation equations, which are parabolic in nature, are normalized into non-similar form and then solved numerically with the well-tested, efficient, implicit, stable Keller-box finite-difference scheme. Increasing velocity slip induces acceleration in the flow near the inclined plate surface. Increasing velocity slip consistently enhances temperatures throughout the boundary layer regime. An increase in thermal slip parameter strongly decelerates the flow and also reduces temperatures in the boundary layer regime. An increase in Casson rheological parameter acts to elevate considerably the velocity and this effect is pronounced at higher values of tangential coordinate. Temperatures are however very slightly decreased with increasing values of Casson rheological parameter.

  14. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF METALLIC WIRES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU XIANG; GU JI-HUA; CHU JUN-HAO

    2001-01-01

    The effect of radial thickness on the thermal conductivity of a free standing wire is investigated. The thermal conductivity is evaluated using the Boltzmann equation. A simple expression for the reduction in conductivity due to the increase of boundary scattering is presented. A comparison is made between the experimental results of indium wires and the theoretical calculations. It is shown that this decrease of conductivity in wires is smaller than that in film where heat flux is perpendicular to the surface.

  15. Liquid crystal thermography. A method for monitoring temperature gradients in microtitration plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, D G; Sanders, A H; Jang, L; Poy, D; Van Heuvelen, A

    1983-03-11

    Precise quantitative heat transfer information in microtitration plates can be obtained by filling the wells of a microtitration plate with cholesteric liquid crystals and incubating the plates at the desired temperature in different incubators. The liquid crystals indicate temperature by changes in discrete reproducible colors over various temperature ranges. With these instrumented plates, interwell thermal gradients may be documented visually and are in close agreement with results obtained by using wire thermocouple measuring techniques.

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective ... and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add ...

  17. Subminiature Hot-Wire Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, R. V.; Lemos, F. R.; Ligrani, P. M.

    1989-01-01

    Class of improved subminiature hot-wire flow-measuring probes developed. Smaller sizes yield improved resolution in measurements of practical aerodynamic flows. Probe made in one-wire, two-perpendicular-wire, and three-perpendicular-wire version for measurement of one, two, or all three components of flow. Oriented and positioned on micromanipulator stage and viewed under microscope during fabrication. Tested by taking measurements in constant-pressure turbulent boundary layer. New probes give improved measurements of turbulence quantities near surfaces and anisotropies of flows strongly influence relative errors caused by phenomena related to spatial resolution.

  18. Plasma Formation Around Single Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duselis, Peter U.; Kusse, Bruce R.

    2002-12-01

    At Cornell's Laboratory of Plasma Studies, single wires of various metals were exploded using a ˜250 ns pulser with a rise time of ˜20 A/ns. It was found that the wires first experience a resistive heating phase that lasts 50-80 ns before a rapid collapse of voltage. From that point on, the voltage across the wire was negligible while the current through the wire continued to increase. We attribute this voltage collapse to the formation of plasma about the wire. Further confirmation of this explanation will be presented along with new experimental data describing preliminary spectroscopy results, the expansion rate of the plasma, and current flow along the wire as a function of radius. The resistance of the wire-electrode connection will be shown to significantly affect the energy deposition. Various diagnostics were used to obtain these experiments. Ultraviolet sensitive vacuum photodiodes and a framing camera with an 8 ns shutter were used to detect and measure the width of the visible light emitted by the plasma. A special wire holder was constructed that allowed the transfer of current from the wire to the surrounding plasma to be observed.

  19. Texture development in Galfenol wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesenberg, A. J.; Restorff, J. B.; Wun-Fogle, M.; Sailsbury, H.; Summers, E.

    2013-05-01

    Galfenol (Fe-Ga alloy) wire fabrication provides a low cost alternative to directional solidification methods. This work evaluates the compositional dependence of the wire drawing suitability of Fe-Ga and characterizes the microstructural and magnetic properties of these wires. Wire has been produced with Ga contents between 10 at. % and 17 at. % to allow determination of the ductile to brittle transition (DTBT) in wire manufacture. Published results on chill cast bend specimens indicated that a DTBT occurs at roughly 15 at. % Ga. This DTBT was observed under tensile loading with a corresponding change in fracture behavior from transverse fracture to intergranular fracture. For improved magnetostrictive performance, higher Ga contents are desired, closer to the 17 at. % Ga evaluated in this work. Electron backscattered diffraction B-H loop and resonance measurements as a function of magnetic field (to determine modulus and coupling factor) are presented for as-drawn, furnace, and direct current (DC) annealed wire. Galfenol wire produced via traditional drawing methods is found to have a strong (α) texture parallel to the drawing direction. As-drawn wire was observed to have a lower magnetic permeability and larger hysteresis than DC annealed wire. This is attributed to the presence of a large volume of crystalline defects; such as vacancies and dislocations.

  20. Wiring regulations in brief

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Tired of trawling through the Wiring Regs?Perplexed by Part P?Confused by cables, conductors and circuits?Then look no further! This handy guide provides an on-the-job reference source for Electricians, Designers, Service Engineers, Inspectors, Builders, Students, DIY enthusiastsTopic-based chapters link areas of working practice - such as cables, installations, testing and inspection, special locations - with the specifics of the Regulations themselves. This allows quick and easy identification of the official requirements relating to the situati

  1. Corrosion of Wires on Wooden Wire-Bound Packaging Crates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Stan Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wire-bound packaging crates are used by the US Army to transport materials. Because these crates may be exposed to harsh environments, they are dip-treated with a wood preservative (biocide treatment). For many years, zinc-naphthenate was the most commonly used preservative for these packaging crates and few corrosion problems with the wires were observed. Recently,...

  2. Wire electrochemical machining with axial electrolyte flushing for titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Ningsong; Fang Xiaolong; Li Wei; Zeng Yongbin; Zhu Di

    2013-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys have found very wide application in aerospace due to their excellent characteristics although their processing is still a challenge.Electrochemical machining is an important issue in the fabrication of titanium and titanium alloys.Wire electrochemical machining (WECM) is mainly used for workpiece cutting under the condition of different thickness plates.It has a great advantage over wire electro-discharge machining,which is the absence of heat-affected zone around the cutting area.Moreover,the wire electrode in WECM could be used repetitively because it is not worn out.Thus,much attention has been paid to WECM.The effective way of removing electrolysis products is of importance to WECM.In this paper,the axial electrolyte flushing is presented to WECM for removing electrolysis products and renewing electrolyte.The Taguchi experiment is conducted to optimize the machining parameters,such as wire feedrate,machining voltage,electrolyte concentration,etc.Experimental results show that WECM with axial electrolyte flushing is a promising issue in the fabrication of titanium alloy (TC1).The feasibility of multi-wire electrochemical machining is also demonstrated to improve the machining productivity of WECM.

  3. An Interactive Method Based on the Live Wire for Segmentation of the Breast in Mammography Images

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Zewei; Wang Tianyue; Guo Li; Wang Tingting; Xu Lu

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve accuracy of computer-aided diagnosis of breast lumps, the authors introduce an improved interactive segmentation method based on Live Wire. This paper presents the Gabor filters and FCM clustering algorithm is introduced to the Live Wire cost function definition. According to the image FCM analysis for image edge enhancement, we eliminate the interference of weak edge and access external features clear segmentation results of breast lumps through improving Live Wire on two...

  4. Ground-state energy of the electron liquid in ultrathin wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogler, Michael M

    2005-02-11

    The ground-state energy and the density correlation function of the electron liquid in a thin one-dimensional wire are computed. The calculation is based on an approximate mapping of the problem with a realistic Coulomb interaction law onto exactly solvable models of mathematical physics. This approach becomes asymptotically exact in the limit of a small wire radius but remains numerically accurate even for modestly thin wires.

  5. Soft magnetic wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M.

    2001-06-01

    An overview of the present state of the art on the preparation techniques, outstanding magnetic properties and applications of soft magnetic micro and nanowires is presented. Rapid solidification techniques (in-rotating-water quenching and drawing methods) to fabricate amorphous microwires with diameter in the range from 100 down to 1 μm are first described. Electrodeposition is also employed to prepare composite microtubes (magnetic coatings) and to fill porous membranes (diameter of the order of 0.1 μm). Magnetic behaviours of interest are related to the different hysteresis loops of samples: square-shaped loops typical of bistable behaviour, and nearly non-hysteretic loop with well-defined transverse anisotropy field. The role played by magnetic dipolar interactions in the magnetic behaviour of arrays of micro and nanowires is described. A particular analysis is done on the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect in the radio and microwave frequency ranges exhibited by ultrasoft microwires. Finally, a few examples of applications are introduced for magnetostrictive and non-magnetostrictive wires, they are: “magnetoelastic pens”, micromotors; DC current-sensors based on GMI, and sharpened amorphous wire tips in spin polarised scanning tunneling microscopy.

  6. BEPC II wire scanner system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Yan-Feng; WANG Lin; ZHAO Ying; YUE Jun-Hui; LI Xiao-Ping; CAO Jian-She; MA Li

    2010-01-01

    To monitor the beam profile at the end of the linac non-destructively,a wire scanner as a new diagnostic instrument was designed,manufactured and installed in 2007.Since then,several measurements have been carried out using this device.This paper describes the whole system of the wire scanner and the testing results.

  7. Wire and Packing Tape Sandwiches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can combine craft wire with clear packing tape to create a two-dimensional design that can be bent and twisted to create a three-dimensional form. Students sandwich wire designs between two layers of tape. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  8. Microstructures of 2219 twin wire welded joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Wenli; Li Qingfen; Meng Qingguo; Gao Na; Fang Hongyuan

    2005-01-01

    With thick plates of 2219 high-strength alloy, the microstructures of welded joints with twin wire MIG welding were analyzed. Experimental results show that no hot crack was found in the weld due to discontinuous distribution of cocrystallization with low melting temperature, but porosity is serious in the first weld seam that is mainly composed of equiaxial grains with uneven sizes. As the poor position of the whole welded joint, fusion zone has big and coarse grains,uneven microstructures ; In quenching zone, there exist a lot of soaked microstructures that cocrystallization with low melting temperature solute into matrix, thus strengthening the metal in this zone; In excessive aging zone, much more phases that distribute evenly will be separated from the matrix; Outside this zone, properties and microstructures of the metal are basically similar to matrix due to the relatively low temperature or unaffected heat in the zone during welding.

  9. Wire metamaterials: physics and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simovski, Constantin R; Belov, Pavel A; Atrashchenko, Alexander V; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2012-08-16

    The physics and applications of a broad class of artificial electromagnetic materials composed of lattices of aligned metal rods embedded in a dielectric matrix are reviewed. Such structures are here termed wire metamaterials. They appear in various settings and can operate from microwaves to THz and optical frequencies. An important group of these metamaterials is a wire medium possessing extreme optical anisotropy. The study of wire metamaterials has a long history, however, most of their important and useful properties have been revealed and understood only recently, especially in the THz and optical frequency ranges where the wire media correspond to the lattices of microwires and nanowires, respectively. Another group of wire metamaterials are arrays and lattices of nanorods of noble metals whose unusual properties are driven by plasmonic resonances. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. FIRAS wire grid characterization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Richard D.; Magner, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Characterization techniques used to verify the quality and spectral performance of the large freestanding wire grid polarizing beamsplitters and input/output polarizers used in the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) are presented. The clear aperture of these grids is lined with 20.8 micron diameter gold coated tungsten wire, spaced 33 microns apart. The grid characteristics measured throughout fabrication and space flight qualification are the center to center wire spacing and wire plane flatness. Ideally, the wire grids should produce coherent wavefronts with equal reflectance and transmittance properties. When the spacing is inconsistent, these wavefront intensities are unequal, thus decreasing the efficiency of the grids and reducing the output signal of the FIRAS. The magnitude of the output interferogram is also reduced by incoherence in the interfering wave fronts caused by uneven flatness.

  11. Combined experimental and computational investigation of the cavitating flow in an orifice plate with special emphasis on surrogate-based optimization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, XianLin; Huang, Biao; Chen, Tairan; Liu, Ying; Qiu, Si Cong [School of Mechanical and Vehicular Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing (China); Zhao, Jing [China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, Beijing (China)

    2017-01-15

    We investigated the influence of geometrical parameters of the orifice plate on the cavitation structures, and optimized these parameters by using a surrogate-based model with special emphasis on the concentration of hydroxyl radical released. The results show that for the orifice plate of the hydrodynamic cavitation system, the possible location of the inception of the cavity spreads to throat and divergent section of the venturi geometry. Based on the surrogate model and global sensitivity assessment, the diameter of throat Dt and diameter of inlet Din significantly influenced the size of the cavity, while the length of throat Lt had little effect on both cavitation intensity and flow rate. It should be noted that when Lt is decreased, the size of cavity would be slightly decreased but the flow rate increased clearly. The increase of the diverging section is in favor of the size of cavity. By comparing the experimental measurements on the concentration of Methylene blue, the optimum geometry of the orifice plate for best cavitational activity is proposed.

  12. Nano-storage wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Jun; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Daesan; Park, Juhun; Hong, Seunghun

    2013-08-27

    We report the development of "nano-storage wires" (NSWs), which can store chemical species and release them at a desired moment via external electrical stimuli. Here, using the electrodeposition process through an anodized aluminum oxide template, we fabricated multisegmented nanowires composed of a polypyrrole segment containing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules, a ferromagnetic nickel segment, and a conductive gold segment. Upon the application of a negative bias voltage, the NSWs released ATP molecules for the control of motor protein activities. Furthermore, NSWs can be printed onto various substrates including flexible or three-dimensional structured substrates by direct writing or magnetic manipulation strategies to build versatile chemical storage devices. Since our strategy provides a means to store and release chemical species in a controlled manner, it should open up various applications such as drug delivery systems and biochips for the controlled release of chemicals.

  13. Fixation of multifragmentary patella fractures using a bilateral fixed-angle plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Simon; Betsch, Marcel; Schneppendahl, Johannes; Grassmann, Jan; Hakimi, Mohssen; Eichler, Christian; Windolf, Joachim; Wild, Michael

    2013-11-01

    This biomechanical study is the first to compare 3 fixation methods-bilateral fixed-angle plate, modified anterior tension wiring, and cannulated lag screws with anterior tension wiring-in multifragmentary distal patella fractures. A T-shaped 3-part fracture simulating a multifragmentary articular distal patella fracture (AO/OTA 34-C2.2) was created in 18 human cadaver knee specimens. Three groups were created using homogenous ages and bone mineral densities based on the fixation method received. Repetitive testing over 100 cycles was performed by moving the knee against gravity from 90° flexion to full extension. Failure was defined as fracture displacement greater than 2 mm. In all patellae using fixed-angle plates, an anatomical fracture reduction could be maintained throughout cyclic testing, whereas anterior tension wiring and lag screws with tension wiring showed significant fracture displacement after 100 cycles, with mean fracture gaps of 2.0±1.3 and 1.9±1.6 mm, respectively. The differences in fracture gaps between the fixed-angle plate group and the other 2 groups were statistically significant. In both groups using tension wiring, half of the constructs (3 of 6 in each group) failed due to a fracture displacement greater than 2 mm. The bilateral fixed-angle plate was the only fixation method that sustainably stabilized a multifragmentary articular distal patella fracture during cyclic loading when compared with modified anterior tension wiring and cannulated lag screws with anterior tension wiring.

  14. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview In autumn the main focus was to process and handle CRAFT data and to perform the Summer08 MC production. The operational aspects were well covered by regular Computing Shifts, experts on duty and Computing Run Coordination. At the Computing Resource Board (CRB) in October a model to account for service work at Tier 2s was approved. The computing resources for 2009 were reviewed for presentation at the C-RRB. The quarterly resource monitoring is continuing. Facilities/Infrastructure operations Operations during CRAFT data taking ran fine. This proved to be a very valuable experience for T0 workflows and operations. The transfers of custodial data to most T1s went smoothly. A first round of reprocessing started at the Tier-1 centers end of November; it will take about two weeks. The Computing Shifts procedure was tested full scale during this period and proved to be very efficient: 30 Computing Shifts Persons (CSP) and 10 Computing Resources Coordinators (CRC). The shift program for the shut down w...

  15. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an {sup 55}Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed.

  16. Relationship between friction force and orthodontic force at the leveling stage using a coated wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Masaki; Namura, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Takahiko; Iwai, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between orthodontic force and friction produced from an archwire and brackets affects the sliding of the wire in the leveling stage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between force and friction in a small esthetic nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) wire. Five esthetic wires (three coated and two plated) and two small, plain Ni-Ti wires (0.012 and 0.014 inches) were used. We performed a three-point bending test according to ISO 15841 and the drawing test with a dental arch model designed with upper linguoversion of the lateral incisor in the arch (displacements of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mm), and evaluated the relationship between them. Unloading bending forces of all wires at displacements of less than 1.0 mm were larger than friction forces, but all friction forces at displacements exceeding 2.0 mm were larger than unloading bending forces. The arch likely expands when displacement from the proximal brackets exceeds 1.0 mm. The friction force of a martensite 0.014-inch Ni-Ti wire was significantly greater than those of the other esthetic and austenitic wires. A wire with the smallest possible friction force should be used in cases with more than 1.0 mm displacement.

  17. Relationship between friction force and orthodontic force at the leveling stage using a coated wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki MURAYAMA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between orthodontic force and friction produced from an archwire and brackets affects the sliding of the wire in the leveling stage. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between force and friction in a small esthetic nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti wire. Material and Methods: Five esthetic wires (three coated and two plated and two small, plain Ni-Ti wires (0.012 and 0.014 inches were used. We performed a three-point bending test according to ISO 15841 and the drawing test with a dental arch model designed with upper linguoversion of the lateral incisor in the arch (displacements of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mm, and evaluated the relationship between them. Results: Unloading bending forces of all wires at displacements of less than 1.0 mm were larger than friction forces, but all friction forces at displacements exceeding 2.0 mm were larger than unloading bending forces. The arch likely expands when displacement from the proximal brackets exceeds 1.0 mm. The friction force of a martensite 0.014-inch Ni-Ti wire was significantly greater than those of the other esthetic and austenitic wires. Conclusions: A wire with the smallest possible friction force should be used in cases with more than 1.0 mm displacement.

  18. Study of proton generation using thin metal wires with a sharp tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimchuk, Anatoly; Fiksel, Gennady; Krushelnick, Karl; Bychenkov, Valery Yu.; Brantov, Andrey V.

    2016-10-01

    It was suggested to use the highly enhanced electric field close to a low-power-laser-illuminated metal tip for nanometric optical tweezers. Recently, a boost in proton acceleration by high-intensity laser using structured snow-like targets was observed and attributed mostly due to the field enhancement at the whisker tip. Here we report on a more controlled high-intensity laser experiment by using thin metal wires with a diameter of 20 microns with tips of different size ranging from 0.2 to 5.0 microns. 400 fs, 15 TW laser pulses were focused to an intensity of up to 3x1019 W/cm2 on a tungsten wire at different distances from the tip. We have observed two high-energy proton beams. One beam was produced through the Target Normal Sheet Acceleration (TNSA) mechanism and was perpendicular to the wire and the other one was observed from the wire tip and in the direction along the wire axis. Simultaneous measurements of maximum proton energies using CR-39 nuclear track detectors and high energy electrons using imaging plates in both direction were performed and will be presented. The experimental results were interpreted taking into account the generated electric and magnetic fields near the surface of the wire and at the wire tip as well as a strong collimated surface current along the wire. Work supported by US Department of Energy and NNSA.

  19. Relationship between friction force and orthodontic force at the leveling stage using a coated wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    MURAYAMA, Masaki; NAMURA, Yasuhiro; TAMURA, Takahiko; IWAI, Hiroaki; SHIMIZU, Noriyoshi

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between orthodontic force and friction produced from an archwire and brackets affects the sliding of the wire in the leveling stage. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between force and friction in a small esthetic nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) wire. Material and Methods Five esthetic wires (three coated and two plated) and two small, plain Ni-Ti wires (0.012 and 0.014 inches) were used. We performed a three-point bending test according to ISO 15841 and the drawing test with a dental arch model designed with upper linguoversion of the lateral incisor in the arch (displacements of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mm), and evaluated the relationship between them. Results Unloading bending forces of all wires at displacements of less than 1.0 mm were larger than friction forces, but all friction forces at displacements exceeding 2.0 mm were larger than unloading bending forces. The arch likely expands when displacement from the proximal brackets exceeds 1.0 mm. The friction force of a martensite 0.014-inch Ni-Ti wire was significantly greater than those of the other esthetic and austenitic wires. Conclusions A wire with the smallest possible friction force should be used in cases with more than 1.0 mm displacement. PMID:24473722

  20. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview During the past three months activities were focused on data operations, testing and re-enforcing shift and operational procedures for data production and transfer, MC production and on user support. Planning of the computing resources in view of the new LHC calendar in ongoing. Two new task forces were created for supporting the integration work: Site Commissioning, which develops tools helping distributed sites to monitor job and data workflows, and Analysis Support, collecting the user experience and feedback during analysis activities and developing tools to increase efficiency. The development plan for DMWM for 2009/2011 was developed at the beginning of the year, based on the requirements from the Physics, Computing and Offline groups (see Offline section). The Computing management meeting at FermiLab on February 19th and 20th was an excellent opportunity discussing the impact and for addressing issues and solutions to the main challenges facing CMS computing. The lack of manpower is particul...

  1. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction CMS distributed computing system performed well during the 2011 start-up. The events in 2011 have more pile-up and are more complex than last year; this results in longer reconstruction times and harder events to simulate. Significant increases in computing capacity were delivered in April for all computing tiers, and the utilisation and load is close to the planning predictions. All computing centre tiers performed their expected functionalities. Heavy-Ion Programme The CMS Heavy-Ion Programme had a very strong showing at the Quark Matter conference. A large number of analyses were shown. The dedicated heavy-ion reconstruction facility at the Vanderbilt Tier-2 is still involved in some commissioning activities, but is available for processing and analysis. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Facility and Infrastructure operations have been active with operations and several important deployment tasks. Facilities participated in the testing and deployment of WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request...

  2. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    The Computing Project is preparing for a busy year where the primary emphasis of the project moves towards steady operations. Following the very successful completion of Computing Software and Analysis challenge, CSA06, last fall, we have reorganized and established four groups in computing area: Commissioning, User Support, Facility/Infrastructure Operations and Data Operations. These groups work closely together with groups from the Offline Project in planning for data processing and operations. Monte Carlo production has continued since CSA06, with about 30M events produced each month to be used for HLT studies and physics validation. Monte Carlo production will continue throughout the year in the preparation of large samples for physics and detector studies ramping to 50 M events/month for CSA07. Commissioning of the full CMS computing system is a major goal for 2007. Site monitoring is an important commissioning component and work is ongoing to devise CMS specific tests to be included in Service Availa...

