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Sample records for plated iron fibers

  1. Electroless nickel plating on optical fiber probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Huang; Zhoufeng Wang; Zhuomin Li; Wenli Deng

    2009-01-01

    As a component of near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM),optical fiber probe is an important factor influncing the equipment resolution.Electroless nickel plating is introduced to metallize the optical fiber probe.The optical fibers are etched by 40% HF with Turner etching method.Through pretreatment,the optical fiber probe is coated with Ni-P film by clectrolcss plating in a constant temperature water tank.Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXS) are carried out to charaeterizc the deposition on fiber probe.We have rcproducibly fabricated two kinds of fiber probes with a Ni-P fihn:aperture probe and apertureless probe.In addition,reductive particle transportation on the surface of fiber probe is proposed to explain the cause of these probes.

  2. Highly adhesive metal plating on Zylon fiber via iodine pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatema, Ummul Khair [Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 3-15-1 Tokida, Ueda, Nagano 386-8567 (Japan); Gotoh, Yasuo, E-mail: ygotohy@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 3-15-1 Tokida, Ueda, Nagano 386-8567 (Japan)

    2011-11-01

    Highly adhesive metal plating was performed on poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole) fiber named Zylon via iodine pretreatment followed by electroless plating. First, iodine components were selectively doped into the inner part of the fiber near the surface through iodine vapor exposure. The doped iodine was converted to palladium iodide particles by treating with palladium chloride solution. After the reduction of the iodide to metal palladium particles, electroless copper plating was conducted on the fiber. A uniform copper layer was deposited on the fiber surface and exhibited high durability in durability tests such as ultrasonic exposure, tape peeling-off, and corrosion in NaCl solution. This durability was attributed to the palladium particles formed at the fiber surface that served as an anchor for the plated layer as well as an electroless plating catalyst. The plated fibers also possessed electrical conductivity. Although the tensile strength of the Zylon fiber decreased from 5.8 to 4.9 GPa after undergoing the pretreatment and plating processes, the light shielding effect improved the light resistance of the plated fibers in terms of tensile properties. After 18 days of xenon lamp exposure, the plated fibers retained 74% of its initial strength, whereas that of untreated fibers decreased to 43%.

  3. A plating method for metal coating of fiber Bragg grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulong Li; Hua Zhang; Yan Feng; Gang Peng

    2009-01-01

    We present a method for metal coating optical fiber and in-fiber Bragg grating. The technology process which is based on electroless plating and electroplating method is described in detail. The fiber is firstly coated with a thin copper or nickel plate with electroless plating method. Then, a thicker nickel plate is coated on the surface of the conductive layer. Under the optimum conditions, the surfaces of chemical plating and electroplating coatings are all smooth and compact. There is no visible defect found in the cross-section. Using this two-step metallization method, the in-fiber Bragg grating can be well protected and its thermal sensitivity can be enhanced. After the metallization process, the fiber sensor is successfully embedded in the 42CrMo steel by brazing method. Thus a smart metal structure is achieved. The embedding results show that the plating method for metallization protection of in-fiber Bragg grating is effective.

  4. THE PARALLEL CONFOCAL DETECTING SYSTEM USING OPTICAL FIBER PLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective Focusing on the problem such as slow scanning speed, complex system design and low light efficiency, a new parallel confocal 3D profile detecting method based on optical fiber technology, which realizes whole-field confocal detecting, is proposed. Methods The optical fiber plate generates an 2D point light source array, which splits one light beam into N2 subbeams and act the role of pinholes as point source and point detecting to filter the stray light and reflect light. By introducing the construction and working principle of the multi-beam 3D detecting system, the feasibility is investigated. Results Experiment result indicates that the optical fiber technology is applicable in rotation. The measuring parameters that influence the detecting can easily be adapted to satisfy different requirments of measurement. Compared with the conventional confocal method, the parallel confocal detecting system using optical fiber plate is simple in the mechanism, the measuring field is larger and the speed is faster.

  5. Electrophoretic deposition of iron catalyst on C-fiber textiles for the growth of carbon nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2014-11-01

    In this study, carbon nanofibers synthesis has been conducted by chemical vapor deposition on C-fiber textiles coated with an iron catalyst via electrophoretic deposition. C-fiber textiles were oxidized with nitric acid before the iron catalyst was plated by electrophoretic deposition. Due to oxidation, the hydroxyl group was created on the C-fiber textiles and was used as an active site for iron catalyst deposition. It was verified that the iron catalyst was deposited on the C-fiber textiles, while current, voltage, and deposition time varied and the concentration of electrolyte was kept constant in electrophoretic deposition. After being deposited, the iron particles were dried in oven for 24 hours and reduced by hydrogen gas in a furnace. Ethylene gas was introduced for the growth of carbon nanofibers and the growth temperature was then varied to find the optimal growth temperature of the carbon nanofibers. Thus, the characteristics of carbon nanofibers were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), N2-sorption (BET), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). It is verified that the iron particles were most evenly deposited at 0.1 A for 3 minutes. Carbon nanofibers grew to 150-200 nm most evenly at 600 degrees C via temperature variations in CVD.

  6. Confocal Image 3D Surface Measurement with Optical Fiber Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhao; ZHU Sheng-cheng; LI Bing; TAN Yu-shan

    2004-01-01

    A whole-field 3D surface measurement system for semiconductor wafer inspection is described.The system consists of an optical fiber plate,which can split the light beam into N2 subbeams to realize the whole-field inspection.A special prism is used to separate the illumination light and signal light.This setup is characterized by high precision,high speed and simple structure.

  7. On the effect of the fiber orientation on the flexural stiffness of injection molded short fiber reinforced polycarbonate plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neves, N.M.; Isdell, G.; Pouzada, A.S.; Powell, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    The through-thickness fiber orientation distribution of injection molded polycarbonate plates was experimentally determined by light reflection microscopy and manual digitization of polished cross sections. Fiber length distribution was determined by pyrolysis tests followed by image analysis. A sta

  8. Interaction of Lamb Waves with Domain Walls in an Iron Borate Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Zhukov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the calculation results of the Lamb wave spectra in a plate of iron borate. Experimental data on how flexural vibrations in a borate plate influence its domain structure are provided.

  9. Highly adhesive metal plating on Zylon ® fiber via iodine pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatema, Ummul Khair; Gotoh, Yasuo

    2011-11-01

    Highly adhesive metal plating was performed on poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole) fiber named Zylon® via iodine pretreatment followed by electroless plating. First, iodine components were selectively doped into the inner part of the fiber near the surface through iodine vapor exposure. The doped iodine was converted to palladium iodide particles by treating with palladium chloride solution. After the reduction of the iodide to metal palladium particles, electroless copper plating was conducted on the fiber. A uniform copper layer was deposited on the fiber surface and exhibited high durability in durability tests such as ultrasonic exposure, tape peeling-off, and corrosion in NaCl solution. This durability was attributed to the palladium particles formed at the fiber surface that served as an anchor for the plated layer as well as an electroless plating catalyst. The plated fibers also possessed electrical conductivity. Although the tensile strength of the Zylon® fiber decreased from 5.8 to 4.9 GPa after undergoing the pretreatment and plating processes, the light shielding effect improved the light resistance of the plated fibers in terms of tensile properties. After 18 days of xenon lamp exposure, the plated fibers retained 74% of its initial strength, whereas that of untreated fibers decreased to 43%.

  10. Dynamic crack growth in a fiber-reinforced composite plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Kaixin; LIU Weifu; Zhang Jinxiang; LI Rong; ZHANG Guohua; FU Bin

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment on the failure of a precracked plate made of unidirectional glass-epoxy fiber-reinforced composites subjected to three-point bending impact load. In the experiment, the whole process of crack growth was recorded by using high-speed photographic technique, in which a transmitted light path was adopted. Moreover, a new phenomenon of dynamic fracture has been observed. Based on the results, some preliminary studies have been carried out on the rate and path of the crack growth, as well as the failure mode.

  11. Synthesis and absorbing mechanism of two-layer microwave absorbers containing polycrystalline iron fibers and carbonyl iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qingwei; Zhang, Mingang; Zhang, Cunrui; Qian, Tianwei

    2013-04-01

    Polycrystalline iron fibers were fabricated by α-FeOOH fiber precursors. Two-layer microwave absorber had been prepared by as-prepared polycrystalline iron fibers and carbonyl iron. The structure, morphology and properties of the composites were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and Network Analyzer. The complex permittivity and reflection loss (dB) of the composites were measured employing vector network analyzer model PNA 3629D vector in the frequency range between 30 and 6000 MHz. The thickness effect of the carbonyl iron layer on the microwave loss properties of the composites was investigated. A possible microwave-absorbing mechanism of polycrystalline iron fibers/carbonyl iron composite was proposed. The polycrystalline iron fibers/carbonyl iron composite can find applications in suppression of electromagnetic interference, and reduction of radar signature.

  12. Measurement of imaging properties of scintillating fiber optic plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentai, George; Ganguly, Arundhuti; Star-Lack, Josh; Virshup, Gary; Hirsh, Hayley; Shedlock, Daniel; Humber, David

    2014-03-01

    Scintillating Fiber Optic Plates (SFOP) or Fiber Optic Scintillator (FOS) made with scintillating fiber-glass, were investigated for x-ray imaging. Two different samples (T x W x L = 2cm x 5cm x 5cm) were used; Sample A: 10μm fibers, Sample B: 50μm fibers both with statistically randomized light absorbing fibers placed in the matrix. A customized holder was used to place the samples in close contact with photodiodes in an amorphous silicon flat panel detector (AS1000, Varian), typically used for portal imaging. The detector has a 392μm pixel pitch and in the standard configuration uses a gadolinium oxy-sulphide (GOS) screen behind a copper plate. X-ray measurements were performed at 120kV (RQA 9 spectrum), 1MeV (5mm Al filtration) and 6MeV (Flattening Filter Free) for Sample A and the latter 2 spectra for Sample B. A machined edge was used for MTF measurements. The measurements showed the MTF degraded with increased X-ray energies because of the increase in Compton scattering. However, at the Nyquist frequency of 1.3lp/mm, the MTF is still high (FOS value vs. Cu+GOS): (a) 37% and 21% at 120kVp for the 10μm FOS and the Cu+GOS arrays, (b) 31%, 20% and 20% at 1MeV and (c) 17%, 11% and 14% at 6MeV for the 10μm FOS, 50μm FOS and the Cu+GOS arrays. The DQE(0) value comparison were (a) at 120kV ~24% and ~13 % for the 10μm FOS and the Cu+GOS arrays (b) at 1MV 10%, 10% and 7% and (c) at 6MV 12%, ~19% and 1.6% for the 10μm FOS , 50μm FOS and Cu+GOS arrays.

  13. A novel preparation of silver-plated polyacrylonitrile fibers functionalized with antibacterial and electromagnetic shielding properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Weiya; Gao, Cuicui; Tian, Weicheng [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Sun, Bin [College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Yu, Dan, E-mail: yudan@dhu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2015-07-01

    Highlights: • We propose a novel modification method to initiate silver electroless plating on PAN fiber without noble metal catalyst. • The silver-plated fiber we fabricated has good electromagnetic shielding effectiveness and antibacterial properties. • The metal layer has good adhesion strength and the properties of the silver-plated fiber can stand 30 cycles of standard washing. - Abstract: Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers with antibacterial, electromagnetic shielding and antistatic functionalities were fabricated in this paper through modifying PAN fibers with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane (MPTES) sequentially and followed with silver electroless plating. The silver layer on PAN fiber surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the silver layer was plated uniformly and compactly. The surface resistance of plated fabric was about 40 mΩ/sq on average. The antibacterial tests demonstrate that silver-plated PAN fiber exhibits excellent antibacterial property against S. aureus and E. coli with a non-leaching characteristic. The antibacterial property remains good after 30 cycles of standard washing, which is a strong proof of a durable adhesion between metal layer and fiber. The shielding effectiveness (SE) of silver-plated PAN fabric before and after 30 cycles of standard washing was about 40–80 dB and 35–50 dB, respectively. This resultant fiber can be used in many occasions for reducing or preventing electromagnetic interference (EMI) and electromagnetic hazards.

  14. Electroless nickel plated graphite fibers and surface behavior in Gr(Ni)/6061Al composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chun-yu; WU Gao-hui; ZHANG Qiang; ZHANG Yun-he; XIU Zi-yang; CHEN Guo-qin

    2006-01-01

    The electroless nickel plated graphite fibers reinforced aluminum matrix composites (Gr(Ni)/Al) were produced by squeeze casting, and the microstructure of Gr(Ni)/Al composite and surface behavior of Ni-P coating were studied. The optimum process of electroless Ni-P plating included: burning to get rid of glue→degreasing→neutralization→acidulating→sensitizing→activation→electroless plating. The surface analysis results show that the electroless nickel plating can diffuse into the graphite fiber surface during the squeeze casting, and the Ni-P coating and aluminum alloys can produce brittle phase NiAl3 or NiAl. The X-ray diffraction(XRD) results indicate that Al4C3 is so little that no Al4C3 peaks are found, and the harmful hl4C3 can be decreased by the electroless plating Ni-P coating. The coating improves the interfacial bonding of continuous graphite fibers reinforced aluminum matrix composites.

  15. Corrosion of Cast Iron Mill Plates in Wet Grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony ANDREWS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion studies were carried out on two different maize grinding plates. Maize was soaked in water for three days and the water decanted and used as electrolyte. Mass loss and pH measurements were carried out every 3 days for 15-day period. Results show that, for each plate, mass loss and pH increased with exposure time. Corrosion rates determined from mass loss data was found to be strongly dependent on pH. The observed behaviour may be explained in terms of the chemical composition and/or microstructures of the plates. Results are briefly discussed in terms of the contribution of corrosion to wear.

  16. Bending moment of galvanized iron glass fiber sandwich panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurustal Somnath Swamy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this project is to prepare a laminated with Galvanized iron thickness fractions, fiber volume fractions and orientation in the layers of GF were fabricated by hand lay-up method and evaluated for their bending moment properties of the sandwich panel using universal testing machine. This paper theoretically calculates the bending behavior of sandwich panel. The recent need to develop a new range of materials has resulted in the development of high performance lightweight composites with excellent properties. Metal– composite systems consist of alternating layers of metal and fiber-reinforced polymer composites which are bonded by an adhesive. Sandwich beams were tested under Air Bending. Stress-strain and stress-displacement were recorded by using AIMIL UTM. The beam face sheets exhibited a softening non-linearity on the bending side. Experimental results were in good agreement with predictions from simple models. On an overall basis, the sandwich panel exhibited better bending moment performance than the monolithic galvanized iron

  17. Innovative design of composite structures: Design, manufacturing, and testing of plates utilizing curvilinear fiber trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, M. W.; Rust, R. J.; Waters, W. A., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    As a means of improving structural design, the concept of fabricating flat plates containing holes by incorporating curvilinear fiber trajectories to transmit loads around the hole is studied. In the present discussion this concept is viewed from a structural level, where access holes, windows, doors, and other openings are of significant size. This is opposed to holes sized for mechanical fasteners. Instead of cutting the important load-bearing fibers at the hole edge, as a conventional straightline design does, the curvilinear design preserves the load-bearing fibers by orienting them in smooth trajectories around the holes, their loading not ending abruptly at the hole edge. Though the concept of curvilinear fiber trajectories has been studied before, attempts to manufacture and test such plates have been limited. This report describes a cooperative effort between Cincinnati Milacron Inc., NASA Langley Research Center, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University to design, manufacture, and test plates using the curvilinear fiber trajectory concept. The paper discusses details of the plate design, details of the manufacturing, and a summary of results from testing the plates with inplane compressive buckling loads and tensile loads. Comparisons between the curvilinear and conventional straightline fiber designs based on measurements and observation are made. Failure modes, failure loads, strains, deflections, and other key responses are compared.

  18. A novel preparation of silver-plated polyacrylonitrile fibers functionalized with antibacterial and electromagnetic shielding properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Weiya; Gao, Cuicui; Tian, Weicheng; Sun, Bin; Yu, Dan

    2015-07-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers with antibacterial, electromagnetic shielding and antistatic functionalities were fabricated in this paper through modifying PAN fibers with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane (MPTES) sequentially and followed with silver electroless plating. The silver layer on PAN fiber surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the silver layer was plated uniformly and compactly. The surface resistance of plated fabric was about 40 mΩ/sq on average. The antibacterial tests demonstrate that silver-plated PAN fiber exhibits excellent antibacterial property against S. aureus and E. coli with a non-leaching characteristic. The antibacterial property remains good after 30 cycles of standard washing, which is a strong proof of a durable adhesion between metal layer and fiber. The shielding effectiveness (SE) of silver-plated PAN fabric before and after 30 cycles of standard washing was about 40-80 dB and 35-50 dB, respectively. This resultant fiber can be used in many occasions for reducing or preventing electromagnetic interference (EMI) and electromagnetic hazards.

  19. Mechanism for Corrosion Prevention by a Mechanical Plating of Uniform Zinc-Iron Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Naoya; Kaku, Yoshihiko; Okazaki, Shinji; Hirai, Kuninori

    2016-09-01

    In situ electrochemical monitoring with a three-electrode cell was applied to investigate the anti-corrosion properties of a mechanical zinc-iron alloy plating. Several electron probe microanalyses were also conducted to identify the chemical elements in the plating. The results indicated the formation of a Zn-Fe intermetallic compound, which allowed a mechanism for corrosion prevention to be proposed. In the proposed mechanism, Zn(OH)2 plays a significant role in the corrosion prevention of steel alloys.

  20. Retention of iron by rat intestine in vivo as affected by dietary fiber, ascorbate and citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, J G; Garcia Estrada, J; Garcia, P M; Garzon, P

    1986-06-01

    The effects of pH, ascorbate, citrate and dietary fiber on retention of ferrous and ferric iron by jejuno-ileal segments of rat intestine were examined in vivo. Iron was introduced in an isosmotic solution of sodium chloride and dextrose buffered by 2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethanesulfonic acid (BES) and acetate. Stabilization of the iron solutions was aided by use of iron concentrations less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml injected into the intestine for 10-min periods. Iron retention was optimal over a broad pH range from 5 to 7.8. Inclusion of ascorbic acid in the solution injected (5, 25 or 75 micrograms/ml) did not increase retention of iron in either valence state. A low concentration of sodium citrate (2 mM) had no effect on iron retention, but increasing the concentration to 5 mM released iron from the mucosa. Maize and wheat fibers decreased the retention of ferrous iron by binding and by promoting autoxidation and formation of poorly soluble iron polymers. Bound ferrous iron was released completely at pH below 5. Retention of ferric iron was also lowered in the presence of fiber, presumably as a result of polymerization. Retention of iron by the rat in the absence of ligands was independent of valence state.

  1. Selective higher order fiber mode excitation using a monolithic setup of a phase plate at a fiber facet

    CERN Document Server

    Wilde, Johannes; Brüning, Robert; Duparré, Michael; Schröter, Siegmund

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the modal content coupled into an optical fiber can be desireable in many situations, e.g. for adjusting the sensitivity of the guided field distribution to external perturbations. For this purpose we used a monolithic setup of a phase plate at a fiber inpute facet to excite selectivly higher order modes, which theoretically can provide a mode purity of more than 99%. We investigated the capabilities of this approach by complete modal decomposition of the fiber output signals, considering the achievable mode purity with respect to several possible imperfections of the setup. The experiments are compared with detailed numerical simulations and show a high agreement. Additionally a comparison with a well known setup with free space phase plates was undertaken. This showed the monolithic setup to be energetically twice as efficient.

  2. Changes Found on Run-In and Scuffed Surfaces of Steel Chrome Plate, and Cast Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, J. N.; Godfrey, Douglas

    1947-01-01

    A study was made of run-in and scuffed steel, chrome-plate, and cast-iron surfaces. X-ray and electron diffraction techniques, micro-hardness determinations, and microscopy were used. Surface changes varied and were found to include three classes: chemical reaction, hardening, and crystallite-size alteration. The principal chemical reactions were oxidation and carburization.

  3. Effects of slope plate variable and reheating on semi-solid structure of ductile cast iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Nili-Ahmadabadi; F. Pahlevani; P. Babaghorbani

    2008-01-01

    Semi-solid metal casting and forming are known as a promising process for a wide range of metal alloys production. In spite of growing application of semi-solid processed light alloys, a few works have been reported about semi-solid processing of iron and steel. In this research inclined plate was used to change dendritic structure of iron to globular one. The effects of length and slope of plate on the casting structure were examined. The results show that the process can effectively change the dendritic structure to globular. In the slope plate angle of 7.5°and length of 560 mm with cooling rate of 67K·s-1 the optimum nodular graphite and solid globular particle were achieved.The results also show that by using slope plate inoculant fading can be prevented more easily since the total time of process is rather short.In addition, the semi-solid ductile cast iron prepared by inclined plate method, was reheated to examine the effect of reheating conditions on the microstructure and coarsening kinetics of the alloy. Solid fraction at different reheating temperatures and holding time was obtained and based on these results the optimum reheating temperature range was determined.

  4. Effect of Fiber Orientation Angle on the Failure Mode of Pin Jointed Laminated Composite Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir TURAN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the major aim is to investigate change effects of fiber orientation angles on the failure loads and failure modes for the pin jointed laminated composite plates. In the analysis, laminated composite plates with epoxy matrix resin reinforced unidirectional carbon fibers are used. The ply arrangements are chosen [?0]4 and ?; fiber reinforced angle changes from 00 to 900 with 150 increments. The failure load and failure mode are analyzed experimentally and numerically. In the numerical analysis Ansys program is used. In the program, material properties are degraded using APDL code which is written for progressive failure analysis and contains Hashin failure criteria for laminated composite plates. In the experimental study, the maximum failure load for [150]4 laminae cofiguration, 749.917 N and minimum failure load for [600]4, 467.483 N laminae configuration are obtained. A good agreement between experimental and numerical solution is obtained.

  5. Interlaminar and ductile characteristics of carbon fibers-reinforced plastics produced by nanoscaled electroless nickel plating on carbon fiber surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Jin; Jang, Yu-Sin; Rhee, Kyong-Yop

    2002-01-15

    In this work, a new method based on nanoscaled Ni-P alloy coating on carbon fiber surfaces is proposed for the improvement of interfacial properties between fibers and epoxy matrix in a composite system. Fiber surfaces and the mechanical interfacial properties of composites were characterized by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), interlaminar shear strength (ILSS), and impact strength. Experimental results showed that the O(1s)/C(1s) ratio or Ni and P amounts had been increased as the electroless nickel plating proceeded; the ILSS had also been slightly improved. The impact properties were significantly improved in the presence of Ni-P alloy on carbon fiber surfaces, increasing the ductility of the composites. This was probably due to the effect of substituted Ni-P alloy, leading to an increase of the resistance to the deformation and the crack initiation of the epoxy system.

  6. An Inverse method of elastic constants for unidirectional fiber-reinforced composite plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jing; CUI Lian-jun; XU Jian; CHENG Jian-chun

    2006-01-01

    An inverse method is presented to determine the elastic constants of an experimental sample,a titanium graphite unidirectional fiber-reinforced composite plate,using wavelet transform and neural networks.Optimal algorithms of wavelet transform and neural networks are given here in order to improve the accuracy of inversion results.Coherent results were shown in both fiber direction and cross fiber direction,proving the feasibility of this method.Neither the group velocity of the Lamb wave modes are needed,as in the conventional method,and no direct least-square fitting of the experimental waveforms is necessary.

  7. Electroless plating preparation and electromagnetic properties of Co-coated carbonyl iron particles/polyimide composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingying; Zhou, Wancheng; Li, Rong; Qing, Yuchang; Luo, Fa; Zhu, Dongmei

    2016-03-01

    To solve the serious electromagnetic interference problems at elevated temperature, one thin microwave-absorbing sheet employing Co-coated carbonyl iron particles and polyimide was prepared. The Co-coated carbonyl iron particles were successfully prepared using an electroless plating method. The microstructure, composition, phase and static magnetic properties of Co-coated carbonyl iron particles were characterized by combination of scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The electromagnetic parameters of Co-coated carbonyl iron particles/polyimide composite were measured in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz, and the electromagnetic loss mechanism of the material-obtained was discussed. The microwave absorption properties of composites before and after heat treatment at 300 °C for 100 h were characterized in 2-18 GHz frequency range. It was established that composites based on Co-coated carbonyl iron demonstrate thermomagnetic stability, indicating that Co coating reduces the oxidation of carbonyl iron. Thus, Co-coated carbonyl iron particles/polyimide composites are useful in the design of microwave absorbers operating at temperatures up to 300 °C.

  8. Effect of Grinding Techniques on Absorbing Characteristics of Short Iron Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Microwave-absorbing properties of iron fibers can be adjusted by their aspect ratio. This paper presents several modification techniques for grinding long iron fibers to a suitable aspect ratio. The grinding instruments include pulsator, jet mill and muller. The aspect ratio distribution, microstructure, electromagnetic parameter and refiectivity of the samples were analyzed and discussed in detail. The results show that the fractions of 5<aspect ratio<40 for the three methods are 69.03%, 81.11% and 80.2%, respectively, that is,suitable short iron fibers can be obtained by the jet mill and muller. Furthermore, the short iron fibers milled by jet mill and muller have better absorbing propterties than those obtained by the pulsator under the same condition. Therefore, their microwave absorption properties can be improved by regulating the electromagnetic parameters with grinding.

  9. Analysis of errors induced by λ/4 wave plate in fiber-optic current sensor system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞峰

    2008-01-01

    1/4λ wave plate is a key element in the fiber-optic current sensor system. When a retardation error or an orientation error of birefringence axes of 1/4λ wave plate with respect to the hi-bi fiber axes occurs in the 1/4λ wave plate, the sensor system will output a wrong result of the measured current. The contributions of these two errors to the final result of the whole system were studied and the errors functions were deduced by establishing the measurement function of the current sensor system with Jones matrixes of the optical elements. The results show that that the greater the orientation error or the retardation error, the larger the final error, and that these two errors cannot be compensated each other.

  10. Impact Response of Cantilever Fiber Metal Laminate (FML Plates Using a Coupled Analytical-Numerical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Ashenai Ghasemi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, dynamic response of cantilever Fiber Metal Laminate (FML plates subjected to the impact of a large mass is studied. Aluminum (Al sheets are placed instead of some Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP layers. The effect of the Al layers on contact force and deflection of the plates is investigated by considering the interaction between the impactor and the target in the impact analysis. A two degrees-of-freedom system consisting of springs-masses and finite element modeling of the ABAQUS/Explicit software were employed to model the interaction between the impactor and the target. The results indicate that some parameters like the layer sequence, mass and velocity of the impactor, mass of the target are important factors which affect the impact response of the plates.

  11. Flexural retrofitting of reinforced concrete structures using Green Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Ignacio

    An experimental study will be carried out to determine the suitability of Green Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer plates (GNFRP) manufactured with hemp fibers, with the purpose of using them as structural materials for the flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) beams. Four identical RC beams, 96 inches long, are tested for the investigation, three control beams and one test beam. The first three beams are used as references; one unreinforced, one with one layer of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP), one with two layers of CFRP, and one with n layers of the proposed, environmental-friendly, GNFRP plates. The goal is to determine the number of GNFRP layers needed to match the strength reached with one layer of CFRP and once matched, assess if the system is less expensive than CFRP strengthening, if this is the case, this strengthening system could be an alternative to the currently used, expensive CFRP systems.

  12. A graphite-coated carbon fiber epoxy composite bipolar plate for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ha Na; Lim, Jun Woo; Suh, Jung Do; Lee, Dai Gil

    A PEMFC (polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell or proton exchange membrane fuel cell) stack is composed of GDLs (gas diffusion layers), MEAs (membrane electrode assemblies), and bipolar plates. One of the important functions of bipolar plates is to collect and conduct the current from cell to cell, which requires low electrical bulk and interfacial resistances. For a carbon fiber epoxy composite bipolar plate, the interfacial resistance is usually much larger than the bulk resistance due to the resin-rich layer on the composite surface. In this study, a thin graphite layer is coated on the carbon/epoxy composite bipolar plate to decrease the interfacial contact resistance between the bipolar plate and the GDL. The total electrical resistance in the through-thickness direction of the bipolar plate is measured with respect to the thickness of the graphite coating layer, and the ratio of the bulk resistance to the interfacial contact resistance is estimated using the measured data. From the experiment, it is found that the graphite coating on the carbon/epoxy composite bipolar plate has 10% and 4% of the total electrical and interfacial contact resistances of the conventional carbon/epoxy composite bipolar plate, respectively, when the graphite coating thickness is 50 μm.

  13. Enhanced microwave absorbing properties and heat resistance of carbonyl iron by electroless plating Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongyu, E-mail: wanghongyu07010310@163.com; Zhu, Dongmei; Zhou, Wancheng; Luo, Fa

    2015-11-01

    Co coated carbonyl iron particles (Co (CI)) are fabricated through electroless plating method, and the electromagnetic microwave absorbing properties are investigated in the frequencies during 8.2–12.4 GHz. The complex permittivity of CI particles after electroless plating Co is higher than that of raw CI particles due to improvment of the polarization process. Furthermore, according to the XRD and TG results, the Co layer can enhance the heat resistance of CI particles. The bandwidth below −10 dB can reach 3.9 GHz for the Co(CI) absorbent. The results indicate that the electroless plating Co not only enhances the absorbing properties but also improves the heat resistance of CI. - Highlights: • The Co-coated carbonyl iron Co(CI) particles were prepared by electroless plating. • The electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of Co(CI) particles were studied. • The heat treatment on the absorbing property of Co(CI) particles was studied. • The Co(CI) particles have good absorbing property when compared with CI.

  14. Fiber laser cladding of nickel-based alloy on cast iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias-González, F., E-mail: felipeag@uvigo.es [Applied Physics Dpt., University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, Vigo E-36310 (Spain); Val, J. del [Applied Physics Dpt., University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, Vigo E-36310 (Spain); Comesaña, R. [Materials Engineering, Applied Mechanics and Construction Dpt., University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, Vigo E-36310 (Spain); Penide, J.; Lusquiños, F.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Boutinguiza, M.; Pou, J. [Applied Physics Dpt., University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, Vigo E-36310 (Spain)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Fiber laser cladding of Ni-based alloy on cast iron was experimentally studied. • Two different types of cast iron have been analyzed: gray and ductile cast iron. • Suitable processing parameters to generate a Ni-based coating were determined. • Dilution is higher in gray cast iron samples than in ductile cast iron. • Ni-based coating presents higher hardness than cast iron but similar Young's modulus. - Abstract: Gray cast iron is a ferrous alloy characterized by a carbon-rich phase in form of lamellar graphite in an iron matrix while ductile cast iron presents a carbon-rich phase in form of spheroidal graphite. Graphite presents a higher laser beam absorption than iron matrix and its morphology has also a strong influence on thermal conductivity of the material. The laser cladding process of cast iron is complicated by its heterogeneous microstructure which generates non-homogeneous thermal fields. In this research work, a comparison between different types of cast iron substrates (with different graphite morphology) has been carried out to analyze its impact on the process results. A fiber laser was used to generate a NiCrBSi coating over flat substrates of gray cast iron (EN-GJL-250) and nodular cast iron (EN-GJS-400-15). The relationship between processing parameters (laser irradiance and scanning speed) and geometry of a single laser track was examined. Moreover, microstructure and composition were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The hardness and elastic modulus were analyzed by means of micro- and nanoindentation. A hardfacing coating was generated by fiber laser cladding. Suitable processing parameters to generate the Ni-based alloy coating were determined. For the same processing parameters, gray cast iron samples present higher dilution than cast iron samples. The elastic modulus is similar for the coating and the substrate, while the Ni

  15. Large Amplitude Flexural Vibration of the Orthotropic Composite Plate Embedded with Shape Memory Alloy Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The free and forced vibration of large deformation composite plate embedded with shape memory alloy (SMA) fibers is investigated. A thermo-mechanical constitutive equation of SMA proposed by Brinson et al. is employed and the constitutive equations for evaluation of the properties of a hybrid SMA composite laminate are obtained. Based on the nonlinear theory of symmetrically laminated anisotropic plates, the governing equations of flexural vibration in terms of displacement and stress functions are derived. The Galerkin method has been used to convert the original partial differential equation into a nonlinear ordinary differential equation, which is then solved with harmonic balance method. The numerical results show that the relationship between nonlinear natural frequency ratio and temperature for the nonlinear plate has similar characteristics compared with that of the linear one, and the effects of temperature on forced response behavior during phase transformation from Martensite to Austenite are significant. The effects of the volume fraction of the SMA fiber, aspect ratio and free vibration amplitude on the dynamical behavior of the plate are also discussed.

  16. Finite-Element Analysis of Jute- and Coir-Fiber-Reinforced Hybrid Composite Multipanel Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirbhay, M.; Misra, R. K.; Dixit, A.

    2015-09-01

    Natural-fiber-reinforced polymer composite materials are rapidly gaining interest worldwide both in terms of research and industrial applications. The present work includes the characterization and modeling of jute- and coir-fiber-reinforced hybrid composite materials. The mechanical behavior of a two-panel plate and a sixpanel box structure is analyzed under various loading regimes by using the finite-element software ABAQUS®. Exhaustive parametric studies are also performed to obtain a clear insight into the relationships between various parameters and deflections of the panels and stress distributions in them. Deflections of both the structures are compared and found to be in good agreement with published results. To determine the mechanical behavior of natural-fiber-reinforced composite panels, a finite-element analysis is performed.

  17. Hadron energy resolution as a function of iron plate thickness at ICAL

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, Lakshmi S; Devi, Moon Moon; Kaur, Daljeet; Choubey, Sandhya; Dighe, Amol; Indumathi, D; Murthy, M V N; Naimuddin, Md

    2014-01-01

    We report on a detailed study of the hadron energy resolution as a function of the thickness of the absorber plates for the proposed Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). We compare the hadron resolutions obtained with absorber thicknesses in the range 1.5 -- 8 cm for neutrino interactions in the energy range 2 -- 15 GeV, which is relevant to hadron production in atmospheric neutrino interactions. We find that at lower energies, the thickness dependence of energy resolution is steeper than at higher energies, however there is a constant contribution that dominates at the lower thicknesses discussed in this paper. As a result, the gain in hadron energy resolution with decreasing plate thickness is marginal. We present the results in the form of fits to a function with energy-dependent exponent.

  18. Deposition and Characterization of Sisal Fiber Composite Prepare By Iron Oxide Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Jehan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide synthesized through sintering route. The present research work deals with ferrite composite prepared using chemical reactions. Ferric nitrates and ammonium chloride doped with sisal fiber has been prepared. The comparative studies of ferric oxide were examined through few characterizations. The structural behavior of iron oxide was studied in XRD, FT/IR, TEM and SEM. This behavior showed ferrite nature of the sample.

  19. Fiber laser cladding of nickel-based alloy on cast iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-González, F.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Penide, J.; Lusquiños, F.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Boutinguiza, M.; Pou, J.

    2016-06-01

    Gray cast iron is a ferrous alloy characterized by a carbon-rich phase in form of lamellar graphite in an iron matrix while ductile cast iron presents a carbon-rich phase in form of spheroidal graphite. Graphite presents a higher laser beam absorption than iron matrix and its morphology has also a strong influence on thermal conductivity of the material. The laser cladding process of cast iron is complicated by its heterogeneous microstructure which generates non-homogeneous thermal fields. In this research work, a comparison between different types of cast iron substrates (with different graphite morphology) has been carried out to analyze its impact on the process results. A fiber laser was used to generate a NiCrBSi coating over flat substrates of gray cast iron (EN-GJL-250) and nodular cast iron (EN-GJS-400-15). The relationship between processing parameters (laser irradiance and scanning speed) and geometry of a single laser track was examined. Moreover, microstructure and composition were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The hardness and elastic modulus were analyzed by means of micro- and nanoindentation. A hardfacing coating was generated by fiber laser cladding. Suitable processing parameters to generate the Ni-based alloy coating were determined. For the same processing parameters, gray cast iron samples present higher dilution than cast iron samples. The elastic modulus is similar for the coating and the substrate, while the Ni-based coating obtained presents a significantly superior hardness than cast iron.

  20. The field-dependent rheological properties of magnetorheological fluids featuring plate-like iron particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Bok eChoi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with an investigation of the plate-like iron particles based MR suspensions under the application of magnetic fields to ascertain the influence of particle size in the rheological performance. A novel synthesis route to prepare magnetorheological fluid (MRF using two different sizes of plate-like iron particles is described in detail. Two different kinds of MRF are then prepared and their rheological properties are presented and discussed extensively. Steady shear flow and small amplitude dynamic oscillatory measurements are carried out in the presence of magnetic field. This experimental study reveals and highlights the importance of exploiting some parameters such as magnetic field strength, effect of particle size, magneto-viscous and visco-elastic properties of the suspending fluid. The magnetization of the fluids is also performed to explain the effect of particle size in the magnetic field which is directly correlated with the yield stress. In the absence of magnetic field, the properties of fluid are isotropic and upon the application of magnetic field the magnetized particles form a strong-chain like structures in the field direction which promotes the appearance of yield stress. This material is known as smart material whose properties amend from liquid to solid immediately after applying the magnetic field. It is found from this work that the large size particle based MRF exhibits high yield stress and strong chain structuration under the applying magnetic field.

  1. Dynamical Analysis of Long Fiber-Reinforced Laminated Plates with Elastically Restrained Edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz G. Nallim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a variational formulation for the free vibration analysis of unsymmetrically laminated composite plates with elastically restrained edges. The study includes a micromechanics approach that allows starting the study considering each layer as constituted by long unidirectional fibers in a continuous matrix. The Mori-Tanaka method is used to predict the mechanical properties of each lamina as a function of the elastic properties of the components and of the fiber volume fraction. The resulting mechanical properties for each lamina are included in a general Ritz formulation developed to analyze the free vibration response of thick laminated anisotropic plates resting on elastic supports. Comprehensive numerical examples are computed to validate the present method, and the effects of the different mechanical and geometrical parameters on the dynamical behavior of different laminated plates are shown. New results for general unsymmetrical laminates with elastically restrained edges are also presented. The analytical approximate solution obtained in this paper can also be useful as a basis to deal with optimization problems under, for instance, frequency constraints.

  2. Laser-Generated Lamb Waves Propagation in Multilayered Plates Composed of Viscoelastic Fiber-reinforced Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong-xiang; Zhang, Shu-yi; Yuan, Shou-qi; Guan, Yi-jun; Ge, Yong

    2016-07-01

    The propagation characteristics of laser-generated Lamb waves in multilayered fiber-reinforced composite plates with different fiber orientations and number of layers have been investigated quantitatively. Considering the viscoelasticity of the composite materials, we have set up finite element models for simulating the laser-generated Lamb waves in two types of the multilayered composite plates. In the first type, different fiber orientations are adopted. In the second one, different number of layers are considered. The results illustrate the occurrence of attenuation and dispersion, which is induced by the viscoelasticity and multilayer structure, respectively.

  3. Highly Sensitive Fiber-Optic Faraday-Effect Magnetic Field Sensor Based on Yttrium Iron Garnet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The principle and performance of a fiber-optic Faraday-effect magnetic-field sensor based on an yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and two flux concentrations are described. A single polarization maintaining optical fiber links the sensor head to the source and detection system, in which the technique of phase shift cancellation is used to cancel the phase shift that accumulate in the optical fiber. Flux concentrators were exploited to enhance the YIG crystal magneto optic sensitivity .The sensor system exhibited a noise-equivalent field of 8 and a 3 dB bandwidth of ~10 MHz.

  4. Four-plate piezoelectric actuator driving a large-diameter special optical fiber for nonlinear optical microendoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Li, Zhi; Liang, Xiaobao; Fu, Ling

    2016-08-22

    In nonlinear optical microendoscope (NOME), a fiber with excellent optical characteristics and a miniature scanning mechanism at the distal end are two key components. Double-clad fibers (DCFs) and double-clad photonic crystal fibers (DCPCFs) have shown great optical characteristics but limited vibration amplitude due to large diameter. Besides reducing the damping of fiber cantilever, optimizing the structural of the actuator for lower energy dissipation also contributes to better driving capability. This paper presented an optimized actuator for driving a particular fiber cantilever in the view point of energy. Firstly, deformation energy of a bending fiber cantilever operating in resonant mode is investigated. Secondly, strain and stress analyses revealed that the four-plate actuator achieved lower energy dissipation. Then, finite-element simulations showed that the large-diameter fiber yielded an adequate vibration amplitude driven by a four-plate actuator, which was confirmed by experiments of our home-made four-plate actuator prototypes. Additionally, a NOME based on a DCPCF with a diameter of 350 μm driven by four-plate piezoelectric actuator has been developed. The NOME can excite and collect intrinsic second-harmonic and two-photon fluorescence signals with the excitation power of 10-30 mW and an adequate field of view of 200 μm, which suggest great potential applications in neuroscience and clinical diagnoses.

  5. Enhanced antioxidation and electromagnetic properties of Co-coated flaky carbonyl iron particles prepared by electroless plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yingying, E-mail: zyzlchappy1989@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Zhou, Wancheng [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Li, Rong [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); No. 603 Faculty, Xi’an Institute of High Technology, Xi’an 710025 (China); Mu, Yang; Qing, Yuchang [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Co-coated carbonyl iron particles were prepared by electroless plating method. • The obvious weight gain of carbonyl iron was deferred to 400 °C after Co-coated. • The permeability of the Co-coated particle composite kept almost invariable. • Co-coated carbonyl iron composite reserves a better absorption after heat treatment. - Abstract: Co was successfully coated on the surface of flaky carbonyl iron particles using an electroless plating method. The morphologies, composition, as well as magnetic, antioxidation and electromagnetic properties of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), thermogravimetric (TG) and microwave network analyzer. TG curve shows that the obvious weight gain of carbonyl iron was deferred from 300 to 400 °C after Co-coated. In contrast to raw carbonyl iron, the Co-coated carbonyl iron shows better stability on electromagnetic properties after 300 °C heat treatment for 10 h, demonstrating that the Co coating can act as the protection of carbonyl iron.

  6. A load measuring anchor plate for rock bolt using fiber optic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Siu Chun Michael; Li, Weijie; Wang, Bo; Song, Gangbing

    2017-05-01

    Rock bolts are the devices that used to reinforce the rock masses in mining tunnels and underground excavation structures. The loading level of the rock bolt indicates the reinforcing efficiency and is able to ensure safe underground operation by giving warnings to the underground miners prior to any accidents. Therefore, it is very important to monitor the load level of the rock bolts. In this short communication, we propose a smart anchor plate, a simple but effective device that uses fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) type optic sensor, to monitor the load level of the rock bolt. Instead of measuring the stress/strain on the rock bolt, which adds more complexity, the proposed method monitors the rock bolt load by measuring the load experience on the rock bolt anchor plate. Such a configuration has the advantages of simple structure and flexible implementation. In experimental observation, the FBG instrumented anchor plate is able to observe the load of the plate with good repeatability. This test will lead to further in-depth studies involving finite element analysis as well as more complex applications.

  7. Progress of studies on preparation of silver-plated fibers and properties of fabric of silver-plated fibers%镀银纤维制备工艺及其织物性能的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林梦梦; 王云仪

    2014-01-01

    Silver-plated fiber , as a kind of conductive fiber , is widely used nowadays .The preparation of silver-plated fiber by electroless plating and its application fields were introduced .To provide a reference for the development and application of silver-plated fiber , progress of studies on anti-electromagnetic radiation property , anti-bacterial property and anti-static property of fabric of silver-plated fibers was reviewed.%镀银纤维是目前应用较广的一种导电纤维。介绍了化学镀银技术中的还原法制备镀银纤维的工艺以及镀银纤维的应用领域。综述了镀银纤维织物在防电磁辐射、抗菌性和抗静电性等方面的研究进展,为镀银纤维的开发及应用提供参考。

  8. Protection mechanisms of the iron-plated armor of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent gastropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Haimin; Dao, Ming; Imholt, Timothy; Huang, Jamie; Wheeler, Kevin; Bonilla, Alejandro; Suresh, Subra; Ortiz, Christine

    2010-01-19

    Biological exoskeletons, in particular those with unusually robust and multifunctional properties, hold enormous potential for the development of improved load-bearing and protective engineering materials. Here, we report new materials and mechanical design principles of the iron-plated multilayered structure of the natural armor of Crysomallon squamiferum, a recently discovered gastropod mollusc from the Kairei Indian hydrothermal vent field, which is unlike any other known natural or synthetic engineered armor. We have determined through nanoscale experiments and computational simulations of a predatory attack that the specific combination of different materials, microstructures, interfacial geometries, gradation, and layering are advantageous for penetration resistance, energy dissipation, mitigation of fracture and crack arrest, reduction of back deflections, and resistance to bending and tensile loads. The structure-property-performance relationships described are expected to be of technological interest for a variety of civilian and defense applications.

  9. Iron-based alloy and nitridation treatment for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Yang, Bing [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-11-09

    A corrosion resistant electrically conductive component that can be used as a bipolar plate in a PEM fuel cell application is composed of an alloy substrate which has 10-30 wt. % Cr, 0.5 to 7 wt. % V, and base metal being Fe, and a continuous surface layer of chromium nitride and vanadium nitride essentially free of base metal. A oxide layer of chromium vanadium oxide can be disposed between the alloy substrate and the continuous surface nitride layer. A method to prepare the corrosion resistant electrically conductive component involves a two-step nitridization sequence by exposing the alloy to a oxygen containing gas at an elevated temperature, and subsequently exposing the alloy to an oxygen free nitrogen containing gas at an elevated temperature to yield a component where a continuous chromium nitride layer free of iron has formed at the surface.

  10. Microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of nano iron oxide/iron-coated activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber, and silica, with arsenic adsorption studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combustion synthesis of iron oxide/iron coated carbons such as activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber and silica is described. The reactions were carried out in alumina crucibles using a Panasonic kitchen microwave with inverter technology, and the reaction process was com...

  11. Feature guided waves (FGW) in fiber reinforced composite plates with 90° transverse bends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xudong; Ratassepp, Madis; Fan, Zheng; Manogharan, Prabhakaran; Rajagopal, Prabhu

    2016-02-01

    Fiber reinforced composite materials have been increasingly used in high performance structures such as aircraft and large wind turbine blades. 90◦ composite bends are common in reinforcing structural elements, which are prone to defects such as delamination, crack, fatigue, etc. Current techniques are based on local inspection which makes the whole bend area scanning time consuming and tedious. This paper explores the feasibility of using feature guided waves (FGW) for rapid screening of 90◦ composite laminated bends. In this study, the behavior of the bend-guided wave in the anisotropic composite material is investigated through modal studies by applying the Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method, also 3D Finite Element (FE) simulations are performed to visualize the results and to obtain cross validation. To understand the influence of the anisotropy, three-dimensional dispersion surfaces of the guided modes in flat laminated plates are obtained, showing the dependence of the phase velocity with the frequency and the fiber orientation. S H0-like and S 0-like bend-guided modes are identified with energy concentrated in the bend region, limiting energy radiation into adjacent plates and thus achieving increased inspection length. Finally, parametric studies are carried out to further investigate the properties of these two bend-guided modes, demonstrating the variation of the group velocity, the energy concentration, and the attenuation with the frequency.

  12. Microwave-Assisted Combustion Synthesis of Nano Iron Oxide/Iron-Coated Activated Carbon, Anthracite, Cellulose Fiber, and Silica, with Arsenic Adsorption Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjuna N. Nadagouda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion synthesis of iron oxide/iron coated carbons such as activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber, and silica is described. The reactions were carried out in alumina crucibles using a Panasonic kitchen microwave with inverter technology, and the reaction process was completed within a few minutes. The method used no additional fuel and nitrate, which is present in the precursor itself, to drive the reaction. The obtained samples were then characterized with X-ray mapping, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS, selected area diffraction pattern (SAED, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and inductively coupled plasma (ICP spectroscopy. The size of the iron oxide/iron nanoparticle-coated activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber, and silica samples were found to be in the nano range (50–400 nm. The iron oxide/iron nanoparticles mostly crystallized into cubic symmetry which was confirmed by SAED. The XRD pattern indicated that iron oxide/iron nano particles existed in four major phases. That is, γ-Fe2O3, α-Fe2O3, Fe3O4, and Fe. These iron-coated activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber, and silica samples were tested for arsenic adsorption through batch experiments, revealing that few samples had significant arsenic adsorption.

