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Sample records for plateau stress level

  1. Medial tibial plateau morphology and stress fracture location: A magnetic resonance imaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Yukata, Kiminori; Yamanaka, Issei; Ueda, Yuzuru; Nakai, Sho; Ogasa, Hiroyoshi; Oishi, Yosuke; Hamawaki, Jun-ichi

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine the location of medial tibial plateau stress fractures and its relationship with tibial plateau morphology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS A retrospective review of patients with a diagnosis of stress fracture of the medial tibial plateau was performed for a 5-year period. Fourteen patients [three female and 11 male, with an average age of 36.4 years (range, 15-50 years)], who underwent knee MRI, were included. The appearance of the tibial plateau stress fract...

  2. Medial tibial plateau morphology and stress fracture location: A magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukata, Kiminori; Yamanaka, Issei; Ueda, Yuzuru; Nakai, Sho; Ogasa, Hiroyoshi; Oishi, Yosuke; Hamawaki, Jun-Ichi

    2017-06-18

    To determine the location of medial tibial plateau stress fractures and its relationship with tibial plateau morphology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A retrospective review of patients with a diagnosis of stress fracture of the medial tibial plateau was performed for a 5-year period. Fourteen patients [three female and 11 male, with an average age of 36.4 years (range, 15-50 years)], who underwent knee MRI, were included. The appearance of the tibial plateau stress fracture and the geometry of the tibial plateau were reviewed and measured on MRI. Thirteen of 14 stress fractures were linear, and one of them stellated on MRI images. The location of fractures was classified into three types. Three fractures were located anteromedially (AM type), six posteromedially (PM type), and five posteriorly (P type) at the medial tibial plateau. In addition, tibial posterior slope at the medial tibial plateau tended to be larger when the fracture was located more posteriorly on MRI. We found that MRI showed three different localizations of medial tibial plateau stress fractures, which were associated with tibial posterior slope at the medial tibial plateau.

  3. Extensional Seismogenic Stress and Tectonic Movement on the Central Region of the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiren Xu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Various earthquake fault types, mechanism solutions and stress fields, as well as GPS and geothermal data are analyzed for the study of the crustal movements on the Tibetan plateau and their tectonic implications. The results show that a lot of the normal faulting type-event concentrated at altitudes greater than 4000 m on the central Tibetan plateau. The altitudes concentrating normal faulting type-events can be zoned two parts: the western part, the Lhasa block, and the eastern part, the Qiangtang-Changdu region. The azimuths of T-axes are in a general E-W direction in the Lhasa block and NW-SE or NNW-SSE in the Qiangtang-Changdu region at the altitudes of the Tibetan plateau. The tensional stresses in E-W direction and NW-SE direction predominate normal faulting earthquake occurrence in the Lhasa block and the Qiangtang-Changdu region, respectively. The slipping displacements of the normal-faulting-type events have great components in near E-W direction and NW-SE direction in the Lhasa block and the Qiangtang-Changdu region, respectively. The extensions are probably an eastward or southeastward extensional motion, being mainly tectonic activity phenomena in the plateau altitudes. The extensional motions due to normal-fault earthquakes are important tectonic activity regimes on the high altitudes of the plateau. The easterly crustal extensions on the plateau are attributable to the gravitational collapse of the high plateau and eastward extrusion of hotter mantle materials beneath the eastern boundary of the plateau. Numbers of thrust-fault and strike-slip-fault earthquakes with strong compressive stress in a general NNE-SSW direction occur on the edges of the plateau.

  4. North-south patterning of millet agriculture on the Loess Plateau: Late Neolithic adaptations to water stress, NW China.

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    Sheng, P.; Shang, X.; Yang, L.; Jones, M.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract: Water availability and climatic condition profoundly affect agricultural system in different areas. The Loess Plateau, which lies on the marginal area of the East Asian monsoonal climatic zone, is one of the most ideal region to study the agricultural decision-making by ancient farm communities to adapt to different water stress level in same geographic region. Here we report new results of archaeobotanical research on the analysis of charred seeds from two late Neolithic sites on the northern Loess Plateau and review many contemporaneous archaeobotanical data recovered from the south and middle parts of the Loess Plateau. It is indicative of that common millet-based millet agriculture was developed in the arid northern Loess Plateau from the late Yangshao to Longshan periods (3000 1800 BC). Yet, there is a clear preference of foxtail millet farming with rice and wheat production as a supplement in the south and middle parts of the Loess Plateau during the same period. The north-south patterns of millet farming preferring by ancient farmers certainly promoted the social diversity and different evolutionary trajectories of human culture in both areas during the Mid-Late Holocene.

  5. Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee associated with tibial plateau and femoral condyle insufficiency stress fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez, J.A.; Narvaez, J.; Lama, E.De; Sanchez, A. [Department of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, IDI Hospital Duran i Reynals, Ciutat Sanitaria i Universitaria de Bellvitge, Gran Via s/n, 08907, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the association between spontaneous osteonecrosis and insufficiency stress fractures of the knee. To determine whether insufficiency stress fracture is associated with spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee, we retrospectively reviewed the medical charts and imaging studies of all patients with spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee, studied by MR imaging, seen in a tertiary hospital over an 8-year period. Four women (age range 66-84 years) presented spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee associated with insufficiency stress fracture of the medial tibial plateau. One of these patients also presented a concomitant insufficiency stress fracture of the medial femoral condyle. Radiographs were diagnostic of spontaneous osteonecrosis of the medial femoral condyle in three cases, and insufficiency stress fracture of the medial tibial plateau was detected in one case. Magnetic resonance imaging allows the diagnosis of both conditions in all four cases. Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee may be associated with insufficiency stress fracture of the medial femoral condyle and the medial tibial plateau. This association provides additional arguments in favor of the traumatic etiology of spontaneous osteonecrosis of knee. (orig.)

  6. Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee associated with tibial plateau and femoral condyle insufficiency stress fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaez, J.A.; Narvaez, J.; Lama, E.De; Sanchez, A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the association between spontaneous osteonecrosis and insufficiency stress fractures of the knee. To determine whether insufficiency stress fracture is associated with spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee, we retrospectively reviewed the medical charts and imaging studies of all patients with spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee, studied by MR imaging, seen in a tertiary hospital over an 8-year period. Four women (age range 66-84 years) presented spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee associated with insufficiency stress fracture of the medial tibial plateau. One of these patients also presented a concomitant insufficiency stress fracture of the medial femoral condyle. Radiographs were diagnostic of spontaneous osteonecrosis of the medial femoral condyle in three cases, and insufficiency stress fracture of the medial tibial plateau was detected in one case. Magnetic resonance imaging allows the diagnosis of both conditions in all four cases. Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee may be associated with insufficiency stress fracture of the medial femoral condyle and the medial tibial plateau. This association provides additional arguments in favor of the traumatic etiology of spontaneous osteonecrosis of knee. (orig.)

  7. Long-term complications following tibial plateau levelling osteotomy in small dogs with tibial plateau angles > 30°.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Rebekah; Danielski, Alan

    2018-04-21

    Tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) is commonly performed for surgical management of cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease. It has been suggested that small dogs may have steeper tibial plateau angles (TPAs) than large dogs, which has been associated with increased complication rates after TPLO. A retrospective study was performed to assess the rate and nature of long-term complications following TPLO in small dogs with TPAs>30°. Medical records were reviewed for dogs with TPAs>30° treated for CCL rupture by TPLO with a 2.0 mm plate over a five-year period. Radiographs were assessed to determine TPA, postoperative tibial tuberosity width and to identify any complication. Up-to-date medical records were obtained from the referring veterinary surgeon and any complications in the year after surgery were recorded. The effects of different variables on complication rate were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Minor complications were reported in 22.7 per cent of cases. This is similar to or lower than previously reported complication rates for osteotomy techniques in small dogs and dogs with steep TPAs. A smaller postoperative TPA was the only variable significantly associated with an increased complication rate. No major complications were identified. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Numerical Simulation of Stress evolution and earthquake sequence of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Peiyu; Hu, Caibo; Shi, Yaolin

    2015-04-01

    The India-Eurasia's collision produces N-S compression and results in large thrust fault in the southern edge of the Tibetan Plateau. Differential eastern flow of the lower crust of the plateau leads to large strike-slip faults and normal faults within the plateau. From 1904 to 2014, more than 30 earthquakes of Mw > 6.5 occurred sequentially in this distinctive tectonic environment. How did the stresses evolve during the last 110 years, how did the earthquakes interact with each other? Can this knowledge help us to forecast the future seismic hazards? In this essay, we tried to simulate the evolution of the stress field and the earthquake sequence in the Tibetan plateau within the last 110 years with a 2-D finite element model. Given an initial state of stress, the boundary condition was constrained by the present-day GPS observation, which was assumed as a constant rate during the 110 years. We calculated stress evolution year by year, and earthquake would occur if stress exceed the crustal strength. Stress changes due to each large earthquake in the sequence was calculated and contributed to the stress evolution. A key issue is the choice of initial stress state of the modeling, which is actually unknown. Usually, in the study of earthquake triggering, people assume the initial stress is zero, and only calculate the stress changes by large earthquakes - the Coulomb failure stress changes (Δ CFS). To some extent, this simplified method is a powerful tool because it can reveal which fault or which part of a fault becomes more risky or safer relatively. Nonetheless, it has not utilized all information available to us. The earthquake sequence reveals, though far from complete, some information about the stress state in the region. If the entire region is close to a self-organized critical or subcritical state, earthquake stress drop provides an estimate of lower limit of initial state. For locations no earthquakes occurred during the period, initial stress has to be

  9. The draft genome of Tibetan hulless barley reveals adaptive patterns to the high stressful Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xingquan; Long, Hai; Wang, Zhuo; Zhao, Shancen; Tang, Yawei; Huang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yulin; Xu, Qijun; Mao, Likai; Deng, Guangbing; Yao, Xiaoming; Li, Xiangfeng; Bai, Lijun; Yuan, Hongjun; Pan, Zhifen; Liu, Renjian; Chen, Xin; WangMu, QiMei; Chen, Ming; Yu, Lili; Liang, Junjun; DunZhu, DaWa; Zheng, Yuan; Yu, Shuiyang; LuoBu, ZhaXi; Guang, Xuanmin; Li, Jiang; Deng, Cao; Hu, Wushu; Chen, Chunhai; TaBa, XiongNu; Gao, Liyun; Lv, Xiaodan; Abu, Yuval Ben; Fang, Xiaodong; Nevo, Eviatar; Yu, Maoqun; Wang, Jun; Tashi, Nyima

    2015-01-27

    The Tibetan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum), also called "Qingke" in Chinese and "Ne" in Tibetan, is the staple food for Tibetans and an important livestock feed in the Tibetan Plateau. The diploid nature and adaptation to diverse environments of the highland give it unique resources for genetic research and crop improvement. Here we produced a 3.89-Gb draft assembly of Tibetan hulless barley with 36,151 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative analyses revealed the divergence times and synteny between barley and other representative Poaceae genomes. The expansion of the gene family related to stress responses was found in Tibetan hulless barley. Resequencing of 10 barley accessions uncovered high levels of genetic variation in Tibetan wild barley and genetic divergence between Tibetan and non-Tibetan barley genomes. Selective sweep analyses demonstrate adaptive correlations of genes under selection with extensive environmental variables. Our results not only construct a genomic framework for crop improvement but also provide evolutionary insights of highland adaptation of Tibetan hulless barley.

  10. San Luis Valley - Taos Plateau Landscape-Level Cultural Heritage Values and Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wescott, Konstance L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Abplanalp, Jennifer M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brown, Jeff [Bureau of Land Management, Monte Vista, CO (United States); Cantwell, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dicks, Merrill [Bureau of Land Management, Taos, NM (United States); Fredericks, Brian [Bureau of Land Management, Monte Vista, CO (United States); Krall, Angie [US Forest Service, Creede, CO (United States); Rollins, Katherine E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, Robert [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Valdez, Arnie [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Verhaaren, Bruce [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vieira, Joseph [Bureau of Land Management, Monte Vista, CO (United States); Walston, Lee [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zvolanek, Emily A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The San Luis Valley – Taos Plateau Landscape-Level Cultural Heritage Values and Risk Assessment (hereafter referred to as cultural assessment) is a BLM pilot project designed to see whether the Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) framework (already established and implemented throughout many ecoregions in the West) can be applied to the cultural environment.

  11. Radiographic quantitative assessment of cranial tibial subluxation before and after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Stanley E; Lewis, Daniel D; Pozzi, Antonio; Seibert, Rachel L; Winter, Matthew D

    2011-03-01

    To determine the influence of stifle joint flexion angle, cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) integrity, tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO), and cranial tibial subluxation on the distance between the location of the origin and insertion of the CrCL (CrCL(d)) in dogs. 4 pairs of pelvic limbs from adult dog cadavers weighing 23 to 34 kg. Procedures-Mediolateral projection radiographs of each stifle joint were obtained with the joint flexed at 90°, 105°, 120°, 135°, and 150°. Radiopaque markers were then placed at the sites of origin and insertion of the CrCL. Afterward, radiography was repeated in the same manner, before and after CrCL transection, with and without TPLO. Following CrCL transection, radiographs were obtained before and after inducing overt cranial tibial subluxation. Interobserver variation in measuring the CrCL(d) without fiduciary markers was assessed. The effect of CrCL integrity, cranial tibial subluxation, flexion angle, and TPLO on CrCL(d) was also determined. Interobserver agreement was strong, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.859. The CrCL(d) was significantly shorter (Cranial tibial subluxation caused a 25% to 40% increase in CrCL(d). No effect of TPLO on CrCL(d) was found, regardless of CrCL integrity, forced stifle joint subluxation, or flexion angle. Overt cranial tibial subluxation in CrCL-deficient stifle joints can be detected on mediolateral projection radiographs by comparing CrCL(d) on neutral and stressed joint radiographs at joint angles between 105° and 150°, regardless of whether a TPLO has been performed.

  12. The effect of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy position on cranial tibial subluxation: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowaleski, Michael P; Apelt, Detlef; Mattoon, John S; Litsky, Alan S

    2005-01-01

    To compare centered versus distal tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) position on cranial tibial subluxation, postoperative tibial plateau angle (TPA), and tibial long axis shift (TLAS). In vitro biomechanical evaluation. Six pairs of canine cadaveric hind limbs. One limb of each pair was randomly assigned to the distal (TPLO-D) or centered (TPLO-C) osteotomy group. Cranial tibial subluxation (CTS) under load was quantified sequentially under 3 conditions: intact, after cranial cruciate ligament transection, and after TPLO; a corrected CTS value was also calculated. Postoperative TPA and TLAS were measured. Comparisons were made using 1-way repeated measures ANOVA with a Tukey's multiple comparison post hoc test for CTS, and a Wilcoxon's sign rank test for TPA and TLAS. Significance was set at Pcranial tibial thrust. The centered osteotomy position is geometrically more precise, and biomechanically more effective than the distal position.

  13. Photochemical modelling of photo-oxidant levels over the Swiss plateau and emission reduction scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosselet, C.M.; Kerr, J.A.

    1993-05-01

    During summertime high pressure conditions, high photo-oxidant (O 3 , H 2 O 2 , PAN and others) levels are frequently observed in the planetary boundary layer in central Europe. It is well known that close to the earth's surface ozone is formed by complex reactions involving VOC, NO x , and sunlight. Substantial reductions of both precursors are needed to reduce photo-oxidant levels. In this context the reductions of the abundance of the precursors and the variation of their ratios is of great importance. Here we report model calculations from the Harwell Photochemical Trajectory Model of the levels of O 3 , H 2 O 2 and PAN along a trajectory over the Swiss Plateau from Lake Constance to Lake Geneva. These calculations are in satisfactory agreement with measurements made during the intensive observation period of the research program POLLUMET (Pollution and Meteorology in Switzerland). Sensitivity calculations of emission reduction scenarios indicate that on the Swiss Plateau the ozone production may be mainly NO x -limited; under conditions where the CO levels are closer to the upper limit within the range (120-600 ppbv). The calculated peak ozone level reduction caused by an exclusive NO x -emission reduction is about three times larger than that caused by an exclusive VOC reduction. The combined reduction of all precursor compounds is the most efficient strategy, although it is only marginally more efficient than the NO x -reduction scenario alone. (author) figs., tabs., 75 refs

  14. Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee associated with ipsilateral tibial plateau stress fracture: report of two patients and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokoloff, R.M.; Farooki, S.; Resnick, D.

    2001-01-01

    Two cases are presented of spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SONK) associated with stress fractures of the tibial plateau. This association lends further credence to the postulate that SONK has a traumatic etiology. (orig.)

  15. Effects of water level on three wetlands soil seed banks on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaojun Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the effect of water level on germination in soil seed banks has been documented in many ecosystems, the mechanism is not fully understood, and to date no empirical studies on this subject exist. Further, no work has been done on the effect of water level on seed banks of drying and saline-alkaline wetlands in alpine areas on the Tibetan Plateau. METHODOLOGY: We examined the effects of water level (0 cm, 5 cm and 10 cm on seed germination and seedling establishment from soil seed banks at 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm depths in typical, drying, and saline-alkaline wetlands. We also explore the potential role of soil seed bank in restoration of drying and saline-alkaline wetlands. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Species richness decreased with increase in water level, but there almost no change in seed density. A huge difference exists in species composition of the seed bank among different water levels in all three wetlands, especially between 0 cm and 5 cm and 0 cm and 10 cm. Similarity of species composition between seed bank and plant community was higher in 0 cm water level in drying wetland than in the other two wetlands. The similarity was much higher in 0 cm water level than in 5 cm and 10 cm water levels in all three wetlands. Species composition of the alpine wetland plant community changed significantly after drying and salinization, however, species composition of the seed bank was unchanged regardless of the environment change. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Water level greatly affects seed bank recruitment and plant community establishment. Further, different water levels in restored habitats are likely to determine its species composition of the plant community. The seed bank is important in restoration of degraded wetlands. Successful restoration of drying and salinization wetlands could depend on the seed bank.

  16. On magma fragmentation by conduit shear stress: Evidence from the Kos Plateau Tuff, Aegean Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Danilo M.; Simei, Silvia; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos

    2008-12-01

    Large silicic explosive eruptions are the most catastrophic volcanic events. Yet, the intratelluric mechanisms underlying are not fully understood. Here we report a field and laboratory study of the Kos Plateau Tuff (KPT, 161 ka, Aegean Volcanic Arc), which provides an excellent geological example of conduit processes that control magma vesiculation and fragmentation during intermediate- to large-scale caldera-forming eruptions. A prominent feature of the KPT is the occurrence of quite unusual platy-shaped tube pumice clasts in pyroclastic fall and current deposits from the early eruption phases preceding caldera collapse. On macroscopic and SEM observations, flat clast faces are elongated parallel to tube vesicles, while transverse surfaces often occur at ~ 45° to vesicle elongation. This peculiar pumice texture provides evidence of high shear stresses related to strong velocity gradients normal to conduit walls, which induced vesiculation and fragmentation of the ascending magma. Either an increasing mass discharge rate without adequate enlargement of a narrow central feeder conduit or a developing fissure-like feeder system related to incipient caldera collapse provided suitable conditions for the generation of plate tube pumice within magma volumes under high shear during the pre-climactic KPT eruption phases. This mechanism implies that the closer to the conduit walls (where the stronger are the velocity gradients) the larger was the proportion of plate vs. conventional (lensoid) juvenile fragments in the ascending gas-pyroclast mixture. Consequently, plate pumice clasts were mainly entrained in the outer portions of the jet and convecting regions of a sustained, Plinian-type, eruption column, as well as in occasional lateral blast currents generated at the vent. As a whole, plate pumice clasts in the peripheral portions of the column were transported at lower altitudes and deposited by fallout or partial collapse closer to the vent relative to lensoid ones

  17. The plateau zokors' learning and memory ability is related to the high expression levels of foxP2 in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ben-Yuan; Wei, Lian; Sun, Sheng-Zhen; Wang, Duo-Wei; Wei, Deng-Bang

    2014-04-25

    Plateau zokor (Myospalax baileyi) is a subterranean mammal. Plateau zokor has high learning and memory ability, and can determine the location of blocking obstacles in their tunnels. Forkhead box p2 (FOXP2) is a transcription factor implicated in the neural control of orofacial coordination and sensory-motor integration, particularly with respect to learning, memory and vocalization. To explore the association of foxP2 with the high learning and memory ability of plateau zokor, the cDNA of foxP2 of plateau zokor was sequenced; by using plateau pika as control, the expression levels of foxP2 mRNA and FOXP2 protein in brain of plateau zokor were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively; and the location of FOXP2 protein in the brain of plateau zokor was determined by immunohistochemistry. The result showed that the cDNA sequence of plateau zokor foxP2 was similar to that of other mammals and the amino acid sequences showed a relatively high degree of conservation, with the exception of two particular amino acid substitutions [a Gln (Q)-to-His (H) change at position 231 and a Ser (S)-to-Ile (I) change at position 235]. Higher expression levels of foxP2 mRNA (3-fold higher) and FOXP2 protein (>2-fold higher) were detected in plateau zokor brain relative to plateau pika brain. In plateau zokor brain, FOXP2 protein was highly expressed in the cerebral cortex, thalamus and the striatum (a basal ganglia brain region). The results suggest that the high learning and memory ability of plateau zokor is related to the high expression levels of foxP2 in the brain.

  18. Addendum to Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Marcel P.; Freeman, Eugene J.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Kincaid, Charles T.; Coony, Mike M.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Eslinger, Paul W.

    2001-09-28

    This report summarizes efforts to complete an addendum analysis to the first iteration of the Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site (Composite Analysis). This document describes the background and performance objectives of the Composite Analysis and this addendum analysis. The methods used, results, and conclusions for this Addendum analysis are summarized, and recommendations are made for work to be undertaken in anticipation of a second analysis.

  19. Generalizing ecological site concepts of the Colorado Plateau for landscape-level applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Colorado Plateau is an iconic landscape of the American West— containing dozens of national parks, monuments, historic sites, and several UNESCO World Heritage Sites— including some of the Nation’ s most recognizable landmarks, such as the Grand Canyon and the Arches National Park. The concentra...

  20. Preoperative low level laser therapy in dogs undergoing tibial plateau levelling osteotomy: A blinded, prospective, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogatko, Cleo P; Baltzer, Wendy I; Tennant, Rachel

    2017-01-16

    To evaluate the influence of preoperative low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on therapeutic outcomes of dogs undergoing tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO). Healthy dogs undergoing TPLO were randomly assigned to receive either a single preoperative LLLT treatment (800-900 nm dual wavelength, 6 W, 3.5 J/cm 2 , 100 cm 2 area) or a sham treatment. Lameness assessment and response to manipulation, as well as force plate analysis, were performed preoperatively, then again at 24 hours, two weeks, and eight weeks postoperatively. Radiographic signs of healing of the osteo-tomy were assessed at eight weeks postoperatively. Twenty-seven dogs (27 stifles) were included and no major complications occurred. At eight weeks postoperatively, a significant difference in peak vertical force analysis was noted between the LLLT (39.6% ± 4.7%) and sham groups (28.9% ± 2.6%), (p dogs in the LLLT group (6.6 ± 1.6 years) was greater than that for the sham group (4.5 ± 2.0, p dogs (5/8) had healed at the eight-week time point than in the sham group (3/12) despite the age difference (p = 0.11) Clinical significance: The results of this study demonstrate that improved peak vertical force could be related to the preoperative use of LLLT for dogs undergoing TPLO at eight weeks postoperatively. The use of LLLT may improve postoperative return to function following canine osteotomies and its use is recommended.

  1. Changing stress levels through gaining information on stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Madu

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this research was to find out the effect of the Information Phase of a Stress Management Program (SMP on the perceptions of participants about their stress levels. Method: A total sample of 100 workers (nursing staff, private business men and women, laboratory assistants, the protective services [foreman and security staff], as well as people in human resources departments took part in this study. All the participants were from the Northern and Gauteng Provinces in South Africa. The Combined Hassles and Uplifts Scale (Folkman & Lazarus, 1989 was used as an instrument to measure the perceived stress level of participants in a SMP. Result: A significant reduction in stress levels was achieved among those who received the Information Phase of the SMP only, as well as those who received the whole stress management techniques. There was no significant difference between the amount of reduction in perceived stress-levels achieved among those that received the Information Phase of the SMP only, compared to that of those who received the whole techniques. Conclusion: The authors conclude that where the resources are limited, only the information phase of a SMP may be given to desiring clients. That should help to save time and money spent on participating in SMPs. This should however not discourage the use of the whole SPM, where affordable. Keywords: Stress Management Programs, Information Phase, Perception, Stress Level.

  2. Generalizing ecological site concepts of the Colorado Plateau for landscape-level applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duniway, Michael C.; Nauman, Travis; Johanson, Jamin K.; Green, Shane; Miller, Mark E.; Bestelmeyer, Brandon T.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous ecological site descriptions in the southern Utah portion of the Colorado Plateau can be difficult to navigate, so we held a workshop aimed at adding value and functionality to the current ecological site system.We created new groups of ecological sites and drafted state-and-transition models for these new groups.We were able to distill the current large number of ecological sites in the study area (ca. 150) into eight ecological site groups that capture important variability in ecosystem dynamics.Several inventory and monitoring programs and landscape scale planning actions will likely benefit from more generalized ecological site group concepts.

  3. Composite analysis for low-level waste disposal in the 200 area plateau of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kincaid, C.T.; Bergeron, M.P.; Cole, C.R.

    1998-03-01

    This report presents the first iteration of the Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site (Composite Analysis) prepared in response to the U.S. Department of Energy Implementation Plan for the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 94-2. The Composite Analysis is a companion document to published analyses of four active or planned low-level waste disposal actions: the solid waste burial grounds in the 200 West Area, the solid waste burial grounds in the 200 East Area, the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility, and the disposal facilities for immobilized low-activity waste. A single Composite Analysis was prepared for the Hanford Site considering only sources on the 200 Area Plateau. The performance objectives prescribed in U.S. Department of Energy guidance for the Composite Analysis were 100 mrem in a year and examination of a lower dose (30 mrem in a year) to ensure the open-quotes as low as reasonably achievableclose quotes concept is followed. The 100 mrem in a year limit was the maximum allowable all-pathways dose for 1000 years following Hanford Site closure, which is assumed to occur in 2050. These performance objectives apply to an accessible environment defined as the area between a buffer zone surrounding an exclusive waste management area on the 200 Area Plateau, and the Columbia River. Estimating doses to hypothetical future members of the public for the Composite Analysis was a multistep process involving the estimation or simulation of inventories; waste release to the environment; migration through the vadose zone, groundwater, and atmospheric pathways; and exposure and dose. Doses were estimated for scenarios based on agriculture, residential, industrial, and recreational land use. The radionuclides included in the vadose zone and groundwater pathway analyses of future releases were carbon-14, chlorine-36, selenium-79, technetium-99, iodine-129, and uranium isotopes

  4. Composite analysis for low-level waste disposal in the 200 area plateau of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kincaid, C.T.; Bergeron, M.P.; Cole, C.R. [and others

    1998-03-01

    This report presents the first iteration of the Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site (Composite Analysis) prepared in response to the U.S. Department of Energy Implementation Plan for the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 94-2. The Composite Analysis is a companion document to published analyses of four active or planned low-level waste disposal actions: the solid waste burial grounds in the 200 West Area, the solid waste burial grounds in the 200 East Area, the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility, and the disposal facilities for immobilized low-activity waste. A single Composite Analysis was prepared for the Hanford Site considering only sources on the 200 Area Plateau. The performance objectives prescribed in U.S. Department of Energy guidance for the Composite Analysis were 100 mrem in a year and examination of a lower dose (30 mrem in a year) to ensure the {open_quotes}as low as reasonably achievable{close_quotes} concept is followed. The 100 mrem in a year limit was the maximum allowable all-pathways dose for 1000 years following Hanford Site closure, which is assumed to occur in 2050. These performance objectives apply to an accessible environment defined as the area between a buffer zone surrounding an exclusive waste management area on the 200 Area Plateau, and the Columbia River. Estimating doses to hypothetical future members of the public for the Composite Analysis was a multistep process involving the estimation or simulation of inventories; waste release to the environment; migration through the vadose zone, groundwater, and atmospheric pathways; and exposure and dose. Doses were estimated for scenarios based on agriculture, residential, industrial, and recreational land use. The radionuclides included in the vadose zone and groundwater pathway analyses of future releases were carbon-14, chlorine-36, selenium-79, technetium-99, iodine-129, and uranium isotopes.

  5. Music class lower students' stress level

    OpenAIRE

    服部, 安里; 豊島, 久美子; 福井, 一

    2015-01-01

    This study has researched on psychological and steroid hormonal effect upon junior-high school students through school music lesson: 1. Music listening, 2. Choir singing. The result showed a significant decrease in cortisol. The study also had conducted a survey about participants' musical preference and their stress level (STAIC – II), which resulted that higher the stress level, more musical activity was willingly conducted. These outcomes suggest that school music lessons can lessen stude...

  6. Randomised controlled clinical trial for the use of deracoxib during intense rehabilitation exercises after tibial plateau levelling osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Evans, W J; Dunning, D; Johnson, A L; Knap, K E

    2010-01-01

    During intense physical exercise, the cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathway is upregulated which contributes to soreness. The aim of this study was to determine if there was a clinical affect of deracoxib (COX-2 selective antagonist) on dogs engaged in intense rehabilitation following tibial plateau levelling osteotomy for cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Our hypothesis was that dogs receiving deracoxib would demonstrate less lameness, better range-of-motion (ROM), and faster muscle mass recovery than the control dogs. Thirty dogs were randomised to the treatment (deracoxib at 1-2 mg/kg once daily by mouth) or control (no treatment) group. Outcomes including gait analysis, thigh circumference, and goniometry, were measured by one investigator, who was masked to group preoperatively, and at the end of each intense rehabilitation week (3, 5, and 7 weeks postoperatively). The only difference between groups for any outcome measure at any time point was a greater preoperative stifle ROM in the group receiving deracoxib (p = 0.04). This study showed that treatment with deracoxib did not provide better outcomes when dogs were subjected to intense rehabilitation after tibial plateau levelling osteotomy. Each patient should be evaluated individually to determine if administration of deracoxib is appropriate.

  7. Levels and spatial distributions of levoglucosan and dissolved organic carbon in snowpits over the Tibetan Plateau glaciers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanlian; Wang, Ninglian; Barbante, Carlo; Kang, Shichang; Yao, Ping; Wan, Xin; Barbaro, Elena; Del Carmen Villoslada Hidalgo, Maria; Gambaro, Andrea; Li, Chaoliu; Niu, Hewen; Dong, Zhiwen; Wu, Xiaobo

    2018-01-15

    In this study, we collected 60 snowpit samples in nine glaciers from the northern to the southern Tibetan Plateau (TP), to study the levels and spatial distributions of levoglucosan and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The lowest concentration of levoglucosan was found in the Yuzhufeng (YZF) glacier with a mean value of 0.24±0.08ngmL -1 , while the highest concentration of levoglucosan was detected in the Gurenhekou (GRHK) glacier with a mean value of 11.72±15.61ngmL -1 . However, the average DOC concentration in TP glaciers were comparable, without significant regional differences. The levoglucosan/DOC ratio ranged from 0.02 to 6.03% in the Tibetan Plateau glaciers. This ratios and the correlations between levoglucosan and DOC suggested that biomass burning products contributed only marginally to DOC levels in the TP glaciers. Moreover, the analysis of air mass backward trajectories suggested that levoglucosan and DOC in TP glaciers should be transported from the northwestern TP, internal TP, Central Asia, South and East Asia regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Stress amongst middle level managers in schools

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Ed. (Psychology of Education) This research study originated from the belief that teachers in general, and secondary school teachers in particular, are under an inordinate amount of stress brought about largely as a result of their work as teachers and educators. Moving from that basic premise the research unfolded towards exploring at both theoretical and empirical level, the major causes and management of stress in education within a South African educational context. The study starts ...

  9. Stress analysis of the tibial plateau according to the difference of blade path entry in opening wedge high tibial osteotomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Woo; Xin, YuanZhu; Yang, Seok Jo [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ji, Jong Hun; Panchal, Karnav; Kwon, Oh Soo [The Catholic University of Korea, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    High tibial osteotomy (HTO) has been used to successfully treat patients with genu varus deformities that can improve mechanical function and condition in the knee joint. Clinical studies have reported that bow legs often occur with a concentrated load on the varus of the tibia. This study aimed to analyze and verify the clinical test data result by utilizing the three-dimensional (3D) static finite element method (FEM). The 3D model of lower extremities, which include the femur, tibia, meniscus, and knee articular cartilage, was created using the images from a computer tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging. In this report, we compared changes in stress distribution and force reaction on the tibial plateau because of critical problems caused by unexpected changes in the tibial posterior-slope angle because of HTO. The results showed that the 5 .deg. wedge-angle virtual opening wedge HTO without and with the posterior-slope angle shows has a load concentration of approximately 60% and 45% in the medial region, respectively.

  10. Stress and stability of plate-screw fixation and screw fixation in the treatment of Schatzker type IV medial tibial plateau fracture: a comparative finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaowei; Zhi, Zhongzheng; Yu, Baoqing; Chen, Fancheng

    2015-11-25

    The purpose of this study is to compare the stress and stability of plate-screw fixation and screw fixation in the treatment of Schatzker type IV medial tibial plateau fracture. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the medial tibial plateau fracture (Schatzker type IV fracture) was created. An axial force of 2500 N with a distribution of 60% to the medial compartment was applied to simulate the axial compressive load on an adult knee during single-limb stance. The equivalent von Mises stress, displacement of the model relative to the distal tibia, and displacement of the implants were used as the output measures. The mean stress value of the plate-screw fixation system was 18.78 MPa, which was significantly (P stress value of the triangular fragment in the plate-screw fixation system model was 42.04 MPa, which was higher than that in the screw fixation model (24.18 MPa). But the mean stress of the triangular fractured fragment in the screw fixation model was significantly higher in terms of equivalent von Mises stress (EVMS), x-axis, and z-axis (P < 0.001). This study demonstrated that the load transmission mechanism between plate-screw fixation system and screw fixation system was different and the stability provided by the plate-screw fixation system was superior to the screw fixation system.

  11. Glove perforation rate with orthopedic gloving versus double gloving technique in tibial plateau leveling osteotomy: A randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeler, Kimberly; Stephenson, Nicole; Stanke, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    In this randomized, prospective study, perforation rates, glove change rates, and cost between orthopedic gloves (n = 227) and double gloving with standard latex surgical gloves (n = 178) worn in tibial plateau leveling osteotomy procedures were compared. Gloves were collected from the surgeon and surgical resident after procedures and were tested for perforations with a standardized water leak test, as described by the American Society for Testing and Materials International. No statistically significant difference was found between the perforation rate using orthopedic gloving and double gloving techniques (P = 0.629) or the rate at which gloves were changed (P = 0.146). Orthopedic gloving was 2.1 times more costly than double gloving but they may be preferred by surgeons for dexterity and comfort. PMID:27807378

  12. Tibial Plateau Fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsøe, Rasmus

    This PhD thesis reported an incidence of tibial plateau fractures of 10.3/100,000/year in a complete Danish regional population. The results reported that patients treated for a lateral tibial plateau fracture with bone tamp reduction and percutaneous screw fixation achieved a satisfactory level...... with only the subgroup Sport significantly below the age matched reference population. The thesis reports a level of health related quality of life (Eq5d) and disability (KOOS) significantly below established reference populations for patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fracture treated with a ring...... fixator, both during treatment and at 19 months following injury. In general, the thesis demonstrates that the treatment of tibial plateau fractures are challenging and that some disabilities following these fractures must be expected. Moreover, the need for further research in the area, both with regard...

  13. Contemporary Surface Seasonal Oscillation and Vertical Deformation in Tibetan Plateau and Nepal Derived from the GPS, Leveling and GRACE Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, W.; Pan, Y.; Hwang, C.; Ding, H.

    2015-12-01

    We use 168 Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) stations distributed in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and Nepal from lengths of 2.5 to 14 years to estimate the present-day velocity field in this area, including the horizontal and vertical deformations under the frame ITRF2008. We estimate and remove common mode errors in regional GPS time series using the principal component analysis (PCA), obtaining a time series with high signal to noise ratio. Following the maximum estimation analysis, a power law plus white noise stochastic model are adopted to estimate the velocity field. The highlight of Tibetan region is the crust vertical deformation. GPS vertical time series present seasonal oscillations caused by temporal mass loads, hence GRACE data from CSR are used to study the mass loads change. After removing the mass load deformations from GPS vertical rates, the results are improved. Leveling data about 48 years in this region are also used to estimate the rates of vertical movements. Our study suggests that the boundary of south Nepal is still sinking due to the fact that the India plate is crashing into the Eurasian plate. The uplift rates from south to north of TP reduce gradually. Himalayas region and north Nepal uplift around 6 mm/yr in average. The uplift rate along East TP in Qinhai is around 2.7 mm/yr in average. In contrast, the southeast of Tibetan Plateau, south Yunnan and Tarim in Xinjiang sink with different magnitudes. Our observation results suggest complicated mechanism of the mass migration in TP. This study is supported by National 973 Project China (grant Nos. 2013CB733302 and 2013CB733305), NSFC (grant Nos. 41174011, 41429401, 41210006, 41128003, 41021061).

  14. Canine stifle joint biomechanics associated with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy predicted by use of a computer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nathan P; Bertocci, Gina E; Marcellin-Little, Denis J

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate effects of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) on canine stifle joint biomechanics in a cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient stifle joint by use of a 3-D computer model simulating the stance phase of gait and to compare biomechanics in TPLO-managed, CrCL-intact, and CrCL-deficient stifle joints. Computer simulations of the pelvic limb of a Golden Retriever. A previously developed computer model of the canine pelvic limb was used to simulate TPLO stabilization to achieve a tibial plateau angle (TPA) of 5° (baseline value) in a CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for tibial fragment rotation of 13° to -3°. Ligament loads, relative tibial translation, and relative tibial rotation were determined and compared with values for CrCL-intact and CrCL-deficient stifle joints. TPLO with a 5° TPA converted cranial tibial translation to caudal tibial translation and increased loads placed on the remaining stifle joint ligaments, compared with results for a CrCL-intact stifle joint. Lateral collateral ligament load was similar, medial collateral ligament load increased, and caudal cruciate ligament load decreased after TPLO, compared with loads for a CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Relative tibial rotation after TPLO was similar to that of a CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Stifle joint biomechanics were affected by TPLO fragment rotation. In the model, stifle joint biomechanics were partially improved after TPLO, compared with CrCL-deficient stifle joint biomechanics, but TPLO did not fully restore CrCL-intact stifle joint biomechanics. Overrotation of the tibial fragment negatively influenced stifle joint biomechanics by increasing caudal tibial translation.

  15. Work related stress and blood glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancini, A; Ricci, S; Tomei, F; Sacco, C; Pacchiarotti, A; Nardone, N; Ricci, P; Suppi, A; De Cesare, D P; Anzelmo, V; Giubilati, R; Pimpinella, B; Rosati, M V; Tomei, G

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate work-related subjective stress in a group of workers on a major Italian company in the field of healthcare through the administration of a valid "questionnaire-tool indicator" (HSE Indicator Tool), and to analyze any correlation between stress levels taken from questionnaire scores and blood glucose values. We studied a final sample consisting of 241 subjects with different tasks. The HSE questionnaire - made up of 35 items (divided into 7 organizational dimensions) with 5 possible answers - has been distributed to all the subjects in occasion of the health surveillance examinations provided by law. The questionnaire was then analyzed using its specific software to process the results related to the 7 dimensions. These results were compared using the Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression with the blood glucose values obtained from each subject. From the analysis of the data the following areas resulted critical, in other words linked to an intermediate (yellow area) or high (red area) condition of stress: sustain from managers, sustain from colleagues, quality of relationships and professional changes. A significant positive correlation (p work stress can be statistically associated with increased levels of blood glucose.

  16. Current deformation in the Tibetan Plateau: a stress gauge in the large-scale India-Asia collision tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, F. A.

    2017-12-01

    The quantification of the exact tectonic forces budget on Earth has remained thus far elusive. Geodetic velocities provide relevant constraints on the current dynamics of the coupling between collision and continental tectonics, however in the Tibetan plateau these support contrasting, non-unique models. Here, we compare numerical models of coupled India-Asia plate convergence, collision and continent interiors tectonics to the geodetically-constrained motions in the Tibetan Plateau to provide a quantitative assessment of the driving forces of plate tectonics in the area. The models develop a range of long-term evolutions remarkably similar to the Asian tectonics in the Cenozoic, reproducing the current large-scale motions pattern under a range of conditions. Balancing the convergent margin forces, following subduction, and the far-field forcing along the trail of the subducting continent, the geodetic rates in the Tibetan Plateau can be matched. The comparisons support the discussion on the likely processes at work, allowing inferences on the drivers of plateau formation and its role on the plate margin-interiors tectonics. More in general, the outcomes highlight the unique role of the Tibetan Plateau as a pressure gauge for the tectonic forces on Earth.

  17. The changes of plasma adrenomedullin level in Han and tibetan health adult men in plateau area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shaolin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the changes and clinical significance of plasma adrenomedullin in Han and Tibetan health adult men at the state of chronic hypoxia. The Han health adult who migrated and lived above sea level 4200 meter for 1∼3 years and the native Tibetan were involved in this study. The plasma adrenomedullin levels in both Han and Tibetan health adult men were measured by RIA. The results showed that the plasma adrenomedullin levels of native Tibetan were significantly higher than that of migrated Han worker (P<0.05). The plasma adrenomedullin might play a regulatory role on the physiological function in the health adult men who live in high altitude hypoxic state. (authors)

  18. Comparison of lateral fabellar suture and tibial plateau leveling osteotomy techniques for treatment of dogs with cranial cruciate ligament disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Evans, Wanda J; Griffon, Dominique J; Bubb, Carrie; Knap, Kim M; Sullivan, Meghan; Evans, Richard B

    2013-09-01

    To compare 1-year outcomes after lateral fabellar suture stabilization (LFS) and tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) for the treatment of dogs with cranial cruciate ligament disease. Randomized blinded controlled clinical trial. 80 dogs with naturally occurring unilateral cranial cruciate ligament disease. All dogs were randomly assigned to undergo LFS (n = 40) or TPLO (40). Clinical data collected included age, weight, body condition score, history information, stifle joint instability, radiographic findings, surgical findings, and complications. Outcome measures were determined prior to surgery and at 6 and 12 weeks and 6 and 12 months after surgery, including values of pressure platform gait analysis variables, Canine Brief Pain Inventory scores, owner satisfaction ratings, thigh circumference, and stifle joint goniometry values. Signalment and data for possible confounding variables were similar between groups. Peak vertical force of affected hind limbs at a walk and trot was 5% to 11% higher for dogs in the TPLO group versus those in the LFS group during the 12 months after surgery. Canine Brief Pain Inventory, goniometry, and thigh circumference results indicated dogs in both groups improved after surgery, but significant differences between groups were not detected. Owner satisfaction ratings at 12 months after surgery were significantly different between groups; 93% and 75% of owners of dogs in the TPLO and LFS groups indicated a satisfaction score ≥ 9 (scale, 1 to 10), respectively. Kinematic and owner satisfaction results indicated dogs that underwent TPLO had better outcomes than those that underwent LFS.

  19. Clinical efficacy of hydrocodone-acetaminophen and tramadol for control of postoperative pain in dogs following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Marian E; Roush, James K; McMurphy, Rose; KuKanich, Butch; Legallet, Claire

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate clinical efficacy of hydrocodone-acetaminophen and tramadol for treatment of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). ANIMALS 50 client-owned dogs. Standardized anesthetic and surgical protocols were followed. Each patient was randomly assigned to receive either tramadol hydrochloride (5 to 7 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h; tramadol group) or hydrocodone bitartrate-acetaminophen (0.5 to 0.6 mg of hydrocodone/kg, PO, q 8 h; hydrocodone group) for analgesia after surgery. The modified Glasgow composite measure pain scale was used to assess signs of postoperative pain at predetermined intervals by an investigator who was blinded to treatment group. Scoring commenced with the second dose of the assigned study analgesic. Pain scores and rates of treatment failure (ie, dogs requiring rescue analgesia according to a predetermined protocol) were compared statistically between groups. 12 of 42 (29%; 5/19 in the hydrocodone-acetaminophen group and 7/23 in the tramadol group) dogs required rescue analgesic treatment on the basis of pain scores. Median pain score for the hydrocodone group was significantly lower than that of the tramadol group 2 hours after the second dose of study analgesic. The 2 groups had similar pain scores at all other time points. Overall, differences in pain scores between dogs that received hydrocodone-acetaminophen or tramadol were minor. The percentage of dogs with treatment failure in both groups was considered unacceptable.

  20. Comparison Of Vented And Absolute Pressure Transducers For Water-Level Monitoring In Hanford Site Central Plateau Wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcdonald, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Automated water-level data collected using vented pressure transducers deployed in Hanford Site Central Plateau wells commonly display more variability than manual tape measurements in response to barometric pressure fluctuations. To explain this difference, it was hypothesized that vented pressure transducers installed in some wells are subject to barometric pressure effects that reduce water-level measurement accuracy. Vented pressure transducers use a vent tube, which is open to the atmosphere at land surface, to supply air pressure to the transducer housing for barometric compensation so the transducer measurements will represent only the water pressure. When using vented transducers, the assumption is made that the air pressure between land surface and the well bore is in equilibrium. By comparison, absolute pressure transducers directly measure the air pressure within the wellbore. Barometric compensation is achieved by subtracting the well bore air pressure measurement from the total pressure measured by a second transducer submerged in the water. Thus, no assumption of air pressure equilibrium is needed. In this study, water-level measurements were collected from the same Central Plateau wells using both vented and absolute pressure transducers to evaluate the different methods of barometric compensation. Manual tape measurements were also collected to evaluate the transducers. Measurements collected during this study demonstrated that the vented pressure transducers over-responded to barometric pressure fluctuations due to a pressure disequilibrium between the air within the wellbores and the atmosphere at land surface. The disequilibrium is thought to be caused by the relatively long time required for barometric pressure changes to equilibrate between land surface and the deep vadose zone and may be exacerbated by the restriction of air flow between the well bore and the atmosphere due to the presence of sample pump landing plates and well caps. The

  1. Annual Status Report (FY2008) Composite Analysis of Low-Level Waste Disposal in the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W. E. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-12-18

    In accordance with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements in DOE 0 435.1, Radioactive to be considered or purposes of Waste Management, and implemented by DOE/RL-2000-292, Maintenance Plan for the Composite Analysis of the Hanford Site, Southeast Washington, the DOE Richland Operations Office has prepared this annual report for fiscal year 2008 of PNNL-1 1800, Composite Analysis for the Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200-Area Plateau of the Hanford Site, hereafter referred to as the Composite Analysis. The main emphasis of DOE/RL-2000-29 Is to identify additional data and information to enhance the Composite Analysis and the subsequent PNNL- 11800 Addendum, Addendum to Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site, hereafter referred to as the Addendum, and to address secondary issues identified during the review of the Composite Analysis.

  2. Combining a joint health supplement with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture. An exploratory controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo M. Martini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Canine cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CrCLR is a very common pathology. Surgical stabilization is the first choice treatment, although it does not fully eliminate the increased risk of osteoarthritis. This preliminary study was carried out to explore whether a newly formulated joint health supplement would benefit metabolic, clinical and radiographic changes in dogs with CrCLR surgically treated with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO. Besides chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride, the studied supplement contained anti-inflammatory and antioxidant ingredients, the main ones being N-palmitoyl-D-glucosamine (Glupamid® and quercetin. It was thus intended to target not only chondrodegenerative components of osteoarthritis, but also post-injury inflammatory response and oxidative stress of joint tissues. Thirteen dogs underwent TPLO and were randomly allocated to treatment (n = 6 and control groups (n = 7, the former receiving the joint supplement for 90 days. Lameness and radiographic osteoarthritis changes were scored before (i.e., baseline and at 30 and 90 days post-surgery. Synovial fluid samples were collected from injured stifles at the same time points. Levels of representative metabolites were measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a blinded fashion. In the metabolomic analysis, special attention was paid to lactate, due to its emerging recognition as a key marker of inflammation. In the last time period (from the 30th to the 90th day, lameness improved by a factor of 2.3 compared to control dogs. No significant difference was observed in the radiographic osteoarthritis score between groups. In the first postoperative month, lactate and creatine levels significantly dropped in treated compared to control dogs. Compared to surgery alone, combining the joint supplement with TPLO resulted in a trend to a better clinical outcome in the later time interval but did not influence

  3. Relationship between general intelligence, emotional intelligence, stress levels and stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Sharma, Ratna

    2012-07-01

    Stressful life events and daily life stresses have both deleterious and cumulative effects on human body. In several studies, stress has been shown to affect various parameter of higher mental function like attention, concentration, learning and memory. Present study was designed to explore the relationship among GI level, EI level, psychological stress levels and acute stress reactivity in young normal healthy subjects. The study was conducted on thirty four healthy male student volunteers to study a) acute stress reactivity in subjects with varying levels of General Intelligence (GI) and Emotional Intelligence (EI) and b) correlation between GI, EI, acute stress and perceived stress. Baseline GI and EI and acute stress and perceived stress scores were measured by standard assessment scales. Using median value of GI and EI scores as cutoff values, subjects were categorized into four groups. Among different GI-EI groups, acute stress reactivity was similar but salivary Cortisol (especially post stressor level) and perceived stress level was a differentiating factor. High level of EI was associated inversely with acute and chronic perceived stress level. Significant correlation was found between acute and chronic perceived stress levels. Level of general intelligence showed no relation to acute or chronic stress levels as well as acute stress reactivity. The differences in various groups of GI and EI had no effect on the baseline and post stress performance on Sternberg memory test and all the three conditions of Stroop test. In conclusion emotional intelligence as an attribute is better suited to handle day to day acute stress and chronic perceived stress.

  4. Relationship between stress levels and the status of serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between stress levels and the status of serum antioxidant vitamins. ... Abstract. Background: Alternative methods for stress monitoring and evaluation prove very useful in proper dealing with it. Thus ... from 32 Countries: Algeria (5) ...

  5. Level of Work Related Stress among Teachers in Elementary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuta Agai–Demjaha

    2015-07-01

    CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that the majority of interviewed teachers perceived their work-related stress as high or very high. In terms of the relationship between the level of teachers’ stress and certain demographic and job characteristics, according to our results, the level of work-related stress has shown significantly high relation to gender, age, levels of grades taught as well as working experience, and significant relation to the level of education.

  6. Drinking behaviors by stress level in Korean university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Hae-Young

    2012-04-01

    The purposes of this study are to estimate the stress level of university students, and to verify the relationships between stress level and drinking behavior. A questionnaire survey was administered to 430 university students in the Gangwon area in Korea from November 5 to November 28, 2008, and data from 391 students were used for the final statistical analysis. The most stressful factor was "Worry about academic achievements" (2.86 by Likert-type 4 point scale). The subjects were divided into two groups, a low stress group (≤ 65.0) and a high stress group (≥ 66.0), by the mean value (65.1) and median value (66.0) of the stress levels. The drinking frequency was not different between the two stress groups, but the amount of alcohol consumption was significantly different (P stress group than in the higher stress group. In addition, factor 6, "Lack of learning ability", was negatively correlated with drinking frequency and the amount of alcohol consumption (P academic achievements", was negatively correlated with the amount of drinking (P stress group showed significantly higher scores on several items in the categories of motives (P stress group. Our results imply that university students at the lower stress level may drink more from social motives in positive drinking environments, while those at the higher stress level may have more problematic-drinking despite their smaller amount of alcohol consumption.

  7. [Mediator effect analysis of the trait coping style on job stress and fatigue of the military personnel stationed in plateau and high cold region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J J; Jia, J M; Tao, N; Song, Z X; Ge, H; Jiang, Y; Tian, H; Qiu, E C; Tang, J H; Liu, J W

    2017-03-20

    Objective: To investigate the fatigue status of military personnel stationed in plateau and high cold region, and to analyze the mediator effect of trait coping style on job stress and fatigue. Methods: In October 2010, with the method of cluster random sampling survey, 531 military personnel stationed in plateau and high cold region were chosen as subject. The fatigue status were evaluated by the Chinese version multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI-20) , job stress were evaluated by the Job Stress Survey (JSS) , and trait coping style were evaluated by the Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ) . Results: According to the information of different population characteristics, mean rank of physical fatigue about the urban (town) group were higher than that of rural group ( Z =-2.200, P fatigue scores about the urban (town) group were higher than that of rural group ( Z =-3.026, P fatigue about the up or equal 20-years old age group were higher than that of below 20-years old age group ( Z =-4.045, P fatigue about the up or equal 20-years old age group were higher than that of below 20-years old age group ( Z =-2.879, P fatigue scores about the up or equal 20-years old age group were higher than that of below 20-years old age group ( Z =-3.647, P fatigue scores were significant statistical difference among the military officers, sergeancy and soldier group ( F =14.711, P fatigue ( r (s)=0.129) , reduced activity ( r (s)=0.123) , reduced motivation ( r (s)=0.149) and general fatigue ( r (s)=0.174) respectively, the score of organizational support lack strength were positively correlated with the score of physical fatigue ( r (s)=0.090) , reduced activity ( r (s)=0.098) , reduced motivation ( r (s)=0.099) and general fatigue ( r (s)=0.130) respectively. The mediator effect of negative coping style on the job stress and fatigue was 0.013 ( P fatigue statuses of the urban (town) group and the up or equal 20-years old age group are poor, and the negative coping style

  8. Interindividual differences in stress sensitivity: basal and stress-induced cortisol levels differentially predict neural vigilance processing under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckens, Marloes J A G; Klumpers, Floris; Everaerd, Daphne; Kooijman, Sabine C; van Wingen, Guido A; Fernández, Guillén

    2016-04-01

    Stress exposure is known to precipitate psychological disorders. However, large differences exist in how individuals respond to stressful situations. A major marker for stress sensitivity is hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis function. Here, we studied how interindividual variance in both basal cortisol levels and stress-induced cortisol responses predicts differences in neural vigilance processing during stress exposure. Implementing a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover design, 120 healthy male participants were exposed to a stress-induction and control procedure, followed by an emotional perception task (viewing fearful and happy faces) during fMRI scanning. Stress sensitivity was assessed using physiological (salivary cortisol levels) and psychological measures (trait questionnaires). High stress-induced cortisol responses were associated with increased stress sensitivity as assessed by psychological questionnaires, a stronger stress-induced increase in medial temporal activity and greater differential amygdala responses to fearful as opposed to happy faces under control conditions. In contrast, high basal cortisol levels were related to relative stress resilience as reflected by higher extraversion scores, a lower stress-induced increase in amygdala activity and enhanced differential processing of fearful compared with happy faces under stress. These findings seem to reflect a critical role for HPA-axis signaling in stress coping; higher basal levels indicate stress resilience, whereas higher cortisol responsivity to stress might facilitate recovery in those individuals prone to react sensitively to stress. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Level of Work Related Stress among Teachers in Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agai-Demjaha, Teuta; Bislimovska, Jovanka Karadzinska; Mijakoski, Dragan

    2015-09-15

    Teaching is considered a highly stressful occupation, with work-related stress levels among teachers being among the highest compared to other professions. Unfortunately there are very few studies regarding the levels of work-related stress among teachers in the Republic of Macedonia. To identify the level of self-perceived work-related stress among teachers in elementary schools and its relationship to gender, age, position in the workplace, the level of education and working experience. We performed a descriptive-analytical model of a cross-sectional study that involved 300 teachers employed in nine elementary schools. Evaluation of examined subjects included completion of a specially designed questionnaire. We found that the majority of interviewed teachers perceive their work-related stress as moderate. The level of work-related stress was significantly high related to the gender, age, position in workplace, as well as working experience (p related to level of education (p stressful as compared to the upper-grade teachers (18.5% vs. 5.45%), while the same is true for female respondents as compared to the male ones (15.38% vs. 3.8%). In addition, our results show that teachers with university education significantly more often associate their workplace with stronger stress than their colleagues with high education (13.48% vs. 9.4%). We also found that there is no significant difference of stress levels between new and more experienced teachers. Our findings confirm that the majority of interviewed teachers perceived their work-related stress as high or very high. In terms of the relationship between the level of teachers' stress and certain demographic and job characteristics, according to our results, the level of work-related stress has shown significantly high relation to gender, age, levels of grades taught as well as working experience, and significant relation to the level of education.

  10. Annual Status Report (FY2009) Composite Analysis of Low-Level Waste Disposal in the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W. E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-02-10

    In accordance with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements in DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and implemented by DOE/RL-2000-29, Maintenance Plan for the Composite Analysis of the Hanford Site, Southeast Washington, the DOE Richland Operations Office has prepared this annual status report for fiscal year (FY) 2009 of PNNL-11800, Composite Analysis for the Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200-Area Plateau of the Hanford Site, hereafter referred to as the Composite Analysis.

  11. Annual Status Report (FY2010) Composite Analysis of Low-Level Waste Disposal in the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W. E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2011-01-11

    In accordance with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements in DOE O 435.1 Chg 1, Radioactive Waste Management, and implemented by DOE/RL-2000-29, Maintenance Plan for the Composite Analysis of the Hanford Site, Southeast Washington, the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), also known as RL, has prepared this annual status report for fiscal year (FY) 2010 of PNNL-11800, Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site, hereafter referred to as the Composite Analysis.

  12. Does student debt affect dental students' and dentists' stress levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyles, J D; Ahmed, B

    2017-10-27

    Introduction Many studies have shown financial worries and debt to induce stress in individuals, this combined with the existing stress of being a dentist raises the question of how student debt affects students' and dentists' stress levels.Objectives Determine whether student debt has had any noticeable effect on student stress levels; investigate whether student debt has any effect on dentists' career choice; investigate whether the increase in tuition fees has influenced the number of applicants to study dentistry at the University of Birmingham.Method Anonymous questionnaires were completed by 70 4th year and 38 5th year BDS and 22 Dental Core Trainees (DCTs). Participants circled the response which best fitted their situation regarding statements on their level of stress and future career path. Ethical approval granted. Application figures to study dentistry obtained from head of admissions.Results Forty-two percent of males and 63% of females strongly agreed with the statement that having no debt would reduce their stress levels. Of those with debt >£40,000, 11% strongly agreed and 42% agreed that their total amount of student debt causes them stress. Whereas, those whose debt is stress. Seventy-seven percent of participants who had parental or family financial support reported this reduced their stress levels. Student debt was found to deter females from undertaking further study more than it deters males (P stressed about their total student loan(s) (P stress (P stress; students reporting a higher level of debt also report more stress and concern about paying off their student debt. Having no student debt would reduce stress levels, although to what extent is undetermined. Applications to study dentistry have fallen since the increase in tuition fees.

  13. The Effect of Risk Factors on the Levels of Chemical Elements in the Tibial Plateau of Patients with Osteoarthritis following Knee Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Lanocha-Arendarczyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the aforementioned chemical elements in tibial plateau samples obtained during knee arthroplasty. The gender-specific analysis of chemical element levels in the bone samples revealed that there were statistically significant differences in the concentration of Pb and Se/Pb ratio. The contents of elements in the tibial plateau in the patients with osteoarthritis (OA can be arranged in the following descending order: F− > K > Zn > Fe > Sr > Pb > Mn > Se > Cd > THg. We observed statistical significant effects of environmental factors including smoking, seafood diet, and geographical distribution on the levels of the elements in tibial bone. Significant positive correlation coefficients were found for the relationships K-Cd, Zn-Sr, Zn-F−, THg-Pb, Pb-Cd, Se-Se/Pb, Se-Se/Cd, Se/Pb-Se/Cd, Pb-Cd/Ca, Cd-Cd/Ca, and F−-F−/Ca·1000. Significant negative correlations were found for the relationships THg-Se/Pb, Pb-Se/Pb, Cd-Se/Pb, K-Se/Cd, Pb-Se/Cd, Cd-Se/Cd, THg-Se/THg, Pb-Se/THg, Se-Pb/Cd, Zn-Cd/Ca, and Se/Cd-Cd/Ca. The results reported here may provide a basis for establishing reference values for the tibial plateau in patients with OA who had undergone knee replacement surgery. The concentrations of elements in the bone with OA were determined by age, presence of implants, smoking, fish and seafood diet, and sport activity.

  14. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  15. Stress Level and Adversity Quotient among Single Working Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Bautista Solis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study identified the profile of the single working mothers in terms of number of children, number of years as a single parent and reason for being a single parent; assessed the single mothers’ stress level and adversity quotient; determined the significant difference of stress level and adversity quotient of single mothers when grouped according to profile variables; determined the best predictor of stress level and adversity quotient. Moreover this research endeavoured to test significant relationship between the adversity quotient and stress level of single working mothers. Lastly, it proposed a stress management program for single working mothers for them to cope with their stress and adversities in life. The researcher employed quantitative method using standardized questionnaires namely Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS and Adversity Response Profile (ARP. The respondents were twenty five (25 single working mothers of the students of Batangas State University. From the results, majority of the respondents have 3 children, widow and in early years as single parent; with a normal level of stress and an average adversity quotient.. There are no significant differences on the stress level and adversity quotient of the respondents when grouped according to profile variables. Finally, stress level has no significant effect on adversity quotient of single working mothers. From the findings, the researcher further recommends that the Office of Guidance and Counseling should update the student information database to determine students with a single working mother. The Parent-Teacher Association may form a single-parent subgroup for the single working mothers to be able to identify to other mothers with same situation. Moreover, the proposed stress management program may be reviewed and implemented by the Office of Guidance and Counseling in coordination with the Parent-Teacher Association of Batangas State University. Future researchers

  16. Stress level and academic performance of university students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the relationship between level of stress and students' academic performance in Universities in Kwara State, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Proportional stratified random sampling was used to select 300 students for the study. A “Students' Stress Level Questionnaire ...

  17. Levels of occupational stress and stressful activities for nurses working in emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Ferreira da Fonseca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to identify stress levels, areas and their activities identified as stressful by nurses working in the emergence in Manaus, AM, Brazil. It is an epidemiological, cross-sectional design, with 36 emergency nurses from December 2010 to January 2011. The Bianchi Stress Scale with 57 questions was used. The nurses were at risk for high levels of stress. The most stressful areas were the operation of the unit, conditions of work and personnel administration, and the most stressful activity was the request for equipment review and repair. The difference by Friedman test between the areas was significant (p <0.05, Dunn post-test significant (p <0.05 when compared by peers. The accumulation of management activities with the assistance activities can generate higher levels of stress, it is necessary to invest in improving the work environment and management support to minimize the stress experienced at work.

