WorldWideScience

Sample records for plateau phase cultures

  1. The Colorado Plateau II : Biophysical, Socioeconomic, and Cultural Research

    OpenAIRE

    Van Riper, Charles; Mattson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract from GoogleBooks: The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by again focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through graz...

  2. The Colorado Plateau II : Biophysical, Socioeconomic, and Cultural Research

    OpenAIRE

    Van Riper, Charles; Mattson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract from GoogleBooks: The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by again focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through graz...

  3. The Colorado Plateau II: biophysical, socioeconomic, and cultural research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; van Riper, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through grazing and the wildland-urban interface issues, to parameters of climate change on the Plateau. The book also introduces economic perspectives by considering shifting patterns and regional disparities in the Colorado Plateau economy. A series of chapters on mountain lions explores the human-wildland interface. These chapters deal with the entire spectrum of challenges associated with managing this large mammal species in Arizona and on the Colorado Plateau, conveying a wealth of timely information of interest to wildlife managers and enthusiasts. Another provocative set of chapters on biophysical resources explores the management of forest restoration, from the micro scale all the way up to large-scale GIS analyses of ponderosa pine ecosystems on the Colorado Plateau. Given recent concerns for forest health in the wake of fires, severe drought, and bark-beetle infestation, these chapters will prove enlightening for forest service, park service, and land management professionals at both the federal and state level, as well as general readers interested in how forest management practices will ultimately affect their recreation activities. With broad coverage that touches on topics as diverse as movement patterns of rattlesnakes, calculating watersheds, and rescuing looted rockshelters, this volume stands as a compendium of cutting-edge research on the Colorado Plateau that offers a wealth of insights for many scholars.

  4. The Colorado Plateau: cultural, biological, and physical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kenneth L.; van Riper, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Stretching from the four corners of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah, the Colorado Plateau is a natural laboratory for a wide range of studies. This volume presents 23 original articles drawn from more than 100 research projects presented at the Sixth Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau. This scientific gathering revolved around research, inventory, and monitoring of lands in the region. The book's contents cover management techniques for cultural, biological, and physical resources, representing collaborative efforts among federal, university, and private sector scientists and land managers. Chapters on cultural concerns cover benchmarks of modern southwestern anthropological knowledge, models of past human activity and impact of modern visitation at newly established national monuments, challenges in implementing the 1964 Wilderness Act, and opportunities for increased federal research on Native American lands. The section on biological resources comprises sixteen chapters, with coverage that ranges from mammalian biogeography to responses of elk at the urban-wildland interface. Additional biological studies include the effects of fire and grazing on vegetation; research on bald eagles at Grand Canyon and tracking wild turkeys using radio collars; and management of palentological resources. Two final chapters on physical resources consider a proposed rerouting of the Rio de Flag River in urban Flagstaff, Arizona, and an examination of past climate patterns over the Plateau, using stream flow records and tree ring data. In light of similarities in habitat and climate across the Colorado Plateau, techniques useful to particular management units have been found to be applicable in many locations. This volume highlights an abundance of research that will prove useful for all of those working in the region, as well as for others seeking comparative studies that integrate research into land management actions.

  5. San Luis Valley - Taos Plateau Landscape-Level Cultural Heritage Values and Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wescott, Konstance L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Abplanalp, Jennifer M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brown, Jeff [Bureau of Land Management, Monte Vista, CO (United States); Cantwell, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dicks, Merrill [Bureau of Land Management, Taos, NM (United States); Fredericks, Brian [Bureau of Land Management, Monte Vista, CO (United States); Krall, Angie [US Forest Service, Creede, CO (United States); Rollins, Katherine E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, Robert [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Valdez, Arnie [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Verhaaren, Bruce [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vieira, Joseph [Bureau of Land Management, Monte Vista, CO (United States); Walston, Lee [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zvolanek, Emily A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The San Luis Valley – Taos Plateau Landscape-Level Cultural Heritage Values and Risk Assessment (hereafter referred to as cultural assessment) is a BLM pilot project designed to see whether the Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) framework (already established and implemented throughout many ecoregions in the West) can be applied to the cultural environment.

  6. One-Third Magnetization Plateau with a Preceding Novel Phase in Volborthite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, H.; Yoshida, M.; Nawa, K.; Jeong, M.; Krämer, S.; Horvatić, M.; Berthier, C.; Takigawa, M.; Akaki, M.; Miyake, A.; Tokunaga, M.; Kindo, K.; Yamaura, J.; Okamoto, Y.; Hiroi, Z.

    2015-06-01

    We have synthesized high-quality single crystals of volborthite, a seemingly distorted kagome antiferromagnet, and carried out high-field magnetization measurements up to 74 T and V 51 NMR measurements up to 30 T. An extremely wide 1 /3 magnetization plateau appears above 28 T and continues over 74 T at 1.4 K, which has not been observed in previous studies using polycrystalline samples. NMR spectra reveal an incommensurate order (most likely a spin-density wave order) below 22 T and a simple spin structure in the plateau phase. Moreover, a novel intermediate phase is found between 23 and 26 T, where the magnetization varies linearly with magnetic field and the NMR spectra indicate an inhomogeneous distribution of the internal magnetic field. This sequence of phases in volborthite bears a striking similarity to those of frustrated spin chains with a ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor coupling J1 competing with an antiferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbor coupling J2 .

  7. Very early multi-color observations of the plateau phase of GRB 041006 afterglow

    CERN Document Server

    Urata, Y; Qiu, Y L; Hu, J; Kuo, P H; Tamagawa, T; Ip, W H; Kinoshita, D; Fukushi, H; Isogai, M; Miyata, T; Nakada, Y; Aoki, T; Soyano, T; Tarusawa, K; Mito, H; Onda, K; Ibrahimov, M; Pozanenko, A; Makishima, K

    2006-01-01

    Observations of the optical afterglow of GRB 041006 with the Kiso Observatory 1.05 m Schmidt telescope, the Lulin Observatory 1.0 m telescope and the Xinglong Observatory 0.6 m telescope. Three-bands (B, V and R) of photometric data points were obtained on 2004 October 6, 0.025-0.329 days after the burst. These very early multi band light curves imply the existence of a color dependent plateau phase. The B-band light curve shows a clear plateau at around 0.03 days after the burst. The R band light curve shows the hint of a plateau, or a possible slope change, at around 0.1 days after the burst. The overall behavior of these multi-band light curves may be interpreted in terms of the sum of two separate components, one showing a monotonic decay the other exhibiting a rising and a falling phase, as described by the standard afterglow model.

  8. A study of gamma ray bursts with afterglow plateau phases associated with supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainotti, M. G.; Nagataki, S.; Maeda, K.; Postnikov, S.; Pian, E.

    2017-04-01

    Context. The analysis of 176 gamma ray burst (GRB) afterglow plateaus observed by Swift from GRBs with known redshifts revealed that the subsample of long GRBs associated with supernovae (LONG-SNe), comprising 19 events, presents a very high correlation coefficient between the luminosity at the end of the plateau phase LX(Ta) = La and the end time of the plateau . Furthermore, these SNe Ib/c associated with GRBs also obey the peak-magnitude stretch relation, which is similar to that used to standardize the SNe Ia. Aims: Our aim is to investigate a category of GRBs with plateau and associated with SNe to compare our correlation for this sample with the correlation for long GRBs for which no associated SN has been observed (hereafter LONG-NO-SNe, 128 GRBs) and to check whether there is a difference among these subsamples. Methods: We first adopted a nonparametric statistical method to take redshift evolution into account and to check if and how this effect may steepen the slope for the LONG-NO-SNe sample. This procedure is necessary because this sample is observed at much higher redshift than the GRB-SNe sample. Therefore, removing selection bias is the first step before any comparison among samples observed at different redshifts could be properly performed. Then, we applied the T-student test to evaluate a statistical difference between the slopes of the two samples. Results: We demonstrate that there is no evolution for the slope of the LONG-NO-SNe sample and no evolution is expected for GRBs observed at small redshifts such as those present in the LONG-SNe sample. The difference between the slope of the LONG-NO-SNe and the slope of LONG-SNe, i.e., those with firm spectral detection of SN components, is statistically significant (P = 0.005). Conclusions: This possibly suggests that, unlike LONG-NO-SNe, LONG-SNe with firm spectroscopic features of the associated SNe might not require a standard energy reservoir in the plateau phase. Therefore, this analysis may

  9. The Supercritical Pile Gamma-Ray Burst Model: The GRB Afterglow Steep Decline and Plateau Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Joseph; Kazanas, D.; Mastichiadis, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a process that accounts for the steep decline and plateau phase of the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) light curves, vexing features of gamma-ray burst (GRB) phenomenology. This process is an integral part of the "supercritical pile" GRB model, proposed a few years ago to account for the conversion of the GRB kinetic energy into radiation with a spectral peak at E(sub pk) is approx. m(sub e)C(exp 2). We compute the evolution of the relativistic blast wave (RBW) Lorentz factor Gamma to show that the radiation-reaction force due to the GRB emission can produce an abrupt, small (approx. 25%) decrease in Gamma at a radius that is smaller (depending on conditions) than the deceleration radius R(sub D). Because of this reduction, the kinematic criticality criterion of the "supercritical pile" is no longer fulfilled. Transfer of the proton energy into electrons ceases and the GRB enters abruptly the afterglow phase at a luminosity smaller by approx. m(sub p)/m(sub e) than that of the prompt emission. If the radius at which this slow-down occurs is significantly smaller than R(sub D), the RBW internal energy continues to drive the RBW expansion at a constant (new) Gamma and its X-ray luminosity remains constant until R(sub D) is reached, at which point it resumes its more conventional decay, thereby completing the "unexpected" XRT light curve phase. If this transition occurs at R is approx. equal to R(sub D), the steep decline is followed by a flux decrease instead of a "plateau," consistent with the conventional afterglow declines. Besides providing an account of these peculiarities, the model suggests that the afterglow phase may in fact begin before the RBW reaches R is approx. equal to R(sub D), thus providing novel insights into GRB phenomenology.

  10. The supercritical pile gamma-ray burst model: The GRB afterglow steep decline and plateau phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sultana, J. [Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Malta, Msida MSD2080 (Malta); Kazanas, D. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Mastichiadis, A., E-mail: joseph.sultana@um.edu.mt [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, GR 15783 Zografos (Greece)

    2013-12-10

    We present a process that accounts for the steep decline and plateau phase of the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) light curves, vexing features of gamma-ray burst (GRB) phenomenology. This process is an integral part of the 'supercritical pile' GRB model, proposed a few years ago to account for the conversion of the GRB kinetic energy into radiation with a spectral peak at E {sub pk} ∼ m{sub e}c {sup 2}. We compute the evolution of the relativistic blast wave (RBW) Lorentz factor Γ to show that the radiation-reaction force due to the GRB emission can produce an abrupt, small (∼25%) decrease in Γ at a radius that is smaller (depending on conditions) than the deceleration radius R{sub D} . Because of this reduction, the kinematic criticality criterion of the 'supercritical pile' is no longer fulfilled. Transfer of the proton energy into electrons ceases and the GRB enters abruptly the afterglow phase at a luminosity smaller by ∼m{sub p} /m{sub e} than that of the prompt emission. If the radius at which this slow-down occurs is significantly smaller than R{sub D} , the RBW internal energy continues to drive the RBW expansion at a constant (new) Γ and its X-ray luminosity remains constant until R{sub D} is reached, at which point it resumes its more conventional decay, thereby completing the 'unexpected' XRT light curve phase. If this transition occurs at R ≅ R{sub D} , the steep decline is followed by a flux decrease instead of a 'plateau,' consistent with the conventional afterglow declines. Besides providing an account of these peculiarities, the model suggests that the afterglow phase may in fact begin before the RBW reaches R ≅ R{sub D} , thus providing novel insights into GRB phenomenology.

  11. Love wave phase velocity models of the southeastern margin of Tibetan Plateau from a dense seismic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fengqin; Jia, Ruizhi; Fu, Yuanyuan V.

    2017-08-01

    Love wave dispersion maps across the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau are obtained using earthquake data recorded by the temporary ChinArray and permanent China Digital Seismic Array. Fundamental mode Love wave phase velocity curves are measured by inverting Love wave amplitude and phase with the two-plane-wave method. The phase velocity maps with resolution better than 150 km are presented at periods of 20-100 s, which is unprecedented in the study area. The maps agree well with each other and show clear correlations with major tectonic structures. The Love wave phase velocity could provide new information about structures in the crust and upper mantle beneath the southeast margin of Tibetan Plateau, like the radial anisotropy.

  12. Precipitation phase separation schemes in the Naqu River basin, eastern Tibetan plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaohua; Yan, Denghua; Qin, Tianling; Weng, Baisha; Lu, Yajing; Dong, Guoqiang; Gong, Boya

    2016-11-01

    Precipitation phase has a profound influence on the hydrological processes in the Naqu River basin, eastern Tibetan plateau. However, there are only six meteorological stations with precipitation phase (rainfall/snowfall/sleet) before 1979 within and around the basin. In order to separate snowfall from precipitation, a new separation scheme with S-shaped curve of snowfall proportion as an exponential function of daily mean temperature was developed. The determinations of critical temperatures in the single/two temperature threshold (STT/TTT2) methods were explored accordingly, and the temperature corresponding to the 50 % snowfall proportion (SP50 temperature) is an efficiently critical temperature for the STT, and two critical temperatures in TTT2 can be determined based on the exponential function and SP50 temperature. Then, different separation schemes were evaluated in separating snowfall from precipitation in the Naqu River basin. The results show that the S-shaped curve methods outperform other separation schemes. Although the STT and TTT2 slightly underestimate and overestimate the snowfall when the temperature is higher and colder than SP50 temperature respectively, the monthly and annual separation snowfalls are generally consistent with the observed snowfalls. On the whole, S-shaped curve methods, STT, and TTT2 perform well in separating snowfall from precipitation with the Pearson correlation coefficient of annual separation snowfall above 0.8 and provide possible approaches to separate the snowfall from precipitation for hydrological modelling.

  13. Characters of the Plateau of Methanol Increment in Frontal Analysis in Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG,Xin-Du(耿信笃); REGNIER,Fred E(弗莱德 依 瑞格涅尔)

    2002-01-01

    With insulin methanol-water, and the ion-pairing agent, hydrochloric acid and trifiuroacetic acid (TFA), the character of the first plateau (FP) on the elution curve of frontal analysis in reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) was investigated by on-line UV-spectrometry and identified with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry and mass spectrometry.The proffie of the FP is the same as that of a usual elution curve of methanol in frontal analysis (FA). When the insulin concentration was limited to a certain range, the height of the FP was found to be proportional to the insulin concentration in mobile phase and its length companying to shorten. The FP profile on the intersection of two tangents reflects the components of the microstructure in the depth direction of the bonded stationary phase layer and the desorption dynamics of the displaced components. The displaced methanol was quantitatively determined by NMR and on-line UV spectrometries. TFA with high UV absorbance can not be used as on ionpairing agent for the investigation of the FP in RPLC, but it can be used as a good marker to investigate the complicated transfer process of components in the stationary pdase in RPLC. A stoichiometric displacement process between solute and solvent was proved to be valid in both usual and FA in RPLC. From the point of view of dynamics of mass transfer,the solutes can only contact to the surface of stationary phase in usual RPLC, while solute can penetrate into it in FA of RPLC.The solvation of insulin in methanol and water solution as an example indicating the usage of the FP in the FA was also investigated in this paper.

  14. Comparison of time/phase lags in the hard state and plateau state of GRS 1915+105

    CERN Document Server

    Pahari, Mayukh; Yadav, J S; Misra, Ranjeev; Uttley, Phil

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the complex behavior of energy- and frequency-dependent time/phase lags in the plateau state and the radio-quiet hard state of GRS 1915+105. In our timing analysis, we find that when the source is faint in the radio, QPOs are observed above 2 Hz and typically exhibit soft lags (soft photons lag hard photons), whereas QPOs in the radio-bright plateau state are found below 2.2 Hz and consistently show hard lags. The phase lag at the QPO frequency is strongly anti-correlated with the QPO frequency, changing sign at 2.2 Hz. However, the phase lag at the frequency of the first harmonic is positive and nearly independent of frequency at at ~0.172 rad, regardless of the radio emission. The lag-energy dependence at the first harmonic is also independent of radio flux. However, the lags at the QPO frequency are negative at all energies during the radio-quiet state, but lags at the QPO frequency during the plateau state are positive at all energies and show a 'reflection-type' evolution of the lag-energy...

  15. Earth, Animals, and Academics: Plateau Indian Communities, Culture, and the Walla Walla Council of 1855.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafzer, Clifford E.

    1993-01-01

    Scholars analyzing events in American Indian history have the responsibility to consider not only the White political and social milieu but also American Indian world views, kinship ties, and political and spiritual influences. The Walla Walla Council of 1855, involving U.S. officials and Northwest Plateau tribes, illustrates the importance of…

  16. Novel phases in a square-lattice frustrated ferromagnet : 1/3 -magnetization plateau, helicoidal spin liquid, and vortex crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Luis; Sindzingre, Philippe; Momoi, Tsutomu; Shannon, Nic

    2016-02-01

    A large part of the interest in magnets with frustrated antiferromagnetic interactions comes from the many new phases found in applied magnetic field. In this article, we explore some of the new phases which arise in a model with frustrated ferromagnetic interactions, the J1-J2-J3 Heisenberg model on a square lattice. Using a combination of classical Monte Carlo simulation and spin-wave theory, we uncover behavior reminiscent of some widely studied frustrated antiferromagnets, but with a number of new twists. We first demonstrate that, for a suitable choice of parameters, the phase diagram as a function of magnetic field and temperature is nearly identical to that of the Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a triangular lattice, including the celebrated 1 /3 -magnetization plateau. We then examine how this phase diagram changes when the model is tuned to a point where the classical ground state is highly degenerate. In this case, two new phases emerge: a classical, finite-temperature spin liquid, characterized by a "ring" in the spin structure factor S (q ) ; and a vortex crystal, a multiple-Q state with finite magnetization, which can be viewed as an ordered lattice of magnetic vortices. All of these new phases persist for a wide range of magnetic fields. We discuss the relationship between these results and published studies of frustrated antiferromagnets, together with some of the materials where these new phases might be observed in experiment.

  17. Gas-Phase Treatment of Technetium in the Vadose Zone at the Hanford Site Central Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Szecsody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhong, Lirong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Technetium-99 (Tc-99) is present in the vadose zone of the Hanford Central Plateau and is a concern with respect to the protection of groundwater. The persistence, limited natural attenuation mechanisms, and geochemical behavior of Tc-99 in oxic vadose zone environments must be considered in developing effective alternatives for remediation. This report describes a new in situ geochemical manipulation technique for decreasing Tc-99 mobility using a combination of geochemical Tc-99 reduction with hydrogen sulfide gas and induced sediment mineral dissolution with ammonia vapor, which create conditions for deposition of stable precipitates that decrease the mobility of Tc-99. Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine changes in Tc-99 mobility in vadose zone sediment samples to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment under a variety of operational and sediment conditions.

  18. Inhibition of B-NHEJ in Plateau-Phase Cells Is Not a Direct Consequence of Suppressed Growth Factor Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Satyendra K.; Bednar, Theresa; Zhang Lihua [Institute of Medical Radiation Biology, University Duisburg-Essen Medical School, Essen (Germany); Wu, Wenqi [First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou, Urology Department, Minimally Invasive Center, Medical College, 510230 Guangzhou (China); Mladenov, Emil [Institute of Medical Radiation Biology, University Duisburg-Essen Medical School, Essen (Germany); Iliakis, George, E-mail: Georg.Iliakis@uk-essen.de [Institute of Medical Radiation Biology, University Duisburg-Essen Medical School, Essen (Germany)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: It has long been known that the proliferation status of a cell is a determinant of radiation response, and the available evidence implicates repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the underlying mechanism. Recent results have shown that a novel, highly error-prone pathway of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) operating as backup (B-NHEJ) processes DSBs in irradiated cells when the canonical, DNA-PK (DNA-dependent protein kinase)-dependent pathway of NHEJ (D-NHEJ) is compromised. Notably, B-NHEJ shows marked reduction in efficiency when D-NHEJ-deficient cells cease to grow and enter a plateau phase. This phenomenon is widespread and observed in cells of different species with defects in core components of D-NHEJ, with the notable exception of DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase, catalytic subunit). Using new, standardized serum-deprivation protocols, we re-examine the growth requirements of B-NHEJ and test the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in its regulation. Methods and Materials: DSB repair was measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in cells maintained under different conditions of growth. Results: Serum deprivation in D-NHEJ-deficient cells causes a rapid reduction in B-NHEJ similar to that measured in normally growing cells that enter the plateau phase of growth. Upon serum deprivation, reduction in B-NHEJ activity is evident at 4 h and reaches a plateau reflecting maximum inhibition at 12-16 h. The inhibition is reversible, and B-NHEJ quickly recovers to the levels of actively growing cells upon supply of serum to serum-deprived cells. Chemical inhibition of EGFR in proliferating cells inhibits only marginally B-NHEJ and addition of EGFR in serum-deprived cells increases only a marginally B-NHEJ. Conclusions: The results document a rapid and fully reversible adaptation of B-NHEJ to growth activity and point to factors beyond EGFR in its regulation. They show notable differences in the regulation of error

  19. Interaction between x-irradiated plateau-phase bone marrow stromal cell lines and co-cultivated factor-dependent cell lines leading to leukemogenesis in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naparstek, E.; Anklesaria, P.; FitzGerald, T.J.; Sakakeeny, M.A.; Greenberger, J.S.

    1987-03-01

    Plateau-phase mouse clonal bone marrow stromal cell lines D2XRII and C3H cl 11 produce decreasing levels of M-CSF (CSF-1), a specific macrophage progenitor cell humoral regulator, following X-irradiation in vitro. The decrease did not go below 40% of control levels, even after irradiation doses of 50,000 rad (500 Gy). In contrast, a distinct humoral regulator stimulating growth of GM-CSF/IL-3 factor-dependent (FD) hematopoietic progenitor cell lines was detected following radiation to doses above 2000 rad. This humoral factor was not detectable in conditioned medium from irradiated cells, weakly detected using factor-dependent target cell populations in agar overlay, and was prominently detected by liquid co-cultivation of factor-dependent cells with irradiated stromal cell cultures. Subclonal lines of FD cells, derived after co-cultivation revealed karyotypic abnormalities and induced myeloblastic tumors in syngeneic mice. Five-eight weeks co-cultivation was required for induction of factor independence and malignancy and was associated with dense cell to cell contact between FD cells and stromal cells demonstrated by light and electron microscopy. Increases in hematopoietic to stromal cell surface area, total number of adherent cells per flask, total non-adherent cell colonies per flask, and cumulative non-adherent cell production were observed after irradiation. The present data may prove very relevant to an understanding of the cell to cell interactions during X-irradiation-induced leukemia.

  20. High-Resolution Regional Phase Attenuation Models of the Iranian Plateau and Surrounding Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-03

    Mayeda, W. R. Walter, L. Malagnini, and W. S. Phillips, Regional Attenuation in Northern California: A Comparison of Five 1D Q Methods, Bull. Seism ...regional phase amplitude tomography, Seism . Res. Lett., 80, p. 360, 2009. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 49 Priestley, K

  1. Monte Carlo study of half-magnetization plateau and magnetic phase diagram in pyrochlore antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model

    OpenAIRE

    Motome, Yukitoshi; Penc, Karlo; Shannon, Nic

    2005-01-01

    The antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on a pyrochlore lattice under external magnetic field is studied by classical Monte Carlo simulation. The model includes bilinear and biquadratic interactions; the latter effectively describes the coupling to lattice distortions. The magnetization process shows a half-magnetization plateau at low temperatures, accompanied with strong suppression of the magnetic susceptibility. Temperature dependence of the plateau behavior is clarified. Finite-temperatur...

  2. Comparative Strategic Cultures Workshop-Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Talcott Parsons , The Social System (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1951). 7. Mary Douglas and Aaron Wildavsky, Risk and Culture: An Essay on the Selection...aversion, or indifference.”[5] Parsons added that culture was comprised of “interpretive codes” including language, values, and even substantive beliefs...and Parsons , she contended that interest-driven strategies are important, mediating conditions on state behavior.[9] But while sociological models of

  3. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress.

  4. Fiber degradation potential of natural co-cultures of Neocallimastix frontalis and Methanobrevibacter ruminantium isolated from yaks (Bos grunniens) grazing on the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ya-Qin; Long, Rui-Jun; Yang, Hui; Yang, Hong-Jian; Shen, Xi-Hui; Shi, Rui-Fang; Wang, Zhi-Ye; Du, Jun-Guo; Qi, Xiao-Jin; Ye, Qian-Hong

    2016-06-01

    Several natural anaerobic fungus-methanogen co-cultures have been isolated from rumen and feces source of herbivores with strong fiber degrading ability. In this study, we isolated 7 Neocallimastix with methanogen co-cultures from the rumen of yaks grazing on the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau. Based on morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer 1 sequences (ITS1), all the fungi were identified as Neocallimastix frontalis. The co-cultures were confirmed as the one fungus - one methanogen pattern by the PCR-denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) assay. All the methanogens were identified as Methanobrevibacter ruminantium by 16s rRNA gene sequencing. We investigated the biodegrading capacity of the co-culture (N. frontalis + M. ruminantium) Yaktz1 on wheat straw, corn stalk and rice straw in a 7 days-incubation. The in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), acid detergent fiber digestibility (ADFD) and neural detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD) values of the substrates in the co-culture were significantly higher than those in the mono-culture N. frontalis Yaktz1. The co-culture exhibited high polysaccharide hydrolase (xylanase and FPase) and esterase activities. The xylanase in the co-culture reached the highest activity of 12500 mU/ml on wheat straw at the day 3 of the incubation. At the end of the incubation, 3.00 mmol-3.29 mmol/g dry matter of methane were produced by the co-culture. The co-culture also produced high level of acetate (40.00 mM-45.98 mM) as the end-product during the biodegradation. Interestingly, the N. frontalis Yaktz1 mono-culture produced large amount of lactate (8.27 mM-11.60 mM) and ethanol (163.11 mM-242.14 mM), many times more than those recorded in the previously reported anaerobic fungi. Our data suggests that the (N. frontalis + M. ruminantium) Yaktz1 co-culture and the N. frontalis Yaktz1 mono-culture both have great potentials for different industrial use.

  5. [Neurological paleopathology in the pre-Columbine cultures of the coast and the Andean plateau (II). The history of cranial trepanations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J; Vázquez-Cabrera, C B

    Trepanation is one of the earliest examples of a surgical procedure being carried out by human beings and was performed from the Neolithic period onwards in a large number of primitive cultures throughout the five continents. Trepanation and cranial deformation were both common in the pre-Columbine cultures. The aim of this work was to study the trepanations carried out by the ancient Paraca, Nazca, Huari, Tiahuanaco and Inca cultures. To do so, we conducted a field study involving visits to archaeological remains and anthropological museums on the Andean plateau and the Peruvian coast. In the pre-Columbine cultures, trepanation was performed on both men and women for therapeutic purposes (depressed fractures, epilepsy, vascular headaches and those associated to artificial cranial deformations) and as a ritual. Signs of trepanation have been found in 5% of skulls and 80% of these show evidence of the 'patient' having survived such an intervention. Some of them have several holes in different stages of healing. The trephining procedure involved the use of obsidian knives with wooden handles and tumis, which were ceremonial knives that were used to cut the scalp. Gold and silver cranioplasty plates have also been found in some skulls. Cranial trepanation was very successful despite the rudimentary methods and instruments employed to perform it.

  6. Scale-Up Information for Gas-Phase Ammonia Treatment of Uranium in the Vadose Zone at the Hanford Site Central Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Szecsody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhong, Lirong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thomle, Jonathan N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Uranium is present in the vadose zone at the Hanford Central Plateau and is of concern for protection of groundwater. The Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau identified gas-phase treatment and geochemical manipulation as potentially effective treatment approaches for uranium and technetium in the Hanford Central Plateau vadose zone. Based on laboratory evaluation, use of ammonia vapor was selected as the most promising uranium treatment candidate for further development and field testing. While laboratory tests have shown that ammonia treatment effectively reduces the mobility of uranium, additional information is needed to enable deployment of this technology for remediation. Of importance for field applications are aspects of the technology associated with effective distribution of ammonia to a targeted treatment zone, understanding the fate of injected ammonia and its impact on subsurface conditions, and identifying effective monitoring approaches. In addition, information is needed to select equipment and operational parameters for a field design. As part of development efforts for the ammonia technology for remediation of vadose zone uranium contamination, field scale-up issues were identified and have been addressed through a series of laboratory and modeling efforts. This report presents a conceptual description for field application of the ammonia treatment process, engineering calculations to support treatment design, ammonia transport information, field application monitoring approaches, and a discussion of processes affecting the fate of ammonia in the subsurface. The report compiles this information from previous publications and from recent research and development activities. The intent of this report is to provide technical information about these scale-up elements to support the design and operation of a field test for the ammonia treatment technology.

  7. Characterization of culturable Paenibacillus spp. from the snow surface on the high Antarctic Plateau (DOME C) and their dissemination in the Concordia research station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houdt, Rob; Deghorain, Marie; Vermeersch, Marjorie; Provoost, Ann; Lo Giudice, Angelina; Leys, Natalie; Perez-Morga, David; Van Melderen, Laurence; Michaud, Luigi

    2013-07-01

    Culturable psychrotolerant bacteria were isolated from the top snow on the high Antarctic Plateau surrounding the research station Concordia. A total of 80 isolates were recovered, by enrichment cultures, from two different isolation sites (a distant pristine site [75° S 123° E] and a site near the secondary runway of Concordia). All isolates were classified to the genus Paenibacillus by 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis and belonged to two different species (based on threshold of 97 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequence). ERIC-PCR fingerprinting indicated that the isolates from the two different sites were not all clonal. All isolates grew well from 4 to 37 °C and were resistant to ampicillin and streptomycin. In addition, the isolates from the secondary runway were resistant to chromate and sensitive to chloramphenicol, contrary to those from the pristine site. The isolates were compared to 29 Paenibacillus isolates, which were previously recovered from inside the Concordia research station. One of these inside isolates showed ERIC- and REP-PCR fingerprinting profiles identical to those of the runway isolates and was the only inside isolate that was resistant to chromate and sensitive to chloramphenicol. The latter suggested that dissemination of culturable Paenibacillus strains between the harsh Antarctic environment and the inside of the Concordia research station occurred. In addition, inducible prophages, which are potentially involved in horizontal dissemination of genes, were detected in Paenibacillus isolates recovered from outside and inside the station. The highest lysogeny was observed in strains harvested from the hostile environment outside the station.

  8. Quantitative phase imaging for cell culture quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastl, Lena; Isbach, Michael; Dirksen, Dieter; Schnekenburger, Jürgen; Kemper, Björn

    2017-05-01

    The potential of quantitative phase imaging (QPI) with digital holographic microscopy (DHM) for quantification of cell culture quality was explored. Label-free QPI of detached single cells in suspension was performed by Michelson interferometer-based self-interference DHM. Two pancreatic tumor cell lines were chosen as cellular model and analyzed for refractive index, volume, and dry mass under varying culture conditions. Firstly, adequate cell numbers for reliable statistics were identified. Then, to characterize the performance and reproducibility of the method, we compared results from independently repeated measurements and quantified the cellular response to osmolality changes of the cell culture medium. Finally, it was demonstrated that the evaluation of QPI images allows the extraction of absolute cell parameters which are related to cell layer confluence states. In summary, the results show that QPI enables label-free imaging cytometry, which provides novel complementary integral biophysical data sets for sophisticated quantification of cell culture quality with minimized sample preparation. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  9. Dual pathways of calcium entry in spike and plateau phases of luteinizing hormone release from chicken pituitary cells: sequential activation of receptor-operated and voltage-sensitive calcium channels by gonadotropin-releasing hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J.S.; Wakefield, I.K.; King, J.A.; Mulligan, G.P.; Millar, R.P.

    1988-04-01

    It has previously been shown that, in pituitary gonadotrope cells, the initial rise in cytosolic Ca2+ induced by GnRH is due to a Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores. This raises the possibility that the initial transient spike phase of LH release might be fully or partially independent of extracellular Ca2+. We have therefore characterized the extracellular Ca2+ requirements, and the sensitivity to Ca2+ channel blockers, of the spike and plateau phases of secretion separately. In the absence of extracellular Ca2+ the spike and plateau phases were inhibited by 65 +/- 4% and 106 +/- 3%, respectively. Both phases exhibited a similar dependence on concentration of extracellular Ca2+. However, voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channel blockers D600 and nifedipine had a negligible effect on the spike phase, while inhibiting the plateau phase by approximately 50%. In contrast, ruthenium red, Gd3+ ions, and Co2+ ions inhibited both spike and plateau phases to a similar extent as removal of extracellular Ca2+. A fraction (35 +/- 4%) of spike phase release was resistant to removal of extracellular Ca2+. This fraction was abolished after calcium depletion of the cells by preincubation with EGTA in the presence of calcium ionophore A23187, indicating that it depends on intracellular Ca2+ stores. Neither absence of extracellular Ca2+, nor the presence of ruthenium red or Gd3+ prevented mobilization of 45Ca2+ from intracellular stores by GnRH. We conclude that mobilization of intracellular stored Ca2+ is insufficient by itself to account for full spike phase LH release.

  10. A culture-independent study of free-living fungi in biological soil crusts of the Colorado Plateau: their diversity and relative contribution to microbial biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Scott T; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2009-01-01

    Molecular methodologies were used to investigate free-living fungal communities associated with biological soil crusts (BSCs), along km-scale transects on the Colorado Plateau (USA). Two cyanobacteria-dominated crust types that did not contain significant lichen cover were examined. Fungal community diversity and composition were assessed with PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting and sequencing, and fungi-specific quantitative PCR was used to measure fungal population densities as compared with those of bacteria. Our results clearly indicate that free-living fungi, while ubiquitous in BSCs, are less diverse and contribute far less biomass than their bacterial counterparts. Biological soil crust fungal community structure differed from that of uncrusted soils in their surroundings. Phylogenetic analyses placed the majority of BSC fungi within the Ascomycota, confirmed the importance of dematiaceous fungi, and pointed to members of the genera Alternaria and Acremonium as the most common free-living fungi in these crusts. Phylotypes potentially representing novel taxa were recovered, as were several belonging to the Basidiomycota that would not have been readily recognized by culture-dependant means.

  11. Pyramid Schemes on the Tibetan Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Devin Gonier; Rgyal yum sgrol ma

    2012-01-01

    The unique features of pyramid schemes and certain underlying causes for their development on the Tibetan Plateau are analyzed. Research was conducted by analyzing 521 surveys, allowing estimation of pyramid scheme activity on the Plateau and an identification of related cultural and social specificities. Firsthand accounts were collected revealing details of personal involvement. Survey data and similarities in the accounts were studied to suggest how involvement in pyramid schemes might be ...

  12. Living between two worlds: two-phase culture systems for producing plant secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sonia; Hossein Mirjalili, Mohammad; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano; Mazzafera, Paulo; Bonfill, Mercedes

    2013-03-01

    The two-phase culture system is an important in vitro strategy to increase the production of secondary metabolites (SMs) by providing an enhanced release of these compounds from plant cells. Whereas the first phase supports cell growth, the second phase provides an additional site or acts as a metabolic sink for the accumulation of SMs and also reduces feedback inhibition. This review is focused on several aspects of the two-phase culture system and aims to show the diverse possibilities of employing this technique for the in vitro production of SMs from plant cells. Depending on the material used in the secondary phase, two-phase culture systems can be broadly categorised as liquid-liquid or liquid-solid. The choice of material for the second phase depends on the type of compound to be recovered and the compatibility with the other phase. Different factors affecting the efficiency of two-phase culture systems include the choice of material for the secondary phase, its concentration, volume, and time of addition. Factors such as cell elicitation, immobilization, and permeabilization, have been suggested as important strategies to make the two-phase culture system practically reliable on a commercial scale. Since there are many possibilities for designing a two-phase system, more detailed studies are needed to broaden the range of secondary phases compatible with the various plant species producing SMs with potential applications, mainly in the food and pharmacology industries.

  13. Modeling the Physical Multi-Phase Interactions of HNO3 Between Snow and Air on the Antarctic Plateau (Dome C) and coast (Halley)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hoi Ga; Frey, Markus M.; King, Martin D.

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) emissions from nitrate (NO3-) photolysis in snow affect the oxidising capacity of the lower troposphere especially in remote regions of the high latitudes with low pollution levels. The porous structure of snowpack allows the exchange of gases with the atmosphere driven by physicochemical processes, and hence, snow can act as both source and sink of atmospheric chemical trace gases. Current models are limited by poor process understanding and often require tuning parameters. Here, two multi-phase physical models were developed from first principles constrained by observed atmospheric nitrate, HNO3, to describe the air-snow interaction of nitrate. Similar to most of the previous approaches, the first model assumes that below a threshold temperature, To, the air-snow grain interface is pure ice and above To, a disordered interface (DI) emerges assumed to be covering the entire grain surface. The second model assumes that Air-Ice interactions dominate over the entire temperature range below melting and that only above the eutectic temperature, liquid is present in the form of micropockets in grooves. The models are validated with available year-round observations of nitrate in snow and air at a cold site on the Antarctica Plateau (Dome C, 75°06'S, 123°33'E, 3233 m a.s.l.) and at a relatively warm site on the Antarctica coast (Halley, 75°35'S, 26°39'E, 35 m a.s.l). The first model agrees reasonably well with observations at Dome C (Cv(RMSE) = 1.34), but performs poorly at Halley (Cv(RMSE) = 89.28) while the second model reproduces with good agreement observations at both sites without any tuning (Cv(RMSE) = 0.84 at both sites). It is therefore suggested that air-snow interactions of nitrate in the winter are determined by non-equilibrium surface adsorption and co-condensation on ice coupled with solid-state diffusion inside the grain. In summer, however, the air-snow exchange of nitrate is mainly driven by solvation into liquid

  14. The Pajarito Plateau: a bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathien, Frances Joan; Steen, Charlie R.; Allen, Craig D.

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography is the result of two initially independent projects. As the consulting archaeologist at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Charlie R. Steen collected entries at the suggestion of the staff of the Environmental Surveillance Group of the Health, Safety, and Environmental Division, HSE-8. The primary purpose was to aid the staff in evaluating cultural resources on LANL lands. In addition to works that related to the archaeology and history of the area, Steen included notations of a few books and articles in other fields such as geology and natural history. It was hoped that they also would be of value to other organizations and to students of past human activities on the Pajarito Plateau.At the same time, the National Park Service (NPS) was planning a major survey of Bandelier National Monument (BNM). As part of this plan, the author was asked to prepare a background document that described research previously carried out in the area, including an annotated bibliography. Although the survey would be limited to the park boundaries, the larger Pajarito Plateau is a more logical study area from physiographic, environmental, and cultural perspectives; hence the focus was on this larger region. Mathien (1986) also included some references to natural resources studies, particularly those initiated by NPS within Bandelier National Monument.Both bibliographies were made available to Colleen Olinger and Beverly Larson of the Health and Environmental Services Group at Los Alamos. They realized that while neither was complete, each included entries missing from the other. Larson suggested the two bibliographies be combined. (At this time, Craig Allen was studying the landscape of the Jemez Mountains [Allen 1984c, 1989]. His investigations included much detailed information on natural resource studies and were added in 1991 and 1992.)To limit the scope of their work, Steen and Mathien had chosen their parameter: the Pajarito Plateau. Geographically, the

  15. Characterization of natural co-cultures of Piromyces with Methanobrevibacter ruminantium from yaks grazing on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: a microbial consortium with high potential in plant biomass degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ya-Qin; Yang, Hong-Jian; Long, Rui-Jun; Wang, Zhi-Ye; Cao, Bin-Bin; Ren, Qin-Chang; Wu, Tian-Tian

    2017-12-01

    Anaerobic fungi reside in the gut of herbivore and synergize with associated methanogenic archaea to decompose ingested plant biomass. Despite their potential for use in bioconversion industry, only a few natural fungus-methanogen co-cultures have been isolated and characterized. In this study we identified three co-cultures of Piromyces with Methanobrevibacter ruminantium from the rumen of yaks grazing on the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau. The representative co-culture, namely (Piromyces + M. ruminantium) Yak-G18, showed remarkable polysaccharide hydrolase production, especially xylanase. Consequently, it was able to degrade various lignocellulose substrates with a biodegrading capability superior to most previously identified fungus or fungus-methanogen co-culture isolates. End-product profiling analysis validated the beneficial metabolic impact of associated methanogen on fungus as revealed by high-yield production of methane and acetate and sustained growth on lignocellulose. Together, our data demonstrated a great potential of (Piromyces + M. ruminantium) Yak-G18 co-culture for use in industrial bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass.

  16. Animal-cell culture in aqueous two-phase systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, G.M.

    1998-01-01

    In current industrial biotechnology, animal-cell culture is an important source of therapeutic protein products. The conventional animal-cell production processes, however, include many unit operations as part of the fermentation and downstream processing strategy. The research described in this the

  17. Animal-cell culture in aqueous two-phase systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, G.M.

    1998-01-01

    In current industrial biotechnology, animal-cell culture is an important source of therapeutic protein products. The conventional animal-cell production processes, however, include many unit operations as part of the fermentation and downstream processing strategy. The research described in

  18. Framing the Cultural Training Landscape: Phase I Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    people from another culture, flexibility, interpersonal skills and communication, mental model/perspective-taking, metacognition /self-monitoring...Armed Forces, at the Peace Operation Training Center in Jordan. Initially the program involved 300 soldiers, and three classes per year. Program...usacac.army.mil/CAC/milreview/ English /NovDec06/Salmoni.p . 46 Author’s paraphrase, CAOCL session 2 October. 47 Barak A Salmoni, “Advances in Predeployment

  19. Tibial Plateau Fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsøe, Rasmus

    This PhD thesis reported an incidence of tibial plateau fractures of 10.3/100,000/year in a complete Danish regional population. The results reported that patients treated for a lateral tibial plateau fracture with bone tamp reduction and percutaneous screw fixation achieved a satisfactory level...... with only the subgroup Sport significantly below the age matched reference population. The thesis reports a level of health related quality of life (Eq5d) and disability (KOOS) significantly below established reference populations for patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fracture treated with a ring...... fixator, both during treatment and at 19 months following injury. In general, the thesis demonstrates that the treatment of tibial plateau fractures are challenging and that some disabilities following these fractures must be expected. Moreover, the need for further research in the area, both with regard...

  20. Inter-machine comparison of the termination phase and energy conversion in tokamak disruptions with runaway current plateau formation and implications for ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Solís, J. R.; Loarte, A.; Hollmann, E. M.; Esposito, B.; Riccardo, V.; FTU; DIII-D Teams; EFDA Contributors, JET

    2014-08-01

    The termination of the current and the loss of runaway electrons following runaway current plateau formation during disruptions have been investigated in the JET, DIII-D and FTU tokamaks. Substantial conversion of magnetic energy into runaway kinetic energy, up to ˜10 times the initial plateau runaway kinetic energy, has been inferred for the slowest current terminations. Both modelling and experiment suggest that, in present devices, the efficiency of conversion into runaway kinetic energy is determined to a great extent by the characteristic runaway loss time, τdiff, and the resistive time of the residual ohmic plasma after the disruption, τres, increasing with the ratio τdiff/τres. It is predicted that, in large future devices such as ITER, the generation of runaways by the avalanche mechanism will play an important role, particularly for slow runaway discharge terminations, increasing substantially the amount of energy deposited by the runaways onto the plasma-facing components by the conversion of magnetic energy of the runaway plasma into runaway kinetic energy. Estimates of the power fluxes on the beryllium plasma-facing components during runaway termination in ITER indicate that for runaway currents of up to 2 MA no melting of the components is expected. For larger runaway currents, minimization of the effects of runaway impact on the first wall requires a reduction in the kinetic energy of the runaway beam before termination and, in addition, high plasma density ne and low ohmic plasma resistance (long τres) to prevent large conversion of magnetic into runaway kinetic energy during slow current terminations.

  1. Plateau-insulator transition in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amado, M; Diez, E; Caridad, J M [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Universidad de Salamanca, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Lopez-Romero, D [CT-ISOM, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Rossella, F; Dionigi, F; Bellani, V [Dipartimento di Fisica ' A Volta' and CNISM, Universita degli studi di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Maude, D K, E-mail: marioam@fis.ucm.e [Laboratoire National des Champs Magnetiques Intenses, F-38042 Grenoble (France)

    2010-05-15

    We investigate the quantum Hall effect (QHE) in a graphene sample with Hall-bar geometry close to the Dirac point at high magnetic fields up to 28 T. We have discovered a plateau-insulator quantum phase transition passing from the last plateau for the integer QHE in graphene to an insulator regime {nu}=-2{yields}{nu}=0. The analysis of the temperature dependence of the longitudinal resistance gives a value for the critical exponent associated with the transition equal to {kappa}=0.58{+-}0.03.

  2. Transitioning from multi-phase to single-phase microfluidics for long-term culture and treatment of multicellular spheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Kay S; Boyd, Marie; Zagnoni, Michele

    2016-09-21

    When compared to methodologies based on low adhesion or hanging drop plates, droplet microfluidics offers several advantages for the formation and culture of multicellular spheroids, such as the potential for higher throughput screening and the use of reduced cell numbers, whilst providing increased stability for plate handling. However, a drawback of the technology is its characteristic compartmentalisation which limits the nutrients available to cells within an emulsion and poses challenges to the exchange of the encapsulated solution, often resulting in short-term cell culture and/or viability issues. The aim of this study was to develop a multi-purpose microfluidic platform that combines the high-throughput characteristics of multi-phase flows with that of ease of perfusion typical of single-phase microfluidics. We developed a versatile system to upscale the formation and long-term culture of multicellular spheroids for testing anticancer treatments, creating an array of fluidically addressable, compact spheroids that could be cultured in either medium or within a gel scaffold. The work provides proof-of-concept results for using this system to test both chemo- and radio-therapeutic protocols using in vitro 3D cancer models.

  3. Radiative plateau inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ballesteros, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    We describe how monomial chaotic inflation becomes compatible with the latest CMB data thanks to radiative corrections producing a plateau. The interactions of the inflation with other fields, required for reheating, can flatten the potential and moderate the production of primordial gravitational waves, keeping these below the current upper bound. We show that the appearance of a plateau requires that the inflaton couples to fermions and to another scalar or a gauge group. We give concrete examples of minimal particle physics models leading to plateaus for quadratic and quartic chaotic inflation. We also provide a three-parameter model-independent description of radiatively corrected inflation that is amenable to CMB analyses.

  4. Plateau Indian Ways with Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The indigenous rhetoric of the Plateau Indians continues to exert a discursive influence on student writing in reservation schools today. Plateau students score low on state-mandated tests and on college writing assignments, in large part because the pervasive personalization of Plateau rhetoric runs counter to the depersonalization of academic…

  5. Greening the Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Located on the world’s largest plateau, Tibet Autonomous Region in China’s southwest has an average elevation of 4,000 meters. Tibet’s diverse natural landscapes, including snow-capped mountains, vast pastures and virgin forests, combined with its

  6. Tourism and Cultural Heritage: Higher Education and Entrepreneurship Development in Transition Phase. The Tunisian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faysal Mansouri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This is to lay down an approach to develop tourism and cultural heritage through higher education and entrepreneurship development for economies in transition: The case of Tunisia. There is a need to provide incentives to people to have favorable preferences toward a tourism based in part on cultural heritage in a phase where everything is being under construction institutions, legislations, and relationships alike. Cultural heritage and tourism development may be enhanced by a diversification strategy to enrich the image of local touristic destinations (diversification of site visits, purchases of new products, new circuits, and discovery of monumental heritage, museum, park and gardens, natural sites. Moreover, it is of great importance to invest in youth entrepreneurship development to orient toward business creation and development in the domain of tourism and cultural heritage.

  7. AHP 21: Pyramid Schemes on the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin Gonier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The unique features of pyramid shemes and certain underlying causes for their development on the Tibetan Plateau are analyzed. Research was conducted by analyzing 521 surveys, allowing estimation of pyramid scheme activity on the Plateau and an identification of related cultural and social specificities. Firsthand accounts were collected revealing details of personal involvement. Survey data and similarities in the accounts were studied to suggest how involvement in pyramid schemes might be reduced at both institutional and individual levels.

  8. Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Tibetan Plateau (Qinghai-Xizang Plateau)is a unique geological-geographical unit on Earth, an ideal region for studies into the formation and evolution of the lithosphere and the dynamic mechanism of the earth crust. The uplifting of the Plateau exerts profound influence upon the evolution and differentiation of the natural environment of the plateau itself, its adjacent regions and the Northern Hemisphere. As a unique natural geographical unit, the Plateau holds a special status in the whole globe due to its special natural environment and ecosystems, which is also in close relation to global environmental change.The significance of the Plateau research should be recognized not only in the fundamental research fields of geo-sciences and biology, but also in its application to resource exploitation, environmental protection and sustainable development of the Plateau region.

  9. A novel approach for estimating growth phases and parameters of bacterial population in batch culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Huaiqiang; LIU; Yuqing; LIU; Bo; GAO; Peiji

    2006-01-01

    Using mathematical analysis, a new method has been developed for studying the growth kinetics of bacterial populations in batch culture. First, sampling data were smoothed with the spline interpolation method. Second, the instantaneous rates were derived by numerical differential techniques and finally, the derived data were fitted with the Gaussian function to obtain growth parameters. We named this the Spline-Numerical-Gaussian or SNG method. This method yielded more accurate estimates of the growth rates of bacterial populations and new parameters. It was possible to divide the growth curve into four different but continuous phases based on changes in the instantaneous rates. The four phases are the accelerating growth phase, the constant growth phase, the decelerating growth phase and the declining phase. Total DNA content was measured by flow cytometry and varied depending on the growth phase. The SNG system provides a very powerful tool for describing the kinetics of bacterial population growth. The SNG method avoids the unrealistic assumptions generally used in the traditional growth equations.

  10. White ash (Fraxinus americana) health in the Allegheny plateau region, Pennsylvania: Evaluating the relationship between FIA phase 3 crown variables and a categorical rating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandro A. Royo; Kathleen S. Knight; Jamie M. Himes; Ashley N. Will

    2012-01-01

    Following the detection of white ash (Fraxinus americana) decline in the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) of Pennsylvania, we established an intensified white ash monitoring network throughout the ANF. We rated crowns using both a categorical system as well as Forest Inventory and Analyses (FIA) Phase 3 measures of uncompacted live crown ratio,...

  11. Monitoring of live cell cultures during apoptosis by phase imaging and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharikova, Anna; Saide, George; Sfakis, Lauren; Park, Jun Yong; Desta, Habben; Maloney, Maxwell C.; Castracane, James; Mahajan, Supriya D.; Khmaladze, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    Non-invasive live cell measurements are an important tool in biomedical research. We present a combined digital holography/Raman spectroscopy technique to study live cell cultures during apoptosis. Digital holographic microscopy records an interference pattern between object and reference waves, so that the computationally reconstructed holographic image contains both amplitude and phase information about the sample. When the phase is mapped across the sample and converted into height information for each pixel, a three dimensional image is obtained. The measurement of live cell cultures by digital holographic microscopy yields information about cell shape and volume, changes to which are reflective of alterations in cell cycle and initiation of cell death mechanisms. Raman spectroscopy, on the other hand, is sensitive to rotational and vibrational molecular transitions, as well as intermolecular vibrations. Therefore, Raman spectroscopy provides complementary information about cells, such as protein, lipid and nucleic acid content, and, particularly, the spectral signatures associated with structural changes in molecules. The cell cultures are kept in the temperature-controlled environmental chamber during the experiment, which allows monitoring over multiple cell cycles. The DHM system combines a visible (red) laser source with conventional microscope base, and LabVIEW-run data processing. We analyzed and compared cell culture information obtained by these two methods.

  12. The effects of menstrual cycle phase on the incidence of plateau at V˙O2max and associated cardiorespiratory dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Dan; Scruton, Adrian; Barnes, Richard; Baker, James; Prado, Luciano; Merzbach, Viviane

    2017-09-14

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of menstrual cycle phase on maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) and associated cardiodynamic responses. A total of 16 active females volunteered of which n = 10 formed the non-oral contraceptive pill group (n-OCP), displaying a regular menstrual cycle of 28·4 ± 2·2 days (age 20·6 ± 1·6 years, height 169·9 ± 6·4 cm, mass 68·7 ± 7·9 kg) and n = 6 formed the oral contraceptive pill group (OCP) (monophasic pill) (age 21·7 years ± 2·16, height 168·1 cm ± 6·8 cm, mass 61·6 ± 6·8 kg). Each completed four incremental exercise tests for determination of V˙O2max, cardiac output, stroke volume and heart rate. Each test was completed according to the phases of the menstrual cycle as determined through salivary analysis of 17-β oestrodiol and progesterone. Non-significant differences were observed for V˙O2max across phases and between groups (P>0·05) with additional non-significant differences for Q˙max, HRmax and SVmax between groups. For ∆ V˙O2 during the final 60 s of the V˙O2max trial, significant differences were observed between OCP and n-OCP (Pmenstrual cycle phase but caution should be applied when evaluating maximal oxygen uptake in females who are administered a monophasic oral contraceptive pill. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Using digital inline holographic microscopy and quantitative phase contrast imaging to assess viability of cultured mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missan, Sergey; Hrytsenko, Olga

    2015-03-01

    Digital inline holographic microscopy was used to record holograms of mammalian cells (HEK293, B16, and E0771) in culture. The holograms have been reconstructed using Octopus software (4Deep inwater imaging) and phase shift maps were unwrapped using the FFT-based phase unwrapping algorithm. The unwrapped phase shifts were used to determine the maximum phase shifts in individual cells. Addition of 0.5 mM H2O2 to cell media produced rapid rounding of cultured cells, followed by cell membrane rupture. The cell morphology changes and cell membrane ruptures were detected in real time and were apparent in the unwrapped phase shift images. The results indicate that quantitative phase contrast imaging produced by the digital inline holographic microscope can be used for the label-free real time automated determination of cell viability and confluence in mammalian cell cultures.

  14. Early stationary phase culture supernatant accelerates growth of sputum cultures collected after initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolwijck, E; Friedrich, S O; Karinja, M N; van Ingen, J; Warren, R M; Diacon, A H

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the effect of Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture supernatant added to sputum cultures collected during the first 8 weeks of anti-tuberculosis treatment. With ongoing treatment duration, time to culture positivity decreased significantly in supernatant-enriched cultures, possibly due to stimulation of dormant or slowly metabolizing M. tuberculosis cells.

  15. Culture phases, cytotoxicity and protein expressions of agarose hydrogel induced Sp2/0, A549, MCF-7 cell line 3D cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Maddaly; Kaviya, S R; Paramesh, V

    2016-05-01

    Advancements in cell cultures are occurring at a rapid pace, an important direction is culturing cells in 3D conditions. We demonstrate the usefulness of agarose hydrogels in obtaining 3 dimensional aggregates of three cell lines, A549, MCF-7 and Sp2/0. The differences in culture phases, susceptibility to cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity are studied. Also, the 3D aggregates of the three cell lines were reverted into 2D cultures and the protein profile differences among the 2D, 3D and revert cultures were studied. The analysis of protein profile differences using UniProt data base further augment the usefulness of agarose hydrogels for obtaining 3D cell cultures.

  16. Elements of the Yue Culture in Jade Ornaments in the Ancient Yun- nan-Guizhou Plateau%云贵高原古代玉饰的越文化因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建芳

    2004-01-01

    In remote antiquity, members of the Yue people in the region south of the Five Ridges migrated westward by the water route of Xijiang-Yujiang-Yongjiang-Youjiang and settled in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. This led to the wide spread of the jades originally prevailing in the territory ofthe Yue people, such as "horned", crescent and square jue penannular ornaments, necked bracelets and mushroom-shaped fittings for sword butt-ends. With the development of amalgamation of ethnic groups, these types of jades (along with a few antler artifacts) became ornaments of the natives in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, including the Yelang, Dian, Qiongdu and Quting groups.

  17. Eocene Tibetan Plateau remnants preserved in the Northwest Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, P. A.; van Melle, J.; Guillot, S.; Pêcher, A.; Reiners, P. W.; Nicolescu, S.; Latif, M.

    2009-04-01

    The northwest Himalaya shows strongly contrasting relief, opposing deeply incised mountain ranges characterized by extremely rapid exhumation and some of the highest peaks in the world (i.e., the Karakorum range and Nanga Parbat massif) to high-elevation, low-relief areas such as the 4000-m high Deosai plateau in northern Pakistan and the 5000-m high Tso Morari in Indian Ladakh. The origin and evolution of such plateau regions in the syntaxis of the most active continental collision in the world remain elusive. Here, we report the first low-temperature thermochronology (apatite fission-track, apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He) data from the Deosai plateau and use thermal history modelling to show that it has undergone continuous slow (≤ 200 m/Myr) denudation and has thus remained tectonically stable for the last 35 Myr at least. The inferred history of constant slow denudation of the plateau contradicts the hypothesis that widespread low-relief surfaces in the northwest Himalaya result from efficient, km-scale glacial erosion during Quaternary times; such erosion would have been recorded as a phase of rapid recent denudation that is not observed in the data. Slow continuous denudation since Eocene times, i.e. only 15-20 Myr after the onset of India-Asia collision implies that the Deosai plateau surface developed early in the Himalayan history and limits the phase of orogenic relief growth in the Ladakh-Kohistan arc to the early Paleogene. Although thermochronology data do not directly record surface uplift, the simplest explanation for the inferred constant denudation rates is that the plateau had reached its present-day elevation already during the Eocene, as a later phase of surface uplift would have triggered an erosional response that would have been recorded by the thermochronology data. We use morphological analyses to characterise such plateaux and identify them at the scale of the entire northwest Himalaya and compare our thermochronological data with

  18. Constraining properties of GRB magnetar central engines using the observed plateau luminosity and duration correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Rowlinson; B.P. Gompertz; M. Dainotti; R.A.M.J. Wijers; A.J. van der Horst

    2014-01-01

    An intrinsic correlation has been identified between the luminosity and duration of plateaus in the X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs; Dainotti et al. 2008), suggesting a central engine origin. The magnetar central engine model predicts an observable plateau phase, with plateau durations an

  19. Spiny Neurons of Amygdala, Striatum and Cortex Use Dendritic Plateau Potentials to Detect Network UP States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina D Oikonomou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Spiny neurons of amygdala, striatum, and cerebral cortex share four interesting features: [1] they are the most abundant cell type within their respective brain area, [2] covered by thousands of thorny protrusions (dendritic spines, [3] possess high levels of dendritic NMDA conductances, and [4] experience sustained somatic depolarizations in vivo and in vitro (UP states. In all spiny neurons of the forebrain, adequate glutamatergic inputs generate dendritic plateau potentials (dendritic UP states characterized by (i fast rise, (ii plateau phase lasting several hundred milliseconds and (iii abrupt decline at the end of the plateau phase. The dendritic plateau potential propagates towards the cell body decrementally to induce a long-lasting (longer than 100 ms, most often 200 – 800 ms steady depolarization (~20 mV amplitude, which resembles a neuronal UP state. Based on voltage-sensitive dye imaging, the plateau depolarization in the soma is precisely time-locked to the regenerative plateau potential taking place in the dendrite. The somatic plateau rises after the onset of the dendritic voltage transient and collapses with the breakdown of the dendritic plateau depolarization. We hypothesize that neuronal UP states in vivo reflect the occurrence of dendritic plateau potentials (dendritic UP states. We propose that the somatic voltage waveform during a neuronal UP state is determined by dendritic plateau potentials. A mammalian spiny neuron uses dendritic plateau potentials to detect and transform coherent network activity into a ubiquitous neuronal UP state. The biophysical properties of dendritic plateau potentials allow neurons to quickly attune to the ongoing network activity, as well as secure the stable amplitudes of successive UP states.

  20. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  1. Posterior bicondylar tibial plateau fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, DuWayne A

    2005-02-01

    To present a case series of patients with posterior bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated by direct fracture exposure and fixation through dual incisions. Retrospective clinical study. Level 1 trauma centers. Eight patients were identified that had posterior bicondylar tibial plateau fractures. Two patients had depressed posterolateral tibial plateau fractures with contained defects and did not have direct fracture exposure. One patient died of medical problems leaving 5 patients who underwent direct fracture exposure, reduction, and fixation. Posteromedial followed by posterolateral open reduction and internal fixation of posterior bicondylar tibial plateau fractures. At 6 to 24 months follow-up (mean 13 months), all patients returned to near full activities, each with aching after prolonged standing (8-hour shift). Range of motion averaged 2 degrees to 121 degrees of flexion. Three of 5 returned to manual labor jobs; the others were not employed at the time of injury. Posterior bicondylar tibial plateau fractures have a high association with lateral meniscal pathology and can be associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury. Reduction of the posterior plateau condyles is easiest with the knee in full extension. Flexion contractures can be a problem, and patients should be encouraged to regain/maintain knee extension. The dual-incision approach to these challenging fractures can result in good to excellent knee function for these patients.

  2. Culture and Use of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Phase I and II Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourin Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Present in numerous tissues, mesenchymal stem cells/multipotent stromal cells (MSCs can differentiate into different cell types from a mesoderm origin. Their potential has been extended to pluripotency, by their possibility of differentiating into tissues and cells of nonmesodermic origin. Through the release of cytokines, growth factors and biologically active molecules, MSCs exert important paracrine effects during tissue repair and inflammation. Moreover, MSCs have immunosuppressive properties related to non-HLA restricted immunosuppressive capacities. All these features lead to an increasing range of possible applications of MSCs, from treating immunological diseases to tissue and organ repair, that should be tested in phase I and II clinical trials. The most widely used MSCs are cultured from bone marrow or adipose tissue. For clinical trial implementation, BM MSCs and ADSCs should be produced according to Good Manufacturing Practices. Safety remains the major concern and must be ensured during culture and validated with relevant controls. We describe some applications of MSCs in clinical trials.

  3. Culture and Use of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Phase I and II Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Bourin; Luc, Sensebé; Valérie, Planat-Bénard; Jérôme, Roncalli; Alessandra, Bura-Rivière; Louis, Casteilla

    2010-01-01

    Present in numerous tissues, mesenchymal stem cells/multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) can differentiate into different cell types from a mesoderm origin. Their potential has been extended to pluripotency, by their possibility of differentiating into tissues and cells of nonmesodermic origin. Through the release of cytokines, growth factors and biologically active molecules, MSCs exert important paracrine effects during tissue repair and inflammation. Moreover, MSCs have immunosuppressive properties related to non-HLA restricted immunosuppressive capacities. All these features lead to an increasing range of possible applications of MSCs, from treating immunological diseases to tissue and organ repair, that should be tested in phase I and II clinical trials. The most widely used MSCs are cultured from bone marrow or adipose tissue. For clinical trial implementation, BM MSCs and ADSCs should be produced according to Good Manufacturing Practices. Safety remains the major concern and must be ensured during culture and validated with relevant controls. We describe some applications of MSCs in clinical trials. PMID:21052537

  4. The Hybridization Effect Analysis between Potato Cultures in Low-Latitude Plateau of Lijiang%丽江低纬高原马铃薯的杂交效应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浩; 杨继先; 和光宇; 王绍林; 和平根; 和国钧; 和忠

    2011-01-01

    With the highly heterozygous autotetraploid genetic background of potato cultures, directional breeding of a new potato variety is rather difficult.If, after the hybridization effect and the combining ability of potatoes are estimated, breeding of new potato varieties also has some rules to follow.The 93 crosses from the hybrid population of 15 potato parents planted in low-latitude plateau of Lijiang were analyzed.The results showed that the average irregular fruit rate (IFR) was 32.06% with 621 setting- flowers and 1937 pollinated flowers.There were 60 of 93 crosses to set fruits; 'Lishu6', 'GD2', 'Lishu7', 'Mira', 'NinglangA' and 'ZHXW' were suitable as female parents, and CIP004, CIP005, 'AWYY', 'GD1' and 'LSYY' were suitable as male parents.'GD2' and 'Lishu7' as male parents were no offspring, belonging to male sterility type.The flower setting percentage of 'NinglangA' as male parent was just 2%.The 19 crosses over 70% of the irregular-fruit-rate (IFR) are more from combinations of Yunnan potato landraces and CIP potato germplasms.%马铃薯高度杂合的同源四倍体遗传背景使马铃薯新品种选育的预见性较差,但对大量亲本杂交效果及其配合力的评价仍使马铃薯育种工作有一定的规律性可循.在低纬高原条件下杂交15份马铃薯亲本,配制93份杂交组合,授粉花朵1937朵,坐果621朵,平均坐果率32.06%,共计60个杂交组合坐果结实.适合做母本的品种有:'丽薯6号'、'高淀2'、'丽薯7号'、'米拉'、'宁蒗A'、'转心乌'等,CIP004、CIP005、'阿乌洋芋'、'高淀1'、'老鼠洋芋'等则适合做父本;'高淀2'和'丽薯7号'做父本完全不结实,'宁蒗A'做父本的结实率也仅有2%,均属雄性不育类型.在坐果率超过70%的19个组合中,云南地方种和CIP亲本的杂交组合居多.

  5. More productive in vitro culture of Cryptosporidium parvum for better study of the intra- and extracellular phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Perez Cordón

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The great difficulties in treating people and animals suffering from cryptosporidiosis have prompted the development of in vitro experimental models. Due to the models of in vitro culture, new extracellular stages of Cryptosporidium have been demonstrated. The development of these extracellular phases depends on the technique of in vitro culture and on the species and genotype of Cryptosporidium used. Here, we undertake the molecular characterization by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment lenght polymorphism of different Cryptosporidium isolates from calves, concluding that all are C. parvum of cattle genotype, although differing in the nucleotide at positions 472 and 498. Using these parasites, modified the in vitro culture technique for HCT-8 cells achieving greater multiplication of parasites. The HCT-8 cell cultures, for which the culture had not been renewed in seven days, were infected with C. parvum sporozoites in RPMI-1640 medium with 10% IFBS, CaCl2 and MgCl2 1 mM at pH 7.2. Percentages of cell parasitism were increased with respect to control cultures (71% at 48 h vs 14.5%, even after two weeks (47% vs 1.9%. Also, the percentage of extracellular stages augmented (25.3% vs 1.1% at 96 h. This new model of in vitro culture of C. parvum will enable easier study of the developmental phases of C. parvum in performing new chemotherapeutic assays.

  6. Increased production of megakaryocytes near purity from cord blood CD34+ cells using a short two-phase culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Lucie; Robert, Amélie; Proulx, Chantal; Pineault, Nicolas

    2008-03-20

    Expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) ex vivo remains an important focus in fundamental and clinical research. The aim of this study was to determine whether the implementation of such expansion phase in a two-phase culture strategy prior to the induction of megakaryocyte (Mk) differentiation would increase the yield of Mks produced in cultures. Toward this end, we first characterized the functional properties of five cytokine cocktails to be tested in the expansion phase on the growth and differentiation kinetics of CD34+-enriched cells, and on their capacity to expand clonogenic progenitors in cultures. Three of these cocktails were chosen based on their reported ability to induce HPC expansion ex vivo, while the other two represented new cytokine combinations. These analyses revealed that none of the cocktails tested could prevent the differentiation of CD34+ cells and the rapid expansion of lineage-positive cells. Hence, we sought to determine the optimum length of time for the expansion phase that would lead to the best final Mk yields. Despite greater expansion of CD34+ cells and overall cell growth with a longer expansion phase, the optimal length for the expansion phase that provided greater Mk yield at near maximal purity was found to be 5 days. Under such settings, two functionally divergent cocktails were found to significantly increase the final yield of Mks. Surprisingly, these cocktails were either deprived of thrombopoietin or of stem cell factor, two cytokines known to favor megakaryopoiesis and HPC expansion, respectively. Based on these results, a short resource-efficient two-phase culture protocol for the production of Mks near purity (>95%) from human CD34+ CB cells has been established.

  7. Assessment of cell cycle phase-specific effects of zerumbone on mitotically synchronous surface cultures of Physarum polycephalum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Iyyappan; Rabindran, Remitha; Nithya, N; Lakshmipriya, T; Jayasree, P R; Kumar, P R M

    2014-07-01

    Zerumbone, a natural cyclic sesquiterpene, has been the focus of recent research as it has been found to exhibit selective toxicity towards cancer cells compared to normal cells. Studies on the cell cycle phase-specific effects of this interesting compound, however, remain sparse. Hence, concentration and time-dependent effects of zerumbone were evaluated employing a suitable model system, the naturally synchronous surface cultures of Physarum polycephalum. Zerumbone treatment in S, early, and late G2 phases resulted in G2 arrest. Early G2 phase exhibited the highest sensitivity (P polycephalum.