  13. Biomechanics of Natural Fiber Green Composites as Internal Bone Plate rafted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Ahmed M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper was to introduce a new series of green composites as a plate for bone fracture applications. These green composites offer many advantages over traditional composites and biocomposites based on synthetic polymers. In current work, the new green composites bone plate based on two types of biopolymers involves biopolymethylmethacrylate thermoplastic material and bioepoxy thermosetting material reinforced with randomly oriented corn natural fibers at different weight fractions (5, 10, 15, and 20% were fabricated by hand lay–up technique. Four forms of green composites ; treated and untreated corn biopolymethylmethacrylate groups A and B respectively, treated and untreated corn bioepoxy groups C and D respectively were investigated. The mechanical properties were tested (tensile, compression, and compact tension under a flow of phosphate buffered saline PBS at 37 °C has been reported. The experimental results showed that the green composites group A have the best mechanical properties than other groups under PBS condition while the green composites group D have the weak mechanical properties due to plastization by immersion in PBS solution. Also, the analysis of femur bone fracture plates carried out by applying finite element method FEM using the ANSYS 16 software package.

  14. Effect of Slope Plate Variable and Reheating on the Semi-Solid Structure of Ductile Cast Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Nili-Ahmadabadi; F. Pahlevani; P. Babaghorbani

    2008-01-01

    Semi-solid metal casting and forming is a promising production method for a wide range of metal alloys. In spite of many applications for semi-solid processed light alloys, few works have reported on the semi-solid processing of iron and steel. In this research, an inclined plate was used to change the dendritic structure of iron to globular. The effects of the length and slope of the plate on the casting structure were examined. The results show that the process effectively changes the dendritic structure to globular. A sloped plate angle of 7.5° and length of 560 mm with a cooling rate of 67 K·s-1 gave the optimum graphite nodu-larity and solid particle globularity. The results also show that the sloped plate more easily prevents inocu-lant fading since the total time processing is rather short. In addition the semi-solid ductile cast iron prepared using the inclined plate method was reheated to examine the effect of reheating conditions on the micro-structure and coarsening kinetics of the alloy. The solid fractions at different reheating temperatures and holding times were used to find the optimum reheating temperature range.

  15. Surface reactivity, cytotoxicity, and transforming potency of iron-covered compared to untreated refractory ceramic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Zoé; Poirot, Odile; Danière, Marie-Céleste; Terzetti, Francine; Binet, Stéphane; Tomatis, Maura; Fubini, Bice

    2002-12-13

    Untreated and iron-coated refractory ceramic fibers (RCFs) 1, 3, and 4 were examined for their potential to generate free radicals and to catalyze hydrogen peroxide decomposition in cell-free assays and were compared for cytotoxic and transforming potencies in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell system. Coating with a high quantity of iron increased the capability of RCFs to generate hydroxyl radicals and to catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. In the SHE cells, the untreated RCFs had varying ability to induce inhibition of cell proliferation, cytotoxicity (as measured by the colony-forming efficiency, CE) and morphological transformation, in a concentration-dependent manner. According to cytotoxic and transforming potencies, they ranged as follows: RCF3 > RCF1 > RCF4. The lethal concentration 50 (LC50; decrease of CE to 50% of controls after 7 d of treatment) expressed per number of RCF3 and RCF1/cm(2) of culture dish was 2.5 x 10(4) and 3.7 x 10(4), respectively, whereas RCF4 was not cytotoxic up to the highest concentration tested (23.7 x 10(4) fibers/cm(2)). At LC50, RCF3 was 1.4-fold more transforming than RCF1, and the weakest, RCF4, induced less than 1% transformation. Iron coating of RCF1 and RCF3 markedly attenuated their cytostatic, cytotoxic, and transforming potencies without a linear concentration-transformation relationship. In contrast, iron coating of RCF4 affected slightly its low transforming potency, although the growth inhibitory effect was reduced. The observed decrease rather than increase in the cytotoxic and transforming potencies of the active samples RCF1 and RCF3 by their coating with large amounts of ferric iron suggests that it is not the quantity or any form of iron on the surface of fibers but the iron, even in trace, in a particular redox and coordinate state that might play a role in the fiber's surface reactivity with regard to the biological material. Surface chemical functions involved in the interaction with the cell

  16. Consumption of carbon fiber plates in the reinforced concrete beams strengthened with CFPs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BU Liangtao; SONG Li; SHI Chuxian

    2007-01-01

    Four-point bending flexural tests were conducted to one full-size reinforced concrete (RC) beam and three full-size RC beams strengthened with carbon fiber plates (CFPs).The experimental results showed that the consumption of CFP had significant effects on failure modes and the flexural capacity.An analytical procedure,based on the limit failure ode and ductility,was presented to predict the applied area of CFP.An analytical program,based on Smith-Teng model and Cheng-Teng model,was provided to calculate the bonding length of CFP.The test results are used to validate the proposed procedure.The results are also applied to the design and construction of RC beam strengthened with CFP.

  17. Effects of thermal treatments with a curling iron on hair fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetsch, S B; Kamath, Y K

    2004-01-01

    The effect of curling hair with a curling iron has been investigated. Possibilities of thermal damage with repeated curling according to, and in violation of, the manufacturer's specifications have been studied. The propensity of hair surface to damage depends on the moisture content of the hair, and these experiments have been conducted in both wet and dry conditions, with and without application of tension, and with short or prolonged times. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination revealed that fibers treated under the dry condition (50% RH) show radial and axial cracking along with scale edge fusion. Similar thermal treatment on wet hair resulted in severe damage of the type described above, as well as bubbling and buckling of the cuticle due to the formation and escaping of steam from the fiber. Fibers subjected to repeated curling in the dry condition show slight increases in tensile mechanical properties, characteristic of a crosslinked fiber. Fibers treated with conditioners show an improvement in characteristic life, especially in the case of low-molecular-weight conditioners, such as CETAB, which can penetrate into the hair fiber (shown by TOF-SIMS analysis).

  18. Quantification of defects depth in glass fiber reinforced plastic plate by infrared lock-in thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjit, Shrestha; Kim, Won Tae [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Man Yong [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The increasing use of composite materials in various industries has evidenced the need for development of more effective nondestructive evaluation methodologies in order to reduce rejected parts and to optimize production cost. Infrared thermography is a noncontact, fast and reliable non-destructive evaluation technique that has received vast and growing attention for diagnostic and monitoring in the recent years. This paper describes the quantitative analysis of artificial defects in Glass fiber reinforced plastic plate by using Lockin infrared thermography. The experimental analysis was performed at several excitation frequencies to investigate the sample ranging from 2.946 Hz down to 0.019 Hz and the effects of each excitation frequency on defect detachability. The four point method was used in post processing of every pixel of thermal images using the MATLAB programming language. The relationship between the phase contrast with defects depth and area was examined. Finally, phase contrast method was used to calculate the defects depth considering the thermal diffusivity of the material being inspected and the excitation frequency for which the defect becomes visible. The obtained results demonstrated the effectiveness of Lock-in infrared thermography as a powerful measurement technique for the inspection of Glass fiber reinforced plastic structures.

  19. A polydopamine-modified optical fiber SPR biosensor using electroless-plated gold films for immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Se; Wang, Libing; Su, Rongxin; Liu, Boshi; Huang, Renliang; Qi, Wei; He, Zhimin

    2015-12-15

    A sensitive and stable electroless-plated gold film for the preparation of an optical fiber surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor is presented in this work, together with a facile antibody immobilization method. Gold nanoparticles were uniformly adsorbed onto the surface of an optical fiber forming a film with a thickness of approximately 56.3 nm. The sensor had a high sensitivity with 2054 nm/RIU and 3980 nm/RIU in the refractive index ranges of 1.333-1.359 and 1.359-1.386, respectively. An SPR biosensor was developed based on polydopamine-modified gold film (PDA-Au), which was fabricated by a simple and quick spontaneous polymerization of dopamine (DA) on the gold film. When goat anti-human IgG antibodies were immobilized, the PDA-Au surface had a larger resonant wavelength shift of 66.21 nm compared with the traditional 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid-modified gold film (MUA-Au) surface. In addition, the PDA-Au surface enabled the sensitive and selective determination of human IgG down to a concentration of 2 μg mL(-1) with a high sensitivity of 0.41 nm per μg mL(-1). The PDA-Au surface exhibited an approximately four fold higher sensitivity and an about seven fold lower LOD than the MUA-Au surface to human IgG.

  20. Scattering of Lamb waves by cracks in a composite graphite fiber-reinforced epoxy plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratton, Robert; Datta, Subhendu K.; Shah, Arvind

    1990-01-01

    Recent investigations of space construction techniques have explored the used of composite materials in the construction of space stations and platforms. These composites offer superior strength to weight ratio and are thermally stable. For example, a composite material being considered is laminates of graphite fibers in an epoxy matrix. The overall effective elastic constants of such a medium can be calculated from fiber and matrix properties by using an effective modulus theory as shown in Datta, el. al. The investigation of propagation and scattering of elastic waves in composite materials is necessary in order to develop an ability to characterize cracks and predict the reliability of composite structures. The objective of this investigation is the characterization of a surface breaking crack by ultrasonic techniques. In particular, the use of Lamb waves for this purpose is studied here. The Lamb waves travel through the plate, encountering a crack, and scatter. Of interest is the modeling of the scattered wave in terms of the Lamb wave modes. The direct problem of propagation and scattering of Lamb waves by a surface breaking crack has been analyzed. This would permit an experimentalist to characterize the crack by comparing the measured response to the analytical model. The plate is assumed to be infinite in the x and y directions with a constant thickness in the z direction. The top and bottom surfaces are traction free. Solving the governing wave equations and using the stress-free boundary conditions results in the dispersion equation. This equation yields the guided modes in the homogeneous plate. The theoretical model is a hybrid method that combines analytical and finite elements techniques to describe the scattered displacements. A finite region containing the defects is discretized by finite elements. Outside the local region, the far field solution is expressed as a Fourier summation of the guided modes obtained from the dispersion equation

  1. Chitosan Interaction with Iron from Yoghurt Using an In Vitro Digestive Model: Comparative Study with Plant Dietary Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffolo, Marina Dello; Martino, Miriam; Bevilacqua, Alicia; Montero, Mirta; Rodríguez, María Susana; Albertengo, Liliana

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the interaction of chitosan with iron from yoghurt by an in vitro gastrointestinal tract model. Taking into account that chitosan is a polysaccharide included in fiber definition by Codex Alimentarius; chitosan behavior was studied and compared with different plant fiber (wheat, bamboo, apple, psyllium and inulin) behaviors, in the same in vitro conditions. Ferrous sulfate was added to yoghurts with each type of fiber. The gastric environment was simulated with HCl (pH 1.0–2.0). The duodenal environment was simulated with NaHCO3 (pH 6.8–7.2) and a dialysis tubing cellulose membrane. Results showed that chitosan had the highest iron retention percentages (53.2% at 30 min; 56.8% at 60 min) interacting in a more pronounced manner with iron than the plant fibers used in this work. PMID:21845102

  2. Microwave-Assisted Combustion Synthesis of Nano Iron Oxide/Iron-Coated Activated Carbon, Anthracite, Cellulose Fiber, and Silica, with Arsenic Adsorption Studies

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Combustion synthesis of iron oxide/iron coated carbons such as activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber, and silica is described. The reactions were carried out in alumina crucibles using a Panasonic kitchen microwave with inverter technology, and the reaction process was completed within a few minutes. The method used no additional fuel and nitrate, which is present in the precursor itself, to drive the reaction. The obtained samples were then characterized with X-ray mapping, scanning...

  3. 吸波铁纤维的结构及性能%Microstructure and properties of radar absorbing iron fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏赛男; 李瑞洲; 陈利; 姚继明; 彭志远

    2013-01-01

    The application of radar absorbing materials currently focuses on the field of hard materials. The development of iron fiber-based flexible radar absorbing fabrics that can meet the requirements of special military environments has great significance. Aiming at the radar absorbing properties and spinnability of iron fibers, the microstructure, micro-element types and contents of iron fibers were tested, and the experimental results showed that cross-section of the iron fibers made by round copper method exhibits irregular shape, the fibers have multiple longitudinal channels, and their morphology and composition facilitate the radar absorbing properties. The mechanical properties and friction properties of iron fibers with a diameter of 10 μm were compared with those of stainless steel fibers with a diameter of 18 μm, and the spinnability of the iron fibers was predicted.%目前吸波材料应用的范围主要集中在硬质材料上,用铁纤维开发满足特殊军事环境下的柔性吸波织物具有重要的研究意义.为此,针对铁纤维的吸波性能和可纺性能,对铁纤维的微观形态及微区成分元素种类、含量进行测试.结果表明,圆铜法生产的铁纤维截面呈不规则异形,纵向有多道沟槽,其微观形态和组分对纤维吸波性能具有促进作用.对直径10 μm铁纤维与直径18 μm不锈钢纤维的力学性能、摩擦性能进行对比,预测了铁纤维顺利纺纱的可行性.

  4. The group velocity variation of Lamb wave in fiber reinforced composite plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Sang-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Ki; Lee, Jung-Ju

    2007-12-01

    Experimentally measured Lamb wave group velocities in composite materials with anisotropic characteristics are not the same as the theoretical group velocities which is calculated with the Lamb wave dispersion equation. This discrepancy arises from the fact that the angle between the group velocity direction and the phase velocity direction in anisotropic materials exists. Wave propagation in a composite material with anisotropic characteristics should be considered with respect to magnitude correction in addition to direction correction. In this study, S0 mode phase velocity dispersion curves are depicted with the variation of degree with respect to the fiber direction using a Lamb wave dispersion relation in the unidirectional, bidirectional, and quasi-isotropic composite plates. Slowness surface is sketched by the reciprocal value of the phase velocity curves. The magnitude and direction of the group velocity could be calculated from the slowness surface. The recalculated group velocities with consideration of the magnitude and direction from the slowness surface are compared with experimentally measured group velocities. The proposed method shows good agreements with theoretical and experimental results.

  5. Impact Localization Method for Composite Plate Based on Low Sampling Rate Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Pang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG sensors have been increasingly used in the field of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM in recent years. In this paper, we proposed an impact localization algorithm based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD and Particle Swarm Optimization-Support Vector Machine (PSO-SVM to achieve better localization accuracy for the FBG-embedded plate. In our method, EMD is used to extract the features of FBG signals, and PSO-SVM is then applied to automatically train a classification model for the impact localization. Meanwhile, an impact monitoring system for the FBG-embedded composites has been established to actually validate our algorithm. Moreover, the relationship between the localization accuracy and the distance from impact to the nearest sensor has also been studied. Results suggest that the localization accuracy keeps increasing and is satisfactory, ranging from 93.89% to 97.14%, on our experimental conditions with the decrease of the distance. This article reports an effective and easy-implementing method for FBG signal processing on SHM systems of the composites.

  6. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    ’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through......Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  7. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty......’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  8. Optimization and kinetics of electroless Ni-P-B plating of quartz optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Boquan; Xiao, Lin; Hu, Shufen; Peng, Jian; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Minwei

    2009-08-01

    The preparation of Ni-P-B coatings on surface of quartz optical fibers was carried out using electroless plating method. The effects of the concentrations of nickel chloride, sodium hypophosphite, potassium borohydride, ethylenediamine, cadmium sulfate and temperature on the quality of Ni-P-B coatings were investigated by orthogonal experiment and their optimal values were determined to be: 0.1 mol L -1, 0.094 mol L -1, 0.185 mol L -1, 0.36 mol L -1, 5.68 × 10 -4 mol L -1 and 90 °C, respectively. The effect of coarsening time of the naked fiber on the quality of Ni-P-B coatings was also researched and the optimal coarsening time was determined to be 15 min. Stereomicroscope, Scanning Electron Microscope and X-ray diffractometer were used to characterize the apparentness, morphology and structure of the prepared Ni-P-B coatings. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, Thermal Shock Method and Gravimetric Analysis Method were employed to analyze the composition, force of adhesion and solderability of the coatings, respectively. The results showed that a Ni-P-B coating with low surface roughness, good strength of adhesion, low resistivity and good solderability was successfully prepared. The kinetic models (Ni-P-B deposition rate equations) of the process were established as v=7.95×10-6cA0.830cB0.428cC-0.288cD-0.645cE0..02exp{26788(T-298)298RT; v=1.03×10-7c}/{A0.830cB0.428cC-0.288cD-0.645cE-0.614exp 26788(T-298)298RT. The theoretical values calculated by the models were proved to be basically consistent with the practical measurements through experimental verification.

  9. Sisal natural fiber reinforcement influenced with experimental and numerical investigation onto vibration and mechanical properties of composite plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZamanAbudAlmalikAbud Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study interested in preparation of composite material specimen by using natural fibers sisal and polyester resin. The specimens were pretreated in different of volume fraction of sisal and resins which are were (05-35 % sisal, respectively. Specimen model fabricated had plate shape, where, can be applying vibration test and tensile test. Specimens were tested by using tensile properties test. Results reveal that the best specimen had mechanical properties was (A which are (35-65 % sisal-resin, where, specimen appeared best modulus elasticity in longitudinal fibers E1 (5.925 Gpa so lower value modulus elasticity in transverse fibers E2 (4.860 Gpa for same specimen. (A specimen gives stronger material compared with at each of specimens, which indicates high toughness and strength of materials because reinforcement of sisal fibers use of a higher percentage of fiber 35%. Specimen were tested vibration test as types of fixations of specimen, result reveal the natural frequency high at clamped supported four edges (CCCC, (202.73Hz compared at each of another specimens, because (CCCC specimen had high volume fraction of plant fiber sisal and less volume fraction of polyester resin (35-65 % sisal-polyester. Natural frequency was obtained by using numerical analyzing at running ANSYS program (VER.14. the results finding, there are similarity between behavior of composite material samples from where, natural frequency and volume fraction , results reveal that numerical analyzing of plate composite materials was little better from experimental work but both of tests in simulation and experimental test appear same of final results which (CCCC specimen was better at of each specimens to apply strength of materials and whenever increasing volume fraction of sisal obtained high strength of material.

  10. Point of Impact Prediction in Anisotropic Fiber Reinforced Composite Plates from the Acoustic Emission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, T.; Das, S.; Jata, K. V.

    2008-02-01

    A newly developed optimization based method is followed to locate the point of impact in anisotropic composite plates for which conventional triangulation technique fails. The new technique works for both anisotropic and isotropic plates. Experiments are carried out by dropping a steel ball on a graphite-epoxy composite plate and picking up acoustic signals by passive transducers adhesively bonded to the plate at different locations. Predicted points of impact are compared with the true impact point.

  11. Simulation studies of hadron energy resolution as a function of iron plate thickness at INO-ICAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, S. M.; Ghosh, A.; Devi, M. M.; Kaur, D.; Choubey, S.; Dighe, A.; Indumathi, D.; Murthy, M. V. N.; Naimuddin, Md

    2014-09-01

    We report on a detailed simulation study of the hadron energy resolution as a function of the thickness of the absorber plates for the proposed Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). We compare the hadron resolutions obtained with absorber thicknesses in the range 1.5-8 cm for neutrino interactions in the energy range 2-15 GeV, which is relevant to hadron production in atmospheric neutrino interactions. We find that at lower energies, the thickness dependence of energy resolution is steeper than at higher energies, however there is a thickness-independent contribution that dominates at the lower thicknesses discussed in this work. As a result, the gain in hadron energy resolution with decreasing plate thickness is marginal. We present the results in the form of fits to a function with energy-dependent exponent.

  12. Plate Rolling Modeling at Mill 5000 of OJSC ``Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel'' for Analysis and Optimization of Temperature Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salganik, V.; Shmakov, A.; Pesin, A.; Pustovoytov, D.

    2010-06-01

    Modeling of strip deflected mode and thermal state in rolling is an integral part of the technology and perspective rolling-mill machinery such as plate mill 5000 of the OJSC "Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel". To comprehend metal behavior in the deformation zone in the rough passes during plate rolling it is essential to assess the impact of various temperature factors on variations in field of stress and strain intensities as well as temperature fields in deformation. To do such researches in consideration of various software products and adequate results one of the most effective methods nowadays is regarded as the method of finite elements. The research shows modeling of roughing rolling of a pipe steel sheet with strength category X80 according to standard API-5L. In the research of the metal deflected mode software product DEFORM 2D has been used for the isothermal and nonisothermic process. The mathematical modeling allows revealing the impact of temperature field on the metal deflected mode in the rough passes in plate rolling. Supposedly, it is deformation heating that can have more impact on the ingot temperature profile in the finishing passes in controlled rolling of the pipe steel grades. It is defined by high percent reduction, rolling speeds; more area of heat exchange surface; less thickness and lower temperature of rolling. The results can be used to develop efficient modes of plate rolling of the pipe steels.

  13. Effect of Welding Parameters on GTA Weld Shape for Pure Iron Plate under Ar-O2 Mixed Shielding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanping LU; H.Fujii; K.Nogi

    2006-01-01

    Weld shape variation for different welding parameters is investigated on pure iron plate under gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding with argon-oxygen mixed shielding. Results showed that small addition of oxygen to the argon base shielding gas can effectively adjust the oxygen adsorption to the molten pool. An inward Marangoni convection occurs on the pool surface when the oxygen content in the weld pool is over the critical value,80×10-6, for pure iron plate under Ar-0.3%O2 mixed shielding. Low oxygen content in the weld pool changes the inward Marangoni to an outward direction under the Ar-0.1%O2 shielding. The GTA weld shape depends to a large extent on the pattern and strength of the Marangoni convection on the pool surface, which is determined by the content of surface active element, oxygen, in the weld pool and the welding parameters.The strength of the Marangoni convection on the liquid pool is a product of the temperature coefficient of the surface tension (dσ/dT) and the temperature gradient (dT/dr) on the pool surface. Different welding parameters will change the temperature distribution and gradient on the pool surface, and therefore, affect the strength of Marangoni convection and the weld shape.

  14. Strain coordination of quasi-plane-hypothesis for reinforced concrete beam strengthened by epoxy-bonded glass fiber reinforced plastic plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xian-tao; DING Ya-hong; WANG Xing-guo

    2006-01-01

    The testing of thirteen reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened by epoxy-bonded glass fiber reinforced plastic plate (GFRP) shows that the RC beam and the GFRP plate with epoxy bonding on it can work fairly well in coordination to each other. But there is relative slipping between RC beam and GFRP plate. And the strain of GFRP and steel rebar of RC beam satisfies the quasi-plane-hypothesis, that is, the strain of longitudinal fiber that parallels to the neutral axis of plated beam within the scope of effective height (h0) of the cross section is in direct proportion to the distance from the fiber to the neutral axis. The strain of GFRP and steel rebar satisfies the equation: εCFRP = Kεsteel.

  15. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  16. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of iron stored in the body become low, iron deficiency anemia sets in. Red blood cells become smaller and ... from the lungs throughout the body. Symptoms of iron deficiency anemia include tiredness and lack of energy, GI upset, ...

  17. Effects of slope plate variable and reheating on semi-solid structure of reheating on semi-solid structure of ductile cast iron

    OpenAIRE

    M. Nili-Ahmadabadi; Pahlevani, F.; P. Babaghorbani

    2008-01-01

    Semi-solid metal casting and forming are known as a promising process for a wide range of metal alloys production. In spite of growing application of semi-solid processed light alloys, a few works have been reported about semi-solid processing of iron and steel. In this research inclined plate was used to change dendritic structure of iron to globular one. The effects of length and slope of plate on the casting structure were examined. The results show that the process can effectively change ...

  18. Development of antibacterial knitted products with blended yarn of silver-plated fiber and cotton fiber%镀银纤维/棉混纺纱抗菌针织产品的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国华; 陈朱捷; 敖利民

    2013-01-01

    镀银纤维具有优异的抗菌性能,其针织面料的开发应用前景非常广阔。分析镀银纤维/棉混纺纱的外观特征和抗菌特点,并利用镀银纤维/棉混纺纱在单面针织机上开发了几种抗菌针织面料。测试结果表明,开发的镀银纤维/棉混纺纱针织面料具有良好的抗菌效果。%Silver-plated fiber has excellent antibacterial property , which makes its knitted fabrics have a vast potential for further development and application .The external appearance and antibacterial characteristics of blended yarn of silver-plated fiber and cotton fiber were analyzed .Several antibacterial knitted fabrics with blended yarn of silver-plated fiber and cotton fiber were developed.The test results show all the knitted fabrics with blended yarn of silver-plated fiber and cotton fiber have good antibacterial properties .

  19. Determination of Rate of Degradation of Iron Plates Due To Rust Using Image Processing -A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Choudhary

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: most of industries and bridges around us make use of iron for manufacturing their products. On the other hand corrosion is a natural process that deteriorates the integrity of iron surface. Therefore, rusting of iron takes place. To avoid unwanted accidents in industries and bridges, it is necessary to detect rusting in earlier stage, so that it can be prevented. Digital image processing for the detection of the rusting provides fast, accurate and objectives results. In this research paper, we have done a systematic review of algorithms that help us to detect the rust area from a metal (iron.it has been found that most of researches are bring their images, processing series in usage for this purpose due to its simplicity in implementing and due to fact the images help capturing the visual inspection process easily and due to the ground teeth. The image processing techniques explored by other peoples based on in-depth analysis, we have also proposed a novel technique to overcome the limitation.

  20. Determination of Rate of Degradation of Iron Plates due to Rust using Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Choudhary

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of industries and bridges around us make use of iron for manufacturing their products. On the other hand corrosion is a natural process that deteriorates the integrity of iron surface. Therefore, rusting of iron takes place. To avoid unwanted accidents in industries and bridges, it is necessary to detect rusting in earlier stage, so that it can be prevented. Digital image processing for the detection of the rusting provides fast, accurate and objectives results. In this research paper, we have done a systematic review of algorithms that help us to detect the rust area from a metal (iron.it has been found that most of researches are bring their images, processing series in usage for this purpose due to its simplicity in implementing and due to fact the images help capturing the visual inspection process easily and due to the ground teeth. The image processing techniques explored by other peoples based on in-depth analysis, we have also proposed a novel technique to overcome the limitation.

  1. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients with iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikmazkara, Ipek; Ugurlu, Seyda Karadeniz

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) on peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Materials and Methods: 102 female patients who had IDA (hemoglobin <12 g/dl, serum transferrin saturation <15%, serum iron <50 μg/dl, and serum ferritin <15 μg/dl) were enrolled in the study. Optic disc and RNFL parameters obtained by Cirrus high-definition OCT 4000 were compared with those of 49 age and sex-matched nonanemic individuals. The time between blood analysis and OCT measurements was 3.14 ± 5.6 (range, 0–28) days in the anemia group, and 3.5 ± 6.7 (range, 0–27) days in the control group (P = 0.76). Results: Average ages of 102 patients and 49 control subjects were 35.76 ± 10.112 (range, 18–66) years, and 36.08 ± 8.416 (range, 19–57) years (P = 0.850), respectively. The average RNFL thickness was 94.67 ± 9.380 in the anemia group, and 100.22 ± 9.12 in the control group (P = 0.001). Temporal, nasal, and lower quadrant average RNFL thicknesses of IDA group were thinner than the control group (P = 0.001, P = 0.013, P = 0.008). Upper quadrant RNFL thicknesses in IDA and control groups were similar. Correlation analysis revealed positive correlation between mean RNFL thickness and hemoglobin (r = 0.273), iron (r = 0.177), ferritin (r = 0.163), and transferrin saturations (r = 0.185), while a negative correlation was found between total iron binding capacity (r = −0.199) and mean RNFL thickness. Conclusions: Peripapillary RNFL thickness measured by OCT is thinner in adult female patients with IDA. It may have a significant influence on the management of many disorders such as glaucoma and neuro-ophthalmological diseases. PMID:27146929

  2. A comparison of different NDE signal processing techniques based on waveform entropies applied to long fiber-graphite/epoxy-plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larche, Michael; Prowant, Mathew; Bruillard, Paul; Hagge, Tobias; Fifield, Leonard S.; Hughes, Michael; Sun, Xin

    2017-04-01

    This study compares different approaches for imaging the internal architecture of graphite/epoxy composites using backscattered ultrasound. Two cases are studied. In the first, near-surface defects in a thin graphite/epoxy plates are imaged. The backscattered waveforms were used to produce peak-to-peak, logarithm of signal energy, as well as entropy images of different types. All of the entropy images exhibit better border delineation and defect contrast than either the peak-to-peak or the logarithm of signal energy. The best results are obtained using the joint entropy of the backscattered waveforms with a reference function. Two different references are examined. The first is a reflection of the insonifying pulse from a stainless steel reflector. The second is an approximate optimum obtained from an iterative parametric search. The joint entropy images produced using this reference exhibit three times the contrast obtained in previous studies. These plates were later destructively analyzed to determine size and location of near-surface defects and the results are found to agree with the defect location and shape as indicated by the entropy images. In the second study, images of long carbon fibers (50% by weight) in polypropylene thermoplastic were obtained as a first step toward ultrasonic determination of the distributions of fiber position and orientation.

  3. A Comparison of Different NDE Signal Processing Techniques Based on Waveform Entropies Applied to Long Fiber Graphite/Epoxy Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larche, Michael R.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Bruillard, Paul J.; Hagge, Tobias J.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Hughes, Michael S.; Sun, Xin

    2017-04-19

    This study compares different approaches for imaging the internal architecture of graphite/epoxy composites using backscattered ultrasound. Two cases are studied. In the first, near-surface defects in a thin graphite/epoxy plates are imaged. The same backscattered waveforms were used to produce peak-to-peak, logarithm of signal energy, as well as entropy images of different types. All of the entropy images exhibit better border delineation and defect contrast than the either peak-to-peak or logarithm of signal energy. The best results are obtained using the joint entropy of the backscattered waveforms with a reference function. Two different references are examined. The first is a reflection of the insonifying pulse from a stainless steel reflector. The second is an approximate optimum obtained from an iterative parametric search. The joint entropy images produced using this reference exhibit three times the contrast obtained in previous studies. These plates were later destructively analyzed to determine size and location of near-surface defects and the results found to agree with the defect location and shape as indicated by the entropy images. In the second study, images of long carbon graphite fibers (50% by weight) in polypropylene thermoplastic are obtained as a first step toward ultrasonic determination of the distributions of fiber position and orientation.

  4. Iron phthalocyanine supported on amidoximated PAN fiber as effective catalyst for controllable hydrogen peroxide activation in oxidizing organic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhenbang; Han, Xu; Zhao, Xiaoming; Yu, Jiantao; Xu, Hang

    2016-12-15

    Iron(II) phthalocyanine was immobilized onto amidoximated polyacrylonitrile fiber to construct a bioinspired catalytic system for oxidizing organic dyes by H2O2 activation. The amidoxime groups greatly helped to anchor Iron(II) phthalocyanine molecules onto the fiber through coordination interaction, which has been confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy analyses. Electron spin resonance studies indicate that the catalytic process of physically anchored Iron(II) phthalocyanine performed via a hydroxyl radical pathway, while the catalyst bonded Iron(II) phthalocyanine through coordination effect could selectively catalyze the H2O2 decomposition to generate high-valent iron-oxo species. This may result from the amidoxime groups functioning as the axial fifth ligands to favor the heterolytic cleavage of the peroxide OO bond. This feature also enables the catalyst to only degrade the dyes adjacent to the catalytic active centers and enhances the efficient utilization of H2O2. In addition, this catalyst could effectively catalyze the mineralization of organic dyes and can be easily recycled without any loss of activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Behaviour of Self-Standing CVD Diamond Film with Different Dominant Crystalline Surfaces in Thermal-Iron Plate Polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guang-Chao; ZHOU Zu-Yuan; LI Bin; ZHOU You-Liang; J. Askri; LI Cheng-Ming; TANG Wei-Zhong; TONG Yu-Mei; LU Fan-Xiu

    2006-01-01

    @@ Self-standing CVD diamond films with different dominant crystalline surfaces are polished by the thermal-iron plate polishing method. The influence of the dominant crystalline surfaces on polishing efficiency is investigated by measuring the removal rate and final roughness. The smallest rms roughness of 0.14μm is measured with smallest removal rate in the films with the initial (220) dominant crystalline surface. Activation energy for the polishing is analysed by the Arrhenius relation. It is found that the values are 170kJ/mol, 222kJ/mol and 214kJ/mol for the film with t hree different dominant crystalline surfaces. Based on these values, the polishing cause is regarded as the graphitization-controlling process. In the experiment, we find that transformation of the dominant crystalline surfaces from (111) to (220) always appears in the polishing process when we polish the (111) dominant surface.

  6. Nonlinear dynamic response and active control of fiber metal laminated plates with piezoelectric actuators and sensors in unsteady temperature field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xuefei; Fu, Yiming; Chen, Yang

    2015-05-01

    Based on the higher order shear deformation theory and the geometric nonlinear theory, the nonlinear motion equations, to which the effects of the positive and negative piezoelectric and the thermal are introduced by piezoelectric fiber metal laminated (FML) plates in an unsteady temperature, are established by Hamilton’s variational principle. Then, the control algorithm of negative-velocity feedback is applied to realize the vibration control of the piezoelectric FML plates. During the solving process, firstly, the formal functions of the displacements that fulfilled the boundary conditions are proposed. Then, heat conduction equations and nonlinear differential equations are dealt with using the differential quadrature (DQ) and Galerkin methods, respectively. On the basis of the previous processing, the time domain is dispersed by the Newmark-β method. Finally, the whole problem can be investigated by the iterative method. In the numerical examples, the influence of the applied voltage, the temperature loading and geometric parameters on the nonlinear dynamic response of the piezoelectric FML plates is analyzed. Meanwhile, the effect of feedback control gain and the position of the piezoelectric layer, the initial deflection and the external temperature on the active control effect of the piezoelectric layers has been studied. The model development and the research results can serve as a basis for nonlinear vibration analysis of the FML structures.

  7. Additive fiber-cerclages in proximal humeral fractures stabilized by locking plates: no effect on fracture stabilization and rotator cuff function in human shoulder specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Christine; Hurschler, Christof; Rechi, Louise; Vosshenrich, Rolf; Lill, Helmut

    2009-08-01

    The effect of additive fiber-cerclages in proximal humeral fractures stabilized by locking plates on fracture stabilization and rotator cuff function is unclear. Here it was assessed in a human cadaver study. 24 paired human shoulder specimens were harvested from median 77-year-old (range 66-85) female donors. An unstable 3-part fracture model with an intact rotator cuff was developed. 1 specimen of each pair received an additive fiber-cerclage of the rotator cuff after plate fixation, and the other one received a plate fixation without an additive fiber-cerclage. Force-controlled hydraulic cylinders were used to simulate physiological rotator cuff tension, while a robot-assisted shoulder simulator performed 4 relevant cases of load: (1) axial loading at 0 degrees, (2) glenohumeral abduction at 60 degrees, (3) internal rotation at 0 degrees abduction, and (4) external rotation at 0 degrees abduction, and imitated hanging arm weight during loading without affecting joint kinematics. A 3-dimensional real-time interfragmentary motion analysis was done in fracture gaps between the greater tuberosity and the head, as well as subcapital. The capacity of the rotator cuff to strain was analyzed with an optical system. Interfragmentary motion was similar between the groups with and without fiber-cerclages, in both fracture gaps and in any of the cases of load. Cerclages did not impair the capacity of the rotator cuff to strain. INTERPRETATION; Provided that unstable 3-part fractures are reduced and stabilized anatomically by a locking plate, additive fiber-cerclages do not reduce interfragmentary motion. Additive fiber-cerclages may be necessary in locking plate osteosyntheses of multiple-fractured greater tuberosities or lesser tuberosity fractures that cannot be fixed sufficiently by the plate.

  8. Effects of slope plate variable and reheating on semi-solid structure of reheating on semi-solid structure of ductile cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nili-Ahmadabadi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Semi-solid metal casting and forming are known as a promising process for a wide range of metal alloys production. In spite of growing application of semi-solid processed light alloys, a few works have been reported about semi-solid processing of iron and steel. In this research inclined plate was used to change dendritic structure of iron to globular one. The effects of length and slope of plate on the casting structure were examined. The results show that the process can effectively change the dendritic structure to globular. In the slope plate angle of 7.5° and length of 560 mm with cooling rate of 67Ks-1 the optimum nodular graphite and solid globular particle were achieved.The results also show that by using slope plate inoculant fading can be prevented more easily since the total time of process is rather short. In addition, the semi-solid ductile cast iron prepared by inclined plate method, was reheated to examine the effect of reheating conditions on the microstructure and coarsening kinetics of the alloy. Solid fraction at different reheating temperatures and holding time was obtained and based on these results the optimum reheating temperature range was determined.

  9. Innovative design of composite structures: The use of curvilinear fiber format to improve buckling resistance of composite plates with central circular holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, M. W.; Lee, H. H.

    1990-01-01

    The gains in buckling performance are explored that can be achieved by deviating from the conventional straightline fiber format and considering the situation whereby the fiber orientation in a layer, or a group of layers, can vary from point to point. The particular situation studied is a simply supported square plate with a centrally located hole loaded in compression. By using both a sensitivity analysis and a gradient-search technique, fiber orientation in a number of regions of the plate are selected so as to increase the buckling load relative to baseline straightline designs. The sensitivity analysis is used to determine which regions of the plate have the most influence on buckling load, and the gradient search is used to find the design that is believed to represent the absolute maximum buckling load for the conditions prescribed. Convergence studies and sensitivity of the final design are discussed. By examining the stress resultant contours, it is shown how the curvilinear fibers move the load away from the unsupported hole region of the plate to the supported edges, thus increasing the buckling capacity. The tensile capacity of the improved buckling design is investigated, and it is shown that both tensile capacity and buckling capacity can be improved with the curvilinear fiber concept.

  10. Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Moen, I W; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    2014-01-01

    The interest in the role of ferrous iron in diabetes pathophysiology has been revived by recent evidence of iron as an important determinant of pancreatic islet inflammation and as a biomarker of diabetes risk and mortality. The iron metabolism in the β-cell is complex. Excess free iron is toxic......, but at the same time, iron is required for normal β-cell function and thereby glucose homeostasis. In the pathogenesis of diabetes, iron generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) by participating in the Fenton chemistry, which can induce oxidative damage and apoptosis. The aim of this review is to present...... and discuss recent evidence, suggesting that iron is a key pathogenic factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a focus on inflammatory pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell death is not fully understood, but may include iron-induced ROS formation resulting in dedifferentiation by activation...

  11. On design of fiber-nets and orientation for eigenfrequency optimization of plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2006-01-01

    of the discretization and the ratio between the amounts of material put in the two directions of the fiber-net. The optimizations are performed using the finite element method for analysis and the optimization approach is a two-step method. In the first step we first find the best design on the basis of a recursive...

  12. A comparison of field-dependent rheological properties between spherical and plate-like carbonyl iron particles-based magneto-rheological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan Shilan, Salihah; Amri Mazlan, Saiful; Ido, Yasushi; Hajalilou, Abdollah; Jeyadevan, Balachandran; Choi, Seung-Bok; Azhani Yunus, Nurul

    2016-09-01

    This work proposes different sizes of the plate-like particles from conventional spherical carbonyl iron (CI) particles by adjusting milling time in the ball mill process. The ball mill process to make the plate-like particles is called a solid-state powder processing technique which involves repeated welding, fracturing and re-welding of powder particles in a high-energy ball mill. The effect of ball milling process on the magnetic behavior of CI particles is firstly investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer. It is found form this investigation that the plate-like particles have higher saturation magnetization (about 8%) than that of the spherical particles. Subsequently, for the investigation on the sedimentation behavior the cylindrical measurement technique is used. It is observed from this measurement that the plate-like particles show slower sedimentation rate compared to the spherical particles indicating higher stability of the MR fluid. The field-dependent rheological properties of MR fluids based on the plate-like particles are then investigated with respect to the milling time which is directly connected to the size of the plate-like particles. In addition, the field-dependent rheological properties such as the yield stress are evaluated and compared between the plate-like particles based MR fluids and the spherical particles based MR fluid. It is found that the yield shear stress of the plate-like particles based MR fluid is increased up to 270% compared to the spherical particles based MR fluid.

  13. Numerical simulation of fiber suspension flow between parallel plates; Sen`i gan`yu ryutai no heiko heibankan nagare no suchi simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chono, S.; Makino, M. [Fukui University, Fukui (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-09-25

    Two-dimensional fiber suspension flow between parallel plates was simulated using the Dinh-Armstrong constitutive equation for semi-concentrated fiber suspensions. Sixth-order and fourth-order closure approximations were also evaluated. The velocity profile for the fiber suspension flow is flat compared with Newtonian flow, because the preferred angle for fibers is large in the channel center region, resulting in an increase in the local viscosity. The order parameter decreases and the preferred angle becomes large with increasing fiber concentration. The velocity field is accurately predicted by the equations with quadratic closure approximations used in this study, whereas the approximations do not provide satisfactory results for the orientation field. With respect to the order parameter, sixth-order closure approximation gives slightly less accurate predictions than fourth-order approximation. 22 refs., 13 figs.

  14. Microstructure Effects of Ultrasonic Waves in a Fiber Reinforced Composite Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jun-Bo; TANG Li-Guo; CHENG Jian-Chun; Yves Berthelot

    2000-01-01

    The microstructure effect of ultrasonic waves in a unidirectional titanium graphite composite is analyzed by the mode energy conversions of the laser-generated ultrasonic Lamb wvaves. The carrying energy of each mode in the Lamb wvaves is calculated quantitatively by the time-frequency filtering technique of the Wigner distribution. We found that the energy conversions among modes have happened in the process of propagation of ultrasonic Lamb wave. These energy conversions are attributed to microstructure scattering of ultrasonic wave by the fibers in a fiber reinforced composite material. This work will provide a quantitative method of ultrasonic characterizationof microstructure feature of the composite materials by the laser-generated Lamb wave technique.

  15. PREDICTION OF MODE Ⅰ CRACK PROPAGATION DIRECTION IN CARBON-FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITE PLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张少琴; 杨维阳

    2004-01-01

    A newly developed Z fracture criterion for the composite materials was introduced,the new concepts of in-plane average strain,in-plane dilatational strain energy density factor and reciprocal characteristic function were presented.Many experimental results show that the Z fracture criterion can be well used to predict the crack propagating direction for mode Ⅰ crack in carbon-fiber reinforced composite laminates.

  16. Research on 3D Braided Nickel Plated Carbon Fiber/epoxy Resin Composites and Their Electromagnetic Protection Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Zhaoming; WANG Qingguo; LEI Yisan; ZHANG Ruigang

    2013-01-01

    To develop electromagnetic protection composites with integrated structure-function properties,the three-dimension (3D) braided nickel plated carbon fiber/epoxy resin (Ni-CF3D/EP) composites were prepared based on 3D five-directional braiding,unitary nickel plating and mold compression shaping.The electromagnetic protection properties of Ni-CF3D/EP composites including shielding effectiveness (SE) and reflection loss against plane electromagnetic wave,shielding properties against electromagnetic pulse (EMP) were investigated.The test results show that the novel composites have good electromagnetic protection properties in a wide frequency range of 14 kHz~ 18 GHz with SE of 42 dB~95 dB,the absorption bandwidth of-5 dB in 2 GHz~ 18 GHz can reach 10 GHz and the pulse peak SE against EMP is 43.7 dB which can reduce the electromagnetic energy greatly.Meanwhile,the mechanic properties were also investigated and the results indicate that the Ni-CF3D/EP composites can replace metal materials for loading-bearing structural applications because of their excellent mechanic properties.

  17. Study of polarization properties of fiber-optics probes with use of a binary phase plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alferov, S V; Khonina, S N; Karpeev, S V

    2014-04-01

    We conduct a theoretical and experimental study of the distribution of the electric field components in the sharp focal domain when rotating a zone plate with a π-phase jump placed in the focused beam. Comparing the theoretical and experimental results for several kinds of near-field probes, an analysis of the polarization sensitivity of different types of metal-coated aperture probes is conducted. It is demonstrated that with increasing diameter of the non-metal-coated tip part there occurs an essential redistribution of sensitivity in favor of the transverse electric field components and an increase of the probe's energy throughput.

  18. Deflection and Vibration Control of Laminated Plates Using Extension and Shear Actuated Fiber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Raja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of surface bonded and embedded piezoelectric composite actuators is examined through a numerical study. Modelling schemes are therefore developed by applying the isoparametric finite element approach to idealise extension-bending and shear-bending couplings due to piezoelectric actuations. A modal control based linear quadratic regulator is employed to perform the active vibration control studies. Influence of shear actuation direction and its width has been examined and interesting deflection patterns are noticed. The through width SAFC develops a constant deflection beyond its length along the laminated plate length. In contrast, segmented SAFC produces a moderate to linearly varying deflection pattern. MFC actuators have shown promising features in vibration control performances. Nevertheless, closed loop damping presents the efficiency of SAFC in the vibration control application. It is therefore envisaged that optimally actuated smart laminates can be designed using MFC and SAFC to efficiently counteract the disturbance forces.

  19. Iron Chelators and Antioxidants Regenerate Neuritic Tree and Nigrostriatal Fibers of MPP+/MPTP-Lesioned Dopaminergic Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabla Aguirre

    Full Text Available Neuronal death in Parkinson's disease (PD is often preceded by axodendritic tree retraction and loss of neuronal functionality. The presence of non-functional but live neurons opens therapeutic possibilities to recover functionality before clinical symptoms develop. Considering that iron accumulation and oxidative damage are conditions commonly found in PD, we tested the possible neuritogenic effects of iron chelators and antioxidant agents. We used three commercial chelators: DFO, deferiprone and 2.2'-dypyridyl, and three 8-hydroxyquinoline-based iron chelators: M30, 7MH and 7DH, and we evaluated their effects in vitro using a mesencephalic cell culture treated with the Parkinsonian toxin MPP+ and in vivo using the MPTP mouse model. All chelators tested promoted the emergence of new tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-positive processes, increased axodendritic tree length and protected cells against lipoperoxidation. Chelator treatment resulted in the generation of processes containing the presynaptic marker synaptophysin. The antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and dymetylthiourea also enhanced axodendritic tree recovery in vitro, an indication that reducing oxidative tone fosters neuritogenesis in MPP+-damaged neurons. Oral administration to mice of the M30 chelator for 14 days after MPTP treatment resulted in increased TH- and GIRK2-positive nigra cells and nigrostriatal fibers. Our results support a role for oral iron chelators as good candidates for the early treatment of PD, at stages of the disease where there is axodendritic tree retraction without neuronal death.