  18. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts BDNF level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Maria; Unternaehrer, Eva; Brand, Serge; Calabrese, Pasquale; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Sleep plays a pivotal role in normal biological functions. Sleep loss results in higher stress vulnerability and is often found in mental disorders. There is evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) could be a central player in this relationship. Recently, we could demonstrate that subjects suffering from current symptoms of insomnia exhibited significantly decreased serum BDNF levels compared with sleep-healthy controls. In accordance with the paradigm indicating a link between sleep and BDNF, we aimed to investigate if the stress system influences the association between sleep and BDNF. Participants with current symptoms of insomnia plus a former diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) and/or Periodic Limb Movement (PLM) and sleep healthy controls were included in the study. They completed questionnaires on sleep (ISI, Insomnia Severity Index) and stress (PSS, Perceived Stress Scale) and provided a blood sample for determination of serum BDNF. We found a significant interaction between stress and insomnia with an impact on serum BDNF levels. Moreover, insomnia severity groups and score on the PSS each revealed a significant main effect on serum BDNF levels. Insomnia severity was associated with increased stress experience affecting serum BDNF levels. Of note, the association between stress and BDNF was only observed in subjects without insomnia. Using a mediation model, sleep was revealed as a mediator of the association between stress experience and serum BDNF levels. This is the first study to show that the interplay between stress and sleep impacts BDNF levels, suggesting an important role of this relationship in the pathogenesis of stress-associated mental disorders. Hence, we suggest sleep as a key mediator at the connection between stress and BDNF. Whether sleep is maintained or disturbed might explain why some individuals are able to handle a certain stress load while others develop a mental disorder.

  19. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts BDNF level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep plays a pivotal role in normal biological functions. Sleep loss results in higher stress vulnerability and is often found in mental disorders. There is evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF could be a central player in this relationship. Recently, we could demonstrate that subjects suffering from current symptoms of insomnia exhibited significantly decreased serum BDNF levels compared with sleep-healthy controls. In accordance with the paradigm indicating a link between sleep and BDNF, we aimed to investigate if the stress system influences the association between sleep and BDNF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants with current symptoms of insomnia plus a former diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS and/or Periodic Limb Movement (PLM and sleep healthy controls were included in the study. They completed questionnaires on sleep (ISI, Insomnia Severity Index and stress (PSS, Perceived Stress Scale and provided a blood sample for determination of serum BDNF. We found a significant interaction between stress and insomnia with an impact on serum BDNF levels. Moreover, insomnia severity groups and score on the PSS each revealed a significant main effect on serum BDNF levels. Insomnia severity was associated with increased stress experience affecting serum BDNF levels. Of note, the association between stress and BDNF was only observed in subjects without insomnia. Using a mediation model, sleep was revealed as a mediator of the association between stress experience and serum BDNF levels. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show that the interplay between stress and sleep impacts BDNF levels, suggesting an important role of this relationship in the pathogenesis of stress-associated mental disorders. Hence, we suggest sleep as a key mediator at the connection between stress and BDNF. Whether sleep is maintained or disturbed might explain why some individuals are able to handle a certain stress load while

  20. Stress Levels of Nurses in Oncology Outpatient Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Woonhwa; Kiser-Larson, Norma

    2016-04-01

    Oncology nursing is often a source of substantial stress for nurses. Many nurses, particularly novice nurses, have inadequate preparation to care for patients at the end of life and their families. Unless nurses prevent or manage work-related stress by using effective coping strategies, oncology nursing staff will continue to suffer from burnout and compassion fatigue. The purpose of this article is to identify stress levels and stressful factors of nurses working in oncology outpatient units and to explore coping behaviors for work-related stress of oncology staff nurses in outpatient units. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used to identify stress levels and stressful factors for outpatient oncology nurses, investigate differences in stress levels among nurses' demographic characteristics, and explore coping behaviors of the nurses. Study participants (N = 40) included RNs and licensed practical nurses who completed the Nursing Stress Scale, three open-ended questions, and a demographic questionnaire. The highest sources of stress were workload and patient death and dying. Demographic variables of age and work experience in nursing showed a significant positive relationship to work-related stress scores. The three most frequently used coping behaviors were verbalizing, exercising or relaxing, and taking time for self. Continuing education programs on stress management are highly recommended. Outpatient oncology nurses should be nurtured and supported through tailored interventions at multiple levels to help them find effective coping strategies and develop self-care competencies. Although younger and less experienced nurses had lower mean stress scores than older and more experienced nurses, the continuing education programs and tailored interventions would be helpful for all oncology nursing staff.

  1. Stress levels of psychiatric nursing staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looff, P.C. de; Kuijpers, E.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2014-01-01

    During a total of 30 shifts, the arousal levels of 10 psychiatric nurses were assessed while working on a (forensic) psychiatric admissions ward. Arousal was assessed by means of a small device (wristband) by which the Skin Conductance Level (SCL) of the participating nurses was monitored. Each

  2. Critical water stress levels in Pinus patula seedlings and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Critical water stress levels in Pinus patula seedlings and their relation to measures of seedling morphology. ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... A pot trial was implemented to determine the effect of soil water stress following transplanting on shoot water potential and stomatal conductance of Pinus patula ...

  3. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus leads to increased lipid peroxidation in the body, followed by the development of chronic complications due to oxidative stress. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare total antioxidant (TAO) levels and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ...

  4. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    21–25 ... Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in South ... antioxidant-rich diet and lifestyle changes in T2DM patients would help to avert the .... glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycosylation.

  5. Evaluation of the evolving stress field of the Yellowstone volcanic plateau, 1988 to 2010, from earthquake first-motion inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, E.; Waite, G. P.; Tibaldi, A.

    2017-03-01

    Although the last rhyolite eruption occurred around 70 ka ago, the silicic Yellowstone volcanic field is still considered active due to high hydrothermal and seismic activity and possible recent magma intrusions. Geodetic measurements document complex deformation patterns in crustal strain and seismic activity likewise reveal spatial and temporal variations in the stress field. We use earthquake data recorded between 1988 and 2010 to investigate these variations and their possible causes in more detail. Earthquake relocations and a set of 369 well-constrained, double-couple, focal mechanism solutions were computed. Events were grouped according to location and time to investigate trends in faulting. The majority of the events have normal-faulting solutions, subordinate strike-slip kinematics, and very rarely, reverse motions. The dominant direction of extension throughout the 0.64 Ma Yellowstone caldera is nearly ENE, consistent with the perpendicular direction of alignments of volcanic vents within the caldera, but our study also reveals spatial and temporal variations. Stress-field solutions for different areas and time periods were calculated from earthquake focal mechanism inversion. A well-resolved rotation of σ3 was found, from NNE-SSW near the Hebgen Lake fault zone, to ENE-WSW near Norris Junction. In particular, the σ3 direction changed throughout the years around Norris Geyser Basin, from being ENE-WSW, as calculated in the study by Waite and Smith (2004), to NNE-SSW, while the other σ3 directions are mostly unchanged over time. The presence of ;chocolate tablet; structures, with two sets of nearly perpendicular normal faults, was identified in many stages of the deformation history both in the Norris Geyser Basin area and inside the caldera.

  6. Decreased Stress Levels in Nurses: A Benefit of Quiet Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Heather C; Mates, Joanna; Ryan, Linda; Schleder, Bonnie J

    2015-09-01

    The benefits of quiet time, a therapeutic method of improving the health care environment, have been evaluated in patients, but only a few studies have examined the effects of quiet time on intensive care nurses. To evaluate the effects of implementing quiet time in a medical-surgical intensive care unit on levels of light, noise, and nurses' stress. Quiet time consisted of turning down the unit lights for a designated time. Levels of light, noise, and nurses' stress were measured. Nurses' stress levels were measured by using a 100-point visual analog scale; unit noise, by using a digital sound level meter (model 407736, Extech Instruments); and unit light, by using an illumination light meter (model 615, Huygen Corporation). Measurements were obtained 30 minutes before and 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 2 hours after implementation of quiet time. Analysis of variance and comparisons of means indicated that both light levels and nurses' stress levels were significantly decreased after quiet time (both P quiet time, but the decrease was not significant (P = .08). Use of quiet time resulted in decreased light levels and decreased stress levels among nurses. Quiet time is an easily performed energy-saving intervention to promote a healthy work environment. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  7. TINGKAT KERUSAKAN LINGKUNGAN DI DATARAN TINGGI DIENG SEBAGAI DATABASE GUNA UPAYA KONSERVASI (The Level of Environmental Damage in Dieng Plateau for Database to Conservation Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ngabekti

    2007-07-01

    area in Dieng Plateau has been reducing biodiversity. An assessment by Balai Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam Jawa Tengah in 2001 found less than fifty species vegetation per hectare in the area, which means poor diversity. This research aims to know the level of environmental damage in Dieng Plateau as a database for conservation attempts. The variables to assess will be the level of environmental damages, both physically and biologically, in connection with demographic, economic, societal, and cultural aspects. Physical observation showed that plantation area was seriously damaged, which reduced the potato crops. Whereas from biological observation, it was found that the vegetational diversity index was relatively low (0.81-0.98. From behavioral view, it seemed that the inhabitants have not fully supported the conservation attempts; it can be seen that the potato cultivation area has expanded as deforestation has also spread out. As a result, waters resources have depleted significantly. From the current research, it was concluded that the level of environmental damage in Dieng Plateau was seriously damaged. It was suggested to manage the Dieng Plateau area. Due to unique geographical conditions, plantation design implemented in the area should be followed by conservation review. To prevent erosion, it is important to find substitutes to potatoes

  8. Role of rainwater induced subsurface flow in water-level dynamics and thermoerosion of shallow thermokarst ponds on the Northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, X.; Yu, Q.; You, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding hydrological and thermal regimes of thermokarst lakes is of great importance for predicting their responses to climate change. However, mechanism of water-level dynamics and associated thermal effects on thermoerosion of thermokarst lakes are still not well understood on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). In this study, we investigate two typical shallow thermokarst ponds (namely small lakes) in a warm permafrost region with thick active layer on the northeastern QTP through quantifying water budget. Results demonstrate that, rainfall induced subsurface lateral flow dominates pond water-level regime. Annual variation of pond water-level relies on areal water budget of surrounding active layer, particularly the high variable of precipitation. Besides, it is worth noting the extraordinary warming during the late ice-cover period, because marked air gap between upper ice-cover and underlying water, led by the upward thawing of thick ice-cover, might result in greenhouse-like condition due to the unique weather that strong solar radiation and little snowpack. This hydrological mechanism also exerts evident impacts on thermal regime and thermoerosion of the shallow thermokarst ponds, and they are closely related to retreat of thermokarst pondshore and underlying permafrost degradation. These findings imply a localized model addressing the unique hydrological and thermal regimes of thermokarst lakes would be essential to study the evolution of these shallow rainwater dominated thermokarst ponds on the QTP.

  9. Plasma. beta. -endorphin and stress hormone levels during adaptation and stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lishmanov, Yu.B.; Trifonova, Zh.V.; Tsibin, A.N.; Maslova, L.V.; Dement' eva, L.A.

    1987-09-01

    This paper describes a comparative study of ..beta..-endorphin and stress hormone levels in the blood plasma of rats during stress and adaptation. Immunoreactive ..beta..-endorphin in the blood plasma was assayed by means of a kit after preliminary isolation of the ..beta..-endorphin fraction by affinity chromatography on sepharose; ACTH was assayed with a kit and cortisol, insulin, thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine by means of kits from Izotop. Determination of plasma levels of ..beta..-endorphin and other opioids could evidently be an important method of assessing the state of resistance of the organism to stress.

  10. Development of a bionanodevice for detecting stress levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, S; Handri, S; Honda, H

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular analysis techniques have enabled scientists to assess the tiny amounts of biochemical substances secreted in our bodies. This has revealed that the levels of various secretory hormones and immune substances vary sensitively with the mental state of a person. Such hormones and immune substances exhibit transient increases with various psychological stressors. They thus have the potential to be used as a novel biometric for monitoring stress. Biomarkers that occur in saliva can be monitored non-invasively and are thus potentially useful as practical indicators of mental stress. Stress biomarkers are considered to be released into the blood stream or other secretory fluids by physiological stress reactions. Stress biomarkers are expected to be detectable in sweat and other humoral fluids that are exuded from the skin surface. Based on this, we have developed a bionanodevice for detecting stress by capturing stress biomarkers on the skin surface in a non-invasive manner. A prototype bionanodevice is described in which a motor protein is introduced for molecular handling.

  11. Development of a bionanodevice for detecting stress levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, S; Handri, S [Top Runner Incubation Center for Academia-Industry Fusion, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Honda, H, E-mail: nomura@kjs.nagaokaut.ac.jp, E-mail: hhonda@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Department of Bioengineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Recent advances in molecular analysis techniques have enabled scientists to assess the tiny amounts of biochemical substances secreted in our bodies. This has revealed that the levels of various secretory hormones and immune substances vary sensitively with the mental state of a person. Such hormones and immune substances exhibit transient increases with various psychological stressors. They thus have the potential to be used as a novel biometric for monitoring stress. Biomarkers that occur in saliva can be monitored non-invasively and are thus potentially useful as practical indicators of mental stress. Stress biomarkers are considered to be released into the blood stream or other secretory fluids by physiological stress reactions. Stress biomarkers are expected to be detectable in sweat and other humoral fluids that are exuded from the skin surface. Based on this, we have developed a bionanodevice for detecting stress by capturing stress biomarkers on the skin surface in a non-invasive manner. A prototype bionanodevice is described in which a motor protein is introduced for molecular handling.

  12. Using Conjugate Gradient Network to Classify Stress Level of Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. S. Pawar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of stress is important because it can cause many diseases e.g., heart disease, headache, migraine, sleep problems, irritability etc. Diagnosis of stress in patients often involves acquisition of biological signals for example heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG, electromyography signals (EMG etc. Stress diagnosis using biomedical signals is difficult and since the biomedical signals are too complex to generate any rule an experienced person or expert is needed to determine stress levels. Also, it is not feasible to use all the features that are available or possible to extract from the signal. So, relevant features should be chosen from the extracted features that are capable to diagnose stress. Electronics devices are increasingly being seen in the field of medicine for diagnosis, therapy, checking of stress levels etc. The research and development work of medical electronics engineers leads to the manufacturing of sophisticated diagnostic medical equipment needed to ensure good health care. Biomedical engineering combines the design and problem solving skills of engineering with medical and biological sciences to improve health care diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Climatology of Tibetan Plateau Vortices and connection to upper-level flow in reanalysis data and a high-resolution model simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curio, Julia; Schiemann, Reinhard; Hodges, Kevin; Turner, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) and surrounding high mountain ranges constitute an important forcing of the atmospheric circulation over Asia due to their height and extent. Therefore, the TP impacts weather and climate in downstream regions of East Asia, especially precipitation. Mesoscale Tibetan Plateau Vortices (TPVs) are known to be one of the major precipitation-bearing systems on the TP. They are mainly present at the 500 hPa level and have a vertical extent of 2-3 km while their horizontal scale is around 500 km. Their average lifetime is 18 hours. There are two types of TPVs: the largest number originating and staying on the TP, while a smaller number is able to move off the plateau to the east. The latter category can cause extreme precipitation events and severe flooding in large parts of eastern and southern China downstream of the TP, e.g. the Yangtze River valley. The first aim of the study is to identify and track TPVs in reanalysis data and to connect the TPV activity to the position and strength of the upper-level subtropical jet stream, and to determine favourable conditions for TPV development and maintenance. We identify and track TPVs using the TRACK algorithm developed by Hodges et al. (1994). Relative vorticity at the 500 hPa level from the ERA-Interim and NCEP-CFSR reanalyses are used as input data. TPVs are retained which originate on the TP and which persist for at least two days, since these are more likely to move off the TP to the East. The second aim is to identify TPVs in a high-resolution, present-day climate model simulation of the MetOffice Unified Model (UPSCALE, HadGEM3 GA3.0) to assess how well the model represents the TPV climatology and variability. We find that the reanalysis data sets and the model show similar results for the statistical measures of TPVs (genesis, track, and lysis density). The TPV genesis region is small and stable at a specific region of the TP throughout the year. The reason for this seems to be the convergence

  14. Effects of tillage methods, corn residue mulch and n fertilizer levels on the wheat crop productivity under the rain fed condition of loess plateau china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanveer, S.K.; Zhang, J.L.; Lu, X.L.; Wen, X.; Tanveer, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    A 2 years study was conducted to assess the effects of different tillage methods (Chisel plough tillage, Zero-tillage, Rotary tillage and Mould board plough tillage), two mulch levels (M0 i.e. No corn residue mulch and M1 i.e. Corn residue mulch) and 5 N fertilizer levels (0, 80, 160, 240 and 320 kg N/ha) on the wheat crop productivity under the rain fed condition of Loess Plateau, China. Factorial experiment with three replications, having strip, split-split arrangement, with tillage methods in the main plots, mulch levels in sub- plots and N-fertilizer levels in the sub-sub plots was used for this study. Due to variations in rainfalls, during the year, 2010-11, maximum grain yields i.e. 6.58 t/ha and 6.72 t/ha were recorded in case of Zero tillage planting method and similarly in case of 80 kg N/ha, while during the cropping year 2011-12 equal grain yields were recorded in case of all tillage methods, however maximum grain yield (7.46 t /ha) was recorded in case of 320 kg N/ha, N fertilizer level. On two years average basis, maximum grain yields i.e. 6.75 t/ha and 6.80 t/ha were recorded in case of Zero tillage planting method and similarly in case of 80 kg N/ha as compared with the other tillage methods or N fertilizer levels. Use of mulch reduced > 40% weeds infestation. Economic analysis shows that Zero tillage and minimum use of N fertilizer according to the projected rainfalls along with the use of mulch are both economic and environmental friendly. (author)

  15. Level of Perceived Stress Among Lectures in Nigerian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofoegbu, Felicia; Nwadiani, Mon

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide empirical evidence on the level of stress among lecturers in Nigerian universities. On the whole eight universities were used for the study. A sample of 228 (123 male and 105 female) lecturers was selected according to the variables of age, sex, marital status, experience, domicile, areas of specialization,…

  16. Relationship between stress levels and the status of serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-07-26

    Jul 26, 2014 ... very useful in proper dealing with it. Thus ... of examination, mean serum vitamin A levels was found to be significantly lower before than after ... [2] Cognitive and emotional signs and symptoms ... found that endurance exercise and stress can increase ... and 7 female, ages between 22-30 years) served as ...

  17. Level of occupational stress of court probation officers and style of coping with stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Wirkus

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The relationship between a court probation officer and their ward is a specific one and is frequently connected with enormous individuals costs. This fact is connected with the character of the job, and with the conditions determining its character. Psychosocial threats may influence both mental and somatic health, directly or indirectly, by means of the influence exerted by stress. Participants and procedure The main study was conducted at the offices of the teams of the Court Probation Service. The teams of the Court Probation Service are part of the structure of the following 9, randomly selected, district courts (DCs: DC Wrocław, DC Bydgoszcz, DC Szczecin, DC Poznań, DC Łódź, DC Lublin, DC Kraków, DC Katowice and DC Białystok. Participation in the research was voluntary and anonymous; the tools were arranged in sets, and the sequence of those sets was random. The sets of research tools were received by 1,000 individuals altogether. Results The conducted research confirmed the need to verify the significance of the feeling of occupational stress of court probation officers at the workplace and the correlations between it and a number of variables. Below, I present statistical analyses concerning various aspects of occupational stress experienced in the studied group, including correlations between the general level of occupational stress and the dimensions of it, and organizational predictors. The objective of the research was to indicate the styles of coping with stress and the correlations of them with the stress felt by court probation officers. Conclusions The research confirms a significant influence exerted by organizational determinants upon the general level of felt occupational stress. Professional court probation officers experience a higher level of felt occupational stress; what is conducive to that is high encumbrance with occupational responsibilities, and also functioning directly in structures of the court of

  18. Effect of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency, tibial plateau leveling osteotomy, and tibial tuberosity advancement on contact mechanics and alignment of the stifle in flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Stanley E; Pozzi, Antonio; Banks, Scott A; Conrad, Bryan P; Lewis, Daniel D

    2010-04-01

    To assess contact mechanics and 3-dimensional (3-D) joint alignment in cranial cruciate ligament (CCL)-deficient stifles before and after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) and tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) with the stifle in 90 degrees of flexion. In vitro biomechanical study. Cadaveric pelvic limb pairs (n=8) from dogs weighing 28-35 kg. Contralateral limbs were assigned to receive TPLO or TTA. Digital pressure sensors were used to measure femorotibial contact area, peak and mean contact pressure, and peak pressure location with the limb under a load of 30% body weight and stifle flexion angle of 90 degrees . 3-D poses were obtained using a Microscribe digitizer. Specimens were tested under normal, CCL deficient, and treatment conditions. Significant disturbances in alignment were not observed after CCL transection, although medial contact area was 10% smaller than normal (P=.003). There were no significant differences in contact mechanics or alignment between normal and TTA conditions; TPLO induced 6 degrees varus angulation (PCranial tibial subluxation is nominal in CCL-deficient stifles loaded in flexion. Stifle alignment and contact mechanics are not altered by TTA, whereas TPLO causes mild varus and a subsequent increase in medial compartment loading. Cranial tibial subluxation of CCL-deficient stifles may not occur during postures that load the stifle in flexion. The significance of minor changes in loading patterns after TPLO is unknown.

  19. Preemptive carprofen for peri-operative analgesia in dogs undergoing Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy (TPLO): a prospective, randomized, blinded, placebo controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufalari, A; Maggio, C; Cerasoli, I; Morath, U; Adami, C

    2012-03-01

    Eighteen client-owned dogs undergoing Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy (TPLO) were included in this blinded clinical study and randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups. Group C (carprofen) received intravenous (IV) carprofen, 4 mg/kg, prior to anesthesia, whereas group P (placebo) received IV saline. General anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen and a constant rate infusion (CRI) of sufentanyl IV. Intra-operatively, assessment of nociception was based on changes in physiological parameters and on the analgesics requirement, whereas in the post-operative period evaluation of pain was performed by using a Hellyer and Gaynor pain score and by comparing the doses of rescue buprenorphine required by the two treatment groups. Although no statistically significant differences in intra-operative sufentanyl doses were found between treatment groups, group C had superior cardiovascular stability, and lower post-operative pain scores and rescue buprenorphine doses than group P. Our results indicate that administration of carprofen prior to surgery was effective in improving peri-operative analgesia in dogs undergoing TPLO.

  20. Human occupation and environmental change in Holocene from a case of XDW2 relic site in the Tibetan Plateau at above 4000 meters above sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, G.; Li, F.; Zhu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    XDW2 is an important microlithic cultural relics with continuous stratum that is located in the the Tibetan plateau at above 4,000 masl, wich is a window of revealing the evolution of early human activities and the response and adaptation to extreme environmental in the principal part of Tibetan plateau. So it has important research significance. The analysis on human activity indicator(stoneware, potsherds) and environmental indicators(magnetic susceptibility, color, granularity and pollen) showed: the winter wind and dust storm intensity is weak in this area during 7.0-6 cal. Ka BP, pedogenesis is strong, the climate is humid, environment is suitable relatively, when is Holocene Megathermal; the active phase of microlithic human activities occurred during 7.2-6 cal. ka BP, and quickly weakened after 6 cal. ka BP. The number of stone tools reveal that human activities are concentrated before and after 7-6.2 cal. ka BP, charcoal fragmental concentration indicates that microlithic human activity reached the peak at around 6.7 cal. ka BP. Thus relatively suitable environment during Holocene Megathermal is the important motivating factor of active hunter-gatherer activities in the principal part of Tibetan plateau. After 6 cal. ka BP, summer monsoon weakened rapidly, agricultural growers in the Loess Plateau began to expand towards the plateau, under the effect of environmental degradation and new technologies, microlithic hunter-gatherers in the principal part of plateau moved towards the river valley at low altitude, and learnt settlement and plantation, microlithic activity in the main plateau began to decline.

  1. Psychological stress in high level sailors during competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Segato

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the psychological stress present in elite sailors in a competition. Based on a descriptive field research, 31 elite sailors volunteered to participate. They answered the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen & Williamson, 1988 and also specific questions on self-control, sources and strategies of coping. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential (Student t test and Pearson's correlation statistics. These athletes revealed low and moderate scores (M = 20.00, DP = 6.83 of stress originated from both intrinsic (ship troubles, team disorders and extrinsic (study, working and training, family and financial problems sources. The group reported good stress control during competition through the use of cognitive (avoidance and somatic (listening music, resting/sleeping, talk to friends strategies. It is important that sailors are able to control and cope with high levels of psychological stress and to understand how to proceed when under unstable and unexpected situations that arise during competition.

  2. Psychological stress in high level sailors during competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Segato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the psychological stress present in elite sailors in a competition. Based on a descriptive field research, 31 elite sailors volunteered to participate. They answered the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen & Williamson, 1988 and also specific questions on self-control, sources and strategies of coping. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential (Student t test and Pearson's correlation statistics. These athletes revealed low and moderate scores (M = 20.00, DP = 6.83 of stress originated from both intrinsic (ship troubles, team disorders and extrinsic (study, working and training, family and financial problems sources. The group reported good stress control during competition through the use of cognitive (avoidance and somatic (listening music, resting/sleeping, talk to friends strategies. It is important that sailors are able to control and cope with high levels of psychological stress and to understand how to proceed when under unstable and unexpected situations that arise during competition.

  3. Response of Functional Structure of Soil Microbial Community to Multi-level Nitrogen Additions on the Central Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Yuan, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The use of fossil fuels and fertilizers has increased the amount of biologically reactive nitrogen in the atmosphere over the past century. Tibet is the one of the most threatened regions by nitrogen deposition, thus understanding how its microbial communities function maybe of high importance to predicting microbial responses to nitrogen deposition. Here we describe a short-time nitrogen addition conducted in an alpine steppe ecosystem to investigate the response of functional structure of soil microbial community to multi-level nitrogen addition. Using a GeoChip 4.0, we showed that functional diversities and richness of functional genes were unchanged at low level of nitrogen fertilizer inputs (=40 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Detrended correspondence analysis indicated that the functional structure of microbial communities was markedly different across the nitrogen gradients. Most C degradation genes whose abundances significantly increased under elevated N fertilizer were those involved in the degradation of relatively labile C (starch, hemicellulose, cellulose), whereas the abundance of certain genes involved in the degradation of recalcitrant C (i.e. lignin) was largely decreased (such as manganese peroxidase, mnp). The results suggest that the elevated N fertilization rates might significantly accelerate the labile C degradation, but might not spur recalcitrant C degradation. The combined effect of gdh and ureC genes involved in N cycling appeared to shift the balance between ammonia and organic N toward organic N ammonification and hence increased the N mineralization potential. Moreover, Urease directly involved in urea mineralization significantly increased. Lastly, Canonical correspondence analysis showed that soil (TOC+NH4++NO3-+NO2-+pH) and plant (Aboveground plant productivity + Shannon Diversity) variables could explain 38.9% of the variation of soil microbial community composition. On the basis of above observations, we predict that increasing of nitrogen

  4. RAGE polymorphisms and oxidative stress levels in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakou, Maria; Saltiki, Katerina; Mantzou, Emily; Loukari, Eleni; Philippou, Georgios; Terzidis, Konstantinos; Lili, Kiriaki; Stavrianos, Charalampos; Kyprianou, Miltiades; Alevizaki, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Polymorphisms of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) gene have been studied in various autoimmune disorders, but not in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Also, increased oxidative stress has been described in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of two common RAGE polymorphisms (-429T>C, -374T>A) in Hashimoto's thyroiditis; in parallel, we studied oxidative stress levels. A total of 300 consecutive euthyroid women were examined and classified into three groups: Hashimoto's thyroiditis with treatment (n = 96), Hashimoto's thyroiditis without treatment (n = 109) and controls (n = 95). For a rough evaluation of oxidative stress, total lipid peroxide levels in serum were measured. The -429T>C AluI and -374T>A MfeI polymorphisms of RAGE were studied in genomic DNA. Significant association of the RAGE system with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was found only with regard to the prevalence of the -429T>C, but not with -374T>A polymorphism. The levels of oxidative stress were significantly elevated in Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients under treatment. Further analysis demonstrated that an oxidative stress cut-off value of 590 μmol/L is associated with an increased risk of progression of Hashimoto's thyroiditis from euthyroidism to hypothyroidism; this risk is further increased in carriers of the RAGE -429T>C polymorphism. Our findings indicate that both examined risk factors may be implicated in the occurrence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, but this covers only a fraction of the pathophysiology of the disease. © 2017 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  5. WORK STRESS LEVEL AND CARING BEHAVIOUR OF NURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Lestari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A nurse who experience burnout feelings will influence their motivation, and quality performance. This situation is probably affecting a decline in work quality towards the caring behaviour demonstrated by nurses to their patiens, particularly for a nurse who are working in the long-stay installation room facing directly to patient's problems. The purpose of this research is to identify the work stress level of nurse towards the nurse's caring behaviour in the long-stay installation room (IRNA in general hospital in Malang. Method: This research used descriptive – correlational, the sampling was Non Probability Purposive Sampling with 93 nurses as the corresponds. The data was analyzed by operating Correlation Pearson, with a significance of p < 0.05. Result: The result found that there was a substantial correlation between the work stress level and the nurse's caring behaviour with p = 0.008 and r = -0.274, and it was a negative correlation. Discussion: It means that when the stress level of nurses will declined, the nurse's caring behavior automatically will beamplified. Conversely, if the stess level of nurses intensively increased, the nurse's caring behaviour become decreased. Thus, this research is needed to be analyzed further in order to asses the quality of caring behaviour by expanding the connected indicator and variable. It is aimed to improve the professionalism and quality of nurses in giving the best service to patients this research need to be continued further in order to asses the quality of nurse's caring behavior by expanding the variable, which is related to internal factors, such as knowledge, perception, emotion, ect and also connected to external factors, such as environment, both physically and non physically like: climate, human being, social economic, culture and ect.

  6. DETERMINATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BURNOUT LEVELS OF MID LEVEL MANAGERS WORKING IN FOUR AND FIVE STAR HOTEL BUSINESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevket Yirik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study emphasizes the concepts of stress and organizational stress which are the main concepts constituting theoretical foundation of the research; evaluates influences of stress on organization; discusses the concept of organizational burnout as well as its sub-dimensions; and analyses organizational stress and burnout levels of mid level managers working in four and five star hotels. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between organizational stress and organizational burnout levels of mid level managers of four and five star hotel businesses. Survey has been conducted on 318 employees of four and five star hotels operating in Alanya, Turkey. According to the analysis of data, it has been observed that ages of mid level managers have an influence on their organizational stress and burnout levels. Genders of mid level managers are influential on their organizational stress levels while they have no influence on their burnout levels. Education levels of managers influence their organizational stress levels while they have no influence on their burnout levels. The departments of managers are influential both on organizational stress and burnout. Positions of managers influence their burnout levels while they have no influence on their organizational stress levels.

  7. The Influence of Time Management Practices on Job Stress Level among Beginning Secondary Agriculture Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Misty D.; Torres, Robert M.; Tummons, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring the stress of teachers continues to be important--particularly stress levels of beginning agriculture teachers. The study sought to describe the relationship between beginning teachers' perceived ability to manage their time and their level of stress. The Time Management Practices Inventory and the Job Stress Survey were used to measure…

  8. Effect of pertussis toxin pretreated centrally on blood glucose level induced by stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hong-Won; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Im, Hyun-Ju; Hong, Jae-Seung

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of pertussis toxin (PTX) administered centrally in a variety of stress-induced blood glucose level. Mice were exposed to stress after the pretreatment of PTX (0.05 or 0.1 µg) i.c.v. or i.t. once for 6 days. Blood glucose level was measured at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after stress stimulation. The blood glucose level was increased in all stress groups. The blood glucose level reached at maximum level after 30 min of stress stimulation and returned to a normal level after 2 h of stress stimulation in restraint stress, physical, and emotional stress groups. The blood glucose level induced by cold-water swimming stress was gradually increased up to 1 h and returned to the normal level. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment with PTX, a Gi inhibitor, alone produced a hypoglycemia and almost abolished the elevation of the blood level induced by stress stimulation. The central pretreatment with PTX caused a reduction of plasma insulin level, whereas plasma corticosterone level was further up-regulated in all stress models. Our results suggest that the hyperglycemia produced by physical stress, emotional stress, restraint stress, and the cold-water swimming stress appear to be mediated by activation of centrally located PTX-sensitive G proteins. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX appears to due to the reduction of plasma insulin level. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX was accompanied by the reduction of plasma insulin level. Plasma corticosterone level up-regulation by PTX in stress models may be due to a blood glucose homeostatic mechanism.

  9. Predicting levels of Latino depression: acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lucas

    2010-04-01

    Past research has noted that aspects of living in the United States place Latinos at risk for experiencing psychological problems. However, the specific features of the adaptation process that contribute to depression remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the ability of acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping to predict membership into low, medium, and high groups of depression among Latinos. Within a group of 148 Latino adults from the community, a multinomial logistic regression revealed that an Anglo orientation, English competency pressures, and active coping differentiated high from low depression and that a Latino orientation and, to some extent, the pressure to acculturate distinguished medium from low depression. These results highlight a pattern of characteristics that function as risk and protective factors in relation to level of symptom severity. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for Latino mental health, including considerations for intervention and prevention. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress

  11. A Quantitative Examination Whether Education Mitigates Stress Levels among Law Enforcement Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metts, Gary A.

    2012-01-01

    Stress is damaging if it is continual, overwhelming. and prolonged. Law enforcement officers face stressful events daily. A relationship exists between stress levels and the physical and psychological effects to the human body. Although there is a general understanding of the damage stress can do physically and psychologically, many elements that…

  12. Somatotype and stress hormone levels in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handziska, E; Handziski, Z; Gjorgoski, I; Dalip, M

    2015-11-01

    The relationship between somatotype and cortisol and adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) hormone concentrations at rest or after exercise in adolescent soccer players at different time points throughout a soccer season is not understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between somatotype and cortisol and ACTH concentrations at rest and after exercise in adolescent soccer players at different time points during a soccer season. During the first 4 months of the soccer season, 47 soccer players (between 15-17 years of age) were tested at three different time points including at baseline, after 6 weeks, and at the end of 4 months. Testing included anaerobic threshold (AnT, km/h) and maximal speed of running (Max, km/h) were measured with Conconi protocol on treadmill. Before and after a maximal exercise Test, plasma levels of cortisol (ug/dL) and ACTH (pg/ml) were assessed by chemiluminometry enzyme amplificated method. Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotype model was used to determine 13 elements of somatotype. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression were used for statistical analysis (Psoccer training process could indicate a stagnation of training process, accordingly with insignificant changes of AnT. The significant correlations of some somatotypes with stress hormonal responses could only suggest that the somatotype characteristics of young soccer players could be of interest in process of selection and planning of soccer training process with an essential need for more studies.

  13. Effect of advance meditation program on electrocardiogram, blood pressure, and stress level in young healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: AMP has its positive effects on ECG, blood pressure, and stress level. Thus, it can be considered as one of the important nonpharmacological methods for prevention of stress, anxiety, and cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Stress, gender and psychopathology : a multi-level analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Sjoukje Daouia

    2004-01-01

    It seems that no matter where we look, stress exerts strong effects on the physiology and psychophysiology of an organism. Although beneficial in the short run it is not surprising that long term stress can disturb the natural equilibrium state of an animal, given it’ s effects on the extended range

  15. Elevated level of serum triglyceride among high risk stress bank ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to estimate lipid profile among high risk stress bank employees' correlated with heart disorders in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 129 patients with high risk stress employees were involved in this study, which were divided into 69 males and 60 females between the age of 25 to 55 years.

  16. Coping With Stress of Teacher Trainees With Different Levels of Computer Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Ceyhan, Esra

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether levels and styles of coping with the stress of teacher trainees having low and high levels of computer anxiety across a number of variables. This research was carried out with 800 teacher trainees. Data were collected using the Computer Anxiety Scale, Coping With Stress Scale, and an Information Form. The results of the study indicate that the computer anxiety levels of teacher trainees differentiate levels and styles of coping with stress. It was f...

  17. EVALUATION OF PERCEIVED STRESS LEVELS AND ITS SOURCE AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Praveen K; Christofer; Purna Singh; Shivanand

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT Recent reports show high amount of academic stress among the students and chronic stress is shown to have a negative effect on cognitive functioning and learning of students. AIMS The purpose of study was to determine the prevalence of self-perceived stress among dental students and to observe any possible association between the levels of stress and (a) academic year, (b) motivation to study dental science, (c) medium of study at 10+2 level, (d) mother tongue, (e...

  18. Effect of Stress-Response Psycho-Training on the Stress Levels of Mothers with Autistic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Ömer

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of stress-response psycho-training on the stress levels of mothers with autistic children. The research was experimental in design encompassing a pretest-posttest model with control and placebo groups. Participation in the study was voluntary with a total of 28 mothers of autistic children included…

  19. Perceived stress at work is associated with lower levels of DHEA-S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Theorell, Töres; Rockwood, Alan L; Kushnir, Mark M; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2013-01-01

    It is known that long-term psychosocial stress may cause or contribute to different diseases and symptoms and accelerate aging. One of the consequences of prolonged psychosocial stress may be a negative effect on the levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated metabolite dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S). The aim of this study is to investigate whether levels of DHEA and DHEA-S differ in individuals who report perceived stress at work compared to individuals who report no perceived stress at work. Morning fasting DHEA-S and DHEA levels were measured in serum in a non-stressed group (n = 40) and a stressed group (n = 41). DHEA and DHEA-S levels were compared between the groups using ANCOVA, controlling for age. The mean DHEA-S levels were 23% lower in the subjects who reported stress at work compared to the non-stressed group. Statistical analysis (ANCOVA) showed a significant difference in DHEA-S levels between the groups (p = 0.010). There was no difference in DHEA level between the groups. This study indicates that stressed individual have markedly lower levels of DHEA-S. Given the important and beneficial functions of DHEA and DHEA-S, lower levels of DHEA-S may constitute one link between psychosocial stress, ill health and accelerated ageing.

  20. Influence of mechanical stress level in preliminary stress-corrosion testing on fatigue strength of a low-carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleskerova, S.A.; Pakharyan, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    Effect of corrosion and mechanical factors of preliminary stress corrosion of a metal in its fatigue strength, has been investigated. Smooth cylindrical samples of 20 steel have been tested. Preliminary corrosion under stress has been carried out under natural sea conditions. It is shown that mechanical stresses in the case of preliminary corrosion affect fatigue strength of low-carbon steels, decreasing the range of limited durability and fatigue limit. This effect increases with the increase of stress level and agressivity of corrosive medium

  1. Surrounding rock stress analysis of underground high level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wengang; Wang Ju; Wang Guangdi

    2006-01-01

    During decay of nuclear waste, enormous energy was released, which results in temperature change of surrounding rock of depository. Thermal stress was produced because thermal expansion of rock was controlled. Internal structure of surrounding rock was damaged and strength of rock was weakened. So, variation of stress was a dynamic process with the variation of temperature. BeiShan region of Gansu province was determined to be the depository field in the future, it is essential to make research on granite in this region. In the process of experiment, basic physical parameters of granite were analyzed preliminary with MTS. Long range temperature and stress filed was simulated considering the damage effect of surrounding rock, and rules of temperature and stress was achieved. (authors)

  2. Interindividual differences in stress sensitivity: basal and stress-induced cortisol levels differentially predict neural vigilance processing under stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henckens, Marloes J. A. G.; Klumpers, Floris; Everaerd, Daphne; Kooijman, Sabine C.; van Wingen, Guido A.; Fernández, Guillén

    2016-01-01

    Stress exposure is known to precipitate psychological disorders. However, large differences exist in how individuals respond to stressful situations. A major marker for stress sensitivity is hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis function. Here, we studied how interindividual variance in both

  3. What characterizes persons with high levels of perceived stress in Denmark? A national representative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Line; Curtis, Tine; Kristensen, Tage S; Rod Nielsen, Naja

    2008-06-01

    Stress is a growing public health problem, but there are only a few studies with national representative samples on the occurrence of stress. The aim of this study was to assess the level of stress, measured by the Perceived Stress Scale, in Denmark, and to identify and characterize the group with high levels of stress by factors measured at both the individual and neighbourhood levels in a national representative sample of the Danish population. The 10,022 participants in the National Health Interview Survey 2005 were asked about perceived stress and individual factors in a cross-sectional design. Information on neighbourhood factors was derived from a national registry. Data were analysed by means of logistic regression models. Low education, heavy smoking, physical inactivity, lack of social network and poor working conditions were associated with perceived stress. For women, living in a neighbourhood with low average education, and for men, living in a neighbourhood with a high rate of crime and a low degree of ethnic diversity, were associated with higher perceived stress. Perceived stress was also related to indicators of morbidity. The group with high perceived stress is characterized by individual and neighbourhood factors with negative impacts on quality of life and risk of illness. This knowledge can guide future stress prevention efforts. Additionally, the results suggest a negative social component where perceived stress, unhealthy lifestyle and low social status are accumulated, and perceived stress might be used as a measure to identify groups characterized by accumulation of risk factors.

  4. High intensity and reduced volume training attenuates stress and recovery levels in elite swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Rasmussen, Camilla P; Nielsen, Glen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of increased high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume on the stress and recovery levels of elite swimmers. Forty-one elite swimmers participated in the study and were randomly assigned to either a HIT or a control group (CON....... The Recovery Stress Questionnaire - Sport was used to measure the swimmers' stress and recovery levels. After the 12 week intervention, the general stress level was 16.6% (2.6-30.7%; mean and 95% CI) lower and the general recovery level was 6.5% (0.7-12.4%) higher in HIT compared to the CON, after adjusting...... for baseline values. No significant effects could be observed in sports-specific stress or sports-specific recovery. The results indicate that increasing training intensity and reducing training volume for 12 weeks can reduce general stress and increase general recovery levels in competitive swimmers....

  5. Endogenous ROS levels in C. elegans under exogenous stress support revision of oxidative stress theory of life-history tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samson W; Latta, Leigh C; Denver, Dee R; Estes, Suzanne

    2014-07-24

    The oxidative stress theory of life-history tradeoffs states that oxidative stress caused by damaging free radicals directly underpins tradeoffs between reproduction and longevity by altering the allocation of energetic resources between these tasks. We test this theory by characterizing the effects of exogenous oxidative insult and its interaction with thermal stress and diet quality on a suite of life-history traits and correlations in Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes. We also quantify demographic aging rates and endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in live animals. Our findings indicate a tradeoff between investment in reproduction and antioxidant defense (somatic maintenance) consistent with theoretical predictions, but correlations between standard life-history traits yield little evidence that oxidative stress generates strict tradeoffs. Increasing oxidative insult, however, shows a strong tendency to uncouple positive phenotypic correlations and, in particular, to reduce the correlation between reproduction and lifespan. We also found that mild oxidative insult results in lower levels of endogenous ROS accompanied by hormetic changes in lifespan, demographic aging, and reproduction that disappear in combined-stress treatments--consistent with the oxidative stress theory of aging. Our findings demonstrate that oxidative stress is a direct contributor to life-history trait variation and that traditional tradeoffs are not necessary to invoke oxidative stress as a mediator of relationships between life-history traits, supporting previous calls for revisions to theory.

  6. Evaluation of the levels of stress in the elderly living at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Ladeira Garbaccio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the stress level of the elderly assisted by the Primary Health Care of Piumhi, in the Midwest of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in 2010. This was a cross-sectional research with of 64 elderly residents in households. There was a predominance of older women. Regarding chronic diseases 81.3% were bearers of chronic diseases, 75% were cardiac and 29.7% had depression. In the Inventory of Symptoms of Stress for Adults, seniors kept the average 7 (low stress, being more frequent cognitive stress. Female gender was associated with stress level (p<0.05. The elderly showed a good physical and mental status, and we identified low levels of stress, predominantly the cognitive stress type.

  7. Stress Level of Measurement of Public Employees A Research on Public Officials in Eskisehir

    OpenAIRE

    Hüseyin GÜRBÜZ; Rüveyda DOĞAN; Elif GÖRMÜŞ; Gamze Pelin TOKYAY; Dilara ÖZTEKİN; Gökhan ENGİZ

    2014-01-01

    Stress emerges as a concept which negatively affects the efficiency and the productivity of an individual. In addition to the negative and productivity lessening effects of stress, some researchers cited various positive effects of it. A stress level that affects an increase in productivity and that doesn’t cause a deterioration of health is accepted as a positive one and the studies about stress in work life mostly focus on the productivity of the employees.. This study was focused on the fa...

  8. Word-Level Stress Patterns in the Academic Word List

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John; Kandil, Magdi

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses teachers and researchers of English as a second or foreign language who are interested in speech intelligibility training and/or vocabulary acquisition. The study reports a stress-pattern analysis of the Academic Word List (AWL) as made available by Coxhead [TESOL Quarterly 34 (2000) 213]. To examine the AWL in a new way, we…

  9. Effect of sulfonylureas administered centrally on the blood glucose level in immobilization stress model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Naveen; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Lim, Su-Min; Kim, Sung-Su; Jung, Jun-Sub; Hong, Jae-Seung; Suh, Hong-Won

    2015-05-01

    Sulfonylureas are widely used as an antidiabetic drug. In the present study, the effects of sulfonylurea administered supraspinally on immobilization stress-induced blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. Mice were once enforced into immobilization stress for 30 min and returned to the cage. The blood glucose level was measured 30, 60, and 120 min after immobilization stress initiation. We found that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection with 30 µg of glyburide, glipizide, glimepiride or tolazamide attenuated the increased blood glucose level induced by immobilization stress. Immobilization stress causes an elevation of the blood corticosterone and insulin levels. Sulfonylureas pretreated i.c.v. caused a further elevation of the blood corticosterone level when mice were forced into the stress. In addition, sulfonylureas pretreated i.c.v. alone caused an elevation of the plasma insulin level. Furthermore, immobilization stress-induced insulin level was reduced by i.c.v. pretreated sulfonylureas. Our results suggest that lowering effect of sulfonylureas administered supraspinally against immobilization stress-induced increase of the blood glucose level appears to be primarily mediated via elevation of the plasma insulin level.

  10. Effect of stress on serum cholestrol levels in nurses and housewives of Hyderabad - Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watto, F.H.; Memon, M.S.; Memon, A.N.; Ghanghro, A.B.; Yaquib, M.; Watto, M.H.S.; Tirmizi, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    A cohort type study was designed to evaluate environmental, psychological and physiological stresses in nurses and housewives and to correlate with their serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Total 160 females from middle socioeconomic groups (nurses, n=80 and housewives, n=80) aged between 25-45 years participated in this study and subjects were selected from Hyderabad and its adjoining areas. Environmental, psychological and physiological stress levels were measured with likert scale. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were measured by CHOD-PAP method and triglyceride levels were measured by GPO method. Housewives were found to have high levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. The HDL cholesterol were lower. Environmental, psychological and physiological stresses were significantly higher in housewives as compared to the nurses. Highest level of environmental stress was observed in nonworking group i.e. housewives. A significant relation between serum cholesterol levels and three types of stresses was observed. (author)

  11. Modeling of Dust Levels Associated with Potential Utility-Scale Solar Development in the San Luis Valley-Taos Plateau Study Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y. -S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kotamarthi, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hartmann, H. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Patton, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Finster, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The San Luis Valley (SLV)–Taos Plateau study area in south-central Colorado and north-central New Mexico is a large alpine valley surrounded by mountains with an area of approximately 6,263,000 acres (25,345 km2) (Figure ES.1-1). This area receives ample sunshine throughout the year, making it an ideal location for solar energy generation, and there are currently five photovoltaic facilities operating on private lands in the SLV, ranging in capacity from 1 to 30 megawatt (MW). In 2012 the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) launched its Solar Energy Program, which included the identification of four solar energy zones (SEZs) in the SLV totaling 16,308 acres (66 km2), as well as over 50,000 (202 km2) acres of other BLM-administered lands potentially available for application for solar development. The SEZ areas, named Antonito Southeast, De Tilla Gulch, Fourmile East, and Los Mogotes East, were defined by the BLM as areas well-suited for utility-scale (i.e., larger than 20 MW) production of solar energy where solar energy development would be prioritized (BLM 2012). Nonetheless, it was recognized that solar development in the SEZs would result in some unavoidable adverse impacts, and so the BLM initiated a solar regional mitigation strategy (SRMS) study for three of the SEZs (BLM and Argonne 2016). The SRMS is designed to identify residual impacts of solar development in the SEZs (that is, those that cannot be avoided or minimized onsite), identify those residual impacts that warrant compensatory mitigation when considering the regional status and trends of the resources, identify appropriate regional compensatory mitigation locations and actions to address those residual impacts, and recommend appropriate fees to implement those compensatory mitigation measures.

  12. Effects of Swimming Training on Stress Levels of the Students Aged 11-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köroglu, Mihraç; Yigiter, Korkmaz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of the swimming training program on stress levels of the students ages 11-13. To this end, 60 students from Private Sahin School in the Sakarya city participated in the study voluntarily. 60 students were divided into two groups and each group was included 30 students. Stress Level Scale II…

  13. Effects of salt stress levels on five maize ( Zea mays L.) cultivars at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of salt stress levels on five maize ( Zea mays L.) cultivars at germination stage. ... To investigation the effects of salt stress levels (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mM NaCl) on five maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars at ... from 32 Countries:.

  14. Stress steroid levels and the short-term impact of routine dehorning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Routine dehorning procedures resulted in a short-term stress response expressed by a significant increase in fGCM levels 48 h post-dehorning, with stress steroid levels returning to pre-dehorning concentrations 72 h after the procedure. Keywords: faecal glucocorticoid metabolites, non-invasive hormone monitoring, ...

  15. Forced swimming stress does not affect monoamine levels and neurodegeneration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ghulam; Naqvi, Sabira; Mehmood, Shahab; Kabir, Nurul; Dar, Ahsana

    2011-10-01

    The current study was aimed to investigate the correlations between immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST, a behavioral indicator of stress level) and hippocampal monoamine levels (markers of depression), plasma adrenalin level (a peripheral marker of stress) as well as fluoro-jade C staining (a marker of neurodegeneration). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to acute, sub-chronic (7 d) or chronic (14 d) FSTs and immobility time was recorded. Levels of noradrenalin, serotonin and dopamine in the hippocampus, and adrenalin level in the plasma were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Brain sections from rats after chronic forced swimming or rotenone treatment (3 mg/kg subcutaneously for 4 d) were stained with fluoro-jade C. The rats subjected to swimming stress (acute, sub-chronic and chronic) showed long immobility times [(214 +/- 5), (220 +/- 4) and (231 +/- 7) s, respectively], indicating that the animals were under stress. However, the rats did not exhibit significant declines in hippocampal monoamine levels, and the plasma adrenalin level was not significantly increased compared to that in unstressed rats. The rats that underwent chronic swimming stress did not manifest fluoro-jade C staining in brain sections, while degenerating neurons were evident after rotenone treatment. The immobility time in the FST does not correlate with markers of depression (monoamine levels) and internal stress (adrenalin levels and neurodegeneration), hence this parameter may not be a true indicator of stress level.

  16. Academic stress levels were positively associated with sweet food consumption among Korean high-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeonsoo; Yang, Hye Young; Kim, Ae-Jung; Lim, Yunsook

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to identify the association among levels of persistent academic stress, appetite, and dietary habits and to determine the specific types of sweet foods consumed by Korean high-school students according to their academic stress levels. The study participants included 333 high-school students in the 10th to 12th grades in Kyunggi Province, Korea. The level of academic stress was scored with a 75-item academic stress scale and was categorized as high, medium, or low. A food-frequency questionnaire was used to measure the sugar intake from sweet foods. Korean high-school students with a high academic stress level had larger meals than the other students. Compared with students with low academic stress, the students with high academic stress had a higher frequency of sugar intake from the following food types: confectionaries, candies and chocolates, breads, and flavored milk. Moreover, compared with students with low academic stress, the students with high academic stress had a higher total intake of sugar from the following food types: confectionaries, candies, chocolates, flavored milk, traditional Korean beverages, and spicy, sweet, and fried rice cakes. Unhealthy stress-related food choices may compromise high-school students' health and contribute to their morbidity. The findings of the present study could be used to help nutritionists develop effective strategies for nutritional education and counseling to improve adolescent health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative Stress Levels among Residents in Three Chinese Provincial Capitals, 2001 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Weifang; Cottrell, Randall R.; Rockett, Ian R. H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare stress levels among residents in large Chinese cities between 2001 and 2008. Methods Survey data were collected in three mainland Chinese capital cities in two waves, in 2001 and 2008, respectively. Participants were recruited through a multi-stage stratified sampling process. Stress was assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale, Chinese version (CPSS). Descriptive methods were used to estimate mean stress levels and associated 95% confidence intervals. Estimates were adjusted by post-stratification weights. Results Indicating stable stress levels, respective adjusted mean stress scores for the combined samples of study participants were 23.90 (95%CI: 23.68–24.12) in 2001 and 23.69 (95%CI: 23.38–24.01) in 2008. A lower stress level in 2008 than in 2001 manifested among residents who were under 25 years of age; female; with a college or higher level education; divorced, widowed, or separated; members of the managerial and clerical group; students or army personnel; or with an annual income of at least 30,000 RMB. Conclusion The overall stress level did not change among the combined sample of residents in the three Chinese study cities between 2001 and 2008. However, levels remained high and varied across social strata, and may have reflected a national trend among urban residents. Findings indicate a need for a new health policy, and call for the design and implementation of evidence-based interventions that target the highest-risk groups. PMID:23152832

  18. The constant threat of terrorism: stress levels and coping strategies amongst university students of Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayesha Ejaz; Masood, Komal; Dean, Sohni Vicky; Shakir, Tanzila; Kardar, Ahmed Abdul Hafeez; Barlass, Usman; Imam, Syed Haider; Mohmand, Mohammad Ghawar Khan; Ibrahim, Hussain; Khan, Imad Saeed; Akram, Usman; Hasnain, Farid

    2011-04-01

    To assess the levels of stress in the face of terrorism and the adopted coping strategies, amongst the student population of universities in Karachi. A descriptive, cross sectional study was conducted on undergraduate students from four universities of Karachi. Self-administered questionnaires were filled out by 291 students. Pearson Chi-Square test was used to assess associations between stress levels and different variables at a level of significance of 0.05%. A total of 65.8% of the students had mild stress levels, 91.5% of university students were exposed to terrorism through television, while only 26.5% students reported personal exposure to terrorism. 67.4% students were forbidden by their parents to go out (p = 0.002). Most of those who had self exposure to an attack were the ones whose parents forbade them from going out (p = 0.00). Most commonly used coping strategy was increased faith in religion. Irritability was the most common stress symptom. A majority of students studying in universities of Karachi had mild stress levels due to the constant threat of terrorism whereas a minority had severe stress levels. Possible reasons for resilience and only mild stress levels could be the history of Karachi's internal conflicts and its prolonged duration of being exposed to terrorism. These students who are positive for stress need to be targeted for counseling either through the media or through their universities. More extensive research is needed in this area.

  19. Association between Inflammatory Potential of Diet and Stress Levels in Adolescent Women in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivappa, Nitin; Hebert, James R; Rashidkhani, Bahram

    2017-02-01

    The relation between diet and stress has not been widely explored. In this study, we examined the association between the inflammatory potential of diet and levels of stress among adolescent girls in Iran. A total of 299 adolescent girls aged 15-18 years were recruited during 2014-2015. Stress was assessed using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS)-21 scale. Data were analyzed as continuous DASS scores and as a dichotomous outcome with a cut-off value of 9. The dietary inflammatory index (DII) is a literature-derived population-based dietary. DII scores were index computed from dietary intake assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions were used to calculate beta estimates and odds ratios adjusting for potential confounding factors. In total, 84 girls (28% of the entire study sample) had at least a moderate level of stress symptoms (DASS > 9). Girls with the most pro-inflammatory diet (tertile 3) had higher DASS stress scores (β = 2.75; 95% CI = 1.05, 4.46) and were at 3.48 times (95% CI = 1.33, 9.09) risk of having at least moderate level of stress compared to girls with the most anti-inflammatory diets (tertile 1). These data suggest that Iranian adolescent girls with a pro-inflammatory diet, as shown by higher DII scores, had higher levels of stress and greater odds of having at least a moderate level of stress symptoms.

  20. Protein intake and stress levels in nurses and housewives of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattoo, Feroza Hamid; Memon, Muhammad Saleh; Memon, Allah Nawaz; Wattoo, Muhammad Hamid Sarwar; Asad, Muhammad Javaid; Siddique, Farzana

    2011-01-01

    Stress has many biological effects on human daily life. In the present study, dietary protein intake was correlated with the investigated stress levels of nurses and housewives of the targeted urban population. Age group ranged from 30 to 45 years and both the groups belonged to middle socioeconomic status. After calculations of environmental, psychological and physiological stresses, it was observed that the levels of stress in housewives were significantly higher than those of nurses. Recommended dietary allowances, RDA and actual protein intakes, API were also compared in both the groups. The found protein intake was less in housewives as compared to that of nurses. PMID:23961140

  1. Stress levels and depressive symptoms in NICU mothers in the early postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; McMahon, Erin; Lahav, Amir

    2014-11-01

    This study examined whether particular maternal and infant factors can identify mothers at risk for increased stress upon admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Eighty-five mothers of preterm infants (25-34 weeks gestation) were assessed using the Parental Stressor Scale (PSS:NICU) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) within 3.24 ± 1.58 d postpartum. Hierarchical linear regression models were used to determine the extent to which maternal stress is influenced by individual factors. Fifty-two percent of mothers experienced increased stress (PSS:NICU score ≥3) and 38% had significant depressive symptoms (EPDS score ≥10). Stress related to alterations in parental role was the most significant source of stress among NICU mothers. Distance from the hospital and married marital status were significant predictors for stress related to alterations in parental role (p = 0.003) and NICU sights and sounds (p = 0.01), respectively. Higher stress levels were associated with higher depressive scores (p = 0.001). Maternal mental health factors, demographic factors, pregnancy factors and infant characteristics were not associated with increased stress. Elevated stress levels and depressive symptoms are already present in mothers of preterm infants upon NICU admission. Being married or living long distance from the hospital is associated with higher stress. Future work is needed to develop effective interventions for alleviating stress in NICU mothers and preventing its potential development into postnatal depression.

  2. The effects of acute foot shock stress on empathy levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakilic, Aslı; Kizildag, Servet; Kandis, Sevim; Guvendi, Guven; Koc, Basar; Camsari, Gamze B; Camsari, Ulas M; Ates, Mehmet; Arda, Sevil Gonenc; Uysal, Nazan

    2018-09-03

    Empathy defined as the ability to understand and the share the feelings, thoughts, and attitudes of another, is an important skill in survival and reproduction. Among many factors that affect empathy include psychological stress, anxiety states. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of acute psychological stress on empathic behavior and its association with oxytocin and vasopressin levels in amygdala and prefrontal cortex. Rats were subjected to 0.2 mA (low) and 1.6 mA (high) intensity of foot shock stress for duration of 20 min. Empathic behavior was found to be improved as a response to low intensity stress, but not to high intensity stress. As a response to lower intensity stress, vasopressin was increased in prefrontal cortex and amygdala; oxytocin was increased in only prefrontal cortex, and corticosterone levels increased in general. Anxiety indicators did not change in low intensity stress group yet; high intensity stress group demonstrated a lesser degree of anxiety response. High intensity stress group stayed unexpectedly more active in middle area of elevated plus maze test equipment, which may support impaired executive decision making abilities in the setting of high anxiety states. Further research is needed to investigate gender effects, the role of dopaminergic system and other stress related pathways in acute stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Transgenic tobacco plants having a higher level of methionine are more sensitive to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacham, Yael; Matityahu, Ifat; Amir, Rachel

    2017-07-01

    Methionine is an essential amino acid the low level of which limits the nutritional quality of plants. We formerly produced transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants overexpressing CYSTATHIONE γ-SYNTHASE (CGS) (FA plants), methionine's main regulatory enzyme. These plants accumulate significantly higher levels of methionine compared with wild-type (WT) plants. The aim of this study was to gain more knowledge about the effect of higher methionine content on the metabolic profile of vegetative tissue and on the morphological and physiological phenotypes. FA plants exhibit slightly reduced growth, and metabolic profiling analysis shows that they have higher contents of stress-related metabolites. Despite this, FA plants were more sensitive to short- and long-term oxidative stresses. In addition, compared with WT plants and transgenic plants expressing an empty vector, the primary metabolic profile of FA was altered less during oxidative stress. Based on morphological and metabolic phenotypes, we strongly proposed that FA plants having higher levels of methionine suffer from stress under non-stress conditions. This might be one of the reasons for their lesser ability to cope with oxidative stress when it appeared. The observation that their metabolic profiling is much less responsive to stress compared with control plants indicates that the delta changes in metabolite contents between non-stress and stress conditions is important for enabling the plants to cope with stress conditions. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  4. Prevalence of depression and its relation to stress level among medical students in Puducherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ganesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Currently, depression among medical students is an important health issue at the global level. There is also a paucity of information on its relation to the stress level. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of depression and its relation to stress level and other factors among medical students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical students at a tertiary care medical institution in Puducherry, coastal south India. Beck Depression Inventory Scale was used for screening of depression and Cohen's Perceived Stress scale to assess perceived stress level. Data on associated factors were collected by self-administered questionnaire. Results: The overall prevalence of depression was found to be 48.4% (215/444. According to the cutoff scores, 229 (51.6% students scored as normal (0–9, 149 (33.6% as mild (10–18, 60 (13.5% as moderate (19–29, 3 (0.7% as severe (30–40, and 3 (0.7% students scored as very severe (>40 depression. Depression was significantly less among those with mild stress (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.010 and moderate stress level (adjusted OR = 0.099 compared to severe stress level and those without interpersonal problems (adjusted OR = 0.448. Conclusion: Depression is more common among medical students. Stress coping mechanisms and improvement of interpersonal relationship may help to reduce depressive symptoms among medical students.