  8. Enhanced translocation and growth of Rhodococcus erythropolis PR4 in the alkane phase of aqueous-alkane two phase cultures were mediated by GroEL2 overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takihara, Hayato; Ogihara, Jun; Yoshida, Takao; Okuda, Shujiro; Nakajima, Mutsuyasu; Iwabuchi, Noriyuki; Sunairi, Michio

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that R. erythropolis PR4 translocated from the aqueous to the alkane phase, and then grew in two phase cultures to which long-chain alkanes had been added. This was considered to be beneficial for bioremediation. In the present study, we investigated the proteins involved in the translocation of R. erythropolis PR4. The results of our proteogenomic analysis suggested that GroEL2 was upregulated more in cells that translocated inside of the pristane (C19) phase than in those located at the aqueous-alkane interface attached to the n-dodecane (C12) surface. PR4 (pK4-EL2-1) and PR4 (pK4-ΔEL2-1) strains were constructed to confirm the effects of the upregulation of GroEL2 in translocated cells. The expression of GroEL2 in PR4 (pK4-EL2-1) was 15.5-fold higher than that in PR4 (pK4-ΔEL2-1) in two phase cultures containing C12. The growth and cell surface lipophilicity of PR4 were enhanced by the introduction of pK4-EL2-1. These results suggested that the plasmid overexpression of groEL2 in PR4 (pK4-EL2-1) led to changes in cell localization, enhanced growth, and increased cell surface lipophilicity. Thus, we concluded that the overexpression of GroEL2 may play an important role in increasing the organic solvent tolerance of R. erythropolis PR4 in aqueous-alkane two phase cultures.

  9. Growth Phase, Oxygen, Temperature and Starvation Affect the Development of Viable but Non-Culturable State of Vibrio cholerae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin eWu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractVibrio cholerae can enter into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC state in order to survive in unfavourable environments. In this study, we studied the roles of five physicochemical and microbiological factors or states, namely, different strains, growth phases, oxygen, temperature, and starvation, on the development of VBNC of V. cholerae in artificial sea water (ASW. Different strains of the organism, the growth phase, and oxygen levels affected the progress of VBNC development. It was found that the VBNC state was induced faster in V. cholerae serogroup O1 classical biotype strain O395 than in O1 El Tor biotype strains C6706 and N16961. When cells in different growth phases were used for VBNC induction, stationary-phase cells lost their culturability more quickly than exponential-phase cells, while induction of a totally non-culturable state took longer to achieve for stationary-phase cells in all three strains, suggesting that heterogeneity of cells should be considered. Aeration strongly accelerated the loss of culturability. During the development of the VBNC state, the culturable cell count under aeration conditions was almost 106-fold lower than under oxygen-limited conditions for all three strains. The other two factors, temperature and nutrients-rich environment, may prevent the induction of VBNC cells. At 22°C or 37°C in ASW, most of the cells rapidly died and the culturable cell count reduced from about 108 CFU/mL to 106–105 CFU/mL. The total cell counts showed that cells that lost viability were decomposed, and the viable cell counts were the same as culturable cell counts, indicating that the cells did not reach the VBNC state. VBNC state development was blocked when ASW was supplied with Luria-Bertani broth (LB, but it was not affected in ASW with M9, suggesting that specific nutrients in LB may prevent the development of VBNC state. These results revealed that the five factors evaluated in this study had different

  10. Growth Phase, Oxygen, Temperature, and Starvation Affect the Development of Viable but Non-culturable State of Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Liang, Weili; Kan, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae can enter into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state in order to survive in unfavorable environments. In this study, we studied the roles of five physicochemical and microbiological factors or states, namely, different strains, growth phases, oxygen, temperature, and starvation, on the development of VBNC of V. cholerae in artificial sea water (ASW). Different strains of the organism, the growth phase, and oxygen levels affected the progress of VBNC development. It was found that the VBNC state was induced faster in V. cholerae serogroup O1 classical biotype strain O395 than in O1 El Tor biotype strains C6706 and N16961. When cells in different growth phases were used for VBNC induction, stationary-phase cells lost their culturability more quickly than exponential-phase cells, while induction of a totally non-culturable state took longer to achieve for stationary-phase cells in all three strains, suggesting that heterogeneity of cells should be considered. Aeration strongly accelerated the loss of culturability. During the development of the VBNC state, the culturable cell count under aeration conditions was almost 10(6)-fold lower than under oxygen-limited conditions for all three strains. The other two factors, temperature and nutrients-rich environment, may prevent the induction of VBNC cells. At 22 or 37°C in ASW, most of the cells rapidly died and the culturable cell count reduced from about 10(8) to 10(6)-10(5) CFU/mL. The total cell counts showed that cells that lost viability were decomposed, and the viable cell counts were the same as culturable cell counts, indicating that the cells did not reach the VBNC state. VBNC state development was blocked when ASW was supplied with Luria-Bertani broth (LB), but it was not affected in ASW with M9, suggesting that specific nutrients in LB may prevent the development of VBNC state. These results revealed that the five factors evaluated in this study had different roles during the progress of VBNC

  11. Metabolic characterization of a CHO cell size increase phase in fed-batch cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiao; Dalm, Ciska; Wijffels, René H; Martens, Dirk E

    2017-09-26

    Normally, the growth profile of a CHO cell fed-batch process can be divided into two main phases based on changes in cell concentration, being an exponential growth phase and a stationary (non-growth) phase. In this study, an additional phase is observed during which the cell division comes to a halt but the cell growth continues in the form of an increase in cell size. The cell size increase (SI) phase occurs between the exponential proliferation phase (also called the number increase or NI phase) and the stationary phase. During the SI phase, the average volume and dry weight per cell increase threefold linearly with time. The average mAb specific productivity per cell increases linearly with the cell volume and therefore is on average two times higher in the SI phase than in the NI phase. The specific essential amino acids consumption rates per cell remain fairly constant between the NI and the SI phase, which agrees with the similar biomass production rate per cell between these two phases. Accumulation of fatty acids and formation of lipid droplets in the cells are observed during the SI phase, indicating that the fatty acids synthesis rate exceeds the demand for the synthesis of membrane lipids. A metabolic comparison between NI and SI phase shows that the cells with a larger size produce more mAb per unit of O2 and nutrient consumed, which can be used for further process optimization.

  12. The Colorado Plateau IV: shaping conservation through science and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeling, Brian F.; Sisk, Thomas D.; van Riper, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States, the Colorado Plateau covers some 130,000 square miles of sparsely vegetated plateaus, mesas, canyons, arches, and cliffs in Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. With elevations ranging from 3,000 to 14,000 feet, the natural systems found within the plateau are dramatically varied, from desert to alpine conditions. This book focuses on the integration of science and resource management issues in this unique and highly varied environment. Broken into three subsections, this volume addresses conservation biology, biophysical resources, and inventory and monitoring concerns. The chapters range in content, addressing conservation issues–past, present, and future–on the Colorado Plateau, measurement of human impacts on resources, grazing and wildland-urban interfaces, and tools and methods for monitoring habitats and species. An informative read for people interested in the conservation and natural history of the region, the book will also serve as a valuable reference for those people engaged in the management of cultural and biological resources of the Colorado Plateau, as well as scientists interested in methods and tools for land and resource management throughout the West.

  13. Integer quantum Hall effect in a triangular-lattice: Disorder effect and scaling behavior of the insulator-plateau transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H. L.; Jiang, C.; Zhai, Z. Y.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate numerically the integer quantum Hall effect in a three-band triangular-lattice model. The three bands own the Chern number C=2,-1,-1, respectively. The lowest topological flat band carrying Chern number C=2, which leads to the Hall plateau σH = 2 (e2 / h) . This Hall plateau is sensitive to the disorder scattering and is rapidly destroyed by the weak disorder. Further increasing the strength of disorder, the gap of density of states always disappears before the vanishing of the corresponding Hall plateau. The scaling behavior of quantum phase transition between an insulator and a quantum Hall plateau is studied. We find that the insulator-plateau transition becomes sharper with increasing the size of system. Due to the different of edge states, the critical energy Ec1 gradually shifts to the center of Hall plateau while Ec2 is unaffected with increasing the disorder strength.

  14. Automated method for the rapid and precise estimation of adherent cell culture characteristics from phase contrast microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccard, Nicolas; Griffin, Lewis D; Keser, Ana; Macown, Rhys J; Super, Alexandre; Veraitch, Farlan S; Szita, Nicolas

    2014-03-01

    The quantitative determination of key adherent cell culture characteristics such as confluency, morphology, and cell density is necessary for the evaluation of experimental outcomes and to provide a suitable basis for the establishment of robust cell culture protocols. Automated processing of images acquired using phase contrast microscopy (PCM), an imaging modality widely used for the visual inspection of adherent cell cultures, could enable the non-invasive determination of these characteristics. We present an image-processing approach that accurately detects cellular objects in PCM images through a combination of local contrast thresholding and post hoc correction of halo artifacts. The method was thoroughly validated using a variety of cell lines, microscope models and imaging conditions, demonstrating consistently high segmentation performance in all cases and very short processing times (Source-code for MATLAB and ImageJ is freely available under a permissive open-source license.

  15. 125 The Fading Phase of Igbo Language and Culture: Path to its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    the Igbo language and culture which critics and observers have warned are ... enchantment with foreign cultures. The paper then ... As a result language learning in children is a process of ... enjoy the competence of adult speakers and are still being transmitted ... endangerment, two factors to assess language attitudes and.

  16. Determination better culture medium in the establishment phase for the in vitro propagation of banana (Musa paradisiaca L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancasi-Espejo Ruth Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Plant Biotechnology of the Department of Biological and Natural Sciences of the Amazonian University of Pando, in 2014. The aim of the study was to determine better culture medium in the establishment phase for propagation in vitro banana (Musa paradisiaca L., 20 were selected and characterized mother plants NTRCA (New Technology Research Center Amazonia. A completely random design (CRD with three different culture media was used. The culture media were M1 Murashige and Skoog (MS was supplemented with ascorbic acid 100 mg/L and L-cysteine 2 ml /L, M2 Murashige and Skoog (MS was supplemented charcoal 2 g/L, M3 Murashige and Skoog (MS supplement-ed with ascorbic acid 100 mg/L and cítrico100 mg/L acid. The variables evaluated were: The survival of the former Plantes, where contamination and oxidation was observed. The results showed that in the first phase of establishment, the best answer for the survival of the former Plantes banana (Musa paradisiaca, was with the culture medium 3, where a lower degree of oxidation (0.26 and pollution for all explants was obtained was 28%.

  17. Monuments of the Giza Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    The colossal pyramids of the pharaohs Khufu (Cheops), Khafre (Chephren), and Menkaure (Mycerinus) have attracted a huge amount of astronomical interest over the years, both scholarly and popular. Less attention is usually given to the broader context of structures on the Giza Plateau. One of the most notorious ideas connecting the Giza Plateau with astronomy is that the three large pyramids are laid out on the ground so as to reflect the appearance of the three stars of Orion's Belt in the sky. This idea is unsupportable for several reasons but has succeeded in generating huge public interest. Of much greater serious interest is the fact that the three main pyramids were oriented cardinally to extraordinary precision, which raises the questions of why this was important and how it was achieved. Another idea that has attracted serious attention but also some confusion is that the orientations of some narrow shafts within Khufu's pyramid might have been deliberately aligned upon particular stars. The overall layout of monuments on the plateau may certainly have been designed so as to emphasize certain solar phenomena, for symbolic and ideological reasons relating to a dominant sun cult. It is also possible that it formed part of a wider cosmological "master plan" extending to other pyramids and temples up to 20 km distant.

  18. 近50年气候变化对青藏高原牧草生产潜力及物候期的影响*%Impactofclimatechangeonpotentialproductivityandphenologicalphase offorageintheQinghai-TibetPlateauinthepast50years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪雁; 万文玉; 王伟军

    2016-01-01

    roseduringthenearly50-yearperiod,increasingby0.53 ℃•(10a)-1.Precipitationgenerallyincreasedattherateof7.81 mm•(10a)-1, whilesunshinedurationdecreasedby16.94h•(10a)-1.PotentialclimateproductivityofforageintheQinghai-TibetPlateaupresentedanincreasingtrendfrom1965to2013,andspatialchangesoftheproductivity,inturn, increasedfromnorthwesttosoutheast. Then potential climate productivity of forage in the north andsouthintheplateausignificantlyincreasedandtherewaslessvariationintheeastoftheplateau.Furthermore,theregreening,heading and blossoming of forages advanced, while yellowing and withering delayed year after year, which extended theforagesphenologicalphases.Regreeningstageofforagedelayedfromsoutheasttonorthwest,althoughwitheringstageshowednoobviouschange.Underdrierandwarmerconditions,phenologicalperiodsofgrasslandvegetationintheregionbecameclosely related to climate change. Then precipitation and sunshine duration were negatively correlated with phenologicalperiodofthegrasslandvegetation.Temperaturewasthedominantconstraintonphenologicalphasesofgrasslandvegetationinthe study area. The study formed a relevant reference and basis for the protection of grassland ecosystems and enhancingpotentialclimateproductivityinQinghai-TibetPlateau.%基于青藏高原及周边107个气象站点1965—2013年逐月气温、降水及日照时数等气象数据,分析了1965年以来青藏高原区的气候变化趋势,并采用 MODIS 数据、ThornthwaiteMemorial 模型及 GIS 技术分析了近50 a 青藏高原牧草气候生产潜力及其时空变化特征;利用连续22 a 的青藏高原牧草生育期观测数据,探讨了牧草生育期的时空变化特征及气象因子与牧草主要发育期的关系。结果表明:1)近50a 青藏高原平均气温呈上升趋势,升温幅度达0.53

  19. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  20. Biodiversity and conservation in the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (Qinghai-Xizang Plateau) is a unique biogeographic region in the world, where various landscapes, altitudinal belts, alpine ecosystems, and endangered and endemic species have been developed. A total of 26 altitudinal belts, 28 spectra of altitudinal belts, 12,000 species of vascular plant, 5,000 species of epiphytes, 210 species of mammals, and 532 species of birds have been recorded. The plateau is also one of the centers of species formation and differentiation in the world. To protect the biodiversity of the plateau, about 80 nature reserves have been designated, of which 45 are national or provincial, covering about 22% of the plateau area. Most of the nature reserves are distributed in the southeastern plateau. Recently, the Chinese government has initiated the "Natural Forests Protection Project of China,' mainly in the upper reaches of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers. "No logging" policies have been made and implemented for these areas.

  1. Lab Scale Production of Mycophenolic Acid on Solid- phase Culture by Standard Strains of Penicillium Brevicompactum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Afshari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mycophenolic acid(MPA, a fungal mycotoxin, is produced by Penicillium brevicompactum and is used for the synthesis of immunosuppressive drugs in pharmaceutical industries. The present study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of mycophenolic acid(MPA production by standard strains of P. brevicompactum at laboratory level. Methods: Three strains of P. brevicompactum were provided from microbial culture collections. To stimulate MPA production, barley was used as culture medium, and dry heat, wet heat, and gamma radiation were used to sterilize the culture medium. Samples were taken from the culture medium at different intervals, and their MPA level was assessed by HPLC method. Results: P. brevicompactum strain which was prepared from Finland(VTT D-061157 was able to produce MPA more than two other strains(from Germany and Iran. The amount of MPA enhanced linearly until day 10, and after that became relatively constant. Gamma radiation was a suitable method to sterilize the substrate, and nylon bags were evaluated as an easy and cheap container for growing the fungus. Conclusion: Production of MPA with simple and cheap culture media to provide primary substance for immunosuppressive drugs such as mycophenolate mofetile and sodium mycophenolate would be possible.

  2. Genetic evidence of paleolithic colonization and neolithic expansion of modern humans on the tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xuebin; Cui, Chaoying; Peng, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yang, Zhaohui; Zhong, Hua; Zhang, Hui; Xiang, Kun; Cao, Xiangyu; Wang, Yi; Ouzhuluobu; Basang; Ciwangsangbu; Bianba; Gonggalanzi; Wu, Tianyi; Chen, Hua; Shi, Hong; Su, Bing

    2013-08-01

    Tibetans live on the highest plateau in the world, their current population size is approximately 5 million, and most of them live at an altitude exceeding 3,500 m. Therefore, the Tibetan Plateau is a remarkable area for cultural and biological studies of human population history. However, the chronological profile of the Tibetan Plateau's colonization remains an unsolved question of human prehistory. To reconstruct the prehistoric colonization and demographic history of modern humans on the Tibetan Plateau, we systematically sampled 6,109 Tibetan individuals from 41 geographic populations across the entire region of the Tibetan Plateau and analyzed the phylogeographic patterns of both paternal (n = 2,354) and maternal (n = 6,109) lineages as well as genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism markers (n = 50) in Tibetan populations. We found that there have been two distinct, major prehistoric migrations of modern humans into the Tibetan Plateau. The first migration was marked by ancient Tibetan genetic signatures dated to approximately 30,000 years ago, indicating that the initial peopling of the Tibetan Plateau by modern humans occurred during the Upper Paleolithic rather than Neolithic. We also found evidences for relatively young (only 7-10 thousand years old) shared Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes between Tibetans and Han Chinese, suggesting a second wave of migration during the early Neolithic. Collectively, the genetic data indicate that Tibetans have been adapted to a high altitude environment since initial colonization of the Tibetan Plateau in the early Upper Paleolithic, before the last glacial maximum, followed by a rapid population expansion that coincided with the establishment of farming and yak pastoralism on the Plateau in the early Neolithic.

  3. Multiwavelength Resonance Raman Characterization of the Effect of Growth Phase and Culture Medium on Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunapareddy, Nagapratima; Grun, Jacob; Lunsford, Robert; Nikitin, Sergei; Wang, Zheng; Gillis, David

    2015-08-01

    We examine the use of multiwavelength ultraviolet (UV) resonance-Raman signatures to identify the effects of growth phase and growth medium on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Escherichia coli (E. coli), Citrobacter koseri (C. koseri), Citrobacter braakii (C. braakii), and Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) were grown to logarithmic and stationary phases in nutrient broth and brain heart infusion broth. Resonance Raman spectra of bacteria were obtained at multiple wavelengths between 220 and 260 nm; a range that encompasses the resonance frequencies of cellular constituents. We find that spectra of the same bacterial species exhibit differences due to both growth condition and growth phase, but the larger differences reflect changes due to growth phase. The differences in the Raman spectra correlate with genetic differences among the species. Using a Pearson correlation based algorithm, we achieve successful identification of these bacteria in 83% of the cases.

  4. Finding, Managing, and Studying Prehistoric Cultural Resources at El Dorado Lake, Kansas. Phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    and some charred seeds. The only identified fauna reported is box turtle; some of the flora were tentatively identified as maize kernels. Two...speed up the work only culturally or chronologically diagnostic artifacts and features were plotted in three dimensions. The strategy was to peel off the

  5. Radiation-induced p53 protein response in the A549 cell line is culture growth-phase dependent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, N.F.; Gurule, D.M.; Carpenter, T.R.

    1995-12-01

    One role of the p53 tumor suppressor protein has been recently revealed. Kastan, M.B. reported that p53 protein accumulates in cells exposed to ionizing radiation. The accumulation of p53 protein is in response to DNA damage, most importantly double-strand breaks, that results from exposure to ionizing radiation. The rise in cellular p53 levels is necessary for an arrest in the G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle to provide additional time for DNA repair. The p53 response has also been demonstrated to enhance PCNA-dependent repair. p53 is thus an important regulator of the cellular response to DNA-damaging radiation. From this data, it can be concluded that the magnitude of the p53 response is not dependent on the phase of culture growth.

  6. Observation of the Zero Hall Plateau in a Quantum Anomalous Hall Insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yang; Feng, Xiao; Ou, Yunbo; Wang, Jing; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Liguo; Zhao, Dongyang; Jiang, Gaoyuan; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; He, Ke; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qi-Kun; Wang, Yayu

    2015-09-16

    We report experimental investigations on the quantum phase transition between the two opposite Hall plateaus of a quantum anomalous Hall insulator. We observe a well-defined plateau with zero Hall conductivity over a range of magnetic field around coercivity when the magnetization reverses. The features of the zero Hall plateau are shown to be closely related to that of the quantum anomalous Hall effect, but its temperature evolution exhibits a significant difference from the network model for a conventional quantum Hall plateau transition. We propose that the chiral edge states residing at the magnetic domain boundaries, which are unique to a quantum anomalous Hall insulator, are responsible for the novel features of the zero Hall plateau.

  7. Exploration in Newnes Plateau, NSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, P.; McQuade, C. [Pasminco Port Pirie Smelter, NSW (Australia)

    1999-06-01

    Underground coal mining operations in the Western Coalfields of NSW extend into the Newnes Plateau area. The Newnes Plateau area is known for its floral diversity and distinctive topography. A quantitative flora assessment concerning rehabilitation performance of exploration sites was undertaken to refine the environmental component of the exploration process and identify practices that may assist in an improved rate of regeneration within disturbed areas. This article briefly summarises the method and key outcomes of the study, undertaken as part of an Honours Degree program. Surveys of sites showed that plant height was reduced due to vehicle traffic compacting soil, and this also led to a reduced number of plant species and a reduced number of seedlings germinating. Percentage litter cover was found to be positively correlated with the number of species on the sites and the percent plant cover of the regenerating vegetation, shallow surface ripping is recommended to relieve soil compaction. Seeds should be collected from exploration sites prior to disturbance, particularly of species like Banksia and Haken that retain their seed on the plant. Seed should then be dispersed after work has finished. 1 fig., 2 photos.

  8. The prediction of bacteria type and culture growth phase by an electronic nose with a multi-layer perceptron network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J. W.; Craven, M.; Dow, C.; Hines, E. L.

    1998-01-01

    An investigation into the use of an electronic nose to predict the class and growth phase of two potentially pathogenic micro-organisms, Eschericha coli ( E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), has been performed. In order to do this we have developed an automated system to sample, with a high degree of reproducibility, the head space of bacterial cultures grown in a standard nutrient medium. Head spaces have been examined by using an array of six different metal oxide semiconducting gas sensors and classified by a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) with a back-propagation (BP) learning algorithm. The performance of 36 different pre-processing algorithms has been studied on the basis of nine different sensor parameters and four different normalization techniques. The best MLP was found to classify successfully 100% of the unknown S. aureus samples and 92% of the unknown E. coli samples, on the basis of a set of 360 training vectors and 360 test vectors taken from the lag, log and stationary growth phases. The real growth phase of the bacteria was determined from optical cell counts and was predicted from the head space samples with an accuracy of 81%. We conclude that these results show considerable promise in that the correct prediction of the type and growth phase of pathogenic bacteria may help both in the more rapid treatment of bacterial infections and in the more efficient testing of new anti-biotic drugs.

  9. Cell cycle phase expansion in nitrogen-limited cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    The time and coordination of cell cycle events were examined in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Whole-cell autoradiographic techniques and time-lapse photography were used to measure the duration of the S, G1, and G2 phases, and the cell cycle positions of "start" and bud emergence, in cells whose growth rates were determined by the source of nitrogen. It was observed that the G1, S, and G2 phases underwent a proportional expansion with increasing cell cycle length, with the S pha...

  10. Isolation of quiescent and nonquiescent cells from yeast stationary-phase cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, Chris; Büttner, Sabrina; Aragon, Anthony D.; Thomas, Jason A.; Meirelles, Osorio; Jaetao, Jason E.; Benn, Don; Ruby, Stephanie W.; Veenhuis, Marten; Madeo, Frank; Werner-Washburne, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Quiescence is the most common and, arguably, most poorly understood cell cycle state. This is in part because pure populations of quiescent cells are typically difficult to isolate. We report the isolation and characterization of quiescent and nonquiescent cells from stationary-phase (SP) yeast

  11. Dendroclimatic reconstructions for the southern Colorado plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.S.; Funkhouser, G.S. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A geographical network of climate sensitive tree-ring chronologies consisting of 25 archaeological sequences and two bristlecone pine series provides the basis for high resolution reconstructions of low and high frequency climatic variability on the southern Colorado Plateau over the last 1,500 years. Qualitative and quantitative dendroclimatic analyses of these data produce annual retrodictions of yearly and seasonal precipitation and summer Palmer Drought Severity Indices for each station and reconstructions of regional scale patterns in climatic variability. These reconstructions provide detailed information on climatic fluctuations that affected biotic and human populations as well as long-term baseline data for evaluating present-day climate and estimating future climatic trends. When integrated with other measures of past environmental variability, these reconstructions specify periods of favorable and unfavorable environmental conditions that would have affected past human populations of the region. The severest degradation, which occurred between A.D. 1250 and 1450, probably was causally related to numerous cultural changes that occurred at the end of the l3th century including the Anasazi abandonment of the Four Comers area. Projecting environmental patterns that characterized the last two millennia into the future indicates potential hazards to long term uranium mill waste disposal and containment and the potential and limitations of environmental restoration.

  12. Prehistoric human settling on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fahu; Zhang, Dongju; Dong, Guanghui

    2017-04-01

    When and where did human first settle down on the Tibetan Plateau is under hot debate among archaeologist, anthropologists, geneticist and paleo-geographers. Based on systematic archaeological, chronological and archaeo-botanical studies of 53 sites in Northeastern Tibetan Plateau, we propose that agriculture facilitated human permanent settlement on the Tibetan Plateau initially since 5200 years ago below 2500 masl and since 3600 years ago up to around 4000 masl, possibly assisted by domesticated animals (Chen et al. 2015). By studying hand- and footprints in Chusang, Meyer et al. (2016) argue that hunter-gatherers permanently occupied central Tibetan Plateau in early Holocene without the help of agriculture. However, we think the limited hand- and footprints evidence found in Chusang could indicate no more than prehistoric hunter-gatherers presence on the remote central Tibetan Plateau in the early Holocene. In addition, by reviewing all the published archaeological data, we propose that human migrated to the Tibetan Plateau from the last Deglacial period to late Holocene mainly from North China via Yellow River valley and its tributary valleys in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau (NETP). This migration is constituted of four stages (Upper Paleolithic, Epi-Paleolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age) when human adapted to the high altitude environment and climate change with different strategies and techniques. Particularly, the prevail of microlithic technology in North China provoked hunter-gatherers' first visit to the NETP in relatively ameliorated last Deglacial period, and the the quick development of millet farming and subsequent mixed barley-wheat farming and sheep herding facilitated farmers and herders permanently settled in Tibetan Plateau, even above 3000 masl, during mid- and late Holocene. References: Chen et al., 2015. Agriculture facilitated permanent human occupation of the Tibetan Plateau after 3600 BP. Science, 347: 248-250. Meyer et al., 2016

  13. Experiments and modelling of phenanthrene biodegradation in the aqueous phase by a mixed culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiang; MAO Xiao-min; YANG Jian-gang; D.A. Barry; LI Ling

    2006-01-01

    Pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) is widespread due to unsuitable disposal of industrial waste. They are mostly defined as priority pollutants by environmental protection authorities worldwide. Phenanthrene, a typical PAH, was selected as the target in this paper. The PAH-degrading mixed culture, named ZM, was collected from a petroleum contaminated river bed. This culture was injected into phenanthrene solutions at different concentrations to quantify the biodegradation process. Results show near-complete removal of phenanthrene in three days of biodegradation if the initial phenanthrene concentration is low. When the initial concentration is high, the removal rate is increased but 20%-40% of the phenanthrene remains at the end of the experiment.The biomass shows a peak on the third day due to the combined effects of microbial growth and decay. Another peak is evident for cases with a high initial concentration, possibly due to production of an intermediate metabolite. The pH generally decreased during biodegradation because of the production of organic acid. Two phenomenological models were designed to simulate the phenanthrene biodegradation and biomass growth. A relatively simple model that does not consider the intermediate metabolite and its inhibition of phenanthrene biodegradation cannot fit the observed data. A modified Monod model that considered an intermediate metabolite (organic acid) and its inhibiting reversal effect reasonably depicts the experimental results.

  14. Compressive Tectonics around Tibetan Plateau Edges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhixin; Xu Jiren

    2009-01-01

    Various earthquake fault types, mechanism solutions, stress field, and other geophysical data were analyzed for study on the crust movement in the Tibetan plateau and its tectonic implications. The results show that numbers of thrust fault and strike-slip fault type earthquakes with strong compressive stress near NNE-SSW direction occurred in the edges around the plateau except the eastern boundary. Some normal faulting type earthquakes concentrate in the Central Tibetan plateau. The strikes of fault planes of thrust and strike-slip faulting earthquakes are almost in the E-W direction based on the analyses of the Wulff stereonet diagrams of fault plane solutions. This implies that the dislocation slip vectors of the thrust and strike-slip faulting type events have quite great components in the N-S direction. The compression motion mainly probably plays the tectonic active regime around the plateau edges. The compressive stress in N-S or NE-SW directions predominates earthquake occurrence in the thrust and strike-slip faulting event region around the plateau. The compressive motion around the Tibetan plateau edge is attributable to the northward motion of the Indian subcontinent plate. The northward motion of the Tibetan plateau shortened in the N-S direction encounters probably strong obstructions at the western and northern margins.

  15. Stimulation of fat storage by prostacyclin and selective agonists of prostanoid IP receptor during the maturation phase of cultured adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ferdous; Syeda, Pinky Karim; Nartey, Michael Nii N; Rahman, Mohammad Shahidur; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul; Nishimura, Kohji; Jisaka, Mitsuo; Shono, Fumiaki; Yokota, Kazushige

    2016-12-01

    We have previously shown that cultured adipocytes have the ability to biosynthesize prostaglandin (PG) I2 called alternatively as prostacyclin during the maturation phase by the positive regulation of gene expression of PGI synthase and the prostanoid IP receptor. To clarify how prostacyclin regulates adipogenesis, we investigated the effects of prostacyclin and the specific agonists or antagonists for the IP receptor on the storage of fats during the maturation phase of cultured adipocytes. Exogenous PGI2 and the related selective agonists for the IP receptor including MRE-269 and treprostinil rescued the storage of fats attenuated by aspirin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor. On the other hand, selective antagonists for IP such as CAY10441 and CAY10449 were effective to suppress the accumulation of fats as GW9662, a specific antagonist for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ. Thus, pro-adipogenic action of prostacyclin can be explained by the action mediated through the IP receptor expressed at the maturation stage of adipocytes. Cultured adipocytes incubated with each of PGI2 and MRE-269 together with troglitazone, an activator for PPARγ, exhibited additively higher stimulation of fats storage than with either compound alone. The combined effect of MRE-269 and troglitazone was almost abolished by co-incubation with GW9662, but not with CAY10441. Increasing concentrations of troglitazone were found to reverse the inhibitory effect of CAY10441 in a dose-dependent manner while those of MRE-269 failed to rescue adipogenesis suppressed by GW9662, indicating the critical role of the PPARγ activation as a downstream factor for the stimulated adipogenesis through the IP receptor. Treatment of cultured adipocytes with cell permeable stable cAMP analogues or forskolin as a cAMP elevating agent partly restored the inhibitory effect of aspirin. However, excess levels of cAMP stimulated by forskolin attenuated adipogenesis. Supplementation with H-89, a cell

  16. Long-term exhumation history of the Inner Mongolian Plateau constrained by apatite fission track analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Jolivet, Marc; Zhang, Zhicheng; Li, Jianfeng; Tang, Wenhao

    2016-01-01

    The Inner Mongolian Plateau, along the southeastern flank of the wider Mongolian Plateau, is a vast undulating surface ranging in elevation between 900 and 1500 m above sea level. The peculiar topography of this area is assumed to be closely related to its complex tectono-thermal evolution since Late Paleozoic. The lithospheric structure of the Plateau includes three continental blocks: the Mandula and the Bart Obo blocks form the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in that area, and to the south, the Plateau includes the northern margin of the North China Craton. Apatite fission track (AFT) ages and track length distributions from 13 basement outcrops situated in the main tectonic blocks forming the Inner Mongolian Plateau were determined in order to reconstruct its denudation history. The thermal histories inferred from these data imply multi-phased, differential exhumation/burying processes from the Late Paleozoic to the Early Cretaceous. This complex thermal history is largely related to the Early/Middle Triassic closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, the Jurassic closure of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean, and the Early Cretaceous orogenic collapse of the Mongol-Okhotsk belt. Finally, since Late Cretaceous, no further major tectonic movement occurred and the Inner Mongolian Plateau has been largely peneplained.

  17. Constructions of new plateaued functions from known ones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Weiguo; Ding Yong; Zhang Ning; Xiao Guozhen

    2008-01-01

    A number of methods for constructing new plateaued functions from known ones are presented. By properly combining the known plateaued functions it is possible to get highly nonlinear resilient plateaued functions. The order, resiliency and propagation characteristics of the constructed plateaued functions are discussed. We show the new functions could possess the desirable cryptographic property.

  18. Probabilistic neural networks using Bayesian decision strategies and a modified Gompertz model for growth phase classification in the batch culture of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon; Nazmul Karim M

    2001-01-01

    Probabilistic neural networks (PNNs) were used in conjunction with the Gompertz model for bacterial growth to classify the lag, logarithmic, and stationary phases in a batch process. Using the fermentation time and the optical density of diluted cell suspensions, sampled from a culture of Bacillus subtilis, PNNs enabled a reliable determination of the growth phases. Based on a Bayesian decision strategy, the Gompertz based PNN used newly proposed definition of the lag and logarithmic phases to estimate the latent, logarithmic and stationary phases. This network topology has the potential for use with on-line turbidimeter for the automation and control of cultivation processes.

  19. Argalis on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The argali are listed by the State as animals subject tosecond-class protection,and no killing is allowed. The international communitylists argali on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as animals that must not be hunted.

  20. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Data Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Datasets used in the analysis of the Colorado Plateau (COP) Rapid Ecoregion Assessment (REA).They can be downloaded via a layer package (lpk, similar to a zip file...

  1. Analysis of dynamic changes in the proteome of a Bcl-XL overexpressing Chinese hamster ovary cell culture during exponential and stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlage, Tyler; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Zang, Li; Janakiraman, Vijay; Hincapie, Marina; Lyubarskaya, Yelena; Weiskopf, Andy; Hancock, William S

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian cell cultures used for biopharmaceutical production undergo various dynamic biological changes over time, including the transition of cells from an exponential growth phase to a stationary phase during cell culture. To better understand the dynamic aspects of cell culture, a quantitative proteomics approach was used to identify dynamic trends in protein expression over the course of a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture for the production of a recombinant monoclonal antibody and overexpressing the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-xl. Samples were analyzed using a method incorporating iTRAQ labeling, two-dimensional LC/MS, and linear regression calculations to identify significant dynamic trends in protein abundance. Using this approach, 59 proteins were identified with significant temporal changes in expression. Pathway analysis tools were used to identify a putative network of proteins associated with cell growth and apoptosis. Among the differentially expressed proteins were molecular chaperones and isomerases, such as GRP78 and PDI, and reported cell growth markers MCM2 and MCM5. In addition, two proteins with growth-regulating properties, transglutaminase-2 and clusterin, were identified. These proteins are associated with tumor proliferation and apoptosis and were observed to be expressed at relatively high levels during stationary phase, which was confirmed by western blotting. The proteomic methodology described here provides a dynamic view of protein expression throughout a CHO fed-batch cell culture, which may be useful for further elucidating the biological processes driving mammalian cell culture performance. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  2. Thermochronological evidence for multi-phase uplifting of the East Kunlun Mountains, northern Tibetan Plateau%东昆仑造山带多期隆升历史的地质热年代学证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宣华; Michael W. MCRIVETTE; 李丽; 尹安; 蒋荣宝; 万景林; 李会军

    2011-01-01

    Multiple phases of Mesozoic and Cenozoic cooling and uplifting events are derived from fission track (FT) dating of zircons and apatites and thermal history modeling of apatite FT ages from several plutons in East Kunlun near Golmud City. Two phases of Mesozoic cooling histories revealed by zircon FT ages are phase I in Jurassic (194.1 -144.4 Ma) and phase II in Early Cretaceous (115.7~100.2 Ma). Three phases of Cenozoic cooling histories revealed by apatite FT ages and thermal history modeling are phase I in early Eocene (~52.9 Ma), phase II in middle Miocene (16.3~10.0 Ma), and phase III in Pliocene (5.1~0.9 Ma), which are considered to be closely related to the activity of Cenozoic East Kunlun thrust system. Cenozoic phase I (~52.9 Ma) cooling is consistent with the short time living of a small foreland basin formed on the north margin of the East Kunlun Mountains. The spatial distribution of apatiteFT ages in Cenozoic phase II (16.3-10.0 Ma) and III (5.1~0.9 Ma) suggests the piggyback thrusting of the East Kunlun thrust system and the forming of piggyback Qaidam Basin as a result of basin-mountain coupling. According to the age comparability of the end of thrusting in Cenozoic phase II and the beginning of the major sinistral strike-slipping of Kunlun Fault, it is inferred that there was a deformational transfer from compressing to shearing at ~10.0 Ma.%对格尔木附近东昆仑山花岗岩类侵入岩体中锆石和磷灰石进行裂变径迹(FT)定年与热历史的模拟,得到了中、新生代东昆仑山多阶段冷却与隆升的构造热历史.锆石FT年龄反映了东昆仑山中生代2期冷却历史,分别为第1期侏罗纪(194.1~144.4Ma)和第2期早白垩世(115.7~100.2Ma)冷却历史.磷灰石FT年龄和热历史模拟给出新生代3期冷却历史,分别为第1期始新世早期(约52.9Ma)、第2期中新世中期(16.3~10.0Ma)和第3期上新世(5.1~0.9Ma)冷却历史.东昆仑山新生代3期冷却历史与逆冲断层系的

  3. A quarter century of research on the Colorado Plateau: a compilation of the Colorado Plateau Biennial Conference Proceedings for 1993-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Riper, Charles; Drost, Charles A.; Selleck, S. Shane

    2015-01-01

    This Open-File Report is a compilation of the work published in the Colorado Plateau Biennial Conference book series over the span of the past nearly quarter century (conferences held between 1991–2011). The primary focus of the conferences has been to work toward integrating new science findings into management of the region’s natural and cultural resources. This conference and book series has begun a tradition of cooperation and community, bridging cultural, social, and biophysical research interests and addressing the needs of scientists and land managers working in a complex geographic area. We include here the abstracts for each of the 11 books in the series, as well as links to files with comprehensive literature citations and author listings. The goal of this compilation is to encourage further cooperation and communication on research and management issues of the Colorado Plateau among researchers, land managers, Native American tribes, and the public.   

  4. Effects of octane on the fatty acid composition and transition temperature of Pseudomonas oleovorans membrane lipids during growth in two-liquid-phase continuous cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Qi; Nijenhuis, Atze; Preusting, Hans; Dolfing, Jan; Janssen, Dick B.; Witholt, Bernard

    1995-01-01

    Growth of Pseudomonas oleovorans GPol in continuous culture containing a bulk n-octane phase resulted in changes of the fatty acid composition of the membrane lipids. Compared to citrate-grown cells, the ratio of C-18 to C-16 fatty acids and the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids increase

  5. Effects of octane on the fatty acid composition and transition temperature of Pseudomonas oleovorans membrane lipids during growth in two-liquid-phase continuous cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Qi; Nijenhuis, Atze; Preusting, Hans; Dolfing, Jan; Janssen, Dick B.; Witholt, Bernard

    1995-01-01

    Growth of Pseudomonas oleovorans GPol in continuous culture containing a bulk n-octane phase resulted in changes of the fatty acid composition of the membrane lipids. Compared to citrate-grown cells, the ratio of C18 to C16 fatty acids and the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids increased

  6. Holocene aeolian sediments on the NE Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauch, G.; Lehmkuhl, F.; Hilgers, A.; Zhao, H.

    2012-04-01

    The semiarid climate of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau supports the formation of different types of aeolian sediments and landforms during the Holocene. Aeolians silts and sands in the catchment of the Donggi Cona in an elevation above 4000m to 4800 m asl reflect variable climate conditions during that time as well as different sediment sources. Based on 51 OSL datings and catchment wide geomorphological mapping a complex pattern of long and short distance sediment transport has been reconstructed. Only few aeolian archives are preserved from the late Pleistocene in this mountain environment indicating cold and dry climate conditions which prevented a continuous accumulation. During the early Holocene a phase of increased aeolian sedimentation of sand at the slopes of the mountains has been reconstructed. The sand originated from a large alluvial fan which was highly active during the Pleistocene. In addition, a thin loess cover is preserved at a few sites in the neighboring mountains ranges. The sedimentation of the loess started around 2000 years later than the sedimentation of the sand at the foot slope. Both archives are related to an increase in precipitation at the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau which was related to a strengthening of the Asian Monsoon during that time. The wetter climate conditions favored the development of a vegetation cover which leads to the trapping and fixation of the aeolian sediments. However, with a further strengthening of the Monsoon systems these archives subsequently eroded due to higher run off and accumulated as colluvial and fluvial deposits in the basins. These phase lasted until 6 ka. A second aeolian period started at around 3 ka with the formation new dunes in the basins. This period can be associated with dry and cold climate of the late Holocene supporting the reactivation of the sand in the area. This might be further enhanced by an increased human impact by grazing during the late Holocene and resulting

  7. Constraining properties of GRB magnetar central engines using the observed plateau luminosity and duration correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, A; Dainotti, M; O'Brien, P T; Wijers, R A M J; van der Horst, A J

    2014-01-01

    An intrinsic correlation has been identified between the luminosity and duration of plateaus in the X-ray afterglows of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs; Dainotti et al. 2008), suggesting a central engine origin. The magnetar central engine model predicts an observable plateau phase, with plateau durations and luminosities being determined by the magnetic fields and spin periods of the newly formed magnetar. This paper analytically shows that the magnetar central engine model can explain, within the 1$\\sigma$ uncertainties, the correlation between plateau luminosity and duration. The observed scatter in the correlation most likely originates in the spread of initial spin periods of the newly formed magnetar and provides an estimate of the maximum spin period of ~35 ms (assuming a constant mass, efficiency and beaming across the GRB sample). Additionally, by combining the observed data and simulations, we show that the magnetar emission is most likely narrowly beamed and has $\\lesssim$20% efficiency in conversion of rot...

  8. Current Progresses in Study of Impacts of the Tibetan Plateau on Asian Summer Climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guoxiong; MAO Jiangyu; DUAN Anmin; ZHANG Qiong

    2006-01-01

    The current progresses in the study of impacts of the Tibetan Plateau on Asian summer climate in the last decade are reviewed. By analyzing evolution of the transitional zone between westerly to the north and easterly to the south (WEB), it is shown that due to the strong heating over the Tibetan Plateau in spring, the overturning in the prevailing wind direction from easterly in winter to westerly in summer occurs firstly over the eastern Bay of Bengal (BOB), accompanied with vigorous convective precipitation to its east. The area between eastern BOB and western Indo-China Peninsula thus becomes the area with the earliest onset of Asian monsoon, which may be referred as BOB monsoon in short. It is shown that the summertime circulations triggered by the thermal forcing of the Iranian Plateau and the Tibetan Plateau are embedded in phase with the continental-scale circulation forced by the diabatic heating over the Eurasian Continent. As a result, the East Asian summer monsoon is intensified and the drought climate over the western and central Asian areas is enhanced. Together with perturbations triggered by the Tibetan Plateau,the above scenarios and the associated heating have important influences on the climate patterns over Asia.Furthermore, the characteristics of the Tibetan mode of the summertime South Asian high are compared with those of Iranian mode. Results demonstrate that corresponding to each of the bimodality of the South Asian high, the rainfall anomaly distributions over Asia exhibit different patterns.

  9. 200-kg large explosive detonation facing 50-km thick crust beneath west Qinling, northeastern Tibetan plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiusheng Li; Rui Gao; Haiyan Wang; Jisheng Zhang; Zhanwu Lu; Pengwu Li; Ye Guan; Rizheng He

    2009-01-01

    It is difficult to acquire deep seismic reflection profiles on land using the standard oil-industry acquisition pa-rameters. This is especially true over much of Tibetan plateau not only because of severe topography and rapid variation of both velocity and thickness of near-surface layer, but also strong attenuation of seismic wave through the thickest crust of the Earth. Large explosive sources had been successfully detonated in US, but its application in Tibetan plateau rarely has an example of good quality. Presented herein is the data of a 200-kg single shot we recorded in west Qinling, northeastern Ti-betan plateau. The shot gather data with phenomenal signal-to-noise ratios illustrate the energy of the ProP phase. Although the observations are only limited to the northeastern Tibetan plateau and thus cannot comprise an exhaustive study, they nev-ertheless suggest that large explosions may be a useful exploration tool in Tibetan Plateau where standard seismic sources and profiling methods fail to produce adequate data of low crust.

  10. The Hikurangi Plateau: Tectonic Ricochet and Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, David; Moresi, Louis; Betts, Peter; Whittaker, Joanne

    2015-04-01

    80 million years between interactions with different subduction systems provided time for the Hikurangi Plateau and Pacific Ocean lithosphere to cool, densify and strengthen. Neogene subduction of the Hikurangi Plateau occurring orthogonal to its Cretaceous predecessor, provides a unique opportunity to explore how changes to the physical properties of oceanic lithosphere affect subduction dynamics. We used Underworld to build mechanically consistent collision models to understand the dynamics of the two Hikurangi collisions. The Hikurangi Plateau is a ~112 Ma, 15km thick oceanic plateau that has been entrained by subduction zones immediately preceding the final break-up of Eastern Gondwana and currently within the active Hikurangi Margin. We explore why attempted subduction of the plateau has resulted in vastly different dynamics on two separate occasions. Slab break-off occured during the collision with Gondwana, currently there is apparent subduction of the plateau underneath New Zealand. At ~100Ma the young, hot Hikurangi Plateau, positively buoyant with respect to the underlying mantle, impacted a Gondwana Margin under rapid extension after the subduction of an mid-ocean ridge 10-15Ma earlier. Modelling of plateaus within young oceanic crust indicates that subduction of the thickened crust was unlikely to occur. Frontal accretion of the plateau and accompanying slab break-off is expected to have occured rapidly after its arrival. The weak, young slab was susceptible to lateral propagation of the ~1500 km window opened by the collision, and break-off would have progressed along the subduction zone inhibiting the "step-back" of the trench seen in older plates. Slab break-off coincided with a world-wide reorganisation of plate velocites, and orogenic collapse along the Gondwana margin characterised by rapid extension and thinning of the over-riding continental plate from ~60 to 30km. Following extension, Zealandia migrated to the NW until the Miocene allowing the

  11. Optical Turbulence above the Internal Antarctic Plateau

    CERN Document Server

    Masciadri, E; Hagelin, S; Moigne, P Le; Noilhan, J

    2010-01-01

    The internal antarctic plateau revealed in the last years to be a site with interesting potentialities for the astronomical applications due to the extreme dryness and low temperatures, the typical high altitude of the plateau, the weak level of turbulence in the free atmosphere down to a just few tens of meters from the ground and the thin optical turbulence layer developed at the ground. The main goal of a site testing assessment above the internal antarctic plateau is to characterize the site (optical turbulence and classical meteorological parameters) and to quantify which is the gain we might obtain with respect to equivalent astronomical observations done above mid-latitude sites to support plans for future astronomical facilities. Our group is involved, since a few years, in studies related to the assessment of this site for astronomical applications that include the characterization of the meteorological parameters and optical turbulence provided by general circulation models as well as mesoscale atmo...

  12. Tectonomagmatic Associations on the Central Andean Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, S. L.; Viramonte, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    The Neogene evolution of the Central Andes is characterized by a strong association between plate convergence, mountain building and plateau formation, and magmatism. Plateau uplift by crustal shortening and thickening in the lower crust is broadly coincident with large scale silicic magmatism defined by the Neogene Central Andean ignimbrite province. Of particular interest here are the spatiotemporal correlations between silicic magmatism and tectonic evolution of the Altiplano-Puna plateau. Although magmatism is driven by the subduction-related flux from mantle to crust, the shift to "crustal" magmatism as indicated by elevated crustal isotopic indices after ~10Ma suggests a link between crustal thickening, plateau formation and silicic magmatism. In particular, elevated geotherms associated with crustal thickening and enhanced mantle flux associated with lithospheric delamination may have played a role in thermally preparing the Central Andean crust for enhanced silicic magma production during the extensive Neogene ignimbrite flare-up. Emplacement of these magmas in the upper crust throughout the Neogene may have fuelled a period of significant interaction between magmatism and tectonism on the plateau. With particular reference to the 21° to 24°S segment of the Central Andes, spatial and structural coincidence of calderas of the Altiplano Puna Volcanic Complex with the NW-SE striking Calama-Olacapata-El Toro fault zone suggests significant tectonomagmatic interaction. Location of calderas suggest that these regional faults focused magma intrusion and storage, while spatially and temporally correlated eruption pulses connote a tectonic control. Indeed, current thermomechanical models of magma chamber development and eruption triggering promote a role for external triggering of "perched" upper crustal magma chambers. This might have been achieved by melt-enhanced deformation, or alternatively, significant uplift (~1km) associated with the development of large

  13. Peopling the Tibetan plateau: insights from archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldenderfer, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of the genome of modern Tibetans have revealed the existence of genes thought to provide an adaptive advantage for life at high elevation. Extrapolating from this discovery, some researchers now argue that a Tibetan-Han split occurred no more than 2750 yr ago. This date is implausible, and in this paper I review the archaeological data from the Tibetan plateau as one means by which to examine the veracity of this assertion. Following a review of the general state of knowledge of Tibetan prehistory, which is unfortunately only at its beginnings, I first examine the data that speak to the initial peopling of the plateau and assess the evidence that traces of their presence can be seen in modern Tibetans today. Although the data are sparse, both archaeology and genetics suggest that the plateau was occupied in the Late Pleistocene, perhaps as early as 30,000 yr ago, and that these early peoples have left a genetic signature in modern Tibetans. I then turn to the evidence for later migrations and focus on the question of the timing of the establishment of permanent settled villages on the plateau. Three areas of the plateau-northeastern Qinghai, extreme eastern Tibet, and the Yarlung Tsangpo valley-have evidence of permanent settlements dating from ca. 6500, 5900, and 3750 yr ago, respectively. These data are not consonant with the 2750 yr ago date for the split and suggest at a minimum that the plateau has been occupied substantially longer and, further, that multiple migrations at different times and from different places have created a complex mosaic of population history. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  14. U-Pb zircon geochronology and phase equilibria modelling of a mafic eclogite from the Sumdo complex of south-east Tibet: Insights into prograde zircon growth and the assembly of the Tibetan plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, O. M.; St-Onge, M. R.; Rayner, N.; Waters, D. J.; Searle, M. P.; Palin, R. M.

    2016-10-01

    The Sumdo complex is a Permian-Triassic eclogitic metamorphic belt in south-east Tibet, which marks the location of a suture zone that separates the northern and southern Lhasa terranes. An integrated geochronological and petrological study of a mafic eclogite from the complex has constrained its tectonometamorphic history and provides a case study of zircon growth in eclogite as a product of prograde dissolution-precipitation. In situ U-Pb geochronology indicates that the eclogite contains a single population of zircon with a crystallisation age of 273.6 ± 2.8 Ma. The morphology and chemistry of the zircon grains are consistent with growth by dissolution-precipitation of protolith magmatic zircon. The presence of zircon grains as inclusions in the cores of peak phases indicates that zircon dissolution-precipitation occurred during prograde metamorphism, and calculated pressure and temperature conditions over which mineral inclusions in zircon are stable suggest that the zircon most likely precipitated at 15.5-16.5 kbar and 500-560 °C. Subsequent peak metamorphism is calculated to have reached pressure-temperature conditions of 27 ± 1 kbar and 670 ± 50 °C. Previous studies, which have documented a range of peak metamorphic conditions from high- to ultrahigh-pressure at c. 266-230 Ma, indicate that the Sumdo complex is a composite belt that experienced protracted eclogite exhumation. The results of this study are consistent with this interpretation, and extend the age range of high-pressure metamorphism in the complex to over 40 Myr. Analysis of published pressure-temperature-time data indicates two systematic behaviours within this spread. First, peak metamorphic temperatures declined over time. Second, eclogite exhumation occurred in two discrete intervals: soon after formation, and during the demise of the subduction zone. The latter behaviour serves as a reminder that eclogite exhumation is the exception rather than the rule.

  15. The Influence of Low-frequency Oscillation Propagation of the Tibetan Plateau Vortex on Rainstorm Downstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Tiangui; Wang, Chao; La, Jia; Du, Jun; Zhang, Kairong

    2017-04-01

    Based on Tibetan Plateau vortex data, ERA-Interim and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, the characteristics of Tibetan Plateau vortex and the relationship with Low-Frequency Oscillation (LFO) from 2003 to 2012 were investigated. The heavy rainstorm occurred in Sichuan from June 29th to July 2nd in 2013, caused by the LFO, was studied. Besides, the signal of LFO, energy transmission and those influence to rainstorm were also investigate. The main conclusions are as follows: (1)Most of Tibetan Plateau vortex generate in eastern plateau, located at Tanggula Mountains, Zaduo, Dege, Qumalai and Qaidam. The moving-out Tibetan Plateau vortex mainly generate in Qumalai and most vortex occurrences during April to September. There are three directions of moving-out vortex paths: northeast, southeast and east. The areas which plateau vortex moving into are mainly distributed in Gansu, Sichuan, Shaanxi and Ningxia. (2)The zonal wind at 500hPa in plateau key region has a significant main 10-30d oscillation, with the secondly significant oscillation in 30-50d and the third in 70-90d. The relative vorticity at 500hPa in plateau key region has a significant main 30-50d oscillations, with the secondly significant oscillation in 10-30d. The 30-50d oscillation phase zone with weak westerly oscillation zone of 500hPa, and the 10-30d oscillation positive phase zone with weak oscillation zone of 500hPa are benefit to vortex generation. The 30-50d oscillation of zonal wind at 500hPa provides necessary circulation background for generation of plateau vortex, and positive phase region of 10-30d oscillation of relative vorticity at 500hPa provide necessary dynamic background conditions for it. (3) Comparing with the high frequency oscillation vortex, 10-25d low-frequency vortex is not significant at 500hPa before merging into the basin vortex. However, after merging into the basin vortex, there is a significant relationship between low-frequency vortex and the process of development, weakening and

  16. A transcription-dependent increase in miniature EPSC frequency accompanies late-phase plasticity in cultured hippocampal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann Frank

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The magnitude and longevity of synaptic activity-induced changes in synaptic efficacy is quantified by measuring evoked responses whose potentiation requires gene transcription to persist for more than 2-3 hours. While miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs are also increased in amplitude and/or frequency during long-term potentiation (LTP, it is not known how long such changes persist or whether gene transcription is required. Results We use whole-cell patch clamp recordings from dissociated hippocampal cultures to characterise for the first time the persistence and transcription dependency of mEPSC upregulation during synaptic potentiation. The persistence of recurrent action potential bursting in these cultures is transcription-, translation- and NMDA receptor-dependent thus providing an accessible model for long-lasting plasticity. Blockade of GABAA-receptors with bicuculline for 15 minutes induced action potential bursting in all neurons and was maintained in 50-60% of neurons for more than 6 hours. Throughout this period, the frequency but neither the amplitude of mEPSCs nor whole-cell AMPA currents was markedly increased. The transcription blocker actinomycin D abrogated, within 2 hours of burst induction, both action potential bursting and the increase in mEPSCs. Reversible blockade of action potentials during, but not after this 2 hour transcription period suppressed the increase in mEPSC frequency and the recovery of burst activity at a time point 6 hours after induction. Conclusion These results indicate that increased mEPSC frequency persists well beyond the 2 hour transcription-independent phase of plasticity in this model. This long-lasting mEPSC upregulation is transcription-dependent and requires ongoing action potential activity during the initial 2 hour period but not thereafter. Thus mEPSC upregulation may underlie the long term, transcription-dependent persistence of action potential bursting. This provides mechanistic

  17. Human Activities and Environmental changes in Qinghai -Tibet Plateau%晚更新世以来青藏高原人类活动与环境变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯光良; 张雪莲; 王倩倩

    2015-01-01

    and analyses the phases of plateau human activities ,the typical remains and the influences of envi‐ronmental evolution on human activities.Qinghai‐Tibet plateau human activities are divided into Paleolithic age ,Neolithic age ,Age of Copper and historical period. In the last deglaciation to early Holocene ,envi‐ronmental conditions had been improving continually. And in paleolithic age ,the shooters had stepped in‐to plateau. T hey had small scale of the activities ,w hile having higher liquidity and random. In the Hol‐ocene Warm Period 6~4kaBP ,Majiayao ,Zongri and KaRe culture of Neolithic age came into being at the plateau northeastern and eastern edge. The suitable climatic conditions help humans in plateau to develop agriculture ,settle down and use polished stone tools and pottery which are their characteristics. About the 4ka period ,the big warm was over. Cold and dry climate trend replaced and reduced the prehistoric cul‐ture of the plateau eastern edge ;carried out the transition to the Age of Copper progressively at the plat‐eau eastern edge ;decreased the proportion of agriculture and established the animal husbandry gradually.The cultivation and acclimatization of Regional animal species (yak and Tibetan sheep) made humans spread to every corner on the plateau. T he environmental conditions of different regions took different cul‐tures (Xindian ,Zongri and KaRe culture ). T hen the Cultures splitted. 2kaBP into the historical period , migration of the plateau population ,tribe arising had a close relationship with environmental change .

  18. 心理行为因素对急进高原救灾官兵急性高原反应状况的影响%Study on acute mountain sickness and the psychological factors in the relief force during the initial phase of acute plateau exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高存友; 甘景梨; 赵兰民; 王丽杰

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解急进高原抗震救灾官兵的急性高原反应状况,并探讨其心理行为相关影响因素,为进一步研究预防措施提供参考依据.方法 整群随机抽取玉树抗震救灾某部162名官兵为研究对象,根据军标GJB1098-9急性高原反应的诊断和处理原则判断官兵的急性高原反应状况,采用一般情况调查表、症状自评量表(SCL-90)和生活事件量表(LES)调查相关因素.结果 救灾官兵急性高原反应的检出率为65.4%,其中轻度17.3%、中度31.5%、重度16.7%.临床表现中以气短、心慌、头昏、口唇发绀和头痛等症状最为多见,在救灾官兵中出现比率分别为83.6%、79.1%、73.1%、61.2%和58.2%.急性高原反应总计分与年龄、婚姻、心理创伤史,LES负性事件,SCL-90总分及其躯体化、强迫、抑郁、焦虑、敌对、恐怖、偏执、食欲睡眠等因子呈显著正相关(r值为0.188~0.619,P<0.01或0.05),与兴趣爱好、社会支持呈显著负相关(r值分别为-0.254,-0.285,P<0.01).多元逐步回归分析显示SCL-90的躯体化因子,兴趣爱好、婚姻、社会支持和年龄等因素进入回归方程.结论 大部分救灾官兵存在明显的急性高原反应,躯体化症状、兴趣爱好、婚姻、社会支持和年龄等因素对官兵的急性高原反应状况影响较大.%Objective To investigate the acute mountain sickness of servicemen during"4.14"Yushu earhquake relief work,and analyze the related factors of the sickness at the initial phase of acute plateau exposure.Methods 162 servicemen were sampled randomly and clusteringly from Yushu relief force during.the inidal phase of acute plateau exposure.According to the"Diagnosis and treatment principles of the acute mountain sickness",the prevalence of the acute mountain sickness was judged among the servicemen.The scales of general status invested score(GSIS),the self-rating symptom scale(SCL-90)and the life event scale(LES)were used to investigate the

  19. Sino-Japanese Teamwork Probes Environment Changes on Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ With the support of a CAS project on Holocene environmental changes and their influences on the ecosystem of the Tibetan Plateau, a research group headed by Prof. Zhu Liping from the CAS Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research and their Japanese collaborators carried out a field survey in Puma Yumco area on the Tibetan Plateau from September 8 to 20.

  20. The Hubble Flow of Plateau Inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coone, Dries; Roest, Diederik; Vennin, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of CMB precision measurements, a Taylor expansion has often been invoked to parametrize the Hubble flow function during inflation. The standard "horizon flow" procedure implicitly relies on this assumption. However, the recent Planck results indicate a strong preference for plateau

  1. The Hubble Flow of Plateau Inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coone, Dries; Roest, Diederik; Vennin, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of CMB precision measurements, a Taylor expansion has often been invoked to parametrize the Hubble flow function during inflation. The standard "horizon flow" procedure implicitly relies on this assumption. However, the recent Planck results indicate a strong preference for plateau in

  2. Ozone Minihole Found over Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Through a comprehensive analysis, researchers from the CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) discovered an ozone minihole, a large area with the lowest total ozone column (TOC, see figure), over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from Dec. 14 to 17, 2003.

  3. Construction of plateaued functions satisfying multiple criteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Weiguo

    2005-01-01

    A class of plateaued functions has been got by using the Maiorana-McFarland construction. A variety of desirable criteria for functions with cryptographic application could be satisfied: balancedness, high nonlinearity, correlation immunity of reasonably high order, strict avalanche criterion, non-existence of non-zero linear structures, good global avalanche characteristics, etc.

  4. Planation Surfaces on the Tibet Plateau, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A planation hypothesis is proposed to explain landform evolution of the Tibet Plateau. A denudation threshold (T), the maximum potential denudation rate for a certain type of rock, is introduced to explain the combined effects of lithology and tectonics on landform evolution. If the tectonic uplifting rate (U) is equal to or less than the threshold rate (U ≤ T), the tectonic uplifting and terrain denudation are in dynamic equilibrium, and landforms are in a steady state. The end product should be planation surfaces whether the original landforms are fiat plains or deeply dissected mountains. If U > T, uplift and denudation are not able to reach a dynamic equilibrium state. The plateau surface is mostly underlain by soft rocks, such as the Mesozoic epimetamorphic argillites and Tertiary sedimentary rocks, while the mountain ranges comprise hard rocks, such as granite, gneiss and limestone. In soft rock regions, hills are low with a relative relief of mostly less than 100m and the slopes are gentle at a gradient of <200. In contrast, hills can maintain steep slopes in hard rock regions. The Tibet Plateau has been under an equilibrium condition between tectonic uplifting and denudation except for the mountain ranges. The plateau might have reached the present altitudes before the Quaternary.

  5. The intracrustal structure beneath the Owyhee Plateau, Oregon, from receiver function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, T.; Chen, C.; James, D. E.; Fouch, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Owyhee Plateau straddles southeastern Oregon, southwestern Idaho, and northern Nevada, and is an isolated block of older, and less modified, continental lithosphere relative to bordering geologic terranes. Previous seismic studies have characterized the Owyhee Plateau as having thickened crust with low Poisson's ratio and high intracrustal S-wave velocities, and distinct, albeit thin, mantle lithosphere. Significant tectonomagmatic activity, including extension in the northern Great Basin, and intraplate volcanism is present on the margins of the Plateau, but very little volcanism takes place within the Plateau itself. The volcanism is expressed as two prominent age-progressive volcanic tracks, the Snake River Plains-Yellowstone and the High Lava Plains, both of which appear to have originated from near the Owyhee Plateau at approximately 12 Ma. Recent ambient noise tomography and scattered-wave imaging reveal the presence of irregular high velocity layering in the Owyhee mid-crust, but the extent and properties of this feature, and its role in the tectonic evolution of the Owyhee Plateau, remain elusive. In this study, we perform detailed single station Ps receiver function analysis to better constrain the discontinuity structures within the Owyhee crust. We use teleseismic waveform data recorded at 28 High Lava Plains seismic array and 12 USArray Transportable Array broadband stations from 2006 to 2009. Preliminary results show coherent signals of converted phase at ~20 km depth, indicating the presence of a positive velocity discontinuity, which may mark the upper bound of the high velocity layer imaged in previous studies. We consider and examine possible effects of seismic anisotropy on our results and are also conducting synthetic experiments to further constrain the properties of this feature.

  6. Soil erosion and management on the Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Loess Plateau is well known to the world for its intense soil erosion. The root cause for river sedimentation of Yellow River (Huanghe) and its resultant "hanging river" in certain section is soil and water loss on the Loess Plateau. The Loess Plateau has a long cultivation history, hence population growth, vegetation degeneration and plugging constitute the chief reason for serious soil and water loss on Loess Plateau. This paper analyses several successful cases and failures in soil conservation, presents practical soil conservation technique and related benefit analysis, and discusses some effective methods adopted in China in soil erosion control, research directions and future perspectives on Loess Plateau.

  7. Structure and multiphased evolution of the Demerara plateau (offshore Suriname, French Guiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier de Lépinay, Marion; Basile, Christophe; Loncke, Lies; Maillard, Agnès; Grall, Céline; Roest, Walter R.; de Clarens, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Offshore Suriname and French Guiana, the Demerara plateau is a continental indentation at the intersection of two oceanic domains : the Jurassic Central Atlantic and the Early Cretaceous Equatorial Atlantic. Its three borders are passive margins. The northern one is a transform margin, the two others are rifted margins, thinned during Trias/Jurassic (westward), and a second time during Early Cretaceous (eastward). The main stratigraphic feature of the Demerara plateau is the major upper Albian angular erosive unconformity, synchronous to the Equatorial Atlantic break-up. We here focus on the sedimentary records observed below the upper Albian discordance, where seismic data show more than 13 km of layered units. The aim of this study is to give new insights about the evolution of the Demerara plateau during Mesozoic times, in order to constrain vertical displacements especially in relation with the transform margin. We use mostly structural interpretation of industrial and academic seismic lines (GUYAPLAC, 2003 and IGUANES, 2013), calibrated by industrial wells down to Berriasian times. It allows us to propose structural maps and regional interpretative cross-sections of the plateau and its three borders. On seismic lines, undated prominent seismic units are characterized by important thickness variations, and weak continuity of intern reflectors. They thicken westward (toward the Central Atlantic ocean). One possible interpretation is to relate these units to trias/jurassic syn-rift sediments deposition associated to a continentward dipping fault. But the complex is formed by a repetition of several layer fans. Hence one alternative interpretation would be that these units were seaward dipping reflectors stacked during Trias/Jurassic rifting, suggesting that the role of magmatism should have been predominant during the first phase of the plateau formation. All the sediments of the plateau, including Aptian sediments, are deformed with numerous structures (strike

  8. Biodegradation of phenanthrene and analysis of degrading cultures in the presence of a model organo-mineral matrix and of a simulated NAPL phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalca, Lucia; Rao, Maria A; Bernasconi, Silvana; Colombo, Milena; Andreoni, Vincenza; Gianfreda, Liliana

    2008-02-01

    Two mixed bacterial cultures (C(B-BT) and C(I-AT)) degraded phenanthrene when it was: (i) in the presence of either hexadecane as a non aqueous phase liquid or a montmorillonite-Al(OH)x-humic acid complex as a model organo-mineral matrix; (ii) sorbed to the complex, either alone or in the presence of hexadecane. The cultures had different kinetic behaviours towards phenanthrene with or without hexadecane. The degradation of Phe alone as well as that of Phe in hexadecane ended in 8 and 15 days with C(B-BT) and C(I-AT) cultures, respectively. Hexadecane increased Phe bioavailability for C(I-AT) bacteria which degraded Phe according to first-order kinetics. The same effect was observed for C(B-BT) bacteria, but with an initial 2 days lag phase and in accordance with zero-order kinetics. The presence of hexadecane did not affect the degradation of phenanthrene sorbed and aged on the complex by C(I-AT )culture. This capability was exhibited also after experimental aging of 30 days. The dynamics of the bacterial community composition was investigated through PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) of 16S rRNA gene fragments. Individual bands changed their intensity during the incubation time, implying that particular microbe's relative abundance changed according to the culture conditions. Isolation of phenanthrene and/or hexadecane degraders was in accord with cultivation-independent data. Growth-dependent changes in the cell surface hydrophobicity of the two cultures and of the isolates suggested that modulation of cell surface hydrophobicity probably played an important role for an efficient phenanthrene assimilation/uptake.

  9. Role of Cortico-Cancellous Heterologous Bone in Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cell Xeno-Free Culture Studied by Synchrotron Radiation Phase-Contrast Microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Serena; Mohammadi, Sara; Tromba, Giuliana; Diomede, Francesca; Piattelli, Adriano; Trubiani, Oriana; Giuliani, Alessandra

    2017-02-10

    This study was designed to quantitatively demonstrate via three-dimensional (3D) images, through the Synchrotron Radiation Phase-Contrast Microtomography (SR-PhC-MicroCT), the osteoinductive properties of a cortico-cancellous scaffold (Osteobiol Dual Block-DB) cultured with human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (hPDLSCs) in xeno-free media. In vitro cultures of hPDLSCs, obtained from alveolar crest and horizontal fibers of the periodontal ligament, were seeded onto DB scaffolds and cultured in xeno-free media for three weeks. 3D images were obtained by SR-PhC-microCT after one and three weeks from culture beginning. MicroCT data were successively processed with a phase-retrieval algorithm based on the Transport of Intensity Equation (TIE). The chosen experimental method, previously demonstratively applied for the 3D characterization of the same constructs in not xeno-free media, quantitatively monitored also in this case the early stages of bone formation in basal and differentiating conditions. Interestingly, it quantitatively showed in the xeno-free environment a significant acceleration of the mineralization process, regardless of the culture (basal/differentiating) medium. This work showed in 3D that the DB guides the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs in xeno-free cultures, in agreement with 2D observations and functional studies previously performed by some of the authors. Indeed, here we fully proved in 3D that expanded hPDLSCs, using xeno-free media formulation, not only provide the basis for Good Manufacturing Practice (preserving the stem cells' morphological features and their ability to differentiate into mesenchymal lineage) but have to be considered, combined to DB scaffolds, as interesting candidates for potential clinical use in new custom made tissue-engineered constructs.