  3. Otimização de múltiplos objetivos na soldagem de revestimento de chapas de aço carbono ABNT 1020 utilizando arame tubular inoxidável austenítico Multi-objective optimization in cladding of ABNT 1020 carbon steel plate using an austenitic stainless steel cored wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique de Freitas Gomes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A soldagem de revestimento de aços carbono com aços inoxidáveis tem obtido destaque no meio industrial por permitir que superfícies anti-corrosivas sejam obtidas a partir de materiais de baixo custo. No entanto, visando garantir a qualidade final dos revestimentos, é importante que o procedimento de soldagem seja bem ajustado, para que os cordões sejam depositados com a geometria desejada, com produtividade e sem defeitos. O objetivo deste trabalho é a otimização de múltiplas características do processo de revestimento de chapas de aço carbono ABNT 1020 utilizando arame tubular de aço inoxidável ABNT 316L. As características otimizadas incluem a largura, penetração, reforço e diluição, que representam a geometria do cordão. A produtividade foi maximizada através da taxa de deposição e do rendimento do processo. Como respostas de qualidade, considerou-se a formação de escória e o aspecto superficial. A estratégia de modelagem e otimização foi baseada em uma combinação da Metodologia de Superfície de Resposta, Método do Critério Global e Algoritmo Genético. Os resultados indicam que os modelos de superfície de resposta desenvolvidos para as características do processo apresentaram altos ajustes. O Método do Critério Global e o Algoritmo Genético foram aplicados com sucesso, o que permitiu a identificação do ponto de ótimo.The stainless steel cladding process has highlighted in the industrial environment for allowing anti-corrosive surfaces are made from low cost materials. However, in order to ensure the claddings final quality, it is important that the welding procedure is well adjusted, so that the welds are deposited with the desired geometry, with productivity and flawless. The aim of this work is the multiple characteristics optimization in cladding of ABNT 1020 carbon steel plates using ABNT 316L stainless steel cored wire. The optimized features include the bead width, penetration, reinforcement

  4. Turbulent boundary layer over flexible plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Parand; Ioppolo, Tindaro

    2016-11-01

    This research describes the structure of a turbulent boundary layer flow with a zero pressure gradient over elastic plates. The elastic plates made of a thin aluminum sheets with thickness between 50 and 500 microns were placed on the floor of a subsonic wind tunnel and exposed to a turbulent boundary layer flow with a free stream velocity between 20m/s and 100m/s. The ceiling of the test section of the wind tunnel is adjustable so that a nearly zero pressure gradient is obtained in the test section. Hot-wire anemometry was used to measure the velocity components. Mean, fluctuating velocities and Reynolds stresses will be presented and compared with the values of a rigid plate.

  5. License plate recognition using DTCNNs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Brugge, M.H; Stevens, J.H; Nijhuis, J.A G; Spaanenburg, L; Tavsanonoglu, V

    1998-01-01

    Automatic license plate recognition requires a series of complex image processing steps. For practical use, the amount of data to he processed must be minimized early on. This paper shows that the computationally most intensive steps can be realized by DTCNNs. Moreover; high-level operations like fi

  6. On topological phases in disordered p-wave superconducting wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, Maria-Theresa

    2015-07-10

    Topological phases of matter have been the subject of intense experimental and theoretical research during the last years. Prominent examples are the Quantum Hall Effect, Topological Insulators or Topological Superconductors. The latter host special excitations, the Majorana states, at their boundaries, which can be thought of as the halves of an electron that can exist separately in this special case. These Majorana states have attracted great interest as they exhibit so-called non-Abelian braiding statistics, which could make them useful tools in the search for fault-tolerant quantum computation. In this context topologically superconducting wires are particularly useful as the Majorana states are located unambiguously at the wire's end, where they form localized end states. Topologically superconducting wires are not known to exist in nature but they can be engineered from commonly available ingredients: semiconductor or ferromagnet nano- wires and conventional superconductors. The nano-wires can inherit superconductivity by the proximity effect and can then exhibit a topologically nontrivial phase. By now, several experiments have been performed on such hybrid structures, reporting measurements that are consistent with the existence of a topologically superconducting phase in the nanowire. Most theoretical investigations on these systems, so far, have been restricted to a one-dimensional effective model: The one-dimensional p-wave superconductor, which is the prototype of a topologically superconducting wire. A nanowire, however, is in general in a quasi-one dimensional regime, with a continuous longitudinal but a quantized transverse degree of freedom. In this Thesis we study the multichannel generalization of a topologically superconducting wire by means of a two-dimensional p + ip-superconductor that is restricted to a narrow-strip geometry. Such systems can be in a topological phase, characterized by the existence of a zero-energy excitation at the

  7. Influence of Flaws of Wire Rod Surface, Inclusions and Voids on Wire Breaks in Superfine Wire Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazunari; Norasethasopon, Somchai; Shinohara, Tetsuo; Ido, Ryuta

    By means of the finite element analysis (FEA), this study analyzed wire breaks that occurred in the drawing fine wires containing flaws on the wire surface, inclusion and void. The deformation behavior of an inclusion was examined, in which the inclusion's location is assumed to be on the center axis of the wire, and the cause of wire breaks and their prevention method were clarified. It was found that an inclusion diameter/wire diameter ratio of 0.4 or higher increases the likelihood of wire breaks occurring. When the inclusion is not assumed to be in the center axis of the wire, it was also found that necking and wire breaks appear more frequently. FEA showed that a flaw grows with each processing step, when a small circumferential flaw is placed on the wire rod surface, and eventually becomes a surface defect, which is called a check mark in practice.

  8. Cavity Mode Related Wire Breaking of the SPS Wire Scanners and Loss Measurements of Wire Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm; Jensen, E; Koopman, J; Malo, J F; Roncarolo, F

    2003-01-01

    During the SPS high intensity run 2002 with LHC type beam, the breaking of several of the carbon wires in the wire scanners has been observed in their parking position. The observation of large changes in the wire resistivity and thermionic electron emission clearly indicated strong RF heating that was depending on the bunch length. A subsequent analysis in the laboratory, simulating the beam by two probe antennas or by a powered stretched wire, showed two main problems: i) the housing of the wire scanner acts as a cavity with a mode spectrum starting around 350 MHz and high impedance values around 700 MHz; ii) the carbon wire used so far appears to be an excellent RF absorber and thus dissipates a significant part of the beam-induced power. Different wire materials are compared with the classical cavity mode technique for the determination of the complex permittivity in the range of 2-4 GHz. As a resonator a rectangular TE_01n type device is utilized.

  9. Cavity mode related wire breaking of the SPS Wire Scanners and loss measurements of wire materials

    CERN Document Server

    Roncarolo, Federico

    2003-01-01

    During the SPS high intensity run 2002 with LHC type beam, the breaking of several of the carbon wires in the wire scanners has been observed in their parking position. The observation of large changes in the wire resistivity and thermionic electron emission clearly indicated strong RF heating that was depending on the bunch length. A subsequent analysis in the laboratory, simulating the beam by two probe antennas or by a powered stretched wire, showed two main problems: i) the housing of the wire scanner acts as a cavity with a mode spectrum starting around 350MHz and high impedance values around 700 MHz; ii) the carbon wire used so far appears to be an excellent RF absorber and thus dissipates a significant part of the beam-induced power. Different wire materials are compared with the classical cavity mode technique for the determination of the complex permittivity in the range of 2-4 GHz. As a resonator a rectangular TE01n type device is utilized.

  10. Neuroscientists Find Learning Is Not "Hard-Wired"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroscience exploded into the education conversation more than 20 years ago, in step with the evolution of personal computers and the rise of the Internet, and policymakers hoped medical discoveries could likewise help doctors and teachers understand the "hard wiring" of the brain. That conception of how the brain works, exacerbated by the…

  11. Quantifying signal changes in nano-wire based biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vico, Luca; Sørensen, Martin Hedegård; Iversen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we present a computational methodology for predicting the change in signal (conductance sensitivity) of a nano-BioFET sensor (a sensor based on a biomolecule binding another biomolecule attached to a nano-wire field effect transistor) upon binding its target molecule. The methodolog...

  12. Inelastic scattering and local heating in atomic gold wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas; Brandbyge, Mads; Lorente, N.;

    2004-01-01

    We present a method for including inelastic scattering in a first-principles density-functional computational scheme for molecular electronics. As an application, we study two geometries of four-atom gold wires corresponding to two different values of strain and present results for nonlinear...

  13. Novel Algorithms for Astronomical Plate Analyses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rene Hudec; Lukas Hudec

    2011-03-01

    Powerful computers and dedicated software allow effective data mining and scientific analyses in astronomical plate archives. We give and discuss examples of newly developed algorithms for astronomical plate analyses, e.g., searches for optical transients, as well as for major spectral and brightness changes.

  14. "Cut wires grating – single longitudinal wire" planar metastructure to achieve microwave magnetic resonance in a single wire

    OpenAIRE

    G. Kraftmakher; V. Butylkin

    2012-01-01

    Here we present metastructures containing cut-wire grating and a single longitudinal cut-wire orthogonal to grating’s wires. Experimental investigations at microwaves show these structures can provide strong magnetic resonant response of a single nonmagnetic cut-wire in dependence on configuration and sizes in the case when metastructures are oriented along the direction of wave propagation and cut-wires of grating are parallel to the electric field of a plane electromagnetic wave. It is sugg...

  15. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing activity had ramped down after the completion of the reprocessing of the 2012 data and parked data, but is increasing with new simulation samples for analysis and upgrade studies. Much of the Computing effort is currently involved in activities to improve the computing system in preparation for 2015. Operations Office Since the beginning of 2013, the Computing Operations team successfully re-processed the 2012 data in record time, not only by using opportunistic resources like the San Diego Supercomputer Center which was accessible, to re-process the primary datasets HTMHT and MultiJet in Run2012D much earlier than planned. The Heavy-Ion data-taking period was successfully concluded in February collecting almost 500 T. Figure 3: Number of events per month (data) In LS1, our emphasis is to increase efficiency and flexibility of the infrastructure and operation. Computing Operations is working on separating disk and tape at the Tier-1 sites and the full implementation of the xrootd federation ...

  16. Superconducting wires and fractional flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá de Melo, C. A. R.

    1996-05-01

    The quantization of flux quanta in superconductors is revisited and analyzed in a new geometry. The system analyzed is a superconducting wire. The geometry is such that the superconducting wire winds N times around an insulating cylinder and that the wire has its end connected back to its beginning, thus producing an N-loop short circuited solenoid. The winding number N acts as a topological index that controls flux quantization. In this case, fractional flux quanta can be measured through the center of the insulating cylinder, provided that the cylinder radius is small enough. The Little-Parks experiment for an identical geometry is discussed. The period of oscillation of the transition temperature of the wire is found to vary as 1/N in units of flux Φ relative to the flux quantum Φ0. When a SQUID is made in such a geometry the maximal current through the SQUID varies with period Φ0/N.

  17. Wire Jewelry/Black History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Robert A.; Robinson, Charles C.

    1984-01-01

    Described is a project which made the study of Black history more real to fifth graders by having them make wire jewelry, smaller versions of the ornate filigreed ironwork produced by slave blacksmiths. (RM)

  18. Dieless wire drawing with lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedl, G.; Schuöcker, D.

    2007-06-01

    Thin wires are produced by drawing through nozzle-like tools, so called dies, that suffer from strong wear due to friction. In order to avoid the latter disadvantage the dies can be replaced by a laser beam heating the wire to such extend that the yield strength becomes smaller than the tensile strength and thus the wire is elongated and consequently constricted. To avoid rupture, the wire is cooled down again after the desired reduction of the diameter is reached. A further important advantage of this new process is that only one drawing step with a laser can substitute a large number of mechanical drawing actions, thus making the process much more efficient. Theoretical considerations and experimental investigations prove the feasibility of the latter new laser process and are subject to a description in the actual paper.

  19. Computer

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The pixelated rectangle we spend most of our day staring at in silence is not the television as many long feared, but the computer-the ubiquitous portal of work and personal lives. At this point, the computer is almost so common we don't notice it in our view. It's difficult to envision that not that long ago it was a gigantic, room-sized structure only to be accessed by a few inspiring as much awe and respect as fear and mystery. Now that the machine has decreased in size and increased in popular use, the computer has become a prosaic appliance, little-more noted than a toaster. These dramati

  20. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury. The insulation shall not be punctured for test purposes. Splice in underground wire shall have insulation...

  1. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury. The insulation shall not be punctured for test purposes. A splice in underground wire shall have...

  2. Composite conductor containing superconductive wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.

    1974-03-26

    A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.

  3. Method of manufacturing superconductor wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motowidlo, Leszek

    2014-09-16

    A method for forming Nb.sub.3Sn superconducting wire is provided. The method employs a powder-in-tube process using a high-tin intermetallic compound, such as MnSn.sub.2, for producing the Nb.sub.3Sn. The use of a high-tin intermetallic compound enables the process to perform hot extrusion without melting the high-tin intermetallic compound. Alternatively, the method may entail drawing the wire without hot extrusion.

  4. Topology Optimized Photonic Wire Splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Borel, Peter Ingo; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard;

    2006-01-01

    Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm.......Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm....

  5. 线板式脉冲电晕放电反应器OH自由基二维分布的光谱学研究%Spectroscopic Diagnosis of Two-Dimensional Distribution of OH Radicals in Wire-Plate Pulsed Corona Discharge Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江建平; 骆仲泱; 轩俭勇; 赵磊; 方梦祥; 高翔

    2015-01-01

    OH radicals was characterized by a fan‐shaped distribution from the wire electrode to plate electrode ,and both the maximum values of vertical length and horizontal width of the fan area was less than 1 cm .The 2‐D distribution area of OH radi‐cals increased significantly with increasing the RH and the optimum condition was 65% RH .The optimal level of the oxygen concentration for the 2‐D distribution area of OH radicals was 2% .The process of OH radical generation and 2‐D distribution ar‐ea of OH radicals were significantly interfered when the oxygen concentration was larger than 15% .The total quenching rate co‐efficients for different RH values and oxygen concentration in this study were used to calculate the fluorescence yield of OH radi‐cal .The fluorescence yield ,which is the ratio between the emission rate (Einstein coefficient) and the sum of the emission rate and quenching rate ,was used to normalize the 2‐D distribution area of OH radicals .The fluorescence yield of OH radical de‐creased with increasing the RH and oxygen concentration linearly and rapidly .It was also found that compared with the RH ,the influence of the oxygen concentration had more notable effect on the fluorescence yield of OH radical and 2‐D distribution area of O H radicals .

  6. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  7. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  8. Wire Scanner Motion Control Card

    CERN Document Server

    Forde, S E

    2006-01-01

    Scientists require a certain beam quality produced by the accelerator rings at CERN. The discovery potential of LHC is given by the reachable luminosity at its interaction points. The luminosity is maximized by minimizing the beam size. Therefore an accurate beam size measurement is required for optimizing the luminosity. The wire scanner performs very accurate profile measurements, but as it can not be used at full intensity in the LHC ring, it is used for calibrating other profile monitors. As the current wire scanner system, which is used in the present CERN accelerators, has not been made for the required specification of the LHC, a new design of a wire scanner motion control card is part of the LHC wire scanner project. The main functions of this card are to control the wire scanner motion and to acquire the position of the wire. In case of further upgrades at a later stage, it is required to allow an easy update of the firmware, hence the programmable features of FPGAs will be used for this purpose. The...

  9. Vibrating wires for beam diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Arutunian, S G; Wittenburg, Kay

    2015-01-01

    A new approach to the technique of scanning by wires is developed. Novelty of the method is that the wire heating quantity is used as a source of information about the number of interacting particles. To increase the accuracy and sensitivity of measurements the wire heating measurement is regenerated as a change of wire natural oscillations frequency. By the rigid fixing of the wire ends on the base an unprecedented sensitivity of the frequency to the temperature and to the corresponding flux of colliding particles. The range of used frequencies (tens of kHz) and speed of processes of heat transfer limit the speed characteristics of proposed scanning method, however, the high sensitivity make it a perspective one for investigation of beam halo and weak beam scanning. Traditional beam profile monitors generally focus on the beam core and loose sensitivity in the halo region where a large dynamic range of detection is necessary. The scanning by a vibrating wire can be also successfully used in profiling and det...

  10. Connecting to Thermocouples with Fewer Lead Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsby, Jon C.

    2003-01-01

    A simple technique has been devised to reduce the number of lead wires needed to connect an array of thermocouples to the instruments (e.g., voltmeters) used to read their output voltages. Because thermocouple wires are usually made of expensive metal alloys, reducing the number of lead wires can effect a considerable reduction in the cost of such an array. Reducing the number of wires also reduces the number of terminals and the amount of space needed to accommodate the wires.

  11. Telecommuting: The Wired Worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilles, Jack M.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the use of home computers and how they allow the worker to work at home rather than commuting. Discusses the growing trend of telecommuting, cost of operation, how it will affect company structure, and productivity. (CT)

  12. Telecommuting: The Wired Worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilles, Jack M.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the use of home computers and how they allow the worker to work at home rather than commuting. Discusses the growing trend of telecommuting, cost of operation, how it will affect company structure, and productivity. (CT)

  13. Biomechanical Assessment of Locked Plating for the Fixation of Patella Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, Simone; Augat, Peter; Bühren, Volker

    2015-09-01

    To analyze the mechanical stability of locked plating in comparison with tension-band wiring for the fixation of fractures of the patella. Biomechanical tests were performed on artificial foam patella specimens comparing an angular stable plate and monocortical screws with tension-band wiring. Tests were performed under combined tension and bending until failure simulating physiological loading of the tibia during walking. Tension-band wiring failed at 66% of the failure load of plating (1052 N, P = 0.002) and had 5 times larger fracture gap displacements (P = 0.002). Based on the biomechanical advantages, locked plating of the patella may constitute a reasonable alternative in the treatment of patella fractures.

  14. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion An activity that is still in progress is computing for the heavy-ion program. The heavy-ion events are collected without zero suppression, so the event size is much large at roughly 11 MB per event of RAW. The central collisions are more complex and...

  15. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann P. McBride Edited by M-C. Sawley with contributions from: P. Kreuzer D. Bonacorsi S. Belforte F. Wuerthwein L. Bauerdick K. Lassila-Perini M-C. Sawley

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the comput...

  16. Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of the By-Pass Flow in a Catalytic Plate Reactor for Hydrogen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Haftor Örn; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    Numerical and experimental study is performed to evaluate the reactant by-pass flow in a catalytic plate reactor with a coated wire mesh catalyst for steam reforming of methane for hydrogen generation. By-pass of unconverted methane is evaluated under different wire mesh catalyst width to reactor...

  17. 46 CFR 169.680 - Installation of wiring for power and lighting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the following requirements: (1) Each opening through which conductors enter must be adequately closed... noncurrent carrying conductor. (f) On a nonmetallic vessel, where a ground plate is provided for radio... may be decreased to not less than 1 inch. (l) Each conductor, except a fixture wire within a box,...

  18. Copper oxide transistor on copper wire for e-textile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Woo; Meyyappan, M.

    2011-05-01

    A Cu2O-based field effect transistor was fabricated on Cu wire. Thermal oxidation of Cu forms Cu-Cu2O core-shell structure, where the metal-semiconductor Schottky junction was used as a gate barrier with Pt Ohmic contacts for source and drain. The device was coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to protect from contamination and demonstrated as a humidity sensor. The cylindrical structure of the Cu wire and the transistor function enable embedding of simple circuits into textile which can potentially offer smart textile for wearable computing, environmental sensing, and monitoring of human vital signs.

  19. Significant RF-EMF and thermal levels observed in a computational model of a person with a tibial plate for grounded 40 MHz exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Robert L; Iskra, Steve; Anderson, Vitas

    2014-05-01

    Using numerical modeling, a worst-case scenario is considered when a person with a metallic implant is exposed to a radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF). An adult male standing on a conductive ground plane was exposed to a 40 MHz vertically polarized plane wave field, close to whole-body resonance where maximal induced current flows are expected in the legs. A metal plate (50-300 mm long) was attached to the tibia in the left leg. The findings from this study re-emphasize the need to ensure compliance with limb current reference levels for exposures near whole-body resonance, and not just rely on compliance with ambient electric (E) and magnetic (H) field reference levels. Moreover, we emphasize this recommendation for someone with a tibial plate, as failure to comply may result in significant tissue damage (increases in the localized temperature of 5-10 °C were suggested by the modeling for an incident E-field of 61.4 V/m root mean square (rms)). It was determined that the occupational reference level for limb current (100 mA rms), as stipulated in the 1998 guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), is satisfied if the plane wave incident E-field levels are no more than 29.8 V/m rms without an implant and 23.4 V/m rms for the model with a 300 mm implant.

  20. Reliability assessment of different plate theories for elastic wave propagation analysis in functionally graded plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrkash, Milad; Azhari, Mojtaba; Mirdamadi, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The importance of elastic wave propagation problem in plates arises from the application of ultrasonic elastic waves in non-destructive evaluation of plate-like structures. However, precise study and analysis of acoustic guided waves especially in non-homogeneous waveguides such as functionally graded plates are so complicated that exact elastodynamic methods are rarely employed in practical applications. Thus, the simple approximate plate theories have attracted much interest for the calculation of wave fields in FGM plates. Therefore, in the current research, the classical plate theory (CPT), first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and third-order shear deformation theory (TSDT) are used to obtain the transient responses of flexural waves in FGM plates subjected to transverse impulsive loadings. Moreover, comparing the results with those based on a well recognized hybrid numerical method (HNM), we examine the accuracy of the plate theories for several plates of various thicknesses under excitations of different frequencies. The material properties of the plate are assumed to vary across the plate thickness according to a simple power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of constituents. In all analyses, spatial Fourier transform together with modal analysis are applied to compute displacement responses of the plates. A comparison of the results demonstrates the reliability ranges of the approximate plate theories for elastic wave propagation analysis in FGM plates. Furthermore, based on various examples, it is shown that whenever the plate theories are used within the appropriate ranges of plate thickness and frequency content, solution process in wave number-time domain based on modal analysis approach is not only sufficient but also efficient for finding the transient waveforms in FGM plates.

  1. Measurements of proportional scintillation in liquid xenon using thin wires

    CERN Document Server

    Aprile, E; Goetzke, L W; Fernandez, A J Melgarejo; Messina, M; Naganoma, J; Plante, G; Rizzo, A; Shagin, P; Wall, R

    2014-01-01

    Proportional scintillation in liquid xenon has a promising application in the field of direct dark matter detection, potentially allowing for simpler, more sensitive detectors. However, knowledge of the basic properties of the phenomenon as well as guidelines for its practical use are currently limited. We report here on measurements of proportional scintillation light emitted in liquid xenon around thin wires. The maximum proportional scintillation gain of $287^{+97}_{-75}$ photons per drift electron was obtained using 10 $\\mu$m diameter gold plated tungsten wire. The thresholds for electron multiplication and proportional scintillation are measured as $725^{+48}_{-139}$ and $412^{+10}_{-133}$ kV/cm, respectively. The threshold for proportional scintillation is in good agreement with a previously published result, while the electron multiplication threshold represents a novel measurement. A complete set of parameters for the practical use of the electron multiplication and proportional scintillation processe...

  2. Electrostatic Surface Trap for Cold Polar Molecules with a Charged Circular Wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Hui; ZHOU Bei; LIAO Bin; YIN Jian-Ping

    2007-01-01

    We propose a novel scheme to trap cold polar molecules on the surface of an insulating substrate (i.e. a chip) by using an inhomogeneous electrostatic field, which is generated by the combination of a circular charged wire (a ring electrode) and a grounded metal plate. The spatial distributions of the electrostatic field from the above charged wire layout and its Stark potentials for CO molecules are calculated. Our study shows that when the voltage applied to the wire is U = 15 kV, a ring radius is R = 5 mm, the thickness of the insulating substrate is b = 5 mm, and a wire radius is r = 1 mm, the maximum efficient trapping potential (i.e., as equivalent temperature) for CO molecules is greater than 141.7mK, which is high enough to trap cold polar molecules with a temperature of 50 mK in the low-field-seeking states.

  3. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The first data taking period of November produced a first scientific paper, and this is a very satisfactory step for Computing. It also gave the invaluable opportunity to learn and debrief from this first, intense period, and make the necessary adaptations. The alarm procedures between different groups (DAQ, Physics, T0 processing, Alignment/calibration, T1 and T2 communications) have been reinforced. A major effort has also been invested into remodeling and optimizing operator tasks in all activities in Computing, in parallel with the recruitment of new Cat A operators. The teams are being completed and by mid year the new tasks will have been assigned. CRB (Computing Resource Board) The Board met twice since last CMS week. In December it reviewed the experience of the November data-taking period and could measure the positive improvements made for the site readiness. It also reviewed the policy under which Tier-2 are associated with Physics Groups. Such associations are decided twice per ye...