  5. Restraint stress in lactating mice alters the levels of sulfur-containing amino acids in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigawa, Takuma; Nagamachi, Satsuki; Ikeda, Hiromi; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2018-03-30

    It is well known that maternal stress during the gestation and lactation periods induces abnormal behavior in the offspring and causes a lowering of the offspring's body weight. Various causes of maternal stress during the lactation period, relating to, for example, maternal nutritional status and reduced maternal care, have been considered. However, little is known about the effects on milk of maternal stress during the lactation period. The current study aimed to determine whether free amino acids, with special reference to sulfur-containing amino acids in milk, are altered by restraint stress in lactating mice. The dams in the stress group were restrained for 30 min at postnatal days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12. Restraint stress caused a reduction in the body weight of lactating mice. The concentration of taurine and cystathionine in milk was significantly higher in the stress group, though stress did not alter their concentration in maternal plasma. The ratio of taurine concentration in milk to its concentration in maternal plasma was significantly higher in the stress group, suggesting that stress promoted taurine transportation into milk. Furthermore, taurine concentration in milk was positively correlated with corticosterone levels in plasma. In conclusion, restraint stress in lactating mice caused the changes in the metabolism and in the transportation of sulfur-containing amino acids and resulted in higher taurine concentration in milk. Taurine concentration in milk could also be a good parameter for determining stress status in dams.

  6. Couple-level Minority Stress: An Examination of Same-sex Couples' Unique Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; LeBlanc, Allen J; de Vries, Brian; Alston-Stepnitz, Eli; Stephenson, Rob; Woodyatt, Cory

    2017-12-01

    Social stress resulting from stigma, prejudice, and discrimination-"minority stress"-negatively impacts sexual minority individuals' health and relational well-being. The present study examined how being in a same-sex couple can result in exposure to unique minority stressors not accounted for at the individual level. Relationship timeline interviews were conducted with 120 same-sex couples equally distributed across two study sites (Atlanta and San Francisco), gender (male and female), and relationship duration (at least six months but less than three years, at least three years but less than seven years, and seven or more years). Directed content analyses identified 17 unique couple-level minority stressors experienced within nine distinct social contexts. Analyses also revealed experiences of dyadic minority stress processes (stress discrepancies and stress contagion). These findings can be useful in future efforts to better understand and address the cumulative impact of minority stress on relational well-being and individual health.

  7. Displacement behaviour is associated with reduced stress levels among men but not women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changiz Mohiyeddini

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the ability to cope with stress may contribute to the higher prevalence of stress-related disorders among women compared to men. We recently provided evidence that displacement behaviour--activities such as scratching and face touching--represents an important strategy for coping with stressful situations: in a healthy population of men, displacement behaviour during a social stress test attenuated the relationship between anxiety experienced prior to this test, and the subsequent self-reported experience of stress. Here, we extend this work to look at physiological and cognitive (in addition to self-reported measures of stress, and study both men and women in order to investigate whether sex moderates the link between displacement behaviour and the response to stress. In a healthy study population, we quantified displacement behaviour, heart rate and cognitive performance during the Trier Social Stress Test, and used self-report questionnaires to assess the experience of stress afterwards. Men engaged in displacement behaviour about twice as often as women, and subsequently reported lower levels of stress. Bivariate correlations revealed that for men, higher rates of displacement behaviour were associated with decreased self-reported stress, fewer mistakes in the cognitive task and a trend towards lower heart rate; no relationships between displacement behaviour and stress measures were found for women. Moreover, moderation analyses revealed that high rates of displacement behaviour were associated with lower stress levels in men but not in women, and that high displacement behaviour rates were associated with poorer cognitive performance in women, but not men. These results point to an important sex difference in coping strategies, and highlight new avenues for research into sex biases in stress-related disorders.

  8. Military Experience and Levels of Stress and Coping in Police Officers

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley, Tara A.; Violanti, John M.; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2013-01-01

    Policing is a stressful occupation and working in this environment may make officers more vulnerable to adverse psychological and physiological outcomes. The impact of prior military experience on work stress and coping strategies has not been well-studied in police. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine differences in levels of police-related stress and coping in officers with and without military experience. Participants were 452 police officers from the Buffalo Cardio-me...

  9. The Correlation of Organizational Role Stressors with Stress Level of Icu Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Nursalam, Nursalam; Efendi, Ferry; Puspawati, Ni Luh Putu Dewi

    2009-01-01

    Introduction : Work stress which is often experienced by ICU nurses may affects nurse’s performance, nurse’s health and wealth so that the factors which may affect work stress such as organizational role stressors must be noticed. This study was aimed to explain the correlation between organizational role stressors and work stress level in ICU Nurses. Method : This study used cross-sectional design  involved 13 respondents, taken by purposive sampling. The independent variable was organizatio...

  10. The Correlation of Organizational Role Stressors with Stress Level of ICU Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Nursalam, Nursalam; Efendi, Ferry; Puspawati, Ni Luh Putu Dewi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction : Work stress which is often experienced by ICU nurses may affects nurse’s performance, nurse’s health and wealth so that the factors which may affect work stress such as organizational role stressors must be noticed. This study was aimed to explain the correlation between organizational role stressors and work stress level in ICU Nurses. Method : This study used cross-sectional design  involved 13 respondents, taken by purposive sampling. The independent variable was organizatio...

  11. Myeloperoxidase enzyme levels and oxidative stress in bipolar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-31

    May 31, 2010 ... Patients with BD had significantly higher mean hsCRP levels than healthy controls. However .... MPO is a critical component of the oxidative activity of ..... nervous system vulnerability to oxidative stres (Sorce and. Krause ...

  12. Study of Level of Stress in the Parents of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Sujata; Gandhi, Raghu; Anand, Vidhu

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parents who have children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience high level of stress related to caring for their children. But not much research has been conducted in this area in India. This study aimed to assess the stress of parenting children with ADHD. Methods: This is a clinic based comparative…

  13. Stress Levels of Kuwaiti Mothers of Children with SLD: Does Work and Educational Status Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazemi, Saad S.; Hadadian, Azar; Merbler, John B.; Wang, Cen

    2015-01-01

    Existing research literature indicates that parents of children with disabilities have higher stress. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in stress levels between mothers in relation to their children with specific learning disabilities (SLD). A sub sample of 91 mothers participated in the study. The outcome of the research…

  14. Facility-level association of preoperative stress testing and postoperative adverse cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Javier A; Graham, Laura; Thiruvoipati, Thejasvi; Grunwald, Gary; Armstrong, Ehrin J; Maddox, Thomas M; Hawn, Mary T; Bradley, Steven M

    2018-06-22

    Despite limited indications, preoperative stress testing is often used prior to non-cardiac surgery. Patient-level analyses of stress testing and outcomes are limited by case mix and selection bias. Therefore, we sought to describe facility-level rates of preoperative stress testing for non-cardiac surgery, and to determine the association between facility-level preoperative stress testing and postoperative major adverse cardiac events (MACE). We identified patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery within 2 years of percutaneous coronary intervention in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care System, from 2004 to 2011, facility-level rates of preoperative stress testing and postoperative MACE (death, myocardial infarction (MI) or revascularisation within 30 days). We determined risk-standardised facility-level rates of stress testing and postoperative MACE, and the relationship between facility-level preoperative stress testing and postoperative MACE. Among 29 937 patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery at 131 VA facilities, the median facility rate of preoperative stress testing was 13.2% (IQR 9.7%-15.9%; range 6.0%-21.5%), and 30-day postoperative MACE was 4.0% (IQR 2.4%-5.4%). After risk standardisation, the median facility-level rate of stress testing was 12.7% (IQR 8.4%-17.4%) and postoperative MACE was 3.8% (IQR 2.3%-5.6%). There was no correlation between risk-standardised stress testing and composite MACE at the facility level (r=0.022, p=0.81), or with individual outcomes of death, MI or revascularisation. In a national cohort of veterans undergoing non-cardiac surgery, we observed substantial variation in facility-level rates of preoperative stress testing. Facilities with higher rates of preoperative stress testing were not associated with better postoperative outcomes. These findings suggest an opportunity to reduce variation in preoperative stress testing without sacrificing patient outcomes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise

  15. Frequency and Wavevector Dependence of the Atomic Level Stress-Stress Correlation Function in a Model Supercooled Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levashov, Valentin A.; Morris, James R.; Egami, Takeshi

    2012-02-01

    Temporal and spatial correlations among the local atomic level shear stresses were studied for a model liquid iron by molecular dynamics simulation [PRL 106,115703]. Integration over time and space of the shear stress correlation function F(r,t) yields viscosity via Green-Kubo relation. The stress correlation function in time and space F(r,t) was Fourier transformed to study the dependence on frequency, E, and wave vector, Q. The results, F(Q,E), showed damped shear stress waves propagating in the liquid for small Q at high and low temperatures. We also observed additional diffuse feature that appears as temperature is reduced below crossover temperature of potential energy landscape at relatively low frequencies at small Q. We suggest that this additional feature might be related to dynamic heterogeneity and boson peaks. We also discuss a relation between the time-scale of the stress-stress correlation function and the alpha-relaxation time of the intermediate self-scattering function S(Q,E).

  16. Teacher Stress Inventory: validation of the Greek version and perceived stress levels among 3,447 educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourmousi, Ntina; Darviri, Christina; Varvogli, Liza; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C

    2015-01-01

    The Teacher Stress Inventory (TSI) is an instrument for measuring occupational stress in teachers. This study aimed to translate and adapt it for use in Greece, and then assess its reliability and validity. The Greek versions of the TSI and the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) were posted on all Greek educators' official sites during May 2012. A nationwide sample of 3,447 teachers of all levels and specialties completed the questionnaires via the Internet. Reliability was determined by the calculation of Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted and validity was further examined by investigating the correlation of the TSI with the PSS-14 and their association with demographics and work-related factors. Satisfactory Cronbach's alpha values (above 0.70) were found for all TSI dimensions. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the two-factor construct of TSI (root mean square error of approximation, comparative fit index, and goodness-of-fit index values were 0.079, 0.956, and 0.951, respectively), confirming the pre-established theory for the two latent variables, Stress Sources and Stress Manifestations. Significant correlations were found between TSI subscales, PSS-14 sex, age, lack of support, and students' difficulties. The Greek version of the TSI was found to have satisfactory psychometric properties, and its use for assessing stress in Greek teachers is warranted.

  17. Effect of year of study on stress levels in male undergraduate dental students

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    Alzahem AM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah M Alzahem,1 Henk T van der Molen,2 Benjamin J de Boer31Advanced Education in General Dentistry (AEGD Residency Program, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center/King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences/National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 3Clinical Psychology, Princess Nora University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjective: Stress among dental students can be a significant threat, resulting in physical and/or mental illness, and have a negative effect on students' performance and the professional practice of dentistry. Stress can occur from different sources. The purpose of this study is to test whether the year of study has an effect on the stress levels of dental students.Method: Our study consisted of a cross-sectional survey using a modified version of the Dental Environment Stress (DES questionnaire. The questionnaires were filled out by male undergraduate dental students at King Saud University in Riyadh City during the 2010–2011 academic year (n = 214.Results: The results show the most common sources of stress: examinations and completing clinical requirements. Moreover, in the five-year lecture-based traditional curriculum, the third year students reported the highest level of stress, whereas the first year reported the lowest level of stress.Conclusion: Third year undergraduate dental students reported the highest level of stress. This stress could be reduced by reviewing and modifying the dental curriculum by allowing students to have contact with patients more gradually, starting from the first year, in addition to adding stress prevention and intervention programs in dental curricula.Keywords: dental, education, students, stress, study year

  18. Association between perceived stress, alcohol consumption levels and obesity in Koreans.

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    Yoon, Seung-Jin; Kim, Hae-Joon; Doo, Miae

    2016-01-01

    Coping with stress often leads to unhealthy behaviors that can have an impact on the development of obesity. Therefore, this study is investigate the effect of perceived stress level on alcohol consumption habits, as well as the effect of the interaction between alcohol consumption habits and stress level on obesity in Koreans. We analyzed perceived stress, alcohol consumption habits (alcohol consumption status, quantity, and alcohol use disorders identification test) and the anthropometrics of 6,229 subjects from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The gender-based differences of the effect of the perceived level of stress on alcohol consumption habits and anthropometric measurements, as well as the interaction of the perceived level of stress and alcohol consumption habits on prevalence or ORs of obesity were analyzed. The subjects with high perceived stress showed higher proportions for unhealthy alcohol consumption habits than those with low perceived stress [ORs (95% CIs)=1.35 (1.19-1.54), 1.95 (1.68-2.26), and 1.87 (1.60-2.19) for alcohol consumption status, alcohol consumption quantity, and alcohol use disorders identification test, respectively]. Men showed significant interactions between the perceived stress and all alcohol consumption habits with respect to obesity [ORs (95% CIs)=1.28 (1.06-1.55), 1.81 (1.52-2.16), and 1.40 (1.17-1.68) for alcohol consumption status, alcohol consumption quantity, and alcohol use disorders identification test, respectively]. Among women, interactions between the perceived stress and alcohol consumption status [ORs (95% CIs)=0.70 (0.60-0.83)] and alcohol consumption quantity [ORs (95% CIs)=0.93 (0.54-1.36)] in relation to obesity were found to be significant. Our study demonstrated that the perceived stress influenced alcohol consumption habits that may have impacted obesity.

  19. Investigation of glyphosate resistance levels and target-site based resistance (TSR) mechanisms in Conyza canadensis (L.) from apple orchards around areas of Bohai seas and Loess Plateau in China.

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    Mei, Yu; Xu, Yufang; Wang, Shipeng; Qiu, Lihong; Zheng, Mingqi

    2018-04-01

    The resistance levels to glyphosate and target-site based resistance mechanisms in susceptible (S) and resistant (R) Conyza canadensis (L.) populations, which were collected from apple orchards around areas of Bohai seas and Loess Plateau in China, were investigated. Among forty C. canadensis populations, eighteen populations (45%) were still susceptible; fourteen populations (35%) evolved low resistance levels resistance to glyphosate with resistance index (RI) of 2.02 to 3.90. In contrast, eight populations (20%) evolved medium resistance levels with RI of 4.35 to 8.38. The shikimic acid concentrations in R populations were highly negative relative with the glyphosate resistance levels in C. canadensis, the Pearson correlation coefficient was -0.82 treated by glyphosate at 1.8mg/L. Three 5-enoylpyruvylshikimate 3'-phosphate synthase genes (EPSPS1, EPSPS2 and EPSPS3) were cloned in all S and glyphosate-resistant C. canadensis populations. No amino acid substitution was identified at site of 102 and 106 in three EPSPS genes, which were reported to confer glyphosate resistance in other weed species. The relative expression level of EPSPS mRNA in R populations (SD07, LN05, SHX06 and SD09) was 4.5 to 13.2 times higher than in S biotype. The Pearson correlation coefficient between EPSPS expression levels and RI was 0.79, which indicated the over expression of EPSPS mRNA may cause these R populations evolve higher resistance level to glyphosate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dramatic and long-term lake level changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from Cryosat-2 altimeter: validation and augmentation by results from repeat altimeter missions and satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Cheinway; Huang, YongRuei; Cheng, Ys; Shen, WenBin; Pan, Yuanjin

    2017-04-01

    The mean elevation of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) exceeds 4000 m. Lake levels in the QTP are less affected by human activities than elsewhere, and may better reflect the state of contemporary climate change. Here ground-based lake level measurements are rare. Repeat altimeter missions, particularly those from the TOPEX and ERS series of altimetry, have provided long-term lake level observations in the QTP, but their large cross-track distances allow only few lakes to be monitored. In contrast, the Cryosat-2 altimeter, equipped with the new sensor SIRAL (interferometric/ synthetic aperture radar altimeter), provides a much better ranging accuracy and a finer spatial coverage than these repeated missions, and can detect water level changes over a large number of lakes in the QTP. In this study, Cryosat-2 data are used to determine lake level changes over 75˚E-100˚E and 28˚N-37.5˚N, where Cryosat-2 covers 60 lakes and SARAL/ AltiKa covers 32 lakes from 2013 to 2016. Over a lake, Cryosat-2 in different cycles can pass through different spots of the lake, making the numbers of observations non-uniform and requiring corrections for lake slopes. Four cases are investigated to cope with these situations: (1) neglecting inconsistency in data volume and lake slopes (2) considering data volume, (3) considering lake slopes only, and (4) considering both data volume and lake slopes. The CRYOSAT-2 result is then compared with the result from the SARAL to determine the best case. Because Cryosat-2 is available from 2010 to 2016, Jason-2 data are used to fill gaps between the time series of Cryosat-2 and ICESat (2003-2009) to obtain >10 years of lake level series. The Cryosat-2 result shows dramatic lake level rises in Lakes Kusai, Zhuoaihu and Salt in 2011 caused by floods. Landsat satellite imagery assists the determination and interpretation of such rises.

  1. Effect of blood glucose level on acute stress response of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

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    Jiang, Danli; Wu, Yubo; Huang, Di; Ren, Xing; Wang, Yan

    2017-10-01

    Stress has a considerable impact on welfare and productivity of fish, and blood glucose level of fish may be a factor modulating stress response. This study evaluated the effect of blood glucose level and handling on acute stress response of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Fish were intraperitoneally injected with glucose at 0, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg g -1 body mass (BM) and then were exposed to handling for 5 min. Glucose injection resulted in increase of plasma glucose level and liver glycogen content and decrease of plasma lactate level. Handling resulted in increase of plasma levels of cortisol, glucose, and lactate and plasma lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and decrease of liver glycogen content. At 1 h post-stress, the plasma cortisol level was lower in the stressed fish injected with glucose at 0.5 mg g -1 BM than the stressed fish injected with glucose at 0, 0.2, and 1.0 mg g -1 BM. No significant differences were found in the activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) in the liver between the stressed and unstressed fish, regardless of the dose of glucose injection. At 1 h post-stress, the liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activity was higher in the fish without glucose injection than in the fish injected with glucose. This study reveals that blood glucose level can affect stress response of grass carp by modulating cortisol release and glucose homeostasis through glycogen metabolism and gluconeogenesis in the liver.

  2. The association between stress levels and food consumption among Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Sajjadi, Firouzeh; Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein

    2013-03-01

    Stress has been considered as a highly common disorder that has a complicated relation with dietary intake and has been linked with both increased and decreased dietary intake. This study was conducted to assess the association between food consumption and stress levels in an Iranian adult population. In this cross-sectional study, data from the third phase of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) that was conducted for cardiovascular diseases prevention and health promotion were used. Nine thousand five hundred forty-nine adults aged ≥ 18 years participated in the study. Dietary habits were assessed by a 49- item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Stress levels were assessed by General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). The participants were separated on the basis of their stress levels into two groups as the low- and high- stress groups.  Individuals in the low- stress group were significantly younger and tended to have higher physical activity and education level, lower LDL cholesterol, and were less likely to be current smokers. Dietary intake of unsaturated oils, grains, fruits, vegetables, meat, and dairy products was significantly higher in the low- stress group whereas dietary intake of saturated oils was significantly lower; moreover, Global Dietary Index (GDI) was lower in the low- stress group. We found a significant positive association between stress level, GDI (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.14 - 1.35), and saturated oils (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.08 - 1.28) and inverse association between stress level and intake of unsaturated oils (OR: 0.84 ; 95% CI: 0.77 - 0.91), fruits and vegetables (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.76 - 0.90), meat (OR: 0.88; 95%CI: 0.82 - 0.97),and dairy products (OR: 0.88 ; 95% CI: 0.81 - 0.96) after adjustments based on sex, age, smoking, and physical activity. Our results showed a significant positive association between dietary intake and stress. We must have a special attention to dietary intake in stress management program of high- stress

  3. Evaluating Heavy Metal Stress Levels in Rice Based on Remote Sensing Phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianjiao; Liu, Xiangnan; Liu, Meiling; Wu, Ling

    2018-03-14

    Heavy metal pollution of croplands is a major environmental problem worldwide. Methods for accurately and quickly monitoring heavy metal stress have important practical significance. Many studies have explored heavy metal stress in rice in relation to physiological function or physiological factors, but few studies have considered phenology, which can be sensitive to heavy metal stress. In this study, we used an integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time-series image set to extract remote sensing phenology. A phenological indicator relatively sensitive to heavy metal stress was chosen from the obtained phenological periods and phenological parameters. The Dry Weight of Roots (WRT), which directly affected by heavy metal stress, was simulated by the World Food Study (WOFOST) model; then, a feature space based on the phenological indicator and WRT was established for monitoring heavy metal stress. The results indicated that the feature space can distinguish the heavy metal stress levels in rice, with accuracy greater than 95% for distinguishing the severe stress level. This finding provides scientific evidence for combining rice phenology and physiological characteristics in time and space, and the method is useful to monitor heavy metal stress in rice.

  4. [Appraisal of occupational stress in different gender, age, work duration, educational level and marital status groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Jin, Tai-Yi

    2006-05-01

    This study was conducted to assess occupational stress in different gender, age, work duration, educational level and marital status group. A test of occupational stress in different gender, age, work duration, educational level and marital status group, was carried out with revised occupational stress inventory (OSI-R) for 4278 participants. The results of gender show that there are heavier occupational role, stronger interpersonal and physical strain in male than that in female, and the differences are statistically significant (P 0.05). The occupational stress so as to improve the work ability of different groups. Different measure should be taken to reduce the occupational stress so as to improve the work ability of different groups.

  5. Lithium modulates the chronic stress-induced effect on blood glucose level of male rats

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    Popović Nataša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined gross changes in the mass of whole adrenal glands and that of the adrenal cortex, as well as the serum corticosterone and glucose level of mature male Wistar rats subjected to three different treatments: animals subjected to chronic restraint-stress, animals injected with lithium (Li and chronically stressed rats treated with Li. Under all three conditions we observed hypertrophy of whole adrenals, as well as the adrenal cortices. Chronic restraint stress, solely or in combination with Li treatment, significantly elevated the corticosterone level, but did not change the blood glucose level. Animals treated only with Li exhibited an elevated serum corticosterone level and blood glucose level. The aim of our study was to investigate the modulation of the chronic stress-induced effect on the blood glucose level by lithium, as a possible mechanism of avoiding the damage caused by chronic stress. Our results showed that lithium is an agent of choice which may help to reduce stress-elevated corticosterone and replenish exhausted glucose storages in an organism.

  6. Can community structure track sea-level rise? Stress and competitive controls in tidal wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schile, Lisa M; Callaway, John C; Suding, Katharine N; Kelly, N Maggi

    2017-02-01

    Climate change impacts, such as accelerated sea-level rise, will affect stress gradients, yet impacts on competition/stress tolerance trade-offs and shifts in distributions are unclear. Ecosystems with strong stress gradients, such as estuaries, allow for space-for-time substitutions of stress factors and can give insight into future climate-related shifts in both resource and nonresource stresses. We tested the stress gradient hypothesis and examined the effect of increased inundation stress and biotic interactions on growth and survival of two congeneric wetland sedges, Schoenoplectus acutus and Schoenoplectus americanus . We simulated sea-level rise across existing marsh elevations and those not currently found to reflect potential future sea-level rise conditions in two tidal wetlands differing in salinity. Plants were grown individually and together at five tidal elevations, the lowest simulating an 80-cm increase in sea level, and harvested to assess differences in biomass after one growing season. Inundation time, salinity, sulfides, and redox potential were measured concurrently. As predicted, increasing inundation reduced biomass of the species commonly found at higher marsh elevations, with little effect on the species found along channel margins. The presence of neighbors reduced total biomass of both species, particularly at the highest elevation; facilitation did not occur at any elevation. Contrary to predictions, we documented the competitive superiority of the stress tolerator under increased inundation, which was not predicted by the stress gradient hypothesis. Multifactor manipulation experiments addressing plant response to accelerated climate change are integral to creating a more realistic, valuable, and needed assessment of potential ecosystem response. Our results point to the important and unpredicted synergies between physical stressors, which are predicted to increase in intensity with climate change, and competitive forces on biomass as

  7. Stress, depression, quality of life and salivary cortisol levels in community health agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Berenice Scaletzky; Cocco, Rafaela Abreu; Radtke, Vinicius Augusto; Medeiros, João Ricardo Carvalho; Oses, Jean Pierre; Wiener, Carolina David; Jansen, Karen

    2016-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with depression and stress with perceived quality of life and the salivary cortisol levels in Community Health Agent (CHA). Materials and Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study of CHAs in Pelotas-RS, Brazil. Data collection, including sociodemographic information and factors related to work and health. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) II was used to assess depressive symptoms, Inventory of Stress Symptoms Lipp (ISSL) was used for the analysis of stress and the WHOQOL-BREF was used to investigate quality of life. Salivary cortisol was quantified via ELISA test. The assessments showed that 71.0% are in a state of stress resistance, 30.5% were in the alert state of stress and 32.8% were in the stress state of exhaustion. Depressive episodes (BDI≥12) were observed in 28.2%. The environmental domain had the lowest score for quality of life. We observed significantly higher salivary cortisol levels in CHAs with less than 1 year of service and with the lowest quality of life scores in the environmental subsection. A high prevalence of stress and depression was observed in this sample of CHAs. In addition, the worst levels of quality of life were identified in the environmental subsection. Cortisol levels corroborate these findings regarding quality of life within the environmental domain and began working less than a year previously.

  8. Are PTH levels related to oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic kidney disease patients on hemodialysis?

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    Marcel Jaqueto

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Patients at end stage renal disease have higher levels of inflammation and oxidative stress than the general population. Many factors contribute to these issues, and the parathyroid hormone (PTH is also implicated. Objective: The study was conducted in order to assess the relationship between PTH levels and inflammation and oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients. Methods: Cross-sectional study with patients of two hemodialysis facilities in Londrina, Brazil. Patients with other conditions known to generate oxidative stress and inflammation were excluded. Blood levels of PTH and biochemical parameters of inflammation (interleukins 1 and 6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and oxidative stress (total plasma antioxidant capacity, malonic dialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxidation, advanced oxidation protein products, quantification of nitric oxide metabolites, and 8-isoprostane were measured before a dialysis session. Then, we made correlation analyses between PTH levels - either as the continuous variable or categorized into tertiles-, and inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers. Results: PTH did not show any correlation with the tested inflammation and oxidative stress parameters, nor as continuous variable neither as categorical variable. Conclusion: In this descriptive study, the results suggest that the inflammation and oxidative stress of hemodialysis patients probably arise from mechanisms other than secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  9. Teacher Stress Inventory: validation of the Greek version and perceived stress levels among 3,447 educators

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    Kourmousi N

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ntina Kourmousi, Christina Darviri, Liza Varvogli, Evangelos C Alexopoulos School of Medicine, University of Athens, Athens, Greece Background: The Teacher Stress Inventory (TSI is an instrument for measuring occupational stress in teachers. This study aimed to translate and adapt it for use in Greece, and then assess its reliability and validity. Methods: The Greek versions of the TSI and the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14 were posted on all Greek educators' official sites during May 2012. A nationwide sample of 3,447 teachers of all levels and specialties completed the questionnaires via the Internet. Reliability was determined by the calculation of Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted and validity was further examined by investigating the correlation of the TSI with the PSS-14 and their association with demographics and work-related factors. Results: Satisfactory Cronbach's alpha values (above 0.70 were found for all TSI dimensions. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the two-factor construct of TSI (root mean square error of approximation, comparative fit index, and goodness-of-fit index values were 0.079, 0.956, and 0.951, respectively, confirming the pre-established theory for the two latent variables, Stress Sources and Stress Manifestations. Significant correlations were found between TSI subscales, PSS-14 sex, age, lack of support, and students' difficulties. Conclusion: The Greek version of the TSI was found to have satisfactory psychometric properties, and its use for assessing stress in Greek teachers is warranted. Keywords: TSI, reliability, validity, Greek educators, occupational stress, psychosocial factors

  10. Stress, Anxiety and Depression Levels Among Elderly Referrals to Tehran Elderly Club

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    Mohtasham Ghafari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Stress and anxiety have well–known effects in the pathogenesis of many physical and mental disorders. Aging adults are vulnerable to the effects of a negative stressor factors so, this study aims to investigate the level of stress anxiety and depression among the elderly referred to elderly clubs of Tehran in 2009. Methods & Materials: This is a cross-sectional study carried out on 104 aging adults, selected from elderly clubs of Tehran on 2009. Depression, Anxiety and Stress questionnaires (DASS-21, were filled out for this group. Finally obtained data was statistically analyzed by means of SPSS15 using T- test and One Way ANOVA at the significant level P≤0.05. Results: Of the total subjects under study 24% were male, and 76% female, with a mean age of 63.37±4.32 and 65.08±4.82 years respectively. The proportion of women with high anxiety score was higher than men. There were also higher anxiety levels in illness people (P<0.001. Conclusion: This study on depression, anxiety and stress as an indicator of lifestyle reveals high stress levels in the elderly population, which warrants appropriate planning and community-based interventions, to improve lifestyle and reduce stress level in aging adults.

  11. Academic Stress Influences Periodontal Health Condition and Interleukin-1 beta Level

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    Sandra O. Kuswandani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a risk factor for periodontal disease, causing increase levels of interleukin-1 beta that involve in periodontal destruction. Objective: To analyze the relationship between academic stress in residency program students conditions and levels of interleukin-1 beta in gingival crevicular fluid. Methods: Thirty eight subjects filled the questionnaire of Graduate Dental Environtmental Stress (GDES, periodontal examination and samples of gingival crevicular fluid were tested for interleukin-1 beta with the Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA test. Results: There were significant differences between academic stress to periodontal tissue in oral hygiene (p=0.038, bleeding on probing index (p=0.02, but no significant differences in pocket depth and loss of attachment (p=0.972. There were significant differences between academic stress to levels of interleukin-1 beta (p=0.03, but no significant differences between levels of interleukin-1 beta to periodontal tissue in oral hygiene (p=0.465, bleeding on probing index (p=0.826, pocket depth (p=0.968, and loss of attachment (p=0.968. Conclusion: Academic stress influences the periodontal risk factor and level of interleukin-1 beta.

  12. Stress level among intensive care nurses in the municipality of Paraná (Brazil

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    Kelly Cristina Inoue

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify stress levels among intensive care nurses who work in the municipality of Western Paraná, Brazil. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional cohort study, carried out from May to July 2010, included 60 nurses from intensive care units (adult, pediatric, or neonatal of five hospitals. All participants completed the Bianchi Stress Scale. Results. The mean participant age was 31 years; 70% of the nurses were women, 33% had more than 15 years of experience, and 88% conducted care activities. The general level of stress was medium. Stress levels were low for relationships with other units and supervisors, activities related to adequate functioning of the unit and the coordination of activities of the unit. Levels were medium for the following domains: activities related to personnel management, labor conditions for the development of nursing activities, and delivery of care to patient; this last domain was related to the following stress factors: facing patient death, attending to emergencies in the unit, advising patients' family members, and conducting tasks in the minimal time available. Conclusion. Although the general stress level was medium, the identification of domains with a high score can be used to plan intervention strategies to preserve the health of intensive care nurses and, in turn, improve quality of care delivered to severely ill patients.

  13. Stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, and cortisol levels in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mathew A; Cox, Simon R; Brett, Caroline E; Deary, Ian J; MacLullich, Alasdair M J

    2017-03-01

    The glucocorticoid hypothesis suggests that overexposure to stress may cause permanent upregulation of cortisol. Stress in youth may therefore influence cortisol levels even in older age. Using data from the 6-Day Sample, we investigated the effects of high stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood - as well as individual variables contributing to these measures; parental loss, social deprivation, school and home moves, illness, divorce and job instability - upon cortisol levels at age 77 years. Waking, waking +45 min (peak) and evening salivary cortisol samples were collected from 159 participants, and the 150 who were not using steroid medications were included in this study. After correcting for multiple comparisons, the only significant association was between early-adulthood job instability and later-life peak cortisol levels. After excluding participants with dementia or possible mild cognitive impairment, early-adulthood high stress showed significant associations with lower evening and mean cortisol levels, suggesting downregulation by stress, but these results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Overall, our results do not provide strong evidence of a relationship between stress in youth and later-life cortisol levels, but do suggest that some more long-term stressors, such as job instability, may indeed produce lasting upregulation of cortisol, persisting into the mid-to-late seventies.

  14. Unconscious fearful priming followed by a psychosocial stress test results in higher cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsel, Alexander; von Känel, Roland

    2013-10-01

    Human perception of stress includes an automatic pathway that processes subliminal presented stimuli below the threshold of conscious awareness. Subliminal stimuli can therefore activate the physiologic stress system. Unconscious emotional signals were shown to significantly moderate reactions and responses to subsequent stimuli, an effect called 'priming'. We hypothesized that subliminal presentation of a fearful signal during the Stroop task compared with an emotionally neutral one will prime stress reactivity in a subsequently applied psychosocial stress task, thereby yielding a significant increase in salivary cortisol. Half of 36 participants were repeatedly presented either a fearful face or a neutral one. After this, all underwent a psychosocial stress task. The fearful group showed a significant increase in cortisol levels (p = 0.022). This change was not affected by sex, age and body mass index, and it also did not change when taking resting cortisol levels into account. Post-hoc analyses showed that the increase in cortisol in the fearful group started immediately after the psychosocial stress test. Hence, subliminal exposure to a fearful signal in combination with the Stroop and followed by a psychosocial stress test leads to an increase in stress reactivity. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Levels of Stress among General Practitioners, Students and Specialists In Pediatric Dentistry during Dental Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovich, E; Pessov, Y; Baniel, A; Ram, D

    2015-01-01

    To assess self-reported stress during the performance of different procedures in pediatric dentistry, according to the professional experience of the dentists. During the years 2010 to 2011, an anonymous survey was administered by means of an internet link, and by distribution at professional meetings of dentists . No statistically significant differences in stress were reported for maxilla and mandibular procedures. Placement of a rubber dam was rated as the most stressful procedure among dental students. For general practitioners and specialists, injection of local anesthesia to an anxious child was the most stressful procedure, regardless of age, sex, or years of professional experience. A negative correlation was found between years of experience and level of stress for all the procedures surveyed, but not for the use of nitrous oxide. No differences were found between male and female dentists in stress scores for any of the procedures. Higher rates of stress during operative procedures were reported among dental students than among experienced dentists. Anxiety of the pediatric patients, but not the location of the procedure: maxillary or mandibular, affected the dentists' reported level of stress.

  16. Physical fitness level affects perception of chronic stress in military trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuch, Carolin; Teubel, Thomas; La Marca, Roberto; Roos, Lilian; Annen, Hubert; Wyss, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated whether physical fitness affects the perception of chronic stress in military trainees while controlling for established factors influencing stress perception. The sample consisted of 273 men (20.23 ± 1.12 years, 73.56 ± 10.52 kg, 1.78 ± 0.06 m). Physical fitness was measured by progressive endurance run (maximum oxygen uptake; VO 2 max), standing long jump, seated shot put, trunk muscle strength, and one leg standing test. Perceived stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Questionnaire in Weeks 1 and 11 of basic military training (BMT). VO 2 max and four influencing variables (perceived stress in Week 1, neuroticism, transformational leadership style, and education level) explained 44.44% of the variance of the increase in perceived stress during 10 weeks of BMT (R 2  = 0.444, F = 23.334, p good aerobic fitness on the varied level of perceived stress. We conclude that it is advisable to provide conscripts with a specific endurance training program prior to BMT for stress prevention reasons. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Greenland plateau jets

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    George William Kent Moore

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The high ice-covered topography of Greenland represents a significant barrier to atmospheric flow and, as a direct and indirect result, it plays a crucial role in the coupled climate system. The wind field over Greenland is important in diagnosing regional weather and climate, thereby providing information on the mass balance of the ice sheet as well as assisting in the interpretation of ice core data. Here, we identify a number of hitherto unrecognised features of the three-dimensional wind field over Greenland; including a 2500-km-long jet along the central ice sheet's western margin that extends from the surface into the middle-troposphere, as well as a similar but smaller scale and less intense feature along its eastern margin. We refer to these features as Greenland Plateau Jets. The jets are coupled to the downslope katabatic flow and we argue that they are maintained by the zonal temperature gradients associated with the strong temperature inversion over the central ice sheet. Their importance for Greenland's regional climate is discussed.

  18. Incidence of motion loss of the stifle joint in dogs with naturally occurring cranial cruciate ligament rupture surgically treated with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy: longitudinal clinical study of 412 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandi, Avtar S; Schulman, Alan J

    2007-02-01

    To report the incidence of loss of stifle extension or flexion and its relationship with clinical lameness after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture. Longitudinal study. Dogs (n=280) with CCL rupture (n=412). TPLO was performed without meniscal release or arthrotomy. Angles of extension and flexion of the stifle were measured by goniometry to determine range of motion. Based upon motion loss, stifles were divided in 3 groups: no loss of extension or flexion (n=322), or =10 degrees loss of extension or flexion (n=12). Loss of extension or flexion > or =10 degrees was associated with significantly (P=.001) higher clinical lameness scores in comparison with no loss, or loss of extension or flexion or =10 degrees was less tolerable and less amenable to physical rehabilitation than flexion loss. Loss of extension or flexion > or =10 degrees was responsible for higher clinical lameness scores. Osteoarthrosis in the cranial femorotibial joint led to extension loss. Loss of extension or flexion should be assessed in dogs with persistent clinical lameness after TPLO so that early intervention can occur. Our study provides guidelines to define clinically relevant loss of extension or flexion of stifle joint after TPLO.

  19. Evaluation and correlation of stress scores with blood pressure, endogenous cortisol levels, and homocysteine levels in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy and comparison with age-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Abhishek; Garg, Monika; Dixit, Nikhil; Godara, Rohini

    2016-11-01

    Stress had been associated with the development of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). The study was designed to evaluate the effect of stress on other risk factors of CSC such as serum cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, and blood pressure (BP) in CSC patients. To compare stress scores, serum cortisol and serum homocysteine levels, and BP of CSC patients with that of control population and to correlate stress scores of CSC patients with BP, serum cortisol levels, and serum homocysteine levels. Stress scores, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, systolic and diastolic BP of 54 CSC patients were measured and compared with that of 54 age- and sex-related controls using Student's t-test. Stress scores of CSC patients were correlated with systolic and diastolic BP, serum morning and evening cortisol levels and serum homocysteine levels and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were calculated. Stress scores, serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP were all elevated in CSC patients as compared with age- and sex-related controls (P Stress scores of CSC patients were found to correlate strongly with serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP, with r values 0.82, 0.8, 0.8, 0.8, and 0.81, respectively (P Stress scores were elevated in CSC patients and were strongly correlated with serum homocysteine and cortisol levels and BP.

  20. CLASSICAL MUSIC DECREASE STRESS LEVEL AND BLOOD PRESSURE PRIMIGRAVIDA IN THE THIRD TRIMESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Alit Armini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many changes in psychology and biology increase primigravida’s stress in the third trimester. The stress response makes blood pressure being unstable, it causes bad effect for pregnancy. Classical music can be used as one of relaxation facilities that can reduce stress. The aimed of this study were to analyze the effect of classical music on stress level and blood pressure. Method: This study was used a quasy experimental purposive sampling design. The sample in this study were 14 pregnancy women in the third trimester in RSIA Cempaka Putih Permata Surabaya. The independent variable in this study was classical music and the dependent variable were stress level and blood pressure. Data were analyzed by Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, Mann Withney U Test, Paired t Test and Independent t Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result: The result showed that the stress level in controlled group with p=0.567 and intervention group with p=0.025. The result of blood pressure in controlled group with p=0.522 in systolic blood pressure, p=0.35 in diastolic blood pressure and intervention group showed p=0.103 in systolic blood pressure and p=1.00 in diastolic blood pressure. Discussion: It can be concluded that listening classical music can reduce stress level, stabilize blood pressure, although blood pressure hasn’t significant result but mean of blood pressure show that it was stable. Further studies should be considered to used cortisol to identify stress biology response spesifically.

  1. PERSONALITY TRAITS AND STRESS LEVELS AMONG SENIOR DENTAL STUDENTS: EVIDENCE FROM MALAYSIA AND SINGAPORE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Zamros Y M; Hassan, Wan Nurazreena Wan; Razak, Ishak A; Hashim, Siti Marini N; Tahir, Mohd Khairul A M; Keng, Siong Beng

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between dental students’ personality traits and stress levels in relation to dental education programs among senior dental students in University Malaya (UM) in Malaysia and National University of Singapore (NUS). A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted on UM and NUS senior dental students. The questionnaire comprised items on demographic background, the Big Five Inventory Personality Traits (BFIPT) test and a modified Dental Environment Stress (DES) scale. Rasch analysis was used to convert raw data to interval scores. Analyses were done by t-test, Pearson correlation, and Hierarchical regression statistics. The response rate was 100% (UM=132, NUS=76). Personality trait Agreeableness (mean=0.30) was significantly more prevalent among UM than NUS students (mean=0.15, p=0.016). In NUS, Neuroticism (mean=0.36) was significantly more prevalent than in UM (mean=0.14, p=0.002). The DES mean score was higher among NUS (mean=0.23) than UM students (mean=0.07). In UM, Neuroticism was significantly correlated with stress levels (r=0.338, ppersonality traits. The correlation was strongest for personality trait Neuroticism in both schools. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that gender and Neuroticism were significant predictors for students’ stress levels (ppersonality trait were significant predictors for stress levels among selected groups of dental students in Southeast Asia. Information on students’ personality may be useful in new students’ intake, stress management counseling and future program reviews.

  2. Oxidative stress reduces levels of dysbindin-1A via its PEST domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Mei-Yi Alicia; Lo, Yew-Long; Talbot, Konrad; Ong, Wei-Yi

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from the generation of reactive oxygen species has been proposed as an etiological factor in schizophrenia. The present study tests the hypothesis that oxidative stress can affect levels of dysbindin-1A, encoded by Dtnbp1, a genetic risk factor for schizophrenia, via its PEST domain. In vitro studies on SH-SY5Y cells indicate that oxidative stress triggers proteasomal degradation of dysbindin-1A, and that this requires interactions with its PEST domain, which may be a TRIM32 target. We specifically found (a) that oxidative stress induced in SH-SY5Y cells by 500 µM hydrogen peroxide reduced levels of full-length dysbindin-1, but did not reduce levels of that protein lacking its PEST domain and (b) that levels of full-length dysbindin-1, but not dysbindin-1 lacking its PEST domain, were higher in cells treated with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Oxidative stress thus emerges as the first known cellular factor regulating dysbindin-1 isoforms with PEST domains. These findings are consistent with the previously noted fact that phosphorylation of PEST domains often marks proteins for proteasomal degradation, and raises the possibility that treatments reducing oxidative stress in the brain, especially during development, may lower schizophrenia risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of stress on serum lipid levels in lady health visitors and housewives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattoo, F.H.; Memon, M.S.; Memon, A.N.; Wattoo, M.H.S.; Tirmizi, S.A.; Iqbal, J.

    2007-01-01

    To study the effects of stress among lady health visitors and housewives in regard to their serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The study was performed at the Institute of Biochemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan during the years 2003 to 2005. Seventy lady health visitor and housewives aged between 25-40 years participated in this study and were selected from Hyderabad and its adjoining areas. Environmental, psychological and physiological stress levels were measured with likert scale. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured. Environmental, psychological and physiological stresses were significantly higher in housewives as compared to lady health visitors. A low level of HDL cholesterol was observed in housewives as compared to lady health visitors. The levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride were found higher in housewives than lady health visitors. Housewives are under more stress than lady health visitors. The levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride increases but HDL cholesterol decrease with stress. (author)

  4. Abiotic stressors and stress responses: What commonalities appear between species across biological organization levels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulmon, Cécile; Baaren, Joan van; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco; Gouesbet, Gwenola; Hennion, Françoise; Mony, Cendrine; Renault, David; Bormans, Myriam; El Amrani, Abdelhak; Wiegand, Claudia; Gérard, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Organisms are regularly subjected to abiotic stressors related to increasing anthropogenic activities, including chemicals and climatic changes that induce major stresses. Based on various key taxa involved in ecosystem functioning (photosynthetic microorganisms, plants, invertebrates), we review how organisms respond and adapt to chemical- and temperature-induced stresses from molecular to population level. Using field-realistic studies, our integrative analysis aims to compare i) how molecular and physiological mechanisms related to protection, repair and energy allocation can impact life history traits of stressed organisms, and ii) to what extent trait responses influence individual and population responses. Common response mechanisms are evident at molecular and cellular scales but become rather difficult to define at higher levels due to evolutionary distance and environmental complexity. We provide new insights into the understanding of the impact of molecular and cellular responses on individual and population dynamics and assess the potential related effects on communities and ecosystem functioning. - Highlights: • Responses to chemical and thermal stressors are reviewed across organization levels. • Common responses between taxa are evident at the molecular and cellular scales. • At individual level, energy allocation connects species-specific stress responses. • Commonality decreases at higher levels due to increasing environmental complexity. - The commonality of stress responses to chemical and thermal stressors among taxa is evident at the molecular and cellular scales but remains unclear at higher levels of organization

  5. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP serum levels in rats after forced repeated swimming stress

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    Almira Hadžovic-Džuvo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To estimate the effects of forced repeated swimming stress on BNP serum levels in rats. Methods Adult male Wistar rats weighting between 280-330 g were divided into two groups: control group (n =8 and stress group (n =8. Rats in the stress group were exposed to forced swimming stress daily, for 7 days. The rats were forced to swim in plastic tanks (90 cm wide, 120 cm deep containing tap water (temperature ca. 25°C. The depth of water was 40 cm. Duration of each swimming session progressively increased from 10 minutes on the irst day to 40 minutes on days 6 and 7. Rats were sacriiced and blood was drawn from abdominal aorta for BNP analysis immediately after the last swimming session. B-type natriuretic serum level was determined by ELISA method using RAT BNP-32 kit (Phoenix Pharmaceutical Inc.. Results There was no statistically signiicant difference between mean BNP serum level in the stress group after the swimming period (0.81±0.14 ng/ml as compared to the unstressed group of rats (0.8 ±0.08ng/ml. After the swimming period mean body weight slightly decreased in the stress group in comparison with values before stress period (296.3 g vs.272.8 g, but this difference was not statistically signiicant. The stress period had no inluence on food intake in the stress rat group. Conclusion The workload consisting of 40-minutes long swimming session is not suficient to provoke BNP release from myocardium in rats.

  6. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) serum levels in rats after forced repeated swimming stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzovic-Dzuvo, Almira; Valjevac, Amina; Avdagić, Nesina; Lepara, Orhan; Zaćiragić, Asija; Jadrić, Radivoj; Alajbegović, Jasmin; Prnjavorac, Besim

    2011-02-01

    To estimate the effects of forced repeated swimming stress on BNP serum levels in rats. Adult male Wistar rats weighting between 280-330 g were divided into two groups: control group (n = 8) and stress group (n = 8). Rats in the stress group were exposed to forced swimming stress daily, for 7 days. The rats were forced to swim in plastic tanks (90 cm wide, 120 cm deep) containing tap water (temperature ca. 25 degrees C). The depth of water was 40 cm. Duration of each swimming session progressively increased from 10 minutes on the first day to 40 minutes on days 6 and 7. Rats were sacrificed and blood was drawn from abdominal aorta for BNP analysis immediately after the last swimming session. B-type natriuretic serum level was determined by ELISA method using RAT BNP-32 kit (Phoenix Pharmaceutical Inc.). There was no statistically significant difference between mean BNP serum level in the stress group after the swimming period (0.81 +/- 0.14 ng/ml) as compared to the unstressed group of rats (0.8 +/- 0.08 ng/ml). After the swimming period mean body weight slightly decreased in the stress group in comparison with values before stress period (296.3 g vs. 272.8 g), but this difference was not statistically significant. The stress period had no influence on food intake in the stress rat group. The workload consisting of 40-minutes long swimming session is not sufficient to provoke BNP release from myocardium in rats.

  7. Perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation in undergraduate women with varying levels of mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiades, Maria H; Kapoor, Shweta; Wootten, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A

    2017-02-01

    Research has demonstrated that perceived stress and depression are risk factors for suicidal ideation in young adults, particularly women attending college. Female undergraduate students (N = 928) were administered measures assessing their levels of stress, depressive symptoms, suicidal thoughts, and mindfulness. A moderated-mediation analysis was conducted to examine the complex associations among these variables. Results indicated that mindfulness moderated the mediated effect of depressive symptoms on perceived stress and suicidal ideation. Specifically, the indirect effect was stronger in college women with lower levels of mindfulness as compared to those students who reported higher mindfulness. Thus, teaching mindfulness techniques on college campuses may be an important strategy for preventing suicide, especially among young adult women experiencing stress and depressive symptoms.

  8. Project ES3: attempting to quantify and measure the level of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló, Jordi; Ferrer-Salvans, Pau; García-Rozo, Antonio; Armario, Antonio; Corbí, Ángel; Cambra, Francisco J; Bailón, Raquel; González-Marcos, Ana; Caja, Gerardo; Aguiló, Sira; López-Antón, Raúl; Arza-Valdés, Adriana; Garzón-Rey, Jorge M

    2015-11-01

    The WHO has qualified stress as a 'world epidemic' due to its increasingly greater incidence on health. The work described in this paper represents an attempt to objectively quantify the level of stress. The aim of the method developed here is to measure how close or how far a subject is from a situation that can be considered 'normal' in medical and social terms. The literature on the pathophysiology of stress and its methods of study in experiments on both animals and humans was reviewed. Nine prospective observational studies were undertaken with different types of subjects and stressors covering the different types of stress. The results of the literature review made it possible to identify the different types of stress, the indicators that yield significant results, the psychometric tests and the well-documented 'stressors'. This material was then used to design the general method and the details of the nine clinical trials. The preliminary results obtained in some of the studies were used to validate the indicators as well as the efficacy of the techniques used experimentally to diminish stress or to produce it. The early results obtained in the experimental trials show that we are on the right path towards defining and validating multivariable markers for quantifying levels of stress and also suggest that the method can be applied in a similar way to the study of mental disorders.

  9. Lymphocyte subsets are influenced by positivity levels in healthy subjects before and after mild acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Nisini, Roberto; Castellani, Valeria; Vittorio, Pasquali; Alessandri, Guido; Vincenzo, Ziparo; Claudia, Ferlito; Valentina, Germano; Andrea, Picchianti Diamanti; Biondo, Michela Ileen; Milanetti, Francesca; Salerno, Gerardo; Vincenzo, Visco; Mario, Pietrosanti; Aniballi, Eros; Simonetta, Salemi; Angela, Santoni; D'Amelio, Raffaele

    2017-08-01

    In the current study, the possible association of positivity (POS), recently defined as general disposition to view life under positive outlook, with immune markers and post-stress modifications, was analyzed. Circulating lymphocyte subsets and serum cytokine levels were evaluated before and after a standard mild acute stress test, in 41 healthy students, previously selected by a questionnaire for their level of POS (high [POS-H] and low [POS-L]). The CD3 + and CD4 + cell frequency was higher in the POS-H students before and after acute stress. CD4 + subpopulation analysis revealed baseline higher terminally differentiated frequency in the POS-H, whereas higher effector memory frequency was present in the POS-L students. Moreover, the frequency of post-stress B cells was higher in the POS-H students. The mild-stress test was associated to an increase of the IL-10 mean values, while mean values of the other cytokines tested did not change significantly. It is tempting to speculate that IL-10 may work as biomarker of response to acute mild stress and that POS-H may be associated to a better capacity of the immune system to contrast the disturbing effects of mild acute stress. Yet further studies on lymphocyte subset absolute number and function of larger and different populations are needed to definitively prove these preliminary observations. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute stress induces hyperacusis in women with high levels of emotional exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Dan; Theorell, Töres; Bergquist, Jonas; Canlon, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Hearing problems is one of the top ten public health disorders in the general population and there is a well-established relationship between stress and hearing problems. The aim of the present study was to explore if an acute stress will increase auditory sensitivity (hyperacusis) in individuals with high levels of emotional exhaustion (EE). Hyperacusis was assessed using uncomfortable loudness levels (ULL) in 348 individuals (140 men; 208 women; age 23-71 years). Multivariate analyses (ordered logistic regression), were used to calculate odds ratios, including interacting or confounding effects of age, gender, ear wax and hearing loss (PTA). Two-way ANCOVAs were used to assess possible differences in mean ULLs between EE groups pre- and post-acute stress task (a combination of cold pressor, emotional Stroop and Social stress/video recording). There were no baseline differences in mean ULLs between the three EE groups (one-way ANOVA). However, after the acute stress exposure there were significant differences in ULL means between the EE-groups in women. Post-hoc analyses showed that the differences in mean ULLs were between those with high vs. low EE (range 5.5-6.5 dB). Similar results were found for frequencies 0.5 and 1 kHz. The results demonstrate that women with high EE-levels display hyperacusis after an acute stress task. The odds of having hyperacusis were 2.5 (2 kHz, right ear; left ns) and 2.2 (4 kHz, right ear; left ns) times higher among those with high EE compared to those with low levels. All these results are adjusted for age, hearing loss and ear wax. Women with high levels of emotional exhaustion become more sensitive to sound after an acute stress task. This novel finding highlights the importance of including emotional exhaustion in the diagnosis and treatment of hearing problems.

  11. Acute stress induces hyperacusis in women with high levels of emotional exhaustion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Hasson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hearing problems is one of the top ten public health disorders in the general population and there is a well-established relationship between stress and hearing problems. The aim of the present study was to explore if an acute stress will increase auditory sensitivity (hyperacusis in individuals with high levels of emotional exhaustion (EE. METHODS: Hyperacusis was assessed using uncomfortable loudness levels (ULL in 348 individuals (140 men; 208 women; age 23-71 years. Multivariate analyses (ordered logistic regression, were used to calculate odds ratios, including interacting or confounding effects of age, gender, ear wax and hearing loss (PTA. Two-way ANCOVAs were used to assess possible differences in mean ULLs between EE groups pre- and post-acute stress task (a combination of cold pressor, emotional Stroop and Social stress/video recording. RESULTS: There were no baseline differences in mean ULLs between the three EE groups (one-way ANOVA. However, after the acute stress exposure there were significant differences in ULL means between the EE-groups in women. Post-hoc analyses showed that the differences in mean ULLs were between those with high vs. low EE (range 5.5-6.5 dB. Similar results were found for frequencies 0.5 and 1 kHz. The results demonstrate that women with high EE-levels display hyperacusis after an acute stress task. The odds of having hyperacusis were 2.5 (2 kHz, right ear; left ns and 2.2 (4 kHz, right ear; left ns times higher among those with high EE compared to those with low levels. All these results are adjusted for age, hearing loss and ear wax. CONCLUSION: Women with high levels of emotional exhaustion become more sensitive to sound after an acute stress task. This novel finding highlights the importance of including emotional exhaustion in the diagnosis and treatment of hearing problems.

  12. STRESS LEVEL AND SMOKING STATUS IN CENTRAL IRAN: ISFAHAN HEALTHY HEART PROGRAM

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    Hamidreza Roohafza

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals are faced with numerous stressful life events which can negatively influence mental health. Many individuals use smoking as a means of confronting stress. Given the relatively high prevalence of smoking in central Iran, the present study was conducted to compare stress levels in smokers, non-smokers and those who had quit smoking.    METHODS: This study was conducted as part of Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Program on 9752 individuals in the cities of Isfahan, Arak, and Najafabad in 2008. Sampling was performed using multi-stage cluster randomization method. Data on age, sex, demographic characteristics, and smoking status was collected through interviews. Stress level detected by General Health questionnaire.Logistic regression and chi- squere test was used for data analyzing.    RESULTS: In the present study, 30% of non-smokers, 32.1% ex- smoker and 36.9% of smokers had GHQ of 4 and higher (P = 0.01. In regression analysis, the final model which was controlled for age, sex, socioeconomic statues (including place of residence, marital status and education level showed that the odds ratio of stress in smokers and ex- smoker was significantly higher than in non-smokers (OR = 1.66 and OR = 1.12, respectively.    CONCLUSION: Since in conducted studies, mental problems and stresses have had an important role in people’s smoking, it seems suitable to use the results of this study to present intervention for correct methods of coping with stress towards reducing the prevalence of smoking in the community.Keywords: Cigarette, Stress, Community-based Program.

  13. THE CORRELATION BETWEEN LIPID PROFILE AND STRESS LEVELS IN PART CENTRAL IRAN: ISFAHAN HEALTHY HEART PROGRAM

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    Maryam Shahnam

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract            Background: Previous studies suggest that mental status may influence serum lipid levels. This study was conducted on adult population living in rural and urban areas in Central Iran to assess the correlation between stress level and lipid profile disorders.Methods: Data was extracted from final evaluation of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP in 2008. Multistage and random cluster methods were used for sampling. The study population consisted of 9752 adults aged ≥19 years living in three districts namely Isfahan, Arak and Najaf Abad. Demographic data, age and sex were recorded. Blood samples were taken to determine the lipid levels including total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and triglycerides. Stress levels were assessed using the General Health Questionnaire. Logistic regression and chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis.Results: The odds ratios of high stress in individuals with high levels of TC, LDL-C and low levels of HDL-C compared to normal individuals after adjustment for age and sex were as follows respectively: 1.05 (1.02,1.15, 1.06 (1.02,1.18, 1.06 (1.01,1.17.Conclusion: Intervention activities towards reduction of stress levels at the community level may be useful as part of the strategy for cardiovascular disease prevention. Keywords: Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Stress, Questionnaire, Adult

  14. Oxidative stress and neurological disorders in relation to blood lead levels in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, M; Fareed, Mohd; Kumar, A; Siddiqui, W A; Siddiqui, M K J

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. Free radical generation appears to be the mode of lead toxicity. We evaluated the effects of blood lead levels on oxidative stress parameters in children suffering from neurological disorders. Thirty children (aged 3-12 years) with neurological disorders (cerebral palsy [n = 12], seizures [n = 11], and encephalopathy [n = 7]) were recruited in the study group. Sixty healthy children (aged 3-12 years) from similar socio-economic environments and not suffering from any chronic disease were taken as the controls. Blood lead levels and oxidant/antioxidant status were determined. Mean blood lead level was significantly higher while delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALAD) activity, a biomarker for lead exposure, was significantly lower in the study group as compared to the control group (P children with neurological disorders. Lead-induced oxidative stress as an underlying mechanism for neurological diseases in children warranted further investigation.

  15. Gender disparities among the association between cumulative family-level stress & adolescent weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C; Pressler, Emily

    2015-04-01

    To investigate precursors to gender-related obesity disparities by examining multiple family-level stress indices. Analyses was based on adolescents born between 1975 and 1991 to women from the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth data set (N=4762). Three types of family-level stressors were captured from birth to age 15: family disruption and conflict, financial strain, and maternal risky health behaviors, along with a total cumulative risk index. Body mass index was constructed on reference criteria for children outlined by the Centers for Disease Control. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted for the three types of family stressors and for the total cumulative index. The accumulation of family disruption and conflict and financial stress was positively related to female adolescents being overweight/obese. Childhood exposure to maternal risky health behaviors was positively associated with higher weight status for male adolescents. Total cumulative stress was related to overweight/obesity for females, but not males. Different family-level stress indices are associated with the weight status of female and male adolescents. Combining types of family-level stress into one cumulative index appears to mask these differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The association of personality traits and coping styles according to stress level

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    Hamid Afshar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some personality traits and coping styles could be as risk factors in stressful situations. This study aimed to investigate the association of personality traits and coping styles according to the stress level. Meterials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2011. A total of 4628 individuals over 20 years were selected by random sampling from nonacademic employees that working in 50 different centers across Isfahan province. Data were collected using 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, Big Five Personality Inventory Short Form and coping strategies scale, and individuals were divided into high and low-stress groups in term of GHQ-12. To analyze the data, a binary logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results: Mean age of participants was 36.3 ± 7.91 years and 56.26% (2604 of them were female. Neuroticism with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of personality traits was a risk factor for stress level with odds ratios (OR OR:1.24; but other personality traits were protective. Also, active coping styles were protective factors for OR of stress level with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of coping styles, and positive reinterpretation and growth was the most effective of coping style with OR:0.84. Conclusion: Some personality traits are associated with passive copings and cause high-stress level. So, it could be concluded that improve and strengthen effective coping strategies in individual with maladaptive traits should be considered as a crucial component of prevention and control programs of stress.

  17. Quality of life and level of post-traumatic stress disorder among trauma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsson, F B; Schultz Larsen, M; Nørgaard, B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess outcome in long-term quality of life (QoL) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among adult survivors of trauma. Secondary aim was to compare levels of the outcome with injury severity and specialization level of two trauma centres. METHODS...... Scale. PTSD symptoms were classified according to the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV). RESULTS: A questionnaire was mailed to 774 patients at end of 2014 or early 2015, 455 were included for analysis; median...

  18. Mental health of Japanese psychiatrists: the relationship among level of occupational stress, satisfaction and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koreki, Akihiro; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Abe, Akiko; Ikeuchi, Hidetsugu; Okubo, Jo; Oguri, Atsushi; Orimo, Keisuke; Katayama, Nariko; Sato, Hiroyo; Shikimoto, Ryo; Nishiyama, Go; Nogami, Waka; Haki, Kazuma; Hayashi, Tetsuro; Fukagawa, Yuko; Funaki, Kei; Matsuzawa, Mia; Matsumoto, Ayako; Mimura, Masaru

    2015-03-26

    Psychiatrists in clinical practice face a number of stressors related to patient care, such as overwork. On the other hand, they gain satisfaction from their work. We quantified and assessed the potential relationship between levels of occupational stress, satisfaction, and depressive symptoms among Japanese clinical psychiatrists. We surveyed 206 psychiatrists with up to 15 years of clinical experience who primarily worked in patient care. Levels of occupational stress and occupational satisfaction were measured using the Visual Analogue Scale and the level of depressive symptoms was measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Workplace stressors and satisfiers were also evaluated. Out of 206 psychiatrists, 154 (74.8%) responded to the survey. The respondents' mean (SD) age was 34.3 (5.2) years. The estimated prevalence of significant depressive symptoms was 34.4% (n = 53), and the experienced frequent violence was 14.9% (n = 23). The level of depressive symptoms was inversely correlated with the level of occupational satisfaction. In respondents who reported a moderate level of occupational stress, having fewer depressive symptoms was associated with higher occupational satisfaction, but this association was not significant in those who reported a high level of stress. In addition, high occupational satisfaction was associated with interest towards work content, ability to work at one's discretion, opportunities for growth and career development, and ease of communication with supervisors and colleagues. Nearly one-third of the psychiatrists screened positive for significant depressive symptoms. Having fewer depressive symptoms was associated with higher occupational satisfaction in those who reported a moderate level of stress. Implications from the present findings may be to enhance occupational satisfaction by discussing work interests with a supervisor, as well as increased opportunities for career development, which may

  19. Differences in response to heat stress due to production level and breed of dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantner, Vesna; Bobic, Tina; Gantner, Ranko; Gregic, Maja; Kuterovac, Kresimir; Novakovic, Jurica; Potocnik, Klemen

    2017-09-01

    The climatic conditions in Croatia are deteriorating which significantly increases the frequency of heat stress. This creates a need for an adequate dairy farming strategy. The impact of heat stress can be reduced in many ways, but the best long-term solution includes the genetic evaluation and selection for heat stress resistance. In order to create the basis for genetic evaluation, this research determined the variation in daily milk yield (DMY) and somatic cell count (SCC) as well as the differences in resistance to heat stress due to production level (high, low) and breed (Holstein, Simmental) of dairy cattle breed in Croatia. For statistical analysis, 1,070,554 test-day records from 70,135 Holsteins reared on 5679 farms and 1,300,683 test-day records from 86,013 Simmentals reared on 8827 farms in Croatia provided by the Croatian Agricultural Agency were used. The results of this research indicate that the high-producing cows are much more susceptible to heat stress than low-producing especially Holsteins. Also, the results of this research indicate that Simmental breed, in terms of daily milk production and somatic cell count, could be more resistant to heat stress than Holstein. The following research should determine whether Simmentals are genetically more appropriate for the challenges that are in store for the future milk production in this region. Furthermore, could an adequate production level be achieved with Simmentals by maintaining the heat resistance?