  20. Iron Chelators and Antioxidants Regenerate Neuritic Tree and Nigrostriatal Fibers of MPP+/MPTP-Lesioned Dopaminergic Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Pabla; Mena, Natalia P; Carrasco, Carlos M; Muñoz, Yorka; Pérez-Henríquez, Patricio; Morales, Rodrigo A; Cassels, Bruce K; Méndez-Gálvez, Carolina; García-Beltrán, Olimpo; González-Billault, Christian; Núñez, Marco T

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal death in Parkinson's disease (PD) is often preceded by axodendritic tree retraction and loss of neuronal functionality. The presence of non-functional but live neurons opens therapeutic possibilities to recover functionality before clinical symptoms develop. Considering that iron accumulation and oxidative damage are conditions commonly found in PD, we tested the possible neuritogenic effects of iron chelators and antioxidant agents. We used three commercial chelators: DFO, deferiprone and 2.2'-dypyridyl, and three 8-hydroxyquinoline-based iron chelators: M30, 7MH and 7DH, and we evaluated their effects in vitro using a mesencephalic cell culture treated with the Parkinsonian toxin MPP+ and in vivo using the MPTP mouse model. All chelators tested promoted the emergence of new tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive processes, increased axodendritic tree length and protected cells against lipoperoxidation. Chelator treatment resulted in the generation of processes containing the presynaptic marker synaptophysin. The antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and dymetylthiourea also enhanced axodendritic tree recovery in vitro, an indication that reducing oxidative tone fosters neuritogenesis in MPP+-damaged neurons. Oral administration to mice of the M30 chelator for 14 days after MPTP treatment resulted in increased TH- and GIRK2-positive nigra cells and nigrostriatal fibers. Our results support a role for oral iron chelators as good candidates for the early treatment of PD, at stages of the disease where there is axodendritic tree retraction without neuronal death.

  1. Intrant ELISA: A Novel Approach to Fabrication of Electrospun Fiber Mat-Assisted Biosensor Platforms and Their Integration within Standard Analytical Well Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Hosseini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A combination of far-field electrospinning (FFES and free-radical polymerization has been used to fabricate coated electrospun polymer fiber mats as a new type of biosensor platform. Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV electrospun fibers were dip-coated with different compositions of poly methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid (poly(MMA-co-MAA. This synergistic approach utilizes large specific surface area of PHBV fibers and co-polymer coatings that feature an optimum concentration of surface carboxyl (–COOH groups. The platform surface morphology, porosity and tunable hydrophobicity enhance biomolecular interactions via plurality of molecular forces. These customized fiber mats have been integrated into a newly designed 96-well plate called an “intrant enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay” or i-ELISA. I-ELISA allows colorimetric sandwich assay to be carried out without any modifications or additional steps in ELISA methodology. By introducing the fiber mats in fabrication of i-ELISA via extensions on the lid, we address some of the limitations of the previous designs while demonstrating an enhanced signal intensity up to 12 times higher than that of conventional assays. With improved sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in the detection of dengue virus, i-ELISA has proven to be a reliable platform for biomolecular recognition. The proposed fiber mat-assisted well plate in this study holds great potential as a universal approach for integration of different types of fiber mats with pre-designed specific properties in order to enhance the detection sensitivity of the assay.

  2. Immobilization of the iron on the surface of non-woven carbon fiber for use in a microbial fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichanan Phansroy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Iron particles were immobilized onto non-woven carbon fiber via electroplating for use in a microbial fuel cell (MFC. Electroplating was performed under an applied voltage at a current of 0.2 A for 5, 10, and 15 min. The scanning electron microscope (SEM observations show that 5 min was not adequate for the particles to be immobilized, whereas 10 and 15 min of electroplating resulted in an adequate number of particles on the surface. To evaluate the strength of the binding of iron via electroplating on the surface of the fiber, the samples were washed with pure water and observed using an SEM. The 10 min electroplated sample has a larger surface area, which is suitable for the MFC anode, than the 15 min electroplated sample. According to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis, the peaks corresponded to those of Fe2O3, and the sample dipped into tannic acid shows the peaks of Fe3O4. The amount of biofilm of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 was evaluated using crystal violet staining, and living bacteria were counted as colony forming units. Electroplated Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 were found to be effective for producing biofilm and immobilizing S. oneidensis MR-1.

  3. 镀银纤维抗菌织物设计方案探讨%Discussion of Silver-plated Fiber Antibacterial Fabric Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖利民; 郑元生

    2011-01-01

    Silver-plated fiber antibacterial fabric rational design plan was discussed. From effect of silver-planted fiber appearance characteristic and antibacterial characteristic on fabric design, the technology characteristic of blending,cross twist and interweave were analyzed, the technology plan of silver-plated fiber antibacterial fabric were optimized. It is considered that core-spun processing could be adopted when fabric appearance is not effect by silver-plated fiber, the yarn was woven in fabric as weft at intervals. Sirofil processing could be adopted when fabric appearance is appeared on silver-plated fabric, the yarn was woven in fabric as weft at intervals.%探讨镀银纤维抗菌织物的合理加工技术方案.从镀银纤维外观特征和抗菌特征对抗菌织物设计影响的讨论出发,综合分析了混纺、交捻、交织等技术方案的技术特点.对镀银纤维抗菌织物加工的技术方案进行了讨论.认为:如果要防止镀银纤维固有的颜色影响织物的外观,可采取包芯纱工艺,纬向间隔织入织物;如果允许镀银纤维的颜色显现在织物表面,利用镀银纤维的颜色设计织物外观效果,可采用赛络菲尔纱工艺,纬向间隔织入织物.

  4. Removal of arsenate and 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) by iron (hydr)oxide modified activated carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristovski, Kiril D; Nguyen, Hanhphuc; Westerhoff, Paul K

    2009-03-01

    Activated carbon fibers (ACF) were modified with iron (hydr)oxide and studied to determine their suitability to remove arsenate and 17alpha -ethinyl estradiol (EE2) from water. Two synthesis methods, one involving aqueous KMnO(4) pretreatment followed by Fe(II) treatment, and the other involving reaction with Fe(III) in an organic solvent followed by NaOH treatment, were used to produce modified ACF media containing 5.9% and 8.4% iron by dry weight, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Electron dispersion X-ray (EDX) techniques indicated slightly higher iron content near the outer edges of the fibers. Pseudo-equilibrium batch test experimental data at pH = 7.0 +/- 0.1 in 5 mM NaHCO(3) buffered ultrapure water containing approximately 100 micro g(As)/L and approximately 500 micro gEE2/L were fitted with the Freundlich isotherm model (q = K x C(E)(1/n)). The adsorption capacity parameters (K) were approximately 2586 (micro gAs/gFe)(L/micro gAs)(1/n) and approximately 425 (micro gAs/gFe)(L/micro gAs)(1/n)), respectively, for the KMnO(4)/Fe(II) and Fe(III)/NaOH treated media. The KMnO(4)/Fe(II) media exhibited a lower adsorption capacity at 99% EE2 removal than did the Fe(III)/NaOH treated media (1.3 mgEE2/g -dry -media vs. 1.8 mgEE2/g -dry -media). The arsenate adsorption intensity parameters (1/n) for both modified ACF media were < 0.29, implying very favorable adsorption, which suggests that this type of media may be suitable for single point -of -use applications in which arsenic and organic co-contaminants require simultaneous removal and the depth of the packed bed is the key factor.

  5. Theoretical analysis for the heterogeneous decomposition of hydrogen sulfide to hydrogen on an iron-metallic plate in a laminar stagnation-point flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, J.C. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Campeche, 24030 Campeche (Mexico); Mendez, F. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico)]. E-mail: fmendez@servidor.unam.mx; Trevino, C. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2006-12-15

    In this work, we have theoretically analyzed the conversion process of hydrogen sulfide, H{sub 2}S, to atomic hydrogen, H{sup 0}, in a planar stagnation-point flow over an iron-metallic surface. We assume that a binary mixture of hydrogen sulfide and methane composes the laminar stagnation flow. In order to characterize this complex phenomenon with very specific chemical activities on the surface of the metallic plate, we propose a heterogeneous reaction scheme based on four reactions: two electrochemical, one adsorption and an additional exothermic reaction needed to complete the direct conversion of hydrogen sulfide to hydrogen on the surface of the iron. The nondimensional governing equations, which include the mass species and momentum conservation of the mixture and the molecular diffusion of hydrogen into the iron plate, are numerically solved by conventional finite-difference methods. The numerical results show the critical conditions of the H{sub 2}S decomposition as functions of the involved nondimensional parameters of the present model. In particular, we show parametrically the influence that has the initial concentration of H{sub 2}S on the surface coverage of the chemical products HS{sup -} H{sup +} and H{sup 0} derived from the chemical and electrochemical reactions.

  6. 涤纶纤维表面化学镀镍-磷工艺研究%Study of electroless nickel-phosphorus plating process on polyester fiber surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高嵩; 陶睿; 王桂林; 杨帆

    2014-01-01

    以涤纶纤维的增重率和电阻为指标,研究了镀液组成、pH、温度、涤纶装载量和施镀时间等对化学镀镍-磷的影响,得到涤纶化学镀镍-磷的最佳工艺条件为:柠檬酸钠10 g/L,硫酸镍20 g/L,次磷酸钠8 g/L,乙酸钠15 g/L,镀液pH为6.0~6.2,温度80°C,装载量9 g/L,时间10~15 min。采用最佳工艺对涤纶纤维化学镀镍-磷后其增重率约为19%,电阻约为10Ω/cm。%The effects of plating bath composition, pH, loading capacity of polyester, and plating time on electroless nickel–phosphorous plating were studied by evaluating the weight gain rate and resistance of polyester fiber. The optimal process parameters of electroless nickel–phosphorous plating were obtained as follows: sodium citrate 10 g/L, nickel sulfate 20 g/L, sodium hypophosphite 8 g/L, sodium acetate 15 g/L, pH 6.0-6.2, temperature 80 °C, loading capacity 9 g/L, and time 10-15 min. The polyester fiber obtained after electroless nickel–phosphorous plating under optimal process conditions has a weight gain rate of ca.19%and a resistance of 10Ω/cm.

  7. Standard specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045 and N06696), Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum alloy (UNS N06617), and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten alloy (UNS N06674) plate, sheet and strip

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    Standard specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045 and N06696), Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum alloy (UNS N06617), and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten alloy (UNS N06674) plate, sheet and strip

  8. Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with the absorption of minerals such as iron, zinc, magnesium, and calcium. In most cases, this is ... 2016. Read More Constipation in infants and children Diabetes Diverticulitis Patient Instructions Constipation - what to ask your ...

  9. Removal of chromium from synthetic plating waste by zero-valent iron and sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Saumyen; Bhargava, Puja

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of zero-valent iron and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) for reduction and removal of chromium from synthetic electroplating waste. The zero-valent iron shows promising results as a reductant of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) to trivalent chromium (Cr+3), capable of 100% reduction. The required iron concentration was a function of chromium concentration in the waste stream. Removal of Cr+3 by adsorption or precipitation on iron leads to complete removal of chromium from the waste and was a slower process than the reduction of Cr+6. Presence SRB in a completely mixed batch reactor inhibited the reduction of Cr+6. In a fixed-bed column reactor, SRB enhanced chromium removal and showed promising results for the treatment of wastes with low chromium concentrations. It is proposed that, for waste with high chromium concentration, zero-valent iron is an efficient reductant and can be used for reduction of Cr+6. For low chromium concentrations, a SRB augmented zero-valent iron and sand column is capable of removing chromium completely.

  10. Gold-plated tapered-fiber for liquid Sensors%镀金膜锥形光纤液体传感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晶晶; 韩道福; 马力; 王慧琴

    2014-01-01

    The tapered fiber liquid sensor is a kind of liquid sensor technology that detecting the depth in the transmission of the evanescent field in the liquid being measured.To increase the sensor sensitivity,we put forward the idea of gold-plated on the surface of the tapered optical fiber.The gold-plated and coating of the tapered optical fiber evanescent field intensity at the receiving end of the response of the liquid refrac-tive index were compared.The gold-plated to enhance the role of the sensing sensitivity was studied.It was found that with gold-plated of the tapered fiber sensor,the sensitivity was significantly improved.The taper ratio of the fiber,the wavelength of the light source affect the performance of sensing,optimizing and find-ing the appropriate parameters were also discussed.The optimized gold-plated tapered fiber showed that the light intensity was obvious at the receiving end of liquid refractive index,and the structure could be cal-ibrated as for liquid refractive index sensor.The research provided a theoretical basis for making high sensi-tivity of the tapered fiber liquid sensor.%锥形光纤液体传感是通过探测在被测液体中倏逝场的透射深度来表征液体的一种传感技术。为提高传感灵敏度,提出了在锥形光纤表面镀金膜的构想,并通过比较镀金膜与未镀膜的锥形光纤接收端的倏逝场光强对液体折射率的响应,阐述了镀金膜对提高传感灵敏度的作用。研究发现,镀有金膜的锥形光纤传感器灵敏度得到了明显改善。同时还研究了光纤的锥度比、光源的波长对传感性能的影响,通过优化找到了合适的光源波长及锥度比。优化后的镀金锥形光纤接收端的光强对待测液体折射率的响应明显并成近似线性反比关系,此结构的锥形光纤可被标定为液体折射率传感器件。研究工作为制作高灵敏度的锥形光纤液体传感器提供了理论依据。

  11. Debris of carbon-fibers originated from a CFRP (pEEK) wrist-plate triggered a destruent synovitis in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolli, Antonio; Rocchi, Lorenzo; De Spirito, Marco; Federico, Francesco; Morini, Alessandro; Mingarelli, Luigi; Fanfani, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Application of carbon-fiber-reinforced-polymer (CFRP) artifacts in humans has been promoted in Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery. Literature documents the biocompatibility of materials used, namely carbon fibers (CF) and poly-ether thermoplastics, like poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK). A properly designed and accurately implanted composite artifact should not expose its fibers during or after surgery: however this may happen. A white Caucasian woman came to our attention 11 months after surgery for a wrist fracture. She had a severe impairment, being unable to flex the thumb; index finger and distal phalanx of third finger. We retrieved a correctly positioned plate and documented an aggressive erosive flexor tendons synovitis with eroded stumps of flexor tendons. The plate and soft tissues were analyzed by Visible Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Histopathology showed granulomatous fibrogenic process with CF engulfed inside multinucleated giant cells. Fibers were unmasked and disrupted inside the holes where screws were tightened and corrugation of the polymer coating led to further unmasking. The mechanism of foreign-body reaction to CF has not been studied in depth yet, particularly at the ultrastructural level and in Humans. This case documents a damage occurred in a clinical application and which was theoretically possible. Our opinion is that a proper way to promote the use of CRFP in the Clinic in the short term is to direct Research towards finding a better way to prevent CF debris to be exposed and released. In the longer term, the biological response to CF deserves a deeper understanding.

  12. 抗菌镀银纤维的制备及其性能%Preparation of antibacterial silver-plated fiber and its performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余凤斌; 陈莹

    2012-01-01

    A silver layer was deposited by magnetron sputtering on the surface of polyester fiber to achieve the antibacterial property of polyester fabric. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies of the silver-plated fiber was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The antibacterial property and washing durability of the fabric made of the silver-plated fibers were tested. The results showed that the dyeing and finishing process reduces the silver content of fabric, but slightly affects the antibacterial property. The antibacterial property of the fabric is improved with increasing silver content. The fabric containing 4% of silver fibers has excellent antibacterial property, presenting an antibacterial rate of 99% for colon bacillus, staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans before washing, and higher than 95% after washing 20 times, but is decreased to 97%, 73%, and 72% respectively after washing 50 times. Keywords: polyester fiber; silver plating; magnetron sputtering; fabric; morphology; antibacterial property; washing durability%为了使涤纶织物具有抗菌性,采用磁控溅射方法在涤纶纤维表面制备了镀银层.采用扫描电镜观察了镀银纤维的表面和截面形貌,测试了含镀银纤维的织物的抗菌性及耐洗涤性.结果表明,染整工艺会降低织物的含银量,但对其抗菌性影响不大.织物的抗菌性随镀银纤维含量的增加而增强,含4%镀银纤维的织物即可具有优异的抗菌性.未经洗涤的镀银纤维织物对大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌和白色念珠菌的抗菌率均达99%以上,经过20次洗涤之后的抑菌率仍达95%以上,但经50次水洗后的抑菌率分别为降到97%、73%和72%.

  13. 光纤传输激光驱动飞片实验研究%Fiber-coupled laser-driven flyer plates experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兴海; 赵翔; 高杨; 杨席仕伟; 苏伟

    2011-01-01

    构建了一种基于光纤传输高功率激光的飞片发射系统,并测试了飞片速度.飞片膜层为三明治结构:铝烧蚀层、氧化铝隔离层和铝飞片产生层.飞片膜层采用磁控溅射技术沉积在玻璃衬底上,总厚度为5.5μm.激光辐照铝膜层产生高温高压等离子体,驱动剩余膜层产生高速飞片,速度达数km/s.同时,实验研究了光纤传能系统的输出激光空间分布特性和传输激光能量容量,它们决定了飞片的平面性和最大速度.光纤端面损伤是限制光纤传输激光能量容量的关键因素,光纤端面通过精密机械抛光和激光预处理可以获得理想的抗激光损伤能力.采用基于光纤阵列探针的时间序列测试技术获得了飞片的平均速度,并评估了飞片的平面性.采用搭建的基于光纤传输高功率激光的飞片发射系统获得了速度达1.7km/s、直径接近1mm的高速飞片.%A system for the launch of hypervelocity flyer plates is developed,characterized and applied.Laser-driven flyers are launched from substrate backed aluminum-alumina- aluminum sandwiched films.A laser-induced plasma is used to drive flyers with a thicknesses of a 5.5μm and a diameter of less than 1 mm,and typically,the flyer plates can achieve velocities of a few kilometers per second.These flyer plates have several applications ranging from micrometeorite simulation to laser ignition.The flyer plates considered here have three layers:an ablation layer for forming plasma;an insulating layer;and a final thicker layer for forming the final flyer plate.The optical fiber delivery system determines the spatial profile of the laser spot and power capacity.A technique and procedure for coupling high power laser pulse into optical fiber is developed.The surface finish of the fiber is found to be a critical factor.This fiber optic system is successfully used to launch flyer plates.Measurements of the flyer performance including the mean velocities and

  14. Rheological properties of bi-dispersed magnetorheological fluids based on plate-like iron particles with application to a small-sized damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kruti; Xuan Phu, Do; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the rheological properties and an application of bi-dispersed magnetorheological fluid (MRF) based on plate-like iron particles are experimentally investigated. A bi-dispersed MR Fluid is prepared using two different micron-scale sizes of plate-like iron particles. In the absence of a magnetic field, the properties of the fluid are isotropic. Upon the application of a magnetic field, the magnetized particles form a chain aligned in the direction of the field, which promotes the appearance of a yield stress. The reversible transition from solid to liquid is the basic requirement of MR applications. Due to the anisotropy in the shape and formation of a less compact structure in the iron plate-like particles, weak sedimentation and good redispersibility of the proposed MR fluid are created. The physical properties of the proposed MR fluids are evaluated and applied to the design of a small-sized controllable MR vibration damper, which can be used for vibration control of a washing machine. The MR damper is a semi-active device that dissipates energy during vibration motion to increase the stability of the application system. Three different weight fractions of the bi-dispersed MR fluids are prepared, and their rheological properties are presented and discussed. Based on their rheological properties, the figures of merit of the proposed MR fluids are derived. A comparison of these figures of merit gives the nominal behavior of the MR fluids, which are important in the design of the application device. A stability test is also performed to check the settling rate of MR fluids per day. The change in damping force due to the problem of particles settling in the MRF and the field-dependent damping force are measured with the MR damper operated just after filling the MRF and with the MR damper operated after waiting for 48 h after filling. With basic rheological properties and outstanding mechanical properties, it is clearly demonstrated that the proposed MR

  15. 镍-铜复合镀层Kevlar纤维的研制%Development and Research of Electroless Ni-Cu Plated Kevlar Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晶晶; 邹新国; 张慧茹; 邵勤思; 唐志勇; 孙晋良

    2012-01-01

    采用化学镀技术制备了镍-铜复合镀层的导电Kevlar纤维。进行了自制金属化试剂对Kevlar纤维的粗化处理,研究了镍镀层含量、添加剂聚乙二醇(PEG6000)和亚铁氰化钾(K4Fe(CN)6))对化学镀铜的影响。实验表明,镍镀层质量增加率为10%较适宜继续化学镀铜;添加剂均可降低化学镀铜的沉积速度,PEG6000能够细化圆滑镀层颗粒,K4Fe(CN)6使得镀层表面平整光亮,制得光滑致密有金属光泽的铜镀层,并提高其导电性。镍-铜复合镀层Kevlar纤维的断裂强力为45 N,表面电阻为0.4Ω/cm。%Electroless copper plating at the nickel modified surface of Kevlar fibers was investigated. The surface of Kevlar fibers was roughened using sodium hydride-dimethyl sulfoxide (NaH-DMSO). Then, influence of Ni weight gain rate and additives (polyethylene glycol PEG6000 and potassium ferrocyanide K4Fe(CN)6) on electroless Cu plating was studied. The results show that favorable Ni weight gain rate is approximate 10 %, PEG6000 and K4Fe (CN)6 increase the stability of plating bath, and reduce the deposition rate of electroless Cu plating. Copper grains turn fine, sleek and homogeneous with adding PEG6000. Copper deposits become more compact, smoother and brighter with adding KaFe (CN)6. Correspondingly, the appearance of deposits changes from dark-brown to red brown, and then to bright copper. Meanwhile, the conductivity of deposits increases. The properties tests show that breaking strength of Ni-Cu coated Kevlar fibers is 45N and thesiarface resistance is 0.4Ω/cm.

  16. PAN基碳纤维表面镀镍及高温力学性能研究%Research on PAN-based Carbon Fiber Plated Nickel and High-temperature Mechanical Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋艳娟; 杨昆; 李盛静; 张柱; 杨雪霞

    2016-01-01

    碳纤维表面镀镍不但可以有效提高碳纤维与金属液间的浸润性,而且可以避免高温状态下金属铝与碳纤维发生界面反应。基于此,对PAN基碳纤维表面镀镍和镀镍碳纤维在高温下的力学性能进行研究,探究镍层对碳纤维力学性能的影响规律。研究结果表明:碳纤维表面的金属镍层致密、均匀,与碳纤维紧密结合,表面镀镍对碳纤维束的抗拉强度影响不大;高温状态下镀镍碳纤维与氧发生反应,形成孔状结构,导致镀镍碳纤维抗拉强度随着温度的升高而逐渐减小;高温真空处理后的镀镍碳纤维可以有效保持镀镍碳纤维的抗拉强度。%Carbon fiber with Ni coating can not only effectively improve the infiltration between carbon fiber and metal fluid,but also avoid producing interface reaction between aluminum liquid and carbon fiber. Therefore,the nickel layer on the surface of PAN-based carbon fiber and the mechanical properties of nickel-plated carbon fiber at high temperature are studied to explore influence law of mechanical properties of carbon fiber by nickel layer. The results show that nickel layer on the surface of carbon fiber is dense,uniform and is integrated closely with carbon fiber. Nickel-plated PAN-based carbon fiber has little effect on tensile strength of carbon fiber. Ni-coating reacts with oxygen,and forms porous structure at high temperature,which causes tensile strength of nickel-plated carbon fiber decreasing gradually as the temperature rises. High-temperature vacuum processing nickel-plated carbon fibers can effectively maintain tensile strength of nickel-plated carbon fibers.

  17. Study on Electroless Nickel Plating for Surface Modification of Carbon Fiber%碳纤维化学镀镍表面改性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚怀; 郭军华; 崔文聪; 董伟学; 詹海娇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To perform nickel coating on the surface of carbon fiber using chemical deposition under ultrasonic condi-tion so as to study nickel plating for surface modification of carbon fiber. Methods The organizational structure,microstructure and plating rate were changed by the pH value of plating bath and temperature of heat treatment as well as ultrasound, which were in-vestigated through XRD and SEM analysis. Results When the pH value was between 8. 0 and 10. 0, the deposition rate was in-creased with the pH value, the coating was uniform, dense and well bonded with the matrix and the coating thickness was about 0. 5 μm. The carbon fiber had a reunion phenomenon, when the pH value was between 10. 0 ~ 11. 0. The plating layer was recrys-tallized to generate Ni3 P phase after being kept for 10 min at the heat treatment temperature of 400 ℃ . With increasing of the tem-perature, the plating layer crazed and the gap between the crazed parts decreased. Conclusion The pH value had great influence on deposition and would lead to carbon fiber reunion when exceeding the limit value. Too high temperature for heat treatment would lead to recrystallization and crack of the plating layer.%目的:在碳纤维表面进行化学镀镍,对碳纤维化学镀镍的表面改性进行研究。方法通过 X 射线衍射仪、扫描电子显微镜等测试手段研究 pH 值、热处理温度及超声波对镀层的形貌、组织结构及镀速的影响。结果 pH 值在8.0~10.0时,随 pH 值增大,沉积速率逐渐变大,镀层表面均匀致密,与基体结合良好,厚度约为0.5μm;pH 值在10.0~11.0时,碳纤维发生团聚。热处理温度为400℃时,保温10 min,镀层重结晶析出 Ni3 P 相;随温度升高,镀层发生开裂,且开裂部位间隔变小。结论 pH 值对镀层沉积影响较大,超过极限值会导致碳纤维团聚。热处理温度过高会导致镀层重结晶,且发生开裂。

  18. Degradation of some typical pharmaceuticals and personal care products with copper-plating iron doped Cu2O under visible light irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing An; Qixing Zhou

    2012-01-01

    A mixture of five commonly used pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) was degraded using a new combined catalyst under visible light irradiation.Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the combined catalyst was composed of copper-plating iron doped Cu2O (FeCu/Cu2O).Compared with the Fe/C inner micro-circuit,the electric currents flowing between Cu and Fe increase the speed of anodic Fe dissolution.Moreover,due to the photochemical properties,Cu2O can accelerate the PPCPs degradation processes under the irradiation of visible light.In addition,shaking increased the dissolved oxygen concentration in the solution,which not only preconditioned the photo-catalysis reaction,but also set the stage for Fe reduction.Aocording to the experimental results,we propose the possible reaction mechanism of the reaction.

  19. Study of Nd:YAG laser annealing of electroless Ni-P film on spiegel-iron plate by Taguchi method and grey system theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, 64, Wunhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China); Chien, W.T.; Jiang, M.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1, Shuehfu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China); Chen, W.J., E-mail: chenwjau@yuntech.edu.t [Graduate School of Materials Science, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, 123 University Road, Section 3, Douliou, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-09

    An electroless Ni-P film was first deposited on a spiegel-iron plate and then annealed by an Nd:YAG pulsed wave laser. In order to obtain the optimal laser annealing parameters for maximizing the hardness and minimizing the surface roughness of electroless Ni-P films, the Taguchi method and grey system theory were used to analyze the experimental data. The electroless Ni-P film was also characterized by scanning electron microscopy for the morphology, and transmission electron microscopy for the microstructure and crystal structure. The results showed that the hardness and the surface roughness of electroless Ni-P films can be, at the same time, improved to 50.8% and 68%, respectively, by the laser annealing with the optimal parameters.

  20. Iron-Clad Fibers: A Metal-Based Biological Strategy for Hard Flexible Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Matthew J.; Masic, Admir; Holten-Andersen, Niels; Waite, J. Herbert; Fratzl, Peter

    2010-04-01

    The extensible byssal threads of marine mussels are shielded from abrasion in wave-swept habitats by an outer cuticle that is largely proteinaceous and approximately fivefold harder than the thread core. Threads from several species exhibit granular cuticles containing a protein that is rich in the catecholic amino acid 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) as well as inorganic ions, notably Fe3+. Granular cuticles exhibit a remarkable combination of high hardness and high extensibility. We explored byssus cuticle chemistry by means of in situ resonance Raman spectroscopy and demonstrated that the cuticle is a polymeric scaffold stabilized by catecholato-iron chelate complexes having an unusual clustered distribution. Consistent with byssal cuticle chemistry and mechanics, we present a model in which dense cross-linking in the granules provides hardness, whereas the less cross-linked matrix provides extensibility.

  1. Multi-scale bending, buckling and vibration analyses of carbon fiber/carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer nanocomposite plates with various shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, M.; Ansari, R.; Rouhi, H.

    2017-09-01

    Using a finite element-based multi-scale modeling approach, the bending, buckling and free vibration of hybrid polymer matrix composites reinforced by carbon fibers and carbon nanotubes (CF/CNT-RP) are analyzed herein. Thick composite plates with rectangular, circular, annular and elliptical shapes are considered. First, the equivalent material properties of CF/CNT-RP are calculated for different volume fractions of CF and CNT. To accomplish this aim, a two-step procedure is presented through which the coupled effects of nano- and micro-scale are taken into account. In the first step, modeling of dispersion of CNTs into the polymer matrix is done with considering interphase formed by their chemical interaction with the matrix, and the equivalent properties of resulting composite material are determined accordingly. CFs are then dispersed into CNT-RP which is considered a homogenous material in this step. Both distributions of CNTs and CFs are assumed to be random. After computing the equivalent properties of CF/CNT-RP for different volume fractions of its constituents, the bending, buckling and free vibration analyses of plates with different shapes are performed. It is shown that the reinforcement of the polymer matrix with both CF and CNT significantly affects the bending, buckling and free vibration characteristics of plates.

  2. Optimized design on multi-layer iron fiber electromagnetic shielding materials%铁纤维多层电磁屏蔽材料优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲兆明; 王庆国; 秦思良; 胡小锋

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between shielding effectiveness of iron fiber multi-layer electromagnetic shielding materials and dimension, concentration of filler and thickness of each layer was presented based on strong fluctuation theory and electromagnetic field theory. Three-layer iron fiber composite was optimized using genetic algorithms from 8GHz to 12GHz and the optimization parameters of every layer were presented under the targets of shielding effectiveness not below 35dB and the total thickness not exceeding 5mm. The feasibility of design on broadband, thin-layer iron fiber electromagnetic shielding materials was verified by the example.%应用强扰动理论及电磁场理论建立了填充铁纤维多层电磁屏蔽材料屏蔽效能与填料尺寸、浓度及各层厚度的关系.基于遗传算法对频带8~18GHz内填充铁纤维三层屏蔽复合材料进行了优化设计,在屏蔽效能不小于35dB、总厚度不超过5mm的优化目标下,得到了各层材料的最佳结构参数配比.算例分析验证了填充铁纤维实现宽带薄层电磁屏蔽材料的可行性.

  3. Iron Documents. Interdisciplinary studies on the technology of late medieval european plate armour production between 1350 and 1500

    OpenAIRE

    Goll, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to find out details on the production of late medieval European plate-armour for the field-use. Therefore, the author first collected thousands of extant objects in a database. With this stock of data he then was able to cluster and to structure the armour parts by various typological and technological aspects. To ease the access to the topic, the author defined an understandable and standardized terminology and typology for the different variations of...

  4. Investigation of the mechanical properties and failure modes of hybrid natural fiber composites for potential bone fracture fixation plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteghi, Saeed; Mahboob, Zia; Fawaz, Zouheir; Bougherara, Habiba

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanical feasibility of a hybrid Glass/Flax/Epoxy composite material for bone fracture fixation such as fracture plates. These hybrid composite plates have a sandwich structure in which the outer layers are made of Glass/Epoxy and the core from Flax/Epoxy. This configuration resulted in a unique structure compared to prior composites proposed for similar clinical applications. In order to evaluate the mechanical properties of this hybrid composite, uniaxial tension, compression, three-point bending and Rockwell Hardness tests were conducted. In addition, water absorption tests were performed to investigate the rate of water absorption for the specimens. This study confirms that the proposed hybrid composite plates are significantly more flexible axially compared to conventional metallic plates. Furthermore, they have considerably higher ultimate strength in tension, compression and flexion. Such high strength will ensure good stability of bone-implant construct at the fracture site, immobilize adjacent bone fragments and carry clinical-type forces experienced during daily normal activities. Moreover, this sandwich structure with stronger and stiffer face sheets and more flexible core can result in a higher stiffness and strength in bending compared to tension and compression. These qualities make the proposed hybrid composite an ideal candidate for the design of an optimized fracture fixation system with much closer mechanical properties to human cortical bone.

  5. 石英光纤表面化学镀镍磷合金工艺%Electroless nickel-phosphor plating process on surface of quartz optical fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小甫; 姜德生; 余海湖; 余丁山; 杨恩宇; 李鸿辉

    2005-01-01

    Quartz optical fibers are of great significance in many fields. For example, they can be used to fabricate strain sensors and temperature sensors. If the surface of optical fibers is metal-coated by the electroless plating method, the measuring precision and stability of the optical fiber sensors can be improved remarkably, additionally the life-span of sensors can be prolonged. In this work, an electroles snickel-phosphor plating process for optical fibers was presented. The influences of the content of NaH2PO2·H2O, bath pH value and temperature and the plating deposition rate on the quality of the plating coatings were studied with orthogonal testing. The results indicated that the content of NaH2PO2·H2O was the key factor, which influenced the adhesion force of the plating coatings. The nickel-phosphor plating bath presented in this work possessed excellent stability and the plating deposition rate could be accelerated. Using the process described in this work, nickel-phosphor coatings with great brightness and high adhesion force can be prepared successfully. Optimum conditions were: NiSO4 30g·L-1, NaH2PO2 ·H2O 20g·L-1, C3H6O3 4 ml·L-1, Na2CO3 3g·L-1 , NH4Cl 4g·L-1 , saccharin 1mg·L-1, temperature 84℃, pH 4.6.

  6. APPLICATION OF FLOW-THROUGH THREE-DIMENSIONAL ELECTRODES FOR REGENERATION OF PLATING IRON ELECTROLYTES: 1. MATHEMATICAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr Kоshev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of electrochemical processes distribution within the three-dimensional flow-through electrode for the system Fe(III/Fe(II/Fe is described in this paper, considering also the electrochemical reactions of hydrogen and molecular oxygen reduction. Possible dynamic changes in the parameters of electrode, electrolyte and the process are taken into account in the mathematical model, such as electro-conductivity of electrode material, electrolyte flow rate, material porosity and specific electrode surface, concentrations of electro-active substances and other characteristics within the local volume of electrode. Electrode and process characteristics are treated as time and coordinate functions within the electrode volume. The results of calculations and experimental studies of iron electro-reduction are given, the analysis of the numerical modeling is provided.

  7. Osteogenesis and cytotoxicity of a new Carbon Fiber/Flax/Epoxy composite material for bone fracture plate applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Zahra S; Giles, Erica; El Sawi, Ihab; Amleh, Asma; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zdero, Radovan; Bougherara, Habiba

    2015-01-01

    This study is part of an ongoing program to develop a new CF/Flax/Epoxy bone fracture plate to be used in orthopedic trauma applications. The purpose was to determine this new plate's in-vitro effects on the level of bone formation genes, as well as cell viability in comparison with a medical grade metal (i.e. stainless steel) commonly employed for fabrication of bone plates (positive control). Cytotoxicity and osteogenesis induced by wear debris of the material were assessed using Methyl Tetrazolium (MTT) assay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for 3 osteogenesis specific gene markers, including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP2), runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Osterix. Moreover, the Flax/Epoxy and CF/Epoxy composites were examined separately for their wettability properties by water absorption and contact angle (CA) tests using the sessile drop technique. The MTT results for indirect and direct assays indicated that the CF/Flax/Epoxy composite material showed comparable cell viability with no cytotoxicity at all incubation times to that of the metal group (p≥0.05). Osteogenesis test results showed that the expression level of Runx2 marker induced by CF/Flax/Epoxy were significantly higher than those induced by metal after 48 h (p=0.57). Also, the Flax/Epoxy composite revealed a hydrophilic character (CA=68.07°±2.05°) and absorbed more water up to 17.2% compared to CF/Epoxy, which reached 1.25% due to its hydrophobic character (CA=93.22°±1.95°) (p<0.001). Therefore, the new CF/Flax/Epoxy may be a potential candidate for medical applications as a bone fracture plate, as it showed similar cell viability with no negative effect on gene expression levels responsible for bone formation compared to medical grade stainless steel.

  8. Research on the Bonding and Strengthening Mechanism of Iron-based Alloy Plated Layers%合金镀铁层的结合和强化机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董文仲; 阎军; 贾珊中; 刘勇; 董文胜; 董玉华

    2011-01-01

    铁元素资源丰富、价格便宜,推广镀铁技术符合国家可持续发展战略要求.合金镀铁技术是在无刻蚀镀铁工艺的基础上,在镀铁液中加入一定量的Ni和Co,沉积成含有Ni和Co的合金镀铁层.施镀工艺采用电压控制方式,镀前对基体金属表面进行对称交流活化,使基体金属表面形成"微融活化态",合金镀铁层与基体金属完全融为一体的金属键结合,其力学性能显著提高,结合强度可达460 MPa.能够满足在高速运转和高密度承载的条件下使用要求,并在大量工业应用中得到证实.在机电产品再制造中,合金镀铁具有广阔的应用前景.文中通过对合金镀铁层和单金属镀铁层用扫描电镜观察检验、法向拉力试验和耐磨性能试验,分析并讨论了合金镀铁层的结合和强化机理.%Ferrum is a kind of cheap and abundant resources, and popularizing iron plating technology to remanufacture mechanical and electrical products is up to the national strategy of sustainable development. Iron-based alloy plating remanufacture technology is a kind of technology which developed from iron plating without etching technology. In order to get iron-based alloy plating layers, nickle and cobalt were Added into the plating solution. Volt-control mode was adopted and the symmetrical AC activating procedure on the surface of metrix metal was finished before plating to get "Micro Melt Activation" which make the bond of the iron-based alloy plated layer and metallic matrix to a whole. Iron-based alloy plating layers with excellent mechanical properties is a good remanufacture technology. And the interface bonding strength could reach to 460 MPa. Plenty of applied cases in the remanufactured mechanical and electrical products proved that the iron-based alloy plating layers could completely satisfied the requirement under high running and high density loading conditions. The bonding and strengthening mechanism of the iron-based alloy

  9. Hollow melon-seed-shaped lithium iron phosphate micro- and sub-micrometer plates for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xian-Feng; Yang, Jin-Hua; Zhong, Yu Lin; Gariepy, Vincent; Trudeau, Michel L; Zaghib, Karim; Ying, Jackie Y

    2014-06-01

    Melon-seed-shaped LiFePO4 hollow micro- and sub-micrometer plates have been synthesized via a polyol-assisted hydrothermal method. The as-prepared LiFePO4 hollow materials were new with regard to their single-crystalline shells with large ac surfaces. Based on the detailed analysis of time-dependent studies, a possible growth mechanism was proposed involving nucleation, anisotropic growth, selective etching, and reversed recrystallization. The effects of polyol concentration, reaction temperature, and feeding sequence of precursors on the growth of LiFePO4 materials were investigated. The electrochemical properties of as-prepared LiFePO4 hollow materials were examined as cathode materials.

  10. 镀银纤维混纺织物抑菌性能及机理分析%Antimicrobial Property and Mechanism Analysis of Silver-plated Fiber Blended Fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于灵芳; 张华鹏

    2012-01-01

    探讨棉镀银纤维混纺织物的抑菌性能及机理.采用不同含银量的镀银纤维与棉纤维纺制不同混纺比的棉镀银纤维混纺纱,并织制出不同含银量的棉镀银纤维混纺织物,测试了不同含银量、不同洗涤次数、与大肠杆菌不同接触时间的混纺织物对大肠杆菌的抑菌效果,同时测试了不同浸泡时间下混纺织物的银离子释放率.研究结果表明:棉镀银纤维混纺织物中的含银量在2%以上时,其对大肠杆菌的抑菌率可以达到100%;镀银纤维中的银含量、棉镀银纤维混纺比对混纺织物的抑菌效果均有明显的影响;镀银纤维的抑菌效果和镀银纤维表面沉积银层的离子化有关,银离子释放率越高,抑菌效果越明显.%Antimicrobial property and mechanism of cotton silver-plated fiber blended fabric were discussed. Blended yarns were spun by cotton and silver-plated fiber with different silver contents. Blended fabric was woven by the blended yarns. Antibacterial effect of blended fabric to escherichia coli were tested when adopting different silver contents, washing times and contact times. Silver ion release rates of blended fabric in different soaking time were tested. The result shows that antimicrobial rate of blended fabric to escherichia coli can be reach 100% when silver contents in cotton silver-plated fiber blended fabric is over 2%. Antimicrobial effect was effected obviously by sliver contents in silver-plated fiber and cotton silver-plated fiber blending ratio. Antimicrobial effect of silver-plated fiber is related with silver-plated fiber surface sliver layer ionization. The higher silver ion release rate, the more obvious antimicrobial effect will be.

  11. 碳纤维表面单脉冲电镀铜%Carbon Coating on the Fiber Surface with Single Pulse Copper Plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高嵩; 樊明杰; 王桂萍

    2011-01-01

    采用脉冲电镀法在碳纤维表面镀铜,研究了硫酸铜、硫酸、添加剂、施镀时间、电流密度、占空比等因素的影响,确定了合适的镀液成分和电镀工艺.采用冷热循环法检测镀层与碳纤维的结合力,采用SEM和XRD考察了铜镀层质量.结果表明,以130 g/L CuSO4·5H2O,g/L H2SO4 50,30 g/L KNO3及6 mL/L光亮剂为镀液、室温下电流密度82 μA/mm2、占空比40%、施镀时间6 min为电镀条件,可在碳纤维表面得到表面平整细致、结晶度良好的铜镀层.镀层结合力由原来的270kPa提高到450kPa.%Pulse copper plating was used to coat a copper film on the carbon fiber surface. The effects of CUSO4, H2SO4, additives, electroplating time, current density, and duty cycle on the weight gain rate were investigated. And the solution composition and technical parameters for pulse copper plating were determined. The bonding force between the coating and the carbon fiber was tested by psychro-thermal cycles. The quality of copper coating was examined with SEM and XRD. The composition of electroplating solution was 130 g/L CuSO4-5H2O, 50 g/L H2SO4, 30 g/L KNO3 and 6 mL/L brightener. Under ambient temperature, the optimum technical parameters were 82 μA/mm2 of current density, 40% of duty cycle, 6 min of electroplating time, with the conditions a flat, detailed and well-crystalloid coating on the carbon fiber surface was achieved. Coating adhesion was increased from 270 kPa to 450 kPa.

  12. Implementation of an X ray image plate camera in characterisation and crystallisation studies of iron based alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Steer, W A

    2001-01-01

    Developed in the early 1980s, versatile X-ray storage phosphor screens have opened up new possibilities in diffraction instruments for crystallography. Originally adopted by high-pressure researchers using diamond-anvil cells and very small sample volumes, flat phosphor screens give great advantage because of their high intrinsic sensitivity. But less demanding applications still stand to benefit from increased throughput and enhanced count rates made possible by this technology. With this in mind the Curved Image Plate camera, a large radius (350mm and 185mm) Debye-Scherrer instrument primarily designed for use with capillary-contained powder samples had been devised. As a substantial part of this work, new software to pre-process the data, calibration procedures and modes of operation were developed to enable the full potential of the system to be realised. One particular application of the CIP camera is the comparative study of a large number of samples, for example as a function of heat treatment. Amorpho...

  13. Generation of narrowband elastic waves with a fiber laser and its application to the imaging of defects in a plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takahiro; Ishihara, Ken

    2017-05-01

    Pulsed laser equipment can be used to generate elastic waves through the instantaneous reaction of thermal expansion or ablation of the material; however, we cannot control the waveform generated by the laser in the same manner that we can when piezoelectric transducers are used as exciters. This study investigates the generation of narrowband tone-burst waves using a fiber laser of the type that is widely used in laser beam machining. Fiber lasers can emit laser pulses with a high repetition rate on the order of MHz, and the laser pulses can be modulated to a burst train by external signals. As a consequence of the burst laser emission, a narrowband tone-burst elastic wave is generated. We experimentally confirmed that the elastic waves agreed well with the modulation signals in time domain waveforms and their frequency spectra, and that waveforms can be controlled by the generation technique. We also apply the generation technique to defect imaging with a scanning laser source. In the experiments, with small laser emission energy, we were not able to obtain defect images from the signal amplitude due to low signal-to-noise ratio, whereas using frequency spectrum peaks of the tone-burst signals gave clear defect images, which indicates that the signal-to-noise ratio is improved in the frequency domain by using this technique for the generation of narrowband elastic waves. Moreover, even for defect imaging at a single receiving point, defect images were enhanced by taking an average of distributions of frequency spectrum peaks at different frequencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Controlling Laminate Plate Elastic Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mareš, T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to express the relation of a measure of laminate plate stiffness with respect to the fiber orientation of its plies. The inverse of the scalar product of the lateral displacement of the central plane and lateral loading of the plate is the measure of laminate plate stiffness. In the case of a simply supported rectangular laminate plate this measure of stiffness is maximized, and the optimum orientation of its plies is searched.