  4. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    It has been a very active year for the computing project with strong contributions from members of the global community. The project has focused on site preparation and Monte Carlo production. The operations group has begun processing data from P5 as part of the global data commissioning. Improvements in transfer rates and site availability have been seen as computing sites across the globe prepare for large scale production and analysis as part of CSA07. Preparations for the upcoming Computing Software and Analysis Challenge CSA07 are progressing. Ian Fisk and Neil Geddes have been appointed as coordinators for the challenge. CSA07 will include production tests of the Tier-0 production system, reprocessing at the Tier-1 sites and Monte Carlo production at the Tier-2 sites. At the same time there will be a large analysis exercise at the Tier-2 centres. Pre-production simulation of the Monte Carlo events for the challenge is beginning. Scale tests of the Tier-0 will begin in mid-July and the challenge it...

  5. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction During the past six months, Computing participated in the STEP09 exercise, had a major involvement in the October exercise and has been working with CMS sites on improving open issues relevant for data taking. At the same time operations for MC production, real data reconstruction and re-reconstructions and data transfers at large scales were performed. STEP09 was successfully conducted in June as a joint exercise with ATLAS and the other experiments. It gave good indication about the readiness of the WLCG infrastructure with the two major LHC experiments stressing the reading, writing and processing of physics data. The October Exercise, in contrast, was conducted as an all-CMS exercise, where Physics, Computing and Offline worked on a common plan to exercise all steps to efficiently access and analyze data. As one of the major results, the CMS Tier-2s demonstrated to be fully capable for performing data analysis. In recent weeks, efforts were devoted to CMS Computing readiness. All th...

  6. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CCRC’08 challenges and CSA08 During the February campaign of the Common Computing readiness challenges (CCRC’08), the CMS computing team had achieved very good results. The link between the detector site and the Tier0 was tested by gradually increasing the number of parallel transfer streams well beyond the target. Tests covered the global robustness at the Tier0, processing a massive number of very large files and with a high writing speed to tapes.  Other tests covered the links between the different Tiers of the distributed infrastructure and the pre-staging and reprocessing capacity of the Tier1’s: response time, data transfer rate and success rate for Tape to Buffer staging of files kept exclusively on Tape were measured. In all cases, coordination with the sites was efficient and no serious problem was found. These successful preparations prepared the ground for the second phase of the CCRC’08 campaign, in May. The Computing Software and Analysis challen...

  7. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion The Tier 0 infrastructure was able to repack and promptly reconstruct heavy-ion collision data. Two copies were made of the data at CERN using a large CASTOR disk pool, and the core physics sample was replicated ...

  8. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Computing continued with a high level of activity over the winter in preparation for conferences and the start of the 2012 run. 2012 brings new challenges with a new energy, more complex events, and the need to make the best use of the available time before the Long Shutdown. We expect to be resource constrained on all tiers of the computing system in 2012 and are working to ensure the high-priority goals of CMS are not impacted. Heavy ions After a successful 2011 heavy-ion run, the programme is moving to analysis. During the run, the CAF resources were well used for prompt analysis. Since then in 2012 on average 200 job slots have been used continuously at Vanderbilt for analysis workflows. Operations Office As of 2012, the Computing Project emphasis has moved from commissioning to operation of the various systems. This is reflected in the new organisation structure where the Facilities and Data Operations tasks have been merged into a common Operations Office, which now covers everything ...

  9. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the co...

  10. Processless offset printing plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Mahović Poljaček

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the implementation of platesetters in the offset printing plate making process, imaging of the printing plate became more stable and ensured increase of the printing plate quality. But as the chemical processing of the printing plates still highly influences the plate making process and the graphic reproduction workflow, development of printing plates that do not require chemical processing for offset printing technique has been one of the top interests in graphic technology in the last few years. The main reason for that came from the user experience, where majority of the problems with plate making process could be connected with the chemical processing of the printing plate. Furthermore, increased environmental standards lead to reducing of the chemicals used in the industrial processes. Considering these facts, different types of offset printing plates have been introduced to the market today. This paper presents some of the processless printing plates.

  11. Determination of recent horizontal crustal movements and deformations of African and Eurasian plates in western Mediterranean region using geodetic-GPS computations extended to 2006 (from 1997) related to NAFREF and AFREF frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouzi, R.

    2009-04-01

    Determination of recent horizontal crustal movements and deformations of African and Eurasian plates in western Mediterranean region using geodetic-GPS computations extended to 2006 (from 1997) related to NAFREF and AFREF frames. By: R. Azzouzi*, M. Ettarid*, El H. Semlali*, et A. Rimi+ * Filière de Formation en Topographie Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II B.P. 6202 Rabat-Instituts MAROC + Département de la Physique du Globe Université Mohammed V Rabat MAROC This study focus on the use of the geodetic spatial technique GPS for geodynamic purposes generally in the Western Mediterranean area and particularly in Morocco. It aims to exploit this technique first to determine the geodetic coordinates on some western Mediterranean sites. And also this technique is used to detect and to determine movements cross the boundary line between the two African and Eurasian crustal plates on some well chosen GPS-Geodynamics sites. It will allow us also to estimate crustal dynamic parameters of tension that results. These parameters are linked to deformations of terrestrial crust in the region. They are also associated with tectonic constraints of the study area. The usefulness of repeated measurements of these elements, the estimate of displacements and the determination of their temporal rates is indisputable. Indeed, sismo-tectonique studies allow a good knowledge of the of earthquake processes, their frequency their amplitude and even of their prediction in the world in general and in Moroccan area especially. They allow also contributing to guarantee more security for all most important management projects, as projects of building great works (dams, bridges, nuclear centrals). And also as preliminary study, for the most important joint-project between Europe and Africa through the Strait of Gibraltar. For our application, 23 GPS monitoring stations under the ITRF2000 reference frame are chosen in Eurasian and African plates. The sites are located around the

  12. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  13. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  14. Local Neutron Flux Distribution Measurements by Wire-Dosimetry in the AMMON Experimental Program in the EOLE Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruel A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dosimetry measurements were carried out during the AMMON experimental program, in the EOLE facility. Al-0.1 wt% Au wires were positioned along curved fuel plates of JHR-type assemblies to investigate the azimuthal and axial gold capture rate profiles, directly linked to the thermal and epithermal flux. After irradiation, wires were cut into small segments (a few mm, and the gold capture rate of each part was measured by gamma spectrometry on the MADERE platform. This paper presents results in the “hafnium” configuration, and more specifically the azimuthal flux profile characterization. The final uncertainty on each measured wire lies below 1% (at 2 standard deviations. Experimental profiles are in a good agreement against Monte Carlo calculations, and the 4% capture rate increase at the plate edge is well observed. The flux dissymmetry due to assembly position in the core is also measured, and shows a 10% discrepancy between the two edges of the plate.

  15. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    Matthias Kasemann

    Overview The main focus during the summer was to handle data coming from the detector and to perform Monte Carlo production. The lessons learned during the CCRC and CSA08 challenges in May were addressed by dedicated PADA campaigns lead by the Integration team. Big improvements were achieved in the stability and reliability of the CMS Tier1 and Tier2 centres by regular and systematic follow-up of faults and errors with the help of the Savannah bug tracking system. In preparation for data taking the roles of a Computing Run Coordinator and regular computing shifts monitoring the services and infrastructure as well as interfacing to the data operations tasks are being defined. The shift plan until the end of 2008 is being put together. User support worked on documentation and organized several training sessions. The ECoM task force delivered the report on “Use Cases for Start-up of pp Data-Taking” with recommendations and a set of tests to be performed for trigger rates much higher than the ...

  16. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction A large fraction of the effort was focused during the last period into the preparation and monitoring of the February tests of Common VO Computing Readiness Challenge 08. CCRC08 is being run by the WLCG collaboration in two phases, between the centres and all experiments. The February test is dedicated to functionality tests, while the May challenge will consist of running at all centres and with full workflows. For this first period, a number of functionality checks of the computing power, data repositories and archives as well as network links are planned. This will help assess the reliability of the systems under a variety of loads, and identifying possible bottlenecks. Many tests are scheduled together with other VOs, allowing the full scale stress test. The data rates (writing, accessing and transfer¬ring) are being checked under a variety of loads and operating conditions, as well as the reliability and transfer rates of the links between Tier-0 and Tier-1s. In addition, the capa...

  17. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. MacBride

    The Computing Software and Analysis Challenge CSA07 has been the main focus of the Computing Project for the past few months. Activities began over the summer with the preparation of the Monte Carlo data sets for the challenge and tests of the new production system at the Tier-0 at CERN. The pre-challenge Monte Carlo production was done in several steps: physics generation, detector simulation, digitization, conversion to RAW format and the samples were run through the High Level Trigger (HLT). The data was then merged into three "Soups": Chowder (ALPGEN), Stew (Filtered Pythia) and Gumbo (Pythia). The challenge officially started when the first Chowder events were reconstructed on the Tier-0 on October 3rd. The data operations teams were very busy during the the challenge period. The MC production teams continued with signal production and processing while the Tier-0 and Tier-1 teams worked on splitting the Soups into Primary Data Sets (PDS), reconstruction and skimming. The storage sys...

  18. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    Contributions from I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The start of the 2012 run has been busy for Computing. We have reconstructed, archived, and served a larger sample of new data than in 2011, and we are in the process of producing an even larger new sample of simulations at 8 TeV. The running conditions and system performance are largely what was anticipated in the plan, thanks to the hard work and preparation of many people. Heavy ions Heavy Ions has been actively analysing data and preparing for conferences.  Operations Office Figure 6: Transfers from all sites in the last 90 days For ICHEP and the Upgrade efforts, we needed to produce and process record amounts of MC samples while supporting the very successful data-taking. This was a large burden, especially on the team members. Nevertheless the last three months were very successful and the total output was phenomenal, thanks to our dedicated site admins who keep the sites operational and the computing project members who spend countless hours nursing the...

  19. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

      Introduction Computing activity has been running at a sustained, high rate as we collect data at high luminosity, process simulation, and begin to process the parked data. The system is functional, though a number of improvements are planned during LS1. Many of the changes will impact users, we hope only in positive ways. We are trying to improve the distributed analysis tools as well as the ability to access more data samples more transparently.  Operations Office Figure 2: Number of events per month, for 2012 Since the June CMS Week, Computing Operations teams successfully completed data re-reconstruction passes and finished the CMSSW_53X MC campaign with over three billion events available in AOD format. Recorded data was successfully processed in parallel, exceeding 1.2 billion raw physics events per month for the first time in October 2012 due to the increase in data-parking rate. In parallel, large efforts were dedicated to WMAgent development and integrati...

  20. COMPUTING

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Just two months after the “LHC First Physics” event of 30th March, the analysis of the O(200) million 7 TeV collision events in CMS accumulated during the first 60 days is well under way. The consistency of the CMS computing model has been confirmed during these first weeks of data taking. This model is based on a hierarchy of use-cases deployed between the different tiers and, in particular, the distribution of RECO data to T1s, who then serve data on request to T2s, along a topology known as “fat tree”. Indeed, during this period this model was further extended by almost full “mesh” commissioning, meaning that RECO data were shipped to T2s whenever possible, enabling additional physics analyses compared with the “fat tree” model. Computing activities at the CMS Analysis Facility (CAF) have been marked by a good time response for a load almost evenly shared between ALCA (Alignment and Calibration tasks - highest p...

  1. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing operation has been lower as the Run 1 samples are completing and smaller samples for upgrades and preparations are ramping up. Much of the computing activity is focusing on preparations for Run 2 and improvements in data access and flexibility of using resources. Operations Office Data processing was slow in the second half of 2013 with only the legacy re-reconstruction pass of 2011 data being processed at the sites.   Figure 1: MC production and processing was more in demand with a peak of over 750 Million GEN-SIM events in a single month.   Figure 2: The transfer system worked reliably and efficiently and transferred on average close to 520 TB per week with peaks at close to 1.2 PB.   Figure 3: The volume of data moved between CMS sites in the last six months   The tape utilisation was a focus for the operation teams with frequent deletion campaigns from deprecated 7 TeV MC GEN-SIM samples to INVALID datasets, which could be cleaned up...

  2. A Physically Based Correction for Hot Wires in Wall Proximity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, F.; Zanoun, E.-S.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2003-11-01

    It is common practice to calibrate hot wires in a freestream of constant and known velocity. When wires of this kind are utilized for near-wall measurements, the additional heat losses to the wall and other factors that have not been accounted for in the calibration have the potential for introducing significant errors. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find a generally applicable correction to thermal-probe measurements near walls. Following on our presentation at a previous meeting (Bul. Am. Phys. Soc. 45, no. 9, p. 141, 2000), we present herein a physically based correction for hot wires in wall proximity. As a standard, a laser Doppler velocimeter is used to provide accurate near-wall measurements of the mean velocity profile. Here the error due to the finite measuring volume of the laser is proportional to the curvature of the velocity profile, and hence is negligible in the linear and quasi-linear regions of that profile. For the flow around a hot wire near highly and moderately conducting walls, we show that the Grashof number is at least one order of magnitude less than the cube of the Reynolds number, and thus that diffusion not convection dominates the heat transfer to the wall. The universal correction curve we derive takes into account the effect of wire diameter, overheat ratio, wall thermal conductivity, wall distance, and wall thickness. In the experiments we conducted with a horizontal flat plate centrally mounted in a wind tunnel, perceptible heat loss was observed due to the shear flow on the other side of the working surface. The resulting error is caused by the change of the thermal boundary condition, and helps explain the wide scatter observed between channel flow and boundary layer experiments, particularly when using walls of poorly conducting materials.

  3. Device Performance Improvement of Double-Pass Wire Mesh Packed Solar Air Heaters under Recycling Operation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chii-Dong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of device performance of a recycling solar air heater featuring a wire mesh packing was investigated experimentally and theoretically. The application of the wire mesh packing and recycle-effect concept to the present study were proposed aiming to strengthen the convective heat-transfer coefficient due to increased turbulence. Comparisons were made among different designs, including the single-pass, flat-plate double-pass and recycling double-pass wire mesh packed operations. The collector efficiency of the recycling double-pass wire mesh packed solar air heater was much higher than that of the other configurations for various recycle ratios and mass flow rates scenarios. The power consumption increment due to implementing wire mesh in solar air heaters was also discussed considering the economic feasibility. A fairly good agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental measurements was achieved with an analyzed error of 1.07%–9.32%.

  4. Laser Brazing of Aluminum with a New Filler Wire AlZn13Si10Cu4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Z.; Seefeld, T.; Vollertsen, F.

    Laser brazing processes of aluminum with both single beam and double beam techniques were developed using a new AlZn13Si10Cu4 filler wire which has a lower solidification range comparing to normal AlSi12 filler wire and the base material. Brazing experiments on both bead on plate and flange joints showed that the new wire has a very good wettability on the aluminum samples. Comparing to the AlSi12 wire one needs a lower heat input (in some cases 73% less heat input) for joining the same samples with the new filler wire and reaches a high hardness value in the joint. In addition, brazing with double beam technique showed its potential to increase the joint quality.

  5. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The Computing Team successfully completed the storage, initial processing, and distribution for analysis of proton-proton data in 2011. There are still a variety of activities ongoing to support winter conference activities and preparations for 2012. Heavy ions The heavy-ion run for 2011 started in early November and has already demonstrated good machine performance and success of some of the more advanced workflows planned for 2011. Data collection will continue until early December. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Operational and deployment support for WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request Manager components, routinely used in production by Data Operations, are provided. The GlideInWMS and components installation are now deployed at CERN, which is added to the GlideInWMS factory placed in the US. There has been new operational collaboration between the CERN team and the UCSD GlideIn factory operators, covering each others time zones by monitoring/debugging pilot jobs sent from the facto...

  6. The Quantum Socket: Wiring for Superconducting Qubits - Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejanin, J. H.; McConkey, T. G.; Rinehart, J. R.; Bateman, J. D.; Earnest, C. T.; McRae, C. H.; Rohanizadegan, Y.; Shiri, D.; Mariantoni, M.; Penava, B.; Breul, P.; Royak, S.; Zapatka, M.; Fowler, A. G.

    Quantum computing research has reached a level of maturity where quantum error correction (QEC) codes can be executed on linear arrays of superconducting quantum bits (qubits). A truly scalable quantum computing architecture, however, based on practical QEC algorithms, requires nearest neighbor interaction between qubits on a two-dimensional array. Such an arrangement is not possible with techniques that rely on wire bonding. To address this issue, we have developed the quantum socket, a device based on three-dimensional wires that enables the control of superconducting qubits on a two-dimensional grid. In this talk, we present experimental results characterizing this type of wiring. We will show that the quantum socket performs exceptionally well for the transmission and reflection of microwave signals up to 10 GHz, while minimizing crosstalk between adjacent wires. Under realistic conditions, we measured an S21 of -5 dB at 6 GHz and an average crosstalk of -60 dB. We also describe time domain reflectometry results and arbitrary pulse transmission tests, showing that the quantum socket can be used to control superconducting qubits.

  7. An Automatic Number Plate Recognition System under Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Sarbjit Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Automatic Number Plate Recognition system is an application of computer vision and image processing technology that takes photograph of vehicles as input image and by extracting their number plate from whole vehicle image , it display the number plate information into text. Mainly the ANPR system consists of 4 phases: - Acquisition of Vehicle Image and Pre-Processing, Extraction of Number Plate Area, Character Segmentation and Character Recognition. The overall accuracy and efficiency of whol...

  8. Reduction of tensile residual stresses during the drawing process of tungsten wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Ripoll, Manel, E-mail: manel.rodriguez@ctd.uni-lj.si [Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM, Woehlerstrasse 11, 79108 Freiburg (Germany); Weygand, Sabine M. [University of Applied Sciences Karlsruhe, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics, Moltkestrasse 30, 76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Riedel, Hermann [Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM, Woehlerstrasse 11, 79108 Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-05-25

    Tungsten wires are commonly used in the lighting industry as filaments for lamps. During the drawing process, the inhomogeneous deformation imparted by the drawing die causes tensile residual stresses at the wire surface in circumferential direction. These stresses have a detrimental effect for the wire because they are responsible for driving longitudinal cracks, known as splits. This work proposes two methods for reducing the residual stresses during wire drawing, namely applying an advanced die geometry and performing an inexpensive post-drawing treatment based on targeted bending operations. These two methods are analyzed with finite element simulations using material parameters obtained by mechanical tests on tungsten wires at different temperatures as input data. The computed results predict a substantial reduction of the circumferential residual stresses, thus reducing the risk of splitting.

  9. The electrolytic plating of compositionally modulated alloys and laminated metal nano-structures based on an automated computer-controlled dual-bath system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NabiRahni, D.M.A.; Tang, Peter Torben; Leisner, Peter

    1996-01-01

    applications reported in the literature. Until recently, however, producing such multilayered coatings has been difficult at best, especially for larger samples of irregular configuration and in mass production. We will explain the design, objective and the use of our newly developed automated computer....... Employing the automated dual-bath technique, multilayered composite materials of copper-nickel and copper-cobalt with more than 1000 alternating layers of varying dimensions, if desired, have been investigated and manufactured. The thickness of each sub-layer ranges from 25 nm to several micrometres (mu m...

  10. 30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the... “Safety Rules for the Installation and Maintenance of Electric Supply and Communication Lines”...

  11. Evaluation of high temperature stranded hookup wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, J. H.; Moore, H. J., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Tests are performed on wire and insulation materials to determine selection for electronic space assemblies. Wire characteristics of tensile strength, flexibility, conductivity, and general workability are tested. Knowledge of the advantages and limitations of these materials should prevent overspecification.

  12. TCP/IP Over SpaceWire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, S.; Parkes, S.

    The SpaceWire standard defines a network designed for handling payload data and control information onboard a spacecraft. Among the goals of SpaceWire are re-usability and reliability. The use of network protocols on top of SpaceWire is expected to enhance the already rich re-usability and reliability characteristics of SpaceWire. The Space Systems Research Group at the University of Dundee have developed software to allow data to be sent over SpaceWire using standard network protocols such as TCP/IP, as part of a program of work looking at network protocols for SpaceWire. This paper describes network protocols and their relationship to SpaceWire, introduces software written to allow network protocols to be layered on to SpaceWire, describes the research behind the development of this software, and gives results of some tests and observations made using the software.

  13. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CMS relies on a well functioning, distributed computing infrastructure. The Site Availability Monitoring (SAM) and the Job Robot submission have been very instrumental for site commissioning in order to increase availability of more sites such that they are available to participate in CSA07 and are ready to be used for analysis. The commissioning process has been further developed, including "lessons learned" documentation via the CMS twiki. Recently the visualization, presentation and summarizing of SAM tests for sites has been redesigned, it is now developed by the central ARDA project of WLCG. Work to test the new gLite Workload Management System was performed; a 4 times increase in throughput with respect to LCG Resource Broker is observed. CMS has designed and launched a new-generation traffic load generator called "LoadTest" to commission and to keep exercised all data transfer routes in the CMS PhE-DEx topology. Since mid-February, a transfer volume of about 12 P...

  14. Advanced signal processing methods applied to guided waves for wire rope defect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Peter W.; Rostami, Javad

    2016-02-01

    Steel wire ropes, which are usually composed of a polymer core and enclosed by twisted wires, are used to hoist heavy loads. These loads are different structures that can be clamshells, draglines, elevators, etc. Since the loading of these structures is dynamic, the ropes are working under fluctuating forces in a corrosive environment. This consequently leads to progressive loss of the metallic cross-section due to abrasion and corrosion. These defects can be seen in the forms of roughened and pitted surface of the ropes, reduction in diameter, and broken wires. Therefore, their deterioration must be monitored so that any unexpected damage or corrosion can be detected before it causes fatal accident. This is of vital importance in the case of passenger transportation, particularly in elevators in which any failure may cause a catastrophic disaster. At present, the widely used methods for thorough inspection of wire ropes include visual inspection and magnetic flux leakage (MFL). Reliability of the first method is questionable since it only depends on the operators' eyes that fails to determine the integrity of internal wires. The later method has the drawback of being a point by point and time-consuming inspection method. Ultrasonic guided wave (UGW) based inspection, which has proved its capability in inspecting plate like structures such as tubes and pipes, can monitor the cross-section of wire ropes in their entire length from a single point. However, UGW have drawn less attention for defect detection in wire ropes. This paper reports the condition monitoring of a steel wire rope from a hoisting elevator with broken wires as a result of corrosive environment and fatigue. Experiments were conducted to investigate the efficiency of using magnetostrictive based UGW for rope defect detection. The obtained signals were analyzed by two time-frequency representation (TFR) methods, namely the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) and the Wavelet analysis. The location of

  15. Influence of severe plastic deformation on the structure and properties of ultrahigh carbon steel wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leseur, D R; Sherby, O D; Syn, C K

    1999-07-01

    Ultrahigh-carbon steel wire can achieve very high strength after severe plastic deformation, because of the fine, stable substructures produce. Tensile strengths approaching 6000 MPa are predicted for UHCS containing 1.8%C. This paper discusses the microstructural evolution during drawing of UHCS wire, the resulting strength produced and the factors influencing fracture. Drawing produces considerable alignment of the pearlite plates. Dislocation cells develop within the ferrite plates and, with increasing strain, the size normal to the axis ({lambda}) decreases. These dislocation cells resist dynamic recovery during wire drawing and thus extremely fine substructures can be developed ({lambda} < 10 nm). Increasing the carbon content reduces the mean free ferrite path in the as-patented wire and the cell size developed during drawing. For UHCS, the strength varies as {lambda}{sup {minus}5}. Fracture of these steels was found to be a function of carbide size and composition. The influence of processing and composition on achieving high strength in these wires during severe plastic deformation is discussed.