  20. A study on level of physical activity, depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Esra; Abd Latiff, Latiffah; Adznam, Siti N; Awang, Hamidin; Yit Siew, Chin; Abu Bakar, Azrin S

    2017-10-01

    Inadequate physical activity has adverse health consequences among adolescents. Mental health problem can be developed by lack of physical activity however it is controversial. The current study aimed to examine the association between level of physical activity with depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among adolescents. A representative sample of 1747 adolescents (13-14 years) was randomly selected from 6 schools in a south part of Malaysia. Respondents were asked to fill consent form, and questionnaires including Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents. Majority of respondents (71.9%) was Malay and more than half of the adolescents had low physical activity. About 40% had depression symptoms, followed by anxiety symptoms (65.9%) and stress symptoms (38.5%). Level of physical activity was significantly associated with gender, anxiety and stress (P<0.001). There were no associations with race, religion and depression symptom. This study provides some evidence among school-going adolescents related to anxiety and stress symptoms and low physical activities. Further studies are needed to show the protection effects of higher physical activity for depression, anxiety and stress symptoms in adolescents.

  1. Hexabromocyclododecane in alpine fish from the Tibetan Plateau, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Nali; Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Ssebugere, Patrick; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-01-01

    Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) has just been listed into Stockholm Convention as a persistent organic pollutant recently. This paper studied the HBCDs in 79 wild fish from high mountain lakes and rivers of the Tibetan Plateau. The ∑HBCDs in fish muscles ranged from non detectable levels to 13.7 ng/g lipid weight (lw) (mean value of 2.12 ng/g lw) with a high detection frequency of 65.8%. α-HBCD dominated among the isomers and accounted for 78.2% of the total burden. Concentrations of ∑HBCDs in the fish were significantly correlated with the lipid content . A decreasing trend was observed between α-HBCD and trophic level. Positive correlation was also noted between the HBCD levels in fish from lakes and the annual precipitation, and this implied the long-range atmospheric transport of HBCDs to the Tibet Plateau. This was the first work to widely explore HBCDs contamination in the aquatic ecosystems of the Tibetan Plateau. -- Highlights: •HBCDs were ubiquitous in fish of the Tibetan Plateau. •α-HBCD showed a negative correlation with TL in the Lhasa River aquatic food web. •Concentrations of ∑HBCD were significantly correlated with lipid contents of fish. -- HBCD was ubiquitous in fish of the Tibetan Plateau, and its concentration was significantly correlated with lipid content

  2. Acoustic emission reviling and danger level evaluation of stress corrosion cracking in stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muravin, Gregory; Muravin, Boris; Lezvinsky, Luidmila

    2000-01-01

    Breakdowns and catastrophic damage occurring during the operation of nuclear power stations pipelines cause substantial economic and social loss annually throughout the world. Stress corrosion, vibration, fatigue, erosion, water shock, dynamic load, construction defects/errors are the main causes of pipes failures. For these reasons and in view of the age of nuclear power station pipes, there is an increased interest in finding means to prevent potential pipe failures. Nevertheless, statistical data of pipe failures continues to show significant numbers of accidents mainly due to stress corrosion cracking (about 65-80% of total number). To this end, a complex of investigations was carried out for the reliable AE diagnosis of pipes undergone stress corrosion cracking. These include: finding AE indications (fingerprints) of flaws developing in the metal in original condition as well as in metal subjected to stress corrosion; preparing AE criteria for evaluating the danger level of defects. (author)

  3. Stress-induced rise in serum anti-brain autoantibody levels in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrejević, S; Bukilica, M; Dimitrijević, M; Laban, O; Radulovic, J; Kovacevic-Jovanovic, V; Stanojevic, S; Vasiljevic, T; Marković, B M

    1997-02-01

    Sera from Wistar rats subjected to different stress procedures were tested by ELISA for the presence of autoantibodies with specificity for neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100 protein that are preferentially localized in neurons and glia, respectively. Autoantibodies were present in sera of animals before exposure to stress, and raised with age. Anti-NSE and anti-S100 autoantibody levels were increased one day after termination of restraint (2 hours daily, 10 days) and electric tail shock (80 shocks daily, 19 days), and in fifth and tenth week of overcrowding stress. Differences between stressed and control animals were not present one month following restraint and electric tail shock and in twentieth week of overcrowding.

  4. Exploring Stress Levels, Job Satisfaction, and Quality of Life in a Sample of Police Officers in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos C. Alexopoulos

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Higher levels of stress are related to an increased risk of reporting suboptimal job satisfaction and QoL. The magnitude of these associations varied depending on age, gender, and rank, highlighting the need for stress-management training.

  5. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  6. Nitrogen Metabolism in Adaptation of Photosynthesis to Water Stress in Rice Grown under Different Nitrogen Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Zhong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of nitrogen (N metabolism in the adaptation of photosynthesis to water stress in rice, a hydroponic experiment supplying with low N (0.72 mM, moderate N (2.86 mM, and high N (7.15 mM followed by 150 g⋅L-1 PEG-6000 induced water stress was conducted in a rainout shelter. Water stress induced stomatal limitation to photosynthesis at low N, but no significant effect was observed at moderate and high N. Non-photochemical quenching was higher at moderate and high N. In contrast, relative excessive energy at PSII level (EXC was declined with increasing N level. Malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 contents were in parallel with EXC. Water stress decreased catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities at low N, resulting in increased H2O2 content and severer membrane lipid peroxidation; whereas the activities of antioxidative enzymes were increased at high N. In accordance with photosynthetic rate and antioxidative enzymes, water stress decreased the activities of key enzymes involving in N metabolism such as glutamate synthase and glutamate dehydrogenase, and photorespiratory key enzyme glycolate oxidase at low N. Concurrently, water stress increased nitrate content significantly at low N, but decreased nitrate content at moderate and high N. Contrary to nitrate, water stress increased proline content at moderate and high N. Our results suggest that N metabolism appears to be associated with the tolerance of photosynthesis to water stress in rice via affecting CO2 diffusion, antioxidant capacity, and osmotic adjustment.

  7. Stress management skills, neuroimmune processes and fatigue levels in persons with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattie, Emily G; Antoni, Michael H; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Penedo, Frank; Czaja, Sara; Lopez, Corina; Perdomo, Dolores; Sala, Andreina; Nair, Sankaran; Fu, Shih Hua; Klimas, Nancy

    2012-08-01

    Stressors and emotional distress responses impact chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) symptoms, including fatigue. Having better stress management skills might mitigate fatigue by decreasing emotional distress. Because CFS patients comprise a heterogeneous population, we hypothesized that the role of stress management skills in decreasing fatigue may be most pronounced in the subgroup manifesting the greatest neuroimmune dysfunction. In total, 117 individuals with CFS provided blood and saliva samples, and self-report measures of emotional distress, perceived stress management skills (PSMS), and fatigue. Plasma interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and diurnal salivary cortisol were analyzed. We examined relations among PSMS, emotional distress, and fatigue in CFS patients who did and did not evidence neuroimmune abnormalities. Having greater PSMS related to less fatigue (p=.019) and emotional distress (pfatigue levels most strongly in CFS patients in the top tercile of IL-6, and emotional distress mediated the relationship between PSMS and fatigue most strongly in patients with the greatest circulating levels of IL-6 and a greater inflammatory (IL-6):anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine ratio. CFS patients having greater PSMS show less emotional distress and fatigue, and the influence of stress management skills on distress and fatigue appear greatest among patients who have elevated IL-6 levels. These findings support the need for research examining the impact of stress management interventions in subgroups of CFS patients showing neuroimmune dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic stress associated with hypercaloric diet changes the hippocampal BDNF levels in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, I C; Rozisky, J R; Oliveira, C; Oliveira, C M; Laste, G; Nonose, Y; Santos, V S; Marques, P R; Ribeiro, M F M; Caumo, W; Torres, I L S

    2015-06-01

    Chronic stress, whether associated with obesity or not, leads to different neuroendocrine and psychological changes. Obesity or being overweight has become one of the most serious worldwide public health problems. Additionally, it is related to a substantial increase in daily energy intake, which results in substituting nutritionally adequate meals for snacks. This metabolic disorder can lead to morbidity, mortality, and reduced quality of life. On the other hand, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is widely expressed in all brain regions, particularly in the hypothalamus, where it has important effects on neuroprotection, synaptic plasticity, mammalian food intake-behavior, and energy metabolism. BDNF is involved in many activities modulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of obesity associated with chronic stress on the BDNF central levels of rats. Obesity was controlled by analyzing the animals' caloric intake and changes in body weight. As a stress parameter, we analyzed the relative adrenal gland weight. We found that exposure to chronic restraint stress during 12 weeks increases the adrenal gland weight, decreases the BDNF levels in the hippocampus and is associated with a decrease in the calorie and sucrose intake, characterizing anhedonia. These effects can be related stress, a phenomenon that induces depression-like behavior. On the other hand, the rats that received the hypercaloric diet had an increase in calorie intake and became obese, which was associated with a decrease in hypothalamus BDNF levels. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Association between oxidative stress index and serum lipid levels in healthy young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkdogan, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between lipid levels and oxidative stress index in healthy young adults. Methods: The study was camed out at the Department of Emergency Service, Faculty of Medicine, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey, between January 2011 and July 2012. A total of 100 healthy adult volunteers were enrolled in the study. Venous blood samples (10 ml) were collected from all individuals, and serum lipid parameters, total antioxidant capacity and total oxidative levels were studied. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Overall, there were 84 (84%) males and 16 (16%) females. The mean age of the male population was 30+-3 years, while that of the females was 31+-3 years. Overall age ranged from 25 to 35 years. A statistically significant correlation was found between the oxidative stress index and serum cholesterol (p<0.001; r=0.596), triglyceride (p<0.001; r=0.476) and low-density lipoprotein levels (p<0.001; r=0.318). However, no significant correlation was found between oxidative stress index and serum high-density lipoprotein levels (p=0.564; r=0.058). Conclusion: The results showed that even at an early age, there is a direct linear correlation between oxidative stress and serum lipid levels. (author)

  10. Stress among nurses: an examination of salivary cortisol levels on work and day off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecilia Pires da Rocha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the use of salivary cortisol concentration as a physiological index of the stress level among nurses on their work day and day off and correlates it with the questionnaire used to measure occupational stress in nurses (Inventário de Estresse em Enfermeiros - IEE. This is a comparative, cross-sectional descriptive study in which sociodemographic data, IEE results and salivary cortisol levels were used. Fifty-seven nurses participated in the study (80.7% females and a mean age of 37.1 years old. The IEE average score was 124.5. The average cortisol level was 564.1 ng/m on work day and 354.1 ng/mL on day off. Nurses who had double workdays presented high values of salivary cortisol during the work day (638.1 ng/mL. In conclusion, salivary cortisol identified the nurses’ stress level, and differences were found between a work day and day off. On the nurses’ day off, their salivary cortisol levels and stress scores were lower.

  11. Paleosols in low-order streams and valley heads in the Araucaria Plateau - Record of continental environmental conditions in southern Brazil at the end of MIS 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisani, Julio Cesar; Pontelli, Marga Eliz; Osterrieth, Margarita Luisa; Paisani, Sani Daniela Lopes; Fachin, Andressa; Guerra, Simone; Oliveira, Leandro

    2014-10-01

    The Araucaria Plateau is a geomorphological unit that occupies approximately three-quarters of the terrain in the southern region of Brazil. The plateau displays different altitudinal levels (600 to relief inversion occurred, which resulted in fossilization of the valleys.

  12. Professional stress in general practitioners and psychiatrists: The level of psycologic distress and burnout risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vićentić Sreten

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. So far, studies of stress have shown that physicians are at a high risk of sickness from psychic and somatic disorders related to professional stress, that can lead to important disturbance of personal, familiar and professional functionating. The aim of this study was to investigate the doctors exposition level to professional stress, to compare stress level in general practitioners (GP group with that in the group of psychiatrists and risk level for the apperance of burnout syndrome. Methods. This cross-section study included subjects recruited by a random sample method. Thirty General Practice doctors and 30 psychiatrists (totally 60 doctors filled the set of 3 questionnaires: Sociodemographics features, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ; Goldberg D, 1991, and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; Maslach C, 1996. Appropriate statistical procedures (Pearson test, t-test, variance analysis in interpretation of the results were used. Results. A total level of psychic distress measured with the GHQ test in both groups of physicians was very low implying their good mental health. A difference in Burnout risk based on MBI test between the groups was statistically significant (χ2 = 4,286; p < 0.05 only at subscale Personal Accomplishment (MBI-PA; it was a consequence of a higher number of GPs with medium burnout risk (13.3 : 0.0%. However, even 35 physicians from the sample were affected with a high burnout risk measured with subscales Emotional Ehausation (MBI-EE and MBI-DP, showing that both groups of physicians had risk for the appearance of burnout syndrome. Conclusion. The obtained results showed a high burnout risk level in both, GPs and psychiatrists, groups. In both groups there was no presence of psychic disorders (anxiety, depression, insomnia, while there was a high level of emotional ehausation and overtension by job, and also a lower total personal accomplishment. Level of exposition to professional stress is higher in GPs

  13. Relationships between Salivary Melatonin Levels, Quality of Sleep, and Stress in Young Japanese Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Ito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A decrease in the quality of sleep is believed to cause anxiety and worsen depression. Comparisons of salivary melatonin levels with different factors including quality of sleep, state and trait anxieties, and depression, were conducted to examine whether there is a relationship between melatonin, presumably associated with sleep, and psychological stress. The saliva of healthy young females was collected during the daytime and before they went to bed at night (when they were awake and resting in a sitting position, and salivary melatonin levels were measured. The quality of sleep was scored using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI–-a questionnaire method. State and trait anxieties, and depression were scored using other questionnaire methods: the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS, respectively. The following findings were obtained: (1 Salivary melatonin levels measured during the daytime and before going to bed were higher in females with a high depression score, compared to those with a low score, and there was a correlation between the depression scores and salivary melatonin levels measured at night; and (2 salivary melatonin levels measured before going to bed at night (in a sitting position were higher in females with a high state anxiety score, suggesting a correlation between state anxiety scores and salivary melatonin levels during the night. Both depression and a sense of anxiety are forms of psychological stress. Therefore, it is assumed that, when a person is under psychological stress, the action of melatonin as a ligand on its receptor is reduced. Meaning psychological stress may induce oxidative stress in the body. On the other hand, no correlation was noted between the quality of sleep and salivary melatonin levels during the night, presumably because saliva was collected when the subjects were awake and sitting, rather than sleeping.

  14. Stress transfer mechanisms at the submicron level for graphene/polymer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, George; Androulidakis, Charalampos; Koukaras, Emmanuel N; Tsoukleri, Georgia; Polyzos, Ioannis; Parthenios, John; Papagelis, Konstantinos; Galiotis, Costas

    2015-02-25

    The stress transfer mechanism from a polymer substrate to a nanoinclusion, such as a graphene flake, is of extreme interest for the production of effective nanocomposites. Previous work conducted mainly at the micron scale has shown that the intrinsic mechanism of stress transfer is shear at the interface. However, since the interfacial shear takes its maximum value at the very edge of the nanoinclusion it is of extreme interest to assess the effect of edge integrity upon axial stress transfer at the submicron scale. Here, we conduct a detailed Raman line mapping near the edges of a monolayer graphene flake that is simply supported onto an epoxy-based photoresist (SU8)/poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix at steps as small as 100 nm. We show for the first time that the distribution of axial strain (stress) along the flake deviates somewhat from the classical shear-lag prediction for a region of ∼ 2 μm from the edge. This behavior is mainly attributed to the presence of residual stresses, unintentional doping, and/or edge effects (deviation from the equilibrium values of bond lengths and angles, as well as different edge chiralities). By considering a simple balance of shear-to-normal stresses at the interface we are able to directly convert the strain (stress) gradient to values of interfacial shear stress for all the applied tensile levels without assuming classical shear-lag behavior. For large flakes a maximum value of interfacial shear stress of 0.4 MPa is obtained prior to flake slipping.

  15. Military experience and levels of stress and coping in police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Tara A; Violanti, John M; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Andrew, Michael E; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2013-01-01

    Policing is a stressful occupation and working in this environment may make officers more vulnerable to adverse psychological and physiological outcomes. The impact of prior military experience on work stress and coping strategies has not been well-studied in police. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine differences in levels of police-related stress and coping in officers with and without military experience. Participants were 452 police officers from the Buffalo Cardio-metabolic Occupational Police Stress Study Officers were categorized into three groups: non-military (n = 334), non-combat military (n = 84), and military with combat (n = 34). Age, sex and education adjusted levels of psychological stress and coping measures were compared across the three groups using ANCOVA. P-values were derived from post-hoc comparisons. Non-military police officers had significantly higher stress levels for physically and psychological threatening events compared to non-combat officers (p = 0.019). Non-military officers also reported experiencing significantly more organizational stressors and physically and psychologically threatening events in the past year than combat and non-combat officers (p military officers (p = 0.010, p = 0.005, respectively). In summary, police officers without military experience reported experiencing more organizational and life-threatening events than officers who served in the military. Yet combat officers were less likely to utilize positive coping than non-combat and non-military officers. These findings demonstrate the potential positive influence of military experience on police stress. Further research is needed as military veterans return to police work.

  16. Moderate Level Alcohol During Pregnancy, Prenatal Stress, or Both and Limbic-Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Response to Stress in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Kraemer, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure, prenatal stress, and postnatal response to a challenging event in 6-month-old rhesus monkeys. Forty-one rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) infants were exposed prenatally to moderate level alcohol, maternal stress, or both. Offspring plasma cortisol and…

  17. Child Maltreatment Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Cortisol Levels in Women: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Seng, Julia S

    Studies of the relationship between cortisol and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have had inconsistent results. Gender, trauma type, and age at trauma exposure may explain the inconsistencies. The objective of the review was to examine cortisol levels in relation to PTSD in women with a history of child maltreatment trauma. A review of literature found 13 articles eligible for inclusion. Despite limiting focus to the relatively homogeneous population, the patterns of associations between PTSD and cortisol levels were still inconsistent. The reasons for the inconsistencies likely include highly varied methods across studies, small convenience samples, and unmeasured neuroendocrine hormones that may be stronger predictors of PTSD. The review does not point to a clear bio-behavioral target for psychiatric nursing intervention. It is important to continue to address the developmental and clinical stress response aspects of child maltreatment trauma-related PTSD without assuming that these stress responses are hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis driven.

  18. Remote detection of air pollution stress to vegetation - Laboratory-level studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the role of leaf chemistry, anatomy, moisture content, and canopy density on spectral reflectance in healthy and pollution stressed western conifer needles and broad-leafed species of California coastal sage scrub is presented. Acid mist at a level of pH 2.0 is found to more severely effect chlorophyll loss and leaf death than ozone at a level of 0.2 ppm for a four-week period. Both pollutants cause water loss, affecting Bands 4 and 5 in nonlinear ways. The infrared bands initially rise as free water is lost, and subsequently, scattering and reflectance decline. The net effect is shown to be a reduction in TM 4/3 and a rise in TM 5/4 with pollution stress. Under more severe pollution stresses, the decline of leaf area indices due to accelerated leaf drop accentuates the expected TM 4/3 and TM 5/4 changes.

  19. Acute effects of low-level laser therapy (660 nm) on oxidative stress levels in diabetic rats with skin wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denadai, Amanda Silveira; Aydos, Ricardo Dutra; Silva, Iandara Schettert; Olmedo, Larissa; de Senna Cardoso, Bruno Mendonça; da Silva, Baldomero Antonio Kato; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo

    2017-09-01

    Laser therapy influences oxidative stress parameters such as the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the production of reactive oxygen species. To analyze the effects of low-level laser therapy on oxidative stress in diabetics rats with skin wounds. Thirty-six animals were divided into 4 groups: NDNI: non-diabetic rats with cutaneous wounds that not received laser therapy; NDI: non-diabetic rats with cutaneous wounds that received laser therapy; DNI: diabetic rats with skin wounds who did not undergo laser therapy; DI: rats with diabetes insipidus and cutaneous wounds and received laser therapy. The animals were treated with LLLT (660 nm, 100 mW, 6 J/cm, spot size 0.028 cm). On the day of killing the animals, tissue-wrapped cutaneous wounds were collected and immediately frozen, centrifuged, and stored to analyze malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Significant difference was observed within the groups of MDA levels (ANOVA, p = 0.0001). Tukey's post-hoc test showed significantly lower values of MDA in irradiated tissues, both in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. ANOVA of the diabetic group revealed a significant difference (p < 0.01) when all groups, except NDI and DI, were compared. LLLT was effective in decreasing MDA levels in acute surgical wounds in diabetic rats.

  20. Local and systemic oxidative stress and glucocorticoid receptor levels in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Mian; Li, Yue; Jiang, Yujie; Lu, Guifang; Huang, Xiaomei; Guan, Kaipan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVES: To study local and systemic oxidative stress status in COPD patients, and to clarify the relationship between local and systemic oxidative stress. METHODS: Lipid peroxide malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and GSH peroxidase (GSH-PX) levels in induced sputum and plasma, as well as glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels in peripheral blood leukocytes were examined in 43 acute exacerbation of COPD patients (group A), 35 patients with stable COPD (group B) and 28 healthy controls (14 smokers [group C]; 14 nonsmokers [group D]). RESULTS: MDA levels in induced sputum and plasma decreased progressively in groups A to D, with significant differences between any two groups (P<0.001). GSH, SOD and GSH-PX levels in both induced sputum and plasma increased progressively in groups A to D, with significant differences between any two groups (P<0.001). GR levels in peripheral blood leukocytes decreased progressively in groups D to A (all comparisons P<0.001). Pearson analysis revealed strong correlations between MDA, GSH, SOD and GSH-PX levels in plasma and induced sputum. The activity of SOD in plasma and sputum were both positively correlated with GR levels (partial correlation coefficients 0.522 and 0.574, respectively [P<0.001]). CONCLUSIONS: Oxidative stress levels were elevated in COPD patients. There was a correlation between local and systemic oxidative status in COPD, and between decreased SOD activity and decreased GR levels in COPD patients. PMID:23457673

  1. The hippocampal response to psychosocial stress varies with salivary uric acid level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Adam M.; Wheelock, Muriah D.; Harnett, Nathaniel G.; Mrug, Sylvie; Granger, Douglas A.; Knight, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Uric acid is a naturally occurring, endogenous compound that impacts mental health. In particular, uric acid levels are associated with emotion-related psychopathology (e.g., anxiety and depression). Therefore, understanding uric acid’s impact on the brain would provide valuable new knowledge regarding neural mechanisms that mediate the relationship between uric acid and mental health. Brain regions including the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus underlie stress reactivity and emotion regulation. Thus, uric acid may impact emotion by modifying the function of these brain regions. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a psychosocial stress task to investigate the relationship between baseline uric acid levels (in saliva) and brain function. Results demonstrate that activity within the bilateral hippocampal complex varied with uric acid concentrations. Specifically, activity within the hippocampus and surrounding cortex increased as a function of uric acid level. The current findings suggest that uric acid levels modulate stress-related hippocampal activity. Given that the hippocampus has been implicated in emotion regulation during psychosocial stress, the present findings offer a potential mechanism by which uric acid impacts mental health. PMID:27725214

  2. The hippocampal response to psychosocial stress varies with salivary uric acid level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Adam M; Wheelock, Muriah D; Harnett, Nathaniel G; Mrug, Sylvie; Granger, Douglas A; Knight, David C

    2016-12-17

    Uric acid is a naturally occurring, endogenous compound that impacts mental health. In particular, uric acid levels are associated with emotion-related psychopathology (e.g., anxiety and depression). Therefore, understanding uric acid's impact on the brain would provide valuable new knowledge regarding neural mechanisms that mediate the relationship between uric acid and mental health. Brain regions including the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus underlie stress reactivity and emotion regulation. Thus, uric acid may impact emotion by modifying the function of these brain regions. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a psychosocial stress task to investigate the relationship between baseline uric acid levels (in saliva) and brain function. Results demonstrate that activity within the bilateral hippocampal complex varied with uric acid concentrations. Specifically, activity within the hippocampus and surrounding cortex increased as a function of uric acid level. The current findings suggest that uric acid levels modulate stress-related hippocampal activity. Given that the hippocampus has been implicated in emotion regulation during psychosocial stress, the present findings offer a potential mechanism by which uric acid impacts mental health. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Levels of Stress among Secondary School Administrators and Its Implication in Education Management in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngari, S. M.; Ndungu, A.; Mwonya, R.; Ngumi, O.; Mumiukha, C.; Chepchieng, M.; Kariuki, M.

    2013-01-01

    Stress significantly affects performance and service delivery of workers. Given the important role that education plays in the society, coupled with the dynamic nature of the education sector there has been an increased social pressure on the education system in general and school administrators in particular. This influences their levels of…

  4. Effect of stress level on static young's modulus of certain structural materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojtenko, A.F.; Skripnik, Yu.D.; Solov' eva, N.G.; Nadezhdin, G.N. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Problem Prochnosti)

    1982-11-01

    Certain steels, titanium and aluminium alloys have been studied for their dynamic and static Young moduli. It is shown that a stress rise in materials to the level of microplastic strain realization results in a significant reduction of the static modulus of elasticity in the materials studied.

  5. Effect of stress level on static young's modulus of certain structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojtenko, A.F.; Skripnik, Yu.D.; Solov'eva, N.G.; Nadezhdin, G.N.

    1982-01-01

    Certain steels, titanium and aluminium alloys have been studied for their dynamic and static Young moduli. It is shown that a stress rise in materials to the level of microplastic strain realization results in a significant reduction of the static modulus of elasticity in the materials studied

  6. Interpersonal stress, performance level, and parental support : A Longitudinal study among highly skilled young soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.

    1995-01-01

    This study of 65 highly skilled young male soccer players (mean age = 16.6 years) employed a 7-month longitudinal design to examine the causal relationship between performance level and interpersonal stress within the team. Particular attention was paid to the moderating effect of parental support.

  7. Financial strain is associated with increased oxidative stress levels: the Women's Health and Aging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Priya; Szanton, Sarah L; Semba, Richard D; Thorpe, Roland J; Varadhan, Ravi; Fried, Linda P

    2015-01-01

    Elevated oxidative stress levels may be one mechanism contributing to poor health outcomes. Financial strain and oxidative stress are each predictors of morbidity and mortality, but little research has investigated their relationship. Community-dwelling older adults (n = 728) from the Women's Health and Aging Studies I and II were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Financial strain was ascertained as an ordinal response to: "At the end of the month, do you have more than enough money left over, just enough, or not enough?" Oxidative stress was measured using serum protein carbonyl concentrations. Linear regression was used to quantify the relationship between financial strain and oxidative stress. Participants who reported high financial strain exhibited 13.4% higher protein carbonyl concentrations compared to individuals who reported low financial strain (p = 0.002). High financial strain may be associated with increased oxidative stress, suggesting that oxidative stress could mediate associations between financial strain and poor health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Elite sport is not an additional source of distress for adolescents with high stress levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Brand, Serge

    2011-04-01

    This study examined whether participation in elite sport interacts with stress in decreasing or increasing symptoms of depression and anxiety among adolescents, and further, whether the interplay between participation in high-performance sport and stress is related to the perceived quality of sleep. 434 adolescents (278 girls, 156 boys; age: M = 17.2 yr.) from 15 "Swiss Olympic Sport Classes" and 9 conventional classes answered a questionnaire and completed a 7-day sleep log. Analyses of covariance showed that heightened stress was related to more depressive symptoms and higher scores for trait-anxiety. Moreover, those classified as having poor sleep by a median split cutoff reported higher levels of depressive symptoms. No significant (multivariate) main effects were found for high-performance sport athletes. Similarly, no significant two- or three-way interaction effects were found. These results caution against exaggerated expectations concerning sport participation as a stress buffer. Nevertheless, participation in high-performance sport was not found to be an additional source of distress for adolescents who reported high stress levels despite prior research that has pointed toward such a relationship.

  9. Variable Levels of Tolerance to Water Stress (Drought and Associated Biochemical Markers in Tunisian Barley Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Dbira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high tolerance to abiotic stress, barley (Hordeum vulgare is cultivated in many arid areas of the world. In the present study, we evaluate the tolerance to water stress (drought in nine accessions of “Ardhaoui” barley landraces from different regions of Tunisia. The genetic diversity of the accessions is evaluated with six SSR markers. Seedlings from the nine accessions are subjected to water stress by completely stopping irrigation for three weeks. A high genetic diversity is detected among the nine accessions, with no relationships between genetic distance and geographical or ecogeographical zone. The analysis of growth parameters and biochemical markers in the water stress-treated plants in comparison to their respective controls indicated great variability among the studied accessions. Accession 2, from El May Island, displayed high tolerance to drought. Increased amounts of proline in water-stressed plants could not be correlated with a better response to drought, as the most tolerant accessions contained lower levels of this osmolyte. A good correlation was established between the reduction of growth and degradation of chlorophylls and increased levels of malondialdehyde and total phenolics. These biochemical markers may be useful for identifying drought tolerant materials in barley.

  10. Levels of salivary stress markers in patients with anxiety about halitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Makoto; Hinode, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Yoshioka, Masami; Kataoka, Kosuke; Ito, Hiro-O

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between salivary stress markers and mental stress states in patients complaining of oral malodour. The utility of the salivary stress markers in assessment of mental conditions of those patients was also investigated. The study population included 74 patients, aged 20-59 years, who complained of oral malodour and were referred to the Breath Odor Clinic at Tokushima University Hospital. Patients were classified into two groups, genuine halitosis (GH) and psychosomatic halitosis (PH), according to the results of organoleptic rating measurement. All patients were subjected to examination by the Cornell Medical Index (CMI) Health Questionnaire. Resting saliva was collected and levels of salivary IgA, cortisol and chromogranin A were determined by ELISA. Twenty-three volunteers not complaining of halitosis were included as the control group. Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney's U-test were used for statistical analysis. A significant increase was observed in the concentrations of salivary cortisol in the PH group as compared with GH and control groups (psalivary cortisol concentrations were found in CMI scale III and IV (tendency towards neurosis) than in scale I and II (normal) (psalivary cortisol reflects a status of chronic stress condition, psychosomatic halitosis might be closely related to this state of chronic stress. Determination of cortisol levels in saliva may provide useful information for evaluating the mental status of patients complaining of halitosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Colorado Plateau II: biophysical, socioeconomic, and cultural research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; van Riper, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through grazing and the wildland-urban interface issues, to parameters of climate change on the Plateau. The book also introduces economic perspectives by considering shifting patterns and regional disparities in the Colorado Plateau economy. A series of chapters on mountain lions explores the human-wildland interface. These chapters deal with the entire spectrum of challenges associated with managing this large mammal species in Arizona and on the Colorado Plateau, conveying a wealth of timely information of interest to wildlife managers and enthusiasts. Another provocative set of chapters on biophysical resources explores the management of forest restoration, from the micro scale all the way up to large-scale GIS analyses of ponderosa pine ecosystems on the Colorado Plateau. Given recent concerns for forest health in the wake of fires, severe drought, and bark-beetle infestation, these chapters will prove enlightening for forest service, park service, and land management professionals at both the federal and state level, as well as general readers interested in how forest management practices will ultimately affect their recreation activities. With broad coverage that touches on topics as diverse as movement patterns of rattlesnakes, calculating watersheds, and rescuing looted rockshelters, this volume stands as a compendium of cutting-edge research on the Colorado Plateau that offers a wealth of insights for many scholars.

  12. Spiny Neurons of Amygdala, Striatum and Cortex Use Dendritic Plateau Potentials to Detect Network UP States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina D Oikonomou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Spiny neurons of amygdala, striatum, and cerebral cortex share four interesting features: [1] they are the most abundant cell type within their respective brain area, [2] covered by thousands of thorny protrusions (dendritic spines, [3] possess high levels of dendritic NMDA conductances, and [4] experience sustained somatic depolarizations in vivo and in vitro (UP states. In all spiny neurons of the forebrain, adequate glutamatergic inputs generate dendritic plateau potentials (dendritic UP states characterized by (i fast rise, (ii plateau phase lasting several hundred milliseconds and (iii abrupt decline at the end of the plateau phase. The dendritic plateau potential propagates towards the cell body decrementally to induce a long-lasting (longer than 100 ms, most often 200 – 800 ms steady depolarization (~20 mV amplitude, which resembles a neuronal UP state. Based on voltage-sensitive dye imaging, the plateau depolarization in the soma is precisely time-locked to the regenerative plateau potential taking place in the dendrite. The somatic plateau rises after the onset of the dendritic voltage transient and collapses with the breakdown of the dendritic plateau depolarization. We hypothesize that neuronal UP states in vivo reflect the occurrence of dendritic plateau potentials (dendritic UP states. We propose that the somatic voltage waveform during a neuronal UP state is determined by dendritic plateau potentials. A mammalian spiny neuron uses dendritic plateau potentials to detect and transform coherent network activity into a ubiquitous neuronal UP state. The biophysical properties of dendritic plateau potentials allow neurons to quickly attune to the ongoing network activity, as well as secure the stable amplitudes of successive UP states.

  13. Organizational restructuring and career plateauing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Paffen; Hans Timmermans

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a flexibility program for plateaued professionals in a technical Dutch firm operating in the consultancy sector we will refer to with the pseudonym Greentree Corp. First, we will discuss the impact reorganization had on job-requirements and career opportunities for technical

  14. Vital analysis: annotating sensed physiological signals with the stress levels of first responders in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, P; Kaiseler, M; Queirós, C; Oliveira, M; Lopes, B; Coimbra, M

    2012-01-01

    First responders such as firefighters are exposed to extreme stress and fatigue situations during their work routines. It is thus desirable to monitor their health using wearable sensing but this is a complex and still unsolved research challenge that requires large amounts of properly annotated physiological signals data. In this paper we show that the information gathered by our Vital Analysis Framework can support the annotation of these vital signals with the stress levels perceived by the target user, confirmed by the analysis of more than 4600 hours of data collected from real firefighters in action, including 717 answers to event questionnaires from a total of 454 different events.

  15. Water stress, CO2 and photoperiod influence hormone levels in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Rubin; Carman, John G.; Salisbury, Frank B.; Campbell, W. F. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    'Super Dwarf' wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants have been grown from seed to maturity in the Mir space station where they were periodically exposed, because of microgravity and other constraints, to water deficit, waterlogging, high CO2 levels, and low light intensities. The plants produced many tillers, but none of them produced viable seed. Studies have been initiated to determine why the plants responded in these ways. In the present study, effects of the listed stresses on abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and isopentenyl adenosine ([9R]iP) levels in roots and leaves of plants grown under otherwise near optimal conditions on earth were measured. Hormones were extracted, purified by HPLC, and quantified by noncompetitive indirect ELISA. In response to water deficit, ABA levels increased in roots and leaves, IAA levels decreased in roots and leaves, and [9R]iP levels increased in leaves but decreased in roots. In response to waterlogging, ABA, IAA and [9R]iP levels briefly increased in roots and leaves and then decreased. When portions of the root system were exposed to waterlogging and/or water deficit, ABA levels in leaves increased while [9R]iP and IAA levels decreased. These responses were correlated with the percentage of the root system stressed. At a low photosynthetic photon flux (100 micromoles m-2 s-1), plants grown in continuous light had higher leaf ABA levels than plants grown using an 18 or 21 h photoperiod.

  16. Low-level lasers affect Escherichia coli cultures in hyperosmotic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, C. C.; Barboza, L. L.; Paoli, F.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2015-08-01

    Physical characteristics and practical properties have made lasers of interest for biomedical applications. Effects of low-level lasers on biological tissues could occur or be measurable depending on cell type, presence of a pathologic process or whether the cells are in an adverse environment. The objective of this work was to evaluate the survival, morphology and filamentation of E. coli cells proficient and deficient in the repair of oxidative DNA lesions exposed low-level red and infrared lasers submitted to hyperosmotic stress. Wild type and endonuclease VIII deficient E. coli cells in exponential and stationary growth phase were exposed to red and infrared lasers and submitted to hyperosmotic stress. Cell viability, filamentation phenotype and cell morphology were evaluated. Cell viability was not significantly altered but previous laser exposure induced filamentation and an altered area of stressed cells depending on physiologic condition and presence of the DNA repair. Results suggest that previous exposure to low-level red and infrared lasers could not affect viability but induced morphologic changes in cells submitted to hyperosmotic stress depending on physiologic conditions and repair of oxidative DNA lesions.

  17. [The effects of hatha yoga exercises on stress and anxiety levels in mastectomized women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Marina Lima Daleprane; Amorim, Maria Helena Costa; Zandonade, Eliana; Santaella, Danilo Forghieri; Barbosa, Juliana de Assis Novais

    2013-12-01

    This article seeks to evaluate the effects of hatha yoga on stress and anxiety levels in mastectomized women. It also investigates the relationship between these levels with the following variables: age; marital status; religion; instruction; profession; smoke addiction; elitism; staging of the disease; and treatment phase. This involved controlled random clinical trial sampling of 45 mastectomized women treated at the Ilza Bianco outpatient service of Santa Rita de Cássia Hospital in the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo from March to November 2010. The experimental group participated in 6 individually-applied sessions with incentive for ongoing home practice and was re-evaluated after the period, whereas the control group was re-evaluated after a proportional period. For the study of the variables, the interview and recording on a form technique was used, along with the Anxiety Trait and State Test, and the Stress Symptoms and Signs Test. For statistical treatment, the Statistical Pack for Social Sciences was used. The data are statistically significant and have shown that hatha yoga exercises decrease stress and anxiety in the experimental group. No connection between confounding variables and anxiety and stress levels was found.

  18. Induced thermal stress on serotonin levels in the blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Rajendiran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The temperature of habitat water has a drastic influence on the behavioral, physiological and biochemical mechanisms of crustaceans. Hyperglycemia is a typical response of many aquatic animals to harmful physical and chemical environmental changes. In crustaceans increased circulating crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH and hyperglycemia are reported to occur following exposure to several environmental stress. The biogenic amine, serotonin has been found to modulate the CHH levels and oxidation of serotonin into its metabolites is catalysed by monoamine oxidase. The blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus is a dominant intertidal species utilized throughout the indo-pacific region and is a particularly important species of Palk bay. It has high nutritional value and delicious taste and hence their requirements of capture and cultivation of this species are constantly increasing. This species experiences varying and increasing temperature levels as it resides in an higher intertidal zone of Thondi coast. The present study examines the effect of thermal stress on the levels of serotonin and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in the hemolymph of P. pelagicus and analyzes the effect of the monoamine oxidase inhibitor, pargyline on serotonin and CHH level after thermal stress. The results showed increased levels of glucose, CHH and serotonin on exposure to 26 °C in control animals. Pargyline injected crabs showed highly significant increase in the levels of CHH and serotonin on every 2 °C increase or decrease in temperature. A greater CHH level of 268.86±2.87 fmol/ml and a greater serotonin level of 177.69±10.10 ng/ml was observed at 24 °C. This could be due to the effect of in maintaining the level of serotonin in the hemolymph and preventing its oxidation, which in turn induces hyperglycemia by releasing CHH into hemolymph. Thus, the study demonstrates the effect of thermal stress on the hemolymph metabolites studied and the role of

  19. Induced thermal stress on serotonin levels in the blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendiran, Saravanan; Muhammad Iqbal, Beema Mahin; Vasudevan, Sugumar

    2016-03-01

    The temperature of habitat water has a drastic influence on the behavioral, physiological and biochemical mechanisms of crustaceans. Hyperglycemia is a typical response of many aquatic animals to harmful physical and chemical environmental changes. In crustaceans increased circulating crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) and hyperglycemia are reported to occur following exposure to several environmental stress. The biogenic amine, serotonin has been found to modulate the CHH levels and oxidation of serotonin into its metabolites is catalysed by monoamine oxidase. The blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus is a dominant intertidal species utilized throughout the indo-pacific region and is a particularly important species of Palk bay. It has high nutritional value and delicious taste and hence their requirements of capture and cultivation of this species are constantly increasing. This species experiences varying and increasing temperature levels as it resides in an higher intertidal zone of Thondi coast. The present study examines the effect of thermal stress on the levels of serotonin and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in the hemolymph of P. pelagicus and analyzes the effect of the monoamine oxidase inhibitor, pargyline on serotonin and CHH level after thermal stress. The results showed increased levels of glucose, CHH and serotonin on exposure to 26 °C in control animals. Pargyline injected crabs showed highly significant increase in the levels of CHH and serotonin on every 2 °C increase or decrease in temperature. A greater CHH level of 268.86±2.87 fmol/ml and a greater serotonin level of 177.69±10.10 ng/ml was observed at 24 °C. This could be due to the effect of in maintaining the level of serotonin in the hemolymph and preventing its oxidation, which in turn induces hyperglycemia by releasing CHH into hemolymph. Thus, the study demonstrates the effect of thermal stress on the hemolymph metabolites studied and the role of pargyline in elevating the

  20. Redesigning and Manufacturing of a Land Levelling Shovel by Assembly Structural Stress Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Altinbalik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to redesign and manufacture of a shovel for a pull-type land levelling machine, which, in its present condition, is used to get easily damaged even under low loads. Firstly, the maximum pulling load affecting the levelling shovel was experimentally determined. Then, stable-shovel system with the bolt connection was replaced with a bearing-shaft connection system. In this way, the new shovel has gained a capability of making oscillation motion so that it can operate on sloped grounds. CATIA program was used in the design studies. The shovel system was investigated by assembly structural stress analyses. This new construction enabled the system to operate 3 times more securely at maximum stress conditions without changing the levelling shovel material. Thus, it is managed to prevent any possible damages that might occur due to maximum loading conditions of the system. Besides, displacements that occur on the shovel decreased at the rate of 90%.

  1. Increased levels of thioredoxin in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). A potential link of oxidative stress with AAA evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Pinna, R; Lindholt, Jes S.; Blanco-Colio, L M

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a main mechanism involved in vascular pathologies. Increased thioredoxin (TRX) levels have been observed in several oxidative stress-associated cardiovascular diseases. We aim to test the potential role of TRX as a biomarker of oxidative stress in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)....

  2. Evaluation of the melatonin and oxidative stress markers level in serum of fertile and infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Soleimani Rad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is defined as the inability to achieve the pregnancy within a year of unprotected intercourse. Infertility is a complex issue and different factors such as stress oxidative can be involved in this problem. So, any attempt to neutralize oxidative stress would be helpful in the treatment of infertility. Melatonin is a known scavenger of free radicals. Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the level of melatonin and its correlation with oxidative biomarkers in fertile and infertile women. Materials and Methods: The participants including fertile and infertile women were divided into two groups of 30 people. Blood sampling was performed and sera were collected. The level of Malondialdehyde (MDA, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and melatonin were detected. Data were analyzed using T-test and their correlation was assessed using Spearman test. Results: Serum melatonin from fertile women was higher than infertile women but the difference was not significant (p= 0.46. MDA level in fertile women was significantly lower than infertile women (p<0.001 and the level of TAC in fertile women was significantly higher than infertile women (p<0.001. Spearman test revealed a significant and direct correlation between melatonin and TAC in fertile and infertile women and a significant but reverse correlation between melatonin and MDA in infertile and fertile women. Conclusion: Differences in the level of oxidative stress biomarkers in fertile and infertile individuals have been reported. This study revealed a significant correlation between melatonin and oxidative stress biomarkers, concluding that melatonin level could be involved in infertility.

  3. Vitamin E levels in preeclampsia placenta tissue and its correlation with oxidative stress injury and apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the vitamin E levels in preeclampsia placenta tissue and its correlation with oxidative stress injury and apoptosis. Methods: A total of 60 pregnant women with preeclampsia who received treatment and gave birth in our hospital between July 2012 and January 2016 were collected and divided into mild preeclampsia group (n=41 and severe preeclampsia group (n=19 according to the disease severity; 38 normal pregnant women who received pregnancy test and gave birth in our hospital during the same period were selected as healthy control group. The placental tissue samples of three groups of research subjects were retained, high performance liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry was used to detect VitE levels in tissue grinding fluid, automatic biochemical analyzer was used to detect the levels of oxidative stress injury indexes, and fluorescence quantitative PCR method was used to detect the mRNA expression of apoptosis molecules. Results: VitE, SOD and CAT levels in grinding fluid of severe preeclampsia group were lower than those of mild preeclampsia group and healthy control group while ROS and AOPP levels were higher than those of mild preeclampsia group and healthy control group; Fas, caspase and Apaf-1 mRNA expression were higher than those of mild preeclampsia group and healthy control group while anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, Mcl-2 and p57kip2 mRNA expression were lower than those of mild preeclampsia group and healthy control group. Spearman correlation analysis showed that VitE level in the preeclampsia placenta tissue was directly correlated with oxidative stress injury and cell apoptosis. Conclusion: VitE deficiency is the direct factor that results in oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in patients with preeclampsia, and the VitE supplementation in time is expected to become the auxiliary treatment means for patients with preeclampsia.

  4. Protocol: a multi-level intervention program to reduce stress in 9-1-1 telecommunicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meischke, Hendrika; Lilly, Michelle; Beaton, Randal; Calhoun, Rebecca; Tu, Ann; Stangenes, Scott; Painter, Ian; Revere, Debra; Baseman, Janet

    2018-05-02

    Nationwide, emergency response systems depend on 9-1-1 telecommunicators to prioritize, triage, and dispatch assistance to those in distress. 9-1-1 call center telecommunicators (TCs) are challenged by acute and chronic workplace stressors: tense interactions with citizen callers in crisis; overtime; shift-work; ever-changing technologies; and negative work culture, including co-worker conflict. This workforce is also subject to routine exposures to secondary traumatization while handling calls involving emergency situations and while making time urgent, high stake decisions over the phone. Our study aims to test the effectiveness of a multi-part intervention to reduce stress in 9-1-1 TCs through an online mindfulness training and a toolkit containing workplace stressor reduction resources. The study employs a randomized controlled trial design with three data collection points. The multi-part intervention includes an individual-level online mindfulness training and a call center-level organizational stress reduction toolkit. 160 TCs will be recruited from 9-1-1 call centers, complete a baseline survey at enrollment, and are randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group. Intervention group participants will start a 7-week online mindfulness training developed in-house and tailored to 9-1-1 TCs and their call center environment; control participants will be "waitlisted" and start the training after the study period ends. Following the intervention group's completion of the mindfulness training, all participants complete a second survey. Next, the online toolkit with call-center wide stress reduction resources is made available to managers of all participating call centers. After 3 months, a third survey will be completed by all participants. The primary outcome is 9-1-1 TCs' self-reported symptoms of stress at three time points as measured by the C-SOSI (Calgary Symptoms of Stress Inventory). Secondary outcomes will include: perceptions of social work

  5. Heat shock proteins in relation to heat stress tolerance of creeping bentgrass at different N levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kehua; Zhang, Xunzhong; Goatley, Mike; Ervin, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress is a primary factor causing summer bentgrass decline. Changes in gene expression at the transcriptional and/or translational level are thought to be a fundamental mechanism in plant response to environmental stresses. Heat stress redirects protein synthesis in higher plants and results in stress protein synthesis, particularly heat shock proteins (HSPs). The goal of this work was to analyze the expression pattern of major HSPs in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) during different heat stress periods and to study the influence of nitrogen (N) on the HSP expression patterns. A growth chamber study on 'Penn-A4' creeping bentgrass subjected to 38/28°C day/night for 50 days, was conducted with four nitrate rates (no N-0, low N-2.5, medium N-7.5, and high N-12.5 kg N ha-1) applied biweekly. Visual turfgrass quality (TQ), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), shoot electrolyte leakage (ShEL), and root viability (RV) were monitored, along with the expression pattern of HSPs. There was no difference in measured parameters between treatments until week seven, except TQ at week five. At week seven, grass at medium N had better TQ, NDVI, and Fv/Fm accompanied by lower ShEL and higher RV, suggesting a major role in improved heat tolerance. All the investigated HSPs (HSP101, HSP90, HSP70, and sHSPs) were up-regulated by heat stress. Their expression patterns indicated cooperation between different HSPs and their roles in bentgrass thermotolerance. In addition, their production seems to be resource dependent. This study could further improve our understanding about how different N levels affect bentgrass thermotolerance.

  6. Fukushima Nuclear Accident Recorded in Tibetan Plateau Snow Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ninglian; Wu, Xiaobo; Kehrwald, Natalie; Li, Zhen; Li, Quanlian; Jiang, Xi; Pu, Jianchen

    2015-01-01

    The β radioactivity of snow-pit samples collected in the spring of 2011 on four Tibetan Plateau glaciers demonstrate a remarkable peak in each snow pit profile, with peaks about ten to tens of times higher than background levels. The timing of these peaks suggests that the high radioactivity resulted from the Fukushima nuclear accident that occurred on March 11, 2011 in eastern Japan. Fallout monitoring studies demonstrate that this radioactive material was transported by the westerlies across the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The depth of the peak β radioactivity in each snow pit compared with observational precipitation records, suggests that the radioactive fallout reached the Tibetan Plateau and was deposited on glacier surfaces in late March 2011, or approximately 20 days after the nuclear accident. The radioactive fallout existed in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau for about one month. PMID:25658094

  7. The relationship between job stress and burnout levels of oncology nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujnan Tuna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Job stress and burnout levels of oncology nurses increase day-by-day in connection with rapidly increasing cancer cases worldwide as well as in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to establish job stress and burnout levels of oncology nurses and the relationship in between. Methods: The sample of this descriptive study comprised of 189 nurses that are selected by nonprobability sampling method, employed by 11 hospitals in Istanbul. Survey form of 20 questions, Job Stressors Scale and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI were used during collection of data. Data were evaluated using percentage, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Spearman correlation analyses. Results: In the study, there was a positively weak correlation between "Work Role Ambiguity" subdimension of Job Stressors Scale and "Emotional Exhaustion" and "Personal Accomplishment" subdimensions, whereas a positively weak and medium correlation was encountered between "Work Role Conflict" subdimension and "Emotional Exhaustion" and "Depersonalization" subdimensions. A negatively weak correlation was found between "Work Role Overload" subdimension and "Emotional Exhaustion" and "Depersonalization" subdimensions. Conclusion: A significant relationship was established between subdimensions of job stress level and of burnout level, that a lot of oncology nurses who have participated in the study wanted to change their units, because of the high attrition rate.

  8. Yoga reduces perceived stress and exhaustion levels in healthy elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Eric; Tilton, Katherine; Eickholt, Nicole; Ferguson-Stegall, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated whether a 7-week yoga intervention could improve physical function, perceived stress, and mental/emotional wellness in elderly participants. 8 participants (66.5 ± 0.3 years) attended 2 60-min Hatha yoga sessions/week for 7 weeks, and performed pre- and post-intervention assessments. Balance was assessed using a 5-test battery. Flexibility was measured by sit-and-reach and shoulder flexibility tests. Functional mobility tests included 8-ft up-and-go, 5 chair stands, and 4-m walk. Participants completed SF-12, exhaustion level, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) questionnaires. SF-12 Mental Component Summary scores, exhaustion levels, and PSS scores improved post-intervention. No differences were found for physical function measures. Yoga participation can improve mental/emotional wellness, exhaustion levels, and stress levels in elderly individuals, even without measurable improvements in physical function. Clinicians and health practitioners who work with the elderly should consider yoga as a potential therapeutic modality for improving important aspects of quality of life in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Metformin induces oxidative stress in white adipocytes and raises uncoupling protein 2 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anedda, Andrea; Rial, Eduardo; González-Barroso, M Mar

    2008-10-01

    Metformin is a drug widely used to treat type 2 diabetes. It enhances insulin sensitivity by improving glucose utilization in tissues like liver or muscle. Metformin inhibits respiration, and the decrease in cellular energy activates the AMP-activated protein kinase that in turn switches on catabolic pathways. Moreover, metformin increases lipolysis and beta-oxidation in white adipose tissue, thereby reducing the triglyceride stores. The uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are transporters that lower the efficiency of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. UCP2 is thought to protect against oxidative stress although, alternatively, it could play an energy dissipation role. The aim of this work was to analyse the involvement of UCP2 on the effects of metformin in white adipocytes. We studied the effect of this drug in differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes and found that metformin causes oxidative stress since it increases the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lowers the aconitase activity. Variations in UCP2 protein levels parallel those of ROS. Metformin also increases lipolysis in these cells although only when the levels of ROS and UCP2 have decreased. Hence, UCP2 does not appear to be needed to facilitate fatty acid oxidation. Furthermore, treatment of C57BL/6 mice with metformin also augmented the levels of UCP2 in epididymal white adipose tissue. We conclude that metformin treatment leads to the overexpression of UCP2 in adipocytes to minimize the oxidative stress that is probably due to the inhibition of respiration caused by the drug.

  10. Study of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel Seed Extract Effects on Serum Level of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghpour Nahid

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Foeniculum vulgare (FVE, known as fennel, has a long history of herbal uses as both food and medicine. The seed of this plant has been used to promote menstruation, alleviate the symptoms of female climacteric, and increase the number of ovarian follicles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fennel extract effects on serum level of oxidative stress in female mice. Materials and Methods: Totally, 28 virgin female albino mice were divided into four groups (n = 7. Groups 1 and 2 (experimental groups were administered FVE at 100 and at a concentration of 100 and 200 mg/kg for 5 days, interaperitoneally. Group 3 (negative control received ethanol and Group 4 (positive control received normal saline. Animals were scarified at 6th day, sera were collected and the level of oxidative stress was determination of using total antioxidant status kit. Results: Data analysis revealed that there is a significant difference in the mean level of serum oxidative stress between four different groups. P value in experimental groups compared to the control group was (P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Fennel extract can decrease the serum level of oxidative factors in female mice; it can be introduced as a novel medicine for treatment of infertility

  11. Organizational politics, nurses' stress, burnout levels, turnover intention and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrague, L J; McEnroe-Petitte, D M; Gloe, D; Tsaras, K; Arteche, D L; Maldia, F

    2017-03-01

    This is a research report examining the influence of organizational politics perceptions on nurses' work outcomes (job satisfaction, work stress, job burnout and turnover intention). Organizational politics is a phenomenon common in almost all institutions and is linked with undesirable consequences in employees. Despite the plethora of research around the world on this topic, studies describing organizational politics in nursing remain underexplored. A cross-sectional research design was utilized in this study. One hundred sixty-six (166) nurses participated. Five standardized tools were used: the Job Satisfaction Index, the Job Stress Scale, the Burnout Measure Scale, the Turnover Intention Inventory Scale and the Perception of Organizational Politics Scale. Nurses employed both in private and government-owned hospitals perceived moderate levels of organizational politics. Positive correlations were identified between perceived organizational politics and job stress, turnover intention and job burnout. Negative correlations were found between perceived organizational politics and job satisfaction. Perceptions of workplace politics in Filipino nurses were lower when compared to findings in other international studies. A strong link was found between organizational politics perceptions and the four job outcomes (stress and burnout levels, turnover intention and job satisfaction). Use of a self-reporting questionnaire and exclusion of nurses from other provinces. Perceived organizational politics predicted nurses' stress and burnout levels, turnover intention and job satisfaction. The findings of this study may provide a valuable perspective of this organizational issue and could assist policymakers and nurse administrators in formulating interventions that could minimize the effect of workplace politics. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  12. Reiki brief report: using Reiki to reduce stress levels in a nine-year-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Elaine L; Berardi, Diana

    2014-01-01

    A nine-year-old female with a history of perinatal stroke, seizures, and type-I diabetes was seen for six weeks of Reiki to determine the effects of Reiki on relaxation, and in turn, the prevention of future seizures. The secondary and tertiary aims were to determine the effects of Reiki on sleep patterns and the stress levels of the mother. There was a decrease in stress in both the child and the mother, as measured by a modified Perceived Stress Scale and a Perceived Stress Scale, respectively. There was no change in the child's overall sense of well-being, as measured by a global questionnaire. There was a positive change in sleep patterns on 33.3% of the nights during which the study occurred, as reported on a sleep log kept by the mother. The child and the Reiki Master (a Reiki practitioner who has completed all three levels of Reiki certification training and trains and certifies individuals in the practice of Reiki as well as provides Reiki to individuals) experienced warmth and tingling sensations on the same area of the child during the Reiki sessions. The child relaxed within the first five to seven minutes of each session as reported by the Reiki Master. There were no reports of seizures during this study. Reiki may be a useful adjunct for children with increased stress levels and sleep disturbances secondary to their medical condition. Further research is warranted to evaluate the use of Reiki in children, particularly with a large sample size, and to evaluate the long-term use of Reiki and its effects on adequate sleep. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Stress levels of critical care doctors in India: A national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amte, Rahul; Munta, Kartik; Gopal, Palepu B

    2015-05-01

    Doctors working in critical care units are prone to higher stress due to various factors such as higher mortality and morbidity, demanding service conditions and need for higher knowledge and technical skill. The aim was to evaluate the stress level and the causative stressors in doctors working in critical care units in India. A two modality questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was conducted. In manual mode, randomly selected delegates attending the annual congress of Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine filled the questionnaire. In the electronic mode, the questionnaires were E-mailed to critical care doctors. These questionnaires were based on General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). Completely filled 242 responses were utilized for comparative and correlation analysis. Prevalence of moderate to severe stress level was 40% with a mean score of 2 on GHQ-12 scale. Too much responsibility at times and managing VIP patients ranked as the top two stressors studied, while the difficult relationship with colleagues and sexual harassment were the least. Intensivists were spending longest hours in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) followed by pulmonologists and anesthetists. The mean number of ICU bed critical care doctors entrusted with was 13.2 ± 6.3. Substance abuse to relieve stress was reported as alcohol (21%), anxiolytic or antidepressants (18%) and smoking (14%). Despite the higher workload, stress levels measured in our survey in Indian critical care doctors were lower compared to International data. Substantiation of this data through a wider study and broad-based measures to improve the quality of critical care units and quality of the lives of these doctors is the need of the hour.

  14. Survey of career satisfaction, lifestyle, and stress levels among pharmacy school faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfelt, Tristan A; Ip, Eric J; Barnett, Mitchell J

    2015-09-15

    U.S. pharmacy school faculty were surveyed to assess their career satisfaction, lifestyle, and stress levels. A 48-item survey, administered through Qualtrics (Provo, UT), was sent to current members of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy and included questions regarding respondents' academic institution and appointment status; lifestyle traits; career satisfaction; work-life balance; neurologic and psychiatric diagnoses; use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco; and stress levels. of the 4787 faculty invited to participate in the survey, 811 usable surveys were collected (16.9% response rate). Nearly all respondents (95.0%) reported working 40 or more hours per week. The majority had an average daily one-way commute of less than 30 minutes (64.2%), slept 5.5-7.5 hours per night (74.8%), and exercised for no more than 120 minutes per week (61.8%). A majority of respondents (63.7%) reported being very or extremely satisfied with their current position in academia. Only 36.9% reported being very or extremely satisfied with their work-life balance. Mean perceived stress scores were near those found in the general adult population. Although most respondents reported seeing a primary care provider and dentist annually, other findings regarding preventive health measures were not as encouraging. A survey of pharmacy faculty in the United States revealed high levels of job satisfaction among respondents, but lower levels of satisfaction with work-life balance and comparable levels of stress to the general population were found. Administrators and stakeholders should explore options to improve lifestyle factors to decrease potential burnout among faculty. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of organisational restructuring on job satisfaction, career aspirations and stress levels of employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Marais

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The field study reported here examined the effects of organisational restructuring on employees' job satisfaction, career aspirations and stress levels. Immediately after restructuring took place in the organisation, the employees affected by this advent were tested to determine whether restructuring would impact on the three variables. Eight months after restructuring in the organisation took place their job satisfaction, career aspirations and stress levels were measured again. The results of the research indicated no changes in job satisfaction levels, career aspirations or stress levels. The results provided no support for the expectation that after a time lapse of eight months the effects or organisational restructuring would diminish and that workers would experience a greater degree of job satisfaction. In addition, it would appear that the time lapse did not improve perceived career prospects or that stress levels decreased. Opsomming Die navorsing wat hier gerapporteer word/ het die effek van organisatoriese herstrukturering op werknemers se werkstevredenheid, loopbaanaspirasies en spanningsvlakke ondersoek. Onmiddellik nadat herstrukturering in die organisasie plaasgcvind het, is die werknemers wat deur die herstrukturering geraak is, getoets om vas te stel of herstrukturering 'n impak op die drie veranderlikes sou hê. Agt maande later is hul werkstevredenheid, loopbaanaspirasies en spanningsvlakke weer gemeet. Daar is gevind dat die werknemers se reaksie op organisatoriese herstrukturering onveranderd gebly het. Die resultate het geen steun verleen aan die verwagting dat die tydsverloop van agt maande die effek van organisatoriese herstrukturering sal verminder nie en dat werknemers tot 'n groter mate werkstevredenheid sal ervaar nie. Dit blyk verder dat die tydsverloop ook nie verbeterde loopbaanvooruitsigte tot gevolg gehad het of dat die werknemers se spanningsvlakke verlaag het nie.

  16. Morning Cortisol Levels and Perceived Stress in Irregular Shift Workers Compared with Regular Daytime Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Lindholm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 24/7 work environment and irregular shifts may markedly enhance the psychological pressure of media work. Changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reflect adaptation to stress. We analysed the correlation between subjective stress, sleep, salivary cortisol, and melatonin hormones among Finnish media workers with regular daytime work (RDW and with irregular shift work (ISW while controlling confounders. From 874 employees with regular daytime work or with irregular shift work, 70 employees from both groups were randomly selected. The final number of employees with a complete salivary cortisol profile was 66 in the RDW group and 65 in the ISW group. Five saliva samples were gathered from each subject before and during a working day. The salivary cortisol level of the sample taken 60 minutes after awakening (T1 was compared to the salivary cortisol level taken immediately after awakening (T0, T1/T0 ratio. The ratio was higher in the ISW group than in RDW group. Irregular shift work (P<0.001, severe stress (P<0.05, and less sleep (P<0.05 were independently associated with an augmented cortisol response after awakening. A stressful work environment and irregular shift work enhance cortisol excretion after waking. In the long run, this may become detrimental to health.