  10. Role of Cortico-Cancellous Heterologous Bone in Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cell Xeno-Free Culture Studied by Synchrotron Radiation Phase-Contrast Microtomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Mazzoni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to quantitatively demonstrate via three-dimensional (3D images, through the Synchrotron Radiation Phase-Contrast Microtomography (SR-PhC-MicroCT, the osteoinductive properties of a cortico-cancellous scaffold (Osteobiol Dual Block—DB cultured with human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (hPDLSCs in xeno-free media. In vitro cultures of hPDLSCs, obtained from alveolar crest and horizontal fibers of the periodontal ligament, were seeded onto DB scaffolds and cultured in xeno-free media for three weeks. 3D images were obtained by SR-PhC-microCT after one and three weeks from culture beginning. MicroCT data were successively processed with a phase-retrieval algorithm based on the Transport of Intensity Equation (TIE. The chosen experimental method, previously demonstratively applied for the 3D characterization of the same constructs in not xeno-free media, quantitatively monitored also in this case the early stages of bone formation in basal and differentiating conditions. Interestingly, it quantitatively showed in the xeno-free environment a significant acceleration of the mineralization process, regardless of the culture (basal/differentiating medium. This work showed in 3D that the DB guides the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs in xeno-free cultures, in agreement with 2D observations and functional studies previously performed by some of the authors. Indeed, here we fully proved in 3D that expanded hPDLSCs, using xeno-free media formulation, not only provide the basis for Good Manufacturing Practice (preserving the stem cells’ morphological features and their ability to differentiate into mesenchymal lineage but have to be considered, combined to DB scaffolds, as interesting candidates for potential clinical use in new custom made tissue-engineered constructs.

  11. 自我职涯管理与职涯高原的关系%The Relationship between Individual Career Management and Career Plateau of Employees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾垂凯

    2012-01-01

    组织结构扁平化导致职涯高原员工逐渐增多,给个体和组织造成了消极影响。本文通过对338名企业员工的问卷调查探讨自我职涯管理与职涯高原的关系。研究结果显示:自我职涯管理中的职业探索与层级高原、内容高原及中心化高原正相关;目标确定与层级高原、关注学习与内容高原、注重关系与中心化高原及内容高原负相关;自我展示虽在简单相关分析中与内容高原及中心化高原负相关,但在回归分析中则相关不显著。%With the flatting development of the organization structure and gradually reduced management levels,promotion becomes more difficult than ever.More and more employees,especially management personnel,are getting into trouble with stagnation of career development.Then,career plateau phenomenon appears.According to the idea of Zeng Chuikai,career plateau is such a phenomena that in a certain phase of individuals career development,the long stay in a position makes the career flow(including vertical flow,horizontal flow,and central flow) difficult to realize,and causes his or her career development stagnation.Career plateau includes three aspects-hierarchal plateau(few possibility to promote in present organization),content plateau(few opportunity to learn new skills), and inclusive plateau(few possibility towards responsibility center).Since career plateau brings lots of adverse influences to both individuals and organizations,its relationship with individual career management now receives more and more attention in the world. To explore the relationship between individual career management and career plateau,in this research we made a questionnaire survey on employees of firms on the Chinese mainland.Out of a samples of 396 employees,338 questionnaires were valid.The questionnaires comprised three parts.Part one included items about the demographic characteristics of the subjects.Part two adopted the Individual Career

  12. Hydrogeology of the Markagunt Plateau, Southwestern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Lawrence E.

    2010-01-01

    The Markagunt Plateau, in southwestern Utah, lies at an altitude of about 9,500 feet and is capped primarily by Quaternary-age basalt that overlies Eocene-age freshwater limestone of the Claron Formation. Over large parts of the Markagunt Plateau, dissolution of the Claron limestone and subsequent collapse of the overlying basalt have produced a terrain characterized by sinkholes as much as 1,000 feet across and 100 feet deep. Numerous large springs discharge from the basalt and underlying limestone on the plateau, including Mammoth Spring, one of the largest springs in Utah, with a discharge that can exceed 300 cubic feet per second. Discharge from Mammoth Spring is from the Claron Formation; however, recharge to the spring largely takes place by both focused and diffuse infiltration through the basalt that caps the limestone. Results of dye tracing to Mammoth Spring indicate that recharge originates largely southwest of the spring outside of the Mammoth Creek watershed, as well as from losing reaches along Mammoth Creek. Maximum groundwater travel time to the spring from dye-tracer tests during the snowmelt runoff period was about 1 week. Specific conductance and water temperature data from the spring show an inverse relation to discharge during snowmelt runoff and rainfall events, also indicating short groundwater residence times. Results of major-ion analyses for samples collected from Mammoth and other springs on the plateau indicate calcium-bicarbonate type water containing low (less than 200 mg/L) dissolved-solids concentrations. Investigations in the Navajo Lake area along the southern margin of the plateau have shown that water losing to sinkholes bifurcates and discharges to both Cascade and Duck Creek Springs, which subsequently flow into the Virgin and Sevier River basins, respectively. Groundwater travel times to these springs, on the basis of dye tracing, were about 8.5 and 53 hours, respectively. Similarly, groundwater travel time from Duck Creek

  13. Cultural Dyphemisms in the Turkish Culture Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhami Durmuş

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkish steppe culture constituted a typical structure with regard to its creation and development. It emerged from steppe geography. The geography affected social, politic, economical, military and religious structure of the society substantially. The Turkish culture was shaped up under these influences. The agents of the culture appeared as a shepherd generally. Shepherding provided a basic to the animal husbandry. The shepherds headed to search the fertile grass. Shepherding obliged people to became seminomadic. Thus the life continued in a manner of searching new pastures and shuttling between plateau and winter quarters . The horse that is one of the important ingredient of the culture provided mobility and speed to the culture. In social, politic, and military life of society the horse came into prominence. The nomadic houses or the cars contributed to Turks’ life very much. These nomad houses were shelter at the nights and cold days for them. Going from the plateau to winter quarters and from pasture to another pasture was made easy thanks to these. The finding which took out from graves reflects to all features of the culture.The ruins of nomad houses and horses were arised from the graves . These support the informations which was given in the written sources. Among the findings, there were also The animal struggle scenes which reflect art concept of theseminomadism between tomb finds. This art concept named as turkish animal style. It’s tried to determine The scope of the Turkish culture by emphasizing steppe, shepherding, semi-nomadism, horse, nomad house, tomb. It is also emphasized that aforementioned notions can be used for Turkish culture. Thus, cultural dysphemisms in the turkish culture based on that idea.

  14. Development of solution phase hybridisation PCR-ELISA for the detection and quantification of Enterococcus faecalis and Pediococcus pentosaceus in Nurmi-type cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Sinéad M; Doyle, Sean; Murphy, Richard A; Power, Ronan F G

    2005-12-01

    Nurmi-type cultures (NTCs), derived from the fermentation of caecal contents of specifically pathogen-free (SPF) birds, have been used successfully to control salmonella colonisation in chicks. These cultures are undefined in nature and, consequently, it is difficult to obtain approval from regulatory agencies for their use as direct fed microbials (DFMs) for poultry. Progress towards the generation of effective defined probiotics requires further knowledge of the composition of these cultures. As such, species-specific, culture-independent quantification methodologies need to be developed to elucidate the concentration of specific bacterial constituents of NTCs. Quantification of specific bacterial species in such ill-defined complex cultures using conventional culturing methods is inaccurate due to low levels of sensitivity and reproducibility, in addition to slow turnaround times. Furthermore, these methods lack selectivity due to the nature of the accompanying microflora. This study describes the development of a rapid, sensitive, reliable, reproducible, and species-specific culture-independent, solution phase hybridisation PCR-ELISA procedure for the detection and quantification of Enterococcus faecalis and Pediococcus pentosaceus in NTCs. In this technique, biotin-labelled primers were designed to amplify a species-specific fragment of a marker gene of known copy number, in both species. Resulting amplicons were hybridised with a dinitrophenol (DNP)-labelled oligonucleotide probe in solution and were subsequently captured on a streptavidin-coated microtitre plate. The degree of binding was determined by the addition of IgG (anti-DNP)-horseradish peroxidase conjugate, which was subsequently visualised using a chromogenic substrate, tetramethylbenzidine. This novel quantitative method was capable of detecting E. faecalis and P. pentosaceus at levels as low as 5 CFU per PCR reaction.

  15. Magnetotelluric sounding results in eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓冰; 孔祥儒; 刘宏兵; 闫永利

    2001-01-01

    The results of Zayu-Qingshuihe MT sounding profile carried out in eastern Tibetan Plateau are presented in this paper. Using 2-D RRI method, the resistivity distribution with depth is obtained along the profile. It is featured by the resistivity zones in the horizontal direction and layers in the vertical direction. The Bangong-Nujiang suture zone and Jinshajiang suture zone are both important electrical conductivity-separating zones in the plateau, and the former is a zone with relatively low resistivity while the latter is an electrical conductivity gradient zone. The highly electrical conductive bodies in the mid and lower crust of northern Qiangtang and Bayan Har Terrain might be caused by regional melting due to shear heating during the process of subduction in tectonic evolution.

  16. Design, Fabrication, and Operation of Innovative Microalgae Culture Experiments for the Purpose of Producing Fuels: Final Report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    A conceptual design was developed for a 1000-acre (water surface) algae culture facility for the production of fuels. The system is modeled after the shallow raceway system with mixing foils that is now being operated at the University of Hawaii. A computer economic model was created to calculate the discounted breakeven price of algae or fuels produced by the culture facility. A sensitivity analysis was done to estimate the impact of changes in important biological, engineering, and financial parameters on product price.

  17. The property, age and formation environment of the palaeokarst in Qinghai-Xizang Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The karst landforms distributed on the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau can be genetically classed with the Tertiary underground karst, which were gradually exhumed to the surface with the uplift of the plateau during Quaternary period. The relative deposits of the Tertiary palaeokarst processes, such as the residuum and speleothem, were discovered recently in the southern and southeastern fringe areas of the plateau, where has geological-currently been disintegrated by the headward erosion processes of the modern river systems. The major chemical components of the clay portion of the residuum consist mainly of SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3. The clay minerals composition of the clay portion belongs to illite-kaolinite pattern for most of the residuum samples, and kaoliniteillite pattern for a few of the samples. It can be judged from the silicic acid index and the clay minerals composition that the formation of the residuum of the Plateau was in its initial phase.However, such a lower chemical weathering index only reflected the weathering degree in the bottom or lower parts of the lateritic weathering crust. The relatively intensive chemical weathering processes of the surface layers of the lateritic weathering crust could be logically speculated. The surface feature textures of quartz grains in the residuum were formed mainly by the chemical erosion, which revealed a long-term humid-tropical environment when the residuum and the palaeokarst formed.

  18. Ferromagnetic–ferromagnetic–antiferromagnetic–antiferromagnetic correlation and magnetization plateau in spin-1/2 J{sub 1}–J{sub 1}–J{sub 2}–J{sub 2} tetrameric chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xiao-Yan [Graduate School, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Dou, Jun-Ya [Department of Physics, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Liu, Guang-Hua, E-mail: liuguanghua@tjpu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2015-10-15

    The magnetization process of a spin-1/2 J{sub 1}–J{sub 1}–J{sub 2}–J{sub 2} tetrameric Heisenberg chain is investigated by the infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD) method. A magnetization phase diagram including three different phases, i.e., a fully polarized (FP) phase, a 1/2 plateau phase, and a spin-fluid (SF) phase, is obtained. All the quantum phase transitions (QPTs) are determined to belong to the second-order category, and the central charge in the critical SF phase equals 1. In addition, a 1/2 plateau phase also exists in the classical J{sub 1}–J{sub 1}–J{sub 2}–J{sub 2} tetrameric Ising chain. The F–F–AF–AF (or AF–AF–F–F) type longitudinal correlation is found to be important and necessary for the appearance of the 1/2 plateau state in both quantum and classical cases. - Highlights: • 1/2 magnetization plateau can be realized in both quantum and classical cases. • 1/2 plateau is characterized by constant magnetization, entanglement and correlation. • Central charge of the spin-fluid phase is determined to be 1. • F–F–AF–AF correlation is important for the appearance of the 1/2 plateau.

  19. Sur le concept de geosite, des préliminaires au Plateau de Dobroudja du Sud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN CAMELIA RÃDULESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the concept of geosite in terms of research in international level and national level, with particularisation on the study of geosites in South Dobrogea Plateau. Geosites are relief forms with a scientific, ecological, aesthetical, archaeological, historical, religious and economical value, in respect of human perception. Inventory and evaluation of the geosites is a complex process of observation, interpretation and award the relief of values, making landforms natural resources, cultural and economic. These values expressed possible synergy between the geological and geomorphological heritage, bioecological and historical-cultural identity and gives a site the identity of geosite.

  20. Transcriptional monitoring of steady state and effects of anaerobic phases in chemostat cultures of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penttilä Merja

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemostat cultures are commonly used in production of cellular material for systems-wide biological studies. We have used the novel TRAC (transcript analysis with aid of affinity capture method to study expression stability of approximately 30 process relevant marker genes in chemostat cultures of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei and its transformant expressing laccase from Melanocarpus albomyces. Transcriptional responses caused by transient oxygen deprivations and production of foreign protein were also studied in T. reesei by TRAC. Results In cultures with good steady states, the expression of the marker genes varied less than 20% on average between sequential samples for at least 5 or 6 residence times. However, in a number of T. reesei cultures continuous flow did not result in a good steady state. Perturbations to the steady state were always evident at the transcriptional level, even when they were not measurable as changes in biomass or product concentrations. Both unintentional and intentional perturbations of the steady state demonstrated that a number of genes involved in growth, protein production and secretion are sensitive markers for culture disturbances. Exposure to anaerobic conditions caused strong responses at the level of gene expression, but surprisingly the cultures could regain their previous steady state quickly, even after 3 h O2 depletion. The main effect of producing M. albomyces laccase was down-regulation of the native cellulases compared with the host strain. Conclusion This study demonstrates the usefulness of transcriptional analysis by TRAC in ensuring the quality of chemostat cultures prior to costly and laborious genome-wide analysis. In addition TRAC was shown to be an efficient tool in studying gene expression dynamics in transient conditions.

  1. The crustal composition of the Falkland Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemt, Claudia; Jokat, Wilfried

    2015-04-01

    The Falkland Islands are situated in the South Atlantic Ocean 500 km east of Patagonia, South America. The islands are part of the Falkland Plateau, which stretches eastward for more than 1500 km. A bathymetric high, the Maurice Ewing Bank, terminates the plateau in the east. Until Late Jurassic the Falkland Islands were part of Gondwana and were located adjacent to the east coast of South Africa. While the Falkland Islands and Maurice Ewing Bank are proved to be of continental composition, the nature and structure of the Falkland Plateau's basement in between is debatable. The first crustal model derived from sonobuoy data contradicts an only recently published 3D-gravity model. To enhance the understanding of Gondwana break-up considering timing, geometry and amount of volcanism, further knowledge about the structure and thickness of the crust is inevitable. During the ANT-XXIX/5 Polarstern cruise seismic refraction measurements were conducted using Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) and Reftek land stations onshore of East Falkland. The OBS were deployed at 78 locations along an approximately 1500 km east-west stretching profile. For the western transect a P-wave velocity model is calculated using 2D-raytracing techniques. The results are presented in combination with potential field data showing the extension of the Falkland Islands basement, the continent-ocean transition zone and the crustal structure of the plateau. On the Falkland Plateau Basin sediment thickness is about 6 km with velocities ranging from 1.7 to 4.1 km/s in the upper part and about 4.7 km/s above basement. The crust is of oceanic composition with an igneous section that is considerably thicker than average oceanic crust (up to 17 km). The velocity structure in the upper crustal part is typical for layer 2 with a velocity gradient ranging from 5.4 km/s to 6.5 km/s and thicknesses between 1.5 km and 4 km. Layer 3 is about 14 km thick with a velocity gradient from 6.6 km/s to 7.6 km/s, which is

  2. The Colorado Plateau III: integrating research and resources management for effective conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogge, Mark K.; van Riper, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States, the Colorado Plateau covers an area of 130,000 square miles. The relatively high semi-arid province boasts nine national parks, sixteen national monuments, many state parks, and dozens of wilderness areas. With the highest concentration of parklands in North America and unique geological and ecological features, the area is of particular interest to researchers. Derived from the Eighth Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau, this third volume in a series of research on the Colorado Plateau expands upon the previous two books. This volume focuses on the integration of science into resource management issues, summarizes what criteria make a successful collaborative effort, outlines land management concerns about drought, provides summaries of current biological, sociological, and archaeological research, and highlights current environmental issues in the Four Corner States of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah. With broad coverage that touches on topics as diverse as historical aspects of pronghorn antelope movement patterns through calculating watershed prescriptions to the role of wind-blown sand in preserving archaeological sites on the Colorado River, this volume stands as a compendium of cuttingedge management-oriented research on the Colorado Plateau. The book also introduces, for the first time, tools that can be used to assist with collaboration efforts among landowners and managers who wish to work together toward preserving resources on the Colorado Plateau and offers a wealth of insights into land management questions for many readers, especially people interested in the natural history, biology, anthropology, wildlife, and cultural management issues of the region.

  3. Cognitive flexibility during breath alcohol plateau is associated with previous drinking measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ben; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2013-06-01

    Although the biphasic effects of acute alcohol during ascending and descending Breath Alcohol Concentrations (BrACs) are well described, the plateau period between peak and steadily descending BrACs is generally unrecognized and under-studied by researchers. Naturalistic examinations indicate such periods persist for substantial intervals, with a time frame of onset suggesting BrAC plateaus may co-occur with potentially risky behaviors (e.g., driving). The current pilot study examined neurocognitive performance during this period. Participants were healthy, community-residing moderate drinkers (n = 18). In the first phase of the study, the Digit Symbol Substitution and Trail Making Tasks were administered during BrAC plateau (M = 62 mg/dL). BrACs were negatively correlated with Digit Symbol performance but unrelated to other tasks. In contrast, performance on a derived Trail Making measure of set-shifting was positively associated with the maximum alcohol doses consumed in the preceding 6 months. Phase 2 analyses demonstrated that relationships between previous alcohol experience and cognitive performance were absent among individuals receiving placebo beverages. Taken together, these data suggest a relationship worthy of investigation between previous drinking experiences and cognitive flexibility during the plateau phase.

  4. Observations of A Low-Velocity Type II-Plateau Supernova 2013am in M65

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jujia; Mazzali, Paolo A; Bai, Jinming; Zhang, Tianmeng; Bersier, David; Huang, Fang; Fan, Yufeng; Mo, Jun; Wang, Jianguo; Yi, Weimin; Wang, Chuanjun; Xin, Yuxin; Liangchang,; Zhang, Xiliang; Lun, Baoli; Wang, Xueli; He, Shousheng; Walker, Emma S

    2014-01-01

    Optical and ultraviolet observations for the nearby type II-plateau supernova (SN IIP) 2013am in the nearby spiral galaxy M65 are presented in this paper. The early spectra are characterized by relatively narrow P-Cygni features, with ejecta velocities much lower than observed in normal SNe IIP (i.e., $\\sim$2000 km s$^{-1}$ vs. $\\sim$5000 km $^{-1}$ in the middle of the plateau phase). Moreover, prominent \\ion{Ca}{2} absorptions are also detected in SN 2013am at relatively early phases. These spectral features are reminiscent of those seen in the low-velocity and low-luminosity SN IIP 2005cs. However, SN 2013am exhibits different photometric properties, having shorter plateau phases and brighter light-curve tails if compared to SN 2005cs. Adopting $R_{V}$=3.1 and a mean value of total reddening derived from the photometric and spectroscopic methods(i.e., $E(B-V)=0.55\\pm$0.19 mag), we find that SN 2013am may have reached an absolute $V$-band peak magnitude of $-15.83\\pm0.71$ mag and produced a $^{56}$Ni mass o...

  5. Cross-cultural development of a quality-of-life measure for patients with melanoma: phase 3 testing of an EORTC Melanoma Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Julie B; Young, Teresa E; Boyle, Frances M; Bergenmar, Mia; Bottomley, Andrew; Burmeister, Bryan; Campana, Luca G; Garioch, Jennifer J; King, Madeleine; Nikolic, Dejan V; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V; Saw, Robyn; Thompson, John F; White, Edward G

    2015-02-01

    Melanoma is an increasingly common skin cancer worldwide. Recent treatment advances have provided patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs) with choices where quality of life (QoL) and toxicity are important considerations. A melanoma-specific QoL questionnaire is being developed in a cross-cultural setting using a four phase process developed by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group. In phase 1, a literature search identified a list of pertinent QoL issues; this was shown to HCPs and patients in eight countries and rated for importance and relevance. Questions were constructed for the highest-rated issues (phase 2) and piloted in another patient sample (phase 3). Using EORTC Quality of Life Group criteria and sequential use of factor and Rasch analysis, scales were hypothesized for field testing (phase 4). Seven QoL domains (disease symptoms, treatment issues, financial issues, access/quality of information, satisfaction with care, psychosocial issues and support), comprising 73 QoL issues, were rated by 46 HCPs and 78 patients. Fifty-six issues were rephrased as questions and piloted with 132 patients. A 38-item questionnaire (QLQ-MEL38) is available for field testing in conjunction with the EORTC QLQ-C30. This study has shown that melanoma patients have important QoL issues that have been incorporated into a new cross-culturally validated instrument. Future testing of this EORTC module is planned and will be an important step forward in providing reliable QoL data to aid future decision-making in the management and clinical trials of this complex group of patients.

  6. Ultra-robust high-field magnetization plateau and supersolidity in bond-frustrated MnCr2S4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurkan, Vladimir; Zherlitsyn, Sergei; Prodan, Lilian; Felea, Viorel; Cong, Pham Thanh; Skourski, Yurii; Wang, Zhe; Deisenhofer, Joachim; von Nidda, Hans-Albrecht Krug; Wosnitza, Joahim; Loidl, Alois

    2017-01-01

    Frustrated magnets provide a promising avenue for realizing exotic quantum states of matter, such as spin liquids and spin ice or complex spin molecules. Under an external magnetic field, frustrated magnets can exhibit fractional magnetization plateaus related to definite spin patterns stabilized by field-induced lattice distortions. Magnetization and ultrasound experiments in MnCr2S4 up to 60 T reveal two fascinating features: (i) an extremely robust magnetization plateau with an unusual spin structure and (ii) two intermediate phases, indicating possible realizations of supersolid phases. The magnetization plateau characterizes fully polarized chromium moments, without any contributions from manganese spins. At 40 T, the middle of the plateau, a regime evolves, where sound waves propagate almost without dissipation. The external magnetic field exactly compensates the Cr–Mn exchange field and decouples Mn and Cr sublattices. In analogy to predictions of quantum lattice-gas models, the changes of the spin order of the manganese ions at the phase boundaries of the magnetization plateau are interpreted as transitions to supersolid phases. PMID:28345038

  7. Strontium isotope evidence for a highly mobile population on the Pamir Plateau 2500 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueye; Tang, Zihua; Wu, Jing; Wu, Xinhua; Wu, Yiqun; Zhou, Xinying

    2016-10-01

    Archeological researches have proposed arguments for human mobility and long-distance trading over the Eurasia before the Silk Roads. Here we utilize biologically available strontium isotope analysis to assess the extent of pre-Silk Road population movements and cultural communications across the Asian interior. From an early Iron Age cemetery (ca. 2500 yr B.P.) on the eastern Pamir Plateau, mean 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 34 individuals display considerable isotopic variability, and 10 individuals are distinguished as migrants based on the local strontium isotope range of 0.710296–0.710572 defined by 12 ovicaprine bones. Comparison of the proportion (10/34) with the regional census data completed in 1909 A.D. (3% non-locals) suggests a highly migratory behavior on the plateau 2500 years ago. Furthermore, exotic mortuary objects, such as silk fabrics from eastern China and angular harp originated from the Near East, clearly demonstrate an interaction between different cultures on the plateau before the establishment of the Silk Road.

  8. Multidisciplinary scientific program of investigation of the structure and evolution of the Demerara marginal plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loncke, Lies; Basile, Christophe; Roest, Walter; Graindorge, David; Mercier de Lépinay, Marion; Klinghelhoefer, Frauke; Heuret, Arnauld; Pattier, France; Tallobre, Cedric; Lebrun, Jean-Frédéric; Poetisi, Ewald; Loubrieu, Benoît; Iguanes, Dradem, Margats Scientific Parties, Plus

    2017-04-01

    Mercier de Lépinay et al. published in 2016 an updated inventory of transform passive margins in the world. This inventory shows that those margins represent 30% of continental passive margins and a cumulative length of 16% of non-convergent margins. It also highlights the fact that many submarine plateaus prolong transform continental margins, systematically at the junction of oceanic domains of different ages. In the world, we identified twenty of those continental submarine plateaus (Falklands, Voring, Demerara, Tasman, etc). Those marginal plateaus systematically experiment two phases of deformation: a first extensional phase and a second transform phase that allows the individualization of those submarine reliefs appearing on bathymetry as seaward continental-like salients. The understanding of the origin, nature, evolution of those marginal plateaus has many scientific and economic issues. The Demerara marginal plateau located off French Guiana and Surinam belongs to this category of submarine provinces. The French part of this plateau has been the locus of a first investigation in 2003 in the framework of the GUYAPLAC cruise dedicated to support French submissions about extension of the limit of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles. This cruise was the starting point of a scientific program dedicated to geological investigations of the Demerara plateau that was sustained by different cruises and collaborations (1) IGUANES (2013) that completed the mapping of this plateau including off Surinam, allowed to better understand the segmentation of the Northern edge of this plateau, and to evidence the combined importance of contourite and mass-wasting processes in the recent sedimentary evolution of this domain, (2) Collaboration with TOTAL (Mercier de Lépinay's PhD thesis) that allowed to better qualify the two main phases of structural evolution of the plateau respectively during Jurassic times for its Western border, Cretaceous times for its

  9. Validated method for bioactive lignans in Schisandra chinensis in vitro cultures using a solid phase extraction and a monolithic column application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinová, Lenka; Vlasínová, Helena; Havel, Ladislav; Humpa, Otakar; Slanina, Jirí

    2010-09-01

    A simple and rapid method for determination of six lignans found in plant cell cultures of Schisandra chinensis was developed and validated. The lignans were extracted from plant samples with methanol and the extracts were effectively cleaned by solid-phase extraction using Strata C18-E (Phenomenex) cartridges. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a Chromolith Performance RP-18e monolithic column (100 x 4.6 mm, Merck) using an isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile and water in a 50:50 (v/v) ratio. The eluent was monitored at 220 nm. The baseline separation of schizandrin, gomisin A, deoxyschizandrin, gamma-schizandrin, gomisin N and wuweizisu C was achieved in a relatively short time period (20 min), which was made possible by the relatively high flow rate of the mobile phase (2 mL/min). The lower limit of quantitation was 0.1 mg/L for schizandrin and gomisin A, 0.3 mg/L for deoxyschizandrin, gamma-schizandrin, and gomisin N and 1 mg/L for wuweizisu C. The analysis of spiked samples containing six lignans provided absolute recoveries between 93 and 101% in all cases. The validated method was successfully applied to the determination of lignans in embryogenic plant cell cultures of Schisandra chinensis.

  10. Are Cancer Patients' Socioeconomic and Cultural Factors Associated with Contact to General Practitioners in the Last Phase of Life?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, M A; Olesen, Frede; Sondergaard, J;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in end of life care, which should be offered regardless of socioeconomic position and cultural factors. The aim was to analyse associations between GP contacts at the end of life and socioeconomic and cultural characteristics...... of Danish cancer patients. Method. Population-based study identifying 599 adults who died of cancer from March to November 2006, in Aarhus County, Denmark. Associations between health register-based data on "total GP face-to-face contacts" and "GP home visits" during the last 90 days of life and patients...

  11. Chemical erosion and hydrologic budget for the Susure karst plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikić Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The karst plateau of Susure, about 4.5 km2 in surface area, is situated on the Jadovnik eastern offset, western Serbia. The plateau is a morphologic unit higher 15 m to 30 m than the surrounding terrain. The unit consists of crushed and karstified Middle Triassic limestones. Numerous hydrogeological and geomorphologic features of the plateau are attractive for visitors in this economically underdeveloped country. Rocks building up the surrounding terrain are largely peridotites. Surface streams flow neither into nor off the plateau. Atmospheric precipitations discharge to evapotanspiration and filtration underground. More than eighteen constant springs at the limestone/peridotite tectonic contact drain fracture aquifers on the karst plateau border. Measured precipitations and springflows were the input and output data for accounting water budget of an aquifer of Middle Triassic limestones in the Susure plateau.

  12. Cenozoic basin development and its indication of plateau growth in the Xunhua-Guide district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Xunhua, Guide and Tongren Basins are linked with the Laji Mountain and the northern West Qinling thrust belts in the Xunhua-Guide district. Basin depositional stratigraphy consists of the Oligocene Xining Group, the uppermost Oligocene-Pliocene Guide Group and the Lower Pleistocene. They are divided into three basin phases by unconformities. Basin phase 1 is composed of the Xining Group, and Basin phase 2 of the Zharang, Xiadongshan, Herjia and Ganjia Conglomerate Formations in the Guide Group, and Basin phase 3 of the Gonghe Formation and the Lower Pleistocene. Three basin phases all develop lacustrine deposits at their lower parts, and alluvial-braided channel plain depositional systems at upper parts, which constitute a coarsening-upward and progradational sequence. Basin deposition, paleocurrent and provenance analyses represent that large lacustrine basin across the Laji Mountain was developed and sourced from the West Qinling thrust belt during the stage of the Xining Group (Basin phase 1), and point-dispersed alluvial fan-braided channel plain deposition systems were developed beside the thrust and uplifted Laji Mountain and sourced from it, as thrusting migrated northwards during the stage of the Guide Group (Basin phase 2). Evolution of basin-mountain system in the study area significantly indicates the growth process of the distal Tibetan Plateau. The result shows that the Tibetan Plateau expanded to the northern West-Qinling at Oligocene (29―21.4 Ma) by means of northward folded-and-thrust thickening and uplifting and frontal foreland basin filling, and across the study area to North Qilian and Liupan Mountain at the Miocene-Pliocene (20.8―2.6 Ma) by means of two-sided basement-involved-thrust thickening and uplifting and broken foreland basin filling, and the distant end of Tibetan Plateau behaved as regional erosion and intermontane basin aggradational filling during the Pliocene and early Pleistocene (2.6―1.7 Ma).

  13. Aqueous two-phase partition applied to the isolation of plasma membranes and Golgi apparatus from cultured mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morre, D. M.; Morre, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Partitioning in dextran-poly(ethylene)glycol (PEG) aqueous-aqueous phase systems represents a mature technology with many applications to separations of cells and to the preparation of membranes from mammalian cells. Most applications to membrane isolation and purification have focused on plasma membranes, plasma membrane domains and separation of right side-out and inside-out plasma membrane vesicles. The method exploits a combination of membrane properties, including charge and hydrophobicity. Purification is based upon differential distributions of the constituents in a sample between the two principal compartments of the two phases (upper and lower) and at the interface. The order of affinity of animal cell membranes for the upper phase is: endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatusGolgi apparatus from transformed mammalian cells that combines aqueous two-phase partition and centrifugation. Also described is a periodic NADH oxidase, a new enzyme marker for right side-out plasma membrane vesicles not requiring detergent disruptions for measurement of activity.

  14. Property and heat storage performances of Glauber’s salt-based phase change materials for solar greenhouse in Qinghai-Tibet plateau%芒硝基相变材料性能及其在简易温室中升温效果试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋自鹏; 铁生年

    2016-01-01

    to reduce their phase separation. In order to enhance its thermal conductivity, we chose graphitic material as the heat-removing agent. In this paper, we studied the properties of Glauber salt based phase change energy storage material and it’s performance of heat storage in winter in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau region. Firstly, we prepared the Glauber salt based composite PCMs in laboratory, and then their thermal properties were measured by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Samples were put in an alumina pan and heated from -10 to 40 ℃ at a rate of 1.0 ℃/min in purified nitrogen atmosphere (50 mL/min). The thermal cycling tests were carried out in an oven (Themo SCIENTIFIC HAAKE A 40) by heating and cooling the samples from 10 to 40 ℃ repeatedly. Thermal conductivities were determined by the transient plane source (TPS) method (Hot Disk, TPS 2200). The tested simple solar greenhouse was located in Xining City, Qinghai Province (101°44' E, 36°43' N). It was 3.5 m long and 2.7 m wide. The wall included 5 cm flexible foam (polyurethane) and 20 cm gypsum brick, as well as 0.1 cm iron sheet. The test period was from December 20th, 2015 to February 4th, 2016. The heat insulation sheet of the simple solar greenhouse was rolled up and down at 9:00 am and 5:00 pm on every sunny day, respectively. The temperatures of outdoor, and indoor air and gypsum wall, and solar irradiation were measured continuously at a time interval of 10 min. The data collected on a typical sunny day were used to study the heat-retaining properties in greenhouse with PCMs. When the temperature was higher than PCMs freezing and melting point, the PCMs released heat and froze. This paper explored the property about its undercooling, phase separation, thermal conductivity and phase change cycle. Two simple greenhouses were built, and the change of temperature was analyzed. Results showed that when adding the 4% borax (mass fraction), the supercooling of PCMs almost disappeared

  15. Increased culture density is linked to decelerated proliferation, prolonged G1 phase, and enhanced propensity for differentiation of self-renewing human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jincheng; Fan, Yongjia; Tzanakakis, Emmanuel S

    2015-04-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) display a very short G1 phase and rapid proliferation kinetics. Regulation of the cell cycle, which is linked to pluripotency and differentiation, is dependent on the stem cell environment, particularly on culture density. This link has been so far empirical and central to disparities in the growth rates and fractions of self-renewing hPSCs residing in different cycle phases. In this study, hPSC cycle progression in conjunction with proliferation and differentiation were comprehensively investigated for different culture densities. Cell proliferation decelerated significantly at densities beyond 50×10(4) cells/cm(2). Correspondingly, the G1 fraction increased from 25% up to 60% at densities greater than 40×10(4) cells/cm(2) while still hPSC pluripotency marker expression was maintained. In parallel, expression of the cycle inhibitor CDKN1A (p21) was increased, while that of p27 and p53 did not change significantly. After 4 days of culture in an unconditioned medium, greater heterogeneity was noted in the differentiation outcomes and was limited by reducing the density variation. A quantitative model was constructed for self-renewing and differentiating hPSC ensembles to gain a better understanding of the link between culture density, cycle progression, and stem cell state. Results for multiple hPSC lines and medium types corroborated experimental findings. Media commonly used for maintenance of self-renewing hPSCs exhibited the slowest kinetics of induction of differentiation (kdiff), while BMP4 supplementation led to 14-fold higher kdiff values. Spontaneous differentiation in a growth factor-free medium exhibited the largest variation in outcomes at different densities. In conjunction with the quantitative framework, our findings will facilitate rationalizing the selection of cultivation conditions for the generation of stem cell therapeutics.

  16. The Biochemical Changes in the Culture Phase of Beancurd Cheese%腐乳培菌期的生化变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余若黔; 涂煜; 李杰伟; 陈维民; 周卫强; 汪兴良

    2001-01-01

    The Mucor GH101 was studied in this paper. Acid protease under the condition of incubation temperature 28 ℃ was produced. In the culture phase, a great deal of protease, lipase,α_amylase and diastase were accumulated on the skin of beancurd. After 36 h, the thallus began to decay and the activity of all these enzymes began to decline. The main chemical change in the culture phase is that the protein was degradated into water_solubility protein partly. By comparing the activities of enzymes in the culture phase, it is concluded that with regard to 0.15 mol/L NaCl solution, optimum extraction can be completely achieved by surging for 1.5 h at the temperature of 20 ℃.%实验采用GH101毛霉,培养温度为28 ℃,所分泌的蛋白酶为酸性蛋白酶.培菌阶段在豆腐坯表面积累了大量的蛋白酶、脂肪酶、α_淀粉酶及糖化酶,培菌36 h后菌体开始老化,酶活有所下降.培菌阶段发生的主要化学变化是蛋白质部分降解成为水溶性蛋白质.对培菌期酶活力的比较可知,以采用0.15 mol/L的NaCl溶液在20 ℃下震荡抽提1.5 h为好,抽提完全.

  17. Investigation of metabolites and optimization of bacterial culture for coal biogasification Phase 1. Topical report, February 1989-December 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S.; Tiemens, K.; Isbister, J.

    1991-11-01

    ARCTECH is developing a novel coal biogasification approach using microbial consortia. The objective of the study was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the pathways utilized during bioconversion of coals to methane and define functional relationships among microbes which mediate the biogasification process. Three coals were biosolubilized using an aerobic mixed culture and the solubilized coal products were separated by ultrafiltration into seven fractions based on molecular weight. The fractions were subjected to chemical analysis and used as substrates for biogasification. Methane production was enhanced through culture manipulation and adaptation. Maximum methane production was achieved with the 3-10 K fraction of premium Beulah lignite (571 cc/g of coal carbon). Microscopic observation of the cultures revealed that different morphological types of bacteria predominated in each. These differences can be attributed to the selective pressure exerted by the various coal fractions present as principal carbon sources. Pyruvic, oxalic and tartaric acids were identified as key intermediates resulting from biogasification of these fractions. Changes in coal functional groups resulted from biogasification. By using soluble coal fractions as biogasification model compounds, ARCTECH identified several intermediates in the biogasification pathway, detected chemical changes in soluble carbon substrates effected by microbial consortia and developed cultures for biological conversion of coal to methane.

  18. Dynamic contact mechanics on the tibial plateau of the human knee during activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Susannah; Chen, Tony; Hutchinson, Ian D; Choi, Dan; Voigt, Clifford; Warren, Russell F; Maher, Suzanne A

    2014-06-27

    Despite significant advances in scaffold design, manufacture, and development, it remains unclear what forces these scaffolds must withstand when implanted into the heavily loaded environment of the knee joint. The objective of this study was to fully quantify the dynamic contact mechanics across the tibial plateau of the human knee joint during gait and stair climbing. Our model consisted of a modified Stanmore knee simulator (to apply multi-directional dynamic forces), a two-camera motion capture system (to record joint kinematics), an electronic sensor (to record contact stresses on the tibial plateau), and a suite of post-processing algorithms. During gait, peak contact stresses on the medial plateau occurred in areas of cartilage-cartilage contact; while during stair climb, peak contact stresses were located in the posterior aspect of the plateau, under the meniscus. On the lateral plateau, during gait and in early stair-climb, peak contact stresses occurred under the meniscus, while in late stair-climb, peak contact stresses were experienced in the zone of cartilage-cartilage contact. At 45% of the gait cycle, and 20% and 48% of the stair-climb cycle, peak stresses were simultaneously experienced on both the medial and lateral compartment, suggesting that these phases of loading warrant particular consideration in any simulation intended to evaluate scaffold performance. Our study suggests that in order to design a scaffold capable of restoring 'normal' contact mechanics to the injured knees, the mechanics of the intended site of implantation should be taken into account in any pre-clinical testing regime.

  19. Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mousumi; Jordan, Thomas H; Pederson, Joel

    2009-06-18

    The forces that drove rock uplift of the low-relief, high-elevation, tectonically stable Colorado Plateau are the subject of long-standing debate. While the adjacent Basin and Range province and Rio Grande rift province underwent Cenozoic shortening followed by extension, the plateau experienced approximately 2 km of rock uplift without significant internal deformation. Here we propose that warming of the thicker, more iron-depleted Colorado Plateau lithosphere over 35-40 Myr following mid-Cenozoic removal of the Farallon plate from beneath North America is the primary mechanism driving rock uplift. In our model, conductive re-equilibration not only explains the rock uplift of the plateau, but also provides a robust geodynamic interpretation of observed contrasts between the Colorado Plateau margins and the plateau interior. In particular, the model matches the encroachment of Cenozoic magmatism from the margins towards the plateau interior at rates of 3-6 km Myr(-1) and is consistent with lower seismic velocities and more negative Bouguer gravity at the margins than in the plateau interior. We suggest that warming of heterogeneous lithosphere is a powerful mechanism for driving epeirogenic rock uplift of the Colorado Plateau and may be of general importance in plate-interior settings.

  20. Observational Facts of Sustained Departure Plateau Vortexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shuhua; GAO Wenliang; PENG Jun; XIAO Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    By using the twice-daily atmospheric observation data from 1998 to 2012, station rainfall data, Tropical Rainfall Measure Mission (TRMM) data, as well as the plateau vortex and shear line year book, charac-teristics of the sustained departure plateau vortexes (SDPVs) are analyzed. Some new useful observational facts and understanding are obtained about the SDPV activities. The following results are obtained. (1) The active period of SDPVs is from June to August, most in July, unlike that of the unsustained depar-ture plateau vortexes (UDPVs), which have same occurrence frequencies in the three summer months. (2) The SDPVs, generated mainly in the Qumalai neighborhood and situated in a sheared surrounding, move eastward or northeastward, while the UDPVs are mainly led by the upper-level trough, and move eastward or southeastward. (3) The SDPVs influence wide areas of China, even far to the Korean Peninsula, Japan, and Vietnam. (4) The SDPVs change their intensities and properties on the way to the east. Most of them become stronger and produce downpour or sustained regional rainstorms to the south of Yellow River. (5) The longer the SDPV sustains, the more baroclinity it has. (6) When an SDPV moves into the sea, its central pressure descends and rainfall increases in all probability. (7) An SDPV might spin over the bend of the Yellow River when there exists a tropical cyclone in the East China Sea. It could also move oppositely to a landed tropical low pressure originated from the sea to the east of Taiwan or from the South China Sea.

  1. Aqueous two-phase partition applied to the isolation of plasma membranes and Golgi apparatus from cultured mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morre, D. M.; Morre, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Partitioning in dextran-poly(ethylene)glycol (PEG) aqueous-aqueous phase systems represents a mature technology with many applications to separations of cells and to the preparation of membranes from mammalian cells. Most applications to membrane isolation and purification have focused on plasma membranes, plasma membrane domains and separation of right side-out and inside-out plasma membrane vesicles. The method exploits a combination of membrane properties, including charge and hydrophobicity. Purification is based upon differential distributions of the constituents in a sample between the two principal compartments of the two phases (upper and lower) and at the interface. The order of affinity of animal cell membranes for the upper phase is: endoplasmic reticulum two-phase partition with other procedures to obtain a more highly purified preparation. A procedure is described for preparation of Golgi apparatus from transformed mammalian cells that combines aqueous two-phase partition and centrifugation. Also described is a periodic NADH oxidase, a new enzyme marker for right side-out plasma membrane vesicles not requiring detergent disruptions for measurement of activity.

  2. Molecular identification of Taenia mustelae cysts in subterranean rodent plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Ma, Jun-Ying; Cai, Hui-Xia; Su, Jian-Ping; Hou, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Tong-Zuo; Lin, Gong-Hua

    2014-07-01

    Cestode larvae spend one phase of their two-phase life cycle in the viscera of rodents, but cases of cestodes infecting subterranean rodents have only been rarely observed. To experimentally gain some insight into this phenomenon, we captured approximately 300 plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi), a typical subterranean rodent inhabiting the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and examined their livers for the presence of cysts. Totally, we collected five cysts, and using a mitochondrial gene (cox1) and two nuclear genes (pepck and pold) as genetic markers, we were able to analyze the taxonomy of the cysts. Both the maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods showed that the cysts share a monophyly with Taenia mustelae, while Kimura 2-parameter distances and number of different sites between our sequences and T. mustelae were far less than those found between the examined sequences and other Taeniidae species. These results, alongside supporting paraffin section histology, imply that the cysts found in plateau zokors can be regarded as larvae of T. mustelae, illustrating that zokors are a newly discovered intermediate host record of this parasite.

  3. Separation of active laccases from Pleurotus sapidus culture supernatant using aqueous two-phase systems in centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwienheer, C; Prinz, A; Zeiner, T; Merz, J

    2015-10-01

    For the production of bio active compounds, e.g., active enzymes or antibodies, a conserved purification process with a minimum loss of active compounds is necessary. In centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC), the separation effect is based on the different distribution of the components to be separated between two immiscible liquid phases. Thereby, one liquid phase is kept stationary in chambers by a centrifugal field and the mobile phase is pumped through via connecting ducts. Aqueous two phase systems (ATPS) are known to provide benign conditions for biochemical products and seem to be promising when used in CPC for purification tasks. However, it is not known if active biochemical compounds can "survive" the conditions in a CPC where strong shear forces can occur due to the two-phasic flow under centrifugal forces. Therefore, this aspect has been faced within this study by the separation of active laccases from a fermentation broth of Pleurotus sapidus. After selecting a suitable ATPS and operating conditions, the activity yield was calculated and the preservation of the active enzymes could be observed. Therefore, CPC could be shown as potentially suitable for the purification of bio-active compounds.

  4. Circulation and its seasonal variability in region around the Kerguelen Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Jiuxin(史久新); Le Kentang(乐肯堂); Byung Ho Choi

    2002-01-01

    A coupled ice-ocean isopycnal numerical model of the Southern Ocean is established to study the circulation and its seasonal variability in the region around the Kerguelen Plateau. An analysis of the simulated results shows significant stripe-like structure and non-zonal feature of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) in this region. ACC begins to bifurcate and to turn its direction before meeting the plateau. The southernmost branch of ACC is near to the Antarctic coast and displays its strong interaction with the westward Antarctic Slope Current. The northern branch of ACC has a tendency of annual variations while the southern one varies in a semiannual cycle. The variation phases of both branches are coincident with that of the wind stress in this region.

  5. The Manihiki Plateau, Hikurangi Plateau, Wishbone Scarp, and Osbourn Trough: A Review and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henig, A.; Luyendyk, B. P.

    2007-12-01

    The extinct Osbourn Trough spreading system in the southwestern Pacific played a key role in separating the once joined Hikurangi and Manihiki Plateaus in Cretaceous time. Recent studies by Downey et al. [2007] and Taylor [20006] have provided new data and concepts on that history. Studies by Larson et al. [2002] describe Cretaceous histories adjacent and east of the Osbourn system and Eagles et al. [2004] describe a history for the southwest Pacific just after the Osbourn system became extinct. The lack of identifiable magnetic anomalies allows tectonic events during separation of the plateaus and spreading on the Osbourn Trough to occur between about 124.6 and 84 Ma (Chron 34). Satellite gravity maps of the region identify what are interpreted as Cretaceous fracture zone trends. Swath bathymetry data reveal at least four provinces of abyssal hill trends. What is known are the following: Minimum age of the Manihiki High Plateau at 123.4 Ma from DSDP Site 317, the age of seafloor, 115 Ma, from a dredge sample from the southern segment of the West Wishbone Scarp 300 km northeast of the Hikurangi Plateau, the east-west trend and extent of the extinct Osbourn spreading center at latitude 26° S, the trends (NNE-SSW to NE-SW) and extent of portions of the West Wishbone Scarp east of the Hikurangi Plateau, the N-S trend of the East Wishbone Scarp that appears to truncate the West Wishbone Scarp, the NNE- SSW trend and extent of the prominent Manihiki (Eastern) Scarp at the eastern boundary of the Manihiki High Plateau, the NW-SE trend and extent of the Rapuhia Scarp on the northwestern Hikurangi Plateau, and trends in abyssal hills; E-W near the Osbourn Trough and WNW-ESE closer to the plateaus. Differences in abyssal hill morphology suggest one or more changes in spreading rates. The Osbourn Trough began rifting apart a Large Igneous Province formed at 123.5 +/- 1.5 Ma, into the separate Ontong-Java, Manihiki, and Hikurangi Plateaus by 121 Ma. After an initial 6 Myr

  6. [Functional difference of malate-aspartate shuttle system in liver between plateau zokor (Myospalax baileyi) and plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rui-Juan; Rao, Xin-Feng; Wei, Deng-Bang; Wang, Duo-Wei; Wei, Lian; Sun, Sheng-Zhen

    2012-04-25

    To explore the adaptive mechanisms of plateau zokor (Myospalax baileyi) to the enduring digging activity in the hypoxic environment and of plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) to the sprint running activity, the functional differences of malate-aspartate shuttle system (MA) in liver of plateau zokor and plateau pika were studied. The ratio of liver weight to body weight, the parameters of mitochondria in hepatocyte and the contents of lactic acid in serum were measured; the open reading frame of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase (MDH1), mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH2), and the partial sequence of aspartate glutamate carrier (AGC) and oxoglutarate malate carrier (OMC) genes were cloned and sequenced; MDH1, MDH2, AGC and OMC mRNA levels were determined by real-time PCR; the specific activities of MDH1 and MDH2 in liver of plateau zokor and plateau pika were measured using enzymatic methods. The results showed that, (1) the ratio of liver weight to body weight, the number and the specific surface of mitochondria in hepatocyte of plateau zokor were markedly higher than those of plateau pika (P 0.05); (3) mRNA level and enzymatic activity of MDH1 was significantly lower than those of MDH2 in the pika liver (P 0.05). These results indicate that the plateau zokor obtains ATP in the enduring digging activity by enhancing the function of MA, while plateau pika gets glycogen for their sprint running activity by increasing the process of gluconeogenesis. As a result, plateau pika converts the lactic acid quickly produced in their skeletal muscle by anaerobic glycolysis and reduces dependence on the oxygen.

  7. Plateau Waves of Intracranial Pressure and Multimodal Brain Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Celeste; Maia, Isabel; Cerejo, Antonio; Smielewski, Peter; Paiva, José-Artur; Czosnyka, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe multimodal brain monitoring characteristics during plateau waves of intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with head injury, using ICM+ software for continuous recording. Plateau waves consist of an abrupt elevation of ICP above 40 mmHg for 5-20 min. This is a prospective observational study of patients with head injury who were admitted to a neurocritical care unit and who developed plateau waves. We analyzed 59 plateau waves that occurred in 8 of 18 patients (44 %). At the top of plateau waves arterial blood pressure remained almost constant, but cerebral perfusion pressure, cerebral blood flow, brain tissue oxygenation, and cerebral oximetry decreased. After plateau waves, patients with a previously better autoregulation status developed hyperemia, demonstrated by an increase in cerebral blood flow and brain oxygenation. Pressure and oxygen cerebrovascular reactivity indexes (pressure reactivity index and ORxshort) increased significantly during the plateau wave as a sign of disruption of autoregulation. Bedside multimodal brain monitoring is important to characterize increases in ICP and give differential diagnoses of plateau waves, as management of this phenomenon differs from that of regular ICP.

  8. Interpretation of Plateau in High-Harmonic Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程太旺; 李晓峰; 敖淑艳; 傅盘铭

    2003-01-01

    The plateau in high-harmonic generation is investigated in the frequency domain. Probability density of an electron in an electromagnetic field is obtained through analysing the quantized-field Volkov state. The plateau of high-harmonic generation reflects the spectral density of the electron at the location of nucleus after abovethreshold ionization.

  9. 陶寺中晚期人骨的种系分析%The Racial Type of the Middle-Later Phases of the Taosi Culture of Shanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雅军; 何驽; 张帆

    2009-01-01

    New excavations at the Taosi site, Shanxi Province, have recovered many human remains from tombs and ash pits dated to the middle-later phases of the Taosi culture. Osteological examination determined sex identification, age-at-death estimation and population affinity assessment of the skeletal remains. The principal analysis of metrical cranial data showed that the human remains of the middle-later phases were distinct from those of the early phase of Taoshi culture, which was excavated in 1970s and 80s and reported in 1989 the different origins of these two groups of people. Ancient DNA analysis was also conducted and the results failed to demonstrate that there were significant genetic differences between the remains from the tomb and from the ash pits.%本文对陶寺文化中晚期墓葬和灰坑中的人骨进行了性别年龄的鉴定和种族类型的分析,并报告了人骨古DNA的分析结果.DNA的分析结果表明墓葬中的人骨和灰坑中的人骨在单倍型的分类上没有差别,属于中国北方人群的常见单倍群.头骨测量特征的多元统计分析显示出灰坑的人骨与二十世纪发掘的陶寺文化早期墓葬中出土的人骨形态距离较远.这个结果可能暗示着陶寺早期人群和中晚期的人群可能有不一样的来源,期望未来对这两个人群的直接的DNA对比结果会有助于来源问题的解决.

  10. Parhelic-like circle from light scattering in Plateau borders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, A., E-mail: tufaile@usp.br; Tufaile, A.P.B.

    2015-03-06

    We are reporting a new simple optical element to generate halos. We have observed interesting patterns of light scattering in Plateau borders in foams. In analogy to the atmospheric phenomena known as parhelic circle, sun dogs, and sun pillars, we have named the features of the patterns observed as parlaseric circle, laser dogs, and laser pillars. The triangular symmetry of the Plateau borders is analogous to the hexagonal symmetry of ice crystals which produce these atmospheric phenomena. Working with one Plateau border at a time, we have observed wave optics phenomena that are not perceived in the atmospheric phenomena, such as diffraction and interference. - Highlights: • We obtained halo formation from light scattering in a Plateau border using an experiment. • We explained halo formation using geometrical theory of diffraction. • An optical element based on a Plateau border is proposed. • We compared some aspects of the parhelic circle with the parlaseric circle.

  11. Agrobiodiversity of cactus pear (Opuntia, Cactaceae in the Meridional Highlands Plateau of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Reyes-Agüero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Mexico is characterized by a remarkable richness of Opuntia, mostly at the Meridional Highlands Plateau; it is also here where the greatest richness of Opuntia variants occurs. Most of these variants have been maintained in homegardens; however, the gathering process which originated these homegardens has been disrupted over the past decades, as a result of social change and the destruction of large wild nopaleras. If the variants still surviving in homegardens are lost, these will be hard to recover, that is, the millenary cultural heritage from the human groups that populated the Mexican Meridional Highland Plateau will be lost forever. This situation motivated the preparation of a catalogue that records the diversity of wild and cultivated Opuntia variants living in the meridional Highlands Plateau. To this end, 379 samples were obtained in 29 localities, between 1998 and 2003. The information was processed through Twinspan. All specimens were identified and preserved in herbaria. Botanical keys and descriptions were elaborated. The catalogue includes information on 126 variants comprising 18 species. There were species with only one variant (Opuntia atropes, O. cochinera, O. jaliscana, O. leucotricha, O. rzedowskii and O. velutina, two (O. durangensis, O. lindheimeri, O. phaeacantha and O. robusta, five (O. joconostle and O. lasiacantha, seven (O. chavena, 12 (O. hyptiacantha and O. streptacantha, 15 (O. ficus-indica, 22 (O. albicarpa, and up to 34 (O. megacantha. Additionally, 267 common cactus pear names were related to those variants.

  12. The Colorado Plateau V: research, environmental planning, and management for collaborative conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Miguel L.; van Riper, Carena J.; Johnson, Matthew J.; van Riper, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States, the Colorado Plateau covers some 130,000 square miles of sparsely vegetated plateaus, mesas, canyons, arches, and cliffs in Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. With elevations ranging from 3,000 to 14,000 feet, the natural systems found within the plateau are dramatically varied, from desert to alpine conditions. This volume, the fifth from the University of Arizona Press and the tenth overall, focuses on adaptation of resource management and conservation to climate change and water scarcity, protecting biodiversity through restructured energy policies, ensuring wildlife habitat connectivity across barriers, building effective conservation networks, and exploring new opportunities for education and leadership in conservation science. An informative read for people interested in the conservation and natural history of the region, the book will also serve as a valuable reference for those people engaged in the management of cultural and biological resources of the Colorado Plateau, as well as scientists interested in methods and tools for land and resource management throughout the West.

  13. Correction of Faulty Sensors in Phased Array Radars Using Symmetrical Sensor Failure Technique and Cultural Algorithm with Differential Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. U. Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three issues regarding sensor failure at any position in the antenna array are discussed. We assume that sensor position is known. The issues include raise in sidelobe levels, displacement of nulls from their original positions, and diminishing of null depth. The required null depth is achieved by making the weight of symmetrical complement sensor passive. A hybrid method based on memetic computing algorithm is proposed. The hybrid method combines the cultural algorithm with differential evolution (CADE which is used for the reduction of sidelobe levels and placement of nulls at their original positions. Fitness function is used to minimize the error between the desired and estimated beam patterns along with null constraints. Simulation results for various scenarios have been given to exhibit the validity and performance of the proposed algorithm.

  14. Bartonella Species Detected in the Plateau Pikas (Ochotona curzoiae) from Qinghai Plateau in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Hua Xiang; Yu, Juan; Guo, Peng; Ma, Yong Cheng; Liu, Qi Yong; Jiao, Ming; Ma, Zhong Wen; Ge, Hua; Wang, Chun Xiang; Song, Xiu Ping; Shi, Yan; Li, Dong Mei

    2015-09-01

    Bartonella species can infect a variety of mammalian hosts and cause a broad spectrum of diseases in humans, but there have been no reports of Bartonella infection in Ochotonidae. This is the first study to detect Bartonella in plateau pikas in the Qinghai plateau, providing baseline data for the risk assessment of human Bartonella infection in this area. We obtained 15 Bartonella strains from 79 pikas in Binggou and Maixiu areas of Qinghai with a positive rate of 18.99%. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the Bartonella citrate synthase (gltA) gene sequences, most strains were closely related to B. taylorii (3/15) and B. grahamii (12/15). The latter is a pathogenic strain in humans. Our results suggest that a corresponding prevention and control strategy should be taken into consideration in the Qinghai province.

  15. Extension of the Yellowstone plateau, eastern Snake River Plain, and Owyhee plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, David W.; Hackett, William R.; Ore, H. Thomas

    1990-11-01

    Formation of the late Cenozoic volcanic province comprising the Owyhee plateau, eastern Snake River Plain, and Yellowstone plateau has been accompanied by east-northeast-directed crustal extension. A new vector of 45 mm/yr, N56°E for the migration of silicic volcanism across the volcanic province is calculated. If migration of volcanism reflects west-southwest continental drift over a mantle plume, a zone of crustal extension must separate the volcanic province from the more slowly moving North American craton. Space-time relations of basin fill in the adjacent Basin and Range province provide evidence for a zone of extension, about 125 km wide, coincident with and east of coeval silicic volcanism. Since 16 Ma, the zone of extension has migrated along with silicic volcanism, maintaining its position between the province and the unextended craton.

  16. Online capillary solid-phase microextraction coupled liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for analysis of chiral secondary alcohol products in yeast catalyzed stereoselective reduction cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheanyeh; Nian, Yu-Chuan

    2015-02-06

    An online solid-phase microextraction coupled liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry was developed for the analysis of trace R- and S-4-phenyl-2-butanol (R- and S-pbol) in salt rich cell culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae catalyzed stereoselective reduction of 4-pheny-2-butanone (pbone). A Supel-Q PLOT capillary column was used for the extraction and deionized distilled water was used as the extraction mobile phase. The extraction flow rate and extraction time were at 0.1 mL min(-1) and 0.95 min, respectively. The three target analytes, pbone, R-pbol, and S-4-pbol, were desorbed and eluted by the mobile phase of water/methanol/isopropanol (55/25/20, v/v/v) with a flow rate of 0.5 mL min(-1) and analyzed by a chiral column. The mass spectrometric detection of the three target analytes was in positive ion mode with the signal [M+Na](+). The matrix-matched external standard calibration curves with linear concentration range between 0 and 50 μg mL(-1) were used for quantitative analysis. The linear regression correlation coefficients (r(2)) of the standard calibration curves were between 0.9950 and 0.9961. The yeast mediated reduction was performed with a recation culture of yeast incubation culture/glycerol (70/30, v/v) for 4 days. This biotransformation possessed 82.3% yield and 92.9% S-enantomeric excess. The limit of detection (LOD)/limit of quantification (LOQ) for pbone, R-pbol, and S-pbol was 0.02/0.067, 0.01/0.033, and 0.01/0.033 μg mL(-1), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precisions from repeated measurements were 10.8-21.1% and 11.6-18.7%, respectively. The analysis accuracy from spike recovery was 84-91%.

  17. Deep structure of the Iceland plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.R.; Sacks, I.S.

    1979-11-10

    The topography of the sea floor between Iceland and Jan Mayen Island is flat and elevated in relation to most ocean basins. Marine geophysical observations in the area have shown that it was formed by sea floor spreading but have not revealed details of structures more than a few hundred meters beneath the sea floor. We have examined the dispersion of seismic surface waves across the Iceland Plateau and have modeled structures to depths of up to 100 km. We find that the thickness of the crustal component of the lithosphere is much greater than that of normal oceanic structures, perhaps exceeding 20 km. We suggest that the elevation of the region is due to isostatic compensation for this excess of low-density crustal material. The total lithospheric thickness is about 50 km throughout the region, indicating that the lithosphere thickens with age at a rate similar to that found in other young oceans.

  18. Plateau inflation in SUGRA-MSSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Girish Kumar; Gupta, Gaveshna; Lambiase, Gaetano; Mohanty, Subhendra

    2016-09-01

    We explored a Higgs inflationary scenario in the SUGRA embedding of the MSSM in Einstein frame where the inflaton is contained in the SU (2) Higgs doublet. We include all higher order non-renormalizable terms to the MSSM superpotential and an appropriate Kähler potential which can provide slow-roll inflaton potential in the D-flat direction. In this model, a plateau-like inflation potential can be obtained if the imaginary part of the neutral Higgs acts as the inflaton. The inflationary predictions of this model are consistent with the latest CMB observations. The model represents a successful Higgs inflation scenario in the context of Supergravity and it is compatible with Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model.

  19. Plateau inflation in SUGRA-MSSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Kumar Chakravarty

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We explored a Higgs inflationary scenario in the SUGRA embedding of the MSSM in Einstein frame where the inflaton is contained in the SU(2 Higgs doublet. We include all higher order non-renormalizable terms to the MSSM superpotential and an appropriate Kähler potential which can provide slow-roll inflaton potential in the D-flat direction. In this model, a plateau-like inflation potential can be obtained if the imaginary part of the neutral Higgs acts as the inflaton. The inflationary predictions of this model are consistent with the latest CMB observations. The model represents a successful Higgs inflation scenario in the context of Supergravity and it is compatible with Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model.

  20. Hardening of the national flower of Colombia, the threatened Cattleya trianae (Orchidaceae), from in vitro culture with previous invigoration phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Marcela; Guevara, Giovany; Mesa, Neftali; Urueña, Gloria

    2007-06-01

    Cattleya trianae is an endemic species from the tropical rainforest in the Colombian Andes. Its survival is currently threatened due to habitat loss and commercial overexploitation. This study evaluates ten substrates, some organic (pine bark, coconut fiber and wood shavings), some inert icopor (polystyrene foam), vegetable coal and their combinations, and the effects these have on morphometric and phenotypic traits in the hardening phase of 250 plants of C. trianae cultivated in vitro. Recorded data include percent survival, length of longest leaf, biomass (wet weight) and number of roots and leaves at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. After the hardening phase, the plants were taken to a greenhouse and later to the natural environment. Coconut fiber alone or mixed in equal parts with pine bark and coal was the most efficient substrate when percent survival (80+/-SE=0.3742), biomass, and leaf length were evaluated. Hardened plants displayed qualitative characteristics such as vigor, hardness and waxy texture, strength of green coloration in the leaves, and velamen formation. Under greenhouse conditions, plants grew better with filtered light, relative humidity bordering on 80 %, permanent aeration, misting with water, and an average temperature of 25+/-2 degrees C. Invigorated plants were firmly anchored on their host trees.

  1. Have Periprosthetic Hip Infection Rates Plateaued?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Dean C; Boylan, Matthew R; Naziri, Qais; Paulino, Carl B; Kurtz, Steven M; Mont, Michael A

    2017-07-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious complication of total hip arthroplasty (THA). Although the number of revision cases is increasing, the prevalence of PJI as an indication for revision surgery, and the variability of this indication among surgeons and hospitals, is unclear. The New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System was used to identify 33,582 patients undergoing revision THA between 2000 and 2013. PJI was identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes. Volume was defined using mean number of revision THAs performed annually by each hospital and surgeon. PJI was the indication for 13.0% of all revision THAs. The percentage of revision THAs for PJI increased between years 2000 and 2007 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.05, P < .001), but decreased between years 2008 and 2013 (OR = 0.96, P = .001). Compared to medium-volume hospitals, the PJI burden at high-volume hospitals decreased during years 2000-2007 (OR = 0.58, P < .001) and 2008-2013 (OR = 0.57, P < .001). Compared to medium-volume surgeons, the PJI burden for high-volume surgeons increased during years 2000-2007 (OR = 1.39, P < .001), but did not differ during years 2008-2013 (P = .618). The burden of PJI as an indication for revision THA may be plateauing. High-volume institutions have seen decreases in the percentage of revisions performed for PJI over the complete study duration. Specific surgeon may be associated with the plateauing in PJI rates as high-volume surgeons in 2008-2013 were no longer found to be at increased risk of PJI as an indication for revision THA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Screening for epitope specificity directly on culture supernatants in the early phase of monoclonal antibody production by an ELISA with biotin-labeled antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte C; Jensen, Charlotte H; Gregersen, Annemette

    2004-01-01

    This report describes an assay for comparison of epitope specificity in groups of monoclonal antibodies against a given antigen. The only prerequisite is the biotin-labeled antigen. One of the monoclonal antibodies is captured onto a plastic surface via a rabbit anti-mouse Ig, and the other...... preincubated with biotinylated antigen. When the two antibodies react with the same epitope subsequent binding of the biotin-labeled antigen is abolished (inhibition). In the cases where no inhibition was observed, the two antibodies were considered to react with distinct, independent epitopes. The obvious...... advantages using this assay, are that it can be performed directly on culture supernatants in the early phase of monoclonal antibody production, and also works for antigens with repetitive epitopes. Moreover, the bonus effect, i.e., a signal in excess of the reference signal when sets of monoclonal...

  3. Nanoparticles of Sr(OH){sub 2}: synthesis in homogeneous phase at low temperature and application for cultural heritage artefacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciliberto, E.; Condorelli, G.G.; La Delfa, S.; Viscuso, E. [Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Catania (Italy)

    2008-07-15

    This paper concerns the synthesis and the characterization of nanometer particles of Sr(OH){sub 2}, a moderately high water soluble hydroxide (Ksp=3.2 x 10{sup -4} at 25 C). The reported process yields strontium hydroxide nanoparticles starting from low cost raw materials in aqueous medium (homogeneous phase) at low temperature (below 100 C) by chemical precipitation from salt solutions, involving very simple operational steps and avoiding the use of organic solvents. Observations by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersive X-Ray (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicate that the particles are well-crystallized and have nanometer dimensions ({proportional_to}30 nm in diameter). Moreover, experimental evidence shows the potential use of this material for the protection and the consolidation of wall paintings (frescoes), paper, stone, wood and other artistic artefacts. (orig.)

  4. Effects of the soil freeze-thaw process on the regional climate of the Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, S., Sr.; Chen, B.; Lu, S.; Zhang, Y.; Ma, D.

    2015-12-01

    Single-point and regional simulation experiments on the Tibet Plateau, both with and without consideration of the soil freeze-thaw process, were set up with CLM3.5 and RegCM4 models. Comparison of the simulated soil temperature and moisture, surface energy flux, and upper-lower atmospheric circulation showed that the regional climate can be influenced by the freeze-thaw process of soil. The results indicate that the freeze-thaw process is a buffer to the seasonal changes in soil and near-surface temperatures and strengthens the energy exchange between the soil and the atmosphere. During the freeze (thaw) process, releasing (absorbing) of phase change energy retards the cooling (heating) effect of air temperature on soil. The soil freeze-thaw process increases (decreases) the surface heat source of the plateau in winter (summer), which increases (decreases) the near-surface temperature in winter (summer). Promoted by atmospheric circulation, the soil freeze-thaw process influences climate at the high and low altitudes of the plateau; this may also contribute to the maintenance of the South Asia High. In the early stages of permafrost degradation, the regional climate effects of freezing and thawing may accelerate the degradation of permafrost.