  15. 再生聚酯/聚丙烯纤维复合板材的制备与研究%The fabrication and investigation of recycled PET/PP fiber composite plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一风; 李贵阳

    2015-01-01

    Polyester ( PET) staple fiber and polypropylene ( PP) staple fiber as raw materials, automobile interior fiber composite mat was manufactured by needle-punched nonwoven technology, and then the recycled PET/PP fiber composite mat was shaped by thermo-compressed process. With single factor experiment the effect of the ratio of raw material and thermo-compressed process parameters on tensile strength and bending strength of the fiber composite plate was studied. The results show that under the condition of the ratio of raw material is 50/50 , the thermo-compressed temperature is 220 ℃, the thermo-compressed time is 1. 5 min and the thermo-compressed pressure is 4 MPa, the mechanical properties of the fiber composite plate are achieved.%以再生聚酯( PET)短纤维和聚丙烯( PP)短纤维为原料,采用针刺法非织造工艺技术制得用于汽车内饰的纤维复合毡,再进行热压成型处理得到纤维复合板材。通过单因子试验研究了原料配比和热压工艺参数对复合板材的拉伸强度和弯曲强度的影响。结果表明:当 PET/PP 纤维质量混合比为50/50、热压温度为220℃、热压时间为1.5 min、热压压力为4 MPa时,再生PET短纤维/PP短纤维复合板材的力学性能达到最大值。

  16. 纤维增强复合材料三明治板的破片穿甲实验%Armor-piercing experiment on fragment against sandwich plate with fiber reinforced composite cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐豫新; 王树山; 严文康; 虢忠仁

    2012-01-01

    研究了钢板一纤维增强复合材料板一钢板构成的三明治结构对破片的防护性能。通过破片模拟弹丸(FSP)高速撞击不同结构三明治板实验,获得FSP弹丸贯穿16种三明治板的弹道极限,分析结构特征对纤维增强复合材料三明治板比吸收能的影响。结果表明,叠层芳纶、玻纤基三明治板较单层结构三明治板比吸收能分别提高了8.31%和16.09%,8mm面板+8mm夹层+6mm背板芳纶、玻纤基三明治板较4mm面板+8mm夹层+10mm背板的芳纶、玻纤基三明治板比吸收能分别提高了37.72%和25.35%;芳纶、玻纤基三明治板的比吸收能均随复合材料夹层厚度的增加呈指数递增,夹层基板的抗拉性能是影响三明治板比吸收能的重要因素;同面密度下,厚面板、薄背板及多层叠合夹层结构的三明治板具有更高的比吸收能。%The defense performance of sandwich structure of steel plate - fiber composite material plate - steel plate structure against fragment was investigated. By the experiment on the fragment simulation projectile (FSP), impacted to different kinds of sandwich plate with high velocity, the ballistic limits of fragment pierced 16 kinds of sandwich plates were obtained, and the influence of structure characteristic on the speeifie energy absorption of the sandwich plate was analyzed. The results show that the specific energy absorption of laminated sandwich structure on aramid and glass fiber is 8. 31% and 16.09% higher than that of a single-layer structure, respectively. The specific energy absorption of the sandwich structure with 8 mm front+ 8mm core+ 6 mm back on aramid and glass fiber is 37.72% and 25. 35% higher than the one with 4 mm frontq-8 mm core+10 mm back, respectively. The speeific energy absorption of sandwich plate exponentially increases with the thickness of fiber composite sandwich. The tensile properties of middle layer plate is an

  17. 纤维增强复合材料三明治板破片穿甲数值仿真%Numerical simulation on fragment armor-piercing against sandwich plate with fiber reinforced composite cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐豫新; 戴文喜; 王树山; 赵晓旭

    2014-01-01

    The energy transform in the process of fragment armor-piercing against a sandwich plate with fiber reinforced composite cores (made up of superimposed steel plate,composite material plate and steel plate laminated)was considered .The fragment simulation projectile (FSP)penetrating into different kinds of sandwich plates with high velocity were numerically simulated and the ballistic limits of fragment piercing 16 kinds of sandwich plates were obtained.The credibility of the numerical simulation method was verified by comparing its results with the experimental ones.Under critical fragment perforation,the correlation between the energy absorption ratio of the each part of the sandwich plate and the structural size was studied by analyzing the numerical simulation results.The results show that the energy absorption ratio is constant for different thickness core plate(for aramid fiber core,10.41%,for glass fiber core,2.68%),the internal energy in core plate is quadratically increased with the increase of its thickness.On this basis,the calculation method for ballistic limit velocity of fragment penetrating into sandwich plate with fiber reinforced composite cores was obtained.%研究破片对(由钢板、纤维增强复合材料板及钢板叠合而成)纤维增强复合材料三明治板穿甲过程中能量转化规律。进行破片模拟弹丸(FSP)对不同结构三明治板高速穿甲数值仿真,获得FSP弹丸对16种三明治板的弹道极限,并与实验结果对比验证数值仿真的可信度。通过分析数值仿真结果,进一步研究破片临界贯穿条件下纤维增强复合材料三明治板各组成部分吸能比率与结构尺寸相关性。结果表明,不同厚度夹层板的吸能比率恒定(芳纶纤维10.41%,玻璃纤维2.68%),夹层板内能随厚度的增加呈二次函数增加。由此获得破片对纤维增强复合材料三明治板弹道极限速度计算方法。

  18. Iron-functionalized titanium dioxide on flexible glass fibers for photocatalysis of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-xylene (BTEX) under visible- or ultraviolet-light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung-Bong; Chun, Ho-Hwan; Tayade, Rajesh J; Jo, Wan-Kuen

    2015-03-01

    Iron-functionalized titanium dioxide (TiO2) composites with various Fe-to-Ti ratios were prepared on flexible glass fibers (GF-Fe-TiO2) via a sol-gel method, followed by a dip-coating process. The photocatalytic ability of these composites in degrading selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-xylene [BTEX]) at indoor concentration levels was examined. The GF-Fe-TiO2 composites were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray elemental analysis, ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The GF-Fe-TiO2 composites showed superior photocatalytic performance to that of a reference glass fiber-supported TiO2 photocatalyst for the treatment of BTEX under visible light. However, this trend was reversed under UV irradiation. Specifically, the average BTEX photocatalytic efficiencies of the 0.01-GF-Fe-TiO2 composite in a 3-hr visible-light photocatalytic process were 4%, 33%, 51%, and 74%, respectively. Conversely, the average BTEX photocatalytic efficiencies obtained for GF-TiO2 were close to 0%, 5%, 16%, and 29%, respectively. These findings demonstrated that the GF-Fe-TiO2 composites could be applied to photocatalytically purify BTEX, especially under visible-light exposure. Moreover, the GF-Fe-TiO2 composites prepared with different Fe-to-Ti ratios displayed different BTEX photocatalytic decomposition efficiencies under visible or UV light, allowing for optimization of the Fe-to-Ti ratio (which was found to be 0.01). The application of nanomaterials for air purification necessitates a supporting material to stabilize them while in contact with the treated air in the photocatalytic chamber. Glass fibers have an obvious advantage over other supporting materials mainly because of its flexibility, which makes it much easier to handle. However, the applications of glass fiber-supported, visible light-activated photocatalysts to the treatment of air pollutants are rarely reported in

  19. 化学镀铜短碳纤维-铜-石墨复合材料的性能研究%Properties of Electroless Copper Plating on Short Carbon Fiber-Copper-Graphite Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许少凡; 许少平; 霍金元; 顾斌

    2012-01-01

    The surfaces of short carbon fibers were coated by electroless copper plating method, and the long carbon fibers coated by continuous electroplating copper method were cut short. The carbon fiber-copper-graphite composites with the two kinds of short carbon fibers and the copper-graphite composite without short carbon fibers were prepared by the powder metallurgy method. Their physical and mechanical properties were tested. The dry friction tests of the composites under sliding velocity of 15 m/s and load of 4. 9 N were conducted for 30 h . The results show that such properties of the electroless copper plating on short carbon fiber-copper-graphite composite as electric conductivity, hardness, bending strength and wear resistance are increased much more remarkably than those of the electroplating copper short carbon fiber-copper-graphite and copper-graphite composite without short carbon fiber.%本文采用化学镀铜法对短碳纤维表面进行镀铜,并用电镀法对长碳纤维表面进行连续镀铜后,再切割成镀铜短碳纤维.随后用粉末冶金法制备了含有这两种镀铜短碳纤维的碳纤维-铜-石墨复合材料和不含碳纤维的铜-石墨复合材料,对它们的物理和力学性能进行了测试,并在滑动速度为15 m/s、载荷为4.9N的干摩擦条件下进行了30 h磨损试验,结果表明:化学镀铜短碳纤维-铜-石墨复合材料的导电性、硬度、抗弯强度和耐磨性优于电镀铜短碳纤维-铜-石墨复合材料和不含碳纤维的铜-石墨复合材料.

  20. Numerical Simulation on Heat Transfer Characteristics of Plate Heat Exchanger Filled with Iron-Nickel Foam%铁镍泡沫填充板式换热器传热特性数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晁攸明; 程聪; 张铱鈖

    2012-01-01

    The complex three-dimensional network structure of open-cell foam metal can enhance the nonlinear flow effect of fluid through foam. Large specific surface area and large coefficient of thermal conductivity of the matrix material can improve the heat transfer efficiency. Based on the above features of open-cell foam, a new type of compact plate heat exchanger filled with iron-nickel foam was developed. The characteristics of air-air heat transfer in the plate heat exchanger were numerically simulated. All computations were performed using CFD of the commercially available finite element code FLUENT. Under the same operating conditions, the simulation results agreed well with the experimental results. The simulation results show that filling with iron-nickel foam in plate heat exchanger could improve the extent of turbulence of cold and hot air in plate heat exchanger. Compared with the heat exchanger without fillers, the plate heat exchanger filled with iron-nickel foam was obviously improved in heat transter efficiency. Iron-nickel foam fillers increased flow resistance of the hot and cold air, but the resulting loss of pressure was of little effect on heat exchanger performance. While filling with the same porosity iron-nickel foam, the influence of pore density change on heat exchanger efficiency was relatively small. The research results can be reference for structure optimization design and performance a-nalysis of heat transfer equipment.%利用开孔泡沫金属比表面积大、基体金属材料导热系数大和其复杂的三维立体网状结构能提高流体非线性效果的特点,研制了一种新型紧凑式镍铁泡沫填充板式换热器.并用CFD商用有限元软件FLUENT对空气空气在该换热器中的传热特性进行数值模拟.在相同的操作条件下,模拟结果与实验结果吻合较好.研究结果表明:在板式换热器中填充开孔铁镍泡沫材料,冷热空气在换热器中的湍流程度有所增强,板式换热

  1. 氧化铁-木纤维复合材料的制备及性能初探%Preparation and performance of the iron oxide-wood fiber nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文静; 陆烨; 徐莉; 姜维娜; 周晓燕

    2011-01-01

    With sol-gel technology, iron hydroxide sol was pressed into the fiber cell cavities by means of vacuum-soaking to prepare iron oxide-wood fiber nanocomposites. The influence of concentration of FeCl3 solution and the vacuum time on the weight percent gain (WPG) were studied. The experiment results showed that WPG increased with the increase of concentration of FeCl3 solution or the vacuum time. IR and TG analyses suggested that iron oxide-wood fiber nanocomposites exhibited much lower hygroscopicity and higher thermal stability.%采用溶胶-凝胶技术,通过真空浸渍法,将氮氧化铁溶胶压入纤维空腔内,以制备性能优良的氧化铁-木纤维复合材抖.分别探讨了FeCl3溶液浓度和抽真空时间对纤维质量增加率(WPG)的影响.结果显示,WPG随FeCl3浓液浓度的增大而提高,WPG随抽真空时间增长而增大.IR和TG表明FeCl3溶胶处理后的纤维大大减少了亲水能力,并且提高了热稳定性.

  2. 沥青基短切炭纤维/石墨纤维表面镀镍及其吸波性能%Preparation and electromagnetic performance of mesophase pitch- based chopped carbon/graphite fiber with nickel plated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹莹; 迟伟东; 沈曾民; 刘辉; 胡琳

    2011-01-01

    Chopped carbon/graphite fiber was prapared from mesophase pitch by spinning, carbonization and graphitization. A method of electroless nickel plating on surface of both carbon fiber and graphite fiber was observed by SEM and EDS. The electromagnetic performance of the chopped-carbon fiber(CCF), chopped-graphite fiber(CGF), nickeled chopped-carbon fiber(Ni-CCF), nickeled chopped-graphite fiber(Ni-CGF) were studied by a bow testing system. Results show that the Ni- CGF has the largest electromagnetic energy loss. The electromagnetic performance of the chopped fiber/ epoxy resin composite was also investigated by the bow testing system. Results show that the Ni- CGF/ epoxy resin has the best electromagnetic performance at low frequency. The material has absorption under - 10 dB in the band of 4. 6 ~ 10. 8 GHz, the band width is about 6.2 GHz. The maximum radar absorption is -23 dB.%以中间相沥青为原料,采用熔融纺丝法制备出中间相沥青纤维,再经炭化、石墨化后进行短切,化学法镀镍处理,最终获得短切镀镍纤维制品.采用扫描电镜(SEM)、电子探针能谱(EDS)、矢量分析仪等分析测试方法对比研究了短切炭(石墨)纤维、镀镍炭(石墨)纤维的镀镍效果、电磁损耗性能及其树脂基复合材料的吸波性能.测试结果表明:镀镍短切石墨纤维复合材料在低频段的吸波效果最好,吸波频带在-10 dB的频段为4.6~10.8 GHz,带宽为6.2 GHz,最大吸收峰在-23 dB.

  3. 化学复合沉积镍磷-碳纤维的性能研究%Research on Compound Chemical Plating Technique of Nickel-Phosphorus Alloy and Carbon Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秉余; 穆柏椿; 由向群

    2001-01-01

    研究了镀液纤维浓度对镀层纤维含量的影响规律,探讨了碳纤维提高Ni-P合金复合镀层的硬度和耐磨性的机理。结果表明,镀层碳纤维含量随镀液碳纤维浓度的增加先提高后降低,当镀液中碳纤维含量为6g/L时,镀层中碳纤维含量达到最高值(24.1%,体积分数)。碳纤维的加入使镀层硬度和耐磨性显著提高,镀态下和经400℃×1h时效处理后的镀层硬度分别为634HV和1319HV,比同一状态下Ni-P镀层的硬度分别高35%和61%;500℃×1h时效后的耐磨性是Ni-P镀层的6倍,是38CrMoAl钢氮碳共渗层的7倍。%The effects of compound chemical plating technique of nickel-phosphorus alloy and carbon fiber content in the solution on the hardness and wear resistance of coating are researched.The results show that the carbon fiber content in coating increases first,then decreases with the carbon fiber density in solution.When the carbon fiber density is 6g/L,the carbon fiber content in coating reach to a maximun (24.1%,vol.).The hardness of the coatings with carbon fiber in as-coated and aged in 400 ℃×1h is 434HV and 1319HV respectively,35% and 61% higher than that of Ni-P coating in the same state.After 500℃×1h aging,the wear resistance of coating with carbon fiber is over 6 times as that of normal nickel-phosphorus alloy coating and 7 times as that of nitrocarburized case of steel 38CrMoAl.The mechanism of carbon fiber and the wear resistance are also explored.

  4. A Fiber Optic Sensor for Determination of 2,4-Dichlorophenol Based on Oxygen Oxidation Catalyzed by Iron(III) Tetrasulfophthalocyanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Yilin; Huang, Jun; Zhang, Cong; Li, Kun; Ding, Liyun [Wuhan Univ. of Technology, Wuhan (China); Li, Dapeng [Xuchang Univ., Henan (China)

    2013-11-15

    A new fiber optical sensor was developed for the determination of 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP). The sensor was based on DCP oxidation by oxygen with the catalysis of iron(III) tetrasulfophthalocyanine (Fe(III)PcTs). The optical oxygen sensing film with Ru(bpy){sub 3}Cl{sub 2} as the fluorescence indicator was used to determine the consumption of oxygen in solution. A lock-in amplifier was used for detecting the lifetime of the oxygen sensing film by measuring the phase delay change of the sensor head. The different variables affecting the sensor performance were evaluated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions (i. e. pH 6.0, 25 .deg. C, Fe(III)PcTs concentration of 0.62 mg/mL), the linear detection range and response time of the sensor are 1.0 Χ 10{sup -6}-9.0 Χ 10{sup -6} mol/L and 250 s, respectively. The sensor displays high selectivity, good repeatability and stability, and can be used as an effective tool in analyzing DCP concentration in practical samples.

  5. Ultra-Low Index and Rad-Hard Total Internal Reflection Claddings for High Numerical Aperture Scintillating, Waveshifting, Cerenkov, or Clear Optical Fibers, Capillaries, and Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Sanzeni, C; Winn, D R

    2013-01-01

    Novel low index (n less than 1.3)/high light trapping cladding films consisting of nanoporous alumina (sapphire), as formed by controlled anodization of aluminum, are described. These films are mechanically hard, intrinsically very rad-hard, and have an index of refraction n sufficiently small to triple the light capture of waveshifting or scintillating fibers and transparent plastic, glass or quartz core fibers. The low indices enable light-piping of water Cerenkov light. Applications are in Energy, Intensity, and Cosmic/Astroparticle detectors.

  6. Removal of Iron Impurity in Acidic Zinc Plating Bath Using Potassium Hexacyanoferrate%采用铁氰化钾去除酸性镀锌液中的铁杂质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭崇武; 李建强

    2011-01-01

    A method for treatment of ferrous ions in the acidic zinc plating bath with the use of potassium hexacyanoferrate was tested. Potassium hexacyanoferrate solution was added to the acidic zinc plating solution. Fe2 + ions in the solution reacted with K3 [ Fe(CN) 6 ] forming K4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] and Fe3+ ions. The K4 [ Fe(CN) 6 ] reacted with Zn2+ ions to produce Zn2 [ Fe(CN) 6 ] precipitates. The Fe3+ ions hydrolysed forming Fe ( OH ) 3 precipitates. The excessive K3 [Fe ( CN ) 6 ] reacted with Zn2 + inos and forming Zn3 [Fe(CN) 6 ] precipitates. Experiments indicate that the utilization ratio of K3 [Fe (CN) 6 ] ranging from 65.9% to 87.6% when treating iron impurities in the acidic zinc plating bath with this method.%采用铁氰化钾处理酸性镀锌溶液中二价铁杂质的方法为:向镀液中加铁氰化钾,Fe2+离子与铁氰化钾反应生成亚铁氰化钾和三价铁,亚铁氰化钾与锌离子反应生成亚铁氰化锌沉淀,三价铁水解生成氢氧化铁,过量的铁氰化钾与锌离子生成铁氰化锌.实验表明,用这种方法处理酸性镀锌液中的铁杂质,铁氰化钾的利用率为65.9%~87.6%.

  7. 碳纤维增强复合材料层合板 Lamb 波衰减特性研究%Attenuation characteristics of Lamb wave in carbon fiber reinforced composite laminated plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐军君; 卢文秀; 李峥; 褚福磊

    2016-01-01

    In order to acquire the modal signal suitable for acoustic emission fault diagnosis on carbon fiber reinforced composite laminated plates,the 3D elastic theory and transfer matrix method were introduced to get Lamb wave dispersion curves.An experimental platform was setup to test the Lamb wave propagation property of carbon fiber reinforced composite laminated plate,and different acoustic emission signals were motivated by changing the location of pencil breakpoints.The wavelet scale spectrum and dispersion curves were used to separate different Lamb wave modes, and then the amplitude and energy attenuation characteristic were investigated respectively under different frequency.The experimental results show that,compared with other modal signals,the amplitude signal of S0 mode with low frequency has great advantage in the aspect of acoustic emission fault diagnosis on carbon fiber reinforced composite laminated plates because of its slower attenuation speed.%为提取适用于碳纤维增强复合材料层合板声发射故障诊断的模态信号,利用三维弹性理论及传递矩阵法获得 Lamb 波的频散曲线。以碳纤维增强复合材料层合板为研究对象搭建实验平台,改变断铅激励位置从而获得不同声发射信号。对采集的声发射信号进行小波尺度谱分析,结合频散曲线分离出不同模式的 Lamb 波,分别研究其不同频率的幅度及能量衰减特性。实验结果表明,较其它信号,低频率 S0波幅度信号衰减速度较低,对碳纤维增强复合材料层合板的声发射故障诊断研究具有较大优势。

  8. Influence of Impact Points on Evaluation of Anti-penetration Performance of Ceramic/Fiber Composite Plates%撞击位置对陶瓷/纤维复合材料板抗弹评价的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙非; 彭刚; 王绪财; 冯家臣; 王伟

    2015-01-01

    为了准确表征陶瓷/纤维轻型装甲复合材料的抗侵彻性能,提高抗弹性能评估的可靠性,通过12.7 mm 穿甲燃烧弹打击侵彻被测靶板的 DOP 试验方法,以质量防护系数表征分析了陶瓷/纤维复合装甲板在不同打击位置的抗侵彻能力。数据表明:以陶瓷片铺层的复合装甲板在不同打击点的抗弹性能分散性较大,存在抗侵彻典型区域和危险点,弹体着靶位置影响对其抗弹性能的评价。只有充分考虑危险点的试验数据,陶瓷/纤维复合装甲板的抗弹性能试验评估才能更准确、可靠。%To accurately characterize the anti-penetration performance of ceramic/fiber composite armor and improve reliability of ballistic performance assessment,the mass efficiency of different impact-points on ceramic/fiber composite armor plate were studied by depth-of-penetration (DOP)method.The 12.7 mm armor piercing projectiles were used in this experiment.The data indicates that the ballistic performance of different impact-points was different,especially for typical regions and risk points.The assessment of ballistic performance was affected by hit points on the plate.The test results on risk points should be fully considered to characterize the ballistic performance of ceramic/fiber composite armor plate more accurately and reliably.

  9. ANTI-SYNCHRONIZATION OF PAN AND LIU CHAOTIC SYSTEMS BY ACTIVE NONLINEAR CONTROLNATURAL FIBER BONE PLATES-A WORLDWIDE PATENT SEARCH REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. D. CHANDRAMOHAN,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This invention concentrates on the biomaterials progress in the field of orthopaedics. An effort to utilize the advantages offered by renewable resources for the development of biocomposite materials based on bio epoxy resin and natural fibers such as Agave sisalana; Musa sepientum; Hibiscus sabdariffa and its application in bone grafting substitutes.

  10. Standard Test Method for Measuring the Curved Beam Strength of a Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite - (View Full Text) D6416/D6416M-01(2007) Standard Test Method for Two-Dimensional Flexural Properties of Simply Supported Sandwich Composite Plates Subjected to a Distributed Load

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    Standard Test Method for Measuring the Curved Beam Strength of a Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite - (View Full Text) D6416/D6416M-01(2007) Standard Test Method for Two-Dimensional Flexural Properties of Simply Supported Sandwich Composite Plates Subjected to a Distributed Load

  11. Cr26MoWVTiRE Development and Application of Cast Alloy Iron Chute Lining Plate%Cr26MoWVTiRE合金铸铁溜槽衬板开发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李固成

    2013-01-01

    针对钢铁企业高炉布料溜槽衬板所处的恶劣作业环境,研究开发出具有一定耐高温、耐腐蚀性的Cr26MoWVTiRE高铬合金铸铁材料.在经1 020,~1 050℃淬火+320~520℃回火,材料的硬度达到HRC 60~62,冲击韧度ak>5 J/cm2.Mo、W合金和V、Ti等强碳化物元素的复合加入,提高了溜槽衬板的硬韧性、红硬性和高耐磨性,衬板实际使用寿命超过18个月.与镶铸硬质合金溜槽衬板相比,该衬板具有生产工艺简单、成本低、性价比高等特点,有一定推广应用价值.%Aiming at the bad working environment of distributing chute for iron and steel enterprises furnace,Cr26MoWVTiRE high chromium alloy cast iron material was developed,which has high temperature resistance,corrosion resistance.After 1 020-1 050 ℃ quenching and 320-520 ℃ tempering,the material hardness reached HRC 60-62,and impact toughness ak 5 J/cm2.The hardness and toughness,red hardness,high-wearing feature were improved by composite addition ofMo,W alloy and V,Ti and other strong carbide elements,and the service life of lining plate was more than 18 months.Compared to the cast-in hard alloy chute lining plate,it has the advantages such as simple production process,low cost,high performance/cast ratio,and deserves popularization.

  12. Weldability with Process Parameters During Fiber Laser Welding of a Titanium Plate (II) - The Effect of Control of Heat Input on Weldability -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Do; Kim, Ji Sung [Korea Maritime and Ocean Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Laser welding is a high-density energy welding method. Hence, deep penetration and high welding speed can be realized with lower heat input as compared with conventional welding. The heat input of a CW laser welding is determined by laser power and welding speed. In this study, bead and lap welding of 0.5 mmt pure titanium was performed using a fiber laser. Its weldability with laser power and welding speed was evaluated. Penetration, bead width, joining length, and bead shape were investigated, and the mechanical properties were examined through tensile-shear strength tests. Welds with sound joining length were obtained when the laser power and welding speed were respectively 0.5 kW and 2.5 m/min, and 1.5 kW and 6 m/min, and the weld obtained at low output presented better ductility than that obtained at high output.

  13. 49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26 Section... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.26 Tensile strength of shell plates. When the tensile strength of steel or wrought-iron shell plates is not known, it shall be taken at 50,000 psi for steel and...

  14. Weldability with Process Parameters During Fiber Laser Welding of a Titanium Plate (I) - Effect of Type and Flow Rate of Shielding Gases on Weldability -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Do; Kim, Ji Sung [Korea Maritime and Ocean Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In this study, welding of pure titanium was carried out by using a continuous wave fiber laser with a maximum output of 6.3 kW. Because brittle regions form easily in titanium as a result of oxidation or nitriding, the weld must be protected from the atmosphere by using an appropriate shielding gas. Experiments were performed by changing the type and the flow rate of shielding gases to obtain the optimal shielding condition, and the weldability was then evaluated. The degree of oxidation and nitriding was distinguished by observing the color of beads, and weld microstructure was observed by using an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The mechanical properties of the weld were examined by measuring hardness. When the weld was oxidized or nitrified, the bead color was gray or yellow, and the oxygen or nitrogen content in the bead surface and overall weld tended to be high, as a result of which the hardness of the weld was thrice that of the base metal. A sound silvery white bead was obtained by using Ar as the shielding gas.

  15. High levels of dioxin-like PCBs found in organic-farmed eggs caused by coating materials of asbestos-cement fiber plates: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Jörg

    2015-07-01

    During a regional monitoring project of organic-farmed, free-range and cage-free eggs, high levels of dioxin-like compounds were detected in organic-farmed eggs, using the dioxin responsive chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX®) bioassay. Further evaluations performed with GC-HRMS (gas chromatography in combination with high resolution mass spectrometry) revealed elevated amounts of non-dioxin-like (non-dl) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) dominated by most lipophilic congeners like PCB 138, 153 and 180 and of dioxin-like (dl) PCBs, with a congener pattern in the descending order of PCB 118, 156, 167, 105, 189, 157, 105, 126 and PCB 77. Contaminations with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) appeared of minor priority, with only hepta- and octa-substituted dioxins above their limits of quantification (LOQs). The pattern of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) was dominated by low amounts of tetra- and penta-chlorinated congeners. To identify the source of contamination, several samples of organic-farmed eggs, soil, laying hens, feedstuff, corrugated asbestos-cement cover plates (ACPs), stable dust and debris collected in the gutter of the stable, were analyzed. Comparing PCB congener-pattern of individual samples, the source was traced back to the coating of ACPs, which covered roof and sidewalls of the stable. Because coating materials probably have been used for roofing and cladding in many countries worldwide, there is a high probability that the presented case report is not a local incident but rather describes a new source of PCB contamination, yet widely unknown or underestimated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 不同纤维负载铁酞菁对偶氮染料废水脱色性能研究%Research on oxidative decolorization of azo dyes by different fiber-supported iron phthalocyanine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚文丽; 胡利如; 吴雯; 王东升

    2016-01-01

    The catalytic function fibers (Cotton- FePc, Silk- FePc and PLA- FePc) were prepared by loading iron phthalocyanine onto cotton, silk and PLA fibers respectively. And its catalytic degradation of azo dyes was studied. The results demonstrated that the 3 kinds of reactive red M- 3BE (RRM- 3BE), acid orange Ⅱ (AO2) and acid yel ow G (AYG) were enriched by catalytic function fibers without oxidizing agent H2O2. When H2O2 ex⁃isted, the 3 kinds of dyes could be oxidative decolorized by catalytic function fibers. On neutral and alkaline conditions, AO2 and AYG could be oxidative degraded effectively by PLA- FePc, which broadened the pH scope of use of catalytic fiber, to make it more close to the actual printing and dyeing wastewater of alkaline condition. Stability studies showed that the catalytic function of the fiber could be recycled several times.%将铁酞菁(FePc)分别负载到棉、蚕丝及聚乳酸纤维上,制备了催化功能纤维(Cotton-FePc、Silk-FePc和PLA-FePc),并用于偶氮染料的脱色降解。研究表明,无氧化剂H2O2时,催化功能纤维对活性红M-3BE(RRM-3BE)、酸性橙Ⅱ(AO2)和酸性黄G (AYG)3种染料具有一定的富集作用;当H2O2存在时,催化功能纤维能一定程度地对这3种染料进行氧化脱色。其中,中性和碱性条件下,PLA-FePc能有效氧化降解AO2和AYG,拓宽了催化纤维对pH的适应范围,使其更接近于实际印染废水弱碱性条件。稳定性研究表明,催化功能纤维可循环使用数次。

  17. Multimetallic Electrodeposition on Carbon Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttger-Hiller, F.; Kleiber, J.; Böttger, T.; Lampke, T.

    2016-03-01

    Efficient lightweight design requires intelligent materials that meet versatile functions. One approach is to extend the range of properties of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) by plating the fiber component. Electroplating leads to metalized layers on carbon fibers. Herein only cyanide-free electrolytes where used. Until now dendrite-free layers were only obtained using current densities below 1.0 A dm-2. In this work, dendrite-free tin and copper coatings were achieved by pre-metalizing the carbon fiber substrates. Furthermore, applying a combination of two metals with different sized thermal expansion coefficient lead to a bimetallic coating on carbon fiber rovings, which show an actuatory effect.

  18. 基于碳纤维红外板加热的干燥装备设计与试验%Design and experiment of vacuum pulsed drying equipment based on carbon fiber infrared heating plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫鹏; 肖红伟; 郑志安; 潘忠礼; 薛令阳; 张玉明; 方小明; 刘嫣红; 高振江

    2016-01-01

    为探索基于碳纤维红外板加热的真空脉动干燥特性,该文将碳纤维红外干燥技术和真空脉动干燥技术相结合,设计了基于碳纤维红外板的真空脉动干燥装备。该装备由干燥室、真空系统、单层干燥单元、控制系统组成。为便于分析,将实际真空脉动过程划分为4个阶段:抽真空阶段、真空保持阶段、破空阶段、常压保持阶段。设计了基于MODBUS协议的控制系统,以触摸屏为主机,单片机为从机,组成控制器网络。基于干燥室内真空度的监测,采用时序控制,实现干燥室内“真空—常压”的连续转换。基于对碳纤维红外板温度的监测,结合物料内部温度的反馈,实现对干燥温度的有效调控。并以20 mm×20 mm×5 mm的苹果块为试验原料进行试验验证。结果表明:1)该干燥装备设计方案和控制方案可靠,可实现“真空—常压”的连续脉动,并有效干燥物料;2)碳纤维红外板功率1.1 kW/m2,发热面距离料盘上表面3 cm情况下,干燥效果较佳;3)当碳纤维红外板表面温度为65℃时,在真空保持阶段,苹果块内部温度约为31℃,常压阶段,会迅速上升到约37℃。干燥后期,碳纤维红外板表面温度有波动下降趋势,适当降低其温度有助于干燥进行。相比红外热风干燥,苹果块干燥时间缩短30%;4)两种干燥方式下干燥的苹果块色泽存在明显差异,真空脉动红外干燥较优。该文研究的干燥装备和研究结果可应用于苹果块等果蔬物料的干燥,并可为红外干燥技术、真空脉动干燥技术的联合应用提供理论依据。%The carbon fiber infrared plate has been used in fruits and vegetables drying as an innovative heating source, which has the advantages of higher heating rate, compact radiation distance, and simple structure. Apple is one of the most common drying materials. Whereas, the traditional

  19. Fiber optic to integrated optical chip coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikulski, Joseph I. (Inventor); Ramer, O. Glenn (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Optical fibers are clamped by a block onto a substrate. Thereupon, metal is plated over the fibers to hold them in place upon the substrate. The clamp block is removed and the opening, resulting from the clamp block's presence, is then plated in. The built-up metallic body is a coupling which holds the fibers in position so that the ends can be polished for coupling to an integrated optical chip upon a coupling fixture.

  20. Iron Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as: Serum Iron; Serum Fe Formal name: Iron, serum Related tests: Ferritin ; TIBC, UIBC and Transferrin ; Hemoglobin ; Hematocrit ; Complete Blood Count ; Reticulocyte Count ; Zinc Protoporphyrin ; Iron Tests ; Soluble Transferrin Receptor ... I should know? How is it used? Serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) , and/or ...

  1. Achromatic optical diode in fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Berent, Michal; Vitanov, Nikolay V

    2013-01-01

    We propose a broadband optical diode, which is composed of one achromatic reciprocal quarter-wave plate and one non-reciprocal quarter-wave plate, both placed between two crossed polarizers. The presented design of achromatic wave plates relies on an adiabatic evolution of the Stokes vector, thus, the scheme is robust and efficient. The possible simple implementation using fiber optics is suggested.

  2. Making bulk-conductive glass microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jay J. L.; Niu, Lihong

    2008-02-01

    The fabrication of microchannel plate (MCP) with bulk-conductive characteristics has been studied. Semiconducting clad glass and leachable core glass were used for drawing fibers and making MCP. Co-axial single fiber was drawn from a platinum double-crucible in an automatic fiberizing system, and the fibers were stacked and redrawn into multifiber by a special gripping mechanism. The multifibers were stacked again and the boule was made and sliced into discs. New MCPs were made after chemically leaching process without the traditional hydrogen firing. It was shown that bulk-conductive glass MCP can operate at higher voltage with lower noise.

  3. Highly conductive composites for fuel cell flow field plates and bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bor Z; Zhamu, Aruna; Song, Lulu

    2014-10-21

    This invention provides a fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate having flow channels on faces of the plate, comprising an electrically conductive polymer composite. The composite is composed of (A) at least 50% by weight of a conductive filler, comprising at least 5% by weight reinforcement fibers, expanded graphite platelets, graphitic nano-fibers, and/or carbon nano-tubes; (B) polymer matrix material at 1 to 49.9% by weight; and (C) a polymer binder at 0.1 to 10% by weight; wherein the sum of the conductive filler weight %, polymer matrix weight % and polymer binder weight % equals 100% and the bulk electrical conductivity of the flow field or bipolar plate is at least 100 S/cm. The invention also provides a continuous process for cost-effective mass production of the conductive composite-based flow field or bipolar plate.

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective ... and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add ...

  5. Plasma enhanced modification of TMP fiber and its effect on tensile strength of wood fiber/PP composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangyeob Lee; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse

    2009-01-01

    Plasma-assisted surface treatment on thermomechanical pulp (TMP) fiber and polypropylene (PP) film was investigated to obtain interfacial adhesion at the wood fiber and PP interface. A metal plate between electrodes prevented thermal damage to the TMP fiber handsheets and PP film. Oxygen-plasma treatment provided better surface activation on the TMP fiber and...

  6. Ion plating with an induction heating source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.; Brainard, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    Induction heating is introduced as an evaporation heat source in ion plating. A bare induction coil without shielding can be directly used in the glow discharge region with no arcing. The only requirement is to utilize an rf inductive generator with low operating frequency of 75 kHz. Mechanical simplicity of the ion plating apparatus and ease of operation is a great asset for industrial applications; practically any metal such as nickel, iron, and the high temperature refractories can be evaporated and ion plated.

  7. 碳纤维布与钢板粘结复合材料徐变性能试验研究%Experimental research on creep of steel plates bonded by carbon fiber reinforced polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢亦焱; 张学朋; 唐志宇

    2011-01-01

    通过碳纤维布(CFRP)与钢板复合材料的徐变试验,分析了CFRP材料徐变与时间的关系,研究了加荷幅值、CFRP截面面积、初始应变等因素对其徐变性能的影响,揭示了CFRP材料徐变机理;通过徐变前后复合材料试件基本力学性能试验,研究了CFRP徐变对复合材料力学性能的影响;定性分析了徐变对复合加固混凝土梁的影响。研究表明:CFRP与钢板复合材料在40%极限荷载持续作用下,CFRP材料徐变值为初始应变的10%左右,且前期发展较快,100 h发展至70%左右,后期变缓;试件中CFRP材料的徐变值随着加载幅值、初始应变的升高而有所增大,但CFRP宽度对其影响不大;CFRP徐变后复合材料试件的屈服荷载、极限荷载和弹性模量均下降,且呈现徐变值越大,下降幅度越大的变化趋势;CFRP材料的徐变会引起复合材料加固构件截面应力重分布,导致CFRP应力减小、加固效果减弱。%The creep experiment on steel plates bonded by carbon fiber reinforced polymer was conducted to investigate the long-term properties of the composite material.The relationship between creep and time was analyzed,and the influential factors such as the stress amplitude,area of the CFRP,initial strain were also studied by the creep experiment which revealed the mechanism of creep of CFRP.The effect of the mechanical performance of the composite material was explained by the test of basic mechanical property before and after creep procedure.Through the theoretical analysis of mechanical behavior of the structure strengthened by composite material the influence of creep was discussed qualitatively.It is found that the ultimate creep is about ten percent of the initial strain under the constant load of 40% of the ultimate load,and the creep develops faster in the early period which can reach 70% of the ultimate creep in 100 hours.The creep of the CFRP increases with the increase of stress amplitude and initial

  8. Iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimshaw, N S

    1991-10-01

    The world's leading nutritional problem is iron deficiency. 66% of children and women aged 15-44 years in developing countries have it. Further, 10-20% of women of childbearing age in developed countries are anemic. Iron deficiency is identified with often irreversible impairment of a child's learning ability. It is also associated with low capacity for adults to work which reduces productivity. In addition, it impairs the immune system which reduces the body's ability to fight infection. Iron deficiency also lowers the metabolic rate and the body temperature when exposed to cold. Hemoglobin contains nearly 73% of the body's iron. This iron is always being recycled as more red blood cells are made. The rest of the needed iron does important tasks for the body, such as binds to molecules that are reservoirs of oxygen for muscle cells. This iron comes from our diet, especially meat. Even though some plants, such as spinach, are high in iron, the body can only absorb 1.4-7% of the iron in plants whereas it can absorb 20% of the iron in red meat. In many developing countries, the common vegetarian diets contribute to high rates of iron deficiency. Parasitic diseases and abnormal uterine bleeding also promote iron deficiency. Iron therapy in anemic children can often, but not always, improve behavior and cognitive performance. Iron deficiency during pregnancy often contributes to maternal and perinatal mortality. Yet treatment, if given to a child in time, can lead to normal growth and hinder infections. However, excess iron can be damaging. Too much supplemental iron in a malnourished child promotes fatal infections since the excess iron is available for the pathogens use. Many countries do not have an effective system for diagnosing, treating, and preventing iron deficiency. Therefore a concerted international effort is needed to eliminate iron deficiency in the world.

  9. 短纤维链板式松弛热定型机内部流场测试及数值模拟%Testing and numerical simulation of flow field in chain plate type relaxation heat setting machine for staple fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧; 张军; 常佳; 魏新利

    2012-01-01

    A numerical calculation model was founded on partial actual test data of flow field in chain plate type relaxation heat setting machine for staple fiber. The computational fluid dynamics software Fluent was adopted to analyze the numerical result of dryer box unit. The results showed that the chain plate type relaxation heat setting machine did not have a reasonable opening rate of air distribution plate, leading to an uneven flow rate perpendicular to chain plate motion in dryer which resulted in the uneven drying effect. The obvious velocity component parallel with the chain plate motion in the dryer flow field, which was beneficial to enhancing the convective mass transfer effect, resulted from the centrifugal force of the fan and the diversion effect of the volute. The numerical calculation method of the model produced the data similar to the actural test results. The numerical analytical results can be used as the preference for the structure optimization design of chain plate type relaxation heat setting machine for staple fiber, especially for the design of air distribution plate openings and fan volute.%在对短纤维链板式松弛热定型机内气体流场部分实测数据的基础上,建立了数值计算模型,利用流体动力学软件Fluent对干燥机箱体单元进行了数值模拟分析.结果表明:所研究短纤维链板式松弛热定型机的匀风板开孔率布置不合理,使得干燥机内垂直于链板运动方向流速不均匀,导致干燥效果的不均匀;由于风机的离心力及蜗壳的导流作用,使得干燥机流场具有明显链板移动方向速度分量,该分量有助于加强干燥过程中的对流传质效果.所建模型的数值计算方法与实际测试结果相近,数值分析结果可以用来作为短纤维链板式松弛热定型机结构优化设计,尤其是匀风板开孔和风机蜗壳的设计的依据.

  10. Inductions of oxidative DNA damage and mesothelioma by crocidolite, with special reference to the presence of iron inside and outside of asbestos fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, S; Yoshida, S; Kawamura, K; Takahashi, M; Uchida, H; Odagiri, Y; Takemoto, K

    1994-04-01

    Inductions of oxidative DNA damage (oh8dG) in vitro and peritoneal mesothelioma in rats (F344, female) were compared between crocidolite (CR) and de-ironized crocidolite [DCR, washed by HCl and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)] to verify the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species contribute to carcinogenesis, focusing on the role of iron present inside or outside of the CR. The yield of oh8dG was 14.6 oh8dG/10(5)dG in CR and 30.2 in DCR under simple incubation with DNA. In the incubation systems added several chemicals and H2O2, DCR induced higher levels of oh8dG than CR. Especially, the addition of Fe2O3 and H2O2 to DCR increased oh8dG in DNA depending on the Fe2O3 concentration, however, this tendency was not observed in the same system of CR. Surprisingly, 7 out of 10 rats died within 2 days after the injection of 10 mg of Fe2O3 following the DCR injection (5 mg/rat), showing necroses of hepatocytes from the surface of each lobe where CR and Fe2O3 particles had been deposited together. There was no death in other groups of rats. One year after the i.p. injection of CR (5 mg/rat, single injection), mesotheliomas were found in all rats administered DCR and Fe2O3 (2 mg/rat, once a week, for 35 weeks), in 4 rats of DCR alone (n = 10), in 5 rats of CR alone (n = 10) and in none of the rats administered Fe2O3 alone (n = 10). Therefore, present results indicate that the induction of oxidative DNA damage changed even when the same type of asbestos was washed by chemical treatment, and Fe2O3 promoted the development of mesothelioma which was induced by DCR.

  11. Fiber diffraction without fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, H-C; Schwander, P; Uddin, M; Saldin, D K

    2013-06-28

    Postprocessing of diffraction patterns of completely randomly oriented helical particles, as measured, for example, in so-called "diffract-and-destroy" experiments with an x-ray free electron laser can yield "fiber diffraction" patterns expected of fibrous bundles of the particles. This will allow "single-axis alignment" to be performed computationally, thus obviating the need to do this by experimental means such as forming fibers and laser or flow alignment. The structure of such particles may then be found by either iterative phasing methods or standard methods of fiber diffraction.

  12. An activated carbon fiber cathode for the degradation of glyphosate in aqueous solutions by the Electro-Fenton mode: Optimal operational conditions and the deposition of iron on cathode on electrode reusability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Huachun; He, Wenjing; Wang, Aimin; Liu, Ruiping; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Huang, C P

    2016-11-15

    An activated carbon fiber (ACF) cathode was fabricated and used to treat glyphosate containing wastewater by the Electro-Fenton (EF) process. The results showed that glyphosate was rapidly and efficiently degraded and the BOD5/COD ratio was increased to >0.3 implying the feasibility of subsequent treatment of the treated wastewater by biological methods. The results of ion chromatography and HPLC measurements indicated that glyphosate was completely decomposed. Effective OH generation and rapid recycling/recovery of the Fe(2+) ions at the cathode were responsible primarily for the high performance of the ACF-EF process. Factors such as inlet oxygen gas flow rate, Fe(2+) dosage, initial glyphosate concentration, applied current intensity, and solution pH that may affect the efficiency of the ACF-EF process were further studied and the optimum operation condition was established. Results of SEM/EDX, BET and XPS analysis showed the deposition of highly dispersed fine Fe2O3 particles on the ACF surface during the EF reaction. The possibility of using the Fe2O3-ACF as iron source in the EF process was assessed. Results showed that the Fe2O3-ACF electrode was effective in degrading glyphosate in the EF process. The deposition of Fe2O3 particles on the ACF electrode had no adverse effect on the reusability of the ACF cathode.

  13. Native iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Charles Kent

    2015-01-01

    , a situation unique in the Solar System. In such a world, iron metal is unstable and, as we all know, oxidizes to the ferric iron compounds we call 'rust'. If we require iron metal it must be produced at high temperatures by reacting iron ore, usually a mixture of ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) oxides (Fe2O3......, hematite, or FeO.Fe2O3, magnetite), with carbon in the form of coke. This is carried out in a blast furnace. Although the Earth's core consists of metallic iron, which may also be present in parts of the mantle, this is inaccessible to us, so we must make our own. In West Greenland, however, some almost...... unique examples of iron metal, otherwise called 'native iron' or 'telluric iron', occur naturally....

  14. Iron Homeostasis and Nutritional Iron Deficiency123

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Nonheme food ferritin (FTN) iron minerals, nonheme iron complexes, and heme iron contribute to the balance between food iron absorption and body iron homeostasis. Iron absorption depends on membrane transporter proteins DMT1, PCP/HCP1, ferroportin (FPN), TRF2, and matriptase 2. Mutations in DMT1 and matriptase-2 cause iron deficiency; mutations in FPN, HFE, and TRF2 cause iron excess. Intracellular iron homeostasis depends on coordinated regulation of iron trafficking and storage proteins enc...

  15. Method for preparing hydrous iron oxide gels and spherules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L.; Lauf, Robert J.; Anderson, Kimberly K.

    2003-07-29

    The present invention is directed to methods for preparing hydrous iron oxide spherules, hydrous iron oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form composite sorbents and catalysts, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendable particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite of hydrous iron oxide fiber materials, iron oxide fiber materials, hydrous iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, dielectric spherules of barium, strontium, and lead ferrites and mixtures thereof, and composite catalytic spherules of barium or strontium ferrite embedded with oxides of Mg, Zn, Pb, Ce and mixtures thereof. These variations of hydrous iron oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process offer more useful forms of inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters, dielectrics, and ceramics.

  16. 聚丙烯纤维和高效减水剂双掺对铁尾矿粉泡沫混凝土抗冻性能的影响∗%The Study of Effects on the Resistance to Freezing-thawing of Foam Concrete with Iron Tailings Mixed with Polypropylene Fiber and Polycarboxylate Superplasticizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖力光; 李杨; 张士停

    2015-01-01

    Foam concrete with iron tailings is prepared by iron tailings, cement, fly ash, mineral admixtures with high performance, foaming agent, polypropylene fiber, polycarboxylate superplasticizer, et al. In this study, the influences on the resistance to freezing-thawing of foam concrete with iron tailings mixed with polypropylene fiber and poly-carboxylate superplasticizer were investigated, and its microstructure was observed. The results show that the resist-ance to freezing-thawing of foam concrete with iron tailings is greatly increased by adding polypropylene fiber and polycarboxylate superplasticizer, and the microstructure of pore in foam concrete is improved obviously.%铁尾矿粉泡沫混凝土由铁尾矿粉、水泥、粉煤灰、高性能矿物掺合料、泡沫剂、聚丙烯纤维、聚羧酸系高效减水剂等制成。本实验研究了聚丙烯纤维和聚羧酸系高效减水剂双掺对铁尾矿粉泡沫混凝土抗冻性能的影响及其微观结构,实验结果表明,聚丙烯纤维和聚羧酸系高效减水剂双掺大大提高了铁尾矿粉泡沫的抗冻性能,使铁尾矿粉泡沫混凝土的孔微观结构有了明显的改善。

  17. Iron dialyzability from hospital duplicate meals: daily intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Reynold, Carlos; Navarro-Alarcon, Miguel; Lopez-Ga de la Serrana, Herminia; Perez-Valero, Vidal; Lopez-Martinez, María C

    2009-09-01

    Both total and dialyzable iron levels and corresponding dialyzability were determined in 108 duplicate meals during 36 consecutive days. Total mean iron fraction of 5.90 +/- 4.97 mg was found in the meals. The iron supplied by the meals is directly and significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with macromicronutrient content (carbohydrates, fiber, and protein). The mean iron dialyzability (4.81 +/- 3.25%) was low and not significantly different among the three primary meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner). Significant interactions of several minerals on iron levels were found (p < 0.05). Iron dialyzability was only statistically influenced by zinc dialyzability in meals (p < 0.05). The dialyzed iron fraction present in meals was significantly correlated with protein and ascorbic acid levels (p < 0.01). The mean iron daily dietary intake was 17.7 +/- 6.91 mg. The hospital meals provided enough iron. Foods of animal origin are primary sources of iron in diet.

  18. A comparison of the CATHIA-T sampler, the GK2.69 cyclone and the standard cowled sampler for thoracic fiber concentrations at a Taconite (iron ore)-processing mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Harper, Martin; Nelson, John; Hintz, Patrick J; Andrew, Michael E

    2008-01-01

    Several recommendations have been made to the effect that the most appropriate health-based size-selective criterion for fibers is the thoracic convention of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The performance of two thoracic samplers, the CATHIA-T (37-mm filter) and the GK2.69 cyclone (37-mm filter), was investigated against the standard 25-mm cowled sampler (current NIOSH 7400 standard method) to determine the effect of thoracic sampling on field results. A total of 270 samples: 80 field and 10 field blank samples for each sampler type, were taken from seven stations in the processing mill of an iron ore mine whose ore contains amphibole minerals. Slides were prepared using the dimethyl formamide/Euparal technique and relocatable cover slips. Two counters examined the slides according to NIOSH 7400 counting A rules with phase contrast microscopes. Prior to counting the sample slides, four reference slides were randomly selected and counted three times on different days to compare the coefficient of variation (CV) between and within counters. Also, seven reference slides were chosen to explore variability between the two microscopes. The average CV between counters (0.148) showed slightly higher than the average CVs within counters (0.072 for Counter 1 and 0.119 for Counter 2). The average CV between the two microscopes was 0.147. Compared to the standard cowled sampler, the overall fiber concentration was lower for the CATHIA-T sampler (CATHIA-T/Cowled = 0.63) and higher for the GK2.69 cyclone (GK2.69/Cowled = 1.66). The result for the CATHIA-T sampler is as expected from laboratory trials, but the result for the GK2.69 cyclone is not as expected. In conclusion, the CATHIA-T sampler has a potential advantage as a high-flow static sampler for screening coarse particles. However, these findings resulted from one field sampling site that contains amphibole minerals, not all of which are asbestiform. Thus, additional field samples from other

  19. Fiber biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fiber cells arising from seed epidermis is the most important agricultural textile commodity in the world. To produce fully mature fibers, approximately two months of fiber developmental process are required. The timing of four distinctive fiber development stages consisting of initiation, ...