  16. Hot embossing of electrophoresis microchannels in PMMA substrates using electric heating wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhibing; Yu, Zhengyin; Chen, Zhi; Chen, Gang

    2010-04-01

    A simple method based on electric heating wires has been developed for the rapid fabrication of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) electrophoresis microchips in ordinary laboratories without the need for microfabrication facilities. A piece of stretched electric heating wire placed across the length of a PMMA plate along its midline was sandwiched between two microscope slides under pressure. Subsequently, alternating current was allowed to pass through the wire to generate heat to emboss a separation microchannel on the PMMA separation channel plate at room temperature. The injection channel was fabricated using the same procedure on a PMMA sheet that was perpendicular to the separation channel. The complete microchip was obtained by bonding the separation channel plate to the injection channel sheet, sealing the channels inside. The electric heating wires used in this work not only generated heat; they also served as templates for embossing the microchannels. The prepared microfluidic microchips have been successfully employed in the electrophoresis separation and detection of ions in connection with contactless conductivity detection.

  17. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  18. Further Studies Of Hot-Wire Anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenzie, Robert; Logan, Pamela; Bershader, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses factors affecting readings of hot-wire anemometer in turbulent supersonic boundary layer. Represents extension of work described in "Hot-Wire Anemometry Versus Laser-Induced Fluorescence" (ARC-11802). Presents theoretical analysis of responses of hot-wire probe to changes in flow; also compares measurements by hot-wire probe with measurements of same flows by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF).

  19. Different mechanical properties in Seldinger guide wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Schummer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Most central venous catheters are placed using Seldinger guide wires. EN ISO 11070 is the guideline for testing guide wire flexing performance and tensile strength, and we can safely assume that guide wires in use meet these requirements. Unfortunately, EN ISO 11070 guidelines do not reflect the clinical requirements and we continue to see mechanical failures and their associated complications. Material and Methods: This in vitro study was performed in an accredited laboratory. With regard to flexing, we: (1 Established the minimum flexing performance needed to meet clinical requirements, (2 developed flexing performance tests which mimic clinical requirement, and (3 evaluated the mechanical properties of various guide wires relative to these requirements. With regard to tensile strength, we used the testing method prescribed in ISO 11070, but did not end the test at 5 Newton (N. We continued until the guide wire was damaged, or we reached maximum tractive force. We then did a wire-to-wire comparison. We examined two basic wire constructions, monofil and core and coil. Results: Tensile strength: All wires tested, except one, met EN ISO 11070 requirements for 5 N tensile strength. The mean of the wire types tested ranged from 15.06 N to 257.76 N. Flexing performance: None of the wires kinked. The monofil had no evidence of bending. Two core/coil wires displayed minor bending (angle 1.5°. All other wires displayed bending angles between 22.5° and 43.0°. Conclusion: We recommend that: (1 Clinicians use guide wires with high-end mechanical properties, (2 EN ISO 11070 incorporate our flexing test into their testing method, raise the flexing requirement to kink-proof, (3 and raise the tensile strength requirement to a minimum of 30 N, and (3 all manufacturers and suppliers be required to display mechanical properties of all guide wire, and guide wire kits sold.

  20. One century of Kirschner wires and Kirschner wire insertion techniques : A historical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, Bas B. G. M.; Schuurman, Arnold H.; Van der Molen, Aebele Mink; Kon, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    A century ago, in 1909, Martin Kirschner (1879-942) introduced a smooth pin, presently known as the Kirschner wire (K-wire). The K-wire was initiallly used for skeletal traction and is now currently used for many different goals. The development of the K-wire and its insertion devices were mainly in

  1. Generalized additional boundary conditions for wire media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslovski, Stanislav I; Morgado, Tiago A; Silveirinha, Mario G [Departamento de Engenharia Electrotecnica, Instituto de Telecomunicacoes, Universidade de Coimbra, Polo II, 3030-290 Coimbra (Portugal); Kaipa, Chandra S R; Yakovlev, Alexander B, E-mail: stas@co.it.p [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677-1848 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    We generalize additional boundary conditions (ABCs) for wire media by including arbitrary wire junctions with impedance loading. Special attention is given to the conditions at the interface of two uniaxial wire media with metallic patches at the junction. The derived ABCs are validated against full-wave numerical simulations.

  2. 75 FR 4584 - Wire Decking From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... COMMISSION Wire Decking From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling... retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of wire decking, provided for..., producers, or exporters in China of wire decking, and that such ] products are being sold in the...

  3. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring systems. 393.28 Section 393.28 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.28 Wiring systems...

  4. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhaohui, E-mail: lzhtrhos@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: lijingxbh@yahoo.com.cn [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhao, Pengfei, E-mail: zhaopengf05@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Lv, Han, E-mail: chrislvhan@126.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Dong, Cheng, E-mail: derc007@sina.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Liu, Wenjuan, E-mail: wenjuanliu@163.com [Jining No. 1 People' s Hospital, No. 6 Health Street, Jining 272100 (China); Wang, Zhenchang, E-mail: cjr.wzhch@vip.163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition.

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. ... vegetables . Now in one of the small sections, put grains and starchy foods. See this list of ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... 2016 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: wcie-meal-planning, In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal ...

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  8. Food guide plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chips or cookies. VEGETABLES: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Vegetables can be raw, fresh, ... as a snack. FRUITS: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Fruits can be fresh, canned, ...

  9. Growth Plate Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most widely used by doctors is the Salter-Harris system, described below. Type I Fractures These ... incidence of growth plate fractures peaks in adolescence. Salter-Harris classification of growth plate fractures. AAOS does ...

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger ...

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... Sleeve Custom jerseys for your Tour de Cure team benefits the cause. Ask the Experts: Learn to ...

  14. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reset Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing ... en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? Our free program will help you live well. More from diabetes. ...

  16. Obliquity along plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon, Mélody; Corti, Giacomo

    2016-12-01

    Most of the plate boundaries are activated obliquely with respect to the direction of far field stresses, as roughly only 8% of the plate boundaries total length shows a very low obliquity (ranging from 0 to 10°, sub-orthogonal to the plate displacement). The obliquity along plate boundaries is controlled by (i) lateral rheological variations within the lithosphere and (ii) consistency with the global plate circuit. Indeed, plate tectonics and magmatism drive rheological changes within the lithosphere and consequently influence strain localization. Geodynamical evolution controls large-scale mantle convection and plate formation, consumption, and re-organization, thus triggering plate kinematics variations, and the adjustment and re-orientation of far field stresses. These geological processes may thus result in plate boundaries that are not perpendicular but oblique to the direction of far field stresses. This paper reviews the global patterns of obliquity along plate boundaries. Using GPlate, we provide a statistical analysis of present-day obliquity along plate boundaries. Within this framework, by comparing natural examples and geological models, we discuss deformation patterns and kinematics recorded along oblique plate boundaries.

  17. Determination of the initial exothermic reaction of shredded tyres with wire content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellasie, Kassahun G; Moo-Young, Horace K; Lloyd, Thomas

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents the cause of exothermic reactions in shredded tyre with exposed wire content in shredded tyre piles. Data indicate that the oxidation of exposed steel wires is the exothermic reaction in shredded tyre embankments. This would lead to spontaneous combustion. Reaction of the steel with the sulphur or the carbon black appears not to be the source of the exothermic. Laboratory tests have been conducted to determine the heat transfer properties of the materials that compose tyres (i.e., tyre rubber and wires) by using a hot-plate apparatus. In addition, one-dimensional heat conduction experiments were conducted to compare the flow of heat through the materials while varying the physical and environmental conditions. The physical conditions were the size of tyre shred, water content, and wire contents. An exothermic reaction occurred when exposed wire was present but not when it was absent. A one-dimensional heat transfer equation was developed, and parametric studies were conducted to verify the laboratory model. Exothermic reaction was found to increase linearly with temperature, size and shape of the shredded tyres, density, amount of wire in shredded tyres, and water content.

  18. New constructions of wire ropes for the industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŠŠaderová Jana

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The wire ropes are used in different industrial fields. Their construction depends on the type of equipment and its purpose. Most frequently we meet with ropes at different transport and hoisting equipments and very freqently in the civil industry. For users characteristics are important which must meet requirements of the individual regulations and standards of the selection of wire ropes for the concrete equipment. The most important is the factor of safety being safeguarded by the corresponding bearing capacity of the rope. The service life of rope is interesting for the user, too, because of having an influence on the economy of the equipment on which the rope is working. These problems are solved by the grant project at our department . We are aimed at questions of the optimization of construction of wire rope with regard to their geometric construction and service life. Respectively on the basis of elaborated computer software eightstrand ropes of parallel construction were disigned and produced at the Drôtov ň a Hlohovec. The results of the fatigue tests confirmed their better qualitative properties, longer service life and economy advantages for users, too. Their using is possible and suitable on the new hoisting eguipment on the surface, in the undeground and in the hole drilling industry. By the application of the computer technique is also possible to improve the parametres of six-strands` construction of rope, the classic and parallel constructions, especially their bearing capacity. This fact follows from the knowledge that for the production of rope we use calculated diameters of wires, which secure better utilization of the metal cross-section of the wire ropes.

  19. Energy Deposition in a Septum Wire

    CERN Document Server

    Ferioli, G; Knaus, P; Koopman, J; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LHC Division

    2001-01-01

    The present note describes a machine development (MD) aimed to confirm experimentally the need for protection of the extraction wire septum ZS in SPS long straight section LSS6 during LHC operation. Single wires identical to the ones mounted on the extraction septum were fixed on a fast wire scanner and put into the beam path. The beam heated the wire until it broke after a measured number of turns. The maximum single shot intensity the septum wires could withstand was thus calculated and compared with simulation results.

  20. Directional growth of polypyrrole and polythiophene wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Prem S.; Yu, Deok Jin; Wicksted, James P.; Hadwiger, Jeffrey A.; Barisci, Joseph N.; Baughman, Ray H.; Flanders, Bret N.

    2009-01-01

    This work establishes an innovative electrochemical approach to the template-free growth of conducting polypyrrole and polythiophene wires along predictable interelectrode paths up to 30 μm in length. These wires have knobby structures with diameters as small as 98 nm. The conductivity of the polypyrrole wires is 0.5±0.3 S cm-1; that of the polythiophene wires is 7.6±0.8 S cm-1. Controlling the growth path enables fabrication of electrode-wire-target assemblies where the target is a biological cell in the interelectrode gap. Such assemblies are of potential use in cell stimulation studies.

  1. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.

  2. Designing an Optimal Lightning Protection Scheme for Substations Using Shielding Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khodadadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An optimal lightning protection scheme for a substation using shielding wires is investigated in this paper through computer software analysis. An economic approach is utilized by choosing a reasonable trade-off between protection, the number of shielding wires and the heights of them from the ground. This study is initially applied to a simple two-wire system and then extended to a sample substation. The solution for each problem is executed in MATLAB and 3-D realization is shown.

  3. How to optimize the drop plate method for enumerating bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herigstad, B; Hamilton, M; Heersink, J

    2001-03-01

    The drop plate (DP) method can be used to determine the number of viable suspended bacteria in a known beaker volume. The drop plate method has some advantages over the spread plate (SP) method. Less time and effort are required to dispense the drops onto an agar plate than to spread an equivalent total sample volume into the agar. By distributing the sample in drops, colony counting can be done faster and perhaps more accurately. Even though it has been present in the laboratory for many years, the drop plate method has not been standardized. Some technicians use 10-fold dilutions, others use twofold. Some technicians plate a total volume of 0.1 ml, others plate 0.2 ml. The optimal combination of such factors would be useful to know when performing the drop plate method. This investigation was conducted to determine (i) the standard deviation of the bacterial density estimate, (ii) the cost of performing the drop plate procedure, (iii) the optimal drop plate design, and (iv) the advantages of the drop plate method in comparison to the standard spread plate method. The optimal design is the combination of factor settings that achieves the smallest standard deviation for a fixed cost. Computer simulation techniques and regression analysis were used to express the standard deviation as a function of the beaker volume, dilution factor, and volume plated. The standard deviation expression is also applicable to the spread plate method.

  4. Reduction in the modulus of elasticity in orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, A J; Vanderby, R; Burstone, C J

    1977-10-01

    The modulus of elasticity of stainless steel orthodontic wires was found to be 20% below the normally assumed range of 19.3 to 20.0 x 10(4) MPa (28.0 to 29.0 x 10(6) psi). Use of the latter value can result in significant computational errors in orthodontic applicance mechanics. The lower modulus was attributed to severe cold drawing.

  5. Angular shear plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, Mitchell C [Tucson, AZ; Greynolds, Alan W [Tucson, AZ; Stuhlinger, Tilman W [Tucson, AZ

    2009-07-14

    One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.

  6. Astronomical Plate Archives and Binary Blazars Studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rene Hudec

    2011-03-01

    There are about 3 million astronomical photographic plates around the globe, representing an important data source for various aspects of astrophysics. The main advantage is the large time coverage of 100 years or even more. Recent digitization efforts, together with the development of dedicated software, enables for the first time, effective data mining and data analyses by powerful computers with these archives. Examples of blazars proposed and/or investigated on the astronomical plates are presented and discussed.

  7. Tomography, the geoid and plate motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Carl W.; O'Connell, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamics of the earth's mantle and its relationship to mantle structure as revealed by seismic tomography, the geoid, and plate motions are discussed in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Sections are devoted to plates and mantle convection; seismic anomalies, flow, and the geoid; subducted slabs and the 670-km discontinuity; the physical properties of the mantle; plumes; and computational and experimental modeling efforts. Also included is a comprehensive bibliography for the period.

  8. Composite wire plasma formation and evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielman, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    The detailed understanding of the formation and evolution of plasma from rapidly heated metallic wires is a long-standing challenge in the field of plasma physics and in exploding wire engineering. This physical process is made even more complicated if the wire material is composed of a number of individual layers. The authors have successfully developed both optical and x-ray backlighting diagnostics. In particular, the x-ray backlighting technique has demonstrated the capability for quantitative determination of the plasma density over a wide range of densities. This diagnostic capability shows that the process of plasma formation is composed of two separate phases: first, current is passed through a cold wire and the wire is heated ohmically, and, second, the heated wire evolves gases that break down and forms a low-density plasma surrounding the wire.

  9. Time-Domain Analysis of a Wire Antenna Near Arbitrarily Shaped Conductor Bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng; Li-Zhi; Xiao; Bo-xun; 等

    2003-01-01

    A time domain electrical field integral equation (TDEFIE) is formulated for the problem of a thin wire antenna in the presence of conductor bodies, and this equation is solved by the method in time marching algorithm. The analysis is valid for any arbitrarily shaped, oriented and positioned wire antennas relative to arbitrarily shaped conductor bodies. Current at the excited point, input admittance and radiation pattern are given and agree with the results computed by the method in frequency domain.

  10. Time-Domain Analysis of a Wire Antenna Near Arbitrarily Shaped Conductor Bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Li-zhi; Xiao Bo-xur; Zhu Guo-qiang; Yang Zi-jie

    2003-01-01

    A time domain electrical field integral equation (TDEFIE) is formulated for the problem of a thin wire antenna in the presence of conductor bodies, and this equation is solved by the method of time marching algorithm. The analysis is valid for any arbitrarily shaped, oriented and positioned wire antennas relative to arbitrarily shaped conductor bodies. Current at the excited point, input admittance and radiation pattern are given and agree with the results computed by the method in frequency domain.

  11. Method for wiring allocation and switch configuration in a multiprocessor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aridor, Yariv; Domany, Tamar; Frachtenberg, Eitan; Gal, Yoav; Shmueli, Edi; Stockmeyer, legal representative, Robert E.; Stockmeyer, Larry Joseph

    2008-07-15

    A method for wiring allocation and switch configuration in a multiprocessor computer, the method including employing depth-first tree traversal to determine a plurality of paths among a plurality of processing elements allocated to a job along a plurality of switches and wires in a plurality of D-lines, and selecting one of the paths in accordance with at least one selection criterion.

  12. Stretched-wire, remote, position-sensing device for EPICS. [Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer (EPICS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensslin, N.; Greene, S.J.; Thiessen, H.A.

    1976-05-01

    A description is given of design considerations, physical layout, electronics, and PDP-11 computer programming for the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer (EPICS) taut-wire system. EPICS is a high-resolution pion channel and spectrometer facility at Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The taut-wires are remote, position-sensing devices attached to the relatively inaccessible channel magnets for monitoring their relative positions.

  13. Calibration of Direct Velocimetry Using Hot Wire Anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Michael L.; DeSilva, Upul P.; Johnson, Joseph A., III

    1997-01-01

    We studied the functionality of the IFA300 Hot Wire Anemometry system and its feasibility for the calibration of Direct Estimator Velocimetry (DEV) using Laser Induced Florescence (LIF). The experimental setup consisted of a single-wire hot wire probe measuring one component of velocity, the anemometry computational hardware and software, an HP oscilloscope, and a table fan to produce a simple flow with fluctuations. Measurements were taken at several points in the stream wise and transverse directions in the flow and various parameters recorded such as mean velocities temperature, turbulence intensities, skewness coefficients and flatness coefficients. The IFA300 software also allowed us to perform statistical manipulations such as spectrum analysis on velocities samples and correlation. Utilization of data files, also produced by the anemometry software, and post analysis were performed to produce graphical representations of turbulent intensity versus probe position and a flow field velocity profile. We concluded that the IFA300 Hot Wire Anemometry system is a reliable and functional method for calibration of DEV using LIF. Our future intentions are to set up a test chamber such that both velocity measurement techniques can be applied simultaneously, thus the calibration.

  14. Preparation of uncladded YBCO wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grader, G.; Cadoche, L.; Shter, G.

    1993-04-01

    Wires of YBCO, 1-5 mm in diameter, have been obtained by extrusion of an oxalate derived powder mixed with polyvinyl butyral (PVB) and two phthalate plasticizers. The densification and transport properties of the wires were investigated at various organic loading conditions. For YBCO powder prepared by oxalate coprecipitation and calcined at 930°C, the maximal strength, relative density and Jc were 20MPa, 92% and 400A/cm 2, respectively. Results show that after a 4-hour sintering at 955°C the tensile strength, density, and Jc are all maximized at a binder content of 3-4 wt.%. The loading of up to 10 wt.% dibutyl phthalate (DBP) plasticizer (in the binder) has little effect on the properties. Beyond this loading a drastic drop in Jc is observed. The densification was very poor for sinterings below 950°C, which was reflected by a lower critical current.

  15. Thermoprocessing and wire drawing behaviour of ultra high strength steel wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Bargujer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermo-processing of piano wire rods is carried out in the lead bath. This experimentation is carried out under industrial conditions. The investigation is done to examine the effect of austenitic time, lead bath time and wire diameter on mechanical properties of lead patented wire. The Taguchi technique is adopted for optimization of thermo-processing of hypereutectoid steel wires. The lead patented wire of diameter 7.00 mm is cold drawn in a sequence of conical converging dies. The best pass schedule of lead patented piano wire is obtained by optimizing the ultimate tensile strength and torsion strength of cold drawn wire. The characterization of wire drawing behaviour of lead patented wires is carried out using optical microscopy, scanned electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis techniques.

  16. SpaceWire Satellite Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Figure 1. SpaceWire Topologies 309 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of...RS422 Hosted Payload data interface Joint  Architeccture  Standards Sandia,  LANL control interface; backplane sRIO, PCIe Common standards for joint

  17. Interacting wakes of a narrow and a wide flat plate in tandem arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacışevki, H; Teimourian, A, E-mail: hasan.hacisevki@emu.edu.tr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eastern Mediterranean University, Mağusa, North Cyprus, Mersin 10 (Turkey)

    2016-02-15

    Flow structures behind two different sized flat plates in tandem arrangement normal to flow at high Reynolds number have been investigated experimentally. A narrow flat plate, as a control plate, has been placed upstream of a wide plate to investigate the interacting wakes behind the wide flat plate. The near wake downstream of the wide plate has been measured by employing constant-temperature hot wire anemometer, quantitatively. The effects of different width ratio (h/D) range from 0.1 to 1.0 together with gap ratio (g/D) ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 have been probed. It was found that Strouhal number variation is directly proportional to gap ratio between the plates. Moreover, it was observed that turbulent kinetic energy production is mostly contributed by transverse normal turbulent stress and therefore follows the transverse stress pattern rather than the stream wise stress. (paper)

  18. Transmission of Sound Through Double-Plate Panel Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens; Domadiya, Parthkumar Gandalal; Andersen, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, a finite-element model of a double-plate panel is implemented to investigate the transmission of sound through a simple lightweight structure. A numerical study is performed of the following three coupling configurations: 1) Structure-borne sound via plate......-stud-plate structures without air inclusions; 2) transmission via the plate-stud-plate structure including the internal acoustic medium; 3) transmission via plate-air-plate connections in a double-leaf panel with no structural coupling between the two plates. A fully coupled analysis is performed in which solid finite...... elements are adopted for the structure, whereas the acoustic medium is discretized into fluid continuum elements. The computations are carried out in frequency domain in the low frequency range and the load acts as a diffuse sound field on one side of the panel....

  19. Clinical Study of Intra-operative Computed Tomography Guided Localization with A Hook-wire System for Small Ground Glass Opacities in Minimally Invasive Resection%CT引导下Hook-w ire定位肺磨玻璃样微小结节微创切除的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    初向阳; 侯晓彬; 张连斌; 薛志强; 任志鹏; 温佳新; 刘毅; 马克峰; 孙玉鹗

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective Localization of pulmonary ground glass small nodule is the technical dif-ficulty of minimally invasive operation resection. The aim of this study is to evaluate the value of intraoperative computed tomography (CT)-guided localization using a hook-wire system for small ground glass opacity (GGO) in minimally invasive resection, as well as to discuss the necessity and feasibility of surgical resection of small GGOs (<10 mm) through a minimally invasive approach.MethodshTe records of 32 patients with 41 small GGOs who underwent intraoperative CT-guided double-thorn hook wire localization prior to video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resection from October 2009 to October 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) within 10 min atfer wire localiza-tion. hTe effcacy of intraoperative localization was evaluated in terms of procedure time, VATS success rate, and associated complications of localization.Results A total of 32 patients (15 males and 17 females) underwent 41 VATS resections, with 2 simultaneous nodule resections performed in 3 patients, 3 lesion resections in 1 patient, and 5 lesions in a patient. Nodule di-ameters ranged from 2 mm-10 mm (mean: 5 mm). hTe distance of lung lesions from the nearest pleural surfaces ranged within 5 mm-24 mm (mean: 12.5 mm). All resections of lesions guided by the inserted hook wires were successfully performed by VATS (100% success rate). hTe mean procedure time for the CT-guided hook wire localization was 8.4 min (range: 4 min-18 min). hTe mean procedure time for VATS was 32 min (range: 14 min-98 min). hTe median hospital time was 8 d (range: 5 d-14 d). Results of pathological examination revealed 28 primary lung cancers, 9 atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, and 4 nonspe-ciifc chronic inlfammations. No major complication related to the intraoperative hook wire localization and VATS was noted. Conclusion Intraoperative CT-guided hook wire

  20. Concept of porous wire anemometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afgan, N.H.; Pereira, J.C. [Inst. Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Leontiev, A.I.; Puzach, S.V. [Moscow Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1997-05-01

    The paper presents a new scheme of the anemometer sensing element for the gas mean and fluctuation velocity measurement. The sensing element is a porous tube with gas suction through porous tube wall. The outside surface of the porous tube is at the gas temperature. The analysis, based on the heat balance at steady and unsteady state is performed in order to define the sensitivity and time constant of the porous sensing element. Two cases are considered, namely, the constant current and constant temperature anemometer. Comparison is made with the solid wire anemometer and shown that the proposed porous sensing element can have sensitivity four times higher than the standard hot wire anemometer with the same geometrical dimensions. With the respective selection of the physical properties of the sensing element, it could be possible to obtain higher frequency range of the measurement. Particular attention is devoted to the low gas velocity measurement. It is recognized that the minimum gas velocity to be measured with the solid hot wire anemometer is determined by the local heat transfer coefficient. For the low gas velocity, it was proved that the minimum is around .20 cm/sec. The proposed concept of the sensing element can be used for the very low velocity measurement due to the higher sensitivity obtained by the porous sensing element.