  5. Mesozoic denudation and cooling events of the Yinshan Mountains, southern Mongolian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li-Xia; Han, Bao-Fu; Wang, Zeng-Zhen; Liu, Bo; Brown, Roderick

    2016-04-01

    ABASTRACT The Yinshan Mountains are south boundary of the Mongolian Plateau, occupying the north part of North China Craton. 18 granitoid samples were conducted by apatite fission track method in order to unravel its Mesozoic denudation and cooling history and relationship with the Mongolian Plateau. They obtain Jurassic to Cretaceous AFT ages. 3 main phases of rapid cooling events during Mesozoic are recognized and could probably be caused by denudation. Combined with local geological conditions, denudations are more likely controlled by the local thrust faulting. The Early Jurassic denudation event occurred in the transition area to the Mongolian Plateau. The Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous denudation events occurred in the interior mountains and are more likely provoked by the distant effect of the Mongol-Okhotsk Orogeny based on their propagation directions. The Late Cretaceous denudation event occurred in the southeastern flank of the mountain. Finally, the activity time of thrust faults are constrained by 130-90 Ma according to the uplift and denudation relationship in the thrust system and their modeling T-t paths. Key words Apatite Fission track; Uplift and denudation; Mesozoic reactivation; Mountain Langshan

  6. Constraining the stepwise migration of the eastern Tibetan Plateau margin by apatite fission track thermochronology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Granites sampled from Garzê-Litang thrust, Longmen Shan thrust, Garzê and Litang strike-slip faults in the eastern Tibetan Plateau have been analyzed with apatite fission track thermochronological method in this study. The measured fission track apparent ages, combined with the simulated annealing mod- eling of the thermal history, have been used to reconstruct the thermal evolutionary histories of the samples and interpret the active history of the thrusts and faults in these areas. Thermal history mod- eling shows that earlier tectonic cooling occurred in the Garzê-Litang thrust in Miocene (~20―16 Ma) whereas the later cooling occurred mainly in the Longmen Shan thrust since ~5 Ma. Our study sug- gests that the margin of eastern Tibetan Plateau was extended by stages: through strike-slip faults deformations and related thrusts, the upper crust formed the Garzê-Litang margin in the Miocene epoch and then moved to the Longmen Shan margin since ~5 Ma. During this process, the deformations of different phases in the eastern Tibetan Plateau were absorbed by the thrusts within them and conse- quently the tectonic events of long-distance slip and extrusion up to hundreds of kilometers have not been found.

  7. Constraining the stepwise migration of the eastern Tibetan Plateau margin by apatite fission track thermochronology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI QingZhou; DING Lin; WANG HongWei; YUE YaHui; CAI FuLong

    2007-01-01

    Granites sampled from Garzê-Litang thrust, Longmen Shan thrust, Garzê and Litang strike-slip faults in the eastern Tibetan Plateau have been analyzed with apatite fission track thermochronological method in this study. The measured fission track apparent ages, combined with the simulated annealing modeling of the thermal history, have been used to reconstruct the thermal evolutionary histories of the samples and interpret the active history of the thrusts and faults in these areas. Thermal history modeling shows that earlier tectonic cooling occurred in the Garzê-Litang thrust in Miocene (~20―16 Ma) whereas the later cooling occurred mainly in the Longmen Shan thrust since ~5 Ma. Our study suggests that the margin of eastern Tibetan Plateau was extended by stages: through strike-slip faults deformations and related thrusts, the upper crust formed the Garzê-Litang margin in the Miocene epoch and then moved to the Longmen Shan margin since ~5 Ma. During this process, the deformations of different phases in the eastern Tibetan Plateau were absorbed by the thrusts within them and consequently the tectonic events of long-distance slip and extrusion up to hundreds of kilometers have not been found.

  8. On the inward drift of runaway electrons in plateau regime

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Di

    2016-01-01

    The well observed inward drift of current carrying runaway electrons during runaway plateau regime after disruption is studied by considering the phase space dynamic of runaways in a large aspect ratio toroidal system. We consider the case where the toroidal field is unperturbed and the toroidal symmetry of the system is preserved. The invariance of canonical angular momentum in such system requires runaways to drift horizontally in configuration space for any given change in momentum space. The dynamic of this drift can be obtained by taking the variation of canonical angular momentum. It is then found that runaway electrons will always drift inward as long as they are decelerating. This drift motion is essentially non-linear, since the current is carried by runaways themselves, and any runaway drift relative to the magnetic axis will cause further displacement of the axis itself. A simplified analytical model is constructed to describe such inward drift both in ideal wall case and no wall case, and the runa...

  9. Temporal and spatial evolution of the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) in the Loess Plateau under climate change from 2001 to 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuerui; Zhao, Qi; Zhao, Xining; Wu, Pute; Pan, Wenxiang; Gao, Xiaodong; Sun, Miao

    2017-10-01

    Loess Plateau has great uncertainty on drought occurrence due to climate change. This paper analyzes the evolution of precipitation, potential evapotranspiration and standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) based on the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) data and regional downscaling model (RegCM4.0). Results indicate that, under RCP2.6 Scenario, the precipitation will increase significantly (5% confidence level) at the rate of 16.40mm/10a. However, the potential evapotranspiration is showing non-significant decreasing trend at the rate of 2.16mm/10a. Moreover, the SPEI will decrease in the south and northernmost area and increase in the central northern area of Loess Plateau. Under RCP8.5 Scenario, the precipitation will increase significantly (5% confidence level) at the rate of 19.12mm/10a. The potential evapotranspiration will non-significantly decrease at the rate of 2.16mm/10a and the SPEI is showing increasing trend almost in the whole Loess Plateau. Generally, Loess Plateau is becoming wetter in the central part under RCP2.6 Scenario and the wet area will be enlarged to almost the whole plateau under RCP8.5 Scenario. Based on the results, the water resources will increase under global warming, which may alleviate the water scarcity issue in the Loess Plateau. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Improving the Quality of Urban Space and Shaping the Characteristics of Urban Culture: Under the Rapid Urbanization Phase of Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou; Lan; Yu; Chun; Zhang; Qingfei

    2015-01-01

    China is currently undergoing the most inf luential urbanization phase in its history, and this process will probably last for a few decades to come. Along with the accelerated urbanization, the quality of development has been elevated to an equal position with the quantity. Being one of the most developed and best urbanized provinces in China, Jiangsu has achieved an urbanization rate of 57%. Dealing with large construction scales, Jiangsu is presently striving to improve the quality of its urban space, and to elevate human settlements to a higher level. By contextualizing Jiangsu’s urbanization within a certain development stage and a specif ic historical era, the paper proposes the overall idea and action strategies for improving the quality of urban space, on the basis of the analysis on contemporary cultural pursuits. It aims at changing the current situation of "one outlook for thousands of cities," improving the quality of urban space and the competitiveness of urban culture, and eventually creating better human settlements and a harmonious society.

  11. A study of the low-luminosity Type II-Plateau supernova 2008bk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisakov, S. M.; Dessart, Luc; Hillier, D. John; Waldman, Roni; Livne, Eli

    2017-04-01

    Supernova (SN) 2008bk is a well-observed low-luminosity Type II event visually associated with a low-mass red-supergiant progenitor. To model SN 2008bk, we evolve a 12 M⊙ star from the main sequence until core collapse, when it has a total mass of 9.88 M⊙, a He-core mass of 3.22 M⊙ and a radius of 502 R⊙. We then artificially trigger an explosion that produces 8.29 M⊙ of ejecta with a total energy of 2.5 × 1050 erg and ∼0.009 M⊙ of 56Ni. We model the subsequent evolution of the ejecta with non-local thermodynamic equilibrium time-dependent radiative transfer. Although somewhat too luminous and energetic, this model reproduces satisfactorily the multiband light curves and multi-epoch spectra of SN 2008bk, confirming the suitability of a low-mass massive star progenitor. As in other low-luminosity SNe II, the structured Hα profile at the end of the plateau phase is probably caused by Ba II 6496.9 Å rather than asphericity. We discuss the sensitivity of our results to changes in progenitor radius and mass, as well as chemical mixing. A 15 per cent increase in progenitor radius causes a 15 per cent increase in luminosity and a 0.2 mag V-band brightening of the plateau but leaves its length unaffected. An increase in ejecta mass by 10 per cent lengthens the plateau by ∼10 d. Chemical mixing introduces slight changes to the bolometric light curve, limited to the end of the plateau, but has a large impact on colours and spectra at nebular times.

  12. Inorganic nitrogen assimilation in yeasts: alteration in enzyme activities associated with changes in cultural conditions and growth phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomulka, K W; Moat, A G

    1972-01-01

    Ammonia assimilation has been investigated in four strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by measuring, at intervals throughout the growth cycle, the activities of several enzymes concerned with inorganic ammonia assimilation. Enzyme activities in extracts of cells were compared after growth in complete and defined media. The effect of shift from growth in a complete to growth in a defined medium (and the reverse) was also determined. The absence of aspartase (EC 4.3.1.1, l-aspartate-ammonia lyase) activity, the low specific activities of alanine dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase [EC 6.3.1.2, l-glutamate-ammonia ligase (ADP)], and the marked increase in activity of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-linked glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP-GDH) [EC 1.4.1.4, l-glutamate:NADP-oxidoreductase (deaminating)] during the early stages of growth support the conclusion that yeasts assimilate ammonia primarily via glutamate. The NADP-GDH showed a rapid increase in activity just before the initiation of exponential growth, reached a maximum at the mid-exponential stage, and then gradually declined in activity in the stationary phase. The NADP-GDH reached a higher level of activity when the yeasts were grown on the defined medium as compared with complete medium. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-linked glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH) [EC 1.4.1.2, l-glutamate:NAD-oxidoreductase (deaminating)] showed only slight increases in activity during the exponential phase of growth. There was an inverse relationship in that the NADP-GDH increased in activity as the NAD-GDH decreased. The NAD-GDH activity was higher after growth on the complete medium. The glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.1. l-aspartate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase) activity rose and fell in parallel with the NADP-GDH, although its specific activity was somewhat lower. Although other ammonia-assimilatory enzymes were demonstrable, it seems unlikely that their combined activities could account

  13. Polyglycolic acid-polylactic acid scaffold response to different progenitor cell in vitro cultures: a demonstrative and comparative X-ray synchrotron radiation phase-contrast microtomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Alessandra; Moroncini, Francesca; Mazzoni, Serena; Belicchi, Marzia Laura Chiara; Villa, Chiara; Erratico, Silvia; Colombo, Elena; Calcaterra, Francesca; Brambilla, Lucia; Torrente, Yvan; Albertini, Gianni; Della Bella, Silvia

    2014-04-01

    Spatiotemporal interactions play important roles in tissue development and function, especially in stem cell-seeded bioscaffolds. Cells interact with the surface of bioscaffold polymers and influence material-driven control of cell differentiation. In vitro cultures of different human progenitor cells, that is, endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) from a healthy control and a patient with Kaposi sarcoma (an angioproliferative disease) and human CD133+ muscle-derived stem cells (MSH 133+ cells), were seeded onto polyglycolic acid-polylactic acid scaffolds. Three-dimensional (3D) images were obtained by X-ray phase-contrast microtomography (micro-CT) and processed with the Modified Bronnikov Algorithm. The method enabled high spatial resolution detection of the 3D structural organization of cells on the bioscaffold and evaluation of the way and rate at which cells modified the construct at different time points from seeding. The different cell types displayed significant differences in the proliferation rate. In conclusion, X-ray synchrotron radiation phase-contrast micro-CT analysis proved to be a useful and sensitive tool to investigate the spatiotemporal pattern of progenitor cell organization on a bioscaffold.

  14. Effects of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the accumulation of lipid content using a two-phase culture process with three microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Chae-Hun; Kang, Chang-Han; Jung, Jang-Hyun; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2016-07-01

    Conditions of light-emitting diode (LED) wavelength, light intensity, nitrate concentration, and time of exposure to green LED light stress in a two-phase culture were optimized for lipid production with three species of microalgae. Among the three microalgae, Nannochloropsis oculata showed the highest specific growth rate (μmax) of 0.037h(-1) and the lowest saturation constant (Ks) of 1.32mg/L. The highest lipid contents of the three microalgae in the second phase under green LED light stress were 52.0% (w/w) for Nannochloropsis salina at 2days, 53.0% (w/w) for Nannochloropsis oceanica at 2days, and 56.0% for N. oculata at 2days. Fatty acid analysis of the microalgae showed that 85-87% (w/w) of total fatty acids from N. salina, N. oceanica, and N. oculata consisted of palmitic acid (C16:0) and oleic acid (C18:1). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. A comparative proteomic analysis of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 at exponential and stationary phases of cultures in the presence of high and low levels of inorganic nitrogen compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lery, L M S; von Krüger, W M A; Viana, F C; Teixeira, K R S; Bisch, P M

    2008-11-01

    A proteomic view of G. diazotrophicus PAL5 at the exponential (E) and stationary phases (S) of cultures in the presence of low (L) and high levels (H) of combined nitrogen is presented. The proteomes analyzed on 2D-gels showed 131 proteins (42E+32S+29H+28L) differentially expressed by G. diazotrophicus, from which 46 were identified by combining mass spectrometry and bioinformatics tools. Proteins related to cofactor, energy and DNA metabolisms and cytoplasmic pH homeostasis were differentially expressed in E growth phase, under L and H conditions, in line with the high metabolic rate of the cells and the low pH of the media. Proteins most abundant in S-phase cells were stress associated and transporters plus transferases in agreement with the general phenomenon that binding protein-dependent systems are induced under nutrient limitation as part of hunger response. Cells grown in L condition produced nitrogen-fixation accessory proteins with roles in biosynthesis and stabilization of the nitrogenase complex plus proteins for protection of the nitrogenases from O(2)-induced inactivation. Proteins of the cell wall biogenesis apparatus were also expressed under nitrogen limitation and might function in the reshaping of the nitrogen-fixing G. diazotrophicus cells previously described. Genes whose protein products were detected in our analysis were mapped onto the chromosome and, based on the tendency of functionally related bacterial genes to cluster, we identified genes of particular pathways that could be organized in operons and are co-regulated. These results showed the great potential of proteomics to describe events in G. diazotrophicus cells by looking at proteins expressed under distinct growth conditions.

  16. Hardening of the national flower of Colombia, the threatened Cattleya trianae (Orchidaceae, from in vitro culture with previous invigoration phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Franco

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cattleya trianae is an endemic species from the tropical rainforest in the Colombian Andes. Its survival is currently threatened due to habitat loss and commercial overexploitation. This study evaluates ten substrates, some organic (pine bark, coconut fiber and wood shavings, some inert icopor (polystyrene foam, vegetable coal and their combinations, and the effects these have on morphometric and phenotypic traits in the hardening phase of 250 plants of C. trianae cultivated in vitro. Recorded data include percent survival, length of longest leaf, biomass (wet weight and number of roots and leaves at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. After the hardening phase, the plants were taken to a greenhouse and later to the natural environment. Coconut fiber alone or mixed in equal parts with pine bark and coal was the most efficient substrate when percent survival (80±SE=0.3742, biomass, and leaf length were evaluated. Hardened plants displayed qualitative characteristics such as vigor, hardness and waxy texture, strength of green coloration in the leaves, and velamen formation. Under greenhouse conditions, plants grew better with filtered light, relative humidity bordering on 80 %, permanent aeration, misting with water, and an average temperature of 25±2 °C. Invigorated plants were firmly anchored on their host trees. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 681-691. Epub 2007 June, 29.Cattleya trianae es una especie endémica de los bosques tropicales de los Andes colombianos. Actualmente se encuentra amenazada por la disminución de su hábitat natural y la sobreexplotación con fines comerciales. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de diez tratamientos con sustratos biológicos (corteza de pino, fibra de coco y viruta e inertes (esferitas de "icopor" y carbón vegetal en diferentes combinaciones, sobre aspectos morfométricos y fenotípicos en la etapa de endurecimiento de 250 vitroplantas de C. trianae. Se registró porcentaje de supervivencia

  17. Spatiotemporal variations of vegetation cover on the Chinese Loess Plateau(1981―2006):Impacts of climate changes and human activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Spatiotemporal variations of Chinese Loess Plateau vegetation cover during 1981-2006 have been investigated using GIMMS and SPOT VGT NDVI data and the cause of vegetation cover changes has been analyzed, considering the climate changes and human activities. Vegetation cover changes on the Loess Plateau have experienced four stages as follows: (1) vegetation cover showed a continued increasing phase during 1981―1989; (2) vegetation cover changes came into a relative steady phase with small fluctuations during 1990―1998; (3) vegetation cover declined rapidly during 1999―2001; and (4) vegetation cover increased rapidly during 2002―2006. The vegetation cover changes of the Loess Plateau show a notable spatial difference. The vegetation cover has obviously increased in the Inner Mongolia and Ningxia plain along the Yellow River and the ecological rehabilitated region of Ordos Plateau, however the vegetation cover evidently decreased in the hilly and gully areas of Loess Plateau, Liupan Mountains region and the northern hillside of Qinling Mountains. The response of NDVI to climate changes varied with different vegetation types. NDVI of sandy land vegetation, grassland and cultivated land show a significant increasing trend, but forest shows a decreasing trend. The results obtained in this study show that the spatiotemporal variations of vegetation cover are the outcome of climate changes and human activities. Temperature is a control factor of the seasonal change of vegetation growth. The increased temperature makes soil drier and unfavors vegetation growth in summer, but it favors vegetation growth in spring and autumn because of a longer growing period. There is a significant correlation between vegetation cover and precipitation and thus, the change in precipitation is an important factor for vegetation variation. The improved agricultural production has resulted in an increase of NDVI in the farmland, and the implementation of large-scale vegetation

  18. Spatiotemporal variations of vegetation cover on the Chinese Loess Plateau (1981―2006): Impacts of climate changes and human activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Spatiotemporal variations of Chinese Loess Plateau vegetation cover during 1981-2006 have been investigated using GIMMS and SPOT VGT NDVI data and the cause of vegetation cover changes has been analyzed, considering the climate changes and human activities. Vegetation cover changes on the Loess Plateau have experienced four stages as follows: (1) vegetation cover showed a continued increasing phase during 1981-1989; (2) vegetation cover changes came into a relative steady phase with small fluctuations during 1990-1998; (3) vegetation cover declined rapidly during 1999-2001; and (4) vegetation cover increased rapidly during 2002-2006. The vegetation cover changes of the Loess Plateau show a notable spatial difference. The vegetation cover has obviously increased in the Inner Mongolia and Ningxia plain along the Yellow River and the ecological rehabilitated region of Ordos Plateau, however the vegetation cover evidently decreased in the hilly and gully areas of Loess Plateau, Liupan Mountains region and the northern hillside of Qinling Mountains. The response of NDVI to climate changes varied with different vegetation types. NDVI of sandy land vegetation, grassland and cultivated land show a significant increasing trend, but forest shows a decreasing trend. The results obtained in this study show that the spatiotemporal variations of vegetation cover are the outcome of climate changes and human activities. Temperature is a control factor of the seasonal change of vegetation growth. The increased temperature makes soil drier and unfavors vegetation growth in summer, but it favors vegetation growth in spring and autumn because of a longer growing period. There is a significant correlation between vegetation cover and precipitation and thus, the change in precipitation is an important factor for vegetation variation. The improved agricultural production has resulted in an increase of NDVI in the farmland, and the implementation of large-scale vegetation construction has

  19. Conductance fluctuations and disorder induced ν =0 quantum Hall plateau in topological insulator nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xypakis, Emmanouil; Bardarson, Jens H.

    2017-01-01

    Clean topological insulators exposed to a magnetic field develop Landau levels accompanied by a nonzero Hall conductivity for the infinite slab geometry. In this work we consider the case of disordered topological insulator nanowires and find, in contrast, that a zero Hall plateau emerges within a broad energy window close to the Dirac point. We numerically calculate the conductance and its distribution for a statistical ensemble of disordered nanowires, and use the conductance fluctuations to study the dependence of the insulating phase on system parameters, such as the nanowire length, disorder strength, and the magnetic field.

  20. Total knee arthroplasty and fractures of the tibial plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Softness, Kenneth A; Murray, Ryan S; Evans, Brian G

    2017-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are common injuries that occur in a bimodal age distribution. While there are various treatment options for displaced tibial plateau fractures, the standard of care is open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). In physiologically young patients with higher demand and better bone quality, ORIF is the preferred method of treating these fractures. However, future total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a consideration in these patients as post-traumatic osteoarthritis is a common long-term complication of tibial plateau fractures. In older, lower demand patients, ORIF is potentially less favorable for a variety of reasons, namely fixation failure and the need for delayed weight bearing. In some of these patients, TKA can be considered as primary mode of treatment. This paper will review the literature surrounding TKA as both primary treatment and as a salvage measure in patients with fractures of the tibial plateau. The outcomes, complications, techniques and surgical challenges are also discussed.

  1. Phylogeography of regional fauna on the Tibetan Plateau: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shujuan Yang; Hailiang Dong; Fumin Lei

    2009-01-01

    The studies of uplift and glaciations of the Tibetan Plateau are summarized, and a series of recent case studies of the endemic species based on DNA sequences are detailed. In general, these molecular data show that all the organisms originated from Early Pliocene to Late Miocene, and then multi-stages of divergence/speciation occurred within each taxa following their original occupation on the pla-teau, mainly as a result of periodic glacial cycles and geographic isolation. The regional fauna may have undergone several range con-tractions and expansions during the Pleistocene glaciations. However, the population expansion and refugia may vary in space, time, and extent. The regional fauna of the Tibetan Plateau may be combinations of ancient movement from adjacent zoogeographical regions, speciation in situ, and postglacial colonization from adjacent areas. Geomorphic and climatic changes on the plateau definitely have a remarkable influence on the regional and adjacent biogeographic patterns, and the mechanism is very complex.

  2. The Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area, 2000 (cpstdyg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a coverage of the Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area. The study area outline was drawn on the county lines that most closely outline the...

  3. A plateau-valley separation method for multifunctional surfaces characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Kühle, A.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Turned multifunctional surfaces are a new typology of textured surfaces presenting a flat plateau region and deterministically distributed lubricant reservoirs. Existing standards are not suitable for the characterization of such surfaces, providing at times values without physical meaning. A new...

  4. Flora investigation kicks off on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Coordinated by the CAS Kunming Institute of Botany,a project to investigate the floral germplasm resources on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was initiated recently in Kunming,capital of southwest China's Yunnan Province.

  5. Sichuan Basin and beyond: Eastward foreland growth of the Tibetan Plateau from an integration of Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic fission track and (U-Th)/He ages of the eastern Tibetan Plateau, Qinling, and Daba Shan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao; Shen, Chuanbo; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Enkelmann, Eva; Jonckheere, Raymond; Wauschkuhn, Bastian; Dong, Yunpeng

    2017-06-01

    Combining 121 new fission track and (U-Th)/He ages with published thermochronologic data, we investigate the Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic exhumation/cooling history of the eastern Tibetan Plateau, Qinling, Daba Shan, and Sichuan Basin of east central China. The Qinling orogen shows terminal southwestward foreland growth in the northern Daba Shan thrust belt at 100-90 Ma and in the southern Daba Shan fold belt at 85-70 Ma. The eastern margin of Tibetan Plateau experienced major exhumation phases at 70-40 Ma (exhumation rate 0.05-0.08 mm/yr), 25-15 Ma (≤1 mm/yr in the Pengguan Massif; 0.2 mm/yr in the imbricated western Sichuan Basin), and since 11-10 Ma along the Longmen Shan ( 0.80 mm/yr) and the interior of the eastern Tibetan Plateau (Dadu River gorge, Min Shan; 0.50 mm/yr). The Sichuan Basin records two basin-wide denudation phases, likely a result of the reorganization of the upper Yangtze River drainage system. The first phase commenced at 45 Ma and probably ended before the Miocene; >1 km of rocks were eroded from the central and eastern Sichuan Basin. The second phase commenced at 12 Ma and denudated the central Sichuan Basin, Longmen Shan, and southern Daba Shan; more than 2 km of rocks were eroded after the lower Yangtze River had cut through the Three Gorges and captured the Sichuan Basin drainage. In contrast to the East Qinling, which was weakly effected by late Cenozoic exhumation, the West Qinling and Daba Shan have experienced rapid exhumation/cooling since 15-13 Ma, a result of growth of the Tibetan Plateau beyond the Sichuan Basin.

  6. Evolution of the Ordos Plateau and environmental effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the analysis of temporary-spatial distribution, geomorphic position, contact relationship with underlying strata and grain size of red clay, we studied the formation and environmental background of red clay. During late Miocene-Pliocene, the Ordos Block finished the transformation from the basin to the plateau, which had an obvious environmental effect on the topography, indicated by the formation of highland undergoing wind erosion and lowland receiving red clay deposits. The red clay materials were sourced from dusts carried by wind energy and covered on the initial topography. Unlike Quaternary loess dust covering the overall the Loess Plateau, red clay deposited on the highland would be transported to the lowlands by wind and fluvial process. As a result, there was no continuous "Red Clay Plateau" in the Ordos region and red clay was only preserved in former lowlands. However, red clay was discontinuously distributed through the Loess Plateau and to some extent modified the initial topography. The differential uplift in interior plateau is indicated by the uplift of northern Baiyushan, central Ziwuling and southern Weibeibeishan. The Weibeibeishan Depression formed earlier and became the sedimentary center of red clay resulting in the thicker red clay deposits in Chaona, Lingtai and Xunyi. Since Quaternary the aridity in the northern plateau enhanced and accelerated loess accumulation caused the formation of the Loess Plateau. During the late Pleistocene the rapid uplift led to the enhancement of erosion. Especially after the cut-through of Sanme Lake by the Yellow River, the decline of base level caused the falling of ground water level and at the same time the increase of drainage density resulting in the enhancement of evaporation capacity, which enhanced the aridity tendency of aridity in the Loess Plateau region.

  7. Status, ecology, and conservation of the Himalayan griffon Gyps himalayensis (Aves, Accipitridae) in the Tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin; Ke, Dianhua; Zeng, Xianhai; Gong, Guohong; Ci, Ren

    2009-05-01

    The dramatic population crashes of 3 species of Gyps vulture have raised concerns about the status of their lesser-known congeners. Among these is the Himalayan griffon, G. himalayensis, an iconic vulture of the Tibetan plateau. The continued existence of this scavenger has not only ecological but also cultural implications because of their unique role in the centuries-old sky burial tradition that is followed by nearly 5 million Tibetan people. A lack of baseline information of the Himalayan griffon limits our ability to take conservation measures. The presented data, which were collected during 1996 and 2004 to 2007, indicate that this species is still widespread throughout the plateau and has not experienced a major population decline, likely as a result of protection by Tibetan Buddhism and limited disturbances from human activities largely due to the remoteness of the plateau. Both site and road counts showed that open meadow habitats had the highest griffon abundance, followed by alpine shrub and forest habitats. Estimates based on road transect counts showed that 229,339 Himalayan griffons (+/- 40,447) occupy the 2.5 million km2 Tibetan plateau. In contrast, the maximum carrying capacity of the plateau, on the basis of the total biomass of potential food resources, is 507,996 griffons, with meadow habitats accounting for about 76% of the total population. Griffons depend largely on livestock carcasses for food and forage in groups averaging 5.5 (range 1-100) individuals. Domestic yaks provide about 64% of the griffons' diet, while wild ungulates and human corpses provide 1% and 2%, respectively. Compared with its lowland congeners, this, the only high-elevation Gyps species, had both low population density and small group size, a likely response to the harsh environmental conditions. Although griffon abundance appears relatively stable in their fairly pristine environment, precautionary measures, including investigation of threats, monitoring of population

  8. Magnetization Plateau of the S = 1/2 Frustrated Heisenberg Chain with Period 3 Parity Invariant Exchange Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, K.; Affleck, I.

    The magnetization plateau of the S = 1/2 frustrated Heisenberg chain with period 3 parity invariant exchange modulation is investigated by the bosonization and numerical exact diagonalization method. The ground state phase diagram at 1/3 of the saturated magnetization is obtained. Among three degenerate \\uparrow\\uparrowdownarrow-type plateau states in the uniform chain, two of them (downarrow\\uparrow\\uparrowdownarrow\\uparrow\\uparrow\\cdots\\ and \\uparrowdownarrow\\uparrow\\uparrowdownarrow\\uparrow\\cdots\\ ) turned out to be robust against the period 3 exchange modulation which favors the bullet-bullet\\uparrowbullet-bullet\\uparrow\\cdots phase up to a critical value of the modulation amplitude (bullet-bullet = singlet dimer) resulting in the Z_2 symmetry broken phase. Another \\uparrow\\uparrowdownarrow-type state with \\uparrow\\uparrowdownarrow\\uparrow\\uparrowdownarrow\\cdots\\ configuration is stabilized for period 3 modulation with opposite sign. The transition between the bullet-bullet\\uparrowbullet-bullet\\uparrow\\cdots\\ -phase and Z_2-broken phase is the Ising transition and that between the \\uparrow\\uparrowdownarrow\\uparrow\\uparrowdownarrow\\cdots\\ -phase and Z_2 broken phase is the first order transition. The spin configuration in each phase is numerically verified by applying the local symmetry breaking field.

  9. Nutrient Lossed in Soils on Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGLIN; WANGJI-ZENG; 等

    1995-01-01

    The soil nutrient losses due to excessive soil loss on Loess Plateau were studied by means of runoff plots and systematical determination of soil nutrients both in sediments and runoff.The results show that the amounts of nutrient losses depended on the amounts of ersoion sediments.Along with sediment,11-197kg nitrogen/hectare and 9-174kg phosphorus/hectare were lost,accounting for 92.46-99.47 percent of the total amount of nitrogen loss and 99.85-99.99 percent of the total amount of phosphorus loss respectively.The nutrient losses,very small in runoff,were mainly attributed to erosion of a few rainstorms during a year.The nutrient level in sediment was mostly higher than that in the original soil.Planting grass evidently redued the losses of soil nutrients.The N level was lower in runoff than in rainfall so that the N loss from runoff could be made up by rainfall.Fertilizer application to crops raised the nutrient level in runoff.

  10. Solution of the Kirchhoff-Plateau Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusteri, Giulio G.; Lussardi, Luca; Fried, Eliot

    2017-01-01

    The Kirchhoff-Plateau problem concerns the equilibrium shapes of a system in which a flexible filament in the form of a closed loop is spanned by a liquid film, with the filament being modeled as a Kirchhoff rod and the action of the spanning surface being solely due to surface tension. We establish the existence of an equilibrium shape that minimizes the total energy of the system under the physical constraint of noninterpenetration of matter, but allowing for points on the surface of the bounding loop to come into contact. In our treatment, the bounding loop retains a finite cross-sectional thickness and a nonvanishing volume, while the liquid film is represented by a set with finite two-dimensional Hausdorff measure. Moreover, the region where the liquid film touches the surface of the bounding loop is not prescribed a priori. Our mathematical results substantiate the physical relevance of the chosen model. Indeed, no matter how strong is the competition between surface tension and the elastic response of the filament, the system is always able to adjust to achieve a configuration that complies with the physical constraints encountered in experiments.

  11. Zero temperature non-plateau magnetization and magnetocaloric effect in an Ising-XYZ diamond chain structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrico, J.; Rojas, M.; de Souza, S. M.; Rojas, Onofre

    2016-10-01

    Zero temperature non-plateau magnetization is a peculiar property of a quantum spin chain and it sometimes appears due to different gyromagnetic factors. In this study, we illustrate a quite unusual non-plateau magnetization property driven by XY-anisotropy in an Ising-XYZ diamond chain. Two particles with spin-1/2 are bonded by XYZ coupling and they are responsible for the emergence of non-plateau magnetization. These two quantum operator spins are bonded to two nodal Ising spins and this process is repeated infinitely to yield a diamond chain structure. Due to the non-plateau magnetization property, we focus our discussion on the magnetocaloric effect of this model by presenting the isentropic curves and the Grüneisen parameters, as well as showing the regions where the model exhibits an efficient magnetocaloric effect. Due to the existence of two phases located very close to each other, the strong XY-anisotropy exhibits a particular behavior with a magnetocaloric effect, with a wider interval in the magnetic field, where the magnetocaloric effect is efficient.

  12. Does the climate warming hiatus exist over the Tibetan Plateau?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Anmin; Xiao, Zhixiang

    2015-09-02

    The surface air temperature change over the Tibetan Plateau is determined based on historical observations from 1980 to 2013. In contrast to the cooling trend in the rest of China, and the global warming hiatus post-1990s, an accelerated warming trend has appeared over the Tibetan Plateau during 1998-2013 (0.25 °C decade(-1)), compared with that during 1980-1997 (0.21 °C decade(-1)). Further results indicate that, to some degree, such an accelerated warming trend might be attributable to cloud-radiation feedback. The increased nocturnal cloud over the northern Tibetan Plateau would warm the nighttime temperature via enhanced atmospheric back-radiation, while the decreased daytime cloud over the southern Tibetan Plateau would induce the daytime sunshine duration to increase, resulting in surface air temperature warming. Meanwhile, the in situ surface wind speed has recovered gradually since 1998, and thus the energy concentration cannot explain the accelerated warming trend over the Tibetan Plateau after the 1990s. It is suggested that cloud-radiation feedback may play an important role in modulating the recent accelerated warming trend over the Tibetan Plateau.

  13. Does the climate warming hiatus exist over the Tibetan Plateau?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Anmin; Xiao, Zhixiang

    2015-01-01

    The surface air temperature change over the Tibetan Plateau is determined based on historical observations from 1980 to 2013. In contrast to the cooling trend in the rest of China, and the global warming hiatus post-1990s, an accelerated warming trend has appeared over the Tibetan Plateau during 1998–2013 (0.25 °C decade−1), compared with that during 1980–1997 (0.21 °C decade−1). Further results indicate that, to some degree, such an accelerated warming trend might be attributable to cloud–radiation feedback. The increased nocturnal cloud over the northern Tibetan Plateau would warm the nighttime temperature via enhanced atmospheric back-radiation, while the decreased daytime cloud over the southern Tibetan Plateau would induce the daytime sunshine duration to increase, resulting in surface air temperature warming. Meanwhile, the in situ surface wind speed has recovered gradually since 1998, and thus the energy concentration cannot explain the accelerated warming trend over the Tibetan Plateau after the 1990s. It is suggested that cloud–radiation feedback may play an important role in modulating the recent accelerated warming trend over the Tibetan Plateau. PMID:26329678

  14. Three Cultural and Art Treasure Houses in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    THE Tibetan ethnic group,as a member of the family of the Chinese nation,has lived and worked on the Tibetan Plateau from ancient times.They have created a rich and colorful culture.Sakya Monastery, derge Press and Potala Palace,theree cultural and art treasure houses in Tibet,have completely preserved the culture and art of ancient Tibet,adding a glittering page to the culture and art of the motherland.

  15. Effet de l'application d'engrais minéral complet NPK et de biochar sur les performances de la culture pure du manioc et de l'association manioc - maïs dans les conditions du plateau des Batéké en République Démocratique du Congo (RDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lele, B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil Characteristics Under Savanna and Natural Forest on the Bateke Plateau in the Democratic Republic of Congo. In order to develop a sustainable farming system adapted to the conditions of the Batéké plateau, a preliminary trial was conducted between January 2012 and March 2013 at the Ibi agro-forestry domain after a fallow of 10 years (the last three years without destruction of the vegetation by bush fires in sandy soil according to a randomized complete block design with four replications. Five treatments were compared: the cassava sole cropping (Maribuata variety with and without application of 40 kg N, 40 kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2O ha-1, cassava and maize (Samaru variety intercropping with and without application of 40 kg N, 40 kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2O ha-1, and cassava and maize intercropping with application of 40 kg N, 40 kg P2O5, 40 kg K2O ha-1 and 15 t ha-1 of biochar. The results show that in the edaphic and climatic conditions of the test, the simultaneous installation of cassava and maize at the start of short rains provides a gross added value significantly higher than that of cassava sole cropping. The application of mineral fertilizers hardly improves the gross value added for cassava sole cropping while they however benefits to maize when it is associated with cassava in absence of biochar application. The combined application of mineral fertilizer and biochar make it possible to almost double cassava yield and triple the one of maize compared to the no-input control. Gross profit generated by the combination of cassava and maize with mineral fertilizers and biochar application is about twice higher than what is obtained for the control. The combined application of biochar and mineral fertilizer resulted in a significant increase in pH. This should have been accompanied by improved availability of Phosphorus, Calcium and Magnesium in the soil.

  16. The Neogene tectonic evolution and climatic change of the Tianshui Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, T.; Li, J.; Song, C.; Zhao, Z.; Zhang, J.; Wang, X.; Hui, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The Tianshui Basin, located at the conjunction of NE Tibetan Plateau and Chinese Loess Plateau, has received intensive attention recently. Fine-grained Miocene sediment was identified as loess in its north part and this pushes the onset of Asian aridification into 22 Ma. However, our sedimentological, biomarker, pollen, diatom and mammalian fossils evidence propose that these sediments were suggested to be mudflat/distal fan and floodplain deposit instead of eolian deposit. So detailed tectonic background and climate reconstruction may illustrate the controversy and shed light on the tectonic, climate and ecology interactions. Here we report our integrated studies on the tectonic evolution, climate change and paleoecology reconstruction in the Tianshui basin. Based on the magnetostratigraphy and fossil mammal ages, sedimentological and detrital fission-track thermochronologic (DFT) analysis reveals four episodic tectonic uplift events occurred at ~20 Ma, ~14 Ma, ~9.2-7.4 Ma and ~3.6 Ma along the basin and its adjacent mountains. The timing of these activities at Western Qinling have been documented at many segments of the Tibetan Plateau, so most likely they were the remote response to the ongoing India-Asia collision. Pollen, mammalian fossils and biomarker data permit us to illustrate the paleoenvironment in the Tianshui Basin. During the period of ~17-10 Ma, the climate was generally warm-humid revealed by the broad-leaved forest and low Average Chain Length (ACL) values, when the Paltybelodon and Gomphotherium were roaming near an extensive aquatic setting. In addition, the observed Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum and Middle Miocene Climatic Transition events may be a terrestrial response to global climate changes. During the interval of ~10-6 Ma, the climate was relatively arid characterized by the rapid development of steppe and appearance of the Hipparion fauna, consistent with the biomarker proxy. Although the NE Tibetan Plateau experienced a phase of

  17. Aerosol effects on the development of cumulus clouds over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu; Bei, Naifang; Liu, Hongli; Cao, Junji; Xing, Li; Lei, Wenfang; Molina, Luisa T.; Li, Guohui

    2017-06-01

    The aerosol-cloud interaction over the Tibetan Plateau has been investigated using a cloud-resolving weather research and forecasting model with a two-moment bulk microphysical scheme including aerosol effects on cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei. Two types of cumulus clouds with a similar convective available potential energy, occurring over the Tibetan Plateau (Cu-TP) and North China Plain (Cu-NCP) in August 2014, are simulated to explore the response of convective clouds to aerosols. A set of aerosol profiles is used in the simulations, with the surface aerosol number concentration varying from 20 to 9000 cm-3 and the sulfate mass concentration varying from 0.02 to 9.0 µg cm-3. Increasing aerosol concentrations generally enhances the cloud core updraft and maximum updraft, intensifying convections in Cu-TP and Cu-NCP. However, the core updraft is much stronger in Cu-TP than Cu-NCP, because of the early occurrence of the glaciation process in Cu-TP that is triggered at an elevation above 4000 m. The precipitation increases steadily with aerosol concentrations in Cu-NCP, caused by the suppression of the warm rain but occurrence of efficient mix-phased precipitation due to the reduced cloud droplet size. The precipitation in Cu-TP also increases with aerosol concentrations, but the precipitation enhancement is not substantial compared to that in Cu-NCP with high aerosol concentrations. The aerosol-induced intensification of convections in Cu-TP not only facilitates the precipitation but also transports more ice-phase hydrometeors into the upper troposphere to decrease the precipitation efficiency. Considering the very clean atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau, elevated aerosol concentrations can remarkably enhance convections due to its specific topography, which not only warms the middle troposphere to influence the Asian summer monsoon but also delivers hydrometeors into the upper troposphere to allow more water vapor to travel into the lower stratosphere.

  18. Molecular phylogenetic relationship of snow finch complex (genera Montifringilla, Pyrgilauda, and Onychostruthus) from the Tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yanhua; Ericson, Per G P; Lei, Fumin; Gebauer, Axel; Kaiser, Martin; Helbig, Andreas J

    2006-07-01

    The snow finch complex (Montifringilla, Pyrgilauda, and Onychostruthus) has its center of distribution on the Tibetan plateau, with six out of seven species in the genera occurring there. Phylogenetic relationships among these six species of three genera have been studied based on DNA sequence data obtained from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the nuclear myoglobin gene. The results support monophyly of the snow finch complex group and three major evolutionary lineages are recognized. The first clade consists of ruficollis, blanfordi, and davidiana. These three taxa are sometimes placed in their own genus, Pyrgilauda, and the DNA data supports this. The three taxa nivalis, henrici, and adamsi have traditionally been placed in the genus Montifringilla, and they group together strongly in the present analysis. The results further suggest that nivalis and adamsi are more closely related to each other than are nivalis and henrici, despite that the latter two are often regarded as conspecific. The third distinct lineage within the snow finch complex consists of taczanowskii, which has been placed its own genus, Onychostruthus. This taxon has a basal position in the phylogenetic tree and is sister to all other snow finches. We estimated that taczanowskii split from the other taxa between 2 and 2.5 mya, i.e., about the time for the most recent uplift of the Tibetan plateau, "the Tibet movement", 3.6-1.7 mya. Cladogenesis within the Montifringilla and Pyrgilauda clades seems to be contemporary with the second phase of "Tibet movement" at 2.5 mya and the third phase at 1.7 mya and "Kunhuang movement" in 1.5-0.6 mya. The dramatic climatic and ecological changes following from the uplift of the Tibetan plateau, together with the cyclic contraction and expansion of suitable habitats during the Pleistocene, are probably the most important factors for the cladogenesis in snow finch complex.

  19. Comparison of rat epidermal keratinocyte organotypic culture (ROC) with intact human skin: lipid composition and thermal phase behavior of the stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappinen, Sari; Hermansson, Martin; Kuntsche, Judith; Somerharju, Pentti; Wertz, Philip; Urtti, Arto; Suhonen, Marjukka

    2008-04-01

    The present report is a part of our continuing efforts to explore the utility of the rat epidermal keratinocyte organotypic culture (ROC) as an alternative model to human skin in transdermal drug delivery and skin irritation studies of new chemical entities and formulations. The aim of the present study was to compare the stratum corneum lipid content of ROC with the corresponding material from human skin. The lipid composition was determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and mass-spectrometry, and the thermal phase transitions of stratum corneum were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). All major lipid classes of the stratum corneum were present in ROC in a similar ratio as found in human stratum corneum. Compared to human skin, the level of non-hydroxyacid-sphingosine ceramide (NS) was increased in ROC, while alpha-hydroxyacid-phytosphingosine ceramide (AP) and non-hydroxyacid-phytosphingosine ceramides (NP) were absent. Also some alterations in fatty acid profiles of ROC ceramides were noted, e.g., esterified omega-hydroxyacid-sphingosine contained increased levels of oleic acid instead of linoleic acid. The fraction of lipids covalently bound to corneocyte proteins was distinctly lower in ROC compared to human skin, in agreement with the results from DSC. ROC underwent a lipid lamellar order to disorder transition (T2) at a slightly lower temperature (68 degrees C) than human skin (74 degrees C). These differences in stratum corneum lipid composition and the thermal phase transitions may explain the minor differences previously observed in drug permeation between ROC and human skin.

  20. Aftershock Decay Rates in the Iranian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ommi, S.; Zafarani, H.; Zare, M.

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the desire to have more information following the occurrence of damaging events, the main purpose of this article is to study aftershock sequence parameters in the Iranian plateau. To this end, the catalogue of the Iranian earthquakes between 2002 to the end of 2013 has been collected and homogenized among which 15 earthquakes have been selected to study their aftershock decay rates. For different tectonic provinces, the completeness magnitudes ( M c) of the earthquake catalogue have been calculated in different time intervals. Also, the M c variability in spatial and temporal windows has been determined for each selected event. For major Iranian earthquakes, catalogue of aftershocks has been collected thanks to three declustering methods: first, the classical windowing method of Gardner and Knopoff (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974); second, a modified version of this using spatial windowing based on the Wells and Coppersmith (Bull Seismol Soc Am 84:974-1002, 1994) relations; and third, the Burkhard and Grünthal (Swiss J Geosci 102:149-188, 2009) scheme. Effects of the temporal windows also have been investigated using the time periods of 1 month, 100 days, and 1 year in the declustering method of Gardner and Knopoff (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974). In the next step, the modified Omori law coefficients have been calculated for the 15 selected earthquakes. The calibrated regional generic model describing the temporal and magnitude distribution of aftershocks is of interest for time-dependent seismic hazard forecasts. The regional characteristics of the aftershock decay rates have been studied for the selected Iranian earthquakes in the Alborz, Zagros and Central Iran regions considering their different seismotectonics regimes. However, due to the lack of sufficient data, no results have been reported for the Kopeh-Dagh and Makran seismotectonic regions.

  1. Amplitude of climatic changes in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of ice core and meteorological data from the Qinghai-Tibetan (Q-T) Plateau, this article focuses on the discussion of the problems related to the sensitivity of temporal and spatial changes of the climate in high-altitude regions, particularly in the Q-T Plateau. The features of abrupt climatic changes of the past 100 ka, 2 000 a and recent years indicate that the amplitude of these changes in the Q-T Plateau was obviously larger than that in low-altitude regions. The scope of temperature change above 6 000 m in the Q-T Plateau between glacial and interglacial stages could reach over 10℃, but only about 4℃ in low-elevation regions close to sea level. During the last 2 000 a, the amplitude of temperature changes at Guliya (over 6 000 m a.s.l.) in the Q-T Plateau reached 7℃, in comparison with 2℃ in eastern China at low altitude. In the present age, apparent differences of climatic warming have been observed in the Q-T Plateau, indicating that the warming in high-elevation regions is much higher than that in low-elevation regions. The temperature in over 3 500 m regions of the Q-T Plateau have been increasing at a rate of 0.25×10-1/a in recent 30 years, but almost no change has taken place in the regions below 500 m. Thus, we concluded that high-altitude regions are more sensitive to climatic changes than the low-altitude regions.

  2. Quantification of vasaka alkaloids in in vitro cultures and in natural leaves from Indian subcontinents by reversed phase- high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Garg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was designed to develop an efficient protocol for studying the enhancement of in vitro production of secondary metabolites in Adhatoda vasica leaves collected from the varied geographical locations of Indian sub-continents by a validated simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatography gradient method for the quantification of vasicine and vasicinone in the developed calli and crude samples. Materials and Methods: The analysis was carried out on a reverse phase C18column using 0.1% of orthophosphoric acid: Acetonitrile in gradient manner and carried out the detection at 280 nm wavelength keeping the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Results: The simultaneous method was found linear with regression coefficient r2 = 0.991 in a wide range (100–500 μg/mL precise, accurate, and robust for quinazoline alkaloids in samples. Results clearly showed a significant increase in the concentration of alkaloids in in vitro cultures as compared to natural ones. The proposed method was validated as per the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines for accuracy, precision, robustness, limit of detection, and limit of quantitation. Conclusion: The developed method was found suitable for quality control of A. vasica and for the analysis of vasicine and vasicinone in any type of sample.

  3. Simulating the production and dispersion of environmental pollutants in aerosol phase in an urban area of great historical and cultural value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librando, Vito; Tringali, Giuseppe; Calastrini, Francesca; Gualtieri, Giovanni

    2009-11-01

    Mathematical models were developed to simulate the production and dispersion of aerosol phase atmospheric pollutants which are the main cause of the deterioration of monuments of great historical and cultural value. This work focuses on Particulate Matter (PM) considered the primary cause of monument darkening. Road traffic is the greatest contributor to PM in urban areas. Specific emission and dispersion models were used to study typical urban configurations. The area selected for this study was the city of Florence, a suitable test bench considering the magnitude of architectural heritage together with the remarkable effect of the PM pollution from road traffic. The COPERT model, to calculate emissions, and the street canyon model coupled with the CALINE model, to simulate pollutant dispersion, were used. The PM concentrations estimated by the models were compared to actual PM concentration measurements, as well as related to the trend of some meteorological variables. The results obtained may be defined as very encouraging even the models correlated poorly: the estimated concentration trends as daily averages moderately reproduce the same trends of the measured values.

  4. Is the Mozambique Ridge related to the Agulhas Plateau Large Igneous Province?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohl, K.; Uenzelmann-Neben, G.; Parsiegla, N.

    2009-12-01

    The Mozambique Ridge (MOZR) and the Agulhas Plateau (AP) are prominent bathymetrically elevated rises off south-eastern Africa connected by a rise of less bathymetric expression. Intuitively, this observation would imply that the plateaus and rises underwent a related crustal formation. Deep crustal ocean-bottom seismometer data and a multichannel seismic reflection profile from the southern MOZR show evidence for its predominantly oceanic crustal origin with excessive volcanic eruption and magmatic accretion phases. The lower two-thirds of the crustal column exhibit P-wave velocities of more than 7.0 km/s, increasing to 7.5-7.6 km/s at the crustal base. These velocities suggest that the lower crust was accreted by large volumes of mantle-derived material to form an over-thickened equivalent of an oceanic layer 3. When comparing the velocity-depth model and the observations of the seismic reflection data with those of the AP, a resemblance can be established which concludes that a greater Southeast African Large Igneous Province (LIP) must have formed between 140 and 95 Ma in phases of highly varying magmatic and volcanic activities. The timing, size and formation history of the Southeast African LIP is almost analog to that of the Kerguelen-Heard Plateau, which provokes speculation about related processes of periodic magma generation at that time.

  5. Gravitational salt tectonics above a rising basement plateau offshore Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaullier, Virginie; Vendeville, Bruno C.; Besème, Grégoire; Legoux, Gaetan; Déverchère, Jacques; Lymer, Gaël

    2017-04-01

    Seismic data (survey "MARADJA 1", 2003) offshore the Algerian coast have imaged an unexpected deformation pattern of the Messinian salt (Mobile Unit; MU) and its sedimentary overburden (Messinian Upper Unit and Plio-Quaternary) above an actively rising plateau in the subsalt basement. From a geodynamic point of view, the region is undergoing crustal convergence, as attested by the Boumerdes earthquake (2003, magnitude 6.8). The rise of this plateau, forming a 3D promontory restricted to the area offshore Algiers, is associated with that geodynamic setting. The seismic profiles show several subsalt thrusts (Domzig et al. 2006). The data provided additional information on the deformation of the Messinian mobile evaporitic unit and its Plio-Quaternary overburden. Margin-perpendicular profiles show mostly compressional features (anticlines and synclines) that had little activity during Messinian times, then grew more during Plio-Quaternary times. A few normal faults are also present, but are not accompanied by salt rise. By contrast, margin-parallel profiles clearly show that extensional, reactive salt diapiric ridges (symptomatic with their triangular shape in cross section) formed early, as early as the time of deposition of the Messinian Upper Unit, as recorded by fan-shaped strata. These ridges have recorded E-W, thin-skinned gravity gliding above the Messinian salt, as a response to the rise of the basement plateau. We tested this hypothesis using two analogue models, one where we assumed that the rise of the plateau started after Messinian times (initially tabular salt across the entire region), the second model assumed that the plateau had already risen partially as the Messininan Mobile Unit was deposited (salt initially thinner above the plateau than in the adjacent regions). In both experiments, the rise of the plateau generated preferential E-W extension above the salt, combined with N-S shortening. Extension was caused by gravity gliding of the salt from

  6. Cenozoic uplift of the Tibetan Plateau: Evidence from the tectonic–sedimentary evolution of the western Qaidam Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Wang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Geologists agree that the collision of the Indian and Asian plates caused uplift of the Tibet Plateau. However, controversy still exists regarding the modes and mechanisms of the Tibetan Plateau uplift. Geology has recorded this uplift well in the Qaidam Basin. This paper analyzes the tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the western Qaidam Basin using sub-surface seismic and drill data. The Cenozoic intensity and history of deformation in the Qaidam Basin have been reconstructed based on the tectonic developments, faults growth index, sedimentary facies variations, and the migration of the depositional depressions. The changes in the sedimentary facies show that lakes in the western Qaidam Basin had gone from inflow to still water deposition to withdrawal. Tectonic movements controlled deposition in various depressions, and the depressions gradually shifted southeastward. In addition, the morphology of the surface structures in the western Qaidam Basin shows that the Cenozoic tectonic movements controlled the evolution of the Basin and divided it into (a the southern fault terrace zone, (b a central Yingxiongling orogenic belt, and (c the northern fold-thrust belt; divided by the XI fault (Youshi fault and Youbei fault, respectively. The field data indicate that the western Qaidam Basin formed in a Cenozoic compressive tectonic environment caused by the India–Asia plate collision. Further, the Basin experienced two phases of intensive tectonic deformation. The first phase occurred during the Middle Eocene–Early Miocene (Xia Ganchaigou Fm. and Shang Ganchaigou Fm., 43.8–22 Ma, and peaked in the Early Oligocene (Upper Xia Ganchaigou Fm., 31.5 Ma. The second phase occurred between the Middle Miocene and the Present (Shang Youshashan Fm. and Qigequan Fm., 14.9–0 Ma, and was stronger than the first phase. The tectonic–sedimentary evolution and the orientation of surface structures in the western Qaidam Basin resulted from the Tibetan

  7. Red Clay Sediment in the Central Chinese Loess Plateau and Its Implication for the Uplift of the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yougui; LI Jijun; FANG Xiaomin; XIA Fei; DONG Hongmei

    2005-01-01

    The widely distributed red clay sediment underlying the Chinese Loess Plateau truly records the Neogene environmental evolution, and its genesis and development are intrinsically related to the uplift processes of the Tibetan Plateau and the evolution of East Asia monsoon system. In this paper, a detailed magnetostratigraphy of a loess-red clay section (107°13′E, 35°02′N) from the central Loess Plateau is reported. The loess-red clay sequence is composed of 175 m Quaternary loess-paleosol sequence and 128 m Neogene red clay sediments. Based on the correlation with the standard geomagnetic polarity time scale, the paleomagnetic results indicate that the age of Chaona red clay sequence extends to 8.1Ma, which is the older red clay deposition in the central Chinese Loess Plateau. The commencement of red clay at ~8.1 Ma may imply that the Ordos planation surface was broken by the movement of the Haiyuan-Liupanshan Faults, which was related to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau induced by the collision of India Plate and Eurasian Plate. And the western part adjacent to the Tibetan Plateau was uplifted to form the embryo of the Liupan Shan (Mts.) and the eastern part was down-faulted to receive red clay deposition. We link this faulting to an initial uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. The undulating nature of the broken Ordos planation surface may explain the chronological differences and depth discrepancies among various cross-sections of red clay.

  8. Seismic wave speed structure of the Ontong Java Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covellone, Brian M.; Savage, Brian; Shen, Yang

    2015-06-01

    The Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) represents the result of a significant event in the Earth's geologic history. Limited geophysical and geochemical data, as well as the plateau's relative isolation in the Pacific ocean, have made interpretation of the modern day geologic structure and its 120 Ma formation history difficult. Here we present the highest resolution image to date of the wave speed structure of the OJP region. We use a data set that combines Rayleigh waves extracted from both ambient noise and earthquake waveforms and an iterative finite-frequency tomography methodology. The combination of datasets allow us to best exploit the limited station distribution in the Pacific and image wave speed structures between 35 km and 300 km into the Earth. We image a region of fast shear wave speeds, greater than 4.75 km/s, that extends to greater than 100 km beneath the plateau. The wave speeds are similar to as observed in cratonic environments and are consistent with a compositional anomaly that resulted from the residuum of eclogite entrainment during the plateau's formation. The combination of our imaged wave speed structure and previous geochemical work suggest that a surfacing plume head entrained eclogite from the deep mantle and accounts for the anomalous buoyancy characteristics of the plateau and observed fast wave speeds.

  9. Spontaneous collapse of the tibial plateau: radiological staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Leon, F.; Zafra, M. [University Hospital ' ' Reina Sofia' ' , Orthopaedic Department, Cordoba (Spain); Montero, R.; Carreto, A. [University Hospital ' ' Reina Sofia' ' , Radiology Department, Cordoba (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    This paper proposes a radiological staging system for necrosis of the tibial plateau, similar to those already developed for the hip and the medial femoral condyle. We retrospectively studied the clinical case histories and radiographic findings of 14 patients (15 affected knees) with histologically proven osteonecrosis of the tibial plateau. Stage I was marked by normal radiograph, but increased uptake in bone scan and subchondral areas of abnormal marrow signal intensity in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as reported in other osteonecrosis sites. Stage II was characterised by cystic and sclerotic changes, and stage III fracture of the medial rim of the medial tibial plateau and tibial plateau collapse were present. Stage IV was marked by joint narrowing. These changes appeared earlier and were more pronounced when there was genu varum/valgum or involvement of the lateral tibial plateau. The radiological evolution of the disease appears to follow a four-stage course over a period of roughly one year from the onset of symptoms. (orig.)

  10. Verçenik Plateau Alternative Tourism and Recreational Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İzzet İSLAMOĞLU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last century working life become easier and result of this increased people free time, after that interest of tourism activities wide spread all over. Plateau tourism or highland places are not first choices of the tourism activities but plateau rec reation will give an application for potential activity place. Turkey have unmatched nature and rich environmental resources will able to give any kind of tourism activities. In that context city of Rize took place in Black Sea region with different capabi lities, one of the source areas that make up tourism and recreational activities. This research intended for Vercenik Plateau take place 60 km away from Camlihemsin district center and will determine potential tourism and recreational application. Research is based on field observation and studies. This information obtained as a result ofthis evaluationbeing associated toliterature data and that information determined which exercise can be done in the field. Vercenik Plateau; with pristine environment and ru ral locations, the fresh water supplies, unique flora for city of Rize has high recreational capacities.As a result of study; Vercenik Plateau has natural features with the great potential of the alternative tourism as it is suitable for areas but not asse ss enough potential tourism and recreational activities without prior review has been observed.

  11. Rapid Loss of Lakes on the Mongolian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, S.; Fang, J.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, S.; Shen, H.; Hu, H.; Tang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Guo, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Lakes are widely distributed on the Mongolian Plateau and as critical water sources have sustained Mongolian pastures for hundreds of years. However, the plateau has experienced significant lake shrinkage and grassland degradation during the past several decades. To quantify the changes in all the lakes on the plateau and the associated driving factors, we performed a satellite-based survey using multi-temporal Landsat images from the 1970s to 2000s, combining with ground-based censuses. Our results document a rapid loss of lakes on the plateau in the past decades: the number of lakes with a water surface area >1 km2 decreased from 785 in the late 1980s to 577 in 2010, with a greater rate of decrease (34.0%) in Inner Mongolia of China than in Mongolia (17.6%). This decrease has been particularly pronounced since the late 1990s in Inner Mongolia and the number of lakes >10 km2 has declined by 30.0%. The statistical analyses suggested that in Mongolia precipitation was the dominant driver for the lake changes, while in Inner Mongolia coal mining was most important in its grassland area and irrigation was the leading factor in its cultivated area. The deterioration of lakes is expected to continue in the following decades not only because of changing climate but also increasing exploitation of underground mineral and groundwater resources on the plateau. To protect grasslands and the indigenous nomads, effective action is urgently required to save these valuable lakes from further deterioration.

  12. Co-culture of primary rat hepatocytes with rat liver epithelial cells enhances interleukin-6-induced acute-phase protein response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.J.A.C.; Vanhaecke, T.; Papeleu, P.; Rogiers, V.; Haagsman, H.P.; Norren, van K.

    2010-01-01

    Three different primary rat hepatocyte culture methods were compared for their ability to allow the secretion of fibrinogen and albumin under basal and IL-6- stimulated conditions. These culture methods comprised the co-culture of hepatocytes with rat liver epithelial cells (CCRLEC), a collagen type

  13. Fraturas do planalto tibial Tibial plateau fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Kfuri Júnior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As fraturas do planalto tibial são lesões articulares cujos princípios de tratamento envolvem a redução anatômica da superfície articular e a restauração funcional do eixo mecânico do membro inferior. Contribuem para a tomada de decisões no tratamento dessas fraturas o perfil do paciente, as condições do envelope de tecidos moles, a existência de outros traumatismos associados e a infraestrutura disponível para abordagens cirúrgicas. Para as fraturas de alta energia, o tratamento estagiado, seguindo o princípio do controle de danos, tem como prioridade a manutenção do alinhamento do membro enquanto se aguarda a resolução das más condições de tecidos moles. Já nos traumas de baixa energia, desde que os tecidos moles não sejam um fator adverso, o tratamento deve ser realizado em tempo único, com osteossíntese definitiva. Fixação estável e movimento precoce são variáveis diretamente relacionadas com os melhores prognósticos. Desenvolvimentos recentes, como os implantes com estabilidade angular, substitutos ósseos e imagens tridimensionais para controle intraoperatório, deverão contribuir para cirurgias menos invasivas e melhores resultados.Tibial plateau fractures are joint lesions that require anatomical reduction of joint surface and functional restoration of mechanical axis of a lower limb. Patient profile, soft tissue conditions, presence of associated injuries and the available infrastructure for the treatment all contribute to the decision making about the best treatment for these fractures. High-energy fractures are usually approached in a staged manner respecting the principle of damage control, and are primarily targeted to maintain limb alignment while the resolution unfavorable soft tissue conditions is pending. Low-energy trauma can be managed on a single-stage basis, provided soft tissues are not an adverse factor, with open reduction and internal f-ixation. Stable fixation and early painless joint

  14. Characteristics of land-atmosphere energy and turbulentfluxes over the plateau steppe in central Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    The land-atmosphere energy and turbulence exchange is key to understanding land surface processes on the TibetanPlateau (TP). Using observed data for Aug. 4 to Dec. 3, 2012 from the Bujiao observation point (BJ) of the Nagqu PlateauClimate and Environment Station (NPCE-BJ), different characteristics of the energy flux during the Asian summermonsoon (ASM) season and post-monsoon period were analyzed. This study outlines the impact of the ASM on energyfluxes in the central TP. It also demonstrates that the surface energy closure rate during the ASM season is higher than thatof the post-monsoon period. Footprint modeling shows the distribution of data quality assessments (QA) and qualitycontrols (QC) surrounding the observation point. The measured turbulent flux data at the NPCE-BJ site were highly representativeof the target land-use type. The target surface contributed more to the fluxes under unstable conditions thanunder stable conditions. The main wind directions (180° and 210°) with the highest data density showed flux contributionsreaching 100%, even under stable conditions. The lowest flux contributions were found in sectors with low data density,e.g., 90.4% in the 360° sector under stable conditions during the ASM season. Lastly, a surface energy water balance(SEWAB) model was used to gap-fill any absent or corrected turbulence data. The potential simulation error was alsoexplored in this study. The Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients (NSEs) of the observed fluxes with the SEWABmodel runs were 0.78 for sensible heat flux and 0.63 for latent heat flux during the ASM season, but unrealistic values of?0.9 for latent heat flux during the post-monsoon period.

  15. Differences in stationary-phase cells of a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast grown in aerobic and microaerophilic batch cultures assessed by electric particle analysis, light diffraction and flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portell, X; Ginovart, M; Carbó, R; Vives-Rego, J

    2011-01-01

    We applied electric particle analysis, light diffraction and flow cytometry to obtain information on the morphological changes during the stationary phase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The reported analyses of S. cerevisiae populations were obtained under two different conditions, aerobic and microaerophilic, at 27°C. The samples analysed were taken at between 20 and 50 h from the beginning of culture. To assist in the interpretation of the observed distributions a complexity index was used. The aerobically grown culture reached significantly greater cell density. Under these conditions, the cell density experienced a much lower reduction (3%) compared with the microaerophilic conditions (30%). Under aerobic conditions, the mean cell size determined by both electric particle analysis and light diffraction was lower and remained similar throughout the experiment. Under microaerophilic conditions, the mean cell size determined by electric particle analysis decreased slightly as the culture progressed through the stationary phase. Forward and side scatter distributions revealed two cell subpopulations under both growth conditions. However, in the aerobic growing culture the two subpopulations were more separated and hence easier to distinguish. The distributions obtained with the three experimental techniques were analysed using the complexity index. This analysis suggested that a complexity index is a good descriptor of the changes that take place in a yeast population in the stationary phase, and that it aids in the discussion and understanding of the implications of these distributions obtained by these experimental techniques.

  16. Interseismic deformation of the Central Tibetan Plateau measured using InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthwaite, M. C.; Wright, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    using the Gamma software and we correct for the topographic phase contribution using a DEM derived from SRTM data. Coherence is generally good, but degrades close to the mountainous terrain of the Himalaya in the south. By multi-looking to 8 range looks we improve the coherence further. Interferograms are unwrapped using the minimum cost flow technique, and we correct unwrapping errors using the principle of phase closure. Following this, we use a multi-interferogram network approach (Biggs et. al. GJI, 2007) to determine the best fitting quadratic surface which describes the orbital error at each acquisition. We remove this orbital error and construct the velocity rate map. Because the rate map is so long, we can recover tectonic signals at the hundred kilometre scale with this method. However, we are also interested in the longer wavelength signal across the whole plateau. We therefore adjust the rate map using measurements from 9 nearby GPS stations. Our results show the distribution of strain across the broad deforming zone of the Tibetan Plateau during the interseismic period. We use the data to test the models proposed to describe deformation of the Tibetan lithosphere.

  17. Topographic Analyses of the Vestalia Terra plateau, Vesta (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, D.; Wyrick, D. Y.; Williams, D. A.; Preusker, F.; Roatsch, T.; DeSanctis, M. C.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2013-12-01

    The identification of Vestalia Terra, a topographically high region of Vesta bound by steep scarps, is itself a direct result of topographic analysis of the asteroid. However, additional analysis of the topography of the plateau has yielded important scientific discoveries. While most equatorial regions on Vesta display numerous wide and flat-floored troughs, Vestalia Terra does not. There are, however, three long pit crater chains on top of the plateau that are roughly aligned with the equatorial flat-floor troughs. Pit crater chains are a type of feature that have been observed on several planetary bodies and have been described as lines of circular to elliptical depressions which lack an elevated rim, ejecta deposits, or lava flows. Individual pits most commonly have a conical shape, sometimes with a flat floor, but in some cases they are elliptical in shape, with the long axis parallel to the chain orientation. Pit craters can in many cases coalesce into linear troughs, but the pits are often bordered by a graben (a down-dropped block bounded by normal faults) even before this coalesence. While pits are generally agreed to have formed by collapse into a subsurface cavity, the exact formation mechanisms hypothesized can vary from planet to planet. However, several researchers have suggested that pit crater chains on small bodies such as Phobos, Eros, Lutetia and Enceladus are formed by the drainage of a loose cover material into subsurface voids formed by dilation of a subsurface normal fault, a method described in extensive detail for pit crater chains on Mars. This formation hypothesis is strengthened by the strong correlation between pit crater chains and fault-bounded graben that has been observed and by the fact that pit chains are often in alignment with a regional fault and fracture system. There are two fundamental controls on the maximum size a pit can attain: the thickness of the overlying regolith and the amount of subsurface accommodation space. The

  18. Intraseasonal variability of winter precipitation over central asia and the western tibetan plateau from 1979 to 2013 and its relationship with the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Heng; Liu, Xiaodong; Dong, Buwen

    2017-09-01

    Winter precipitation over Central Asia and the western Tibetan Plateau (CAWTP) is mainly a result of the interaction between the westerly circulation and the high mountains around the plateau. Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs), Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), linear regression and composite analysis were used to analyze winter daily precipitation and other meteorological elements in this region from 1979 to 2013, in order to understand how interactions between the regional circulation and topography affect the intraseasonal variability in precipitation. The SVD analysis shows that the winter daily precipitation variability distribution is characterized by a dipole pattern with opposite signs over the northern Pamir Plateau and over the Karakoram Himalaya, similar to the second mode of EOF analysis. This dipole pattern of precipitation anomaly is associated with local anomalies in both the 700 hPa moisture transport and the 500 hPa geopotential height and is probably caused by oscillations in the regional and large-scale circulations, which can influence the westerly disturbance tracks and water vapor transport. The linear regression shows that the anomalous mid-tropospheric circulation over CAWTP corresponds to an anti-phase variation of the 500 hPa geopotential height anomalies over the southern and northern North Atlantic 10 days earlier (at 95% significance level), that bears a similarity to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The composite analysis reveals that the NAO impacts the downstream regions including CAWTP by controlling south-north two branches of the middle latitude westerly circulation around the Eurasian border. During the positive phases of the NAO, the northern branch of the westerly circulation goes around the northwest Tibetan Plateau, whereas the southern branch encounters the southwest Tibetan Plateau, which leads to reduced precipitation over the northern Pamir Plateau and increased precipitation over the Karakoram Himalaya, and

  19. ANALYSIS OF MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE SYSTEMS OVER TIBETAN PLATEAU IN SUMMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhong-yang; DAI Xiao-yan; WU Jian-ping; LIN Hui

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS) infrared black-body temperature (Tbb) data from June to August 1998 are used to automatically track the activity of Mesoscale Convective System (MCS) over the Tibetan Plateau in China. Consequently, the features of MCS, such as area, intensity, life cycle, activity region and shape, are obtained. High Resolution Limited Area Analysis and Forecasting System (HLAFS) values provided by China National Meteorological Center are used to study the relationships between the MCS trajectories and their environmental physical field values, based on the distribution and trajectories of MCSs over the Tibetan Plateau. Favorable environmental physical field charts of influencing MCS movement out of the Tibetan Plateau in different UTC (Universal Time Coordinate) are developed by using spatial data mining techniques at levels of 400hPa and 500hPa, respectively.