  17. Individual-and Setting-Level Correlates of Secondary Traumatic Stress in Rape Crisis Center Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Emily R; Sorell, Nicole R; Allen, Nicole E

    2016-02-01

    Secondary traumatic stress (STS) is an issue of significant concern among providers who work with survivors of sexual assault. Although STS has been studied in relation to individual-level characteristics of a variety of types of trauma responders, less research has focused specifically on rape crisis centers as environments that might convey risk or protection from STS, and no research to knowledge has modeled setting-level variation in correlates of STS. The current study uses a sample of 164 staff members representing 40 rape crisis centers across a single Midwestern state to investigate the staff member-and agency-level correlates of STS. Results suggest that correlates exist at both levels of analysis. Younger age and greater severity of sexual assault history were statistically significant individual-level predictors of increased STS. Greater frequency of supervision was more strongly related to secondary stress for non-advocates than for advocates. At the setting level, lower levels of supervision and higher client loads agency-wide accounted for unique variance in staff members' STS. These findings suggest that characteristics of both providers and their settings are important to consider when understanding their STS. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Stressed Out! A National Study of Women and Men Journalism and Mass Communication Faculty, Their Uses of Technology, and Levels of Professional and Personal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogan, Christine; Chung, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    Examines gender differences as they manifest themselves when journalism educators use computers and computer-based technologies in their teaching and research. Notes that gender differences have been found in overall stress levels and for a variety of types of stress. Concludes that the strongest relationship in the study was not between…

  19. Proximal and Distal Predictors of the Spider Monkey's Stress Levels in Fragmented Landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José D Ordóñez-Gómez

    Full Text Available The rapid loss, fragmentation and degradation of tropical forests threaten the survival of many animal species. However, the way in which these phenomena affect animal health has been poorly explored, thus limiting the design of appropriate conservation strategies. To address this, here we identified using linear mixed models the effect of proximal (diet, activity pattern, hunting and logging and distal (sum of the basal areas of fruiting-tree species [SBAFS], landscape forest cover and degree of forest fragmentation variables over fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM levels-hormones associated with animal health and fitness-of six groups of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi inhabiting six landscapes with different spatial structures in Mexico. Proximal variables showed a stronger predictive power over fGCMs than distal. In this sense, increases in travel time, the occurrence of hunting, and reductions in rest time and fruit consumption resulted in higher fGCM levels. Regarding distal variables, increases in SBAFS were negatively related to fGCM levels, thus suggesting that food scarcity increases stress hormone levels. Nevertheless, contrary to theoretical expectations, spider monkeys living in smaller tracts of forest spent less time travelling, but the same time feeding on fruit as those in more forested areas. The lower net energy return associated with this combination of factors would explain why, contrary to theoretical expectations, increased forest cover was associated with increased levels of fGCMs in these groups. Our study shows that, at least in the short term, spider monkeys in fragmented landscapes do not always present higher levels of stress hormones compared to those inhabiting continuous forest, and the importance of preserving fruit sources and controlling hunting for reducing the levels of stress hormones in free ranging spider monkeys.

  20. Sensitivity of anterior pituitary hormones to graded levels of psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, A; Lopez-Calderón, A; Jolin, T; Castellanos, J M

    1986-08-04

    The effect of graded levels of stressor intensity on anterior pituitary hormones was studied in adult male rats. Corticosterone, considered as a reflection of ACTH release, and prolactin responses showed a good correlation with the intensity of the stressors. On the contrary, neither LH, GH nor TSH release showed a parallelism with the intensity of the stressors in spite of the fact that they clearly responded to all the stimuli. It appears that the hormones of the anterior pituitary might be divided into two groups: those whose response is sensitive to the levels of emotional arousal elicited by stress, and those displaying a clear but stereotyped response during stress. However, other alternative explanations might exist to justify the present results. The neural mechanisms underlying the two types of response are at present unknown. These data indicate that only the pituitary-adrenal axis and prolactin have some potential utilities as quantitative indices of emotional arousal elicited by currently applied stressors in the rat.

  1. Fatigue Behavior of Steel Fiber Reinforced High-Strength Concrete under Different Stress Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong; Gao, Danying; Gu, Zhiqiang

    2017-12-01

    The investigation was conducted to study the fatigue behavior of steel fiber reinforced high-strength concrete (SFRHSC) beams. A series of 5 SFRHSC beams was conducted flexural fatigue tests at different stress level S of 0.5, 0.55, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8 respectively. Static test was conducted to determine the ultimate static capacity prior to fatigue tests. Fatigue modes and S-N curves were analyzed. Besides, two fatige life prediction model were analyzed and compared. It was found that stress level S significantly influenced the fatigue life of SFRHSC beams and the fatigue behavior of SFRHSC beams was mainly determined by the tensile reinforcement.

  2. Changes in eosinophil and corticosterone levels and catecholamine metabolism during emotionalpainful stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyshev, V.V.; Manukhin, B.N.; Petrova, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study blood levels of eosinophils, corticosterone (CS), adrenalin, noradrenalin (NA), and dopamine (DA) during the development of the stress reaction, and also to study neuronal uptake and synthesis of catecholamines in the adrenals and heart. In some animal groups, the neuronal uptake of 3 H-NA and the intensity of 3 H-Na and 3 H-DA synthesis from 3 H-tyrosine were investigated by a method described previously, 2 h after the end of induction of emotional-painful stress (EPS). Radioactivity was measured on an SL-30 liquid scintillation counter. A regular relationship was found between changes in blood eosinophil level, the CH concentration, and catecholamine metabolism in the course of EPS

  3. Chronic family stress moderates the association between a TOMM40 variant and triglyceride levels in two independent Caucasian samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Rong; Brummett, Beverly H; Hauser, Elizabeth R

    2013-01-01

    independent Caucasian samples (242 U.S. women and men; 466 Danish men) testing the hypothesis that chronic family stress also moderates the association between rs157580 and triglyceride levels. The interaction of rs157580 and family stress in predicting triglyceride levels was statistically significant...... in the U.S. sample (p=0.004) and marginally significant (p=0.075) in the Danish sample. The G allele of rs157580 was associated with increased triglyceride levels among family stressed cases in both samples compared with A/A cases, but not among controls. Chronic family stress moderates the association......TOMM40 SNP rs157580 has been associated with triglyceride levels in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Chronic caregiving stress moderates the association between triglyceride levels and a nearby SNP rs439401 that is associated with triglyceride levels in GWAS. Here, we report data from two...

  4. Inactivation of basolateral amygdala prevents chronic immobilization stress-induced memory impairment and associated changes in corticosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Sunil Jamuna; Chakraborty, Suwarna; Srikumar, B N; Raju, T R; Shankaranarayana Rao, B S

    2017-07-01

    Chronic stress causes detrimental effects on various forms of learning and memory. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) not only plays a crucial role in mediating certain forms of memory, but also in the modulation of the effects of stress. Chronic immobilization stress (CIS) results in hypertrophy of the BLA, which is believed to be one of the underlying causes for stress' effects on learning. Thus, it is plausible that preventing the effects of CIS on amygdala would preclude its deleterious cognitive effects. Accordingly, in the first part, we evaluated the effect of excitotoxic lesion of the BLA on chronic stress-induced hippocampal-dependent spatial learning using a partially baited radial arm maze task. The BLA was ablated bilaterally using ibotenic acid prior to CIS. Chronically stressed rats showed impairment in spatial learning with decreased percentage correct choice and increased reference memory errors. Excitotoxic lesion of the BLA prevented the impairment in spatial learning and reference memory. In the retention test, lesion of the BLA was able to rescue the chronic stress-induced impairment. Interestingly, stress-induced enhanced plasma corticosterone levels were partially prevented by the lesion of BLA. These results motivated us to evaluate if the same effects can be observed with temporary inactivation of BLA, only during stress. We found that chronic stress-induced spatial learning deficits were also prevented by temporary inactivation of the BLA. Additionally, temporary inactivation of BLA partially precluded the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone levels. Thus, inactivation of BLA precludes stress-induced spatial learning deficits, and enhanced plasma corticosterone levels. It is speculated that BLA inactivation-induced reduction in corticosterone levels during stress, might be crucial in restoring spatial learning impairments. Our study provides evidence that amygdalar modulation during stress might be beneficial for strategic

  5. An Exploratory Study of Students' Weekly Stress Levels and Sources of Stress during the Semester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Adele; Oprescu, Florin; Tapia, Geraldine; Gray, Marion

    2018-01-01

    Studying at university can be a very stressful experience. Although the literature provides some information regarding different sources of stress among students, studies have not addressed the issue of changes over the course progression. This study aimed to obtain a deeper understanding of the sources of stress for first-year students and…

  6. Increased reactive oxygen species levels cause ER stress and cytotoxicity in andrographolide treated colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aditi; Banerjee, Vivekjyoti; Czinn, Steven; Blanchard, Thomas

    2017-04-18

    Chemotherapy continues to play an essential role in the management of many cancers including colon cancer, the third leading cause of death due to cancer in the United States. Many naturally occurring plant compounds have been demonstrated to possess anti-cancer cell activity and have the potential to supplement existing chemotherapy strategies. The plant metabolite andrographolide induces cell death in cancer cells and apoptosis is dependent upon the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) leading to the unfolded protein response (UPR). The goal of the present study was to determine the mechanism by which andrographolide induces ER stress and to further evaluate its role in promoting cell death pathways. The T84 and COLO 205 cancer cell lines were used to demonstrate that andrographolide induces increased ROS levels, corresponding anti-oxidant response molecules, and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. No increases in ROS levels were detected in control colon fibroblast cells. Andrographolide-induced cell death, UPR signaling, and CHOP, Bax, and caspase 3 apoptosis elements were all inhibited in the presence of the ROS scavenger NAC. Additionally, andrographolide-induced suppression of cyclins B1 and D1 were also reversed in the presence of NAC. Finally, Akt phosphorylation and phospho-mTOR levels that are normally suppressed by andrographolide were also expressed at normal levels in the absence of ROS. These data demonstrate that andrographolide induces ER stress leading to apoptosis through the induction of ROS and that elevated ROS also play an important role in down-regulating cell cycle progression and cell survival pathways as well.

  7. Induced thermal stress on serotonin levels in the blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendiran, Saravanan; Muhammad Iqbal, Beema Mahin; Vasudevan, Sugumar

    2016-01-01

    The temperature of habitat water has a drastic influence on the behavioral, physiological and biochemical mechanisms of crustaceans. Hyperglycemia is a typical response of many aquatic animals to harmful physical and chemical environmental changes. In crustaceans increased circulating crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) and hyperglycemia are reported to occur following exposure to several environmental stress. The biogenic amine, serotonin has been found to modulate the CHH levels and oxid...

  8. Long-term vegetarians have low oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Cho, Sang Woon; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2012-04-01

    Excessive oxidative stress and abnormal blood lipids may cause chronic diseases. This risk can be reduced by consuming an antioxidant- and fiber-rich vegetarian diet. We compared biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and lipid profiles of sex- and age-matched long-term vegetarians and omnivores in Korea. Forty-five vegetarians (23 men and 22 women; mean age, 49.5 ± 5.3 years), who had maintained a vegetarian diet for a minimum of 15 years, and 30 omnivores (15 men and 15 women; mean age, 48.9 ± 3.6 years) participated in this study. Their 1-day, 24-h recall, and 2-day dietary records were analyzed. Oxidative stress was measured by the levels of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM). Antioxidant status was determined by the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We observed that vegetarians had a significantly lower body fat percentage (21.6 ± 6.4%) than that of omnivores (25.4 ± 4.6%; P vegetarians than those in omnivores (331.82 ± 77.96 and 375.80 ± 67.26 Carratelli units; P vegetarians and omnivores were 173.73 ± 31.42 mg/dL and 193.17 ± 37.89 mg/dL, respectively (P vegetarians and omnivores, respectively, indicating that vegetarians had significantly lower lipid levels. Thus, oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels were lower in long-term vegetarians than those in omnivores.

  9. The influence of aripiprazole and olanzapine on neurotransmitters level in frontal cortex of prenatally stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, P; Kus, K; Gołembiowska, K; Noworyta-Sokołowska, K; Woźniak, A; Zaprutko, T; Nowakowska, E

    2016-09-01

    The study aims to verify whether alterations in the level of neurotransmitters have occurred in prenatally stressed rats (animal model of schizophrenia), and whether aripiprazole (ARI) and olanzapine (OLA) modify this level. The effects of ARI (1.5mg/kg) and OLA (0.5mg/kg) were studied by means of microdialysis in freely moving rats (observation time 120min). The level of neurotransmitters (DA, 5-HT, NA) and their metabolites (DOPAC, HVA, 5-HIAA) was analyzed by HPLC with coulochemical detection. Obtained results indicate that after a single administration of ARI and OLA in the prenatally stressed rats the increase of DA, DOPAC, and 5-HT was observed. In turn ARI administration increase the level of HVA and 5-HIAA and also decrease the level of NA. After OLA administration the level of NA and HVA increased and no significant change in 5-HIAA was observed. Alterations observed as a result of ARI and OLA administration may be pivotal in identifying animal models of mental disorders and in the analysis of neuroleptics effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Depression, anxiety and stress levels in industrial workers: A pilot study in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheldon Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health disorders affect around 500 million people worldwide. In India, around 10-12% of people are affected by a mental disorder either due to stress, depression, anxiety, or any other cause. Mental health of workers affects the productivity of the workplace, with estimates putting these losses to be over 100 million dollars annually. Aims: The study aims to measure depression, anxiety, and stress levels of workers in an industry and to investigate if it has any effect on productivity of the firm. Materials and Methods: The study utilized a cross-sectional design and was conducted among workmen of the firm. A sociodemographic based questionnaire and a mental health screening tool -Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21 were used for the same. A total of 90 completed questionnaires were analyzed for the study. The data was analyzed for central tendencies as well as for any associations and correlations. Results: The study showed that none of the workers had a positive score for depression. It also showed that around 36% of the workers had a positive score for anxiety and 18% of the workers had a positive score for stress on DASS-21 scale. The odds ratio between stress and number of leaves taken by a worker in the last 3 months suggested a dose-response relationship, but was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The study found a prevalence rate of around 18-36% for anxiety and stress amongst the workers at the factory. Large-scale studies will help understand the effect mental health status has on the Indian workplace.

  11. The Pajarito Plateau: A bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathien, Frances Joan; Steen, Charlie R.; Allen, Craig D.

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography is the result of two initially independent projects. As the consulting archaeologist at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Charlie R. Steen collected entries at the suggestion of the staff of the Environmental Surveillance Group of the Health, Safety, and Environmental Division, HSE-8. The primary purpose was to aid the staff in evaluating cultural resources on LANL lands. In addition to works that related to the archaeology and history of the area, Steen included notations of a few books and articles in other fields such as geology and natural history. It was hoped that they also would be of value to other organizations and to students of past human activities on the Pajarito Plateau.At the same time, the National Park Service (NPS) was planning a major survey of Bandelier National Monument (BNM). As part of this plan, the author was asked to prepare a background document that described research previously carried out in the area, including an annotated bibliography. Although the survey would be limited to the park boundaries, the larger Pajarito Plateau is a more logical study area from physiographic, environmental, and cultural perspectives; hence the focus was on this larger region. Mathien (1986) also included some references to natural resources studies, particularly those initiated by NPS within Bandelier National Monument.Both bibliographies were made available to Colleen Olinger and Beverly Larson of the Health and Environmental Services Group at Los Alamos. They realized that while neither was complete, each included entries missing from the other. Larson suggested the two bibliographies be combined. (At this time, Craig Allen was studying the landscape of the Jemez Mountains [Allen 1984c, 1989]. His investigations included much detailed information on natural resource studies and were added in 1991 and 1992.)To limit the scope of their work, Steen and Mathien had chosen their parameter: the Pajarito Plateau. Geographically, the

  12. Nitric oxide mitigates salt stress by regulating levels of osmolytes and antioxidant enzymes in chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz eAhmad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. plants. SNAP (50 μM was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl. Salt stress negatively affected growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA, as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and glutathione reductase (GR in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosynthesis of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system.

  13. The relation between fearfulness in young and stress-response in adult laying hens, on individual and group level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, Elske N.; Kops, Marjolein S.; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Ellen, Esther D.; Rodenburg, T. Bas

    2012-01-01

    Fearfulness of an individual can affect its sensitivity to stress, while at the same time the social situation in which an animal lives can affect its fear level. It is however unknown what the long-term effects of high fearfulness on sensitivity to stress are, on individual or group level in laying

  14. Proximal and Distal Predictors of the Spider Monkey’s Stress Levels in Fragmented Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez-Gómez, José D.; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Santillán-Doherty, Ana M.; Valdez, Ricardo A.; Romano, Marta C.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid loss, fragmentation and degradation of tropical forests threaten the survival of many animal species. However, the way in which these phenomena affect animal health has been poorly explored, thus limiting the design of appropriate conservation strategies. To address this, here we identified using linear mixed models the effect of proximal (diet, activity pattern, hunting and logging) and distal (sum of the basal areas of fruiting-tree species [SBAFS], landscape forest cover and degree of forest fragmentation) variables over fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels–hormones associated with animal health and fitness–of six groups of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) inhabiting six landscapes with different spatial structures in Mexico. Proximal variables showed a stronger predictive power over fGCMs than distal. In this sense, increases in travel time, the occurrence of hunting, and reductions in rest time and fruit consumption resulted in higher fGCM levels. Regarding distal variables, increases in SBAFS were negatively related to fGCM levels, thus suggesting that food scarcity increases stress hormone levels. Nevertheless, contrary to theoretical expectations, spider monkeys living in smaller tracts of forest spent less time travelling, but the same time feeding on fruit as those in more forested areas. The lower net energy return associated with this combination of factors would explain why, contrary to theoretical expectations, increased forest cover was associated with increased levels of fGCMs in these groups. Our study shows that, at least in the short term, spider monkeys in fragmented landscapes do not always present higher levels of stress hormones compared to those inhabiting continuous forest, and the importance of preserving fruit sources and controlling hunting for reducing the levels of stress hormones in free ranging spider monkeys. PMID:26901767

  15. Monuments of the Giza Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    The colossal pyramids of the pharaohs Khufu (Cheops), Khafre (Chephren), and Menkaure (Mycerinus) have attracted a huge amount of astronomical interest over the years, both scholarly and popular. Less attention is usually given to the broader context of structures on the Giza Plateau. One of the most notorious ideas connecting the Giza Plateau with astronomy is that the three large pyramids are laid out on the ground so as to reflect the appearance of the three stars of Orion's Belt in the sky. This idea is unsupportable for several reasons but has succeeded in generating huge public interest. Of much greater serious interest is the fact that the three main pyramids were oriented cardinally to extraordinary precision, which raises the questions of why this was important and how it was achieved. Another idea that has attracted serious attention but also some confusion is that the orientations of some narrow shafts within Khufu's pyramid might have been deliberately aligned upon particular stars. The overall layout of monuments on the plateau may certainly have been designed so as to emphasize certain solar phenomena, for symbolic and ideological reasons relating to a dominant sun cult. It is also possible that it formed part of a wider cosmological "master plan" extending to other pyramids and temples up to 20 km distant.

  16. Do Health Promotion Behaviors Affect Levels of Job Satisfaction and Job Stress for Nurses in an Acute Care Hospital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Heather L; Costley, Teresa; Bellury, Lanell M; Moobed, Jasmine

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between nurse-reported health-promoting behaviors (HPBs), job stress, and job satisfaction in a hospital setting. Job stress and satisfaction are key components of the nursing work environment; however, evidence of the relationship between HPB and job stress and satisfaction is lacking. A cross-sectional, 144-item survey was administered to nurses working in an acute care, community hospital in the southeastern United States. Higher levels of HPB were associated with lower job stress and higher job satisfaction. Total HPB was associated with the competence subscale of job stress. Lower job stress was significantly associated with HPB subscales: spiritual growth, interpersonal relations, and stress management. Nursing organizations can implement interventions that support HPB for nurses to reduce job stress and improve satisfaction.

  17. Ketosis in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): clinical findings and the associated oxidative stress level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mohamed A; El-Khodery, Sabry Ahmed; El-deeb, Wael M; Abou El-Amaiem, Waleed E E

    2010-12-01

    As little is known about the oxidant/antioxidant status in buffalo with ketosis, the present study was delineated to assess the oxidative stress level associated with clinical ketosis in water buffalo. A total of 91 parturient buffalo at smallholder farms were studied (61 suspected to be ketotic and 30 healthy). Clinical and biochemical investigations were carried out for each buffalo. Based on clinical findings and the level of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), buffalo were allocated into ketotic (42), subclinical cases (19). Clinically, there was an association between clinical ketosis and anorexia (pketosis compared with subclinical and control cases, there was a significant increase (pketosis.

  18. Relationship between job stress level and coping strategies used by Hong Kong nurses working in an acute surgical unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenru; Kong, Amelia Wai Man; Chair, Sek Ying

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between job stress and coping strategies of Hong Kong nurses working in an acute surgical unit. This is a descriptive correlational study. Data were collected from 98 Hong Kong surgical nurses using the Nursing Stress Scale and the Jalowiec Coping Scale. Results showed that workload (M = 15.36), lack of support (M = 13.32), and inadequate preparation (M = 12.33) are the most common stressors for Hong Kong surgical nurses. The most frequent strategies used by nurses to cope with stress can be characterized as evasive (M = 19.23), confrontive (M = 17.46), and optimistic (M = 15.81), all of which are also rated as the most effective strategies in reducing stress levels. Only the confrontive, optimistic, supportant, and emotive coping strategies reveal significant correlations (p stress levels of nurses, whereas the evasive, fatalistic, palliative, and self-reliant strategies showed no significant correlation with stress levels (p > .05). Recognizing the impacts of job-related stress and making use of effective coping methods play a vital role in reducing nurse's stress. A change in leadership styles from the managerial level and reallocation of manpower may help reduce job stress. The use of confrontive and optimistic coping strategies in reducing job-related stress for surgical nurses should be advocated and promoted in their daily work. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Oxidative stress and decreased thiol level in patients with migraine: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Yasemin; Dirik, Ebru; Neşelioğlu, Salim; Erel, Özcan

    2015-12-01

    Although migraine is a neurological disorder known since long, its physiopathology remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that migraine is associated with oxidative stress; however, they report divergent results. The aim of the present study was to evaluate total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and serum thiol level in migraine patients with or without aura. The study group consisted of 141 migraine patients. The control group included 70 healthy subjects. TAS, TOS, OSI were evaluated using a method developed by Erel. Serum thiol level was measured using the Hu method. No difference was found in TAS, TOS, OSI between the patients and controls. The level of thiol was significantly lower in patients than in controls. Negative correlations were detected between thiol level and Migraine Disability Assessment score in patients. Although TAS, TOS, and OSI were similar to those of the control group, serum thiol level, an important marker of antioxidant capacity, was significantly lower in migraines compared with controls, and caused more serious disability. Novel treatment approaches may be developed based on these data, and compounds containing thiol, such as alpha lipoic acid and N-acetyl cysteine, may be used in prophylaxis.

  20. Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.

  1. Relationship among Periodontal Disease, Insulin Resistance, Salivary Cortisol, and Stress Levels during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraphim, Ana Paula Castilho Garcia; Chiba, Fernando Yamamoto; Pereira, Renato Felipe; Mattera, Maria Sara de Lima Coutinho; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Sumida, Doris Hissako

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a period involving important metabolic changes that enable the maintenance of the mother's health and development of the fetus. This study aimed to assess the relationship among periodontal disease, insulin resistance, salivary cortisol concentration and level of perceived stress in pregnant women. This was a cross-sectional study. The sample comprised 96 pregnant women between the fifth and seventh month of pregnancy registered at the Basic Health Units of the Unified Health System (SUS). The periodontal condition was assessed after obtainment free and informed consent from the participants. Participants were divided into three groups: control subjects with a healthy periodontal condition (CN; n=46), patients with gingivitis (GI; n=26), and patients with periodontitis (PI; n=24). Saliva and blood samples were collected for evaluation of salivary cortisol concentration, glycemia, insulinemia and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance index. A validated survey for the assessment of perceived stress levels was also performed. PI group showed significantly higher (pperiodontal disease during pregnancy. This study emphasizes the importance of preventing periodontitis in order to avoid insulin resistance and stress during pregnancy since these can cause systemic complications for the mother and the fetus.

  2. Serum Antioxidative Enzymes Levels and Oxidative Stress Products in Age-Related Cataract Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the activity of antioxidative enzymes and the products of oxidative stress in patients with age-related cataracts and compare the findings with those in healthy control subjects. Method. Sixty patients with age-related cataract and sixty healthy controls of matched age and gender were included in this study. Serum samples were obtained to detect the antioxidative enzymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and oxidation degradation products of malondialdehyde (MDA, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, conjugated diene (CD, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, protein carbonyl (PC, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG. Results. Serum SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT activities in cataract group were significantly decreased as compared to the control subjects (P<0.05. The levels of MDA, 4-HNE, and CD in cataract patients were significantly higher than those in the control subjects (P<0.05, P<0.01. Cataract patients had higher levels of 8-OHdG, AOPP, and PC with respect to the comparative group of normal subjects (P<0.01. And there was no statistical significance in concentration of antioxidative enzymes and oxidative stress products in patients with different subtype cataract. Conclusions. Oxidative stress is an important risk factor in the development of age-related cataract, and augmentation of the antioxidant defence systems may be of benefit to prevent or delay cataractogenesis.

  3. Ecological interactions affecting population-level responses to chemical stress in Mesocyclops leuckarti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Devdutt; Hommen, Udo; Schäffer, Andreas; Preuss, Thomas G

    2014-10-01

    Higher tiers of ecological risk assessment (ERA) consider population and community-level endpoints. At the population level, the phenomenon of density dependence is one of the most important ecological processes that influence population dynamics. In this study, we investigated how different mechanisms of density dependence would influence population-level ERA of the cyclopoid copepod Mesocyclops leuckarti under toxicant exposure. We used a combined approach of laboratory experiments and individual-based modelling. An individual-based model was developed for M. leuckarti to simulate population dynamics under triphenyltin exposure based on individual-level ecological and toxicological data from laboratory experiments. The study primarily aimed to-(1) determine which life-cycle processes, based on feeding strategies, are most significant in determining density dependence (2) explore how these mechanisms of density dependence affect extrapolation from individual-level effects to the population level under toxicant exposure. Model simulations showed that cannibalism of nauplii that were already stressed by TPT exposure contributed to synergistic effects of biotic and abiotic factors and led to a twofold stress being exerted on the nauplii, thereby resulting in a higher population vulnerability compared to the scenario without cannibalism. Our results suggest that in population-level risk assessment, it is easy to underestimate toxicity unless underlying ecological interactions including mechanisms of population-level density regulation are considered. This study is an example of how a combined approach of experiments and mechanistic modelling can lead to a thorough understanding of ecological processes in ecotoxicology and enable a more realistic ERA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Teacher Stress Inventory: validation of the Greek version and perceived stress levels among 3,447 educators

    OpenAIRE

    Kourmousi N; Darviri C; Varvogli L; Alexopoulos EC

    2015-01-01

    Ntina Kourmousi, Christina Darviri, Liza Varvogli, Evangelos C Alexopoulos School of Medicine, University of Athens, Athens, Greece Background: The Teacher Stress Inventory (TSI) is an instrument for measuring occupational stress in teachers. This study aimed to translate and adapt it for use in Greece, and then assess its reliability and validity. Methods: The Greek versions of the TSI and the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) were posted on all Greek educators' official sites...

  5. Oxidative stress and myeloperoxidase levels in saliva of patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cağlayan, F; Miloglu, O; Altun, O; Erel, O; Yilmaz, A B

    2008-11-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common oral ulcerative condition affecting 5-25% of the general population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidative stress parameters in saliva of patients with RAS and to investigate the relationship among these parameters in either group. The study involved 50 patients with RAS of whom 24 were male and 26 were female, and 25 healthy controls of whom 13 were male and 12 were female. There was no statistically significant difference in the salivary total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, oxidative stress index levels, and myeloperoxidase activity between patients with RAS and those in the control group. The results show that reactive oxygen species may not play a role in the etiology of RAS.

  6. CHANGES IN SERUM ENZYMES LEVELS ASSOCIATED WITH LIVER FUNCTIONS IN STRESSED MARWARI GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataria N.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Serum enzyme levels were determined in goats of Marwari breed belonging to farmers’ stock of arid tract of Rajasthan state, India. The animals were grouped into healthy and stressed comprising of gastrointestinal parasiticised, pneumonia affected, and drought affected. The serum enzymes determined were sorbitol dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, ornithine carbamoyl transferase, gamma-glutamayl transferase, 5’nucleotidase, glucose-6-phosphatase, arginase, and aldolase. In stressed group the mean values of all the enzymes increased significantly (p≤0.05 as compared to respective healthy mean value. All the enzymes showed highest values in the gastrointestinal parasiticised animals and least values in the animals having pneumonia. In gastrointestinal parasiticised animals maximum change was observed in G-6-Pase activity and minimum change was observed in malate dehydrogenase mean value. It was concluded that Increased activity of all the serum enzymes was due to modulation of liver functions directly or indirectly.

  7. Stress corrosion cracking tests on high-level-waste container materials in simulated tuff repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, T.; Jain, H.; Soo, P.

    1986-06-01

    Types 304L, 316L, and 321 austenitic stainless steel and Incoloy 825 are being considered as candidate container materials for emplacing high-level waste in a tuff repository. The stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of these materials under simulated tuff repository conditions was evaluated by using the notched C-ring method. The tests were conducted in boiling synthetic groundwater as well as in the steam/air phase above the boiling solutions. All specimens were in contact with crushed Topopah Spring tuff. The investigation showed that microcracks are frequently observed after testing as a result of stress corrosion cracking or intergranular attack. Results showing changes in water chemistry during test are also presented

  8. Classifying oxidative stress by F2-isoprostane levels across human diseases: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Erve, Thomas J; Kadiiska, Maria B; London, Stephanie J; Mason, Ronald P

    2017-08-01

    The notion that oxidative stress plays a role in virtually every human disease and environmental exposure has become ingrained in everyday knowledge. However, mounting evidence regarding the lack of specificity of biomarkers traditionally used as indicators of oxidative stress in human disease and exposures now necessitates re-evaluation. To prioritize these re-evaluations, published literature was comprehensively analyzed in a meta-analysis to quantitatively classify the levels of systemic oxidative damage across human disease and in response to environmental exposures. In this meta-analysis, the F 2 -isoprostane, 8-iso-PGF 2α , was specifically chosen as the representative marker of oxidative damage. To combine published values across measurement methods and specimens, the standardized mean differences (Hedges' g) in 8-iso-PGF 2α levels between affected and control populations were calculated. The meta-analysis resulted in a classification of oxidative damage levels as measured by 8-iso-PGF 2α across 50 human health outcomes and exposures from 242 distinct publications. Relatively small increases in 8-iso-PGF 2α levels (ganalysis of published data. This analysis provides knowledge on the true involvement of oxidative damage across human health outcomes as well as utilizes past research to prioritize those conditions requiring further scrutiny on the mechanisms of biomarker generation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. PLATEAU IRIS SYNDROME--CASE SERIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feraru, Crenguta Ioana; Pantalon, Anca Delia; Chiselita, Dorin; Branisteanu, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Plateau iris is characterized by closing the anterior chamber angle due to a large ciliary body or due to its anterior insertion that alters the position of iris periphery in respect to the trabecular meshwork. There are two aspects that need to be differentiated: plateau iris configuration and plateau iris syndrome. The first describes a situation when the iris root is flat and the anterior chamber is not shallow, the latter refers to a post laser iridotomy condition in which a patent iridotomy has removed the relative pupillary block, but goniscopically confirmed angle closure recurs without central shallowing of the anterior chamber. Isolated plateau iris syndrome is rare compared to plateau iris configuration. We hereby present two case reports of plateau iris syndrome in young patients who came to an ophthalmologic consult by chance.

  10. Chronic Stress Reduces Nectin-1 mRNA Levels and Disrupts Dendritic Spine Plasticity in the Adult Mouse Perirhinal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Gong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In adulthood, chronic exposure to stressful experiences disrupts synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. Previous studies have shown that perirhinal cortex-dependent object recognition memory is impaired by chronic stress. However, the stress effects on molecular expression and structural plasticity in the perirhinal cortex remain unclear. In this study, we applied the chronic social defeat stress (CSDS paradigm and measured the mRNA levels of nectin-1, nectin-3 and neurexin-1, three synaptic cell adhesion molecules (CAMs implicated in the adverse stress effects, in the perirhinal cortex of wild-type (WT and conditional forebrain corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 conditional knockout (CRHR1-CKO mice. Chronic stress reduced perirhinal nectin-1 mRNA levels in WT but not CRHR1-CKO mice. In conditional forebrain corticotropin-releasing hormone conditional overexpression (CRH-COE mice, perirhinal nectin-1 mRNA levels were also reduced, indicating that chronic stress modulates nectin-1 expression through the CRH-CRHR1 system. Moreover, chronic stress altered dendritic spine morphology in the main apical dendrites and reduced spine density in the oblique apical dendrites of perirhinal layer V pyramidal neurons. Our data suggest that chronic stress disrupts cell adhesion and dendritic spine plasticity in perirhinal neurons, which may contribute to stress-induced impairments of perirhinal cortex-dependent memory.

  11. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  12. Adult age differences in prospective memory in the laboratory: are they related to higher stress levels in the elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Kliegel, Matthias; Hering, Alexandra; Ballhausen, Nicola; Lagner, Prune; Benusch, Julia; Cichon, Anja; Zergiebel, Annekathrin; Oris, Michel; Schnitzspahn, Katharina M

    2014-01-01

    To explain age deficits found in laboratory-based prospective memory (PM) tasks, it has recently been suggested that the testing situation per se may be more stressful for older adults, thereby impairing their performance. To test this assumption, subjective and physiological stress levels were assessed at several times during the experiment in 33 younger and 29 older adults. In addition, half of participants were randomized in a condition where they completed a relaxation intervention before performing a time-based PM task. Results confirmed the age deficit in laboratory PM. Subjective and physiological stress levels showed no age difference and no detrimental association with PM. The intervention successfully reduced stress levels in both age groups but had no effect on PM or the age deficit. In conclusion, data suggest that age deficits usually observed in laboratory PM may not be due to higher stress levels in the older adults.

  13. Stress hormone levels in a freshwater turtle from sites differing in human activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polich, Rebecca L

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone (CORT), commonly serve as a measure of stress levels in vertebrate populations. These hormones have been implicated in regulation of feeding behaviour, locomotor activity, body mass, lipid metabolism and other crucial behaviours and physiological processes. Thus, understanding how glucocorticoids fluctuate seasonally and in response to specific stressors can yield insight into organismal health and the overall health of populations. I compared circulating CORT concentrations between two similar populations of painted turtle, Chrysemys picta, which differed primarily in the level of exposure to human recreational activities. I measured basal CORT concentrations as well as the CORT stress response and did not find any substantive difference between the two populations. This similarity may indicate that painted turtles are not stressed by the presence of humans during the nesting season. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of CORT concentrations in freshwater reptiles, a group that is historically under-represented in studies of circulating hormone concentrations; specifically, studies that seek to use circulating concentrations of stress hormones, such as CORT, as a measure of the effect of human activities on wild populations. They also give insight into how these species as a whole may respond to human recreational activities during crucial life-history stages, such as the nesting season. Although there was no discernable difference between circulating CORT concentrations between the urban and rural populations studied, I did find a significant difference in circulating CORT concentrations between male and female C. picta. This important finding provides better understanding of the sex differences between male and female painted turtles and adds to our understanding of this species and other species of freshwater turtle.

  14. Chronic mild stress increases alcohol intake in mice with low dopamine D2 receptor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, Foteini; Thanos, Panayotis K; Rombola, Christina; Rosko, Lauren; Grandy, David; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D

    2013-02-01

    Alcohol use disorders emerge from a complex interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Stress and dopamine D2 receptor levels (DRD2) have been shown to play a central role in alcoholism. To better understand the interactions between DRD2 and stress in ethanol intake behavior, we subjected Drd2 wild-type (+/+), heterozygous (+/-), and knockout (-/-) mice to 4 weeks of chronic mild stress (CMS) and to an ethanol two-bottle choice during CMS weeks 2-4. Prior to and at the end of the experiment, the animals were tested in the forced swim and open field tests. We measured ethanol intake and preference, immobility in the force swim test, and activity in the open field. We show that under no CMS, Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice had lower ethanol intake and preference compared with Drd2+/+. Exposure to CMS decreased ethanol intake and preference in Drd2+/+ and increased them in Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice. At baseline, Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice had significantly lower activity in the open field than Drd2+/+, whereas no genotype differences were observed in the forced swim test. Exposure to CMS increased immobility during the forced swim test in Drd2+/- mice, but not in Drd2+/+ or Drd2-/- mice, and ethanol intake reversed this behavior. No changes were observed in open field test measures. These findings suggest that in the presence of a stressful environment, low DRD2 levels are associated with increased ethanol intake and preference and that under this condition, increased ethanol consumption could be used as a strategy to alleviate negative mood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Betel Leaf Extract (Piper betle L.) Antihyperuricemia Effect Decreases Oxidative Stress by Reducing the Level of MDA and Increase Blood SOD Levels of Hyperuricemia Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    I Made Sumarya; Nyoman Adiputra; Putra Manuaba; Dewa Sukrama

    2016-01-01

    Background: Betel leaf extracts (Piper betle L.) antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitors of XO. Hyperuricemia cause oxidative stress by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause lipid peroxidation and oxygenation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc). Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the betel leaf extract as an anti hyperuricemia that can lower the blood uric acid levels and oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increase the S...

  16. Work stress, occupational burnout and depression levels: a clinical study of paediatric intensive care unit nurses in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Ching; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Cheng, Su-Fen; Wu, Li-Min; Ou-Yang, Mei-Chen

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between work stress and depression; and investigate the mediating effect of occupational burnout among nurses in paediatric intensive care units. The relationships among work stress, occupational burnout and depression level have been explored, neither regarding occupational burnout as the mediating role that causes work stress to induce depression nor considering the paediatric intensive care unit context. A cross-sectional correlational design was conducted. One hundred and forty-four female paediatric intensive care unit nurses from seven teaching hospitals in southern Taiwan were recruited as the participants. Data were collected by structured questionnaires including individual demographics, the Nurse Stress Checklist, the Occupational Burnout Inventory and the Taiwan Depression Questionnaire. The results indicated that after controlling for individual demographic variables, the correlations of work stress with occupational burnout, as well as work stress and occupational burnout with depression level were all positive. Furthermore, occupational burnout may exert a partial mediating effect on the relationship between work stress and depression level. This study provides information about work stress, occupational burnout and depression level, and their correlations, as well as the mediating role of occupational burnout among paediatric intensive care unit nurses. It suggests government departments and hospital administrators when formulating interventions to prevent work stress and occupational burnout. These interventions can subsequently prevent episodes of depression in paediatric intensive care unit nurses, thereby providing patients with a safe and high-quality nursing environment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Assessment the effect of NO inhibition on hippocampal normetanephrine level in stress and non-stress conditions in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Molahoveizeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitric oxide (NO has a role in the regulation of neurotransmitters release such as norepinephrine, in the hippocampus.Normetanephrine (NMN is a metabolite of norepinephrine created by action of catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT on norepinephrine. Several studies have shown that various stresses increased release of norepinephrine and its metabolites. Therefore in the present study, the role of Nitric oxide in regulation of norepinephrine release and its metabolism was investigated by administration of L-NAME (NO synthase inhibitor in stressed and non-stressed rats. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, 50 adult rats were divided into 10 groups, of which 5 groups were exposed to restraint stress while another 5 groups were without stress. These two set of groups included intact, saline and L-NAME (20, 40, 80 mg/kg. Thirty minutes after intraperituneal injection of L-NAME, brains removed, the hippocampus dissected, weighed, homogenized and centrifuged then amount of NMN measured by ELISA kit. Results: The results showed that in non-stressed condition amount of NMN were significantly increased in group that received L-NAME (80 mg/kg in comparison with other groups but in stress condition, amount of NMN was significantly decreased in groups that received L-NAME (20,40,80 mg/kg, in comparison with control and saline groups. Comparison between stress and non-stressed groups showed that stress alone cause an increase in amount of NMN in control and saline groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, NO synthesis inhibition produced opposite responses with respect to NMN amount in the presence or absence of stress, and probably L-NAME preventing the effect of stress on increasing NMN levels mediated by nitrergic pathway.

  18. 125I-iomazenil - benzodiazepine receptor binding and serum corticosterone level during psychological stress in a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Ogi, Shigeyuki; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Mori, Yutaka

    2004-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that benzodiazepine receptor density decreases in response to stress, we correlated 125 I-iomazenil ( 125 I-IMZ) binding with serum corticosterone levels in a rat model. Wistar male rats were divided into four groups; control group (CON, 10 rats), no physical or psychological stress; and one-, three-, and five-day stress groups of 12 rats each (1-DAY, 3-DAY, and 5-DAY, respectively), receiving psychological stress for the given number of days. Psychological stress were given to rats with a communication box. The standardized uptake value (SUV) of 125 I-iomazenil of the 3-DAY and 5-DAY showed that 125 I-iomazenil - benzodiazepine receptor binding was significantly reduced in the cortices, accumbens nuclei, amygdala and caudate putamen (p 125 I-IMZ is a useful radioligand to reflect received stress and its binding in the cortices, accumbens nuclei, amygdala and caudate putamen is strongly affected by psychological stress

  19. Evaluation of association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - Estimation of relationship between psychological stress and periodontal status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshni Jaiswal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress classically describes a destructive notion that can have a bearing on one's physical and mental health. It may also add to an increased propensity to periodontal disease. Aim: To investigate the association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Forty subjects were recruited from the outpatient department at the Department of Periodontics, from a college in Mangalore, divided into two groups, i.e., twenty as healthy controls and twenty were stressed subjects with chronic periodontitis. The clinical examination included the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and oral hygiene index-simplified. Serum cortisol levels were estimated biochemically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and the estimation of psychological stress was done by a questionnaire. Results: Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to review the collected data. Independent sample t-test was used for comparison and correlation was evaluation using Pearson's correlation test. As per our observation, high serum cortisol levels and psychological stress are positively linked with chronic periodontitis establishing a risk profile showing a significant correlation (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Routine serum cortisol assessment may be a reasonable and a valuable investigative indicator to rule out stress in periodontitis patients as it should be considered as an imperative risk factor for periodontal disease.

  20. Increased levels of oxidative stress markers in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Grzegorz; Wertel, Iwona; Barczyński, Bartłomiej; Kwaśniewski, Wojciech; Bednarek, Wiesława; Kotarski, Jan

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 8-isoprostane levels in the peritoneal fluid (PF) of women with endometriosis. One hundred and ten women with laparoscopically and histopathologically confirmed endometriosis and, as reference groups, 119 patients with simple serous (n=78) and dermoid (n=41) ovarian cysts were studied. Peritoneal fluid 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane concentrations were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane levels in peritoneal fluid were significantly higher in patients with endometriosis compared with the reference groups. Higher PF 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane concentrations were observed in patients with advanced stages of endometriosis. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane levels in peritoneal fluid. Endometriosis induces greater oxidative stress and frequent DNA mutations in peritoneal fluid than nonendometriotic ovarian cysts. The most severe oxidative stress occurs in the peritoneal cavity of women with more advanced stages of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Designing automation for complex work environments under different levels of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Juergen; Nickel, Peter; Wastell, David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of different forms of static and adaptable automation under low- and high-stress conditions. Forty participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions, comparing three levels of static automation (low, medium and high) and one level of adaptable automation, with the environmental stressor (noise) being varied as a within-subjects variable. Participants were trained for 4 h on a simulation of a process control environment, called AutoCAMS, followed by a 2.5-h testing session. Measures of performance, psychophysiology and subjective reactions were taken. The results showed that operators preferred higher levels of automation under noise than under quiet conditions. A number of parameters indicated negative effects of noise exposure, such as performance impairments, physiological stress reactions and higher mental workload. It also emerged that adaptable automation provided advantages over low and intermediate static automation, with regard to mental workload, effort expenditure and diagnostic performance. The article concludes that for the design of automation a wider range of operational scenarios reflecting adverse as well as ideal working conditions needs to be considered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Acclimation increases freezing stress response of Arabidopsis thaliana at proteome level

    KAUST Repository

    Fanucchi, Francesca

    2012-06-01

    This study used 2DE to investigate how Arabidopsis thaliana modulates protein levels in response to freezing stress after sub-lethal exposure at - 10 °C, both in cold-acclimated and in non-acclimated plants. A map was implemented in which 62 spots, corresponding to 44 proteins, were identified. Twenty-two spots were modulated upon treatments, and the corresponding proteins proved to be related to photosynthesis, energy metabolism, and stress response. Proteins demonstrated differences between control and acclimation conditions. Most of the acclimation-responsive proteins were either not further modulated or they were down-modulated by freezing treatment, indicating that the levels reached during acclimation were sufficient to deal with freezing. Anabolic metabolism appeared to be down-regulated in favor of catabolic metabolism. Acclimated plants and plants submitted to freezing after acclimation showed greater reciprocal similarity in protein profiles than either showed when compared both to control plants and to plants frozen without acclimation. The response of non-acclimated plants was aimed at re-modulating photosynthetic apparatus activity, and at increasing the levels of proteins with antioxidant-, molecular chaperone-, or post-transcriptional regulative functions. These changes, even less effective than the acclimation strategy, might allow the injured plastids to minimize the production of non-useful metabolites and might counteract photosynthetic apparatus injuries. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of low-level exposure to xenobiotics present in paints on oxidative stress in workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Angela M; Charão, Mariele; Brucker, Natália; Bulcão, Rachel; Freitas, Fernando; Guerreiro, Gilian; Baierle, Marília; Nascimento, Sabrina; Waechter, Fernanda; Hirakata, Vânia; Linden, Rafael; Thiesen, Flávia V; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2010-09-15

    Paints are composed of an extensive variety of hazardous substances, such as organic solvents and heavy metals. Biomonitoring is an essential tool for assessing the risk to occupational health. Thus, this study analyzed the levels of biomarkers of exposure for toluene, xylene, styrene, ethylbenzene, and lead, as well as the oxidative stress biomarker alterations in painters of an industry. Lipid peroxidation biomarker (MDA), delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D), nonprotein thyol groups, superoxide dismutase and catalase (CAT) were analyzed in exposed and nonexposed subjects. We estimated which of the paint constituents have the greatest influence on the changes in the biomarkers of oxidative stress in this case of co-exposure. The results demonstrated that despite the fact that all the biomarkers of exposure were below the biological exposure limits, the MDA levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were increased, while nonprotein thyol groups and ALA-D levels were decreased in painters when compared with nonexposed subjects. After statistic test, toluene could be suggested as the principal factor responsible for increased lipid peroxidation and inhibition of ALA-D enzyme; however, further studies on the inhibition of ALA-D enzyme by toluene are necessary. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Acclimation increases freezing stress response of Arabidopsis thaliana at proteome level

    KAUST Repository

    Fanucchi, Francesca; Alpi, Emanuele; Olivieri, Stefano; Cannistraci, Carlo; Bachi, Angela; Alpi, Amedeo; Alessio, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    This study used 2DE to investigate how Arabidopsis thaliana modulates protein levels in response to freezing stress after sub-lethal exposure at - 10 °C, both in cold-acclimated and in non-acclimated plants. A map was implemented in which 62 spots, corresponding to 44 proteins, were identified. Twenty-two spots were modulated upon treatments, and the corresponding proteins proved to be related to photosynthesis, energy metabolism, and stress response. Proteins demonstrated differences between control and acclimation conditions. Most of the acclimation-responsive proteins were either not further modulated or they were down-modulated by freezing treatment, indicating that the levels reached during acclimation were sufficient to deal with freezing. Anabolic metabolism appeared to be down-regulated in favor of catabolic metabolism. Acclimated plants and plants submitted to freezing after acclimation showed greater reciprocal similarity in protein profiles than either showed when compared both to control plants and to plants frozen without acclimation. The response of non-acclimated plants was aimed at re-modulating photosynthetic apparatus activity, and at increasing the levels of proteins with antioxidant-, molecular chaperone-, or post-transcriptional regulative functions. These changes, even less effective than the acclimation strategy, might allow the injured plastids to minimize the production of non-useful metabolites and might counteract photosynthetic apparatus injuries. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Stress Factors among Nurses at the Primary and Secondary Level of Public Sector Health Care: The Case of Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmina Starc

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Working in nursing is mentally and physically demanding and is one of the most stressful professions. AIM: To determine the basic causes of stress and examine the symptoms of stress among healthcare professionals at the primary and secondary level of health care. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The research was based on the descriptive and causal non-experimental method of empirical research. The independent samples t-test was used. RESULTS: The survey results have shown that th...

  6. Iceberg incursions across Campbell Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northcote, L.; Neil, H.; Carter, L.

    1999-01-01

    The last reported sighting of icebergs off eastern New Zealand was on 28th October, 1892, at the Chatham Islands. Prior to that time, the SW Pacific Ocean periodically hosted flotillas of icebergs, as revealed by a palaeoceanographic analysis of 8 cores from the Campbell Plateau. Stable isotope stratigraphy, coupled with down-core measurements of magnetic susceptibility, grain size, calcium carbonate and ice-rafted debris, highlight climate-related fluctuations in iceberg activity back to at least marine isotope stage (MIS) 6 - our longest complete record. (author)

  7. Scaphoid Stress Fracture in High-Level Gymnast: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Nakamoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of an 18-year-old high-level gymnast who sustained a stress fracture of the scaphoid associated with a distal radial epiphysiolysis. Clinical evaluation demonstrated decreased range of motion of the affected wrist and insidious pain on the snuffbox and tenderness on the distal radial physis. He was submitted to surgical treatment with scaphoid percutaneous fixation and radial styloid process in situ fixation. Clinical features improved, and he got back to competition 6 months after surgery without symptoms and with complete range of motion.

  8. Fear of failure, psychological stress, and burnout among adolescent athletes competing in high level sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, H; Sagar, S S; Stenling, A

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate fear of failure in highly competitive junior athletes and the association with psychological stress and burnout. In total 258 athletes (152 males and 108 females) ranged in age from 15 to 19 years (M = 17.4 years, SD = 1.08) participated. Athletes competed in variety of sports including both team and individual sports. Results showed in a variable-oriented approach using regression analyses that one dimension, fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment had a statistically significant effect on perceived psychological stress and one dimension of burnout, reduced sense of accomplishment. However, adopting a person-oriented approach using latent class analysis, we found that athletes with high levels of fear failure on all dimensions scored high on burnout. We also found another class with high scores on burnout. These athletes had high scores on the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure and low scores on the other oriented fear of failure dimensions. The findings indicate that fear of failure is related to burnout and psychological stress in athletes and that this association is mainly associated with the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Uranium indicator plants of the Colorado plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massingill, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    Two methods of botanical prospecting for uranium deposits have been applied on the Colorado Plateau. The first, based on a chemical analysis of deep-rooted plants that absorb uranium from ore bodies, detects small but measurable amounts of the element in plants rooted in ore. A second method involves mapping the distribution of indicator plants because these plants are dependent--either directly or indirectly--upon the presence of abnormally high levels of elements in the parent soil or rock. Botanical prospecting studies made in ten districts have been productive. In the Thompson district, Grand County, Utah, five ore bodies were found solely on the basis of indicator plant data. 15 refs

  10. Salivary levels of SIgA and perceived stress among dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Menck Sangiorgio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Academic stress may impair mucosal immunity and expose dental students to an increased risk of infections. Objective: to assess stress scores in dental students and their relationship with variation in SIgA levels. Methods: All students (n = 289 were invited to take part of the study, and 207 (71.63% effectively participated, being 152 (73.4% females. At the day of data collection, the students answered The Dental Environmental Stress Questionnaire (DES and unstimulated saliva samples were collected for determination of salivary flow rate and SIgA concentration and secretion rate. Results: Mean DES scores were higher in females (78.97 ± 16.42, but no correlations between the sum of DES scores and salivary parameters were observed (P=0.08. A moderate inverse relationship was observed between SIgA secretion rates and the subscales Academic Performance (P=0.01, Interpersonal relationships (P=0.02 and Difficulties and Insecurities about Professional Future (P=0.05. A weak correlation was found between SIgA concentration and the items Amount of assigned classwork (P=0.02, Lack of confidence in self to be a successful dentist (P=0.01, Lack of time for relaxation (P=0.01, Financial responsibilities (P=0.02 and Personal physical health (P=0.005. Weak correlations between SIgA secretion rates and DES items were also found for Lack of cooperation by patient in their home care (P=0.003, Patients being late or not showing up for their appointments (P=0.02, Lack of self confidence to be a successful dentist (P=0.008, Personal physical health (P=0.019, and others. Conclusion: Different sources of stress were observed among first to fifth year students and some of these stressors may negatively impact on salivary SIgA secretion.

  11. Stress Coping Levels and Mental States of Police Vocational School of Higher Education Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Yildirim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY AIM: This study was planned and carried out with the objective of determining stress coping levels and mental state of students attending Police Vocational Schools of Higher Education, in addition to factors effecting these. MATERIAL and METHOD: This desciptive and cross-sectional study consisted of 300 male students enrolled in the 2005-2006 academic year, at Police Vocational School of Higher Education, located in central Erzincan, Turkey. In this study, instead of random sampling, 281 (93.7% students who were present at the school at the time of the study and accepted to partipate in it were included. Data for this study was collected using a desciptive form created by the researchers, Rosenbaum’s Learned Resourcefulness Scale (RLRS and The Symptom Check List-90-R (SCL-90-R. During the data analysis, frequency distributions, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis and analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA were used; and for analysis of independent groups, t-test was used. RESULTS: Among the students, it was determined that 54.8% were 1. grade, 90.7% had their parents living together, 43.5% had a father and 60.5% had a mother who graduated from elementary school, fathers of 23.5% of students were retired, 93.6% of them had mothers who were home makers. In addition, it was found out that 78.6% of students chose their profession willingly, the average family income of 71.5% of students were at medium levels, 82.9% always believed in themselves and 63.3% of students did not smoke. Based on the results obtained, it was observed that second grade students, those with mothers who are highly educated and those who trusted themselved all the time had significantly high stress coping levels; students who chose their own profession, believed in themselves and did not smoke had significantly low levels of mental symptom indications. CONCLUSION: In this study, the students were determined to posess averge levels of stress coping skills and they were found

  12. Effects of oil sands effluent on cattail and clover: photosynthesis and the level of stress proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, A.U.; Han, B.; Kermode, A.R.; Bendell-Young, L.I.; Plant, A.L. [Simon Fraser University, Burnaby (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    2001-07-01

    The oil sands industry located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, generates large volumes of effluent characterized by a high level of dissolved ions and naphthenic acids. The dikes used to store the effluent seep, creating wetlands which are subsequently invaded by obligate wetland flora such as cattail (Typha latifolia L.). The appearance of these wetlands prompted the oil sands industry to consider wetlands as part of their reclamation strategy. However, to ensure long-term viability of such wetlands, the response of the flora to the industrial effluent needed to be determined. To this end, apparent photosynthesis (APS), the level of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCo) large subunit, dehydrin-related polypeptides, and protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) were evaluated in cattail and alsike clover plants (Trifolium hybridum L.) exposed to the oil sands effluent. APS measured in plants impacted by oil sands effluent was significantly higher than that of plants in the non-impacted off-site location. Among the on-site locations, plants growing in the natural wetlands site had higher APS compared to all other sites. The level of RuBisCo was not increased in cattail or clover growing in effluent-contaminated sites indicating that enhanced photosynthesis was not due to greater levels of this enzyme. Dehydrin-related polypeptides were detected only in the roots of cattail and were absent in clover. The polypeptide profile was altered in cattail exposed to oil sands effluent indicating that they were responding to an osmotic stress. The level of PDI was unaffected in the leaves of cattail regardless of the nature of the effluent to which they were exposed. Overall, the data indicate that cattail and clover are adapted to the oil sands effluent, although further studies are needed to assess their long-term ability to survive in the presence of this anthropogenic stress. (Author)

  13. Oxidized low density lipoprotein increases RANKL level in human vascular cells. Involvement of oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazière, Cécile, E-mail: maziere.cecile@chu-amiens.fr [Biochemistry Laboratory, South Hospital University, René Laennec Avenue, Amiens 80000 (France); Salle, Valéry [Internal Medicine, North Hospital University, Place Victor Pauchet, Amiens 80000 (France); INSERM U1088 (EA 4292), SFR CAP-Santé (FED 4231), University of Picardie – Jules Verne (France); Gomila, Cathy; Mazière, Jean-Claude [Biochemistry Laboratory, South Hospital University, René Laennec Avenue, Amiens 80000 (France)

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •Oxidized LDL enhances RANKL level in human smooth muscle cells. •The effect of OxLDL is mediated by the transcription factor NFAT. •UVA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and buthionine sulfoximine also increase RANKL level. •All these effects are observed in human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. -- Abstract: Receptor Activator of NFκB Ligand (RANKL) and its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been shown to play a role not only in bone remodeling but also in inflammation, arterial calcification and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. In human smooth muscle cells, Cu{sup 2+}-oxidized LDL (CuLDL) 10–50 μg/ml increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and RANKL level in a dose-dependent manner, whereas OPG level was not affected. The lipid extract of CuLDL reproduced the effects of the whole particle. Vivit, an inhibitor of the transcription factor NFAT, reduced the CuLDL-induced increase in RANKL, whereas PKA and NFκB inhibitors were ineffective. LDL oxidized by myeloperoxidase (MPO-LDL), or other pro-oxidant conditions such as ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation, incubation with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis{sub ,} also induced an oxidative stress and enhanced RANKL level. The increase in RANKL in pro-oxidant conditions was also observed in fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Since RANKL is involved in myocardial inflammation, vascular calcification and plaque rupture, this study highlights a new mechanism whereby OxLDL might, by generation of an oxidative stress, exert a deleterious effect on different cell types of the arterial wall.

  14. Gaucher disease: plasmalogen levels in relation to primary lipid abnormalities and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitou, Marina; Dimitriou, Evangelia; Dekker, Nick; Monopolis, Ioannis; Aerts, Johannes; Michelakakis, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Plasmalogens represent a unique class of phospholipids. Reduced red blood cell plasmalogen levels in Gaucher disease patients were reported, correlating to total disease burden. The relation between plasmalogen abnormalities in Gaucher disease patients and primary glycosphingolipid abnormalities, malonyldialdehyde levels, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, and the total antioxidant status was further investigated. Significant reduction of C16:0 and C18:0 plasmalogens in red blood cells of Gaucher disease patients was confirmed. In parallel, a significant increase in the glucosylceramide/ceramide ratio in red blood cell membranes, as well as an average 200-fold increase in plasma glucosylsphingosine levels was observed. Red blood cell malonyldialdehyde levels were significantly increased in patients, whereas their total antioxidant status was significantly reduced. A negative correlation between plasmalogen species and glucosylceramide, ceramide, glucosylceramide/ceramide ratio, glucosylsphingosine and malonyldialdehyde, significant for the C16:0 species and all the above parameters with the exception of malonyldialdehyde levels, was found along with a positive non-significant correlation with the total antioxidant status. Our results indicate that increased lipid peroxidation and reduced total antioxidant status exist in Gaucher disease patients. They demonstrate a clear link between plasmalogen levels and the primary glycolipid abnormalities characterizing the disorder and an association with the increased oxidative stress observed in Gaucher disease patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Deformation of the southeast part of the Columbia Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, P.R.; Camp, V.E.

    1981-01-01

    Four structural elements north of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament in the southeast part of the Columbia Plateau (Washington, Idaho, and Oregon) are (1) the offlap of progressively younger basalt units from prebasalt topographic highs; (2) east-west open folds associated with reverse faulting; (3) northwest-southeast, northeast-southwest, and north-south faults with predominantly vertical displacement; and (4) vertical north-northwest-south-southeast feeder dikes. These may be explained by (1) a regional east to west tilting of the plateau caused by the isostatic rise of older rocks on the eastern margin; (2) a stress regime with a horizontal maximum principal stress in a north-northwest-south-southeast direction, and a horizontal minimum principal stress in a west-southwest-east-northeast direction; and (3) reactivation of an older northwest-southeast, northeast-southwest, and north-south structural grain in the pre-Miocene basement. The stress regime is similar to that envisaged for the area southwest of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament, and the difference in the type of deformation on either side of that feature may be attributed to differences in the thickness of the crust across the ancient boundary

  16. Fatigue of graphite/epoxy /0/90/45/-45/s laminates under dual stress levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J. N.; Jones, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    A model for the prediction of loading sequence effects on the statistical distribution of fatigue life and residual strength in composite materials is generalized and applied to (0/90/45/-45)s graphite/epoxy laminates. Load sequence effects are found to be caused by both the difference in residual strength when failure occurs (boundary effect) and the effect of previously applied loads (memory effect). The model allows the isolation of these two effects, and the estimation of memory effect magnitudes under dual fatigue loading levels. It is shown that the material memory effect is insignificant, and that correlations between predictions of the number of early failures agree with the verification tests, as do predictions of fatigue life and residual strength degradation under dual stress levels.