  1. Otimização dos parâmetros de tecimento para confecção de amanteigamento em chapas de aço ao carbono pelo processo TIG com arame AWS ER309L Weaving parameter optimization for buttering on carbon steel plates by TIG process with an AWS ER309L wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Queiroz Fratari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos dos parâmetros de tecimento e da velocidade de alimentação sobre a formação da primeira camada de amanteigamento com aço inoxidável austenítico, visando a otimização da operação no sentido de maximizar a relação entre espessura da camada e diluição. Os experimentos foram realizados pelo processo TIG com alimentação de arame, variando-se sistematicamente, e garantindo-se a ortogonalidade do planejamento experimental, a amplitude, o tempo de parada lateral e a velocidade de alimentação, permitindo se encontrar equações estocásticas de predições da geometria resultante do depósito. Através de um programa de otimização, procurou-se os parâmetros de regulagem que levassem a maior relação da área depositada pela área fundida. Escolheu-se como restritor a relação reforço por largura, evitando-se revestimentos com alta convexidade e possibilidade de formação de sobreposição lateral de cordão. Soldagens de validação mostraram a robustez e confirmaram a adequabilidade do método de otimização. Com a metodologia empregada foi possível demonstrar a necessidade, para a otimização do cordão de amanteigamento, de se usar a máxima velocidade de alimentação e o mínimo de tempo na parada lateral. A amplitude ideal é um balanço entre os efeitos sobre a área fundida e convexidade, mostrando uma tendência de adquirir um valor maior do que a faixa central.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effects of the weaving parameters and of the wire feed speed on the formation of a stainless steel buttering layer, aiming the process optimization by the layer height and dilution maximization. The experiments were carried out by the TIG process with wire feeding. Weaving amplitude, lateral dwell time and wire feed speed were systematically varied, through an orthogonal experimental planning, allowing finding stochastic predictive equations of the

  2. Electrostatic surface guiding of cold polar molecules with double charged wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Xia; Lianzhong Deng; Jinming Liu; Jianping Yin

    2005-01-01

    We propose a novel scheme to guide cold polar molecules on the surface of an insulating substrate (i.e., a chip) using a static electric field generated by the combination of a pair of parallel charged wires and a grounded metal plate. We calculate the spatial distributions of the electric fields from the above chargedwire layout and their Stark potentials for cold CO molecules, and analyze the relationships between the electric field and the parameters of the charged-wire layout. The result shows that this charged-wire scheme can be used to guide cold polar molecules in the weak-field-seeking state and to form various molecule-optical elements, even to realize a single-mode molecular waveguide on a molecule chip under certain conditions.

  3. Bonding mechanism of ultrasonic wedge bonding of copper wire on Au/Ni/Cu substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yan-hong; WANG Chun-qing; Y. Norman ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    The ultrasonic wedge bonding with d25 μm copper wire was achieved on Au/Ni plated Cu substrate at ambient temperature. Ultrasonic wedge bonding mechanism was investigated by using SEM/EDX, pull test, shear test and microhardness test. The results show that the thinning of the Au layer occurs directly below the center of the bonding tool with the bonding power increasing. The interdiffusion between copper wire and Au metallization during the wedge bonding is assumed negligible, and the wedge bonding is achieved by wear action induced by ultrasonic vibration. The ultrasonic power contributes to enhance the deformation of copper wire due to ultrasonic softening effect which is then followed by the strain hardening of the copper wedge bonding.

  4. Long-Term Effects of Soldering By-Products on Nickel-Coated Copper Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, T. D.; Hodge, R. E.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of thirty-year-old, down graded flight cables was conducted to determine the makeup of a green material on the surface of the shielded wire near soldered areas and to ascertain if the green material had corroded the nickel-coated copper wire. Two likely candidates were possible due to the handling and environments to which these cables were exposed. The flux used to solder the cables is known to contain abietic acid, a carboxylic acid found in many pine rosins used for the soldering process. The resulting material copper abietate is green in color and is formed during the application of heat during soldering operations. Copper (II) chloride, which is also green in color is known to contaminate flight parts and is corrosive. Data is presented that shows the material is copper abietate, not copper (II) chloride, and more importantly that the abietate does not aggressively attack nickel-plated copper wire.

  5. Analysis of BY-106 pump pit cover plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1994-11-14

    A new cover for the pump pit of Tank 241-BY-106 has been designed to allow the rotary core exhauster to be hooked up without requiring pit entry, riser modification, or equipment removal. The new pit cover is necessary to allow installation of two risers for reducing exposure, contamination, and waste. Computer analysis indicates that the safety margin of the pit cover plate with two risers is adequate. The computer stress model and input files are attached. The pit cover plate is a replacement for an existing plate; therefore seismic and wind loads were considered for the plate only.

  6. "Cut wires grating – single longitudinal wire" planar metastructure to achieve microwave magnetic resonance in a single wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kraftmakher

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we present metastructures containing cut-wire grating and a single longitudinal cut-wire orthogonal to grating’s wires. Experimental investigations at microwaves show these structures can provide strong magnetic resonant response of a single nonmagnetic cut-wire in dependence on configuration and sizes in the case when metastructures are oriented along the direction of wave propagation and cut-wires of grating are parallel to the electric field of a plane electromagnetic wave. It is suggested a concept of magnetic response based on antiparallel resonant currents excited by magnetic field of surface polaritons in many spatial LC-circuits created from cut-wire pairs of a grating and section of longitudinal cut-wire. Three separately observed resonant effects connected with grating, LC-circuits and with longitudinal cut-wire have been identified applying measurements in waveguides, cutoff waveguides and free space. To tune and mark resonance split cut-wires are loaded with varactor diodes.

  7. EFFECTS OF WIRE LAG IN WIRE ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING (WEDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. SINHA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available WEDM is very useful wherever complex geometry with tight tolerances needs to be generated on hard materials. In view of modern and sophisticated technology readily available these days, the expectation of accuracy in WEDM is ever-increasing, and therefore, techniques for the improvement in WEDM must be developed. The main cause of inaccuracy is wire-lag, the cause and effect of which is described in the present work, along with a technique to obviate the problem in straight cutting. In a subsequent paper, a software approach (since the problem gets too complicated for improvement of accuracy in contour cutting is described.

  8. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  9. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, S T

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent development and interest in the photonics of metallic wire structures, the relatively simple concepts and physics often remain obscured or poorly explained to those who do not specialize in the field. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures provides a clear and coherent guide to understanding these phenomena without excessive numerical calculations.   Including both background material and detailed derivations of the various different formulae applied, Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures describes how to extend basic circuit theory relating to voltages, currents, and resistances of metallic wire networks to include situations where the currents are no longer spatially uniform along the wire. This lays a foundation for a deeper understanding of the many new phenomena observed in meta-electromagnetic materials.   Examples of applications are included to support this new approach making Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures a comprehensive and ...

  10. Tensile deformation of NiTi wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Ken; Tyber, Jeff; Brice, Valerie; Frick, Carl P; Maier, Hans J; Morgan, Neil

    2005-12-15

    We examine the structure and properties of cold drawn Ti-50.1 at % Ni and Ti-50.9 at % Ni shape memory alloy wires. Wires with both compositions possess a strong fiber texture in the wire drawing direction, a grain size on the order of micrometers, and a high dislocation density. The more Ni rich wires contain fine second phase precipitates, while the wires with lower Ni content are relatively free of precipitates. The wire stress-strain response depends strongly on composition through operant deformation mechanisms, and cannot be explained based solely on measured differences in the transformation temperatures. We provide fundamental connections between the material structure, deformation mechanisms, and resulting stress-strain responses. The results help clarify some inconsistencies and common misconceptions in the literature. Ramifications on materials selection and design for emerging biomedical applications of NiTi shape memory alloys are discussed.

  11. Phosphorus in antique iron music wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodway, M

    1987-05-22

    Harpsichords and other wire-strung musical instruments were made with longer strings about the beginning of the 17th century. This change required stronger music wire. Although these changes coincided with the introduction of the first mass-produced steel (iron alloyed with carbon), carbon was not found in samples of antique iron harpsichord wire. The wire contained an amount of phosphorus sufficient to have impeded its conversion to steel, and may have been drawn from iron rejected for this purpose. The method used to select pig iron for wire drawing ensured the highest possible phosphorus content at a time when its presence in iron was unsuspected. Phosphorus as an alloying element has had the reputation for making steel brittle when worked cold. Nevertheless, in replicating the antique wire, it was found that lowcarbon iron that contained 0.16 percent phosphorus was easily drawn to appropriate gauges and strengths for restringing antique harpsichords.

  12. Flow past a circular cylinder with a permeable wake splitter plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardell, Gregory S.

    1993-08-01

    Measurements in the near wake region of a circular cylinder in a uniform flow in the Reynolds number range 2.5 x 10(exp 3) is approximately less than Re is approximately less than 1.8 x 10(exp 4) with permeable splitter plates spanning the wake center plane are presented. Permeability is defined by the pressure drop across the plates, and the relationship between permeability and plate solidity is determined for a set of plates constructed from woven wire mesh permitting unambiguous characterization of the splitter plates by the solidity. The effects of different solidities on the flow in the near wake are investigated using smoke wire flow visualization, hot-wire anemometry, and measurements of the mean pressure at the cylinder surface, and the results are related to cylinder flow without a splitter plate. Flow visualization results demonstrate that the introduction of low solidity splitter plates does not change the basic near wake structure, and that sufficiently high solidity uncouples the large-scale wake instability from the body, with the primary vortex formation occurring downstream of the separation bubble due to instability of the wake profile. Hot-wire and surface pressure measurements confirm and quantify the flow visualization results, showing that the permeable splitter plates reduce the drag and modify the primary wake frequency. When the solidity is high enough that the wake is convectively unstable, the base pressure is independent of the Reynolds number and solidity. For a wide range of solidities, the same asymptotic value of the Strouhal number is reached at high Reynolds numbers. The relationship between the Strouhal number and the base pressure is discussed.

  13. Note: Improving long-term stability of hot-wire anemometer sensors by means of annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, H.

    2015-08-01

    Annealing procedures for hot-wire sensors of platinum and platinum-plated tungsten have been investigated experimentally. It was discovered that the two investigated sensor metals behave quite differently during the annealing process, but for both types annealing may improve long-term stability considerably. Measured drift of sensors both without and with prior annealing is presented. Suggestions for suitable annealing temperatures and times are given.

  14. Note: Improving long-term stability of hot-wire anemometer sensors by means of annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, H

    2015-08-01

    Annealing procedures for hot-wire sensors of platinum and platinum-plated tungsten have been investigated experimentally. It was discovered that the two investigated sensor metals behave quite differently during the annealing process, but for both types annealing may improve long-term stability considerably. Measured drift of sensors both without and with prior annealing is presented. Suggestions for suitable annealing temperatures and times are given.

  15. Note: Improving long-term stability of hot-wire anemometer sensors by means of annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundström, H., E-mail: hans.lundstrom@hig.se [Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Gävle, SE-801 76 Gävle (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    Annealing procedures for hot-wire sensors of platinum and platinum-plated tungsten have been investigated experimentally. It was discovered that the two investigated sensor metals behave quite differently during the annealing process, but for both types annealing may improve long-term stability considerably. Measured drift of sensors both without and with prior annealing is presented. Suggestions for suitable annealing temperatures and times are given.

  16. Subchannel Analysis of Wire Wrapped SCWR Assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Jianqiang Shan; Henan Wang; Wei Liu; Linxing Song; Xuanxiang Chen; Yang Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Application of wire wrap spacers in SCWR can reduce pressure drop and obtain better mixing capability. As a consequence, the required coolant pumping power is decreased and the coolant temperature profile inside the fuel bundle is flattened which will obviously decrease the peak cladding temperature. The distributed resistance model for wire wrap was developed and implemented in ATHAS subchannel analysis code. The HPLWR wire wrapped assembly was analyzed. The results show that: (1) the assemb...

  17. Development of Intercalated Wire and Cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    size because of longitudinal splitting. Attempts have been made to 2 substitute wire drawing for the swaging (7) but these have been unsuccessful. It...appears that the radial pressure of the swaging may be an essential ingredient to the process and that the longitudinal tension of wire drawing causes...conductivity. It is possible that the high pressures encountered in swaging as opposed to wire drawing , for instance, are a significant factor. High

  18. Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft and Spacecraft Wiring

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John E.; Tucholski, Edward J.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft, and especially aircraft, often fry well past their original design lives and, therefore, the need to develop nondestructive evaluation procedures for inspection of vital structures in these craft is extremely important. One of the more recent problems is the degradation of wiring and wiring insulation. The present paper describes several nondestructive characterization methods which afford the possibility to detect wiring and insulation degradation in-situ prior to major problems with the safety of aircraft and spacecraft.

  19. IEE wiring regulations explained and illustrated

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, Second Edition discusses the recommendations of the IEE Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings for the safe selection or erection of wiring installations. The book emphasizes earthing, bonding, protection, and circuit design of electrical wirings. The text reviews the fundamental requirements for safety, earthing systems, the earth fault loop impedance, and supplementary bonding. The book also describes the different types of protection, such as protection against mechanical damage, overcurrent, under voltage (which prevents

  20. Space flight printed wiring board measling investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Walter B., III

    1994-05-01

    A flight printed wiring board (PWB) for a satellite project was observed to have a high incidence of measling. Other PWB's produced for the program by the same manufacturer did not exhibit the degree of measling as did the 'measle-prone' board. Measling susceptibility during hand soldering and measling effects on PWB insulation resistance were investigated for three production PWB's. Measling resistance was significantly different between the three boards: the 'worst' exhibited five times the number of measles as the 'best' board. 'Severe' measling (that which is likely to affect board reliability) did not exist on the 'best' board, even under extreme soldering conditions (399 degrees C for 12-15 sec.), whereas the 'worst' board showed an average of one 'severe' measle for every two pads under more normal soldering conditions (288-343 degrees C for 2-5 sec.). Both soldering time and temperature affected measling, with time having a slightly greater influence (2 percent versus 12 percent). Measling effects on PWB insulation resistance were inconclusive. These were evaluated by in situ resistance measurements on the same three boards at elevated temperature and humidity. The measured resistance for all three boards decreased for exposures greater than 50 degrees C and 50 percent relative humidity. The 'measle-prone' board showed a resistance decrease at only 25 degrees C and 50 percent relative humidity. However, no definitive difference was detected between measled and not-measled (control) samples. The boards evaluated were production boards, so the effect of interlayer traces connecting the plated-through holes was not controlled. It is likely the resistance measurements were over different volumes of PWB laminate, which would account for the widely varying resistances measured. Thermomechanical measurements on board laminate materials did not reveal any differences attributed to measling. Differences in glass transition temperature were significantly different

  1. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  2. submitter Dynamical Models of a Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Barjau, Ana; Dehning, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of the beam profile measurements achievable by the current wire scanners at CERN is limited by the vibrations of their mechanical parts. In particular, the vibrations of the carbon wire represent the major source of wire position uncertainty which limits the beam profile measurement accuracy. In the coming years, due to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, a wire traveling speed up to 20 $m s^{−1}$ and a position measurement accuracy of the order of 1 μm will be required. A new wire scanner design based on the understanding of the wire vibration origin is therefore needed. We present the models developed to understand the main causes of the wire vibrations observed in an existing wire scanner. The development and tuning of those models are based on measurements and tests performed on that CERN proton synchrotron (PS) scanner. The final model for the (wire + fork) system has six degrees-of-freedom (DOF). The wire equations contain three different excitation terms: inertia...

  3. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  4. Gold nanoparticle wire and integrated wire array for electronic detection of chemical and biological molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Diao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle wire and integrated nanoparticle wire array have been prepared through a green technique: discontinuous vertical evaporation-driven colloidal deposition. The conducting gold nanoparticle wire made by this technique shows ability for the sensitive electronic detection of chemical and biological molecules due to its high surface to volume ratio. Furthermore, we also demonstrate a potential usage of integrated gold nanoparticle wire array for the localized detection.

  5. Two Extension Block Kirschner Wires' Technique for Bony Mallet Thumb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Fumiaki; Ueda, Yasuhiro; Shinohara, Issei; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kokubu, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Mallet fingers with an avulsion fracture of the distal phalanx or rupture of the terminal tendon of the extensor mechanism is known as a common injury, while mallet thumb is very rare. In this paper, the case of a 19-year-old woman with a sprained left thumb sustained while playing basketball is presented. Plain radiographs and computed tomography revealed an avulsion fracture involving more than half of the articular surface at the base of the distal phalanx. Closed reduction and percutaneous fixation were performed using the two extension block Kirschner wires' technique under digital block anesthesia. At 4 months postoperatively, the patient had achieved excellent results according to Crawford's evaluation criteria and had no difficulties in working or playing basketball. Various conservative and operative treatment strategies have been reported for management of mallet thumb. We chose the two extension block Kirschner wires' technique to minimize invasion of the extensor mechanism and nail bed and to stabilize the large fracture fragment.

  6. FE modeling of Cu wire bond process and reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, C.A.; Weltevreden, E.R.; Akker, P. van den; Kregting, R.; Vreugd, J. de; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    Copper based wire bonding technology is widely accepted by electronic packaging industry due to the world-wide cost reduction actions (compared to gold wire bond). However, the mechanical characterization of copper wire differs from the gold wire; hence the new wire bond process setting and new bond

  7. FE modeling of Cu wire bond process and reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, C.A.; Weltevreden, E.R.; Akker, P. van den; Kregting, R.; Vreugd, J. de; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    Copper based wire bonding technology is widely accepted by electronic packaging industry due to the world-wide cost reduction actions (compared to gold wire bond). However, the mechanical characterization of copper wire differs from the gold wire; hence the new wire bond process setting and new bond

  8. Wired

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    迄今为止,已有45000个项目借助在线捐赠成功完成众筹,金额总计达5亿美元以上。其中绝大部分(据估计为80%)来自Kickstarter网站,这家网站如今几乎成了“众筹”这一术语的代名词。

  9. Polarized backlight with constrained angular divergence for enhancement of light extraction efficiency from wire grid polarizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Po-Hung; Chung, Chi-Jui; Wu, Chien-Li; Chen, Cheng-Huan

    2012-02-27

    Efficiency of liquid crystal displays highly depends on the amount of polarized light emerging from the backlight module. In this paper, a backlight architecture using a nanoimprint wire grid polarizer for polarization recycling is proposed and studied, in which the extraction efficiency of polarized light is the major concern. The backlight module is composed of the stack of a wire grid polarizer, a lenticular array and a light guide plate. The light guide plate features interleaving v-groove and trapezoidal ridge coated with aluminum on the top surface, and scattering dot array on the bottom. The angular divergence of emerging light from the light guide plate can be well constrained so as to exploit the angular range with the best transmission of polarized light for the wire grid polarizer. The prototype of a 2.5-inch module has demonstrated an angular divergence of 48°. The overall extraction efficiency of polarized light enhanced by 21% and uniformity of 76% have been achieved.

  10. Electrostatic surface guiding of cold polar molecules with a single charged wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Lian-Zhong; Xia Yong; Yin Jian-Ping

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a scheme to guide cold polar molecules by using a single charged wire half embanked in an insulating substrate and a homogeneous bias electric field,which is generated by a plate capacitor composed of two infinite parallel metal plates.The spatial distributions of the electrostatic field produced by the combination of the charged wire and the plate capacitor and the corresponding Stark potentials(including dipole forces) for metastable CO molecules are calculated,the relationships between the electric field and the parameters of our charged-wire layout are analysed.It also studies the influences of the insulator on the electric field distribution and the discharge effect.This study shows that the proposed scheme can be used to guide cold polar molecules in the weak-field-seeking states,and to form various molecule-optical elements,such as molecular funnel,molecular beam-splitters and molecule interferometer,even to construct a variety of integrated molecule-optical elements and their molecule chips.

  11. Micromagnetic study of magnetic domain structure and magnetization reversal in amorphous wires with circular anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancourt, I., E-mail: israelb@correo.unam.m [Departamento de Materiales Metalicos y Ceramicos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Hrkac, G. [Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Mappin St., Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Schrefl, T. [Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Mappin St., Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); St. Poelten University of Applied Sciences (Austria)

    2011-05-15

    In this work we present a detailed numerical investigation on the magnetic domain formation and magnetization reversal mechanism in sub-millimeter amorphous wires with negative magnetostriction by means of micromagnetic calculations. The formation of circular magnetic domains surrounding a multidomain axially oriented central nucleus was observed for the micromagnetic model representing the amorphous wire. The magnetization reversal explained by micromagnetic computations for the M-H curve is described in terms of a combined nucleation-propagation-rotational mechanism after the saturated state. Results are interpreted in terms of the effective magnetic anisotropy. - Research highlights: > Magnetic domain formation in small amorphous wires is studied by micromagnetic calculations. > Magnetization reversal in small amorphous wires is studied by micromagnetic calculations. > Formation of circular domains around an axially oriented central core was observed. > Magnetization reversal is described in terms of nucleation-propagation-rotational mechanisms. > Magnetic domains and reversal mechanism are consistent with experimental reports.

  12. THERMO-MECHANICALLY PROCESSED ROLLED WIRE FOR HIGH-STRENGTH ON-BOARD WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that at twisting of wire of diameter 1,83 mm, produced by direct wire drawing of thermomechanically processed rolled wire of diameter 5,5 mm of steel 90, metal stratification is completely eliminated at decrease of carbon, manganese and an additional alloying of chrome.

  13. Finite element analysis on the wire breaking rule of 1×7IWS steel wire rope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzheng Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking the wire rope of 1×7+IWS structure as the research object, the influences of the number of broken wires on the stress distribution under the same axial load were simulated and analysed, and it also explored the rule of wire breaking of steel wire ropes. Based on the SolidWorks software, the three-dimensional model of the wire rope was established. Importing the model into the ABAQUS, the finite element model of the steel wire rope was established. Firstly 5000 N axial tension was placed on the rope, the stress distribution was simulated and analysed, and the steel wire with the largest stress distribution was found out. Then one steel wire was truncated with the load unchanged, and the finite element simulation was carried out again, and repeated the steps several times. The results show that, with the increase of the number of broken wires, the Von-Mises stress of the wire rope increases sharply, and the stress distribution is concentrated on the rest of the unbroken wires, which brings great challenges to the safety of the wire rope.

  14. Blue Willow Story Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  17. Development of tin-plated regenerator material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M. Y.; Morie, T.; Tsuchiya, A.

    2017-02-01

    To improve the efficiency of a cryocooler, it is vital to improve the regenerator. In general, the heat capacity of materials decreases as temperature decreases. Thus, when temperature is below 50 K, lead spheres are often used as a regenerator material. However, the pressure drop through a sphere regenerator is larger than that through a screen regenerator. To overcome this dilemma, a new, low pressure loss tin-plated screen is proposed. A comparison test was performed with a two-stage GM cryocooler by replacing part of the first stage regenerator material, bronze screens with tin-plated screens. Compared to a regenerator filled with bronze screens, the cooling capacity of the first stage increased by about 14% at 40 K and 90% at 30 K with such tin-plated screens. The ratio of the wire diameter before and after the deposition was also optimized. An optimum cooling capacity of 53.5 W at 40 K was obtained at a diameter ratio of about 1.4. The detailed experimental results are reported in this paper.