  20. More evidence of the plateau effect: a social perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Prades, J L; Lopez-Nicolás, A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the existence of the plateau effect at the social level. The authors tried to confirm the preliminary conclusion that people may not be willing to trade off any longevity to improve the health state of a large number of people if the health states are mild enough. They tested this assumption using the person-tradeoff technique. They also used a parametric approach and a nonparametric approach to study the relationship between individual and social values. Results show the existence of the plateau effect in the context of resource allocation. Furthermore, with the nonparametric approach, a plateau effect in the middle part of the scale was also observed, suggesting that social preference may not be directly predicted from individual utilities. The authors caution against the possible framing effects that may be present in these kinds of questions.

  1. State of tectonic stress in Shillong Plateau of northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Santanu; Baruah, Saurabh; Saikia, Sowrav; Shrivastava, Mahesh N.; Sharma, Antara; Reddy, C. D.; Kayal, J. R.

    2016-10-01

    Tectonic stress regime in the Shillong plateau, northeast region of India, is examined by stress tensor inversion. Some 97 reliable fault plane solutions are used for stress inversion by the Michael and Gauss methods. Although an overall NNW-SSE compressional stress is observed in the area, the stress regime varies from western part to eastern part of the plateau. The eastern part of the plateau is dominated by NNE-SSW compression and the western part by NNW-SSE compression. The NNW-SSE compression in the western part may be due to the tectonic loading induced by the Himalayan orogeny in the north, and the NNE-SSW compression in the eastern part may be attributed to the influence of oblique convergence of the Indian plate beneath the Indo-Burma ranges. Further, Gravitational Potential Energy (GPE) derived stress also indicates a variation from west to east.

  2. Fukushima nuclear accident recorded in Tibetan Plateau snow pits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninglian Wang

    Full Text Available The β radioactivity of snow-pit samples collected in the spring of 2011 on four Tibetan Plateau glaciers demonstrate a remarkable peak in each snow pit profile, with peaks about ten to tens of times higher than background levels. The timing of these peaks suggests that the high radioactivity resulted from the Fukushima nuclear accident that occurred on March 11, 2011 in eastern Japan. Fallout monitoring studies demonstrate that this radioactive material was transported by the westerlies across the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The depth of the peak β radioactivity in each snow pit compared with observational precipitation records, suggests that the radioactive fallout reached the Tibetan Plateau and was deposited on glacier surfaces in late March 2011, or approximately 20 days after the nuclear accident. The radioactive fallout existed in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau for about one month.

  3. An avifaunal case study of a plateau from Goa, India: an eye opener for conservation of plateau ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minal Desai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The lateritic plateaux typical of the midlands between the Western Ghats and the coastal plains of the Arabian Sea are known to be a unique ecosystem with a sizeable endemic flora. However, there is a total lack of studies on the faunal diversity of these plateaux, which are currently experiencing enormous anthropogenic pressures. We conducted a year-long study on the avifauna of the Taleigao Plateau, Goa. The Taleigao Plateau harbours 114 species of birds, accounting for 37% of the avifaunal diversity of the state. The resident bird population did not vary significantly through the seasons. Among the migrant birds, Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus was particularly partial to the plateau. Besides, five species of larks, grassland specialists were also recorded on the plateau. However, the absence of forest birds like the Malabar Pied Hornbill and the Indian Grey Hornbill (recorded earlier and the predominance of habitat generalists like the House Crow and the Jungle Myna seemed to be the offshoot of heavy anthropogenic pressures on the plateau. It is recommended that at least some plateaux in the belt deserve to be protected from the impact of unsustainable developmental process

  4. The impacts of the summer plateau monsoon over the Tibetan Plateau on the rainfall in the Tarim Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Huang, Anning; Zhou, Yang; Yang, Qing

    2016-10-01

    The impacts of the summer plateau monsoon (PM) over the Tibetan Plateau on summer rainfall over the Tarim Basin in northwest China are investigated, based on the observed rainfall data at 34 stations and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data during 1961 to 2007. Results showed that the PM is well correlated to the summer rainfall over the Tarim Basin. Process analysis shows that strong PM corresponds to an anomalous cyclone over the Tibetan Plateau in the middle troposphere and an anomalous anticyclone in the upper troposphere over northwest part of Tibetan Plateau. They result in cold air moving from high latitudes into Central Asia over the western part of Tibetan Plateau. The concurrences of the cooling in the middle-upper troposphere over Central Asia leads to an anomalous cyclone over Central Asia at 500 hPa and the anomalous descending motions prevailing over the cooling region. Associated with this anomaly, there are enhanced southerly winds and corresponding ascending motion over the Tarim Basin located in the east of the cooling region. These processes lead to more summer rainfall over the Tarim Basin.

  5. In vitro comparison of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy with and without use of a tibial plateau leveling jig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerbach, Kay Ingo; Boeltzig, Christian Konrad Matthias; Reif, Ullrich; Wieser, Jan Carsten; Keller, Thomas; Grevel, Vera

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of a tibial plateau leveling jig on osteotomy orientation, fragment reduction, and postoperative tibial plateau angle (TPA) during tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). In vitro experimental study. Large-breed canine cadavers (n=20). TPLO was performed on 40 hindlimbs using 4 methods. Group 1: Jig; dogs in dorsal recumbency with the osteotomy parallel to the distal jig pin. Groups 2-4: No jig; dogs in lateral recumbency with the osteotomy in a vertical orientation (group 2: tibia parallel to the table top; group 3: controlled superimposition of the femoral condyles; group 4: internal rotation of the tibia). Postoperative TPA, fragment reduction, and osteotomy orientation relative to the tibial plateau were compared. Positive or negative values denoted deviation from parallel relative to the tibial plateau. Postoperative TPA, fragment reduction, and proximodistal osteotomy orientation were not significantly different between groups. Craniocaudal osteotomy orientation was significantly different (Ptable surface. TPLO without use of a jig reduces surgical trauma, is less time consuming, and reduces cost.

  6. An avifaunal case study of a plateau from Goa, India: an eye opener for conservation of plateau ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minal Desai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The lateritic plateaux typical of the midlands between the Western Ghats and the coastal plains of the Arabian Sea are known to be a unique ecosystem with a sizeable endemic flora. However, there is a total lack of studies on the faunal diversity of these plateaux, which are currently experiencing enormous anthropogenic pressures. We conducted a year-long study on the avifauna of the Taleigao Plateau, Goa. The Taleigao Plateau harbours 114 species of birds, accounting for 37% of the avifaunal diversity of the state. The resident bird population did not vary significantly through the seasons. Among the migrant birds, Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus was particularly partial to the plateau. Besides, five species of larks, grassland specialists were also recorded on the plateau. However, the absence of forest birds like the Malabar Pied Hornbill and the Indian Grey Hornbill (recorded earlier and the predominance of habitat generalists like the House Crow and the Jungle Myna seemed to be the offshoot of heavy anthropogenic pressures on the plateau. It is recommended that at least some plateaux in the belt deserve to be protected from the impact of unsustainable developmental process

  7. Calcium-dependent plateau potentials in rostral ambiguus neurons in the newborn mouse brain stem in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Feldman, J L

    1997-01-01

    Calcium-dependent plateau potentials in rostral ambiguus neurons in the newborn mouse brain stem in vitro. J. Neurophysiol. 78: 2483-2492, 1997. The nucleus ambiguus contains vagal and glossopharyngeal motoneurons and preganglionic neurons involved in respiration, swallowing, vocalization......, and control of heart beat. Here we show that the rostral compact formation's ambiguus neurons, which control the esophageal phase of swallowing, display calcium-dependent plateau potentials in response to tetanic orthodromic stimulation or current injection. Whole cell recordings were made from visualized...... neurons in the rostral nucleus ambiguus using a slice preparation from the newborn mouse. Biocytin-labeling revealed dendritic trees with pronounced rostrocaudal orientations confined to the nucleus ambiguus, a morphological profile matching that of vagal motoneurons projecting to the esophagus. Single...

  8. Understanding of Grassland Ecosystems under Climate Change and Economic Development Pressures in the Mongolia Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, J.; Chen, J.; Shan, P.; Pan, X.; Wei, Y.; Wang, M.; Xin, X.

    2011-12-01

    The land use and land cover change, especially in the form of grassland degradation, in the Mongolian Plateau, exhibited a unique spatio-temporal pattern that is a characteristic of a mixed stress from economic development and climate change of the region. The social dimension of the region played a key role in shaping the landscape and land use change, including the cultural clashes with economic development, conflicts between indigenous people and business ventures, and exogenous international influences. Various research projects have been conducted in the region to focus on physical degradation of grasslands and/or on economic development but there is a lack of understanding how the social and economic dimensions interact with grassland ecosystems and changes. In this talk, a synthesis report was made based on the most recent workshop held in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, of China, that specifically focused on climate change and grassland ecosystems. The report analyzed the degree of grassland degradation, its climate and social drivers, and coupling nature of economic development and conservation of traditional grassland values. The goal is to fully understand the socio-ecological-economic interactions that together shape the trajectory of the grassland ecosystems in the Mongolia Plateau.

  9. A Younger Dryas plateau icefield in the Monadhliath, Scotland, and implications for regional palaeoclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Clare M.; Lukas, Sven; Carr, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    A record of Younger Dryas glaciation in Scotland is well established. However, the role of the Monadhliath, a significant plateau area extending over 840 km2 in central Scotland, has never been investigated systematically. We present the first systematic glacial geomorphological mapping across the whole region, which has led to the identification of hitherto-unrecorded glacial and associated landforms. The spatial distribution of these landforms indicates that the last phase of glaciation in the area was that of a local plateau icefield. In addition, a clear morphostratigraphical signature provides a strong indication that the icefield dates to the Younger Dryas (12.9-11.7 ka), which is supported by numerical ages in the southeast of the study area. Based on the geomorphological evidence and 2D glacier surface profile modelling, a 280 km2 icefield is reconstructed. A novel approach is introduced to quantify plateau icefield thickness for equilibrium line altitude (ELA) and palaeoprecipitation calculations, resulting in greater overall data confidence compared to traditional reconstruction methods. The ELA for the whole icefield is calculated to be 714 ± 25 m, whilst the ELAs of individual outlet glaciers range from 560 m in the west to 816 m in the east, demonstrating a significant W-E precipitation gradient across the region during the Younger Dryas. These ELAs compare well with those calculated for Younger Dryas ice masses reconstructed in neighbouring regions and are in good agreement with overall precipitation patterns suggested for Scotland during this time. Whilst the total amount of precipitation calculated from these ELAs is highly dependent on the method used, irrespective of this, the study suggests a more arid Younger Dryas climate in the region compared to the present day.

  10. Atmospheric moisture supersaturation in the near-surface atmosphere at Dome C, Antarctic Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genthon, Christophe; Piard, Luc; Vignon, Etienne; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Casado, Mathieu; Gallée, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    Supersaturation often occurs at the top of the troposphere where cirrus clouds form, but is comparatively unusual near the surface where the air is generally warmer and laden with liquid and/or ice condensation nuclei. One exception is the surface of the high Antarctic Plateau. One year of atmospheric moisture measurement at the surface of Dome C on the East Antarctic Plateau is presented. The measurements are obtained using commercial hygrometry sensors modified to allow air sampling without affecting the moisture content, even in the case of supersaturation. Supersaturation is found to be very frequent. Common unadapted hygrometry sensors generally fail to report supersaturation, and most reports of atmospheric moisture on the Antarctic Plateau are thus likely biased low. The measurements are compared with results from two models implementing cold microphysics parameterizations: the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts through its operational analyses, and the Model Atmosphérique Régional. As in the observations, supersaturation is frequent in the models but the statistical distribution differs both between models and observations and between the two models, leaving much room for model improvement. This is unlikely to strongly affect estimations of surface sublimation because supersaturation is more frequent as temperature is lower, and moisture quantities and thus water fluxes are small anyway. Ignoring supersaturation may be a more serious issue when considering water isotopes, a tracer of phase change and temperature, largely used to reconstruct past climates and environments from ice cores. Because observations are easier in the surface atmosphere, longer and more continuous in situ observation series of atmospheric supersaturation can be obtained than higher in the atmosphere to test parameterizations of cold microphysics, such as those used in the formation of high-altitude cirrus clouds in meteorological and climate models.

  11. Immunogenicity and safety of a cell culture-based quadrivalent influenza vaccine in adults: A Phase III, double-blind, multicenter, randomized, non-inferiority study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Stephan; Cannon, Kevin; Herrington, Darrell; Mills, Richard; Forleo-Neto, Eduardo; Lindert, Kelly; Abdul Mateen, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIVs), which include both B lineage strains, are expected to provide broader protection than trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs). The non-inferiority, immunogenicity, and safety of a cell culture-based investigational QIVc and 2 TIVs (TIV1c, TIV2c), in adults (≥18 y), were evaluated in this Phase III, double-blind, multicenter study. A total of 2680 age-stratified subjects were randomized (2:1:1) to receive 1 dose of QIVc (n = 1335), TIV1c (n = 676), or TIV2c (n = 669). TIV1c (B/Yamagata) and TIV2c (B/Victoria) differed only in B strain lineage. The primary objective was to demonstrate non-inferiority of the hemagglutinin-inhibition antibody responses of QIVc against TIVc, 22 d post-vaccination. Secondary objectives included the evaluation of immunogenicity of QIVc and TIVc in younger (≥18 – <65 y) and older (≥65 y) adults. Hemagglutinin inhibition assays were performed at days 1 and 22. Solicited local and systemic adverse events (AEs) were monitored for 7 d post-vaccination, and unsolicited AEs and serious AEs until day 181. QIVc met the non-inferiority criteria for all 4 vaccine strains and demonstrated superiority for both influenza B strains over the unmatched B strain included in the TIV1c and TIV2c, when geometric mean titers and seroconversion rates with TIVc were compared at day 22. Between 48%–52% of subjects experienced ≥1 solicited AE, the most common being injection-site pain and headache. Serious AEs were reported by ≤1% of subjects, none were vaccine-related. The results indicate that QIVc is immunogenic and well tolerated in both younger and older adults. The immunogenicity and safety profiles of QIVc and TIVc were comparable at all ages evaluated. PMID:27322354

  12. Comparative efficiency and yield in different systems and densities at the nursery culture phase of the oyster Crassostrea gigas in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Magalhães Ferreira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare different aquaculture systems and seed densities for the nursery phase ofCrassostrea gigas in Brazil. Small oyster seeds (2 mm in height reared in three nursery systems (same area/floor, a lantern net, a bouncing bucket or a floating box were compared with three initial stocking densities (50, 100 and 200 mL of seeds/system floor. As density increased, there was a significant decline in seed growth and yield, mainly in the lantern nets (P=0.0002. Better yields were observed in the box (P=0.005 and bucket systems (P=0.02 under densities of 50 and 100 mL. However, at the highest density, the nursery box system had the highest seed yield when compared to the lantern net and bucket systems (P=0.003. The results showed that the floating box was the most efficient system tested with a survival of 54% at a density of 100 mL. This was more than twice the survival for the same volumes used in the nursery lantern nets (24%, which was the most common culture method in Brazil prior to this experiment (2002. An additional advantage is the reduced cost of starting with 2.0 mm seeds that cost 50% less than the usual 4.0 to 8.0 mm seeds. These results showed the efficiency of the floating box system, which is currently used by over 90% of oyster producers in Brazil.

  13. Extraction of endo-pectinase activity from the culture filtrate of Polyporus squamosus by aqueous two-phase systems composed of low molecular mass polyethylene glycol and phosphate salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peričin Draginja M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Separation of endo-pectinase activity from the culture filtrate of Polyporus squamosus - strain MMOL76, by aqueous two-phase partitioning technique in polyethylene glycol/sodium dihydrogen phosphate system was investigated as the first operation in the downstream processing of enzyme. The best results concerning the partitioning coefficient and the top phase yield were achieved in the polyethylene glycol 400/sodium dihydrogen phosphate system at the tie-line length 78.9 % at pH 3.8 (K = 8, with a 90% yield.

  14. Nebkha development and its relationship to environmental change in the Alaxa Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xunming; Xiao, Honglang; Li, Jinchang; Qiang, Mingrui; Su, Zhizu

    2008-11-01

    Extensive nebkha areas develop mainly under the control of aeolian processes, and their sediments record information on regional environmental changes during different periods. Such areas have developed on the dry riverbeds and deserted arable lands of China’s Alaxa Plateau, Taklimakan, and Kumutage deserts. In this paper, we studied nebkhas that had developed in the Heicheng Juyan region to determine their CaCO3 contents, particle size distributions, and creation dates. Extensive human activities have occurred in this region since at least in the late Tang Dynasty (618 907 ad). Although historical records show that most of the region’s rivers dried up around 1372, surface water persisted in some areas until the early Qing Dynasty (1644 1911 ad). After the 1600s, extensive nebkhas began to develop due to drying of the region’s rivers. The early stages of nebkha development were controlled by both the sediment supply and the regional wind regime, whereas late stages were controlled primarily by variations in wind activity. In the Alaxa Plateau, it took about 100 years for arable lands and riverbeds to evolve into gobi deserts, and during this time, several phases occurred with different levels of wind activity. The land degradation processes in this region are mainly controlled by surface water resources, and the impact of human activities such as reclamation on land degradation appear to have been overestimated in previous studies.

  15. Driver of the interannual variations of isotope in ice core from the middle of Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Lili; Tian, Lide; Cai, Zhongyin; Cui, Jiangpeng; Zhu, Dayun; Chen, Yanhui; Palcsu, László

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the climatic significance of stable isotope in precipitation and ice cores on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is of critical for the paleoclimate rebuilding. However, there is a gap between the seasonal control of precipitation and long-term isotope record from ice core. Here we present a well-dated ice core isotope record from the middle of the TP (mid-TP). Isotope variations in the past decades from this ice core show strong anti-phase relation with Southern Oscillation Index, confirming unequivocally that the large scale atmospheric circulation through the El Nino Southern Oscillation cycle, rather local climate parameters, controls the interannual signal in ice cores from the mid-TP. Results also show that the cloud top height in the northern Indian Ocean is in association with the interannual variations, confirming the same mechanism controlling the precipitation δ18O in southwest Asia and southeast Asia. The study will improve the understanding of the interannual change of Tibetan Plateau ice core isotope signal, and also the hydrological cycle in the southwest Asian region.

  16. Understanding the surface temperature cold bias in CMIP5 AGCMs over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Liu, Y.; Wu, G. X.

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the majority of the Phase-5 Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) models underestimate annual and seasonal mean surface air temperatures (Ta) over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). In addition, half of the models underestimate annual and seasonal mean surface temperatures (Ts) over the TP. These cold biases are larger over the western TP. By decomposing the Ts bias using the surface energy budget equation, this study investigates the contributions to the cold surface temperature bias on the Tibetan Plateau from various factors, including the surface albedo-induced bias (SAF), surface cloud radiative forcing (CRF), clear-sky shortwave (SW) radiation, downward clear-sky longwave radiation (DLR), surface sensible heat flux and latent heat flux, and heat storage. The results suggest that SAF and DLR are the main factors causing the cold surface temperature bias. Because SAF and DLR are respectively affected by the snow coverage fraction and water vapor distribution produced by the models, these results then imply that the snow coverage fraction parameterization and water vapor distribution over the TP require further improvements.

  17. 40 CFR 81.162 - Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.162 Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial area... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Plateau Intrastate...

  18. Deformation and incision of the western margin of the Central Andean Plateau, S. Peru and N. Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildgen, T.

    2012-12-01

    The western margin of the Central Andean Plateau in southern Peru and northern Chile hosts a rich geologic and geomorphic record of crustal deformation and river incision that developed during a period of regional plateau uplift. Significant growth of topography likely occurred in the western Central Andes starting at ca. 30 Ma, when the regionally extensive silts and sandstones of the Moquegua and Azapa Group sediments gave way to coarse sandstones and conglomerates. Apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology, 3D thermal modeling, and infilling volcanic flows show that a subsequent major phase of canyon incision started in the middle reaches of Ocoña Canyon (southern Peru) between 11 and 8 Ma, with ca. 2-km of incision occurring between ca. 11 and 5 Ma. Surface uplift coeval with this incision has been documented in northern Chile, where rotated forearc basin deposits reveal 1 to 2 km of differential uplift between the Coastal Cordillera and the plateau margin that started after 11 to 10 Ma. In contrast with the 11 to 8 Ma onset of incision in the middle reaches of Ocoña Canyon, the currently 1-km-high coastal/piedmont region appears not to have been affected by incision until after 5 Ma, as documented by the 50-km-wide alluvial and colluvial plain that remained occupied by rivers until at least 5 Ma. Apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology pointing to a final 1-km of incision in the middle reaches of Ocoña Canyon after ca. 5 Ma is supported by apatite 4He/3He thermochonometry, which documents the passage of a km-scale knickpoint through the same region between ca. 7 and 4 Ma. Although river incision provides only a minimum time constraint for the start of surface uplift, the broadly coincident start of incision with the rotation of forearc basin deposits in northern Chile implies a close temporal coupling between the start of surface uplift and the onset of incision in Ocoña Canyon. Furthermore, the delayed incision of the coastal/piedmont region until after 5 Ma shows

  19. Discovery of cryptic Armillaria solidipes genotypes within the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. W. Hanna; N. B. Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim; S. M. Ashiglar; A. L. Ross-Davis; G. I. McDonald

    2012-01-01

    Armillaria solidipes (= A. ostoyae) is a root-disease pathogen that causes severe losses in growth and productivity of forest trees throughout the Northern Hemisphere. This species is genetically diverse with variable disease activities across different regions of the world. In North America, A. solidipes in the Colorado Plateau exists in drier habitats and causes more...

  20. Spatial Distribution of Soil Erosion Sensitivity on the Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Dan; ZHONG Xiang-Hao; FAN Jian-Rong

    2005-01-01

    The Tibet Plateau, occupying the main part of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and having an average altitude of 4 500 m, has geomorphological features that are unique in the world, with soil erosion being one of the main ecological problems. Thus the main objectives of the present research were to set up an efficient and simple way of evaluating spatial distribution of soil erosion sensitivity in the Tibet Plateau as well as the responses of soil erosion to changes of natural environmental conditions, and to indicate key regions where soil erosion should be preferentially controlled. Based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), the study applied geographic information system (GIS) technology to develop a methodological reference framework, from which soil erosion sensitivity could be evaluated. The impact of precipitation, soil, topography and vegetation on soil erosion was divided into classes of extreme sensitivity, high sensitivity, medium sensitivity, low sensitivity and no sensitivity. With the aid of GIS, the resultant map from overlaying various factors showed that soil erosion sensitivity had great discrepancy in different parts of the region. In the southeastern part of the Tibet Plateau there were mainly three classes of sensitivity, namely, extreme, high and medium sensitivity. However, the other two classes, low and no sensitivity, were dominant in the northwestern part.

  1. Deep mantle forces and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moucha, R; Forte, A M; Rowley, D B; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2009-06-23

    Since the advent of plate tectonics, it has been speculated that the northern extension of the East Pacific Rise, specifically its mantle source, has been over-ridden by the North American Plate in the last 30 Myrs. Consequently, it has also been postulated that the opening of the Gulf of California, the extension in the Basin and Range province, and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau are the resulting continental expressions of the over-ridden mantle source of the East Pacific Rise. However, only qualitative models based solely on surface observations and heuristic, simplified conceptions of mantle convection have been used in support or against this hypothesis. We introduce a quantitative model of mantle convection that reconstructs the detailed motion of a warm mantle upwelling over the last 30 Myrs and its relative advance towards the interior of the southwestern USA. The onset and evolution of the crustal uplift in the central Basin and Range province and the Colorado Plateau is determined by tracking the topographic swell due to this mantle upwelling through time. We show that (1) the extension and magmatism in the central Basin and Range province between 25 and 10 Ma coincides with the reconstructed past position of this focused upwelling, and (2) the southwestern portion of the Colorado Plateau experienced significant uplift between 10 Ma and 5 Ma that progressed towards the northeastern portion of the plateau. These uplift estimates are consistent with a young, ca. 6 Ma, Grand Canyon model and the recent commencement of mafic magmatism.

  2. SUMMER DIURNAL CYCLE AT DOME C ON THE ANTARTIC PLATEAU

    OpenAIRE

    Barral, H.; E. Vignon; Bazile, E.; Traullé, O; Gallée, H.; Genthon, C.; Brun, C.; F. Couvreux; P. Le Moigne

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The ice-sheet offers us ”laboratory cases” with endless snow covered, relatively homogeneous, flat or sloped areas with persistent and strong stable stratifications resulting in low level jets. Dome C (75°06 S,123°E) on the East Antarctic Plateau is one of them.

  3. New transhumance in the Mahafaly Plateau region in Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    models influence people's capacity to adapt, especially in socio- .... pastoral mobility have mainly been described as climate change adaptation strategies ..... transhumance on the plateau, where most herders can build on a ..... and ecosystem services in southern Madagascar. .... Migration as a contribution to resilience.

  4. Ningwu——An Ancient Pass On The Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Ningwu situated on the Loess Plateau in north of Shanxi Province is one of the three passes along the Great Wall. The other two are the Pian Pass in the west and the Yanmen Pass in the east. In the ancient times, it had been a key military town in the northern Chinese borders.

  5. Heat Flow for the Minimal Surface with Plateau Boundary Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kung Ching CHANG; Jia Quan LIU

    2003-01-01

    The heat flow for the minimal surface under Plateau boundary condition is defined to be aparabolic variational inequality, and then the existence, uniqueness, regularity, continuous dependenceon the initial data and the asymptotics are studied. It is applied as a deformation of the level sets inthe critical point theory.

  6. Oil/Gas Exploration Prospects for Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhengzhang; Li Yongtie; Ye Hefei

    1997-01-01

    @@ As an important part of the Tethys, Tibet Plateau is prominent in the global geology tectonics. However, due to the limitation of local geographic conditions, the degree of geological study in this region is low, especially in the field of marine Mesozoic petroleum geological study.

  7. Excessive afforestation and soil drying on China's Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shulei; Yang, Dawen

    2017-04-01

    Afforestation and deforestation are human disturbances to vegetation, which have profound impacts on regional eco-hydrological processes, the water and carbon cycles, and consequently, ecosystem sustainability. Since 1999, large scale revegetation has been carried out across China's Loess Plateau following the "Grain-to-Green Program" implemented by the Chinese government. This revegetation, particularly with forest, has caused negative eco-hydrological consequences, including streamflow decline and soil drying. Here, we have used "ecosystem optimality theory" and satellite observations, to assess the water balance under the climate-defined optimal and actual vegetation cover during 1982-2010 and its responses to future climate change (2011-2050) over the Loess Plateau. Results show that the current vegetation cover (0.48 on average) has already exceeded the climate-defined optimal cover (0.43 on average) in the most recent decade, especially in the middle-to-east Loess Plateau, indicating that it is the widespread over-planting, which is primarily responsible for soil drying in the area. In addition, both the optimal vegetation cover and soil moisture tend to decrease under future climate scenarios. Our findings suggest that further revegetation on the Loess Plateau should be applied with caution. To maintain a sustainable eco-hydrological environment in the region, a revegetation threshold should be urgently set, to limit future planting.

  8. Mapping risk of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Quan; Zhao, Jian; Fang, Liqun; Zhou, Hang; Zhang, Wenyi; Wei, Lan; Yang, Hong; Yin, Wenwu; Cao, Wuchun; Li, Qun

    2014-07-10

    Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China is known to be the plague endemic region where marmot (Marmota himalayana) is the primary host. Human plague cases are relatively low incidence but high mortality, which presents unique surveillance and public health challenges, because early detection through surveillance may not always be feasible and infrequent clinical cases may be misdiagnosed. Based on plague surveillance data and environmental variables, Maxent was applied to model the presence probability of plague host. 75% occurrence points were randomly selected for training model, and the rest 25% points were used for model test and validation. Maxent model performance was measured as test gain and test AUC. The optimal probability cut-off value was chosen by maximizing training sensitivity and specificity simultaneously. We used field surveillance data in an ecological niche modeling (ENM) framework to depict spatial distribution of natural foci of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most human-inhabited areas at risk of exposure to enzootic plague are distributed in the east and south of the Plateau. Elevation, temperature of land surface and normalized difference vegetation index play a large part in determining the distribution of the enzootic plague. This study provided a more detailed view of spatial pattern of enzootic plague and human-inhabited areas at risk of plague. The maps could help public health authorities decide where to perform plague surveillance and take preventive measures in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  9. Thermal Stratification in Lake Zige Tangco, Central Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wan-chun; YANG Xiang-dong; YIN Yu; JI Jiang; LI Shi-jie; PU Pei-min

    2005-01-01

    Lake Zige Tangco is an endorheic saline lake in central Tibetan Plateau. Investigations of 1998 and 1999 revealed that is was a typical stratified lake. The characteristics of thermal stratification of the lake have been extensively discussed from 4 aspects, i.e. thermocline, hydrochemistry and dissolved oxygen, stable isotope oxygen, and stability. The thermocline coupled with chemocline was further analyzed.

  10. Structural model of the Balkassar area, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Akhter, Gulraiz; Bibi, Sehrish

    2015-11-01

    Balkassar is an important hydrocarbon producing area of the Potwar Plateau, Pakistan. Two-dimensional seismic reflection data of the area revealed tectonically controlled, distinct episodes of (1) normal faulting in the basement followed by (2) reverse faulting in the cover sequence. Himalayan orogeny and associated diapirism of the Precambrian Salt Range Formation have produced many salt-cored anticlines in the Potwar Plateau, and one such salt-cored anticline is present in the Balkassar. This anticline has NE-SW-oriented axis, and both the SE and NW limbs are bounded by reverse faults. The basement normal faults indicate Jurassic rifting and splitting of Pangaea. We interpret reverse faults with dip angles of about 60°-75° in the cover sequence, having both hinterland and foreland vergence. Both NW- and SE-dipping faults are present in contrast to the only southward-directed thrusts of previous models. Duplexes and triangle zones, which are common in the northern part of the Potwar Plateau, are not developed in the Balkassar area due to comparatively less crustal shortening in the area. The present interpretation can help in understanding the complex structures in other parts of the Potwar Plateau for hydrocarbons exploration and also in deformed foreland basins worldwide that display similar characteristics but are considered to be dominated by low-angle thrust tectonics.

  11. Hydrous Na-garnet from Garnet Ridge; products of mantle metasomatism underneath the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamaki, Kunihiko; Sato, Yuto; Ogasawara, Yoshihide

    2016-12-01

    This is the first report on amphibole exsolution in pyrope from the Colorado Plateau. Pyrope crystals delivered from mantle depths underneath the Colorado Plateau by kimberlitic volcanism at 30 Ma were collected at Garnet Ridge, northern Arizona. The garnet grains analyzed in this study occur as discrete crystals (without adjacent rock matrix) and are classified into two major groups, Cr-rich pyrope and Cr-poor pyrope. The Cr-poor pyrope group is divided into four subgroups based on exsolved phases: amphibole lamella type, ilmenite lamella type, dense lamellae type, and clinopyroxene/amphibole lamellae type. Exsolved amphibole occurs in amphibole lamella type, dense lamellae type, and clinopyroxene/amphibole lamellae type of Cr-poor pyrope. The amphibole crystals tend to have preferred orientations in their garnet hosts and occur as monomineralic hexagonal or rhombic prisms and tablets, and as multimineralic needles or blades with other exsolved phases. Exsolved amphibole has pargasitic compositions (Na2O up to 1.6 apfu based on 23 oxygen). Garnet host crystals that have undergone amphibole exsolution have low OH contents (2-42 ppmw H2O) compared to garnets that do not have amphibole lamellae (up to 115 ppmw H2O). The low OH contents of garnets hosting amphibole lamellae suggest loss of OH from garnet during amphibole exsolution. Amphibole exsolution from pyrope resulted from breakdown of a precursor "hydrous Na-garnet" composition (Mg,Na+ x)3(Al2 - x, Mgx)2Si3O12 - 2x(OH)2x. Exsolution of amphibole and other phases probably occurred during exhumation to depths shallower than 100 km prior to volcanic eruption.

  12. Inhibition of MMP-2-mediated cellular invasion by NF-κB inhibitor DHMEQ in 3D culture of breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells: A model for early phase of metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukaji, Tamami; Lin, Yinzhi; Okada, Shoshiro; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2017-02-08

    The three-dimensional (3D) culture of cancer cells provides an environmental condition closely related to the condition in vivo. It would especially be an ideal model for the early phase of metastasis, including the detachment and invasion of cancer cells from the primary tumor. In one hand, dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), an NF-κB inhibitor, is known to inhibit cancer progression and late phase metastasis in animal experiments. In the present research, we studied the inhibitory activity on the 3D invasion of breast carcinoma cells. Breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells showed the most active invasion from spheroid among the cell lines tested. DHMEQ inhibited the 3D invasion of cells at the 3D-nontoxic concentrations. The PCR array analysis using RNA isolated from the 3D on-top cultured cells indicated that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression is lowered by DHMEQ. Knockdown of MMP-2 and an MMP inhibitor, GM6001, both inhibited the invasion. DHMEQ was shown to inhibit the promoter activity of MMP-2 in the reporter assay. Thus, DHMEQ was shown to inhibit NF-κB/MMP-2-dependent cellular invasion in 3D-cultured MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting that DHMEQ would inhibit the early phase of metastasis.

  13. TIBIAL PLATEAU FRACTURES – SURGICAL MANAGEMENT BY MIPPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharath Raju

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tibial plateau fractures are one of the most common intra-articular fractures. They are the outcome of indirect coronal or direct compressive forces. The incidence of tibial plateau fractures is 1.3% of all fractures. These fractures have varied degree of fracture configuration involving medial, lateral or both tibial plateaus with varied degree of intra-articular depressions and displacements. Due to speedy vehicles and mechanization there has been increase in the number of tibial plateau fractures. Knee joints being one of the major weight bearing joints of human body, these fractures are of big importance. METHODS: We studied 30 cases of tibial plateau fractures treated by MIPPO at kempegowda institute of medical sciences from June 2012 to April 2014 with minimum follow up of up to 6months. RESULTS: All the selected patients were evaluated both clinically as well as radiologically. The lab investigations were done and then they were taken up for the surgery. The fractures were classified as per schatzker’s classification and treated accordingly. In the post-op period early range of movements were started and the patients were non weight bearing till 6 weeks. Till 12 weeks partial weight bearing was allowed and full weight bearing was allowed after radiological union of the fracture. CONCLUSION: Tibial plateau fractures when treated with MIPPO give articular anatomical reduction, rigid fixation and early mobolisation of the knee joint. This prevents development of osteoarthritis and includes all the advantages of minimally invasive procedure and so better patient compliance.

  14. Palaeogene growth of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau: Detrital fission track and sedimentary analysis of the Lanzhou basin, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuxi; Deng, Lizheng; Zattin, Massimiliano; Ji, Minxiao; Li, Jijun

    2017-10-01

    The Palaeogene evolution of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau remains elusive, because of the paucity of well-dated long-lasting and continuous sedimentary records. In this work, we present a detailed detrital apatite fission track thermochronology and stratigraphic study in the Lanzhou basin, located on the eastern-most margin of northeastern Tibet, where Eocene to middle Miocene sediments are well preserved. Combining the analysis of sedimentology records and synsedimentary tectonic structures, four regional tectonic phases are deciphered (52-47 Ma, 40-32 Ma, 23-20 Ma and <16 Ma, respectively). These episodes were spaced out by three periods of tectonic stability or quiescence linked to regional relief-reduction. Our apatite fission-track data suggest that far-field stress due to the India-Asia collision had been propagated to this region since early Eocene, and the modern northeastern portion of the Tibetan Plateau has been buildup since then. Thereafter, the growth of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau was dominated by a tectonic activity/inactivity cycle until late Miocene. Thus, the regional growth history appears to have been episodic in nature during the Cenozoic.

  15. Linkage between the second uplifting of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau and the initiation of the Asian monsoon system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施雅风; 汤懋苍; 马玉贞

    1999-01-01

    During the period from 25 to 17 Ma BP, when the second plateau uplifting, i.e. the second phase of the Himalaya movement, occurred, the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau reached an altitude high enough to change the situation of the general circulation. Such an effect of the plateau on the atmospheric circulation was accompanied by the warming of the tropical ocean, the enhancement of the cross equatorial current, the enlargement of the marginal sea basins in the cast-southeastern Asia, the westward extending of the Asian continent and the regression of the Paratethys Sea. As a result, the thermal difference was enlarged, and the air currents were enhanced between continents and oceans; finally the Asian monsoon system, mainly the summer monsoon, was initiated. The former planet wind system was then substituted by the monsoon system, and this caused the important environmental changes, such as the large shrinkage of the dry steppe in Central Asia, and the extension of the humid forest zone in East Asia. Those chan

  16. Into Tibet: An Early Pliocene Dispersal of Fossil Zokor (Rodentia: Spalacidae) from Mongolian Plateau to the Hinterland of Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the fossil zokors (Myospalacinae) collected from the lower Pliocene (~4.4 Ma) of Zanda Basin, southwestern Tibet, which is the first record in the hinterland of Tibetan Plateau within the Himalayan Range. Materials include 29 isolated molars belonging to Prosiphneus eriksoni (Schlosser, 1924) by having characters including large size, highly fused roots, upper molars of orthomegodont type, m1 anterior cap small and centrally located, and first pair of m1 reentrants on opposing sides, high crowns, and high value of dentine tract parameters. Based on the cladistics analysis, all seven species of Prosiphneus and P. eriksoni of Zanda form a monophyletic clade. P. eriksoni from Zanda, on the other hand, is nearly the terminal taxon of this clade. The appearance of P. eriksoni in Zanda represents a significant dispersal in the early Pliocene from its center of origin in north China and Mongolian Plateau, possibly via the Hol Xil-Qiangtang hinterland in northern Tibet. The fast evolving zokors are highly adapted to open terrains at a time when regional climates had become increasingly drier in the desert zones north of Tibetan Plateau during the late Miocene to Pliocene. The occurrence of this zokor in Tibet thus suggests a rather open steppe environment. Based on fossils of large mammals, we have formulated an "out of Tibet" hypothesis that suggests earlier and more primitive large mammals from the Pliocene of Tibet giving rise to the Ice Age megafauna. However, fossil records for large mammals are still too poor to evaluate whether they have evolved from lineages endemic to the Tibetan Plateau or were immigrants from outside. The superior record of small mammals is in a better position to address this question. With relatively dense age intervals and numerous localities in much of northern Asia, fossil zokors provide the first example of an "into Tibet" scenario--earlier and more primitive taxa originated from outside of the Tibetan Plateau and the

  17. Studying the viscosity of lower crust of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau according to post-seismic deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The viscosity of lower crust of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau on earth should be determined. It has become a predominant problem in quantitative research on geodynamics. Its order of magnitude will have a great influence on the results of quantitative modeling. To obtain the viscosity of lower crust of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, this parameter was calculated by three methods. The first is based on the estimation on the temperature state of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the deep part, and the viscosity of lower crust of northern Plateau was recomputed with strain rate derived from rheology law and GPS observation. Effective viscosity of middle crust in Kunlun region is between 1020 and 1022 Pa·s, and that of lower crust is be- tween 1019 and 1021 Pa·s; the second is based on three kinds of rheological models used to fit the post-seismic deformation recorded by cross-over fault GPS sites set after Ms8.1 Kunlun earthquake in 2001. The viscosity of lower crust obtained by this method is of 1017 Pa·s order of magnitude. However, higher viscosity is required to fit the data of south fault better, and the lower one is required to fit the data of north fault better. The viscosity of lower crust, which was obtained by fitting the cross-over fault post-seismic deformation after Ms7.6 Luhuo earthquake in 1973, is of 1019 Pa·s order of magnitude. Non-linear relationship between effective viscosity and strain rate is ignored in the former research of effective viscosity. This research shows the difference of effective viscosity obtained from laboratory experiment, and shorter and longer time post-seismic deformation after large earthquakes can be explained in phase.

  18. Cancer cells mimic in vivo spatial-temporal cell-cycle phase distribution and chemosensitivity in 3-dimensional Gelfoam® histoculture but not 2-dimensional culture as visualized with real-time FUCCI imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Shuya; Miwa, Shinji; Mii, Sumiyuki; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Uehara, Fuminaru; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Zhao, Ming; Bouvet, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    The phase of the cell cycle can determine whether a cancer cell can respond to a given drug. We previously reported monitoring of real-time cell cycle dynamics of cancer cells throughout a live tumor, intravitally in live mice, using a fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell-cycle indicator (FUCCI). Approximately 90% of cancer cells in the center and 80% of total cells of an established tumor are in G0/G1 phase. Longitudinal real-time imaging demonstrated that cytotoxic agents killed only proliferating cancer cells at the surface and, in contrast, had little effect on quiescent cancer cells, which are the vast majority of an established tumor. Moreover, resistant quiescent cancer cells restarted cycling after cessation of chemotherapy. These results suggested why most drugs currently in clinical use, which target cancer cells in S/G2/M, are mostly ineffective on solid tumors. In the present report, we used FUCCI imaging and Gelfoam® collagen-sponge-gel histoculture, to demonstrate in real time, that the cell-cycle phase distribution of cancer cells in Gelfoam® and in vivo tumors is highly similar, whereby only the surface cells proliferate and interior cells are quiescent in G0/G1. This is in contrast to 2D culture where most cancer cells cycle. Similarly, the cancer cells responded similarly to toxic chemotherapy in Gelfoam® culture as in vivo, and very differently than cancer cells in 2D culture which were much more chemosensitive. Gelfoam® culture of FUCCI-expressing cancer cells offers the opportunity to image the cell cycle of cancer cells continuously and to screen for novel effective therapies to target quiescent cells, which are the majority in a tumor and which would have a strong probability to be effective in vivo.

  19. Development of solution phase hybridisation PCR-ELISA for the detection and quantification of Enterococcus faecalis and Pediococcus pentosaceus in Nurmi-type cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Sinead M Waters; Doyle, Sean; Murphy, Richard A.; Power, Ronan F.G.

    2005-01-01

    Nurmi-type cultures (NTCs), derived from the fermentation of caecal contents of specifically pathogen-free (SPF) birds, have been used successfully to control salmonella colonisation in chicks. These cultures are undefined in nature and, consequently, it is difficult to obtain approval from regulatory agencies for their use as direct fed microbials (DFMs) for poultry. Progress towards the generation of effective defined probiotics requires further knowledge of the composition of thes...

  20. [The pathogenic ecology research on plague in Qinghai plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Rui-xia; Wei, Bai-qing; Li, Cun-xiang; Xiong, Hao-ming; Yang, Xiao-yan; Fan, Wei; Qi, Mei-ying; Jin, Juan; Wei, Rong-jie; Feng, Jian-ping; Jin, Xing; Wang, Zu-yun

    2013-12-01

    To study the pathogenic ecology characteristics of plague in Qinghai plateau. Applied molecular biology techniques, conventional technologies and geographic information system (GIS) to study phenotypic traits, plasmid spectrum, genotype, infected host and media spectrum etc.of 952 Yersinia pestis strains in Qinghai plateau plague foci, which were separated from different host and media in different regions during 1954 to 2012. The ecotypes of these strains were Qingzang plateau (91.49%, 871/952),Qilian mountain (6.41%, 61/952) and Microtus fuscus (1.26%, 12/952).83.6% (796/952) of these strains contained all the 4 virulence factors (Fr1, Pesticin1,Virulence antigen, and Pigmentation), 93.26% (367/392) were velogenic strains confirmed by virulence test.725 Yersinia pestis strains were separated from Qinghai plateau plague foci carried 9 kinds of plasmid, among which 713 strains from Marmot himalayan plague foci carried 9 kinds of plasmid, the Mr were 6×10(6), 7×10(6), 23×10(6), 27×10(6), 30×10(6), 45×10(6), 52×10(6), 65×10(6) and 92×10(6) respectively. 12 Yersinia pestis strains were separated from Microtus fuscus plague foci carried only 3 kinds of plasmid, the Mr were 6×10(6), 45×10(6), 65×10(6). Meanwhile, the strains carrying large plasmid (52×10(6), 65×10(6) and 92×10(6)) were only distributed in particular geographical location, which had the category property. The research also confirmed that 841 Yersinia pestis strains from two kinds of plague foci in Qinghai plateau had 11 genomovars. The strains of Marmot himalayan plague foci were given priority to genomovar 5 and 8, amounted to 611 strains, genomovar 8 accounted for 56.00% (471/841), genomovar 5 accounted for 23.07% (194/841). Besides, 3 new genomovars, including new 1(62 strains), new 2(52 strains), new 3(48 strains) were newly founded, and 12 strains of Microtus fuscus plague foci were genomovar 14. The main host and media of Qinghai plateau plague foci directly affected the spatial

  1. Optical and ultraviolet observations of a low-velocity type II plateau supernova 2013am in M65

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jujia; Bai, Jinming; Fan, Yufeng; Wang, Jianguo; Yi, Weimin; Wang, Chuanjun; Xin, Yuxin; Liangchang; Zhang, Xiliang; Lun, Baoli; Wang, Xueli; He, Shousheng [Yunnan Observatories (YNAO), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650216 (China); Wang, Xiaofeng; Huang, Fang; Mo, Jun [Physics Department and Tsinghua Center for Astrophysics (THCA), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Mazzali, Paolo A.; Bersier, David [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Zhang, Tianmeng [National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Walker, Emma S., E-mail: jujia@ynao.ac.cn, E-mail: baijinming@ynao.ac.cn, E-mail: wang_xf@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8121 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    Optical and ultraviolet observations for the nearby type II plateau supernova (SN IIP) 2013am in the nearby spiral galaxy M65 are presented in this paper. The early spectra are characterized by relatively narrow P-Cygni features, with ejecta velocities much lower than observed in normal SNe IIP (i.e., ∼2000 km s{sup –1} versus ∼5000 km {sup –1} in the middle of the plateau phase). Moreover, prominent Ca II absorptions are also detected in SN 2013am at relatively early phases. These spectral features are reminiscent of those seen in the low-velocity and low-luminosity SN IIP 2005cs. However, SN 2013am exhibits different photometric properties, having shorter plateau phases and brighter light curve tails if compared to SN 2005cs. Adopting R{sub V} = 3.1 and a mean value of total reddening derived from the photometric and spectroscopic methods (i.e., E(B – V) = 0.55 ± 0.19 mag), we find that SN 2013am may have reached an absolute V-band peak magnitude of –15.83 ± 0.71 mag and produced an {sup 56}Ni mass of 0.016{sub −0.006}{sup +0.010} M {sub ☉} in the explosion. These parameters are close to those derived for SN 2008in and SN 2009N, which have been regarded as 'gap-filler' objects linking the faint SNe IIP to the normal ones. This indicates that some low-velocity SNe IIP may not necessarily result from the low-energetic explosions. The low expansion velocities could be due to a lower metallicity of the progenitor stars, a larger envelope mass ejected in the explosion, or the effect of viewing angle where these SNe were observed at an angle away from the polar direction.

  2. Culturable bacterial flora associated with the dinoflagellate green Noctiluca miliaris during active and declining bloom phases in the Northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Basu, S.; Deobagkar, D.D.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Furtado, I.

    metabolic characterization of 70 bacterial isolates from an overlapping active and declining bloom phase location near north-central Arabian Sea. The active phase flora was dominated by Gram-positive forms (70.59 percent), a majority of which belonged...

  3. Interspecific competition and allelopathic interaction between Karenia mikimotoi and Dunaliella salina in laboratory culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dong; Liu, Jiao; Hao, Qiang; Ran, Lihua; Zhou, Bin; Tang, Xuexi

    2016-03-01

    Algal allelopathy is a manifold ecological/physiological phenomenon that is focused on chemical interactions and autotoxicity. We investigated the allelopathic interactions between Karenia mikimotoi and Dunaliella salina in laboratory cultures based on diff erent temperature (15°C, 20°C, and 25°C) and lighting (40, 80, and 160 μmol/(m2·s)) conditions. The growth of D. salina in bi-algae culture (1:1 size/density) was significantly restrained. The results of cell-free filtrate culture indicate that direct cell-tocell contact was not necessary in interspecific competition. Further experimental results demonstrated that allelochemicals released from K. mikimotoi were markedly influenced by both temperature ( P =0.013) and irradiance ( P =0.003), resulting in diff erent growth characteristics of D. salina in filtrate mediums. Compared with the plateau period, K. mikimotoi exudates in the exponential phase had a stronger short-term inhibition effect on D. salina in normal conditions. A clear concentration-dependent relationship was observed in the effect of allelochemicals released from K. mikimotoi with low-promoting and high-repressing effects on D. Salina in a short time-scale. In addition, allelopathic substances remain stable and effective under high temperature and pressure stress. Many flocculent sediments adhering with D. salina cells were observed in all filtrate mediums, while the quantity and color depended on the original culture conditions.

  4. The Standardized Candle Method for Type II Plateau Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares E., Felipe; Hamuy, Mario; Pignata, Giuliano; Maza, José; Bersten, Melina; Phillips, Mark M.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Morrel, Nidia I.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Matheson, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we study the "standardized candle method" using a sample of 37 nearby (redshift z color curves, and velocity curves. We find that the V-I color toward the end of the plateau can be used to estimate the host-galaxy reddening with a precision of σ(AV ) = 0.2 mag. The correlation between plateau luminosity and expansion velocity previously reported in the literature is recovered. Using this relation and assuming a standard reddening law (RV = 3.1), we obtain Hubble diagrams (HDs) in the BVI bands with dispersions of ~0.4 mag. Allowing RV to vary and minimizing the spread in the HDs, we obtain a dispersion range of 0.25-0.30 mag, which implies that these objects can deliver relative distances with precisions of 12%-14%. The resulting best-fit value of RV is 1.4 ± 0.1.

  5. Mantle structure beneath the western edge of the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sine, C.R.; Wilson, D.; Gao, W.; Grand, S.P.; Aster, R.; Ni, J.; Baldridge, W.S.

    2008-01-01

    Teleseismic traveltime data are inverted for mantle Vp and Vs variations beneath a 1400 km long line of broadband seismometers extending from eastern New Mexico to western Utah. The model spans 600 km beneath the moho with resolution of ???50 km. Inversions show a sharp, large-magnitude velocity contrast across the Colorado Plateau-Great Basin transition extending ???200 km below the crust. Also imaged is a fast anomaly 300 to 600 km beneath the NW portion of the array. Very slow velocities beneath the Great Basin imply partial melting and/or anomalously wet mantle. We propose that the sharp contrast in mantle velocities across the western edge of the Plateau corresponds to differential lithospheric modification, during and following Farallon subduction, across a boundary defining the western extent of unmodified Proterozoic mantle lithosphere. The deep fast anomaly corresponds to thickened Farallon plate or detached continental lithosphere at transition zone depths. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Frequency of human toxocariasis in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OO Ajayi

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa was used to examine sera of 104 children and adults in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria for anti-toxocaral antibodies, out of which 31 (29.8% were reactive. The seropositive rates were 30.4% for adults, 29.6% for children, 34% for females and 25.9% for males. However, the differences were not significant by age and sex. A highly significant association (p 0.05.

  7. Landslide development within the Barlad Plateau of Eastern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niacsu, Lilian; Ionita, Ion

    2014-05-01

    The Barlad Plateau, extending about 8,230 square kilometers is considered as the most typical unit of the Moldavian Plateau of the Eastern Romania. The Miocene-Pliocene clay-sandy layers are inter-bedded with shallow sandstone and limestone seams. These sedimentary layers that have outcropped as a result of erosion are gently dipping toward S-SE in the form of a monocline. Landslides have been recognized as an important environmental threat in the major subunits of the Barlad Plateau, namely: Central Moldavian Plateau, Falciu Hills and Tutova Rolling Hills. Four main areas of monitoring landslides were explored such as successive aerial photographs of the 1960, 1970, 2005 and 2009 flights, repeated field surveys for a thorough reconnaissance of the study area, classical levelling work and GIS software applications as TNT Mips and Arc GIS. Also, the Caesium-137 technique has been used to get information on documenting sedimentation rates in some small catchments. Results have indicated that the landslide development is strongly controlled by the northern and western looking steep faces of cuestas, by changes of rock composition and by human impact. Also, it showed great pulses in conjunction with the rainfall distribution. For example, half of the Upper Barlad catchment that drains an area of 22,560 ha is covered by landslides. Furthermore, the active landslides amounted 11% of the total (2,317 ha) after the rainy 1968-1973 period and since 1982 under drier conditions they gradually limited to 444.0 ha (2% of the total).

  8. Evaluating first-year pine seedling survival plateau in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskar N. Khana; Thomas J. Dean; Scott D. Roberts; Donald L. Grebner

    2016-01-01

    First-year seeding survival has been a continuing problem since the start of commercial pine plantation forestry in the 1950s. First-year survival of bare-root loblolly pine seedlings on intensively prepared sites in Louisiana has maintained a survival plateau between 79 to 89 percent with an average of about 82 percent. The specific objectives of this study were to...

  9. Research on the slope spectrum of the Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new concept dealing with digital analysis of loess terrain,slope spectrum,is presented and discussed in this paper,by introducing its characteristic,represen-tation and extracting method from DEMs. Using 48 geomorphological units in dif-ferent parts of the loess as test areas and 5 m-resolution DEMs as original test data,the quantitative depiction and spatial distribution of slope spectrum in China’s Loess Plateau have been studied on the basis of a series of carefully-designed experiments. In addition,initial experiment indicates a strong relationship between the slope spectrum and the loess landform types,displaying a potential importance of the slope spectrum in geomorphological studies. Based on the slope spectrums derived from the 25 m-resolution DEM data in whole loess terrain in northern part of Shaanxi,13 slope spectrum indices were extracted and integrated into a compre-hensive layer with image integration method. Based on that,a series of unsuper-vised classifications was applied in order to make a landform classification in northern Shaanxi Loess Plateau. Experimental results show that the slope spec-trum analysis is an effective method in revealing the macro landform features. A continuous change of slope spectrum from south to north in northern Shaanxi Loess Plateau shows an obvious spatial distribution of different loess landforms. This also proves the great significance of the slope spectrum method in describing the terrain roughness and landform evolution as well as a further understanding on landform genesis and spatial distribution rule of different landforms in the Loess Plateau.

  10. Stability of alpine meadow ecosystem on the Qinghai- Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Huakun; ZHOU Li; ZHAO Xinquan; LIU Wei; LI Yingnian; GU Song; ZHOU Xinmin

    2006-01-01

    The meadow ecosystem on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is considered to be sensitive to climate change. An understanding of the alpine meadow ecosystem is therefore important for predicting the response of ecosystems to climate change. In this study, we use the coefficients of variation (Cv) and stability (E) obtained from the Haibei Alpine Meadow Ecosystem Research Station to characterize the ecosystem stability. The results suggest that the net primary production of the alpine meadow ecosystem was more stable (Cv = 13.18%) than annual precipitation (Cv = 16.55%) and annual mean air temperature (Cv = 28.82%). The net primary production was insensitive to either the precipitation (E = 0.0782) or air temperature (E = 0.1113). In summary, the alpine meadow ecosystem on the Qinghai- Tibetan Plateau is much stable. Comparison of alpine meadow ecosystem stability with other five natural grassland ecosystems in Israel and southern African indicates that the alpine meadow ecosystem on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is the most stable ecosystem. The alpine meadow ecosystem with relatively simple structure has high stability, which indicates that community stability is not only correlated with biodiversity and community complicity but also with environmental stability. An average oscillation cycles of 3―4 years existed in annual precipitation, annual mean air temperature, net primary production and the population size of consumers at the Haibei natural ecosystem. The high stability of the alpine meadow ecosystem may be resulting also from the adaptation of the ecosystem to the alpine environment.

  11. Several characteristics of contemporary climate change in the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文琴; 陈隆勋; 周自江

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics of contemporary climate change in the Tibetan Plateau have been investigated based on the observational data of monthly mean air temperature, monthly mean maximum and minimum air temperatures, and precipitation amount at 217 stations in the Plateau and its adjacent areas in 1951-1998, in which the temperature data at Lhasa, Lanzhou, Kunming and Chengdu were extended to a period of 1935-1950. The following conclusions can be drawn. (1) The air temperature in the Tibetan Plateau decreased from the 1950s to the 1960s, afterwards it began warming up to the 1990s. The data at the Lhasa Station beginning from 1935 have indicated that the air temperature at the station was the highest in the 1940s, then it became cooling until the 1960s. After the 1960s, it began warming until the 1990s. However, the air temperature at Lhasa in the 1990s still did not reach as high as in the 1940s. (2) Since the 1960s, there has existed a cooling belt below 3000 m altitude above sea level, which is located in ea

  12. Soil Erosion Study on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaxian; Guo, Shengli; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2017-04-01

    The Chinese Loess Plateau, because of its highly erodible loess soils and hilly topography, has been extensively studied by soil scientists and geomorphologists. As a research hotspot, there are five national-level field stations across the Loess Plateau, with hundreds of erosion plots set up with various sizes, lengths, slope angles and vegetation covers. In addition, huge indoor rain simulation facilities exist in in different institutes which can provide rainfall simulations under a wide range of controlled conditions. Consequently, national-level restoration projects have achieved tremendous improvements in curbing soil erosion and improving regional agro-ecosystem, mostly by afforestation and soil rehabilitation. However, when implementing the advanced techniques and models that have been widely applied in the rest of the world, there are often regional considerations, which demand new approaches to overcome. One example are the unintentional impacts of restoration efforts, such as the establishment of apple orchards. Over 20 years, they have caused an increase in soil erodibility and lowered local ground water levels. Neither before the introduction of this landscape rehabilitation technique, nor now, has the impact of intensive fruit production been systematically studied, despite lending itself to systematic experiments. The lack of research is attributed to the general idea that trees protect soils and improve environmental services. This presentation identifies several such specific regional environmental issues associated with soil erosion on the Loess Plateau and discusses strategies to avoid missing important research questions.

  13. Spatial variation of reference crop evapotranspiration on Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-hong YANG; Zhan-yu ZHANG; Xin-yi XIANG

    2009-01-01

    This study is based on meteorological observation data collected at 38 weather stations on the Tibetan Plateau over several decades. Daily reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) was calculated with the FAO-56 standard Penman-Monteith formula. A test of normality was performed with Statistica 6.0 software, isotropic and anisotropic semi-variogram analysis was conducted with the GS+ (geostatistics for the environmental sciences) system for Windows 7.0, and the characteristics of spatial variation of daily ET0 were obtained. The following results can be obtained: Daily ETo for different periods on the Tibetan Plateau are distributed normally; Except for daily ETo in the E-W (east-west) direction in the summer, which showed a slight negative correlation with distance change, the Moran's indexes of daily ET0 for different periods in all directions on the Tibetan Plateau within a 100-km distance were positive, demonstrating a positive correlation with distance change; Variograms of daily ET0 in June, the dry season, the wet season, as well as annual average daily ET0 fit well with the Gaussian model; A variogram of daily ET0 in December fit well with the exponential model; Variograms of daily ET0 for the four seasons fit well with the linear with sill model.

  14. Plateau Inflation in $R$-parity Violating MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Chakravarty, Girish Kumar; Lambiase, Gaetano; Mohanty, Subhendra

    2016-01-01

    Inflation with plateau potentials give the best fit to the CMB observables as they predict tensor to scalar ratio stringently bounded by the observations from Planck and BICEP2/Keck. In supergravity models it is possible to obtain plateau potentials for scalar fields in the Einstein frame which can serve as the inflation potential by considering higher dimensional Planck suppressed operators and by the choice of non-canonical K\\"ahler potentials. We construct a plateau inflation model in MSSM where the inflation occurs along a sneutrino-Higgs flat direction. A hidden sector Polonyi field is used for the breaking of supersymmetry at the end of the inflation. The SUSY breaking results in a TeV scale gravitino mass and scalar masses and gives rise to bilinear and triliear couplings of scalars which can be tested at the LHC. The sneutrino inflation field can be observed at the LHC as a TeV scale diphoton resonance like the one reported by CMS and ATLAS.

  15. Path of Social Construction in Northwest Sichuan Plateau Pastoral Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of main contents of social construction and key points of construction,this paper analyzes features of conditions of northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area.The social construction at current stage mainly includes social cause in narrow sense,and social management at meso-level.The northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area is faced with the best policy and development opportunity.However,there are still many weak aspects.Firstly,social structure is not coordinated with economic structure.Secondly,social construction ability of grass-roots government is weak.Thirdly,the ability to respond to public demands is low.Fourthly,there is a big gap in availability of basic public service.Finally,it presents path selection for social construction of northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area:strengthen social construction ability of grass-roots government;promote social construction with livelihood projects as key projects;boost social construction taking advantage of ecological construction;develop basic public service with the aid of external forces;intensify evaluation system for supervision of social construction works.

  16. River discharge changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Annual mean discharge data of the five large rivers in the exorheic region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from 1956 to 2000 are analyzed for trends with the Mann-Kendall nonparametric trend test. The results reveal that though in general no increasing trends exist in the total river discharges, significant regional differences of river discharge exist, reflecting the decreasing trends of discharge in the Yellow River and the Tongtian River (upper Changjiang River), an increasing trend in Yalong River, and inverted change in the Lancang River and Yarlung Zangbo River. Based on analyses of the seasonal discharge, it is found that climatic change had a significant effect on the seasonal variation of river discharge in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. In spring (from March to May) the discharge increased significantly, especially in the source area of the Yellow River. Together with the analyses on data of the mean temperature in the Northern Hemisphere and climatic data within the river basins, the relationship between discharges and mean temperature of the Northern Hemisphere is explored, which indicates that there is no increase in the stream discharge in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with global warming. It is probably the increasing evaporation, caused by rising temperature that offsets the hydrological effect of increasing precipitation.

  17. Plateau inflation in R-parity violating MSSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Girish Kumar; Dey, Ujjal Kumar; Lambiase, Gaetano; Mohanty, Subhendra

    2016-12-01

    Inflation with plateau potentials give the best fit to the CMB observables as they predict tensor to scalar ratio stringently bounded by the observations from Planck and BICEP2/Keck. In supergravity models it is possible to obtain plateau potentials for scalar fields in the Einstein frame which can serve as the inflation potential by considering higher dimensional Planck suppressed operators and by the choice of non-canonical Kähler potentials. We construct a plateau inflation model in MSSM where the inflation occurs along a sneutrino-Higgs flat direction. A hidden sector Polonyi field is used for the breaking of supersymmetry after the end of the inflation. The proper choice of superpotential leads to strong stabilization of the Polonyi field, mZ2 ≫m3/22, which is required to solve the cosmological moduli problem. Also, the SUSY breaking results in a TeV scale gravitino mass and scalar masses and gives rise to bilinear and trilinear couplings of scalars which can be tested at the LHC. The sneutrino inflation field can be observed at the LHC as a TeV scale diphoton resonance like the one reported by CMS and ATLAS.

  18. The Relevant Analysis on the Stop Time in Winter and Times of Plateau and the Index in Early Days for Garrisonned Plateau Constructors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Zhencai; Zhang Xuefeng; Deng Yunqing; Wu Chengkui; Cao Ruiling; Peng Quansheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Study the influence of the stop time in winter, times of plateau on the index in early days for plateau constructors meet; Method: Is it participate in plateau construction of 2002-2004 to choose, enter into the plateau again of 2003-2005 practise clothes finish to mate 326 materials "physical examination in front of the worker", which is passed in Nanshankou Hospital in early days, divided into 3 groups according to the difference of year for the physical examination, examine by leaning towards relevant analytical methods; Result: (1) In the situation of day controlling about the stop time in winter, times of garrison in plateau and blood and oxygen saturation lever ( SaO2 ), the systolic pressure (sBP) is presented and shouldered relevantly winter to control. Present positive correlation with the value of hemoglobin (Hb) ; (2) It is stopped that in case of controlling and is garrisoned in the number of times of plateau in winter day and blood and oxygen saturation lever (SaO2) to present positive correlation. Present and shoulder with the hemoglobin (Hb) relevantly. Conclusion: In order to ensure the health of plateau constructors to the maximum extent, should try one's best to reduce the number of times of returning to the plateau in possible cases. At the same time each one constructs for year and returns to the time that the hinterland concentrates rest should be on above 90 days.

  19. The dating and interpretation of Chusang indicates permanent human occupation of the interior of the Tibetan Plateau in the early Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael; Aldenderfer, Mark; Wang, Zhijun; Hoffmann, Dirk; Dahl, Jenny; Degering, Detlev; Haas, Randy; Schlütz, Frank; Gliganic, Luke; May, Jan-Hendrik

    2017-04-01

    The nature and timing of a permanent human settlement on the Tibetan Plateau and the accompanying cultural and physiological responses, including genetic high-altitude adaptations, are subject to ongoing debate (1-3). The latest genetic data (based on extensive analysis of the modern Tibetan genome) suggest a main wave of human migration onto the plateau between 15 and 8 ka but genetic traces that hint to an even earlier initial occupation (dating to 65 ka) have to be considered too (4, 5). The archaeological record against which these genetic data can be compared to remains scant. The few archaeological sites with a chronometric age are all located on the northeastern margin of the plateau and range in date from 9 to 15 ka. These sites typically are at medium to low elevations (≤ 3300 masl) and are believed to have been short-term, seasonal occupations monitored from lower-elevation base camps (1). It is widely believed that permanent peopling of the interior (higher-elevation zones) of the Tibetan Plateau was only facilitated by an agricultural lifeway at 3.6 thousand calibrated carbon-14 years before present (2). The climatic and paleoenvironmental constraints on this colonization process are poorly understood (1-3). Here we report a reanalysis of the chronology and paleoenvironmental significance of the Chusang site, located on the central Tibetan Plateau at an elevation of 4270 meters above sea level (3). The site is known for its hot springs and extensive hydrothermal carbonate (travertine) formations and also preserves 19 human hand- and footprints on the surface of a fossil travertine sheet. The minimum age of the site is fixed at 7.4 thousand years (thorium-230/uranium dating), with a maximum age between 8.20 and 12.67 thousand calibrated carbon-14 years before present based on radiocarbon and OSL single-grain dating. Travel cost modeling and archaeological data suggest that the site was part of an annual, permanent, preagricultural occupation of the

  20. Validation and Application of Reanalysis Temperature Data over the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Han; ZHU Jinhuan; ZHOU Libo; LI Peng; MA Shupo

    2014-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau has substantial impacts on the weather and climate of the Northern Hemisphere, due in large part to the thermal eff ects of the plateau surface. Surface temperature over the Tibetan Plateau is the most important parameter in determining these thermal eff ects. We present a method for verifying widely used reanalysis temperature products from NCEP-R2, ERA-Interim, and JRA-25 over the Tibetan Plateau, with the aim of obtaining a reliable picture of surface temperature and its changes over the plateau. Reanalysis data are validated against the topography elevation, satellite observations, and radiosonde data. ERA-Interim provides the most reliable estimates of Tibetan Plateau surface temperature among these three reanalyses. We therefore use this dataset to study the climatology and trends of surface temperature over the Tibetan Plateau. ERA-Interim data indicate a dramatic warming over the Tibetan Plateau from 1979 to 2010, with warming rates of 0.33℃per decade in annual mean temperature, 0.22℃per decade in summer and 0.47℃ per decade in winter mean temperatures. Comparison with the results of previous studies suggests that surface warming over the Tibetan Plateau has accelerated during the past 30 years. This warming is distributed heterogeneously across the Tibetan Plateau, possibly due to topographic eff ects.

  1. Validation and application of reanalysis temperature data over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Han; Zhu, Jinhuan; Zhou, Libo; Li, Peng; Ma, Shupo

    2014-02-01

    The Tibetan Plateau has substantial impacts on the weather and climate of the Northern Hemisphere, due in large part to the thermal effects of the plateau surface. Surface temperature over the Tibetan Plateau is the most important parameter in determining these thermal effects. We present a method for verifying widely used reanalysis temperature products from NCEP-R2, ERA-Interim, and JRA-25 over the Tibetan Plateau, with the aim of obtaining a reliable picture of surface temperature and its changes over the plateau. Reanalysis data are validated against the topography elevation, satellite observations, and radiosonde data. ERA-Interim provides the most reliable estimates of Tibetan Plateau surface temperature among these three reanalyses. We therefore use this dataset to study the climatology and trends of surface temperature over the Tibetan Plateau. ERA-Interim data indicate a dramatic warming over the Tibetan Plateau from 1979 to 2010, with warming rates of 0.33°C per decade in annual mean temperature, 0.22°C per decade in summer and 0.47°C per decade in winter mean temperatures. Comparison with the results of previous studies suggests that surface warming over the Tibetan Plateau has accelerated during the past 30 years. This warming is distributed heterogeneously across the Tibetan Plateau, possibly due to topographic effects.