  20. A new miniaturized fiber positioning node for LAMOST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Gu, Yonggang; Shen, Yuran; Zhai, Chao

    2016-07-01

    To distribute more fiber positioning nodes on the LAMOST focal plate, two steps are proposed to miniaturize the fiber positioning node in this paper. The first step is to miniaturize the mechanical device of the fiber positioning node. The second step is to redesign the entire wireless driving board using smaller and performance-higher devices. As a result, the size of the new miniaturized fiber positioning node has to be reduced by above 40% and the dense of fiber positioning nodes on focal plate increases by 20% at least.

  1. Microstructure evolution during surface alloying of ductile iron and austempered ductile iron by electron beam melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulzar, A.; Akhter, J. I.; Ahmad, M.; Ali, G.; Mahmood, M.; Ajmal, M.

    2009-07-01

    Alloying and microstructural modification of surfaces by electron beam has become popular to tailor the surface properties of materials. Surface modification of as-received ductile iron, Ni-plated ductile iron and Ni-plated austempered ductile iron was carried out by electron beam melting to improve the surface properties. Martensitic structure evolved in the heat affected zone and ledeburite structure was produced in the molten zone of the ductile iron. Microhardness of the melted specimens enhanced considerably as compared to the as-received samples. However the microhardness of melted Ni-plated samples is lower than that of the unplated specimens. X-ray diffraction clearly revealed the formation of an austenite and Fe 3C phases in the electron beam molten zone. The broadening of peaks suggests refinement of the microstructure as well as internal stresses generated during electron beam melting.

  2. Microstructure evolution during surface alloying of ductile iron and austempered ductile iron by electron beam melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulzar, A. [Materials Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Akhter, J.I. [Physics Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmad, M., E-mail: maqomer@yahoo.com [Physics Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, G. [Physics Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Mahmood, M. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ajmal, M. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2009-07-30

    Alloying and microstructural modification of surfaces by electron beam has become popular to tailor the surface properties of materials. Surface modification of as-received ductile iron, Ni-plated ductile iron and Ni-plated austempered ductile iron was carried out by electron beam melting to improve the surface properties. Martensitic structure evolved in the heat affected zone and ledeburite structure was produced in the molten zone of the ductile iron. Microhardness of the melted specimens enhanced considerably as compared to the as-received samples. However the microhardness of melted Ni-plated samples is lower than that of the unplated specimens. X-ray diffraction clearly revealed the formation of an austenite and Fe{sub 3}C phases in the electron beam molten zone. The broadening of peaks suggests refinement of the microstructure as well as internal stresses generated during electron beam melting.

  3. Processless offset printing plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Mahović Poljaček

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the implementation of platesetters in the offset printing plate making process, imaging of the printing plate became more stable and ensured increase of the printing plate quality. But as the chemical processing of the printing plates still highly influences the plate making process and the graphic reproduction workflow, development of printing plates that do not require chemical processing for offset printing technique has been one of the top interests in graphic technology in the last few years. The main reason for that came from the user experience, where majority of the problems with plate making process could be connected with the chemical processing of the printing plate. Furthermore, increased environmental standards lead to reducing of the chemicals used in the industrial processes. Considering these facts, different types of offset printing plates have been introduced to the market today. This paper presents some of the processless printing plates.

  4. Iron load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Cassarà

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research addressed the main role of hepcidin in the regulation of iron metabolism. However, while this mechanism could be relevant in causing iron load in Thalassemia Intermedia and Sickle-Cell Anemia, its role in Thalassemia Major (TM is marginal. This is mainly due to the high impact of transfusional requirement into the severe increase of body iron. Moreover, the damage of iron load may be worsened by infections, as HCV hepatitis, or liver and endocrinological damage. One of the most relevant associations was found between splenectomy and increase of risk for mortality due,probably, to more severe iron load. These issues suggest as morbidity and mortality of this group of patients they do not depend only by our ability in controlling heart damage but even in preventing or treating particular infections and complications. This finding is supported by the impairment of survival curves in patients with complications different from heart damage. However, because, during recent years different direct and indirect methods to detect iron overload in patients affected by secondary hemochromatosis have been implemented, our ability to maintain under control iron load is significantly improved. Anyway, the future in iron load management remains to be able to have an iron load map of our body for targeting chelation and other medical treatment according to the single organ damage.

  5. A tunable comb filter using single-mode/multimode/polarization-maintaining-fiber-based Sagnac fiber loop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruan Juan; Zhang Wei-Gang; Zhang Hao; Geng Peng-Cheng; Bai Zhi-Yong

    2013-01-01

    A novel tunable comb filter composed of a single-mode/multimode/polarization-maintaining-fiber-based Sagnac fiber loop is proposed and experimentally demonstrated.The filter tunability is achieved by rotating the polarization controller.The spectral shift is dependent on rotation direction and the position of the polarization controller.In addition,the adjustable range achieved by rotating the half-wave-plate polarization controller is twice higher than that of the quarter-wave-plate one.

  6. 标准加入原子吸收法连续测定光亮镀镍液中铜、锌、铬、铅、铁杂质的含量%Continuous determination of copper, zinc, chromium, lead,and iron impurities in bright nickel plating baths by standard atomic absorption spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀香; 王旭珍; 于丽; 张曰秋

    2001-01-01

    在相同的光亮镀镍液中分别加入浓度依次递增的铜、锌、铁、铬、铜的标准溶液。用原子吸收光谱法连续测定镀液中铜、锌、铁、铬、铅杂质的含量,优选出最佳的仪器工作条件,讨论了共存元素的干扰及消除。该方法简单,准确度和精密度高,具有使用价值。%Increasing amount of copper, zinc, iron, chromium and leadstandard solutions were separately added in the same nickel plating baths, subsequently, copper, zinc, iron, chromium and lead impurities were continuously determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Operating parameters of the analytical apparatus were optimized. Interference of coexisting elements was discussed. This method is simple, accurate, and has good application value.

  7. THE EFFECT OF SUPPORT PLATE ON DRILLING-INDUCED DELAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Zarif Karimi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Delamination is considered as a major problem in drilling of composite materials, which degrades the mechanical properties of these materials. The thrust force exerted by the drill is considered as the major cause of delamination; and one practical approach to reduce delamination is to use a back-up plate under the specimen. In this paper, the effect of exit support plate on delamination in twist drilling of glass fiber reinforced composites is studied. Firstly, two analytical models based on linear fracture mechanics and elastic bending theory of plates are described to find critical thrust forces at the beginning of crack growth for drilling with and without back-up plate. Secondly, two series of experiments are carried out on glass fiber reinforced composites to determine quantitatively the effect of drilling parameters on the amount of delamination. Experimental findings verify a large reduction in the amount of delaminated area when a back-up plate is placed under the specimen.

  8. Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia

    OpenAIRE

    De Falco, Luigia; Sanchez, Mayka; Silvestri, Laura; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Iolascon, Achille; Gouya, Laurent; Camaschella, Clara; Beaumont, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is a hereditary recessive anemia due to a defect in the TMPRSS6 gene encoding Matriptase-2. This protein is a transmembrane serine protease that plays an essential role in down-regulating hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis. Hallmarks of this disease are microcytic hypochromic anemia, low transferrin saturation and normal/high serum hepcidin values. The anemia appears in the post-natal period, although in some cases it is only diagnosed in ad...

  9. 钢板和碳纤维布加固不同损伤状态下受弯构件的荷载试验研究%Load Experiment of Flexural Members Reinforced by Steel Plate and Carbon Fiber Sheet in Different Damaged States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保定; 薛保贵; 翟科玮

    2014-01-01

    Based on the destructive load experiment of the flexural members by steel plate and carbon fiber sheet in sound state and normal service limit damaged state,the deflection,crack and strain development status and changes of the flexural members reinforced by steel plate and carbon fiber sheet were studied. Comparing the difference of the bending bearing limit capacity,and other indicators with flexural members each other by different way of strengthening in sound state and normal service limit damaged state,evaluating the reinforcement effect comprehensively,the results show as follows. Two kinds of reinforcement measures have significant effect in improving the flexural capacity of the reinforced concrete flexural members in different damaged states. But the effect in sound state is superior to that in damaged state. The effect of the reinforcement by steel plate is superior to that by carbon fiber sheet.%基于钢板加固和碳纤维布加固完好状态下和正常使用极限损伤状态下的受弯构件的破坏荷载试验,研究钢筋混凝土受弯构件在采用粘贴钢板加固和粘贴碳纤维布加固措施后,其挠度、裂缝及应变等的发展变化规律。对比分析完好状态下和正常使用极限损伤状态下采用不同的加固方式,受弯构件极限承载力提高幅度的差异并将受弯构件的其他力学控制指标进行对比分析,综合检验评定其加固效果。试验结果表明:两种加固措施对提高在不同损伤状态下的钢筋混凝土受弯构件的抗弯承载力都具有显著效果,但完好情况下的加固效果优于受损情况,钢板加固措施优于碳纤维布加固。

  10. Effects of beryllium and iron additions on iron-bearing phase in A357 aluminum alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhongwei

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Iron is the most deleterious impurity in the Al-Si-Mg casting alloys and can easily form inter-metallic compounds that can significantly affect the subsequent behavior of material properties. Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and microstructural analysis, how the Be and Fe additions affect the iron-bearing phase in A357 alloys was investigated. The results show that the iron-bearing phase in A357 alloy comprises mainly the plate-like β-Al5FeSi and a small quantity of the script-type π-Al8FeMg3Si6; and that the plate-like β-Al5FeSi proportion increases with increasing iron content in the alloy. The iron-bearing phase is mostly transformed from the plate-like β-Al5FeSi to the script-type π-Al8FeMg3Si6 with the addition of Be in the alloy. The hardness of alloy samples was also tested. The results show that both the increasing iron content and Be content can increase the hardness of the alloy. This may be contributed to the change of morphology and distribution of the iron-bearing phase in A357 alloy with the addition of iron or Be to the alloy.

  11. Cast irons

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Cast iron offers the design engineer a low-cost, high-strength material that can be easily melted and poured into a wide variety of useful, and sometimes complex, shapes. This latest handbook from ASM covers the entire spectrum of one of the most widely used and versatile of all engineered materials. The reader will find the basic, but vital, information on metallurgy, solidification characteristics, and properties. Extensive reviews are presented on the low-alloy gray, ductile, compacted graphite, and malleable irons. New and expanded material has been added covering high-alloy white irons used for abrasion resistance and high-alloy graphitic irons for heat and corrosion resistance. Also discussed are melting furnaces and foundry practices such as melting, inoculation, alloying, pouring, gating and rising, and molding. Heat treating practices including stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering, autempering (of ductile irons), and surface-hardening treatments are covered, too. ASM Spec...

  12. Development of plating thickness standards. Milestone report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Standards which are unavailable from the National Bureau of Standards were developed to support the nondestructive measurement of plating thickness. Their fabrication, measurement, certification, and calibration-recall schedule are discussed. Reference standards that have been put into service include aluminum/Kapton, silver/copper, tin/steel, gold/silver, cadmium/Kovar, silver/iron, rhodium/copper, and gold/ceramic. 6 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Tunable All-in-Fiber Waveplates Based on Negative Dielectric Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgap Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Eskildsen, Lars; Weirich, Johannes;

    2008-01-01

    Tunable all-in-fiber waveplates based on negative dielectric liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers are presented. The birefringence can be tuned electrically and thermally to work as a quarter-wave or a half-wave plate in the range 1520 nm-1580 nm....

  14. Influence of the Initial Fiber Orientation on the Weld Strength in Welding of Glass Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Fiebig

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The welding factors are significantly lower in welding of fiber reinforced thermoplastics than in welding of unreinforced thermoplastics due to the fiber orientation in the weld. This paper presents results from investigations on the influence of the initial fiber orientation on the weld strength in hot plate and vibration welding for glass fiber reinforced polypropylene and polyamide 6. Injection molded specimens are compared to specimens with main initial fiber orientation being longitudinal and transverse to the joining direction. The results of CT analysis of the fiber orientation in the weld show the opportunity to achieve a higher weld strength by using specimens with fibers being initially oriented longitudinally to the joining direction. The influence of the initial fiber orientation in the parts to be welded on the weld strength in hot plate welding is more distinct than in vibration welding.

  15. Flexural performance experimental study on steel beam strengthened with prestressed CFRP plate based on optical fiber bragg grating%基于光纤光栅的预应力碳纤维板加固钢梁抗弯性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓朗妮; 梁静远; 廖羚; 彭来; 赵思敏

    2015-01-01

    结合碳纤维增强复合材料(CFRP)的高强特性及光纤光栅(OFBG)的感知特性,研制开发CFRP-OFBG智能复合板,通过试验验证其应变传感性能。完成预应力CFRP-OFBG板加固钢梁静载试验,监测钢梁的应变和屈服破坏过程,研究预应力CFRP-OFBG智能碳纤维板加固钢梁的抗弯性能。结果表明:预应力CFRP-OFBG智能碳纤维板是一种集受力和传感于一体的新型土木工程材料,克服了光纤光栅埋设的工艺问题,并且能有效提高加固钢梁的抗弯性能,具有良好的推广价值和应用前景。%By combining the high strength of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) with the sensing characteristics of optical bragg grating (OFBG), a smart CFRP-OFBG composite laminate is developed. Its mechanical properties and sensing characteristics are studied by test. The steel beams strengthened with prestressed CFRP-OFBG plates were tested to monitor the process of yield damage and strain while studying the flexural performance at the same time. The experimental results show that the prestressed CFRP-OFBG plate is a new material combined force and contingency perception; it can solve the problem of technology of embedded optical fiber Bragg grating and effectively improve the flexural capacity in the meanwhile, has good popularized value and application prospects.

  16. Dietary Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble ... types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts and seeds Fruit and ...

  17. Fiber Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The chapter provides a discussion of optical fiber amplifiers and through three sections provides a detailed treatment of three types of optical fiber amplifiers, erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA), Raman amplifiers, and parametric amplifiers. Each section comprises the fundamentals including t...

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. ... vegetables . Now in one of the small sections, put grains and starchy foods. See this list of ...

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... 2016 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: wcie-meal-planning, In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal ...

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  1. Food guide plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chips or cookies. VEGETABLES: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Vegetables can be raw, fresh, ... as a snack. FRUITS: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Fruits can be fresh, canned, ...

  2. Growth Plate Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most widely used by doctors is the Salter-Harris system, described below. Type I Fractures These ... incidence of growth plate fractures peaks in adolescence. Salter-Harris classification of growth plate fractures. AAOS does ...

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... Sleeve Custom jerseys for your Tour de Cure team benefits the cause. Ask the Experts: Learn to ...

  7. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.

  8. Nickel coated graphite fiber conductive composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, R.E.; Hall, D.E.; Luxon, B.A.

    1986-07-01

    Nickel coated graphite (NCG) fiber, consisting of a thin continuous plating of high purity nickel over an aerospace-grade graphite core, offers performance added features by combining the lightweight and high structural reinforcement of graphite fiber with the thermal and electrical conductivity of nickel. These NCG filaments, which are composite constructions in their own right, can be processed and impregnated with thermosetting or thermoplastic resins in the same manner that graphite fiber tows are processed and impregnated to produce roving, tape or fabric prepreg. Therefore, NCG fibers can be readily integrated into structural laminate assemblies using established composites-manufacturing practices.

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reset Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing ... en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? Our free program will help you live well. More from diabetes. ...

  10. Obliquity along plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon, Mélody; Corti, Giacomo

    2016-12-01

    Most of the plate boundaries are activated obliquely with respect to the direction of far field stresses, as roughly only 8% of the plate boundaries total length shows a very low obliquity (ranging from 0 to 10°, sub-orthogonal to the plate displacement). The obliquity along plate boundaries is controlled by (i) lateral rheological variations within the lithosphere and (ii) consistency with the global plate circuit. Indeed, plate tectonics and magmatism drive rheological changes within the lithosphere and consequently influence strain localization. Geodynamical evolution controls large-scale mantle convection and plate formation, consumption, and re-organization, thus triggering plate kinematics variations, and the adjustment and re-orientation of far field stresses. These geological processes may thus result in plate boundaries that are not perpendicular but oblique to the direction of far field stresses. This paper reviews the global patterns of obliquity along plate boundaries. Using GPlate, we provide a statistical analysis of present-day obliquity along plate boundaries. Within this framework, by comparing natural examples and geological models, we discuss deformation patterns and kinematics recorded along oblique plate boundaries.

  11. Water Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Douvidzon, Mark L; Martin, Leopoldo L; Carmon, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Fibers constitute the backbone of modern communication and are used in laser surgeries; fibers also genarate coherent X-ray, guided-sound and supercontinuum. In contrast, fibers for capillary oscillations, which are unique to liquids, were rarely considered in optofluidics. Here we fabricate fibers by water bridging an optical tapered-coupler to a microlensed coupler. Our water fibers are held in air and their length can be longer than a millimeter. These hybrid fibers co-confine two important oscillations in nature: capillary- and electromagnetic-. We optically record vibrations in the water fiber, including an audio-rate fundamental and its 3 overtones in a harmonic series, that one can hear in soundtracks attached. Transforming Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems [MEMS] to Micro-Electro-Capillary-Systems [MECS], boosts the device softness by a million to accordingly improve its response to minute forces. Furthermore, MECS are compatible with water, which is a most important liquid in our world.

  12. Fiber optic displacement measurement model based on finite reflective surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhe; Guan, Kaisen; Hu, Zhaohui

    2016-10-01

    We present a fiber optic displacement measurement model based on finite reflective plate. The theoretical model was derived, and simulation analysis of light intensity distribution, reflective plate width, and the distance between fiber probe and reflective plate were conducted in details. The three dimensional received light intensity distribution and the characteristic curve of light intensity were studied as functions of displacement of finite reflective plate. Experiments were carried out to verify the established model. The physical fundamentals and the effect of operating parameters on measuring system performance were revealed in the end.

  13. METABOLISM OF IRON STORES

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Remarkable progress was recently achieved in the studies on molecular regulators of iron metabolism. Among the main regulators, storage iron, iron absorption, erythropoiesis and hepcidin interact in keeping iron homeostasis. Diseases with gene-mutations resulting in iron overload, iron deficiency, and local iron deposition have been introduced in relation to the regulators of storage iron metabolism. On the other hand, the research on storage iron metabolism has not advanced since th...

  14. Angular shear plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, Mitchell C [Tucson, AZ; Greynolds, Alan W [Tucson, AZ; Stuhlinger, Tilman W [Tucson, AZ

    2009-07-14

    One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.

  15. Investigating Convective Heat Transfer with an Iron and a Hairdryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Manuel I.; Lucio, Jesus H.

    2008-01-01

    A simple experimental set-up to study free and forced convection in undergraduate physics laboratories is presented. The flat plate of a domestic iron has been chosen as the hot surface, and a hairdryer is used to generate an air stream around the plate. Several experiments are proposed and typical numerical results are reported. An analysis and…

  16. Solidification of Hypereutectic Thin Wall Ductile Cast Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2006-01-01

    Hypereutectic ductile iron was cast in green sand moulds with four plates with thickness of 1.5, 2, 3 and 4 mm in each mould. Temperatures were measured in the 3 and 4 mm plate. The temperature curves showed that eutectic solidification was divided into two stages: primary and secondary eutectic...

  17. Bending Mechanical Behavior of Polyester Matrix Reinforced with Fique Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altoé, Giulio Rodrigues; Netto, Pedro Amoy; Barcelos, Mariana; Gomes, André; Margem, Frederico Muylaert; Monteiro, Sergio Neves

    Environmentally correct composites, made from natural fibers, are among the most investigated and applied today. In this paper, we investigate the mechanical behavior of polyester matrix composites reinforced with continuous fique fibers, through bending tensile tests. Specimens containing 0, 10, 20 and 30% in volume of fique fiber were aligned along the entire length of a mold to create plates of these composites, those plates were cut following the ASTM standard to obtained bending tests specimens. The test was conducted in a Instron Machine and the fractured specimens were analyzed by SEM, the results showed the increase in the materials tensile properties with the increase of fiber amount.

  18. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... allergic to iron dextran injection; any other iron injections such as ferric carboxymaltose (Injectafer), ferumoxytol (Feraheme), iron sucrose (Venofer), or sodium ferric gluconate (Ferrlecit);any other ...

  19. Buckling Analysis of Unidirectional PolymerMatrix Composite Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad Kadhim Uleiwi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the estimation of critical load of unidirectional polymer matrix composite plates by using experimental and finite element techniques at different fiber angles and fiber volume fraction of the composite plate.Buckling analysis illustrated that the critical load decreases in nonlinear relationship with the increase of the fiber angle and that it increases with the increase of the fiber volume fraction.The results show that the maximum value of the critical load is (629.54 N/m at (? = 0? and (Vf = 40 % for the finite element method, while the minimum value of the critical load is (49 N/m at (? = 90? and (Vf = 10 % for the experimental results. The results also indicated that the maximum difference between the finite element analysis and experimental work is about (11 % at ( ? = 0? and (Vf = 40 %

  20. The Effects of Cereals and Legumes on Iron Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Figure 5. Both flours and soy products in greatest quantity are vegetarians , the concentrates may be further modified by an extrusion military...when it was added to a vegetarian meal of in a series of experiments using six cereal-based infant low iron bioavailability. foods, four of which...that depress iron absorption from cereals in- meat on the absorption of non-henie iron, and part clude some phytates and certain components of fiber

  1. Study on the electroless silver plating on mercapto modified PET fiber%巯基改性PET纤维及化学镀银电磁屏蔽布的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉莉; 王炜

    2011-01-01

    Polyester (PET) fabric was modified by 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane (MPTS), and chemically plated with Ag.The influences of mass fraction of MPTS, the reaction time and the bath ratio of modification solution on the silver plating effect were discussed.The optimal modification process was obtained: w(MPTS)=1 %,120 min, the bath ratio of modification 1:60.The modified PET fabric had uniform and dense silver layer, excellent electroconductive result, and good rubbing resistance.%采用3-巯丙基三乙氧基硅烷(MPTS)对涤纶纤维表面进行巯基改性,并进行化学镀银.讨论改性处理中巯基硅烷的质量分数、反应时间以及改性液浴比对化学镀银效果的影响,优化的改性工艺:w(MPTS)=1%,120 min,浴比1:60.改性后织物表面生成了均匀致密的镀银层,得到效果优良的PET镀银导电布,耐摩擦性较好.

  2. Damage Detection in CFRP Plates Using Spectral Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Castro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage detection techniques using vibrations are based on measuring the changes in the vibration parameters of a structure. This paper studies the viability of the spectral entropy as a new damage detection parameter to detect the presence of damage in a composite fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP plate. To carry out this study, the vibrations in a CFRP plate with and without damage were measured and the correlation between damage and spectral entropy has been researched.

  3. PEM fuel cell bipolar plate material requirements for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, R.L.; Stroh, K.R.; Vanderborgh, N.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Cost effective bipolar plates are currently under development to help make proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells commercially viable. Bipolar plates separate individual cells of the fuel cell stack, and thus must supply strength, be electrically conductive, provide for thermal control of the fuel stack, be a non-porous materials separating hydrogen and oxygen feed streams, be corrosion resistant, provide gas distribution for the feed streams and meet fuel stack cost targets. Candidate materials include conductive polymers and metal plates with corrosion resistant coatings. Possible metals include aluminium, titanium, iron/stainless steel and nickel.

  4. Iron Sucrose Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron sucrose injection is used treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Iron sucrose injection is in a class of medications called iron ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... enough iron, your body starts using the iron it has stored. Soon, the stored iron gets used ... fewer red blood cells. The red blood cells it does make have less hemoglobin than normal. Iron- ...

  6. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  7. A novel Ag catalyzation process using swelling impregnation method for electroless Ni deposition on Kevlar® fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hongwei; Bai, Ruicheng; Shao, Qinsi; Gao, Yufang; Li, Aijun; Tang, Zhiyong

    2015-12-01

    A novel Ag catalyzation process using swelling impregnation pretreatment method was developed for electroless nickel (EN) deposition on Kevlar fiber. Firstly, the fiber was immersed into an aqueous dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solution of silver nitrate to impart silver nitrate into the inner part of the fiber near the surface. Subsequently silver nitrate was reduced to metal silver nanoparticles on the fiber surface by treatment with aqueous solution of sodium borohydride. After electroless plating, a dense and homogeneous nickel coating was obtained on the fiber surface. The silver nanoparticles formed at the fiber surface functioned as a catalyst for electroless deposition as well as an anchor for the plated layer. The study also revealed that the incorporation of surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in electroless nickel plating bath can enhance the adhesion strength of EN layer with the fiber surface and minimize the surface roughness of the EN coating. The Ni plated Kevlar fiber possessed excellent corrosion resistance and high tensile strength.

  8. Postbuckling analysis of variable stiffness composite plates using a finite element-based perturbation method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, T.; IJsselmuiden, S.T.; Abdalla, M.M.; Jansen, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    Modern fiber placement machines allow laminates with spatially varying stiffness properties to be manufactured. In earlier research, the authors optimized variable stiffness plates for maximum buckling load, demonstrating significant improvements in load-carrying capacity. In aerospace applications,

  9. Fiber Concrete under Temperature Drop Load with Stochastic FEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Feng; ZHANG Wen-jin

    2008-01-01

    Plain concrete plate and fiber concrete plate subjected to temperature drop load were analyzed on stochastic finite element method (FEM). It is found that fibers can enhance concrete ability to resist temperature drop load for improving concrete's fracture energy and deferring the crack process. It is found for concrete not to improve apparently its tensile strength and fracture energy is recommended to be its appraisal parameter.

  10. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  11. Geometrically nonlinear behavior of piezoelectric laminated plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovitch, Oded

    2005-08-01

    The geometrically nonlinear behavior of piezo-laminated plates actuated with isotropic or anisotropic piezoelectric layers is analytically investigated. The analytical model is derived using the variational principle of virtual work along with the lamination and plate theories, the von Karman large displacement and moderate rotation kinematic relations, and the anisotropic piezoelectric constitutive laws. A solution strategy that combines the approach of the method of lines, the advantages of the finite element concept, and the variational formulation is developed. This approach yields a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations with nonlinear boundary conditions, which are solved using the multiple-shooting method. Convergence and verification of the model are examined through comparison with linear and nonlinear results of other approximation methods. The nonlinear response of two active plate structures is investigated numerically. The first plate is actuated in bending using monolithic piezoceramic layers and the second one is actuated in twist using macro-fiber composites. The results quantitatively reveal the complicated in-plane stress state associated with the piezoelectric actuation and the geometrically nonlinear coupling of the in-plane and out-of-plane responses of the plate. The influence of the nonlinear effects ranges from significant stiffening in certain combinations of electrical loads and boundary conditions to amplifications of the induced deflections in others. The paper closes with a summary and conclusions.

  12. Diode Pumped Fiber Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    FIBER LASERS I. Nd:YAG FIBER LASER FABRICATION .............. 5 A. FIBER GROWTH .......................... 5 B. FIBER PROCESSING 7...1.32 pm FIBER LASERS I. Nd:YAG FIBER LASER FABRICATION A. FIBER GROWTH The single crystal fibers used in this work were grown at Stanford University

  13. Hermetic Coating of Optical Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    of 450A/min. A number of bulk samples were coated with a-C:H including microscope slides, NaCl plates, ZBLAN fluoride glass and sapphire blanks. IR...deposition were identified. Bulk NaCl, sapphire and glass samples coated with - 1 micron thick films were tested analytically. With the information gathered...1.0 INTRODUCTION: The surface of a freshly drawn glass fiber while seemingly smooth has many imperfections which when under stress, can grow and

  14. Evaluating Picture Quality of Image Plates in Digital CR Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Byung Joon [Dept. of Radiological Tecnology, Choonhae College of Health Science, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Ji Tae Jeong [Dept. of Radiological Science, Kaya University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Lab effectively supplemented the effects of outside radiation on image plates in the process of image acquisition of CR (computed radiography) systems and conducted for effective utilization in the case of clinical application. For this, Lab classified the storage places and time periods of image plates and compared and analyzed the differences between small dark spots. Lab also assessed the concentration distribution within the boundaries of images. Lab compared and measured the number of dark spots in a light room and a dark room depending on the storage places of image plates and found that dark spots slightly increased in an image plate when stored in a light room on the first and second days. Dark spots increased in proportion to the length of time stored. In the case of the image plate stored in a dark room, the number of dark spots remarkably decreased. With regard to picture quality as related to the location of image plates, the damage to picture quality could be reduced by locating regions of interest in the center. With regard to differences in sharpness following changes in the thickness of subjects, fewer scatter rays occurred and sharpness improved by reducing the thickness of subjects as much as possible. To get medical images of excellent quality, image plates should be managed effectively and it is desirable to keep images plates in dark iron plate boxes and not to expose them to outside radiation for a long time.

  15. Innovative design of composite structures: The use of curvilinear fiber format in structural design of composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charette, R. F.; Hyer, M. W.

    1990-01-01

    The influence is investigated of a curvilinear fiber format on load carrying capacity of a layered fiber reinforced plate with a centrally located hole. A curvilinear fiber format is descriptive of layers in a laminate having fibers which are aligned with the principal stress directions in those layers. Laminates of five curvilinear fiber format designs and four straightline fiber format designs are considered. A quasi-isotropic laminate having a straightline fiber format is used to define a baseline design for comparison with the other laminate designs. Four different plate geometries are considered and differentiated by two values of hole diameter/plate width equal to 1/6 and 1/3, and two values of plate length/plate width equal to 2 and 1. With the plates under uniaxial tensile loading on two opposing edges, alignment of fibers in the curvilinear layers with the principal stress directions is determined analytically by an iteration procedure. In-plane tensile load capacity is computed for all of the laminate designs using a finite element analysis method. A maximum strain failure criterion and the Tsai-Wu failure criterion are applied to determine failure loads and failure modes. Resistance to buckling of the laminate designs to uniaxial compressive loading is analyzed using the commercial code Engineering Analysis Language. Results indicate that the curvilinear fiber format laminates have higher in-plane tensile load capacity and comparable buckling resistance relative to the straightline fiber format laminates.

  16. Blue Willow Story Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  19. Two Fiber Optical Fiber Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mathew R.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Breeding, Shawn P.

    2000-01-01

    An optical fiber thermometer consists of an optical fiber whose sensing tip is given a metallic coating. The sensing tip of the fiber is essentially an isothermal cavity, so the emission from this cavity will be approximately equal to the emission from a blackbody. Temperature readings are obtained by measuring the spectral radiative heat flux at the end of the fiber at two wavelengths. The ratio of these measurements and Planck's Law are used to infer the temperature at the sensing tip. Optical fiber thermometers have high accuracy, excellent long-term stability and are immune to electromagnetic interference. In addition, they can be operated for extended periods without requiring re-calibration. For these reasons. it is desirable to use optical fiber thermometers in environments such as the International Space Station. However, it has recently been shown that temperature readings are corrupted by emission from the fiber when extended portions of the probe are exposed to elevated temperatures. This paper will describe several ways in which the reading from a second fiber can be used to correct the corrupted temperature measurements. The accuracy and sensitivity to measurement uncertainty will be presented for each method.

  20. Linear optical pulse compression based on temporal zone plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Li, Ming; Lou, Shuqin; Azaña, José

    2013-07-15

    We propose and demonstrate time-domain equivalents of spatial zone plates, namely temporal zone plates, as alternatives to conventional time lenses. Both temporal intensity zone plates, based on intensity-only temporal modulation, and temporal phase zone plates, based on phase-only temporal modulation, are introduced and studied. Temporal zone plates do not exhibit the limiting tradeoff between temporal aperture and frequency bandwidth (temporal resolution) of conventional linear time lenses. As a result, these zone plates can be ideally designed to offer a time-bandwidth product (TBP) as large as desired, practically limited by the achievable temporal modulation bandwidth (limiting the temporal resolution) and the amount of dispersion needed in the target processing systems (limiting the temporal aperture). We numerically and experimentally demonstrate linear optical pulse compression by using temporal zone plates based on linear electro-optic temporal modulation followed by fiber-optics dispersion. In the pulse-compression experiment based on temporal phase zone plates, we achieve a resolution of ~25.5 ps over a temporal aperture of ~5.77 ns, representing an experimental TBP larger than 226 using a phase-modulation amplitude of only ~0.8π rad. We also numerically study the potential of these devices to achieve temporal imaging of optical waveforms and present a comparative analysis on the performance of different temporal intensity and phase zone plates.

  1. Hydroxyapatite nanorod-reinforced biodegradable poly(L-lactic acid) composites for bone plate applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Erkin; Planell, Josep A; Hasirci, Vasif

    2011-11-01

    Novel PLLA composite fibers containing hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanorods with or without surface lactic acid grafting were produced by extrusion for use as reinforcements in PLLA-based bone plates. Fibers containing 0-50% (w/w) HAp nanorods, aligned parallel to fiber axis, were extruded. Lactic acid surface grafting of HAp nanorods (lacHAp) improved the tensile properties of composites fibers better than the non-grafted ones (nHAp). Best tensile modulus values of 2.59, 2.49, and 4.12 GPa were obtained for loadings (w/w) with 30% lacHAp, 10% nHAp, and 50% amorphous HAp nanoparticles, respectively. Bone plates reinforced with parallel rows of these composite fibers were molded by melt pressing. The best compressive properties for plates were obtained with nHAp reinforcement (1.31 GPa Young's Modulus, 110.3 MPa compressive strength). In vitro testing with osteoblasts showed good cellular attachment and spreading on composite fibers. In situ degradation tests revealed faster degradation rates with increasing HAp content. To our knowledge, this is the first study containing calcium phosphate-polymer nanocomposite fibers for reinforcement of a biodegradable bone plate or other such implants and this biomimetic design was concluded to have potential for production of polymer-based biodegradable bone plates even for load bearing applications.

  2. Revisiting the Nonlinear Response of a Plate to Acoustic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    measured for all tests. Displacement and velocity were measured at a point near the center of the plate with a Polytec Model PSV-400 Vibrometer. The...second point with a Polytec Model OVF-512 Fiber Optic American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 7 Vibrometer. This point was 2.25 inches

  3. Mathematical modeling of steel fiber concrete under dynamic impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, N. N.; Yugov, N. T.; Kopanitsa, D. G.; Kopanitsa, G. D.; Yugov, A. A.; Shashkov, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a continuum mechanics mathematical model that describes the processes of deformation and destruction of steel-fiber-concrete under a shock wave impact. A computer modeling method was applied to study the processes of shock wave impact of a steel cylindrical rod and concrete and steel fiber concrete plates. The impact speeds were within 100-500 m/s.

  4. Vacuum fiber-fiber coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrici, Axel; Bjelajac, Goran; Jonkers, Jeroen; Jakobs, Stefan; Olschok, Simon; Reisgen, Uwe

    2017-02-01

    Research and development carried out by the ISF Welding and Joining Institute of RWTH Aachen University has proven that combining high power laser and low vacuum atmosphere provides a welding performance and quality, which is comparable to electron beam welding. The developed welding machines are still using a beam forming which takes place outside the vacuum and the focusing laser beam has to be introduced to the vacuum via a suitable window. This inflexible design spoils much of the flexibility of modern laser welding. With the target to bring a compact, lightweight flying optics with flexible laser transport fibers into vacuum chambers, a high power fiber-fiber coupler has been adapted by II-VI HIGHYAG that includes a reliable vacuum interface. The vacuum-fiber-fiber coupler (V-FFC) is tested with up to 16 kW sustained laser power and the design is flexible in terms of a wide variety of laser fiber plug systems and vacuum flanges. All that is needed to implement the V-FFC towards an existing or planned vacuum chamber is an aperture of at least 100 mm (4 inch) diameter with any type of vacuum or pressure flange. The V-FFC has a state-of-the-art safety interface which allows for fast fiber breakage detection for both fibers (as supported by fibers) by electric wire breakage and short circuit detection. Moreover, the System also provides connectors for cooling and electric signals for the laser beam optics inside the vacuum. The V-FFC has all necessary adjustment options for coupling the laser radiation to the receiving fiber.

  5. Numerical prediction of fiber orientation in injection-molded short-fiber/thermoplastic composite parts with experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Thanh Binh Nguyen; Morioka, Mizuki; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Hamanaka, Senji; Yamashita, Katsuhisa; Nonomura, Chisato

    2015-05-01

    Numerical prediction of the fiber orientation in the short-glass fiber (GF) reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6) composites with the fiber weight concentration of 30%, 50%, and 70% manufactured by the injection molding process is presented. And the fiber orientation was also directly observed and measured through X-ray computed tomography. During the injection molding process of the short-fiber/thermoplastic composite, the fiber orientation is produced by the flow states and the fiber-fiber interaction. Folgar and Tucker equation is the well known for modeling the fiber orientation in a concentrated suspension. They included into Jeffrey's equation a diffusive type of term by introducing a phenomenological coefficient to account for the fiber-fiber interaction. Our developed model for the fiber-fiber interaction was proposed by modifying the rotary diffusion term of the Folgar-Tucker equation. This model was presented in a conference paper of the 29th International Conference of the Polymer Processing Society published by AIP conference proceeding. For modeling fiber interaction, the fiber dynamic simulation was introduced in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient, which is sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The fiber orientation is predicted by using the proposed fiber interaction model incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. An experimental program has been carried out in which the fiber orientation distribution has been measured in 100 x 100 x 2 mm injection-molded plate and 100 x 80 x 2 mm injection-molded weld by analyzed with a high resolution 3D X-ray computed tomography system XVA-160α, and calculated by X-ray computed tomography imaging. The numerical prediction shows a good agreement with experimental validation. And the complex fiber orientation in the injection-molded weld was investigated.

  6. Numerical prediction of fiber orientation in injection-molded short-fiber/thermoplastic composite parts with experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thi, Thanh Binh Nguyen; Morioka, Mizuki; Yokoyama, Atsushi [Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Hamanaka, Senji; Yamashita, Katsuhisa; Nonomura, Chisato [Research Center, Toyobo Co., LTD, 2-1-1 Katata, Otsu, Shiga 520-0292 (Japan)

    2015-05-22

    Numerical prediction of the fiber orientation in the short-glass fiber (GF) reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6) composites with the fiber weight concentration of 30%, 50%, and 70% manufactured by the injection molding process is presented. And the fiber orientation was also directly observed and measured through X-ray computed tomography. During the injection molding process of the short-fiber/thermoplastic composite, the fiber orientation is produced by the flow states and the fiber-fiber interaction. Folgar and Tucker equation is the well known for modeling the fiber orientation in a concentrated suspension. They included into Jeffrey’s equation a diffusive type of term by introducing a phenomenological coefficient to account for the fiber-fiber interaction. Our developed model for the fiber-fiber interaction was proposed by modifying the rotary diffusion term of the Folgar-Tucker equation. This model was presented in a conference paper of the 29{sup th} International Conference of the Polymer Processing Society published by AIP conference proceeding. For modeling fiber interaction, the fiber dynamic simulation was introduced in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient, which is sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The fiber orientation is predicted by using the proposed fiber interaction model incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. An experimental program has been carried out in which the fiber orientation distribution has been measured in 100 x 100 x 2 mm injection-molded plate and 100 x 80 x 2 mm injection-molded weld by analyzed with a high resolution 3D X-ray computed tomography system XVA-160α, and calculated by X-ray computed tomography imaging. The numerical prediction shows a good agreement with experimental validation. And the complex fiber orientation in the injection-molded weld was investigated.

  7. Hexavalent chromium reduction with scrap iron in continuous-flow system. Part 2: Effect of scrap iron shape and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheju, M; Balcu, I

    2010-10-15

    Hexavalent chromium reduction with scrap iron has the advantage that two wastes are treated simultaneously. The reduction of hexavalent chromium by scrap iron was investigated in continuous system, using as reducing agent the following scrap iron shapes and sizes: (1) spiral fibers, (2) shavings, and (3) powder. The shape and size of scrap iron were found to have a significant influence on chromium and iron species concentration in column effluent, on column effluent pH and on Cr(VI) reduction mechanism. While for large scrap iron particles (spiral fibers) homogeneous reduction is the dominant Cr(VI) reduction process, for small scrap iron particles (powder) heterogeneous reduction appears to be the dominant reaction contributing to Cr(VI) reduction. All three shapes and sizes investigated in this work have both advantages and disadvantages. If found in sufficient quantities, scrap iron powder seem to be the optimum shape and size for the continuous reduction of Cr(VI), due to the following advantages: (1) the greatest reduction capacity, (2) the most important pH increase in column effluent (up to 6.3), (3) no chromium was detected in the column effluent during the first 60 h of the experiment, and (4) the lowest steady-state Cr(VI) concentration observed in column effluent (3.7 mg/L). But, despite of a lower reduction capacity in comparison with powder particles, spiral fibers and shavings have the advantage to result in large quantities from the mechanic processing of steel.

  8. Analysis of Crystallographic Textures in Aluminum Plates Processed by Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Saiyi; Mishin, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    A modeling and experimental investigation has been conducted to explore the effect of processing route on texture evolution during equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) of aluminum plate samples. It is found that although the textures in the plates develop along orientation fibers previously...

  9. Iron bioavailability from commercially available iron supplements

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a global public health problem. Treatment with the standard of care ferrous iron salts may be poorly tolerated, leading to non-compliance and ineffective correction of IDA. Employing supplements with higher bioavailability might permit lower doses of iron to be used with fewer side effects, thus improving treatment efficacy. Here, we compared the iron bioavailability of ferrous sulphate tablets with alternative commercial iron products, including th...

  10. Iron films deposited on porous alumina substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro; Tanabe, Kenichi; Nishida, Naoki; Kobayashi, Yoshio

    2016-12-01

    Iron films were deposited on porous alumina substrates using an arc plasma gun. The pore sizes (120 - 250 nm) of the substrates were controlled by changing the temperature during the anodic oxidation of aluminum plates. Iron atoms penetrated into pores with diameters of less than 160 nm, and were stabilized by forming γ-Fe, whereas α-Fe was produced as a flat plane covering the pores. For porous alumina substrates with pore sizes larger than 200 nm, the deposited iron films contained many defects and the resulting α-Fe had smaller hyperfine magnetic fields. In addition, only a very small amount of γ-Fe was obtained. It was demonstrated that the composition and structure of an iron film can be affected by the surface morphology of the porous alumina substrate on which the film is grown.

  11. Thin Wall Austempered Ductile Iron (TWADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Górny

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the analysis of thin walled castings made of ductile iron is considered. It is shown that thin wall austempered ductile iron can be obtained by means of short-term heat treatment of thin wall castings without addition of alloying elements. Metallographic examinations of 2 mm thin walled castings along with casting with thicker wall thickness (20x28 mm after different austempring conditions are presented. It has been proved that short-term heat treatment amounted 20 minutes of austenitizing at 880 oC followed by holding at 400 oC for 5 minutes causes ausferrite matrix in 2 mm wall thickness castings, while casting with thicker wall thickness remain untransformed and martensite is still present in a matrix. Finally there are shown that thin wall ductile iron is an excellent base material for austempering heat treatments. As a result high mechanical properties received in thin wall plates made of austempered ductile iron.

  12. Pixelated neutron image plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapp, M.; Conrad, H.; von Seggern, H.

    2004-09-01

    Neutron image plates (NIPs) have found widespread application as neutron detectors for single-crystal and powder diffraction, small-angle scattering and tomography. After neutron exposure, the image plate can be read out by scanning with a laser. Commercially available NIPs consist of a powder mixture of BaFBr : Eu2+ and Gd2O3 dispersed in a polymer matrix and supported by a flexible polymer sheet. Since BaFBr : Eu2+ is an excellent x-ray storage phosphor, these NIPs are particularly sensitive to ggr-radiation, which is always present as a background radiation in neutron experiments. In this work we present results on NIPs consisting of KCl : Eu2+ and LiF that were fabricated into ceramic image plates in which the alkali halides act as a self-supporting matrix without the necessity for using a polymeric binder. An advantage of this type of NIP is the significantly reduced ggr-sensitivity. However, the much lower neutron absorption cross section of LiF compared with Gd2O3 demands a thicker image plate for obtaining comparable neutron absorption. The greater thickness of the NIP inevitably leads to a loss in spatial resolution of the image plate. However, this reduction in resolution can be restricted by a novel image plate concept in which a ceramic structure with square cells (referred to as a 'honeycomb') is embedded in the NIP, resulting in a pixelated image plate. In such a NIP the read-out light is confined to the particular illuminated pixel, decoupling the spatial resolution from the optical properties of the image plate material and morphology. In this work, a comparison of experimentally determined and simulated spatial resolutions of pixelated and unstructured image plates for a fixed read-out laser intensity is presented, as well as simulations of the properties of these NIPs at higher laser powers.

  13. Plate removal following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mhairi; Langford, Richard Julian; Bhanji, Adam; Farr, David

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the removal rates of orthognathic plates used during orthognathic surgery at James Cook University Hospital and describe the reasons for plate removal. 202 consecutive orthognathic cases were identified between July 2004 and July 2012. Demographics and procedure details were collected for these patients. Patients from this group who returned to theatre for plate removal between July 2004 and November 2012 were identified and their notes were analysed for data including reason for plate removal, age, smoking status, sex and time to plate removal. 3.2% of plates were removed with proportionally more plates removed from the mandible than the maxilla. 10.4% of patients required removal of one or more plate. Most plates were removed within the first post-operative year. The commonest reasons for plate removal were plate exposure and infection. The plate removal rates in our study are comparable to those seen in the literature.

  14. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  15. Plating in Top Agar

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    1. Warm plates to room temperature before use. Cold plates causes the top agar to solidify irregularly. DO not warm plates to 37° as the top agar will take forever to solidify. - Prepare top agar as the appropriate liquid medium with 0.7% agar. Keeping 100 mL bottles is convenient. For phages, use λ top agar, which is less rich and yields bigger plaques. - Melt top agar in the microwave completely. Allow the agar to boil after liquification; incompletely melted agar looks liquid, but is...

  16. Dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar, Z; Thorne, R

    1987-01-01

    Studies done on dietary fiber (DF) over the past five years are presented in this Review. The involvement of dietary fiber in the control of plasma glucose and lipid levels is now established. Two dietary fiber sources (soybean and fenugreek) were studied in our laboratory and are discussed herein. These sources were found to be potentially beneficial in the reduction of plasma glucose in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. They are shown to be acceptable by human subjects and are easy to use either in a mixture of milk products and in cooking. The mechanism by which dietary fiber alters the nutrient absorption is also discussed. The effect of DF on gastric emptying, transit time, adsorption and glucose transport may contribute to reducing plasma glucose and lipid levels. DF was found to be effective in controlling blood glucose and lipid levels of pregnant diabetic women. Dietary fiber may also be potentially beneficial in the reduction of exogenous insulin requirements in these subjects. However, increased consumption of DF may cause adverse side effects; the binding capabilities of fiber may affect nutrient availability, particularly that of minerals and prolonged and high DF dosage supplementation must be regarded cautiously. This is particularly true when recommending such a diet for pregnant or lactating women, children or subjects with nutritional disorders. Physiological effects of DF appear to depend heavily on the source and composition of fiber. Using a combination of DF from a variety of sources may reduce the actual mass of fiber required to obtain the desired metabolic effects and will result in a more palatable diet. Previously observed problems, such as excess flatus, diarrhea and mineral malabsorption would also be minimized.

  17. Transdermal iron replenishment therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modepalli, Naresh; Shivakumar, H N; Kanni, K L Paranjothy; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is one of the major nutritional deficiency disorders. Iron deficiency anemia occurs due to decreased absorption of iron from diet, chronic blood loss and other associated diseases. The importance of iron and deleterious effects of iron deficiency anemia are discussed briefly in this review followed by the transdermal approaches to deliver iron. Transdermal delivery of iron would be able to overcome the side effects associated with conventional oral and parenteral iron therapy and improves the patient compliance. During preliminary investigations, ferric pyrophosphate and iron dextran were selected as iron sources for transdermal delivery. Different biophysical techniques were explored to assess their efficiency in delivering iron across the skin, and in vivo studies were carried out using anemic rat model. Transdermal iron delivery is a promising approach that could make a huge positive impact on patients suffering with iron deficiency.