  17. High levels of retinal membrane docosahexaenoic acid increase susceptibility to stress-induced degenerations⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanito, Masaki; Brush, Richard S.; Elliott, Michael H.; Wicker, Lea D.; Henry, Kimberly R.; Anderson, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    The fat-1 gene cloned from C. elegans encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase that converts n-6 to n-3 PUFA. Mice carrying the fat-1 transgene and wild-type controls were fed an n-3-deficient/n-6-enriched diet [fat-1- safflower oil (SFO) and wt-SFO, respectively]. Fatty acid profiles of rod outer segments (ROS), cerebellum, plasma, and liver demonstrated significantly lower n-6/n-3 ratios and higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels in fat-1-SFO compared with wt-SFO. When mice were exposed to light stress: 1) the outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness was reduced; 2) amplitudes of the electroretinogram (ERG) were lower; 3) the number of apoptotic photoreceptor cells was greater; and 4) modification of retinal proteins by 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE), an end-product of n-3 PUFA oxidation was increased in both fat-1-SFO and wt mice fed a regular lab chow diet compared with wt-SFO. The results indicate a positive correlation between the level of DHA, the degree of n-3 PUFA lipid peroxidation, and the vulnerability of the retina to photooxidative stress. In mice not exposed to intense light, the reduction in DHA resulted in reduced efficacy in phototransduction gain steps, while no differences in the retinal morphology or retinal biochemistry. These results highlight the dual roles of DHA in cellular physiology and pathology. PMID:19023138

  18. Does dietary iodine regulate oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Repiso, Carolina; Velasco, Inés; Garcia-Escobar, Eva; Garcia-Serrano, Sara; Rodríguez-Pacheco, Francisca; Linares, Francisca; Ruiz de Adana, Maria Soledad; Rubio-Martin, Elehazara; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Cobos-Bravo, Juan Francisco; Priego-Puga, Tatiana; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico; García-Fuentes, Eduardo

    2014-02-10

    Little is known about the association between iodine and human milk composition. In this study, we investigated the association between iodine and different markers of oxidative stress and obesity-related hormones in human breast milk. This work is composed of two cross-sectional studies (in lactating women and in the general population), one prospective and one in vitro. In the cross-sectional study in lactating women, the breast milk iodine correlated negatively with superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and with adiponectin levels. An in vitro culture of human adipocytes with 1 μM potassium iodide (KI, dose similar to the human breast milk iodine concentration) produced a significant decrease in adiponectin, GSH-Px, SOD1, and SOD2 mRNA expression. However, after 2 months of treatment with KI in the prospective study, a positive correlation was found between 24-h urinary iodine and serum adiponectin. Our observations lead to the hypothesis that iodine may be a factor directly involved in the regulation of oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk.

  19. The effect of informed consent on stress levels associated with extraction of impacted mandibular third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casap, Nardy; Alterman, Michael; Sharon, Guy; Samuni, Yuval

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of informed consent on stress levels associated with removal of impacted mandibular third molars. A total of 60 patients scheduled for extraction of impacted mandibular third molars participated in this study. The patients were unaware of the study's objectives. Data from 20 patients established the baseline levels of electrodermal activity (EDA). The remaining 40 patients were randomly assigned into 2 equal groups receiving either a detailed document of informed consent, disclosing the possible risks involved with the surgery, or a simplified version. Pulse, blood pressure, and EDA were monitored before, during, and after completion of the consent document. Changes in EDA, but not in blood pressure, were measured on completion of either version of the consent document. A greater increase in EDA was associated with the detailed version of the consent document (P = .004). A similar concomitant increase (although nonsignificant) in pulse values was monitored on completion of both versions. Completion of overdisclosed document of informed consent is associated with changes in physiological parameters. The results suggest that overdetailed listing and disclosure before extraction of impacted mandibular third molars can increase patient stress.

  20. Plasma, salivary and urinary cortisol levels following physiological and stress doses of hydrocortisone in normal volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Caroline; Greco, Santo; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Ho, Jui T; Lewis, John G; Torpy, David J; Inder, Warrick J

    2014-11-26

    Glucocorticoid replacement is essential in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, but many patients remain on higher than recommended dose regimens. There is no uniformly accepted method to monitor the dose in individual patients. We have compared cortisol concentrations in plasma, saliva and urine achieved following "physiological" and "stress" doses of hydrocortisone as potential methods for monitoring glucocorticoid replacement. Cortisol profiles were measured in plasma, saliva and urine following "physiological" (20 mg oral) or "stress" (50 mg intravenous) doses of hydrocortisone in dexamethasone-suppressed healthy subjects (8 in each group), compared to endogenous cortisol levels (12 subjects). Total plasma cortisol was measured half-hourly, and salivary cortisol and urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio were measured hourly from time 0 (between 0830 and 0900) to 5 h. Endogenous plasma corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) levels were measured at time 0 and 5 h, and hourly from time 0 to 5 h following administration of oral or intravenous hydrocortisone. Plasma free cortisol was calculated using Coolens' equation. Plasma, salivary and urine cortisol at 2 h after oral hydrocortisone gave a good indication of peak cortisol concentrations, which were uniformly supraphysiological. Intravenous hydrocortisone administration achieved very high 30 minute cortisol concentrations. Total plasma cortisol correlated significantly with both saliva and urine cortisol after oral and intravenous hydrocortisone (P cortisol and urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio may provide useful alternatives to plasma cortisol measurements to monitor replacement doses in hypoadrenal patients.

  1. High level compressive residual stresses produced in aluminum alloys by laser shock processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Rosas, G.; Rubio-Gonzalez, C.; Ocana, J.L; Molpeceres, C.; Porro, J.A.; Chi-Moreno, W.; Morales, M.

    2005-01-01

    Laser shock processing (LSP) has been proposed as a competitive alternative technology to classical treatments for improving fatigue and wear resistance of metals. We present a configuration and results for metal surface treatments in underwater laser irradiation at 1064 nm. A convergent lens is used to deliver 1.2 J/cm 2 in a 8 ns laser FWHM pulse produced by 10 Hz Q-switched Nd:YAG, two laser spot diameters were used: 0.8 and 1.5 mm. Results using pulse densities of 2500 pulses/cm 2 in 6061-T6 aluminum samples and 5000 pulses/cm 2 in 2024 aluminum samples are presented. High level of compressive residual stresses are produced -1600 MPa for 6061-T6 Al alloy, and -1400 MPa for 2024 Al alloy. It has been shown that surface residual stress level is higher than that achieved by conventional shot peening and with greater depths. This method can be applied to surface treatment of final metal products

  2. Stress-restress evokes sustained iNOS activity and altered GABA levels and NMDA receptors in rat hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, Brian H; Oosthuizen, Frasia; Brand, Linda

    2004-01-01

    . The NOS isoform involved, and the role of stress-mediated corticosterone release in NOS activation, was verified with the administration of selective iNOS and nNOS inhibitors, aminoguanidine (50 mg/kg/day i.p.) and 7-nitroindazole (12.5 mg/kg/day i.p.), and the steroid synthesis inhibitor, ketoconazole...... (24 mg/kg/day i.p.), administered for 21 days prior to and during the stress procedure. RESULTS: Stress evoked a sustained increase in NOS activity, but reduced NMDA receptor density and total GABA levels. Aminoguanidine or ketoconazole, but not 7-nitroindazole or saline, blocked stress-induced NOS...

  3. Habitat degradation and seasonality affect physiological stress levels of Eulemur collaris in littoral forest fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Balestri

    Full Text Available The littoral forest on sandy soil is among the most threatened habitats in Madagascar and, as such, it represents a hot-spot within a conservation hot-spot. Assessing the health of the resident lemur fauna is not only critical for the long-term viability of these populations, but also necessary for the future re-habilitation of this unique habitat. Since the Endangered collared brown lemur, Eulemur collaris, is the largest seed disperser of the Malagasy south-eastern littoral forest its survival in this habitat is crucial. In this study we compared fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM levels, a measure of physiological stress and potential early indicator of population health, between groups of collared brown lemurs living in a degraded forest fragment and groups occurring in a more preserved area. For this, we analysed 279 fecal samples collected year-round from 4 groups of collared brown lemurs using a validated 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay and tested if fGCM levels were influenced by reproductive stages, phenological seasons, sex, and habitat degradation. The lemurs living in the degraded forest had significantly higher fGCM levels than those living in the more preserved area. In particular, the highest fGCM levels were found during the mating season in all animals and in females during gestation in the degraded forest. Since mating and gestation are both occurring during the lean season in the littoral forest, these results likely reflect a combination of ecological and reproductive pressures. Our findings provide a clear indication that habitat degradation has additive effects to the challenges found in the natural habitat. Since increased stress hormone output may have long-term negative effects on population health and reproduction, our data emphasize the need for and may add to the development of effective conservation plans for the species.

  4. Habitat degradation and seasonality affect physiological stress levels of Eulemur collaris in littoral forest fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestri, Michela; Barresi, Marta; Campera, Marco; Serra, Valentina; Ramanamanjato, Jean Baptiste; Heistermann, Michael; Donati, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The littoral forest on sandy soil is among the most threatened habitats in Madagascar and, as such, it represents a hot-spot within a conservation hot-spot. Assessing the health of the resident lemur fauna is not only critical for the long-term viability of these populations, but also necessary for the future re-habilitation of this unique habitat. Since the Endangered collared brown lemur, Eulemur collaris, is the largest seed disperser of the Malagasy south-eastern littoral forest its survival in this habitat is crucial. In this study we compared fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels, a measure of physiological stress and potential early indicator of population health, between groups of collared brown lemurs living in a degraded forest fragment and groups occurring in a more preserved area. For this, we analysed 279 fecal samples collected year-round from 4 groups of collared brown lemurs using a validated 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay and tested if fGCM levels were influenced by reproductive stages, phenological seasons, sex, and habitat degradation. The lemurs living in the degraded forest had significantly higher fGCM levels than those living in the more preserved area. In particular, the highest fGCM levels were found during the mating season in all animals and in females during gestation in the degraded forest. Since mating and gestation are both occurring during the lean season in the littoral forest, these results likely reflect a combination of ecological and reproductive pressures. Our findings provide a clear indication that habitat degradation has additive effects to the challenges found in the natural habitat. Since increased stress hormone output may have long-term negative effects on population health and reproduction, our data emphasize the need for and may add to the development of effective conservation plans for the species.

  5. Oxidative stress in elite athletes training at moderate altitude and at sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-López, Josefa; Calderón-Soto, Carmen; Pérez-Sánchez, Matías; Feriche, Belén; Iglesias, Xavier; Chaverri, Diego; Rodréguez, Ferran A

    2018-03-24

    Using a controlled parallel group longitudinal trial design, we investigated the effects of different training interventions on the prooxidant/antioxidant status of elite athletes: living and training at moderate altitude for 3 (Hi-Hi3) and 4 weeks (Hi-Hi), and for 4 weeks too, living high and training high and low (Hi-HiLo) and living and training at sea level (Lo-Lo). From 61 swimmers, 54 completed the study. Nitrites, carbonyls, and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were assessed in plasma. Enzymatic antioxidants glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRd), and non-enzymatic antioxidants total glutathione (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were analysed in the erythrocyte fraction. At the end of the intervention, nitrites levels were similar in all altitude groups but higher than in the Lo-Lo controls (P = .02). Hi-HiLo had greater GPx activity than Hi-Hi and Hi-Hi3 during most of the intervention (P ≤ .001). GRd activity was higher in Lo-Lo than in Hi-Hi at the end of the training camp (P ≤ .001). All groups showed increased levels of LPO, except Lo-Lo, and carbonyls at the end of the study (P ≤ .001). Training at altitude for 3 or 4 weeks drives oxidative stress leading to cellular damage mainly by worsening the antioxidant capacities. The GSSG/GSH ratio appears to be related to perceived exertion and fatigue. The stronger antioxidant defence showed by the Hi-HiLo group suggests an inverse relationship between redox alterations and performance. Further studies are required to investigate the role of oxidative stress in acclimatization, performance, and health.

  6. Evaluation of association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - Estimation of relationship between psychological stress and periodontal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Roshni; Shenoy, Nina; Thomas, Biju

    2016-01-01

    Stress classically describes a destructive notion that can have a bearing on one's physical and mental health. It may also add to an increased propensity to periodontal disease. To investigate the association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Forty subjects were recruited from the outpatient department at the Department of Periodontics, from a college in Mangalore, divided into two groups, i.e., twenty as healthy controls and twenty were stressed subjects with chronic periodontitis. The clinical examination included the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and oral hygiene index-simplified. Serum cortisol levels were estimated biochemically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and the estimation of psychological stress was done by a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to review the collected data. Independent sample t -test was used for comparison and correlation was evaluation using Pearson's correlation test. As per our observation, high serum cortisol levels and psychological stress are positively linked with chronic periodontitis establishing a risk profile showing a significant correlation ( P periodontitis patients as it should be considered as an imperative risk factor for periodontal disease.

  7. Detection of Stress Levels from Biosignals Measured in Virtual Reality Environments Using a Kernel-Based Extreme Learning Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dongrae; Ham, Jinsil; Oh, Jooyoung; Park, Jeanho; Kim, Sayup; Lee, Nak-Kyu; Lee, Boreom

    2017-10-24

    Virtual reality (VR) is a computer technique that creates an artificial environment composed of realistic images, sounds, and other sensations. Many researchers have used VR devices to generate various stimuli, and have utilized them to perform experiments or to provide treatment. In this study, the participants performed mental tasks using a VR device while physiological signals were measured: a photoplethysmogram (PPG), electrodermal activity (EDA), and skin temperature (SKT). In general, stress is an important factor that can influence the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Heart-rate variability (HRV) is known to be related to ANS activity, so we used an HRV derived from the PPG peak interval. In addition, the peak characteristics of the skin conductance (SC) from EDA and SKT variation can also reflect ANS activity; we utilized them as well. Then, we applied a kernel-based extreme-learning machine (K-ELM) to correctly classify the stress levels induced by the VR task to reflect five different levels of stress situations: baseline, mild stress, moderate stress, severe stress, and recovery. Twelve healthy subjects voluntarily participated in the study. Three physiological signals were measured in stress environment generated by VR device. As a result, the average classification accuracy was over 95% using K-ELM and the integrated feature (IT = HRV + SC + SKT). In addition, the proposed algorithm can embed a microcontroller chip since K-ELM algorithm have very short computation time. Therefore, a compact wearable device classifying stress levels using physiological signals can be developed.

  8. PLATEAU IRIS – DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Cornel; Iliescu, Daniela Adriana; Batras, Mehdi; Timaru, Cristina Mihaela; De Simone, Algerino

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of our study was to review the current knowledge on the diagnosis and treatment options of plateau iris configuration and syndrome. Systematic review methodology: Relevant publications on plateau iris that were published until 2014. Conclusions: Plateau iris syndrome is a form of primary angle closure glaucoma caused by a large or anteriorly positioned ciliary body that leads to mechanical obstruction of trabecular meshwork. This condition is most often found in younger patients. Plateau iris has been considered an abnormal anatomic variant of the iris that can be diagnosed on ultrasound biomicroscopy or optical coherence tomography of anterior segment. Patients with plateau iris syndrome can be recognized by the lack of response in angle opening after iridotomy. The treatment of choice in these cases is argon laser peripheral iridoplasty PMID:27373109

  9. PLATEAU IRIS--DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Cornel; Iliescu, Daniela Adriana; Batras, Mehdi; Timaru, Cristina Mihaela; De Simone, Algerino

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to review the current knowledge on the diagnosis and treatment options of plateau iris configuration and syndrome. Relevant publications on plateau iris that were published until 2014. Plateau iris syndrome is a form of primary angle closure glaucoma caused by a large or anteriorly positioned ciliary body that leads to mechanical obstruction of trabecular meshwork. This condition is most often found in younger patients. Plateau iris has been considered an abnormal anatomic variant of the iris that can be diagnosed on ultrasound biomicroscopy or optical coherence tomography of anterior segment. Patients with plateau iris syndrome can be recognized by the lack of response in angle opening after iridotomy. The treatment of choice in these cases is argon laser peripheral iridoplasty.

  10. Functional evolution of leptin of Ochotona curzoniae in adaptive thermogenesis driven by cold environmental stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental stress can accelerate the directional selection and evolutionary rate of specific stress-response proteins to bring about new or altered functions, enhancing an organism's fitness to challenging environments. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae, an endemic and keystone species on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, is a high hypoxia and low temperature tolerant mammal with high resting metabolic rate and non-shivering thermogenesis to cope in this harsh plateau environment. Leptin is a key hormone related to how these animals regulate energy homeostasis. Previous molecular evolutionary analysis helped to generate the hypothesis that adaptive evolution of plateau pika leptin may be driven by cold stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test the hypothesis, recombinant pika leptin was first purified. The thermogenic characteristics of C57BL/6J mice injected with pika leptin under warm (23±1°C and cold (5±1°C acclimation is investigated. Expression levels of genes regulating adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue and the hypothalamus are compared between pika leptin and human leptin treatment, suggesting that pika leptin has adaptively and functionally evolved. Our results show that pika leptin regulates energy homeostasis via reduced food intake and increased energy expenditure under both warm and cold conditions. Compared with human leptin, pika leptin demonstrates a superior induced capacity for adaptive thermogenesis, which is reflected in a more enhanced β-oxidation, mitochondrial biogenesis and heat production. Moreover, leptin treatment combined with cold stimulation has a significant synergistic effect on adaptive thermogenesis, more so than is observed with a single cold exposure or single leptin treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support the hypothesis that cold stress has driven the functional evolution of plateau pika leptin as an ecological adaptation to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  11. The stress-vulnerability model how does stress impact on mental illness at the level of the brain and what are the consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Cindy; Agius, Mark

    2010-06-01

    The stress -vulnerability model (Zubin et al. 1977) is an extremely useful model for identifying and treating relapses of mental illness. We accept that human persons carry genetic and other predisposition to mental illness. However, the question arises as to how stress impacts on a person in order to cause mental illness to develop. Furthermore there arises the issue as to what other effects such stress has on the human body beyond the human brain. Our aim was to research and integrate the current literature in order to establish how stress impacts on the brain at the cellular level, and to establish whether there are other consequences for the human body brought about by the impact of stress on the human brain. Literature Search, using pubmed. We have identified much literature on how stress affects biological mechanisms within the brain, and how it relates to biological vulnerabilities carried by different individuals. We have identified communalities in how the interplay between stress and vulnerability occurs in different disease processes.

  12. A Scaphoid Stress Fracture in a Female Collegiate-Level Shot-Putter and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. Kohring

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scaphoid stress fractures are rare injuries that have been described in young, high-level athletes who exhibit repetitive loading with the wrist in extension. We present a case of an occult scaphoid stress fracture in a 22-year-old female Division I collegiate shot-putter. She was successfully treated with immobilization in a thumb spica splint for 6 weeks. Loaded wrist extension activities can predispose certain high-level athletes to sustain scaphoid stress fractures, and a high index of suspicion in this patient population may aid prompt diagnosis and management of this rare injury.

  13. Astragaloside IV attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis of mice by counteracting oxidative stress at multiple levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin He

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic autoimmune neuroinflammatory disease found mostly in young adults in the western world. Oxidative stress induced neuronal apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of MS. In current study, astragaloside IV (ASI, a natural saponin molecule isolated from Astragalus membranceus, given at 20 mg/kg daily attenuated the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE in mice significantly. Further studies disclosed that ASI treatment inhibited the increase of ROS and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, down-regulation of SOD and GSH-Px activities, and elevation of iNOS, p53 and phosphorylated tau in central nervous system (CNS as well as the leakage of BBB of EAE mice. Meanwhile, the decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was reversed by ASI. Moreover, ASI regulated T-cell differentiation and infiltration into CNS. In neuroblast SH-SY5Y cells, ASI dose-dependently reduced cellular ROS level and phosphorylation of tau in response to hydrogen peroxide challenge by modulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio. ASI also inhibited activation of microglia both in vivo and in vitro. iNOS up-regulation induced by IFNγ stimulation was abolished by ASI dose-dependently in BV-2 cells. In summary, ASI prevented the severity of EAE progression possibly by counterbalancing oxidative stress and its effects via reduction of cellular ROS level, enhancement of antioxidant defense system, increase of anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory pathways, as well as modulation of T-cell differentiation and infiltration into CNS. The study suggested ASI may be effective for clinical therapy/prevention of MS.

  14. Astragaloside IV attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis of mice by counteracting oxidative stress at multiple levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yixin; Du, Min; Gao, Yan; Liu, Hongshuai; Wang, Hongwei; Wu, Xiaojun; Wang, Zhengtao

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune neuroinflammatory disease found mostly in young adults in the western world. Oxidative stress induced neuronal apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of MS. In current study, astragaloside IV (ASI), a natural saponin molecule isolated from Astragalus membranceus, given at 20 mg/kg daily attenuated the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice significantly. Further studies disclosed that ASI treatment inhibited the increase of ROS and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, down-regulation of SOD and GSH-Px activities, and elevation of iNOS, p53 and phosphorylated tau in central nervous system (CNS) as well as the leakage of BBB of EAE mice. Meanwhile, the decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was reversed by ASI. Moreover, ASI regulated T-cell differentiation and infiltration into CNS. In neuroblast SH-SY5Y cells, ASI dose-dependently reduced cellular ROS level and phosphorylation of tau in response to hydrogen peroxide challenge by modulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio. ASI also inhibited activation of microglia both in vivo and in vitro. iNOS up-regulation induced by IFNγ stimulation was abolished by ASI dose-dependently in BV-2 cells. In summary, ASI prevented the severity of EAE progression possibly by counterbalancing oxidative stress and its effects via reduction of cellular ROS level, enhancement of antioxidant defense system, increase of anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory pathways, as well as modulation of T-cell differentiation and infiltration into CNS. The study suggested ASI may be effective for clinical therapy/prevention of MS.

  15. Decreased dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate levels in adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder after single sexual trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Mirac Baris; Tuncel, Ozgur Korhan; Akbas, Seher; Aydin, Berna; Say, Gokce Nur

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can be dysregulated in chronic sexual abuse victims with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We hypothesized that PTSD in adolescents exposed to a single sexual trauma may function as a chronic stressor leading to HPA-axis dysregulation. The objective of this study was to assess dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) and cortisol levels in female adolescents |with single sexual trauma-related PTSD compared to healthy controls. We assessed 20 female adolescent (age 12-18) single sexual trauma victims with PTSD from the Ondokuz Mayis University Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry between December 2013 and December 2014. PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Child Depression Inventory (CDI) and Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPSRI). Blood cortisol and DHEA-S were measured in 20 female adolescent sexual abuse victims with PTSD and 20 healthy adolescents after 12-h fasting using the chemiluminescence method. Compared to age-matched controls, female adolescent sexual abuse victims with PTSD had significantly lower DHEA-S levels (U = 70.00, Z = - 3.517, p = 0.01, r = 0.55). There was also a significant negative correlation between DHEA-S and CDI scores (Spearman r = - 0.522, p < 0.01). Decreased DHEA-S levels and correlation with depressive symptoms are evidence for a dysregulated HPA-axis in female adolescent single sexual trauma victims with PTSD. Further research is now recommended with large patient groups in order to maximize generalizations.

  16. Coagulation and oxidative stress plasmatic levels in a type 2 diabetes population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillari, Giovanni; Fabbro, Elisabetta; Pasca, Samantha; Bigotto, Enrico

    2009-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is a metabolic disorder characterized by relative insulin deficiency, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. DM2 improperly managed can cause severe complications such as renal failure, blindness or arterial disease. In addition to serious complications due to DM2, in the past 20 years, several studies have demonstrated the association between DM2, insulin resistance and prothrombotic risk. In our study, we wanted to evaluate the correlation between coagulation factor levels, oxidative plasmatic levels and DM2. We considered 20 DM2 patients (65% women and 35% men), 40-65 years of age, who had a BMI between 25 and 40 kg/m2 and followed a diet with or without oral antidiabetic treatment and 20 controls, blood donors, 15 men (75%) and five women (25%), who had a BMI between 25 and 40 kg/m2 and their age was between 40 and 65 years. Plasmatic levels of oxidative stress markers (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, nitrotyrosine, oxidized low-density lipoprotein) and coagulation markers (factors VII, VIII, IX, XI, XII, antithrombin III and fibrinogen) of both populations were analyzed following statistic criteria. The analyzed data of this study related to oxidative stress and coagulation factors proved that the differences observed between diabetic patients and controls were not statistically significant (P statistically significant (P < 0.01). In patients with DM2, factor VIII increased from 79 to 103%, factor IX from 88 to 103%, factor XII from 87 to 105% and finally, antithrombin III from 81 to 103%. Different results between literature and our study could be due to fact that the patients considered were in the early stage of diabetes when endothelial damage is absent and vascular complications are not clinically expressed. In this study, it is still shown that DM2 is a multifactor disease and its physiopathologic mechanisms are not completely known today.

  17. High altitude induced anorexia: effect of changes in leptin and oxidative stress levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, Praveen; Singh, Vijay Kumar; Singh, Som Nath; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2007-01-01

    High altitude (HA) exposure usually leads to a significant weight loss in non-acclimatized humans. Anorexia is believed to be the main cause of this body weight loss. Appetite regulatory peptides, i.e. leptin and neuropeptide Y play a key role in food intake and energy homeostasis. Recent studies suggests increased oxidative stress during HA exposure. In present study effect of HA exposure on levels of leptin and NPY was evaluated along with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and vitamin E supplementation in relation to food intake and body weight changes. The study was conducted on 30 healthy male volunteers (age 19-29 years). Subjects were divided randomly into three groups of 10 each. Group 1 (placebo) supplemented with 400 mg of calcium gluconate, group 2 and 3 were supplemented with 400 mg of NAC and 400 mg vitamin E, respectively per day. The study was conducted at low altitude (320 m, Phase I), at HA 3600 m (Phase II) and at an altitude of 4580 m (Phase III). On HA exposure significant reduction in plasma leptin levels was observed in all the groups on day 2 (Phase II) along with decrease in food intake and reduction in body weight. Statistically significant increase in blood malondialdehyde (MDA) levels was seen in all the groups on HA exposure (Phase II, Day 2), but the maximum increase was in case of placebo group (65.1%) on day 2 (Phase II) in comparison to low altitude values. The decrease in energy intake was almost same in all the groups indicating that antioxidant supplementation did not provide any protection against HA anorexia. From the study, it may be concluded that leptin and oxidative stress possibly are not the key players for HA anorexia.

  18. Detecting drawdowns masked by environmental stresses with water-level models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C.A.; Halford, K.J.; Fenelon, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Detecting and quantifying small drawdown at observation wells distant from the pumping well greatly expands the characterized aquifer volume. However, this detection is often obscured by water level fluctuations such as barometric and tidal effects. A reliable analytical approach for distinguishing drawdown from nonpumping water-level fluctuations is presented and tested here. Drawdown is distinguished by analytically simulating all pumping and nonpumping water-level stresses simultaneously during the period of record. Pumping signals are generated with Theis models, where the pumping schedule is translated into water-level change with the Theis solution. This approach closely matched drawdowns simulated with a complex three-dimensional, hypothetical model and reasonably estimated drawdowns from an aquifer test conducted in a complex hydrogeologic system. Pumping-induced changes generated with a numerical model and analytical Theis model agreed (RMS as low as 0.007 m) in cases where pumping signals traveled more than 1 km across confining units and fault structures. Maximum drawdowns of about 0.05 m were analytically estimated from field investigations where environmental fluctuations approached 0.2 m during the analysis period.

  19. Potential use of glycogen level as biomarker of chemical stress in Biomphalaria glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansaldo, Martin; Nahabedian, Daniel E.; Holmes-Brown, Eduardo; Agote, Marcos; Ansay, Cristina V.; Guerrero, Noemi R. Verrengia; Wider, Eva A.

    2006-01-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata, a freshwater gastropod mollusc, was tested as biondicator organism to assess cadmium, lead and arsenic exposure using acute laboratory bioassays. Modifications of glycogen levels were measured in different anatomical regions of B. glabrata in order to test the usefulness of this parameter as a general biomarker of chemical stress. The snails were exposed 96 h to different concentrations of the following contaminants: 0.1 and 0.05 mg Cd/L; 0.5, 0.1 and 0.05 mg Pb/L; 0.5, 0.1 and 0.05 mg As/L. Significant decreases in the polysaccharide content were observed in gonadal region for all treated animals. Arsenic and lead at 0.1 and 0.5 mg/L level of exposure were also able to decrease the levels of glycogen in the pulmonary and digestive gland region. Glycogen content in the cephalopedal region of treated animals presented a significant decrease (p < 0.05) when compared with control organisms only for arsenic at the highest level of exposure. To establish possible correlations between glycogen and contaminants accumulated by snails, analyses of the elements bioaccumulated in the different anatomical regions of B. glabrata were also performed. Cadmium and lead followed a similar pattern of bioaccumulation with highest values in the digestive gland region. Arsenic bioaccumulation, however, was highest in the gonadal region

  20. Early life low-level cadmium exposure is positively associated with increased oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippler, Maria [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Bakhtiar Hossain, Mohammad [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Lindh, Christian [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Moore, Sophie E. [MRC Keneba, MRC Laboratories (Gambia); Kabir, Iqbal [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Broberg, Karin, E-mail: karin.broberg_palmgren@med.lu.se [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh)

    2012-01-15

    Environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) is known to induce oxidative stress, a state of imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability to detoxify them, in adults. However, data are lacking on potential effects in early-life. We evaluated urinary concentrations of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a recognized marker of oxidative DNA damage, in relation to Cd exposure in 96 predominantly breast-fed infants (11-17 weeks of age) in rural Bangladesh. Urinary 8-oxodG was measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Cd in urine and breast milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Median concentration of 8-oxodG was 3.9 nmol/L, urinary Cd 0.30 {mu}g/L, and breast-milk Cd 0.13 {mu}g/L. In linear regression analyses, urinary 8-oxodG was positively associated with Cd in both urine (p=0.00067) and breast milk (p=0.0021), and negatively associated with body weight (kg; p=0.0041). Adjustment for age, body weight, socio-economic status, urinary arsenic, as well as magnesium, calcium, and copper in breast milk did not change the association between Cd exposure and urinary 8-oxodG. These findings suggest that early-life low-level exposure to Cd via breast milk induces oxidative stress. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether this oxidative stress is associated with impaired child health and development.

  1. Early life low-level cadmium exposure is positively associated with increased oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippler, Maria; Bakhtiar Hossain, Mohammad; Lindh, Christian; Moore, Sophie E.; Kabir, Iqbal; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) is known to induce oxidative stress, a state of imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability to detoxify them, in adults. However, data are lacking on potential effects in early-life. We evaluated urinary concentrations of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a recognized marker of oxidative DNA damage, in relation to Cd exposure in 96 predominantly breast-fed infants (11–17 weeks of age) in rural Bangladesh. Urinary 8-oxodG was measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Cd in urine and breast milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Median concentration of 8-oxodG was 3.9 nmol/L, urinary Cd 0.30 μg/L, and breast-milk Cd 0.13 μg/L. In linear regression analyses, urinary 8-oxodG was positively associated with Cd in both urine (p=0.00067) and breast milk (p=0.0021), and negatively associated with body weight (kg; p=0.0041). Adjustment for age, body weight, socio-economic status, urinary arsenic, as well as magnesium, calcium, and copper in breast milk did not change the association between Cd exposure and urinary 8-oxodG. These findings suggest that early-life low-level exposure to Cd via breast milk induces oxidative stress. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether this oxidative stress is associated with impaired child health and development.

  2. Beneficial effect of hot spring bathing on stress levels in Japanese macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Rafaela S C; Bercovitch, Fred B; Kinoshita, Kodzue; Huffman, Michael A

    2018-05-01

    The ability of animals to survive dramatic climates depends on their physiology, morphology and behaviour, but is often influenced by the configuration of their habitat. Along with autonomic responses, thermoregulatory behaviours, including postural adjustments, social aggregation, and use of trees for shelter, help individuals maintain homeostasis across climate variations. Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) are the world's most northerly species of nonhuman primates and have adapted to extremely cold environments. Given that thermoregulatory stress can increase glucocorticoid concentrations in primates, we hypothesized that by using an available hot spring, Japanese macaques could gain protection against weather-induced cold stress during winter. We studied 12 adult female Japanese macaques living in Jigokudani Monkey Park, Japan, during the spring birth season (April to June) and winter mating season (October to December). We collected faecal samples for determination of faecal glucocorticoid (fGC) metabolite concentrations by enzyme immunoassay, as well as behavioural data to determine time spent in the hot springs, dominance rank, aggression rates, and affiliative behaviours. We used nonparametric statistics to examine seasonal changes in hot spring bathing, and the relationship between rank and air temperature on hot spring bathing. We used general linear mixed-effect models to examine factors impacting hormone concentrations. We found that Japanese macaques use hot spring bathing for thermoregulation during the winter. In the studied troop, the single hot spring is a restricted resource favoured by dominant females. High social rank had both costs and benefits: dominant females sustained high fGC levels, which were associated with high aggression rates in winter, but benefited by priority of access to the hot spring, which was associated with low fGC concentrations and therefore might help reduce energy expenditure and subsequent body heat loss. This unique

  3. [Stress level assessment of the nursing staff in the Intensive Care Unit of a university hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-García, C; Ríos-Rísquez, M I; Martínez-Hurtado, R; Noguera-Villaescusa, P

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine the work stress level among nursing staff in the Intensive Care Unit of a university hospital and to analyse its relationship with the various sociodemographic and working variables of the studied sample. A study was designed using a quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional approach. The target population of the study was the nursing staff selected by non-random sampling. The instrument used was the Job Content Questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 20. The mean, ranges and standard deviation for each of the variables were calculated. A bivariate analysis was also performed on the social and occupational variables of the sample. The participation rate was 80.90% (N=89). The mean of the Social support dimension was 3.13±0.397, for the Psychological demands at work dimension it was 3.10±0.384, with a mean of 2.96±0.436 being obtained for the Control over the work dimension. In the analysis of sociodemographic and work variables of the sample, only the professional category was significant, with nurses recording higher values in perception of job demands and control over their work compared to nursing assistants. In conclusion, there is a moderate perception of work stress in the analysed group of professionals. Among the sources of stress in the workplace was the low control in decision-making by practitioners, as well as the need to continually learn new things. On the other hand, the support received from colleagues is valued positively by the sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Supplemental Levels of Fermentation Product on Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of different supplemental levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Original XP; Diamond V on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows under heat stress. Eighty-one multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided into 27 blocks of 3 cows each based on milk yield (23.6±0.20 kg/d, parity (2.88±0.91 and day in milk (204±46 d. The cows were randomly assigned within blocks to one of three treatments: 0 (control, 120, or 240 g/d of SCFP mixed with 240, 120, or 0 g of corn meal, respectively. The experiment was carried out during the summer season of 2014, starting from 14 July 2014 and lasting for 9 weeks with the first week as adaption period. During the experimental period, average daily temperature-humidity index (measured at 08:00, 14:00, and 20:00 was above 68, indicating that cows were exposed to heat stress throughout the study. Rectal temperatures tended to decrease linearly (p = 0.07 for cows supplemented with SCFP compared to the control cows at 14:30, but were not different at 06:30 (p>0.10. Dry matter intake was not affected by SCFP supplementation (p>0.10. Milk yield increased linearly (p0.10 was observed among the treatments in conversion of dietary crude protein to milk protein yield. In summary, supplementation of SCFP alleviated the negative effect of heat stress in lactating Holstein dairy cows and allowed cows to maintain higher milk production, feed efficiency and net energy balance. Effects of SCFP were dose-dependent and greater effects were observed from higher doses.

  5. Distinguishing Bark Beetle-infested Vegetation by Tree Species Types and Stress Levels using Landsat Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanpillai, R.; Ewers, B. E.; Speckman, H. N.; Miller, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    In the Western United States, more than 3 million hectares of lodgepole pine forests have been impacted by the Mountain pine beetle outbreak, while another 166,000 hectares of spruce-fir forests have been attacked by Spruce beetle. Following the beetle attack, the trees lose their hydraulic conductivity thus altering their carbon and water fluxes. These trees go through various stages of stress until mortality, described by color changes in their needles prior to losing them. Modeling the impact of these vegetation types require thematically precise land cover data that distinguishes lodgepole pine and spruce-fir forests along with the stage of impact since the ecosystem fluxes are different for these two systems. However, the national and regional-scale land cover datasets derived from remotely sensed data do not have this required thematic precision. We evaluated the feasibility of multispectral data collected by Landsat 8 to distinguish lodgepole pine and spruce fir, and subsequently model the different stages of attack using field data collected in Medicine Bow National Forest (Wyoming, USA). Operational Land Imager, onboard Landsat 8 has more spectral bands and higher radiometric resolution (12 bit) in comparison to sensors onboard earlier Landsat missions which could improve the ability to distinguish these vegetation types and their stress conditions. In addition to these characteristics, its repeat coverage, rigorous radiometric calibration, wide swath width, and no-cost data provide unique advantages to Landsat data for mapping large geographic areas. Initial results from this study highlight the importance of SWIR bands for distinguishing different levels of stress, and the need for ancillary data for distinguishing species types. Insights gained from this study could lead to the generation of land cover maps with higher thematic precision, and improve the ability to model various ecosystem processes as a result of these infestations.

  6. Identification of Causes of the Occupational Stress for Health Providers at Different Levels of Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifunovic, Natasa; Jatic, Zaim; Kulenovic, Alma Dzubur

    2017-06-01

    To identify and compare the stressors in the work environment experienced by employees in primary health care and secondary health care, amongphysiciansand nurses. The survey was conducted to identify types of stressors by assessing health care workers employed in the primary and secondary health care services of the Public Institution, the Health Centre of the Sarajevo Canton, using a questionnaire about stress in the workplace. Among all study participants stressors connected to the organization of work, finance and communication were found to affect their mental health most strongly. The results show a significant difference between primary and secondary health care in experience of stressors related to the organization of work, communication, and stressors related to the emotional and physical risks. Primary health care physicians report a significantly higher experience of stress and impact on mental health compared with other physicians related to emotional difficulties when working in the field of palliative care. Our results also indicate a significant difference between primary and secondary health providers in experiencing stressors related to the organization of work, such as: on-call duty shifts, an inadequate working environment and in the assessment of administrative work overload. The survey identified the most intense stressors for doctors and nurses at primary and secondary levels of health care services. The results of the study indicate that doctors and nurses have a different hierarchy of stressors, as well as subjects at Primary and Secondary Health Care. The results of the study indicate that subjects et Primary Health Care perceive more stressful organizational, emotional and communicational problems.

  7. A study of job stress, stress coping strategies, and job satisfaction for nurses working in middle-level hospital operating rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Kuang; Lin, Cecilia; Wang, Shu-Hui; Hou, Tung-Hsu

    2009-09-01

    Understanding the interactive relationships between demographics and work-related variables, job stress, job stress coping strategies, and job satisfaction for operating room (OR) nurses is important. The purpose of this study was to determine the stressors, the stress coping strategies, and the job satisfaction of nursing staff who worked in the OR and to evaluate influence of demographic characteristics on job stress, stress coping strategies, and job satisfaction. A cross-sectional research design was used to collect data. Participants included 121 nurses with more than 6 months of work experience at seven hospitals in Yunlin and Chiayi Counties. Data were collected from March through May 2008. One hundred twelve questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 92.56%. The questionnaire included four parts designed to gather data on demographics and work-related information, job stress, stress coping strategies, and job satisfaction. Major findings of this study were as follows: (a) stress level and frequency perception of OR nurses were significantly related to the type of hospital; (b) the most intense stressor perceived by OR nurses was patient safety; (c) the stressor most frequently perceived by OR nurses was administrative feedback; (d) although all job stressors were positively related to destructive stress coping strategies, professional status, patient safety, and OR environment were also positively related to constructive stress coping strategies; (e) factors including work rewards, OR environment, and administrative management of job satisfaction were inversely related to destructive stress coping strategies; and (f) factors including work rewards, OR environment, and administrative management of job satisfaction were inversely related to all job stressors. Major suggestions of this study include the following: (a) hospitals should ensure set standard operating procedures for the OR, strengthen the designed-in security of the OR working

  8. Involvement of α(2)-adrenergic receptor in the regulation of the blood glucose level induced by immobilization stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu-Jung; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Suh, Hong-Won

    2015-01-01

    The blood glucose profiles were characterized after mice were forced into immobilization stress with various exposure durations. The blood glucose level was significantly enhanced by immobilization stress for 30 min or 1 h, respectively. On the other hand, the blood glucose level was not affected in the groups which were forced into immobilization stress for 2 or 4 h. We further examined the effect of yohimbine (an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist) administered systemically or centrally in the immobilization stress model. Mice were pretreated intraperitoneally (i.p.; from 0.5 to 5 mg/kg), intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.; from 1 to 10 µg/5 µl), or intrathecally (i.t.; from 1 to 10 µg/5 µl) with yohimbine for 10 min and then, forced into immobilization stress for 30 min. The blood glucose level was measured right after immobilization stress. We found that up-regulation of the blood glucose level induced by immobilization stress was abolished by i.p. pretreatment with yohimbine. And the immobilization stress-induced blood glucose level was not inhibited by i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with yohimbine at a lower dose (1 µg/5 µl). However, immobilization stress-induced blood glucose level was significantly inhibited by i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with yohimbine at higher doses (5 and 10 µg/5 µl). In addition, the i.p. (5 mg/kg), i.c.v. (10 µg/5 µl), or i.t. (10 µg/5 µl) pretreatment with yohimbine reduced hypothalamic glucose transporter 4 expression. The involvement of α2-adrenergic receptor in regulation of immobilization stress- induced blood glucose level was further confirmed by the i.p, i.c.v, or i.t pretreatment with idazoxan, another specific α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist. Finally, i.p., i.c.v., or i.t. pretreatment with yohimbine attenuated the blood glucose level in D-glucose-fed model. We suggest that α2-adrenergic receptors located at the peripheral, the brain and the spinal cord play important roles in the up

  9. Short-term impact of a stress management and health promotion program on perceived stress, parental stress, health locus of control, and cortisol levels in parents of children and adolescents with diabetes type 1: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouli, Eleni; Pavlopoulos, Vassilis; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Chrousos, George; Darviri, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children and adolescents with diabetes type 1 (DT1) usually experience high stress levels, as they have to cope with multiple demands in their everyday life. Different complex interventions have been implemented, which sometimes have led to opposite results. The purpose of this study was to assess stress levels in parents of children and adolescents with DT1 and to evaluate the effectiveness of a stress management program (progressive muscle relaxation combined with diaphragmatic breathing) in reducing perceived and parenting stress, increasing internal locus of control, promoting healthy lifestyle, and normalizing cortisol levels. Randomized controlled trial. A total of 44 parents were randomly assigned to the intervention group (performing relaxation for eight weeks, n = 19) and control group (n = 25). Pre-post measurements included cortisol levels, lifestyle characteristics, perceived stress, perception of health, and parenting stress. A statistically significant decrease in perceived stress (from 27.21 to 19.00, P = .001), as well as in parenting stress (from 85.79 to 73.68, P = .003), was observed in the intervention group. A statistically significant difference was found in perceived stress between the two groups after the intervention (Dmean = 6.64, P = .010). No significant difference was revealed between or within the groups in cortisol levels. Significant improvement was reported by the subjects of the intervention group in various lifestyle parameters. Relaxation techniques seem to have a positive impact on stress and on various lifestyle factors in parents of children and adolescents with DT1. Future research on long-term benefits of an intervention program comprising of various relaxation schemes is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Corticosterone levels and behavioral changes induced by simultaneous exposure to chronic social stress and enriched environments in NMRI male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa-Gresa, Patricia; Ramos-Campos, Marta; Redolat, Rosa

    2016-05-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an experimental model which is believed to counteract some of the effects induced by stressors, although few studies have exposed rodents simultaneously to EE and stress. Our aim was to compare the short- and long-term effects of different housing conditions in mice submitted to chronic stress. 128 NMRI male mice arrived at our laboratory on postnatal day (PND) 21. During Phase I (PND 28), animals were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions: 1) EE+STRESS: mice housed in EE and submitted to social stress (n=32); 2) EE+NO STRESS: mice housed in EE without stress (n=32); 3) SE+STRESS: mice maintained in standard conditions (SE) and submitted to social stress (n=32); and 4) SE+NO STRESS (n=32). At the end of Phase I (PND 77), one cohort of 32 animals was used for behavioral assessment whereas another cohort of 32 was sacrificed for corticosterone analysis. Results indicated that EE animals showed less body weight, higher water and food intake, diminished anxiety response and decreased motor and exploratory behavior than SE mice. Mice exposed to stress gained less body weight, showed higher food and fluid intake and displayed decreased exploratory behavior than non-stressed mice. Furthermore, EE+STRESS group displayed significantly higher corticosterone levels than EE+NO STRESS group whereas EE+NO STRESS group showed lower levels than SE+NO STRESS. On PND 83, Phase II of the study began. Animals (n=96) were assigned to two different housing conditions: EE (n=48) and SE (n=48). On PND 112, corticosterone analysis (n=32) and behavioral study (n=64) were done. The factor "Housing Phase II" reached statistical significance. Results indicated that EE animals showed lower body weight and higher fluid intake than SE group, as well as decreased anxiety. No clear effects on motor and exploratory behavior or learning were observed. When long-term effects were analyzed, results indicated that "Initial Housing" condition was significant

  11. 'The effect of different genres of music on the stress levels of kennelled dogs'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, A; Dowell, F J; Evans, N P

    2017-03-15

    Classical music has been shown to reduce stress in kennelled dogs; however, rapid habituation of dogs to this form of auditory enrichment has also been demonstrated. The current study investigated the physiological and behavioural response of kennelled dogs (n=38) to medium-term (5days) auditory enrichment with five different genres of music including Soft Rock, Motown, Pop, Reggae and Classical, to determine whether increasing the variety of auditory stimulation reduces the level of habituation to auditory enrichment. Dogs were found to spend significantly more time lying and significantly less time standing when music was played, regardless of genre. There was no observable effect of music on barking, however, dogs were significantly (z=2.2, P<0.05) more likely to bark following cessation of auditory enrichment. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) was significantly higher, indicative of decreased stress, when dogs were played Soft Rock and Reggae, with a lesser effect observed when Motown, Pop and Classical genres were played. Relative to the silent period prior to auditory enrichment, urinary cortisol:creatanine (UCCR) values were significantly higher during Soft Rock (t=2.781, P<0.01) and the second silent control period following auditory enrichment (t=2.46, P<0.05). Despite the mixed response to different genres, the physiological and behavioural changes observed remained constant over the 5d of enrichment suggesting that the effect of habituation may be reduced by increasing the variety of auditory enrichment provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in tau phosphorylation levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex following chronic stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.; Guo, X. [Wuhan University, Renmin Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Wuhan, China, Department of Psychiatry, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Wang, G.H. [Wuhan University, Renmin Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Wuhan, China, Department of Psychiatry, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Wuhan University, Institute of Neuropsychiatry, Wuhan, China, Institute of Neuropsychiatry, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Wang, H.L.; Liu, Z.C.; Liu, H.; Zhu, Z.X.; Li, Y. [Wuhan University, Renmin Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Wuhan, China, Department of Psychiatry, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)

    2014-03-03

    Studies have indicated that early-life or early-onset depression is associated with a 2- to 4-fold increased risk of developing Alzheimers disease (AD). In AD, aggregation of an abnormally phosphorylated form of the tau protein may be a key pathological event. Tau is known to play a major role in promoting microtubule assembly and stabilization, and in maintaining the normal morphology of neurons. Several studies have reported that stress may induce tau phosphorylation. The main aim of the present study was to investigate possible alterations in the tau protein in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and then re-exposed to CUMS to mimic depression and the recurrence of depression, respectively, in humans. We evaluated the effects of CUMS, fluoxetine, and CUMS re-exposure on tau and phospho-tau. Our results showed that a single exposure to CUMS caused a significant reduction in sucrose preference, indicating a state of anhedonia. The change in behavior was accompanied by specific alterations in phospho-tau protein levels, but fluoxetine treatment reversed the CUMS-induced impairments. Moreover, changes in sucrose preference and phospho-tau were more pronounced in rats re-exposed to CUMS than in those subjected to a single exposure. Our results suggest that changes in tau phosphorylation may contribute to the link between depression and AD.

  13. Changes in tau phosphorylation levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex following chronic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Guo, X.; Wang, G.H.; Wang, H.L.; Liu, Z.C.; Liu, H.; Zhu, Z.X.; Li, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have indicated that early-life or early-onset depression is associated with a 2- to 4-fold increased risk of developing Alzheimers disease (AD). In AD, aggregation of an abnormally phosphorylated form of the tau protein may be a key pathological event. Tau is known to play a major role in promoting microtubule assembly and stabilization, and in maintaining the normal morphology of neurons. Several studies have reported that stress may induce tau phosphorylation. The main aim of the present study was to investigate possible alterations in the tau protein in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and then re-exposed to CUMS to mimic depression and the recurrence of depression, respectively, in humans. We evaluated the effects of CUMS, fluoxetine, and CUMS re-exposure on tau and phospho-tau. Our results showed that a single exposure to CUMS caused a significant reduction in sucrose preference, indicating a state of anhedonia. The change in behavior was accompanied by specific alterations in phospho-tau protein levels, but fluoxetine treatment reversed the CUMS-induced impairments. Moreover, changes in sucrose preference and phospho-tau were more pronounced in rats re-exposed to CUMS than in those subjected to a single exposure. Our results suggest that changes in tau phosphorylation may contribute to the link between depression and AD

  14. Low level genome mistranslations deregulate the transcriptome and translatome and generate proteotoxic stress in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paredes João A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organisms use highly accurate molecular processes to transcribe their genes and a variety of mRNA quality control and ribosome proofreading mechanisms to maintain intact the fidelity of genetic information flow. Despite this, low level gene translational errors induced by mutations and environmental factors cause neurodegeneration and premature death in mice and mitochondrial disorders in humans. Paradoxically, such errors can generate advantageous phenotypic diversity in fungi and bacteria through poorly understood molecular processes. Results In order to clarify the biological relevance of gene translational errors we have engineered codon misreading in yeast and used profiling of total and polysome-associated mRNAs, molecular and biochemical tools to characterize the recombinant cells. We demonstrate here that gene translational errors, which have negligible impact on yeast growth rate down-regulate protein synthesis, activate the unfolded protein response and environmental stress response pathways, and down-regulate chaperones linked to ribosomes. Conclusions We provide the first global view of transcriptional and post-transcriptional responses to global gene translational errors and we postulate that they cause gradual cell degeneration through synergistic effects of overloading protein quality control systems and deregulation of protein synthesis, but generate adaptive phenotypes in unicellular organisms through activation of stress cross-protection. We conclude that these genome wide gene translational infidelities can be degenerative or adaptive depending on cellular context and physiological condition.

  15. Effects of traffic noise on tree frog stress levels, immunity, and color signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troïanowski, Mathieu; Mondy, Nathalie; Dumet, Adeline; Arcanjo, Caroline; Lengagne, Thierry

    2017-10-01

    During the last decade, many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of noise pollution on acoustic communication. Surprisingly, although it is known that noise exposure strongly influences health in humans, studies on wildlife remain scarce. In order to gain insight into the consequences of traffic noise exposure, we experimentally manipulated traffic noise exposure as well as the endocrine status of animals to investigate physiological and phenotypic consequences of noise pollution in an anuran species. We showed that noise exposure increased stress hormone level and induced an immunosuppressive effect. In addition, both traffic noise exposure and stress hormone application negatively impacted H. arborea vocal sac coloration. Moreover, our results suggest profound changes in sexual selection processes because the best quality males with initial attractive vocal sac coloration were the most impacted by noise. Hence, our study suggests that the recent increases in anthropogenic noise worldwide might affect a broader range of animal species than previously thought, because of alteration of visual signals and immunity. Generalizing these results to other taxa is crucial for the conservation of biodiversity in an increasingly noisy world. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Medical students' subjective ratings of stress levels and awareness of student support services about mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa Li-Wey; Norgren Jaconelli, Sanna; Lampe, Lisa; Malhi, Gin S; Hunt, Glenn

    2013-06-01

    To descriptively assess medical students' concerns for their mental and emotional state, perceived need to conceal mental problems, perceived level of support at university, knowledge and use of student support services, and experience of stresses of daily life. From March to September 2011, medical students at an Australian university were invited to complete an anonymous online survey. 475 responses were received. Students rated study and examinations (48.9%), financial concerns (38.1%), isolation (19.4%) and relationship concerns (19.2%) as very or extremely stressful issues. Knowledge of available support services was high, with 90.8% indicating they were aware of the university's medical centre. Treatment rates were modest (31.7%). Students' concerns about their mental state were generally low, but one in five strongly felt they needed to conceal their emotional problems. Despite widespread awareness of appropriate support services, a large proportion of students felt they needed to conceal mental and emotional problems. Overall treatment rates for students who were greatly concerned about their mental and emotional state appeared modest, and, although comparable with those of similarly aged community populations, may reflect undertreatment. It would be appropriate for universities to address stressors identified by students. Strategies for encouraging distressed students to obtain appropriate assessment and treatment should also be explored. Those students who do seek healthcare are most likely to see a primary care physician, suggesting an important screening role for these health professionals.

  17. Nutritional status of Indigofera zollingeriana forage at different level draught stress and cutting interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Herdiawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The low rainfall and high temperature greatly affect the decline in production and quality of forage in general. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with two factors and four replications. The first factor consisted of 3 level of drought stress namely: 100% field capacity (FC (control, 50% FC, and 25% FC. The second factor comprised of 3 defoliation interval i.e. interval defoliations of 60, 90 and 120 days. The observed variables were nutrient content (crude protein (CP, crude fibre (CF, Gross energy, lignin, selulose, neutral/acid detergent fibre (NDF/ADF, in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibility (IVMD/IVOMD, Ash, Ca and P and anti-nutrient content (Tannin and Saponin. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and the differences between treatments were tested by LSD. The results shows that there were interactions (P<0.05 between drought stress and defoliations interval on CP, CF, energy, cellulose, lignine, NDF/ADF, IVMD and IVOMD, but not to ash, Ca, P, saponin and tannin content. Drought treatment significantly (P<0.05 decreased CP, energy, IVMD and IVOMD, but CF, lignin, cellulose, ND/ADF, IVDMD/IVOMD, saponin and tannin increases. Defoliation interval significantly (P<0.05 decreases on CP, CF, energy, lignin, cellulose, NDF/ADF, and IVDMD/IVOMD, but saponin and tannin content did not affected.

  18. The effects of nongenetic memory on population level sensitivity to stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rhys; Nevozhay, Dmitry; van Itallie, Elizabeth; Bennett, Matthew; Balazsi, Gabor

    2011-03-01

    While gene expression is often thought of as a unidirectional determinant of cellular fitness, recent studies have shown how growth retardation due to protein expression can affect gene expression levels in single cells. We developed two yeast strains carrying a drug resistance protein under the control of different synthetic gene constructs, one of which was monostable, while the other was bistable. The gene expression of these cell populations was tuned using a molecular inducer so that their respective means and noises were identical, while their nongenetic memory properties were different. We tested the sensitivity of these two cell population distributions to the antibiotic zeocin. We found that the gene expression distributions of bistable cell populations were sensitive to stressful environments, while the gene expression distribution of monostable cells were nearly unchanged by stress. We conclude that cell populations with high nongenetic memory are more adaptable to their environment. This work was funded by the National Institutes of Health through the NIH Director's New Innovator Award Program, 1-DP2- OD006481-01.

  19. Student-Life Stress Level and its Related Factors among Medical Students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Nikanjam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Student-life stress can lead to various negative consequences such as physical illness, mental disorders or exhaustion. The present study was conducted to evaluate the level of student life stress and its related factors among medical students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study applied multistage random sampling to select 500university students at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences during 2015. The data collection tool used in this study was a self-report questionnaire containing two parts: a section on subjects' demographic details and another section for Student-Life Stress Inventory (SLSI. Data were analyzed in SPSS20-using descriptive and inferential statistics, such as independent t-test, Pearson’s correlation test and one-way ANOVA. Results: This study revealed that %57of the students had moderate levels of stress. The most important stressors included self-impose and pressure, and also the most important reactions to stressors included cognitive appraisal and emotional reactions, respectively. There was a significant association between exam stressors and branch, educational level, and mother's and father's education level (P< 0.05. Conclusions: According to the high level of stress in students and the recognition of demographic factors, effective educational interventions can be conducted to reduce stress.

  20. Exploratory Study on the Impact of Information on Performance Psychology on Stress and Anxiety Levels of Brazilian Music Performers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ray

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of information on psychology of music on Stress and Anxiety Levels of Brazilian students of music performance, both undergraduate and graduate, and cross information on their levels of stress and anxiety. It includes an investigation on curricular programs of Brazilian public universities based on previous investigation by the authors (RAY; et al, 2011. The main goals: 1 to investigate how much information Brazilian music performance students has access to access during their courses; and 2 to identify potential indicators of the impact this information may have on the levels of stress and anxiety in the performances of these students; Methodology:  Students from six Brazilian public universities were requested to fill out three forms: the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI; the Inventory of Stress Symptoms LIPP and an additional form that investigated the participants routine for preparation to performance. Results: information on music performance psychology is only presented privately at teacher’s discretion. As compulsory classes have not been included in the curriculum, it was not possible to infer results on this subject. More than half of the participants (51,72% don’t present stress condition. Almost half of them (48,27% have some level of stress. All participants fit within some level of anxiety.

  1. Brief strategic therapy in first myocardial infarction patients with increased levels of stress: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowska, Jadwiga Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of interventions targeting chronic stress levels on clinical outcomes among myocardial infarction (MI) patients with increased levels of stress. To examine the impact of the addition of brief strategic therapy (BST) to usual care (UC) on clinical outcomes in first MI patients with increased levels of stress. Eighty-one patients were randomly assigned to BST in conjunction with UC (medical treatment, risk factor information, and guidance on unhealthy behavior change) or to UC. The outcome measures were scores on the Perceived Stress Scale, reinfarction and cardiac mortality rates, and scores on the Health Survey. Measures were taken before, post-treatment, and at two follow-ups. Patients subjected to BST showed reduced perceived stress at post-treatment and maintained decreased levels at follow-ups. At 1-year follow-up, they had a lower rate of non-fatal reinfarction, and at 2.5-year follow-up, they had a lower rate of fatal reinfarction. Their mental and physical health was improved at post-treatment and this was sustained at follow-ups. The addition of BST to UC favorably influences the disease course after MI in patients with increased levels of stress.

  2. Obesity and chronic stress are able to desynchronize the temporal pattern of serum levels of leptin and triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Carla; Scarabelot, Vanessa Leal; de Souza, Andressa; de Oliveira, Cleverson Moraes; Medeiros, Liciane Fernandes; de Macedo, Isabel Cristina; Marques Filho, Paulo Ricardo; Cioato, Stefania Giotti; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci L S

    2014-01-01

    Disruption of the circadian system can lead to metabolic dysfunction as a response to environmental alterations. This study assessed the effects of the association between obesity and chronic stress on the temporal pattern of serum levels of adipogenic markers and corticosterone in rats. We evaluated weekly weight, delta weight, Lee index, and weight fractions of adipose tissue (mesenteric, MAT; subcutaneous, SAT; and pericardial, PAT) to control for hypercaloric diet-induced obesity model efficacy. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: standard chow (C), hypercaloric diet (HD), stress plus standard chow (S), and stress plus hypercaloric diet (SHD), and analyzed at three time points: ZT0, ZT12, and ZT18. Stressed animals were subjected to chronic stress for 1h per day, 5 days per week, during 80 days. The chronic exposure to a hypercaloric diet was an effective model for the induction of obesity and metabolic syndrome, increasing delta weight, Lee index, weight fractions of adipose tissue, and triglycerides and leptin levels. We confirmed the presence of a temporal pattern in the release of triglycerides, corticosterone, leptin, and adiponectin in naïve animals. Chronic stress reduced delta weight, MAT weight, and levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and leptin. There were interactions between chronic stress and obesity and serum total cholesterol levels, between time points and obesity and adiponectin and corticosterone levels, and between time points and chronic stress and serum leptin levels. In conclusion, both parameters were able to desynchronize the temporal pattern of leptin and triglyceride release, which could contribute to the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic family stress moderates the association between a TOMM40 variant and triglyceride levels in two independent Caucasian samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rong; Brummett, Beverly H; Hauser, Elizabeth R; Babyak, Michael A; Siegler, Ilene C; Singh, Abanish; Astrup, Arne; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holst, Claus; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Williams, Redford B

    2013-04-01

    TOMM40 SNP rs157580 has been associated with triglyceride levels in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Chronic caregiving stress moderates the association between triglyceride levels and a nearby SNP rs439401 that is associated with triglyceride levels in GWAS. Here, we report data from two independent Caucasian samples (242 U.S. women and men; 466 Danish men) testing the hypothesis that chronic family stress also moderates the association between rs157580 and triglyceride levels. The interaction of rs157580 and family stress in predicting triglyceride levels was statistically significant in the U.S. sample (p=0.004) and marginally significant (p=0.075) in the Danish sample. The G allele of rs157580 was associated with increased triglyceride levels among family stressed cases in both samples compared with A/A cases, but not among controls. Chronic family stress moderates the association of rs157580 variants with triglyceride levels and should be taken into account for disease risk assessment and potential intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cardiac damage associated with stress hyperglycaemia and acute coronary syndrome changes according to level of presenting blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jumaily, Talib; Rose'Meyer, Roselyn B; Sweeny, Amy; Jayasinghe, Rohan

    2015-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of stress hyperglycaemia in people presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and the relationships between admission glucose and cardiac damage, cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. In a prospective observational study people presenting with ACS at the Gold Coast Hospital had their admission glucose (AG) level tested to determine stress hyperglycaemia. A range of measurements supplemented this data including troponin levels, category of ACS and major adverse coronary events (MACEs) were obtained through hospital records and patient follow-up post-discharge. One hundred eighty-eight participants were recruited. The prevalence of stress hyperglycaemia in ACS was 44% with 31% having a previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and 7.7% had undiagnosed diabetes. The stress hyperglycaemic group had a significantly higher median troponin levels compared to participants with normal blood glucose levels on admission (pglucose group (>15 mmol/L) had troponin levels similar to people presenting with normal blood glucose levels and ACS (p>0.05). Cardiac necrosis as measured by troponin levels is significantly increased in people with ACS and stress hyperglycaemia. This study found that one in four participants presenting with ACS and an admission glucose of >7.0 had no previous diagnosis for diabetes. Consistently ordering HbA1C testing on patients with high AG can enable earlier diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Effect of load eccentricity and stress level on monopile support for offshore wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkvort, Rasmus Tofte; Hededal, Ole

    2014-01-01

    on which load is applied with a large eccentricity. With centrifuge tests as the basis, this paper investigates the behaviour of a rigid pile loaded with a high eccentricity. A test series was carried out to simulate idealized monotonic load cases for monopiles supporting an offshore wind turbine....... Centrifuge tests were performed on model monopiles subjected to stress distributions equal to prototype monopiles with pile diameters ranging from 1–5 m and eccentricities ranging from 8.25–17.75 pile diameters. It was possible to identify a unified response of all of these tests by using dimensional...... analysis and Rankine’s passive earth pressure coefficient as a normalization parameter. The normalized ultimate soil resistance was unaffected by acceleration level and load eccentricity, indicating that the failure mechanism was the same for all tests. Based on the centrifuge tests, a reformulation...