  2. Climatology of monsoon precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau from 13-year TRMM observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijuan, Bai; Guoping, Li

    2016-10-01

    Based on the 13-year data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite during 2001-2013, the influencing geographical location of the Tibetan Plateau (Plateau) monsoon is determined. It is found that the domain of the Plateau monsoon is bounded by the latitude between 27° N and 37° N and the longitude between 60° E and 103° E. According to the annual relative precipitation, the Plateau monsoon can be divided into three sections: the Plateau winter monsoon (PWM) over Iran and Afghanistan, the Plateau summer monsoon (PSM) over the central Plateau, and the transiting zone of the Plateau monsoon (TPM) over the south, west, and east edges of the Plateau. In PWM and PSM, the monsoon climatology has a shorter rainy season with the mean annual rainfall of less than 800 mm. In TPM, it has a longer rainy season with the mean annual rainfall of more than 1800 mm. PWM experiences a single-peak monthly rainfall with the peak during January to March; PSM usually undergoes a multi-peak pattern with peaks in the warm season; TPM presents a double-peak pattern, with a strong peak in late spring to early summer and a secondary peak in autumn. The Plateau monsoon also characterizes an asymmetrical seasonal advance of the rain belt. In the east of the Plateau, the rain belt migrates in a south-north orientation under the impact of the tropical and subtropical systems' oscillation. In the west of the Plateau, the rain belt advances in an east-west direction, which is mainly controlled by the regional Plateau monsoon.

  3. Analysis of the structure of different Tibetan Plateau vortex types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinyuan; Liu, Changhai; Fan, Guangzhou; Zhang, Jie

    2017-06-01

    Knowledge of the structure of the Tibetan Plateau vortex (TPV) is of considerable importance for understanding the generation and development mechanisms of this mesoscale system. However, our understanding of vortex structures and our ability to classify them on a physical basis is limited due to insufficient observations. The highresolution new-generation NCEP-CFSR (Climate Forecast System Reanalysis) dataset is used in the present paper to investigate the general structural features of various types of mature TPV through classification and composite structure analysis. Results indicate that the dynamic and thermodynamic structures show regional and seasonal dependency, as well as being influenced by attributes of translation, associated precipitation, and the South Asian high (SAH). The common precipitating TPV (type I), frequently occurring in the west-east-oriented zonal region between 33° and 36°N, is a notably low-level baroclinic and asymmetric system. It resides within a large-scale confluent zone and preferentially travels eastward, potentially moving out of the plateau. The heavy rain vortex (type II) corresponds to a deep vortex circulation occurring in midsummer. The low-level baroclinic sub-category (type IIa) is associated with a low-level jet and mainly originates in the area 32°-35°N, 86°-94°E, preferentially moving east of 90°E and even away from the plateau; meanwhile, the nearly upright sub-category (type IIb), which has a cold center at low levels and a warm center at mid-upper levels, is a quasi-stationary and quasi-symmetric system favorably occurring west of 92°E. A western-pattern SAH exists in the upper troposphere for these two sub-categories. The springtime dry vortex in the western plateau (type III) is warm and shallow (approximately 100 hPa deep), and zonal circulation dominates the large-scale environmental flows in the middle and upper troposphere. The precipitating vortex in the southern plateau occurring during July

  4. Agulhas Plateau and Mozambique Ridge: Two LIPS of a Kind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenzelmann-Neben, G.; Gohl, K.; Parsiegla, N.

    2008-12-01

    The seaway south of South Africa represents a critical gateway within the global ocean circulation. Here, warm surface and cold deep and bottom water masses meet and lead to a transfer of heat and salt between the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. This transfer maintains the global thermohaline circulation. The paths of the oceanic currents are strongly influenced by the seafloor topography observed in this region. Thus, the tectonic evolution of the South African continental margin and the gateway starting in Cretaceous times are of major importance in order to understand the evolution of the current system and the transition from the Greenhouse to the Icehouse world. The gateway itself is characterized by the Agulhas Plateau, which has been postulated to originate in the interaction of the Bouvet Hotspot and a triple junction and thus to fall within the world-wide suite of Large Igneous Provinces [Gohl and Uenzelmann-Neben, 2001; Parsiegla, et al., 2008; Uenzelmann-Neben, et al., 1999]. A similar structure has been identified for the crust of the southern Mozambique Ridge [Gohl, et al., submitted]. This raises the question whether those two LIP events were related, whether their emplacement happened at the same time and how they tie in with other LIP events observed in Late Cretaceous times such as the formation or the Kerguelen LIP. Furthermore, we may speculate on the effect those magmatic events had on the evolution of both oceanic currents and the climate. Similarities as well as differences in crustal structure and evolution and later sedimentary development will be presented for those two structures based on seismic refraction and reflection data. References: Gohl, K. and G. Uenzelmann-Neben (2001), The crustal role of the Agulhas Plateau, southwest Indian Ocean: Evidence from seismic profiling, Geophysical Journal International, 144, 632-646. Gohl, K., et al. (submitted), Is the Mozambique Ridge related to the Agulhas Plateau Large Igneous Province?, Geophysical

  5. Levels of CD105(+) cells increase and cell proliferation decreases during S-phase arrest of amniotic fluid cells in long-term culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ding; Chen, Rui; Zhong, Xuan; Fan, Yong; Lai, Weiqiang; Sun, Xiaofang

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed to improve the characterization of amniotic fluid cells (AFCs) in order to optimize their use in chromosomal prenatal diagnosis and as seed or stem cells for tissue engineering. The AFCs used in the current study were obtained from three females in their second trimester of pregnancy. The cells were cultured independently and characterized by cell morphology, cell markers, cell cycle distribution and chromosome Giemsa banding in an early- and late-passage. The AFCs remained homogeneous in culture and expressed mesenchymal markers, but not endothelial markers along the culture process. In addition, compared with the early-passage cells, the late-passage cells exhibit an increase in CD105 expression, a decrease in cell division and a delay in the cell cycle, and a number of cells underwent cell cycle arrest. However, the cells retained a normal karyotype. Therefore, the current study characterized AFCs in a clinical culture and confirmed that AFCs are mesenchymal precursors. The results obtained may be useful for the application of AFCs in prenatal diagnosis.

  6. Early Human Occupation on the Northeast Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, D.; Madsen, D.; Brantingham, P.; Perrault, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau presents great challenges for human occupation: low oxygen, high ultraviolet radiation, harsh seasonal climate, low overall biological productivity. How and when early humans were able to cope physiologically, genetically, and behaviorally with these extremes is important for understanding the history of human adaptive flexibility. Our investigations of prehistoric human settlement on the northeast Tibetan Plateau focus on (a) establishing well-dated evidence for occupation of altitudes >3000 m, (b) the environmental context of high altitude adaptation, and (c) relations of hunting and pastoralism to lower-altitude agrarian systems. We observe two major prehistoric settlement patterns in the Qinghai Lake area. The earliest, ~15,000-7500 yr old, consists of small isolated firehearths with sparse associated stone tools and wild mammal remains (1). Numerous hearths often occur in the same localities, indicating repeated short-duration occupations by small hunting parties. A second pattern, ~9000-4000 yr old, was established during the Holocene climatic optimum. These sites represent prolonged seasonal residential occupation, containing dark anthropogenic midden, hearth and pit constructions, abundant stone tools, occasional ceramics, and abundant diverse faunal remains (including medium-large mammals but lacking domestic sheep/yak)(2). These Plateau-margin base camps allowed greater intensity of use of the high Plateau. Residential occupation was strongly influenced by nearby lower-altitude farming communities; development of the socioeconomic landscape along the Yellow River likely played at least as great a role in Plateau occupation patterns as did Holocene environmental changes. Holocene vegetation changes in the NE Tibetan Plateau have been attributed to climate (3) or anthropogenic modification (4). Our results document changes in shrub/tree presence from ~12,000-4000 BP, similar to pollen records, that likely reflect climate rather than

  7. Plateau iris Íris em platô

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Diniz Filho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The term plateau iris was first coined in 1958 to describe the iris configuration of a patient. Two years later the concept of plateau iris was published. In 1977, the plateau iris configuration was classically defined as presurgical changes of an eye with a relative normal central anterior chamber depth, flat iris by conventional biomicroscopy, but displaying an extremely narrow or closed angle on gonioscopic examination. On the other hand, the plateau iris syndrome was defined as an acute glaucoma crisis in one eye with a relative normal central anterior chamber depth and patent iridotomy on direct examination, presenting angle closure confirmed by gonioscopic examination after mydriasis. In 1992, the anatomic aspects of plateau iris were studied using ultrasound biomicroscopy. Finally, plateau iris has been considered an anatomic variant of iris structure in which the iris periphery angulates sharply forward from its insertion point and then again angulates sharply and centrally backward, along with an anterior positioning of the ciliary processes seen on ultrasound biomicroscopy. The clinical treatment of plateau iris syndrome is carried out with topical use of pilocarpine. However, the definitive treatment should be fulfilled by performing an argon laser peripheral iridoplasty.O termo íris em platô foi primeiramente inventado em 1958 para descrever a configuração da íris de um paciente. Dois anos depois o conceito de íris em platô foi publicado. Em 1977, a configuração de íris em platô foi classicamente definida como alterações pré-cirúrgicas de um olho com uma profundidade de câmara anterior relativamente normal, íris plana pela biomicroscopia convencional, mas mostrando um ângulo extremamente estreito ou fechado pela gonioscopia. Por outro lado, a síndrome de íris em platô foi definida como uma crise de glaucoma agudo em um olho com uma profundidade de câmara anterior relativamente normal e uma iridectomia patente ao

  8. Tectonic setting of Cretaceous basins on the NE Tibetan Plateau: Insights from the Jungong basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, W.H.; Kirby, E.; Dewen, Z.; Jianhui, L.

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying the Cenozoic growth of high topography in the Indo-Asian collision zone remains challenging, due in part to significant shortening that occurred within Eurasia before collision. A growing body of evidence suggests that regions far removed from the suture zone experienced deformation before and during the early phases of Himalayan orogenesis. In the present-day north-eastern Tibetan Plateau, widespread deposits of Cretaceous sediment attest to significant basin formation; however, the tectonic setting of these basins remains enigmatic. We present a study of a regionally extensive network of sedimentary basins that are spatially associated with a system of SE-vergent thrust faults and are now exposed in the high ranges of the north-eastern corner of the Tibetan Plateau. We focus on a particularly well-exposed basin, located ~20km north of the Kunlun fault in the Anyemaqen Shan. The basin is filled by ~900m of alluvial sediments that become finer-grained away from the basin-bounding fault. Additionally, beds in the proximal footwall of the basin-bounding fault exhibit progressive, up-section shallowing and several intraformational unconformities which can be traced into correlative conformities in the distal part of the basin. The observations show sediment accumulated in the basin during fault motion. Regional constraints on the timing of sediment deposition are provided by both fossil assemblages from the Early Cretaceous, and by K-Ar dating of volcanic rocks that floor and cross-cut sedimentary fill. We argue that during the Cretaceous, the interior NE Tibetan Plateau experienced NW-SE contractional deformation similar to that documented throughout the Qinling-Dabie orogen to the east. The Songpan-Ganzi terrane apparently marked the southern limit of this deformation, such that it may have been a relatively rigid block in the Tibetan lithosphere, separating regions experiencing deformation north of the convergent Tethyan margin from regions deforming

  9. Phase system selection with fractional factorial design for purification of recombinant cyanovirin-N from a hydroponic culture medium using centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzień, Łukasz; Madeira, Luisa; Fisher, Derek; Ma, Julian; Garrard, Ian

    2013-04-12

    Centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) with an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) was used to purify recombinant cyanovirin-N (CV-N) from other proteins which were co-secreted into a hydroponic plant medium in a rhizosecretion process. To achieve satisfactory protein concentration, the purification was preceded by ultrafiltration performed on a 5 kDa filter. ATPS, because of their gentle nature, were selected as the phase system for CPC. A systematic phase system selection was applied. This involved studying the effect of seven parameters of ATPS: polymer type, salt type, the polymer and salt concentration, the polymer molecular weight, pH, and presence of two additional salts; NaCl and NaClO4, which all together gave 320 combinations. design of experiment (DoE) software allowed the reduction of this number to 46. Having tested partitioning of cyanovirin-N and impurities in 46 ATPS, the three best potential phase systems generated by the programme were then tested on the CPC. Out of these three, 13/13% PEG4000 sodium phosphate, pH 3.0, proved to be most effective phase system in the purification of cyanovirin-N, judged by ELISA and SDS-PAGE analysis, as it eliminated most of the impurities from the final cyanovirin-N preparation.

  10. The system of physico-geographical regions of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑度

    1996-01-01

    The Qinghai-Xizang Plateau is a unique physico-geographical region on the earth. As a whole, the spatial differentiation of physico-geographical regions of the plateau is mainly determined by topographic configuration and atmospheric circulation, warm and humid in the southeast, cold and arid in the northwest. The natural landscapes apppear in the following succession: forest → meadow → steppe → desert. The system of physico-geographical regions of the plateau is demarcated on the principle of bio-climate or the principle of three dimension zonality. Based on the thermal conditions, moisture regimes and variation in landform the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau is sequentially demarcated. The duration of mean daily temperature above 10℃ is the principal index, the subsidiary criterion is mean temperature of the warmest month, two temperature belts may be divided: plateau subpolar and plateau temperate. Annual aridity is taken as the principal index, subordinated by annual precipitation. Four moisture regional

  11. Xenobiotic metabolism capacities of human skin in comparison with a 3D-epidermis model and keratinocyte-based cell culture as in vitro alternatives for chemical testing: phase II enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Christine; Pfeiffer, Roland; Tigges, Julia; Ruwiedel, Karsten; Hübenthal, Ulrike; Merk, Hans F; Krutmann, Jean; Edwards, Robert J; Abel, Josef; Pease, Camilla; Goebel, Carsten; Hewitt, Nicola; Fritsche, Ellen

    2012-05-01

    The 7th Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits the use of animals in cosmetic testing for certain endpoints, such as genotoxicity. Therefore, skin in vitro models have to replace chemical testing in vivo. However, the metabolic competence neither of human skin nor of alternative in vitro models has so far been fully characterized, although skin is the first-pass organ for accidentally or purposely (cosmetics and pharmaceuticals) applied chemicals. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand the xenobiotic-metabolizing capacities of human skin and to compare these activities to models developed to replace animal testing. We have measured the activity of the phase II enzymes glutathione S-transferase, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and N-acetyltransferase in ex vivo human skin, the 3D epidermal model EpiDerm 200 (EPI-200), immortalized keratinocyte-based cell lines (HaCaT and NCTC 2544) and primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes. We show that all three phase II enzymes are present and highly active in skin as compared to phase I. Human skin, therefore, represents a more detoxifying than activating organ. This work systematically compares the activities of three important phase II enzymes in four different in vitro models directly to human skin. We conclude from our studies that 3D epidermal models, like the EPI-200 employed here, are superior over monolayer cultures in mimicking human skin xenobiotic metabolism and thus better suited for dermatotoxicity testing. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Evolutionary events in Lilium (including Nomocharis, Liliaceae) are temporally correlated with orogenies of the Q-T plateau and the Hengduan Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yun-Dong; Harris, A J; Zhou, Song-Dong; He, Xing-Jin

    2013-09-01

    The Hengduan Mountains (H-D Mountains) in China flank the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (Q-T Plateau) and are a center of great temperate plant diversity. The geological history and complex topography of these mountains may have prompted the in situ evolution of many diverse and narrowly endemic species. Despite the importance of the H-D Mountains to biodiversity, many uncertainties remain regarding the timing and tempo of their uplift. One hypothesis is that the Q-T Plateau underwent a final, rapid phase of uplift 8-7 million years ago (Mya) and that the H-D Mountains orogeny was a separate event occurring 4-3 Mya. To evaluate this hypothesis, we performed phylogenetic, biogeographic, divergence time dating, and diversification rate analyses of the horticulturally important genus Lilium, including Nomocharis. The Lilium-Nomocharis complex is distributed throughout the temperate Northern Hemisphere but is most diverse within the H-D Mountains and Q-T Plateau. Our matK and ITS phylogenies support previous studies showing that Nomocharis is nested within Lilium. However, we detected incongruence between the two gene trees which may result from hybridization. Dating analyses performed using the ITS dataset showed that the evolution of major lineages within Lilium-Nomocharis may be temporally coincident with Q-T Plateau uplift occurring 8-7 Mya and H-D Mountains uplift approximately 4-3 Mya. Our analyses of diversification times and rates among Lilium-Nomocharis clades are less conclusive. However, these do suggest high extinction rates among H-D Mountains lineages.

  13. Multi-decadal periods of enhanced aeolian activity on the north-eastern Tibet Plateau during the last 2ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauch, Georg

    2016-10-01

    The north-eastern Tibetan Plateau is regarded as key area for the understanding of the Holocene paleoclimate in central Asia. During the last decade a special emphasis has been placed on multi-decadal to millennial scale climate fluctuations, especially in the context of the recent climate change. However, most reconstructions are based on lake sediments, tree rings and speleothems whereas only little information from terrestrial archives is included. This study presents multi-decadal scale climate fluctuations based on optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from aeolian sediments from three catchment areas. Six phases of enhanced aeolian accumulation during the last 2000 years, each lasting around 80-200 years were identified. The first three phases (1630-1725 CE, 1450-1530 CE and 1250-1350 CE) occurred during the Little Ice Age; the other three (750-950 CE, 390-540 CE, 50-225 CE) during the so-called dark ages cooling. Aeolian processes were strongly reduced during the medieval climate anomaly. A comparison with other proxy records indicates that the formation of aeolian archives on the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau during the late Holocene is facilitated by cool and dry climate conditions during times of weaker Asian Summer Monsoon and probably enhanced westerlies. The results show that short term climate fluctuations can be reconstructed from non-continuous and heterogeneous terrestrial archives in a semi-arid environment, provided a sufficient number of OSL ages from aeolian sediments is available.

  14. Continental Dynamics in High Tibetan Plateau: Normal Faulting Type Earthquake Activities and Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Jiren; Zhao Zhixin

    2009-01-01

    Various earthquake fault types were analyzed for this study on the crust movement in the high region of the Tibetan plateau by analyzing mechanism solutions and stress fields. The results show that a lot of normal faulting type earthquakes are concentrated in the central High Tibetan plateau. Many of them are nearly perfect normal fault events. The strikes of the fault planes of normal faulting earthquakes are almost in an N-S direction based on the analyses of the Wulff stereonet diagrams of fault plane solutions. It implies that the dislocation slip vectors of the normal faulting type events have quite great components in the E-W direction. The extensions probably are an eastward extensional motion, being mainly a tectonic active regime in the plateau altitudes. The tensional stress in the E-W or NWW-SEE direction predominates earthquake occurrences in the normal event region of the central plateau. The eastward extensional motion in the high Tibetan plateau is attributable to the gravitational collapse of the high plateau and the eastward extrusion of hotter mantle materials beneath the east boundary of the plateau. Extensional motions from the relaxation of the topography and/or gravitational collapse in the high plateau hardly occurred along the N-S direction. The obstruction for the plateau to move eastward is rather weak.

  15. Posterior Slope of the Tibia Plateau in Malaysian Patients Undergoing Total Knee Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Yoga

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The posterior slope of the tibial plateau is an important feature to preserve during knee replacement. The correct slope aids in the amount of flexion and determines if the knee will be loose on flexion. This is a study on the posterior tibial plateau slope based on preoperative and postoperative radiographs of 100 consecutive patients who had total knee replacements. The average posterior slope of the tibia plateau was 10.1 degrees. There is a tendency for patients with higher pre-operative posterior tibial plateau slope to have higher post-operative posterior tibial plate slope.

  16. Review of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Based Research on China Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Guo'an; Ge Shanshan; Li Fayuan; Zhou Jieyu

    2005-01-01

    The Loess Plateau is one of the hot research areas for its specific geographical features. In resent years, with the establishment of national multi-scale DEMs and the perfection of DEM based digital terrain analysis methods, new thoughts and methodologies have been constructed for the Loess Plateau research. This paper introduces the characteristics of DEM data, analyses the development stages of DEM applied in the Loess Plateau research, and discusses its further possible research direction. More discussions are focused on slope spectrum and its concept, as well as the significance in the Loess Plateau research.

  17. Relation between Growth and Vertical Distribution of Fine Roots and Soil Density in the Weibei Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhong; Li Peng; Xue Wenpeng; Guo Shengwu

    2006-01-01

    The influence of woodland soil bulk density on the growth and distribution of fine root system of main planting tree species in the Weibei Loess Plateau was investigated by means of pot culture and field survey.Results indicated that in the woodland of Pinus tabulaeformis,soil bulk density increased with the depth at different sites,while in the woodland of Robinia pseudoacacia,soil bulk density was higher than that in P.tabulaeformis,and there was no clear difference across the profile.Further analysis implied that there existed negative correlations between soil bulk density and fine root length in the woodland of P.tabulaeformis.Results from pot culture indicated that although the effects of pot culture media on the free root growth and development of different tree species seedlings were different,all treated seedlings grew better in the soil matter with medium bulk density and porosity and with the biggest biomass.Bulk density of pot culture media had clear effects on the growth and development of P.tabulaeformis and R.pseudoacacia seedling roots,especially on the former,whereas it had little effect on that of Platycladus orientalis and Prunus armeniaca var.ansu,whose fine root biomass changed little in different pot culture media.

  18. BIOCONVERSION OF N-OCTANE TO OCTANOIC-ACID BY A RECOMBINANT ESCHERICHIA-COLI CULTURED IN A 2-LIQUID PHASE BIOREACTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FAVREBULLE, O; Kingma, Jacob; Witholt, Bernard

    1991-01-01

    The alk genes from the catabolic OCT plasmid of Pseudomonas oleovorans, which encode the enzymes involved in the oxidation of n-alkanes to carboxylic acids, were introduced into E. coli W3110. The resulting recombinant converts n-octane in a two-liquid phase medium into the corresponding alkanoate a

  19. FINAL FRONTIER AT HANFORD TACKLING THE CENTRAL PLATEAU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GERBER MS

    2008-03-04

    The large land area in the center of the vast Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State is known as 'the plateau'--aptly named because its surface elevations are 250-300 feet above the groundwater table. By contrast, areas on the 585-square mile Site that border the Columbia River sit just 30-80 feet above the water table. The Central Plateau, which covers an ellipse of approximately 70 square miles, contains Hanford's radiochemical reprocessing areas--the 200 East and 200 West Areas--and includes the most highly radioactive waste and contaminated facilities on the Site. Five 'canyons' where chemical processes were used to separate out plutonium (Pu), 884 identified soil waste sites (including approximately 50 miles of solid waste burial trenches), more than 900 structures, and all of Hanford's liquid waste storage tanks reside in the Central Plateau. (Notes: Canyons is a nickname given by Hanford workers to the chemical reprocessing facilities. The 177, underground waste tanks at Hanford comprise a separate work scope and are not under Fluor's management). Fluor Hanford, a DOE prime cleanup contractor at the Site for the past 12 years, has moved aggressively to investigate Central Plateau waste sites in the last few years, digging more than 500 boreholes, test pits, direct soil 'pushes' or drive points; logging geophysical data sets; and performing electrical-resistivity scans (a non-intrusive technique that maps patterns of sub-surface soil conductivity). The goal is to identify areas of contamination areas in soil and solid waste sites, so that cost-effective and appropriate decisions on remediation can be made. In 2007, Fluor developed a new work plan for DOE that added 238 soil waste-site characterization activities in the Central Plateau during fiscal years (FYs) 2007-2010. This number represents a 50 percent increase over similar work previously done in central Hanford. Work Plans are

  20. Re-evaluating the 1940s CO2 plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Ana; Ciais, Philippe; Barichivich, Jonathan; Bopp, Laurent; Brovkin, Victor; Gasser, Thomas; Peng, Shushi; Pongratz, Julia; Viovy, Nicolas; Trudinger, Cathy M.

    2016-09-01

    The high-resolution CO2 record from Law Dome ice core reveals that atmospheric CO2 concentration stalled during the 1940s (so-called CO2 plateau). Since the fossil-fuel emissions did not decrease during the period, this stalling implies the persistence of a strong sink, perhaps sustained for as long as a decade or more. Double-deconvolution analyses have attributed this sink to the ocean, conceivably as a response to the very strong El Niño event in 1940-1942. However, this explanation is questionable, as recent ocean CO2 data indicate that the range of variability in the ocean sink has been rather modest in recent decades, and El Niño events have generally led to higher growth rates of atmospheric CO2 due to the offsetting terrestrial response. Here, we use the most up-to-date information on the different terms of the carbon budget: fossil-fuel emissions, four estimates of land-use change (LUC) emissions, ocean uptake from two different reconstructions, and the terrestrial sink modelled by the TRENDY project to identify the most likely causes of the 1940s plateau. We find that they greatly overestimate atmospheric CO2 growth rate during the plateau period, as well as in the 1960s, in spite of giving a plausible explanation for most of the 20th century carbon budget, especially from 1970 onwards. The mismatch between reconstructions and observations during the CO2 plateau epoch of 1940-1950 ranges between 0.9 and 2.0 Pg C yr-1, depending on the LUC dataset considered. This mismatch may be explained by (i) decadal variability in the ocean carbon sink not accounted for in the reconstructions we used, (ii) a further terrestrial sink currently missing in the estimates by land-surface models, or (iii) LUC processes not included in the current datasets. Ocean carbon models from CMIP5 indicate that natural variability in the ocean carbon sink could explain an additional 0.5 Pg C yr-1 uptake, but it is unlikely to be higher. The impact of the 1940-1942 El Niño on the

  1. Multi-phase induced inflation in theories with non-minimal coupling to gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artymowski, Michał; Lalak, Zygmunt; Lewicki, Marek

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the induced inflation with two flat regions: one Starobinsky-like plateau in strong coupling regime and one shorter plateau around the saddle point of the Einstein frame potential. This multi-phase inflationary scenario can be used to solve problems of classical cosmology as well as the problem of initial conditions for inflation. The inflation at the saddle-point plateau is consistent with the data and can have arbitrarily low scale. The results can be useful in the context of the Higgs-Axion relaxation and in a certain limit they are equivalent to the α-attractors.

  2. DYNAMICS OF BRÂGLEZ RIVERBED (SOMEŞAN PLATEAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. ARGHIUŞ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of Brâglez Riverbed (Someşan Plateau. The main left tributaries of Someş along Surduc – Jibou sector (Brâglez, Almaş and Agrij, are characterized by the presence of obvious processes of lateral and vertical erosion at the level of the riverbeds. The field observations, as well as the position of these rivers and their catchment areas in the neighborhood of the lower Someş subsidence area, would easily be grounds for explaining the riverbed processes as caused by an unstable fluvial base level. More precisely, this base level would be moving downwards under the influence of subsidence movements of Tisa Plain or even because of the subsidence affecting Guruslău Basin. Starting from these more or less speculative deductions, this paper aims at checking and confirming the above-mentioned explanations or finding other causes for the dynamics of riverbed processes. In this sense, we analysed a correlation between the drainage in the catchment area and at the level of the riverbeds, on one hand, and the riverbed geomorphological processes, on the other hand. Brâglez River (in western Someşan Plateau will be considered as a study case, as it provides an accelerated dynamics of riverbed processes. This situation will be compared with the one in the eastern part of the same plateau, where rivers like Borşa, Luna or Lujerdiu do not present obvious riverbed processes despite the similar climatic and geological conditions.

  3. Late Cretaceous tectonic framework of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenhan; Barosh, Patrick J.; Ye, Peisheng; Hu, Daogong

    2015-12-01

    New research, coupled with previous data, reveals the Late Cretaceous paleo-geography, and related paleo-tectonic movement of the Tibetan Plateau. A vast ocean, the Neo-Tethys Ocean, perhaps as wide as ∼7000 km, existed between the Indian and Eurasian Continental Plates in the early Late Cretaceous. In addition, a Himalaya Marginal Sea lay along the border of the Indian Plate and other marginal seas were present to the north in both the southern Lhasa and southwestern Tarim Blocks. Northward subduction of the Neo-Tethys Oceanic Plate along the Yalung-Zangbu Suture closed most of the ocean and led to intensive thrusting, tight folding, magmatic plutonism and volcanic eruptions in the central plateau to the north. A magmatic arc up to 500 km wide formed across the southern margin of the continental plate in central Tibet and its varying granitic composition appears to reflect the depth to the subducted plate and define its geometry. A series of large, chiefly north-dipping thrust systems also developed across central Tibet. These include thrusts along the Yalung-Zangbu and Bangong-Nujiang Sutures, the North Gangdese and North Lhasa Thrusts in the Lhasa Block, the Qiangtang and North Tangula Thrusts in the Qiangtang block, the Hoh-Xil and Bayan Har Thrusts in the Hoh-Xil Block, as well as the sinistral-slip South Kunlun and Altyn Tagh Faults in northern Tibet. Uplifts formed above the hanging walls of the major thrusts and their eroded debris formed thick red-beds in basins below them. The central Tibetan Plateau maintained a low elevation and coastal vegetation was dominant during the Late Cretaceous.

  4. Resistivity plateau and extreme magnetoresistance in LaSb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafti, F. F.; Gibson, Q. D.; Kushwaha, S. K.; Haldolaarachchige, N.; Cava, R. J.

    2016-03-01

    Time reversal symmetry (TRS) protects the metallic surface modes of topological insulators (TIs). The transport signature of such surface states is a plateau that arrests the exponential divergence of the insulating bulk with decreasing temperature. This universal behaviour is observed in all TI candidates ranging from Bi2Te2Se to SmB6. Recently, extreme magnetoresistance (XMR) has been reported in several topological semimetals which exhibit TI universal resistivity behaviour only when breaking time reversal symmetry, a regime where TIs theoretically cease to exist. Among these materials, TaAs and NbP are nominated as Weyl semimetals owing to their lack of inversion symmetry, Cd3As2 is known as a Dirac semimetal owing to its linear band crossing at the Fermi level, and WTe2 is termed a resonant compensated semimetal owing to its perfect electron-hole symmetry. Here we introduce LaSb, a simple rock-salt structure material that lacks broken inversion symmetry, perfect linear band crossing, and perfect electron-hole symmetry yet exhibits all the exotic field-induced behaviours of these more complex semimetals. It shows a field-induced universal TI resistivity with a plateau at roughly 15 K, ultrahigh mobility of carriers in the plateau region, quantum oscillations with the angle dependence of a two-dimensional Fermi surface, and XMR of about one million percent at 9 T. Owing to its structural simplicity, LaSb represents an ideal model system to formulate a theoretical understanding of the exotic consequences of breaking time reversal symmetry in topological semimetals.

  5. Geodynamical basis for crustal deformation under the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.-S.

    1985-01-01

    Plate tectonics and satellite-derived gravity data are used to examine crustal deformation under the Tibetan Plateau. A spherical harmonic analysis is given for the global plate boundary system, and the crustal stresses in Tibet are calculated from satellite gravity data. A superimposed stress system is constructed. The stress patterns reveal that the cold downwelling mantle convection flow beneath southern Tibet pulls the Indian plate down but applies a bending moment on the end of the plate to uplift and support the mass of the Himalayas.

  6. An outcome of surgical management of the tibial plateau fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Ravindran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advance in mechanization and acceleration of travel has been accompanied by an increase in number and severity of fractures and those of the tibial plateau are not an exception. As it is one of the major weight bearing joints of the body, fractures around it will be of at most importance. Aims: (1 To restore articular congruity and limb alignment by open reduction and rigid internal fixation. (2 To enable early knee motion and improve quadriceps and hamstring power. (3 To study the role of surgical treatment and functional outcome in tibial plateau fractures and its complications. Settings and Design: A prospective study was carried out, 32 cases of the tibial plateau fractures, which were admitted from August 2010 to April 2012 at Department of Orthopedics of our Hospital. Materials and Methods: 32 patients underwent surgical treatment for tibial plateau fractures. Fractures were classified according to the Schatzker′s system. The indications for surgery were defined as the presence of displacement, depression and instability being more than 4 mm, 10 mm and 10 degrees. The mean follow-up was 12 months. The selected patients were evaluated and were taken up for surgery. The indicated fractures were treated with closed reduction and internal fixation with percutaneous cannulated cancellous screws, external fixator, open reduction and internal fixation with buttress plate with or without bone grafting. The range of motion was started soon after surgery. The patients were advised nonweight bearing up to 6-8 weeks. Total weight bearing deferred until 12 weeks or complete union of fracture. Statistical Analysis: All parameters before and after the treatment were expressed in mean ± standard deviation and analyzed by the Student′s t-test using SPSS version 16. Results: The knee range of motion was excellent to very good and weight bearing after complete union was satisfactory. Malunion in two cases, knee stiffness in three

  7. Magnetic entropy change plateau in a geometrically frustrated layered system: FeCrAs-like iron-pnictide structure as a magnetocaloric prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, J. M.; Vargas, P.; Garcia, C.; Ross, C. A.

    2013-06-01

    Monte Carlo modeling suggests that the magnetothermal features of the Fe2P-structured FeCrAs-like compound offer a promising route for the design of magnetocaloric materials. The prototype structure is modeled as antiferromagnetically coupled layered Heisenberg systems mimicking the distorted Kagome/triangular stacked architecture of FeCrAs iron-pnictide. The magnetic entropy change ΔSm(T) presents a plateau-like behavior which can be tailored by tuning either the JCr-Fe/JCr-Cr exchange energy ratio or the magnetic field. The plateau is defined by cooperative spin ordering within a ferrimagnetic region which exists between two critical temperatures separating at the lower bound ({T}_{{c}}^{a}) a canted antiferromagnetic phase and at the upper bound ({T}_{{c}}^{d}) the thermally disordered phase. The refrigerant capacity and adiabatic change of temperature are A(H)({T}_{{c}}^{d}-{T}_{{c}}^{a}) and A(H)Tp/Cm respectively, with {T}_{{c}}^{a}\\lt {T}_{{p}}\\lt {T}_{{c}}^{d}, A(H) an increasing positive function of the field defining the height of the plateau and Cm the magnetic specific heat, whose critical behavior is related to the {T}_{{c}}^{a,d} values.

  8. Mental disorders and health care seeking in Bandiagara: a community survey in the Dogon Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, M G; Coppo, P; Carpiniello, B; Mounkuoro, P P

    1997-05-01

    A two-level community study was carried out among the Peul and Dogon populations of the Bandiagara plateau (Mali). For the purpose of the study the Questionnaire pour le depistage en santé mentale (QDSM), a 23-item screening questionnaire derived from the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ), was adapted and validated; internal consistency and accuracy were evaluated. In the first phase of the study, 466 subjects randomly selected on a residential basis were evaluated by means of the QDSM. In the second phase all subjects who were "positive" at the screening, as well as a sample who were "negative", were examined by means of a semistructured interview. When necessary, clinical and laboratory investigations were performed. The estimated prevalence of psychiatric cases was 6.4%. A significant risk was associated with age and education. Somatic diseases frequently associated with psychiatric disorders were genitourinary tract disorders, tuberculosis and disabling cardiopathies. The main factor determining the seeking of medical help either through traditional of conventional health systems was the presence of a somatic disorder. The presence of a true minor psychiatric disorder, however, was often associated with divining practices.

  9. Soil carbon sequestration potential for "grain for green" project in Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R.; Fu, B.; Liu, Gaisheng; Liu, S.

    2011-01-01

    Conversion of cropland into perennial vegetation land can increase soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation, which might be an important mitigation measure to sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The "Grain for Green" project, one of the most ambitious ecological programmes launched in modern China, aims at transforming the low-yield slope cropland into grassland and woodland. The Loess Plateau in China is the most important target of this project due to its serious soil erosion. The objectives of this study are to answer three questions: (1) what is the rate of the SOC accumulation for this "Grain for Green" project in Loess Plateau? (2) Is there a difference in SOC sequestration among different restoration types, including grassland, shrub and forest? (3) Is the effect of restoration types on SOC accumulation different among northern, middle and southern regions of the Loess Plateau? Based on analysis of the data collected from the literature conducted in the Loess Plateau, we found that SOC increased at a rate of 0.712 TgC/year in the top 20 cm soil layer for 60 years under this project across the entire Loess Plateau. This was a relatively reliable estimation based on current data, although there were some uncertainties. Compared to grassland, forest had a significantly greater effect on SOC accumulation in middle and southern Loess Plateau but had a weaker effect in the northern Loess Plateau. There were no differences found in SOC sequestration between shrub and grassland across the entire Loess Plateau. Grassland had a stronger effect on SOC sequestration in the northern Loess Plateau than in the middle and southern regions. In contrast, forest could increase more SOC in the middle and southern Loess Plateau than in the northern Loess Plateau, whereas shrub had a similar effect on SOC sequestration across the Loess Plateau. Our results suggest that the "Grain for Green" project can significantly increase the SOC storage in Loess Plateau, and it is

  10. Soil carbon sequestration potential for "Grain for Green" project in Loess Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ruiying; Fu, Bojie; Liu, Guohua; Liu, Shuguang

    2011-12-01

    Conversion of cropland into perennial vegetation land can increase soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation, which might be an important mitigation measure to sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The "Grain for Green" project, one of the most ambitious ecological programmes launched in modern China, aims at transforming the low-yield slope cropland into grassland and woodland. The Loess Plateau in China is the most important target of this project due to its serious soil erosion. The objectives of this study are to answer three questions: (1) what is the rate of the SOC accumulation for this "Grain for Green" project in Loess Plateau? (2) Is there a difference in SOC sequestration among different restoration types, including grassland, shrub and forest? (3) Is the effect of restoration types on SOC accumulation different among northern, middle and southern regions of the Loess Plateau? Based on analysis of the data collected from the literature conducted in the Loess Plateau, we found that SOC increased at a rate of 0.712 TgC/year in the top 20 cm soil layer for 60 years under this project across the entire Loess Plateau. This was a relatively reliable estimation based on current data, although there were some uncertainties. Compared to grassland, forest had a significantly greater effect on SOC accumulation in middle and southern Loess Plateau but had a weaker effect in the northern Loess Plateau. There were no differences found in SOC sequestration between shrub and grassland across the entire Loess Plateau. Grassland had a stronger effect on SOC sequestration in the northern Loess Plateau than in the middle and southern regions. In contrast, forest could increase more SOC in the middle and southern Loess Plateau than in the northern Loess Plateau, whereas shrub had a similar effect on SOC sequestration across the Loess Plateau. Our results suggest that the "Grain for Green" project can significantly increase the SOC storage in Loess Plateau, and it is

  11. Postmodern Movement and Culture: dividing in into periods and discussing its phases Movimento Pós-Moderno e Cultura: periodizando e discutindo suas fases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Figueiredo Salvi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available This research tried to divide into periods the postmodern thought starting from the analysis of transformations, which happened inside the movement itself. So, three fundamental phases were emphasized. The first one is responsible for to formation of the postmodern thought in the area of Languages, Arts and Architecture, specifically. The second one is the phase that involves wide dissemination, migration and great controversies about this movement. Finally, the third phase demonstrates relative maturation of the postmodern movement, whose production of theories take place in several fields of knowledge.Esta pesquisa procurou estabelecer uma periodização do pensamento pós-moderno a partir da análise das transformações ocorridas dentro do próprio movimento. Assim, três fases fundamentais foram destacadas. A primeira é entendida como aquela responsável pela formação do pensamento pós-moderno especificamente nas áreas de letras, artes e arquitetura. A segunda é aquela fase que envolve ampla difusão, migração e grandes polêmicas sobre este movimento. Por fim, a terceira fase demonstra relativo amadurecimento do movimento pós-moderno, cuja produção cada vez mais acentuada de teorias ocorre em variadas áreas do conhecimento.

  12. Mean diameter of nucleolar bodies in cultured human leukemic myeloblasts is mainly related to the S and G2 phase of the cell cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Smetana

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Mean diameter of nucleolar bodies (nucleoli without the perinucleolar chromatin per cell was studied in human leukemic myeloblasts represented by K 562 and Kasumi 1 cell lines which originated from chronic and acute myeloid leukaemia. The measurement of mean diameter of nucleolar bodies in specimens stained for RNA was very simple. Such approach eliminated the variability of the perinucleolar chromatin discontinuous shell which might influence the measured nucleolar size as suggested by earlier studies. Ageing of K 562 myeloblasts produced a significant decrease of cells in S+G2 phase of the cell cycle accompanied by a significant reduction of mean diameter of nucleolar bodies (MDNoBs per cell. In contrast, treatment of Kasumi 1 myeloblasts with histone deacetylase inhibitor - Trichostatin A - produced a large incidence of resistant cells in S+G2 phase which were characterised by a large increase of MDNoBs. Thus, MDNoBs in leukemic myeloblasts might be a helpful tool to estimate the incidence of cells in the S+G2 phase at the single cell level in smear preparations when the number of cells is very small.

  13. Lake overspill and onset of fluvial incision in the Iranian Plateau: Insights from the Mianeh Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Ghasem; Ballato, Paolo; Hassanzadeh, Jamshid; Ghassemi, Mohammad R.; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2017-07-01

    Orogenic plateaus represent a prime example of the interplay between surface processes, climate, and tectonics. This kind of an interplay is thought to be responsible for the formation, preservation, and, ultimately, the destruction of a typical elevated, low-internal relief plateau landscape. Here, we document the timing of intermontane basin filling associated with the formation of a low-relief plateau morphology, followed by basin opening and plateau-flank incision in the northwestern Iranian Plateau of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone. Our new U-Pb zircon ages from intercalated volcanic ashes in exposed plateau basin-fill sediments from the most external plateau basin (Mianeh Basin) document that the basin was internally drained at least between ∼7 and 4 Ma, and that from ∼5 to 4 Ma it was characterized by an ∼2-km-high and ∼0.5-km-deep lake (Mianeh paleolake), most likely as a result of wetter climatic conditions. At the same time, the eastern margin of the Mianeh Basin (and, therefore, of the Iranian Plateau) experienced limited tectonic activity, as documented by onlapping sediments and smoothed topography. The combination of high lake level and subdued topography at the plateau margin led to lake overspill, which resulted in the cutting of an ∼1-km-deep bedrock gorge (Amardos) by the Qezel-Owzan River (QOR) beginning at ∼4 Ma. This was associated with the incision of the plateau landscape and the establishment of fluvial connectivity with the Caspian Sea. Overall, our study emphasizes the interplay between surface and tectonic processes in forming, maintaining, and destroying orogenic plateau morphology, the transitional nature of orogenic plateau landscapes on timescales of 106 yr, and, finally, the role played by overspilling in integrating endorheic basins.

  14. Stable isotopic (O, H) evidence for hydration of the central Colorado Plateau lithospheric mantle by slab-derived fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, E. W.; Barnes, J.; Lassiter, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Colorado Plateau is a tectonically stable, relatively undeformed Proterozoic lithospheric province in the North America Cordillera. Although the stability of the Colorado Plateau suggests that it is rheologically strong, evidence from xenoliths show that the lithospheric mantle is extensively hydrated (e.g., presence of hydrous minerals, 'high' water contents in nominally anhydrous minerals), and therefore weakened. In addition, LREE enrichments in clinopyroxene (cpx) imply that the lithospheric mantle has been metasomatized ([1],[2]). Here we analyze mineral separates from spinel and garnet peridotite xenoliths from the Navajo Volcanic Field (NVF), located in the center of the Plateau, for their oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions. These compositions are compared to those of xenoliths at the margins of the Plateau: spinel peridotites from the Grand Canyon Volcanic Field (GCVF) in the west and Zuni-Bandera Volcanic Field (ZBVF) in the east. NVF xenoliths are significantly more hydrous than the xenoliths on the margins of the Colorado Plateau based on modal abundances of hydrous minerals and structural water in olivine (e.g. [3]). All hydrous phases have high δD values (antigorite = -71 to -46‰ (n = 6 xenoliths); chlorite = -49 to -31‰ (n=3); amphibole = -47‰ (n=1)) compared to normal mantle (~-80‰), suggesting the addition of a fluid that is enriched in D compared to typical mantle. δ18O values for the same hydrous minerals range from 6.0 to 6.6‰ (n=6). δ18O values of olivine from NVF spinel peridotites have a narrow range, 5.0 to 5.4‰ (n = 4), near mantle olivine values (~5.2‰). Olivines from spinel peridotites from the GCVF and ZBVF also have mantle-like δ18O values (5.1 to 5.2‰ (n=3) and 5.1 to 5.4‰ (n=7), respectively). However, olivines and orthopyroxenes (opx) from NVF garnet peridotites have a slightly larger range and some record 18O enrichment (olivine = 5.1 to 5.6‰ (n = 3); opx = 5.9‰ (n=1)). The high δ18O values of

  15. The uplift history of the Arabian Plateau as inferred from geomorphologic analysis of its northwestern edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Oded; Zilberman, Ezra; Feinstein, Shimon; Calvo, Ran; Gvirtzman, Zohar

    2016-03-01

    The Arabian Plateau (AP) is an Oligocene sub-horizontal regional planation surface, extending throughout the western half of the Arabian Peninsula. Its present elevation of about 1 km required a prominent uplift since the Late Eocene. In order to reconstruct the uplift history, we documented abundant abrasive and fluvial terraces that were left along and across the raised Judea Mountains (JM), which comprised the NW edge of the AP. Using the ages of those terraces and the differences in height between them, we found that the JM was uplifted in three major phases: a few hundred meters during the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene, ~ 500 m during the Early Miocene-early Middle Miocene, and ~ 350 m during the Late Pliocene. The two earliest uplift phases predate the formation of the Dead-Sea Transform (DST), which today separates the JM from the AP, meaning that these two phases affected the continuous rigid lithosphere extending southeastwards to the AP interiors. Moreover, restoration of the paleogeography predating the lateral offset along the DST eliminates the main height differences across it and suggests that the DST does not play a major role in the vertical position of its bordering plates, but rather forms a relatively narrow deformation strip within the AP. Those two early phases of uplift can be corroborated by previous thermochronology studies, which exhibit similar ages around the Red Sea but may reflect the uplift age of the entire region. The present sub-horizontal morphology of the AP is in contrast to the presumed original northeastward drainage and may suggest a subsequent long-wave moderate tilting to the SW. Three possible mechanisms were suggested for the uplift of the AP: a long wavelength flexure of the Arabian plate during early stages of the uplift, and lithospheric thinning or dynamic topography during later stages of the uplift.

  16. [Assessment indicators of soil quality in hilly Loess plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingxiang; Liu, Guobin; Zhao, Yunge

    2005-10-01

    By the methods of sensitivity analysis, main component analsis and discriminant analysis, this paper screened the sensitive indicators from 32 soil attributes to assess the productivity and erosion-resistance ability of the soils in hilly Loess Plateau. The results showed that soil available phosphorus content, anti-scouring ability, infiltration coefficient, labile organic carbon content, organic matter content and urease activity were the most sensitive indicators for soil quality assessment and the main targets for soil quality management and improvement, while soil biological indicators were with high and medium sensitivity. Five soil quality factors were summed up from 29 soil chemical, physical and biological attributes, i. e., organic matter, texture, phosphorus, porosity and microstructure. Except the factor porosity, the other four factors were significantly different between different land use types. Eight indicators including soil organic matter content, infiltration coefficient, anti-scouring ability, CEC, invertase activity, mean weight diameter (MWD) of aggregates, available phosphorus, and MWD of microaggregate were identified as the assessment indicators of the soil quality in hilly Loess Plateau, with the organic matter content, infiltration coefficient and anti-scouring ability as the key indicators.

  17. Unilatelaral iris plateau syndrome after the use of ecstasy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Predrag

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground. Courmon street name for 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA is ecstasy. This widely abused 'recreational' drug causes both an increased release of monoamine neurotransmitters, including serotonine and dopamine, and an increased reuptake inhibition of serotonin. As a consequence, mydriasis and increased intraocular pressure (IOP in predisposed patients occur. We present herein a rare case of acute increased IOP after use of ecstasy. Case report. A female patient, aged 38 years, visited doctor complaing of a decreased vision acuity and severe pain in the left eye and in the left part of the head. The initial treatment was urgent antiglaucomatous therapy followed by withdrawal of subjective problems of the patient and improvement of objective finding. History taking procedure reveled that just before the onset of the pain the patient had used ecstasy and had had similar 'experience' 6 years ago after cocaine snorting. She had not been to a doctor although she had experienced sporadic migrenous pain. Previous medical records excavation of revealed optic disk (cup-to-dise C/D=06, Bjerum arcuate scotoma and iris plateau with narrow chamber angle (Scheie II- III so the diagnosis was a rare unilateral iris plateau syndrome of the left eye. Although the patient was given some pieces of information about the dangerous and possible deadly consequences of psychoactive substance abuse, she has not continue the treatment. Conclusion. Ecstasy abuse might cause a complete loss of vision, thus medicametous and surgical treatment are obligatory.

  18. Climatic variability of the column ozone over the Iranian plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyyed Shafi; Farajzadeh, Manuchehr; Rahimi, Yousef Ghavidel; Bidokhti, Abbasali Aliakbari

    2017-06-01

    This study analyzes the total ozone column (TOC) variability over the Iranian plateau (Esfahan) from 1978 to 2011. Results show that the annual average of TOC in Esfahan tends to decrease with time, which is strongly dependent on the season, with maximum values during the winter-spring months (more than 2.2 %/decade). By applying a defined threshold that includes the TOC monthly -2 σ, it is found that the maximum occurrence of low ozone events (LOEs) tends to be more frequent in the second half of year with about four-fifth of the observed LOEs (last summer, autumn, and early winter). During two cases of LOE, the tropopause height (TH) was uplifted 2-4 km with temperature of 10 °C colder than the long-term mean, and the synoptic pattern was characterized by high-pressure systems in UTLS region. The extreme LOEs were consistent with the horizontal transport of ozone-poor air toward the Iranian plateau and vertical advection in UTLS region. The former mechanism plays a primary role in formation of extreme LOEs based on the observed TOC reductions during previous days over the source regions (Sahara desert and Himalaya region). Day-to-day variations of maximum UV index during LOEs show that by a decrease in TOC 14 %, while the aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the cloudless condition reach their lowest rates (lower than 0.3), UV radiation exceeds very high and extreme levels in late winter and mid-spring, respectively.

  19. Snow surface microbiome on the High Antarctic Plateau (DOME C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Michaud

    Full Text Available The cryosphere is an integral part of the global climate system and one of the major habitable ecosystems of Earth's biosphere. These permanently frozen environments harbor diverse, viable and metabolically active microbial populations that represent almost all the major phylogenetic groups. In this study, we investigated the microbial diversity in the surface snow surrounding the Concordia Research Station on the High Antarctic Plateau through a polyphasic approach, including direct prokaryotic quantification by flow cytometry and catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH, and phylogenetic identification by 16S RNA gene clone library sequencing and 454 16S amplicon pyrosequencing. Although the microbial abundance was low (<10(3 cells/ml of snowmelt, concordant results were obtained with the different techniques. The microbial community was mainly composed of members of the Alpha-proteobacteria class (e.g. Kiloniellaceae and Rhodobacteraceae, which is one of the most well-represented bacterial groups in marine habitats, Bacteroidetes (e.g. Cryomorphaceae and Flavobacteriaceae and Cyanobacteria. Based on our results, polar microorganisms could not only be considered as deposited airborne particles, but as an active component of the snowpack ecology of the High Antarctic Plateau.

  20. Crustal kinematics of the Colorado Plateau from GPS geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, A. A.; Broermann, J.; Bennett, R. A.; Kreemer, C.; Blewitt, G.

    2013-12-01

    We present results from new continuous and campaign GPS networks spanning the state of Arizona and the southern portion of Utah. The 33 station continuous GPS network, funded by the NSF EarthScope Program, supplements a sparse distribution of continuous GPS stations that comprise the NSF EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory network. The campaign network originally established by the National Geodetic survey in the mid-1990's, has been reoccupied two or more times over the past five years with support from the Arizona Geological Survey. The data from the continuous GPS stations are analyzed independently with the GIPSY and GAMIT software. The new horizontal velocity data set provides an improved image of deformation in the transition zone between the Colorado Plateau and the Northern and Southern Basin and Ranges Provinces. Preliminary modeling of the crustal kinematics reveals that only a very limited part of the region can be modeled as a rigid-body rotation. Most of the area is part of a broad zone of diffuse east-west directed extension from the Rio Grande Rift in the East to the Mojave Desert in the west. Only near the transition from the northern Colorado Plateau to the northern Basin and Range Province is the extension more localized. Besides a discussion of the regional kinematics, we will also discuss the affect the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake had on the geodetic data in the southern Basin and Range.

  1. Climatic variability of the column ozone over the Iranian plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyyed Shafi; Farajzadeh, Manuchehr; Rahimi, Yousef Ghavidel; Bidokhti, Abbasali Aliakbari

    2016-08-01

    This study analyzes the total ozone column (TOC) variability over the Iranian plateau (Esfahan) from 1978 to 2011. Results show that the annual average of TOC in Esfahan tends to decrease with time, which is strongly dependent on the season, with maximum values during the winter-spring months (more than 2.2 %/decade). By applying a defined threshold that includes the TOC monthly -2σ, it is found that the maximum occurrence of low ozone events (LOEs) tends to be more frequent in the second half of year with about four-fifth of the observed LOEs (last summer, autumn, and early winter). During two cases of LOE, the tropopause height (TH) was uplifted ~2-4 km with temperature of 10 °C colder than the long-term mean, and the synoptic pattern was characterized by high-pressure systems in UTLS region. The extreme LOEs were consistent with the horizontal transport of ozone-poor air toward the Iranian plateau and vertical advection in UTLS region. The former mechanism plays a primary role in formation of extreme LOEs based on the observed TOC reductions during previous days over the source regions (Sahara desert and Himalaya region). Day-to-day variations of maximum UV index during LOEs show that by a decrease in TOC ~14 %, while the aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the cloudless condition reach their lowest rates (lower than 0.3), UV radiation exceeds very high and extreme levels in late winter and mid-spring, respectively.

  2. Plateau 'pop-up' in the great 1897 Assam earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, R; England, P

    2001-04-12

    The great Assam earthquake of 12 June 1897 reduced to rubble all masonry buildings within a region of northeastern India roughly the size of England, and was felt over an area exceeding that of the great 1755 Lisbon earthquake. Hitherto it was believed that rupture occurred on a north-dipping Himalayan thrust fault propagating south of Bhutan. But here we show that the northern edge of the Shillong plateau rose violently by at least 11 m during the Assam earthquake, and that this was due to the rupture of a buried reverse fault approximately 110 km in length and dipping steeply away from the Himalaya. The stress drop implied by the rupture geometry and the prodigious fault slip of 18 +/- 7 m explains epicentral accelerations observed to exceed 1g vertically and surface velocities exceeding 3 m s-1 (ref. 1). This quantitative observation of active deformation of a 'pop-up' structure confirms that faults bounding such structures can penetrate the whole crust. Plateau uplift in the past 2-5 million years has caused the Indian plate to contract locally by 4 +/- 2 mm yr-1, reducing seismic risk in Bhutan but increasing the risk in northern Bangladesh.

  3. Hydrodynamical models of Type II-Plateau Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Bersten, Melina C; Hamuy, Mario

    2011-01-01

    We present bolometric light curves of Type II-plateau supernovae (SNe II-P) obtained using a newly developed, one-dimensional Lagrangian hydrodynamic code with flux-limited radiation diffusion. Using our code we calculate the bolometric light curve and photospheric velocities of SN1999em obtaining a remarkably good agreement with observations despite the simplifications used in our calculation. The physical parameters used in our calculation are E=1.25 foe, M= 19 M_\\odot, R= 800 R_\\odot and M_{Ni}=0.056 M_\\odot. We find that an extensive mixing of 56Ni is needed in order to reproduce a plateau as flat as that shown by the observations. We also study the possibility to fit the observations with lower values of the initial mass consistently with upper limits that have been inferred from pre-supernova imaging of SN1999em in connection with stellar evolution models. We cannot find a set of physical parameters that reproduce well the observations for models with pre-supernova mass of \\leq 12 M_\\odot, although mode...

  4. Radiographic predictors of compartment syndrome in tibial plateau fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziran, Bruce H; Becher, Stephen John

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article was to evaluate the relationship of radiographic features of tibial plateau fractures to the development of compartment syndrome. We hypothesized that the direction and degree of initial displacement of the femur on the tibia, and the amount of tibial widening (TW), were correlated with the development of compartment syndrome. Retrospective case-control study. Single level 1 trauma center. Retrospective evaluation of 158 patients with 162 plateau fractures. Grouping with and without compartment syndrome. The following data were obtained: age, sex, Schatzker and OTA/AO classification, open/closed status, TW, and femoral displacement (FD). A univariate statistical and a logistical regression analysis were performed to determine significance. The overall rate of compartment syndrome was 11%. Univariate analysis found both the TW and FD to be significant with respect to development of compartment syndrome (P compartment syndrome. Logistic regression found FD and Schatzker grade to be significant. Our study is the first to identify easily obtained radiographic parameters that correlate to the occurrence compartment syndrome. There may also be a relationship between TW and FD, as noted by regression result. This study helps to assess which patients with a fracture are at higher risk for developing a compartment syndrome. Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  5. Satellite Observed Environmental Changes over the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsin Tseng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We use satellite observed and model atmospheric variables, including land surface temperature, snowfall, snow extent, precipitation, and water vapor contents to study the feasibility of quantifying anthropogenic climate change over high elevation areas such as the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Five types of satellite data and outputs from Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCMs are used to study these climate change indicators: (1 AIRS/AMSU/HSB atmospheric sounding system onboard the Aqua platform, 2003 ~ 2009, (2 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS onboard Terra, 2001 ~ 2009, (3 The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM precipitation measurements, 1999 ~ 2009, (4 the ERA-interim (ECMWF Interim Reanalysis, 1989 ~ 2009, and (5 the Japanese 25-year Reanalysis Project (JRA-25 AGCM data, 1979 ~ 2009. We find that biases exist between temperature observations and model data 0.29 ~ _ AIRS and JRA-25, respectively. The trends for each of the atmospheric variables at best have a qualitative agreement, presumably because the data spans of satellite observations are too short (7 ~ 10 years. The temperature trends for 4000 ~ 5000 m over the Plateau are estimated to be 0.01 ~ _ yr-1, qualitatively agreeing with the published rate of _ decade-1 over the last three decades using in situ data.

  6. Old-field plant succession on the Pajarito Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxx, T.; Mullen, M.; Salisbury, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tierney, G. [Tierney (Gail), Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Eight fallow historic fields of the ponderosa pine and pinon-juniper cover types were surveyed to determine species composition and distribution. The purpose of the study was to understand plant succession on old fields as related to mechanically manipulated sites such as material disposal areas (MDAs). Additionally, the authors wanted a listing of species on disturbed lands of the Pajarito Plateau to aide in the reclamation planning of MDAs using native species. They also wanted to determine if any species could be used as an indicator of disturbance. The eight historic fields were all within Los Alamos County, New Mexico, and had been abandoned in 1943. Two sites were within the boundaries of Los Alamos National Laboratory and were studied both in 1982 and 1993. The study provides a description of each of the field sites, historic information about the homesteads from patent applications, a photographic record of some of the sites, and a listing of species found within each field. The study showed that there were 78 different plant species found on disturbed sites. Of these 78 species, 23 were found to be dominant on one or more of the MDAs or old fields. Although, the disturbance history of each site is imperfectly known, the study does provide an indication of successional processes within disturbed sites of the Pajarito Plateau. Additionally, it provides a listing of species that will invade disturbed sites, species that may be used in site reclamation.

  7. Stick-slip advance of the Kohat Plateau in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyabala, S. P.; Yang, Zhaohui; Bilham, Roger

    2012-02-01

    Throughout most of the Himalaya, slip of the Indian Plate is restrained by friction on the interface between the plate and the overlying wedge of Himalayan rocks. Every few hundred years, this interface--or décollement--ruptures in one or more Mw >=8 earthquakes. In contrast, in the westernmost Himalaya, the Indian Plate slips aseismically beneath wide plateaux fronting the Kohistan Mountains. The plateaux are underlain by viscous décollements that are unable to sustain large earthquakes. Potwar, the widest of these plateaux is underlain by viscous salt, which currently permits it to slide at rates of about 3mmyr-1 (refs , ), much slower than its 2 Myr average. This deceleration has been attributed to recently increased friction through the loss of salt from its décollement. Here we use interferometric synthetic aperture radar and seismic data to assess movement of the Kohat Plateau--the narrowest and thickest plateau. We find that in 1992 an 80 km2 patch of the décollement ruptured in a rare Mw 6.0 earthquake, suggesting that parts of the décollement are locally grounded. We conclude that this hybrid seismic and aseismic behaviour represents an evolution of the mode of slip of the plateaux from steady creep towards increasingly widespread seismic rupture.

  8. [Effect of conservation tillage on weeds in a rotation system on the Loess Plateau of eastern Gansu, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-xin; Lu, Jiao-yun; Yang, Hui-min

    2015-04-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the influences of no-tillage, stubble retention and crop type on weed density, species composition and community feature in a rotation system (winter wheat-common vetch-maize) established 12 years ago on the Loess Plateau of eastern Gansu. This study showed that the weed species composition, density and community feature varied with the change of crop phases. No-tillage practice increased the weed density at maize phase, while rotation with common vetch decreased the density in the no-tillage field. Stubble retention reduced the weed density under maize phase and the lowest density was observed in the no-tillage plus stubble retention field. No-tillage practice significantly increased the weed species diversity under winter wheat phase and decreased the diversity under common vetch phase. At maize phase, a greater species diversity index was observed in the no-tillage field. These results suggested that no-tillage practice and stubble retention possibly suppress specific weeds with the presence of some crops and crop rotation is a vital way to controlling weeds in a farming system.

  9. Urine culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  10. Determining geometric links between glaciers and lakes on the Tibetan plateau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan Hien, V.; Lindenbergh, R.C.; Menenti, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Tibetan plateau and surrounding mountain ranges contain the largest amount of ice outside the polar region. The Tibetan plateau also contains more than one thousand lakes and is the origin of a large part of the water resources of South and East Asia, the most densely populated regions on earth.

  11. Pollen-based reconstructions of Holocene vegetation and climatic change of Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐领余; 李春海; 于革; 沈才明

    2003-01-01

    A synthesis of Holocene pollen records from the Tibetan Plateau shows the history of vegetation and climatic changes during the Holocene. Palynological evidences from 24 cores/sections have been compiled and show that the vegetation shifted from subalpine/alpine conifer forest to subalpine/alpine evergreen sclerophyllous forest in the southeastern part of the plateau; from alpine steppe to alpine desert in the central, western and northern part; and from alpine meadow to alpine steppe in the eastern and southern plateau regions during the Holocene. These records show that increases in precipitation began about 9 ka from the southeast, and a wide ranging level of increased humidity developed over the entire of the plateau around 8-7 ka, followed by aridity from 6 ka and a continuous drying over the plateau after 4-3 ka. The changes in Holocene climates of the plateau can be interpreted qualitatively as a response to orbital forcing and its secondary effects on the Indian Monsoon which expanded northwards during the early Holocene and retreated from the plateau since the midHolocene. Also, there is teleconnection between the Tibetan Plateau and North Atlantic.

  12. Rising process of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟大赉; 丁林

    1996-01-01

    The rising of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau has character of multistage (45-38 Ma, 25-17 Ma, 13-8 Ma, 3 Ma-present), inhomogeneity and hetero-speed. The whole uprising of the plateau and local rapid rising in its periphery since Late Pliocene is a synthetical result of at least two or more mechanisms.

  13. Environmental significance of mineral weathering and pedogenesis of loess on the southernmost Loess Plateau, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, C.; Zhao, W.; Liu, F.; Tan, W.F.; Koopal, L.K.

    2011-01-01

    Soils derived from the Loess Plateau of China are regionally important and expression of the soil properties along the soil profile may be directly related to climate changes. The objective of this research was to analyze the clay mineral transformation of loess from the southernmost Loess Plateau,

  14. Imprint of a dissolved cobalt basaltic source on the Kerguelen Plateau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bown, J.; Boye, M.; Laan, P.; Bowie, A.R.; Park, Y.H.; Jeandel, C.; Nelson, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Processes of cobalt (Co) entrainment from shelf sediments over the Kerguelen Plateau were studied during the KEOPS (Kerguelen Ocean Plateau compared Study) in order to explain the exceptionally high dissolved cobalt concentrations that have been measured in the surface waters above the Kerguelen Pla

  15. Plateau of α-function and c-minimal homoclinic orbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; CUI Xiaojun

    2006-01-01

    We consider the construction of the plateau of the α-function in a hyperbolic and positive definite Lagrangian system, and link the boundries of the α-function's plateau with the distribution of c-minimal homoclinic orbits to Aubry sets.

  16. Arthroscopically assisted osteosynthesis of tibial plateau fractures in patients older than 55 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, WH; Oskam, J; Vierhout, PAM

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the end results of arthroscopically assisted osteosynthesis of tibial plateau fractures in patients older than 55 years of age. Type of Study: Case series. Methods: Over a 5-year period, 201 consecutive patients presented with tibial plateau fracture; 131 of these patients were

  17. A wavelet analysis of the relationship between Loess Plateau erosion and sunspots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, P.; Geissen, V.; Temme, A.J.A.M.; Ritsema, C.J.; Mu, X.; Wang, F.

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese Loess Plateau is one of the most rapidly eroding regions in the world. The purpose of this study is to find out to which extent soil erosion on the Loess Plateau is driven by sunspot activity. We analyzed the relation between annual sediment discharge (from 1919 to 2010) from the Loess P

  18. Mapping the plateau of novices in virtual reality simulation training of mastoidectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A.W. Andersen, Steven; Konge, Lars; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier

    2016-01-01

    To explore why novices' performance plateau in directed, self-regulated virtual reality (VR) simulation training and how performance can be improved.......To explore why novices' performance plateau in directed, self-regulated virtual reality (VR) simulation training and how performance can be improved....

  19. Facilitation of plateau potentials in turtle motoneurones by a pathway dependent on calcium and calmodulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrier, J F; Mejia-Gervacio, S; Hounsgaard, J

    2000-01-01

    or trifluoperazine reduced the amplitude of depolarization-induced plateau potentials. Inactivation of calmodulin also inhibited facilitation of plateau potentials by activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors or muscarinic receptors. 3. In low-sodium medium and in the presence of tetraethylammonium...

  20. Safeguards Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  1. The role of the Hikurangi Plateau in the dynamics of the Hikurangi Subduction Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, David; Moresi, Louis; Betts, Peter; Ailleres, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    The collision of the Hikurangi Plateau with the Hikurangi Subduction Zone coincides with a change from extension to shortening in the overriding Australian Plate. The 15km thick oceanic Hikurangi Plateau is juxtaposed with Chatham Rise at the southern edge of the subduction margin, possibly extending an unknown distance beneath the Chatham Rise. We explore the influence of the Hikurangi Plateau and its size on subduction dynamics using a series of 3D visco-elastic Underworld models with free slip boundary conditions. The models rely on negative slab buoyancy to drive subduction, with the buoyant oceanic plateau altering the dynamics. The models are benchmarked against New Zealand GPS velocities, paleomagnetic rotations, and fault zones. Both the overriding and subducting plates have undergone significant rotation since 23Ma with ~90° clockwise rotation of the overriding plate relative to the subducting plate. Distinctive fault zones have also been created with the Marlborough Fault Zone facilitating escape tectonics around the Chatham Rise; the North Island Dextral Fault Belt allowing lateral movement between the fore and back-arcs; extension in Taupo Volcanic Zone assisting back-arc extension; and active N-S extension in the Chatham Rise adjacent to the Hikurangi Plateau. In a model without an oceanic plateau, the subduction zone undergoes roll-back along its entire margin. Extension occurs along the overriding plate adjacent to subduction, with shortening limited to the collision of the Chatham Rise. Rotation rates adjacent to the Chatham Rise are extremely high, and decrease rapidly northward and there is no rotation of the subducting plate. When an oceanic plateau is included in the model, shortening occurs at the southern margin of the subduction zone as subduction shallows with the entry of the bouyant plateau. Rotation starts in the subducting plate as the plateau enters the subduction zone. This rotation is attributed to a decrease in slab pull southward

  2. Two distinct intraseasonal modes of summer rainfall variation over the eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; He, H.; Bao, Q.; Wang, B.; Mao, R.; Gong, D.