  18. Iron and iron derived radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fastexclamation Think smallexclamation In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. ROBUST OPTIMUM DESIGN OF LAMINATED COMPOSITE PLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangXiangyang; ChenJianqiao

    2004-01-01

    A last-ply failure (LPF) analysis method for laminated composite plates is incorporated into the finite element code-ANSYS, and a robust optimum design method is presented. The composite structure is analyzed by considering both in-plane and out-of-plane loads. For a lamina,two major failure modes are considered: matrix failure and fiber breakage that axe characterized by the proper strength criteria in the literature. When a lamina has failed, the laminate stiffness is modified to reflect the damage, and stresses in the structure are re-analyzed. This procedure is repeatedly performed until the whole structure fails and thus the ultimate strength is determined.A structural optimization problem is solved with the fiber orientation and the lamina thickness as the design variables and the LPF load as the objective. Finally, the robust optimum design method for laminates is presented and discussed.

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger portions of non-starchy vegetables and a ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... 4/Box) Taking the guesswork out of portion control has never been easier. It can be a ...

  2. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  3. MyPlate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our stage of life, situations, preferences, access to food, culture, traditions, and the personal decisions we make over time. All your food and beverage choices count. MyPlate offers ideas and ...

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... you have an easy portion control solution that works. Last Reviewed: October 8, 2015 Last Edited: September ...

  5. Designing Assemblies Of Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, F. W.; Kennedy, D.; Butler, R.; Aston, G.; Anderson, M. S.

    1992-01-01

    VICONOPT calculates vibrations and instabilities of assemblies of prismatic plates. Designed for efficient, accurate analysis of buckling and vibration, and for optimum design of panels of composite materials. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables ...

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning ... serving of dairy or both as your meal plan allows. Choose healthy fats in small amounts. For ...

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle ... manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ...

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ... been easier. It can be a challenge to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best- ...

  10. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic ... to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ...

  12. Origami - Folded Plate Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Buri, Hans Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates new methods of designing folded plate structures that can be built with cross-laminated timber panels. Folded plate structures are attractive to both architects and engineers for their structural, spatial, and plastic qualities. Thin surfaces can be stiffened by a series of folds, and thus not only cover space, but also act as load bearing elements. The variation of light and shadow along the folded faces emphasizes the plas...

  13. Fractal multifiber microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Lee M.; Feller, W. B.; Kenter, Almus T.; Chappell, Jon H.

    1992-01-01

    The construction and performance of microchannel plates (MCPs) made using fractal tiling mehtods are reviewed. MCPs with 40 mm active areas having near-perfect channel ordering were produced. These plates demonstrated electrical performance characteristics equivalent to conventionally constructed MCPs. These apparently are the first MCPs which have a sufficiently high degree of order to permit single channel addressability. Potential applications for these devices and the prospects for further development are discussed.

  14. Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria) oocytes' contact plate structure and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adonin, Leonid S; Shaposhnikova, Tatyana G; Podgornaya, Olga

    2012-01-01

    One of the A. aurita medusa main mesoglea polypeptides, mesoglein, has been described previously. Mesoglein belongs to ZP-domain protein family and therefore we focused on A.aurita oogenesis. Antibodies against mesoglein (AB RA47) stain the plate in the place where germinal epithelium contacts oocyte on the paraffin sections. According to its position, we named the structure found the "contact plate". Our main instrument was AB against mesoglein. ZP-domain occupies about half of the whole amino acid sequence of the mesoglein. Immunoblot after SDS-PAGE and AU-PAGE reveals two charged and high M(r) bands among the female gonad germinal epithelium polypeptides. One of the gonads' polypeptides M(r) corresponds to that of mesogleal cells, the other ones' M(r) is higher. The morphological description of contact plate formation is the subject of the current work. Two types of AB RA47 positive granules were observed during progressive oogenesis stages. Granules form the contact plate in mature oocyte. Contact plate of A.aurita oocyte marks its animal pole and resembles Zona Pellucida by the following features: (1) it attracts spermatozoids; (2) the material of the contact plate is synthesized by oocyte and stored in granules; (3) these granules and the contact plate itself contain ZP domain protein(s); (4) contact plate is an extracellular structure made up of fiber bundles similar to those of conventional Zona Pellucida.

  15. IN VITRO IRON AVAILABILITY AND ADSORPTION PATTERN ON COMBINATION OF ACIDITY AND LENGTH OF BOILING TIME ON YARD LONG BEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny Yuanita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to find iron availability and binding pattern by dietary fiber macromolecule on combination of acidity and length of boiling time, through Kads and Keff, boiling procees at the level of pH 4 and 7 with boiling time at 0 (raw, 5, 15, and 25 minutes. Iron availability and adsorption pattern were analyzed through Miller's in-vitro and Langmuir-Scatchard graph methods. The results of the study showed: (1 the highest iron availability occurs at raw-pH4 treatment; (2 decreasing pH and increasing boiling time decrease Kads,Keff, percent iron bound, and increase iron availability; (3 iron binding pattern by dietary fiber macromolecules through formation of complex compound was more prominent than physical adsorption, involving two types of specific binding sites, one of which showed a higher affinity.   Keywords: iron availability, adsorption pattern, dietary fiber, acidity (pH, boiling time

  16. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedix, Gretchen K.; Haack, Henning; McCoy, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Without iron and stony-iron meteorites, our chances of ever sampling the deep interior of a differentiated planetary object would be next to nil. Although we live on a planet with a very substantial core, we will never be able to sample it. Fortunately, asteroid collisions provide us with a rich...... sampling of the deep interiors of differentiated asteroids. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are fragments of a large number of asteroids that underwent significant geological processing in the early solar system. Parent bodies of iron and some stony-iron meteorites completed a geological evolution similar...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type ... of the condition. Treatments may include dietary changes, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may require ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type ... condition. Treatments may include dietary changes, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may require treatment in ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at highest risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Outlook Doctors usually can successfully treat iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment ... poor skin tone, dizziness, and depression. After her doctor diagnosed her with iron-deficiency anemia, Susan got ...

  20. Iron and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... extra iron in their diets. People following a vegetarian diet might also need additional iron. What's Iron ... as Whole Milk? About Anemia Minerals What's a Vegetarian? Word! Anemia Anemia Food Labels Vitamins and Minerals ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical ... iron-deficiency anemia may require treatment in a hospital, blood transfusions , iron injections, or intravenous iron therapy. ...

  2. Vibration and Buckling of Web Plate of the Plate Girder

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 和雄; 呉, 明強; 中澤, 聡志; 筑紫, 宏之

    1998-01-01

    The vibration and buckling of the web of the plate girder are studied in this paper. The small deflection theory of the thin plate is used. The finite strip method is employed to solve vibration and buckling of the plate girder. Natural frequenies of buckling properties are shown for various plate girder bridges.

  3. Simulated effect on the compressive and shear mechanical properties of bionic integrated honeycomb plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chenglin; Chen, Jinxiang; Wu, Zhishen; Xie, Juan; Zu, Qiao; Lu, Yun

    2015-05-01

    Honeycomb plates can be applied in many fields, including furniture manufacturing, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, transportation and aerospace. In the present study, we discuss the simulated effect on the mechanical properties of bionic integrated honeycomb plates by investigating the compressive and shear failure modes and the mechanical properties of trabeculae reinforced by long or short fibers. The results indicate that the simulated effect represents approximately 80% and 70% of the compressive and shear strengths, respectively. Compared with existing bionic samples, the mass-specific strength was significantly improved. Therefore, this integrated honeycomb technology remains the most effective method for the trial manufacturing of bionic integrated honeycomb plates. The simulated effect of the compressive rigidity is approximately 85%. The short-fiber trabeculae have an advantage over the long-fiber trabeculae in terms of shear rigidity, which provides new evidence for the application of integrated bionic honeycomb plates.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... refractory iron deficiency anemia iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of many types of anemia , which ...

  5. Sensitive determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental water samples by headspace solid-phase microextraction with bamboo charcoal@iron oxide black fibers prior to gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Long; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Wang, Xia; Zhou, Jia-Bin; Zhao, Ru-Song

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of bamboo charcoal@iron oxide black for the headspace solid-phase microextraction of polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental water samples. Bamboo charcoal@iron oxide black was prepared and used as a solid-phase microextraction coating material, and gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was used for detection. Several important factors affecting the extraction efficiency were systematically investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the experimental data exhibited wide linear range over the range 0.2-1000 ng/L and low limits of detection in the range of 4.7-22.2 pg/L. The novel coating was successfully used for the enrichment and determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in real environmental water samples. All these results indicated that bamboo charcoal@iron oxide black-based headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was an excellent alternative for the sensitive analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls at ultratrace levels in the environment.

  6. Soluble vs. insoluble fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insoluble vs. soluble fiber; Fiber - soluble vs. insoluble ... There are 2 different types of fiber -- soluble and insoluble. Both are important for health, digestion, and preventing diseases. Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. ...

  7. Photovoltaic fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiana, Russell; Eckert, Robert; Cardone, John; Ryan, James; Montello, Alan

    2006-08-01

    It was realized early in the history of Konarka that the ability to produce fibers that generate power from solar energy could be applied to a wide variety of applications where fabrics are utilized currently. These applications include personal items such as jackets, shirts and hats, to architectural uses such as awnings, tents, large covers for cars, trucks and even doomed stadiums, to indoor furnishings such as window blinds, shades and drapes. They may also be used as small fabric patches or fiber bundles for powering or recharging batteries in small sensors. Power generating fabrics for clothing is of particular interest to the military where they would be used in uniforms and body armor where portable power is vital to field operations. In strong sunlight these power generating fabrics could be used as a primary source of energy, or they can be used in either direct sunlight or low light conditions to recharge batteries. Early in 2002, Konarka performed a series of proof-of-concept experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of building a photovoltaic cell using dye-sensitized titania and electrolyte on a metal wire core. The approach taken was based on the sequential coating processes used in making fiber optics, namely, a fiber core, e.g., a metal wire serving as the primary electrode, is passed through a series of vertically aligned coating cups. Each of the cups contains a coating fluid that has a specific function in the photocell. A second wire, used as the counter electrode, is brought into the process prior to entering the final coating cup. The latter contains a photopolymerizable, transparent cladding which hardens when passed through a UV chamber. Upon exiting the UV chamber, the finished PV fiber is spooled. Two hundred of foot lengths of PV fiber have been made using this process. When the fiber is exposed to visible radiation, it generates electrical power. The best efficiency exhibited by these fibers is 6% with an average value in the 4

  8. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  9. Iron from Zealandic bog iron ore -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach

    2011-01-01

    og geologiske materiale, metallurgiske analyser og eksperimentel arkæologiske forsøg - konturerne af en jernproduktion med udgangspunkt i den sjællandske myremalm. The frequent application by archaeologists of Werner Christensen’s distribution map for the occurrence of bog iron ore in Denmark (1966...... are sketched of iron production based on bog iron ore from Zealand....

  10. Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz Keskin, Ebru; Yenicesu, İdil

    2015-03-05

    Iron is essential for life because it is indispensable for several biological reactions, such as oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and cell proliferation. Over the past few years, our understanding of iron metabolism and its regulation has changed dramatically. New disorders of iron metabolism have emerged, and the role of iron as a cofactor in other disorders has begun to be recognized. The study of genetic conditions such as hemochromatosis and iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA) has provided crucial insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling iron homeostasis. In the future, these advances may be exploited to improve treatment of both genetic and acquired iron disorders. IRIDA is caused by mutations in TMPRSS6, the gene encoding matriptase-2, which downregulates hepcidin expression under conditions of iron deficiency. The typical features of this disorder are hypochromic, microcytic anemia with a very low mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes, low transferrin saturation, no (or inadequate) response to oral iron, and only a partial response to parenteral iron. In contrast to classic iron deficiency anemia, serum ferritin levels are usually low-normal, and serum or urinary hepcidin levels are inappropriately high for the degree of anemia. Although the number of cases reported thus far in the literature does not exceed 100, this disorder is considered the most common of the "atypical" microcytic anemias. The aim of this review is to share the current knowledge on IRIDA and increase awareness in this field.

  11. Iron-Refractory Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz Keskin, Ebru; Yenicesu, İdil

    2015-01-01

    Iron is essential for life because it is indispensable for several biological reactions, such as oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and cell proliferation. Over the past few years, our understanding of iron metabolism and its regulation has changed dramatically. New disorders of iron metabolism have emerged, and the role of iron as a cofactor in other disorders has begun to be recognized. The study of genetic conditions such as hemochromatosis and iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA) has provided crucial insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling iron homeostasis. In the future, these advances may be exploited to improve treatment of both genetic and acquired iron disorders. IRIDA is caused by mutations in TMPRSS6, the gene encoding matriptase-2, which downregulates hepcidin expression under conditions of iron deficiency. The typical features of this disorder are hypochromic, microcytic anemia with a very low mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes, low transferrin saturation, no (or inadequate) response to oral iron, and only a partial response to parenteral iron. In contrast to classic iron deficiency anemia, serum ferritin levels are usually low-normal, and serum or urinary hepcidin levels are inappropriately high for the degree of anemia. Although the number of cases reported thus far in the literature does not exceed 100, this disorder is considered the most common of the “atypical” microcytic anemias. The aim of this review is to share the current knowledge on IRIDA and increase awareness in this field. PMID:25805669

  12. Vibration Analysis of Composite Rectangular Plates Reinforced along Curved Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Shinya; Oonishi, Yoshimasa; Narita, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Katsuhiko

    In the past few decades, composite materials composed of straight fibers and polymer matrix have gained their status as the most promising material for light-weight structures. Technical merit of the composites as tailored material also provided practical advantages in the optimum design process. Recently, it is reported that the fabrication machine has been developed to make curved fibers embedded in the matrix material. Based on such technical advancement, this paper proposes an analytical method to study vibration of composite rectangular plates reinforced along curved lines. The approach is based on the Ritz method where variable fiber direction can be accommodated. For this purpose, the fibers continuously changing their direction are formulated as the variable bending stiffness in the total potential energy. A frequency equation is derived by the Ritz minimizing process, and frequency parameters are calculated as the eigenvlaues in the eigenvalue problem. In numerical results, the accuracy of the method is presented by comparing present results with FEM results. The advantages of present plate are confirmed by comparing natural frequencies and mode shapes with those of conventional composite and isotropic plates, and the effectiveness of the new solution to the most recent problem is demonstrated.

  13. Liver iron transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ross M Graham; Anita CG Chua; Carly E Herbison; John K Olynyk; Debbie Trinder

    2007-01-01

    The liver plays a central role in iron metabolism. It is the major storage site for iron and also expresses a complex range of molecules which are involved in iron transport and regulation of iron homeostasis. An increasing number of genes associated with hepatic iron transport or regulation have been identified. These include transferrin receptors (TFR1 and 2), a ferrireductase (STEAP3), the transporters divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) and ferroportin (FPN) as well as the haemochromatosis protein, HFE and haemojuvelin (HJV),which are signalling molecules. Many of these genes also participate in iron regulatory pathways which focus on the hepatic peptide hepcidin. However, we are still only beginning to understand the complex interactions between liver iron transport and iron homeostasis. This review outlines our current knowledge of molecules of iron metabolism and their roles in iron transport and regulation of iron homeostasis.

  14. Pulse Reversal PermAlloy Plating Process for MEMS Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smistrup, Kristian; Tang, Peter Torben; Møller, Per

    2007-01-01

    Nickel-iron, and especially Permalloy, plating has been knownand used for more than 40 years, but there are still severalproblems related to stability and maintenance that should beresolved. This paper presents a saccharine-free pulse reversalplating Permalloy electrolyte, which gives low......-stress deposits.We demonstrate selected MEMS applications of the electrolyte.The use of the strong complexing agent 5-sulfosalicylic acidallows for a photometric determination of the Fe3+-level in thebath and eliminate precipitates. This makes the electrolytesuitable as a Permalloy plating process used...

  15. Facile control of intra-fiber porosity and inter-fiber voids in electrospun fibers for selective adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinyou; Tian, Feng; Shang, Yanwei; Wang, Fujun; Ding, Bin; Yu, Jianyong

    2012-08-01

    We report a facile method to control intra-fiber porosity via varying the relative humidity and inter-fiber voids through the blending of two different polymeric fibers via multi-nozzles spinning of electrospun fibers for selective adsorption of oil from water.We report a facile method to control intra-fiber porosity via varying the relative humidity and inter-fiber voids through the blending of two different polymeric fibers via multi-nozzles spinning of electrospun fibers for selective adsorption of oil from water. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: FE-SEM images, nitrogen physisorption isotherms, differential pore volume vs. pore width, SAXS 2D scattering patterns and SAXS curves of PS (Mw = 208 000 g mol-1) fibrous mats formed at different RH (Fig. S1). Iron element distribution of a single fiber (Fig. S2). A schematic diagram to show the multi-nozzles electrospinning (Fig. S3). FE-SEM images of as-prepared fibrous mats formed with various PS/PU nozzle ratios (Fig. S4). Nitrogen physisorption isotherms, SSA, and water contact angles of as-prepared fibrous mats formed with various PS/PU nozzle ratios (Fig. S5 and S6). Hydrophobicity-oleophilicity of an as-spun fibrous mat (Fig. S7). Typical tensile stress-strain curves of various PS fibrous mats with the addition of PU fibers formed from a 50 wt% PU resin (Fig. S8). Surface characterization of as-prepared fibers (Table S1). Tensile properties of the fibrous mats (Tables S2 and S3). See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31515g

  16. Anterior cervical plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonugunta V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anterior cervical instrumentation was initially used in cervical trauma, because of obvious benefits, indications for its use have been expanded over time to degenerative cases as well as tumor and infection of the cervical spine. Along with a threefold increase in incidence of cervical fusion surgery, implant designs have evolved over the last three decades. Observation of graft subsidence and phenomenon of stress shielding led to the development of the new generation dynamic anterior cervical plating systems. Anterior cervical plating does not conclusively improve clinical outcome of the patients, but certainly enhances the efficacy of autograft and allograft fusion and lessens the rate of pseudoarthrosis and kyphosis after multilevel discectomy and fusions. A review of biomechanics, surgical technique, indications, complications and results of various anterior cervical plating systems is presented here to enable clinicians to select the appropriate construct design.

  17. Influence of Spinning Technology on Dye Uptake of Modified Polypropylene Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜; 朱美芳; 俞成丙; 陈彦模

    2001-01-01

    By adding small amount of olefin polymer additive, the dyeability of polypropylene fiber can be improved.Research results show that the improvement of dyeing performance of modified PP fiber is mainly due to the formation of looser structure of PP matrix and the microchannels among additive particles in blended fiber. The dye uptake of drawn fibers decreases with drawing ratios obviously and changes with temperature of heat plate and heat roller a little.

  18. Novel Perturbation-Immune All-Fiber Optical Architecture for Current Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a novel all-fiber optical architecture for electric current or magnetic field sensing which is immune against temperature and vibration perturbations in a hazardous environment. The architecture is structured by employing the fiber-optic wave plates (quarter, half or full) of the patented invention of the senior author. Experimental results on prototype fiber-optic specimen and on a variety of optical fiber networks confirm the respective theoretical predictions.

  19. Fiber resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. J. Ince

    2004-01-01

    In economics, primary inputs or factors of production define the term ‘resources.’ Resources include land resources (plants, animals, and minerals), labor, capital, and entrepreneurship. Almost all pulp and paper fiber resources are plant materials obtained from trees or agricultural crops. These resources encompass plant materials harvested directly from the land (...

  20. Optimum design of cast iron finned radiator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵立华; 张泓森; 董重成

    2003-01-01

    The height, thickness and spacing of fins have an impact on the thermal characteristics of a radiator.The calculation of heat output and metal thermal intensity for cast iron finned radiator are given by using heat transfer formula of vertical plate and parallel fins. Each factor having effect on the metal thermal intensity of a radiator is analyzed and the optimum structure parameters of a radiator are given in order to maximize metal thermal intensity.

  1. License plate detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, Michael; Klopovsky, Yuri; Silinskis, Normunds

    2013-12-01

    A novel algorithm for vehicle license plates localization is proposed. The algorithm is based on pixel intensity transition gradient analysis. Near to 2500 natural-scene gray-level vehicle images of different backgrounds and ambient illumination was tested. The best set of algorithm's parameters produces detection rate up to 0.94. Taking into account abnormal camera location during our tests and therefore geometrical distortion and troubles from trees this result could be considered as passable. Correlation between source data, such as license Plate dimensions and texture, cameras location and others, and parameters of algorithm were also defined.

  2. Stochastic analysis of laminated composite plate considering stochastic homogenization problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. SAKATA; K. OKUDA; K. IKEDA

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a multiscale stochastic analysis of a laminated composite plate consisting of unidirectional fiber reinforced composite laminae. In particular, influence of a microscopic random variation of the elastic properties of component materials on mechanical properties of the laminated plate is investigated. Laminated composites are widely used in civil engineering, and therefore multiscale stochastic analysis of laminated composites should be performed for reliability evaluation of a composite civil structure. This study deals with the stochastic response of a laminated composite plate against the microscopic random variation in addition to a random variation of fiber orientation in each lamina, and stochastic properties of the mechanical responses of the laminated plate is investigated. Halpin-Tsai formula and the homogenization theory-based finite element analysis are employed for estimation of effective elastic properties of lamina, and the classical laminate theory is employed for analysis of a laminated plate. The Monte-Carlo simulation and the first-order second moment method with sensitivity analysis are employed for the stochastic analysis. From the numerical results, importance of the multiscale stochastic analysis for reliability evaluation of a laminated composite structure and applicability of the sensitivity-based approach are discussed.

  3. The dynamic response of carbon fiber-filled polymer composites

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson B.; Orler E.B.; Furmanski J.; Rigg P.A.; Scharff R.J.; Stahl D.B.; Sheffield S.A.; Gustavsen R.L.; Dattelbaum D.M.; Coe J.D.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic (shock) responses of two carbon fiber-filled polymer composites have been quantified using gas gun-driven plate impact experimentation. The first composite is a filament-wound, highly unidirectional carbon fiber-filled epoxy with a high degree of porosity. The second composite is a chopped carbon fiber- and graphite-filled phenolic resin with little-to-no porosity. Hugoniot data are presented for the carbon fiber-epoxy (CE) composite to 18.6 GPa in the through-thickness direction,...

  4. Casimir force between metal plate and dielectric plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中柱; 邵成刚; 罗俊

    1999-01-01

    The Casimir effect between metal plate and dielectric plate is discussed with 1+1-dimensional potential model without using cut-off method. Calculation shows that the Casimir force between metal plate and dielectric plate is determined not only by the potential V0, the dielectric thickness and the distance α between the metal plate and dielectric plate, but also by the dimension of the vessel. When α is far less than the dimension of the vessel, the Casimir force Fc∝α(-1); conversely Fc∝α-2. This result is significant for Casimir force experiment.

  5. [Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    The major causes of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) include iron loss due to bleeding, increased iron requirements, and decreased iron absorption by the intestine. The most common cause of IDA in Japanese women is iron loss during menstruation. Autoimmune atrophic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection can also cause IDA by reducing intestinal iron absorption. In addition to these common etiologies, germline mutations of TMPRSS6 can cause iron-refractory IDA (IRIDA). TMPRSS6 encodes matriptase-2, a membrane-bound serine protease primarily expressed in the liver. Functional loss of matriptase-2 due to homozygous mutations results in an increase in the expression of hepcidin, which is the key regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. The serum hepcidin increase in turn leads to a decrease in iron supply from the intestine and macrophages to erythropoietic cells. IRIDA is microcytic and hypochromic, but decreased serum ferritin is not observed as in IDA. IRIDA is refractory to oral iron supplementation, but does respond to intravenous iron supplementation to some extent. Because genetic testing is required for the diagnoses of IRIDA, a considerable number of cases may go undiagnosed and may thus be overlooked.

  6. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  7. Iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...

  8. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  9. Serum iron test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++; Ferrous ion; Iron - serum; Anemia - serum iron; Hemochromatosis - serum iron ... A blood sample is needed. Iron levels are highest in the morning. Your health care provider will likely have you do this test in the morning.

  10. Iron stress in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Erin L; Guerinot, Mary

    2002-07-30

    Although iron is an essential nutrient for plants, its accumulation within cells can be toxic. Plants, therefore, respond to both iron deficiency and iron excess by inducing expression of different gene sets. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of iron homeostasis in plants gained through functional genomic approaches

  11. Iron stress in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Erin L.; Guerinot, Mary Lou

    2002-01-01

    Although iron is an essential nutrient for plants, its accumulation within cells can be toxic. Plants, therefore, respond to both iron deficiency and iron excess by inducing expression of different gene sets. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of iron homeostasis in plants gained through functional genomic approaches.

  12. Urinary iron excretion test in iron deficiency anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura,Ikuro

    1980-02-01

    Full Text Available A urinary iron excretion test was carried out in 22 patients with iron deficiency anemia. The iron excretion index was significantly higher in patients with intractable iron deficiency anemia compared with normal subjects and anemic patients who were responsive to iron therapy. The findings suggest that iron excretion may be a factor that modulates the response of patients to iron therapy.

  13. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R

    2014-01-28

    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  14. Photonic lantern with cladding-removable fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weimin; Yan, Qi; Bi, Yao; Yu, Haijiao; Liu, Xiaoqi; Xue, Jiuling; Tian, He; Liu, Yongjun

    2014-07-01

    Recently, spectral measurement becomes an important tool in astronomy to find exoplanets etc. The fibers are used to transfer light from the focal plate to spectrometers. To get high-resolution spectrum, the input slits of the spectrometers should be as narrow as possible. In opposite, the light spots from the fibers are circle, which diameters are clearly wider than the width of the spectrometer slits. To reduce the energy loss of the fiber-guide star light, many kinds of image slicers were designed and fabricated to transform light spot from circle to linear. Some different setup of fiber slicers are introduced by different research groups around the world. The photonic lanterns are candidates of fiber slicers. Photonic lantern includes three parts: inserted fibers, preform or tubing, taped part of the preform or tubing. Usually the optical fields concentrate in the former-core area, so the light spots are not uniform from the tapered end of the lantern. We designed, fabricated and tested a special kind of photonic lantern. The special fibers consist polymer cladding and doped high-index core. The polymer cladding could be easily removed using acetone bath, while the fiber core remains in good condition. We inserted the pure high-index cores into a pure silica tubing and tapered it. During the tapering process, the gaps between the inserted fibers disappeared. Finally we can get a uniform tapered multimode fiber end. The simulation results show that the longer the taper is, the lower the loss is. The shape of the taper should be controlled carefully. A large-zone moving-flame taper machine was fabricated to make the special photonic lantern. Three samples of photonic lanterns were fabricated and tested. The lanterns with cladding-removable fibers guide light uniform in the tapered ends that means these lanterns could collect more light from those ends.

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ... year of delicious meals to help prevent and manage diabetes. Healthy Recipes: ... to your day with this guide. Ways to Give: Wear Your Cause on Your Sleeve - ...

  17. The Plate Tectonics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2011-01-01

    The Plate Tectonics Project is a multiday, inquiry-based unit that facilitates students as self-motivated learners. Reliable Web sites are offered to assist with lessons, and a summative rubric is used to facilitate the holistic nature of the project. After each topic (parts of the Earth, continental drift, etc.) is covered, the students will…

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... unsweetened tea or coffee. Featured Product Precise Portions® Go Healthy Travel Pack (4/Box) Taking the guesswork ... you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing lid is offered in ...

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing lid is offered in a 4-pack. Whether ... Research & Practice We Are Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor ...

  3. INL HIP Plate Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. H. Park; C. R. Clark; J. F. Jue

    2010-02-01

    This document outlines the process used to bond monolithic fuel plates by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). This method was developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. These foils have been used in a number of irradiation experiments in support of the United States Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program.

  4. The Plate Tectonics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2011-01-01

    The Plate Tectonics Project is a multiday, inquiry-based unit that facilitates students as self-motivated learners. Reliable Web sites are offered to assist with lessons, and a summative rubric is used to facilitate the holistic nature of the project. After each topic (parts of the Earth, continental drift, etc.) is covered, the students will…

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create ... somewhere in between, you have an easy portion control solution that works. Last Reviewed: October 8, 2015 Last Edited: ... Cost of Diabetes Advocate Toolkit Call to Congress Research & ...

  6. Metallization of Kevlar fibers with gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Brian K; Li, Yunfeng; Cammarata, V; Broughton, R; Mills, G

    2011-06-01

    Electrochemical gold plating processes were examined for the metallization of Kevlar yarn. Conventional Sn(2+)/Pd(2+) surface activation coupled with electroless Ni deposition rendered the fibers conductive enough to serve as cathodes for electrochemical plating. The resulting coatings were quantified gravimetrically and characterized via adhesion tests together with XRD, SEM, TEM; the coatings effect on fiber strength was also probed. XRD data showed that metallic Pd formed during surface activation whereas amorphous phases and trace amounts of pure Ni metal were plated via the electroless process. Electrodeposition in a thiosulfate bath was the most efficient Au coating process as compared with the analogous electroless procedure, and with electroplating using a commercial cyanide method. Strongly adhering coatings resulted upon metallization with three consecutive electrodepositions, which produced conductive fibers able to sustain power outputs in the range of 1 W. On the other hand, metallization affected the tensile strength of the fiber and defects present in the metal deposits make questionable the effectiveness of the coatings as protective barriers.

  7. STUDIES ON DECOLORING AND REMOVING IRON IN THE GOURMET POWDER BY MULTISTAGE FLUIDED BED ADSORPTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENJinqing

    1993-01-01

    A new decoloring and iron removing technology for the gourmet powder is developed and the mixed bed adsorption of TPCIX cloumn(Tipping Plate Continous Ion Exchange Column) is studied using mining feed of neutraliation liquid and crystallization mother liquid.The appropriate conditions of decoloring,iron removing and the operation of TPCIX column are investigated.

  8. Pengaruh Jenis dan Volumetrik Fiber terhadap Kekuatan Transversal Reparasi Plat Resin Akrilik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramudya Aditama

    2015-06-01

    ANAVA dua jalur menunjukkan variabel jenis dan volumetrik fiber memberikan pengaruh signifikan (p0,05. Uji post hoc Tukey menunjukkan perbedaan signifikan (p0.05. Tukey post hoc test shows significant difference (p<0.05 for all groups. The addition of E-glass fibers in the acrylic resin plate repaired increased the transverse strength higher than that with PE fibers. The increase in volumetric fibers might improve the transverse strength of the acrylic resin plate repaired.

  9. A compact optical fiber positioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongzhuan; Wang, Jianping; Liu, Zhigang; Zhou, Zengxiang; Zhai, Chao; Chu, Jiaru

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a compact optical fiber positioner is proposed, which is especially suitable for small scale and high density optical fiber positioning. Based on the positioning principle of double rotation, positioner's center shaft depends on planetary gear drive principle, meshing with the fixed annular gear central motor gear driving device to rotate, and the eccentric shaft rotated driving by a coaxial eccentric motor, both center and the eccentric shaft are supported by a rolling bearings; center and eccentric shaft are both designed with electrical zero as a reference point, and both of them have position-limiting capability to ensure the safety of fiber positioning; both eccentric and center shaft are designed to eliminating clearance with spring structure, and can eliminate the influence of gear gap; both eccentric and center motor and their driving circuit can be installed in the positioner's body, and a favorable heat sink have designed, the heat bring by positioning operation can be effectively transmit to design a focal plane unit through the aluminum component, on sleeve cooling spiral airway have designed, when positioning, the cooling air flow is inlet into install hole on the focal plate, the cooling air flow can effectively take away the positioning's heat, to eliminate the impact of the focus seeing. By measuring position device's sample results show that: the unit accuracy reached 0.01mm, can meet the needs of fiber positioning.

  10. Numerical modelling of thin-walled hypereutectic ductile cast iron parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2006-01-01

    Solidification of hypereutectic thin-walled ductile cast iron has been modelled in one dimension taking into account the precipitation of off-eutectic austenite dendrites during solidification. The simulations have been compared with casting experiments on plate geometries with plate thicknesses...

  11. Fossil bacteria in Xuanlong iron ore deposits of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Yongding; SONG Haiming; SHEN Jiying

    2004-01-01

    Discovered in Early Proterozoic Xuanlong iron ore deposits are six genera of fossil iron bacteria, i. e. sphere (coenobium of) rod-shaped (monomer) Naumanniella, ellipsoid elliptical Ochrobium, sphere spherical Siderocapsa and chain spherical Siderococcus, chain rod-shaped Leptothrix and Lieskeella, and six genera of fossil blue bacteria, namely sphere spherical Gloeocapsa, Synechocystis and Globobacter, chain spherical Anabaena and Nostoc, and constrictive septate tubular Nodularia. The biomineralized monomers and coenobia of the two categories of bacteria, together with hematite plates made up the bacteria pelletal, bacteria silky,bacteria fibrous and clasty bacteria pelletal textural lamina. The bacteria pelletal laminae combined with other bacteria laminae to make up oncolite, stromatolite and laminate. The precipitation of iron oxide was accelerated due to iron and blue bacteria cohabiting on microbial film or mat. The Xuanlong iron ore deposits are microbial binding ore deposits of ocean source.

  12. MyPlate Food Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness MyPlate Food Guide KidsHealth > For Teens > MyPlate Food Guide Print ... other sugary drinks. Avoid oversized portions. continue Five Food Groups Different food groups meet different nutrition needs. ...

  13. What Are Growth Plate Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plate injuries are:  Falling down  Competitive sports (like football)  Recreational activities. Other reasons for growth plate injuries are:  Child abuse  Injury from extreme cold (for ...

  14. THE PARALLEL CONFOCAL DETECTING SYSTEM USING OPTICAL FIBER PLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Sincethefirstpatentforaconfocalmicroscope wasinventedbyMinsky[1]in1957,theconfocal microscopyhasallowedamajoradvanceinbiologi calimagingforitsspecialadvantagesofhighresolu tion,highaccuracyandmoresimplifiedimaging processing.Today,ithasbeenwidelyappliedin3D profiledetectingfieldssuchasbiological,materials specimens,mechanics,cosmetics,medical,semi conductors,microstructuresandfibersetc.[2,3].However,conventionalconfocalmeasurements mostlyapplysinglepointcollimatingandscanning technologytorealizetwo dimensio...

  15. FLEXURAL TOUGHNESS OF STEEL FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehmi ÇİVİCİ

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Fiber concrete is a composite material which has mechanical and physical characteristics unlike plain concrete. One of the important mechanical characteristics of fiber concrete is its energy absorbing capability. This characteristics which is also called toughness, is defined as the total area under the load-deflection curve. A number of composite characteristics such as crack resistance, ductility and impact resistance are related to the energy absorbtion capacity. According to ASTM C 1018 and JSCE SF-4 the calculation of toughness is determined by uniaxial flexural testing. Fiber concrete is often used in plates such as bridge decks, airport pavements, parking areas, subjected to cavitation and erosion. In this paper, toughness has been determined according to ASTM C 1018 and JSCE SF-4 methods by testing beam specimens. Energy absorbing capacities of plain and steel fiber reinforced concrete has been compared by evaluating the results of two methods. Also plain and steel fiber reinforced plate specimens behaviors subjected to biaxial flexure are compared by the loaddeflection curves of each specimen.

  16. Reinforcement of Existing Cast-Iron Structural Elements by Means of Fiber Reinforced Composites / Wzmacnianie Istniejących, Żeliwnych Elementów Konstrukcyjnych za Pomocą Włóknokompozytów

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcinowski Jakub

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paperdeals with tubular, cast-iron columns which should be reinforced due to the planned new structural function of these elements. According to the requirements of the monument conservator the general appearance of columns should not be altered significantly. Reinforcement with an external, thin coating (sleeve or jacket made of composite (carbon fibre reinforced polymer - CFRP was proposed. Details of the proposedtechniquewerepresented. The reinforcementeffect was verifiedin destructivetestsperformed on two columns without reinforcement and the two other columns reinforced with the chosentechnique. Due to the expected very high load capacity of the axially loaded column, the test rig was designed in such a manner that the force could be applied on big eccentricity. For this purpose a specialbase was prepared(comp. Fig. 1. Destructivetests have confirmed the high effectiveness of the adopted strengthening technique.

  17. Reinforcement of Existing Cast-Iron Structural Elements by Means of Fiber Reinforced Composites / Wzmacnianie Istniejących, Żeliwnych Elementów Konstrukcyjnych za Pomocą Włóknokompozytów

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinowski, Jakub; Różycki, Zbigniew

    2016-03-01

    The paperdeals with tubular, cast-iron columns which should be reinforced due to the planned new structural function of these elements. According to the requirements of the monument conservator the general appearance of columns should not be altered significantly. Reinforcement with an external, thin coating (sleeve or jacket) made of composite (carbon fibre reinforced polymer - CFRP) was proposed. Details of the proposedtechniquewerepresented. The reinforcementeffect was verifiedin destructivetestsperformed on two columns without reinforcement and the two other columns reinforced with the chosentechnique. Due to the expected very high load capacity of the axially loaded column, the test rig was designed in such a manner that the force could be applied on big eccentricity. For this purpose a specialbase was prepared(comp. Fig. 1). Destructivetests have confirmed the high effectiveness of the adopted strengthening technique.

  18. Microchannel plate streak camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching L.

    1989-01-01

    An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (UV to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1000 KeV x-rays.

  19. Electronic Equipment Cold Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    equations for such a flow regiae. For laainar flow and Moderate teaperature differwwe« between the well «nd coolant, a aodifled Sieder -Tate...con- figuration. The heat-transfer coefficients, therefore, were determined by using both the Sieder -Tate and McAdams equations and the coaputed...values used In the analytical predictions. As with th* previous cold Plates, the Sieder -Tate equation gave too low of values for the heat- transfer

  20. Elastic plate spallation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oline, L.; Medaglia, J.

    1972-01-01

    The dynamic finite element method was used to investigate elastic stress waves in a plate. Strain displacement and stress strain relations are discussed along with the stiffness and mass matrix. The results of studying point load, and distributed load over small, intermediate, and large radii are reported. The derivation of finite element matrices, and the derivation of lumped and consistent matrices for one dimensional problems with Laplace transfer solutions are included. The computer program JMMSPALL is also included.

  1. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisaton of the damage, which...

  2. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1998-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisation of the damage, which...

  3. Effect of age and sex on fiber and follicle characteristics of an Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    histological features of all Bakhtiari sheep fibers used in this study were similar to many other breeds sited in ... in compound hair follicles was 4. ... study was to investigate the histological ... follicles, cluster of 4 were most common (Plate III).

  4. Tensile strength of woven yarn kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Ismail

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the tensile strength of woven kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites. The as-received yarn kenaf fiber is weaved and then aligned into specific fiber orientations before it is hardened with polyester resin. The composite plates are shaped according to the standard geometry and uni-axially loaded in order to investigate the tensile responses. Two important parameters are studied such as fiber orientations and number of layers. According to the results, it is shown that fiber orientations greatly affected the ultimate tensile strength but it is not for modulus of elasticity for both types of layers. It is estimated that the reductions of both ultimate tensile strength and Young’s modulus are in the range of 27.7-30.9% and 2.4-3.7% respectively, if the inclined fibers are used with respect to the principal axis.

  5. Ocean iron cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Philip W.

    Interest in the biogeochemical cycle of iron has grown rapidly over the last two decades, due to the potential role of this element in modulating global climate in the geological past and ocean productivity in the present day. This trace metal has a disproportionately large effect (1 × 105 C:Fe) on photosynthetic carbon fixation by phytoplankton. In around one third of the open ocean, so-called high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions, the resident phytoplankton have low growth rates despite an abundance of plant nutrients. This is due to the low supply of iron. Iron is present in the ocean in three phases, dissolved, colloidal, and particulate (biogenic and lithogenic). However, iron chemistry is complex with interactions between chemistry and biology such as the production of iron-binding siderophores by oceanic bacteria. This results in the interplay of inorganic chemistry, photochemistry, and organic complexation. Sources of new iron include dust deposition, upwelling of iron-rich deep waters, and the resuspension and lateral transport of sediments. Sinks for iron are mainly biological as evidenced by the vertical nutrient-like profile for dissolved iron in the ocean. Iron is rapidly recycled by the upper ocean biota within a so-called "ferrous wheel." The fe ratio [(new iron)/(new + regenerated iron)] provides an index of the relative supply of iron to the biota by new versus recycled iron. Over the last 15 years, interest in the potential role of iron in shaping climate in the geological past resulted in some of the most ambitious experiments in oceanography: large-scale (i.e., 50-1000 km2) iron enrichment of HNLC waters. They have provided valuable insights into how iron supply influences the biogeochemical cycles of elements such as carbon, sulfur, silicon, nitrogen, and phosphate.

  6. Vibration analysis and optimization of sandwich composite with curvilinear fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, S.; Narita, Y.

    2016-09-01

    The present paper develops a shell element based on the refined zigzag theory (RZT) and applies it to the vibration analysis and optimization problem of the composite sandwich plate composed of CFRP skins and soft-cores. The RZT accepts large differences in layer stiffness, and requires less calculation effort than the layer-wise or three-dimensional theories. Numerical results revealed that the present method predicts vibration characteristics of composite sandwich plates with soft-core accurately. Then, shapes of reinforcing fibers in CFRP composite skins are optimized to maximize fundamental frequencies. As an optimizer, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach is employed since curvilinear fiber shapes are defined by continuous design variables. Obtained results showed that the composite sandwich with optimum curvilinear fiber shapes indicates higher fundamental frequencies compared with straight fibers.

  7. Plate tectonics conserves angular momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bowin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A new combined understanding of plate tectonics, Earth internal structure, and the role of impulse in deformation of the Earth's crust is presented. Plate accelerations and decelerations have been revealed by iterative filtering of the quaternion history for the Euler poles that define absolute plate motion history for the past 68 million years, and provide an unprecedented precision for plate angular rotation variations with time at 2-million year intervals. Stage poles represent the angular rotation of a plate's motion between adjacent Euler poles, and from which the maximum velocity vector for a plate can be determined. The consistent maximum velocity variations, in turn, yield consistent estimates of plate accelerations and decelerations. The fact that the Pacific plate was shown to accelerate and decelerate, implied that conservation of plate tectonic angular momentum must be globally conserved, and that is confirmed by the results shown here (total angular momentum ~1.4 E+27 kgm2s−1. Accordingly, if a plate decelerates, other plates must increase their angular momentums to compensate. In addition, the azimuth of the maximum velocity vectors yields clues as to why the "bend" in the Emperor-Hawaiian seamount trend occurred near 46 Myr. This report summarizes processing results for 12 of the 14 major tectonic plates of the Earth (except for the Juan de Fuca and Philippine plates. Plate accelerations support the contention that plate tectonics is a product of torques that most likely are sustained by the sinking of positive density anomalies due to phase changes in subducted gabbroic lithosphere at depth in the upper lower mantle (above 1200 km depth. The tectonic plates are pulled along by the sinking of these positive mass anomalies, rather than moving at near constant velocity on the crests of convection cells driven by rising heat. These results imply that spreading centers are primarily passive reactive

  8. Vehicle License Plate Recognition Syst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi,R. B. Dubey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle license plate recognition system has greater efficiency for vehicle monitoring in automatic zone access control. This Plate recognition system will avoid special tags, since all vehicles possess a unique registration number plate. A number of techniques have been used for car plate characters recognition. This system uses neural network character recognition and pattern matching of characters as two character recognition techniques. In this approach multilayer feed-forward back-propagation algorithm is used. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on several car plates and provides very satisfactory results.

  9. Using plate mapping to examine portion size and plate composition for large and small divided plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, David E; Sobal, Jeffery; Wansink, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Does the size of a plate influence the serving of all items equally, or does it influence the serving of some foods - such as meat versus vegetables - differently? To examine this question, we used the new method of plate mapping, where people drew a meal on a paper plate to examine sensitivity to small versus large three-compartment divided plates in portion size and meal composition in a sample of 109 university students. The total drawn meal area was 37% bigger on large plates than small plates, which showed that the portion of plate coverage did not differ by plate size. Men and women drew bigger vegetable portions and men drew bigger meat portions on large plates when compared to small plates. These results suggest that men and women are differentially sensitive to plate size for overall meal size and for meal composition. Implications for decreasing portion size and improving meal balance are that plate size may influence portion size and change the proportions of foods served.

  10. Ground strain measuring system using optical fiber sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tadanobu; Honda, Riki; Shibata, Shunjiro; Takegawa, Naoki

    2001-08-01

    This paper presents a device to measure the dynamic horizontal shear strain of the ground during earthquake. The proposed device consists of a bronze plate with fiber Bragg grating sensors attached on it. The device is vertically installed in the ground, and horizontal shear strain of the ground is measured as deflection angle of the plate. Employment of optical fiber sensors makes the proposed device simple in mechanism and highly durable, which makes it easy to install our device in the ground. We conducted shaking table tests using ground model to verify applicability of the proposed device.

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video— ... treatment. For more information about living with and managing iron-deficiency anemia, go to the Health Topics ...

  12. Iron in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meat (especially beef) Oysters Poultry, dark red meat Salmon Tuna Whole grains Reasonable amounts of iron are ... iron up to three times. Foods rich in vitamin C ( such as citrus, strawberries, tomatoes, and potatoes) ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-rich protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Iron-deficiency ... 2011 This video—presented by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, part of the National Institutes ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia may require treatment in a hospital, blood transfusions , iron injections, or intravenous iron therapy. Rate This ... video—presented by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, part of the National ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... easily treated condition that occurs if you don't have enough iron in your body. Low iron ... can occur if your red blood cells don't contain enough hemoglobin (HEE-muh-glow-bin). Hemoglobin ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... muh-glow-bin). Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to the ... other complications. Infants and young children and women are the two groups at highest risk for iron- ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... severity of the condition. Treatments may include dietary changes, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may require treatment in a hospital, blood ... With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video— ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Events Spokespeople Email Alerts E-Newsletters About NHLBI Organization NHLBI Director Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Jobs ... the body. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time if your body doesn't have enough iron ...

  19. Iron supplements (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... easily treated condition that occurs if you don't have enough iron in your body. Low iron ... can occur if your red blood cells don't contain enough hemoglobin (HEE-muh-glow-bin). Hemoglobin ...

  1. Fabrication Techniques for Fiber Optic Fire Control Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    using trichloroethylene. The blanks were then cleaned with naptha solvent and cheesecloth. ■ HHPP Figure 6. Configuration of Plano-Plano Fiber... Beeswax was used to cement the blanks to the blocking plate instead of stickum wax. The 11 same prcedure for rough grinding the first side of blanks...on a hot plate to melt the bees- wax. The blanks were then placed in a vapor degreaser and cleaned with a naptha solvent and cheesecloth. 3

  2. Photonic Bandgap Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkou, Stig Eigil; Broeng, Jes; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    1999-01-01

    Photonic bandgap fibers are describes using a new Kagomé cladding structure. These fibers may potentially guide light in low-index regions. Such fibers offer new dispersion properties, and large design flexibility.......Photonic bandgap fibers are describes using a new Kagomé cladding structure. These fibers may potentially guide light in low-index regions. Such fibers offer new dispersion properties, and large design flexibility....

  3. Highly conductive thermoplastic composites for rapid production of fuel cell bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianhua [Blacksburg, VA; Baird, Donald G [Blacksburg, VA; McGrath, James E [Blacksburg, VA

    2008-04-29

    A low cost method of fabricating bipolar plates for use in fuel cells utilizes a wet lay process for combining graphite particles, thermoplastic fibers, and reinforcing fibers to produce a plurality of formable sheets. The formable sheets are then molded into a bipolar plates with features impressed therein via the molding process. The bipolar plates formed by the process have conductivity in excess of 150 S/cm and have sufficient mechanical strength to be used in fuel cells. The bipolar plates can be formed as a skin/core laminate where a second polymer material is used on the skin surface which provides for enhanced conductivity, chemical resistance, and resistance to gas permeation.