  6. Plasma oxidative stress and total thiol levels in Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag-Oncel, Eda; Erel, Ozcan; Ozsurekci, Yasemin; Caglayik, Dilek Yagci; Kaya, Ali; Gozel, Mustafa Gokhan; Icagasioglu, Fusun Dilara; Engin, Aynur; Korukluoglu, Gulay; Uyar, Yavuz; Elaldi, Nazif; Ceyhan, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the pro- and antioxidant status of patients with a pathogenesis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in terms of their role in its pathogenesis. During the study period, 34 children and 41 adults were diagnosed with CCHF. The control group consisted of healthy age- and gender-matched children and adults. Serum levels of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and plasma total thiol (TTL) were evaluated and compared between groups. The difference in mean TAC values between CCHF patients and healthy controls was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Mean TOS, OSI, and TTL values were significantly lower in CCHF patients than in healthy controls (P 0.05). Our results suggest that TTL may play a more important role in CCHF pathogenesis than the other parameters investigated. The mean TOS and OSI values were higher in the control group than in CCHF patients.

  7. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2011-01-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

  8. Assessment of the changes in the stress-related salivary cortisol levels to the various dental procedures in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila J Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fear and pain are the factors producing stress and there is evidence that dental fear acquired in childhood may persist to influence adult behavior. Dental treatment is often considered as anxiety producing and stressful. Aim: To assess the levels of stress displayed by the healthy children undergoing routine dental procedures like oral examination, restoration, and extraction by analyzing salivary levels of cortisol before, during, and after the procedures. Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy children aged between 4 and 8 years having their first dental visit and requiring at least one restoration and one extraction were selected. In each patient, three procedures were carried out: (i Routine dental examination, (ii restoration, and (iii extraction. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected 10 min before, during the procedure, and 30 min after each procedure at three different visits for comparison of cortisol production in response to anxiety and stress over time. Total 180 samples were collected to determine salivary cortisol levels using UBI-MAGIWEL TM kit and the readings were noted. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software with paired t-test, two independent sample t-tests, and analysis of variance (ANOVA were used to analyze the findings. Results: A correlation between salivary cortisol and stress in dental procedure was noticed. Cavity preparation is more stressful procedure in children, so alternative methods can be used in anxious children. Stress associated with extraction persists to a postoperative period. No correlation exists in between Corah′s anxiety scale and salivary cortisol.

  9. The association between high levels of cumulative life stress and aberrant resting state EEG dynamics in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Amanda C; Cooper, Nicholas R

    2017-07-01

    Cumulative experienced stress produces shortcomings in old adults' cognitive performance. These are reflected in electrophysiological changes tied to task execution. This study explored whether stress-related aberrations in older adults' electroencephalographic (EEG) activity were also apparent in the system at rest. To this effect, the amount of stressful life events experienced by 60 young and 60 elderly participants were assessed in conjunction with resting state power changes in the delta, theta, alpha, and beta frequencies during a resting EEG recording. Findings revealed elevated levels of delta power among elderly individuals reporting high levels of cumulative life stress. These differed significantly from young high and low stress individuals and old adults with low levels of stress. Increases of delta activity have been linked to the emergence of conditions such as Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment. Thus, a potential interpretation of our findings associates large amounts of cumulative stress with an increased risk of developing age-related cognitive pathologies in later life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of implantoplasty on stress distribution of exposed implants at different bone insertion levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Mendes TRIBST

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the effect of implantoplasty on different bone insertion levels of exposed implants. A model of the Bone Level Tapered implant (Straumann Institute, Waldenburg, Switzerland was created through the Rhinoceros software (version 5.0 SR8, McNeel North America, Seattle, WA, USA. The abutment was fixed to the implant through a retention screw and a monolithic crown was modeled over a cementation line. Six models were created with increasing portions of the implant threads exposed: C1 (1 mm, C2 (2 mm, C3 (3 mm, C4 (4 mm, C5 (5 mm and C6 (6 mm. The models were made in duplicates and one of each pair was used to simulate implantoplasty, by removing the threads (I1, I2, I3, I4, I5 and I6. The final geometry was exported in STEP format to ANSYS (ANSYS 15.0, ANSYS Inc., Houston, USA and all materials were considered homogeneous, isotropic and linearly elastic. To assess distribution of stress forces, an axial load (300 N was applied on the cusp. For the periodontal insert, the strains increased in the peri-implant region according to the size of the exposed portion and independent of the threads’ presence. The difference between groups with and without implantoplasty was less than 10%. Critical values were found when the inserted portion was smaller than the exposed portion. In the exposed implants, the stress generated on the implant and retention screw was higher in the models that received implantoplasty. For the bone tissue, exposure of the implant’s thread was a damaging factor, independent of implantoplasty. Implantoplasty treatment can be safely used to control peri-implantitis if at least half of the implant is still inserted in bone.

  11. Selective and context-dependent effects of chemical stress across trophic levels at the basis of marine food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensens, Christoph; De Laender, Frederik; Janssen, Colin R; Rivera, Frances Camille; Sabbe, Koen; De Troch, Marleen

    2018-04-26

    Human activities increasingly impact the functioning of marine food webs, but anthropogenic stressors are seldom included in ecological study designs. Diet quality, as distinct from just diet quantity, has moreover rarely been highlighted in food web studies in a stress context. We measured the effects of metal and pesticide stress (copper and atrazine) on the contribution of a benthic intertidal diatom community to two processes that are key to the functioning of intertidal systems: biomass (diet quantity) and lipid (diet quality) production. We then examined if stressors affected diatom functioning by selectively targeting the species contributing most to functioning (selective stress effects) or by changing the species' functional contribution (context-dependent effects). Finally, we tested if stress-induced changes in diet quality altered the energy flow to the diatoms' main grazers (harpacticoid copepods). Diatom diet quantity was reduced by metal stress but not by low pesticide levels due to the presence of an atrazine-tolerant, mixotrophic species. Selective effects of the pesticide reduced diatom diet quality by 60% and 75% at low and high pesticide levels respectively, by shifting diatom community structure from dominance by lipid-rich species toward dominance by an atrazine-tolerant, but lipid-poor, species. Context-dependent effects did not affect individual diatom lipid content at low levels of both stressors, but caused diatoms to lose 40% of their lipids at high copper stress. Stress-induced changes in diet quality predicted the energy flow from the diatoms to their copepod consumers, which lost half of their lipids when feeding on diatoms grown under low and high pesticide and high metal stress. Selective pesticide effects were a more important threat for trophic energy transfer than context-dependent effects of both stressors, with shifts in diatom community structure affecting the energy flow to their copepod grazers at stress levels where no

  12. Stress leads to contrasting effects on the levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus and amygdala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini Lakshminarasimhan

    Full Text Available Recent findings on stress induced structural plasticity in rodents have identified important differences between the hippocampus and amygdala. The same chronic immobilization stress (CIS, 2 h/day causes growth of dendrites and spines in the basolateral amygdala (BLA, but dendritic atrophy in hippocampal area CA3. CIS induced morphological changes also differ in their temporal longevity--BLA hypertrophy, unlike CA3 atrophy, persists even after 21 days of stress-free recovery. Furthermore, a single session of acute immobilization stress (AIS, 2 h leads to a significant increase in spine density 10 days, but not 1 day, later in the BLA. However, little is known about the molecular correlates of the differential effects of chronic and acute stress. Because BDNF is known to be a key regulator of dendritic architecture and spines, we investigated if the levels of BDNF expression reflect the divergent effects of stress on the hippocampus and amygdala. CIS reduces BDNF in area CA3, while it increases it in the BLA of male Wistar rats. CIS-induced increase in BDNF expression lasts for at least 21 days after the end of CIS in the BLA. But CIS-induced decrease in area CA3 BDNF levels, reverses to normal levels within the same period. Finally, BDNF is up regulated in the BLA 1 day after AIS and this increase persists even 10 days later. In contrast, AIS fails to elicit any significant change in area CA3 at either time points. Together, these findings demonstrate that both acute and chronic stress trigger opposite effects on BDNF levels in the BLA versus area CA3, and these divergent changes also follow distinct temporal profiles. These results point to a role for BDNF in stress-induced structural plasticity across both hippocampus and amygdala, two brain areas that have also been implicated in the cognitive and affective symptoms of stress-related psychiatric disorders.

  13. Do levels of perceived stress increase with increasing age after age 65? A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanovic-Thunström, Almira; Mossello, Enrico; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Fratiglioni, Laura; Wang, Hui-Xin

    2015-09-01

    psychological and health-related stressors often occur in advanced ages, but little is known about perceived stress in adults aged 65 and over. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that levels of perceived stress increase with increasing age and to detect factors that may account for the association. a dementia-free cohort of 1,656 adults aged 66-97 years living at home or in institutions, participating in the Swedish National Aging and Care study, Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) was assessed for levels of perceived stress using the 10-item perceived stress scale (PSS). prevalence of high stress according to the top tertile of the population (PSS score 20+) was 7.8% in adults aged 81+ years, 7.5% in adults aged 72-78 and 6.2% in adults aged 66 years (P = 0.020). More women than men reported high stress, 8.3 versus 5.4% (P = 0.001). Levels of stress increased with increasing age (P = 0.001) in the linear regression model. This association remained after adjustment for demographic and psychosocial factors, but no longer was present after adjusting for health-related factors. health-related stress is highly prevalent in older adults and seems to play an important role in the association between levels of perceived stress and age in older adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Repeated homotypic stress elevates 2-arachidonoylglycerol levels and enhances short-term endocannabinoid signaling at inhibitory synapses in basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sachin; Kingsley, Philip J; Mackie, Ken; Marnett, Lawrence J; Winder, Danny G

    2009-12-01

    Psychosocial stress is a risk factor for development and exacerbation of neuropsychiatric illness. Repeated stress causes biochemical adaptations in endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling that contribute to stress-response habituation, however, the synaptic correlates of these adaptations have not been examined. Here, we show that the synthetic enzyme for the eCB 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), diacylglycerol (DAG) lipase alpha, is heterogeneously expressed in the amygdala, and that levels of 2-AG and precursor DAGs are increased in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) after 10 days, but not 1 day, of restraint stress. In contrast, arachidonic acid was decreased after both 1 and 10 days of restraint stress. To examine the synaptic correlates of these alterations in 2-AG metabolism, we used whole-cell electrophysiology to determine the effects of restraint stress on depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI) in the BLA. A single restraint stress exposure did not alter DSI compared with control mice. However, after 10 days of restraint stress, DSI duration, but not magnitude, was significantly prolonged. Inhibition of 2-AG degradation with MAFP also prolonged DSI duration; the effects of repeated restraint stress and MAFP were mutually occlusive. These data indicate that exposure to repeated, but not acute, stress produces neuroadaptations that confer BLA neurons with an enhanced capacity to elevate 2-AG content and engage in 2-AG-mediated short-term retrograde synaptic signaling. We suggest stress-induced enhancement of eCB-mediated suppression of inhibitory transmission in the BLA could contribute to affective dysregulation associated with chronic stress.

  15. Gingival crevicular fluid and plasma oxidative stress markers and TGM-2 levels in chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerik, Sema; Öztürk, Veli Özgen; Celec, Peter; Kamodyova, Natalia; Atilla, Gül; Emingil, Gülnur

    2017-11-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and plasma transglutaminase-2 (TGM-2), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in patients with chronic periodontal disease. Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis (CP), 20 patients with gingivitis and 20 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Clinical periodontal parameters including probing depth, clinical attachment level, plaque index and papillary bleeding index were recorded. GCF and plasma levels of TGM-2, TAC, TOS, TBARS and FRAP were analyzed. GCF TGM-2 was significantly lower in CP group than in gingivitis patients (P=0.006). GCF FRAP in CP and gingivitis groups was significantly lower than in healthy subjects (P0.05). GCF TGM-2 level was positively correlated with GCF TAC and negatively correlated with CAL. Decreased FRAP in GCF and plasma indicating lower antioxidant status of CP patients might suggest the role of oxidative stress in periodontitis. GCF TGM-2 data might suggest that TGM2 is associated with stabilization of the extracellular matrix and wound healing in periodontium rather than gingival inflammation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Hair cortisol levels, psychological stress and psychopathological symptoms as predictors of postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparros-Gonzalez, Rafael A; Romero-Gonzalez, Borja; Strivens-Vilchez, Helen; Gonzalez-Perez, Raquel; Martinez-Augustin, Olga; Peralta-Ramirez, Maria Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum depression affects a huge number of women and has detrimental consequences. Knowing the factors associated with postpartum depression during pregnancy can help its prevention. Although there is evidence surrounding behavioral or psychological predictors of postpartum depression, there is a lack of evidence of biological forecasters. The aim of this study was to analyze the sociodemographic, obstetric, and psychological variables along with hair cortisol levels during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy that could predict postpartum depression symptoms. A sample of 44 pregnant women was assessed during 3 trimesters of pregnancy and the postpartum period using psychological questionnaires and hair cortisol levels. Participants were divided into 2 groups: a group with postpartum depression symptoms and a group with no postpartum depression symptoms. Results showed significant positive differences between groups in the first trimester regarding the Somatization subscale of the SCL-90-R (p Depression, Anxiety, and GSI subscales (p postpartum depression symptoms. In conclusion, our study provided evidence that psychopathological symptoms, pregnancy-specific stress, and hair cortisol levels can predict postpartum depression symptoms at different time-points during pregnancy. These findings can be applied in future studies and improve maternal care in clinical settings.

  17. Betel Leaf Extract (Piper betle L. Antihyperuricemia Effect Decreases Oxidative Stress by Reducing the Level of MDA and Increase Blood SOD Levels of Hyperuricemia Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Sumarya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Betel leaf extracts (Piper betle L. antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitors of XO. Hyperuricemia cause oxidative stress by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS cause lipid peroxidation and oxygenation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc. Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the betel leaf extract as an anti hyperuricemia that can lower the blood uric acid levels and oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increase the SOD of hyperuricemia of the rat’s blood. Method: Experimental research was conducted with the design of The Randomized Post Test Only Control Group Design, on normal Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus, administered with oxonic potassium (hyperuricemia and the hyperuricemia rats either given betel leaf extract and allopurinol. After the experiment of uric acid levels, MDA and SOD in rat blood determined. Results: The results showed that the betel leaf extract significantly (p <0.05 lower uric acid levels, MDA and increase levels of SOD in rat blood. There is a positive correlation between the levels of uric acid with MDA levels and a negative correlation, although not significantly with SOD (p >0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the betel leaf extract as an anti-hyperuricemia can lower the uric acid levels and decreases oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increasing the SOD.

  18. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  19. Stress !!!

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.

  20. Past and future spatiotemporal changes in evapotranspiration and effective moisture on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yunhe; Wu, Shaohong; Zhao, Dongsheng

    2013-10-01

    evaporative demand has decreased worldwide during the past several decades. This trend is also noted on the Tibetan Plateau, a region that is particularly sensitive to climate change. However, patterns and trends of evapotranspiration and their relationship to drought stress on the Tibetan Plateau are complex and poorly understood. Here, we analyze spatiotemporal changes in evapotranspiration and effective moisture (defined as the ratio of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) to reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo)) based on the modified Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ). Climate data from 80 meteorological stations on the Tibetan Plateau were compiled for the period 1981-2010 and future climate projections were generated by a regional climate model through the 21st century. The results show regional trends towards decreasing ETo and statistically significant increases in ETa (p stress, because of generally increased effective moisture. Future regional differences are most pronounced in terms of effective moisture, which shows notable increases in the northwestern plateau and decreases in the southeastern plateau. Moreover, the reduced magnitude of effective moisture is likely to intensify in the long term, due mainly to increased evaporative demand.

  1. Preliminary analysis on the tectonic stress level in the source region of Tangshan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian-Tao, Zhao; Cui, Xiao-Feng; Xie, Fu-Ren

    2002-05-01

    The abundant data of focal mechanism solutions in Tangshan region, China, are inverted for the tectonic stress field. Combined with tectonophysical consideration, the magnitude of the three principal stresses, as well as their vertical variation under the average crustal rock property, in the source region of the 1976 Tangshan earthquake is estimated. The relationship between crustal stress and friction μ c, pore pressure P 0 and stress shape factor Φ is studied. The paper draws the conclusion that the vertical increasing rate of the maximum principal stress σ is directly proportional to friction, and inversely to pore pressure P 0 and stress shape factor Φ; while the vertical increasing rate of the minimum principal tress σ is directly proportional to pore pressure P 0, inversely to friction μ c and stress shape factor Φ. This study is a try to invert the data of focal mechanism solutions for the complete stress tensor.

  2. HPC in Basin Modeling: Simulating Mechanical Compaction through Vertical Effective Stress using Level Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, S.; Kollet, S. J.; Buerger, C. M.; Schwede, R. L.; Podlaha, O. G.

    2017-12-01

    In the context of sedimentary basins, we present a model for the simulation of the movement of ageological formation (layers) during the evolution of the basin through sedimentation and compactionprocesses. Assuming a single phase saturated porous medium for the sedimentary layers, the modelfocuses on the tracking of the layer interfaces, through the use of the level set method, as sedimentationdrives fluid-flow and reduction of pore space by compaction. On the assumption of Terzaghi's effectivestress concept, the coupling of the pore fluid pressure to the motion of interfaces in 1-D is presented inMcGovern, et.al (2017) [1] .The current work extends the spatial domain to 3-D, though we maintain the assumption ofvertical effective stress to drive the compaction. The idealized geological evolution is conceptualized asthe motion of interfaces between rock layers, whose paths are determined by the magnitude of a speedfunction in the direction normal to the evolving layer interface. The speeds normal to the interface aredependent on the change in porosity, determined through an effective stress-based compaction law,such as the exponential Athy's law. Provided with the speeds normal to the interface, the level setmethod uses an advection equation to evolve a potential function, whose zero level set defines theinterface. Thus, the moving layer geometry influences the pore pressure distribution which couplesback to the interface speeds. The flexible construction of the speed function allows extension, in thefuture, to other terms to represent different physical processes, analogous to how the compaction rulerepresents material deformation.The 3-D model is implemented using the generic finite element method framework Deal II,which provides tools, building on p4est and interfacing to PETSc, for the massively parallel distributedsolution to the model equations [2]. Experiments are being run on the Juelich Supercomputing Center'sJureca cluster. [1] McGovern, et.al. (2017

  3. Radiation and Heat Stress Impact on Plasma Levels of Thyroid Hormones, Lipid Fractions, Glucose and Liver Glycogen in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, K.I.; Abou-Safi, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Since Egypt is classified as a hot country, the present work has been directed to study the combined effect of heat stress and gamma radiation exposure on blood thyroid hormonal levels and some other parameters. Four groups of rats were served as: control, whole-body gamma irradiated (6Gy), exposed to ambient heat stress (38 C-40 C) and a group exposed to heat stress and irradiation. Four time intervals 1, 3, 5 and 7 days were determined for heat stress or exposure to heat followed by irradiation. Blood samples and liver specimens were taken at the end of each time interval in the third group and after one hour of irradiation in the second and fourth groups. To detect the radiation effects after the different periods of heat stress, plasma levels of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4), lipid fractions (triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol), glucose and liver glycogen content were determined. The results revealed that exposure to heat and ionizing radiation leads to a decrease in the levels of thyroid hormones, which was mostly pronounced in the T3 levels. Plasma glucose levels showed significant elevations in both, the heat-stressed group and the heat-treated then irradiated group. While, liver glycogen content exhibited similar elevations only during the 1st, 3 rd and 5 th days of heating followed by irradiation treatment as compared to the heat stressed group. Yet, it showed significant declines in comparison with both control and irradiated groups. Enormous increments in all determined plasma lipid fractions were induced by heat stress and / or gamma radiation

  4. Immunoreactive cortisone in droppings reflect stress levels, diet and growth rate of gull-billed tern chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Noelia; Santiago-Quesada, Francisco; Masero, José A; Sánchez-Guzmán, Juan M; Möstl, Erich

    2015-03-01

    Blood levels of corticosterone have been traditionally analyzed to assess stress levels in birds; however, measuring steroid hormone metabolites in feces and droppings has gained much interest as a noninvasive technique successfully used for such purposed in vertebrates. Diet may affect these fecal metabolite levels (e.g., due to nutritional stress), however, this variable has not been taken into account in studies with chicks despite the great dietary flexibility of many avian species. In this study, we addressed for the first time this key issue and validated the technique in wild gull-billed tern chicks (Gelochelidon nilotica). Several enzyme immunoassays were used to determine the most appropriate test to measure the stress response. Subsequently, we performed an experiment in captivity to assess adrenocortical activity in gull-billed tern chicks fed with two diets: piscivorous vs. insectivorous. Finally, the relation between the chicks' growth rate and excreted immunoreactive glucocorticoid metabolites (EGMs) was also evaluated. We found the immunoreactive cortisone metabolites to be a good index of stress (as being an index of adrenocortical reactivity) in chicks of this species. Fish-fed chicks had higher levels of cortisone metabolites when comparing both concentration and total daily excreted metabolites. Within each treatment diet, cortisone metabolite levels and growth rates were negatively correlated. These findings suggest that the diet should be considered when using this technique for comparative purposes and highlight the trade-off between stress levels and chicks growth rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. What characterizes persons with high levels of perceived stress in Denmark? A national representative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Curtis, Tine; Kristensen, Tage S

    2008-01-01

    perceived stress is characterized by individual and neighbourhood factors with negative impacts on quality of life and risk of illness. This knowledge can guide future stress prevention efforts. Additionally, the results suggest a negative social component where perceived stress, unhealthy lifestyle and low...

  6. Salivary Oxytocin and Vasopressin Levels in Police Officers With and Without Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijling, J. L.; van Zuiden, M.; Nawijn, L.; Koch, S. B. J.; Neumann, I. D.; Veltman, D. J.; Olff, M.

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterised by symptoms associated with maladaptive fear and stress responses, as well as with social detachment. The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) have been associated with both regulating fear and neuroendocrine stress

  7. [THE POSSIBILITY OF APPLICATION OF COLORIMETRY TECHNIQUE OF DETECTION OF LEVELS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF SERUM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapojnikova, M A; Strakhova, L A; Blinova, T V; Makarov, I A; Rakhmanov, R S; Umniagina, I A

    2015-11-01

    The analysis was implemented concerning indicators of oxidative status and antioxidant capacity of serum. The indicators were received by colorimetry technique based on detection of peroxides in blood serum in examined patients of different categories: healthy persons aged from 17 to 20 years and from 30 to 60 years and patients with bronchopulmonary pathology. The low level of oxidative stress and high antioxidant capacity of serum were established in individuals ofyounger age. With increasing of age, degree of expression of oxidative stress augmented and level of antioxidant defense lowered. Almost all patients with bronchopulmonary pathology had high level of oxidative stress and low level of antioxidant defense. The analysis of quantitative data of examined indicators their conformity with health condition was established

  8. Analysis on Overcoming Level of Stress of Athletes Joined in Adults Taekwondo National Team Eliminations in Terms of Gender Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ACET

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study is to determine level of coping with stress of athletes joined in Adults Taekwondo National Team eliminations. Sample group of the research was consisted of elite 56 female, and 118 male athletes joined in the eliminations in Alanya, Antalya. Average age of females was 20, 48, males 'was 21.00. A - five - point coping with Stress S cale of Likert type developed by A.Sibel Türküm (1999 was used to identify the level of the athletes’ stress. No outstanding differences were found between the genders (p=0,987. However, in terms of the factor to cope with stress, meaningful difference w as found between groups (p=0,031. Taking into consideration this fact, mean of females was found pretty higher than the males

  9. Effects of Temperament, Symptom Severity and Level of Functioning on Maternal Stress in Greek Children and Youth with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantareas, M. Mary; Papageorgiou, Vaya

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of child temperament, symptom severity, verbal ability and level of functioning on maternal stress in 43 Greek mothers of children and young people with autism spectrum disorder. Symptom severity was assessed by the CARS, level of functioning by the PEP, temperament by the Dimensions of Temperament Scale (DOTS-R) and…

  10. The Influence of Social Support on the Levels of Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Students in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugbey, Nuworza; Osei-Boadi, Samuel; Atefoe, Ethel Akpene

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of social support from family, friends and significant others on the levels depression, anxiety and stress among undergraduate students of University of Ghana. A total of one hundred and sixty-five (165) students were sampled from all the levels and were administered with standardized questionnaires measuring social…

  11. Comparative proteomics analyses of Kobresia pygmaea adaptation to environment along an elevational gradient on the central Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    Full Text Available Variations in elevation limit the growth and distribution of alpine plants because multiple environmental stresses impact plant growth, including sharp temperature shifts, strong ultraviolet radiation exposure, low oxygen content, etc. Alpine plants have developed special strategies to help survive the harsh environments of high mountains, but the internal mechanisms remain undefined. Kobresia pygmaea, the dominant species of alpine meadows, is widely distributed in the Southeastern Tibet Plateau, Tibet Autonomous Region, China. In this study, we mainly used comparative proteomics analyses to investigate the dynamic protein patterns for K. pygmaea located at four different elevations (4600, 4800, 4950 and 5100 m. A total of 58 differentially expressed proteins were successfully detected and functionally characterized. The proteins were divided into various functional categories, including material and energy metabolism, protein synthesis and degradation, redox process, defense response, photosynthesis, and protein kinase. Our study confirmed that increasing levels of antioxidant and heat shock proteins and the accumulation of primary metabolites, such as proline and abscisic acid, conferred K. pygmaea with tolerance to the alpine environment. In addition, the various methods K. pygmaea used to regulate material and energy metabolism played important roles in the development of tolerance to environmental stress. Our results also showed that the way in which K. pygmaea mediated stomatal characteristics and photosynthetic pigments constitutes an enhanced adaptation to alpine environmental stress. According to these findings, we concluded that K. pygmaea adapted to the high-elevation environment on the Tibetan Plateau by aggressively accumulating abiotic stress-related metabolites and proteins and by the various life events mediated by proteins. Based on the species'lexible physiological and biochemical processes, we surmised that environment change

  12. Comparative Proteomics Analyses of Kobresia pygmaea Adaptation to Environment along an Elevational Gradient on the Central Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiong; Yang, Yunqiang; Ma, Lan; Sun, Xudong; Yang, Shihai; Kong, Xiangxiang; Hu, Xiangyang; Yang, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Variations in elevation limit the growth and distribution of alpine plants because multiple environmental stresses impact plant growth, including sharp temperature shifts, strong ultraviolet radiation exposure, low oxygen content, etc. Alpine plants have developed special strategies to help survive the harsh environments of high mountains, but the internal mechanisms remain undefined. Kobresia pygmaea, the dominant species of alpine meadows, is widely distributed in the Southeastern Tibet Plateau, Tibet Autonomous Region, China. In this study, we mainly used comparative proteomics analyses to investigate the dynamic protein patterns for K. pygmaea located at four different elevations (4600, 4800, 4950 and 5100 m). A total of 58 differentially expressed proteins were successfully detected and functionally characterized. The proteins were divided into various functional categories, including material and energy metabolism, protein synthesis and degradation, redox process, defense response, photosynthesis, and protein kinase. Our study confirmed that increasing levels of antioxidant and heat shock proteins and the accumulation of primary metabolites, such as proline and abscisic acid, conferred K. pygmaea with tolerance to the alpine environment. In addition, the various methods K. pygmaea used to regulate material and energy metabolism played important roles in the development of tolerance to environmental stress. Our results also showed that the way in which K. pygmaea mediated stomatal characteristics and photosynthetic pigments constitutes an enhanced adaptation to alpine environmental stress. According to these findings, we concluded that K. pygmaea adapted to the high-elevation environment on the Tibetan Plateau by aggressively accumulating abiotic stress-related metabolites and proteins and by the various life events mediated by proteins. Based on the species'lexible physiological and biochemical processes, we surmised that environment change has only a slight

  13. {sup 125}I-iomazenil - benzodiazepine receptor binding and serum corticosterone level during psychological stress in a rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi E-mail: GZL13162@nifty.ne.jp; Ogi, Shigeyuki; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Mori, Yutaka

    2004-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that benzodiazepine receptor density decreases in response to stress, we correlated {sup 125}I-iomazenil ({sup 125}I-IMZ) binding with serum corticosterone levels in a rat model. Wistar male rats were divided into four groups; control group (CON, 10 rats), no physical or psychological stress; and one-, three-, and five-day stress groups of 12 rats each (1-DAY, 3-DAY, and 5-DAY, respectively), receiving psychological stress for the given number of days. Psychological stress were given to rats with a communication box. The standardized uptake value (SUV) of {sup 125}I-iomazenil of the 3-DAY and 5-DAY showed that {sup 125}I-iomazenil - benzodiazepine receptor binding was significantly reduced in the cortices, accumbens nuclei, amygdala and caudate putamen (p<0.05). Serum corticosterone level ratio appeared to be slightly elevated in 3-DAY and 5-DAY, although this elevation was not significant. These data suggest that {sup 125}I-IMZ is a useful radioligand to reflect received stress and its binding in the cortices, accumbens nuclei, amygdala and caudate putamen is strongly affected by psychological stress.

  14. Scrutinizing EFL teachers' job satisfaction and stress at work: The intervening roles of gender, teaching experience, and educational level

    OpenAIRE

    Fahimeh Kamali Cheshmeh Jalal; Afsaneh Ghanizadeh; Omid Akbari

    2017-01-01

    The present study sought to explore the relationship between English as a foreign language (EFL) EFL teachers' stress at work and their job satisfaction. Moreover, it explored the role of EFL teachers' gender, length of teaching experience, and educational level in their job satisfaction and stress at work. For this purpose, 134 EFL teachers were chosen from different private language institutes in Mashhad, a city in northeast of Iran. They were asked to complete two questionnaires: Job Descr...

  15. Serum Levels of Oxidative Stress Markers in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casoinic F.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Oxidative stress is one of the key mechanisms responsible for disease progression in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of oxidative stress markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2 and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and test their relationships with clinical and biochemical patient characteristics, compared to patients with DMT2 without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and controls.

  16. Student-Life Stress Level and its Related Factors among Medical Students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences in 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Roya Nikanjam; Majid Barati; Saeed Bashirian*; Mohammad Babamiri; Ali Fattahi; Alireza Soltanian

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Student-life stress can lead to various negative consequences such as physical illness, mental disorders or exhaustion. The present study was conducted to evaluate the level of student life stress and its related factors among medical students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study applied multistage random sampling to select 500university students at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences during 2015. The dat...

  17. Explicit control of adaptive automation under different levels of environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Jürgen; Kao, Chung-Shan; Wastell, David; Nickel, Peter

    2011-08-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of three different forms of explicit control of adaptive automation under low- and high-stress conditions, operationalised by different levels of noise. In total, 60 participants were assigned to one of three types of automation design (free, prompted and forced choice). They were trained for 4 h on a highly automated simulation of a process control environment, called AutoCAMS. This was followed by a 4-h testing session under noise exposure and quiet conditions. Measures of performance, psychophysiology and subjective reactions were taken. The results showed that all three modes of explicit control of adaptive automation modes were able to attenuate the negative effects of noise. This was partly due to the fact that operators opted for higher levels of automation under noise. It also emerged that forced choice showed marginal advantages over the two other automation modes. Statement of Relevance: This work is relevant to the design of adaptive automation since it emphasises the need to consider the impact of work-related stressors during task completion. During the presence of stressors, different forms of operator support through automation may be required than under more favourable working conditions.

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has diminished capacity to counteract redox stress induced by elevated levels of endogenous superoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Priyanka; Dharmaraja, Allimuthu T; Bhaskar, Ashima; Chakrapani, Harinath; Singh, Amit

    2015-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has evolved protective and detoxification mechanisms to maintain cytoplasmic redox balance in response to exogenous oxidative stress encountered inside host phagocytes. In contrast, little is known about the dynamic response of this pathogen to endogenous oxidative stress generated within Mtb. Using a noninvasive and specific biosensor of cytoplasmic redox state of Mtb, we for first time discovered a surprisingly high sensitivity of this pathogen to perturbation in redox homeostasis induced by elevated endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). We synthesized a series of hydroquinone-based small molecule ROS generators and found that ATD-3169 permeated mycobacteria to reliably enhance endogenous ROS including superoxide radicals. When Mtb strains including multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) patient isolates were exposed to this compound, a dose-dependent, long-lasting, and irreversible oxidative shift in intramycobacterial redox potential was detected. Dynamic redox potential measurements revealed that Mtb had diminished capacity to restore cytoplasmic redox balance in comparison with Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm), a fast growing nonpathogenic mycobacterial species. Accordingly, Mtb strains were extremely susceptible to inhibition by ATD-3169 but not Msm, suggesting a functional linkage between dynamic redox changes and survival. Microarray analysis showed major realignment of pathways involved in redox homeostasis, central metabolism, DNA repair, and cell wall lipid biosynthesis in response to ATD-3169, all consistent with enhanced endogenous ROS contributing to lethality induced by this compound. This work provides empirical evidence that the cytoplasmic redox poise of Mtb is uniquely sensitive to manipulation in steady-state endogenous ROS levels, thus revealing the importance of targeting intramycobacterial redox metabolism for controlling TB infection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by

  19. The influence of occupational heat exposure on cognitive performance and blood level of stress hormones: a field study report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlomi, Adel; Golbabaei, Farideh; Farhang Dehghan, Somayeh; Abbasinia, Marzieh; Mahmoud Khani, Somayeh; Ansari, Mohammad; Hosseini, Mostafa

    2017-09-01

    This article aimed to investigate the effect of heat stress on cognitive performance and the blood concentration of stress hormones among workers of a foundry plant. Seventy workers within the exposed (35 people) and unexposed (35 people) groups were studied. The wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index was measured for heat stress assessment. The cognitive performance tests were conducted using the Stroop color word test (SCWT) before and during working hours. For the assessment of the serum level of cortisol and the plasma level of adrenaline and noradrenaline, blood samples were taken during working hours from both groups. Only for SCWT III was there a significant relationship between heat stress and test duration, error rate and reaction time. The laboratory test results revealed significantly higher concentrations of cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline in the exposed subjects than in the unexposed group. There existed a positive correlation between cortisol, adrenaline, noradrenaline and WBGT index and also test duration and reaction time of SCWT III, and number of errors of SCWT I, SCWT II and SCWT III during work. Heat stress can lead to an increase in the blood level of stress hormones, resulting in cognitive performance impairment.

  20. Importance of stress-response genes to the survival of airborne Escherichia coli under different levels of relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tsz Wai; Chan, Wing Lam; Lai, Ka Man

    2017-12-01

    Other than the needs for infection control to investigate the survival and inactivation of airborne bacterial pathogens, there has been a growing interest in exploring bacterial communities in the air and the effect of environmental variables on them. However, the innate biological mechanism influencing the bacterial viability is still unclear. In this study, a mutant-based approach, using Escherichia coli as a model, was used to prove the concept that common stress-response genes are important for airborne survival of bacteria. Mutants with a single gene knockout that are known to respond to general stress (rpoS) and oxidative stress (oxyR, soxR) were selected in the study. Low relative humidity (RH), 30-40% was more detrimental to the bacteria than high RH, >90%. The log reduction of ∆rpoS was always higher than that of the parental strain at all RH levels but the ∆oxyR had a higher log reduction than the parental strain at intermediate RH only. ∆soxR had the same viability compared to the parental strain at all RH levels. The results hint that although different types and levels of stress are produced under different RH conditions, stress-response genes always play a role in the bacterial viability. This study is the first reporting the association between stress-response genes and viability of airborne bacteria.

  1. Changes in Cerebral Partial Oxygen Pressure and Cerebrovascular Reactivity During Intracranial Pressure Plateau Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Erhard W; Kasprowicz, Magdalena; Smielewski, Peter; Pickard, John; Czosnyka, Marek

    2015-08-01

    Plateau waves in intracranial pressure (ICP) are frequently recorded in neuro intensive care and are not yet fully understood. To further investigate this phenomenon, we analyzed partial pressure of cerebral oxygen (pbtO2) and a moving correlation coefficient between ICP and mean arterial blood pressure (ABP), called PRx, along with the cerebral oxygen reactivity index (ORx), which is a moving correlation coefficient between cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and pbtO2 in an observational study. We analyzed 55 plateau waves in 20 patients after severe traumatic brain injury. We calculated ABP, ABP pulse amplitude (ampABP), ICP, CPP, pbtO2, heart rate (HR), ICP pulse amplitude (ampICP), PRx, and ORx, before, during, and after each plateau wave. The analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc test was used to compare the differences in the variables before, during, and after the plateau wave. We considered all plateau waves, even in the same patient, independent because they are separated by long intervals. We found increases for ICP and ampICP according to our operational definitions for plateau waves. PRx increased significantly (p = 0.00026), CPP (p pressure remains stable in ICP plateau waves, while cerebral autoregulatory indices show distinct changes, which indicate cerebrovascular reactivity impairment at the top of the wave. PbtO2 decreases during the waves and may show a slight overshoot after normalization. We assume that this might be due to different latencies of the cerebral blood flow and oxygen level control mechanisms. Other factors may include baseline conditions, such as pre-plateau wave cerebrovascular reactivity or pbtO2 levels, which differ between studies.

  2. Transcriptome analysis reveals a stress response of Shewanella oneidensis deprived of background levels of ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoping; Schilkey, Faye; Smith, Geoffrey B.

    2018-01-01

    Natural ionizing background radiation has exerted a constant pressure on organisms since the first forms of life appeared on Earth, so that cells have developed molecular mechanisms to avoid or repair damages caused directly by radiation or indirectly by radiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we investigated the transcriptional effect of depriving Shewanella oneidensis cultures of background levels of radiation by growing the cells in a mine 655 m underground, thus reducing the dose rate from 72.1 to 0.9 nGy h-1 from control to treatment, respectively. RNASeq transcriptome analysis showed the differential expression of 4.6 and 7.6% of the S. oneidensis genome during early- and late-exponential phases of growth, respectively. The greatest change observed in the treatment was the downregulation of ribosomal proteins (21% of all annotated ribosomal protein genes during early- and 14% during late-exponential) and tRNA genes (14% of all annotated tRNA genes in early-exponential), indicating a marked decrease in protein translation. Other significant changes were the upregulation of membrane transporters, implying an increase in the traffic of substrates across the cell membrane, as well as the up and downregulation of genes related to respiration, which could be interpreted as a response to insufficient oxidants in the cells. In other reports, there is evidence in multiple species that some ROS not just lead to oxidative stress, but act as signaling molecules to control cellular metabolism at the transcriptional level. Consistent with these reports, several genes involved in the metabolism of carbon and biosynthesis of amino acids were also regulated, lending support to the idea of a wide metabolic response. Our results indicate that S. oneidensis is sensitive to the withdrawal of background levels of ionizing radiation and suggest that a transcriptional response is required to maintain homeostasis and retain normal growth. PMID:29768440

  3. Despite higher glucocorticoid levels and stress responses in female rats, both sexes exhibit similar stress-induced changes in hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Henriëtte J; Novati, Arianna; Luiten, Paul G M; den Boer, Johan A; Meerlo, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Sex differences in stress reactivity may be one of the factors underlying the increased sensitivity for the development of psychopathologies in women. Particularly, an increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity in females may exacerbate stress-induced changes in neuronal plasticity and neurogenesis, which in turn may contribute to an increased sensitivity to psychopathology. The main aim of the present study was to examine male-female differences in stress-induced changes in different aspects of hippocampal neurogenesis, i.e. cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Both sexes were exposed to a wide variety of stressors, where after differences in HPA-axis reactivity and neurogenesis were assessed. To study the role of oestradiol in potential sex differences, ovariectomized females received low or high physiological oestradiol level replacement pellets. The results show that females in general have a higher basal and stress-induced HPA-axis activity than males, with minimal differences between the two female groups. Cell proliferation in the dorsal hippocampus was significantly higher in high oestradiol females compared to low oestradiol females and males, while doublecortin (DCX) expression as a marker of cell differentiation was significantly higher in males compared to females, independent of oestradiol level. Stress exposure did not significantly influence cell proliferation or survival of new cells, but did reduce DCX expression. In conclusion, despite the male-female differences in HPA-axis activity, the effect of repeated stress exposure on hippocampal cell differentiation was not significantly different between sexes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Stress !!!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.

  5. Physical modelling of granular flows at multiple-scales and stress levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Take, Andy; Bowman, Elisabeth; Bryant, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    The rheology of dry granular flows is an area of significant focus within the granular physics, geoscience, and geotechnical engineering research communities. Studies performed to better understand granular flows in manufacturing, materials processing or bulk handling applications have typically focused on the behavior of steady, continuous flows. As a result, much of the research on relating the fundamental interaction of particles to the rheological or constitutive behaviour of granular flows has been performed under (usually) steady-state conditions and low stress levels. However, landslides, which are the primary focus of the geoscience and geotechnical engineering communities, are by nature unsteady flows defined by a finite source volume and at flow depths much larger than typically possible in laboratory experiments. The objective of this paper is to report initial findings of experimental studies currently being conducted using a new large-scale landslide flume (8 m long, 2 m wide slope inclined at 30° with a 35 m long horizontal base section) and at elevated particle self-weight in a 10 m diameter geotechnical centrifuge to investigate the granular flow behavior at multiple-scales and stress levels. The transparent sidewalls of the two flumes used in the experimental investigation permit the combination of observations of particle-scale interaction (using high-speed imaging through transparent vertical sidewalls at over 1000 frames per second) with observations of the distal reach of the landslide debris. These observations are used to investigate the applicability of rheological models developed for steady state flows (e.g. the dimensionless inertial number) in landslide applications and the robustness of depth-averaged approaches to modelling dry granular flow at multiple scales. These observations indicate that the dimensionless inertial number calculated for the flow may be of limited utility except perhaps to define a general state (e.g. liquid

  6. Exploring stress levels, job satisfaction, and quality of life in a sample of police officers in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Palatsidi, Vassiliki; Tigani, Xanthi; Darviri, Christina

    2014-12-01

    The ongoing economic crisis in Greece has affected both stress and quality of life (QoL) at all socioeconomic levels, including professionals in the police force. The aim of this study was to examine perceived stress, job satisfaction, QoL, and their relationships in a sample of police officers in Greece. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the first trimester of 2011 in 23 police stations in the greater Athens area. A total of 201 police officers agreed to participate (response rate 44.6%). The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used to assess general health, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF Questionnaire and Perceived Stress Scale-14 (PSS-14) questionnaires were used to assess QoL and perceived stress, respectively. The PSS and GHQ subscales and total scores exhibited strong, positive, and significant correlations coefficients (r): 0.52 for somatic disturbances, 0.56 for stress and insomnia, 0.40 for social dysfunction, and 0.37 for depression, yielding an r equal to 0.57 for the total GHQ score. A higher level of perceived stress was related to a lower likelihood of being satisfied with their job; in this regard, male participants and higher ranked officers reported lower job satisfaction. The PSS and GHQ scores were inversely, consistently, and significantly related to almost all of the QoL aspects, explaining up to 34% of their variability. Parenthood had a positive effect on QoL related to physical health, and women reported lower QoL related to psychological health. Higher levels of stress are related to an increased risk of reporting suboptimal job satisfaction and QoL. The magnitude of these associations varied depending on age, gender, and rank, highlighting the need for stress-management training.

  7. Effect of tauroursodeoxycholic acid on PUFA levels and inflammation in an animal and cell model of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, M; Kıraç, E; Yılmaz, Ö; Ünal, B; Konuk, E K; Özcan, F; Tuzcu, H

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate hepatic polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and inflammatory response in an animal and cell model of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Rats were divided into control, tunicamycin (TM)-treated, and TM + tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA)-treated groups. Hepatic ER stress was induced by TM and the ER stress inhibitor TUDCA was injected 30 min before induction of ER stress. Liver THLE-3 cells were treated with TM and TUDCA was administered in advance to decrease cytotoxic effects. Necroinflammation was evaluated in liver sections, while cell viability was determined using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay kit. ER stress was confirmed by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis of C/EBP-homologous protein and 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein. Arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6), dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (C20:3n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3) in liver tissue and THLE-3 cells were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenase (COX), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured in tissue and cell samples. Hepatic ER stress was accomplished by TM and was alleviated by TUDCA. TM treatment significantly decreased PUFAs in both liver and THLE-3 cells compared to controls. PLA2, COX, and PGE2 levels were significantly increased in TM-treated rats and THLE-3 cells compared to controls. TUDCA leads to a partial restoration of liver PUFA levels and decreased PLA2, COX, and PGE2. This study reports decreased PUFA levels in ER stress and supports the use of omega-3 fatty acids in liver diseases demonstrating ER stress.

  8. Remote wind stress influence on mean sea level in a subtropical coastal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Calim Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the relative influence of remote wind stress on mean sea level (MSL variations in the coastal region of Cananeia (Sao Paulo State, Southern Brazil during the period from 1/1/1955 to 12/31/1993. An optimized low-pass Thompson filter for the study area, and spectral analysis (cross spectrum, coherence and phase lag of the relationship between the MSL and both parallel (T// and perpendicular (T| wind stress components were applied. These were extracted from four grid points of the NCEP/NCAR global model. The predominance of annual oscillations as those of greatest coherence and energy, of periods of approximately 341 days (frequency of 0.00293 cpd and 410 days (frequency of 0.00244 cpd, respectively, were observed. Offshore NCEP/NCAR grid points were those with the highest coherence and energy throughout the study in relation to the observed MSL. This may be linked to the restriction of the NCEP/NCAR model as regards the inland limit. It is also concluded that remote wind stress may play an important role in several MSL time scales, including the annual ones. Based on criteria such as coherence and energy peaks, the wind stress component of greatest effect on MSL was the parallel one.O presente estudo tem por objetivo avaliar a influência relativa de tensão do vento remoto na variação do nível médio do mar (NMM para a região costeira de Cananéia (SP durante o período de 1/1/1955 a 31/12/1993. Foram aplicados um filtro de passa-baixa de Thompson (1983, otimizado para a região de Cananéia, além de análise espectral (espectro cruzado, coerência e defasagem entre o NMM e as componentes paralela (T// e perpendicular (T| da tensão do vento. Estas foram extraídas de quatro pontos de grade do modelo global NCEP/NCAR. Observou-se a predominância das oscilações anuais como aquelas de maior coerência e energia, destacando-se os períodos de aproximadamente 341 dias (frequência de 0,00293 cpd e 410

  9. The Influence of Stress Factors on the Effectiveness of Passing the Assessment by Employees with Different Levels of Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khachaturova M.R.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The skills of non-standard thinking and creativity play an important role in stressful situations. We hypothesized that stress factors influence the effectiveness of passing the assessment by employees: high level of creativity increases the effectiveness of task execution. We conducted the experiment and used J. Guilford’s technique and tasks on creativity thinking, created by T. Lubart and G. Altshuller. The sample consisted of 200 examinees (92 females and 108 males, employees of different organizations (age — from 23 to 60. The results show that time limitation as a stressful factor decreases the effectiveness of passing the assessment by employees with both low and high levels of creativity (p≤0,01. Work in a pair does not influence the effectiveness of passing the assessment regardless of the level of creativity (p≥0,05. Multitasking is stressful for employees with a low level of creativity (p≤0,01. The results of our research can be taken as principles of psychological trainings for development of employees’ stress-resistance.

  10. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SOURCES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS AND THE LEVEL OF SELF-ESTEEM AMONG FOOTBALL REFEREES

    OpenAIRE

    Charbi Belkacem,; Khader Salih

    2018-01-01

    This survey aims at revealing the relationship of sources of psychological stress to the level of self-esteem. It focused mainly on the following questions: Is there a correlation between fear of physical abuse and self-esteem? Is there a correlation between rewards, incentives, and self-esteem? Is there a correlation between conflict of social dimension and level of self-esteem? Is there a correlation between media dimension and level of self-esteem? Is there a correlat...

  11. Segmentation of Slow Slip Events in South Central Alaska Possibly Controlled by a Subducted Oceanic Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haotian; Wei, Meng; Li, Duo; Liu, Yajing; Kim, YoungHee; Zhou, Shiyong

    2018-01-01

    Recent GPS observations show that slow slip events in south central Alaska are segmented along strike. Here we review several mechanisms that might contribute to this segmentation and focus on two: along-strike variation of slab geometry and effective normal stress. We then test them by running numerical simulations in the framework of rate-and-state friction with a nonplanar fault geometry. Results show that the segmentation is most likely related to the along-strike variation of the effective normal stress on the fault plane caused by the Yakutat Plateau. The Yakutat Plateau could affect the effective normal stress by either lowering the pore pressure in Upper Cook Inlet due to less fluids release or increasing the normal stress due to the extra buoyancy caused by the subducted Yakutat Plateau. We prefer the latter explanation because it is consistent with the relative amplitudes of the effective normal stress in Upper and Lower Cook Inlet and there is very little along-strike variation in Vp/Vs ratio in the fault zone from receiver function analysis. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that the difference in effective normal stress results from along-strike variation of pore pressure due to the uncertainties in the Vp/Vs estimates. Our work implies that a structural anomaly can have a long-lived effect on the subduction zone slip behavior and might be a driving factor on along-strike segmentation of slow slip events.

  12. Mercury levels assessment and its relationship with oxidative stress biomarkers in children from three localities in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Méndez, Jorge A; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor E; Fargher, Lane F; Moo-Puc, Rosa E

    2016-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that is released into the environment from geologic and anthropogenic sources. Once it enters an organism, it generates several toxicity mechanisms and oxidative stress has been proposed as the main one. Metal susceptibility is greater in children, which is a result of their physiology and behavior. In Yucatan, Mexico, burning of unregulated garbage dumps and household trash, ingestion of top marine predators, and pottery manufacturing are among the conditions that could promote Hg exposure. However, for Yucatan, there are no published studies that report Hg levels and associated oxidative stress status in children. Therefore, this study aimed to assess Hg levels in blood and urine and oxidative stress biomarkers levels in a sample of 107 healthy children from three localities in Yucatan, Mexico, as well as investigate the relationship between these parameters. Hg was detected in 11 (10.28%) of blood samples and 38 (35.51%) of urine samples collected from the participating children. Fourteen subjects showed Hg above recommended levels. The oxidative stress biomarkers were slightly elevated in comparison with other studies and were statistically different between the sampling sites. No linear correlation between Hg levels and oxidative stress biomarkers was found. Nevertheless, exploratory univariate and multivariate analysis showed non-linear relations among the measured variables. Globally, the study provides, for the first time, information regarding Hg levels and their relationship with oxidative stress biomarkers in a juvenile population from Mexico's southeast (Yucatan) region. In agreement with worldwide concern about Hg, this study should stimulate studies on metal monitoring in humans (especially children) among scientists working in Mexico, the establishment of polices for its regulation, and the reduction of human health risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Burnout, Perceived Stress, and Job Satisfaction Among Trauma Nurses at a Level I Safety-Net Trauma Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munnangi, Swapna; Dupiton, Lynore; Boutin, Anthony; Angus, L D George

    Nurses are at the forefront of our health care delivery system and have been reported to exhibit a high level of burnout. Burnout and stress in trauma nurses at a safety-net hospital can negatively impact patient care. Safety-net hospitals are confronted with unique social, financial, as well as resource problems that can potentially make the work environment frustrating. The purpose of this study was to explore the levels of burnout, stress, and job satisfaction in nurses providing care to trauma patients at a Level I safety-net trauma center. A cross-sectional survey design was used to investigate principal factors including personal and professional demographics, burnout, perceived stress, and job satisfaction. Trauma nurses working at a Level I safety-net trauma center are stressed and exhibited moderate degree of burnout. The extent of emotional exhaustion experienced by the nurses varied with work location and was highest in surgical intensive care unit nurses. The level of job satisfaction in terms of opportunities for promotion differed significantly by race and the health status of the nurses. Satisfaction with coworkers was lowest in those nurses between the ages of 60-69 years. Female nurses were more satisfied with their coworkers than male nurses. In addition, the study revealed that significant relationships exist among perceived stress, burnout, and job satisfaction. Work environment significantly impacts burnout, job satisfaction, and perceived stress experienced by trauma nurses in a safety-net hospital. Nursing administration can make an effort to understand the levels of burnout and strategically improve work environment for trauma nurses in order to minimize stressors leading to attrition and enhance job satisfaction.

  14. Neural correlates of stress- and food cue-induced food craving in obesity: association with insulin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Ania M; Sinha, Rajita; Lacadie, Cheryl; Small, Dana M; Sherwin, Robert S; Potenza, Marc N

    2013-02-01

    Obesity is associated with alterations in corticolimbic-striatal brain regions involved in food motivation and reward. Stress and the presence of food cues may each motivate eating and engage corticolimibic-striatal neurocircuitry. It is unknown how these factors interact to influence brain responses and whether these interactions are influenced by obesity, insulin levels, and insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that obese individuals would show greater responses in corticolimbic-striatal neurocircuitry after exposure to stress and food cues and that brain activations would correlate with subjective food craving, insulin levels, and HOMA-IR. Fasting insulin levels were assessed in obese and lean subjects who were exposed to individualized stress and favorite-food cues during functional MRI. Obese, but not lean, individuals exhibited increased activation in striatal, insular, and hypothalamic regions during exposure to favorite-food and stress cues. In obese but not lean individuals, food craving, insulin, and HOMA-IR levels correlated positively with neural activity in corticolimbic-striatal brain regions during favorite-food and stress cues. The relationship between insulin resistance and food craving in obese individuals was mediated by activity in motivation-reward regions including the striatum, insula, and thalamus. These findings demonstrate that obese, but not lean, individuals exhibit increased corticolimbic-striatal activation in response to favorite-food and stress cues and that these brain responses mediate the relationship between HOMA-IR and food craving. Improving insulin sensitivity and in turn reducing corticolimbic-striatal reactivity to food cues and stress may diminish food craving and affect eating behavior in obesity.

  15. Stress Factors among Nurses at the Primary and Secondary Level of Public Sector Health Care: The Case of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Starc

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Working in nursing is mentally and physically demanding and is one of the most stressful professions. AIM: To determine the basic causes of stress and examine the symptoms of stress among healthcare professionals at the primary and secondary level of health care. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The research was based on the descriptive and causal non-experimental method of empirical research. The independent samples t-test was used. RESULTS: The survey results have shown that those employed in nursing are exposed to stressful situations on a daily basis, most often involving psychological or physical violence in the workplace (M = 4.2, dealing with death (M = 3.9, lack of personnel (M = 3.9 and a high frequency of patients (M = 3.8. The following stress factors cause women greater stress than they do men: relationships among co-workers (t = 2.745; p = 0.006, psychological or physical violence in the workplace (t = 3.492; p = 0.001, and working with difficult patients (t = 2.427; p = 0.017. CONCLUSION: To manage risks, employees and employers must work together and establish a suitable safety and organisational culture, which would enable them to manage and reduce stress.

  16. Stress Factors among Nurses at the Primary and Secondary Level of Public Sector Health Care: The Case of Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starc, Jasmina

    2018-02-15

    Working in nursing is mentally and physically demanding and is one of the most stressful professions. To determine the basic causes of stress and examine the symptoms of stress among healthcare professionals at the primary and secondary level of health care. The research was based on the descriptive and causal non-experimental method of empirical research. The independent samples t-test was used. The survey results have shown that those employed in nursing are exposed to stressful situations on a daily basis, most often involving psychological or physical violence in the workplace (M = 4.2), dealing with death (M = 3.9), lack of personnel (M = 3.9) and a high frequency of patients (M = 3.8). The following stress factors cause women greater stress than they do men: relationships among co-workers (t = 2.745; p = 0.006), psychological or physical violence in the workplace (t = 3.492; p = 0.001), and working with difficult patients (t = 2.427; p = 0.017). To manage risks, employees and employers must work together and establish a suitable safety and organisational culture, which would enable them to manage and reduce stress.

  17. Effect of assertiveness training on levels of stress and assertiveness experienced by nurses in Taiwan, Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S; Crockett, M S

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of assertiveness training in improving self-perceived levels of stress and assertiveness among nurses in Taiwan, Republic of China. The two-group experimental design was conducted in a 2,000-bed veteran general hospital. A sample of 60 volunteer Chinese-speaking nurses participated in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: assertiveness training (AT) or alternate treatment control (ATC), which served as a control and contained updated knowledge of new computer technology for in patient settings. Subjects in each group participated in six 2-hour workshops in the same two-week period. All subjects were pre-, post-, and follow-up posttested for stress and assertiveness with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS), respectively. Results revealed the following: (1) subjects in both groups of pretest were clearly subassertive and under considerable stress; (2) by the end of training, the AT group scored significantly higher on the rating of assertiveness than those in the ATC group, and had successfully maintained their improvement by the 4-week follow-up; and (3) by the end of training, the AT group reported significantly lower levels of stress than the ATC group as indicated on the PSS, and successfully maintained their improvements at the 4-week follow-up. Overall, the results indicate clear support for the effectiveness of assertiveness training for treating subassertive behaviors and stress in a population of professional nurses in Taiwan.

  18. Analysis of serum cortisol levels by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for diagnosis of stress in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Campos Lemes

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy is a technique with great potential for body fluids analyses. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of session training on cortisol concentrations in rugby players by means of infrared analysis of serum. Methods Blood collections were performed pre, post and 24 hours after of rugby training sessions. Serum cortisol was analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy and chemiluminescent immunoassay. Results There was a significant difference between the integrated area, in the region of 1180-1102 cm-1, of the spectra for pre, post and post 24 h serums. The cortisol concentration obtained by chemiluminescent immunoassay showed no significant difference between pre, post and post 24 h. Positive correlations were obtained between the techniques (r = 0.75, post (r = 0.83 and post 24 h (r = 0.73. Conclusion The results showed no increase in cortisol levels of the players after the training sessions, as well as positive correlations indicating that FT-IR spectroscopy have produced promising results for the analysis of serum for diagnosis of stress.

  19. Diurnal and stress-reactive dehydroepiandrosterone levels and telomere length in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dismukes, Andrew R; Meyer, Vanessa J; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Theall, Katherine P; Esteves, Kyle C; Drury, Stacy S

    2016-05-01

    The current investigation examined the association between the aging-related biomarkers dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and telomere length (TL) in community-recruited African-American youth. The examination of DHEA included stress reactive, basal and diurnal sampling, in order to elucidate the underlying physiological process that may overlap with TL. One hundred and two participants completed the Trier Social Stressor Test for children (TSST-C). TL was obtained from all youth from buccal swabs on the same day as the TSST-C. Saliva samples from 83 participants were obtained over the course of two additional days to measure waking and diurnal levels of DHEA. DHEA diurnal slope was a robust predictor of TL (B=0.516, P<0.05), while other DHEA values were not significantly associated with TL. This study is one of the first studies to examine basal, diurnal and reactivity measurements of DHEA in youth. Furthermore, this is the first study, to our knowledge, to demonstrate a positive association between DHEA, a putative anti-aging hormone, and TL, an indicator of cellular aging. © 2016 The authors.

  20. Maternal Behavior and Physiological Stress Levels in Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Margaret A; Heintz, Matthew R; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Santymire, Rachel M; Lipende, Iddi; Murray, Carson M

    2015-06-01

    Individual differences in maternal behavior toward, and investment in, offspring can have lasting consequences, particularly among primate taxa characterized by prolonged periods of development over which mothers can exert substantial influence. Given the role of the neuroendocrine system in the expression of behavior, researchers are increasingly interested in understanding the hormonal correlates of maternal behavior. Here, we examined the relationship between maternal behavior and physiological stress levels, as quantified by fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations, in lactating chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii , at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. After accounting for temporal variation in FGM concentrations, we found that mothers interacted socially (groomed and played) with and nursed their infants more on days when FGM concentrations were elevated compared to days when FGM concentrations were within the range expected given the time of year. However, the proportion of time mothers and infants spent in contact did not differ based on FGM concentrations. These results generally agree with the suggestion that elevated GC concentrations are related to maternal motivation and responsivity to infant cues and are the first evidence of a hormonal correlate of maternal behavior in a wild great ape.

  1. Structural damping values as a function of dynamic response stress and deformation levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Damping as it is normally defined is the means by which the response motion of a structural system is reduced as the result of energy losses. However, as used in the context of nuclear plant design, the effects of changes in structural stiffness, geometry, support configuration, and modulus of elasticity are also usually lumped under the general heading of damping in current design methods. For convenience in structural design, damping in usually assumed as viscous in nature and in recognition of its use in modal response spectrum dynamic analysis is normally expressed as a percent of critical. In general, it should be understood that damping as used in design or analysis of nuclear plants is an experimentally determined factor which is used to make the results of linear elasticity analysis of dynamic systems agree reasonably well with observed experimental results. In this paper, damping data existing in the open literature applicable to nuclear power plant structures and equipment is summarized and statistically analyzed. Results of this analysis are used to develop damping trend curves which predict applicable damping values to be used in design at various levels of stress or deformation. (orig.)

  2. Diurnal and stress-reactive dehydroepiandrosterone levels and telomere length in youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Dismukes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current investigation examined the association between the aging-related biomarkers dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and telomere length (TL in community-recruited African-American youth. The examination of DHEA included stress reactive, basal and diurnal sampling, in order to elucidate the underlying physiological process that may overlap with TL. One hundred and two participants completed the Trier Social Stressor Test for children (TSST-C. TL was obtained from all youth from buccal swabs on the same day as the TSST-C. Saliva samples from 83 participants were obtained over the course of two additional days to measure waking and diurnal levels of DHEA. DHEA diurnal slope was a robust predictor of TL (B=0.516, P<0.05, while other DHEA values were not significantly associated with TL. This study is one of the first studies to examine basal, diurnal and reactivity measurements of DHEA in youth. Furthermore, this is the first study, to our knowledge, to demonstrate a positive association between DHEA, a putative anti-aging hormone, and TL, an indicator of cellular aging.

  3. Effect of Annealing on Strain-Temperature Response under Constant Tensile Stress in Cold-Worked NiTi Thin Wire

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xiaojun; Van Humbeeck, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The present paper aims to understand the influence of annealing on the strain-temperature response of a cold-worked NiTi wire under constant tensile stress. It was found that transformation behavior, stress-strain relationship, and strain-temperature response of the cold-worked NiTi wire are strongly affected by the annealing temperature. Large martensitic strains can be reached even though the applied stress is below the plateau stress of the martensite phase. At all stress levels transforma...