  18. Design of Corrugated Plates for Optimal Fundamental Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel Alshabatat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates shifting the fundamental frequency of plate structures by corrugation. Creating corrugations significantly improves the flexural rigidities of plate and hence increases its natural frequencies. Two types of corrugations are investigated: sinusoidal and trapezoidal corrugations. The finite element method (FEM is used to model the corrugated plates and extract the natural frequencies and mode shapes. The effects of corrugation geometrical parameters on simply supported plate fundamental frequency are studied. To reduce the computation time, the corrugated plates are modeled as orthotropic flat plates with equivalent rigidities. To demonstrate the validity of modeling the corrugated plates as orthotropic flat plates in studying the free vibration characteristics, a comparison between the results of finite element model and equivalent orthotropic models is made. A correspondence between the results of orthotropic models and the FE models is observed. The optimal designs of sinusoidal and trapezoidal corrugated plates are obtained based on a genetic algorithm. The optimization results show that plate corrugations can efficiently maximize plate fundamental frequency. It is found that the trapezoidal corrugation can more efficiently enhance the fundamental frequency of simply supported plate than the sinusoidal corrugation.

  19. Characteristics of a hot-wire microsensor for time-dependent wall shear stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefdahl, L.; Chernoray, V. [Thermo and Fluid Dynamics, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296, Goeteborg (Sweden); Haasl, S.; Stemme, G. [Department of Signals, Sensors and Systems, Microsystem Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, 10044, Stockholm (Sweden); Sen, M. [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, 46556, Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Hot-wire microsensors for the purpose of measuring the instantaneous velocity gradient close to a wall were designed and their characteristics were evaluated. The sensors were made using MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) technology, which permits the fabrication of various microgeometrical configurations with high precision and good repeatability. The design is based on estimates of the heat rates from the sensor wire to the air, through the supports, and to the wall. Several hot-wire configurations were fabricated with wires positioned in the range 50-250 {mu}m from the wall. Requirements for the design and details of the fabrication methodology are outlined. The hot-wire microsensors were calibrated and tested in a flat-plate boundary layer with and without pressure gradients and were found to have good steady-state characteristics. In addition, the developed sensors were used for preliminary studies of transitional phenomena and turbulence, and the sensors were found to have a good time-dependent response as well. (orig.)

  20. 板式换热器可视化计算机辅助设计系统的研制%The Development of a Visualized Computer-aided Design System for Plate Heat Exchangers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董超俊

    2001-01-01

    板式换热器是一种结构紧凑型的高效换热器,其换热及流动特性非常复杂,作者在Windows 95平台上,综合利用Visual Basic、Autocad及Turbo C等软件开发了板式换热器可视化计算机辅助设计系统。利用该系统,使用者只需输入几个参数,系统便能自动完成从设计计算到绘图的全过程。系统界面友好,使用方便,实用性强。%Plate heat exchangers represent a kind of highly compact and efficient heat exchange device. As such heat exchangers feature an extremely complicated heat exchange and flow characteristics, there still lacks, to date, a unified formula for calculating their heat transfer and resistance. At present they are designed and calculated mainly by relying on manual work. However, a manual design and calculation process often suffers from both a high complexity and an extreme inaccuracy. With the comprehensive utilization of such a variety of software as Visual Basic, AutoCad and Turbo C, etc the author has on the platform of Windows 95 developed a visualized computer-aided design system. Through the use of that system a designer only needs to input some relevant parameters and the system will automatically complete the whole process starting from the design and calculation and ending with the completion of all design drawings. The system has a user-friendly interface and can be conveniently used in practical design work

  1. Tuning a Tetrahertz Wire Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qi; Williams, Benjamin S.; Kumar, Sushil; Reno, John L.; Hu, Qing

    2009-01-01

    Tunable terahertz lasers are desirable in applications in sensing and spectroscopy because many biochemical species have strong spectral fingerprints at terahertz frequencies. Conventionally, the frequency of a laser is tuned in a similar manner to a stringed musical instrument, in which pitch is varied by changing the length of the string (the longitudinal component of the wave vector) and/ or its tension (the refractive index). However, such methods are difficult to implement in terahertz semiconductor lasers because of their poor outcoupling efficiencies. Here, we demonstrate a novel tuning mechanism based on a unique 'wire laser' device for which the transverse dimension w is much much less than lambda. Placing a movable object close to the wire laser manipulates a large fraction of the waveguided mode propagating outside the cavity, thereby tuning its resonant frequency. Continuous single-mode redshift and blueshift tuning is demonstrated for the same device by using either a dielectric or metallic movable object. In combination, this enables a frequency tuning of approximately equal to 137 GHz (3.6%) from a single laser device at approximately equal to 3.8 THz.

  2. Bird on a (live) wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farr, M.

    2003-09-30

    Bird mortality as a result of contact with power lines is discussed. U. S. statistics are cited, according to which 174 million birds annually die as a result of contact with power lines, specifically when birds touch two phases of current at the same time. Raptors are particularly vulnerable to power-line electrocution due to their habit of perching on the highest vantage point available as they survey the ground for prey. Hydro lines located in agricultural areas, with bodies of water on one side and fields on the other, also obstruct flight of waterfowl as dusk and dawn when visibility is low. Various solutions designed to minimize the danger to birds are discussed. Among these are: changing the configuration of wires and cross arms to make them more visible to birds in flight and less tempting as perches, and adding simple wire markers such as flags, balloons, and coloured luminescent clips that flap and twirl in the wind. There is no evidence of any coordinated effort to deal with this problem in Ontario. However, a report is being prepared for submission to Environment Canada outlining risks to birds associated with the growing number of wind turbine power generators (negligible compared with power lines and communications towers), and offering suggestions on remedial measures. The Fatal Light Awareness Program (FLAP) also plans to lobby the Canadian Wildlife Service to discuss the possibility of coordinating efforts to monitor, educate about and ultimately reduce this form of bird mortality.

  3. Modeling inelastic phonon scattering in atomic- and molecular-wire junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsson, Magnus; Frederiksen, Thomas; Brandbyge, Mads

    2005-01-01

    Computationally inexpensive approximations describing electron-phonon scattering in molecular-scale conductors are derived from the nonequilibrium Green's function method. The accuracy is demonstrated with a first-principles calculation on an atomic gold wire. Quantitative agreement between...... the full nonequilibrium Green's function calculation and the newly derived expressions is obtained while simplifying the computational burden by several orders of magnitude. In addition, analytical models provide intuitive understanding of the conductance including nonequilibrium heating and provide...... a convenient way of parameterizing the physics. This is exemplified by fitting the expressions to the experimentally observed conductances through both an atomic gold wire and a hydrogen molecule....

  4. Droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction, and rapid droplet thermocycling for simpler and faster PCR assay using wire-guided manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You David J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A computer numerical control (CNC apparatus was used to perform droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction, and rapid droplet thermocycling on a single superhydrophobic surface and a multi-chambered PCB heater. Droplets were manipulated using “wire-guided” method (a pipette tip was used in this study. This methodology can be easily adapted to existing commercial robotic pipetting system, while demonstrated added capabilities such as vibrational mixing, high-speed centrifuging of droplets, simple DNA extraction utilizing the hydrophobicity difference between the tip and the superhydrophobic surface, and rapid thermocycling with a moving droplet, all with wire-guided droplet manipulations on a superhydrophobic surface and a multi-chambered PCB heater (i.e., not on a 96-well plate. Serial dilutions were demonstrated for diluting sample matrix. Centrifuging was demonstrated by rotating a 10 μL droplet at 2300 round per minute, concentrating E. coli by more than 3-fold within 3 min. DNA extraction was demonstrated from E. coli sample utilizing the disposable pipette tip to cleverly attract the extracted DNA from the droplet residing on a superhydrophobic surface, which took less than 10 min. Following extraction, the 1500 bp sequence of Peptidase D from E. coli was amplified using rapid droplet thermocycling, which took 10 min for 30 cycles. The total assay time was 23 min, including droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction and rapid droplet thermocycling. Evaporation from of 10 μL droplets was not significant during these procedures, since the longest time exposure to air and the vibrations was less than 5 min (during DNA extraction. The results of these sequentially executed processes were analyzed using gel electrophoresis. Thus, this work demonstrates the adaptability of the system to replace many common laboratory tasks on a single platform (through re-programmability, in rapid succession (using droplets

  5. Thermoprocessing and wire drawing behaviour of ultra high strength steel wires

    OpenAIRE

    Bargujer, S.S.; Singh, Parvinder; Raizada, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    The thermo-processing of piano wire rods is carried out in the lead bath. This experimentation is carried out under industrial conditions. The investigation is done to examine the effect of austenitic time, lead bath time and wire diameter on mechanical properties of lead patented wire. The Taguchi technique is adopted for optimization of thermo-processing of hypereutectoid steel wires. The lead patented wire of diameter 7.00 mm is cold drawn in a sequence of conical converging dies. The best...

  6. REMEDY OF WIRE LAG IN WIRE ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING (WEDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. SINHA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available WEDM is extensively used these days for generating complex geometries with tight tolerances on difficult-tomachine materials. Therefore, demand for improvement in precision has been ever increasing. The main source of inaccuracy is wire-lag, the cause and effect of which is well-known. Research has been going on to overcome this drawback. So far, the techniques suggested for improvement in accuracy are, in general, based on monitoring the machining process at hardware-level, which is not only tedious but involves extra expenditure also. In the present paper, a software approach for improvement in accuracy is described, which does not require any additional investment on the machine, and still gives very good results.

  7. Topological transition in coated wire medium

    CERN Document Server

    Gorlach, Maxim A; Slobozhanyuk, Alexey P; Bogdanov, Andrey A; Belov, Pavel A

    2016-01-01

    We develop a theory of nonlocal homogenization for metamaterial consisting of parallel metallic wires with dielectric coating. It is demonstrated that manipulation of dielectric contrast between wire dielectric shell and host material results in switching of metamaterial dispersion regime from elliptic to the hyperbolic one, i.e. the topological transition takes place. We confirm our theoretical predictions by full-wave numerical simulations.

  8. Kirschner Wire Breakage during Removal Requiring Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yuen Wong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kirschner wires (K-wires are widely used for fixation of fractures and dislocations in the hand as they are readily available, reliable, and cost-effective. Complication rates of up to 18% have been reported. However, K-wire breakage during removal is rare. We present one such case illustrating a simple technique for retrieval. A 35-year-old male presented with a distal phalanx fracture of his right middle finger. This open fracture was treated with K-wire fixation. Postoperatively, he developed a pin site infection with associated finger swelling. The K-wire broke during removal with the proximal piece completely retained in his middle phalanx. To minimise risk of osteomyelitis, the K-wire was removed with a novel surgical technique. He had full return of hand function. Intraoperative K-wire breakage has a reported rate of 0.1%. In our case, there was no obvious cause of breakage and the patient denied postoperative trauma. On the other hand, pin site infections are much more common with reported rates of up to 7% in the hand or wrist. K-wire fixation is a simple method for bony stabilisation but can be a demanding procedure with complications often overlooked. It is important to be aware of the potential sequelae.

  9. Flywheel system using wire-wound rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiao, Edward Young; Bender, Donald Arthur; Means, Andrew E.; Snyder, Philip K.

    2016-06-07

    A flywheel is described having a rotor constructed of wire wound onto a central form. The wire is prestressed, thus mitigating stresses that occur during operation. In another aspect, the flywheel incorporates a low-loss motor using electrically non-conducting permanent magnets.

  10. WIRED magazine announces rave awards nominees

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    WIRED Magazine has anounced the nominees for its fourth annual WIRED Rave Awards, celebrating innovation and the individuals transforming commerce and culture. Jeffrey Hangst of the University of Aarhus has been nominated in the science category, for his work on the ATHENA Experiment, CERN (1/2 page).

  11. Hot-wire anemometer for spirography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakk, P; Liik, P; Kingisepp, P H

    1998-01-01

    The use of a constant temperature hot-wire anemometer flow sensor for spirography is reported. The construction, operating principles and calibration procedure of the apparatus are described, and temperature compensation method is discussed. Frequency response is studied. It is shown that this hot-wire flow transducer satisfies common demands with respect to accuracy, response time and temperature variations.

  12. Transcolonic Migration of Retained Epicardial Pacing Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Gonzales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporary epicardial pacing wires are associated with rare complications. Most of these occur in the chest. Even rarer are complications that occur within the abdomen. We report a case of migrating epicardial pacing wires entering the abdomen and penetrating the transverse colon found incidentally on colonoscopy in an asymptomatic patient.

  13. Pixelated neutron image plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapp, M.; Conrad, H.; von Seggern, H.

    2004-09-01

    Neutron image plates (NIPs) have found widespread application as neutron detectors for single-crystal and powder diffraction, small-angle scattering and tomography. After neutron exposure, the image plate can be read out by scanning with a laser. Commercially available NIPs consist of a powder mixture of BaFBr : Eu2+ and Gd2O3 dispersed in a polymer matrix and supported by a flexible polymer sheet. Since BaFBr : Eu2+ is an excellent x-ray storage phosphor, these NIPs are particularly sensitive to ggr-radiation, which is always present as a background radiation in neutron experiments. In this work we present results on NIPs consisting of KCl : Eu2+ and LiF that were fabricated into ceramic image plates in which the alkali halides act as a self-supporting matrix without the necessity for using a polymeric binder. An advantage of this type of NIP is the significantly reduced ggr-sensitivity. However, the much lower neutron absorption cross section of LiF compared with Gd2O3 demands a thicker image plate for obtaining comparable neutron absorption. The greater thickness of the NIP inevitably leads to a loss in spatial resolution of the image plate. However, this reduction in resolution can be restricted by a novel image plate concept in which a ceramic structure with square cells (referred to as a 'honeycomb') is embedded in the NIP, resulting in a pixelated image plate. In such a NIP the read-out light is confined to the particular illuminated pixel, decoupling the spatial resolution from the optical properties of the image plate material and morphology. In this work, a comparison of experimentally determined and simulated spatial resolutions of pixelated and unstructured image plates for a fixed read-out laser intensity is presented, as well as simulations of the properties of these NIPs at higher laser powers.

  14. Recent advances in theoretical and numerical studies of wire array Z-pinch in the IAPCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Ning, E-mail: ding-ning@iapcm.ac.cn; Zhang, Yang, E-mail: ding-ning@iapcm.ac.cn; Xiao, Delong, E-mail: ding-ning@iapcm.ac.cn; Wu, Jiming, E-mail: ding-ning@iapcm.ac.cn; Huang, Jun, E-mail: ding-ning@iapcm.ac.cn; Yin, Li, E-mail: ding-ning@iapcm.ac.cn; Sun, Shunkai, E-mail: ding-ning@iapcm.ac.cn; Xue, Chuang, E-mail: ding-ning@iapcm.ac.cn; Dai, Zihuan, E-mail: ding-ning@iapcm.ac.cn; Ning, Cheng, E-mail: ding-ning@iapcm.ac.cn; Shu, Xiaojian, E-mail: ding-ning@iapcm.ac.cn; Wang, Jianguo, E-mail: ding-ning@iapcm.ac.cn; Li, Hua, E-mail: ding-ning@iapcm.ac.cn [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Fast Z-pinch has produced the most powerful X-ray radiation source in laboratory and also shows the possibility to drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Recent advances in wire-array Z-pinch researches at the Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics are presented in this paper. A typical wire array Z-pinch process has three phases: wire plasma formation and ablation, implosion and the MRT instability development, stagnation and radiation. A mass injection model with azimuthal modulation coefficient is used to describe the wire initiation, and the dynamics of ablated plasmas of wire-array Z-pinches in (r, θ) geometry is numerically studied. In the implosion phase, a two-dimensional(r, z) three temperature radiation MHD code MARED has been developed to investigate the development of the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor(MRT) instability. We also analyze the implosion modes of nested wire-array and find that the inner wire-array is hardly affected before the impaction of the outer wire-array. While the plasma accelerated to high speed in the implosion stage stagnates on the axis, abundant x-ray radiation is produced. The energy spectrum of the radiation and the production mechanism are investigated. The computational x-ray pulse shows a reasonable agreement with the experimental result. We also suggest that using alloyed wire-arrays can increase multi-keV K-shell yield by decreasing the opacity of K-shell lines. In addition, we use a detailed circuit model to study the energy coupling between the generator and the Z-pinch implosion. Recently, we are concentrating on the problems of Z-pinch driven ICF, such as dynamic hohlraum and capsule implosions. Our numerical investigations on the interaction of wire-array Z-pinches on foam convertors show qualitative agreements with experimental results on the “Qiangguang I” facility. An integrated two-dimensional simulation of dynamic hohlraum driven capsule implosion provides us the physical insights of wire

  15. Recent advances in theoretical and numerical studies of wire array Z-pinch in the IAPCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Delong; Wu, Jiming; Huang, Jun; Yin, Li; Sun, Shunkai; Xue, Chuang; Dai, Zihuan; Ning, Cheng; Shu, Xiaojian; Wang, Jianguo; Li, Hua

    2014-12-01

    Fast Z-pinch has produced the most powerful X-ray radiation source in laboratory and also shows the possibility to drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Recent advances in wire-array Z-pinch researches at the Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics are presented in this paper. A typical wire array Z-pinch process has three phases: wire plasma formation and ablation, implosion and the MRT instability development, stagnation and radiation. A mass injection model with azimuthal modulation coefficient is used to describe the wire initiation, and the dynamics of ablated plasmas of wire-array Z-pinches in (r, θ) geometry is numerically studied. In the implosion phase, a two-dimensional(r, z) three temperature radiation MHD code MARED has been developed to investigate the development of the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor(MRT) instability. We also analyze the implosion modes of nested wire-array and find that the inner wire-array is hardly affected before the impaction of the outer wire-array. While the plasma accelerated to high speed in the implosion stage stagnates on the axis, abundant x-ray radiation is produced. The energy spectrum of the radiation and the production mechanism are investigated. The computational x-ray pulse shows a reasonable agreement with the experimental result. We also suggest that using alloyed wire-arrays can increase multi-keV K-shell yield by decreasing the opacity of K-shell lines. In addition, we use a detailed circuit model to study the energy coupling between the generator and the Z-pinch implosion. Recently, we are concentrating on the problems of Z-pinch driven ICF, such as dynamic hohlraum and capsule implosions. Our numerical investigations on the interaction of wire-array Z-pinches on foam convertors show qualitative agreements with experimental results on the "Qiangguang I" facility. An integrated two-dimensional simulation of dynamic hohlraum driven capsule implosion provides us the physical insights of wire

  16. Wire and Cable Cold Bending Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    One of the factors in assessing the applicability of wire or cable on the lunar surface is its flexibility under extreme cold conditions. Existing wire specifications did not address their mechanical behavior under cold, cryogenic temperature conditions. Therefore tests were performed to provide this information. To assess this characteristic 35 different insulated wire and cable pieces were cold soaked in liquid nitrogen. The segments were then subjected to bending and the force was recorded. Any failure of the insulation or jacketing was also documented for each sample tested. The bending force tests were performed at room temperature to provide a comparison to the change in force needed to bend the samples due to the low temperature conditions. The results from the bending tests were plotted and showed how various types of insulated wire and cable responded to bending under cold conditions. These results were then used to estimate the torque needed to unroll the wire under these low temperature conditions.

  17. Development and Manufacture of Bi-2223 Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shin-Ichi

    This chapter reviews Ag-sheathed (Bi, Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223) wire made by the powder-in-tube technique (PIT). The currently leading high-temperature superconductors (HTS) wire technology for practical use is Bi-2223 wire, made by the controlled over-pressure (CT-OP) sintering process. The CT-OP process uses pressures up to 30MPa during heat treatment. The technique densifies the Bi-2223 filaments and enhances the uniformity of the electrical and mechanical performance in the Bi-2223 wire. Today, Bi-2223 wires are used in most HTS applications, such as power cables, many kinds of magnets, and motors for ship propulsion and electric vehicles.

  18. Plate removal following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mhairi; Langford, Richard Julian; Bhanji, Adam; Farr, David

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the removal rates of orthognathic plates used during orthognathic surgery at James Cook University Hospital and describe the reasons for plate removal. 202 consecutive orthognathic cases were identified between July 2004 and July 2012. Demographics and procedure details were collected for these patients. Patients from this group who returned to theatre for plate removal between July 2004 and November 2012 were identified and their notes were analysed for data including reason for plate removal, age, smoking status, sex and time to plate removal. 3.2% of plates were removed with proportionally more plates removed from the mandible than the maxilla. 10.4% of patients required removal of one or more plate. Most plates were removed within the first post-operative year. The commonest reasons for plate removal were plate exposure and infection. The plate removal rates in our study are comparable to those seen in the literature.

  19. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  20. Plating in Top Agar

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    1. Warm plates to room temperature before use. Cold plates causes the top agar to solidify irregularly. DO not warm plates to 37° as the top agar will take forever to solidify. - Prepare top agar as the appropriate liquid medium with 0.7% agar. Keeping 100 mL bottles is convenient. For phages, use λ top agar, which is less rich and yields bigger plaques. - Melt top agar in the microwave completely. Allow the agar to boil after liquification; incompletely melted agar looks liquid, but is...

  1. Outcome Analysis of Locking Plate Fixation in Proximal Humerus Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Abhishek; Gaur, Sanjiv

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Proximal humerus fractures account for approximately 5% of all fractures. Stable minimally displaced fractures can be treated nonoperatively but the management of displaced fractures remain controversial with various modalities of treatment available. Locking plates provide stable fixation and enable early postoperative mobilization specially in osteoporotic proximal humerus fracture. Aim To evaluate the functional outcome of locking plate fixation and to compare the results of two approaches used for fixation. Materials and Methods This prospective study was conducted at a tertiary level hospital between September 2011 to December 2013. PHILOS plates were used for internal fixation of displaced proximal humerus fractures Neer’s type 2 part, 3 part and 4 part fractures on 26 patients (M/F ratio 1.36:1; mean age 46 years). According to Neer classification, 5,12 and 9 patients had displaced 2, 3 and 4 part fractures respectively. Deltopectoral and deltoid splitting approaches were used for fixation on 13 patients each. Functional outcome was assessed using Constant-Murley shoulder score. Graphpad software version 6.0 was used with Chi-square test and Fisher-exact test are used to compare data. The p-value .05) and all fractures were united. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that locking plate fixation gives good functional outcomes in treatment of proximal humerus fractures. There was no significant difference in the two approaches used for exposure. Our results are comparable to various studies conducted by other authors which states that locking plates provide better functional and radiological outcomes as compared to other fixation methods like Tension band wiring, percutaneous K-wire fixation, non-locking plates, intramedullary nails. PMID:27656515

  2. Use of Computer Vision to Detect Tangles in Tangled Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Parmar, Paritosh

    2014-01-01

    Untangling of structures like ropes and wires by autonomous robots can be useful in areas such as personal robotics, industries and electrical wiring & repairing by robots. This problem can be tackled by using computer vision system in robot. This paper proposes a computer vision based method for analyzing visual data acquired from camera for perceiving the overlap of wires, ropes, hoses i.e. detecting tangles. Information obtained after processing image according to the proposed method compr...

  3. Wavenumber resonance in nonlinear wave interactions in the wake of a flat plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Jose Benigno

    The spatial traits of nonlinear wave interactions in transitioning flow in the symmetric wake of a flat plate were studied. The study combines the use of hot wire anemometry and digital analysis techniques for extracting frequency and wavenumber information from velocity fluctuation time series measurements. The linear spatial coherence was computed from velocity fluctuation data in order to determine if the frequency modes behave as waves, that is, spatially coherent fluctuations with a well defined dispersion relation. A new method was used to compute the mode triad wavenumber mismatch. The results were used to determine to what extent wavenumber resonance is present among quadratically interacting frequency resonant modes, as predicted by resonant wave interaction theory. The results show that, in the early part of the transition, instability modes interact nonlinearity to generate spatially coherent modes at frequencies above the instability range. Quadratically interacting, frequency resonant mode triads involve the transfer of energy to the harmonics of the fundamental instability exhibit good wavenumber resonance, as predicted by resonant wave interaction theory.