    2014-12-01

    During summer, the weather disturbances over the eastern Tibetan Plateau (ETP) can initiate development of severe weather system downstream, causing flooding in East Asia. Previous studies yielded inconsistent results on the intraseasonal variability of summer rainfall in terms of periodicity, genesis process and propagation pathway, due to data paucity over the EPT. In this study, we detected two dominant peaks, centered on 10 (8-12) days and 19 (14-24) days using daily rainfall data over the ETP during the period of 1992-2007. Composite analysis revealed that the two modes with different periodicity were predominantly produced by the non-stationary wave trains in the upper troposphere, which traveled along different pathways. For the 19-day mode, the wave train featured a southeastward migration, originating in the Barents Sea and traveling via the East European Plain, the Ural Mountains, Lake Balkhash and Lake Baikal, the Mongolian Plateau, and then continued southward to the ETP and South Asia. In contrast, the 10-day wave train propagated eastward along the westerly jet, extending from the eastern North Atlantic via the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian seas towards the ETP, East Asia and Southeast China. These two transient wave trains took place on different large-scale background circulations: a meridional pattern with a "Giant Ural Mountain Ridge" for the 19-day mode and a zonal pattern with "Western Siberian Trough" for the 10-day mode. In terms of simultaneous downstream linkage, the ETP rainfall anomaly was in-phase with the rainfall anomaly over the Yangtze River Basin for the 19-day mode but out-of-phase with the 10-day mode. The major processes generating the local wet spells for the two modes were found to be commonly linked to topographic lift and mid-tropospheric latent heat release, but the moisture sources are somewhat different. The evolution of the intraseasonal variability over the ETP described here may provide a useful guidance for 2-3 week

  3. Study of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction of gonyautoxins 2,3 in the cultured dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Zi-Ru; Wang, Jiang-Tao

    2013-11-01

    A highly selective sample cleanup procedure combined with molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) was developed for the isolation of gonyautoxins 2,3 (GTX2,3) from Alexandrium tamarense sample. The molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres (MIPMs) were prepared by suspension polymerization using caffeine as the dummy template molecule, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker and polyvinyl alcohol as the dispersive reagent. The polymer microspheres were used as a selective sorbent for the solid-phase extraction of gonyautoxins 2,3. An off-line MISPE method followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection for the analysis of gonyautoxins 2,3 was established. Finally, the extract samples from Alexandrium tamarense were analyzed. The results showed the imprinted polymer microspheres exhibited high affinity and selectivity for gonyautoxins 2,3. The interference matrix in the extract were obviously cleaned by MISPE and the extraction efficiency of gonyautoxins 2,3 in the sample ranged from 81.74% to 85.86%.

  4. Organizational Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian HUDREA

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultural orientations of an organization can be its greatest strength, providing the basis for problem solving, cooperation, and communication. Culture, however, can also inhibit needed changes. Cultural changes typically happen slowly – but without cultural change, many other organizational changes are doomed to fail. The dominant culture of an organization is a major contributor to its success. But, of course, no organizational culture is purely one type or another. And the existence of secondary cultures can provide the basis for change. Therefore, organizations need to understand the cultural environments and values.

  5. Sandy Desertification Status and its Driving Mechanism in North Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yuxiang

    2004-01-01

    As the main body of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, North Tibet Plateau is one of three major sandy desertification regions in China and also a representative sandy desertification zone of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Accordingly, it is an important region for the study of recent sandy desertification processes and formation mechanism. From such aspects as desertified land types, areas and distributions etc., this paper analyses in detail the sandy desertification status on North Tibet Plateau,and qualitatively and quantitatively deals with the main factors that affect recent sandy desertification processes and the driving mechanism. Research results show that North Tibet Plateau is an important sandy desertification region in China characterized with large desertified land areas, diversified types,high severity, extensive distributions and serious damages. Sandy desertification occurrence and development resulted from combined effects of natural factors, anthropogenic factors, natural processes and man-made processes, of which climatic change is the main driving force.

  6. The End of Zhang Zhung Kingdom in the Northwestern Area of the Qinghai-Tibet High Plateau and Its Continuation in the Southeastern Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Mei

    2015-01-01

    of“the eighteen king-doms of Zhang Zhung”? According to Tibetan liter-ary sources,at least two time coordinates are clear:1) one of the kings of the “eighteen kingdoms of Zhang Zhung” lived at the same time as Shenrab Mi-wo;and,2)The last two kings of the“eighteen king-doms of Zhang Zhung” were wiped out by Sontzen Gampo and Trisong Detsen. In other words,“the eighteen kingdoms of Zhang Zhung” date back at least to before the eight century. This is because his-torical studies consider that Sontzen Gampo’s reign lasted until at least 650 A. D. ,and the specific time of Trisong Detsen’s reign was from 755 A. D. to 797 A. D. II. The Continuation of the Zhang Zhung King-dom in the southeastern part of the Qinghai-Tibet high plateau 1 . Fact number one: if seen from their clan origin,the Zhang Zhung kings had a direct connec-tion with Rgyalrong;2 . Fact number two:There are words from the Zhang Zhung language found in the Rgyalrong spo-ken language. 3 . Fact number three:Concerning the “eight-een kingdoms”of Zhang Zhung and Rgyalrong,just as the formation history of the “eighteen king-doms”of Zhang Zhung,the idea of “eighteen king-doms” of Rgyalrong is not only the historical and cultural basis for the formation of eighteen tusi ( n-ative officials) of Rgyalrong,but also is a statistical result deduced by tracing backward from the line at the end of the period of Rgyalrong history. In other words,the number“eighteen” is not a result of the same historical period,but a number calculated af-ter experiencing a long historical period. 4 . Fact number four: Many newly discovered Tibetan and Han Chinese sources which provide information about the ancestral home of the Rgyal-rong tusi indicate that the Rgyalrong tusi are the descendants of the royal family of Zhang Zhung. 5 . Fact number five: There are many remains related to the Zhang Zhung culture in the south-eastern part of the Qinghai-Tibet high plateau. 6 . Fact number six: Traces of

  7. Phase Transformation Dynamics in Porous Battery Electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Ferguson, Todd R

    2014-01-01

    Porous electrodes composed of multiphase active materials are widely used in Li-ion batteries, but their dynamics are poorly understood. Two-phase models are largely empirical, and no models exist for three or more phases. Using a modified porous electrode theory based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics, we show that experimental phase behavior can be accurately predicted from free energy models, without artificially placing phase boundaries or fitting the open circuit voltage. First, we simulate lithium intercalation in porous iron phosphate, a popular two-phase cathode, and show that the zero-current voltage gap, sloping voltage plateau and under-estimated exchange currents all result from size-dependent nucleation and mosaic instability. Next, we simulate porous graphite, the standard anode with three stable phases, and reproduce experimentally observed fronts of color-changing phase transformations. These results provide a framework for physics-based design and control for electrochemical systems with comp...

  8. High prevalence of false-positive plateau phenomena during VO2max testing in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrami, Fernando G; Wong, Del P; Noakes, Timothy D

    2014-09-01

    It is believed that a plateau in oxygen consumption (VO2) at the end of an incremental exercise test identifies the upper limits of cardiovascular capacity. We investigated how different criteria influence the frequency with which the "plateau phenomenon" is detected and the prevalence at which "false" plateau phenomena occurs during sub-maximal exercise. Cross-sectional. Six different criteria with 3 different sampling intervals each were used to identify the "plateau phenomenon" from a single data set comprising 63 incremental exercise tests along with secondary criteria based on target heart rate (HR) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER). A single criterion from the original 18 (HALF) was also used to detect the incidence of any plateau phenomena during each test. The plateau phenomenon was detected in 16-82% of the tests depending on the criteria used, mostly as a result of the different sampling intervals. HALF identified 103 "plateau phenomena" but 73 (70.9%) of these occurred during sub-maximal exercise and so were "false". "False" plateaus were verified by at least one secondary criterion in 27% of cases. Participants reached the HR and RER targets after 83.6 ± 11.7% and 81.9 ± 18.1% of total test duration, respectively. The wide range in the percentage of plateau phenomena detected by different criteria plus the high rate (71%) of "false" plateau during sub-maximal exercise could indicate that this phenomenon is a calculation artifact rather than an indicator of true physiological events. Secondary criteria can be reached early in exercise and often identify "false" plateau phenomena as "true". Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Dynamic Plateau Monsoon Index and Its Association with General Circulation Anomalies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUN Xueyi; HU Zeyong; MA Yaoming

    2012-01-01

    Based on monthly ECMWF reanalysis-Interim (ERA-Interim) reanalysis data,along with monthly precipitation and temperature data,the Dynamic Plateau Monsoon Index (DPMI) is defined.The results of a contrast analysis of the DPMI versus the Traditional Plateau Monsoon Index (TPMI) are described.The response of general circulation to northern Qinghai-Xizang Plateau summer monsoon anomalies and the correlation of the DPMI with general circulation anomalies are investigated.The results show that,the DPMI reflected meteorological elements better and depicted climate variation more accurately than the TPMI.In years when the plateau summer monsoon is strong,the low over the plateau and the trough near the eastern coast of Asia are deeper and higher than normal over South China.This correlation corresponds to two anomalous cyclones over the plateau and the eastern coast of Asia and an anomalous anticyclone in South China.The plateau and its adjacent regions are affected by anomalous southwesterly winds that transport more moisture to South China and cause more precipitation.The lower reaches of the Yangtze River appear to receive more precipitation by means of the strong westerly water vapor flow transported from the "large triangle affecting the region".In years when the plateau summer monsoon is weak,these are opposite.The plateau monsoon is closely related to the intensity and position of the South Asian high,and the existence of a teleconnection pattern in the mid-upper levels suggests a possible linl~ge of the East Asian monsoon and the Indian monsoon to the plateau summer monsoon.

  10. The diverse crustal structure and magmatic evolution of the Manihiki Plateau, central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hochmuth

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Manihiki Plateau is a Large Igneous Province (LIP in the central Pacific. It was emplaced as part of the "Super-LIP" Ontong Java Nui and experienced fragmentation into three sub-plateaus, possibly during the break-up of Ontong Java Nui. The Manihiki Plateau is presumably the centerpiece of this "Super-LIP" and its investigation can therefore decipher the break-up mechanisms as well as the evolution of the plateau after its initial emplacement. By analyzing two seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles crossing the two largest sub-plateaus of the Manihiki Plateau, the High Plateau and the Western Plateaus, we give new insights into their crustal structure and magmatic evolution. The High Plateau shows a crustal structure of 20 km thickness and a seismic P wave velocity distribution, which is comparable to other LIPs. The High Plateau experienced a strong secondary volcanism, which can be seen in relicts of seamount chain volcanism. The Western Plateaus on the other hand show no extensive secondary volcanism and are mainly structured by fault systems and sedimentary basins. A constant decrease in Moho depth (9–17 km is a further indicator of crustal stretching on the Western Plateaus. Those findings lead to the conclusion, that the two sub-plateaus of the Manihiki Plateau experienced a different magmatic and tectonic history. Whereas the High Plateau experienced a secondary volcanism, the Western Plateaus underwent crustal stretching during and after the break-up of Ontong Java Nui. This indicates, that the sub-plateaus of the Manihiki Plateau play an individual part in the break-up history of Ontong Java Nui.

  11. Magnetar powered GRBs: Explaining the extended emission and X-ray plateau of short GRB light curves

    CERN Document Server

    Gompertz, B P; Wynn, G A

    2013-01-01

    Extended emission (EE) is a high-energy, early time rebrightening sometimes seen in the light curves of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We present the first contiguous fits to the EE tail and the later X-ray plateau, unified within a single model. Our central engine is a magnetar surrounded by a fall-back accretion disc, formed by either the merger of two compact objects or the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf. During the EE phase, material is accelerated to super-Keplarian velocities and ejected from the system by the rapidly rotating ($P \\approx 1 - 10$ ms) and very strong ($10^{15}$ G) magnetic field in a process known as magnetic propellering. The X-ray plateau is modelled as magnetic dipole spin-down emission. We first explore the range of GRB phenomena that the propeller could potentially reproduce, using a series of template light curves to devise a classification scheme based on phenomology. We then obtain fits to the light curves of 9 GRBs with EE, simultaneously fitting both the propeller ...

  12. Analysis of turbulence characteristics over the northern Tibetan Plateau area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. S.; Ma, Y. M.; Ma, W. Q.; Hu, Z. Y.; Ishikawa, H.; Su, Z. B.; Sun, G. L.

    2006-07-01

    Based on CATOP/Tibet [Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CA-IMP) on the Tibetan Plateau) turbulent data collected at the Bujiao (BJ) site of the Nagqu area, the turbulent structure and transportation characteristics in the near surface layer during summer are analyzed. The main results show that the relationship between the normalized standard deviation of 3D wind speed and stability satisfies the similarity law tinder both unstable and stable stratifications. The relations of normalized standard deviation of temperature and specific humidity to stability only obey the "-1/3 power law." tinder unstable conditions. In the case of stable stratifications, their relations to stability are dispersing. The sensible heat dominates in the dry period, while in the wet period, the latent heat is larger than the sensible heat.

  13. Contrast Enhancement Using Brightness Preserving Histogram Plateau Limit Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Santhi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Contrast enhancement is an important factor in the gray scale images. One of the widely accepted contrast enhancement method is the Histogram equalization (HE. HE achieves comparatively better performance on almost all types of image but sometimes produces excessive visual deterioration. The proposed Contrast Enhancement using Brightness Preserving Histogram Plateau Limit (CEBPHPL method provides better brightness preservation without allowing in excess of contrast improvement measure. This method decomposes the input image by computing the local maxima of the smoothed image using Gaussian filter which reduces the noise. Then the clipping process has been implemented which provides the good enhancement rate than the conventional methods. The experimental result of the proposed CEBPHPL is better than the existing methods.

  14. Motive force of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau moving to east

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A calculation formula on spherical pattern of Qinghai-Tibet plateau moving model is established. Tibet massif moves norward by east in speed of 28 mm/a, Ganshu-Qinghai massif moves to northeast in speed of 15 mm/a, Qomolangma Feng moves northward by a few east in speed of 35 ~42 mm/a. The low latitude perimeter is longer than the nigh latitude perimeter. When the Tibet massif moves northward, its latitude perimeter must be contracted and the Tibet massif must move eastward by Coriolis. Coriolis force is inertial in earth rotation. It makes the fall body turning to east and the rising block turning westward. In the Northern Hemisphere, it makes the northward body turning to east and the southward block turning to west.This is the reason why the tectonic zones of western Pacific are different from those of eastern Pacific.

  15. Plateau Inflation from Random Non-Minimal Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Broy, Benedict J; Roest, Diederik

    2016-01-01

    A generic non-minimal coupling can push any higher-order terms of the scalar potential sufficiently far out in field space to yield observationally viable plateau inflation. We provide analytic and numerical evidence that this generically happens for a non-minimal coupling strength $\\xi$ of the order $N_e^2$. In this regime, the non-minimally coupled field is sub-Planckian during inflation and is thus protected from most higher-order terms. For larger values of $\\xi$, the inflationary predictions converge towards the sweet spot of PLANCK. The latter includes $\\xi\\simeq 10^4$ obtained from CMB normalization arguments, thus providing a natural explanation for the inflationary observables measured.

  16. Plateau inflation from random non-minimal coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broy, Benedict J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Theory Group,22603 Hamburg (Germany); Coone, Dries [Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Theoretische Natuurkunde,Vrije Universiteit Brussel and The International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Roest, Diederik [Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-06-20

    A generic non-minimal coupling can push any higher-order terms of the scalar potential sufficiently far out in field space to yield observationally viable plateau inflation. We provide analytic and numerical evidence that this generically happens for a non-minimal coupling strength ξ of the order N{sub e}{sup 2}. In this regime, the non-minimally coupled field is sub-Planckian during inflation and is thus protected from most higher-order terms. For larger values of ξ, the inflationary predictions converge towards the sweet spot of PLANCK. The latter includes ξ≃10{sup 4} obtained from CMB normalization arguments, thus providing a natural explanation for the inflationary observables measured.

  17. Plateau inflation from random non-minimal coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broy, Benedict J. [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Coone, Dires [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Van Swinderen Inst. for Particle Physics and Gravity; Vrije Univ., Brussels (Belgium). Theoretische Natuurkunde; The International Solvay Institutes, Brussels (Belgium); Roest, Diederik [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Van Swinderen Inst. for Particle Physics and Gravity

    2016-06-15

    A generic non-minimal coupling can push any higher-order terms of the scalar potential sufficiently far out in field space to yield observationally viable plateau inflation. We provide analytic and numerical evidence that this generically happens for a non-minimal coupling strength ξ of the order N{sup 2}{sub e}. In this regime, the non-minimally coupled field is sub-Planckian during inflation and is thus protected from most higher-order terms. For larger values of ξ, the inflationary predictions converge towards the sweet spot of PLANCK. The latter includes ξ≅10{sup 4} obtained from CMB normalization arguments, thus providing a natural explanation for the inflationary observables measured.

  18. 12 kaBP lake environment on the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炳元; 王苏民; 朱立平; 李元芳

    2001-01-01

    The systemic analyses have been carried out in this paper to the paleolake shorelines, paleolake sediments and paleoclimatic proxies of 20 lakes, in which there were 12 kaBP dating data on the Tibetan Plateau. The results showed that the paleolake level had apparently risen during 14-11 kaBP, the glaciers melting period, in the Tibetan area and Northwest China. Especially, much more increasing amplitude supplied by thawy glaciers water occurred than in the best period of Holocene. The temperate-humid climate around 12 kaBP appeared in the Tibetan area and even in the whole China. This event may be compared with the Bolling/Allerod warm period which was reflected by Europe and Greenland ice core records. It showed that the B/A event was not a regional one in the North Atlantic area.

  19. Analysis of Turbulence Characteristics over the Northern Tibetan Plateau Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on CAMP/Tibet [Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP) on the Tibetan Plateau] turbulent data collected at the Bujiao (BJ) site of the Nagqu area, the turbulent structure and transportation characteristics in the near surface layer during summer are analyzed. The main results show that the relationship between the normalized standard deviation of 3D wind speed and stability satisfies the similarity law under both unstable and stable stratifications.The relations of normalized standard deviation of temperature and specific humidity to stability only obey the "-1/3 power law" under unstable conditions. In the case of stable stratifications, their relations to stability are dispersing. The sensible heat dominates in the dry period, while in the wet period, the latent heat is larger than the sensible heat.

  20. Looking at the Spite plateau from a different perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnel, C.; Primas, F.

    Thanks to the accurate determination of the baryon density of the Universe by the recent cosmic microwave background experiments, updated predictions of the standard model of Big Bang nucleosynthesis yield the initial abundances of the primordial light elements with an unprecedented precision (Bennet et al. 2003; Spergel et al. 2003; Coc et al. 2004; Cyburt 2004). In the case of 7Li, the CMB+SBBN value is significantly higher than the generally reported abundances for Pop II stars along the Spite plateau. Here, we report on the very recent results we obtained by revisiting a large sample of literature Li data in halo stars that we assembled following some strict criteria on the quality of the original analyses published from the early 90s onwards.

  1. Land Desertification Monitoring on Tibetan Plateau Using Remote Sensing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Zou, X.; Liu, H.

    2012-12-01

    As one of the serious ecological environmental problems of the Tibetan plateau, desertification has critically hampered the economic and social development in Tibet, so it is imperative to monitoring the desertification in Tibet area. Due to its 200 thousand km2 vast area and steep terrain, this paper uses multi-source remote sensing image to survey the current situation of land desertification in Tibetan plateau, and study dynamic desertification change on the 10 km2 land between Namucuo lake and Selincuo lake. Data of the 250 meters time-series MODIS-NDVI images, 30 m resolution Landsat TM images and 90 m SRTM DEM data were used. Through the analysis of the relationship between MODIS-NDVI, vegetation growth characteristics and vegetation vertical distribution, this paper chooses the MODIS-NDVI time series data and principal component analysis of the first band (PC1), vegetation coverage(VC), DEM and its derived slope data as indicators for desertification monitoring. Visual interpretation based on 30 m TM image is also used to classify each type of desertification. Using the high temporal resolution data, we can quickly obtain desertification hot spot areas then accurately distinguish each degree of desertification with high spatial resolution images. The results are: (1) The desertification area in Tibetan plateau in 2008 is 218,286 km2, which is 18.91% of the total area, and mainly distributed in the Ali region, next by Nagqu and Xigaze. The severe desertification land area is 8,866 km2 ( 4.06% of the desertified land), of which the mobile dune area is 3224 km2, heavy saline area is 5641 km2. Moderate desertified land area is 110,915 km2( 50.81% of the desertified land), of which semi-fixed sand dune area is 10,075 km2 and the bare sand area is 100,839 km2. Mild desertified land area is 98,504 km2 ( 45.12% of the desertified land), of which the fixed dune area is 4,177 km2 and the half bare gravel area is 94,326 km2. (2) By using GIS spatial analysis, westudied

  2. Industrial cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    1996-01-01

    The chapter deals with different paradigms andtheories of cultural development. The problem toexplain change and methods to analyse developmentin different cultures are presented and discussed.......The chapter deals with different paradigms andtheories of cultural development. The problem toexplain change and methods to analyse developmentin different cultures are presented and discussed....

  3. Ongoing speciation in the Tibetan plateau Gymnocypris species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renyi; Peng, Zuogang; Li, Guogang; Zhang, Cunfang; Tang, Yongtao; Gan, Xiaoni; He, Shunping; Zhao, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Local adaptation towards divergent ecological conditions often results in genetic differentiation and adaptive phenotypic divergence. To illuminate the ecological distinctiveness of the schizothoracine fish, we studied a Gymnocypris species complex consisting of three morphs distributed across four bodies of water (the Yellow River, Lake Qinghai, the Ganzi River and Lake Keluke) in the Northeast Tibetan Plateau. We used a combination of mitochondrial (16S rRNA and Cyt b) and nuclear (RAG-2) genetic sequences to investigate the phylogeography of these morphs based on a sample of 277 specimens. Analysis of gill rakers allowed for mapping of phenotypic trajectories along the phylogeny. The phylogenetic and morphological analyses showed that the three sparsely rakered morphs were present at two extremes of the phylogenetic tree: the Yellow River morphs were located at the basal phylogenetic split, and the Lake Keluke and Ganzi River morphs at the peak, with the densely rakered Lake Qinghai morphs located between these two extremes. Age estimation further indicated that the sparsely rakered morphs constituted the oldest and youngest lineages, whereas the densely rakered morph was assigned to an intermediate-age lineage. These results are most compatible with the process of evolutionary convergence or reversal. Disruptive natural selection due to divergent habitats and dietary preferences is likely the driving force behind the formation of new morphs, and the similarities between their phenotypes may be attributable to the similarities between their forms of niche tracking associated with food acquisition. This study provides the first genetic evidence for the occurrence of convergence or reversal in the schizothoracine fish of the Tibetan Plateau at small temporal scales.

  4. Ongoing speciation in the Tibetan plateau Gymnocypris species complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyi Zhang

    Full Text Available Local adaptation towards divergent ecological conditions often results in genetic differentiation and adaptive phenotypic divergence. To illuminate the ecological distinctiveness of the schizothoracine fish, we studied a Gymnocypris species complex consisting of three morphs distributed across four bodies of water (the Yellow River, Lake Qinghai, the Ganzi River and Lake Keluke in the Northeast Tibetan Plateau. We used a combination of mitochondrial (16S rRNA and Cyt b and nuclear (RAG-2 genetic sequences to investigate the phylogeography of these morphs based on a sample of 277 specimens. Analysis of gill rakers allowed for mapping of phenotypic trajectories along the phylogeny. The phylogenetic and morphological analyses showed that the three sparsely rakered morphs were present at two extremes of the phylogenetic tree: the Yellow River morphs were located at the basal phylogenetic split, and the Lake Keluke and Ganzi River morphs at the peak, with the densely rakered Lake Qinghai morphs located between these two extremes. Age estimation further indicated that the sparsely rakered morphs constituted the oldest and youngest lineages, whereas the densely rakered morph was assigned to an intermediate-age lineage. These results are most compatible with the process of evolutionary convergence or reversal. Disruptive natural selection due to divergent habitats and dietary preferences is likely the driving force behind the formation of new morphs, and the similarities between their phenotypes may be attributable to the similarities between their forms of niche tracking associated with food acquisition. This study provides the first genetic evidence for the occurrence of convergence or reversal in the schizothoracine fish of the Tibetan Plateau at small temporal scales.

  5. Threshold friction velocity of soils within the Columbia Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharratt, B. S.; Vaddella, V. K.

    Wind erosion only occurs when the friction velocity exceeds the threshold friction velocity (TFV) of the surface. The TFV of loessial soils found across the Columbia Plateau region of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is virtually unknown even though these soils are highly erodible and a source of atmospheric particulates that reduce air quality. The TFV's of a sandy loam and four silt loams collected from field sites in eastern Washington were determined by systematically measuring the temporal variation in wind speed, saltation activity, and PM10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter of ⩽10 μm) and TSP (total suspended particulate matter) concentrations above the soil surface inside a wind tunnel. The erodible fraction of each soil, obtained by drying and screening the soil, was placed in a tray inside the wind tunnel. The TFV for the sandy loam was 0.139 m s-1 whereas the TFV for the four silt loams ranged from 0.180-0.239 m s-1. The sandy loam was aerodynamically smoother than that of the silt loams, possibly due to a smaller size fraction of larger soil aggregates or particles on the surface of the sandy loam. The TFV's measured in this study were lower than those previously observed in the field in the Columbia Plateau and also lower than the minimum TFV required to initiate erosion in some wind erosion models. While these TFV's are representative of the erodible soil fraction, the low TFV's may contribute to the occasional poor performance of wind erosion models in the region.

  6. Improving human plateaued motor skill with somatic stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Uehara

    Full Text Available Procedural motor learning includes a period when no substantial gain in performance improvement is obtained even with repeated, daily practice. Prompted by the potential benefit of high-frequency transcutaneous electrical stimulation, we examined if the stimulation to the hand reduces redundant motor activity that likely exists in an acquired hand motor skill, so as to further upgrade stable motor performance. Healthy participants were trained until their motor performance of continuously rotating two balls in the palm of their right hand became stable. In the series of experiments, they repeated a trial performing this cyclic rotation as many times as possible in 15 s. In trials where we applied the stimulation to the relaxed thumb before they initiated the task, most reported that their movements became smoother and they could perform the movements at a higher cycle compared to the control trials. This was not possible when the dorsal side of the wrist was stimulated. The performance improvement was associated with reduction of amplitude of finger displacement, which was consistently observed irrespective of the task demands. Importantly, this kinematic change occurred without being noticed by the participants, and their intentional changes of motor strategies (reducing amplitude of finger displacement never improved the performance. Moreover, the performance never spontaneously improved during one-week training without stimulation, whereas the improvement in association with stimulation was consistently observed across days during training on another week combined with the stimulation. The improved effect obtained in stimulation trials on one day partially carried over to the next day, thereby promoting daily improvement of plateaued performance, which could not be unlocked by the first-week intensive training. This study demonstrated the possibility of effectively improving a plateaued motor skill, and pre-movement somatic stimulation

  7. Pv rural electrification programme at the Bolivian high plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo, E.; Aguilera, J. [Instituto de Energia Solar, ETSI Telecomunicacion, (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    Since 1988 the Institute of Solar Energy of the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid is carrying out a pv rural electrification programme at the Bolivian high plateau. This programme has been focused in three aspects: the domestic electrification, users participation and transfer technology. At present, there are about 1,500 electrified dwellings distributed in the Bolivian high plateau. We have got deep knowledge about life style and organization of the aymara Indians who are the inhabitants of the working zone. We think that this knowledge can be very useful for a large scale introduction of PV solar energy in this region. Finally, we present a new way to transfer PV technology to developing countries. Thanks to this programme a group of aymara Indians is able to manufacture charge regulators and electronic ballast to use in the PV installations of the programme. [Espanol] Desde 1988 el Instituto de Energia Solar de la Universidad Politecnica de Madrid esta llevando a cabo un programa fotovoltaico de electrificacion rural en la altiplanicie Boliviana. Este programa ha sido enfocado a tres aspectos: la electrificacion domestica, la participacion de los usuarios y la transferencia de la tecnologia. Actualmente, hay alrededor de 1500 conjuntos habitacionales electrificados distribuidos en la altiplanicie Boliviana. Hemos obtenido un profundo conocimiento del estilo de vida y de la organizacion de los indios aymara que son los habitantes de la zona de trabajo. Pensamos que este conocimiento puede ser muy util para una introduccion en gran escala de la energia solar fotovoltaica en esta region. Finalmente, presentamos una nueva forma de transferir la tecnologia fotovoltaica a paises en desarrollo. Gracias a este programa un grupo de indios aymara pueden fabricar reguladores de carga y balastros electronicos para ser usados en instalaciones fotovoltaicas del programa.

  8. Relationship between gullying and landslides within the Barlad Plateau, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niacsu, Lilian; Ionita, Ion

    2016-04-01

    Located in the eastern Romania and extending on 8200 km2 the Barlad Plateau is considered the most typical subunit of the Moldavian Plateau. The sedimentary Miocene-Pliocene clay-sandy layers, inter-bedded with shallow sandstone and limestone are gently dipping toward S-SE as homoclinal structure. Land degradation through soil erosion, gullying and landslides represent the most important environmental threat in the region. By using both the classical research methods such as repeated field surveys and mapping, mathematical-statistical processing as well as the present-day methods based on the GIS software it was possible to precisely measure and evaluate the gully erosion rates and triggered landslides during the last two centuries, especially with a very high accuracy since 1960. Results have indicated that the landslide development is strongly controlled by gullying. Generally, by combining the areal growth of both gullying and new landslides within the selected study catchments, it is noticeable that 62 % of the total recent land degradation occurred during the last 55 years, with the remainder pre-1960. In addition, half of the gully areal growth occurred since 1961 but the new triggered landslides amount over three-quarters of the total area under landslides. This asymmetrical distribution reveals that usually a preparing time lag of tens of years is required for triggering landslides by gullying and this pattern depicts the common mechanism for landslide development. Acknowledgements: This work was partly supported by a grant from the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, CNDI-UEFISCDI, Project number PN-II-PT-PCCA-2011-3.2-0975.

  9. Trauma capacity in the central plateau department of Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewberry, Lindel; McCullough, Chelsea; Goss, Jonathan; Hugar, Lee A; Dente, Christopher J; Sharma, Jyotirmay

    2014-11-01

    Surgical burden is a large and neglected global health problem in low- and middle-income countries. With the increasing trauma burden, the goal of this study was to evaluate the trauma capacity of hospitals in the central plateau of Haiti. The World Health Organization Emergency and Essential Surgical Care survey was adapted with a focus on trauma capacity. Interviewers along with translators administered the survey to key hospital staff. Seven hospitals in the region were surveyed. Of the hospitals surveyed, 3/7 had functioning surgical facilities. None of the hospitals had trauma registries. 71% of the hospitals had no formal trauma guidelines. 2/7 hospitals had a general surgeon available 100% of the time. All surgical facilities had oxygen cylinders available 100% of the time, but three of the primary level hospitals only had it available 51%-90% of the time. Intubation equipment was available at 57% of the facilities. Ventilators were only available in the operating room. Only the largest hospital had a computed tomography scanner. Other hospitals (66%) had a functioning x-ray machine 76%-90% of the time. Hospitals (57%) had an ultrasound machine. The most common reasons for referral were lack of appropriate facilities and supplies at the primary level care centers or lack of trained personnel at higher-level facilities. Trauma capacity in the central plateau of Haiti is limited. There is a great need for more personnel, trauma training at all staff levels, emergency care guidelines, trauma registries, and imaging equipment and training, specifically in ultrasonography. To accomplish this, coordination is needed between the Haitian government and local and international nongovernmental organizations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. On edge melting under the Colorado Plateau margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzitis, Sean; Reid, Mary R.; Blichert-Toft, Janne

    2016-07-01

    Asthenosphere beneath the relatively thin lithosphere of the Basin and Range province appears to be juxtaposed in step-like fashion against the Colorado Plateau's thick lithospheric keel. Primary to near-primary basalts are found above this edge, in the San Francisco-Morman Mountain volcanic fields, north central Arizona, western USA. We show that at least two distinct peridotite-dominated mantle end-members contributed to the origin of the basalts. One has paired Nd and Hf isotopic characteristics that cluster near the mantle array and trace element patterns as expected for melts generated in the asthenosphere, possibly in the presence of garnet. The second has isotopic compositions displaced above the ɛHf - ɛNd mantle array which, together with its particular trace element characteristics, indicate contributions from hydrogenous sediments and/or melt (carbonatite or silicate)-related metasomatism. Melt equilibration temperatures obtained from Si- and Mg-thermobarometry are mostly 1340-1425°C and account for the effects of water (assumed to be 2 wt.%) and estimated CO2 (variable). Melt equilibration depths cluster at the inferred location of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary at ˜70-75 km beneath the southwestern margin of the Colorado Plateau but scatter to somewhat greater values (˜100 km). Melt generation may have initiated in or below the garnet-spinel facies transition zone by edge-driven convection and continued as mantle and/or melts upwelled, assimilating and sometimes equilibrating with shallower contaminated mantle, until melts were finally extracted.

  11. Seismic source characterization for the Shillong Plateau in Northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baro, Olympa; Kumar, Abhishek

    2017-09-01

    The present study aims at understanding the seismotectonic province of the Shillong Plateau (SP) by identifying the potential seismic source zones within a radius of 500 km from the centre of the SP. From existing literature and earthquake (EQ) data, the seismotectonic region is found to vary in terms of seismicity, tectonic features, geology, thickness of overburden, rupture characteristics and rate of movement. Thus, entire 500-km-radius seismotectonic region is divided into four seismic source zones: namely (1) the Shillong Plateau-Assam Valley Zone (SP-AVZ), (2) the Indo-Burma Ranges Zone (IBRZ), (3) the Bengal Basin Zone (BBZ) and (4) the Eastern Himalaya Zone (EHZ). EQ catalogues for each source zone is analysed for completeness of magnitude and time. Seismic parameter b estimated using a maximum likelihood method is found to be 0.91 ± 0.03, 0.94 ± 0.02, 0.80 ± 0.03 and 0.89 ± 0.03 for the SP-AVZ, IBRZ, BBZ and EHZ, respectively. In addition, the maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the mean annual activity rate, maximum possible magnitude ( m max), return period and probability of exceedance for the four zones. The b values estimated suggest that the BBZ is seismically more active; however, the rate of occurrence of EQs is highest in the IBRZ. Findings from this study are an indication of the relative contribution from each of the four seismic source zones towards a seismic hazard of the SP.

  12. Isolation, in vitro culture and identification of a new type of mesenchymal stem cell derived from fetal bovine lung tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pengfei; Pu, Yabin; Li, Xiayun; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yuhua; Guan, Weijun; Ma, Yuehui

    2015-09-01

    Lung‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (LMSCs) are considered to be important in lung tissue repair and regenerative processes. However, the biological characteristics and differentiation potential of LMSCs remain to be elucidated. In the present study, fetal lung‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (FLMSCs) were isolated from fetal bovine lung tissues by collagenase digestion. The in vitro culture conditions were optimized and stabilized and the self‑renewal ability and differentiation potential were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the FLMSCs were morphologically consistent with fibroblasts, were able to be cultured and passaged for at least 33 passages and the cell morphology and proliferative ability were stable during the first 10 passages. In addition, FLMSCs were found to express CD29, CD44, CD73 and CD166, however, they did not express hematopoietic cell specific markers, including CD34, CD45 and BOLA‑DRα. The growth kinetics of FLMSCs consisted of a lag phase, a logarithmic phase and a plateau phase, and as the passages increased, the proliferative ability of cells gradually decreased. The majority of FLMSCs were in G0/G1 phase. Following osteogenic induction, FLMSCs were positive for the expression of osteopontin and collagen type I α2. Following neurogenic differentiation, the cells were morphologically consistent with neuronal cells and positive for microtubule‑associated protein 2 and nestin expression. It was concluded that the isolated FLMSCs exhibited typical characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells and that the culture conditions were suitable for their proliferation and the maintenance of stemness. The present study illustrated the potential application of lung tissue as an adult stem cell source for regenerative therapies.

  13. Markawasi: a cultural and natural patrimony of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar, N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The current research had as main aim to recognize the cultural and natural importance of Markawasi plateau for its possible consideration as a Hystorical Sanctuary into the National System of Protective Natural Areas by the Nation (SINANPE of Peru. Since 1994 until 2000, a photographic register of some of zoomorphic and anthropomorphic sculptures was evaluated and registered. Markawasi is important as origin center of the protohistory of our Andean culture and its biological richness. Markawasi plateau located at 4000 msnm, represent the rocky forest closer to Lima city, near to 90 km east, being studied since 1952 by Dr. Daniel Ruzo. To go to Markawasi should arrive to San Pedro de Casta, small town knew by its water party. The importance of Markawasi is increasing every day passed by its rocky formations, its archeological rest in the Fortress, Preinca stone tomb, irrigable channels, its center of observation and its natural amphitheatre formed. In addition, small lakes and its biological richness belonging to high mountain ecosystem make Markawasi an ideal place for ecotourism and cultural tourism. Markawasi due to its importance as cultural and national patrimony should be management by authorities of Peruvian state, and by communities surrounding to this natural area. Only by this way, could leave of its ostracism and stagnation of this town situated close to Markawasi plateau.

  14. Cultural Implications of Out-of-Phase Weather across northern Alaska after 500 CE: Regional Variability during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, O. K.; Alix, C. M.; Bigelow, N. H.; Hoffecker, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    From a global perspective, a diverse mélange of paleoclimate data reveal that Northwest Alaska is partially out of phase with northwest Europe, witnessing cooler periods during the Medieval Climate Anomaly ca. CE 1000 and warmer conditions in the 16th and 17th centuries. The search for climatic forcers in northern Alaska relies on integration of data drawn from tree-rings, lacustrine varves and moraines, diatoms, beach ridges and dunes. At Cape Espenberg, northern Seward Peninsula, a 1500-year reconstruction of settlement, landscape evolution and climatic variability employs >100 14C ages from accreting dunes with shell-laden storm beds, intercalated driftwood and superimposed soils, archaeological sites and marsh peats within swale ponds. Large storms occurred along the Chukchi Sea from Cape Espenberg and Deering (Kotzebue Sound) to Point Barrow prior to 1000 CE, and at decadal intervals during the Little Ice Age (LIA) from 1300 to 1700. Architecural driftwood logs from several excavated houses capped by sand dunes yield several 14C dated floating chronologies covering intervals from 700 to 1700, suggest the identification of cooler intervals 800 to 1000 and intermittently after 1300. Peat aggradation followed isolation from the sea from 500 onward, and was interrupted by two pulses of fresh water, one ca. 1300 and a second ca. 1800, with diatoms suggesting relative aridity during the LIA. The occupation history of Cape Espenberg generally follows dune growth, and may be inversely related to cooler temperatures.

  15. Growth Performance and Feed Utilization of Russian Sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Brandt&Ratzeburg, 1833 in Grow-out Phase Cultured in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kocabaş

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to determine the growth performance of Russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii throughout 5 years and to investigate problems encountered in grow-out phase. Fish samples (2750.88±351.18 g, 80.18±6.49 cm mean±SD were equally stocked into fiberglass tanks, three replicate per treatment and fed for 5 years. Gain of weight and length, Specific Growth Rate (SGR, Condition Factor (CF and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR were determined. Our results indicated that mean final length and weight were 106.34±2.79 (cm and 6651.16±3.16 (g. The mean condition factor (CF at year 5 was 0.51. FCR values fluctuated and the highest value of food conversion rate (FCR was determined in 4th year. During the rearing period of Russian sturgeon, SGR values decreased dramatically from 2.88 to 1.83. In conclusion, slow growth was determined in Russian sturgeon A. gueldenstaedtii. Therefore, there is need for extensive evaluation and comparison of data obtained from field studies and those obtained from laboratory studies.

  16. Phases and Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitterman, Moshe

    2014-09-01

    In discussing phase transitions, the first thing that we have to do is to define a phase. This is a concept from thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, where a phase is defined as a homogeneous system. As a simple example, let us consider instant coffee. This consists of coffee powder dissolved in water, and after stirring it we have a homogeneous mixture, i.e., a single phase. If we add to a cup of coffee a spoonful of sugar and stir it well, we still have a single phase -- sweet coffee. However, if we add ten spoonfuls of sugar, then the contents of the cup will no longer be homogeneous, but rather a mixture of two homogeneous systems or phases, sweet liquid coffee on top and coffee-flavored wet sugar at the bottom...

  17. High-Resolution Regional Phase Attenuation Models of the Iranian Plateau and Zagros (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-12

    15 September 2011, Tucson, AZ, Volume I, pp 153-160. Government Purpose Rights. Johann Wolfgang Goethe -Universität 1, and Lawrence Livermore...University of Missouri1, Johann Wolfgang Goethe -Universität 2, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory3 Sponsored by the Air Force

  18. Terrestrial mollusk evidence for the origin and sedimentary environment of the Late Tertiary Red Clay Formation in the Loess Plateau, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Yunpeng; WU Naiqin; LI Fengjiang

    2004-01-01

    The origin and sedimentary environment of the Late Tertiary (Neogene) Red Clay Formation in northern China had long been controversial. A new mollusk record from the Xifeng red clay (red-earth) sequence in the central Loess Plateau provides the biological evidence for addressing questions of its origin and environmental implication. The study of composition and preservation condition of seventy mollusk fossil assemblages reveals the initial ecological condition of the red clay formation, avoiding the effect of post-deposited alteration. The result shows that all of identifiable mollusk species are composed of terrestrial taxa, most of them are the common species found in the overlying Quaternary loess-paleosol sequence. Most of fossil individuals preserved in the red clay strata are in living conditions based on the investigation of fieldwork, indicating the original population. Thus, the mollusk fossil assemblages can be used as an indicator of primary environment of the red clay formation. The mollusk record from the Xifeng red clay sequence supports the view that the red clay is an aeolian origin, similar to the overlying Quaternary loess deposits. Our data also reveal the history of environmental changes at Xifeng from 6.2-2.4 Ma, which is coupled in phase with the formation and development of the Arctic ice sheets and the process of the Tibetan Plateau uplift. Both may be the major cause and forcing mechanisms of the late Tertiary environmental changes in the Loess Plateau.

  19. Spatio-temporal dynamics of evapotranspiration on the Tibetan Plateau from 2000 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lulu; Zhuang, Qianlai; Yin, Yunhe; Zhu, Xudong; Wu, Shaohong

    2017-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key process of the climate system because it links water, energy and carbon cycles. In this study we modified a Penman-Monteith based algorithm to estimate ET on the Tibetan Plateau at a 1 km spatial resolution for the period 2000-2010 using meteorological and satellite remote sensing data. The results showed that the average annual ET on the Tibetan Plateau was 350.3 mm year-1 and decreased from the southeast toward the northwest. The highest ET value was found in open water bodies (680.9 mm year-1) and the lowest ET value was found in open shrubland (254.0 mm year-1). Overall, the inter-annual ET decreased from 2000 to 2010 and there was significant negative ET trend over 42% of the region, primarily in the northwest of the Tibetan Plateau. Relative humidity was the dominant factor in controlling long-term variations of ET in the arid northwest plateau. But under moist conditions, leaf area index or temperature drove ET. In addition, P-ET on the Tibetan Plateau significantly increased and about 37% of the region showed strong positive P-ET trend primarily in the central of the Tibetan Plateau. The positive P-ET trend in four seasons suggested that the Tibetan Plateau might have become wetter during the past decade.

  20. Tibetan plateau river incision inhibited by glacial stabilization of the Tsangpo gorge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korup, Oliver; Montgomery, David R

    2008-10-09

    A considerable amount of research has focused on how and when the Tibetan plateau formed in the wake of tectonic convergence between India and Asia. Although far less enquiry has addressed the controls on river incision into the plateau itself, widely accepted theory predicts that steep fluvial knick points (river reaches with very steep gradients) in the eastern Himalayan syntaxis at the southeastern plateau margin should erode rapidly, driving a wave of incision back into the plateau. Preservation of the plateau edge thus presents something of a conundrum that may be resolved by invoking either differential rock uplift matching erosional decay, or other mechanisms for retarding bedrock river incision in this region where high stream power excludes the potential for aridity as a simple limit to dissection of the plateau. Here we report morphologic evidence showing that Quaternary depression of the regional equilibrium line altitude, where long-term glacier mass gain equals mass loss, was sufficient to repeatedly form moraine dams on major rivers: such damming substantially impeded river incision into the southeastern edge of the Tibetan plateau through the coupled effects of upstream impoundment and interglacial aggradation. Such glacial stabilization of the resulting highly focused river incision centred on the Tsangpo gorge could further contribute to initiating and accentuating a locus of rapid exhumation, known as tectonic anaeurysm.

  1. Lightning activity on the central Tibetan Plateau and its response to convective available potential energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Lightning flash activities on the central Tibetan Plateau have been studied by using the satellite-based Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) database from January 1998 to July 2002. The lightning activity shows a clear diurnal variation on the central Plateau. The peak lightning activity appears at about 17︰00 which is 3 h earlier than that in Jingzhou, Hubei in the same latitude belt nearby, indicating that the lightning activity is a sensitive indicator of solar heating on the Plateau. The lightning discharge is weaker on the Plateau than Jingzhou, Hubei and other low-altitude continental regions because of the lower convective available potential energy (CAPE) on the Plateau. The CAPE on the Plateau is 12 times lower than that in Jingzhou, Hubei, and 20 times lower than that in the sea-level region, such as Guangzhou and Florida. However, the sensitivity of lightning activity to CAPE changes on the Plateau is up to 30 times more sensitive than other prominent low-altitude regions.

  2. Deep Mechanical Background for the Cenozoic Volcanism in the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Xiong; Wang Jiye; Teng Jiwen

    2005-01-01

    The principle prerequisite for the formation of a volcano is the generation of a channel for magma transportation. There is little research on the deep mechanical mechanism for the formation of a magma transportation channel in the Tibetan plateau.Based on the subcrustal mantle convection-generated stress field inversed by gravity anomalies, together with its relationship to the Cenozoic volcanism in the plateau, and the mechanism of crustal fracture formation, as well as the numerical results of the evolution of mantle convection beneath the plateau, this paper investigates the deep mechanical mechanism for the formation of a magma transportation channel in the Tibetan plateau. There are two significant extensional convection-generated stress zones beneath the plateau, in which the volcanic rocks in the central and northern parts of the plateau are distributed. The Linzizong volcanism in southern Tibet correlates the upwelling mantle flow prior to the India-Asia collision or during the early stage of the collision. The magnitude of the stress is ~100 MPa, which is the same order of force that causes crustal fractures. The evidence implies that the mantle convection-generated stress is one of the principle causes of crustal fractures, and furthermore, the formation of the magma transportation channel in the Tibetan plateau.

  3. The remote effect of the Tibetan Plateau on downstream flow in early summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafei; Xu, Xiangde; Lupo, Anthony R.; Li, Pingyun; Yin, Zhicong

    2011-10-01

    By using numerical experiments and observational data, this study examined the uplifting and thermal effects of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) on downstream airflow in early summer. Our principal finding is that the uplifting effect of the TP in an Atmospheric General Climate Model (AGCM), including air made warmer than its surroundings climatologically by the huge topography, results mainly in a local response in the atmosphere, i.e., a large ridge north of the TP in the troposphere in June. There was no Rossby wave response to the uplifting effect. However, simulations and statistical analyses strongly suggested that the anomalous TP atmospheric heating associated with global climate warming tends to excite a Rossby wave originating from the TP via Lake Baikal and continuing to move through the Okhotsk Sea to downstream areas. The appearance of the Rossby wave coincides with the positive phase of the eastern part of a normal stationary wave originating in the Caspian Sea traveling via the Okhotsk Sea to the sea area east of Japan that often occurs in June. Thus the TP atmospheric heating acts as an additional wave source in relaying and enhancing the eastern part of the normal wave propagation. Its path usually lies beyond 40°N latitude, which is where the westerly jet stream takes over the role of waveguide.

  4. A Qualitative Survey of Five Antibiotics in a Water Treatment Plant in Central Plateau of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Heidari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study aimed to survey a total of five common human and veterinary antibiotics based on SPE-LC-MS-MS technology in a water treatment plant at central plateau of Iran. Also two sampling techniques, passive and grab samplings, were compared in the detection of selected antibiotics. Materials and Methods. In January to March 2012, grab and passive samples were taken from the influent and effluent of a water treatment plant. The samples were prepared using solid-phase extraction (SPE, and extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS. Results. The results showed that enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, and tylosin were not detected in none of the samples. However, ampicillin was detected in the grab and passive samples taken from the influent (source water of the plant, and ciprofloxacin was detected in passive samples taken from the influent and effluent (finished water of the plant. Conclusion. The results imply that passive sampling is a better approach than grab sampling for the investigation of antibiotics in aquatic environments. The presence of ampicillin and ciprofloxacin in source water and finished water of the water treatment plant may lead to potential emergence of resistant bacteria that should be considered in future studies.

  5. Type II-Plateau supernovae as metallicity probes of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Dessart, L; Hamuy, M; Hillier, D J; Lanz, T; Anderson, J P; Folatelli, G; Freedman, W L; Ley, F; Morrell, N; Persson, S E; Phillips, M M; Stritzinger, M; Suntzeff, N B

    2014-01-01

    We explore a method for metallicity determinations based on quantitative spectroscopy of type II-Plateau (II-P) supernovae (SNe). For consistency, we first evolve a set of 15Msun main sequence stars at 0.1, 0.4, 1, and 2 x the solar metallicity. At the onset of core collapse, we trigger a piston-driven explosion and model the resulting ejecta and radiation. Our theoretical models of such red-supergiant-star explosions at different metallicity show that synthetic spectra of SNe II-P possess optical signatures during the recombination phase that are sensitive to metallicity variations. This sensitivity can be quantified and the metallicity inferred from the strength of metal-line absorptions. Furthermore, these signatures are not limited to O, but also include Na, Ca, Sc, Ti, or Fe. When compared to a sample of SNe II-P from the Carnegie SN Project and previous SN followup programs, we find that most events lie at a metallicity between 0.4 and 2 x solar, with a marked scarcity of SN II-P events at SMC metallici...

  6. Origin and implications of fluid inclusions from filled fractures, Oriskany Sandstone, Allegheny Plateau, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basilone, T.; Anderson, T.; Burruss, R.C.

    1984-12-01

    Two cores from the Lower Devonian Oriskany Sandstone underlying the Allegheny Plateau in south-central Somerset County, Pennsylvania, contain fractures that may either be filled with epigenetic minerals or unfilled. The 1 Sipe core, taken from an unproductive well drilled on the crest of an anticlinal structure, is characterized by numerous discontinuous vertical fractures. The 1 Romesburg core, taken from a productive well drilled on the flank of an anticlinal structure, contains numerous fractures that lie parallel with bedding planes. The walls of these fractures consist of smooth slickensided surfaces. Quartz and ferroan-calcite crystals filling fractures contain numerous hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions. The distribution of these fluid inclusions within most minerals allowed a determination to be made regarding the relative times of migration of fluid hydrocarbon phases in the subsurface with respect to the paragenetic sequence of mineralization events. Analysis of fluid inclusions indicates that fractures were opened at 22,000 ft (6700 m) and remained open throughout an extended period of uplift. Furthermore, inclusions contain hydrocarbon-rich fluids that are comparable to reservoir hydrocarbons in the nearby Shamrock field. This relationship implies that hydrocarbons that currently exist in reservoirs were conducted along fractures that were once open. Fractures crosscut diagenetic features, indicating that diagenesis, for the most part, preceded fracture events. Although they differ in origin and orientation, fractures characterizing Oriskany strata were healed by a consistent sequence of epigenetic minerals.

  7. REACTIVE MULTIPHASE BEHAVIOR OF CO2 IN SALINE AQUIFERS BENEATH THE COLORADO PLATEAU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.G. Allis; J. Moore; S. White

    2003-01-30

    Gas reservoirs developed within the Colorado Plateau and Southern Rocky Mountains region represent unique natural laboratories for studying the conditions that control long-term storage of CO{sub 2}. Under appropriate conditions, the trapping of CO{sub 2} in mineral phases could equal or exceed the amount of CO{sub 2} sequestered in the pore fluids in deep aquifers. Core samples from the Springerville-St. Johns CO{sub 2} field has allowed investigation of naturally occurring mineral reactions. The presence of travertine deposits over the field provide evidence of the leakage of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere and justify further study. During reporting period covered here (January 1 to March 30, 2003), the main achievements were: (1) Preparation of three papers to be presented at the Second Annual Conference on Carbon Sequestion (May 5-8, Alexandria, Virginia) and (2) Preparation of two papers for submission to a special volume of Chemical Geology on CO{sub 2} Sequestration.

  8. Snapshot of methanogen sensitivity to temperature in Zoige wetland from Tibetan plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li eFu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Zoige wetland in Tibetan plateau represents a cold environment at high altitude where significant methane emission has been observed. However, it remains unknown how the production and emission of CH4 from Zoige wetland will respond to a warming climate. Here we investigated the temperature sensitivity of methanogen community in a Zoige wetland soil under the laboratory incubation conditions. One soil sample was collected and the temperature sensitivity of the methanogenic activity, the structure of methanogen community and the methanogenic pathways were determined. We found that the response of methanogenesis to temperature could be separated into two phases, a high sensitivity in the low temperature range and a modest sensitivity under mesophilic conditions, respectively. The aceticlastic methanogens Methanosarcinaceae were the main methanogens at low temperatures, while hydrogenotrophic Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales and Methanocellales were more abundant at higher temperatures. The total abundance of mcrA genes increased with temperature indicating that the growth of methanogens was stimulated. The growth of hydrogenotrophic methanogens, however, was faster than aceticlastic ones resulting in the shift of methanogen community. Determination of carbon isotopic signatures indicated that methanogenic pathway was also shifted from mainly aceticlastic methanogenesis to a mixture of hydrogenotrophic and aceticlastic methanogenesis with the increase of temperature. Collectively, the shift of temperature responses of methanogenesis was in accordance with the changes in methanogen composition and methanogenic pathway in this Zoige wetland sample. It appears that the aceticlastic methanogenesis dominated at low temperatures is more sensitive than the hydrogenotrophic one at higher temperatures.

  9. SN 2009ib: A Type II-P Supernova with an Unusually Long Plateau

    CERN Document Server

    Takats, K; Pumo, M L; Paillas, E; Zampieri, L; Elias-Rosa, N; Benetti, S; Bufano, F; Cappellaro, E; Ergon, M; Fraser, M; Hamuy, M; Inserra, C; Kankare, E; Smartt, S J; Stritzinger, M D; Van Dyk, S D; Haislip, J B; LaCluyze, A P; Moore, J P; Reichart, D

    2015-01-01

    We present optical and near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy of SN 2009ib, a Type II-P supernova in NGC 1559. This object has moderate brightness, similar to those of the intermediate-luminosity SNe 2008in and 2009N. Its plateau phase is unusually long, lasting for about 130 days after explosion. The spectra are similar to those of the subluminous SN 2002gd, with moderate expansion velocities. We estimate the $^{56}$Ni mass produced as $0.046 \\pm 0.015\\,{\\rm M}_{\\sun}$. We determine the distance to SN 2009ib using both the expanding photosphere method (EPM) and the standard candle method. We also apply EPM to SN 1986L, a type II-P SN that exploded in the same galaxy. Combining the results of different methods, we conclude the distance to NGC 1559 as $D=19.8 \\pm 2.8$ Mpc. We examine archival, pre-explosion images of the field taken with the Hubble Space Telescope, and find a faint source at the position of the SN, which has a yellow colour ($(V-I)_0 = 0.85$ mag). Assuming it is a single star, we estimate i...

  10. Temperature variations on the Tibetan Plateau over the last two millennia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bao; A. Braeuning; SHI Yafeng; ZHANG Jiawu

    2003-01-01

    The paleoclimate data recovered from ice cores, tree rings and lake sediments indicate regional features of climatic change on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) during the last 2000 years. The composite temperature reconstructions indicatethat several main climatic episodes, such as the "Little Ice Age" between 1400 and 1900, the "Medieval Warm Period" in 1150-1400, a less warm period in 800-1100, and an earlier cold period between the 3rd and 5th centuries, occurred in the TP. In addition, temperature varied from region to region. The period from AD800 to 1100, which was warm in northeastern TP, was contemporaneous with cooling in the western and southern TP. The southern TP experienced warming between 1150 and 1400. For western TP, the δ18O records of the Guliya ice core indicate that the period 1250-1500 witnessed a clear warming. Large-scale trends in the temperature history from northeastern TP are more similar to those in eastern China than are the trends from the Guliya ice cap far to the west and southern TP. The most prominent similarities between the temperature variations of the TP andeastern China are such cold phases as 1100-1150, 1500-1550, 1650-1700 and 1800-1850, and the latter three cold events match with three widespread glacial advances which occurred on the TP during the Little Ice Age.

  11. Soil organic carbon stabilization by iron in permafrost regions of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, C. C.; Zhang, T. J.; Zhao, Q.; Guo, H.; Zhong, W.; Su, H.; Wu, Q. B.

    2016-10-01

    A close relationship exists between soil organic carbon (SOC) and reactive iron; however, little is known about the role of iron in SOC preservation in permafrost regions. We determined the amount of SOC associated with reactive iron phases (OC-Fe) in the permafrost regions of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). The results showed that the percentage of OC-Fe ranged between 0.9% and 59.5% in the upper 30 cm of soil and that the OC-Fe represented 19.5 ± 12.3% of the total SOC pool. No clear vertical distribution pattern in OC-Fe was present in the upper 1 m of soil. Throughout the year, the OC-Fe accounted for relatively stable proportions of the total SOC pool. This study suggests that approximately 20% of SOC is a potential rusty OC pool in the permafrost regions of the QTP. Biogeochemical processes related to the reaction of iron may play important roles in soil carbon cycles in permafrost regions.

  12. A study of the low-luminosity Type II-Plateau supernova 2008bk

    CERN Document Server

    Lisakov, Sergey; Hillier, D John; Waldman, Roni; Livne, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Supernova (SN) 2008bk is a well observed low-luminosity Type II event visually associated with a low-mass red-supergiant progenitor. To model SN 2008bk, we evolve a 12Msun star from the main sequence until core collapse, when it has a total mass of 9.88Msun, a He-core mass of 3.22Msun, and a radius of 502Rsun. We then artificially trigger an explosion that produces 8.29Msun of ejecta with a total energy of 2.5x10^50erg and ~0.009Msun of 56Ni. We model the subsequent evolution of the ejecta with non-Local-Thermodynamic-Equilibrium time-dependent radiative transfer. Although somewhat too luminous and energetic, this model reproduces satisfactorily the multi-band light curves and multi-epoch spectra of SN 2008bk, confirming the suitability of a low-mass massive star progenitor. As in other low-luminosity SNe II, the structured Halpha profile at the end of the plateau phase is probably caused by BaII 6496.9A rather than asphericity. We discuss the sensitivity of our results to changes in progenitor radius and mas...

  13. Novel self-sampling culture method to monitor excretion of live, oral Shigella flexneri 2a vaccine SC602 during a community-based phase 1 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teska, J D; Coster, T; Byrne, W R; Colbert, J R; Taylor, D; Venkatesan, M; Hale, T L

    1999-08-01

    A culture technique for assessing the excretion of live enteric vaccines was developed and verified during an outpatient safety trial of the Shigella flexneri 2a SC602 vaccine. Preliminary studies showed that SC602 could be recovered on Hektoen enteric (HE) agar plates that had been inoculated with seeded stools in one quadrant, held for up to 48 hours, streaked for isolation, and incubated for 24 +/- 6 hours. Recovery results on HE plates held at 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C were comparable; however, 4 degrees C better inhibited overgrowth before streaking. To prepare for a community-based vaccine trial, volunteers were trained to self-sample fresh stool and to swab-inoculate a single quadrant of HE agar. The trial began with 36 volunteers ingesting 2.5 x 10(4) CFU of SC602 in bicarbonate buffer. During the study, volunteers inoculated HE plates with fresh stool, stored the plates at 4 degrees C, and delivered them to the laboratory within 48 hours. A microbiologist then streaked the HE for isolation, incubated the plates at 35 degrees C +/- 2 degrees C for 24 +/- 6 hours, and identified presumptive S. flexneri colonies by slide agglutination with poly-group B antiserum. The attenuating genetic signature of SC602 was confirmed on selected isolates with the polymerase chain reaction with two specific DNA primer sets. Vaccine was detected from 20% of volunteers on day 1, increasing to 86% by day 4, and all but one vaccinee had excreted SC602 at least once by day 7. The latest initial SC602 detection occurred on day 7, the longest excretion occurred in one vaccinee on day 33, and excretion throughout the trial was intermittent. The trial was terminated by ciprofloxacin treatment on day 35. Volunteer compliance with self-sampling and HE plating was excellent because of the convenience of the method, and the advantage of immediate "bedside" plating was evident in the high recovery rate of excreted vaccine. This method can be applied in other trials of live enteric

  14. Geodynamics of oceanic plateau and plume head accretion and their role in Phanerozoic orogenic systems of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter G. Betts; Louis Moresi; Meghan S. Miller; David Willis

    2015-01-01

    We present three 3D numerical models of deep subduction where buoyant material from an oceanic plateau and a plume interact with the overriding plate to assess the influence on subduction dynamics, trench geometry, and mechanisms for plateau accretion and continental growth. Transient instabilities of the convergent margin are produced, resulting in:contorted trench geometry;trench migration parallel with the plate margin; folding of the subducting slab and orocline development at the convergent margin;and transfer of the plateau to the overriding plate. The presence of plume material beneath the oceanic plateau causes flat subduction above the plume, resulting in a“bowed”shaped subducting slab. In plateau-only models, plateau accretion at the edge of the overriding plate results in trench migration around the edge of the plateau before subduction is re-established directly behind the trailing edge of the plateau. The plateau shortens and some plateau material subducts. The presence of buoyant plume material beneath the oceanic plateau has a profound influence on the behaviour of the convergent margin. In the plateau þ plume model, plateau accretion causes rapid trench advance. Plate convergence is accommodated by shearing at the base of the plateau and shortening in the overriding plate. The trench migrates around the edge of the plateau and subduction is re-established well behind the trailing edge of the plateau, effectively embedding the plateau into the overriding plate. A slab window forms beneath the accreted plateau and plume material is transferred from the subducting plate to the over-riding plate through the window. In all of the models, the subduction zone maintains a relatively stable configuration away from the buoyancy anomalies within the downgoing plate. The models provide a dynamic context for plateau and plume accretion in Phanerozoic accretionary orogenic systems such as the East China Orogen and the Central Asian Orogen (Altiads), which

  15. Extensional Seismogenic Stress and Tectonic Movement on the Central Region of the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiren Xu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Various earthquake fault types, mechanism solutions and stress fields, as well as GPS and geothermal data are analyzed for the study of the crustal movements on the Tibetan plateau and their tectonic implications. The results show that a lot of the normal faulting type-event concentrated at altitudes greater than 4000 m on the central Tibetan plateau. The altitudes concentrating normal faulting type-events can be zoned two parts: the western part, the Lhasa block, and the eastern part, the Qiangtang-Changdu region. The azimuths of T-axes are in a general E-W direction in the Lhasa block and NW-SE or NNW-SSE in the Qiangtang-Changdu region at the altitudes of the Tibetan plateau. The tensional stresses in E-W direction and NW-SE direction predominate normal faulting earthquake occurrence in the Lhasa block and the Qiangtang-Changdu region, respectively. The slipping displacements of the normal-faulting-type events have great components in near E-W direction and NW-SE direction in the Lhasa block and the Qiangtang-Changdu region, respectively. The extensions are probably an eastward or southeastward extensional motion, being mainly tectonic activity phenomena in the plateau altitudes. The extensional motions due to normal-fault earthquakes are important tectonic activity regimes on the high altitudes of the plateau. The easterly crustal extensions on the plateau are attributable to the gravitational collapse of the high plateau and eastward extrusion of hotter mantle materials beneath the eastern boundary of the plateau. Numbers of thrust-fault and strike-slip-fault earthquakes with strong compressive stress in a general NNE-SSW direction occur on the edges of the plateau.

  16. Numerical simulation of GPS observed clockwise rotation around the eastern Himalayan syntax in the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO dianLing; SHI YaoLin; ZHANG Huai; WANG Hui

    2009-01-01

    From Global Position System (GPS) measurements,there is a clockwise rotation around the eastern Himalayan syntax in the Tibetan Plateau.This phenomenon is difficult to be interpreted by simple two-dimensional modeling from a geodynamic point of view.Because of the extremely thick crust and the lower crust with relatively high temperature in the Tibetan Plateau,the lithospheric rheology in Tibet and surrounding areas present a complex structure,in general,the tectonic structure of the Tibetan Plateau consists of brittle upper crust,ductile lower crust,high viscosity lithospheric upper mantle,and low viscosity asthenosphere,the same as the case in many other continental regions.However,the lower crust in the Tibetan Plateau is much more ductile with a lower viscosity than those of its sur-roundings at the same depth,and the effective viscosity is low along the collision fault zone.In this study,we construct a three-dimensional Maxwell visco-elastic model in spherical coordinate system,and simulate the deformation process of the Tibetan Plateau driven by a continuous push from the Indian plate.The results show that the existence of the soft lower crust under the plateau makes the entire plateau uplift as a whole,and the Himalayas and the eastern Himalayan syntax uplift faster.Since the lower crust of surrounding blocks is harder except in the southeastern corner where the high-temperature material is much softer and forms an exit channel for material transfer,after the whole plateau reaches a certain height,the lower crustal and upper mantle material begins to move eastward or southeastward and drag the upper crust to behave same way.Thus,from the macroscopic point of view,a relative rigid motion of the plateau with a clockwise rotation around the eastern Himalayan syntax is developed.

  17. Characteristics of land-atmosphere energy and turbulent fluxes over the plateau steppe in central Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaoShan Li; ZhongBo Su; YaoMing Ma; XueLong Chen; Lang Zhang; ZeYong Hu

    2016-01-01

    The land-atmosphere energy and turbulence exchange is key to understanding land surface processes on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Using observed data for Aug. 4 to Dec. 3, 2012 from the Bujiao observation point (BJ) of the Nagqu Plateau Climate and Environment Station (NPCE-BJ), different characteristics of the energy flux during the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) season and post-monsoon period were analyzed. This study outlines the impact of the ASM on energy fluxes in the central TP. It also demonstrates that the surface energy closure rate during the ASM season is higher than that of the post-monsoon period. Footprint modeling shows the distribution of data quality assessments (QA) and quality controls (QC) surrounding the observation point. The measured turbulent flux data at the NPCE-BJ site were highly rep-resentative of the target land-use type. The target surface contributed more to the fluxes under unstable conditions than under stable conditions. The main wind directions (180° and 210°) with the highest data density showed flux contributions reaching 100%, even under stable conditions. The lowest flux contributions were found in sectors with low data density, e.g., 90.4% in the 360° sector under stable conditions during the ASM season. Lastly, a surface energy water balance (SEWAB) model was used to gap-fill any absent or corrected turbulence data. The potential simulation error was also explored in this study. The Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients (NSEs) of the observed fluxes with the SEWAB model runs were 0.78 for sensible heat flux and 0.63 for latent heat flux during the ASM season, but unrealistic values of−0.9 for latent heat flux during the post-monsoon period.

  18. Cultural psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Steven J; Ruby, Matthew B

    2010-03-01

    Humans are a cultural species, constantly navigating a complex web of culturally bound practices, norms, and worldviews. This article provides a brief overview of the relatively young field of cultural psychology, which investigates the many ways psychology and culture interweave with one another. Highlighting the cultural nature of the human species, it draws upon research on cultural evolution, enculturation, and developmental processes. This review further summarizes a number of cultural differences in how people perceive the self, and the behavioral consequences that follow from these differences, in the domains of internal and external attribution styles, motivations for self-enhancement, approach/avoidance, primary and secondary control, as well as motivations for distinctiveness and conformity. Additionally, the review discusses research on the intersection of culture and emotion, as well as cultural differences in cognition, perception, and reasoning. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Characterizing two types of transient intraseasonal oscillations in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau summer rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Bao, Qing; Wang, Bin; He, Haozhe; Gao, Miaoni; Gong, Daoyi

    2016-05-01

    During summer, the intraseasonal disturbances over the Eastern Tibetan Plateau (ETP) can initiate development of severe weather system downstream. Previous studies yielded inconsistent results on the intraseasonal variability (ISV) of summer rainfall in terms of periodicity, genesis process and propagation pathway over the EPT based on small samples. In this study, we detected two dominant peaks of transient ISV, centered on quasi-biweekly (12-24) days (QBW) and quasi-9 (8-11) days using daily rainfall data over the ETP during the period of 1992-2012. Composite analysis revealed that the two ISVs were predominantly associated with the non-stationary wave trains, which traveled along different pathways. For the QBW, its mid-latitude wave train featured a upper-level southeastward migration, originating in Northern Europe and traveling via the East European Plain, the Ural Mountains, Lake Balkhash-Lake Baikal, the Mongolian Plateau, and then continued southward to the ETP and South Asia; and its tropical wave train was characterized with a northwestward/northward migration in low-level, starting from the Philippine Sea (PS)-South China Sea (SCS) region, moving over northern Bay of Bengal-SCS region, and arriving over the southern fridge of TP and southern China. In contrast, for quasi-9-day, the most significant mid-latitudes variability featured an eastward propagating upper-level wave train, originating from Western Europe, passing across the Mediterranean, the Black and Caspian seas, arriving over the TP, and moving towards East Asia; and the most evident tropical variability exhibited a clear northwestward/westward migration of a low-level wave train, originating from PS, passing over Taiwan, and subsequently moving towards southeastern China. Their different spatiotemporal features of associated wave trains caused their distinct linkages with eastern China rainfall anomalies. A "meridional pattern" with a giant Ural Mountain Ridge was the most remarkable

  20. Lower crustal relaxation beneath the Tibetan Plateau and Qaidam Basin following the 2001 Kokoxili earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, I.; Burgmann, R.; Pollitz, F.