  4. Occurrence of spruce bark beetles in forest stands at different levels of air pollution stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzki, Wojciech; McManus, Michael; Knizek, Milos; Meshkova, Valentina; Mihalciuc, Vasile; Novotny, Julius; Turcani, Marek; Slobodyan, Yaroslav

    2004-01-01

    The spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.) is the most serious pest of mature spruce stands, mainly Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karst. throughout Eurasia. A complex of weather-related events and other environmental stresses are reported to predispose spruce stands to bark beetle attack and subsequent tree mortality; however the possible role of industrial pollution as a predisposing factor to attack by this species is poorly understood. The abundance and dynamics of I. typographus populations was evaluated in 60-80 year old Norway spruce stands occurring on 10x50 ha sites in five countries within the Carpathian range that were selected in proximity to established ozone measurement sites. Data were recorded on several parameters including the volume of infested trees, captures of adult beetles in pheromone traps, number of attacks, and the presence and relative abundance of associated bark beetle species. In several cases, stands adjacent to sites with higher ozone values were associated with higher bark beetle populations. The volume of sanitary cuttings, a reflection of tree mortality, and the mean daily capture of beetles in pheromone traps were significantly higher at sites where the O 3 level was higher. However, the mean infestation density on trees was higher in plots associated with lower O 3 levels. Captures of beetles in pheromone traps and infestation densities were higher in the zone above 800 m. However, none of the relationships was conclusive, suggesting that spruce bark beetle dynamics are driven by a complex interaction of biotic and abiotic factors and not by a single parameter such as air pollution. - Air pollution (ozone) can be one of predisposing factors that increases the susceptibility of mountain Norway spruce stands to attack by Ips typographus and associated bark beetle species

  5. Newly designed anterolateral and posterolateral locking anatomic plates for lateral tibial plateau fractures: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pengbo; Lu, Hua; Shen, Hao; Wang, Wei; Ni, Binbin; Chen, Jishizhan

    2017-02-23

    Lateral column tibial plateau fracture fixation with a locking screw plate has higher mechanical stability than other fixation methods. The objectives of the present study were to introduce two newly designed locking anatomic plates for lateral tibial plateau fracture and to demonstrate their characteristics of the fixation complexes under the axial loads. Three different 3D finite element models of the lateral tibial plateau fracture with the bone plates were created. Various axial forces (100, 500, 1000, and 1500 N) were applied to simulate the axial compressive load on an adult knee during daily life. The equivalent maps of displacement and stress were output, and relative displacement was calculated along the fracture lines. The displacement and stresses in the fixation complexes increased with the axial force. The equivalent displacement or stress map of each fixation under different axial forces showed similar distributing characteristics. The motion characteristics of the three models differed, and the max-shear stress of trabecula increased with the axial load. These two novel plates could fix lateral tibial plateau fractures involving anterolateral and posterolateral fragments. Motions after open reduction and stable internal fixation should be advised to decrease the risk of trabecular microfracture. The relative displacement of the posterolateral fragments is different when using anterolateral plate and posterolateral plate, which should be considered in choosing the implants for different posterolateral plateau fractures.

  6. Path of Social Construction in Northwest Sichuan Plateau Pastoral Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of main contents of social construction and key points of construction,this paper analyzes features of conditions of northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area.The social construction at current stage mainly includes social cause in narrow sense,and social management at meso-level.The northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area is faced with the best policy and development opportunity.However,there are still many weak aspects.Firstly,social structure is not coordinated with economic structure.Secondly,social construction ability of grass-roots government is weak.Thirdly,the ability to respond to public demands is low.Fourthly,there is a big gap in availability of basic public service.Finally,it presents path selection for social construction of northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area:strengthen social construction ability of grass-roots government;promote social construction with livelihood projects as key projects;boost social construction taking advantage of ecological construction;develop basic public service with the aid of external forces;intensify evaluation system for supervision of social construction works.

  7. Transient water stress in a vegetation canopy - Simulations and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Toby N.; Belles, James E.; Gillies, Robert R.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to observational and modeling evidence of transient water stress, the effects of the transpiration plateau on the canopy radiometric temperature, and the factors responsible for the onset of the transpiration plateau, such as soil moisture. Attention is also given to the point at which the transient stress can be detected by remote measurement of surface temperature.

  8. Blood lactate levels as a biomarker for angling-induced stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These data suggest that longer angling time significantly increases physiological stress, which may have an impact on breading success and mortality in tigerfish. Keywords: catch-and-release angling; fish; physiology; recreational fisheries management; stress. African Journal of Aquatic Science 2009, 34(3): 255–259 ...

  9. Psychosocial stress impairs working memory at high loads: An association with cortisol levels and memory retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, N.Y.L.; Everaerd, W.T.A.M.; Elzinga, B.M.; van Well, S.; Bermond, B.

    2006-01-01

    Stress and cortisol are known to impair memory retrieval of well-consolidated declarative material. The effects of cortisol on memory retrieval may in particular be due to glucocorticoid (GC) receptors in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Therefore, effects of stress and cortisol should

  10. Investigation of Techno-Stress Levels of Teachers Who Were Included in Technology Integration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çoklar, Ahmet Naci; Efilti, Erkan; Sahin, Yusef Levent; Akçay, Arif

    2016-01-01

    Techno-stress is defined as a modern adaptation disorder resulting from the failure in coping with new technologies in a healthy way. Techno-stress affects many occupational groups, including teachers. FATIH project and many other previous studies conducted in Turkey in recent years have necessitated the use of technology for teachers. The present…

  11. A Complex System of Glacial Sub-Refugia Drives Endemic Freshwater Biodiversity on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewing, Catharina; Albrecht, Christian; Wilke, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Although only relatively few freshwater invertebrate families are reported from the Tibetan Plateau, the degree of endemism may be high. Many endemic lineages occur within permafrost areas, raising questions about the existence of isolated intra-plateau glacial refugia. Moreover, if such refugia existed, it might be instructive to learn whether they were associated with lakes or with more dynamic ecosystems such as ponds, wetlands, or springs. To study these hypotheses, we used pulmonate snails of the plateau-wide distributed genus Radix as model group and the Lake Donggi Cona drainage system, located in the north-eastern part of the plateau, as model site. First, we performed plateau-wide phylogenetic analyses using mtDNA data to assess the overall relationships of Radix populations inhabiting the Lake Donggi Cona system for revealing refugial lineages. We then conducted regional phylogeographical analyses applying a combination of mtDNA and nuclear AFLP markers to infer the local structure and demographic history of the most abundant endemic Radix clade for identifying location and type of (sub-)refugia within the drainage system. Our phylogenetic analysis showed a high diversity of Radix lineages in the Lake Donggi Cona system. Subsequent phylogeographical analyses of the most abundant endemic clade indicated a habitat-related clustering of genotypes and several Late Pleistocene spatial/demographic expansion events. The most parsimonious explanation for these patterns would be a scenario of an intra-plateau glacial refugium in the Lake Donggi Cona drainage system, which might have consisted of isolated sub-refugia. Though the underlying processes remain unknown, an initial separation of lake and watershed populations could have been triggered by lake-level fluctuations before and during the Last Glacial Maximum. This study inferred the first intra-plateau refugium for freshwater animals on the Tibetan Plateau. It thus sheds new light on the evolutionary history

  12. Strain transformation between tectonic extrusion and crustal thickening in the growth of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Li, Y.; Sun, Y.; Shen, X.

    2017-12-01

    The Indo-Eurasian continental collision since 50 Ma has thickened the crust to raise the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau and driven lateral extrusion of Asian lithospheric blocks to affect Cenozoic tectonics in central and east Asia. The relative roles of crustal thickening and tectonic extrusion, and the strain partitioning between them over time and space, remain controversial. We have analyzed the strain rates using GPS velocities, and correlated the results with vertical motion derived from precise leveling. We found that tectonic extrusion largely transforms to crustal thickening near the margins of the Tibetan Plateau. Near the NW margin of the Tibetan Plateau, the shear stain transforms to compressive strain, consistent with neotectonic studies that indicate crustal shortening and uplift. Around the SE margin, shear stain largely terminates in the southern Yunnan province of China. The present-day crustal motion in SE Tibetan Plateau can be well explained by gravitational spreading without invoking plate-edge push as envisioned in the tectonic extrusion model. Using data collected from local seismic arrays, we derived receiver functions to image the lithospheric structures across the Tibetan Plateau and the Alashan block to its north and the Ordos block to its east. Our results indicate that the mantle lithosphere of these bounding Asian blocks has not been reworked by Tibetan tectonics; instead they have acted as restrictive walls to the growing Tibetan Plateau. Our finite element modeling shows that crustal deformation along the margins of the Tibetan Plateau are consistent with the notion that the east- and southeastward extrusion of the Tibetan lithosphere is largely confined to the Tibetan Plateau because of the restrictive bounding blocks of the Asian lithosphere. Thus the tectonic impact of the Indo-Eurasian collision on the Cenozoic Asian tectonics may not be as extensive as previously thought.

  13. Neurosignal record with a Brain-Computer interface to estimate the level of stress in a student during a class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Angela Moreno Cueva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This work shows an individual study of the capture, recording, and analysis of the level of stress of a university student during a class that involves an evaluation. The stress information was estimated using a commercial and low-cost computer-brain interface. This allows solving the problem of easily obtaining quantitative and not only qualitative measures. Objective: The aim of this article is to analyze the behavior of neural signals to estimate the level of stress in a student to some verbal and nonverbal events generated by a teacher. Methodology: An experimental design of individual character was developed taking as disturbances the level of stress, events such as questions, time limits, and gestures. Results: Some events that caused stress in students produced by the verbal and non-verbal language of the teacher when teaching the class were evidenced. Conclusions: Teachers are encouraged to moderate their body language during assessments by avoiding actions that emulate anxieties or pressures in unnecessary times.

  14. Coseismic Strain Steps of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake Indicate EW Extension of Tibetan Plateau and Increased Hazard South to Epicenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, G.; Shen, X.; Tang, J.; Fukuda, Y.

    2008-12-01

    The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Ms8.0) occurred at the east edge of Tibetan Plateau. It is the biggest seismic disaster in China since the 1976 Tangshan earthquake. To determine the effects of the earthquake on the deformation field of Tibetan Plateau, we collect and analyze continuing strain data of three stations before and after the earthquake in Tibetan Plateau observed by capacitance-type bore-hole strainmeters (Chi, 1985). We collect strain data in NS, EW, NE-SW and NW-NS directions at each borehole. Then we deduce the co-seismic strain steps at time point 14:28 of May 12, 2008 (at this time point the earthquake occurred) with the data before and after the earthquake using the least squares method. Our observation shows that in Tibetan Plateau significant co-seismic strain steps are accompanied with the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Extension in EW direction is observed at interior and north Tibetan Plateau which indicates a rapid EW extension of the whole Plateau. Field investigation shows that the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake is a manifestation of eastward growth of the Tibetan Plateau (Dong et al., 2008). Eastwards growth of the Tibetan Plateau results naturally in the extension of the Plateau in EW direction. Our co-seismic strain observation agrees well with the conclusion from surface rupture investigation. The magnitude of co-seismic strain step equals to five times of average year extensional strain rate throughout the plateau interior. Shortening in SE- NW direction is observed at the east edge of the Plateau. As hints that the eastward extension of Tibetan Plateau is resisted by Sichuan rigid basin which increases the potential earthquake hazard around the observation station, manifests the declaration from co-seismic stress changes calculation (Persons et al., 2008). Our observed co-seismic strain steps are in total lager than theoretical calculations of dislocation theories which indicate that magnitude of the great earthquake should be bigger than 7.9. Due

  15. The relationship between the level of aggression and the sleep quality in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Oznur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Subject: Sleep disorders are common problems in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD patients. The main symptoms associated with sleep disorders were reported as a reduction in total sleep time, prolonged sleep latency, increase in the number wakefulness, low sleep efficiency and a reduction in the percentage of deep sleep stages. A relation between sleep disorders and increased levels of aggression was determined. In this study, we aimed to examine the relationship between the quality of sleep and the level of aggression in patients with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Method: The study was included 48 patients with a diagnosis of PTSD who were hospitalized. Data were collected using post-traumatic stress disorder questionnaire scale, Pittsburgh sleep quality scale and the Buss-Perry Aggression Scale applied by the clinician. Data analysis was made using SPSS 15.0 package program. Descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlation test were used in statistical analysis. Results: The average age of the cases was 32.33 +/- 7.93, the average of the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder was 56.23 +/- 11.14, the average of sleep quality was 22.08 +/- 6.67 and the average of aggression levels was 51.67 +/- 7.48. There was a high level deterioration in sleep quality and aggression levels were medium/medium-high levels. It was determined that Buss-Perry Aggression Scale scores were positively correlated with Pittsburgh sleep quality and posttraumatic stress disorder total and hyper arousal subscale scores. Conclusion: In this study, it is stated that increase in overstimulation symptoms and degradation of sleep in PTSD patients cause increase in agression levels. Degradation of sleep is determined as an indicator of agression that is observed in TSSB patients. Associatively, in PTSD patients, use of interventions to improve the quality of sleep oriented agressive behaviours gain value [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(6.000: 433-437

  16. Numerical method for analysis of temperature rises and thermal stresses around high level radioactive waste repository in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    The disposal of high-level radioactive waste should result in temperature rises and thermal stresses which change the hydraulic conductivity of the rock around the repository. For safety analysis on disposal of high-level radioactive waste into hard rock, it is necessary to find the temperature rises and thermal stresses distributions around the repository. In this paper, these distribution changes are analyzed by the use of the finite difference method. In advance of numerical analysis, it is required to simplify the shapes and properties of the repository and the rock. Several kinds of numerical models are prepared, and the results of this analysis are examined. And, the waste disposal methods are discussed from the stand-points of the temperature rise and thermal stress analysis. (author)

  17. Comparison of inflammation and oxidative stress levels by the severity of obesity in prepubertal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Surya Candra Eka Pertiwi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Children with severe obesity are more likely to develop diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. Inflammation and oxidative stress associated with childhood obesity may be important in the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Objective To compare levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP and malondialdehyde (MDA by the severity of obesity in prepubertal children aged 6 to 10 years. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Pediatric Nutrition and Metabolic Syndrome Clinic, Sanglah Hospital, Bali, from August to December 2015. Subjects were categorized into three body mass index (BMI groups, according to the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth chart: overweight (85th-94.9th percentile, obese (95th-98.9th percentile, or severely obese (≥ 99th percentile. Plasma MDA and serum hsCRP were analyzed in blood specimens obtained at enrollment. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Mann-Whitney U test for post-hoc comparison between groups. Results Subjects were 20 overweight children, 29 obese children, and 28 severely obese children. Levels of MDA were significantly higher in the severely obese [median 0.25 (IQR 0.1 μmol/L] than in obese subjects [median 0.19 (IQR 0.1 μmol/L; P=0.001], and than in overweight subjects [median 0.16 (IQR 0.1 μmol/L; P<0.0001]. Also, the severely obese children had significantly higher hsCRP levels compared to obese [median 3.2 (IQR 2.0 mg/L vs. 1.3 (1.6 mg/L, respectively; P<0.0001] and compared to overweight children [median 0.7 (IQR 0.6 mg/L; P<0.0001].     Conclusion Prepubertal children at the ≥ 99th percentile for BMI (severely obese are more likely to have significantly higher hsCRP and MDA compared to those in the obese and overweight groups.

  18. Climate-related environmental stress in intertidal grazers: scaling-up biochemical responses to assemblage-level processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maggi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Organisms are facing increasing levels of environmental stress under climate change that may severely affect the functioning of biological systems at different levels of organization. Growing evidence suggests that reduction in body size is a universal response of organisms to global warming. However, a clear understanding of whether extreme climate events will impose selection directly on phenotypic plastic responses and how these responses affect ecological interactions has remained elusive. Methods We experimentally investigated the effects of extreme desiccation events on antioxidant defense mechanisms of a rocky intertidal gastropod (Patella ulyssiponensis, and evaluated how these effects scaled-up at the population and assemblage levels. Results With increasing levels of desiccation stress, limpets showed significant lower levels of total glutathione, tended to grow less and had reduced per capita interaction strength on their resources. Discussion Results suggested that phenotypic plasticity (i.e., reduction in adults’ body size allowed buffering biochemical responses to stress to scale-up at the assemblage level. Unveiling the linkages among different levels of biological organization is key to develop indicators that can anticipate large-scale ecological impacts of climate change.

  19. Sex-reversed correlation between stress levels and dominance rank in a captive non-breeder flock of crows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ode, Minami; Asaba, Akari; Miyazawa, Eri; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi; Izawa, Ei-Ichi

    2015-07-01

    Group living has both benefits and costs to individuals; benefits include efficient acquisition of resources, and costs include stress from social conflicts among group members. Such social challenges result in hierarchical dominance ranking among group members as a solution to avoid escalating conflict that causes different levels of basal stress between individuals at different ranks. Stress-associated glucocorticoid (corticosterone in rodents and birds; CORT) levels are known to correlate with dominance rank in diverse taxa and to covary with various social factors, such as sex and dominance maintenance styles. Although there is much evidence for sex differences in the basal levels of CORT in various species, the correlation of sex differences in basal CORT with dominance rank is poorly understood. We investigated the correlation between CORT metabolites (CM) in the droppings and social factors, including rank and sex, in a captive non-breeder group of crows. In this group, all the single males dominated all the single females, and dominance ranks were stable among single males but relatively unstable among single females. CM levels and rank were significantly correlated in a sex-reversed fashion: males at higher rank (i.e., more dominant) had higher CM, whereas females at higher rank exhibited lower CM. This is the first evidence of sex-reversed patterns of CM-rank correlation in birds. The results suggest that different mechanisms of stress-dominance relationships operate on the sexes in non-breeder crow aggregations; in males, stress is associated with the cost of aggressive displays, whereas females experience subordination stress due to males' overt aggression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cortisol levels in former preterm children at school age are predicted by neonatal procedural pain-related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummelte, Susanne; Chau, Cecil M Y; Cepeda, Ivan L; Degenhardt, Amanda; Weinberg, Joanne; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress can alter hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis function. Differences in cortisol levels have been found in preterm infants exposed to substantial procedural stress during neonatal intensive care, compared to infants born full-term, but only a few studies investigated whether altered programming of the HPA axis persists past toddler age. Further, there is a dearth of knowledge of what may contribute to these changes in cortisol. This prospective cohort study examined the cortisol profiles in response to the stress of cognitive assessment, as well as the diurnal rhythm of cortisol, in children (n=129) born at varying levels of prematurity (24-32 weeks gestation) and at full-term (38-41 weeks gestation), at age 7 years. Further, we investigated the relationships among cortisol levels and neonatal procedural pain-related stress (controlling for multiple medical confounders), concurrent maternal factors (parenting stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms) and children's behavioral problems. For each aim we investigate acute cortisol response profiles to a cognitive challenge as well as diurnal cortisol patterns at home. We hypothesized that children born very preterm will differ in their pattern of cortisol secretion from children born full-term, possibly depended on concurrent child and maternal factors, and that exposure to neonatal pain-related stress would be associated with altered cortisol secretion in children born very preterm, possibly in a sex-dependent way. Saliva samples were collected from 7-year old children three times during a laboratory visit for assessment of cognitive and executive functions (pretest, mid-test, end-study day acute stress profile) and at four times over two consecutive non-school days at home (i.e. morning, mid-morning, afternoon and bedtime-diurnal rhythm profile). We found that cortisol profiles were similar in preterm and full-term children, albeit preterms had slightly higher cortisol at bedtime compared to

  1. Increased levels of the oxidative stress biomarker 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α in wastewater associated with tobacco use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryu, Yeonsuk; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Bade, Richard

    2016-01-01

    oxidative stress at a community level. In this work, 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) was analysed in raw 24 h-composite wastewater samples collected from 4 Norwegian and 7 other European cities in 2014 and 2015. Using the same samples, biomarkers of alcohol (ethyl sulfate) and tobacco (trans-3...

  2. The Relationship between the Styles of Coping with Stress and the Levels of Hopelessness of Preschool Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Fatma Yasar

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to examine the relationship between the styles of coping with stress and the levels of hopelessness of preschool teachers. Relational survey method was used in this research. The research sample consists of 108 preschool teachers working in preschool education institutions in Küçükçekmece district of Istanbul in…

  3. Higher levels of masculine gender role stress in masculine than in feminine nations. A thirteen-nations study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; van Well, S.; Kolk, A.M.; Barelds, D.P.H.; Oei, T.P.S.; Lau, P.Y.

    2013-01-01

    It was hypothesized that societies that put greater emphasis on men being rigidly committed to culturally accepted models of masculinity (nations with high Hofstede MASculinity scores) would report higher mean national levels of masculine gender role stress (MGRS) than societies that emphasize such

  4. Higher Levels of Masculine Gender Role Stress in Masculine than in Feminine Nations : A Thirteen-Nations Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W. A.; van Well, Sonja; Kolk, Annemarie M.; Barelds, Dick P. H.; Oei, Tian P. S.; Lau, Pui Yi

    It was hypothesized that societies that put greater emphasis on men being rigidly committed to culturally accepted models of masculinity (nations with high Hofstede MASculinity scores) would report higher mean national levels of masculine gender role stress (MGRS) than societies that emphasize such

  5. Higher Reported Levels of Depression, Stress, and Anxiety Are Associated with Increased Endorsement of ADHD Symptoms by Postsecondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Alexander, Sandra J.; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which postsecondary students endorse symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and whether experienced level of stress, depression, or anxiety are associated with higher reporting of ADHD symptoms. Students attending a combined health and counseling service completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating…

  6. Robust Wafer-Level Thin-Film Encapsulation (Packaging) of Microstructures (MEMS) using Low Stress PECVD Silicon Carbide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaraman, V.; Pakula, L.S.; Pham, H.T.M.; Sarro, P.M.; French, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new low-cost, CMOS-compatible and robust wafer-level encapsulation technique developed using a stress-optimised PECVD SiC as the capping and sealing material, imparting harsh environment capability. This technique has been applied for the fabrication and encapsulation of a wide

  7. Support Needs and Coping Strategies as Predictors of Stress Level among Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri R. Kiami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined maternal stress, coping strategies, and support needs among mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. A convenience sample of 70 mothers completed the Parent Stress Index Short Form (PSI-SF, Coping Health Inventory for Parents (CHIP, and Modified Family Needs Questionnaire (FNQ. PSI-SF scores reflected clinically significant levels of stress for 77% of mothers, and mothers identified 62.4% of important needs as unmet. The five most frequently reported important unmet needs were (1 financial support; (2 break from responsibilities; (3 understanding of other after-school program children; (4 rest/sleep; (5 help remaining hopeful about the future. Most coping strategies (81% were identified as helpful. Additionally, both coping strategies and support needs served as predictors for maternal stress. Maternal stress scores decreased by .402 points for each percent increase in helpful coping strategy, and stress scores increased by .529 points with each percent increase in unmet needs. Given large variation in questionnaire responses across participants and studies, utilization of user-friendly questionnaires, such as the PSI-SF, CHIP, and FNQ, is advocated to determine the evolving important needs unique to each family over the child’s lifetime as well as guide prioritization of care, compilation of resources, and referrals for additional services.

  8. The small molecule triclabendazole decreases the intracellular level of cyclic AMP and increases resistance to stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Joo Lee

    Full Text Available The Ras-adenylyl cyclase-protein kinase A nutrient-sensing pathway controls metabolism, proliferation and resistance to stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The genetic disruption of this pathway increases resistance to a variety of stresses. We show here that the pharmacological inhibition of this pathway by the drug triclabendazole increases resistance to oxidants, heat stress and extends the chronological life. Evidence is presented that triclabendazole decreases the intracellular level of cyclic AMP by inhibiting adenylyl cyclase and triggers the parallel rapid translocation of the stress-resistance transcription factor Msn2 from the cytosol into the nucleus, as deduced from experiments employing a strain in which MSN2 is replaced with MSN2-GFP (GFP, green fluorescent protein. Msn2 and Msn4 are responsible for activating the transcription of numerous genes that encode proteins that protect cells from stress. The results are consistent with triclabendazole either inhibiting the association of Ras with adenylyl cyclase or directly inhibiting adenylyl cyclase, which in turn triggers Msn2/4 to enter the nucleus and activate stress-responsible element gene expression.

  9. Effect of Folk Dance Training on Blood Oxidative Stress Level, Lipids, and Lipoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okdan Bora

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Folk dance is a form of physical activity which helps develop the ability to use the whole body in a coordinated way with music, and folk dancers’ characteristics vary according to the particular type of dance practised in a given geographic region. The aims of the study were to evaluate the effects of 12-week folk dance training on blood oxidative stress level, lipids, lipoproteins, as well as muscle damage markers and to define some physical and physiological properties of folk dancers. Material and methods. Thirty-eight healthy male folk dancers aged 21-28 years having an average of 11 years of dance training experience voluntarily participated in the study. All of the physical and physiological measurements and the blood analysis were performed twice, before and after the training period which focused on different regional dances (Caucasus, Bar, Zeybek, Spoon Dance, Thracian dances, and Horon. The training was done 2 hours per day (a total of 10 hours a week, during a 12-week-long period. Results. All the blood parameters were found to be within the specified reference ranges. The training programme had no significant effect on the blood lipid profile, whereas it was found to have positive effects on body fat (p ≤ 0.012, peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak; p = 0.000, muscle damage markers (creatine kinase, Δ% = −19.6, and total antioxidant capacity (p ≤ 0.002. Conclusions. Regular folk dance training was found to have positive effects on body fat, VO2peak, blood total antioxidant capacity, and muscle damage markers. Based on these results, the community should be encouraged to perform folk dance as a recreational physical activity, and public awareness should be raised about the health benefits of practising folk dances.

  10. Prehistoric human settling on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F.; Zhang, D.; Dong, G.; Xia, H.

    2017-12-01

    When and where did human first settle down on the Tibetan Plateau is under hot debate among archaeologist, anthropologists, geneticist and paleo-geographers. Based on systematic archaeological, chronological and archaeo-botanical studies of 53 sites in Northeastern Tibetan Plateau, we propose that agriculture facilitated human permanent settlement on the Tibetan Plateau initially since 5200 years ago below 2500 masl and since 3600 years ago up to around 4000 masl, possibly assisted by domesticated animals (Chen et al. 2015). By redating the age of hand- and footprints in Chusang site in Tibet, Meyer et al. (2017) argue that hunter-gatherers permanently occupied central Tibetan Plateau in early Holocene (before 7.4 ka) without the help of agriculture. Except for the possible problem of dating, however, the limited hand- and footprints could only indicate the presence of prehistoric hunter-gatherers on the remote central Tibetan Plateau in the early Holocene, unable to support the permanent inhabitation assertion (Zhang et al., 2017). To better understand how human spread to, settle on and adapt to the Tibetan Plateau, we are closely working together with anthropologists, archaeologists and geneticists to do system Paleolithic surveys, full excavations, and genetic analysis of ancient and modern human, animals and plants. Our preliminary study show that human migrated to the Tibetan Plateau from the last Deglacial period to late Holocene mainly from North China via Yellow River valley and its tributary valleys in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau (NETP). This migration is constituted of four stages (Upper Paleolithic, Epi-Paleolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age) with different adaptation strategies, including microlithic technology, millet and barley farming, and sheep herding and so on (Zhang et al., 2016). In addition, our new finds in Tibet indicate that there are probably more migration routes from southeast and southwest Tibetan Plateau in the late Pleistocene or

  11. Utility of cement injection to stabilize split-depression tibial plateau fracture by minimally invasive methods: A finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaid, D; Vendeuvre, T; Bouchoucha, A; Brémand, F; Brèque, C; Rigoard, P; Germaneau, A

    2018-05-08

    Treatment for fractures of the tibial plateau is in most cases carried out by stable fixation in order to allow early mobilization. Minimally invasive technologies such as tibioplasty or stabilization by locking plate, bone augmentation and cement filling (CF) have recently been used to treat this type of fracture. The aim of this paper was to determine the mechanical behavior of the tibial plateau by numerically modeling and by quantifying the mechanical effects on the tibia mechanical properties from injury healing. A personalized Finite Element (FE) model of the tibial plateau from a clinical case has been developed to analyze stress distribution in the tibial plateau stabilized by balloon osteoplasty and to determine the influence of the cement injected. Stress analysis was performed for different stages after surgery. Just after surgery, the maximum von Mises stresses obtained for the fractured tibia treated with and without CF were 134.9 MPa and 289.9 MPa respectively on the plate. Stress distribution showed an increase of values in the trabecular bone in the treated model with locking plate and CF and stress reduction in the cortical bone in the model treated with locking plate only. The computed results of stresses or displacements of the fractured models show that the cement filling of the tibial depression fracture may increase implant stability, and decrease the loss of depression reduction, while the presence of the cement in the healed model renders the load distribution uniform. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Shear-Rate-Dependent Behavior of Clayey Bimaterial Interfaces at Landslide Stress Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaringi, Gianvito; Hu, Wei; Xu, Qiang; Huang, Runqiu

    2018-01-01

    The behavior of reactivated and first-failure landslides after large displacements is controlled by the available shear resistance in a shear zone and/or along slip surfaces, such as a soil-bedrock interface. Among the factors influencing the resistance parameter, the dependence on the shear rate can trigger catastrophic evolution (rate-weakening) or exert a slow-down feedback (rate-strengthening) upon stress perturbation. We present ring-shear test results, performed under various normal stresses and shear rates, on clayey soils from a landslide shear zone, on its parent lithology and other lithologies, and on clay-rock interface samples. We find that depending on the materials in contact, the normal stress, and the stress history, the shear-rate-dependent behaviors differ. We discuss possible models and underlying mechanisms for the time-dependent behavior of landslides in clay soils.

  13. Effects of PEG-induced osmotic stress on growth and dhurrin levels of forage sorghum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, Natalie H.; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Neale, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is a valuable forage crop in regions with low soil moisture. Sorghum may accumulate high concentrations of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin when drought stressed resulting in possible cyanide (HCN) intoxication of grazing animals. In addition, high concentratio...... of plant growth and root activity, increasing the rate of nitrate uptake. Data presented in this article support a role for cyanogenic glucosides in mitigating oxidative stress....... of nitrate, also potentially toxic to ruminants, may accumulate during or shortly after periods of drought. Little is known about the degree and duration of drought-stress required to induce dhurrin accumulation, or how changes in dhurrin concentration are influenced by plant size or nitrate metabolism....... Given that finely regulating soil moisture under controlled conditions is notoriously difficult, we exposed sorghum plants to varying degrees of osmotic stress by growing them for different lengths of time in hydroponic solutions containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). Plants grown in medium containing 20...

  14. Metabolic and behavioral effects of ractopamine at continuous low levels in rats under stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Lopes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of ractopamine (RAC on metabolism, zootechnical performance, body composition, and behavior in Wistar rats submitted to acute and chronic restrain stress. The oral dose of 5 mg/kg of RAC was administered in periods of 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. The elevated plus-maze test (EPMT was used for behavioral assessment. Blood, carcass and viscera characteristics were evaluated. Insulin-dependent glucose transporters (GLUT-4 were semi-quantified by Western Blot in epididymal adipocytes. RAC periods associated with chronic stress increased the GLUT-4 protein expression in adipose tissue in a time-dependent manner (P=0.01, i.e., the longer the RAC addition period, the higher the GLUT-4 concentration in chronically stressed animals (0=1.42; 7=1.19; 14=2.03; 21=1.59; 28=2.35. The stress periods combined with RAC increased the time spent in the opened arms of the maze (Chronic stress: 0=10.6; 7=8.7; 14=5.9; 21=12.3; 28=4.0; Acute stress 0=3.1; 7= 4.7; 14=7.5; 21=0.0; 28=2.8 (P=0.04. Chronic (entries on the closed arms [ECA]=3.60 and acute (ECA=3.80 stress reduced locomotive activity in the maze (P=0.03. The results suggested that stress could negatively affect the possible benefits offered by the RAC, mainly impairing the adipose tissue metabolism and behavior in the animals.

  15. Job satisfaction and Job stress among various employees of tertiary care level hospital in central Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Yadav

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Job satisfaction defined as the end state of feeling, the feeling that is experienced after a task is accomplished. Job stress can be defined as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or need of the worker. Objectives: To study the relationship between job satisfaction and job stress among various employees of tertiary care level hospital and to find the co-relates of job stress and job satisfaction. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study carried out for a period of 2 month among various employees working in Uttar Pradesh University of Medical Sciences, Saifai, Etawah, Uttar Pradesh, a tertiary care level hospital. A total 225 Participants 75 from each medical, paramedical and office staff were selected by purposive sampling technique. The study was conducted using pretested structured questionnaire regarding socio-demographic profile, job satisfaction and job stress. Data was analyzed using chi square test. Result: A total of 225 participants,75 from each medical, paramedical and office staff were interviewed. On doing analysis of questionnaire regarding job satisfaction and job stress it was found that majority believe that their job was well recognized and working in a good institute and were not satisfied with the management and salary and were coping well with their job stress and were having average level of satisfaction. Conclusion: The present study conclude that majority of the participants felt they are well recognized with their job, working in a good institute but not satisfied with the management and salary.

  16. Job satisfaction and Job stress among various employees of tertiary care level hospital in central Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Yadav

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Job satisfaction defined as the end state of feeling, the feeling that is experienced after a task is accomplished. Job stress can be defined as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or need of the worker. Objectives: To study the relationship between job satisfaction and job stress among various employees of tertiary care level hospital and to find the co-relates of job stress and job satisfaction. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study carried out for a period of 2 month among various employees working in Uttar Pradesh University of Medical Sciences, Saifai, Etawah, Uttar Pradesh, a tertiary care level hospital. A total 225 Participants 75 from each medical, paramedical and office staff were selected by purposive sampling technique. The study was conducted using pretested structured questionnaire regarding socio-demographic profile, job satisfaction and job stress. Data was analyzed using chi square test. Result: A total of 225 participants,75 from each medical, paramedical and office staff were interviewed. On doing analysis of questionnaire regarding job satisfaction and job stress it was found that majority believe that their job was well recognized and working in a good institute and were not satisfied with the management and salary and were coping well with their job stress and were having average level of satisfaction. Conclusion: The present study conclude that majority of the participants felt they are well recognized with their job, working in a good institute but not satisfied with the management and salary.

  17. Predator-based psychosocial stress animal model of PTSD: Preclinical assessment of traumatic stress at cognitive, hormonal, pharmacological, cardiovascular and epigenetic levels of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Diamond, David M

    2016-10-01

    Research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is faced with the challenge of understanding how a traumatic experience produces long-lasting detrimental effects on behavior and brain functioning, and more globally, how stress exacerbates somatic disorders, including cardiovascular disease. Moreover, the design of translational research needs to link animal models of PTSD to clinically relevant risk factors which address why only a subset of traumatized individuals develop persistent psychopathology. In this review, we have summarized our psychosocial stress rodent model of PTSD which is based on well-described PTSD-inducing risk factors, including a life-threatening experience, a sense of horror and uncontrollability, and insufficient social support. Specifically, our animal model of PTSD integrates acute episodes of inescapable exposure of immobilized rats to a predator with chronic daily social instability. This stress regimen produces PTSD-like effects in rats at behavioral, cognitive, physiological, pharmacological and epigenetic levels of analysis. We have discussed a recent extension of our animal model of PTSD in which stress exacerbated coronary pathology following an ischemic event, assessed in vitro. In addition, we have reviewed our research investigating pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapeutic strategies which may have value in clinical approaches toward the treatment of traumatized people. Overall, our translational approach bridges the gap between human and animal PTSD research to create a framework with which to enhance our understanding of the biological basis of trauma-induced pathology and to assess therapeutic approaches in the treatment of psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. EFFECT OF MASSAGE AND AROMATHERAPY ON STRESS AND PROLACTIN LEVEL AMONG PRIMIPAROUS PUERPERAL MOTHERS IN SEMARANG, CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melyana Nurul Widyawati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exclusive breastfeeding in Semarang during the past five years remains low. Only 20 to 64% of mothers were breastfed exclusively in 2010-2012. The incidence of postpartum blues was reported by 29.9% mothers, and mostly (56.6% was primiparous. Objective: This study aims to determine the effect of Loving Massage, aromatherapy, and a combination of Loving Massage and aromatherapy on stress levels, and changes in levels of prolactin in primiparous puerperal in Semarang. Method: A true experimental study with a randomized pretest-posttest control group design. Cluster random sampling was used to select 12 health centers from the 37 health centers in Semarang. A random assignment with a sealed envelope was performed to divide study participants into four groups; loving massage group, aromatherapy group, and a combination group of loving massage and aromatherapy, and a control group. A total of 52 primiparous puerperal mothers was involved, with 13 mothers were distributed equally in each group. Results: Loving Massage, aromatherapy, and a combination of Loving Massage and aromatherapy effectively changed mother’s stress and prolactin levels. Effectiveness of each treatment assessed from the average difference in scores before and after treatment. Combination of Loving Massage and aromatherapy had proven as the most effective treatment in reducing stress levels (11.61 ± 6.76, and increasing prolactin level (83.13 ± 6.41 ng/ml. Conclusions: Loving Massage & Aromatherapy shown to lower the levels of stress, and can increase the levels prolactin in postpartum primiparous. Therefore, it is recommended to provide Loving Massage therapy and aromatherapy to postpartum primiparous mothers.

  19. Stress level in wild harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) during satellite tagging measured by respiration, heart rate and cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskesen, Ida Grønborg; Teilmann, J.; Geertsen, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    During satellite tagging of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), heart rate, respiration rate and cortisol value were measured to evaluate stress effects during handling and tagging. Respiration rates were obtained using video recordings, heart rates were recorded and serum cortisol levels were...... between cortisol and month of year, sex and body length. As high individual variations occurred in response to tagging of harbour porpoises, it is not possible to give general advice based oil the factors investigated, on how to reduce stress during handling. However, pouring water over the animal...

  20. Comparison of the Effect of Noise Levels on Stress Response in Two Different Operation Groups in an Orthopedic Surgery Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasibe Baytan Yildiz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this randomized, single-blinded study was to evaluate the effects of noise on hemodynamic and neuroendocrine stress response by measuring the level of noise in the surgery rooms of patients undergoing knee operations under neuroaxial anesthesia. Gerec ve Yontem: We compared patient responses from two groups of patients: those undergoing knee operations in a surgery room where the noise level (measured in decibels is high, and those undergoing meniscus operations in a surgery room with lower noise levels. The STAI, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-1, and the anxiety test (STAI-2wereperformed at preoperative and postoperative periods. 20 ml of blood sample was taken for basal, intraoperative 30th minute, and postoperative 1st hour measurements. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures were found to be higher in the high noise level group. ACTH levels were increased during the early postoperative period and became normal during the late postoperative period in the high noise level group whereas ACTH levels were significantly decreased in the low-noise level group. Basal cortisol levels were significantly higher in the high noise level group. HCRP, an inflammatory response mediator was found to be decreased in both groups. Early and late blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the high noise group. There was a greater increase in early and late blood glucose levels in the high noise group. In the postoperative period, although the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI-2 levels being higher in patients subject to noisier environment determines how people feel independent of the conditions and state they are in, this result made us consider that the noise the patients were subjected to in the intraoperative period may cause a stress response. Discussion: As a result we believe that standard noise levels should be achieved by reducing the factors causing high noise levels in the operating room. This will

  1. A Study of Learning Stress and Stress Management Strategies of the Students of Postgraduate level: A Case Study of Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Bukhsh, Qadir; Shahzad, Abid; Nisa, Muzammil

    2011-01-01

    Stress management .........................This study was designed to study Learning Stress and Stress Management Strategies for University Students. The objectives of the study were to find out the common symptoms of stress, causes of stress and to suggest stress management strategies used by students for coping with stress. For collecting data, survey method was adopted. This study was completed by following the procedure of descriptive method of research. 39 questions were used for data co...

  2. The Hikurangi Plateau: Tectonic Ricochet and Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, David; Moresi, Louis; Betts, Peter; Whittaker, Joanne

    2015-04-01

    80 million years between interactions with different subduction systems provided time for the Hikurangi Plateau and Pacific Ocean lithosphere to cool, densify and strengthen. Neogene subduction of the Hikurangi Plateau occurring orthogonal to its Cretaceous predecessor, provides a unique opportunity to explore how changes to the physical properties of oceanic lithosphere affect subduction dynamics. We used Underworld to build mechanically consistent collision models to understand the dynamics of the two Hikurangi collisions. The Hikurangi Plateau is a ~112 Ma, 15km thick oceanic plateau that has been entrained by subduction zones immediately preceding the final break-up of Eastern Gondwana and currently within the active Hikurangi Margin. We explore why attempted subduction of the plateau has resulted in vastly different dynamics on two separate occasions. Slab break-off occured during the collision with Gondwana, currently there is apparent subduction of the plateau underneath New Zealand. At ~100Ma the young, hot Hikurangi Plateau, positively buoyant with respect to the underlying mantle, impacted a Gondwana Margin under rapid extension after the subduction of an mid-ocean ridge 10-15Ma earlier. Modelling of plateaus within young oceanic crust indicates that subduction of the thickened crust was unlikely to occur. Frontal accretion of the plateau and accompanying slab break-off is expected to have occured rapidly after its arrival. The weak, young slab was susceptible to lateral propagation of the ~1500 km window opened by the collision, and break-off would have progressed along the subduction zone inhibiting the "step-back" of the trench seen in older plates. Slab break-off coincided with a world-wide reorganisation of plate velocites, and orogenic collapse along the Gondwana margin characterised by rapid extension and thinning of the over-riding continental plate from ~60 to 30km. Following extension, Zealandia migrated to the NW until the Miocene allowing the

  3. Computed tomography of tibial plateau fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafii, M.; Firooznia, H.; Golimbu, C.; Bonamo, J.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty patients with tibial plateau fractures were studied by conventional tomography and computed tomography (CT) in order to determine the role and feasibility of CT in management of such patients. CT resulted in less discomfort to the patient and provided optimal visualization of the plateau defect and the split fragments. It proved more accurate than conventional tomography in assessing depressed and split fractures when they involved the anterior or posterior border of the plateau and in demonstrating the extent of fracture comminution. Split fragments with an oblique plane of fracture also were seen better by CT. The degree of fracture depression and separation as measured by the computerized technique was often more accurate than measurements obtained from conventional tomograms

  4. Surface ozone at Nam Co in the inland Tibetan Plateau: variation, synthesis comparison and regional representativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiufeng; Kang, Shichang; de Foy, Benjamin; Cong, Zhiyuan; Luo, Jiali; Zhang, Lang; Ma, Yaoming; Zhang, Guoshuai; Rupakheti, Dipesh; Zhang, Qianggong

    2017-09-01

    Ozone is an important pollutant and greenhouse gas, and tropospheric ozone variations are generally associated with both natural and anthropogenic processes. As one of the most pristine and inaccessible regions in the world, the Tibetan Plateau has been considered as an ideal region for studying processes of the background atmosphere. Due to the vast area of the Tibetan Plateau, sites in the southern, northern and central regions exhibit different patterns of variation in surface ozone. Here, we present continuous measurements of surface ozone mixing ratios at Nam Co Station over a period of ˜ 5 years (January 2011 to October 2015), which is a background site in the inland Tibetan Plateau. An average surface ozone mixing ratio of 47.6 ± 11.6 ppb (mean ± standard deviation) was recorded, and a large annual cycle was observed with maximum ozone mixing ratios in the spring and minimum ratios during the winter. The diurnal cycle is characterized by a minimum in the early morning and a maximum in the late afternoon. Nam Co Station represents a background region where surface ozone receives negligible local anthropogenic emissions inputs, and the anthropogenic contribution from South Asia in spring and China in summer may affect Nam Co Station occasionally. Surface ozone at Nam Co Station is mainly dominated by natural processes involving photochemical reactions, vertical mixing and downward transport of stratospheric air mass. Model results indicate that the study site is affected differently by the surrounding areas in different seasons: air masses from the southern Tibetan Plateau contribute to the high ozone levels in the spring, and enhanced ozone levels in the summer are associated with air masses from the northern Tibetan Plateau. By comparing measurements at Nam Co Station with those from other sites on the Tibetan Plateau, we aim to expand the understanding of ozone cycles and transport processes over the Tibetan Plateau. This work may provide a

  5. Response of single bacterial cells to stress gives rise to complex history dependence at the population level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Roland; Ackermann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Most bacteria live in ever-changing environments where periods of stress are common. One fundamental question is whether individual bacterial cells have an increased tolerance to stress if they recently have been exposed to lower levels of the same stressor. To address this question, we worked with the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus and asked whether exposure to a moderate concentration of sodium chloride would affect survival during later exposure to a higher concentration. We found that the effects measured at the population level depended in a surprising and complex way on the time interval between the two exposure events: The effect of the first exposure on survival of the second exposure was positive for some time intervals but negative for others. We hypothesized that the complex pattern of history dependence at the population level was a consequence of the responses of individual cells to sodium chloride that we observed: (i) exposure to moderate concentrations of sodium chloride caused delays in cell division and led to cell-cycle synchronization, and (ii) whether a bacterium would survive subsequent exposure to higher concentrations was dependent on the cell-cycle state. Using computational modeling, we demonstrated that indeed the combination of these two effects could explain the complex patterns of history dependence observed at the population level. Our insight into how the behavior of single cells scales up to processes at the population level provides a perspective on how organisms operate in dynamic environments with fluctuating stress exposure. PMID:26960998

  6. Coat and hair color: hair cortisol and serotonin levels in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi Nejad, Jalil; Kim, Byong-Wan; Lee, Bae-Hun; Sung, Kyung-Il

    2017-01-01

    The deleterious effects of heat stress on animal health are being increasingly recognized. This study aimed to determine hair cortisol (HC) and serotonin levels in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions with different coat and hair-cut color. Forty-five multiparous lactating Holstein cows (days in milk = 130 ± 47, body weight = 753 ± 85 kg) were divided to two main groups of over 80% black coat color (BC) and over 85% white coat color (WC) visually observed based on registry certificates and subdividing to black hair sample (BH) and white hair samples (WH) in 2 × 2 factorial arrangements. Hair samples were taken from the forehead of the individuals. Higher HC levels were observed in BC than WC cows (P  0.05). Serotonin levels showed no difference between BC and WC (P > 0.05). Interaction between coat color and hair color was not significant (P > 0.05). The cortisol levels in hair are not affected by pigmentation. However, pigmentation within the coat alters cortisol levels. In conclusion, white coat color retains less cortisol than the black coat. Therefore, white coats are preferable for dairy cows under heat stress conditions. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Community Gardens as Health Promoters: Effects on Mental and Physical Stress Levels in Adults with and without Mental Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugrahaning Sani Dewi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on psychological and physical effects of stress while performing community garden activities of various intensity levels. The aim of this study was to determine the psychological and physical effects in adults with (case group and without (control group mental disabilities. Salivary α-amylase (sAA levels and the stress response scale (SRS-18 were used for the psychological analysis (n = 42. For physical assessment (n = 13, electrocardiogram (ECG, surface electromyogram (sEMG, and respiration rate were continuously measured while performing the activities using a multichannel telemetry system. The results showed that following the activities, the case group exhibited decreasing sAA levels while control group exhibited increasing sAA levels. However, both groups exhibited lower SRS-18 results following the activities. Compared with the control group, the case group had a significantly lower increase in the ratio of the heart rate (IRHR (5.5% during low-intensity work (filling pots with soil, but a significantly higher IRHR (16.7% during high-intensity work (turning over soil. The case group experienced significantly higher levels of fatigue during high-intensity work (digging than during the rest condition. These findings indicate that appropriate workload allocation, according to health, is necessary in the community garden setting because reducing the intensity of work assignments for people with mental disabilities will reduce their physical stress.

  8. Effects of Minority Stress, Group-Level Coping, and Social Support on Mental Health of German Gay Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A Sattler

    Full Text Available According to epidemiological studies, gay men are at a higher risk of mental disorders than heterosexual men. In the current study, the minority stress theory was investigated in German gay men: 1 it was hypothesized that minority stressors would positively predict mental health problems and that 2 group-level coping and social support variables would moderate these predictions negatively.Data from 1,188 German self-identified gay men were collected online. The questionnaire included items about socio-demographics, minority stress (victimization, rejection sensitivity, and internalized homonegativity, group-level coping (disclosure of sexual orientation, homopositivity, gay affirmation, gay rights support, and gay rights activism, and social support (gay social support and non-gay social support. A moderated multiple regression was conducted.Minority stressors positively predicted mental health problems. Group-level coping did not interact with minority stressors, with the exception of disclosure and homopositivity interacting marginally with some minority stressors. Further, only two interactions were found for social support variables and minority stress, one of them marginal. Gay and non-gay social support inversely predicted mental health problems. In addition, disclosure and homopositivity marginally predicted mental health problems.The findings imply that the minority stress theory should be modified. Disclosure does not have a relevant effect on mental health, while social support variables directly influence mental health of gay men. Group-level coping does not interact with minority stressors relevantly, and only one relevant interaction between social support and minority stress was found. Further longitudinal or experimental replication is needed before transferring the results to mental health interventions and prevention strategies for gay men.

  9. Effects of Minority Stress, Group-Level Coping, and Social Support on Mental Health of German Gay Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Frank A; Wagner, Ulrich; Christiansen, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    According to epidemiological studies, gay men are at a higher risk of mental disorders than heterosexual men. In the current study, the minority stress theory was investigated in German gay men: 1) it was hypothesized that minority stressors would positively predict mental health problems and that 2) group-level coping and social support variables would moderate these predictions negatively. Data from 1,188 German self-identified gay men were collected online. The questionnaire included items about socio-demographics, minority stress (victimization, rejection sensitivity, and internalized homonegativity), group-level coping (disclosure of sexual orientation, homopositivity, gay affirmation, gay rights support, and gay rights activism), and social support (gay social support and non-gay social support). A moderated multiple regression was conducted. Minority stressors positively predicted mental health problems. Group-level coping did not interact with minority stressors, with the exception of disclosure and homopositivity interacting marginally with some minority stressors. Further, only two interactions were found for social support variables and minority stress, one of them marginal. Gay and non-gay social support inversely predicted mental health problems. In addition, disclosure and homopositivity marginally predicted mental health problems. The findings imply that the minority stress theory should be modified. Disclosure does not have a relevant effect on mental health, while social support variables directly influence mental health of gay men. Group-level coping does not interact with minority stressors relevantly, and only one relevant interaction between social support and minority stress was found. Further longitudinal or experimental replication is needed before transferring the results to mental health interventions and prevention strategies for gay men.

  10. The influences of reproductive status and acute stress on the levels of phosphorylated mu opioid receptor immunoreactivity in rat hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith L. Gonzales

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Opioids play a critical role in hippocampally dependent behavior and plasticity. In the hippocampal formation, mu opioid receptors (MOR are prominent in parvalbumin (PARV containing interneurons. Previously we found that gonadal hormones modulate the trafficking of MORs in PARV interneurons. Although sex differences in response to stress are well documented, the point at which opioids, sex and stress interact to influence hippocampal function remains elusive. Thus, we used quantitative immunocytochemistry in combination with light and electron microscopy for the phosphorylated MOR at the SER375 carboxy-terminal residue (pMOR in male and female rats to assess these interactions. In both sexes, pMOR-immunoreactivity (ir was prominent in axons and terminals and in a few neuronal somata and dendrites, some of which contained PARV in the mossy fiber pathway region of the dentate gyrus (DG hilus and CA3 stratum lucidum. In unstressed rats, the levels of pMOR-ir in the DG or CA3 were not affected by sex or estrous cycle stage. However, immediately following 30 minutes of acute immobilization stress (AIS, males had higher levels of pMOR-ir whereas females at proestrus and estrus (high estrogen stages had lower levels of pMOR-ir within the DG. In contrast, the number and types of neuronal profiles with pMOR-ir were not altered by AIS in either males or proestrus females. These data demonstrate that although gonadal steroids do not affect pMOR levels at resting conditions, they are differentially activated both pre- and post-synaptic MORs following stress. These interactions may contribute to the reported sex differences in hippocampally dependent behaviors in stressed animals.

  11. HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU CLEANUP COMPLETION STRATEGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    Cleanup of the Hanford Site is a complex and challenging undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a comprehensive vision for completing Hanford's cleanup mission including transition to post-cleanup activities. This vision includes 3 principle components of cleanup: the ∼200 square miles ofland adjacent to the Columbia River, known as the River Corridor; the 75 square miles of land in the center of the Hanford Site, where the majority of the reprocessing and waste management activities have occurred, known as the Central Plateau; and the stored reprocessing wastes in the Central Plateau, the Tank Wastes. Cleanup of the River Corridor is well underway and is progressing towards completion of most cleanup actions by 2015. Tank waste cleanup is progressing on a longer schedule due to the complexity of the mission, with construction of the largest nuclear construction project in the United States, the Waste Treatment Plant, over 50% complete. With the progress on the River Corridor and Tank Waste, it is time to place increased emphasis on moving forward with cleanup of the Central Plateau. Cleanup of the Hanford Site has been proceeding under a framework defmed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In early 2009, the DOE, the State of Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency signed an Agreement in Principle in which the parties recognized the need to develop a more comprehensive strategy for cleanup of the Central Plateau. DOE agreed to develop a Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy as a starting point for discussions. This DOE Strategy was the basis for negotiations between the Parties, discussions with the State of Oregon, the Hanford Advisory Board, and other Stakeholder groups (including open public meetings), and consultation with the Tribal Nations. The change packages to incorporate the Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy were signed by the

  12. Effect of electromagnetic fields at 2.45 GHz on the levels of cellular stress proteins HSP-90 and 70 in the rat thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misa Agustino, M. J.; Alvarez-Folgueras, M.; Jorge-Mora, M. T.; Jorge Barreiro, F. J.; Ares Pena, F. J.; Lleiro, J.; Lopez Martin, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the cellular stress levels achieved by heat shock proteins (HSP) 90 and 70 in rat thyroid tissue after exposure to radio waves in TWG experimental system. Parallel measurements of body stress in animals by rectal temperature probes allow us to determine whether there is any interaction between temperature increases and cellular stress.

  13. The relation between fearfulness in young and stress-response in adult laying hens, on individual and group level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Elske N; Kops, Marjolein S; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Groothuis, Ton G G; Ellen, Esther D; Rodenburg, T Bas

    2012-10-10

    Fearfulness of an individual can affect its sensitivity to stress, while at the same time the social situation in which an animal lives can affect its fear level. It is however unknown what the long-term effects of high fearfulness on sensitivity to stress are, on individual or group level in laying hens. We hypothesize that increased fearfulness at a young age results in increased sensitivity to stress at an adult age, and that this relation can differ between groups, due to differences in group composition. Therefore, we studied the relation between fearfulness in an Open Field (OF) test at six weeks of age and plasma-corticosterone (CORT) levels after a 5-min Manual Restraint test (MR) at 33 weeks of age, and assessed behavior in the home pen. We used birds from a low mortality line, selected for four generations on low mortality due to feather pecking and cannibalism and a control line (n=153 in total, eight pens/line). These lines are known to differ in fearfulness and stress physiology. Chicks from the low mortality line were more active in the OF compared to chicks from the control line. Chicks that showed a fearful response (no walking, no vocalizing) in the OF test had higher CORT at 33 weeks of age than chicks that walked and/or vocalized in the OF test and had higher activity in the home pen as adults. On group level, a passive response in the OF was related to high CORT levels after MR. Presence of at least one fearful bird in a group led to higher CORT in the other group mates compared to birds from groups with no fearful birds present. Birds from groups in which more than 50% of birds had severe comb lesions had higher CORT levels compared to birds from groups with less than 50% of birds affected. High fearfulness of laying hen chicks can on individual level have a long-term effect on stress sensitivity. The presence of fearful birds in a group as well as signs of social instability in a group, indicated by comb lesions, can affect sensitivity to

  14. Neonatal Intensive Care and Child Psychiatry Inpatient Care: Do Different Working Conditions Influence Stress Levels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalotte Mörelius

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nurses often experience work-related stress. High stress can negatively affect job satisfaction and lead to emotional exhaustion with risk of burnout. Aim. To analyse possible differences in biological stress markers, psychosocial working conditions, health, and well-being between nurses working in two different departments. Methods. Stress was evaluated in nurses working in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU (n=33 and nurses working in a child and adolescent psychiatry inpatient ward (CAP (n=14 using salivary cortisol and HbA1c. Salivary cortisol was measured three times a day on two consecutive days during two one-week periods, seven weeks apart (= 12 samples/person. Psychosocial working conditions, health, and well-being were measured once. Results. NICU nurses had better social support and more self-determination. CAP nurses had a lower salivary cortisol quotient, poorer general health, and higher client-related burnout scores. Conclusion. When comparing these nurses with existing norm data for Sweden, as a group their scores reflect less work-related stress than Swedes overall. However, the comparison between NICU and CAP nurses indicates a less healthy work situation for CAP nurses. Relevance to Clinical Practice. Healthcare managers need to acknowledge the less healthy work situation CAP nurses experience in order to provide optimal support and promote good health.

  15. Serum Levels of Oxidative Stress Markers in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casoinic, F; Sampelean, D; Buzoianu, Anca D; Hancu, N; Baston, Dorina

    2016-12-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the key mechanisms responsible for disease progression in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of oxidative stress markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and test their relationships with clinical and biochemical patient characteristics, compared to patients with DMT2 without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and controls. In all, 60 consecutive patients with DMT2 and NASH, 55 with DMT2 without NAFLD, and 50 age-and-gender-matched healthy subjects participated in the study. The serum levels of protein carbonyls and 8-isoprostane were determined by ELISA methods, while the serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected by means of the spectrophotometric method. Clinical, demographic, and laboratory parameters were examined for all the subjects included in the study. Multivariate logistic regression was used to test the independent predictive factors in the relationships investigated here. Patients with DMT2 and NASH displayed significantly higher serum levels of protein carbonyls (1.112 ± 0.42 nmol/dL), MDA (6.181 ± 1.81 ng/mL), and 8-isoprostane (338.6 ± 98.5 pg/mL) compared to patients with DMT2 without NAFLD, and controls. Results of multivariate logistic regression analyses indicate that in patients with DMT2 and NASH, the serum levels of oxidative stress markers were independently and positively associated with: HbA1c, duration of diabetes, the UKPDS cardiovascular risk score (for protein carbonyls); age, LDL-cholesterol (for 8-isoprostane); and triglycerides serum levels (for MDA). Our findings indicate that the process of oxidative stress tends to increase in patients with DMT2 and NASH, compared to patients with DMT2 without NAFLD, and controls. This evidence suggests that an antioxidant therapy might prove useful in the treatment of patients with DMT2 and NASH.

  16. Plateau iris secondary to iridociliary cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Arteaga, J; Díaz-Céspedes, R A; Suriano, M M

    2015-11-01

    We present a case of plateau iris and glaucoma due to multiple unilateral iridociliary cysts. The patient was treated with iridotomy Nd: YAG laser and 360° iridoplasty, without achieving pressure control. Phacoemulsification improved the hypertension. Dynamic gonioscopy and OCT of the anterior chamber was also performed before and after treatment. Iridociliary cysts are a benign condition that can cause iris plateau configuration, and can produce a difficult to treat ocular hypertension. Cystotomy, peripheral iridoplasty, and other treatments have been proposed. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Reconstructing plateau icefields: Evaluating empirical and modelled approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Danni; Rea, Brice; Barr, Iestyn

    2013-04-01

    reworking and paraglacial modification. It is suggested the model produces an overall more holistic reconstruction, providing glaciological insights into an otherwise static reconstruction. The model should not replace the traditional technique but should be used in conjunction since it provides important insights into likely boundary conditions, including shear stress, the presence of plateau ice and thickness.

  18. Factors associated with high stress levels in adults with diabetes mellitus attending a tertiary diabetes care center, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendhilkumar, Muthappan; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Harries, Anthony D.; Dongre, Amol R.; Deepa, Mohan; Vidyulatha, Ashok; Poongothai, Subramanian; Venkatesan, Ulaganathan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to determine perceived stress levels among adults aged >20 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in a tertiary care diabetes center, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, assess their association with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and assess the possible risk factors for stress and coping strategies. Methods: A mixed-methods (triangulation design) study with quantitative methodology (survey) and qualitative methodology (interviews) was carried out. Stress levels were assessed among type 2 DM patients attending a diabetes clinic using a 5-point perceived stress scale-10. One-on-one interviews were carried out with 376 participants with DM having high/very high stress levels to understand the reasons for perceived stress and explore their coping mechanisms. Results: The prevalence of high/very high stress was 35% among DM patients. Age 30–40 years, working in professional jobs, and lack of physical activity were factors significantly associated with stress. The perceived major stress inducers were related to family, work, financial issues, and the disease itself. Conclusions: This study showed high levels of stress in more than one-third of DM patients. Potential solutions include regular, formal assessment of stress levels in the clinic, providing integrated counseling and psychological care for DM patients, and promoting physical activity. PMID:28217499

  19. Factors associated with high stress levels in adults with diabetes mellitus attending a tertiary diabetes care center, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthappan Sendhilkumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to determine perceived stress levels among adults aged >20 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM in a tertiary care diabetes center, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, assess their association with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and assess the possible risk factors for stress and coping strategies. Methods: A mixed-methods (triangulation design study with quantitative methodology (survey and qualitative methodology (interviews was carried out. Stress levels were assessed among type 2 DM patients attending a diabetes clinic using a 5-point perceived stress scale-10. One-on-one interviews were carried out with 376 participants with DM having high/very high stress levels to understand the reasons for perceived stress and explore their coping mechanisms. Results: The prevalence of high/very high stress was 35% among DM patients. Age 30–40 years, working in professional jobs, and lack of physical activity were factors significantly associated with stress. The perceived major stress inducers were related to family, work, financial issues, and the disease itself. Conclusions: This study showed high levels of stress in more than one-third of DM patients. Potential solutions include regular, formal assessment of stress levels in the clinic, providing integrated counseling and psychological care for DM patients, and promoting physical activity.

  20. Factors associated with high stress levels in adults with diabetes mellitus attending a tertiary diabetes care center, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendhilkumar, Muthappan; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Harries, Anthony D; Dongre, Amol R; Deepa, Mohan; Vidyulatha, Ashok; Poongothai, Subramanian; Venkatesan, Ulaganathan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to determine perceived stress levels among adults aged >20 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in a tertiary care diabetes center, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, assess their association with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and assess the possible risk factors for stress and coping strategies. A mixed-methods (triangulation design) study with quantitative methodology (survey) and qualitative methodology (interviews) was carried out. Stress levels were assessed among type 2 DM patients attending a diabetes clinic using a 5-point perceived stress scale-10. One-on-one interviews were carried out with 376 participants with DM having high/very high stress levels to understand the reasons for perceived stress and explore their coping mechanisms. The prevalence of high/very high stress was 35% among DM patients. Age 30-40 years, working in professional jobs, and lack of physical activity were factors significantly associated with stress. The perceived major stress inducers were related to family, work, financial issues, and the disease itself. This study showed high levels of stress in more than one-third of DM patients. Potential solutions include regular, formal assessment of stress levels in the clinic, providing integrated counseling and psychological care for DM patients, and promoting physical activity.

  1. Intermittent fasting modulates IgA levels in the small intestine under intense stress: a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Godínez-Victoria, Marycarmen; Drago-Serrano, Maria Elisa; Reyna-Garfias, Humberto; Arciniega-Martínez, Ivonne Maciel; Abarca-Rojano, Edgar; Cruz-Hernández, Teresita Rocío; Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2015-08-15

    Intermittent fasting prolongs the lifespan and unlike intense stress provides health benefits. Given the role of the immunoglobulin A (IgA) i