  4. Phonon spectra in quantum wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Dušan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Green's function method, adjusted to bound crystalline structures, was applied to obtain the phonon dispersion law in quantum wires. The condition of the existence of small mechanical atom movements defining phonon spectra can be found by solving the secular equation. This problem was presented graphically for different boundary parameters. The presence of boundaries, as well as the change of boundary parameters, leads to the appearance of new properties of the layered structure. The most important feature is that, beside the allowed energy zones (which are continuous as in the bulk structure, zones of forbidden states appear. Different values of the boundary parameters lead to the appearance of lower and upper energy gaps, or dispersion branches spreading out of the bulk energy zone. The spectra of phonons in corresponding unbound structures were correlated to those in bound structures.

  5. Congruency of scapula locking plates: implications for implant design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Andrew Y; DiStefano, James G; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Buckley, Jenni M; Montgomery, William H; Grimsrud, Chris D

    2012-04-01

    We conducted a study to evaluate the congruency of fit of current scapular plate designs. Three-dimensional image-processing and -analysis software, and computed tomography scans of 12 cadaveric scapulae were used to generate 3 measurements: mean distance from plate to bone, maximum distance, and percentage of plate surface within 2 mm of bone. These measurements were used to quantify congruency. The scapular spine plate had the most congruent fit in all 3 measured variables. The lateral border and glenoid plates performed statistically as well as the scapular spine plate in at least 1 of the measured variables. The medial border plate had the least optimal measurements in all 3 variables. With locking-plate technology used in a wide variety of anatomical locations, the locking scapula plate system can allow for a fixed-angle construct in this region. Our study results showed that the scapular spine, glenoid, and lateral border plates are adequate in terms of congruency. However, design improvements may be necessary for the medial border plate. In addition, we describe a novel method for quantifying hardware congruency, a method that can be applied to any anatomical location.

  6. Elastic buckling strength of corroded steel plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ahmad Rahbar-Ranji

    2013-02-01

    Corrosion makes structures more vulnerable to buckling and yielding failures. It is common practice to assume a uniform thickness reduction for general corrosion. To estimate the remaining strength of corroded structures, typically a much higher level of accuracy is required, since the actual corroded structures have irregular surfaces. Elastic buckling of simply supported rectangular corroded plates are studied with one- and both-sided irregular surfaces. Eigenvalue analysis by using finite element method (FEM) is employed for computing Euler stress. The influence of various geometric and corrosion characteristics are investigated and it is found that the aspect ratio of the plate, the average thickness diminution, the standard deviation of thickness diminution and the amount of corrosion loss have influence on the reduction of buckling strength of the corroded plates. Buckling strength of one- and both-sided corroded plates are the same. In plates with low value of aspect ratio, reduction of buckling strength is negligible. Reduction of buckling strength is more prominent in plates with higher aspect ratio. Reduction of buckling strength is very sensitive to the amount of corrosion loss; the higher the amount of corrosion loss, the more reduction of buckling strength. Reduction of buckling strength is less sensitive to the standard deviation of thickness diminution.

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger portions of non-starchy vegetables and a ...

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... 4/Box) Taking the guesswork out of portion control has never been easier. It can be a ...

  9. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  10. MyPlate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our stage of life, situations, preferences, access to food, culture, traditions, and the personal decisions we make over time. All your food and beverage choices count. MyPlate offers ideas and ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... you have an easy portion control solution that works. Last Reviewed: October 8, 2015 Last Edited: September ...

  12. Designing Assemblies Of Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, F. W.; Kennedy, D.; Butler, R.; Aston, G.; Anderson, M. S.

    1992-01-01

    VICONOPT calculates vibrations and instabilities of assemblies of prismatic plates. Designed for efficient, accurate analysis of buckling and vibration, and for optimum design of panels of composite materials. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables ...

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning ... serving of dairy or both as your meal plan allows. Choose healthy fats in small amounts. For ...

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle ... manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ...

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ... been easier. It can be a challenge to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best- ...

  17. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic ... to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ...

  19. Large Deflections of Elastic Rectangular Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdolsky, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    It is known that elastic large deflections of thin plates are governed by von Karman nonlinear equations. The analytical solution of these equations in the general case is unfeasible. Samuel Levy, in 1942, showed that large deflections of the rectangular plate can be expressed as a double series of sine-shaped harmonics (deflection harmonics). However, this method gave no way of creating the computer algorithm of solving the problem. The stress function expression taken in the Levy's method must be revised to find the approach that takes into account of all possible products of deflection coefficients. The algorithm of solving the problem for the rectangular plate with an arbitrary aspect ratio under the action of the lateral distributed load is reported in this paper. The approximation of the plate deflection is taken in the form of double series proposed by Samuel Levy. However, the expression for the stress function is presented in the form that incorporates products of deflection coefficients in the explicit form in distinction to the Levy's expression. The number of harmonics in the deflection expression may be arbitrary. The algorithm provides composing the system of governing cubic equations, which includes the deflection coefficients in the explicit form. Solving the equation system is based on using the principle of minimum potential energy. A method of the gradient descent is applied to find the equilibrium state of the plate as the minimum point of the potential energy. A computer program is developed on the basis of the present algorithm. Numerical examples carried out for the plate model with 16 deflection harmonics illustrate the potentialities of the program. The results of solving the examples are presented in the graphical form for the plates with a different aspect ratio and may be used under designing thin-walled elements of airplane and ship structures.

  20. Origami - Folded Plate Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Buri, Hans Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates new methods of designing folded plate structures that can be built with cross-laminated timber panels. Folded plate structures are attractive to both architects and engineers for their structural, spatial, and plastic qualities. Thin surfaces can be stiffened by a series of folds, and thus not only cover space, but also act as load bearing elements. The variation of light and shadow along the folded faces emphasizes the plas...

  1. Fractal multifiber microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Lee M.; Feller, W. B.; Kenter, Almus T.; Chappell, Jon H.

    1992-01-01

    The construction and performance of microchannel plates (MCPs) made using fractal tiling mehtods are reviewed. MCPs with 40 mm active areas having near-perfect channel ordering were produced. These plates demonstrated electrical performance characteristics equivalent to conventionally constructed MCPs. These apparently are the first MCPs which have a sufficiently high degree of order to permit single channel addressability. Potential applications for these devices and the prospects for further development are discussed.

  2. Assessment of SFR Wire Wrap Simulation Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delchini, Marc-Olivier G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Popov, Emilian L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Pointer, William David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Swiler, Laura P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Predictive modeling and simulation of nuclear reactor performance and fuel are challenging due to the large number of coupled physical phenomena that must be addressed. Models that will be used for design or operational decisions must be analyzed for uncertainty to ascertain impacts to safety or performance. Rigorous, structured uncertainty analyses are performed by characterizing the model’s input uncertainties and then propagating the uncertainties through the model to estimate output uncertainty. This project is part of the ongoing effort to assess modeling uncertainty in Nek5000 simulations of flow configurations relevant to the advanced reactor applications of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program. Three geometries are under investigation in these preliminary assessments: a 3-D pipe, a 3-D 7-pin bundle, and a single pin from the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety (THORS) facility. Initial efforts have focused on gaining an understanding of Nek5000 modeling options and integrating Nek5000 with Dakota. These tasks are being accomplished by demonstrating the use of Dakota to assess parametric uncertainties in a simple pipe flow problem. This problem is used to optimize performance of the uncertainty quantification strategy and to estimate computational requirements for assessments of complex geometries. A sensitivity analysis to three turbulent models was conducted for a turbulent flow in a single wire wrapped pin (THOR) geometry. Section 2 briefly describes the software tools used in this study and provides appropriate references. Section 3 presents the coupling interface between Dakota and a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code (Nek5000 or STARCCM+), with details on the workflow, the scripts used for setting up the run, and the scripts used for post-processing the output files. In Section 4, the meshing methods used to generate the THORS and 7-pin bundle meshes are explained. Sections 5, 6 and 7 present numerical results

  3. Characteristics and Application of New Varieties of Copper Clad Aluminum Wire and Copper Clad Steel Wire%铜包铝线和铜包钢线新品种的特性及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪丽

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics,applications,product standards,and application technology of the secondarily developed new varieties of copper clad aluminum wire and copper clad steel wire are introduced,including copper clad aluminum enameled wire,tinned copper clad aluminum wire,tinned copper clad steel wire,silver plated copper clad steel wire,so as to provide cable manufacturers and electronic components manufacturers with better choices for cable and electronic materials.%介绍了铜包铝线和铜包钢线二次开发的新品种线材(包括铜包铝漆包线、镀锡铜包铝线、镀锡铜包钢线、镀银铜包钢线)的特性及其应用领域、产品标准和应用技术,以期为线缆厂家及电子元器件厂家提供更好的线缆材料和电子材料的选择.

  4. Experimental study of free abrasive wire sawing by using multi-strands wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Chunyan; Wang Jinsheng; Peng Wei; Jin Xin; Chen Shijie

    2013-01-01

    Grains in the slurry can be brought into cutting zone by steel wire with a certain speed to achieve the purpose of removing the workpiece material in the free abrasive wire sawing machining. Because its own of multi-strands characteristics,we use it to replace the steel wire to do slicing experiment. In this paper,multi-strands wire is made by seven metal wires and has many grooves on its surface. Compared with steel wire,it can carry more grains into cutting zone which is conducive to improving the slicing efficiency. We do some comparative slic-ing experiments by applying multi-strands wire (ϕ0.25 mm) and steel wire (ϕ0.25 mm) to cut optical glass (K9). The results show that slicing efficiency and the surface roughness of the workpiece sliced by using multi-strands wire are better than that by using steel wire,but the kerf width of the former is wider than that of the latter in the same experimental conditions.

  5. Nonlinear analysis of flexible plates lying on elastic foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trushin Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes numerical procedures for analysis of flexible rectangular plates lying on elastic foundation. Computing models are based on the theory of plates with account of transverse shear deformations. The finite difference energy method of discretization is used for reducing the initial continuum problem to finite dimensional problem. Solution procedures for nonlinear problem are based on Newton-Raphson method. This theory of plates and numerical methods have been used for investigation of nonlinear behavior of flexible plates on elastic foundation with different properties.

  6. Vibration and Buckling of Web Plate of the Plate Girder

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 和雄; 呉, 明強; 中澤, 聡志; 筑紫, 宏之

    1998-01-01

    The vibration and buckling of the web of the plate girder are studied in this paper. The small deflection theory of the thin plate is used. The finite strip method is employed to solve vibration and buckling of the plate girder. Natural frequenies of buckling properties are shown for various plate girder bridges.

  7. PERCUTANEOUS REDUCTION WITH K-WIRES OF A BIMALLEOLAR SALTER HARRIS III: A CASE REPORT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Meccariello

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A Salt Harris Fracture is a fracture involving the epiphyseal plate or growth plate of a bone. It is a common injury found in children; occurring in 15% of childhood long bone fractures. Injuries of the ankle joint are common. In our case report, we describe the case of a thirteen-year-old patient under our treatment at the Orthopaedic emergency depart-ment of Val D’Elsa Hospital (in Campostaggia Poggibonsi, Siena, who presented with a bimalleolar Salter Harris III fracture after a sport trauma. We reduced the bimalleolar Salter Harris III with percutaneous K-wires instead of an open access and two screws (one on the top and another on the bottom of the epiphyseal plate of distal tibia. We per-formed it according to a revision of scientific literature. The result was a satisfactory re-duction of the bimalleolar Salter Harris III.

  8. Design of Robot Wire Feed System for Hot Wire TIG Welding%热丝TIG焊机器人送丝系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芙; 曲治瑾; 柏久阳; 张文明

    2012-01-01

    The wire feed system is the important part of TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding robot. However, the traditional wire feed system is almost electrical control, besides, positioning accuracy is low and cannot realize the digital control. In order to meet the application of the TIG welding robot, a hot wire TIG welding robot of wire feed system based on PIC(Peripheral Interface Controller) was designed. The regulation of wire feed speed at 2 m/min-4 m/min was achieved and free communication system was realized by host computer.%送丝系统是TIG焊机器人系统的重要组成部分.传统送丝系统多采用电气控制,定位精度低且难以实现数字化控制.为了配合TIG焊机器人的应用,本文设计了一款基于PIC单片机的热丝TIG焊机器人送丝系统.实现了送丝速度在0.4~4 m/min范围可调,同时实现了送丝控制系统与机器人的自由通讯并能接受机器人的管理.

  9. Space Station Freedom secondary power wiring requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, C. R.

    1994-09-01

    Secondary power is produced by DDCU's (direct current to direct current converter units) and routed to and through secondary power distribution assemblies (SPDA's) to loads or tertiary distribution assemblies. This presentation outlines requirements of Space Station Freedom (SSF) EEE (electrical, electronic, and electromechanical) parts wire and the approved electrical wire and cable. The SSF PDRD (Program Definition and Requirements Document) language problems and resolution are reviewed. The cable routing to and from the SPDA's is presented as diagrams and the wire recommendations and characteristics are given.

  10. In vitro toxicity evaluation of silver soldering, electrical resistance, and laser welding of orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestini, Silvia; Notarantonio, Laura; Cerboni, Barbara; Alessandrini, Carlo; Fimiani, Michele; Nannelli, Pietro; Pelagalli, Antonio; Giorgetti, Roberto

    2006-12-01

    The long-term effects of orthodontic appliances in the oral environment and the subsequent leaching of metals are relatively unknown. A method for determining the effects of various types of soldering and welding, both of which in turn could lead to leaching of metal ions, on the growth of osteoblasts, fibroblasts, and oral keratinocytes in vitro, is proposed. The effects of cell behaviour of metal wires on osteoblast differentiation, expressed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity; on fibroblast proliferation, assayed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulphophenil)-2H-tetrazolium-phenazine ethosulphate method; and on keratinocyte viability and migration on the wires, observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), were tested. Two types of commercially available wires normally used for orthodontic appliances, with a similar chemical composition (iron, carbon, silicon, chromium, molybdenum, phosphorus, sulphur, vanadium, and nitrogen) but differing in nickel and manganese content, were examined, as well as the joints obtained by electrical resistance welding, traditional soldering, and laser welding. Nickel and chromium, known as possible toxic metals, were also examined using pure nickel- and chromium-plated titanium wires. Segments of each wire, cut into different lengths, were added to each well in which the cells were grown to confluence. The high nickel and chromium content of orthodontic wires damaged both osteoblasts and fibroblasts, but did not affect keratinocytes. Chromium strongly affected fibroblast growth. The joint produced by electrical resistance welding was well tolerated by both osteoblasts and fibroblasts, whereas traditional soldering caused a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in both osteoblast ALP activity and fibroblast viability, and prevented the growth of keratinocytes in vitro. Laser welding was the only joining process well tolerated by all tested cells.

  11. Effect of quasi-hydrostatical radial pressure on Ic of Nb3Sn wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondonico, G.; Seeber, B.; Ferreira, A.; Bordini, B.; Oberli, L.; Bottura, L.; Ballarino, A.; Flükiger, R.; Senatore, C.

    2012-11-01

    High-performance Nb3Sn conductors are intended to be used in large-scale magnets like the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and in the upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Due to the occurrence of high electromagnetic forces, a detailed knowledge of the response of the critical current to the three-dimensional mechanical loads acting on the wires inside the cables is required. A detailed analysis of transverse stress effects on the critical current for powder-in-tube and bronze route Nb3Sn wires is presented. In an earlier publication, we have described the effect of transverse stress exerted on a Nb3Sn wire by means of two parallel plates. In the present paper, we analyse the effect of transverse stress exerted simultaneously by four walls on a wire being confined in a U-shaped groove. In order to get a more realistic picture of the situation of wires embedded in a Rutherford cable, the compression by four walls was also performed after impregnating the wire with epoxy in the same U-shaped groove. The result is very different from the case of pressing by means of two walls: the effect of pressure on Ic is now strongly reduced, which is attributed to the almost hydrostatic pressure in the U-shaped groove. This is further confirmed by the comparison between the effects of axial and transverse loads on the upper critical field and the pinning force. The present data are also compared against the effects of mechanical load on the critical current of cables in large-scale magnets.

  12. Lightning Surge Analysis Including Diagonal Wires Based on the FDTD Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Iki, Hiroyuki

    This paper presents an arbitrary diagonal wire on an rectangular surface composing a cubic cell in an electromagnetic analysis based on the orthogonal FDTD (Finite-Difference Time-Domain) Algorithm. One of the numerical electromagnetic analyzing algorithms is the FDTD method based on Maxwell’s equation. The basic FDTD method divides the analyzed space into cubic cells and directly calculates the electrical and magnetic fields of the cells by discretizing the Maxwell’s equation of electromagnetic fields, where the derivatives with respect to time and space are replaced by a numerical difference. The development of computer performance brings about an actual execution of the FDTD method on a usual personal computer recently. In dealing with a diagonal and curved wire, the boundaries of which do not coincide with the finite-difference grid lines, the staircase approximation has been commonly used. However, the approximation causes the large error in a resonant frequency and a propagation time of a system including the diagonal or curved wire. The proposed method can express a diagonal and curved wires on a rectangular surface composing a cubic cell by transforming the general integral form of Maxwell’s equation to the different integral form around the wires. This proposed method is also useful to calculate surge propagation on an arbitrary three-dimensional skeleton structure including a diagonal or curved grid such as a tower model and so on.

  13. Transient Response of Thin Wire above a Layered Half-Space Using TDIE/FDTD Hybrid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The TDIE/FDTD hybrid method is applied to calculate the transient responses of thin wire above a lossy layered half-space. The time-domain reflection of the layered half space is computed by one-dimensional modified FDTD method. Then, transient response of thin wire induced by two excitation sources (the incident wave and reflected wave is calculated by TDIE method. Finally numerical results are given to illustrate the feasibility and high efficiency of the presented scheme.

  14. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  15. Investigation on the communication network of long wire transmitting in remote welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Lijun; Zhang Guangjun; Wu Lin

    2006-01-01

    According to the characteristics of remote welding, including multiple parameters, real-time, and communication reliability of long wire transmitting, a distributing computer control scheme is adopted. A serial communication network between the master and the slavery computers is constructed. A synchro-control network among slavery computers is designed.Uniform message format and communication protocols are made. Considering intensive high-frequency noises at the welding zone, a quadruple check mode, including data sum check, parameter type check, welding parameters check and Exclusive OR ( XOR ) check, is adopted to assure the reliability of communication among multiple computers. Based on disturbing circuit,common circuit and sensitive circuit, the measures are brought forward to ensure the stabilization of communication network of remote arc welding by analyzing the wiring principle of anti-high-frequency interference of system bus, signal wires and shielding twisted-pair(STP) wires. The results provide the theoretical and practical references for the manufacture of remote welding robot and the quality of remote welding.

  16. An Experimental Study on Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Flexural Members using Steel Wire Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Saadi Hamza Salim Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges and contemporary research in the field of structural engineering is strengthening of existing structural elements using readily available materials in the market. Several investigations were conducted on strengthening of various structural components using traditional and advanced materials. Many researchers tried to enhance the reinforced concrete (RC beams strength using steel plate, Glass and Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (GFRP & CFRP. For the reason that high weight to the strength ratio and compatibility in strength between FRP composites and steel bars, steel plates and GFRP and CFRP composites are not used for strengthening works practically. Hence, in this present work the suitability of using wire mesh for the purpose of strengthening the RC flexural members is studied by conducting experimental works. New technique of strengthening system using wire mesh with a view to improve sectional properties and subsequently flexural strength of RC beams is adopted in this work. The results for experimental and theoretical analysis were compared and found that good correlation exists between them. The experimental results indicate that RC beams strengthened with steel wire mesh are easy technique for strengthening of existing flexural members.

  17. 7 CFR 1755.506 - Aerial wire services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...), Specifications and Drawings for Service Installations at Customer Access Locations. The wire used for aerial... service wire spans. (d) Aerial service wires shall be run in accordance with the construction drawings... aerial service wires at poles shall be as illustrated in construction drawings 503-2 and 504 contained in...

  18. Diamagnetism in wire medium metamaterials: theory and experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Yagupov, Ilya; Kosulnikov, Sergei; Hasan, Mehedi; Iorsh, Ivan; Belov, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Strong diamagnetic response of wire medium with finite wire radius is reported. Contrary to the previous works where it was assumed that the wire medium exhibits only the electric response, we show that the non-zero magnetic susceptibility has to be taken into account for proper effective medium description of the wire medium. Analytical and numerical results are supported by the experimental measurements.

  19. Modelling aluminium wire bond reliability in high power OMP devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kregting, R.; Yuan, C.A.; Xiao, A.; Bruijn, F. de

    2011-01-01

    In a RF power application such as the OMP, the wires are subjected to high current (because of the high power) and high temperature (because of the heat from IC and joule-heating from the wire itself). Moreover, the wire shape is essential to the RF performance. Hence, the aluminium wire is preferre

  20. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in service to subscribers to the extent possible. (b) Unit-by-unit disposition of home run wiring: (1... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of home run wiring. 76.804 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.804 Disposition of home run wiring....

  1. 30 CFR 56.12053 - Circuits powered from trolley wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Circuits powered from trolley wires. 56.12053... § 56.12053 Circuits powered from trolley wires. Ground wires for lighting circuits powered from trolley wires shall be connected securely to the ground-return circuit....

  2. 30 CFR 57.12053 - Circuits powered from trolley wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Circuits powered from trolley wires. 57.12053... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12053 Circuits powered from trolley wires. Ground wires for lighting circuits powered from trolley wires shall be connected securely to the ground return circuit. Surface Only...

  3. Orifice plate cavitation mechanism and its influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-zheng AI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The orifice plate energy dissipater is an economic and highly efficient dissipater. However, there is a risk of cavitaion around the orifice plate flow. In order to provide references for engineering practice, we examined the cavitation mechanism around the orifice plate and its influencing factors by utilizing mathematical analysis methods to analyze the flow conditions around the orifice plate in view of gas bubble dynamics. Through the research presented in this paper, the following can be observed: The critical radius and the critical pressure of the gas nucleus in orifice plate flow increase with its initial state parameter ; the development speed of bubbles stabilizes at a certain value after experiencing a peak value and a small valley value; and the orifice plate cavitation is closely related to the distribution of the gas nucleus in flow. For computing the orifice plate cavitation number, we ought to take into account the effects of pressure fluctuation. The development time of the gas nucleus from the initial radius to the critical radius is about 10-7-10-5 s; therefore, the gas nucleus has sufficient time to develop into bubbles in the negative half-cycle of flow fluctuation. The orifice critical cavitation number is closely related to the orifice plate size, and especially closely related with the ratio of the orifice plate radius to the tunnel radius. The approximate formula for the critical cavitation number of the square orifice plate that only considers the main influencing factor was obtained by model experiments.

  4. Effect of plate roughness on the field near RPC plates

    CERN Document Server

    Jash, Abhik; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2016-01-01

    The inner surfaces of the electrodes encompassing the gas volume of a Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) have been found to exhibit asperities with three kind of features grossly. The desired uniform electric field within the gas volume of RPC is expected to be affected due to the presence of these asperities, which will eventually affect the final response from the detector. In this work, an attempt has been made to model the highly complex roughness of the electrode surfaces and compute its effect on the electrostatic field within RPC gas chamber. The calculations have been performed numerically using Finite Element Method (FEM) and Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the two methods have been compared in this context.