    2011-01-01

    In 2001 November a magnitude 7.8 earthquake ruptured a 400 km long portion of the Kunlun fault, northeastern Tibet. In this study, we analyse over five years of post-seismic geodetic data and interpret the observed surface deformation in terms of stress relaxation in the thick Tibetan lower crust. We model GPS time-series (first year) and InSAR line of sight measurements (years two to five) and infer that the most likely mechanism of post-seismic stress relaxation is time-dependent distributed creep of viscoelastic material in the lower crust. Since a single relaxation time is not sufficient to model the observed deformation, viscous flow is modelled by a lower crustal Burgers rheology, which has two material relaxation times. The optimum model has a transient viscosity 9 ?? 1017 Pa s, steady-state viscosity 1 ?? 1019 Pa s and a ratio of long term to Maxwell shear modulus of 2:3. This model gives a good fit to GPS stations south of the Kunlun Fault, while displacements at stations north of the fault are over-predicted. We attribute this asymmetry in the GPS residual to lateral heterogeneity in rheological structure across the southern margin of the Qaidam Basin, with thinner crust/higher viscosities beneath the basin than beneath the Tibetan Plateau. Deep afterslip localized in a shear zone beneath the fault rupture gives a reasonable match to the observed InSAR data, but the slip model does not fit the earlier GPS data well. We conclude that while some localized afterslip likely occurred during the early post-seismic phase, the bulk of the observed deformation signal is due to viscous flow in the lower crust. To investigate regional variability in rheological structure, we also analyse post-seismic displacements following the 1997 Manyi earthquake that occurred 250 km west of the Kokoxili rupture. We find that viscoelastic properties are the same as for the Kokoxili area except for the transient viscosity, which is 5 ?? 1017 Pa s. The viscosities estimated for the

  1. Carbonatite metasomatized peridotite xenoliths from southern Patagonia: implications for lithospheric processes and Neogene plateau magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorring, Matthew L.; Kay, Suzanne M.

    The mineral chemistry, major and trace element, and Sr-Nd isotopic composition of Cr-diopside, spinel peridotite xenoliths from the Estancia Lote 17 locality in southern Patagonia document a strong carbonatitic metasomatism of the backarc continental lithosphere. The Lote 17 peridotite xenolith suite consists of hydrous spinel lherzolite, wehrlite, and olivine websterite, and anhydrous harzburgite and lherzolite. Two-pyroxene thermometry indicates equilibration temperatures ranging from 870 to 1015°C and the lack of plagioclase or garnet suggests the xenoliths originated from between 40 and 60km depth. All of the xenoliths are LILE- and LREE-enriched, but have relatively low 87Sr/86Sr (0.70294 to 0.70342) and high ɛNd (+3.0 to +6.6), indicating recent trace element enrichment ( 25Ma, based on the low 87Sr/86Sr and high Rb concentrations of phlogopite separates) in the long-term, melt-depleted Patagonian lithosphere. Lote 17 peridotite xenoliths are divided into two basic groups. Group 1 xenoliths consist of fertile peridotites that contain hydrous phases (amphibole+/-phlogopite+/-apatite). Group 1 xenoliths are further subdivided into three groups (a, b, and c) based on distinctive textures and whole-rock chemistry. Group 1 xenolith mineralogy and chemistry are consistent with a complex metasomatic history involving variable extents of recent carbonatite metasomatism (high Ca/Al, Nb/La, Zr/Hf, low Ti/Eu) that has overprinted earlier metasomatic events. Group 2 xenoliths consist of infertile, anhydrous harzburgites and record cryptic metasomatism that is attributed to CO2-rich fluids liberated from Group 1 carbonatite metasomatic reactions. Extremely variable incompatible trace element ratios and depleted Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of Lote 17 peridotite xenoliths indicate that the continental lithosphere was neither the primary source nor an enriched lithospheric contaminant for Neogene Patagonian plateau lavas. Neogene plateau magmatism associated with formation

  2. Characterizing two types of transient intraseasonal oscillations in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau summer rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Bao, Qing; Wang, Bin; He, Haozhe; Gao, Miaoni; Gong, Daoyi

    2017-03-01

    During summer, the intraseasonal disturbances over the Eastern Tibetan Plateau (ETP) can initiate development of severe weather system downstream. Previous studies yielded inconsistent results on the intraseasonal variability (ISV) of summer rainfall in terms of periodicity, genesis process and propagation pathway over the EPT based on small samples. In this study, we detected two dominant peaks of transient ISV, centered on quasi-biweekly (12-24) days (QBW) and quasi-9 (8-11) days using daily rainfall data over the ETP during the period of 1992-2012. Composite analysis revealed that the two ISVs were predominantly associated with the non-stationary wave trains, which traveled along different pathways. For the QBW, its mid-latitude wave train featured a upper-level southeastward migration, originating in Northern Europe and traveling via the East European Plain, the Ural Mountains, Lake Balkhash-Lake Baikal, the Mongolian Plateau, and then continued southward to the ETP and South Asia; and its tropical wave train was characterized with a northwestward/northward migration in low-level, starting from the Philippine Sea (PS)-South China Sea (SCS) region, moving over northern Bay of Bengal-SCS region, and arriving over the southern fridge of TP and southern China. In contrast, for quasi-9-day, the most significant mid-latitudes variability featured an eastward propagating upper-level wave train, originating from Western Europe, passing across the Mediterranean, the Black and Caspian seas, arriving over the TP, and moving towards East Asia; and the most evident tropical variability exhibited a clear northwestward/westward migration of a low-level wave train, originating from PS, passing over Taiwan, and subsequently moving towards southeastern China. Their different spatiotemporal features of associated wave trains caused their distinct linkages with eastern China rainfall anomalies. A "meridional pattern" with a giant Ural Mountain Ridge was the most remarkable

  3. THE COLORADO PLATEAU CORING PROJECT: THE TIMESCALE AND TEMPO OF BIOTIC CHANGE OF THE EARLY MESOZOIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, P. E.; Kent, D. V.; Mundil, R.; Irmis, R.; Geissman, J. W.; Martz, J.; Parker, W.

    2009-12-01

    The proposed Colorado Plateau Coring Project (CPCP) is an interdisciplinary, multi-institutional coring project designed to recover continuous core through mostly continental strata spanning ~100 million years of the Triassic and Jurassic. Its principal purpose is to tie the incredibly rich faunas, floras, and environmental record of this interval to a rigorously developed timescale and thus to biotic, environmental, and tectonic events at a global-scale. The overall strategy involves 3 long cores (~1000 m) and 2 shorter cores (300-500 m) intended to recover the full expression of the critical early Mesozoic transitions in clear superposition. The cores would span from the base of the Moenkopi to the top of the Morrison formations with sufficient overlap to splice the sections together without gaps and assess lateral facies variations, thickness changes, and stratigraphic completeness. The initial phase of the CPCP, currently under review, is a ~500 m core at Petrified Forest National Park (PFNP) that will recover virtually the entire pre-Owl Rock Mb. of the Late Triassic age Chinle and underlying Early-Middle Triassic age Moenkopi formations. Despite excellent outcrop and a long and distinguished history of study, striking ambiguities exist in local correlation, the temporal duration and resolution of biotic events, global correlations, and the paleolatitudinal position of the region that prevent tests of major competing climatic, biotic, and tectonic hypotheses of global significance. For example, correlations of existing paleomagnetic polarity data for the Chinle of PFNP (1) with the Newark basin astronomically tuned geomagnetic polarity timescale are consistent with new U-Pb dates from reworked volcanics in the Chinle, and result in three sets of implied hypotheses. First, most or all of the Chinle Fm. is Norian and younger in age (< ~ 220 Ma). Second, the supposed Carnian-Norian boundary in the Chinle is actually a late middle Norian extinction that may

  4. Implications of climate change on wind erosion of agricultural lands in the Columbia plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Sharratt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change may impact soil health and productivity as a result of accelerated or decelerated rates of erosion. Previous studies suggest a greater risk of wind erosion on arid and semi-arid lands due to loss of biomass under a future warmer climate. There have been no studies conducted to assess the impact of climate change on wind erosion in the Columbia Plateau of the Pacific Northwest United States where wind erosion of agricultural lands can cause exceedance of national air quality standards. The Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS was used to assess wind erosion and PM10 (particulate matter ≤10 µm in aerodynamic diameter emissions under a future climate projected by downscaling 18 Global Climate Models (GCM for a conservative emissions pathway. Wind erosion simulations were conducted at Lacrosse and Lind, WA and Moro, OR on a winter wheat-summer fallow (WW-SF rotation and at Lind on an additional winter wheat-camelina-summer fallow (WW-Cam-SF rotation. Each rotation was subject to conservation or conventional tillage practices for a baseline (1970–1999 and mid-21st century climate (2035–2064. A significant increase in temperature and nominal increases in precipitation were projected by an ensemble of climate models for the Columbia Plateau by the mid-21st century. Soil and PM10 losses were 25–84% lower for a mid-21st century climate, due in part to greater biomass production associated with CO2 fertilization and warmer temperatures. The reduction in soil and PM10 loss is projected to be more apparent for conservation tillage practices in the future. Soil and PM10 losses were greater from a WW-Cam-SF rotation than WW-SF rotation when conservation tillage practices were employed during the fallow phase of the rotations. Despite accounting for differences in the length of each rotation, annual soil and PM10 losses remained higher for the WW-Cam-SF rotation than the WW-SF rotation. Soil and PM10 losses were more variable across

  5. Cultural commons and cultural evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Giangiacomo Bravo

    2010-01-01

    Culture evolves following a process that is akin to biological evolution, although with some significant differences. At the same time culture has often a collective good value for human groups. This paper studies culture in an evolutionary perspective, with a focus on the implications of group definition for the coexistence of different cultures. A model of cultural evolution is presented where agents interacts in an artificial environment. The belonging to a specific memetic group is a majo...

  6. Prediction of the trend of total column ozone over the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘煜; 李维亮; 周秀骥

    2001-01-01

    By using 2-D chemical model, the trend of total column ozone over the Tibetan Plateau is simulated. The results show that from 1980 to 1993, the total column ozone over the Tibetan Plateau decreases; after 1995, it starts to recover. But until 2050, it will not still reach the level of 1980 total column ozone. Under Tibetan special circulation, its total column ozone recovers more rapidly than zonal mean. Therefore, the Tibetan special meridional circulation is not a main reason why the total column ozone over the Tibetan Plateau decreases more strongly than zonal mean.

  7. Analysis of Mechanism of Tibetan Plateau Vortex Frequency Differences between Strong and Weak MJO Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoping; Zhao, Fuhu

    2017-04-01

    There are many unique weather systems over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Among them, the TP vortex (TPV for short) is representative of the low air pressure weather systems. The generation, development and eastward propagation of the TPV is usually accompanied by precipitation, strong winds, thunderstorms and other weather processes, resulting in a series of extreme weather events over the TP and the Sichuan-Chongqing basin where is the downstream of the plateau. Some TPVs, which move from the plateau to the east and develop strongly, even affect a wide range of China's eastern region. NCEP/DOE reanalysis data, OLR data from NOAA, the Australian Meteorological Bureau Real-time Multivariate MJO index, and Tibetan Plateau vortex (TPV) statistical data from the Institute of Plateau Meteorology, are used to discuss the modulation of the TPV by the MJO. Wavelet analysis and composite analysis are the methods used. The results show that: (1) The MJO plays an important role in modulating the TPV, for the number of TPVs generated in strong MJO periods is three times more than in weak periods. (2) During strong (weak) MJO periods, the Tibetan Plateau is in control of a low-frequency, low-pressure cyclone (high-pressure anticyclone) system, and thus the atmospheric circulation conditions over the plateau are conducive (not conducive) to the generation of TPVs. (3) During strong (weak) MJO periods, southerly (northerly) winds prevail in the east of the plateau, but northerly (southerly) winds in the west. Over the northern part of the plateau, easterly (westerly) flow is predominant, while westerly (easterly) flow prevails over the south, thus conducive (not conducive) to the formation of cyclonic circulation (i.e., TPVs) at low altitude over the plateau. (4) In strong MJO periods, water vapor is relatively less abundant over most of the plateau, which is not conducive to the generation of TPVs; however, moisture transported by the south branch trough and the low-frequency, high

  8. Kinetics and mechanisms of hepatic acute phase response to subtotal partial hepatectomy and cultural impact on environmental hepatic end-stage liver injury in the homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, F M; Mamer, O A; Sauriol, F; Ruhenstroth-Bauer, G

    2001-06-01

    Intoxication and liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), aflatoxin B1, diabetes, and subtotal partial hepatectomy (PH(90)) in rats in which approximately 90% of the total hepatic tissue mass is surgically removed produces an acute-phase response (APR) whose initial stage prior to regression closely mimics the APRs associated with the life-threatening hepatic failure seen in the homeless. Rats treated by PH(90)were either healthy, CCl(4)-intoxicated, diabetic, or alflatoxin B1 (AFB1) intoxicated to the point of 75% liver insufficiency. It is well documented that high rates of mortality following PH(90)in aseptic rats could be minimized by supplementing drinking water with 20% glucose, organic components of L-15 medium and housing animals in cages maintained at 33-35;C. Aseptic rats showed a mild 20-30% decrease in APR proteins during the first 4-5 days following PH(90), while a maximal APR was noted 9-12 days post PH(90)and lasted for ~30 days when it returned to values close to those of healthy controls. This delay in hepatic APR of the remnant caudate lobe favoured replacement of lost basophilic clumps and ribosomes. The newly synthesized ribosomes of the nascent hepatocytes quantitatively maintained the APR signals of the injured caudate hepatocytes, and biosynthesized and released a typical spectrum of APR proteins. We suggest that massively injured liver has decoded an already stored and irreversible DNA-biochemical sequence of events in which priority is given to recovery of lost tissues by delaying an APR response to injury. In PH(90)of diabetic and CCl(4)-intoxicated rats, the hepatic dual functions of regeneration and APR processes associated with intoxication-initiated catabolic signals, created a heavy metabolic burden on the remnant caudate lobe leading to higher rates of mortality. APR of healthy rats to AFB1 parallels that of alpha-amanitin-induced intoxication. Similarly, within shorter time scale proportional to the severity of surgery

  9. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  10. River Incision, Sediment Storage, and Sediment Residence Times at the Western Tibetan Plateau Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloethe, J. H.; Munack, H.; Fülling, A.; Resentini, A.; Garzanti, E.; Kubik, P.; Korup, O.

    2012-12-01

    Intermediate sediment storage protects underlying bedrock from incision, buffers sediment delivery from adjacent hillslopes and provides the source for potentially catastrophic sediment release. Along the western Tibetan plateau margin, broad alluviated valleys host large valley fills. Besides sediment storage in major valleys, deeply incised bedrock gorges also have the potential to store sediment for > 104 yrs, even though they are typically portrayed as conveyor belts for incoming sediment. Here we report on cyclic aggradation and re-incision of fluvial terraces near the Tibetan plateau margin in the Ladakh and Zanskar Ranges, NW Himalaya, India. Recently reported 10Be-derived bedrock incision rates of up to 3 mm/yr suggest locally focused fast incision that contrasts with the low (~0.02 mm/yr) denudation rates of this dry high-altitude mountain desert. We combine Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and 10Be dating techniques, provenance analyses and morphometric analyses of digital elevation models (DEMs), in order to understand the Quaternary evolution of the region and to estimate sediment storage and residence times. We present the first OSL-derived dataset of fluvial fill terrace ages in the lower Zanskar gorge, a major tributary of the upper Indus River. These data are complemented by new 10Be exposure ages from fluvially polished surfaces and a 10Be depth profile of a fluvial terrace situated at the Zanskar-Indus confluence. Our data indicate at least two cycles of aggradation and re-incision. OSL ages from a terrace level 35 m above the river point to a phase of aggradation between 50 ka and 20 ka, which we attribute either to a late- or postglacial sediment pulse from the Zanskar headwaters, and/or to natural damming downstream. Preliminary results for the 10Be depth profile from the top of a terrace ~160 m above river level suggest a deposition age of > 100 ka, dating an older aggradation cycle. This higher terrace level is also present in the

  11. New insights into the Elevation Dependent Warming in the Tibetan Plateau-Himalayas from CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzi, Elisa; Filippi, Luca; von Hardenberg, Jost

    2016-04-01

    We use the output of twenty-seven Global Climate Models (GCMs) participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) to investigate Elevation Dependent Warming (EDW) in the Tibetan Plateau, Himalayan and Karakoram mountains and surrounding areas in historical model simulations and in future projections. The model data indicate enhanced warming with elevation in the past decades and an intensification of the EDW in the future decades under a high-range IPCC emission scenario (RCP 8.5), particularly for the minimum temperature in winter and spring and for the maximum temperature in summer and autumn, which corroborates previous observational and model studies focused on the Tibetan Plateau region. However, our study suggests that the relationship between the warming rates and the elevation (for both the minimum and maximum temperature and with some seasonal differences) is far from being linear. In particular, two clearly distinct regimes emerge such that regions with temperatures below the freezing level of water show a stronger warming than regions above, suggesting that the phase of water and/or the presence of snow play a key role. This bimodal response is very robust and it is captured by the multi-model mean as well as by all individual GCMs. The mechanisms for enhanced warming trends with elevation are investigated using a multiple regression model which incorporates five predictors, associated with the variables that are expected to be important for the EDW: surface downwelling longwave radiation, surface downwelling shortwave radiation, near-surface specific humidity, albedo, and orography. We find that inclusion or exclusion of the orography as a predictor does not change significantly the amount of explained variance for the prediction of either the minimum temperature change in winter or the maximum temperature change in summer, in particular if one regression model already includes albedo and specific humidity. The albedo emerges as

  12. Saline Playas on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as Mars Analog for the Formation-Preservation of Hydrous Salts and Biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A.; Zheng, M.; Kong, F.; Sobron, P.; Mayer, D. P.

    2010-12-01

    - & multication-sulfates, carbonates, and chlorites. Halophiles were isolated from the collected evaporative salt samples from Da Langtan. They were cultured on modified growth medium (MGM) under different salinity conditions, and eight strains of halobacteria showed different growth curves. 16S rRNA gene sequences for these eight strains suggested that the halophiles from Da Langtan had high homology with some species of genera of Virgibacillus, Oceanobacillus, Halobacillus, and Ter-ribacillus. In conclusion, the climatic conditions and salt mineralogy within the lacustrine deposits at Da Langtan playa, northwest corner of the Qaidam basin on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, indicate that this area can be an excellent analog site for studying the precipitation sequence and the subsequent dehydration/degeneration of Martian salts. The finding of hylophyles in this hyperarid environment boosts the importance of exploring salty regolith in future surface explorations to Mars (MSL and ExoMars) in the search for similar biosignatures.

  13. Continuous plant cell perfusion culture: bioreactor characterization and secreted enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei Wen; Arias, Renee

    2003-01-01

    Culture perfusion is widely practiced in mammalian cell processes to enhance secreted antibody production. Here, we report the development of an efficient continuous perfusion process for the cultivation of plant cell suspensions. The key to this process is a perfusion bioreactor that incorporates an annular settling zone into a stirred-tank bioreactor to achieve continuous cell/medium separation via gravitational sedimentation. From washout experiments, we found that under typical operating conditions (e.g., 200 rpm and 0.3 vvm) the liquid phase in the entire perfusion bioreactor was homogeneous despite the presence of the cylindrical baffle. Using secreted acid phosphatase (APase) produced in Anchusa officinalis cell culture as a model we have studied the perfusion cultures under complete or partial cell retention. The perfusion culture was operated under phosphate limitation to stimulate APase production. Successful operation of the perfusion process over four weeks has been achieved in this work. When A. officinalis cells were grown in the perfusion reactor and perfused at up to 0.4 vvd with complete cell retention, a cell dry weight exceeding 20 g/l could be achieved while secreted APase productivity leveled off at approximately 300 units/l/d. The culture became extremely dense with the maximum packed cell volume (PCV) surpassing 70%. In comparison, the maximum cell dry weight and overall secreted APase productivity in a typical batch culture were 10-12 g/l and 100-150 units/l/d, respectively. Operation of the perfusion culture under extremely high PCV for a prolonged period, however, led to declined oxygen uptake and reduced viability. Subsequently, cell removal via a bleed stream at up to 0.11 vvd was tested and shown to stabilize the culture at a PCV below 60%. With culture bleeding, both specific oxygen uptake rate and viability were shown to increase. This also led to a higher cell dry weight exceeding 25 g/l, and further improvement of secreted APase

  14. Repellent Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Considers defining "culture," noting how it is difficult to define because those individuals defining it cannot separate themselves from it. Relates these issues to student writing and their writing improvement. Addresses violence in relation to culture. (SG)

  15. Culturing Protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  16. Throat Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Throat Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Collecting | ... treatment | Getting results | see BLOOD SAMPLE Collecting A culture is a test that is often used to ...

  17. Culturing Protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  18. Experimental study on the repair of tibial plateau defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hai-lin; HAN Na; KOU Yu-hui; WANG Yan-hua; ZHANG Hong-bo; JIANG Bao-guo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of autograft bone,allograft bone,calcium sulfate bone cement,and calcium phosphate bone cement on the repair of tibial plateau defect in rabbits.Methods: We used autograft bone,allograft bone,calcium sulfate bone cement,and calcium phosphate bone cement to repair tibial plateau defect in rabbits.Gross and histologic observations,X-ray examination,and biomechanical test were conducted at 1,2,4,8 weeks after operation.Results: X-ray examination found that the bone density was evidently reduced in calcium sulfate group at 8 weeks after operation; there were no marked changes in other groups.The maximal load measurements showed that autograft and allograft groups were greater than calcium sulfate and calcium phosphate groups at 1 and 2 weeks after operation.However at 4 and 8 weeks after operation,no significant difference was found among the four groups.In autograft and allograft groups,there was no significant difference in biomechanical intensity at 2,4,and 8 weeks,but it was significantly higher than that at 1 week.In calcium sulfate and calcium phosphate groups,the outcome was ranked in descending order as 1 week< 2 week< 4 week =8week.Histologic examination found a great amount of new bones at 8 week in both autograft and allograft groups.In calcium sulfate group,calcium sulfate was almost absorbed and there were numerous bone trabeculations.There was a large amount of unabsorbed calcium phosphate in calcium phosphate group.Conclusion: At 1-2 weeks postoperatively,the biomechanical intensity is higher in autograft and allograft groups than calcium sulfate and calcium phosphate groups,but after 4-8 weeks,there is no significant difference among groups.At 1-2 weeks,the biomechanical intensity in all groups is increased,but at 4-8 weeks,there is no significant increase.The rates of absorption and bone formation are quicker in calcium sulfate group than calcium phosphate group.

  19. Experimental study on the repair of tibial plateau defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Hai-lin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To evaluate the effect of autograft bone, allograft bone, calcium sulfate bone cement, and calcium phosphate bone cement on the repair of tibial plateau defect in rabbits. Methods: We used autograft bone, allograft bone, cal-cium sulfate bone cement, and calcium phosphate bone ce-ment to repair tibial plateau defect in rabbits. Gross and histo-logic observations, X-ray examination, and biomechanical test were conducted at 1, 2, 4, 8 weeks after operation. Results: X-ray examination found that the bone den-sity was evidently reduced in calcium sulfate group at 8 weeks after operation; there were no marked changes in other groups. The maximal load measurements showed that autograft and allograft groups were greater than calcium sulfate and calcium phosphate groups at 1 and 2 weeks after operation. However at 4 and 8 weeks after operation, no significant difference was found among the four groups. In autograft and allograft groups, there was no significant difference in biomechanical intensity at 2, 4, and 8 weeks, but it was significantly higher than that at 1 week. In cal-cium sulfate and calcium phosphate groups, the outcome was ranked in descending order as 1 week< 2 week< 4 week =8 week. Histologic examination found a great amount of new bones at 8 week in both autograft and allograft groups. In calcium sulfate group, calcium sulfate was almost absorbed and there were numerous bone trabeculations. There was a large amount of unabsorbed calcium phosphate in calcium phosphate group. Conclusion: At 1-2 weeks postoperatively, the biome-chanical intensity is higher in autograft and allograft groups than calcium sulfate and calcium phosphate groups, but after 4-8 weeks, there is no significant difference among groups. At 1-2 weeks, the biomechanical intensity in all groups is increased, but at 4-8 weeks, there is no significant increase. The rates of absorption and bone formation are quicker in calcium sulfate group than

  20. Safety culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keen, L.J. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Safety culture has become a topic of increasing interest for industry and regulators as issues are raised on safety problems around the world. The keys to safety culture are organizational effectiveness, effective communications, organizational learning, and a culture that encourages the identification and resolution of safety issues. The necessity of a strong safety culture places an onus on all of us to continually question whether the safety measures already in place are sufficient, and are being applied. (author)

  1. Quality characterization of Cretaceous coal from the Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area, 2000 (cpchmg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shapefile and ARC/INFO point coverage of coal geochemistry in the Colorado Plateau. This GIS layer was created from the U.S. Geological Survey's USCHEM...

  2. The active southwest margin of the Colorado Plateau: uplift of mantle origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, T.; McCarthy, J.

    1995-01-01

    During Cenozoic time, the Colorado Plateau was raised about 2km above sea level. The most-recent and best-documented uplift of the plateau (~1km) has been concentrated at its southwest margin between 6 and 1 Ma, whereas the eastern Colorado Plateau may have been at high elevations since Eocene time. To better understand the recent tectonic activity at the southwest margin of the Colorado Plateau, we compile detailed crustal thickness and density information from seismic and gravity data for a region that includes northwest Arizona and the southern tip of Nevada. This information is used to isolate the mantle contribution to uplift. We speculate that uplift may result from subduction-related thinning of the continental lithosphere. -from Authors

  3. A numerical modelling study on the processes of uplift and planation of the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董文杰; 汤懋苍

    1997-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau has experienced a number of processes of uplift and planation alternately since about 45 Ma B. P. when it began to raise. A differential equation model for describing the Plateau altitude variation with time is formulated on the basis of previous field studies and a theoretical hypothesis: if palaeomagnetic polarity is positive, the convective activity in the earth is strong; orogenic movement is violent; and the raising velocity of the Plateau is high and vice versa . The analytical solution of the equation is obtained. The altitude variation from the beginning of the Plateau uplift to present is computed through using the geomagnetic polarity reversals timing series and interstellar atomic hydrogen concentration data. A comparison between the model results and the field studies indicates that the former is quite similar to the latter. The model results are able to basically reproduce the alternating processes of uplift and planation of the plate geological history. In the present m

  4. Fixation of tibial plateau fractures with synthetic bone graft versus natural bone graft: a comparison study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ong, J C Y

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine differences in fracture stability and functional outcome between synthetic bone graft and natural bone graft with internal fixation of tibia plateau metaphyseal defects.

  5. Understanding the Formation of the Ontong Java Plateau Using Full Waveform Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covellone, B. M.; Savage, B.; Shen, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Prevailing hypotheses on the origin and evolution of the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) do not sufficiently address all of the geophysical and geochemical observations. A more complete appraisal of the upper mantle beneath the plateau will unravel the plateau's 120Ma complex history and formation. Anomalously slower wave speeds have been observed extending to depths greater than 300 km beneath the plateau. We investigate this anomalous wave speed structure using an iterative full-waveform tomography approach. An initial 3-dimensional wave speed model is determined from ambient noise data for periods between 25 and 200 seconds; earthquake data is then used to increase crossing ray paths, improve resolution and localize wave speed structures. The combination of datasets allows us to best exploit the limited station distribution in the Pacific and better image upper mantle wave speed structures, key to understanding the current state of the OJP and hypotheses about its formation.

  6. A study of the bone healing kinetics of plateau versus screw root design titanium dental implants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leonard, Gary

    2009-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the bone healing process around plateau root from (PRF) and screw root from (SRF) titanium dental implants over the immediate 12 week healing period post implant placement.

  7. Variation of soil hydraulic properties with alpine grassland degradation in the eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pan

    2017-05-01

    hydrological effects of vegetation degradation. Further hydrological modelling studies in the Tibetan Plateau and similar regions are recommended to understand the effects of degraded alpine swamp meadows on soil hydraulic properties.

  8. Assessment of contamination in caves located at the Ozark Plateau National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Ozark Plateau National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) is located in east central Oklahoma; a sizeable portion of the Refuge is also located along Spavinaw Creek, near...

  9. Carbon sequestration function of check-dams: a case study of the Loess plateau in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Liding; Gao, Yang; Wang, Shuai; Lü, Yihe; Fu, Bojie

    2014-11-01

    Check-dams are the most common structures for controlling soil erosion in the Loess Plateau. However, the effect of check-dams on carbon sequestration, along with sediment transport and deposition, has not been assessed over large areas. In this study, we evaluated the carbon sequestration function of check-dams in the Loess Plateau. The results indicate that there were approximately 11 000 check-dams distributed in the Loess Plateau, with an estimate of the amount of sediment of 21 × 10⁹ m³ and a soil organic carbon storage amount of 0.945 Pg. Our study reveals that check-dams in the Loess Plateau not only conserve soil and water but also sequester carbon.

  10. Element concentrations in surface soils of the Coconino Plateau, Grand Canyon region, Coconino County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2016-09-15

    This report provides the geochemical analyses of a large set of background soils collected from the surface of the Coconino Plateau in northern Arizona. More than 700 soil samples were collected at 46 widespread areas, sampled from sites that appear unaffected by mineralization and (or) anthropogenic contamination. The soils were analyzed for 47 elements, thereby providing data on metal concentrations in soils representative of the plateau. These background concentrations can be used, for instance, for comparison to metal concentrations found in soils potentially affected by natural and anthropogenic influences on the Coconino Plateau in the Grand Canyon region of Arizona.The soil sampling survey revealed low concentrations for the metals most commonly of environmental concern, such as arsenic, cobalt, chromium, copper, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, lead, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. For example, the median concentrations of the metals in soils of the Coconino Plateau were found to be comparable to the mean values previously reported for soils of the western United States.

  11. [Territory and health: Antônio Pimentel's study on the Central Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Moema de Rezende

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a report by Antônio Pimentel, physician with the 1892 Central Plateau Exploratory Commission, and analyzes its closing section, entitled "Pathology," which addresses the relations between health and the settlement of the Brazilian territory.

  12. Variations of stable isotopic compositions in precipitation on the Tibetan Plateau and its adjacent regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    There is no temperature effect in the southern Tibetan Plateau and South Asia to the south of the Tanggula Mountains. Amount effect has been observed at a few sampling stations accounting for about a half of the statistical stations. There is notable temperature effect in the middle and northern Tibetan Plateau and its adjacent Central Asia to the north of the Tanggula Mountains. Because vapor directly originates from low-latitude oceans, the relative heavy ( 18O with small variation characterizes the rainfall in South Asia. A sharp depletion of the stable isotopic compositions in precipitation takes place from Kyangjin on the southern slope of the Himalayas to the Tanggula Mountains in the middle plateau. From the Tanggula Mountains to the northern Tibetan Plateau, the ( 18O in precipitation increases with increasing latitude.

  13. Permanent human occupation of the central Tibetan Plateau in the early Holocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M C; Aldenderfer, M S; Wang, Z; Hoffmann, D L; Dahl, J A; Degering, D; Haas, W R; Schlütz, F

    2017-01-06

    Current models of the peopling of the higher-elevation zones of the Tibetan Plateau postulate that permanent occupation could only have been facilitated by an agricultural lifeway at ~3.6 thousand calibrated carbon-14 years before present. Here we report a reanalysis of the chronology of the Chusang site, located on the central Tibetan Plateau at an elevation of ~4270 meters above sea level. The minimum age of the site is fixed at ~7.4 thousand years (thorium-230/uranium dating), with a maximum age between ~8.20 and 12.67 thousand calibrated carbon-14 years before present (carbon-14 assays). Travel cost modeling and archaeological data suggest that the site was part of an annual, permanent, preagricultural occupation of the central plateau. These findings challenge current models of the occupation of the Tibetan Plateau. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Ozark Plateau National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Ozark Plateau National Wildlife Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...

  15. Geologic structural features within the Kaiparowits Plateau study area, southern Utah (kaistrcg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a line coverage of the geologic structural features within the Kaiparowits Plateau. Structural features include synclines, anticlines, folds and faults; and...

  16. Boundary delimiting the area within which coal resources were calculated, southern Wasatch Plateau (wsbndg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shapefile and coverage that outlines the area underlain by coals in the lower Blackhawk Formation, southern Wasatch Plateau coal assessment area. The...

  17. Cultural clashes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ... is essentially a cultural, not religious, practice. Siddiq Bazarwala Singapore From Georgina Dubourcq Sir: While I don't disagree with Dr Dalrymple's comments about the way Muslim culture can treat women, I wonder how a culture which condones lap-dancing, pornographic videos and often turns a blind eye to under-age prostitution can really feel superior. I...

  18. Handling Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieter van Nispen tot Pannerden

    2011-01-01

    The article indicates how companies may prepare for and deal with cultural differences. Because the research base is still rather limited an overall perspective may not be realised. After discussing definitions and concepts of culture, as well as values, cultural differences between states are discu

  19. Handling Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nispen tot Pannerden, P.J.M. van

    2011-01-01

    The article indicates how companies may prepare for and deal with cultural differences. Because the research base is still rather limited an overall perspective may not be realised. After discussing definitions and concepts of culture, as well as values, cultural differences between states are discu

  20. Beyond Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Daniel D.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the lack of literature relating to cultural differences and school library media programs and reviews the book "Beyond Culture" by Edward T. Hall. Highlights include the population/environment crisis, cultural literacy, the use of technology, and Marshall McLuhan's idea of the global village. (LRW)

  1. Evolution of the Southern Guinea Plateau: Implications on Guinea-Demerara Plateau formation using insights from seismic, subsidence, and gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olyphant, Jared R.; Johnson, Roy A.; Hughes, Amanda N.

    2017-10-01

    The Guinea Plateau (offshore Guinea) and its conjugate, the Demerara Plateau (offshore French Guiana), comprise two of the most prominent passive continental margins in the Atlantic Ocean. The conjugate plateaus formed as a result of two periods of rifting, the Jurassic opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean and the northward-propagating Cretaceous opening of the Southern Atlantic Ocean. Although several studies are published on the Demerara Plateau that explain the evolution of its multi-rift history and the effect of rifting on its distinct geometry, the Guinea Plateau, and in particular its south-eastern margin, remain relatively unexplored in the literature. Here we present interpretations of the structure and evolution of the Guinea Plateau using recent 2-D and 3-D seismic-reflection data collected at the intersection of the southern and eastern margins. We substantiate our study with calculated subsidence curves at four locations along the southern margin, as well as two 2-D gravity forward models along regional seismic-reflection profiles to estimate stretching factors (β) and crustal thicknesses. We combine our results with previous studies concerning the south-western Guinea margin, and compare them to published interpretations regarding the conjugate margins of the Demerara Plateau. The resolved amounts of rift-related volcanism, listric-style normal faults, and moderate stretching factors suggest that a component of upper-crustal asymmetry (simple shear) and depth-dependent stretching may have persisted at the Demerara-Guinea conjugate margins during Cretaceous rifting of the equatorial segment of the Southern Atlantic Ocean.

  2. The Quaternary Pan-lake (Overflow) Period and Paleoclimate on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Mianping; YUAN Heran; ZHAO Xitao; LIU Xifang

    2005-01-01

    Lake geomorphology and high-level lacustrine deposits since the mid-late Pleistocene are well preserved in lakes of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. According to geological surveys of 17 lake districts in different locations of the plateau,combined with interpretations of satellite images and topographic maps, the authors studied the timing of formation and scopes of the pan-lake areas of the plateau and their paleoclimate. The latest two high lake levels (overflow surfaces) on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the Quaternary occurred at ~40 to 30/35 ka and ~65 to 53 ka respectively. In these time intervals, the plateau was covered by huge interconnected pan-lake systems with a total area of ~36 km2 and a total volume of lake water of >530 million km2, which are about 38 times and 659 times larger than those of the modem lakes respectively. Before this pan-lake period in the late Pleistocene, there had been three high lake levels that occurred at ~132-112 ka, 110-95 ka and 91-72/~83-75 ka respectively, suggesting that the late Quaternary climate on the plateau was unstable and changed rapidly. The ~40-30 ka high lake level also appeared in the Tengger desert north of the plateau,suggesting that there existed very strong summer monsoons from South Asia then; the variation in solar radiation with a 20,000 precessional period has special importance for the high-altitude Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the low-latitude zone of the Earth. Around 30 ka, the pan-lakes at the peripheries of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau drained out suddenly with rapid uplift of the plateau and cooling. In a short time the huge amount of cold lake water emptied into the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific. The draining event of the pan-lakes brought about the environmental changes of rivers and lakes at peripheries of the plateau.

  3. The Response of Snow on Tibetan Plateau in Winter to Indian Ocean Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lha; Xiao, Tiangui; Wang, Chao; Du, Jun; Zhou, Xiaoli

    2017-04-01

    By using the daily snow depth and snow cover days data at 100 meteorological stations in Tibetan Plateau during 1979-2013, the methods of EOF, REOF and SVD were used to analyze the distribution characteristic and time series variation of snow in Tibetan Plateau. The coupling relationship between snow in Tibetan Plateau in winter and Indian Ocean sea surface temperature in winter, and the lag response of the snow in Tibetan Plateau in winter to Indian Ocean sea surface temperature were also studied. Main conclusions are as follows: 1.Snow depth and snow cover reaches the maximum value in January and reaches the minimum value in July; accumulated snow depth and snow cover days shows an increasing tendency during 1980s to 1990s and has a decreasing tendency since then. The accumulated snow depth and snow cover days decrease in summer and increase in autumn. 2. There were 4 high-frequency centers of snow cover days and accumulated snow depth: the southern Himalayas area, the area between the Tanggula Mountains and the Nyainqentanglha Mountains, the area around Bayankela Mountains and the area around Qilian Mountains. 3. The first pattern of SVD between snow in Tibetan Plateau in winter and Indian Ocean sea surface temperature in winter has the feature that Indian Ocean sea surface temperature increase in the whole area and snow has an opposite trend in the western and southeastern Plateau and the northern and southern Plateau. The second pattern shows that Indian Ocean sea surface temperature has an opposite trend in the western ocean and the eastern ocean and snow has an opposite trend in the western Plateau and the southeastern Plateau. There is a significant negative correlation between Indian Ocean sea surface temperature in June and July and snow in Tibetan Plateau in winter. Key words: Tibetan Plateau; snow; Indian Ocean; SVD Acknowledgements This study was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China Fund Project (91337215, 41575066),National Key

  4. Analysis of aerodynamic and thermodynamic parameters on the grassy marshland surface of Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The aerodynamic roughness z0m, the thermodynamic roughness z0h and the excess resistance to heat transfer kB-1 are analyzed with the data obtained from Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Asian Monsoon Experiment on Tibetan Plateau (GAME/Tibet) in the Intensive Observation Period (IOP), 1998. Some new concepts on the aerodynamic and thermodynamic parameters over the grassy marshland surface of the Tibetan Plateau are proposed.

  5. Identifying the source regions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the southern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, P.; Wang, X.; Yao, T.

    2016-12-01

    A worldwide attention focus on the semi-volatilities and long-range atmospheric transport potential of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Even in the remote regions with less anthropological activities (such as Arctic, Antarctic), POPs are often detected in air and finally are trapped by the surface ground, which made those regions as a "sink" of POPs. The Tibetan Plateau is also a remote region, and it is adjacent to South Asia with huge emission of POPs. The strong monsoon favors to the atmospheric transport of pollutants from South Asia to the Tibetan Plateau. Unlike Arctic and Antarctic, the Tibetan Plateau can become a "secondary source" for some POPs and make them spread globally. By now, some efforts were conducted to report that South Asia is one of the primary source region of POPs in the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, the detailed source regions were identified using 1-year observed atmospheric POPs data in three sites distributing the southern Tibetan Plateau (Lhasa, Lulang, and Lijiang). The highest concentrations of atmospheric POPs in the three sites all occurred in the Monsoon season (June-September), implying that the Indian monsoon may be the driving force of POPs transport to the southern Tibetan Plateau. The relative components of POPs in these sites are similar with those in India, which suggest that South Asia (especially India) might be the main source regions. The results of potential source contribution function (PSCF) further identified that the offshore of Bengal Bay is the most probable emission source region of the POPs invading into the Tibetan Plateau. The mega-cities, such as Kolkata, Bhubaneswar, Chennai, Dhaka, Chittagong, around the Bengal Bay supplied the major contribution of the POPs which transported to the Tibetan Plateau.

  6. Sensitivity of the Colorado Plateau to Change: Climate, Ecosystems, and Society

    OpenAIRE

    Jayne Belnap; David R. Bowling; Susan Schwinning; Ehleringer, James R.

    2008-01-01

    The Colorado Plateau is located in the interior, dry end of two moisture trajectories coming from opposite directions, which have made this region a target for unusual climate fluctuations. A multi-decadal drought event some 850 years ago may have eliminated maize cultivation by the first human settlers of the Colorado Plateau, the Fremont and Anasazi people, and contributed to the abandonment of their settlements. Even today, ranching and farming are vulnerable to drought and struggle to per...

  7. Degenerate Rayleigh-Plateau instability in a magnetically annealed colloidal dispersion

    CERN Document Server

    Swan, James W; First, Eric M

    2013-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video depicts the evolution of a suspension of paramagnetic colloids un- der the influence of a uniform, pulsed magnetic field. At low pulse frequencies, the suspension condenses into columns which decompose via a Rayleigh-Plateau instability. At high pulse fre- quencies, the suspension forms a kinetically arrested, system spanning network. We demonstrate the degeneration of the Rayleigh-Plateau instability with increasing pulse frequency.

  8. Modeling and Mapping Soil Moisture of Plateau Pasture Using RADARSAT-2 Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Xun Chai; Tingting Zhang; Yun Shao; Huaze Gong; Long Liu; Kaixin Xie

    2015-01-01

    Accurate soil moisture retrieval of a large area in high resolution is significant for plateau pasture. The object of this paper is to investigate the estimation of volumetric soil moisture in vegetated areas of plateau pasture using fully polarimetric C-band RADARSAT-2 SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images. Based on the water cloud model, Chen model, and Dubois model, we proposed two developed algorithms for soil moisture retrieval and validated their performance using experimental data. We ...

  9. A new classification of large-scale climate regimes around the Tibetan Plateau based on seasonal circulation patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Gang Dai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a large-scale climate classification for investigating the characteristics of the climate regimes around the Tibetan Plateau based on seasonal precipitation, moisture transport and moisture divergence using in situ observations and ERA40 reanalysis data. The results indicate that the climate can be attributed to four regimes around the Plateau. They situate in East Asia, South Asia, Central Asia and the semi-arid zone in northern Central Asia throughout the dryland of northwestern China, in addition to the Köppen climate classification. There are different collocations of seasonal temperature and precipitation: 1 in phase for the East and South Asia monsoon regimes, 2 anti-phase for the Central Asia regime, 3 out-of-phase for the westerly regime. The seasonal precipitation concentrations are coupled with moisture divergence, i.e., moisture convergence coincides with the Asian monsoon zone and divergence appears over the Mediterranean-like arid climate region and westerly controlled area in the warm season, while it reverses course in the cold season. In addition, moisture divergence is associated with meridional moisture transport. The northward/southward moisture transport corresponds to moisture convergence/divergence, indicating that the wet and dry seasons are, to a great extent, dominated by meridional moisture transport in these regions. The climate mean southward transport results in the dry-cold season of the Asian monsoon zone and the dry-warm season, leading to desertification or land degradation in Central Asia and the westerly regime zone. The mean-wind moisture transport (MMT is the major contributor to total moisture transport, while persistent northward transient eddy moisture transport (TEMT plays a key role in dry season precipitation, especially in the Asian monsoon zone. The persistent TEMT divergence is an additional mechanism of the out-of-phase collocation in the westerly regime zone. In addition

  10. Land surface changes enhanced drought over the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianli; Liu, Meixian

    2017-04-01

    In order to prevent the severe soil-water erosion over the Loess Plateau (LP), the Chinese Government initiated large scale ecological restoration (ER) in the past half century. The ER had successfully reduced soil erosion however also changed the land surface and altered the regional water-energy balance and consequently the dryness/wetness conditions, which in turn affects the vegetation. Knowledge of the impacts of the ER on dryness/wetness conditions is essential for developing future effective ER measures. For this purpose, a new drought index, the standardized wetness index (SWI), was proposed. The SWI can represent the dryness/wetness brought by solely climate change (denoted as SWIf in this case), and the dryness/wetness brought by the joint effects of climate change and land surface change (SWI_m). A total of 13 main catchments were selected to investigate the effects of ER on dryness/wetness conditions during 1961-2009 over LP. Results showed that the overall increasing parameter n (a parameter of the Budyko formulae) could be well explained by the ER measures (R^2=1) in these catchments. The SWIf and SWIm had similar fluctuating features and exhibited downward trends. However, the SWIm had larger negative trends than the SWI_f, implying that ER actions enhanced the drought conditions over the drying LP in the past decades. Therefore, we suggest that the government should manage and maintain the existing achievements but not further expand revegetation because of unintended consequences on drought vulnerability.

  11. Atmospheric particulate mercury in Lhasa city, Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Kang, Shichang; Guo, Junming; Zhang, Qianggong; Cong, Zhiyuan; Sillanpää, Mika; Zhang, Guoshuai; Sun, Shiwei; Tripathee, Lekhendra

    2016-10-01

    In an effort to understand the biogeochemical cycling and seasonal characteristics of atmospheric Hg, a total of 80 daily sampled total suspended particulates were collected at Lhasa, the largest city of Tibet, from April 2013 to August 2014 for particulate-bound Hg (HgP) analysis. Daily concentrations of atmospheric HgP ranged from 61.2 to 831 pg m-3 with an average of 224 pg m-3, which were unexpectedly comparable to those measured in most of the Chinese metropolises. Both the daily/monthly average HgP concentrations were slightly but not significantly higher during the non-monsoon season than during the monsoon season. Together with the fact that there was lack of significant relationship between HgP concentration and most meteorological parameters, no significant and distinct pattern for the seasonal characteristics of atmospheric HgP could be mainly attributed to the almost equal emission strength of two principal anthropogenic Hg sources (i.e., industrial emission sources during the non-monsoon season, and vehicular traffic and religious sources during the monsoon season). Moreover, the HgP dry deposition rate was estimated to be 35.3 μg m-2 yr-1 by using a theoretical model, which was significantly higher than those Hg wet fluxes. The elevated deposition rate implied that dry deposition may play an important role in the biogeochemical Hg cycling over the Tibetan Plateau.

  12. Butterflies of the Bodoquena Plateau in Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Barbosa; Guillermo-Ferreira, Rhainer

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Butterflies and moths are found in all terrestrial environments and require efforts for a better understanding of its mega-diversity. These taxa have been the subject of several studies involving phylogeny, ecology and environmental impacts. Nevertheless, several areas in the tropics remain unexplored, resulting in gaps in the taxonomic composition and distribution of butterflies in endemic environments. Therefore, a survey of the butterfly fauna of the Bodoquena Plateau in Brazil was conducted. This area consists of tropical Atlantic Forests, with marginal influences of Savannah, Chaco and Pantanal. Sampling was carried out in 20 locations using Van Someren Rydon traps and insect nets between November 2009 and April 2015. Active collection of individuals was conducted from 9:00 to 17:00h, totaling 240 hours of sampling effort. In total, we registered 768 individuals belonging to 146 species of 98 genera, six families and 18 subfamilies. Nymphalidae was the richest family (84 species), followed by Hesperiidae (22 species), Riodinidae (14 species), Pieridae (12) Papilionidae (11 species) and Lycaenidae (five species). We sampled 239 nymphalids in traps, with 48 species, 30 genera, 15 tribes and five subfamilies. The most common species were Eunica macris (Godart, 1824), Dynamine artemisia (Fabricius, 1793) and Memphis moruus (Fabricius, 1775). Therefore, this study contributes to the knowledge of the Neotropical butterfly diversity and distribution, providing 37 new records and supporting the use of wildlife inventories as important tools for the knowledge of tropical forests biodiversity and conservation. PMID:26798308

  13. Excellent daytime seeing at Dome Fuji on the Antarctic plateau

    CERN Document Server

    Okita, H; Ashley, M C B; Takato, N

    2013-01-01

    Context. Dome Fuji, the second highest region on the Antarctic plateau, is expected to have some of the best astronomical seeing on Earth. However, site testing at Dome Fuji is still in its very early stages. Aims. To investigate the astronomical seeing in the free atmosphere above Dome Fuji, and to determine the height of the surface boundary layer. Methods. A Differential Image Motion Monitor was used to measure the seeing in the visible (472 nm) at a height of 11 m above the snow surface at Dome Fuji during the austral summer of 2012/2013. Results. Seeing below 0.2'' has been observed. The seeing often has a local minimum of ~0.3'' near 18 h local time. Some periods of excellent seeing, 0.3'' or smaller, were also observed, sometimes extending for several hours at local midnight. The median seeing is higher, at 0.52''---this large value is believed to be caused by periods when the telescope was within the turbulent boundary layer. Conclusions. The diurnal variation of the daytime seeing at Dome Fuji is sim...

  14. "Mucientes Chert" in the Northern Iberian Plateau (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Natividad Fuertes-Prieto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The so-called “Mucientes chert" is a variety that appears in the central area of the Iberian North Plateau, in theDueroBasin. It is widely known in the geological and archaeological literature and its use for knapping was especially important in Prehistory. From a macroscopic point of view it is a nodular chert, with white and very porous cortex, and brown to blackish or beige colour in the inner part.In this work we carried out a more accurate petrographic, mineralogical and chemical characterization of this lithology using SEM, XRD and XRF techniques in samples coming from “Las Canteras” (Mucientes village, a chert outcrop of the “Cuestas” Unit (Vallesian-Aragonian, Miocene Age. Also, we have made a review of its geological occurrence and archaeological distribution areas.  It is intended to sketch the delimitation of the geographical area of occurrence taking into account the geological and archaeological references. 

  15. Seismicity and average velocities beneath the Argentine Puna Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, B.; Asch, G.; Rietbrock, A.; Kind, R.; Pardo, M.; Heit, B.; Monfret, T.

    A network of 60 seismographs was deployed across the Andes at ∼23.5°S. The array was centered in the backarc, atop the Puna high plateau in NW Argentina. P and S arrival times of 426 intermediate depth earthquakes were inverted for 1-D velocity structure and hypocentral coordinates. Average velocities and υp/υs in the crust are low. Average mantle velocities are high but difficult to interpret because of the presence of a fast velocity slab at depth. Although the hypocenters sharply define a 35° dipping Benioff zone, seismicity in the slab is not continuous. The spatial clustering of earthquakes is thought to reflect inherited heterogeneties of the subducted oceanic lithosphere. Additionally, 57 crustal earthquakes were located. Seismicity concentrates in the fold and thrust belt of the foreland and Eastern Cordillera, and along and south of the El Toro-Olacapato-Calama Lineament (TOCL). Focal mechanisms of two earthquakes at this structure exhibit left lateral strike-slip mechanisms similar to the suggested kinematics of the TOCL. We believe that the Puna north of the TOCL behaves like a rigid block with little internal deformation, whereas the area south of the TOCL is weaker and currently deforming.

  16. Instability Paths in the Kirchhoff-Plateau Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusteri, Giulio G.; Franceschini, Paolo; Fried, Eliot

    2016-08-01

    The Kirchhoff-Plateau problem concerns the equilibrium shapes of a system in which a flexible filament in the form of a closed loop is spanned by a soap film, with the filament being modeled as a Kirchhoff rod and the action of the spanning surface being solely due to surface tension. Adopting a variational approach, we define an energy associated with shape deformations of the system and then derive general equilibrium and (linear) stability conditions by considering the first and second variations of the energy functional. We analyze in detail the transition to instability of flat circular configurations, which are ground states for the system in the absence of surface tension, when the latter is progressively increased. Such a theoretical study is particularly useful here, since the many different perturbations that can lead to instability make it challenging to perform an exhaustive experimental investigation. We generalize previous results, since we allow the filament to possess a curved intrinsic shape and also to display anisotropic flexural properties (as happens when the cross section of the filament is noncircular). This is accomplished by using a rod energy which is familiar from the modeling of DNA filaments. We find that the presence of intrinsic curvature is necessary to obtain a first buckling mode which is not purely tangent to the spanning surface. We also elucidate the role of twisting buckling modes, which become relevant in the presence of flexural anisotropy.

  17. Butterflies of the Bodoquena Plateau in Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Barbosa; Guillermo-Ferreira, Rhainer

    2015-01-01

    Butterflies and moths are found in all terrestrial environments and require efforts for a better understanding of its mega-diversity. These taxa have been the subject of several studies involving phylogeny, ecology and environmental impacts. Nevertheless, several areas in the tropics remain unexplored, resulting in gaps in the taxonomic composition and distribution of butterflies in endemic environments. Therefore, a survey of the butterfly fauna of the Bodoquena Plateau in Brazil was conducted. This area consists of tropical Atlantic Forests, with marginal influences of Savannah, Chaco and Pantanal. Sampling was carried out in 20 locations using Van Someren Rydon traps and insect nets between November 2009 and April 2015. Active collection of individuals was conducted from 9:00 to 17:00h, totaling 240 hours of sampling effort. In total, we registered 768 individuals belonging to 146 species of 98 genera, six families and 18 subfamilies. Nymphalidae was the richest family (84 species), followed by Hesperiidae (22 species), Riodinidae (14 species), Pieridae (12) Papilionidae (11 species) and Lycaenidae (five species). We sampled 239 nymphalids in traps, with 48 species, 30 genera, 15 tribes and five subfamilies. The most common species were Eunica macris (Godart, 1824), Dynamine artemisia (Fabricius, 1793) and Memphis moruus (Fabricius, 1775). Therefore, this study contributes to the knowledge of the Neotropical butterfly diversity and distribution, providing 37 new records and supporting the use of wildlife inventories as important tools for the knowledge of tropical forests biodiversity and conservation.

  18. [Clinical practice guideline on closed tibial plateau fractures in adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocegueda-Sosa, Miguel Ángel; Valenzuela-Flores, Adriana Abigail; Aldaco-García, Víctor Daniel; Flores-Aguilar, Sergio; Manilla-Lezama, Nicolás; Pérez-Hernández, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Closed tibiae plateau fractures are common injuries in the emergency room. The optimal treatment is not well defined or established. For this reason, there are several surgical management options: open reduction and internal fixation, closed reduction and percutaneous synthesis, external fixation, and even conservative treatment for this kind of fracture. The mechanism of production of this fracture is through large varus or valgus deformation to which is added a factor of axial load. The trauma may be direct or indirect. The degree of displacement, fragmentation and involvement of soft tissues like ligaments, menisci, vascular and nerve structures are determined by the magnitude of the force exerted. Any intra-articular fracture treatment can lead to an erroneous instability, deformity and limitation of motion with subsequent arthritic changes, leading to joint incongruity, limiting activity and significantly altering the quality of life. Open reduction and internal fixation with anatomic restitution is the method used in this type of fracture. However, the results of numerous publications can be questioned due to the inclusion in the same study of fractures treated with very different methods.

  19. Does summer precipitation trend of Tibetan Plateau depend on elevation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Wang, L.; Guo, X.; Chen, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) experienced a rapid warming and wetting in recent decades. The elevation dependence of warming rate has been established, while the question of trend in precipitation against the elevation gradient remains open. By using the in-situ data of precipitation, air temperature, and surface specific humidity from 91 stations on the TP, this study investigated how the trends in summer precipitation varied along the elevation gradient on the TP during 1970-2014. The major findings are as follows. (1) The trends in summer precipitation from 1970-2014 displayed an increasing tendency with the increased elevation at a rate of 0.83 % decade-1 per meter, and the rate for 1991-2014 (2.23 % decade-1 per meter) is even greater. (2) The temporal trends in surface air temperature, surface specific humidity (surface water vapor) from in-situ observations and total column of water vapor from JRA-55 reanalysis data over most stations consistently display similar elevation dependence, which provides a plausible explanation for the elevation dependence of the summer precipitation trends based on the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship.

  20. An ecosystem approach to combat desertification on the Colorado Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Amanda

    2004-12-01

    Desertification of shrub and grassland into pinyon-juniper woodland is occurring over much of the Colorado Plateau in the southwestern United States. As trees invade, they out-compete shrubs and grasses, increasing erosion rates and reducing infiltration of moisture into the soil. This has caused habitat problems for wildlife, and reduced forage for livestock. These impacts also affect the human communities that rely on ranching and tourism related to hunting. Past land use and management practices including heavy livestock grazing, fire suppression and introduction of exotic annual plants are believed to have led to current conditions. The Montrose office of the Bureau of Land Management has implemented an ecosystem-based program to reverse the desertification process on public land. The program is centered on detailed landscape objectives describing the desired vegetation mosaic on 360,000 ha of public land. The objectives outline proportions of plant seral stages and arrays of patch sizes for each planning unit. These objectives are based on priority management issues and the need to replicate a natural vegetation mosaic. Where the existing mosaic does not meet objectives, mechanical vegetation treatments and prescribed fire are used to create early and mid-seral patches on the ground. This restored vegetation pattern and type should be sustained over time through a natural fire regime and improved livestock management. Because many uncertainties exist, an adaptive management process is being used that allows mosaic objectives to be changed or processes modified where monitoring or scientific research indicate a need.

  1. Radiation-hydrodynamical modelling of underluminous type II plateau Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Pumo, M L; Spiro, S; Pastorello, A; Benetti, S; Cappellaro, E; Manicò, G; Turatto, M

    2016-01-01

    With the aim of improving our knowledge about the nature of the progenitors of low-luminosity Type II plateau supernovae (LL SNe IIP), we made radiation-hydrodynamical models of the well-sampled LL SNe IIP 2003Z, 2008bk and 2009md. For these three SNe we infer explosion energies of $0.16$-$0.18$ foe, radii at explosion of $1.8$-$3.5 \\times 10^{13}$ cm, and ejected masses of $10$-$11.3$\\Msun. The estimated progenitor mass on the main sequence is in the range $\\sim 13.2$-$15.1$\\Msun\\, for SN 2003Z and $\\sim 11.4$-$12.9$\\Msun\\, for SNe 2008bk and 2009md, in agreement with estimates from observations of the progenitors. These results together with those for other LL SNe IIP modelled in the same way, enable us also to conduct a comparative study on this SN sub-group. The results suggest that: a) the progenitors of faint SNe IIP are slightly less massive and have less energetic explosions than those of intermediate-luminosity SNe IIP, b) both faint and intermediate-luminosity SNe IIP originate from low-energy explo...

  2. Magnetotelluric data, Taos Plateau Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailes, Chad E.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    The population of the San Luis Basin region of northern New Mexico is growing. Water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the region's groundwater resources. An important issue in managing the groundwater resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the nature of the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift, which contain the principal groundwater aquifers. The shallow unconfined aquifer and the deeper confined Santa Fe Group aquifer in the San Luis Basin are the main sources of municipal water for the region. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, an electromagnetic survey called magnetotellurics (MT), and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifers. This report describes a regional east-west MT sounding profile acquired in late July 2009 across the Taos Plateau Volcanic Field where drillhole data are sparse. Resistivity modeling of the MT data can be used to help map changes in electrical resistivity with depths that are related to differences in rock types. These various rock types help control the properties of aquifers. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data collected along the east-west profile. No interpretation of the data is included.

  3. Local adaptation of Gymnocypris przewalskii (Cyprinidae) on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renyi; Ludwig, Arne; Zhang, Cunfang; Tong, Chao; Li, Guogang; Tang, Yongtao; Peng, Zuogang; Zhao, Kai

    2015-05-06

    Divergent selection among environments affects species distributions and can lead to speciation. In this article, we investigated the transcriptomes of two ecotypes of scaleless carp (Gymnocypris przewalskii przewalskii and G. p. ganzihonensis) from the Tibetan Plateau. We used a transcriptome sequencing approach to screen approximately 250,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the gill and kidney tissues of twelve individuals from the Ganzi River and Lake Qinghai to understand how this freshwater fish has adapted to an ecological niche shift from saline to freshwater. We identified 9,429 loci in the gill transcriptome and 12,034 loci in the kidney transcriptome with significant differences in their expression, of which 242 protein-coding genes exhibited strong positive selection (Ka/Ks > 1). Many of the genes are involved in ion channel functions (e.g., Ca(2+)-binding proteins), immune responses (e.g., nephrosin) or cellular water absorption functions (e.g., aquaporins). These results have potentially broad importance in understanding shifts from saline to freshwater habitats. Furthermore, this study provides the first transcriptome of G. przewalskii, which will facilitate future ecological genomics studies and aid in the identification of genes underlying adaptation and incipient ecological speciation.

  4. Cultural Rights and Cultural Diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG SIXIN

    2011-01-01

    @@ Culture is a very big concept, big enough almost to comprise all the activities of human beings and the tangible and intangible results caused by human activities.Therefore, it is very difficult to define culture in a few words.

  5. Mutual influence between human activities and climate change in the Tibetan Plateau during recent years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingyuan; Kawashima, Shigeto; Yonemura, Seiichiro; Zhang, Xianzhou; Chen, Shenbin

    2004-07-01

    It is well known that there is a vast expanse of grassland on the Tibetan Plateau, China. It is suggested that a major climatic factor limiting production of the grassland ecosystem is the low thermo-conditions on the Tibetan Plateau. An increase in temperature may therefore increase the productivity of grasslands on the Plateau. Monthly mean temperature and monthly precipitation data for recent years on the Tibetan Plateau were analyzed. It is clear that the increase in air temperature on the Plateau is greater than that in the whole China and East Asia. On the other hand, statistics show that the production of livestock or meat in the Tibetan Plateau has increased by one to three times since 1978, which means that there should be an equivalent increase in the consumption of plant biomass from the grassland. How is the "increased biomass" related to human activities and climate changes? This paper tries to clarify the relationship between human activities and climate change and to propose a possible answer by laying emphasis on the importance of grassland protection and CO 2 flux monitoring. It is suggested that there is a positive feedback in which degradation of grassland by overgrazing will increase potential evapotranspiration level thereby promoting the climate warming and the degradation process. This feedback should be considered seriously in the future.

  6. Triple plating of tibia in a complex bicondylar tibial plateau fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atin Jaiswal; Naiman Deepak Kachchhap; Yashwant S Tanwar; Birendra Kumar; Sachin K Yadav

    2014-01-01

    High-energy tibial plateau fracture poses a significant challenge and difficulty for orthopaedic surgeons.Fracture of tibial plateau involves major weight bearing joint and may alter knee kinematics.Anatomic reconstruction of the proximal tibial articular surfaces,restoration of the limb axis (limb alignment) and stable fixation permitting early joint motion are the goals of the treatment.In cases of complex bicondylar tibial plateau fractures,isolated lateral plating is frequently associated with varus malalignment and better results have been obtained with bilateral plating through dual incisions.However sometimes a complex type of bicondylar tibial plateau fractures is encountered in which medial plateau has a biplaner fracture in posterior coronal plane as well as sagittal plane.In such fractures it is imperative to fix the medial plateau with buttressing in both planes.One such fracture pattern of the proximal tibia managed by triple plating through dual posteromedial and anterolateral incisions is discussed in this case report with emphasis on mechanisms of this type of injury,surgical approach and management.

  7. Gait characteristics and quality of life perception of patients following tibial plateau fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warschawski, Yaniv; Elbaz, Avi; Segal, Ganit; Norman, Doron; Haim, Amir; Jacov, Elis; Grundshtein, Alon; Steinberg, Ely

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the long-term functional outcome as measured by gait patterns and quality of life assessment of patients with high-energy tibial plateau fracture compared to matched controls. Thirty-eight patients were evaluated in a case-controlled comparison. Twenty-two patients with tibial plateau fracture were evaluated after 3.1 (1.63) years (sd) from injury. Patients underwent a computerized spatiotemporal gait test and completed the SF-12 health survey. 16 healthy subjects, matched for age and gender served as a control group. The main outcome measures for this study were spatiotemporal gait characteristics, physical quality of life and mental quality of life. Significant differences were found in all gait parameters between patients with tibial plateau fracture and healthy controls. Patients with tibial plateau fracture walked slower by 18% compared to the control group (p life exist in patients following tibial plateau fracture. Patients following tibial plateau fracture present altered spatiotemporal gait patterns compared to healthy controls, as well as self-reported quality of life.

  8. Azimuthal anisotropy of Rayleigh waves beneath the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The crustal and upper mantle azimuthal anisotropy of the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas was studied by Rayleigh wave tomography. We collected sufficient broadband digital seismograms trav-ersing the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas from available stations, including especially some data from the temporary stations newly deployed in Yunnan, eastern Tibet, and western Sichuan. They made an adequate path coverage in most regions to achieve a reasonable resolution for the inversion. The model resolution tests show that the anisotropic features of scope greater than 400 km and strength greater than 2% are reliable. The azimuthal anisotropy pattern inside the Tibetan Plateau was similar to the characteristic of tectonic partition. The crustal anisotropy strength is greater than 2% in most re-gions of East Tibet, and the anisotropy shows clockwise rotation surrounding the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. Vertically, the anisotropy direction indicates a coherent pattern within the upper crust, lower crust, and lithosphere mantle of the Tibetan Plateau, which also is consistent with GPS velocity field and SKS fast polarization directions. The result supports that the crust-mantle deformation beneath the Tibetan Plateau is vertically coherent. The anisotropy strength of crust and lithospheric upper mantle in Yunnan outside the Tibetan Plateau is lower than 2%, so SKS splitting from core-mantle boundary to station should largely be attributed to the anisotropy of asthenosphere.

  9. Azimuthal anisotropy of Rayleigh waves beneath the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Wei; WANG ChunYong; HUANG ZhongXian

    2008-01-01

    The crustal and upper mantle azimuthal anisotropy of the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas was studied by Rayleigh wave tomography. We collected sufficient broadband digital seismograms traversing the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas from available stations, including especially some data from the temporary stations newly deployed in Yunnan, eastern Tibet, and western Sichuan. They made an adequate path coverage in most regions to achieve a reasonable resolution for the inversion. The model resolution tests show that the anisotropic features of scope greater than 400 km and strength greater than 2% are reliable. The azimuthal anisotropy pattern inside the Tibetan Plateau was similar to the characteristic of tectonic partition. The crustal anisotropy strength is greater than 2% in most regions of East Tibet, and the anisotropy shows clockwise rotation surrounding the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. Vertically, the anisotropy direction indicates a coherent pattern within the upper crust, lower crust, and lithosphere mantle of the Tibetan Plateau, which also is consistent with GPS velocity field and SKS fast polarization directions. The result supports that the crust-mantle deformation beneath the Tibetan Plateau is vertically coherent. The anisotropy strength of crust and lithospheric upper mantle in Yunnan outside the Tibetan Plateau is lower than 2%, so SKS splitting from core-mantle boundary to station should largely be attributed to the anisotropy of asthenosphere.

  10. Ice core precipitation record in central Tibetan plateau since AD 1600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yao

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Lack of reliable long-term precipitation record from northern Tibetan Plateau has constrained the understanding of precipitation variation in this region. An ice core drilled from the Puruogangri Ice Field on central Tibetan Plateau in the year 2000 helped reveal the precipitation variations since AD 1600. Analysis of the annual accumulation data presented precipitation changes from AD 1600, indicative of wet and dry periods in the past 400 year in the central Tibetan Plateau. Accordingly, the 18th and 20th centuries experienced high precipitation period, whilst the 19th century experienced low precipitation period. Such a feature was consistent with precipitation recorded in ice cores from Dunde and Guliya Glaciers, northern Tibetan Plateau. Besides, the results also pointed to consistency in precipitation-temperature correlation on the northern Tibetan Plateau, in a way that temperature and precipitation were positively correlated. But this feature was contrary to the relationship revealed from Dasuopu ice cores, southern Tibetan Plateau, where temperature and precipitation were negatively correlated. The north-south contrast in precipitation amount and its relationship with temperature may shed light on the reconstruction of Asian monsoon since AD 1600.

  11. Vegetation greenness trend (2000 to 2009) and the climate controls in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Huadong; Ji, Lei; Lei, Liping; Wang, Cuizhen; Yan, Dongmei; Li, Bin; Li, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau has been experiencing a distinct warming trend, and climate warming has a direct and quick impact on the alpine grassland ecosystem. We detected the greenness trend of the grasslands in the plateau using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data from 2000 to 2009. Weather station data were used to explore the climatic drivers for vegetation greenness variations. The results demonstrated that the region-wide averaged normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) increased at a rate of 0.036  yr−1. Approximately 20% of the vegetation areas, which were primarily located in the northeastern plateau, exhibited significant NDVI increase trend (p-value NDVI and precipitation, especially in the northeastern plateau, suggested that precipitation was a favorable factor for the grassland NDVI. Negative correlations between NDVI and temperature, especially in the southern plateau, indicated that higher temperature adversely affected the grassland growth. Although a warming climate was expected to be beneficial to the vegetation growth in cold regions, the grasslands in the central and southwestern plateau showed a decrease in trends influenced by increased temperature coupled with decreased precipitation.