  4. Modeling of damage evaluation in thin composite plate loaded by pressure loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudinský M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of numerical analysis of elastic damage of thin laminated long fiber-reinforced composite plate consisting of unidirectional layers which is loaded by uniformly distributed pressure. The analysis has been performed by means of the finite element method (FEM. The numerical implementation uses layered plate finite elements based on the Kirchhoff plate theory. System of nonlinear equations has been solved by means of the Newton- Raphson procedure. Evolution of damage has been solved using the return-mapping algorithm based on the continuum damage mechanics (CDM. The analysis was performed using own program created in MATLAB. Problem of laminated fiber-reinforced composite plate fixed on edges for two different materials and three different laminate stacking sequences (LSS was simulated. Evolution of stresses vs. strains and also evolution of damage variables in critical points of the structure are shown.

  5. Temperature field of steel plate cooling process after plate rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijun Feng, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on numerical calculation with Matlab, the study on cooling process after plate rolling is carried out, and the temperature field distribution of the plate varying with the time is obtained. The effects of the plate thickness, final rolling temperature, cooling water temperature, average flow rate of the cooling water, carbon content of the plate and cooling method on the plate surface and central temperatures as well as final cooling temperature are discussed. For the same cooling time, the plate surface and central temperatures as well as their temperature difference increase; with the decrease in rolling temperature and the increase in average flow rate of the cooling water, the plate surface and central temperatures decrease. Compared with the single water cooling process, the temperature difference between the plate centre and surface based on intermittent cooling is lower. In this case, the temperature uniformity of the plate is better, and the corresponding thermal stress is lower. The fitting equation of the final cooling temperature with respect to plate thickness, final rolling temperature, cooling water temperature and average flow rate of the cooling water is obtained.

  6. Iron age: novel targets for iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casu, Carla; Rivella, Stefano

    2014-12-05

    Excess iron deposition in vital organs is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients affected by β-thalassemia and hereditary hemochromatosis. In both disorders, inappropriately low levels of the liver hormone hepcidin are responsible for the increased iron absorption, leading to toxic iron accumulation in many organs. Several studies have shown that targeting iron absorption could be beneficial in reducing or preventing iron overload in these 2 disorders, with promising preclinical data. New approaches target Tmprss6, the main suppressor of hepcidin expression, or use minihepcidins, small peptide hepcidin agonists. Additional strategies in β-thalassemia are showing beneficial effects in ameliorating ineffective erythropoiesis and anemia. Due to the suppressive nature of the erythropoiesis on hepcidin expression, these approaches are also showing beneficial effects on iron metabolism. The goal of this review is to discuss the major factors controlling iron metabolism and erythropoiesis and to discuss potential novel therapeutic approaches to reduce or prevent iron overload in these 2 disorders and ameliorate anemia in β-thalassemia.

  7. Real Plates and Dubious Microplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, M. G.; Steblov, G. M.

    2008-12-01

    From the onset of plate tectonics, the existence of most of the plates was never put in doubt, although the boundaries of some plates, like Africa, were later revised. There are however, two microplates in northeast Asia, the Amurian and Okhotsk, whose existence and the sense of rotation was revised several times. The rms value of plate-residual GPS velocities is 0.5-0.9 mm/a for sets of stations representing the motion of the following plates: Antarctic, Australian, Eurasian, North American, Nubian, Pacific, and South American. This value can be regarded as an upper bound on deviation of real plates from infinite stiffness. The rms value of plate-residual GPS velocities is 1.2-1.8 mm/a for the Indian, Nazca, and Somalian plates. Higher rms values for India and Nazca are attributed to the noisier data. The higher rms value for Somalia appears to arise from the distributed deformation to the east of the East African Rift; whether this statement is true can only be decided from observations of denser network in the future. From the analysis of plate-residual GPS velocities, the Canadian Arctic and northeastern Siberia belong to the North American plate. The detailed GPS survey on Sakhalin Island shows that the Sea of Okhotsk region also belongs to the North American plate while the region to the west of it belongs to the Eurasian plate. These results provide a constraint on the geometry of the North American plate and put in doubt the existence of smaller plates in northeast Asia.

  8. Iron deficiency anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Naigamwalla, Dinaz Z.; Webb, Jinelle A.; Giger, Urs

    2012-01-01

    Iron is essential to virtually all living organisms and is integral to multiple metabolic functions. The most important function is oxygen transport in hemoglobin. Iron deficiency anemia in dogs and cats is usually caused by chronic blood loss and can be discovered incidentally as animals may have adapted to the anemia. Severe iron deficiency is characterized by a microcytic, hypochromic, potentially severe anemia with a variable regenerative response. Iron metabolism and homeostasis will be ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily ... Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily ... Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily ... Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood transfusions , iron injections, or intravenous iron therapy. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, part of the National ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood transfusions , iron injections, or intravenous iron therapy. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, part of the National ...

  15. Biomechanical properties of an advanced new carbon/flax/epoxy composite material for bone plate applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Zahra S; El Sawi, Ihab; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zdero, Rad; Bougherara, Habiba

    2013-04-01

    This work is part of an ongoing program to develop a new carbon fiber/flax/epoxy (CF/flax/epoxy) hybrid composite material for use as an orthopaedic long bone fracture plate, instead of a metal plate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of this new novel composite material. The composite material had a "sandwich structure", in which two thin sheets of CF/epoxy were attached to each outer surface of the flax/epoxy core, which resulted in a unique structure compared to other composite plates for bone plate applications. Mechanical properties were determined using tension, three-point bending, and Rockwell hardness tests. Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the failure mechanism of specimens in tension and three-point bending tests. The results of mechanical tests revealed a considerably high ultimate strength in both tension (399.8MPa) and flexural loading (510.6MPa), with a higher elastic modulus in bending tests (57.4GPa) compared to tension tests (41.7GPa). The composite material experienced brittle catastrophic failure in both tension and bending tests. The SEM images, consistent with brittle failure, showed mostly fiber breakage and fiber pull-out at the fractured surfaces with perfect bonding at carbon fibers and flax plies. Compared to clinically-used orthopaedic metal plates, current CF/flax/epoxy results were closer to human cortical bone, making the material a potential candidate for use in long bone fracture fixation.

  16. Optimal Planet Properties For Plate Tectonics Through Time And Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenkovic, Vlada; Seager, Sara

    2014-11-01

    Both the time and the location of planet formation shape a rocky planet’s mass, interior composition and structure, and hence also its tectonic mode. The tectonic mode of a planet can vary between two end-member solutions, plate tectonics and stagnant lid convection, and does significantly impact outgassing and biogeochemical cycles on any rocky planet. Therefore, estimating how the tectonic mode of a planet is affected by a planet’s age, mass, structure, and composition is a major step towards understanding habitability of exoplanets and geophysical false positives to biosignature gases. We connect geophysics to astronomy in order to understand how we could identify and where we could find planet candidates with optimal conditions for plate tectonics. To achieve this goal, we use thermal evolution models, account for the current wide range of uncertainties, and simulate various alien planets. Based on our best model estimates, we predict that the ideal targets for plate tectonics are oxygen-dominated (C/O<1) (solar system like) rocky planets of ~1 Earth mass with surface oceans, large metallic cores super-Mercury, rocky body densities of ~7000kgm-3), and with small mantle concentrations of iron 0%), water 0%), and radiogenic isotopes 10 times less than Earth). Super-Earths, undifferentiated planets, and especially hypothetical carbon planets, speculated to consist of SiC and C, are not optimal for the occurrence of plate tectonics. These results put Earth close to an ideal compositional and structural configuration for plate tectonics. Moreover, the results indicate that plate tectonics might have never existed on planets formed soon after the Big Bang—but instead is favored on planets formed from an evolved interstellar medium enriched in iron but depleted in silicon, oxygen, and especially in Th, K, and U relative to iron. This possibly sets a belated Galactic start for complex Earth-like surface life if plate tectonics significantly impacts the build up

  17. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  18. Dynamics of Tectonic Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Pechersky, E; Sadowski, G; Yambartsev, A

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a model that describes a mutual dynamic of tectonic plates. The dynamic is a sort of stick-slip one which is modeled by a Markov random process. The process defines a microlevel of the dynamic. A macrolevel is obtained by a scaling limit which leads to a system of integro-differential equations which determines a kind of mean field systems. Conditions when Gutenberg-Richter empirical law are presented on the mean field level. These conditions are rather universal and do not depend on features of resistant forces.

  19. Dynamics of Tectonic Plates

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a model that describes a mutual dynamic of tectonic plates. The dynamic is a sort of stick-slip one which is modeled by a Markov random process. The process defines a microlevel of the dynamic. A macrolevel is obtained by a scaling limit which leads to a system of integro-differential equations which determines a kind of mean field systems. Conditions when Gutenberg-Richter empirical law are presented on the mean field level. These conditions are rather universal and do not depend ...

  20. Chemical composition and effects of micronized corn bran on iron bioavailability in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Irineu de Oliveira Junior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The degermination of corn grains by dry milling generates 5% of a fibrous residue. After segregation and micronization, corn bran becomes a potential source of dietary fiber consumption. However, its effect on iron bioavailability has not been reported in the literature. The objective of the present study was to determine the nutritional composition of corn bran and its effects on iron bioavailability using the hemoglobin depletion-repletion method in rats. The animals were divided into two groups: cellulose (control and corn bran (experimental. The bran had high content of total dietary fiber, especially the insoluble fraction, and low phytate content. Hemoglobin uptake did not differ between groups at the end of repletion period, and the iron relative bioavailability value of the corn bran diet was 104% in comparison to that of the control group. The product evaluated proved to be a potential source of dietary fiber and it showed no negative effects on iron bioavailability.

  1. Behavior of CFRP Plate in Simulated ICCP System of Concrete Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jihua; Zhu, Miaochang; Han, Ningxu; Xing, Feng; LIU Wei; Bertolini, Luca

    2014-01-01

    An innovative effort was made to utilize carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) plate as an anode in impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) of reinforced concrete structure. The feasibility was explored by bonding CFRP strips to concrete and then applying protection current through CFRP strips to steel rebar in concrete. Service life and performance of CFRP plate were investigated in simulated ICCP systems with various configurations. Steel potential results confirmed that the steel reb...

  2. Trivalent Iron Induced Gelation in Lambda-Carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running, Cordelia A; Falshaw, Ruth; Janaswamy, Srinivas

    2012-03-01

    This communication reports gelation of lambda-carrageenan, for the first time, in the presence of trivalent iron ions. Kappa-, iota- and lambda-carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides used extensively in food, pharmaceutical and medical applications. Kappa- and iota-carrageenans show gelation in the presence of mono- and di-valent ions, but lambda-carrageenan yields only viscous solutions. Our results show that gelation in lambda-carrageenan indeed is possible, but with trivalent ions. X-ray fiber diffraction patterns of iron (III)-lambda-carrageenan are characteristic of highly oriented and polycrystalline fibers containing well resolved Bragg reflections. The elastic modulus (G') of the product is far greater than the loss modulus (G") indicating the thermal stability of lambda-carrageenan in the presence of iron (III) ions. This novel finding has potential to expand lambda-carrageenan's current utility beyond a viscosifying agent.

  3. Trivalent iron induced gelation in lambda-carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Running, Cordelia A.; Falshaw, Ruth; Janaswamy, Srinivas (Purdue)

    2012-05-24

    This communication reports gelation of lambda-carrageenan, for the first time, in the presence of trivalent iron ions. Kappa-, iota- and lambda-carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides used extensively in food, pharmaceutical and medical applications. Kappa- and iota-carrageenans show gelation in the presence of mono- and di-valent ions, but lambda-carrageenan yields only viscous solutions. Our results show that gelation in lambda-carrageenan indeed is possible, but with trivalent ions. X-ray fiber diffraction patterns of iron (III)-lambda-carrageenan are characteristic of highly oriented and polycrystalline fibers containing well resolved Bragg reflections. The elastic modulus (G*) of the product is far greater than the loss modulus (G*) indicating the thermal stability of lambda-carrageenan in the presence of iron (III) ions. This novel finding has potential to expand lambda-carrageenan's current utility beyond a viscosifying agent.

  4. COMPARISON OF PLATE AND CONICAL FILLINGS IN REFINING OF BLEACHED SOFTWOOD AND HARDWOOD PULPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Koskenhely; K.Nieminen; E.Hiltunen; H.Paulapuro

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare plate and conical refiner fillings in refining of softwood and hardwood pulp fibers. Contrary to expectations,better tensile strength values were achieved when BSW was refined with conical fillings and the development of strength Was found to be insensitive to variations in refining intensity. A bar microprocile was measured with the aid of a profilometer. The leading edges of conicalfilling bars.were found to be rounder. A possible reason for the better tensile strength of pulp refined with conical fillings is that the round edge helps large SW fiber flocs to enter the space between the bars, resulting in less heterogeneous or more efficient treatment of fibers.The recorded gap closure values supported the above interpretation. The gap between conical fillings was found to become wider when pulp consistency and thus fiber flocculation increased, whereas increased pulp consistency decreased the gap between plate fillings, which was further reflected as increased fiber cutting. The reduction in fiber length was proportional to the increase in gap closure,supporting the earlier theory that fibers are squeezed and crushed between the bars. More attention should be paid to the wear of filling materials when refining BSW. A filling material which wears so that the bar edges are rounded would seem to promote high tensile strength and high average fiber length.

  5. COMPARISON OF PLATE AND CONICAL FILLINGS IN REFINING OF BLEACHED SOFTWOOD AND HARDWOOD PULPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Koskenhely; K.Nieminen; E.Hiltunent; H.Paulapuro

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare plate and conical refiner fillings in refining of softwood and hardwood pulp fibers. Contrary to expectations, better tensile strength values were achieved when BSW was refined with conical fillings and the development of strength was found to be insensitive to variations in refining intensity. A bar microprofile was measured with the aid of a profilometer. The leading edges of conical filling bars were found to be rounder. A possible reason for the better tensile strength of pulp refined with conical fillings is that the round edge helps large SW fiber flocs to enter the space between the bars, resulting in less heterogeneous or more efficient treatment of fibers. The recorded gap closure values supported the above interpretation. The gap between conical fillings was found to become wider when pulp consistency and thus fiber flocculation increased, whereas increased pulp consistency decreased the gap between plate fillings, which was further reflected as increased fiber cutting. The reduction in fiber length was proportional to the increase in gap closure, supporting the earlier theory that fibers are squeezed and crushed between the bars. More attention should be paid to the wear of filling materials when refining BSW. A filling material which wears so that the bar edges are rounded would seem to promote high tensile strength and high average fiber length.

  6. Tactile stimulation partially prevents neurodevelopmental changes in visual tract caused by early iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiquini-Barbosa, Everton; Gibb, Robbin; Kolb, Bryan; Bray, Douglas; Lachat, Joao-Jose

    2017-02-15

    Iron deficiency has a critical impact on maturational mechanisms of the brain and the damage related to neuroanatomical parameters is not satisfactorily reversed after iron replacement. However, emerging evidence suggest that enriched early experience may offer great therapeutic efficacy in cases of nutritional disorders postnatally, since the brain is remarkably responsive to its interaction with the environment. Given the fact that tactile stimulation (TS) treatment has been previously shown to be an effective therapeutic approach and with potential application to humans, here we ask whether exposure to TS treatment, from postnatal day (P) 1 to P32 for 3min/day, could also be employed to prevent neuroanatomical changes in the optic nerve of rats maintained on an iron-deficient diet during brain development. We found that iron deficiency changed astrocyte, oligodendrocyte, damaged fiber, and myelinated fiber density, however, TS reversed the iron-deficiency-induced alteration in oligodendrocyte, damaged fiber and myelinated fiber density, but failed to reverse astrocyte density. Our results suggest that early iron deficiency may act by disrupting the timing of key steps in visual system development thereby modifying the normal progression of optic nerve maturation. However, optic nerve development is sensitive to enriching experiences, and in the current study we show that this sensitivity can be used to prevent damage from postnatal iron deficiency during the critical period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser with generalized vector vortex beams output (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Tiancheng; Qi, Li; Zhang, Buyun; Chen, Zhongping

    2017-03-01

    Light carries both spin and orbital angular momentum (OAM) and the superpositions of these two dynamical properties have found many applications. Many techniques exist to create such light sources but none allow their creation at the femtosecond fiber laser. Here we report on a novel mode-locked Ytterbium-doped fiber laser that generates femtosecond pulses with generalized vector vortex states. The controlled generation of such pulses such as azimuthally and radially polarized light with definite orbital angular momentum modes are demonstrated. A unidirectional ring cavity constructed with the Yb-doped fiber placed at the end of the fiber section to reduces unnecessary nonlinear effects is employed for self-starting operation. Pairs of diffraction gratings are used for compensating the normal group velocity dispersion of the fiber and other elements. Mode-locked operation is achieved based on nonlinear polarization evolution, which is mainly implemented with the single mode fiber, the bulk wave plates and the variable spiral plates (q-plate with topological charge q=0.5). The conversion from spin angular momentum to the OAM and reverse inside the laser cavity are realized by means of a quarter-wave plate and a q-plate so that the polarization control was mapped to OAM mode control. The fiber laser is diode pumped by a wavelength-division multiplexing coupler, which leads to excellent stability and portability.

  8. CMS Resistive plate Champers

    CERN Document Server

    Zainab, Karam

    2013-01-01

    There are many types of gas detectors which are used in CERN in LHC project, There is a main parts for the gas detectors which must be in all gas detectors types like Multiwire proportional chambers, such as the micromesh gaseous structure chamber (the MicroMegas), Gas-electron multiplier (GEM) detector, Resistive Plate Champers... Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment detecting muons which are powerful tool for recognizing signatures of interesting physics processes. The CMS detector uses: drift tube (DT), cathode strip chamber (CSC) and resistive plate chamber (RPC). Building RPC’s was my project in summer student program (hardware). RPC’s have advantages which are triggering detector and Excellent time resolution which reinforce the measurement of the correct beam crossing time. RPC’s Organized in stations :  RPC barrel (RB) there are 4 stations, namely RB1, RB2, RB3, and RB4  While in the RPC endcap (RE) the 3 stations are RE1, RE2, and RE3. In the endcaps a new starion will be added and this...

  9. 镀NiCo/NiFe碳纤维的制备及其吸波性能%Preparation and Microwave Absorbing Properties NiCo/NiFe Coated Carbon Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妍; 乔小晶; 任庆国; 李旺昌

    2012-01-01

    Nickel-cobalt/iron coated carbon fibers with different weight increasing ratio were fabricated by elec-troless plating method. The metal coated carbon fibers were characterized by scanning electron micrography ( SEM) , TG-DTA thermal analysis, FT1R spectra and vector network analyzer. The results show that a continuous layer has already been formed when the ratio of weight increasing reaches 80%. The nickel-cobalt/iron coated carbon fibers began to be oxidized from 389. 8℃ and 392.9℃ , respectively. From the DTA image, we can see that the initial and final decomposition temperature of the carbon fibers becomes lower after being coated. The infrared extinction performance and microwave-absorbing property of nickel-iron coated carbon fibers with the maximum absorption of 8. 25 dB is better than that of nickel-cobalt coated carbon fibers. The maximum absorption can reach 9. 9 dB after mixing with nanomaterials.%采用化学镀方法,在碳纤维表面镀覆了不同增重比的NiCo和NiFe合金,运用扫描电子显微镜、TG-DTA热分析仪、傅里叶变换红外光谱仪、矢量网络分析仪对其进行研究.结果表明:当增重比达80%时,碳纤维表面形成一层连续的合金镀层;热分析显示,在空气中,镀覆NiCo、NiFe的碳纤维分别从389.8℃和392.9℃开始金属被氧化而导致增重;DTA图中镀金属后碳纤维的起始分解及终了分解温度均提前了.化学镀NiFe的碳纤维红外消光性能和吸波性能优于化学镀NiCo的碳纤维,最大可达8.25 dB,其与纳米材料混合后的吸波性能有明显提高,最大可达9.9 dB.

  10. Soluble fiber dextrin enhances the satiating power of beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Carter, Brett E; Christiansen, Matthew; Perrigue, Martine M; Drewnowski, Adam

    2011-02-01

    This study compared the effects of four types of fiber on satiety and energy intakes at the next meal using a standard double-blinded preload study design. Study participants (14 men and 22 women) each took part in 6 study sessions. Study preloads were a combination of a solid snack and a liquid beverage (energy range 0.78-0.83 MJ) containing four different types of fiber: soluble fiber dextrin (12 g), soluble corn fiber (11.8 g), polydextrose (11.8 g), and resistant starch (11.2g). All four fibers were compared to two control conditions of equal volume: an isoenergetic, low-fiber preload and a lower-energy, low-fiber preload. All preloads were presented twice for a total of 0.35-1.65 MJ and 1-24 g fiber. Satiety ratings were collected for 20 min intervals for 220 min during the morning testing session. A test meal was served at 1200 h and plate waste measured. The five higher-energy preloads led to higher fullness and lower hunger ratings compared to the low-energy control but were not significantly different from each other. Relative to the isoenergetic control, only soluble fiber dextrin significantly suppressed energy intakes (p=0.023). Supplementing beverages with soluble fiber dextrin affects short term energy intake and may have implications for weight control. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Multi-watt 589nm fiber laser source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAWSON, J W; DROBSHOFF, A D; BEACH, R J; MESSERLY, M J; PAYNE, S A; BROWN, A; PENNINGTON, D M; BAMFORD, D J; SHARPE, S J; COOK, D J

    2006-01-19

    We have demonstrated 3.5W of 589nm light from a fiber laser using periodically poled stoichiometric Lithium Tantalate (PPSLT) as the frequency conversion crystal. The system employs 938nm and 1583nm fiber lasers, which were sum-frequency mixed in PPSLT to generate 589nm light. The 938nm fiber laser consists of a single frequency diode laser master oscillator (200mW), which was amplified in two stages to >15W using cladding pumped Nd{sup 3+} fiber amplifiers. The fiber amplifiers operate at 938nm and minimize amplified spontaneous emission at 1088nm by employing a specialty fiber design, which maximizes the core size relative to the cladding diameter. This design allows the 3-level laser system to operate at high inversion, thus making it competitive with the competing 1088nm 4-level laser transition. At 15W, the 938nm laser has an M{sup 2} of 1.1 and good polarization (correctable with a quarter and half wave plate to >15:1). The 1583nm fiber laser consists of a Koheras 1583nm fiber DFB laser that is pre-amplified to 100mW, phase modulated and then amplified to 14W in a commercial IPG fiber amplifier. As a part of our research efforts we are also investigating pulsed laser formats and power scaling of the 589nm system. We will discuss the fiber laser design and operation as well as our results in power scaling at 589nm.

  12. Macrophages and Iron Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Miguel P; Hamza, Iqbal

    2016-03-15

    Iron is a transition metal that due to its inherent ability to exchange electrons with a variety of molecules is essential to support life. In mammals, iron exists mostly in the form of heme, enclosed within an organic protoporphyrin ring and functioning primarily as a prosthetic group in proteins. Paradoxically, free iron also has the potential to become cytotoxic when electron exchange with oxygen is unrestricted and catalyzes the production of reactive oxygen species. These biological properties demand that iron metabolism is tightly regulated such that iron is available for core biological functions while preventing its cytotoxic effects. Macrophages play a central role in establishing this delicate balance. Here, we review the impact of macrophages on heme-iron metabolism and, reciprocally, how heme-iron modulates macrophage function.

  13. [Iron function and carcinogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akatsuka, Shinya; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2016-07-01

    Though iron is an essential micronutrient for humans, the excess state is acknowledged to be associated with oncogenesis. For example, iron overload in the liver of the patients with hereditary hemocromatosis highly increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Also, as to asbestos-related mesothelioma, such kinds of asbestos with a higher iron content are considered to be more carcinogenic. Iron is a useful element, which enables fundamental functions for life such as oxygen carrying and electron transport. However, in the situation where organisms are unable to have good control of it, iron turns into a dangerous element which catalyzes generation of reactive oxygen. In this review, I first outline the relationships between iron and cancer in general, then give an explanation about iron-related animal carcinogenesis models.

  14. Localised Plate Motion on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghail, R. C.

    1996-03-01

    The volcanic and tectonic features observed in Dali Vinculum, Parga Vinculum and Imdr Regio are concentrated at long, narrow, curvilinear zones, with relatively minor volcanism and tectonism between these zones. These zones, whilst more diffuse than terrestrial plate boundaries, nevertheless define the margins of tectonic plates. In contrast to Earth, however, it appears that venusian plates are neither created nor destroyed by lateral motion. Rather, plates are thinned and intruded at vincula plate boundaries, vertically accreted by small-scale intra-plate (planitia) volcanism and perhaps destroyed by delamination of thickened crust in tesserae and montane regions such as Thetis Regio and Ishtar Terra. The diversity in age both between and within these three areas together with the evidence for infrequent, small scale resurfacing in the planitiae are difficult to reconcile with a non-uniformitarian geological process.

  15. Tectonics of the Easter plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeln, J. F.; Stein, S.

    1984-01-01

    A new model for the Easter plate is presented in which rift propagation has resulted in the formation of a rigid plate between the propagating and dying ridges. The distribution of earthquakes, eleven new focal mechanisms, and existing bathymetric and magnetic data are used to describe the tectonics of this area. Both the Easter-Nazca and Easter-Pacific Euler poles are sufficiently close to the Easter plate to cause rapid changes in rates and directions of motion along the boundaries. The east and west boundaries are propagating and dying ridges; the southwest boundary is a slow-spreading ridge and the northern boundary is a complex zone of convergent and transform motion. The Easter plate may reflect the tectonics of rift propagation on a large scale, where rigid plate tectonics requires boundary reorientation. Simple schematic models to illustrate the general features and processes which occur at plates resulting from large-scale rift propagation are used.

  16. Tectonics of the Easter plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeln, J. F.; Stein, S.

    1984-01-01

    A new model for the Easter plate is presented in which rift propagation has resulted in the formation of a rigid plate between the propagating and dying ridges. The distribution of earthquakes, eleven new focal mechanisms, and existing bathymetric and magnetic data are used to describe the tectonics of this area. Both the Easter-Nazca and Easter-Pacific Euler poles are sufficiently close to the Easter plate to cause rapid changes in rates and directions of motion along the boundaries. The east and west boundaries are propagating and dying ridges; the southwest boundary is a slow-spreading ridge and the northern boundary is a complex zone of convergent and transform motion. The Easter plate may reflect the tectonics of rift propagation on a large scale, where rigid plate tectonics requires boundary reorientation. Simple schematic models to illustrate the general features and processes which occur at plates resulting from large-scale rift propagation are used.

  17. Studies on copper coating on carbon fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The weak interface bonding of metal matrix reinforced by carbon fibers is the central problem of fabricating such composites. Depositing copper coating on carbon fibers is regarded as a feasible method to solve the problem. In this paper, copper coating has been deposited on the fibers through both electroless deposition and electroplating methods. Two kinds of complexing agents and two stabilizing agents are taken during the electroless plating process. The solution is stable, and little extraneous component is absorbed on the surface. After adding additive agents and increasing the concentration of H2SO4 to the acid cupric sulfate electrolyte, the "black core" during usual electroplating process is avoided. The quality of copper coating is analyzed using SEM and XRD, etc.

  18. Distal radius plate of CFR-PEEK has minimal effect compared to titanium plates on bone parameters in high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Joost J A; Lataster, Arno; van Rietbergen, Bert; Arts, Jacobus J; Geusens, Piet P; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Willems, Paul C

    2017-02-27

    Carbon-fiber-reinforced poly-ether-ether-ketone (CFR-PEEK) has superior radiolucency compared to other orthopedic implant materials, e.g. titanium or stainless steel, thus allowing metal-artifact-free postoperative monitoring by computed tomography (CT). Recently, high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HRpQCT) proved to be a promising technique to monitor the recovery of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), micro-architecture and biomechanical parameters in stable conservatively treated distal radius fractures. When using HRpQCT to monitor unstable distal radius fractures that require volar distal radius plating for fixation, radiolucent CFR-PEEK plates may be a better alternative to currently used titanium plates to allow for reliable assessment. In this pilot study, we assessed the effect of a volar distal radius plate made from CFR-PEEK on bone parameters obtained from HRpQCT in comparison to two titanium plates. Plates were instrumented in separate cadaveric human fore-arms (n = 3). After instrumentation and after removal of the plates duplicate HRpQCT scans were made of the region covered by the plate. HRpQCT images were visually checked for artifacts. vBMD, micro-architectural and biomechanical parameters were calculated, and compared between the uninstrumented and instrumented radii. No visible image artifacts were observed in the CFR-PEEK plate instrumented radius, and errors in bone parameters ranged from -3.2 to 2.6%. In the radii instrumented with the titanium plates, severe image artifacts were observed and errors in bone parameters ranged between -30.2 and 67.0%. We recommend using CFR-PEEK plates in longitudinal in vivo studies that monitor the healing process of unstable distal radius fractures treated operatively by plating or bone graft ingrowth.

  19. Aluminum Manganese Molten Salt Plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Dry fixture thoroughly with the air gun. Be especially careful to dry water out of crevices. Note: water is a contaminant to the plating process...easily destroyed if blown with the air. Be especially careful to dry water out of crevices. Note: water is a contaminant to the plating process and...especially careful to dry water out of crevices. 13. Carefully remove part from fixture. If residual plating solution is present at attachments points

  20. Photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Hansen, K P; Nielsen, M D;

    2003-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications...... of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field....

  1. Photonic crystal fibers -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2002-01-01

    During this ph.d. work, attention has been focused on understanding and analyzing the modal behavior of micro-structured fibers. Micro-structured fibers are fibers with a complex dielectric toplogy, and offer a number of novel possibilities, compared to standard silica based optical fibers. The t...

  2. Photonic Crystal Fiber Attenuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joo; Beom; Eom; Hokyung; Kim; Jinchae; Kim; Un-Chul; Paek; Byeong; Ha; Lee

    2003-01-01

    We propose a novel fiber attenuator based on photonic crystal fibers. The difference in the modal field diameters of a conventional single mode fiber and a photonic crystal fiber was used. A variable optical attenuator was also achieved by applying macro-bending on the PCF part of the proposed attenuator

  3. Glass-bead peen plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Peen plating of aluminum, copper, and nickel powders was investigated. Only aluminum was plated successfully within the range of peen plating conditions studied. Optimum plating conditions for aluminum were found to be: (1) bead/powder mixture containing 25 to 35% powder by weight, (2) peening intensity of 0.007A as measured by Almen strip, and (3) glass impact bead diameter of at least 297 microns (0.0117 inches) for depositing-100 mesh aluminum powder. No extensive cleaning or substrate preparation is required beyond removing loose dirt or heavy oil.

  4. Review of HEDP direct copper plating process on iron and steel workpiece after 30 years of development Part Ⅲ. Wastewater treatment of HEDP and other alkaline copper plating solutions%钢铁件HEDP直接镀铜工艺开发30年回顾第三部分——HEDP及其他碱性镀铜液的废水处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方景礼

    2009-01-01

    比较了几种碱性无氰镀铜螯合剂的环保特性与废水处理难度,分析了氧化破坏法、化学沉淀法和离子交换法处理螯合废水的优缺点,介绍了从碱、酸铜废水中回收铜粉以及HEDP镀铜液除铜和除HEDP的高效沉淀新技术.%The environmental protection characteristics and wastewater treatment difficulty of various chelating agents used in non-cyanide alkaline copper plating were compared. The advantages and disadvantages of oxidative destruction, chemical precipitation and ion exchange method for chelating wastewater treatment were analyzed. New methods for recovering copper powder from acidic/alkaline copper-containing wastewater and the highly-efficient precipitation method for removing copper and HEDP from HEDP copper plating solution were introduced.

  5. New rat models of iron sucrose-induced iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu'o'ng Lê, Bá; Khorsi-Cauet, Hafida; Villegier, Anne-Sophie; Bach, Véronique; Gay-Quéheillard, Jérôme

    2011-07-01

    The majority of murine models of iron sucrose-induced iron overload were carried out in adult subjects. This cannot reflect the high risk of iron overload in children who have an increased need for iron. In this study, we developed four experimental iron overload models in young rats using iron sucrose and evaluated different markers of iron overload, tissue oxidative stress and inflammation as its consequences. Iron overload was observed in all iron-treated rats, as evidenced by significant increases in serum iron indices, expression of liver hepcidin gene and total tissue iron content compared with control rats. We also showed that total tissue iron content was mainly associated with the dose of iron whereas serum iron indices depended essentially on the duration of iron administration. However, no differences in tissue inflammatory and antioxidant parameters from controls were observed. Furthermore, only rats exposed to daily iron injection at a dose of 75 mg/kg body weight for one week revealed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation in iron-treated rats compared with their controls. The present results suggest a correlation between iron overload levels and the dose of iron, as well as the duration and frequency of iron injection and confirm that iron sucrose may not play a crucial role in inflammation and oxidative stress. This study provides important information about iron sucrose-induced iron overload in rats and may be useful for iron sucrose therapy for iron deficiency anemia as well as for the prevention and diagnosis of iron sucrose-induced iron overload in pediatric patients.

  6. Intermittent plate tectonics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Paul G; Behn, Mark D

    2008-01-04

    Although it is commonly assumed that subduction has operated continuously on Earth without interruption, subduction zones are routinely terminated by ocean closure and supercontinent assembly. Under certain circumstances, this could lead to a dramatic loss of subduction, globally. Closure of a Pacific-type basin, for example, would eliminate most subduction, unless this loss were compensated for by comparable subduction initiation elsewhere. Given the evidence for Pacific-type closure in Earth's past, the absence of a direct mechanism for termination/initiation compensation, and recent data supporting a minimum in subduction flux in the Mesoproterozoic, we hypothesize that dramatic reductions or temporary cessations of subduction have occurred in Earth's history. Such deviations in the continuity of plate tectonics have important consequences for Earth's thermal and continental evolution.

  7. VISAS AND GREEN PLATES

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    From 3 April 2000, all questions relating to visa requests for Switzerland, France, or Russia for a member of the personnel must be addressed to Ms. Agnita Querrou (telephone 72838, office 5-2-019, e-mail Agnita.Querrou@cern.ch).The Users' Office continues to deal with requests for letters of invitation and questions concerning visas for users in EP Division.Questions relating to removals, requests for green plates, to privileges of members of the personnel and to the importation of vehicles are still dealt with by Ms Zuzana Miller (telephone 79257, office 33-1-017, e-mail Zuzana.Muller@cern.ch) and Ms Joëlle Belleman (telephone 73962, office 33-1-019, e-mail Joelle.Belleman@cern.ch).

  8. Influence of Synthetic Fibers Angle Orientation on Bending Properties of Composite Plywood

    OpenAIRE

    Mladen Brezović; Jaroslav Kljak; Stjepan Pervan; Alan Antonović

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research on carbon fiber angle orientation and quantity of carbon fi bers in yarn on bending properties of plywood. For that purpose the specimens have been defined as multilayer composites made from carbon fibers and veneer. Carbon fibers were inserted in the second and third glue line of the composite with angle variation of 15°. Stresses and strain were analyzed in significant layers together with displacement of the whole composite plate. The influence o...

  9. Silver hollow optical fibers with acrylic silicone resin coating as buffer layer for sturdy structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Katsumasa; Takaku, Hiroyuki; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Zhu, Xiao-Song; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    For sturdy silver hollow optical fibers, acrylic silicone resin is newly used as a buffer layer between an inner silver layer and a silica capillary. This acrylic silicone resin film prevents the glass surface from chemical and mechanical micro damages during silver plating process, which deteriorate mechanical strength of the hollow fibers. In addition, it keeps high adhesion of the silver layer with the glass surface. We discuss improvement of mechanical strength of the hollow glass fibers without deterioration of optical properties.

  10. Malabsorption of iron in children with iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, S J; Stuart, M J; Swender, P T; Oski, F A

    1976-05-01

    Inability to absorb oral iron is believed to be an extremely rare cause of therapeutic failure in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Six patients who had failed to respond to oral iron therapy were studied by a simple oral absorption test and contrasted with 25 patients with untreated iron deficiency anemia and 10 normal subjects. All six of the patients who were therapeutic failures demonstrated impaired iron absorption in the absence of other clinical evidence of gastrointestinal disease. In the 25 newly diagnosed patients with iron deficiency. 24 demonstrated elevated iron absorptions while 10 ironreplete normal subjects had minimal elevations in their serum iron values following the administration of the test dose of 1 mg of elemental iron per kilogram. When the therapeutic failures were treated with parenteral iron, all had a therapeutic response. In addition, after treatment the impaired absorption of iron improved transiently. All children who absorbed iron readily responded to oral iron therapy.

  11. Plate osteosynthesis of simple forearm fractures : LCP versus DC plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Charles Tjerk; Ten Duis, Henk Jan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the time to radiological bony union of simple A-type fractures of the forearm, treated with either a locking compression plate (LCP) or a dynamic compression plate (DCP). For each fracture, the relation between the use of compression and radiological healing time

  12. Plate osteosynthesis of simple forearm fractures : LCP versus DC plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Charles Tjerk; Ten Duis, Henk Jan

    The aim of this study was to compare the time to radiological bony union of simple A-type fractures of the forearm, treated with either a locking compression plate (LCP) or a dynamic compression plate (DCP). For each fracture, the relation between the use of compression and radiological healing time

  13. Iron chelating agents for iron overload diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Crisponi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although iron is an essential element for life, an excessive amount may become extremely toxic both for its ability to generate reactive oxygen species, and for the lack in humans of regulatory mechanisms for iron excretion. Chelation therapy has been introduced in clinical practice in the seventies of last century to defend thalassemic patients from the effects of iron overload and, in spite of all its limitations, it has dramatically changed both life expectancy and quality of life of patients. It has to be considered that the drugs in clinical use present some disadvantages too, this makes urgent new more suitable chelating agents. The requirements of an iron chelator have been better and better defined over the years and in this paper they will be discussed in detail. As a final point the most interesting ligands studied in the last years will be presented.

  14. High power fiber lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Qi-hong; ZHOU Jun

    2007-01-01

    In this review article, the development of the double cladding optical fiber for high power fiber lasers is reviewed. The main technology for high power fiber lasers, including laser diode beam shaping, fiber laser pumping techniques, and amplification systems, are discussed in de-tail. 1050 W CW output and 133 W pulsed output are ob-tained in Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, China. Finally, the applications of fiber lasers in industry are also reviewed.

  15. Iron availability in the presence of β-carotene in different mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romilda Maria de Arruda Germano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron availability in the diet is very important because iron deficiency affects a large population in the world. The matrix where iron is present has an influence in its availability. The presence of β-carotene is a factor that alters the availability of iron. This research aims to estimate the iron availability in the presence of β-carotene in food mixtures: M1 = egg and pumpkin; M2 = spinach and pumpkin; M3 = spinach and cabbage; M4 = egg and cabbage; M5 = spinach and carrot; M6 = egg and carrot; M7 = bean and carrot; M8 = bean and pumpkin and M9 = bean and cabbage. After cooking, the following figures were determined: proximate composition, oxalic acid, phytic acid, tannin, iron, iron availability in vitro and β-carotene. The data were analyzed by Tukey test (5%. There were no significant statistical differences for oxalic acid. Tannin presented greater results in mixtures with spinach (M2 and M5; phytic acid was greater in bean samples (M7, M8 and M9 and with spinach (M2. Mixtures M5 e M7, with carrot, presented more β-carotene than the others. The best result for iron availability appeared in mixture (M6. A positive correlation was verified between protein and iron dialysis, and between lipids and iron dialysis. Dietetic fiber was an inhibitor to iron availability. Mixtures with egg showed greater iron availability

  16. Efeito do triglicerídeo de cadeia média, fibra e cálcio na disponibilidade de ferro, magnésio e zinco em uma formulação de alimentação enteral com otimização conjunta para os três minerais Effect of medium-chain triglycerides, fiber, and calcium on enteral feeding formulation optimized for the availability of iron, magnesium and zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bueno

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A terapia nutricional com dietas enterais vem se especializando muito nos últimos anos. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar o efeito dos componentes das formulações de dietas enterais: fibra, cálcio e triacilglicerídeos de cadeia média, visando otimizar uma formulação para a dialisabilidade de ferro, magnésio e zinco, utilizando a Metodologia de Superfície de Resposta para Misturas. De acordo com os resultados, a melhor formulação de alimentação enteral otimizada em função da dialisabilidade do ferro, magnésio e zinco foi a proporção de 32,5% de TCM e fibra e 35% de cálcio, o que caracterizou uma formulação otimizada simultaneamente para os três minerais.The nutritional therapy with enteral diets has had a major development in the past few years. The aim of this work is to study the effect of the enteral diet formulations components such as fiber, calcium, and medium-chain triglycerides, seeking in order to optimize a formulation for iron, magnesium, and zinc dialysability using the Response Surface Methodology. According to the result, the best enteral diet formulation optimized based on mineral dialysability was the one containing 32,5% of TCM, 32,5% of fiber, and 35% of calcium. It proved the best enteral diet formulation for the availability of iron, magnesium, and zinc.

  17. Iron deficiency anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Anthony; Cacoub, Patrice; Macdougall, Iain C; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-02-27

    Anaemia affects roughly a third of the world's population; half the cases are due to iron deficiency. It is a major and global public health problem that affects maternal and child mortality, physical performance, and referral to health-care professionals. Children aged 0-5 years, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women are particularly at risk. Several chronic diseases are frequently associated with iron deficiency anaemia--notably chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Measurement of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum soluble transferrin receptors, and the serum soluble transferrin receptors-ferritin index are more accurate than classic red cell indices in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia. In addition to the search for and treatment of the cause of iron deficiency, treatment strategies encompass prevention, including food fortification and iron supplementation. Oral iron is usually recommended as first-line therapy, but the most recent intravenous iron formulations, which have been available for nearly a decade, seem to replenish iron stores safely and effectively. Hepcidin has a key role in iron homoeostasis and could be a future diagnostic and therapeutic target. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and acute management of iron deficiency anaemia, and outstanding research questions for treatment.

  18. The ubiquity of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Perry A; Reed, George H

    2012-09-21

    The importance of iron in living systems can be traced to the many complexes within which it is found, to its chemical mobility in undergoing oxidation-reduction reactions, and to the abundance of iron in Earth's crust. Iron is the most abundant element, by mass, in the Earth, constituting about 80% of the inner and outer cores of Earth. The molten outer core is about 8000 km in diameter, and the solid inner core is about 2400 km in diameter. Iron is the fourth most abundant element in Earth's crust. It is the chemically functional component of mononuclear iron complexes, dinuclear iron complexes, [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters, [Fe-Ni-S] clusters, iron protophorphyrin IX, and many other complexes in protein biochemistry. Metals such as nickel, cobalt, copper, and manganese are present in the crust and could in principle function chemically in place of iron, but they are scarce in Earth's crust. Iron is plentiful because of its nuclear stability in stellar nuclear fusion reactions. It seems likely that other solid planets, formed by the same processes as Earth, would also foster the evolution of life and that iron would be similarly important to life on those planets as it is on Earth.

  19. Plate tectonics, damage and inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, David; Ricard, Yanick

    2014-04-24

    The initiation of plate tectonics on Earth is a critical event in our planet's history. The time lag between the first proto-subduction (about 4 billion years ago) and global tectonics (approximately 3 billion years ago) suggests that plates and plate boundaries became widespread over a period of 1 billion years. The reason for this time lag is unknown but fundamental to understanding the origin of plate tectonics. Here we suggest that when sufficient lithospheric damage (which promotes shear localization and long-lived weak zones) combines with transient mantle flow and migrating proto-subduction, it leads to the accumulation of weak plate boundaries and eventually to fully formed tectonic plates driven by subduction alone. We simulate this process using a grain evolution and damage mechanism with a composite rheology (which is compatible with field and laboratory observations of polycrystalline rocks), coupled to an idealized model of pressure-driven lithospheric flow in which a low-pressure zone is equivalent to the suction of convective downwellings. In the simplest case, for Earth-like conditions, a few successive rotations of the driving pressure field yield relic damaged weak zones that are inherited by the lithospheric flow to form a nearly perfect plate, with passive spreading and strike-slip margins that persist and localize further, even though flow is driven only by subduction. But for hotter surface conditions, such as those on Venus, accumulation and inheritance of damage is negligible; hence only subduction zones survive and plate tectonics does not spread, which corresponds to observations. After plates have developed, continued changes in driving forces, combined with inherited damage and weak zones, promote increased tectonic complexity, such as oblique subduction, strike-slip boundaries that are subparallel to plate motion, and spalling of minor plates.

  20. Waffle Production: Influence of Baking Plate Material on Sticking of Waffles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Regina; Kalss, Georg; Schoenlechner, Regine

    2017-01-01

    Background of this study was to understand the factors that contribute to sticking of fresh egg waffles on baking plates. The aim of this study was to investigate the sticking (adhesion) behavior of waffles on 4 different baking plate materials (ductile iron, grey iron, low alloyed steel, and steel with titanium nitrite coating) at different baking parameters (temperature and time) and application of 3 different release agents (different fat compositions). Baking plates from ductile and grey iron showed lower release properties of waffles than the 2 steel baking plates. Baking parameters had to be high enough to allow rapid product crust formation but prevent burning, which again increases sticking behavior. Release agents based on short-chain fatty acids with higher degree of saturation provided better release behavior of waffles than those based on long-chain fatty acids or on emulsifier-acid combinations. Baking plates with increased hardness, good heat storage capacity, and smooth surface seemed to be best suitable. Further research on appropriate coating material might be promising for future. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Study on the new materials for fiberboard refiner plate of defibrator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAOZe-hui; XIANGHong-liang; LUOJi-rong

    2003-01-01

    Defibrator is a very important machine in the wood industry for producing fiberboard.The refiner plates are the key parts of defibrator that directly act with the wood,and broken easily.The working life of the refiner plates is of significance to the wood industry.It may affect refining quality,production efficiency,and power consumption.In this paper,the abrasion resistance of the refiner plate made of different materials,the stainless steels and high chromium cast irons,were tested and compared.The results showed that abrasion resistance of refiner plate made of high chromium cast irons was better than that of the stainless steel materials.Although the two kinds of materials have the same compositions,their abrasion resistances have apparent difference.The main reason is that the material microstructures have very important effects on their performance.The refiner plates made of developed high chromium cast irons don't demand the complex heat treatment.This can simplify the producing process,save the cost of production,decrease labor strength,and increase the production efficiency.

  2. Damage monitoring and impact detection using optical fiber vibration sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y. C.; Han, K. S.

    2002-06-01

    Intensity-based optical fiber vibrations sensors (OFVSs) are used in damage monitoring of fiber-reinforced plastics, in vibration sensing, and location of impacts. OFVSs were constructed by placing two cleaved fiber ends in a capillary tube. This sensor is able to monitor structural vibrations. For vibration sensing, the optical fiber sensor was mounted on the carbon fiber reinforced composite beam, and its response was investigated for free and forced vibration. For locating impact points, four OFVSs were placed at chosen positions and the different arrival times of impact-generated vibration signals were recorded. The impact location can be determined from these time delays. Indentation and tensile tests were performed with the measurement of the optical signal and acoustic emission (AE). The OFVSs accurately detected both free and forced vibration signals. Accurate locations of impact were determined on an acrylate plate. It was found that damage information, comparable in quality to AE data, could be obtained from the OFVS signals.