  5. Effect of plasma actuator and splitter plate on drag coefficient of a circular cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbıyık Hürrem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental study on flow control around a circular cylinder with splitter plate and plasma actuator is investigated. The study is performed in wind tunnel for Reynolds numbers at 4000 and 8000. The wake region of circular cylinder with a splitter plate is analyzed at different angles between 0 and 180 degrees. In this the study, not only plasma actuators are activated but also splitter plate is placed behind the cylinder. A couple electrodes are mounted on circular cylinder at ±90 degrees. Also, flow visualization is achieved by using smoke wire method. Drag coefficient of the circular cylinder with splitter plate and the plasma actuator are obtained for different angles and compared with the plain circular cylinder. While attack angle is 0 degree, drag coefficient is decreased about 20% by using the splitter plate behind the circular cylinder. However, when the plasma actuators are activated, the improvement of the drag reduction is measured to be 50%.

  6. Tunable permeability of magnetic wires at microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panina, L. V.; Makhnovskiy, D. P.; Morchenko, A. T.; Kostishin, V. G.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the analysis into microwave magnetic properties of magnetic microwires and their composites in the context of applications in wireless sensors and tunable microwave materials. It is demonstrated that the intrinsic permeability of wires has a wide frequency dispersion with relatively large values in the GHz band. In the case of a specific magnetic anisotropy this results in a tunable microwave impedance which could be used for distributed wireless sensing networks in functional composites. The other range of applications is related with developing the artificial magnetic dielectrics with large and tunable permeability. The composites with magnetic wires with a circumferential anisotropy have the effective permeability which differs substantially from unity for a relatively low concentration (less than 10%). This can make it possible to design the wire media with a negative and tunable index of refraction utilising natural magnetic properties of wires.

  7. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the requirements for grounding or... Installation and Maintenance of Electric Supply and Communication Lines” (also referred to as National...

  8. Inelastic Electron Transport in Monoatomic Wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin; CHEN Jing-Zhe; CHEN Qing; REN Shang-Fen; HAN Ru-Shan

    2007-01-01

    @@ Based on non-equilibrium Green's function theory and density functional theory, we investigate the vibrational property and electron-phonon (el-ph) interaction induced inelastic scattering in electron transport through metallic monoatomic wires.

  9. Wire Bonder: Kulicke and Soffa Model 4526

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Name: Wire BonderNeeds Description.Scientific Opportunities / Applications:Wedge bonderSemi-automatic and manual modesIndependent Z-axis control,...

  10. Beam Profiling through Wire Chambing Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, W

    2013-01-01

    This note describes the calibration of the Delay Wire Chambers (DWCs) used during test runs of CALICE’s Tungsten Digital Hadron Calorimeter (W-DHCAL) prototype in CERN’s SPS beam line (10 – 300 GeV).

  11. Wire core reactor for nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, Richard B.; Brengle, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    Studies have been performed of a compact high-performance nuclear rocket reactor that incorporates a tungsten alloy wire fuel element. This reactor, termed the wire core reactor, can deliver a specific impulse of 1,000 s using an expander cycle and a nozzle expansion ratio of 500 to 1. The core is constructed of layers of 0.8-mm-dia fueled tungsten wires wound over alternate layers of spacer wires, which forms a rugged annular lattice. Hydrogen flow in the core is annular, flowing from inside to outside. In addition to the concepts compact size and good heat transfer, the core has excellent power-flow matching features and can resist vibration and thermal stresses during star-up and shutdown.

  12. Highly stretchable wrinkled gold thin film wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joshua; Park, Sun-Jun; Nguyen, Thao; Chu, Michael; Pegan, Jonathan D.; Khine, Michelle

    2016-02-01

    With the growing prominence of wearable electronic technology, there is a need to improve the mechanical reliability of electronics for more demanding applications. Conductive wires represent a vital component present in all electronics. Unlike traditional planar and rigid electronics, these new wearable electrical components must conform to curvilinear surfaces, stretch with the body, and remain unobtrusive and low profile. In this paper, the piezoresistive response of shrink induced wrinkled gold thin films under strain demonstrates robust conductive performance in excess of 200% strain. Importantly, the wrinkled metallic thin films displayed negligible change in resistance of up to 100% strain. The wrinkled metallic wires exhibited consistent performance after repetitive strain. Importantly, these wrinkled thin films are inexpensive to fabricate and are compatible with roll to roll manufacturing processes. We propose that these wrinkled metal thin film wires are an attractive alternative to conventional wires for wearable applications.

  13. Angular response of hot wire probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Mare, L.; Jelly, T. O.; Day, I. J.

    2017-03-01

    A new equation for the convective heat loss from the sensor of a hot-wire probe is derived which accounts for both the potential and the viscous parts of the flow past the prongs. The convective heat loss from the sensor is related to the far-field velocity by an expression containing a term representing the potential flow around the prongs, and a term representing their viscous effect. This latter term is absent in the response equations available in the literature but is essential in representing some features of the observed response of miniature hot-wire probes. The response equation contains only four parameters but it can reproduce, with great accuracy, the behaviour of commonly used single-wire probes. The response equation simplifies the calibration the angular response of rotated slanted hot-wire probes: only standard King’s law parameters and a Reynolds-dependent drag coefficient need to be determined.

  14. Frequency Responses Of Hot-Wire Anemometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watmuff, Jonathan H.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes theoretical study of frequency response of constant-temperature hot-wire anemometer, with view toward increasing frequency response while maintaining stable operation in supersonic flow. Effects of various circuit parameters discussed.

  15. Highly stretchable wrinkled gold thin film wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joshua, E-mail: joshuk7@uci.edu; Park, Sun-Jun; Nguyen, Thao [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Chu, Michael [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Pegan, Jonathan D. [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Khine, Michelle, E-mail: mkhine@uci.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2016-02-08

    With the growing prominence of wearable electronic technology, there is a need to improve the mechanical reliability of electronics for more demanding applications. Conductive wires represent a vital component present in all electronics. Unlike traditional planar and rigid electronics, these new wearable electrical components must conform to curvilinear surfaces, stretch with the body, and remain unobtrusive and low profile. In this paper, the piezoresistive response of shrink induced wrinkled gold thin films under strain demonstrates robust conductive performance in excess of 200% strain. Importantly, the wrinkled metallic thin films displayed negligible change in resistance of up to 100% strain. The wrinkled metallic wires exhibited consistent performance after repetitive strain. Importantly, these wrinkled thin films are inexpensive to fabricate and are compatible with roll to roll manufacturing processes. We propose that these wrinkled metal thin film wires are an attractive alternative to conventional wires for wearable applications.

  16. Refractometric sensor based on silicon photonic wires

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    We have characterized the refractive index sensing properties of a compact refractometric sensor based on a grated silicon photonic wire. A resolution of $10^{-5}$ in refractive index has been measured.

  17. Plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahbar Ranji Ahmad

    2012-06-01

    Corrosion is one of the detrimental phenomena which reduces strength of structures. It is common practice to assume a uniform thickness reduction for general corrosion. Since the actual corroded plate has rough surfaces, to estimate the remaining strength of corroded structures, typically a much higher level of accuracy is required. The main aim of present work is to study plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates with irregular surfaces under tension. Non-linear finite element method by using computer code ANSYS was employed to determine plastic collapse load. By comparing the results with uniform thickness assumption, a reduction factor was proposed. It is found that by uniform thickness assumption, plastic collapse load of corroded plates are overestimated.

  18. Guided-mode resonant wave plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Robert; Shokooh-Saremi, Mehrdad; Johnson, Eric G

    2010-07-15

    We introduce half-wave and quarter-wave retarders based on the dispersion properties of guided-mode resonance elements. We design the wave plates using numerical electromagnetic models joined with the particle swarm optimization method. The wave plates operate in reflection. We provide computed results for reflectance and phase in the telecommunication spectral region near 1.55 microm wavelength. A surface-relief grating etched in glass and overcoated with silicon yields a half-wave plate with nearly equal amplitudes of the TE and TM polarization components and pi phase difference across a bandwidth exceeding 50 nm. Wider operational bandwidths are obtainable with more complex designs involving glass substrates and mixed silicon/hafnium dioxide resonant gratings. The results indicate a potential new approach to fashion optical retarders.

  19. Audio wiring guide how to wire the most popular audio and video connectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hechtman, John

    2012-01-01

    Whether you're a pro or an amateur, a musician or into multimedia, you can't afford to guess about audio wiring. The Audio Wiring Guide is a comprehensive, easy-to-use guide that explains exactly what you need to know. No matter the size of your wiring project or installation, this handy tool provides you with the essential information you need and the techniques to use it. Using The Audio Wiring Guide is like having an expert at your side. By following the clear, step-by-step directions, you can do professional-level work at a fraction of the cost.

  20. Coating of a steel wire with copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdovin, K. N.; Dubskii, G. A.; Nefed'ev, A. A.; Derevyanko, D. V.

    2016-03-01

    The process of coating of a steel wire with liquid copper at a high speed (>1 m/s) is considered. The results of long-term studies of copperizing under laboratory conditions and electron-microscopic investigation of the copper-steel adhesion are used to develop a mathematical model for coating of a steel wire with copper and to create a commercial setup to implement this process.

  1. Graphene wire medium: Homogenization and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we analyze numerically the optical properties of the graphene wire medium, which unit cell consists of a stripe of graphene embedded into dielectric. We propose a simple method for retrieval of the isofrequency contour and effective permittivity tensor. As an example...... of the graphene wire medium application we demonstrate a reconfigurable hyperlens for the terahertz subwavelength imaging capable of resolving two sources with separation λ0/5 in the far-field....

  2. A Magnetic Sensor with Amorphous Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng He

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a FeCoSiB amorphous wire and a coil wrapped around it, we have developed a sensitive magnetic sensor. When a 5 mm long amorphous wire with the diameter of 0.1 mm was used, the magnetic field noise spectrum of the sensor was about 30 pT/ÖHz above 30 Hz. To show the sensitivity and the spatial resolution, the magnetic field of a thousand Japanese yen was scanned with the magnetic sensor.

  3. Note: Improved wire-wound heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Ricardo G; Vitoux, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The authors have measured, at cryogenic temperature, the upper limit of the heat transfer in different configurations of a wire-wound heater. We found that the heat transferred has an upper limit of about 15 W/cm(2) and is dependent on the diameter of the wire. In this paper, we present three ways of increasing the heat transferred by this type of heater and its application in different continuous flow cryostats.

  4. Note: Improved wire-wound heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Ricardo G.; Vitoux, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The authors have measured, at cryogenic temperature, the upper limit of the heat transfer in different configurations of a wire-wound heater. We found that the heat transferred has an upper limit of about 15 W/cm2 and is dependent on the diameter of the wire. In this paper, we present three ways of increasing the heat transferred by this type of heater and its application in different continuous flow cryostats.

  5. Corrosion of surface defects in fine wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentler, R M; Greene, N D

    1975-11-01

    Defects were observed on the surfaces of various fine diameter wires commonly used in biomedical applications. These surface irregularities were viewed at high magnifications using a scanning electron microscope which has a much greater depth of field than normal light microscopy. Defects include scratches, pits, and crevices, which are the result of commercial wire drawing practices. Corrosion test results show that imperfections can serve as sites for localized corrosion attack which could lead to premature failures.

  6. Novel use of the "buddy"wire.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, A

    2008-12-29

    Summary: During interventional procedures the tortuosity of the vasculature hampers catheter stability. The buddy wire may be used to aid and maintain vascular access.We describe a case of acute subarachnoid haemorrhage secondary to dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery.We discuss the value of the buddy wire during balloon occlusion of the vertebral artery not as it is typically used, but to actually prevent the balloon repeatedly entering the posterior inferior cerebellar artery during the procedure.

  7. A Magnetic Sensor with Amorphous Wire

    OpenAIRE

    Dongfeng He; Mitsuharu Shiwa

    2014-01-01

    Using a FeCoSiB amorphous wire and a coil wrapped around it, we have developed a sensitive magnetic sensor. When a 5 mm long amorphous wire with the diameter of 0.1 mm was used, the magnetic field noise spectrum of the sensor was about 30 pT/ÖHz above 30 Hz. To show the sensitivity and the spatial resolution, the magnetic field of a thousand Japanese yen was scanned with the magnetic sensor.

  8. Anterior cervical plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonugunta V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anterior cervical instrumentation was initially used in cervical trauma, because of obvious benefits, indications for its use have been expanded over time to degenerative cases as well as tumor and infection of the cervical spine. Along with a threefold increase in incidence of cervical fusion surgery, implant designs have evolved over the last three decades. Observation of graft subsidence and phenomenon of stress shielding led to the development of the new generation dynamic anterior cervical plating systems. Anterior cervical plating does not conclusively improve clinical outcome of the patients, but certainly enhances the efficacy of autograft and allograft fusion and lessens the rate of pseudoarthrosis and kyphosis after multilevel discectomy and fusions. A review of biomechanics, surgical technique, indications, complications and results of various anterior cervical plating systems is presented here to enable clinicians to select the appropriate construct design.

  9. A modified parasternal wire technique for prevention and treatment of sternal dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajeev; Puri, Deepak; Panigrahi, Bishnu P; Virdi, Inderjeet S

    2004-01-01

    Sternal dehiscence with or without mediastinitis is a devastating complication of median sternotomy. Various techniques of sternotomy closure including 'figure of eight' wire sutures, nylon bands, and custom-made titanium-H plates have been described. We have devised and tested a new method of sternal closure to prevent sternal wound complications in patients at high risk of sternal dehiscence. 1336 patients underwent sternotomy for various cardiac operations from January 1996 to January 2002. Patients were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of 560 patients who did not have any high risk factors for sternal dehiscence and received a standard six wire closure. Group II comprised of patients at high risk of sternal dehiscence and were divided randomly into subgroup II A (n = 390), which included patients who had conventional sternal closure. While in subgroup II B (n = 386) patients had a modified parasternal wire closure according to the finalized protocol. Sternal instability was noticed in 1/560 and none had sternal dehiscence in group I, but 16/390 patients had sternal instability and 3/390 had sternal dehiscence in subgroup II A, whereas only one patient in high risk subgroup II B developed sternal dehiscence with mediastinitis and required a pectoral flap advancement for sternal closure. Use of modified parasternal wire closure in patients with a high risk of sternal dehiscence is a safe, effective, technically easily reproducible, as well as economical, method of preventing and treating sternal dehiscence.

  10. Plasma formation and dynamics in conical wire arrays in the Llampudken pulsed power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, C. Gonzalo, E-mail: gamunoz2f@uc.cl, E-mail: fveloso@fis.puc.cl; Valenzuela, Vicente, E-mail: gamunoz2f@uc.cl, E-mail: fveloso@fis.puc.cl; Veloso, Felipe, E-mail: gamunoz2f@uc.cl, E-mail: fveloso@fis.puc.cl; Favre, Mario, E-mail: gamunoz2f@uc.cl, E-mail: fveloso@fis.puc.cl; Wyndham, Edmund, E-mail: gamunoz2f@uc.cl, E-mail: fveloso@fis.puc.cl [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-12-15

    Plasma formation and dynamics from conical wire array is experimentally studied. Ablation from the wires is observed, forming plasma accumulation at the array axis and subsequently a jet outflow been expelled toward the top of the array. The arrays are composed by 16 equally spaced 25μ diameter tungsten wires. Their dimensions are 20mm height, with base diameters of 8mm and 16mm top diameter. The array loads are design to be overmassed, hence no complete ablation of the wires is observed during the current rise. The experiments have been carried out in the Llampudken. pulsed power generator (∼350kA in ∼350ns). Plasma dynamics is studied in both side-on and end-on directions. Laser probing (shadowgraphy) is achieved using a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (532nm, 12ps FWHM) captured by CCD cameras. Pinhole XUV imaging is captured using gated microchannel plate cameras with time resolution ∼5ns. Results on the jet velocity and the degree of collimation indicating the plausibility on the use of these jets as comparable to the study astrophysically produced jets are presented and discussed.

  11. Chemistry of radiation damage to wire chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J.

    1992-08-01

    Proportional counters are used to study aspects of radiation damage to wire chambers (wire aging). Principles of low-pressure, rf plasma chemistry are used to predict the plasma chemistry in electron avalanches (1 atm, dc). (1) Aging is studied in CF{sub 4}/iC{sub 4}H{sub 10} gas mixtures. Wire deposits are analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy. An apparent cathode aging process resulting in loss of gain rather than in a self-sustained current is observed in CF{sub 4}-rich gases. A four-part model considering plasma polymerization of the hydrocarbon, etching of wire deposits by CF{sub 4}, acceleration of deposition processes in strongly etching environments, and reactivity of the wire surface is developed to understand anode wire aging in CF{sub 4}/iC{sub 4}H{sub 10} gases. Practical guidelines suggested by the model are discussed. (2) Data are presented to suggest that trace amounts of Freons do not affect aging rates in either dimethyl ether or Ar/C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. Apparent loss of gain is explained by attachment of primary electrons to a continuously increasing concentration of Freon 11 (CCl{sub 3}F) in the counter gas. An increase in the concentration of Freon 11 in dimethyl ether is caused by a distillation process in the gas supply bottle and is a natural consequence of the unequal volatilities of the two compounds.

  12. Needleless electrospinning with twisted wire spinneret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Jani; Penttinen, Toni; Santala, Eero; Ritala, Mikko

    2015-01-16

    A needleless electrospinning setup named 'Needleless Twisted Wire Electrospinning' was developed. The polymer solution is electrospun from the surface of a twisted wire set to a high voltage and collected on a cylindrical collector around the wire. Multiple Taylor cones are simultaneously self-formed on the downward flowing solution. The system is robust and simple with no moving parts aside from the syringe pump used to transport the solution to the top of the wire. The structure and process parameters of the setup and the results on the preparation of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), hydroxyapatite (HA) and bioglass fibers with the setup are presented. PVP fiber sheets with areas of 40 × 120 cm(2) and masses up to 1.15 g were prepared. High production rates of 5.23 g h(-1) and 1.40 g h(-1) were achieved for PVP and HA respectively. The major limiting factor of the setup is drying of the polymer solution on the wire during the electrospinning process which will eventually force to interrupt the process for cleaning of the wire. Possible solutions to this problem and other ways to develop the setup are discussed. The presented system provides a simple way to increase the production rate and area of fiber sheet as compared with the conventional needle electrospinning.

  13. Subchannel Analysis of Wire Wrapped SCWR Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Shan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of wire wrap spacers in SCWR can reduce pressure drop and obtain better mixing capability. As a consequence, the required coolant pumping power is decreased and the coolant temperature profile inside the fuel bundle is flattened which will obviously decrease the peak cladding temperature. The distributed resistance model for wire wrap was developed and implemented in ATHAS subchannel analysis code. The HPLWR wire wrapped assembly was analyzed. The results show that: (1 the assembly with wire wrap can obtain a more uniform coolant temperature profile than the grid spaced assembly, which will result in a lower peak cladding temperature; (2 the pressure drop in a wire wrapped assembly is less than that in a grid spaced assembly, which can reduce the operating power of pump effectively; (3 the wire wrap pitch has significant effect on the flow in the assembly. Smaller Hwire/Drod will result in stronger cross flow a more uniform coolant temperature profile, and also a higher pressure drop.

  14. A Review of Temporary Cardiac Pacing Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This review aims to tabulate data from all available studies of temporary cardiac pacing wires. Particular aims were to determine the best route of venous access and find ways to reduce complications. The review set out to see if specialist doctors are better at inserting wires than non-specialist doctors. In addition, a contemporary study of wire insertion has been performed to compare modern practice in the UK with the previous studies.Methods: A literature search produced 15 studies available for inclusion. Over 3700 patients from 1973 to 2004 were included. The data was tabulated and attention was given to the route of venous access, the complication rates and whether a specialist or non-specialist doctor had inserted the wire. Results: Internal jugular veins are associated with lowest complication rates and ease of access. Antecubital fossa veins have the highest complication rates. Complication rates are high, especially infections and failure to secure access. Specialist doctors have lower rates of complications than non-specialist doctors. Elderly patient suffer the highest complication rate. Our study showed comparable results to the previous studies.Conclusions: Internal jugular veins are the preferred route for access followed by subclavian and femoral veins. The right side should be used when possible. The use of antibiotics and ultrasound probes must be contemplated for all wire insertions. Alternatives to wire insertion (especially in the elderly must be seriously considered. Setting up an on-call rota would provide experienced doctors to reduce complication rates.

  15. License plate detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, Michael; Klopovsky, Yuri; Silinskis, Normunds

    2013-12-01

    A novel algorithm for vehicle license plates localization is proposed. The algorithm is based on pixel intensity transition gradient analysis. Near to 2500 natural-scene gray-level vehicle images of different backgrounds and ambient illumination was tested. The best set of algorithm's parameters produces detection rate up to 0.94. Taking into account abnormal camera location during our tests and therefore geometrical distortion and troubles from trees this result could be considered as passable. Correlation between source data, such as license Plate dimensions and texture, cameras location and others, and parameters of algorithm were also defined.

  16. 75 FR 60480 - In the Matter of Certain Bulk Welding Wire Containers and Components Thereof and Welding Wire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Bulk Welding Wire Containers and Components Thereof and Welding Wire... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain bulk welding wire containers, components thereof, and welding wire by reason of infringement of certain claims of United States Patent...

  17. Casimir force between metal plate and dielectric plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中柱; 邵成刚; 罗俊

    1999-01-01

    The Casimir effect between metal plate and dielectric plate is discussed with 1+1-dimensional potential model without using cut-off method. Calculation shows that the Casimir force between metal plate and dielectric plate is determined not only by the potential V0, the dielectric thickness and the distance α between the metal plate and dielectric plate, but also by the dimension of the vessel. When α is far less than the dimension of the vessel, the Casimir force Fc∝α(-1); conversely Fc∝α-2. This result is significant for Casimir force experiment.

  18. The Analysis of the High Speed Wire Drawing Process of High Carbon Steel Wires Under Hydrodynamic Lubrication Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliga M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work the analysis of the wire drawing process in hydrodynamic dies has been done. The drawing process of φ5.5 mm wire rod to the final wire of φ1.7 mm was conducted in 12 passes, in drawing speed range of 5-25 m/s. For final wires of φ1.7 mm the investigation of topography of wire surface, the amount of lubricant on the wire surface and the pressure of lubricant in hydrodynamic dies were determined. Additionally, in the work selected mechanical properties of the wires have been estimated.

  19. The Analysis of the High Speed Wire Drawing Process of High Carbon Steel Wires Under Hydrodynamic Lubrication Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Suliga M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work the analysis of the wire drawing process in hydrodynamic dies has been done. The drawing process of φ5.5 mm wire rod to the final wire of φ1.7 mm was conducted in 12 passes, in drawing speed range of 5-25 m/s. For final wires of φ1.7 mm the investigation of topography of wire surface, the amount of lubricant on the wire surface and the pressure of lubricant in hydrodynamic dies were determined. Additionally, in the work selected mechanical properties of the wires have been estima...

  20. Flutter and Thermal Buckling Analysis for Composite Laminated Panel Embedded with Shape Memory Alloy Wires in Supersonic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonghui Shao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The flutter and thermal buckling behavior of laminated composite panels embedded with shape memory alloy (SMA wires are studied in this research. The classical plate theory and nonlinear von-Karman strain-displacement relation are employed to investigate the aeroelastic behavior of the smart laminated panel. The thermodynamic behaviors of SMA wires are simulated based on one-dimensional Brinson SMA model. The aerodynamic pressure on the panel is described by the nonlinear piston theory. Nonlinear governing partial differential equations of motion are derived for the panel via the Hamilton principle. The effects of ply angle of the composite panel, SMA layer location and orientation, SMA wires temperature, volume fraction and prestrain on the buckling, flutter boundary, and amplitude of limit cycle oscillation of the panel are analyzed in detail.