  3. Numerical calculation of the operation wavelength range of a polarization controller based on rotatable wave plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Su; Sharma, Aditya

    2016-12-01

    We calculate the operation wavelength range of polarization controllers based on rotating wave plates such as paddle-type optical fiber devices. The coverages over arbitrary polarization conversion or arbitrary birefringence compensation are numerically estimated. The results present the acceptable phase retardation range of polarization controllers composed of two quarter-wave plates or a quarter-half-quarter-wave plate combination, and thereby determines the operation wavelength range of a given design. We further prove that a quarter-quarter-half-wave-plate combination is also an arbitrary birefringence compensator as well as a conventional quarter-half-quarter-wave-plate combination, and show that the two configurations have the identical range of acceptable phase retardance within the uncertainty of our numerical method.

  4. Vapour Growth of Micro-Coiled Ceramic Fibers and their Properties

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Micro-coiled fibers of carbon, SiC, Si3N4 TiC, ZrC and HfC were prepared by a metal-impurity activated chemical vapor deposition or vapour phase metallizing of the coiled carbon fibers. The growth conditions, morphology, growth mechanism and some properties were examined. The double-coiled carbon fibers were prepared using acetylene as a carbon source and various powders or plates of transition metals, metal carbides, MoS2, Ti2O3, and Ni single crystal plate as a catalyst at 650-850°C. The tr...

  5. Brain iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Torben

    2002-11-01

    Iron is essential for virtually all types of cells and organisms. The significance of the iron for brain function is reflected by the presence of receptors for transferrin on brain capillary endothelial cells. The transport of iron into the brain from the circulation is regulated so that the extraction of iron by brain capillary endothelial cells is low in iron-replete conditions and the reverse when the iron need of the brain is high as in conditions with iron deficiency and during development of the brain. Whereas there is good agreement that iron is taken up by means of receptor-mediated uptake of iron-transferrin at the brain barriers, there are contradictory views on how iron is transported further on from the brain barriers and into the brain extracellular space. The prevailing hypothesis for transport of iron across the BBB suggests a mechanism that involves detachment of iron from transferrin within barrier cells followed by recycling of apo-transferrin to blood plasma and release of iron as non-transferrin-bound iron into the brain interstitium from where the iron is taken up by neurons and glial cells. Another hypothesis claims that iron-transferrin is transported into the brain by means of transcytosis through the BBB. This thesis deals with the topic "brain iron homeostasis" defined as the attempts to maintain constant concentrations of iron in the brain internal environment via regulation of iron transport through brain barriers, cellular iron uptake by neurons and glia, and export of iron from brain to blood. The first part deals with transport of iron-transferrin complexes from blood to brain either by transport across the brain barriers or by uptake and retrograde axonal transport in motor neurons projecting beyond the blood-brain barrier. The transport of iron and transport into the brain was examined using radiolabeled iron-transferrin. Intravenous injection of [59Fe-125]transferrin led to an almost two-fold higher accumulation of 59Fe than of

  6. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Jiyang; Liu Jincheng

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chapter 3 Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron(I) Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron, SG iron in short, refers to the cast iron in which graphite precipitates as spheroidal shape during solidification of liquid iron. The graphite in common commercial cast iron can only be changed from flake to spheroidal shape by spheroidising treatment. Since spheroidal graphite reduces the cutting effect of stress concentration, the metal matrix strength of SG iron can be applied around 70%-90%, thus the mechanical property of SG iron is significantly superior to other cast irons;even the tensile strength of SG iron is higher than that carbon steel.

  7. Iron and Stony-iron Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, H.; McCoy, T. J.

    2003-12-01

    Without iron and stony-iron meteorites, our chances of ever sampling the deep interior of a differentiated planetary object would be next to nil. Although we live on a planet with a very substantial core, we will never be able to sample it. Fortunately, asteroid collisions provide us with a rich sampling of the deep interiors of differentiated asteroids.Iron and stony-iron meteorites are fragments of a large number of asteroids that underwent significant geological processing in the early solar system. Parent bodies of iron and some stony-iron meteorites completed a geological evolution similar to that continuing on Earth - although on much smaller length- and timescales - with melting of the metal and silicates, differentiation into core, mantle, and crust, and probably extensive volcanism. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are our only available analogues to materials found in the deep interiors of Earth and other terrestrial planets. This fact has been recognized since the work of Chladni (1794), who argued that stony-iron meteorites must have originated in outer space and fallen during fireballs and that they provide our closest analogue to the material that comprises our own planet's core. This chapter deals with our current knowledge of these meteorites. How did they form? What can they tell us about the early evolution of the solar system and its solid bodies? How closely do they resemble the materials from planetary interiors? What do we know and don't we know?Iron and stony-iron meteorites constitute ˜6% of meteorite falls (Grady, 2000). Despite their scarcity among falls, iron meteorites are our only samples of ˜75 of the ˜135 asteroids from which meteorites originate ( Keil et al., 1994; Scott, 1979; Meibom and Clark, 1999; see also Chapter 1.05), suggesting that both differentiated asteroids and the geologic processes that produced them were common.Despite the highly evolved nature of iron and stony-iron meteorites, their chemistry provides important

  8. Casimir Effect for Dielectric Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We generalize Kupisewska method to the three-dimensional system and another derivation of the Casimir effect between two dielectric plates is presented based on the explicit quantization of the electromagnetic field in the presence of dielectrics, where the physical meaning of "evanescent mode" is discussed. The Lifshitz's formula is rederived perfect metallic plates will the evanescent modes become unimportant.

  9. Micro-channel plate detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Lee, Seon W.; Wang, Hsien -Hau; Pellin, Michael J.; Byrum, Karen; Frisch, Henry J.

    2015-09-22

    A method and system for providing a micro-channel plate detector. An anodized aluminum oxide membrane is provided and includes a plurality of nanopores which have an Al coating and a thin layer of an emissive oxide material responsive to incident radiation, thereby providing a plurality of radiation sensitive channels for the micro-channel plate detector.

  10. Gold plating on spectacle frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, I; Mitchell, J W; Walsh, G

    1997-05-01

    An investigation was carried out into the thickness and standard of application of the plating and lacquer coatings applied to three metal spectacle frames. All conform to BS 6625 (1991) for plating thickness, but there was considerable variation in regularity and porosity.

  11. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Jiyang; Liu Jincheng

    2010-01-01

    @@ Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron(Ⅳ) 3.7 Segregation of SG iron The non-uniform distribution of solute elements during solidification results in the micro segregation of SG iron.As for the redistribution of elements in the phases of the solidification structure,there is no intrinsic difference between SG iron and grey iron[132].

  12. Cellular iron transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Michael D; Garrick, Laura M

    2009-05-01

    Iron has a split personality as an essential nutrient that also has the potential to generate reactive oxygen species. We discuss how different cell types within specific tissues manage this schizophrenia. The emphasis in enterocytes is on regulating the body's supply of iron by regulating transport into the blood stream. In developing red blood cells, adaptations in transport manage the body's highest flux of iron. Hepatocytes buffer the body's stock of iron. Macrophage recycle the iron from effete red cells among other iron management tasks. Pneumocytes provide a barrier to prevent illicit entry that, when at risk of breaching, leads to a need to handle the dangers in a fashion essentially shared with macrophage. We also discuss or introduce cell types including renal cells, neurons, other brain cells, and more where our ignorance, currently still vast, needs to be removed by future research.

  13. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    . This modelling technique is used to model a plate shell structure with a span of 11.5 meters in the FE software \\textsc{Abaqus}. The structure is analyzed with six different connection details with varying stiffness characteristics, to investigate the influence of these characteristics on the structural effects...... University, a script has been developed for an automated generation of a given plate shell geometry and a corresponding finite element (FE) model. A suitable FE modelling technique is proposed, suggesting a relatively simple method of modelling the connection detail's stiffness characteristics....... Based on these investigations, and FE analysis of other plate shell models, the structural behaviour is described. Possible methods of estimating the stresses in a given plate shell structure are proposed. The non-linear behaviour of a plate shell structure is investigated for varying parameters...

  14. The moving plate capacitor paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, B. R.; Abbott, D.; Parrondo, J. M. R.

    2000-03-01

    For the first time we describe an apparent paradox concerning a moving plate capacitor driven by thermal noise from a resistor. A demon restores the plates of the capacitor to their original position, only when the voltage across the capacitor is small—hence only small forces are present for the demon to work against. The demon has to work harder than this to avoid the situation of perpetual motion, but the question is how? We explore the concept of a moving plate capacitor, driven by noise, a step further by examining the case where the restoring force on the capacitor plates is provided by a simple spring, rather than some unknown demon. We display simulation results with interesting behavior, particularly where the capacitor plates collide with each other.

  15. SAMI Automated Plug Plate Configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Lorente, Nuria P F; Goodwin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) is a prototype wide-field system at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) which uses a plug-plate to mount its 13 x 61-core imaging fibre bundles (hexabundles) in the optical path at the telescope's prime focus. In this paper we describe the process of determining the positions of the plug-plate holes, where plates contain three or more stacked observation configurations. The process, which up until now has involved several separate processes and has required significant manual configuration and checking, is now being automated to increase efficiency and reduce error. This is carried out by means of a thin Java controller layer which drives the configuration cycle. This layer controls the user interface and the C++ algorithm layer where the plate configuration and optimisation is carried out. Additionally, through the Aladin display package, it provides visualisation and facilitates user verification of the resulting plates.

  16. Austempered Ductile Iron Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilc, Jozef; Šajgalík, Michal; Holubják, Jozef; Piešová, Marianna; Zaušková, Lucia; Babík, Ondrej; Kuždák, Viktor; Rákoci, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    This article deals with the machining of cast iron. In industrial practice, Austempered Ductile Iron began to be used relatively recently. ADI is ductile iron that has gone through austempering to get improved properties, among which we can include strength, wear resistance or noise damping. This specific material is defined also by other properties, such as high elasticity, ductility and endurance against tenigue, which are the properties, that considerably make the tooling characteristic worse.

  17. Iron and the athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedekum, Natalie A; Dimeff, Robert J

    2005-08-01

    Iron is an important mineral necessary for many biologic pathways. Different levels of deficiency can occur in the athlete, resulting in symptoms that range from none to severe fatigue. Iron deficiency without anemia may adversely affect athletic performance. Causes of iron deficiency include poor intake, menstrual losses, gastrointestinal and genitourinary losses due to exercise-induced ischemia or organ movement, foot strike hemolysis, thermohemolysis, and sweat losses. A higher incidence of deficiency occurs in female athletes compared with males.

  18. Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2000-01-01

    Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self-starting......Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self......-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach...

  19. Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2000-01-01

    Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self-starting......Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self......-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach...

  20. Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing

    CERN Document Server

    Yablon, Andrew D

    2005-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date treatment of optical fiber fusion splicing incorporating all the recent innovations in the field. It provides a toolbox of general strategies and specific techniques that the reader can apply when optimizing fusion splices between novel fibers. It specifically addresses considerations important for fusion splicing of contemporary specialty fibers including dispersion compensating fiber, erbium-doped gain fiber, polarization maintaining fiber, and microstructured fiber. Finally, it discusses the future of optical fiber fusion splicing including silica and non-silica based optical fibers as well as the trend toward increasing automation. Whilst serving as a self-contained reference work, abundant citations from the technical literature will enable readers to readily locate primary sources.

  1. Thin plate neotectonic models of the Australian plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbidge, D. R.

    2004-10-01

    Thin plate finite element models of the neotectonic deformation of the Australian plate have been calculated in order to estimate the stress and strain rate within the plate, specifically concentrating on the Australian continent. The model includes plate-bounding faults, an anelastic brittle-ductile layered rheology and the option of laterally varying elevation and heat flow. The results of the models are compared to (1) the velocity of geodetic benchmarks on the Australian plate, (2) the spreading rate of the mid-oceanic ridges along the Australian plate's margins, (3) the direction of the maximum horizontal principal stress, (4) the stress regime within the plate, and (5) the crustal thickness estimated from the depth to the base of Mohorovicic discontinuity's transition zone. A variety of models are tested with a wide range of input parameters. The model with the smallest misfit with observations predicts that the strain rate for most of the Australian continent is approximately 10-17 s-1. This model has a slightly lower strain rate in the central Australia and is higher off the northern coast of Australia than for the rest of the continent. Strain rates of this magnitude would be difficult to observe from geodetic or geologic data for most parts of Australia but would be enough to generate much of the seismicity that has been observed over the last century.

  2. Underwater electrical discharge in plate to plate configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmashuk, Vitaliy

    2016-09-01

    Two main configurations of high voltage electrodes submersed in water have been used for an electrical discharge generation: pin to pin and pin to plate. An electrical breakdown between plate electrodes is generally difficult to reproduce, because there is a uniform and weak electric field. One major advantage of using plate electrodes is their greater ``wear hardness'' to high-energy discharges. The plate electrodes can withstand extremely high energy deposition at which the pin electrode is quickly destroyed. The electrical discharge between plate electrodes can be initiated by creating an inhomogeneity in the electrical field. Two methods of discharge initiation between plate electrodes are proposed for this aim: 1) focusing of a shock wave in the interelectrode region; 2) a bubble injection into the electrode gap. The shock wave creates favourable conditions for the electrical breakdown between the two plate electrodes: it causes that numerous microbubbles of dissolved air start to grow and serve as locations for streamer initiation. In the second method the gas bubble is injected from the one of the electrodes, which has a gas inlet hole on the lateral face for this purpose. A ``volcano'' like morphology of positive streamers are observed in the experiments with weak electric field. The authors are grateful to MEYS grant INGO LG 15013.

  3. Innovative design of composite structures: The use of curvilinear fiber format in composite structure design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, M. W.; Charette, R. F.

    1990-01-01

    The gains in structural efficiency are investigated that can be achieved by aligning the fibers in some or all of the layers in a laminate with the principal stress directions in those layers. The name curvilinear fiber format is given to this idea. The problem studied is a plate with a central circular hole subjected to a uniaxial tensile load. An iteration scheme is used to find the fiber directions at each point in the laminate. Two failure criteria are used to evaluate the tensile load capacity of the plates with a curvilinear format, and for comparison, counterpart plates with a conventional straightline fiber format. The curvilinear designs for improved tensile capacity are then checked for buckling resistance. It is concluded that gains in efficiency can be realized with the curvilinear format.

  4. Physics of iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, O.

    1993-10-01

    This volume comprises papers presented at the AIRAPT Conference, June 28 to July 1993. The iron sessions at the meeting were identified as the Second Ironworkers Convention. The renewal of interest stems from advances in technologies in both diamond-anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave studies as well as from controversies arising from a lack of consensus among both experimentalists and theoreticians. These advances have produced new data on iron in the pressure-temperature regime of interest for phase diagrams and for temperatures of the core/mantle and inner-core/outer-core boundaries. Particularly interesting is the iron phase diagram inferred from DAC studies. A new phase, {beta}, with a {gamma}-{beta}-{epsilon} triple point at about 30 GPa and 1190 K, and possible sixth phase, {omega}, with an {epsilon}-{Theta}-melt triple point at about 190 GPa and 4000 K are deemed possible. The importance of the equation of state of iron in consideration of Earth`s heat budget and the origin of its magnetic field invoke the interest of theoreticians who argue on the basis of molecular dynamics and other first principles methods. While the major thrust of both meetings was on the physics of pure iron, there was notable contributions on iron alloys. Hydrogen-iron alloys, iron-sulfur liquids, and the comparability to rhenium in phase diagram studies are discussed. The knowledge of the physical properties of iron were increased by several contributions.

  5. Iron, Meat and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Geissler

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a summary of the publication “Iron and Health” by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN to the U.K. Government (2010, which reviews the dietary intake of iron and the impact of different dietary patterns on the nutritional and health status of the U.K. population. It concludes that several uncertainties make it difficult to determine dose-response relationships or to confidently characterize the risks associated with iron deficiency or excess. The publication makes several recommendations concerning iron intakes from food, including meat, and from supplements, as well as recommendations for further research.

  6. Recalling the Iron Girls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The phrase "iron girl" is symbolic of an era. Widely used in the 1960s and the early 1970s, it was a term that described women who, in the spirit of sexual equality, found in themselves a physical strength that surpassed their psychologi cal expectations. With their might and power, they proved to society that women could do everything that men could. The title of "iron girl" was their pride.The well-known writer Fan Xiaoqing, was one such iron girl. She says the "iron girls" were nothing less than a quest for perfection.

  7. Iron overload and immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gra(c)a Porto; Maria De Sousa

    2007-01-01

    Progress in the characterization of genes involved in the control of iron homeostasis in humans and in mice has improved the definition of iron overload and of the cells affected by it. The cell involved in iron overload with the greatest effect on immunity is the macrophage.Intriguing evidence has emerged, however, in the last 12 years indicating that parenchymal iron overload is linked to genes classically associated with the immune system. This review offers an update of the genes and proteins relevant to iron metabolism expressed in cells of the innate immune system, and addresses the question of how this system is affected in clinical situations of iron overload. The relationship between iron and the major cells of adaptive immunity, the T lymphocytes,will also be reviewed. Most studies addressing this last question in humans were performed in the clinical model of Hereditary Hemochromatosis. Data will also be reviewed demonstrating how the disruption of molecules essentially involved in adaptive immune responses result in the spontaneous development of iron overload and how they act as modifiers of iron overload.

  8. Influence of locational states of submicron fibers added into matrix on mechanical properties of plain-woven Carbon Fiber Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, Soichiro; Okubo, Kazuya; Fujii, Toru

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show the influence of locational states of submicron fibers added into epoxy matrix on mechanical properties of modified plane-woven carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). To change the locational states of submicron fibers, two kinds of fabrication processes were applied in preparing specimen by hand lay-up method. Submicron fibers were simply added into epoxy resin with ethanol after they were stirred by a dispersion process using homogenizer to be located far from the interface between reinforcement and matrix. In contrast, submicron fibers were attached onto the carbon fibers by injecting from a spray nozzle accompanying with ethanol to be located near the interface, after they were tentatively contained in ethanol. The plain-woven CFRP plates were fabricated by hand lay-up method and cured at 80 degree-C for 1 hour and then at 150 degree-C for 3 hours. After curing, the plain-woven CFRP plates were cut into the dimension of specimen. Tensile shear strength and Mode-II fracture toughness of CFRP were determined by tensile lap-shear test and End-notched flexure(ENF) test, respectively. When submicron fibers were located far from the interface between carbon fibers and epoxy resin, tensile shear strength and Mode-II fracture toughness of CFRP were improved 30% and 18% compared with those of unmodified case. The improvement ratio in modified case was rather low (about few percentages) in the case where submicron fibers were located near the interface. The result suggested that crack propagation should be prevented when submicron fibers were existed far from the interface due to the effective stress state around the crack tip.

  9. Influence of locational states of submicron fibers added into matrix on mechanical properties of plain-woven Carbon Fiber Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumamoto Soichiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to show the influence of locational states of submicron fibers added into epoxy matrix on mechanical properties of modified plane-woven carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP. To change the locational states of submicron fibers, two kinds of fabrication processes were applied in preparing specimen by hand lay-up method. Submicron fibers were simply added into epoxy resin with ethanol after they were stirred by a dispersion process using homogenizer to be located far from the interface between reinforcement and matrix. In contrast, submicron fibers were attached onto the carbon fibers by injecting from a spray nozzle accompanying with ethanol to be located near the interface, after they were tentatively contained in ethanol. The plain-woven CFRP plates were fabricated by hand lay-up method and cured at 80 degree-C for 1 hour and then at 150 degree-C for 3 hours. After curing, the plain-woven CFRP plates were cut into the dimension of specimen. Tensile shear strength and Mode-II fracture toughness of CFRP were determined by tensile lap-shear test and End-notched flexure(ENF test, respectively. When submicron fibers were located far from the interface between carbon fibers and epoxy resin, tensile shear strength and Mode-II fracture toughness of CFRP were improved 30% and 18% compared with those of unmodified case. The improvement ratio in modified case was rather low (about few percentages in the case where submicron fibers were located near the interface. The result suggested that crack propagation should be prevented when submicron fibers were existed far from the interface due to the effective stress state around the crack tip.

  10. Fiber reinforced concrete: Characterization of flexural toughness and some studies on fiber-matrix bond-slip interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Ashish

    One major problem associated with the testing of fiber reinforced concrete specimens under flexural loading is that the measured post-cracking response is severely affected by the stiffness of the testing machine. As a consequence, misleading results are obtained when such a flexural response is used for the characterization of composite toughness. An assessment of a new toughness characterization technique termed the Residual Strength Test Method (RSTM) has been made. In this technique, a stable narrow crack is first created in the specimen by applying a flexural load in parallel with a steel plate under controlled conditions. The plate is then removed, and the specimen is tested in a routine manner in flexure to obtain the post-crack load versus displacement response. Flexural response for a variety of fiber reinforced cementitious composites obtained using the Residual Strength Test Method has been found to correlate very well with those obtained with relatively stiffer test configurations such as closed-loop test machines. The Residual Strength Test Method is found to be effective in differentiating between different fiber types, fiber lengths, fiber configurations, fiber volume fractions, fiber geometries and fiber moduli. In particular, the technique has been found to be extremely useful for testing cement-based composites containing fibers at very low dosages (shear lag theory is introduced to study the problem of fiber pullout in fiber reinforced composites. The proposed model eliminates limitations of many earlier models and captures essential features of pullout process, including progressive interfacial debonding, Poisson's effect, and variation in interfacial properties during the fiber pullout process. Interfacial debonding is modeled using an interfacial shear strength criterion. Influence of normal contact stress at the fiber-matrix interface is considered using shrink-fit theory, and the interfacial frictional shear stress over the debonded

  11. Highly curved microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Cully, S.; Warren, J.; Gaines, G. A.; Priedhorsky, W.; Bloch, J.

    1990-01-01

    Several spherically curved microchannel plate (MCP) stack configurations were studied as part of an ongoing astrophysical detector development program, and as part of the development of the ALEXIS satellite payload. MCP pairs with surface radii of curvature as small as 7 cm, and diameters up to 46 mm have been evaluated. The experiments show that the gain (greater than 1.5 x 10 exp 7) and background characteristics (about 0.5 events/sq cm per sec) of highly curved MCP stacks are in general equivalent to the performance achieved with flat MCP stacks of similar configuration. However, gain variations across the curved MCP's due to variations in the channel length to diameter ratio are observed. The overall pulse height distribution of a highly curved surface MCP stack (greater than 50 percent FWHM) is thus broader than its flat counterpart (less than 30 percent). Preconditioning of curved MCP stacks gives comparable results to flat MCP stacks, but it also decreases the overall gain variations. Flat fields of curved MCP stacks have the same general characteristics as flat MCP stacks.

  12. Benefits and harms of iron supplementation in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domellöf, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Due to high iron requirements, young children are at risk for iron deficiency anemia. Iron supplements are therefore often recommended, especially since iron deficiency anemia in children is associated with poor neurodevelopment. However, in contrast to most other nutrients, excess iron cannot be excreted by the human body and it has recently been suggested that excessive iron supplementation of young children may have adverse effects on growth, risk of infections, and even on cognitive development. Recent studies support that iron supplements are beneficial in iron-deficient children but there is a risk of adverse effects in those who are iron replete. In populations with a low prevalence of iron deficiency, general supplementation should therefore be avoided. Iron-fortified foods can still be generally recommended since they seem to be safer than medicinal iron supplements, but the level of iron fortification should be limited. General iron supplementation is recommended in areas with a high prevalence of iron deficiency, with the exception of malarious areas where a cautious supplementation approach needs to be adopted, based either on screening or a combination of iron supplements and infection control measures. More studies are urgently needed to better determine the risks and benefits of iron supplementation and iron-fortified foods given to iron-deficient and iron-sufficient children.

  13. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  14. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  15. Carbon monoxide and iron modulate plasmatic coagulation in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Vance G; Pretorius, Etheresia; Bester, Janette; Jacobsen, Wayne K; Boyle, Patrick K; Reinhard, Joao P

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality for millions of people worldwide, and multiple potential etiologies have been postulated to contribute to AD. Among these, spontaneous cerebral emboli and increased cerebral and circulating heme oxygenase (Hmox) activity in AD patients are of particular interest, as two of the products of Hmox activity, carbon monoxide (CO) and iron enhance plasmatic coagulation and modify the ultrastructure of thrombi. We hypothesized that patients afflicted with AD would have coagulation kinetics modulated by CO and iron. Using viscoelastic assessments of coagulation, it was determined with a small cohort (n=11) of AD patients that all had enhancement of coagulation by CO, iron, or both. In a complementary fashion, it was determined that a separate cohort (n=12) of AD patients had thrombi with ultrastructural features consistent with iron and CO exposure as assessed with scanning electron microscopy. Further, when stratified by normal or abnormally increased serum ferritin concentrations (which can be increased by Hmox), the AD patients with abnormal ferritin concentrations had significantly thinner fibrin fiber diameters, not unlike that noted when normal plasma is mixed with iron or CO. In sum, AD patients were noted to have plasmatic coagulation kinetic and thrombus ultrastructural changes consistent with exposure to CO and iron. Future investigation of CO and iron in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is warranted.

  16. Plating of archaeological metallic objects - studies by differential PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, Z. [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Jadranska 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O. Box 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: ziga.smit@fmf.uni-lj.si; Istenic, J.; Knific, T. [National Museum of Slovenia, Presernova 20, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-05-15

    The differential PIXE method using an external proton beam up to 3 MeV energy was applied to examine plated layers of tin, silver and gold on bronze, brass, iron and silver objects from Roman and Early Medieval period. The concentration profiles were deduced from the measurements by the method of virtual slicing the target into layers, and minimizing the differences between the measured and calculated X-ray yields. The tinned layers were usually thin (about 1 {mu}m), but the thickness of silver and gold layers was in several cases thicker and exceeded the proton range. The plating techniques were identified as application of the molten metal for tinning, and as fire gilding for the gilded objects.

  17. Plating of archaeological metallic objects studies by differential PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmit, Ž.; Istenič, J.; Knific, T.

    2008-05-01

    The differential PIXE method using an external proton beam up to 3 MeV energy was applied to examine plated layers of tin, silver and gold on bronze, brass, iron and silver objects from Roman and Early Medieval period. The concentration profiles were deduced from the measurements by the method of virtual slicing the target into layers, and minimizing the differences between the measured and calculated X-ray yields. The tinned layers were usually thin (about 1 μm), but the thickness of silver and gold layers was in several cases thicker and exceeded the proton range. The plating techniques were identified as application of the molten metal for tinning, and as fire gilding for the gilded objects.

  18. Investigation of friction and wear characteristics of cast iron material under various conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Ji Hoon; Kim, Chang Lae; Oh, Jeong Taek; Kim, Dae Eun [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nemati, Narguess [School of Materials and Metallurgy, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Cast iron is widely used in fields such as the transport and heavy industries. For parts where contact damage is expected to occur, it is necessary to understand the friction and wear characteristics of cast iron. In this study, we use cast iron plates as the specimens to investigate their friction and wear characteristics. We perform various experiments using a reciprocating type tribotester. We assess the frictional characteristics by analyzing the friction coefficient values that were obtained during the sliding tests. We observe the wear surfaces of cast iron and steel balls using a scanning electron microscope, confocal microscope, and 3D profiler. We investigate the friction and wear characteristics of cast iron by injecting sand and alumina particles having various sizes. Furthermore, we estimate the effect of temperature on the friction and wear characteristics. The results obtained are expected to aid in the understanding of the tribological characteristics of cast iron in industry.

  19. PULP FIBER SIZE CHARACTERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shijie Liu

    2004-01-01

    Pulp fiber length distribution characterization has been examined in this study. Because of the fiber morphology: slender in shape, fiber size distribution characterization is a very difficult task. Traditional technique involves separation of the particles by size,such as Bauer-McNett fiber classifier, and measuring the weight fractions. The particle fractions obtained may or may not reflect the desired size classification.On the other hand, the more recent technique through optical measurement of fiber length is limited by its inability to measure the mass of the particle fractions.Therefore, not only the two techniques fail to generate identical results, either one was accepted to be of better value. Pure hardwood kraft, softwood kraft, and their mixture samples have been measured for their fiber length distributions using an optical fiber quality analyzer: FQA. The data obtained from FQA are extensively studied to investigate more reliable way of representing the fiber length data and thus examining the viable route for measuring the fiber size distributions. It has been found that the fiber length averaged length 11 is a viable indicator of the average pulp fiber length. The fiber size fraction and/or distribution can be represented by the fiber "length" fractions.

  20. [Prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in pregnant adolescents from northwest Mexico, 2007-2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez Estrada, Rosa Olivia; Pacheco, Bertha; Noriega Verdugo, Hypathia; Quihui, Luis; Morales, Guadalupe; Valencia, Mauro E

    2009-06-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) remains a word public health problem, particularly in children and child-bearing-age women. Iron demands need to be covered by adolescent women due to the increased physical growing, menstruation, pregnancy and fetal growing tissues at this life stage. This study was proposed to investigate the prevalence of iron deficiency and IDA in pregnant adolescent women from Northwestern Mexico. Participated 186 women under 19 years old during the first or second trimester of pregnancy who attended the local health institutions in Hermosillo Sonora. Questionnaires and 24 hr recalls were administered to collect socioeconomic and dietary information respectively. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit, ferritin and eritrocytic protoporphyrin were measured. Hb and ferritin values were used to categorize the recruited women into normal (37.4%), iron deficient (55.5%) and IDA (7.1%) groups. Six and seven women showed moderated and light anemia status in the IDA group. Fe and fiber intake and weeks of pregnancy were associated with the biochemical indicators of iron at least in two women groups. The high percentage of iron deficient women in this study is demanding the identification and attention of maternal factors and food habits that are risk of iron deficiency in pregnant women.

  1. The concept of locking plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronier, P; Pietu, G; Dujardin, C; Bigorre, N; Ducellier, F; Gerard, R

    2010-05-01

    After a short historical review of locking bone plates since their inception more than a century ago to the success of the concept less than 15 years ago with today's plates, the authors present the main locking mechanisms in use. In the two broad categories - plates with fixed angulation and those with variable angulation - the screw head is locked in the plate with a locknut by screwing in a threaded chamber on the plate or by screwing through an adapted ring. The authors then provide a concrete explanation, based on simple mechanical models, of the fundamental differences between conventional bone plates and locking plates and why a locking screw system presents greater resistance at disassembly, detailing the role played by the position and number of screws. The advantages of epiphyseal fixation are then discussed, including in cases of mediocre-quality bone. For teaching purposes, the authors also present assembly with an apple fixed with five locking screws withstanding a 47-kg axial load with no resulting disassembly. The principles of plate placement are detailed for both the epiphysis and diaphysis, including the number and position of screws and respect of the soft tissues, with the greatest success assured by the minimally invasive and even percutaneous techniques. The authors then present the advantages of locking plates in fixation of periprosthetic fractures where conventional osteosynthesis often encounters limited success. Based on simplified theoretical cases, the economic impact in France of this type of implant is discussed, showing that on average it accounts for less than 10% of the overall cost of this pathology to society. Finally, the possible problems of material ablation are discussed as well as the means to remediate these problems.

  2. [Iron deficiency and digestive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozon, G J N

    2014-11-01

    Iron deficiency anemia still remains problematic worldwide. Iron deficiency without anemia is often undiagnosed. We reviewed, in this study, symptoms and syndromes associated with iron deficiency with or without anemia: fatigue, cognitive functions, restless legs syndrome, hair loss, and chronic heart failure. Iron is absorbed through the digestive tract. Hepcidin and ferroportin are the main proteins of iron regulation. Pathogenic micro-organisms or intestinal dysbiosis are suspected to influence iron absorption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Optical Near-Field Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-08

    color filtering and spectral imaging ,” Nat. Comm. 1, 59 (2010). 3. H.-F. Shi and L. J. Guo, “Design of Plasmonic Near Field Plate at Opitical...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0085 OPTICAL NEAR-FILED PLATES Roberto Merlin UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Final Report 04/08/2015 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution...03-2015 Final 09/01/2009-12/31/2014 Optical Near-Field Plates FA9550-09-1-0636 erlin, Roberto, D. The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109

  4. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed....

  5. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Jiyang; Liu Jincheng

    2011-01-01

    White Cast Iron (Ⅰ) White cast iron or ‘white iron' refers to the type of cast iron in which all of the carbon exists as carbide;there is no graphite in the as-cast structure and the fractured surface shows a white colour.White cast iron can be divided in three classes:· Normal white cast iron — this iron contains only C,Si,Mn,P and S,with no other alloying elements.· Low-alloy white cast iron — the total mass fraction of alloying elements is less than 5%.

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Tests Blood Transfusion Restless Legs Syndrome Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily treated condition that occurs if you ...

  7. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the intestines not properly absorbing vitamin B12 ( pernicious anemia ) Sickle cell anemia Risks There is very little risk involved with ... test Hemoglobin Hemolytic anemia Iron deficiency anemia Pernicious anemia Serum iron test Sickle cell anemia Review Date 2/11/2016 Updated by: ...

  8. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... periods. By following her treatment plan and making smart lifestyle choices, Susan continues to feel better and see the benefits of treatment. For more information about living with and managing iron-deficiency anemia, go to the Health Topics Iron-Deficiency Anemia article. Updated: March 26, ...

  10. Iron deficiency in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijterschout, L.

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Iron is involved in oxygen transport, energy metabolism, immune response, and plays an important role in brain development. In infancy, ID is associated with adverse effects on cognitive, motor, and behavioral development

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Tests Blood Transfusion Restless Legs Syndrome Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily treated condition that occurs if you ...

  12. Iron deficiency in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijterschout, L.

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Iron is involved in oxygen transport, energy metabolism, immune response, and plays an important role in brain development. In infancy, ID is associated with adverse effects on cognitive, motor, and behavioral development

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily treated condition that occurs if you don' ... from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia . The term "anemia" usually refers ...

  14. Hierarchical self-organization of tectonic plates

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Earth's surface is subdivided into eight large tectonic plates and many smaller ones. We reconstruct the plate tessellation history and demonstrate that both large and small plates display two distinct hierarchical patterns, described by different power-law size-relationships. While small plates display little organisational change through time, the structure of the large plates oscillate between minimum and maximum hierarchical tessellations. The organization of large plates rapidly chan...

  15. Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Per

    2004-01-01

    Despite the general recession in the global economy and the collapse of the optical telecommunication market, research within specialty fibers is thriving. This is, more than anything else, due to the technology transition from standard all-glass fibers to photonic crystal fibers, which, instead...... of doping, use a microstructure of air and glass to obtain a refractive index difference between the core and the cladding. This air/glass microstructure lends the photonic crystal fibers a range of unique and highly usable properties, which are very different from those found in solid standard fibers....... The freedom to design the dispersion profile of the fibers is much larger and it is possible to create fibers, which support only a single spatial mode, regardless of wavelength. In comparison, the standard dispersion-shifted fibers are limited by a much lower index-contrast between the core and the cladding...

  16. Glass Fibers: Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Mäder

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1930s, the process of melting glass and subsequently forming fibers, in particular discontinuous fiber glass or continuous glass filaments, evolved into commercial-scale manufacturing.[...

  17. Fiber Optics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, William E.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses various applications of fiber optics technology: information systems, industrial robots, medicine, television, transportation, and training. Types of jobs that will be available with fiber optics training (such as electricians and telephone cable installers and splicers) are examined. (CT)

  18. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  19. Electroless Nickel Plating and Electroplating on FBG Temperature Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ren-sheng; TENG Rui; LI Xiang-ping; ZHANG Jin; XIA Dao-cheng; FAN Zhao-qi; YU Yong-sen; ZHANG Yu-shu; DU Guo-tong

    2008-01-01

    Metal-coated fiber Bragg grating(FBG) temperature sensors were prepared via electroless nickel(EN) plating and tin electroplating methods on the surface of normal bare FBG.The surface morphologies of the metal-coated layers were observed under a metallographic microscope.The effects of pretreatment sequence,pH value of EN plating solution and current density of electroplating on the performance of the metal-coated layers were analyzed.Meanwhile,the Bragg wavelength shift induced by temperature was monitored by an optical spectrum analyzer.Sensitivity of the metal-coated FBG(MFBG) sensor was almost two times that of normal bare FBG sensor.The measuring temperature of the MFBG sensor could be up to 280 ℃,which was much better than that of conventional FBG sensor.

  20. A Low Frequency FBG Accelerometer with Symmetrical Bended Spring Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fufei Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet the requirements for low-frequency vibration monitoring, a new type of FBG (fiber Bragg grating accelerometer with a bended spring plate is proposed. Two symmetrical bended spring plates are used as elastic elements, which drive the FBG to produce axial strains equal in magnitude but opposite in direction when exciting vibrations exist, leading to doubling the wavelength shift of the FBG. The mechanics model and a numerical method are presented in this paper, with which the influence of the structural parameters on the sensitivity and the eigenfrequency are discussed. The test results show that the sensitivity of the accelerometer is more than 1000 pm/g when the frequency is within the 0.7–20 Hz range.

  1. A Low Frequency FBG Accelerometer with Symmetrical Bended Spring Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fufei; Dai, Yutang; Karanja, Joseph Muna; Yang, Minghong

    2017-01-01

    To meet the requirements for low-frequency vibration monitoring, a new type of FBG (fiber Bragg grating) accelerometer with a bended spring plate is proposed. Two symmetrical bended spring plates are used as elastic elements, which drive the FBG to produce axial strains equal in magnitude but opposite in direction when exciting vibrations exist, leading to doubling the wavelength shift of the FBG. The mechanics model and a numerical method are presented in this paper, with which the influence of the structural parameters on the sensitivity and the eigenfrequency are discussed. The test results show that the sensitivity of the accelerometer is more than 1000 pm/g when the frequency is within the 0.7–20 Hz range. PMID:28117740

  2. Microbes: mini iron factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kumar Batuk

    2014-12-01

    Microbes have flourished in extreme habitats since beginning of the Earth and have played an important role in geological processes like weathering, mineralization, diagenesis, mineral formation and destruction. Biotic mineralization is one of the most fascinating examples of how microbes have been influencing geological processes. Iron oxidizing and reducing bacteria are capable of precipitating wide varieties of iron oxides (magnetite), carbonates (siderite) and sulphides (greigite) via controlled or induced mineralization processes. Microbes have also been considered to play an important role in the history of evolution of sedimentary rocks on Earth from the formation of banded iron formations during the Archean to modern biotic bog iron and ochre deposits. Here, we discuss the role that microbes have been playing in precipitation of iron and the role and importance of interdisciplinary studies in the field of geology and biology in solving some of the major geological mysteries.

  3. Hybrid Carbon Fibers/Carbon Nanotubes Structures for Next Generation Polymeric Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al-Haik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pitch-based carbon fibers are commonly used to produce polymeric carbon fiber structural composites. Several investigations have reported different methods for dispersing and subsequently aligning carbon nanotubes (CNTs as a filler to reinforce polymer matrix. The significant difficulty in dispersing CNTs suggested the controlled-growth of CNTs on surfaces where they are needed. Here we compare between two techniques for depositing the catalyst iron used toward growing CNTs on pitch-based carbon fiber surfaces. Electrochemical deposition of iron using pulse voltametry is compared to DC magnetron iron sputtering. Carbon nanostructures growth was performed using a thermal CVD system. Characterization for comparison between both techniques was compared via SEM, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy analysis. It is shown that while both techniques were successful to grow CNTs on the carbon fiber surfaces, iron sputtering technique was capable of producing more uniform distribution of iron catalyst and thus multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs compared to MWCNTs grown using the electrochemical deposition of iron.

  4. Vibration suppression for laminated composite plates with arbitrary boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Narita, Y.

    2013-11-01

    An analysis of vibration suppression for laminated composite plates subject to active constrained layer damping under various boundary conditions is presented. Piezoelectric-fiber-reinforced composites (PFRCs) are used as active actuators, and the effect of PFRC patches on vibration control is reported here. An analytical approach is expanded to analyze the vibration of laminated composites with arbitrary boundary conditions. By using Hamilton's principle and the Rayleigh-Ritz method, the equation of motion for the resulting electromechanical coupling system is derived. A velocity feedback control rule is employed to obtain an effective active damping in the vibration control. The orientation effect of piezoelectric fibers in the PFRC patches on the suppression of forced vibrations is also investigated.

  5. Fundamentals of fiber lasers and fiber amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Ter-Mikirtychev, Valerii (Vartan)

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the fundamental aspects of fiber lasers and fiber amplifiers, and includes a wide range of material from laser physics fundamentals to state-of-the-art topics in this rapidly growing field of quantum electronics. Emphasis is placed on the nonlinear processes taking place in fiber lasers and amplifiers, their similarities, differences to, and their advantages over other solid-state lasers. The reader will learn basic principles of solid-state physics and optical spectroscopy of laser active centers in fibers, main operational laser regimes, and practical recommendations and suggestions on fiber laser research, laser applications, and laser product development. The book will be useful for students, researchers, and professionals who work with lasers, in the optical communications, chemical and biological industries, etc.

  6. Diffusion of uncharged solutes through human nail plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baswan, Sudhir M; Li, S Kevin; Kasting, Gerald B

    2016-01-01

    Passive diffusion data for uncharged solutes in hydrated human nail plate are collected and compared to the predictions of two theories for diffusion of uncharged solutes in dense keratin matrices. Quantitative agreement between the experimental data and the theories examined is poor. Concerns with both the experiments and the theories are identified and discussed. It is evident from the analysis that magnitude of the experimental nail permeability data may be questioned, as may the extrapolation procedures used to estimate the properties of dense fiber arrays from more dilute systems. Despite these caveats, it can be inferred that the microstructure of the nail plate is more complex than that assumed in the described models. The influence of residual lipids is implicated. More rigorous experiments and theoretical analysis of mass transport in the nail plate system are warranted. Successful completion of these tasks could lead not only to better predictions of transungual drug delivery, but also to better models of skin permeability, if hydrated nail plate can indeed serve as a model for the corneocyte phase of (partially hydrated) stratum corneum.

  7. Oil sorption by lignocellulosic fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beom-Goo. Lee; James S. Han; Roger M. Rowell

    1999-01-01

    The oil sorption capacities of cotton fiber, kenaf bast fiber, kenaf core fiber, and moss fiber were compared after refining, extraction, and reduction in particle sizes. The tests were conducted on diesel oil in a pure form. Cotton fiber showed the highest capacity, followed by kenaf core and bast fibers. Wetting, extraction, and reduction in particle size all...

  8. The multigap resistive plate chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeballos, E. Cerron [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Crotty, I. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Hatzifotiadou, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Valverde, J. Lamas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Univ. Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Neupane, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Williams, M. C. S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Zichichi, A. [Univ. of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2015-02-03

    The paper describes the multigap resistive plate chamber (RPC). This is a variant of the wide gap RPC. However it has much improved time resolution, while keeping all the other advantages of the wide gap RPC design.

  9. An efficient rectangular plate element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new 12-parameter rectangular plate element is presented by useof the double set parameter method. The error in the energy norm is of order O(h2), one order higher than the commonly used Adini nonconforming element.

  10. Tectonics: Changing of the plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Alan

    2016-10-01

    The composition of Earth's crust depends on the style of plate tectonics and of the melting regimes in the mantle. Analyses of the oldest identified rocks suggest that these styles and the resulting crust have changed over Earth's history.

  11. Whole Grains and Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whole grains. Does not contain partially hydrogenated oils. Dietary Fiber Dietary fiber is the term for several materials that make ... water. When eaten regularly as part of a diet low in saturated fat and trans fat soluble fiber has been associated with increased diet quality and ...

  12. Resonant filtered fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Laurila, Marko; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present our recent result on utilizing resonant/bandgap fiber designs to achieve high performance ytterbium doped fiber amplifers for achieving diffraction limited beam quality in large mode area fibers, robust bending performance and gain shaping for long wavelength operation of...

  13. Mineral Fiber Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical and physical properties of different forms of mineral fibers impact biopersistence and pathology in the lung. Fiber chemistry, length, aspect ratio, surface area and dose are critical factors determining mineral fiber-associated health effects including cancer and as...

  14. The Fiber Optic Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Describes the fiber optics programs at the Career and Technical Center in Berlin, Pennsylvania and the Charles S. Monroe Technology Center in Loudoun County, Virginia. Discusses the involvement of the Fiber Optic Association with education, research and development, manufacturing, sales, distribution, installation, and maintenance of fiber optic…

  15. Fiber Nonlinearities: A Tutorial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govind P. Agrawal

    2003-01-01

    Fiber nonlinearities have long been regarded as being mostly harmful for fiber-optic communication systems. Over the last few years, however, the nonlinear effects are increasingly being used for practical telecommunications applications,the Raman amplification being only one of the recent examples. In this tutorial I review the vario us nonlinear effects occurring in optical fibers from both standpoints..

  16. Fiber Nonlinearities: A Tutorial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govind; P.; Agrawal

    2003-01-01

    Fiber nonlinearities have long been regarded as being mostly harmful for fiber-optic communication systems. Over the last few years, however, the nonlinear effects are increasingly being used for practical telecommunications applications, the Raman amplification being only one of the recent examples. In this tutorial I review the various nonlinear effects occurring in optical fibers from both standpoints..

  17. Influence of Elastane Consumption on Plated Plain Knitted Fabric Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Ben Abdessalem

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The requirements in terms of wearing comfort withsportswear underwear and outerwear are widelylinked to the use of elastane fibers. Today,elastomeric plated jersey fabric is one of the mostcommon fabrics produced with large-diametercircular knitting machine (LCKM. However, therelation between elastane proportion and fabriccharacteristics has not been enough studied inliterature and knitters generally use experienceduring machines adjustments in to order reachneeded fabric characteristics. The aim of this paperwas to investigate the relation between Lycra®consumption and fabric dimensional and elasticbehavior. The obtained results showed that Lycra®proportion inside fabric has an incidence on fabricwidth, weight and elasticity. The origin of thisbehaviour has been discussed.

  18. Iron and the endurance athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Pamela S

    2014-09-01

    Iron is a trace mineral that is highly significant to endurance athletes. Iron is critical to optimal athletic performance because of its role in energy metabolism, oxygen transport, and acid-base balance. Endurance athletes are at increased risk for suboptimal iron status, with potential negative consequences on performance, because of the combination of increased iron needs and inadequate dietary intake. This review paper summarizes the role of iron in maximal and submaximal exercise and describes the effects of iron deficiency on exercise performance. Mechanisms that explain the increased risk of iron deficiency in endurance athletes, including exercise-associated inflammation and hepcidin release on iron sequestration, are described. Information on screening athletes for iron deficiency is presented, and suggestions to increase iron intake through diet modification or supplemental iron are provided.

  19. Rhodium platings – experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rudolf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern rhodium plating solutions are based on either sulphate or phosphate. Although in theory there are four possible combinations, in practice only three different rhodium electrolytes are used. These are based on dilutions of rhodium sulphate or phosphate concentrates with added sulphuric or phosphoric acid. These processes are be discussed in this paper with a demonstration of Rh platings in the Slovenian firm Zlatarna Celje d.d.

  20. Parametric study on nonlinear vibration of composite truss core sandwich plate with internal resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jia Nen; Liu, Jun [Tianjin Key Laboratory of the Design and Intelligent Control of the Advanced Mechatronical System, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Wei; Yao, Ming Hui [College of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing (China); Sun, Min [School of Science, Tianjin Chengjian University, Tianjin (China)

    2016-09-15

    Nonlinear vibrations of carbon fiber reinforced composite sandwich plate with pyramidal truss core are investigated. The governing equation of motion for the sandwich plate is derived by using a Zig-Zag theory under consideration of geometrically nonlinear. The natural frequencies of sandwich plates with different dimensions are calculated and compared with those obtained from the classic laminated plate theory and Reddy's third-order shear deformation plate theory. The frequency responses and waveforms of the sandwich plate when 1:3 internal resonance occurs are obtained, and the characteristics of the internal resonance are discussed. The influences of layer number of face sheet, strut radius, core height and inclination angle on the nonlinear responses of the sandwich plate are analyzed. The results demonstrate that the strut radius and inclination angle mainly affect the resonance frequency band of the sandwich plate, and the layer number and core height not only influence the resonance frequency band but also significantly affect the response amplitude.